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PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

SCOTTISH HISTORY SOCIETY 

VOLUME LII 



MACFARLANE'S 
GEOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS 

VOL. II. 



MAY 1907 




GEOGRAPHICAL 
COLLECTIONS 

RELATING TO SCOTLAND 

MADE BY 

WALTER MACFARLANE 

Edited from Macfarlane's Transcript 
in the Advocates' Library 

BY 
SIR ARTHUR MITCHELL, K.C.B. 

M.A., M.D., LL.D. 



IN THREE VOLUMES 

VOLUME II 




EDINBURGH 

Printed at the University Press by T. and A. CONSTABLE 

for the Scottish History Society 

1907 



Tifl 

ISO 
S25 



PREFACE 

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VOLUMES i AND n. 

THE second volume of the Macfarlane Geographical Collec- 
tions relating to Scotland differs from the first volume in 
several important respects. 

The writers of the Descriptions are fewer in number ; they 
belong to a different class ; and their contributions are longer 
and of an earlier date. In the second volume, as in the first, 
many of the Accounts appear without name and without date, 
but the authorship of a considerable number of these can be 
made out with an approach to certainty, and so also can the 
time at which they were written. All the dated Descriptions 
in the first volume lie in the eighteenth century, but the 
Descriptions in the second volume lie largely in the seven- 
teenth or sixteenth century, and it is certain that not one of 
them was sent to Macfarlane by its author. He obtained 
them, indeed, from the Collections made by Sir Robert 
Sibbald to assist in the preparation of a projected Scottish 
Atlas. These Collections consist to some extent of Descrip- 
tions of parts of Scotland made for Sibbald's use, but they 
consist also, and mainly, of Descriptions made by Timothy 
Pont, Robert Gordon, James Gordon, Scot of Scotstarvet, 
David Buchanan, and others, not for Sibbald's use. These 
latter were given to Sibbald by James Gordon, probably not 
long after 1683, most of them having been prepared for Blaeu's 
use in compiling the Scottish volume of his great Atlas. 
Font's maps and papers came into the hands of Sir Robert 
Gordon through Sir John Scot of Scotstarvet, and were passed 



vi PREFACE 

on to Sibbald by Sir Robert's son, James Gordon, the Parson of 
Rothiemay, along with other material collected or compiled by 
himself and by his father. Out of the Sibbald Collections and 
the Scottish volume of Blaeu, the second volume of Mac- 
farlane could nearly be compiled. There is no Article in it 
written by Macfarlane himself or by any one for his use. He 
calls his Collections Geographical, but they include Articles 
that cannot be so described : for instance, the Discourse 
anent the Government of Scotland before the late Troubles. 

The volumes of the Sibbald Collections in the Advocates' 1 
Library to which I shall have occasion to refer are four in 
number, namely (1) Topographical Notices of Scotland 
(34.2.8), (2) Collections for the Description of Scotland 
(33.5.15), (3) Repertory of Manuscripts (33.3.16), and (4) a 
thin 4to book containing Descriptions of the Shire and City 
of Edinburgh (31.6.19). 

MACFARLAXK'S AND SIBBALD'S COLLECTIONS. 

It is a thing difficult of explanation how it happened that 
John Taitt, Macfarlane's transcriber, copied Descriptions and 
other things out of the Sibbald Collections without revealing 
4 whence the copy was made. 1 He practically never does this. 
It is as remarkable a thing that Macfarlane allowed such 
copies, with no indication of their origin or date, to pass into 
his Collections. It seems, however, to be a somewhat frequent 
feature of such Collections to have this form of defect. It 
appears with frequency in the poorly-arranged Sibbald Collec- 
tions; but the items there are often in scripts that are known 
to be those of men engaged in writing Scottish topographical 
Descriptions, and this, with internal evidence, is often suffi- 
cient to determine the authorship and date. It has been 
a work of some sl::e and difficulty to make even a superficial 
search through the Sibbald MS. Collections, for the purpose 



PREFACE vii 

of finding whether Taitt had found his matter there, and 
who were the probable authors of what he copied. When 
he transcribed, which he did with the average inaccuracy of 
transcribers, from what was in the handwriting of its probable 
author, he was in a sense passing on an original. But he had 
frequently to copy from a known handwriting what was almost 
certainly not the composition of the writer, but was itself a 
copy. For instance, Timothy Font's Notes are in the Sibbald 
Collections in the script of James Gordon, so that Taitt 
in copying them for Macfarlane was copying a copy, and 
there is internal evidence, with occasionally open avowal, that 
James Gordon was far from being a mere copyist of what 
Pont wrote. He added and deleted, he corrected what he re- 
garded as errors, and he changed words with the freedom that 
editors often allow themselves. Thus it happens that it is not 
quite correct to attribute these Notes definitely to Pont, because 
they are only Font's as abridged, amplified, or otherwise changed 
by James Gordon. Considerations of this kind have led me 
to think it desirable to give, further on in this Introduction, 
a short statement of such things as have come to my know- 
ledge regarding separate Descriptions, or groups of Descrip- 
tions, contained in this second volume of Macfarlane. In this 
way I shall often be able to tell whether a Description does 
or does not appear in the Sibbald Collections ; if it does 
appear, whether the handwriting is known ; whether it has 
been printed in the Scottish volume of Blaeu ; whether it has 
been printed by the Bannatyne Club, the Old Spalding Club, 
or the Spottiswoode Society ; whether it has been printed as 
a separate work ; what date can approximately be attached 
to it ; and to give other such information. 

MANY OF THE DESCRIPTIONS IN LATIN. 

There is another difference between the first and the second 
volume in respect that a considerable part of the second volume 



viii PREFACE 

is in the Latin tongue. This has caused some difficulty. For 
half a century and more I have had little occasion to read 
Latin of any kind. I have been able, however, to get such 
assistance as I needed in the matter of Latinity. A special 
difficulty, however, arose from the use of Latin in writing the 
Descriptions. I was at pains to state in the Preface to the 
first volume that it was my aim to put the Macfarlane MS. into 
print without additions, deletions, or changes of any kind. I 
have had the same desire as regards the second volume, and, as 
regards the Descriptions in English, I think I have had a fair 
success. But I felt that I could not properly deal with the 
Latin as I dealt with the English, chiefly because Taitt, not 
being a Latinist, had introduced into his transcriptions a large 
number of confusing grammatical errors. Sir William Fraser 
says that he 'appears to have been a good Latin scholar 1 
(Cartulary of Cambuskenneth, p. xv, 1872) ; but, pace tant'i 
viri, I adhere to the opinion I have expressed. He copied 
Latin with less accuracy than he copied English. I ascer- 
tained this by comparing some of his transcripts with the 
Latin from which he copied. Then, further, the extraordinary 
eccentricities of punctuation are more serious in Latin than 
in English. Therefore, I felt that it was desirable to eliminate, 
or at least reduce, the errors of grammar in the Latin and to 
improve the punctuation ; and a trial made it evident that 
this could be done almost without any change of wording. 
Taitt often copied his Latin from script that was small, 
faded, and difficult to read, and the letters u, n, a, e, o, 
and c were easily mistaken for one another, with errores 
maximi, in Aberdeen phrase, as the frequent result. Another 
source of error was the joining together of words that ought 
to be separate, or the reverse. For example, Taitt has bi 
se motum as three words, which cannot be translated so 
as to give sense; but when the words are joined together 
(as it happens they may be held to be in the MS. from which 
he copied), and when the o in motum is made u (as it 



PREFACE ix 

quite possibly is in the original), then the difficulty ends 
bisemutum being the Latin of bismuth and the word that 
expresses the thought of the writer, Many illustrations of 
this, and of other such errors and difficulties, could be given. 

It has not been a short task to deal in this way with the 
Latin of Macfarlane's second volume, but I have been for- 
tunate in obtaining the assistance of Mr. Alexander Gow, a 
teacher in Edinburgh, who had patience and perseverance as 
well as scholarship. He has also prepared the translation, and 
has made it as close a rendering of the Latin as possible, but 
it reads as clean English, with an old-world flavour very 
different from the work of the anonymous translator of James 
Gordon's Description of both Towns of Aberdeen, which was 
printed by the Old Spalding Club (1842). 

LATINISED PLACE-NAMES. 

Frequently, perhaps usually, the name of a place is Latin- 
ised, by such writers as the Gordons, by the addition to the 
ordinary Scottish name either of us or ius, of um or mm, or of 
a or la. Thus Innerness becomes Innemessus (T. Gore, p. 72), 
Edinburg becomes Edinburgum, and Lorn becomes Lorna. 

It is difficult to tell why in one case a, in another us, and in 
another um is added in order to Latinise the name of a place. 
Perhaps the favoured addition is a, and um follows, but us is also 
frequent, especially, I think, in the case of rivers, as Levinus, 
Lidalus, Irvinus, Kelvinus, Kennus, Taus, Nessus, Spaeus. 
Sometimes a place-name is Latinised in two ways, as ' Elgina 
vel potius Elginum, 1 Speus or Spea, Maius or Maia. There 
seems, in short, to be no rule in the matter. 

To-day's names of places often differ from those in use 
during the seventeenth and sixteenth centuries, and some- 
times the difference is not now known, so that we cannot 
always tell what were the exact names thus Latinised. 

Other names of places are Latinised in a very different way 
by some of the writers of the Latin Descriptions in this 



PREFACE 



volume. They are in a literal sense translated into Latin, 
and it has not always been easy to translate them back into 
Scottish, but in most instances this has been found possible. 
It was necessary to make the effort, in order to render the 
translations of the Accounts as complete as possible. So curious 
are many of these translations of place-names into Latin, that 
I think it may be interesting to give a few examples : 



Scottish Place-Names 
Latinised by Translation. 

1. Albaspinantria, or 
Antrum Spinarum 

2. Albomontium 

3. Aratri Agellus 

4. Arcuagria 

5. Aularubra 

6. Aulae Horti 

7. Cygnea domus 

8. Domosylviae Novalia 

9. Ericedomuri 

10. Juncomontium 

11. Lanaria 

12. Lignariorum domus 

13. Pulchella 

14. Sylva Leporum 

15. Vallivadum 

16. Versimuri 



The same Place-Names in 
the vernacular of to-day. 

Hawthornden 

Whitehill 

Plewlands 

Bowland 

Redhall 

Halyards 

Swanston 

Woodhouselee 

Muirhousedykes 

Rashiehill 

Woolmet 

Wrightshouses 

Bonnieton 

Harwood 

Wallyford 

Turniedykes 



The foregoing examples are chosen from the Description 
of the Shire of Edinburgh. Such translations, however, are 
not rare in regard to place-names all over Scotland. For 
example, Whithorn is rendered in Latin as Candida Casa, Mont- 
rose as Mons or Monte Rosarum, and Newhall as Nova Aula. 

Occasionally, only part of a place-name is translated into 
Latin, that is, the Latin equivalent of that part forms a 






PREFACE xi 

part of the Latinised name. For example : Adifontium for 
Addiewell, and Aiostium for Eyemouth. 

In a small number of instances the translation of a place- 
name is into Greek or into a mixture of Latin and Greek, 
as for example : Neobotelia for Newbottle, Dendragatha for 
Goodtrees (corrupted into Guters), Neapolis for New Town 
(of Aberdeen), and Neobubilia for Newbyres. 

Not a few Scottish place-names have been thus translated 
into Latin from Gaelic. For instance, according to Christo- 
phorus Irvinus, Ilan na Aich becomes Insula Equorum, Ilan 
na Bann becomes Insula Mulierum, Ilan Cam becomes Cumulo 
Lapidum Insula. One instance, worth noting, occurs in 
this second volume of Macfarlane. I think I am correct in 
saying that an old name of the Calton Hill, or of part of it, was 
the Dhu Craig that is, it bore a Gaelic name meaning the 
Black Rock. This has been Latinised by translation, in the 
way I am speaking of, into Nigelli Rupes. It should, of 
course, have been Nigella Rupes; and probably the grammati- 
cal error ' helped to ' its retranslation into English as NielPs 
Craig. (See Bannatyne Club Miscellany, vol. ii. p. 397, foot- 
note ; Grant's Old and New Edinburgh, vol. ii. p. 101 ; and 
Mackenzie's History of Scotland, p. 431.) 

There are some writers in Latin on topographical subjects 
who make few changes on place-names, dealing with them as 
indeclinable words. 

How MACFARLANE'S MANUSCRIPT is ENTERED IN THE 
CATALOGUE OF THE ADVOCATES' LIBRARY. 

The description of the Macfarlane Geographical Collections 
in the Advocates' Library detailed MS. Catalogue (' Histori- 
cal,' p. 236) is interesting. It runs as follows : ' Geographi- 
cal Collections relating' to Scotland, containing* a particular 



xii PREFACE 

description of shires, parishes, burroughs, etc., in that kingdom. 
3 vols. Folio. A transcript by Macfarlane's copyist from 
a, great variety of materials, the most important of which are 
the papers collected by Sibbald, which formed part of the 
materials prepared by Straloch, Scotstarvat, Sibbald, and others 
for their projected topographical account of Scotland, out of 
which arose BlaeiCs Atlas of Scotland. There are also numerous 
descriptions of districts, parishes, and towns furnished apparently 
to Macfarlane himself and chiefly by ministers.' 1 

The writer of this entry in the Catalogue failed to have in 
mind the date of Blaeu's Scottish volume, namely, a first 
edition in 1654 and a second edition in 1662, and so.it is not 
a correct description of the Macfarlane Geographical Collec- 
tions. It ignores Timothy Pont, who was an earlier and 
a better surveyor of Scotland and a larger contributor to 
Blaeu's Atlas than all the others named in the entry, if maps 
are regarded as a contribution. One of those named, to wit 
Sibbald, contributed nothing. He was later than Straloch, 
Scotstarvet, and Blaeu, and did not work with them. Their 
labours in the mapping and description of Scotland were long 
over before Sibbald issued, in 1683, the Advertisements in 
Latin and English of his projected Atlas. 

TAITT AS A TRANSCRIBER. 

Perhaps I should say something of the work of John 
Taitt, Macfarlane's transcriber. In the first volume I spoke 
of the difficulty of copying correctly, and in the second 
volume I was prepared to find errors in Taitfs transcriptions. 
I have taken occasion, however, to make a comparison between 
the manuscripts from which he copied and his transcriptions 
in regard to the following : (1) the Account of the Lewis, 
by John Morisone ; (2) the Anonymous Account of lona in 
1693; (3) the Account of Tyrie, Gonna, Colla, and Icolumkill, 
by Jo. Fraser ; and (4) the Anonymous Account of Sky ; 



PREFACE xiii 

which four Accounts follow each other in the second volume, 
and occupy pages 210 to 223. I found many unimportant 
differences, but I also found a few differences that can scarcely 
be regarded as unimportant. For example, Taitt omitted 
the word 'not' (p. 215); he omitted the words 4 yt ye' 
(p. 216) ; he added a full stop after I as a name of lona 
(p. 216); he copied what seems to me to be the word bath as 
' bottle ' (p. 222) ; and the word springs he makes ' herbys ' 
(p. 223). Errors, I believe, are almost certain to occur in 
transcriptions, but perhaps five errors within a few pages, of 
the character of those I have enumerated, may be regarded as 
important. I do not myself think that they are much beyond 
a reasonable expectation. Transcripts are far from being of 
the nature of mechanically produced facsimiles, and it appears 
to me that this is apt to be forgotten. In the originals of 
the four short Accounts with which I am now dealing, fairly 
good and legible writing occurs, but there also occurs extremely 
bad and illegible writing, and Taitt had to take the bad 
with the good. On the whole, this bit of careful collation 
leads me to regard Macfarlane's transcriber as about equal to 
the average at his work. Prolonged mental attention, directed 
through the eye to the MS. being copied and also to the 
copying hand, is always unequally maintained, and moments or 
minutes of fatigue, leading to errors, keep occurring during 
the time that the work occupies. 

PROOFS SENT FROM HOLLAND FOR CORRECTION. 

It is believed that Blaeu sent to Gordon of Straloch, for 
revision and correction, Proofs of the descriptive matter that he 
had supplied for the Atlas, In that case, probably the originals 
would be returned. The contents, however, of SibbakTs Topo- 
graphical Notices, made up possibly of such originals, show 
no sign of the folding that would have resulted from their 
having been enclosures in a letter. If they are the veritable 



xiv PREFACE 

documents that went from Straloch to Holland, and if they 
came back to Aberdeenshire for comparison with Proofs, they 
must have made the journeys as a package that involved no fold- 
ings. Ordinary cargo ships were probably the carriers of such 
things at that time, and they would no doubt be made up 
as parcels suitable for such a mode of transmission. Samuel 
Wallace writes to Straloch from Campvere, in March 1647, 1 
acknowledging receipt of 'ane package witch I directit to 
Mr. Jhone Blaew, 1 and he adds, ' Mr. Blaew vrittis vnto me 
that he ... hes in hand to print the descriptiones of sundrie 
places, quhareof he is myndit ... to send them home 
to your honor or my lord Scottistarvet ... He desyres me 
to interest your honor ... to endeavoir with all possible 
diligence to assist his porposs be sending vnto him all 
quhatsomever kan be gotten, either for supplie ... or illus- 
tratione tharof, promising with all occasione to send copies 
of sutch as will kom out of the press . . . for mending, 
correcting, & escapes . . .^ (Escapes is a good word worth 
remembering.) 

Little doubt remains as to the coming of Proofs to Scotland 
for the usual treatment of Proofs, and these would probably 
be accompanied by the manuscript originals, which last might 
be expected to remain, often or always, in Scotland, and so 
form a part of the collection eventually handed over to Sibbald 
by the Parson of Rothiemay. . If this view is correct, it gives 
much value to many of the documents in the Sibbald 
Topographical Notices. 

It does not follow, however, that everything that Sibbald 
eventually received from James Gordon had gone to Holland 
and come back. It only appears that this is possibly true of 
some of it. Nor does it follow that everything that Robert 
Gordon sent to Blaeu either came back to him for revision 
or found a place in the Scottish volume of the Dutch Atlas. 



1 See Old Spalding Club Miscellany, vol. i. p. 54. 






PREFACE xv 

Macfarlane's transcriber to a large extent chose pieces that 
had found a place in the Atlas, but he did not confine him- 
self to these ; and perhaps this is especially true of the jottings 
made by Pont which came to Straloch from Scotstarvet with 
Pont's maps, as material for Blaeu's ' First Topographical 
Survey of Scotland.'' 

We know, indeed, that a revision of Proofs, and even a 
writing of new Descriptions, went on at Amsterdam. We 
have Blaeu's authority for this. It was chiefly done by Sir 
John Scot, 6 without papers and books/ Blaeu says of Sir 
John that he seemed to be 4 a very Scotland in himself, and 
to have grasped in his mind the very form of its districts." 1 
Scot went to Amsterdam in 1638, and assisted Blaeu in the 
descriptive part of his work 'writing or dictating descrip- 
tions to accompany the maps. 1 

CORRECTIONS BY THE GORDONS. 

With reference to the correcting of the descriptions of 
localities by the Gordons, Blaeu himself, in his Atlas, says of 
the father and son : ' qui praeter correctiones in Timothei 
tabulas etiam suas aliquot, nee non descriptiones quasdam a 
se, quasdam etiam ab aliis factas adjunxere,' 1 and Straloch 
himself speaks of giving things to the printer ' in a half- 
finished state ' (p. 289 of this volume). 

Many of the Straloch documents in the Sibbald Topo- 
graphical Notices are carefully written by Straloch's own hand, 
and it is possible that some of them are the very documents 
that he sent to Holland. Some appear in the Atlas almost 
as exact copies of these documents, but others show changes, 
not however beyond what may be regarded as changes that 
Straloch might make in reading the Proofs. Occasionally the 
changes are sufficient to make it difficult, without a pains- 



Preface to the Reader, 1654 edition. 



xvi PREFACE 

taking comparison, to feel quite sure that Blaeirs print can 
be properly taken as Gordons Description, as we have it in 
his own script. The changes, however, leave the Accounts, 
I believe, substantially as they were written. All these un- 
certainties are to be regretted. They could easily have been 
prevented by signatures, dates, and a proper docqueting. 

The order in which Sir Robert Gordon's Descriptions and 
Fragments now appear in the Sibbald Topographical Notices 
has been somewhat changed, in the transcript for Macfarlane. 
The Sibbald volume has been rebound, and an altered and 
somewhat careless arrangement of its contents appears to have 
been then made. It is possible that, when Taitt transcribed 
from the Collections for Macfarlane, the volume had not been 
repaired, and was more or less in a state of confusion, probably 
due to the fact that there is no continuous pagination of the 
Sibbald Topographical Notices. 

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE LITERARY MATTER OF BLAKIJ. 

Two or three of the Descriptions in Blaeu are attributed 
to George Buchanan, not as having been specially written to 
accompany maps, but only as having been extracted from 
his works. 

In a like manner quite a considerable number of Descrip- 
tions are headed as ' Ex Cambdeno,'' and these have sometimes 
Additamenta, written avowedly in some cases by Sir Robert 
Gordon, but probably in most cases written by Sir John Scot. 
Blaeu, indeed, says in his Praefatio : ' Cambdeni Scoto-tar- 
vatus multum multis in locis correxit.' 

One contribution to Blaeu, not intended to be the accom- 
paniment of any map, entitled De Provinciis et Regiojiibus 
Germaniw Scotorum Opera ad Fidem Christianam Conversis, 
was sent to Scotstarvet from Vienna in 1641 by a man little 
known to him, and Scotstarvet sent it on to Blaeu, leaving 
him to determine whether it should or should not be inserted 



PREFACE xvii 

in the Atlas. The writer was Robert Strachan of Monte 
Rosarum, alias ' P. Bonifacius ordinis S. Benedict!.'' This 
contribution may be regarded as without any bearing on the 
topography of Scotland, but it contains the statement that 
S. Florcntim founded a monastery at Strasburgh, c. 665, 
and thus becomes interesting, because a Saint Florentius 
appears to have been buried at Kirkmedan in Stoney- 
kirk, as shown by inscribed monuments there, which have 
attracted much attention both in this country and on the 
Continent. 

Gulielmus Forbes, Ecclesiae Ennervicensis Pastor, writes a 
Descriptio Lothianas for Blaeu, and John Maclellan, without 
any designation, writes a Gallovidicc Descriptio, largely geogra- 
phical in its character, but turning aside to say : ' Nusquam 
in Scotia praestantiores equi, sed minoris statura?, quos 
Galloway-nages vocant ' thus giving us an early reference to 
the Galloway nag. 

Copies of the first, or 1654, edition of Blaeu are not all 
alike. The Preface, for instance, of the interesting copy 
sent to Straloch by Blaeu, now in the possession of Mr. C. G. 
Cash, is longer than that in the copies which are in the 
Libraries of the Society of Antiquaries and the Faculty of 
Advocates, and in the longer Preface mention is made of 
Boner, Lauder, and Spang as contributors to the literary 
matter of the volume, but nothing has been found, either in 
the second Macfarlane volume or in the Sibbald Collections, 
that can properly be attributed to any of these men. 

There are Descriptions without attribution to any author, 
but an examination of the Sibbald Collections has shown that 
of many of these either Pont or one of the Gordons must be 
regarded as the writer. 

It thus appears that the ' First Topographical Survey of 
Scotland,' 1 as given in Blaeu's Scottish volume, is almost, as 
regards its literature, the work of the same quartet of Scots- 
men Timothy Pont, Robert Gordon of Straloch, James 

b 



xviii PREFACE 

Gordon of Hothiemay, and Sir John Scot of Scotstarvet as 
are credited with the work of the First Survey in regard 
to its mapping. Perhaps David Buchanan and Sir Robert 
Gordon of Gordonstoun should be added to those who 
wrote important Descriptions for this First Survey. Nearly 
all of what these six men wrote, or gathered, or compiled, 
to illustrate the First Survey appears in Latin in Blaeu, 
and makes up a considerable part of the second volume 
of Macfarlane's Collections, having been copied by Mac- 
farlane's transcriber from the existing originals, if I may 
so call them, in the Sibbald Collections often originals, 
however, in the sense only of having been prepared for 
Blaeu's use. 

The originals of Font's map-work as a surveyor of Scot- 
land still exist to a considerable extent, and are among the 
treasures of the Advocates' Library. They furnish a very 
large part of the Scottish volume of Blaeu's great Atlas, 
which is the record, as Mr. C. G. Cash says, of ' the First 
Topographical Survey of Scotland.' The results of the re- 
searches by Mr. Cash are given in a paper of much value in 
The Scottish Geographical Magazine for August 1901. In 
that paper attention is chiefly directed to the maps, but the 
editing of this second volume of the Macfarlane Collections 
turns attention mainly to the literary part of the Scottish 
volume of Blaeu, and in making an examination of the 
Descriptions that accompany the maps I have been for- 
tunate in obtaining assistance from Mr. Cash. 

Sir John Scot of Scotstarvet has perhaps been credited with 
having made larger literary contributions to Blaeu's Scottish 
volume than he actually made. What Blaeu says of the 
assistance he gave may mean little more than that Scot was 
diligent and useful in revising and correcting what was sent 
from Aberdeen. It may not mean that Scot himself wrote 
full and extended Descriptions to accompany the maps. In- 
deed there is no evidence that he did this. He was spoken 



PREFACE xix 

of as very old at the time. Samuel Wallace in a letter 
to Gordon of Straloch, March 1647, speaks of Scotstarvet 
(in old Scots that would have delighted Robert Louis 
Stevenson), as 'a man kom to grytte aidge,' 1 and he rather 
unfeelingly adds, with regard to Straloch himself, 'so is 
your honor ' though Straloch at the time was both compiling 
maps and writing long Descriptions of the localities to which the 
maps referred. Whatever Sir John Scot did for Blaeu, it does 
not appear, I think, that he composed any of the Descriptions 
contained in Macfarlane's second volume. 



WHAT SIBBALD RECEIVED FROM JAMES GORDON. 

According to Gough, when Sibbald projected a New Atlas 
and Description of Scotland, he received from James Gordon 
' all the material, cartographical and other, that remained 
in his hands/ Sibbald advertised his project in 1683 and 
James Gordon died in 1686. When Sibbald announced his 
purpose and gave a list of the materials for the work that 
had then reached him, much that he eventually received from 
Gordon does not appear in that list. Therefore, it is almost 
certain that the gift of material from the Parson of Rothie- 
may must have reached Sibbald not long before the Parson's 
death, that is, somewhere between 1683 and 1686. 

In a letter to Wodrow of llth November 1707, Sibbald 
says : ' I have all the originall mapps and surveys and 
descriptions of Mr. Pont, the Gordons and others, who have 
laboured that way, and severall mapps never printed. 12 It 
appears from this that originals as well as copies came into 
Sibbald's hands, but the original Descriptions, so far as I have 
discovered, do not all find a place in the Sibbald Collections. 



1 Old Spalding Club Miscellany, i. 54. 

2 [Maidment], Remains of Sir Robert Sibbald, 8vo, Edinburgh, 1837, p. 36. 



xx PREFACE 

It would be of great interest and value to have Font's Notes 
and Descriptions just as he wrote them, but what we have 
in Macfarlane is a copy of a copy with alterations, yet Font's 
Notes in his own script appear to have been in Sibbald's 
possession. We have his own authority for this statement. 
He says at p. 17 of his Repertory of MSS. : 4 Many of his 
[Font's] MS. Notes Autograph are still preserved, and most of 
them were transcribed by Mr. James Gordon person [sic] of 
Rothemay and are still preserved. I have both thos done by 
Mr. Timothy and the parson of Rothemay/ 

It is of importance in this connection to know that Robert 
Gordon was personally acquainted with Pont. More than 
once he says, ' Timothy Pont told me, 1 and, in a letter from 
Straloch to Sir John Scot in Blaeu's Atlas, he says, ' As he 
[Pont] used to tell me. 1 

The Macfarlane Geographical Collections are frequently 
quoted in topographical works of authority, such, for example, 
as the Origines Parochiales the quotation being in this form : 
' A writer in Macfarlane says. 1 What writer is not told. 



SMALL HELP TO THE GORDONS FROM SCOTTISH MINISTERS. 

Notwithstanding an Order of Assembly, only four Scottish 
Ministers seem to have furnished Descriptions to Sir Robert 
Gordon. The names of these four ministers were M c Lellan, 
Boner, Lauder and Spang. A search in Hew Scott's Fasti 
makes it certain that M c Lellan was John M c Lellan, who 
became minister of Kirkcudbright in 1638, and died in 1650. 
Hew Scott knew that he wrote a Description of Galloway in 
Latin for Blaeu's Atlas. (See Fasti, i. 688-9.) A James Bonar 
was the minister of Maybole, 1608 to 1651, and is described 
as ' a person of very great learning.' (See Fasti, ii. 125.) 
Spang is no doubt William Spang, who was Minister of the 






PREFACE xxi 

Scottish Church at Campvere from 1641 to 1652, and after- 
wards at Middleburg in Zealand, where he died in 1664. 
(See Letters and Journals of Robert Baillie, Principal of the 
University of Glasgow, Bannatyne Club, 1841-2.) Spang 
was Robert Baillie's cousin. There are five ministers of the 
name of Lauder that would suit as regards date, but which 
of these five wrote for Robert Gordon I do not know. 



THE SECOND VOLUME TELLS LITTLE OF SOCIAL LIFE IN 
SCOTLAND. 

The Macfarlane Collections are called Geographical, and they 
consist largely of such matter as Map-makers desire. This 
explains why they deal so little with the Social Life of the 
Country. But there are a few things in them of that 
character. This is true even of the Second Volume, though 
it is largely written by persons actually engaged in compiling 
maps. For instance we hear in it : Of the resorting of the 
County gentry to Mayboll and Keith in winter for indoor 
and outdoor amusements ; of games of Football, Golf, and 
6 Byasse Bowls'; of a Court of Jurisdiction in the open air 
at Girvan ; of Parish Churches built of wood and thatched 
with heather; of the highly decorated Church Pew of the 
Laird ; of the effective use ' in fighting ' of the Bow and Arrow ; 
of the great prevalence of Physic Wells ; of a School of repute 
at Stornoway ; of the frequency of marriages on Tuesdays and 
Thursdays; of the sale of wine, ale, and aquavitae in church 
buildings ; of drunkenness and lewdness at Fairs ; of the 
abounding of superstitions, gross but not cruel ; of a super- 
natural conception ; of the payment of rents in kind ; of 
ploughing with eight or ten oxen ; of a statue in wood of St. 
M c Breck [sic] at Ferrietoun ; of transporting a thief to the 
Isles of S. Flannan ; of Rorie M c Neiirs being driven to Ireland, 
where he ' took up a spreath, and returned home.' 1 



xxii PREFACE 

GROUPING OF CONTRIBUTIONS. 

In the following set of Lists, I group the Descriptions, 
Discourses, etc., that occur in this volume, according to some 
common character. 

(a) DESCRIPTIONS, DISCOURSES, ETC., THE WRITERS 

OF WHICH ARE NAMED. 

Mr. Abercrummie, Minister at Minibole. (P. 1.) 

Mr. [John] Ouchterlony, of Guinde. (P. 21.) 

Mr. Andrew Symson, Minister at Kirkinner. (P. 51.) 

Alexander Garden of Troup. (P. 133.) 

John Morisone. (P. 210.) 

Jo. Eraser, Dean of the Isles. (P. 217.) 

James Gordon, Parson of Rothiemay. (P. 469.) 

Gordon of Straloch. (P. 355.) 

Glenurquhay. (P. 537.) 

Mr. D. Drummond. (P. 571.) 

Gentlemen of Lennox and Stirlingshire, 1644. (P. 578.) 

Timothy Pont. (P. 369 and P. 582.) 

Cambden. (P. 371.) 

Bede. (P. 312.) 

(b) DESCRIPTIONS, DISCOURSES, ETC., THAT ARE GIVEN ANONY- 
MOUSLY, THOUGH THEIR AUTHORS ARE KNOWN. 

I or lona by Jo. Eraser. (P. 216.) 
Sky by Macmartin. (P. 219.) 
Aberdeen and Banff by Robert Gordon. (P. 224.) 
Murray by Robert Gordon. (P. 306.) 
Provinces of Scotland by Robert Gordon. (P. 311.) 
Extracts from Bede by Robert Gordon. (P. 312.) 
Antiquity of Scots and their coming into Britain by Robert 
Gordon. (P. 327.) 






PREFACE xxiii 

Roman Walls by Robert Gordon. (P. 336.) 

Origin of Saxon Tongue by Robert Gordon. (P. 342.) 

Thule by Robert Gordon. (P. 351.) 

Old Scotland by Robert Gordon. (P. 355.) 

Roman Defensive Walls by Robert Gordon. (P. 369.) 

Our Ancestors by Robert Gordon. (P. 376.) 

Coining of the Scots to Britain by Robert Gordon. (P. 380.) 

Derivation of Scottish Name, and Cannibalism [in Scotland] 

by Robert Gordon. (P. 385.) 
Government of Scotland before the late troubles by Robert 

Gordon. (P. 391.) 
Fife by Robert Gordon. (P. 402.) 

Caithness, Strathnaver, etc. by Robert Gordon. (P. 412.) 
Sutherland by Sir R. Gordon of Gordonstoun. (P. 436.) 
Highlands and Isles by James Gordon. (P. 509.) 
Shire and City of Edinburgh by David Buchanan. (P. 614.) 



(c) ANONYMOUS DESCRIPTIONS WITH NO CLUE TO THE NAMES OF 
THE AUTHORS. 

Ane Description of Certaine Pairts of the Highlands of 
Scotland. (Sibbald says in his Repertory of Manuscripts, 
p. 22, that this was a communication to Robert Gordon, 
and Bishop Nicholson says that it was ' by a Native."*) 
(P. 144.) 

A Short Description of Dumbarton from loose sheets un- 
bound, dated of Loch lowmond, with Addenda. (Parts of 
this correspond somewhat closely to parts of a Description 
of Dumbarton by Mr. Crawfurd, brother of Carsburn Craw- 
furd, in Balfour's Collection of the Shires, Advocates' Library 
(32. 2. 27). (P. 192.) 

A Description of Renfrewshire from some loose unbound 
sheets. (Nothing has been found as to the authorship or 
date of this Description.) (P. 201.) 



xxiv PREFACE 

(d) DESCRIPTIONS THE DATES OF WHICH ARE GIVEN. 

Garden of Troup's Buchan. (P. 133.) . . May 1683 

A short Description of I or lona. (P. 216.) . 1693 

Stirlingshire and Lennox Gentlemen. (P. 578.) May 1644 
Divers Distances. (P. 604 and P. 606.) Jany. and Feb. 1646 
Glenurquhay. (P. 537.) . . June 1644 



(e) DESCRIPTION THE DATE OF WHICH, THOUGH NOT GIVEN, 

IS DEFINITELY KNOWN. 

Galloway, by Andrew Symson. (P. 51.) 1684 and 1692 



(/) DESCRIPTIONS THE DATES OF WHICH, THOUGH NOT GIVEN, 

ARE APPROXIMATELY KNOWN. 

Those: by Timothy Pont, . . . 1583 to 1601 

by Sir Robert Gordon of Straloch, . 1608 to 1661 
by Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonstoim, Before 1654 

by James Gordon of Rothiemay, . 1641-1654 

by David Buchanan, . . 1647-1652 

by John Morisone, . . . 1678-1688 

by Mr. Abercrummie, . . . 1683-1722 

by Mr. Ochterlonie, . . 1683-1722 



(g) DESCRIPTIONS AND DISCOURSES THAT APPEAR IN THE SCOTTISH 
VOLUME OF BLAEU'S ATLAS. 

Aberdeen and Banff. (P. 224.) (In second edition of Blaeu.) 
Antiquity of Scots in Britain. (P. 327.) 

Roman Walls. (P. 336.) Wall of Adrian. (P. 368.) 

Origin of Saxon Tongue. (P. 342.) Fife. (P. 402.) 

Thule. (P. 351.) Caithness, Ross, Sutherland. (P. 412.) 
Old Scotland. (P. 355.) 



PREFACE xxv 



(h) DESCRIPTIONS PRINTED ELSEWHERE THAN IN BLAEU'S 
SCOTTISH VOLUME. 

Abercrummie's Carrick, in Pitcairn's Kennedy Families, 1830, 

and in Robertson's Historic Ayrshire, 1891. 
Ouchterlony's Forfar, in the Spottiswoode Miscellany, vol. i. 

p. 811. 
Troup's Buchan, in Collections on Shires of Aberdeen and Banff, 

Old Spalding Club, 1843, p. 99. 
Symson's Galloway, separately, 8, Edin., 1823, and in 

the History of Galloway, 2 vols., 8, Kirkcudbright, 

1841. 

Morisone's Lewis, in the Spottiswoode Miscellany, vol. ii. p. 337. 
Eraser's I or lona, in do. do. p. 345. 

Macmartin's Skye, in do. do. p. 347. 

Isles of Tiree, etc., in do. do. p. 343. 

Kearera, Cola, etc., in do. do. p. 351. 

Aberdeen and Banff, Old Spalding Club Collections, 1843. 
Buchanan's Edinburgh City, in the Miscellany of the Banna- 

tyne Club, and separately translated into French. 
James Gordon's Two Cities of Aberdeen, as a volume of 

the Old Spalding Club, 1842, in English. 

(i) DESCRIPTIONS, DISCOURSES, ETC., BELIEVED TO BE PRINTED FOR 

THE FIRST TIME IN THIS VOLUME. 

Highlands of Scotland. (In part, if not in whole.) (P. 144.) 

Dumbartonshire. (P. 192.) 

Renfrewshire. (P. 201.) 

Murray. (P. 306.) 

Provinces and Countreys of Scotland. (P. 311.) 

Roman Defensive Lines. (P. 336.) 

Coming of the Scots to Britain. (P. 380.) 

Scottish Name, and Cannibalism. (P. 385.) 






xxvi PREFACE 

Government of Scotland before Troubles. (P. 391.) 
Old and New Aberdeen. (In Latin, and with a new transla- 
tion into English.) (P. 469.) 
Highlands and Isles. (In large part.) (P. 509.) 
Shire of Edinburgh. (P. 614.) 

REMARKS ON SEPARATE DESCRIITIONS. 

All I have said up to this point has reference to the 
second volume of the Macfarlane Collections as a whole. I 
desire now to say something separately about the different 
descriptions that go to make up the volume. Sometimes it 
will be convenient to treat these in groups, but in most cases 
it will be an advantage to treat them individually. I shall 
give such facts regarding them as have come to my know- 
ledge, but I shall also say some things about them that 
seem to me to be true, though they are really still in the 
region of probabilities. 

CARRICK. (P. 1.) 

6 A Description of Carrict by Mr. Abercrummie Minister at 
Minibole," 1 begins the second volume, and is without date. 
Louis Stevenson calls the author ' the inimitable Aber- 
crummie,' says that the description of the village of May- 
bole is ' mighty nicely written/ and gives a somewhat long 
quotation. 1 

Abercrummie''s account of Carrick and its nine parishes 
could not receive editorial change without injury. It is 
given ad long-urn in Sibbald's Topographical AW/Vr-v, probably 
in Abercrummie's own handwriting, and from this it was no 
doubt copied for Macfarlane. It was written for Sibbald, 
and of course is not in Blaeu. Its date lies somewhere 



1 Essays of Travel, 8vo, London, 1905, pp. 136-139. See also Hew Scott's 
Fasti Ecclesice Scoticancc, under ' Maybole,' Part iii. 



PREFACE xxvii 

between 1683 and 1722. Mr. Abercrummie became the 
minister of the parish in 1670, and died there in 1722. 

Robert Pitcairn gives this Description at length in his 
Families of the Name of Kennedy, 4, Edin., 1830, p. 161 ; and 
it also appears in William Robertson's Historic Ayrshire, 
sm. 4, Edin., 1891, p. 83. 

FORFAU. (P. 21.) 

The second contribution to this volume has the following 
heading : 4 Information for Sir Robert Sibbald anent the Shyre 
of Forfar by Mr. [John] Ouchterlony of Guinde. 1 

It appears in the Sibbald Topographical Notices, from which 
Taitt copied it into the Macfaiiane Collections. It is printed 
in volume i. of the Spottiswoode Miscellany, and also 
separately, as a private print, with plates, n.d. 

It gives Descriptions of fifty-five parishes, and these are well 
written as compared with many of the Descriptions in the 
first volume. Bishop Nicolson speaks of Ouchterlony as ' an 
ingenious Gentleman of that Countrey,' l namely Forfarshire. 

Its date is probably between 1683 and 1722. Being 
written for Sibbald, it could not appear in Blaeu. 

GALLOWAY. (P. 51.) 

The third contribution has this heading : ' A Large 
Description of Galloway by the parishes in it, by Mr. 
Andrew Symson ' (p. 51), and it is followed by ' Answers to 
Queries concerning Galloway 1 (p. 99), forming together one 
Description. 

It contains Accounts of forty-four parishes. It was written 
for Sibbald, and therefore is not in Blaeu. The original 
manuscript is in the Advocates' Library (31.7.17), and is 
in Symson's own script. From this Macfarlane's transcriber 
copied. 



1 Nicolson, Scottish Historical Library > 1702, p. 20. 



xxviii PREFACE 

Symson was a Curate of the Scottish Episcopal Church and 
Minister of the parish of Kirkinner. He speaks of his lot 
there as having been ' cast in a very pleasant place/ After 
losing his incumbency, he became a printer in Edinburgh. He 
was a man of scholarship in various directions. Bishop 
Nicolson calls him ' a learned Episcopal divine.' l 

His Description of Galloway was completed in 1684, while 
he was still in Kirkinner. It was afterwards, in 1692, revised 
and enlarged by him, when residing at Dalclathick in 
Glenartney. 

The Description has already been separately printed (8vo, 
Edinburgh, 1823), under the title of A large Description of 
Galloway By Andrew Symson Minister of Kirkinner, 1684. 
I believe that it was brought out under the editorship 
of Thomas Maitland of Dundrennan. The Description was 
reprinted at the end of the second volume of The History of 
Galloway, published by J. Nicolson, Kirkcudbright, in 1841. 

In the introductory matter to volume i., I quoted some 
remarks by Andrew Symson on criticisms of the spelling and 
punctuation in a piece of verse written by him and issued 
from his own printing house. In these remarks he tried to 
explain and justify the peculiarities which had then attracted 
criticism. It is interesting and curious, therefore, to h'nd him 
in his account of Galloway referring to the erroneous spelling 
of Timothy Pont, as, for example, to his joining Gray-mares- 
tail and Saddle-loup and making it the name of one place 
Gray Mearstail of the Sadillowip whereas the first is the name 
of the water running down betwixt two rocks and resembling 
' the tail of a gray horse," while the Saddle-loup is the name 
of a rock hard by, on which riders must leap out of the saddle 
for fear of falling off' their horses. 2 

With further reference to spelling, Symson says that ' in 

1 Nicolson's Scottish Historical Library, 1702, p. 22. 
- Symson's Large Description of Galloway, 1823, p. 86. 



PREFACE xxix 

Maps it is hardly possible to be exact, especially when we 
must of necessitie make use of information which we reccave 
from severall hands, and therefore these papers upon the same 
account being liable to mistakes, the Reader will, I hope, be 
inclineable to pass them by, they being almost unavoidable/ 
But this appeal to have spellings by himself overlooked, does 
not prevent him a little further on from blaming Speed for 
miscalling the Loch of Luce in his maps the Loch Lowys.^ 

The spelling of the same name or word in various ways 
prevails in the second as it did in the first volume. This is 
difficult of explanation, especially as it occurs among men of 
high culture. Even the very learned Robert Baillie, Principal 
of Glasgow University, ' seems at no period of his life to have 
had a fixed mode of writing his own name." 

A GeneraU Description of the Steivartrie of Kirkcudbright and 
Of the Abbayes, Priories, mid Nitnries within the Stewartrie 
of Kirkcudbright are in the Sibbald Topographical Notices, 
but with no indication of authorship. The difference of script 
points to their not being the work of Symson. They are 
given as appendices to Symson's Large Description of Gallo- 
way, 1823. It is not clear whether they were printed in the 
1823 volume from the Sibbald Collections or from the Mac- 
farlane Collections, but there is some reason to think that both 
collections were used. 

COAST OF BUCHAN. (P. 133.) 

The contribution by Alexander Garden of Trotip On the 
Northside of the Coast of Buchan has a character of its own. 
It deals largely with sea birds and land birds, with white fish 
and shell fish, with rocks and soils, with seals and whales, with 
manures and crops. 

It is a dated Description May 1683. It was written for 
Sir Robert Sibbald, is therefore not in Blaeu, and was copied 

1 Symson, op. cit., p. 91. 



xxx PREFACE 

by Taitt out of the Sibbald Topographical Notices, where it 
occurs probably in Garden's script. 

In the same volume, and also in Garden of Troup's script, 
there is a copy of Stralocirs description of Aberdeen and 
Banff avowedly taken from Blaeu. It is difficult to see why 
Troup took the trouble to copy an Account that could easily 
be found printed in Blaeu, and a further difficulty to see why 
it was sent to Sibbald, who, of course, could find it in Blaeu, 
which we know was in his hands. 

Garden of Troup's Northside of the Coast of Buchan was 
printed in extenso in the Collections on the Shires of Aberdeen 
and Banff of the Old Spalding Club, 1843, pp. 99-107, with 
Joseph Robertson as editor. Robertson states that he copied 
it from the Sibbald Collections in the Advocates 1 Library. 



AXE DESCRIFHONE OF CERTAINE PAIRTS OF THE HIGHLANDS OF 
SCOTLAND. (P. 144.) 

COWELL, INVERARAY, LOGHFYNE, LOGHOW, KNAP-DAL, TERBERT, LORNE, 
KILMOIRE, MUCARNE, KILLESPICK, BEANDIRLOGH, APPIN, IONA, 
LISMOR, DURGOURE, GLENCONE, LOCHLEVIN, BEANEVIES, INNER- 
LOGHIE, LOGHYELD, LOQUHABER, KILMALIE, ARDGOURE, KENGEAR- 
LOCH, DUARD, MORVEN, SUINEORD, ARDNAMURQUHEN, MUYDORT, 
ARRYSAIG, KNOIDART, GLENGAIRIE, ABIRTARFF, GLENMORIESTOUNE,, 
URQUHATTAN, INVERNESS,, STRANEARNE, BADENOCH, KNODEARD, 
COLLA, MUCK, EIGG, RUM, CAINNA, BARRAY, BEARNERA, WIST, 
HARIE, SKYE, LEWIS, GLASRIE, KINTYRE, ILLA, TEXA, JURA. 



No authorship of these Descriptions is given, nor is any 
date. SibbaWs Repertory, p. 22, suggests that they were pre- 
pared for Sir Robert Gordon (Bishop Nicolson, Scot. Hist. Lib., 
p. 5, says ' by a native '), and we know that they were passed 
on to Sibbald by James Gordon. It is possible that they 
were utilised in Blaeu, but they do not appear there ad 






PREFACE xxxi 

longum. The date is uncertain, but it probably lies some- 
where about 1630. 

There is a puzzling similarity between some of these Descrip- 
tions, and the shorter Accounts of the same places in the 
Noates and Observations of Dyvers parts of the Hielands and 
Isles of Scotland, p. 509. Sometimes the similarity is so great 
as to lead to the feeling that the shorter Descriptions are 
mere abridgements of the longer. 

DUNBARTON. (P. 192.) 

The original of this Description has not been discovered, 
but parts of it correspond closely to parts of a Description of 
Dumbarton by Mr. Crawfurd, brother of Carsburn Crawfurd, 
in Balfour's Collection of the Shires in the Advocates' Library. 

RENFREWSHIRE. (P. 201.) 

Nothing is known of the authorship or date of this Descrip- 
tion. Two anonymous Descriptions of the same County, 
attributed to Hamilton of Wishaw and Principal Dunlop, 
were printed by the Maitland Club in 1831. 

THE LEWIS. (P. 210.) 

John Morisone, who writes the Description of the Lewis and 
calls himself 'Indweller there, 1 was probably, according to 
Captain F. W. L. Thomas, R.N. (Proc. Soc. of Antiq. Scot., 
vol. xii. p. 504), the Rev. John Morrison, sometime minister 
of Urray, son of John Morrison of Bragir and father of the 
Rev. John Morrison, minister of Petty. 

From internal evidence the Description appears to have been 
written after 1678 and before 1688. 

4 John Morison of Bragir ' was known to Martin, and is 
mentioned at pp. 28, 315, and 316 of his Western Islands of 
Scotland. He is called by Martin ' a person of unquestion- 
able sincerity and reputation,' and is said to have possessed 



xxxii PREFACE 

'Ladies modesty, Bishops gravity, Lawyers eloquence, and 
Captains conduct ' (Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., xii. 527). The 
' Indweller ' was thus a man of a good and cultured stock. 

James Maidment, with some editing, printed Morisone's 
Description of the Lewis in vol. ii. p. 341 of the Spottis- 
woode Miscellany. 

The Morrison who wrote the Traditions of the Western Isles 
was probably a descendant of the ' Indweller.' His name 
was Donald, and he was a cooper at Stornoway. He was 
born in 1787, and died in 1824. Part of his Traditions 
has been lost. What remains, still in manuscript, is in my 
possession. 

John Morisone's account of the Lewis is in Sibbald's Topo- 
graphical Notices, possibly in Morisone's own handwriting. 
Sibbald says that it was obtained for him by 'Mr. Colin 
Mackenzie, brother to the Earl of Seaforth/ As the date lies 
between 1678 and 1688, it could not appear in Blaeu. 



IONA. (P. 216.) 

The short Description of I or lona is anonymous in Mac- 
farlane, but in Sibbald's Repertory, p. 31, it is attributed to 
Jo. Fraser, Dean of the Isles, having been written in answer to 
queries by Sibbald at the desire of Bishop Graham of the 
Isles. The following Description of Tiree, Coll, and lona has 
the same origin and history. The Bishop Graham referred 
to was probably Archibald Graham, who was raised to this 
see in 1680. John Fraser wrote a well-known book, A Treatise 
on Second Sight, 12mo, Edin., 1707. 

The Description appears in Sibbald's Topographical Notices, 
and the date is given as 1693. It is thus of too late a date to 
have found a place in Blaeu. 

In the Latin couplet that it contains, the word < "una' > is 
used adverbially. 






PREFACE xxxiii 



TIREE, COLL, AND IONA. (P. 217.) 

Jo. Fraser wrote and signed the Account of the lyls of 
Tirry, Gunna, Colle, and Icolmkill. The original, believed to be 
in Fraser's script, appears in Sibbald's Topographical Notices. 

These two Descriptions by John Fraser do not of course 
appear in the Scottish volume of Blaeu's Atlas. Both of them 
have been printed by Maidment in the second volume of the 
Spottiswoode Miscellany, p. 343 and p. 345. 



SKYE. (P. 219.) 

The Description of Skye is anonymous in Macfarlane, but 
Sibbald says that a Description of Skye, written by a Mr. 
Macmartin, was given to him by the chaplain of Macdonald of 
Sleat, and that, perhaps, may be the Description given in 
Macfarlane. 

It has a place in the Sibbald Topographical Notices, but it is 
of too late a date to appear in Blaeu's Scottish volume. It was 
printed by James Maidment in volume u. of the Spottiswoode 
Miscellany, p. 347. 



ABERDEEN AND BANFF. (P. 224 and P. 267.) 

The Accounts in Latin of the Shires of Aberdeen and 
Banff were written by Sir Robert Gordon of Straloch, though 
this is not shown by anything in the Macfarlane Collections, 
nor is there any indication there of the date. 

Taitt, Macfarlane's transcriber, appears to have copied these 
into the Macfarlane Collections from Sir Robert Gordon's 
own script, as given in the Topographical Notices of Scot- 
land collected by Sir Robert Sibbald.. Gordon is the 
accredited author of the Map of Aberdeen and Banff in 

c 



xxxiv PKKFACK 

the Scottish volume of Blaeu's Atlas, of which the first 
edition appeared in 1654 and the second edition in 1662. 
The Map is given in both editions, but the Description does 
not appear in the first edition. It is given, however, in the 
second edition, with Robert Gordon's name as its author. 
The omission of Gordon's Description when the Map first 
appeared is not easy of explanation. It has been attributed 
to a misunderstanding between Gordon and Blaeu, the 
existence of which is suggested by Bishop Nicolson ; but 
Dr. Joseph Robertson thinks it more probable that it was 
left out because it had not reached Amsterdam in time for 
insertion. It is of course possible that some delay in sending 
the Account to Holland may have arisen from its not having 
undergone a full revision at the hands of Gordon, when Blaeu's 
Scottish volume was first published. 

As the Description was given to the public in 1662, in the 
second edition of Blaeu, this may be taken as its date, though 
it existed, almost certainly, in a more or less complete form, 
some years before 1662. It has been more than once in print. 
It not only appeared in Blaeu in 1662, but was reprinted 
in 1843, under the editorship of Dr. Joseph Robertson, by the 
Old Spalding Club in the Collections for a History of the Shires 
of Aberdeen and Banff. When the Description was given to 
Sibbald in MS. by James Gordon, it had already appeared in 
Blaeu. 

Joseph Robertson made editorial changes somewhat freely 
4 amending faults," 1 ' correcting errors in names of places,' and 
' supplying defects by reference to fragments ' that are pre- 
served in Gordon's script in the Sibbald Topographical Notices. 
These fragments are referred to further on in this Preface. 
They yielded much matter to the publications of the Old 
Spalding Club. 

Perhaps Robertson improved the Description by the changes 
he made as editor, for he was himself intimately acquainted 
with the Aberdeen and Banff' district; but it is of course 



PREFACE xxxv 

possible that he occasionally did the reverse. I have myself not 
aimed at making any improvements. My aim is to print the 
Description without change of any kind, and that aim has been 
remembered by the translator, whose rendering into English 
is as close as he could make it. This is the first appearance in 
English of Gordon's Account of these two Northern Shires. The 
Description in Latin stands in this volume as a correct copy 
of a description of a part of Scotland written by a very com- 
petent hand nearly two hundred and fifty years ago. The only 
changes I have made in the Latin consist in the correction of 
grammatical errors, probably made by the transcribers, and also 
in the improvement of the punctuation. I think that no 
word lias been added, and that no word has been taken out. 

It is certain that Robert Gordon compiled the Map of 
Aberdeen and Banff that is given in Blaeu, and Joseph 
Robertson, himself intimately acquainted with the district, 
praises its accuracy and fulness. 

Among the things seen or not seen (1 and 2 seen, 3 not 
seen) and likely to be useful in carrying out his project, 
Sibbald gives the following in his Nuncius Scoto-Britannus, 
Sive adrnonitio de Atlante Scotico (1683), advertising his pro- 
jected Atlas and Description of Scotland: 

1. Theatrum Scoticc, Auctore doctissimo illo viro Roberto 

Gordonio de Straloch. Tractatus Latina lingua 
compositus (p. 11 of the Nunclus). 

2. Scotia Antigua [a Map] per Robertum Gordon! urn de 

Straloch (p. 6 of the Nuncius). 

3. Scotia? Regimen, Auctore Roberto Gordonio de Stra- 

loch (p. 14 of the Nuncius}. 

In the English Advertisement of his Scottish Atlas, etc. 
(p. 9) Sibbald gives No. 3 as the 6 Government of Scotland, 
written by Straloch.'' 

The two short Notes, the one headed Non Omnino, etc. 
(p. 247), and the other Aliud hitjuscemodi (p. 247), which 



xxxvi PREFACE 

occur with Gordon's Descriptions of the counties of Aberdeen 
and Banff, were presumably copied by Taitt from Sibbald's 
Topographical Notices, where the first, and the first only, 
exists in Robert Gordon's handwriting, but they are not given 
in Blaeu, and are apparently now for the first time printed. 

Altogether there are five items relating to Aberdeen and 
Banff, and they are all treated here as having been written 
by Straloch. The author is not named in the Sibbald or in 
the Macfarlane Collections, but the attribution is well sup- 
ported both by the testimony of Sibbald and by internal 
evidence. Dr. Joseph Robertson copied from Blaeu, but Mac- 
farlane's transcriber copied from the manuscript in the Sibbald 
Topographical Notices, though he does not say so. He does 
not appear to have done any editing, but he occasionally fails 
in accuracy, though not more frequently or seriously than 
copyists usually do, even when they copy what is written in 
their own tongue. It is the first of these five items that 
appears in Blaeu that is, the Adnotata ad Descriptionem, 
etc. and it is given there with such changes as are usually 
made by an author in passing his work through the press. 



MORAY. (P. 306 and P. 309.) 

The account of Moray in Latin is without name of author 
or date in the Macfarlane Collections. It forms a part of 
the Sibbald Topographical Notices without any heading or 
title, and it is probably, but not certainly, in Sir Robert 
Gordon's handwriting. It is not given in the Scottish volume 
of Blaeu. Macfarlane's transcriber appears to have copied it 
from the manuscript in the Sibbald Topographical Notices. 
He does not tell us, however, from what he copied. 

It will be safe, I think, to regard this description as the 
work of Straloch. Whether this is or is not correct, its date 
cannot be long before 1654. 



PREFACE xxxvii 

PROVINCES OF SCOTLAND. (P. 311.) 

Although this is in English, there is sufficient reason for 
attributing it to Robert Gordon. It is known to have been 
in Sibbald's possession, but it has not been found in his 
Collections. 



EXTRACTS FROM BEDE. (P. 312 and P. 320.) 

These appear in the Sibbald Topographical Notices. They 
are beyond question in Robert Gordon's script, and they may 
be taken with certainty to have been prepared by him. They 
appear to be Notes made in the expectation of finding material 
in them to assist in the description of localities ; and there 
is evidence that he found them useful in that and other ways. 
Gordon often follows an Extract from Bede by observations 
of his own, and these are distinguished in the Translation by 
not giving them within quotation marks. 

THE ANTIQUITY OF THE SCOTS IN BRITAIN. (P. 327 and P. 332.) 

This Discourse is copied by Macfarlane's transcriber from 
a paper in Sibbald's Topographical Notices, in Straloch's 
writing. It is printed in Blaeu's Scottish volume as part of 
the Introductory matter, and is there definitely attributed 
to Gordon. 

The first paragraph of the Discourse is a prefatory note 
by Gordon addressed to David Buchanan, who is called 
' Doctissime Buchanane, 1 and in this note he declares him- 
self to be the author. 

Sibbald, in his own handwriting, says on p. 22 of his 
Repertory of Manuscripts : ' Next to the Gordons, the Father 
& the son, their friend Mr. David Buchanan commeth to be 
mentioned, who, besides what he wrott relating to the Scotia 
Antiqua, wrott severall Latine descriptions of some shyres.' 



xxxviii PREFACE 

But for the evidence just adduced, this might have led to an 
erroneous attribution of the Discourse to David Buchanan. 

The date of the Discourse may be taken as not much before 
1654. 

ROMAN WALLS. (P. 336 and P. 339.) 

This is in Robert Gordon's script in Sibbald's Topographical 
Notices. It is also in both editions of Blaeu's Scottish volume 
with some unimportant editorial changes, and Gordon may be 
safely accepted as the author. 

ORIGIN OF THE SAXON TONGUE. (P. 342 and P. 347.) 

This is copied into Macfarlane from Sibbald's Topographical 
Notices, where it appears in Robert Gordon's handwriting. It 
is given in the Scottish volume of Blaeu with a somewhat 
different heading, and Gordon may be taken without doubt 
as the author. 

THULE. (P. 351 and P. 353.) 

This is copied from Sibbald's Collection of Topographical 
Notices, where it appears in Robert Gordon's script. It is 
printed in Blaeu, and is there definitely attributed to Gordon. 

OLD SCOTLAND. (P. 355 and P. 362.) 

This is copied from Sibbald's Collection of Topographical 
Notices, where it occurs in Sir Robert Gordon's handwrit- 
ing. It is also printed in Blaeu, in connection with the map 
of Old Scotland, which was compiled by Straloch. 

In the body of the paper there is an explanatory note 
in the script of Straloch that is not given by Blaeu. 
There is also at the end of the paper a note by Straloch, 
which gives the date of the writing December 1649 and 






PREFACE xxxix 

which is signed R. Gordonius. There is thus no doubt that 
this Description was written by Straloch. 

But Sibbald says in the Advertisement in English of his 
projected Atlas, 1683, p. 3, ' The Theater of Scotland published 
by Blaeu, for all its Bulk, (except it be the Description of 
some few shires by the learned Gordovi of Straloch, and some 
sheets of his of the Scotia Antiqua) containeth little more 
than what [George] Buchanan wrote, and some few scraps out 
of CambdenS Sibbald thus appears to have regarded Straloch 
as the writer of the Scotia Antiqua. He certainly knew that 
Gordon compiled Blaeu's Map of Ancient Scotland, for he 
gives in his Nuncius Scoto-Britannus sive Admonitio de Atlante 
Scotico, $c., among the Tabulae Geographicae to appear in his 
Atlas, Scotia Antiqua per Robertum Gordonium de Straloch. 
Yet he elsewhere in his Repertory of Manuscripts, p. 22, 
seems to suggest that David Buchanan was the writer of the 
papers in Blaeu about Old Scotland. He says : ' Next to 
the Gordons, the Father & the Son, their friend Mr. David 
Buchanan commeth to be mentioned, who, besides what he 
wrott relating to the Scotia Antiqua, wrott severall Latine 
descriptions of some shyres."* 

WALL OK ADKIAN. (P. 368 and P. 369.) 

Pont is given as the author of this Account. It appears 
in Sibbald's Topographical Notices in R. Gordon's hand- 
writing, and in Latin. It also appears in Blaeu, but as a 
translation into English. It is, however, possibly incorrect 
to speak of it as a translation into English, because Pont 
almost always, so far as I know, wrote in English, and it may 
be that what appears in Macfarlane is rather a translation into 
Latin by Gordon. 

ROMAN DEFENSIVE LINES. (P. 369 and P. 373.) 
This is transcribed into Macfarlane from Sibl ald^s 



xl PREFACE 

Topographical Notices, where it appears in Straloch's writing. 
It is not given in Blaeu's Scottish volume. Robert Gordon 
may with certainty be accepted as the author. 



EXTRACTS FROM CAMBDEN ON THIS SUBJECT. (P. 371 and P. 375.) 

This item is also copied into Macfarlane from Sibbald's 
Topographical Notices, where it exists in Robert Gordon's 
writing. It is not given in Blaeu. 

It seems to consist of extracts from Cambden by Straloch 
to assist in the preparation of Descriptions for Blaeu. 

OUR ANCESTORS. (P. 376 and P. 378.) 

This is copied from a paper in Sibbald's Topographical 
Notices in the script of Robert Gordon, the heading, how- 
ever, being in Sibbald's writing. It is not given in Blaeu's 
Scottish volume. Gordon is certainly the author. 

COMING OF THE SCOTS TO BRITAIN. (P. 380 and P. 383.) 

This is in Sibbald's Topographical Notices, in the hand- 
writing of Robert Gordon, who is certainly the author. It is 
not in Blaeu's Scottish volume. 



DERIVATION OF SCOTTISH NAME, AND CANNIBALISM [IN 
SCOTLAND]. (P. 385 and P. 388.) 

This subject is treated in two parts, both of which are in 
the Sibbald Topographical Notices, but not in Blaeu. 

Before the paragraph beginning ' Jam de origine gentis, 1 on 
p. 387, Sibbald has given in his own writing as a sub-heading, 
' Origo gentis, 1 and this has been copied by Macfarlane's tran- 
scriber. Robert Gordon is the author. 






PREFACE xli 

DISCOURSE ON THE GOVERNMENT OF SCOTLAND BEFORE 
THE LATE TROUBLES. (P. 391.) 

This Discourse, in English, is in the Sibbald Topographical 
Notices. It is in the handwriting of Sir Robert Gordon, but 
there are marginal notes, interlineations, and deletions in a 
different script, and with a different ink. This writing and 
ink are the same as those of a paper containing Answers to Sir 
Robert Gordons Queries in the same volume of the Sibbald 
Collections. Taitt copied the Discourse into the Macfarlane 
Collections from the Sibbald Topographical Notices, and he 
incorporated almost all, if not all, the marginal notes and 
interlineations, without indicating that they were not Gordon's 
text. The Discourse in Macfarlane is thus an edited copy of 
what was written by Gordon, but the name of the editor is 
not given. Taitt himself did no editing. 

The Discourse is one of two things in this volume written 
by Robert Gordon that are in English. Neither in the 
Sibbald nor in the Macfarlane Collections is author's name or 
date given, nor is there any indication in Macfarlane of where 
his transcriber found the Discourse. None of the friends 
whom I consulted had seen it, but Bishop Dowden suggested 
that Sir Robert Gordon himself might well be its author, as 
the views it contains are such as he was likely to hold ; and 
Bishop Dowden was right. Sir Robert Gordon is the author 
of the Discourse. 

Sir Robert Sibbald, at p. 21 of his Repertory of Manuscripts, 
says : ' In English there is extant done by him [Robert 
Gordon] . . . and there is a discourse subjoined to them 
anent the government of Scotland as it was before the late 
troubles. 1 This shows that Sibbald had no doubt as to the 
authorship, but if he had not definitely said this, the other 
documents named by Sibbald at the beginning of the quota- 
tion would have led to the same conclusion. One of these 



xlii PREFACE 

is entitled : ' Answers returned to his [Sir Robert Gordon's] 
queries, wherein there is a just account of ye government of 
Scotland as it was in former tymes.' These Answers, as 
already stated, are written by the same hand and with the 
same ink as are the marginal notes and interlineations on 
the Discourse in Gordon's writing. These notes and inter- 
lineations are referred to in footnotes in the print of the 
Discourse given in this volume. 

It seems clear that Gordon founded his Discourse, in part 
at least, on these 'Answers? and it is thus that the Discourse 
is said to be ' subjoined' 1 to the Answers given to Gordon's 
Queries. All that remains unknown is the name of the 
answerer. 

The Discourse does not appear in Blaeu. 



FIFE. (P. 402 and P. 407.) 

This is in the Sibbald Topographical Notices in the script 
of Straloch, and it is printed in Blaeu's Scottish volume, with 
a definite attribution to Gordon. 

There are some short paragraphs in Blaeu that do not 
occur in Macfarlane, and vice versa ; and the order or arrange- 
ment of the paragraphs is not the same in Blaeu and Mac- 
farlane. 

Macfarlane's transcriber has not copied from Blaeu, but 
from the Sibbald Topographical Notices. 

There are numerous minor or verbal differences between 
Blaeu and Straloch, as Straloch appears in the Sibbald 
Topographical Notices. The spelling of proper names differs 
in Straloch, Blaeu, and Macfarlane. 

Occasionally blanks occur in Gordon's MS., and some of 
these appear also both in Blaeu's print and in Macfarlane's 
transcription. 



PREFACE xliii 

CAITHNESS, STRATHNAVER, Ross, ASSYNT, MORAY, SUTHER- 
LAND, ETC. (P. 412 and P. 443.) 

This is a group of long and full Descriptions, and includes 
under sub-headings Ross, Assynt, Sutherland, Caithness, 
Strathnaver, Edir-da-cheulis, Moray and Sutherland. They 
all appear in the Sibbald Topographical Notices in Straloch's 
handwriting, except one of the Descriptions of Sutherland, and 
all of them are given in the Scottish volume of Blaeu, the 
parts about Assynt and Caithness undergoing some change of 
structure and arrangement. 

There are two Descriptions of Sutherland, and Sir Robert 
Gordon of Straloch thus begins the first (p. 417) : ' Hujus 
descriptionem mihi communicavit nobilis Eques D. Robertus 
Gordonius a Gordonstoun Illustrissimi Sutherlandiae Comitis 
patruus. Unde delibabo quae ad instituti mei rationem 
spectant. 1 He then presumably goes on to give these cull- 
ings, and adds three paragraphs more or less of the nature of 
amplification. 

Gordonstoun's unculled and unaltered account of Suther- 
land (p. 436), probably in his own handwriting, is in the 
Sibbald Topographical Notices, and it also appears in Blaeu's 
Scottish volume, where it is attributed to Gordonstoun. It is 
called the Vera Sutherlandice Descriptio. 

The long Description of Moray (p. 427) is in the Sibbald 
Topographical Notices in Straloch's script. It is also printed 
in Blaeu, with the omission of the concluding paragraph, and 
Robert Gordon is there given as the author. 

Gordon of Straloch may without hesitation be accepted as 
the author of all the Accounts in this group, except the 
Account of Sutherland by Gordon of Gordonstoun. 

OLD AND NEW ABERDEEN. (P. 469 and P. 491.) 
J. G. [James Gordon] is given as the Author of this 
Description. 



xliv PREFACE 

' To illustrate the Plan of his native City James Gordon 
composed in Latin his Abredonicc Utriusque Descriptio, still 
preserved in the Library of the Faculty of Advocates at 
Edinburgh ' (Old Spalding Club, 1842), where it forms part of 
the Sibbald Collections. It is open to question whether the 
script is that of the father or of the son, or indeed of either. 

It is not printed in Blaeu's Scottish volume, perhaps because 
the map of the two towns does not appear there. 

It is not known that the Latin description given in this 
volume was ever before in print. 

A translation of it into English also appears in MS. in the 
Sibbald Topographical Notices, and this is not in the hand- 
writing of either of the Gordons. This translation was printed 
as a separate volume, 1842, by the Old Spalding Club, with 
Cosmo Innes as the editor. He says (p. vi) that the work of 
the translator ' is everywhere rude, and with the idiom and con- 
strained air of an imperfectly understood original ; while in 
some places he has plainly mistaken the meaning of the 
homely but vigorous Latin of James Gordon. ' 

An accurate translation into English by Mr. Gow is given 
in this volume, which thus contains a version in Latin and 
one in English of the description of the two Aberdeens, 
neither of them hitherto in print. 

The date of this Description of the two towns of Aberdeen 
is c. 1647. 

HIGHLANDS AND ISLES OF SCOTLAND. (P. 509.) 

Noates and Observations of dyvers parts of the Hielands and 

Isles of Scotland. 

These were copied by Macfarlane's transcriber from the 
Sibbald Topographical Notices. They are there almost 
certainly in the script of James Gordon, Parson of Rothie- 
may, and they may be said to constitute one much- 
broken-up document, consisting of ninety-one separate items 



PREFACE xlv 

with Headings. They form a considerable part of the second 
volume of the Macfarlane Collections, even though some of them 
are omitted by Taitt, who also changed their order. There is no 
doubt that James Gordon was largely copying when he wrote, 
but he commented, deleted, and amplified as he copied. 

It would not, I think, be far from the truth roughly to 
attribute the great bulk of these 'Noates' to Timothy Pont 
as the author. Indeed, it seems to me beyond question that 
he wrote a large part of them, and, if this is correct, it gives 
them exceptional value. Some of them, however, were not 
written by Pont. Gordon definitely says that he had ' from 
Glenurquhay himself in June 1644 at Aberdeen the Noats 
of Distances of Places about the Head of Lochtay, Loch Erin, 
L. Dochart, Glen Urquhay, etc. 1 ; that he had Stormonth 'fra 
Mr. D. Drummond's Papers'; and that he had the 'Noats of 
Lennox & Stirling-shy r fra gentlemen of that country, 15 May, 
1644.' Frequently, however, he attributes the ' Noats' to Pont 
by name, saying that he got them ' out of Mr. Timothy Pont his 
papers.' It seems only a reasonable opinion that nearly all the 
Notes or Fragments that are not definitely assigned by Gordon 
to others than Pont, are Notes that Pont made for the purpose 
of embodying them in maps the preparation of maps being 
the business of his wanderings over Scotland. It helps to this 
opinion that it is definitely known that Pout's papers came 
into Gordon's hands. About the Notes relating to Badenoch, 
Gordon says in the heading, ' This is wryten out of Mr. 
Timothies Papers, & in it thur manie things false.' Gordon 
did not slavishly copy what Pont wrote he made additions 
and changes that are often evident. He gave the Notes, 
as he thought they should stand as he himself says, they 
are only ' drawn furth of Mr. Timothy Pont his papers.' 

These Notes are such as would be written by a surveyor, 
who was making them for the purpose of constructing maps of 
the places to which they referred. They are accordingly dis- 
tinguished by the absence of what I may call gossip, and they 



xlvi PREFACE 

furnish me with few noteworthy things that I can enter in 
my list of things that attracted attention in reading the second 
volume. 

The punctuation of the Notes or Jottings by Gordon is not 
so utterly eccentric as it is in much that Macfarlane's volumes 
contain. There are also more Scottish words, more of Scottish 
spelling, and a somewhat greater regard for grammar. The 
Notes are very largely records of the situations of places, the 
distance between one place and another, the courses of rivers, 
the sizes of lochs, the characters of glens, the heights of hills, 
and all such other things as are needed by the map-maker. 
They have the general look of memoranda or jottings in pocket 
note-books. What has become of the originals has not been 
discovered. There is good reason to believe that they came 
into the possession of the Gordons, and they may have 
been sent by them to Holland, for use in the preparation 
of the text of the Scottish volume of Blaeu by Scotstarvet 
and others. They were eventually sent to Sibbald. James 
Gordon's reason for making a copy of the Notes is not 
easily seen, and his copy, as now existing in the Sibbald 
Topographical Notices, shows no sign of having journeyed to 
Amsterdam and back, but perhaps the mode of transmission 
at that time would not leave the evidences which transmission 
through the Post Office in our time would leave. It is difficult 
to determine to what extent the Notes were used in drawing 
up Descriptions for Blaeu's maps, but that they were used 
is all but certain. They have also been used, in a more or 
less free fashion, by many writers on the topography of Scot- 
land. Indeed, such writers have gone freely for copy to the 
Macfarlane Collections. 

I have, on p. xxxi, drawn attention to a similarity between 
some of the short Descriptions under this heading, and some 
of those, of greater length, under a somewhat like heading 
(p. 144). Several of the short Descriptions are printed in the 
second volume of the Spottiswoode Miscellany. 






PREFACE xlvii 



SHIRK AXD TOWN OF EDINBURGH. (P. 614 and P. 628.) 

The Description of the Shire of Edinburgh by David 
Buchanan, either in Latin or as a translation into English, is 
not known to exist in print. There is some reason, however, 
to believe that it was translated into English, because Sir 
Robert Sibbald says at p. 25 of his Repertory of Manuscripts , 
' The Discription of the Sherifdome of Edinburgh in our Lan- 
guague [sic] answereth so to that made in Latine by Mr. David 
Buchanan, that I take it to be done by him although the MS. 
extant be anonymous.' 1 This does not, however, necessarily 
mean that it had been printed. Sibbald appears to have 
actually seen the MS., for he says of it 4 'tis two sheets.' 

David Buchanan's Description of the City of Edinburgh 
has a somewhat different story, as is shown below. 

Macfarlane's transcriber prefaces his copy of the two De- 
scriptions, that is, the Description of the Shire and of the 
Town, with these words : ' From thrie sheet of Paper stitcht 
together marked 6 being in Sir Robert SibbakTs Collection of 
manuscripts now in the Faculty of Advocats library/ This is 
almost the only instance in which Taitt gives us the source from 
which he copied. The two Descriptions, as they now exist, are 
bound together in a thin volume (31.6.19.), of which they form 
the sole contents. They are in a script not unlike that of 
Sir Robert Gordon of Straloch, but larger, and otherwise 
sufficiently differing to justify the opinion that he was not 
the writer, and it is naturally suggested that they may be in 
the handwriting of David Buchanan himself. 

The Description of the City of Edinburgh is commonly 
regarded as having been composed to accompany the well- 
known 1647 Bird's- Eye View of Edinburgh, prepared for the 
Magistrates of the City by James Gordon, Parson of Rothie- 
may, and son of Sir Robert Gordon of Straloch. The 



xlviii PREFACE 

Description is known to have been ' in print/ James Gordon 
himself, in his Description of both towns of Aberdeen, says 
that 'it is in print subjoynt to a Mappe of Edinburgh, 
which I published some years ago," 1 and Sibbald says in his 
Collections that he had 4 the plan of ye Town of Edinburgh 
wt its description in print.' It was probably put into type in 
Holland, as a single sheet. (Bannatyne Club Miscellany, 1836, 
ii. pp. 389-406.) When the Description appeared in the 
Miscellany of the Bannatyne Club, no printed copy of it was 
known to exist. But when David Laing in 1865 wrote the 
historical notice for W. and A. K. Johnston's facsimile of 
James Gordon's 1647 Bird^s-Eye Viezv of Edinburgh, he was able 
to state that he had seen, in the Imperial Library at Paris, a 
printed copy ' on a large leaf along with Gordon's Plan and his 
different views of Edinburgh joined together.' Laing does not 
say whether the print was in Latin, in English, or in some other 
language. Quite lately John S. Mackay, LL.D., visited the 
Imperial Library at Paris, now the Bibliotheque Nationale, to 
ascertain for me how the matter stands at present, and he 
found, in the Departement des Estampes, a copy of Gordon's 
Bird's-Eye View with Buchanan's Description attached, or at 
least in connection. The Description is in print, and is in 
French. Dr. Mackay says that the beginning of it is taken 
up with ' fantastic etymology.' He gives me the following 
extracts : 

. . . ' Temple nomme Aistaire du nom de la venerable 
Dame d' Aistaire qui 1'a fondee.' 

. . . 'L'Hospital cPHercoli du nom de son fondateur/ . . . 

. . . ' Un Temple nouvellement basty, qui s'appelle 1'Eglise 
de la balance, parce qu'elle est voisine de 1'ancien bourreau 
\sic~\ des poids et balances publiques.' 

These extracts referring to Lady Yester's Church, the 
Heriot Hospital, and the Tron Church leave no doubt that 
the document is a translation into French of David Buchanan's 
Latin Description of the Town of Edinburgh. 



PREFACE xlix 

Hercoli is a curious rendering of Herioti, and illustrates 
how the name of a place may change the transcriber had 
only to write i as c and t as I to turn Herioti into Hercoli. 

Buchanan's Description of the Town did not meet with the 
approval of James Gordon. The unknown translator of 
Gordon's Description of the Two Towns of Aberdeen (Old 
Spalding Club, 1842) makes Gordon call David Buchanan 4 a 
certane Pedant,' and it is now generally accepted that he did so 
call him the more readily accepted, perhaps, because it is felt 
that there is some fitness in the designation. But, in point of 
fact, Gordon does not go beyond calling him, perhaps con- 
temptuously, ' a certain person ' ' quidam ' and the anony- 
mous translator edits person into pedant. The same transla- 
tor makes Gordon call Buchanan's Description of Edinburgh 
' unworthie and impertinent.' What Gordon really says is 
that ' the Capital of Scotland has now, on account of an un- 
worthy Description, been exposed to the ridicule of all men,' 
so that the unknown translator, by the changes he made, both 
strengthens and weakens Gordon's disapproval. (P. 492, and 
also Description of Aberdeen, 1661, Old Spalding Club, 1842.) 

Notwithstanding his ' fantastic etymology,' as Dr. Mackay 
well calls it, David Buchanan gives an etymology of the old 
French name of Edinburgh, namely Lisleburg, that is ingenious, 
if nothing better, and that would have interested Dr. Graves 
Law, when he was writing about that name in the Scottish 
Historical Review, 1903. Buchanan says, 6 Galli hanc urbem 
vocitare solebant Laileburg quasi dicas Burgum alatum : nam 
aile est ala ; sed vulgus Gallorum male pronunciat Lisleburg.' 

David Buchanan may be accepted without any hesitation as 
the author of these two Descriptions. He died in 1652, and 
the date of the Descriptions must, therefore, be somewhere 
between 1647 and that year. It cannot be earlier, if it was 
written to accompany the plan of the City delineated by the 
Parson of Rothiemay in 1647, and engraved by De Witt. 

Buchanan is generally regarded as a man of learning 



1 PREFACE 

He is spoken of as ' a scholar of some celebrity.' ] Sibbald 
says that ' next to the Gordons, the Father and the Son, 
their friend Mr. David Buchanan commeth to be men- 
tioned, who besides what he wrott relating to the Scotia 
Antiqita wrott severall Latine descriptions of some shyres.' 2 
In a letter, April 1650, 'Roberto Gordonio a Stralochio,' 
Buchanan says : 'Domino Tarbettio nonnullarum regionum 
nostrarum australium descriptiones dedi, plures (deo dante) 
brevi daturus. Cum amicis in Hollandia ago, ut scripta 
tua ad me remittantur ' (Old Spalding Club Miscellany, vol. i. 
p. 44). Robert Gordon and Buchanan thus corresponded 
in Latin, and the latter seems to have been well fitted to 
translate into Latin such Accounts of parts of Scotland in 
English as reached Blaeu, who almost confines himself to Latin 
in his Atlas as first published. According to Bishop Nicolson, 
Buchanan wrote ' several short discourses concerning the 
antiquities and ch orography of Scotland, which in bundles 
of loose papers, Latin and English, are still in safe 
custody.' 3 

His general writings were held in esteem. Among them 
were the following : (1) A short view of the present condi- 
tion of Scotland. 4 Lond. 1645. (2) Relation of some 
main passages of Things wherein the Scots are particularly 
concerned, from the very first Beginning of these unhappy 
troubles to this day. 12 Lond. 1645. 

The Description of Edinburgh was written to illustrate 
Gordon's plan of the city of Edinburgh, 1647, of earlier date 
than any trustworthy plan of the City known to exist with the 
exception, perhaps, of two sketches of the previous century : 
one, 1544, among the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum, 
and reproduced in the Bannatyne Club Miscellany ( vol. i. p. 185) ; 
and the other, 1573, representing the siege of Edinburgh Castle, 



1 Old Spalding Club Miscellany, vol. i. p. 35. 

2 Repertory of Manuscripts, p. 22. ' J Scot. Hist. Lib., p. 16. 



PREFACE li 

given in HolinshecTs Chronicle (1577, London), and reproduced 
in the Bannatyne Club Miscellany (vol. ii. p. 74). 

Neither the Description of the City, nor that of the Shire, 
appears in Blaeifs Scottish volume. 

Gordon's View of Edinburgh was re-engraved for Pierre van 
der Aa's La Galerie A gr table du monde (Gough's Brit. Top., 
vol. ii. p. 673). It was also published in 1710 ; afterwards in 
Edinburgh by Robert Kirkwood in 1817; and later still, in 
facsimile of De Witt's engraving, by W. and A. K. Johnston 
in Edinburgh, 1865. 

An entry at page 11 of SibbahTs Latin Advertisement (1683) 
of his projected Atlas and Description of Scotland causes some 
difficulty. It runs as follows : 4 Edinburgi Descriptio, Auctore 
ejusdem clarissimi viri [Robert Gordon] filio Ecclesiae Rothie- 
maiensis Rectore, qua? Anglica lingua composita est.** This 
looks as if James Gordon had himself written in English a 
Description of Edinburgh for his map or view of that city. 
Sibbald gives the above among the ' Scriptorum Opera in lucem 
Edita, quae Scotiae Historian! illustrant, et quae ad manus meas 
pervenerunt/ Perplexities of this nature have been of frequent 
occurrence during the editing of this volume. 



Hi NOTES 



NOTES 

IN preparing the first volume of the Macfarlane Collections, 
I made Notes of such things as interested me, and I drew 
these Notes together, in the hope that they might prove 
useful. I have made similar Notes in reading the second 
volume, and I now bring them together, classifying them under 
the same headings, so far as that is possible. The items differ 
somewhat in character from those in volume i., as might be 
expected from what has been said about the general differences 
between the contents of the two volumes. I have given the 
page where each item occurs. 

PARISH CHURCH FABRICS. 

1. The Presbyterie of Mayboll has ' Nyne churches all of 
them built of good free stone and covered with sMeit." 1 (P. 18.) 

2. Panbryd. Earl Panmuir has ' a loft in the kirk most 
sumptous and deli cat.' (P. 49.) 

3. Glenmorristoune. ' There is ane litle parish Church of 
timber in this countrey called Millergheard." (P. 171.) 

4. Old Aberdeen. Machar Church. ' Nor was the furniture 
out of keeping [with the Church]. It included crosses, chalices, 
ecclesiastical vessels, and other articles of that sort, made of 
gold or silver, adorned with many various and costly inlaid 
gems, & of great weight. The chasubles, cassocks, and all the 
priests 1 vestments . . . were of silk, . . . embroidered in colours, 
and gleaming with jewels or braided with gold. 1 (P. 505.) 

FAIRS. 

1. Brechine. There is a cattle, horse, and sheep fair during 
' the whott week after Whytsunday.' (P. 40.) 



NOTES liii 

2. Borgue. ' In the Kirkyard of Kirkanders upon the ninth 
day of August, there is a fair kept called Saint Lawrence 
fair, where all sorts of merchant wares are to be sold, but 
the fair lasts only three or four houres, and then the people 
who flock hither in great companies driiik and debauch 
and commonly great leudness is committed here at this fair.' 1 
(P. 65.) 

3. Wigton. There are ' four yearly faires. . . . The first is 
called Palm -fair, which begins the fifth Monday in Lent 
and lasts two days. The second ... St. Albans fair, for on 
the seventeenth day of June, St. Albans day, if it fall upon 
a friday, or if not so the next fryday thereafter, they have a 
market for horses and young Phillies. 1 ' The third and greatest 
fair is calPd Lambmas fair. 1 ' The fourth is their Martinmas' 
fair, 1 on the first Monday of November. (P. 73.) 

PHYSIC AND OTHER WELLS. 

1. About a mile from the Kirk of Bootle towards the north 
is * a well, called the rumbling well, frequented by a multitude 
of sick people, for all sorts of diseases the first Sunday of May, 
lying there the Saturday night, and then drinking of it early 
in the morning.'' 

' There is also another well about a quarter of a mile distant 
from the former, towards the East, this well is made use of 
by the countrey people when their cattel are troubled with 
a disease called by them the Connoch ; this water they carry in 
vessels, to many parts, and wash their beasts with it, and give 
it them to drink." 1 

' It is to be remembred that at both the wells they leave 
behind them some thing of a thankofFering. At the first they 
leave either money or cloathes ; at the second they leave the 
bands and shades, wherewith beasts are usually bound. 1 
(P. 59.) 

2. Borgue. ' Half a mile from the Ross is the famous well 



liv NOTES 

of Kessickton, medicinal, as it is reported, for all sorts of 
diseases, the people hereabouts flocking to it in the summer- 
time.' (P. 65.) 

3. Monnygaff. Near Larg ' is a well called the Gout- well of 
Larg, of which they tell this story, how that a Piper stole away 
the offering left at this well . . . but when he was drinking 
of ale, which he intended to pay with the money he had taken 
away, the gout as they say, seized on him, of which he could 
not be cur'd but at that well, having first restored to it the 
money he had formerly taken away. 1 (P. 70.) 

4. Mochrum. White Loch of Myrton. 'I deny not but 
the water thereof may be medicinal . . . yet still I cannot 
approve the frequenting [of it] ... the first Sunday of the 
Quarter viz. the first Sunday of February, May, August, and 
Nov r ., although many foolish people affirm that not only the 
water of this Loch, but also many other springs and wells have 
more vertue on those days than any other? (P. 87.) 

5. Kirkcolme. At the side of the chapel ' there is a well 
to which people superstitiously resort, to fetch water for 
sick persones to drink and they report that if the person's 
disease be deadly the well will be so dry that it will be difficult 
to get water, but if the person be recoverable, then there will 
be water enough/ (P. 94.) 

6. Portpatrick. ' About a mile and an halfe from the 
parish Kirk is a well call'd Muntluckwell, it is in the midst 
of a litle Bogg, to which well severall persons have recourse to 
fetch water for such as are sick asserting that if the sick 
person shall recover, the water will so buller and mount up, 
when the Messinger dips in his vessel, that he will hardly get 
out dry shod by reason of the overflowing of the well but if 
the sick person be not to recover, then there will not be any 
such overflowing in the least." (P. 97.) 

7. Portpatrick. In the Laird of Logan's land ' there is a 
rock at the seaside . . . which is continually dropping both 
winter and summer, which drop hath this quality . . . that if 






NOTES Iv 

any person be troubled with chine-cough, he may be infallibly 
cured by holding up his mouth and letting this drop fall 
therein/ (P. 97.) 

8. Lochgreveren. ' Where the Chappell stands, there is verie 
manie fresh springs and fountaine waters. And sundrie and 
divers multitudes of men and woemen from all Countries doe 
con vein and gather togidder to this Chappell in the springtyme 
one day before St. Patrickmess day and drinking everie one 
of them of this springand fresh water alleadges that it shall 
recover them to their healthes againe, of the sicknes or desease 
which they have before their comeing to that place and uses 
the same yearlie, once a time in the year certaine of them doth 
come for pilgrimadge, and certane others in respect of their 
sickness bygone . . . or present? 

. . . ' There is one fountaine springing out of the sand in the 
sea, of fresh water, not ane my 11 distant from the sanctuarie or 
holie Chappell in a toune called Ardnacloch which when anie 
in these pairts are sick, if the sick dieth, a dead worme is found 
in the bottome of the water or fountaine and if the sick shall 
recover a quick worme is found in it. 1 (P. 154.) 

9. Wrquhattane. ' In the midle of this Countrey there is 
a fresh water Logh,' and * there is one litle chappell at this 
Loghsyde in Wrquhattane which is call Kil Saint Ninian. and 
certaine hieland men and woemen doeth travell to this chap- 
pell at a certane tyme of the zeare expecting to recover there 
health againe and doeth drink of certaine springand wells that 
is next to the Chappell; (P. 172.) 

10. Illand of Awin. Kintyre. There is a well * called 
St. Ninians Well and it doth recover severall men and 
women which doeth drink therof, to their health againe/ 
(P. 187.) 

11. The Lewis. There is a well in a ' place called Chader, 
the water wherof if it be brought and drunk be a seek man he 
sail immediatlie dye or recover. / (P. 214.) 



Ivi NOTES 

DEDICATIONS OF CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 

1. In Mayboll there is an ' old chappell called Kirkbryde. 1 
(P. 8.) 

2. In Barre there is a 'chappell called Kirk Domine." 
(P. 19.) 

3. In Arbroath 'Lady Chappie 1 and ' St. Ninians Chappie.' 
(P. 46.) 

4. Forfar. 'Panbryd alias St. Brigid.'' (P. 48.) 

5. Bootle. ' The Kirk was of old called Kirkennen/ (P. 58.) 

6. Borgue. ' In the Kirkyard of Kirkanders.' (P. 65.) 

7. Kirkmabreck. 'So called from some saint or other, 
whose name they say was M c Breck, a part of whose statiie in 
wood, was about thirty years since, in ane old Chapel at the 
ferrietoun . . . the parish Kirk was then [thirty years before] 
built at the said Chapel, and therefore the parish is some- 
times also called the Ferritoun.' (P. 67.) [? Mabreck.] 

8. Penygham. Church bell ' dedicat ... to Saint Ninian 
in the thousand year after the birth of Christ.'' (P. 75.) 

9. Mochrum. ' In this parish . . . about three miles dis- 
tance from the Kirk ... is a little ruinous chapel call'd by 
the Countrey people Chapel Finzian. 1 (P. 88.) 

10. Glenluce. ' Midway betwixt Balcarrie and Schinner- 
ness . . . there is an old chapel or Kirk, called Kirkchrist 
but now it is ruinous. 1 (P. 90.) 

11. Kirkcolme. ' About a mile and an half from the Kirk, 
in the way betwixt it and Stranraver there was of old a Chapel 
called Killemorie but now wholly ruinous. ' (P. 93.) 

12. Barray. ' Ane litle Chappell called Kilmoir. 1 (P. 178.) 

13. ' There is one litle Chappell at this Loghsyde in 
Wrquhattane which is call Kil Saint Ninian/ (P. 172.) 

14. 'There is a church in Harie in the toune of Rovidill 
and there is a litle toure in this toune named by ane Saint 
called Cleamean which is in English called St. Cleaman." 
(P. 181.) 



NOTES Ivii 

15. Haray. 'Ther is a paroch church in Haray cald 
Rovidil and a small tour in that town, named after the Saint 
Cleaman, in English Clement/ (P. 531.) 

16. Kyi, Ayr. ' S. Kebets kirk 4 m. up the water on the 
northsyd. 1 (P. 587.) 

17. The highest of the hills on which Aberdeen is built 
k takes its name from St. Catherine's Chapel.'' (P. 495.) 

18. Aberdeen. Castell razed to the ground ' and in its 
place the [townsmen] built a chapel sacred to Ninian." 1 
(P. 499.) 

19. Aberdeen. Futtie. Clement's Church. (P. 502.) 

20. Old Aberdeen. At some little distance from the College 
are the ruins of a parish Church, formerly called that of 
St. Mary at the Snows. (P. 508.) 

21. Aberdeen. The Spital Church had St. Peter for its 
tutelar Saint. (P. 508.) 



PLACE-NAMES. 

1. Terregles. By some said to be 4 Terra regalis,' by others 
' Tertia Ecclesia,' and by others ' Terra Ecclesia,' ' so that it 
should be spelPd perhaps Tereglise.' (P. 55.) 

2. Kirkgunnion or Kirkgunguent. (P. 56.) 

3. Rerick also called Monk ton Parish. (P. 58.) 

4. Dundranen should be called Dungreggen, because situ- 
ated on the rivulet called Greggen. (P. 58.) 

5. Kirkmabreck. ' So called from some saint or other, 
whose name they say was M c Breck.' (P. 67.) [? Mabreck.] 

6. Monnygaffe. ' Munnachs gulfe from the river of 
Munnach in this parish. 1 (P. 68.) 

7. Skye. ' The promontaries thereof are stretched into the 
sea like wings for which it is called by some Writers Alata 
since the word Skia in the old language signifies a wing.' 
(P. 220.) 



Iviii NOTES 

8. The name Crage-alaachie given as meaning ' the devyd- 
ing crag/ (P. 573.) 

9. 'Vijsk Alyin"* given as meaning 'pleasant streams. 1 
(P. 596.) 

10. ' Lekanachailuy ' given as meaning the 'Broom Bank." 
(P. 597.) 

11. 'Cory na bruick' given as meaning the 'Cory of 
Grilds/ (P. 599.) 

12. ' Mony-nedy ' given as meaning 'Moss of Armour." 1 
(P. 597.) 

13. Dalrawer upon Tay given as meaning ' fatt haugh.' 
(P. 599.) 

14. ' Ylen na Bock ' given as meaning ' goat yland." 1 (P. 602.) 

15. ' Nowach ' given as meaning ' old yl of lambs/ (P. 603.) 

16. Stratheiren. ' Loichscoilk ' given as meaning ' the 
cloven stone/ (P. 607.) 

17. 'Craig na en 1 given as meaning 'the birds wood." 1 
(P. 607.) 

18. Jura. ' IllandnaGowre, which is by interpretation the 
goattllland: (P. 191.) 

WATERS THAT DO NOT FREEZE. 

1. Mochrum. White Loch of Myrton is 'very famous in 
many writers, who report that it never freezeth in the greatest 
frosts; whether it had that vertue of old I know not, but 
sure I am it hath not now for this same year it was so 
hard frozen that the heaviest carriages might have carried 
over it/ (P. 87.) 

2. Loch Mulruy. Lochew. 'This fair Loch is reported 
never to freze.' (P. 540.) 

NATURAL OJUECTS ANIMALS, PLANTS, ETC. 

1. Carrict. May boll. A Jackdaw and a Magpie paired and 
brought forth young ' more the Jackdaw than the Magpie.' 
(P. 10.) 



NOTES lix 

2. Wigton. ' Henbane grows also very plentifully in the town 
through the streets, and upon every dunghill there.' (P. 73.) 

3. Urquattin. ' In the midle of this Countrey there is a 
fresh water Logh and abundance of fish are slaine with lynes 
in all tymes of the zeare.' (P. 172.) 

4. Heysker. 'The inhabitants of the Countrey doe meet 
and gather themselves togidder once in the yeare upon ane 
certaine tyme in faire and good weather and bring bigg trees 
and stafs in ther hands with them as weapons to kill the selchis 
which doeth Innumerable conveen and gather to that Illand at 
that tyme of the yeare. And so the men and the selchis doe 
fight stronglie And there will be Innumerable seiches slaine 
wherwith they loaden ther boatts, which causes manic of 
them oftymes perish and droune in respect that they 
loaden ther boatts with so manie selchis/ (P. 181.) 

5. Lewis. River out of Lochbravais. 'There was thrie 
thousand bigg salmond slayne in this river ' ' but halff a 
myll in length ' ' in anno 1585.' (P. 185.) 

6. Lewis. Forest of Cadsoill or Cadfield. ' The Deir which 
doeth remaine in this Mountaine or forrest hath two tayles." 1 
(P. 185.) 

7. ' There will be monstrous bigg adders or serpents sein in 
this Countrey or Illand of Jura.' (P. 191.) 

8. Skye. Sleat. ' Locheafort which excells all other Lochs 
for the bigness of its herring.' (P. 221.) 

9. Edir-da-cheulis. ' At the small loch of Stacky there is a 
wooded track where all the stags are found with forked tails.' 
(P. 456.) 

10. 'Anno 1620 in the beginning of August, the people of 
the countrey were building a bridge over the Airkaig, at the end 
of the work they report they saw an infinit number of adders 
swymming upon the water, a litle above the bridge, leaping 
theron, wherof many landing creeped away throch the grass 
and hather, to the great terrour of the beholders.' (P. 524.) 

11. He Scalpa. 'It hath also wild sheep, which evir 



Ix NOTES 

keep the fields, contrair to the use of thois countreys.' 
(P. 531.) 

12. ' Ther is a great forest about that place on the south - 
syd of Lewis, consisting of a great mountayne cald Cadsoil or 
Cadfeild, the deer of this mountaine all have two tayls, wherby 
they are discerned from the rest.' (P. 533.) 

13. Lewis. 'Ther is a place not far of called Runacabaigh 
wher are taken a kynd of small fishe, which hath four feet 
lyk a lyzard. it is thick bodied and reidish coloured.' 
(P. 533 and P. 185.) 

14. Strath navir. ' Specially heir never lack wolves ', more 
then ar expedient. 1 (P. 559.) 

15. Loch-muy. ' In this Loch are founde trowts called 
Reedwynes [sic] taken only betwix Michelmess and Hallow- 
mess. 1 (P. 607.) 

16. River Dee, Galloway. ' In this river about Balmaghie 
are sometimes gotten excellent pearles.' (P. 109.) 

17. Cree River, Galloway. ' In that part of this river which 
divides Cammonel from Mony gaffe I have seen severall pearles 
taken out of the great muscle.' (P. 110.) 

18. Galloway. Here they till ordinarily ' with oxen, some 
only with eight oxen, but usually they have ten.' (P. 102.) 

19. ' In the parish of Monnygaffe there is ane excrescence, 
which is gotten off the Craigs there, which the countrey people 
make up into balls, . . . this they call Cork lit and make use 
thereof for litting or dying a kind of purple colour.' (P. 106.) 

20. There is also in Monnygaffe parish fc another excrescence 
which they get from the roots of trees, and call it Woodraw, it 
is a kind of fog or moss with a broad leaf, this they make use of 
to lit or dy a kind of Orange or Philamort Colour.'' (P. 106.) 

21. Church of Kilmorie. ' In this town there is one spring- 
and fresh water, in which water there are two black litle 
fishes, And when they see anie coming hither . . . they will hide 
themselves underneath a broad stone . . . The saids fishes as 
the Inhabitants of that tonne report, was wont to take this 



NOTES Ixi 

stone for their saiftie and refuge . . . and they are seen verie 
oft in the said well both winter and summer and all other 
tymes of the yeare." ' The saids fishes hes bein ever seen 
being neither more nor less in bigness nor yet having increas- 
ing nor decreasing of procreatione . . . but ever since they 
wer aither seen or knowen, being of one bignes of one colour, 
which they doe take as a miracle . . . And therefore the In- 
habitants Indwellers and tennants ... in that place doe call 
the saids fishes Eisgseant that is to say holie fishes: (P. 151.) 
22. On a Hill one mile from Inche it is said that there are 
4 Sheep feeding there remarkable for gilded teeth." 1 (P. 299.) 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1. Girvan. Knock Oshin, a sandy know, is said to be the 
place 'upon which the Head Courts of this Jurisdiction are 
kept and held" 1 'in the feild tyke a rendee vous of souldiers." 1 
(P. 14.) 

2. Kirkmabreck. 'In Camerotmtiir in the said parish of 
Kirkdale' [annext to Kirkmabreck] 'about a mile from the 
said Kirk northward there is a stone four or five foot in 
diameter, called the Pennystone, under which money is fancied 
to be ; this stone hath upon it the resemblance of that draught 
which is commonly called the walls of Troy. 1 (P. 67.) 

3. Marriages in Galloway take place on Tuesdays or 
Thursdays. Out of four hundred and fifty marriages by the 
Rev. Andrew Symson all but seven were on these days. ' For 
the most part also their marriages are all celebrated crescente 
Luna: (P. 118.) 

4. Betwixt the watermouth of Devern and the church of 
Raithen ' are severall verie great heaps of stones.' One called 
Cairnbo, ' 'twixt 29 and 30 foots high. 1 (P. 137.) 

5. Glengarne. ( The stone of the Ridge of Scotland, 1 ' in 
the midst of Scotland,' ' the mid part of Scotland. 1 (P. 169.) 

6. ' On the east or southeastsyde of Loghnes next to 



Ixii NOTES 

Abirtarff there is a conn trey which is called Straharriggaick 
And it is alleadged this countrey is the highest countrey in 
Scotland ... it [is] as it were upon a mountaine above 
all other Countreys/ (P. 172.) 

7. ' On the Northwest syde of this river [Nearne] at the 
mouth of it almost at the seasyde there is ane ancient litle 
burgh called Invernearne . . . And there is ane litle burgh 
laitlie builded not two myles from Invernearn called Alterne. 
The Inhabitants of that toune come to Invernearn with certain 
companie and brake the cross of that antient toune and did 
cast it down and hes friedome themselves now. 1 (P. 173.) 

8. Barray. ' On the Southend or southwest there are 
severall litle Illands . . . The Master or Superior of these 
Illands hath in due payment from the Inhabitants and 
tennants of the saids Illands/or his dewtie. the halfofther . . . 
comodities, which does Incres or grow to them in the yeare, 
And hath ane officer or serjeant in everie I Hand to uptake 
the samen/ (P. 177.) 

9. Barray. 'Everie husbandman in the countrey hes ane 
Instrument in their houses called one Kewrne and the two 
stones doth lye on the house floore, and that place is made 
cleane/ (P. 179.) 

10. Wist. ' Ancient men in that Countrey were reportand 
that there is much of the lands of Wist overwhelmed and de- 
stroyed with the sea, and the sand doeth How with the winde 
and destroyes both the lands and hyds the houssis below the 
sand, and so the most pairt of the Countrie is overwhelmed 
with sand/ (P. 180.) 

11. Wist. 'This Church [Kilpettell] is below the sands 
except foure or fy ve foot length of the pinnacle of that church 
And the pairt of there houses which are nearest the seasyde 
for the Wind doth blow up the sand upon the lands and the 
churches were destroyed with the sea which were princi- 
pall Churches of Ancient. Certaine of them will be seen when 
the sea ebbs in the summer tyme. And the Countrie people 



NOTES Ixiii 

will take Lobsters out of the windowes of the Pinnacle of 
that which was first called Killpettill before it was destroyed 
by the sea/ (P. 180.) 

12. Jura. ' Upon the westsyde above the sea there is a 
number of great Coves ... In tyme of stormie weather and 
in tyme of great tempest of snow the deir doth lodge in these 
Coves. ' ' The MDonalds and the M c leans in ancient tyme, 
when they wer wont to come to Jura to hunt, they did lodge 
in these Coves with their companies." 1 (P. 191.) 

13. ' There is bot two myles from Inverloghie the Church 
of Kilmalie in Loghyeld. In antient tymes there was ane 
church builded upon ane hill, which was above this church, 
which doeth now stand in this toune. and ancient men doeth 
say that there was a battell foughteon on ane litle hill not the 
tenth part of a myle from this Church be certaine men which 
they did not know what they were. And long tyme therefter 
certaine herds of that toune and of the next toune called 
Annaff both wenches and youthes did on a tyme conveen with 
others on that hill. And the day being somewhat cold, did 
gather the bones of the dead men that were slayne long tyme 
before in that place, and did make a fire to warm them, at 
last they did all remove from the fire, except one maid or 
wench which was verie cold, and she did remaine there for ane 
space. She being quyetlie her alone without anie other com- 
panie took up her cloaths above her knees or therby to warme 
her awhile, [the wind] did come and caste the ashes below 
her cloaths, and some of the same entering into her privie 
member she was conceived of ane Manchild. Severall tymes 
therefter she was verie sick and at last she was knowne to be 
with chyld. And then her parents did ask at her the matter 
heiroff, which the Wench could not weel answer. ... As fortune 
fell upon her concerneing this marvellous miracle, the chyld 
being borne, his name was called Gille dow Maghre-vollich 
That is to say the black child, son to the bones so called. His 
grandfather and friends send him to the schooll, and so he 



Ixiv NOTES 

was a good sehollar and godlie, he did build this Church which 
doeth now stand in Lochyeld called Kilmalie. 1 (P. 162.) 

[The foregoing Extract is printed by Sir Walter Scott as 
one of the Notes to The Lady of the Lake, Canto iii., with 
reference to the birth of the Monk Brian. ED.] 

14. Kirk of Kilmaillie. 'The people report of a battell 
focht in old tymes hard by thar Church, and how long after, 
hirds feeding ther cattell in that place, in a cold season, made 
a fyre of dead mens bones ther scattered, who being all 
removed except one mayd who took up her cloaths and un- 
covered hirself sum part here, a sudden whirlwind threw sum 
of the ashes in her privie member, whereupon she conceaved 
and bore a sone called Gillie dow-mak Chravolick that is to 
say the black chyld sone to the bonis, who after becam learned 
and relligious and built this Churche whiche now standeth in 
Kilmaillie' (P. 520.) 

15. Glen Garry. ' Ther is a little Strath . . . calPd Achad- 
rome supposed be the people therabout to be the middle part 
of Scotland be the length: (P. 523.) 

16. Isles of St. Flannan. ' It is for certaintie that upon a 
tyme a Countriefellow being sent there and left in it, be 
reason he could not be keept from thift and robberie, and so 
on a time the fire went out with him, without which he could 
not live, and so despaired of life and since he saw that there was 
no remead, he betook him to pray both to God and the Sainct 
of the Island as they termed it and by night being fallen in a 
deep sleep, he sees a man come to him well clade saying aryse, 
betake thee unto the Altar and there thou shalt find a peate 
in fyre for the Lord hath heard thy prayer. So he arose and 
accordingly found the fyre, which he preserved untill he was 
taken home, and henceforth he proved as honest a man as was 
in the countrie/ (P. 211.) 

17. The Lewis. Standing Stones. 'It is left by tradition 
that these were a sort of men converted into stones by ane 
Iiifhanter. others affirme that they were sett up in places 






NOTES Ixv 

for devotione, but the places where they stand are so far from 
anie such sort of stons to be seen or found either above or 
under ground, that it cannot but be admired how they could 
be carried there/ (P. 213.) 

18. The Lewis. 'The first and most antient Inhabitants 
of this Countrie were three men of three severall races, viz. 
Mores the son of Kenannus whom the Irish historiance call 
Makurich whom they make to be Naturall Sone to one of the 
Kings of Noruvay. some of whose posteritie remains in the land 
to this day. All the Morisones in Scotland may challenge 
there descent from this man. The second was Iskair 
Mac.Awlay ane Irish man whose posteritie remain likvise to 
this day in the Lews. The third was Macknaicle whose onlie 
daughter Torquill the first of that name (and sone to Claudius 
the sone of Olipheous, who likewise is said to be the King of 
Noruway his sone) did violentlie espouse, and cutt off Immedi- 
atlie the whole race of Macknaicle and possessed himself with 
the whole Lews and continueth in his posteritie (Macleud 
Lews) dureing 13 or 14 generations and so extinct before, or 
at least about the year 1600 the maner of his decay I omitt 
because I intend no historic but a descriptione."* (P. 214.) 

19. The Lewis. ' There is a little island hard by the coast 
where it is said that Pigmeis lived some tyme by reason they 
find by searching some small bones in the earth ; but I 
cannot give much faith to it since greater mens bones would 
consume in a short tyme but I hold them to be the bones of 
small fowls which abound in that place. 1 (P. 215.) 

20. lona. ' Here is yett a few people upon the Isle called 
Ostiarij from their Office about the temple who is observed 
never to exceed 8 in number. 1 (P. 217.) 

21. Skye. The inhabitants ' besides ther land rents ordi- 
narlie send gratis to ther superiours of the product of ther land, 
of all sorts: (P. 221.) 

22. Glengarry. ' There is a small town, whair a chappell 
wes built of old not two myl from Kilmanevack, wherin the 

e 



Ixvi NOTES 

oldest men declare they did sie in this chappel which is 
called Achannathannait many inhabitants of that town selling 
wine, ail, aquavitse the Scots quart of wine for 18 pennies 
Scots a quart of aill. a quart of hasill. nutts, and a quart of 
oat meal for thrie pennies Scots.' (P. 523.) 

23. Uist. ' The Church of Kilmonie is now called Kilpetil, 
that is the church of the muir for so it lay of old nearest the 
muirs, but now the sea and the sands have approched it, 
there be sum remaynes of the destroyed Churches yit to be 
seen, at low tydes or Ebbing water.' (P. 530.) 

24. Uist. 'The oldest men report this Isle to be much 
empayred and destroyed be the sands ovirblowing and burieing 
habitable lands, and the sea hath followed and made the loss 
irreparable, there are destroyed the tounes and paroch churches 
of Kilmarchirmoir and Kilpetil.' (P. 530.) 

25. Glen-Elcheg. Combrich Kirk, 'a fair hieland kirk, 
wher hath bene a girth or asylum, as the name importeth 
its cald Apil-cors kirk ' (P. 542.) 

26. Badenoch. 6 Of all the provinces of Scotland furthest 
off from seas: (P. 577.) 

27. ' Fra Duntraith down the river twa myl is a place cald 
the Mosse on the south or South west syd. heir wes Mr. 
George Buquhanan borne.'' (P. 580.) 

28. Sir Robert Gordon of Straloch, speaking of the Stone 
Circles of Aberdeenshire, says, ' One stone conspicuous by 
its breadth, facing the south, . . . seems to have supplied the 
place of an altar." 1 [An early reference (before 1662), to the 
position of the so-called Altar Stones in these circles.] 
(P. 271 and P. 304.) 

29. 'The inhabitants [of Aberdeen and Banff] are the 
most warlike and the most cultured of all the Scots ' who have 
their abodes beyond the Grampian range. (P. 290.) 

30. Aberdeen. ' A square field near this [the Spa water] 
of old supplied the place of a theatre. It has now been 
changed into a pleasant suburban garden at the expense of 



NOTES Ixvii 

the talented George Jamesone, who has also caused a museum, 
painted by his own hand, to be built in the same place.' 
(P. 496.) 

SUPERSTITIONS. 

1. Church in Barmy. There is a 'Springand fresh water 
Well.* 1 And the inhabitants, both men and women, ' say that 
when appearance of Warrs wer to be in the Countrey of 
Barray That certaine drops of blood hath oftymes bein sein 
in this Well/ (P. 177.) 

2. Kilbarray. ' in this toun is a spring of fresche water 
whilk the inhabitants do believe doth prognostique warrs, 
when they are to be, be drops of blood seen therein. 1 (P. 529 
and P. 177.) 

3. Barray. Chappell of Kilmorie. ' There is certaine earth 
within this Chappell which if anie men wold came the samen 
with him to the sea, And if the wind or stormie weather were 
cruell and vehement if he wold caste a litle of this earth into 
the sea it wold pacifie the wind and the sea wold grow calme 
immediatlie. 1 (P. 178.) 

4. The Lewis. 'There is a strange fountain in a place 
called Garrabost the water of which being put with either 
fish or flesh in a pot or kettell, it will not boy 11 though it 
were never so long keept at the greatest fyre." (P. 213.) 

5. Knapdale or Gnaptill ' at the east syd therof ther is a 
Ridge of mountayns, sum eight myles of length call'd Slew- 
gaill, wherof the inhabitants have opinion that ther groweth 
ane herb therin, which if so ony man trod upon, it bringeth 
hunger and fainting.' (P. 513 and P. 149.) 

6. Lewis. ' There are other [nuts] lesser yett, of a whitish 
coulour and round, which they call Sanct Maries Nutt quhilk 
they did wear in the same manner [about their necks], holding- 
it to have the verteu to preserve woemen in child bearing? 
(P. 214.) 



Ixviii NOTES 

Bows AND ARROWS IN BATTLE. 

1. ' Att the end of this Loghgruineord in the yeare of God 
1597, the fourteenth of August There was a battell foughten 
betwixt Sir James M c Donald and Sir Laughlan M c lean of 
Duard, wherin Sir Laughlane and thirteenscore of his men 
were killed and Sir James deidlle shot with ane arrow and 
twentie four of his men killed, and thriescore hurt all with 
arrowes." 1 (P. 190.) 



SCOTTISH SCENERY ADMIRED IN EARLY TIMES. 

1. Loch Ew. 4 All thir bounds is compas'd and hemd in with 
many hills but thois most beautifull to look on. 1 (P. 540.) 

2. Connen River, 'ruynesof Fin-Mack-Coul, upon a shoyr- 
hill top, having a gallant prospect.' (P. 552.) 

3. Strath Naver. The writer speaks of 4 the great green sea 
upon the north. 1 (P. 559.) 



SUCCESSFUL HIGHLAND SCHOOL. 

1. The Lewis. School at Stornoway. ' And not onlie the 
people of the Lews but also those of the nixt adjacent Isles, 
the gentlemens sons and daughters are bred in that schooll to 
the great good and comfort of that people ; so that there are 
few families but at least the maister can read and write/ 
(P. !>15.) 

CHURCH HAND BULL. 

1. Whitherne. In the church founded by Saint Ninian and 
dedicated by him to St. Martin, ' there is a little hand bell, 
. . . which in Saxon letters tells it belongs to Saint Martins 
church^ (P. 82.) 



NOTES Ixix 



GOLF, BYASSE BOWLS, AND FOOTBALL. 

1. Garnet, Mayboll. The gentry of the Country 'were 
wont to play at football but now at the Gowffe and Byasse 
bowls. 1 (P. 17.) 

2. Aberdeen Links. 'There various sports are practised, 
such as football, golf, and bowls.' (P. 503.) 



COUNTY TOWNS THE WINTER RESORTS OF THE GENTRY. 

1. Forfar town. 'King Malcome Canmore had a house 
and lived frequentlie there. 1 (P. 25.) 

2. Carrict. The gentry of the country had many pretty 
buildings in Mayboll, and ' were wont to resort hither in 
winter and divert themselves in converse together at their owne 
houses/ (P. 17.) 

3. Keith. ' Very many gentlemen of lower rank and some 
barons have houses here.' (P. 274.) 



How DISTANCES AND DIRECTIONS, EAST, WEST, NORTH, AND 
SOUTH, ARE GIVEN. 

1. Distances are given ' as the Countrey people do commonly 
estimate the same/ (P. 52.) 

2. East, West, North, South, etc., only mean that 'the 
place spoken of lyes toward that part. 1 (P. 52.) 



OLD WEATHER PROVERBS. 

1. Anwoth. 'When that Cairnsmuir hath a hat, Palnure 
and Skairsburn laugh at that ' [1684]. (P. 67.) 

2. Galloway. ' When the days beginne to lengthen, the 
cold beginnes to strengthen ? that is, ' Winter never comes till 
Ware comes. 1 [Circa 1680.] (P. 120.) 



Ixx NOTES 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF INDEBTEDNESS. 

I have to acknowledge indebtedness to many friends, who 
have given me assistance in the editing of this volume. Mr. 
C. G. Cash, who knows so much about Timothy Font's maps, 
and about the First Topographical Survey of Scotland, has 
often given me much help. Mr. Alexander Gow has furnished 
me with a translation into English of the Latin Descriptions, 
which I believe will be regarded as very satisfactory. He 
showed as much patience with his perplexing Latin text, as he 
showed scholarship. His assistance in bringing the Latin 
into presentable form, without verbal changes, has been very 
valuable. There are a few Hebrew words in the Description 
of the City of Edinburgh, and, in regard to these, the Rev. Dr. 
James Kennedy has been good enough to give me assistance. 
Mr. J. T. Clark was always ready to give me help, and it goes 
without the saying that all through the work I was constantly 
asking and receiving advice and assistance from Dr. Hay 
Fleming. 

I am conscious of many failures in the work of editing, but 
I think I have been successful in showing how the items of this 
second volume stand in regard to Blaeu's accomplished and 
Sibbald's projected topographical survey of Scotland. There 
has been some success in another direction, namely, in showing 
how large and how important a part of the volume has already 
appeared in print, either before or since Macfarlane's time. 

ARTHUR MITCHELL. 
THE PLEAS ANCE, GULLANE, 
March 1907. 



CONTENTS 

(VOL. II) 

( The Headincis are closely copied from the MS. ) 

i. A DESCRIPTION OF CARRICT by Mi\ Abercrummie, PAGE 

minister at Minibole, .... 1 

1. Mayboll Parish, . . . . 16 

2. Kirkmichael Parish, . . . .19 

3. Stratowne Parish, . . . .19 

4. Barre Parish, . . . . .19 

5. Calmonell Parish, . . . .20 

6. Balantrae Parish, . . . . 20 

7. Girvan Parish, . . . . . . 20 

8. Daillie Parish, . . . . . 20 

9. Kirkoswald Parish, . . . .20 

ii. INFORMATION for Sir Robert Sibbald anent the SHYRE 

of FORFAR by Mr. Ouchterlony of Guinde, . . 21 

(a) Presbetrie of For far. 

1. Forfar Parish, . . . 25 

2. Kinnetles Parish, . . .26 

3. Glames Parish, . . . . 26 

4. Inneraritie and Methie Parish, . . 27 

5. Dunichine and Aberlemno Parish, . . 27 
Rescobie Parish, . . . .28 
Tannadyce Parish, . . . . 28 

8. Cortaquhie and Clovay Parish, . . 29 

9. Kerremuir Parish, . . . . 29 

(b) Presbetrie of Dnndie. 

10. Dundie Parish, . . .30 

11. Monifieth Parish, . . . . 32 

12. Monikie Parish, . . . . 32 

13. Murrayes Parish, . . . . . 32 

14. Maynes Parish, . . 33 



Ixxii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

15. Telling Parish, . . . .33 

16. Ouchterhous Parish, . . . .33 

17. Strathmartine Parish, . . . .34 

18. Lundie Parish, . . . .34 

19. Ben vie Parish, . . . . .34 

(c) Presbitrie of Meigle. 

20. Keatnes Parish, . . . .35 

21. Newtyld Parish, . . . .35 

22. Eassie and Newoy Parish . . .35 

23. Couper Parish, . . . . .35 

24. Ruthvene -Parish, . . . .36 

25. Over and Nether Glenyla Parish, . . 36 

26. Nether Airlie Parish, .... 36 

27. Lentrathene Parish, . . . .37 

28. Kingoldrum Parish, ... 37 

(d) Presbitrie of Brechine. 

29. Oathlaw Parish, .... 37 

30. Feme Parish, . . . . .38 

31. Carraldstoune Parish, . . . .38 

32. Menmuir Parish, . . . .38 

33. Navar Parish, . . . . .38 

34. Edzell Parish, . . 39 

35. Lethnet Parish, . . . .39 

36. Lochlie Parish, .... 39 

37. Brechine Parish, . . . .39 

38. Strickathroe Parish, . . . .40 

39. Peart Parish, . . . .41 

40. Logic Parish, . . . . .41 

41. Dun Parish, . ... 41 

42. Montross Parish, . . . .41 

43. Marietoune Parish, . . . .43 

44. Kinnaird Parish, ... 43 

45. Farnell Parish, . . 43 

(e) Presbitrie of Arbroath. 

46. Kinnell Parish, . 44 

47. Innerkillor Parish, . 44 

48. St. Vigeans Parish, . 45 

49. Aberbrothock Parish, . . . .45 

50. Arbirlot Parish, . . 47 



CONTENTS Ixxiii 



PAGE 



51. Carmyllie Parish, 47 

52. Idvie Parish, ..... 47 

53. Guthrie Parish, . . . .47 

54. Panbryd Parish, . . . .48 

55. Barrie Parish, ..... 49 

(f) Ancient familes in the Shyre, . . 50 

in. A LARGE DESCRIPTION OF GALLOWAY by the parishes in 

it by Mr. Andrew Symson, . . . .51 

1. Traqueer Parish, . . . .53 

2. New Abbey Parish, . . . .53 

3. Kirkbeen Parish, . . . .53 

4. Cowend Parish, . . . .54 

5. Orr Parish, ..... 54 

6. Kirkpa trick Durham Parish, . . .54 

7. Kirkpatrick Irongrey Parish, . . .55 

8. Terregles Parish, . . . .55 

9. Lochmiton Parish, . . . .56 

10. Kirkgunnion Parish, . . . .56 

11. Kirkcudburgh Parish, . . . .57 

12. Rerick Parish, . . . . .58 

13. Bootle Parish, ..... 58 

14. Kelton Parish, ..... 59 

15. Corsemichael Parish, . . . .60 

16. Partan Parish, .... 60 

17. Balmaclellan Parish, . . . .60 

18. Dairy Parish, ..... 6l 

19. Corsefairne Parish, . . . .62 

20. Kells Parish, ..... 62 

21. Balmaghie Parish, . . .63 

22. Tongueland Parish, . . . .64 

23. Twynam Parish, . . . .64 

24. Borgue Parish, ..... 65 

25. Girthtoii Parish, . . 66 

26. Anwoth Parish, ... 66 

27. Kirkmabreck Parish, ... 67 

28. Monnygaflfe Parish, ... 68 

29. Vigton Parish, . 72 

30. Penygham Parish, . 75 

31. Kirkinner Parish, 

32. Sorbie Parish, . . . . .81 



Ixxiv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

33. Whitherne Parish, . . . .82 

34. Glasserton Parish, .... 85 
.35. Mochrum Parish, .... 86' 

36. Kirkcowan Parish, . . . .88 

37. Glenluce Parish, . . . .89 

38. Inch Parish, ..... 90 

39. Stranraver Parish, . . . .92 

40. Kirkcolme Parish, . . . .93 

41. Las wait Parish, . . . .94 

42. Portpatrick Parish, . .94 

43. Stoniekirk Parish, . . . .95 

44. Kirkmaiden Parish, . . . .96 

(a) Answer to Queries concerning Galloway, . . 99 

(b) A Generall Description of the Stewartrie of Kirk- 

cudbright, . . . . .128 

(c) Of the Abbayes, Priories, and Nunries within the 

Stewartrie of Kirkcudbright, . . .132 

iv. AN ACCOUNT OF THE NORTHSIDE OF THE COAST OF 

BUCK AN by Alexander Garden of Troup, . .133 

v. ANE DESCRIPTIONS OF CERTAINE PAIRTS OF THE HIGH- 
LANDS OF SCOTLAND, . . . . .144 

1. Cowell,. ... .144 

2. Inveraray, . . . , .145 

3. Lochfyne, . .146 

4. Loghow, . . . . . 147 

5. Knap-dal, . 149 

6. Terbert, . ... 150 

7. Lome, .... .151 

8. Kilmoire, . 151 

9. Mucarne, . . . .152 

10. Killespick, . .152 

11. Beandirlogh, . . . . .153 

12. Appin, . . ... 155 

13. lona, ... 155 

14. Lismor, . . . . .155 

15. Durgoure, . . . . .157 

16. Glencone, . . . . .157 

17. Lochlevin, . . . . .158 

18. Beanevies, . . .158 






CONTENTS Ixxv 



PAGE 



19. Innerloghie, . .159 

20. Loghyeld, . . .' . .159 

21. Loquhaber, . . . . l6l 

22. Kilmalie, . . . . . 162 

23. Ardgoure, . . . . 163 

24. Kengearloch, . . . . .165 

25. Duard, . . . . . .166 

26. Morven, . . . . .166 

27. Suineord, . . . . .166 

28. Ardnamurquhen, . . . .167 

29. Muydort, . . . . . 167 

30. Arrysaig, . . . . . 168 

31. Knoidort, . . . . .168 

32. Glengairie, . . . . .169 

33. Abirtarff, . . . . .171 

34. Glenmoriestoune, . . . .171 

35. Urquhattan, . . . . .172 

36. Inverness, . . . . . 172 

37. Stranearne, . . . . .173 

38. Badenoch, . . . .173 

39. Knodeard, . . . . .175 

40. Colla, . . . . . .175 

41. Muck, . . . . . . 175 

42. Eigg, . . . . . .176 

43. Rum, . .... 176 

44. Cainna, . . . . .177 

45. Barray, . ..... 177 

46. Bearnera, . . . . .177 

47. Wist, . . . . . .180 

48. Harie, . . . . . .181 

49. Skye, . . . . 182 

50. Lewis, . . . . . .183 

51. Glasrie, . . . . .186 

52. Kintyre, . . . . .186 

53. Ilia, . . . . . .188 

54. Texa, . . ... . . 189 

55. Jura, . . . . . .191 

vi. A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF DUNBARTON from loose sheets 

unbound, dated of Lochlowmond, . . .192 

(a) ADDENDA TO DUNBARTOUN SHYRE, . . 200 



Ixxvi CONTENTS 

PAGE 

vii. A DESCRIPTION OF RENFREWSHYRE from some loose 

unbound sheets, . . . . .201 

viii. DESCRIPTION OF THE LEWIS by John Morisone In- 

dweller there, . . . . .210 

ix. A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF I. OR IONA, 1693, . . 216 

x. ANE ANSWER TO SIR ROBERT SYBALDS QUERIES for 
the IYLS OF TIRRY, GUNNA, COLLE, and ICOLM- 
KILL, all lying within the SHERYDOME OF ARGAYLL 
and the BISHOPRICK of the IYLLS. 

Marked on the back: A Description ofTyrie 
Gonna Colla and Icolmkill Given into me by 
the Bishop of the Isles. Jo. Fraser, . . 217 

xi. A DESCRIPTION OF SKY, . . . .21,9 

xn. 1. ADNOTATA AD DESCRIPTIONEM DUARUM PR^FECTU- 
RARUM ABERDONLE et BANFI^E IN SCOTIA ULTRA- 
MONTANA, ..... 224 

1. Strath- Avinia. Stra-Down, . . 230 

2. Balvania Balvenie vel Mort-lich, . . 230 

3. Strath- Yla, . . . .231 

4. Ainia Ainyee, .... 232 

5. Strath-Bogia, . . . .233 

6. Boena. Boyn, . . . .234 

7. Buchania. Buchan, . . . 235 

8. Formartina, .... 239 

9. Gareocha. Garviach, . . . 239 
10. Marria. Marr. . . .241 

2. NON OMNINO TRANSMISI AD TYPOGRAPHUM H^EC 

SEQUENTIA, NAM NIHIL AD REM SUNT, . . 247 

3. ALIUD HUJUSCEMODI, .... 247 

4. AD TABULAM ABREDONENSEM ET BANFIENSEM, . 248 

5. DESCRIPTIO DUARUM PR^FECTURARUM ABERDONL*: 

ET BANFI^E, ..... 250 
(Translation into English of the five parts 

of xn.), . . . . .267 

xni. MORAVIA DESCRIPTIO, . . . . 306 

(Translation into English of xm.), . , 309 



CONTENTS Ixxvii 

PAGE 

xiv. PROVINCES AND COUNTREYS OF SCOTLAND by their 

names, . . . . . .311 

xv. ADNOTATA EX BED^E HISTORIA ECCLESIASTICA GENTIS 
ANGLORUM QU.E NOSTRAS ANTIQUITATES TANGUNT. 
VlXIT ANNO 735 CENTUM ANNOS ANTE ExACTOS 
PICTOS, .... .312 

(Translation into English of x\.}, . . 320 

xvi. ADNOTATA AD ANTIQUITATEM SCOTORUM ET in BRIT- 

ANNIAM TRAJECTUM, .... 327 

(Translation into English of x\\.}, . . 332 

xvn. ADNOTATA AD PR^ETENTURAS MUROS VALLA QU.E 

SCOTOS A PROVINCIALIBUS DISTINGUEBANT, . . 336 

(Translation into English of xvn.), . .339 

xvin. ADNOTATA DE ORIGINE LINGU.E SAXONIC.E A PUD NOS 

CUM PRIMA NOBIS FUISSET H\'BERNICA, . . 342 

(Translation into English of xvin.), . . 347 

xix. DE THULE INSULA DISSERTATIO, . . .351 

(Translation into English of 'xix.), . . 353 

xx. ADNOTATA AD TABULAM VETERIS SCOTIA, . . 355 

(Translation into English q/*xx.), . . 362 

xxi. DE VESTIGIIS VALLI AGRICOL.E ET POSTEA ADRIANI 

H.EC ADNOTAVIT TlM PoNT, . . . 368 

(Translation into English q/'xxi.), . . 369 

xxii. ADNOTATA DE PR.ETENTURIS ET MURIS ^ui PROVINCIAM 

'RoMANAM A RELIQUA BRITANNIA SEPARABANT, and 

EXSCRIPTA E CAMBDENO DE MURO VEL PR.ETENTURO, 369 
(Translation into English of 'xxii.), . . 373 

XXHI. MAJORES GENTIS NOSTR^E, .... 376 

(Translation into English of xxm.), . . 378 

xxiv. ADVENTUS SCOTORUM IN BRITANNIAM, . . 380 

(Translation into English of xxiv.), . . 383 

xxv. DE ETIMO NOMINIS SCOTICI ET ANTHROPOPHAGIA 

RESPONSUM, .... . 385 

xxvi. DE ANTHROPOPHAGIA SCOTORUM RESPONSUM, . 386 

(Translation into English of\xv. and xxvi.), . 388 



Ixxviii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

xxvii. ANENT THE GOVERNMENT OF SCOTLAND AS IT WAS 

BEFOR THE LATE TROUBLES, . . .391 

xxvin. AD TABULAM FIF^E, ..... 402 

(Translation into English of XXVIIL), . . 407 

xxix. CATHENESIA, STRATHNAVERNIA, ROSSIA, SUTHERLANOIA, 

etc., . . , . . .412 

1. ROSSIA, .... .413 

2. ASSYNT, ...... 414 

3. SUTHERLANDIA, . . . .417 

4. CATHENESIA, . . . .421 

5. STRATH NAVERNA, . . 424 
(j. KDIR-DA-CHEULIS, ..... 427 

7. MORAVIA, ...... 427 

8. VERA SoUTHERLANDIA CHOROORAPHICA DUCHLPTIO, . 4-36 

ion info English oj the eight parts oj \.\ix. ), 443 



XXX. ABLOOM K UTRIUSCfo DEHCItllTIO Tni'OtiR AIMIK'A 

AUTORE J. G., ..... 4(><) 

\\.\i. AiniEDuNiA VETUS, ..... 485 

(Translation into English o/'xxx. and xxxi.), . 4{)1 

XXXII. NOATES AND OBSERVATIONS OF DYVEHS 1'AHTS OF TIIK 

HlELANDS AND IsLKS OF SCOTLAND, . . 509 

1. Anent the lengtht of Scotland . . :>()<) 

2. Cowell, ..... :>()<) 

3. Memoraiiduin for Knodeorcl, . . . 525 

4. Memoraiuliini for Knapdail, Cantyr, A Lornc, 52() 

5. Kcarera, . ... 527 
(\ Cola, . . . . ... 528 

7. Eig, ...... 528 

8. Hand na Muick, .... 528 

9. Rum, ...... 528 

10. Canna, ... . 52JJ 

11. Barray, . . . .>2J) 

12. Skie or Skianach, . . . .5.81 

13. Lewis or I-oeli Huis, .... 532 



CONTENTS Jxxix 



PAGE 



14. Glendochart, ..... 534 

15. Glen-Lochay, , 535 

16. Forrests in thir Bounds, . . . 536 
17- Glen-Wrchay, ..... 536 
18. In the Lennox upon Loch Lomund Syd, . 536 
If). Noats of Distances of Places about Head 

of Lochtay, Loch Erin, L. Dochart, Glen- 
Urquhay, &c. 
This 1 had from Glenurquhay himself in 

June 1644 at Abirdeen, . . . 537 

20. Ross and the parts therof out of Mr. Timothy 

Pont his papers, . . . .538 

21. Loch Kiserin, Loch Turretan, . . . 538 

22. Forrests in Ross, .... 539 

23. Loch Ew and Letyr-Ew, . . . 539 

24. Loch Bruyn or Wruyin, . . . 540 

25. Glen-Elcheg, . . . . .541 

26. Loch Aelsh, ..... 542 

27. Glen-Elg, . . . . .542 

28. Keantaill, ..... 543 

29. Assyn, ... . 545 

30. Stra-Okell, . . . . .545 

31. Stra Charroun, . ... . . 546 

32. Loch Carroun upon the West Sea, . . 549 

33. Aird, . . . . . . 549 

34. Urwhodin, . . . . .550 

35. Connel or Connen River, . . . 550 

36. Stra Farror, . . . ... 552 

37. Arc! Meanach, ..... 553 

38. Seats betwixt Stra-Arkeg and Innerness, . 555 

39. Seats in Abirtarff, .... 556 

40. Seats in Stra-Arkeg, . . . . 556 

41. Seats in Stra Nairn in Murray. . . 557 

42. Seats in Pettye in Murraye, . . . 557 

43. Seats in Stra-Erin in Murray, . . . 558 

44. Strath Navern, .... 559 

45. Glenlyon, .... . 562 

46. Coryes and Sheels in Glenlyon, . . 563 

47. Of Braid Allaban, . . . .564 

48. Places about the head of Loch Erin, .... 565 

49. Stra Gartnav, . . . . . 566 



Ixxx CONTENTS 



PAGE 



50. The Draught of Charroun River and Okell River, 568 

51. Of Rennoch, Coryes, Burns, Lochs, and Sheels 

therm, ..... 570 

52. Stormonth fra Mr. D. Drummonds Papers, . 571 

53. Badenoch. This is wry ten out of Mr. Timothies 

Papers and in it thur manie things false, . 572 

54. Noats of Lennox and Sterlingshyr gotten fra 

gentlemen of that countrey 15 May 1644, . 578 

55. Noats and Memoirs drawn furth of Mr. Timothy 

Pont his papers, .... 582 

56. The Isle of Skiana commonlie called the Skie, 582 

57. Fresch Water Lochis in Skianach, . . 584 

58. Salt Lochis, . . . . .584 

59. Distances in Carrict and the adjacent Shyre, . 584 

60. Divers Distances, .... 586 

61. Kyle, . . . . . .587 

62. Cuningham, ..... 590 

63. Upon Garnoch following up the River, . 591 

64. Distances in the Firth of Clyd, . . 592 

65. Divers Distances and Lenths of Rivers, . 592 

66. Noats of Distances for Badenoch, . . 595 

67. Noats about St. Johnstoun and in Strath 

Erne,. ... .595 

68. Of Rennach, Mr. T. Pont, . . .595 

69. Koryes in Rennach, .... 596 

70. Seats in Buch-Whyddyr, , . . 597 

71. Braid Albayne, . . . . .598 

72. In Bofrack foments Weame in Strathtay, . 598 

73. Coryes of Braid Albane, . . . 599 

74. Of Appin-dow upon Tay, . . . 599 

75. Of Monygegg, ..... 600 

76. Assyn Edera-Chewlis, Coygach, and the 

Westerne part of Ross, . . . 600 

77. Loch Lomond and the Yles therein, . . 601 

78. Memorandum, ..... 604 

79. Divers Distances, 14 Januarie, 1646, . . 604 

80. In Lennox, Stirlingshire, Clydsdail, Cunning- 

ham, ... . . 604 

81. In Galloway and ther about, . . 605 

82. Stratheiren in Murrey and Lochmuy, . . 607 

83. The back of the Ochels and Allon River, . 608 



CONTENTS Ixxxi 

PAGE 

84. Seats upon the bounds betwixt Ainrik 

Blayne and Forth Rivers, . . . 608 

85. Upon the Southsyd of Forth, . . . 610 

86. The Strath of Monteeth and all upon the 

North Syd of Gudy, . . . 610 

87. The Northsyd of Teith River, . . .611 

88. Northsyd of Teeth, . . .612 

89. Sumwhat of Glen-Gyle, . . 613 

90. Glen Maen, . . . . .613 

91. Glenfinglas, . . . . .613 

XXXIH. From thrie sheet of Paper sticht together marked 
6 being in Sir Robert Sibbalds Collection of 
Manuscripts now in Faculty of Advocats 
library, . . . . . .614 

1. Provincise Edinburgenae descriptio, . . 6 14 

2. Edinburgi descriptio, . . . 623 
(Translation into English of the two parts ofxxxui.), 628 

xxxiv. Index Regionum prescriptarum earundemqj descrip- 

tionum, ...... 640 



GEOGRAPHICAL 
COLLECTIONS 



NOTES. 1. The Numeral on the margin (all through the book) shows the page of the 

manuscript which is reached where it occurs. 

2. The footnotes occur in the manuscript, unless they are marked as inserted 
by the Editor. 



Imprimis A DESCRIPTION of CARRICT by Mr. 
ABERCRUMMIE, Minister at Minibole. 

CARRICT is a part of the Shyre of Ayre lying to the South i. 
and Southwest of Kyle, from which it is seperated hy the 
river of Dun, which hath its ryse out of a Loch of that same 
name which is in breadth and has a castle in the 

midst of it above Dalmellingtowne a kirktowne in Kyle, 
miles, and after many windings, whereby it makes Kyle & 
Carrict mixe and Indent the one with the other, it empties 
itself into the sea within two myles of Aire ; yet so that at 
low water there is scarce the vestige of a River, because in the 
broad and spacious sands the waters of it are lost having no 
channell, so that people usually passe alongst on foot and shod 
without any prejudice by water. 

It lyes in the forme of a Triangle, whereof the North poynt 
towards Kyle at the bridge of Dun, is very narrow, being shutt 
up by the sea on the West part, and the land of Kyle in the 
parish of Alloway & Dalrimple shutts up the water of Dun on 
the East syde. The Coast runs Southwest from the castle of 
Greenand standing on a rock at the influxe of Dun into the 
sea untill the poynt of Turnberry whereon are to be seen the 
ruines of an old castell of the same name, from this to Girvan, 
the coast turns perfytely South from which turning Southwest 
till the Bennan-hill. From thence it turns again Southward 
till Ballantrae on the Southsyde, whereof the river Stincher 2. 
runs into the sea at the influxe whereof there riseth up a ridge 
of hills, which run streght Westward to the mouth of Loch- 
ryan and then the Coast of Carrict turns to the south east up 
the syde of the Loch. This Loch will be myles in 

breadth, above the mouth of which on the other syde of 
Glenap toward the descent of the hill to the Rins of Galloway 

VOL. II. A 



2 CARRICT 

are the standing stones, which are accounted the march 

betwixt Carrict & Galloway on that part, from which stones 
eastward this countrey is all alongst marched with the countrey 
of the Rins and shyre of Galloway alongst the heads of the 
parishes of Ballantrae, Calmonell, Barre and the parish of 
Straton which bords with parish of Carsfairne in the Stewartrie; 
but all alongst the March it is a wild moorish countrie, and 
then meets with Loch Dun, out of which issues the river of 
that name abovementioned. 

It is a countrey which is abundantly furnished with all the 
accomodations of human lyfe, and if it had Iron, could subsist 
of itselfe without dependance upon any other, for though no 
salt be made in it, yet wants not the materials for making 
thereof. It being washed by the sea upon one syde and well 
enough provyded of coal at no great distance from the coast, 
and it is not so much the sloath of the Inhabitants that they 
have none, as the cheapness of this Commodity both domestick 
and forreigne. It is better fitted for pasturage than Corns, 
yet it produces such plenty of all sorts of graine, that it not 
only serves its own Inhabitants, but has to spare to nighbour- 
ing places so that from hence are yearly transported considerable 
quantities of meal both to Galloway and the fishing in Clyde. 

It affoords also store of Cattle, so that great droves of 
Cowes and bullocks are carryed yearly hence both into Eng- 
land and other places of our own kingdome which are returned 
againe in silver and gold which uses to be very common 
amongst all the people from hallowday till Candlemess that 
the rents be cleared. And this is the speciall quality of 
the beefe that pasture in the moore Countrey that the flesh is 
very sweet and pleasant and the fat of them keeps soft lyke 
that of pork. 

It is very balanced with moore and dale for the one part 
that abounds with come supplyes the other place which is for 
pasturage with bread, as they fournish them again with beefe, 
mutton, wool butter cheese, and the whole Countrey are so 
fond of preserving store that it is very rare to find any veal 
eaten here but what is brought from Kyle or Cuninghame. 
They have plenty of poultrey, hens, capons, ducks, geese, and 
turkeys, at easie rates, and for wild foul, partridge, moore 



CARRICT 3 

fowl, black cocks, pliver no place is better provided besyde 
store of solangeese in so great plenty that the very poorest 
of the people eat of them in ther season at easie rates besydes 
other sea fowles, which are brought from Ailra of the bigness 
of ducks and of the tast of solangeese, and are called Abban- 
acks or Ailra cocks and Tarnachans of which there is so great 
a multitude about that Isle, that when by a shot of a peice, 
they are put upon the wing, they will darken the heavens 
above the spectators. This Ailra is a rock in the sea in which 
these solan geese nestle and breed, in which also there be 
conies, and wild doves, it is reckoned as a part of the parish 
of Daylie, belongs to the E. of Cassillis and has the valuation 
of a ten lib. land of old extent. 

By the nighbourhood of the sea which washes the coast 
thereof for the space of thirtie miles, it is well provyded of 
fishes such as Killing, Ling, Cod, Haddowes, whyttings 
Herrings, makrells and by the three maine rivers that water 
this Countrey viz : Dun Girvan and Stincher they be furnished 
with salmond, which be taken at the mouth of each of these 
in such abundance as serve both for the use of the Countrey 
and to be sent abroad. The Lochs and other rivulets have in 
them pykes, trouts, eels. 

No Countrey is better provyded of wood, for alongst the 
banks of Dun, Girvan & Stincher there be great woods, 
but especially on Girvan whereby they serve the nighbourhood 
both in Kyle and Cuninghame for timber to build countrey 
houses, and for all the uses of husband rie as cart, harrow, 
plough and barrow at very easie rates, and the sorts are 
birch, elder, sauch, poplar, ash, oak and liazell, and it is 
ordinary throughout all that Countrey and every Gentleman 
has by his house both wood and water orchards and parkes. 

The countrey is very well watered, for it has Dun that 
marcheth it all alongst on the syde next Kyle. Girvan runs 
through the middle of it and almost divides it, and Stincher that 
waters the upper part, besydes severall other lesser rivulets 
such as Muck, Dusk, and Tig that run into it, the last whereof 
is about a mile above the influxe of Stincher into the sea. 
The Lochs be Lochdun out of which runs the water of Dun, 
the streame whereof is very rapid and impetuous and is 



4 CARRICT 

passable by a bridge of one Arch but exceeding wide about 
half a myle above its influxe into the sea. Loch Spalander 
in which are excellent trouts known by ther blackish colour 
out of which runs a small rivulet called Dyrock, which in its 
course passes by the Church of the parish of Kirkmichael, and 
passes into Girvan a mile below the said kirk, there be also 
other Lochs such as the Doveloch, Neilsiston Loch and Heart 
Loch all in the parish of Mayboll. The last whereof is so 
called from its shape and figure which is exactly that of a 
heart so formed by the rushes growing round about it and 
giving the waters the shape of the heart it lyes within a 
quarter of a myle of the town of Mayboll to the southeastward, 
there be also Mochrum Hill Loch and Craigdow Loch in the 
parish of Kirkoswald. 

It abounds with many good springs of water, whereof I 
shall at present mention four only for ther singularity, two 
for ther copiousnes of water both of them at Mayboll ; one at 
the Northeast end of the towne called my Lordswell and 
Hough usually it spring so abundantly that no inconsiderable 
streame run from it, yet in tymes of great droughts it fails, but 
the other on the southwest end of the towne called the Sprout 
of Welltrees is so very plenteous that falling in severall mouths 
through rock and stone it would for its plenty and sweetnesse 
be accounted a rich treasure to the Capitall city of the nation. 
Another spring there is called St. Helens well or by a curt pro- 
nuntiation St. Emus for St. Antonies well, it is about a myle 
and ane halfe from Mayboll on the road to Aire a litle north 
of Balachmont. It is famous for the cure of unthriving 
children, to which at the change of the quarter especially at 
May-day there is a great resort of people from all quarters, 
and at a good distance. A fourth is a small neglected spring 
about the head of the Denines in the forsaid parish of Mayboll 
near to a place called Sennyglens-crosse famous for its vertue 
in curing cowes that are taken with the mure ill for by drinking 
thereof, they are healed and accordingly it is carryed far up 
into the moore countrey by people for this use. 

Though this Countrey be washed with the sea for the space 
of 24 myles and upwards yet there be no convenient harbours 
or bayes for receiving of ships so that none resort it but small 



CARRICT 5 

boats and barks from Ireland or the highlands and ther best 
receptacle is the broad sands of Turnberry and the mouths of 
Dun, Girvan, and Stincher ; and of all these three, Girvan is 
the best ; and for ther fishing boats, they have no other shelter 
but to draw up the length of the water marke when they come 
ashoar and then to them when the tyde puts them afloat 
againe, the shoar is very well parted all alongst "twixt rock 6. 
and sand, some places a tract of open plain sands, some places 
high and steep rock which is ever washen with the sea. 

There be in this Countrey some vestiges of ancient Occur- 
rences, the historic whereof not having been preserved by the 
Inhabitants, oblidges us to observe them only without giving 
any Rationale of them. There is a little acervus of earth of a 
Circular forme with a big stone erect on the middle thereof 
within halfe a myle of Mayboll on the road to Aire within the 
farme called St. Murray. There is also upon the descent of 
Broun Carrick hill near to the Mains of Blairstoune a big 
whinstone upon which there is the dull figure of a Crosse, 
which is alledged to have been clone by some venerable Church- 
man who did mediat a peace twixt the King of the Picts and 
Scots and to give the more authority to his proposalls, did in 
their sight by laying a Crosse upon the stone, imprint that 
figure thereon. Of late there was a disco verie made near to 
the house of Bargeny and just opposite to the gate of the new 
Avenue to this house a sepulchre of square stone covered over 
with flagstones in which were found the bones of a man, and 
at the place where his head was laid, an Earthen pott in which 
the Diggers up of it found some small peices of silver, whereof 
the Impression bore no letters that could be known. 

There is yet to be seen on the Coast of Carrict beyond 
Drumbeg as you goe to Girvan, the vestige of a camp and 
fortification but the most memorable actions that are now 
remembred in this Countrey, are domestick feuds betwixt two 
great families of the name of Kennedy contending for prece- 
dence viz. the family of Cassillis and the Kennedy's of Bargeny, 
these contending for the right of primogeniture against the 
Encroachments of the other, who by the Interest of his 
greater allyance with the royall familie assumed the pre- 7. 
heminence, which occasioned such animosities betwixt them, 



6 CARRICT 

that the matter was disputed by these two families with their 
respective friends and followers in a pitched feild in a certain 
place within the parish of Mayboll called the field of Penny- 
glen to this day. In which contest many of both sydes were 
killed, but the family of Cassillis had the advantage since 
which tyme the stock of the family of Bargeny is extinguished 
some branches of it being yet extant, the Mansionhouse and 
principall park of the Estate being now possessed by 
Hamiltons. 

The Inhabitants of this Countrey are of ane Irish Originall 
as appears both by ther names being generally all Mac's. I 
mean the vulgar and all their habitations of Irish designatione, 
their hills are Knocks, their Castles Ards, but the great and 
almost only name amongst the Gentrie have been Kennedies, 
yet there be besyde them Boyds, Cathcarts, Fergussons and 
Moores that have been old possessors, but the later names 
that enjoy some the ancient honourable seats of the Kennedies 
are Hamiltons that possesse Bargeny, Whitfoords that possesse 
Blairquhan and Crawfuird that have Ardmillan. yet the 
Kennedies continue still to be both the most numerous and 
most powerful! clan. Beside the E. of Cassillis their cheife 
there be Sir Gilbert Kennedy of Girvanmains, Sir Arch. 
Kennedy of Colarne, Sir Tho. Kennedy of Kirkhill, Kennedy 
of Beltersan, Kennedy of Kilheigwe, Kennedy of Kirkmichael, 
Kennedy of Knockdone Kennedy of Glenour, Kennedy of 
Bennan, Kennedy of Carlock and Kennedy of Drummellan. 
But this name is under great decay in comparison of what it 
was ane age agoe at which tyme they flourished so in power 
and number as to give occasion to this Rhyme 

Twixt Wigtoune and the towne of Aire 
8- And laigh down be the Cruves of Cree 

You shall not gett a lodging there 
Except ye court a Kennedy. 

The persons of men are generally tall and statelie, well 
limbed and comely, and women are nowhere better com- 
plexioned, they are a healthfull sort of people, and live to a 
good age both Gentrie and commons, so that they usually 
have in all ther families the Grandfather and Oyes, some see 
the fourth generation, and they all generally love ease to 



CARRICT 7 

which their soyle being pasturage gives them opportunities, 
and they are in poynt of Industrie most addicted to merchan- 
dising by droves of cattle, wool, flocks of sheep and commerce 
with Ireland, but seeme not fond of trading afar off* as having 
all necessary accomodations at home, but if they be trans- 
planted from their native soile, they prosper & thrive very 
well both at home & abroad. Their ease and plenty disposes 
them to be unruly and turbulent, so that the servants are 
Insolent, and all of them are but uneasie subjects so that in 
the late tymes Carrict hath been a sanctuary or rather a 
nurserie of Rogues, bearing arms against authority upon 
pretext of religion. 

In this Countrey Religion has had the Influence upon the 
people to dispose them to the founding and endowering many 
places for devotion for though there be but one Monasterie in 
all this Countrey viz : Crosseraguel within two myles of 
Mayboll westward, which besyde other revenue enjoyed the 
Tythes of these five parishes viz : Kirkoswald, Daillie, Girvan, 
Ballantrae, and Straton which enjoyed the Jurisdiction of 
regality within itselfe to which all its vassals and tenents were 
answerable, yet were there also severall other pious founda- 
tions and donations. There is the Munkland ane 100 Merk- 
land of old extent which is an appendage of the Abbacy of 
Melross and had a separat Jurisdiction of its owne for 9. 
ministring Justice to all the Vassals and Tennants thereof. 
The Laird of Ardmillan one of the vassals was heretable 
Baillie, and upon the parcelling of his fortune, was acquired 
by Kennedy of Grange. There was also a Collegiat Church at 
Mayboll the fabrick whereof is yet extant and entyre, being 
now used as the buriall place of the Earle of Cassillis, and 
other Gentlemen who contributed to the putting of a roofe 
upon it when it was decayed. On the northsyde of which 
Kirk is the buriall place of the Laird of Colaine within anc 
Enclosure of new squarestone lately built the Colledge con- 
sisted of a Rector and three prebends, whose stalls are all of 
them yet extant, save the Rectors which was where these low 
buildings and the garden are on the Eastsyde of that which 
is now the Parsons house, the other three are the Blackhouse, 
Ja Grays house with the Orchard and the Welltrees. The 



8 CARRICT 

patrimony of this church were the pro vest and priests lands in 
the parish of Kirkmichael, which fell into the E. of Cassillis 
hands upon the dissolution of the Colledge at the reformation. 
Out of which he as yet payes yearly to the Minister of 
Mayboll the some of 70 Merks Scots. As for the Church its 
present patrimony is out of the Tyth of the parish which 
before the reformation was all possessed and enjoyed by the 
Nuns of Northberwick and on the dissolution of the said 
Nunnerie became a prize to the Laird of Bargeny. The 
parish Church stands at a little distance from the forsaid 
Colledge eastward. It does not appear when it was built, but 
the large Isle that lyes from the body of the Church southward 
and makes the figure of the Church a T, was built by Mr. Ja. 
Bonar, Minister thereat in the reigne of K. Ch. the First. 
Wit lii n the said parish of Mayboll there have been other 
10. chappells of old as Kirkbryde on the Coastsyde whose walls 
and yard be yet extant, and within the lands of Achin- 
drain and elsewhere there have been other chappels whereof 
the Rudera are yet to be seen. 

This Countrey of old gave the title of Earle to Robert 
Bruce the great assertor of the Scottish liberty in right of 
whom it continues still to be one of the titles of the Prince ; 
and the freeholders of this Jurisdiction are the Princes vassals. 
This Countrey is the ancient seat of the Kennedies, whose 
principall dwelling was the Castle of Dinnure standing on the 
seasyde in a rockie shoar in the parish of Mayboll and gives 
designation to a Baronie lying round about it. but this being 
wholly ruined, their chief Mansion is the house of Cassillis 
standing upon a high ground on the southsyde of the river of 
Dun having the wood of Dalrimple opposit to it on the other 
syde of Kyle, which gives it a very agreeable prospect of wood 
and water. The house in the body of it is very high having a 
fine stone stare turning about a hollow casement, in which are 
many opens from the bottome to the top, that by putting a 
lamp into it, gives light to the whole turn of staires. In the 
River they have cruves for taking of salmond and ponds to 
furnish them other fishes and there be large plots of ground 
cast into Gardens, fenced about with stone walls exceeding 
high which yeilds good store of Apricocks, peaches, cherries and 



CARRICT 9 

all other fruits and herbage that this Kingdome produces. 
Near to which stands the hill of Dunrie out of which has been 
-digged a rich ore and is accounted a silver myne. 

All the houses of the Gentry of this Countrey are seated both 
pleasantly and commodiously, being either built upon the princi- 
pal rivers and the lesser waters that feed them or upon the sea- 
coast, these upon the seacoast are the Castell of the Grenand and 
the Cove. The Greenand is a high house upon the top of a rock 
hanging over upon the sea with some lower new work lately 
ridded to it but never finished. It is too open to the cold and 
moisture arysing from the sea to be a desyreable habitation 1L 
and has been designed to be the owners security against a 
surprize rather than a constant residence, it is within the 
parish of May boll. Not far from it lyes the house of Newark, 
a good old castle southeast from the other, much improven of 
late by the enclosing grounds for a park and a well planted 
orchard. The Cove is the Laird of Colains Mansion house 
standing upon a rock above the sea, flanked on the south with 
very pretty gardens and orchards adorned with excellent 
Tarrases and the walls loaden with peaches, apricotes, cherries 
and other fruit ; and these gardens are so well sheltred from 
the north and East winds and ly so open to the south that the 
fruits and herbage are more early than any other place in 
Carrict. Southward from this lyes the house of Thomastowne 
once the residence of the Cory's but now of M c Levain of 
Grimmet a very pretty house with gardens Orchards and 
Parks round it, both these ly in the parish of Kirk Oswald. 
The next upon the Coast, are to be seen the old ruines of the 
ancient Castle of Turnberry upon the Northwest poynt of 
that rockie angle that turns about towards Girvan and is 
perhaps that place called by Ptolomee Rerigonium of a Greek 
Origination Importing round the corner and suiting the 
English designation of Turnberry and that it cannot be 
Bargeny as some imagine, the very situation of that Castle 
and recentness of it will abundantly shew. And to confirme 
this our conjecture that Hepiyovtov is Turnberry from turning 
of the corner, a tradition amongst the people there, will not a 
litle conduce vi/ : that near to this very Castle there was of 
old a towne of the same name of which there is no vestige at 



10 CARRICT 

present to be seen, but that they perceive some remainders of 
a causeway, and the reason for this may be the nighbourhood 
of the port of greatest resort in all that Coast, at which the 
first possessors have landed from Ireland and so might have 

12. fixed their habitation near to it, though now the place be 
but a tract of barren sands. Next to this is the Castle of 
Ardmillan so much improven of late that it looks like a 
palace built round courtwayes surrounded with a deep broad 
ditch and strengthened with a moveable bridge at the entry, 
able to secure the owner from the suddain commotions and 
assaults of the wild people of this corner, which on these 
occasions are sett upon robbery and depredation, and to 
enable him the better to endure a seige he is well provided of 
well in his Court and a handmill in the house for grinding 
meall or malt with which two lusty fellows sett a work, will 
grind a firlott in the space of ane hour. It is surrounded with 
good corn fields and meadow, with large parks for pasturage, 
and excellent good gardens and orchards that yeild plenty of 
apples and pears, and one more particularly that for its pre- 
cocity is called the early pear of Ardmillan of a very pleasant 
tast. In the year happened a strange conjunction twixt 

a Jackdaw and a Magpie that paired together, built their 
nest, and brought forth ther young resembling more the 
Jackdaw then the Magpie. Last there is the old Castle of 
Ardstincher, which is mostly now ruined but has been of old a 
vast hudge fabrick and stands upon ane ascending ground 
above the towne of Balantrae eastward. 

The houses on the water of Dun are Cassillis of which 
already. Achindrain an high tower with laigh buildings sur- 
rounded with good orchards and gardens, parks and good corn- 
feilds, the owner hereof is Moore, next to this is Blairtown, a 
stone tower house with lower buildings about it surrounded 
with gardens orchards and parks it lyes low upon the water- 
syde and then Bridgend a pretty dwelling surrounded also 
with gardens orchards and parks. All these three are in the 
parish of Mayboll. 

is. The water of Girvan above the Kirk of Straton is 
wyld and hilly but at the Clachan it opens into a faire 
pleasant prospect of plaine grounds. Next to it is the great 



CARRICT 11 

castle of Blairquhan, the fyne building and hudge bulke 
whereof is a plain demonstration of the sometime greatness of 
that family, which besyde their possessions in Carrict, had 
large territories also in Galloway. It is well provyded with 
wood covered with planting of barren timber and surrounded 
with large orchards. Next to it is Cloncaird near two myles 
distance which is surrounded with gardens orchards and great 
store of wood, the third but at a remoter distance from the 
water of Girvan is the house of Kirkmichael a pretty com- 
modious house within a short space of the church of the same 
name, betwixt which runs the water of Dyroyk above men- 
tioned which soon swells with rains falling on the higher 
grounds and becomes unpassable on a sudden. The house of 
Kirkmichael is as desyreable a dwelling as in all the countrey 
having good gardens and orchards and was the first in Carrict 
planted with Apricocks and peaches. This orchard and house 
is flanked on the south with a Loch, part whereof has been 
drained of late, and rewards the owners industry with good 
hay. The next is Dalduffe on the southsyde of Girvan a 
small stone house with ane Orchard and good corne feilds 
about it. Below that upon the southsyde and at some distance 
from the river stands the house of Barclanathan with its 
gardens and orchards all which are surrounded by wood, all 
the water from this downward till near Daillie being so 
covered with wood that it looks lyke a forrest. And in a low 
ground below the last, and nearer the water stands Drummellan 
and upon the northsyde of the river below that upon an 
higher ground stands the house of Drumburle the mansion 
house of the lairds of Drummellan. On that same syde 
farder downe the water stands the house of Drummochrin 
which is but a small Interest, but a most lovely thing being 
every way so commodious and convenient for living easily, 
that it is as it were ane abridgement of this Countrey having 
all the accommodations that are dispersed through it all, com- 
prized within its short and small bounds. It has a house not 
for ostentation but conveniency fit to lodge the owner and his 
nighbours. It hath gardens orchards wood, water all the 
fishes that swim in rivers, all sort of cattle sheep cows, swine, 
and goat, all sort of fowl wyld and tame, all maner of stone for 



12 CARRICT 

building, free stone and lyme stone. And coall, moore mosse 
meadow and marie a Wak myln and corn miln, and all manner 
of artisans and Tradesmen within his bounds and yet the 
revenue not above 100 lib. per annum. Not far from this, 
downe the water stands the stately Castle of Dolquharran, the 
building whereof is much improven by the additions lately 
made thereto, which make it by very far the best house of all 
that Countrey, surrounded with vast enclosures of wood, that 
the Countrey is not able to consume it by their building and 
other Instruments and amongst them there be oake trees of a 
considerable size both for hight and breadth that will serve 
either for Jest or roofe of good houses. Opposite to this 
stands the house of Muirestowne on the southsyde of the river 
and westward from it the new kirk of Daillie which is of late 
erected for the accommodation of the parishioners being now 
centricall whereas before the situation thereof was at the 
extreme west poynt of the parish. Below this on the south 
syde of Girvan stands the house of Brunstourie in ane open 
feild, next to which in the midst of a forrest rather than wood 
stands in a low ground near the brink of the river the old 
castle of Bargeny on the southsyde of Girvan which is ane 
15. argument of the sometime greatness of that family, being 
a hudge great lofty Tower in the center of a quadrangular 
court that had on each of three corners, fyne well-built towers 
of free stone four story high. But the new house lately built 
after the modern fashion, stands upon a higher ground south- 
ward of the old castle, which furnished materials both for 
founding and finishing of the new house. It is a mighty com- 
modious house, and if any make a greater shew and appear- 
ance, yet it has the advantage of them for contrivance and 
accommodation, it is flanked to the south with gardens very 
pretty, and has orchards lying westward of it about a myle 
downe the water stands the Castle of Killochan, the mansion 
house of Cathcart of Carletowne surrounded with orchards, 
planting and wood, it stands upon a higher ground that 
descends southward to the water, which is at a small distance 
from it, and has toward the south a prospect of a pleasant 
plaine, where stood the old kirk of Daillie and Kirktowne by 
which runs the litle rivulet of Polchapel passing northward into 



CARRICT 13 

Girvan. On the eastsyde of which up toward the hills stands 
the house of Pinkill belonging to the Boyds. West of which 
lyes a high hill called the Sauchhill once memorable for the 
resort of people to conventicles, where they built a meeting 
house of turfe and wood. On the northsyde of the river 
downard and up toward the hill about a myle from the river 
stands the house of Trochreg which belongs to the Boyds, 
which family hath produced two great men famous in their 
generation and great lights in the Church of God. One was 
James Boyd Archbishop of Glasgow who maintained the 
honour of his character by a vertuous and exemplary lyfe and 
strenuously defended the lawfullness of his office against the 
Insults of our first Zealots Mr. Andrew Melvin and his com- 
plices. The other was his son and heir who following the 
study of Divinity, merited the chaire in the Colledge of 
Saumure in France, and thence was brought to be Princi- 16. 
pall of the Colledge of Glasgow whose learned commentaries 
on the Ephessians are well known and Justly had in great 
estimation. From this downward stands the Enoch, and a 
litle below that there is cast over the river a stone bridge and 
near to the influxe of the sea upon a levell ground high above 
the water stands the Kirk of Girvan and the Parsons house on 
the northsyde of the churchyard, opposite to which on the 
other syde of the river lyes a pleasant Links with a Conyware 
and at the foot of it is a salmond fishing at the mouth of the 
river and a station for boats that come from Ireland or the 
Highlands. Southward from the Kirk of Girvan stands the 
tower of Balachtowle a monument of the builders folly being 
raised five story high without a staire case and no more but 
one roome in each story, it has nether garden or orchard nor 
planting but stands in the midst of rich cornfields. The 
builder of this house Boyd of Penbrill procured a patent for 
building a new-burgh at Girvan, whose situation and streets he 
designed and marked out in these barren sands on the south- 
syde of the water mouth of Girvan and erected a Pole for the 
crosse thereof, but his design never took effect not an house 
being built there save and that scarcely within the compass of 
the sands assigned his towne, yet it hath four faires one for 
every quarter of the year that give the names of the New- 



14 CARRICT 

burgh of Girvan to these sandy knows amongst which there 
is one spot that is not to be passed without observation, which 
is called Knock Oshin upon which the Head Courts of this 
Jurisdiction are kept and held and all the Vassalls compear 
there and seems to retaine some thing of the ancient custome 
of our Nation that the Kings Vassals were conveened in the 
feild lyke a rendee vous of souldiers rather then in ane house 
for Ceremony and attendance. 

The other principall river of this Countrey is Stincher which 
ryses in and makes a pleasant strath in all its 

Course in which are many pleasant seats of pettie Heritors 
17. and substantiall farmers who knowing the nature of the soyle, 
to be fittest for pasturage, breed store of Cowes, sheep, and 
goats, and live very plentifully. Below the ryse of it, 
myles the Countrey opens about the Ballage, and affbords 
pretty plains on each syde of the River which is somewhere 
again shut up by the encroachment of some litle hills and 
againe is dilated into broad plaine feilds as at Dalherne and so 
makes pleasant Haughs upon one or other syde of the river, 
till you come to the Barrehill, upon the southwest of which, 
stands the Kirk of Barre or Brownhill which is a new erection 
for the convenience of the extreme places of the old Parishes 
of Daillie and Girvan and the dwellers in the remote corners 
on the borders of Galloway upon the waters of Cree and 
Menock. From the said Kirk the trough of the water con- 
tinues pretty open and has pleasant dwellings all upon each 
syde of the water as Antanalbany, Dowlarg, Achinsoul, 
Bennan, Monnucion for the space of three myles, till you come 
to Corseclayes that stands upon the confluence of Muik and 
Stincher the hills growing close and high upon the North and 
West thereof, leave the place open to the East and South and 
then running twixt two hills is shutt up by them upon the 
South and North, till you come to Daljarrach, which stands 
upon the North syde of the river at the head of a pleasant 
plaine, looking westward, below which Stincher receives Dusk 
and just above their meeting, stands the old castle of Pin- 
whirrie and up Dusk a little stands the house of Glendusk on 
the rysing ground, below which lye large fields of excellent 
meadow and a myle upward stands the house of Kildonan upon 



CARRICT 15 

the Eastsyde of the water, and below the influxe of Dusk into 
Stincher stands the Craig on the Northsyde of the river and in 
a higher ground, and a litle downe the river on the Southsyde 
stands Dalreoch on a rysing ground, but the Hills upon the 
south come so close upon it, and so high that they cover is. 
from the sun in the short days. And a litle downeward and 
in the low ground upon the brink of the water stands Bardro- 
chatt and just above it upon the hill on an ascent of difficult 
accesse stands the strong castle of Craigneil, which belongs to 
the Earl of Cassillis and gives designation to a barony of land 
lyand round it. opposite to which on the northsyde on a 
ground mounted above the water, stands the kirk and clachan 
of Calmonell and hard by it the house of Kirkhill, which gives 
the title to Sir Thomas Kennedy late provost of Edr. A myle 
below this stands the house of Knockdolian on the east foot of 
Knockdolian Hill, the seat of the M c Kubbens about which is 
shewen what art and industrie can doe to render a place, to 
which nature hath not been favourable, very pleasant by 
planting of Gardens, Orchards walks and rows of trees that 
surprise the beholder with things so far beyond expectation in 
a countrey so wild and mountainous. This hill lyes Northwest 
of the house and mounts up with a small top as if it would 
pierce the skies. It is the highest of all the countrey, about 
the top whereof when any mist is seen, tis the forerunner of 
foul weather, and is the countreymans almanack. When the 
river of Stincher has past this Hill, It receives the water of 
Tig about whose influxe into it, are the remains of an old 
church called Innertig or Kirkudbright the ancient parish 
church of Balantrae. Below which influxe there is a pleasant 
Haugh of low grounds till the falling into the sea, which of 
late has been quyte ruined and spoyled by the rivers forcing 
its course out of its ancient channell and breaking in upon 
the same that it is neither fitt for grass nor corns. At the 
foot of this water stands the towne of Balantrae on the north- 
syde on a pleasant foreland, which some years agoe has been 
much resorted to by reason of an herring fishing about the 
Christmasse tyme but that has ceased above 30 years past. id. 
In this towne is the parish church and in it an Isle the 
Buriall place of the Lord Bargeny opposite to which on the 



16 CARRICT MAYBOLL 

other syde there is a rich Conneyware and in the mouth of 
the river the best salmond fishing in Carrick, all which belong 
to the Lord Bargeny. 

As to the Civill Jurisdiction of this Countrey, It is a 
Bailliarie and belongs heretablie to the Earl of Casillis who 
exercises his power by a depute and has the priviledge to 
appoynt his owne clerk without dependence either upon the 
Secretary or Register. The ordinary seat of the Courts of 
Justice is at the towne of Mayboll on thursday, though the 
meeting of their head court be at a little Hillock or Know 
called Knockoshin in the bounds designed for the new towne 
of Girvan. All the Inhabitants of the Countrey answer to 
this Court both for civill debts and crymes except these 
who live within the precinct of the two spiritualities viz : 
the Regality of Crosse Raguel and the Regality of the 
Monckland depending on Melrosse above mentioned, but 
now those being all united in the person of the Earle 
of Cassillis, there are no separate Courts held upon that 
account, nor any priviledge pleaded for them in prejudice 
of the Baillie Court. The offices of Depute or Clerk are 
advantagious posts to any the Earle bestowes them upon for 
by the plenty of wood and water in this Countrey which tempt 
men to fish and cutt scob or wattles for necessary uses, they 
find a way yearly to levy fines for cutting of green wood and 
killing fry or fish in prohibite tyme, that makes a revenue to 
these offices and is a constant taxe upon the people. 

In all this Countrey there is not any Town corporat save 
one viz. Mayboll which is nether a burgh royall for it sends 
20. no Commisioner to the Parliament, nor is it merely a 
burgh of barony, such having only a power to keep mercats 
and a magistracy setled amongst them in dependence on the 
Baron of the place, but here it is quyte otherwayes, for they 
have a charter from the King erecting them into a burgh with 
a Towne Councill of sixteen persons for manadging the common 
concerns of the burgh with power to them to elect from 
amongst themselves two Bailies their Clerk and Treasurere 
and to keep Courts for maintaining order amongst the Inhabi- 
tants and to admitt burgesses of their Corporation. It is true 
indeed the Earle of Cassillis is the Superiour of all the land 



MAYBOLL 17 

whereupon the town is built but they deny him to be their 
superiour in their Constitution as a burgh and disputed their 
right with him, during the dependence of which action, he as 
Baron sett up a Baron baillie to exercise authority over the 
Inhabitants and to lessen the magistrats authority but the 
people being poor and divided amongst themselves and the 
Earle being gott into the government, upon the revolution 
they were forced to submitt and yeild to his pretensions. 

This Towne of Mayboll stands upon an ascending ground 
from East to West, and lyes open to the South, It hath one 
principall street declining towards the East. It is pretty well 
fenced from the North by a higher ridge of hills that lyes 
above it at a small distance northward. It hath one principall 
street with houses on both sydes built of free stone and it is 
beautifyed with the situation of two Castles one at each end of 
this street. That on the East belongs to the Earle of Cassillis 
beyond which Eastward stands a great new building, which be 
his granaries, on the west end is a Castle which belonged 
sometyme to the Laird of Blairquhan, which is now the Tol- 
buith and is adorned with a pyramide and a row of Ballesters 
round it raised upon the top of the staire case, into which 
they have mounted a fyne clock. There be four Lanes which 
passe from the principall street. One is called the back 3 
Venall which is steep declining to the southeast, and leads to 
a lower street, which is far longer than the high chiefe street, 
and it runs from the Kirkland to the Weltrees in which there 
have been many pretty buildings belonging to the severall 
Gentry of the countrey who were wont to resort hither in 
winter and divert themselves in converse together at their 
owne houses. It was once the principall street of the towne, 
but many of these houses of the Gentry being decayed and 
ruined, it has lost much of its ancient beautie. Just opposit 
to this Venall there is another that leads North West from the 
chiefe street to the Green which is a pleasant plott of ground 
enclosed round with an Earthen wall wherein they were wont 
to play at football but now at the Gowffe and Byasse bowls. 
At the Eastend of the principall street are other two lanes, 
the one called the fore Venall carryes northward, the other 
furder East upon the chiefe street passes to the south East, 

VOL. ii. B 



18 MAYBOLL 

and is called the Kirk Venall and is the great resort of the 
people from the towne to the church. The houses of this 
towne on both sydes of the street, have their severall gardens 
belonging to them, and in the lower street there be some 
pretty orchards that yeild store of good fruit. The church is 
very capacious, well furnished with seats below and lofts or 
Galleries above, the principal! whereof is that belonging to 
the Earl of Cassillis. On the Eastend of the Isle there is the 
Session Loft well adorned with two rowes of seats a higher 
and lower round about it, for the accomodation of the people 
who are wont to be catechised in this apartment. The schoole 
is upon the East end of the Church separated from it by a 
partition of timber wherein doors and windowes open to give 
them not only a prospect into the church but opportunity of 
hearing at the greatest distance. 

In this Jurisdiction there be Nyne churches, all of them 
built of good free stone and covered with skleit made so capa- 
cious as to containe the people of the respective parishes, 
and they are generally all of them very well endowed with 
competent maintenance and other good accomodations for the 
minister, having all of them tolerable good manses and gleibs. 
These Nyne Churches have sometyme been a distinct Presbyterie 
under the name of the Presbyterie of Mayboll which therby 
appears to have been the seat thereof, which seems very rea- 
sonable as being most capable to lodge such as on that account 
should resort thither and having the presence of the Magistracy 
to assist and second the exercise of discipline. And of late 
ane essay was made for erecting it anew under the designation 
of the Presbyterie but there being difficulty to satisfie the 
parties anent the seat thereof it was let fall. All the tyme 
that they acted distinctly, the Meeting were either circular 
lyke visitations or by turns at Girvan and Mayboll. The 
Nyne Parishes are Mayboll, Kirkmichael, Straton, Barre, 
Calmonel, Balantrae, Girvan, Daillie and Kirkoswald. 

The parish of Mayboll is very large and populous extending 
from the sea and water of Dun to the water of Girvan about 
Dolduffe and westward. Besyde the large church now used 
for public worship there be other religious places such as the 
Collegiat Church and Kirkbryde and other chappells whereof 






KIRKMICHAEL STRATOWNE BARRE 19 

mention is made above. The Lord Bargeny is patron thereof 
though he have small or no Interest therein. There be a 
great number of gentry living therein who have pretty dwell- 
ings in commodious places throughout the parish, some of 
which we have already named and shall remember them againe 
in the general reckoning viz: Dolduffe, Kilheignie, AchinWind, 
Bogend, Smithstowne, Monkwood, Damme, Knockdone, 
Sauchry, Craigshean, Beoch, Garirhorne, Dunduffe a house on 
the coast never finished Glenayes, Greenand, Newark, Bridg- 
end, Blairstoune and Archindraine. Many of those are sweet 
and desyreable places, but for the good building gardens 
orchards and all other accomodations Kilheignie is the 23. 
chiefe, lying about a short myle south from the towne of 
May boll. 

The parish of Kirkmichael lyes in length east and west, and 
is a mensall kirk of the Bishop of Galloway who is patron 
thereof. It stands hard upon the rivulet of Dyorock has no 
Clachan by it. In this parish are these houses Cassillis the 
mansion house of the Earle of Cassillis, Kirkmichael, Clon- 
caird, Blairquhan, Kilmore and Montgomerystone. 

The parish of Stratowne lyes East and south toward the 
Stewartree of Galloway. The church stands upon a ground 
declining to the westward. The King is in possession of the 
patronadge thereof having slipt from the Abbot of Crosse- 
raguel, to whom it seems to appertaine because the Tyth hold 
of that Abbacy. There be no Gentry live here save Shaw of 
Keirs and Shaw of Geimmet toward the water of Dun. 

The parish of Barre is but a late erection for accomodation 
of the extreme parts of the parishes of Daillie and Girvan. 
The patron hereof is the Bishop of Dumblaine in the right of 
holding the Abbacy of Crosseraguel. In this parish below 
the Church on the North syde of the water on the higher 
ground stands the chappell called Kirk Domine at which there 
is ane yearly fare and the custom levyed by Alexr. of Kirk- 
land. None dwell here but petty Heretors in common ordinary 
houses as Doherne Barre Dinmuchre Antanalbany Achinsoul 
Bennan Monuncion and Bellimore. It is of vast bounds 
reaching from Stincher to Galloway twixt which lye vast 
bounds of moorish and barren ground. 



20 CALMONELL BALANTHAE KIRKOSWALD 

The Parish of Calmonell is of yet larger extent some places 
in these moorish countreys lying at ten myles distance from 
the Church. The patron hereof is the Lord Bargeny. In this 
parish are severall very good houses for the Heretors residence 
94. as Corseclayes, Daljarroch, Kildonan, Glenduiske, Craig, 
Dalreoch, Craigneil, Kirkhill, Knockdolians, Knockdaw and 
Carleton. Craigneil belongs to the E. of Cassillis & Knockdaw 
to Bargeny so they are no places of ther residence. 

The parish of Balantrae is of a great extent though the 
people be not numerous, the Clachan is pretty populous. The 
patron hereof is the King, and the Lord Bargeny pretends 
mightily to it, but upon examination it will be found to 
belong to the abbacy of Crosseraguell : The residing heretors 
are but few, and their dwellings are mean and homely being 
Glenour Bennan and Carlosk and Glentig there is neither 
orchard nor fruit tree in it all And Ardstincher above men- 
tioned is North East from this a wynd mill lately built. 

The parish of Girvan is populous lying contiguous to the 
sea & the champaigne ground upon the water of Girvan on 
both sydes. The patron thereof is the Bishop of Dumblaine 
in the right of the Abbacy of Dumblane. The houses of the 
Gentry here are Ardmillan Balachtoule Troweir Trochrig. 
The parish of Daillie lyes in length East and west on both 
sydes of Girvan, more populous then spacious. The patron 
hereof is the Bishop of Dumblain in the right of the Abbacy 
of Crosseraguel. This parish abounds with Gentry and man- 
sionhouses all alongst Girvan which gives a very delightful! 
prospect to any who from tlje top of the Hills, that guard the 
same, shall look downe upon that pleasant Trough. They are 
Pinkill, Killochan, Bargeny, Brunstowne, Dalquharran, 
Moorestowne, Drummochrin, Drumburle, Drummellan, and 
Barclanachan. 

The parish of Kirkoswald is pretty populous because of the 
coast syde whereof it consists and is all the pleasure 
S5. thereof, for the place of the Churches situation is very obscure 
and unpleasant being twixt two hills at the end of A bogue 
and Marish. The church is a good fabrick and well furnished, 
the patron hereof is the Bishop of Dumblane in the right of 
the Abbacy of Crosseraguell, the fabrick of which Abbey 



FORFAR-SHYRE 21 

stands within this parish. The Monks were of the Cistercian 
Order, the situation thereof is no ways pleasant. The fabrick 
of the Church is entyre without a roofe, much of the building 
is demolished, yet there be two towers still standing entyre in 
ther walls. It stands about midway twixt Mayboll and 
Kirkoswald. The houses of the Gentry residing in this parish 
are the Cove, Thomastowne, Beltersan, and Balsarach and 
Thrave, the two last are obscure Countrey dwellings. But 
Beltersan is a stately Fyne house with gardens Orchards parks 
and woods about it, lying from Mayboll about ane Myles dis- 
tance. The Cove is the Mansionhouse of Sir Archbald 
Kennedy of Colaine and takes its name hence that under the 
outer area of this house there be three naturall coves which 
enter laigh at the water mark, from the one they enter up- 
ward to a higher by ane easie ascent but the entry to the 
third is more difficult being both low in the entry and strait, 
and in the highest of them there is a spring of very good 
water. 



INFORMATION for Sir ROBERT SIBBALD anent ; 
the Shyre of FORFAR by Mr 

OUCHTERLONY of GuiNDE. 

The Shyre of Forfar so called from the head-burgh thereof 
is divided in fyve Presbetries viz. Forfar, Dundie, Migill, 
Brechine and Aberbrothock and hath therein fyve royall 
burghs viz. Forfar, Dundie, Brechine, Montross and Aber- 
brothock burghs of regalitie two Kerremuir and Couper, divers 
burghs of barronie as Glammes Edziel burgh Easthavene of 
Panmure & c . The Judicatories thereof are the Shirrefcourt 
whereof the Earles of Southesque are heretable shirrefes. four 
Church regalities viz. Aberbrothock, Brechine and Couper, 
whereof the Earles of Airlie are heretable Bailzies, Rescobie 
whereof the Earles of Crawfurd are heretable Bailies, the 
Archbishop of St. Andre'wes being Lord of the Regalitie and 
the whole lands thereof hold of him some feu, some waird, 
but the other thrie hold of the King feu, and are all oblidged 
as a pairt of the Reddendo of ther charters to give suit and 



22 FORFAR-SHYRE 

presence at thrie head courts in the yeir at ther respective 
burghs abovewritten. Item one temporall regalitie Kerre- 
muir whereof the Marquis of Douglas is Lord of erectione and 
directs his Brieves for inquests out of his own Chancelerie 
and hath a depute residing in the shyre, the whole regalitie 
hold of him either waird or feu, the Bishop of Brechine hath 
his Commissariot Court at Brechine his sea where are diverse 
other Courts of the Kings barrens and burghs royall within 
ther own bounds. The militia of the shyre is one regiment 
consisting of one thousand foot commanded by the Earle of 
Strathmore Colon ell, Laird of Edziell Lieutenent Collonell, 
Laird of Pitcur Major, two-troups of horse consisting both of 
103 hors one thereof commanded by the Earl of Airlie, the 
other by the Lord Carnegy. The length of the shyre from 
east to west viz. from the burne of Innergourie upon the west 
which divides the shyre of Perth, to the water of Northesk on 
, the east which divides the shyre from the shyre of Kin- 
cardine is 28 myles and from any place of the coast on the 
southsyd to Bra Mar on the Northsyd will be much about the 
same, the hill of Glenquiech its thought will be the center. 
It is an excellent countrie alongst the coast, which we call the 
length thereof exceedingly fruitfull of all kynd of graine thrie 
good harbours for shipping as shall be spoken of in their own 
place, severall h'shertouns as Northferrie, Panbryd Easthavene 
of Panmure, Auchmutie Ulishavene Ferredene. diverse sal- 
mond fishings on the rivers of Tay, North and Southesk. 
diverse Gentlemens houses, cuningares and dovcoats as is in 
all the rest of the shyre and shall be described in ther 
proper place, and are aboundantly provided of peat and turf 
for feuell, great abundance of cattle sheep and horse especially 
the brae countrey who have great breeds of cattle sheep goat 
and hors and in all the laigh countrey for the most part 
except in some few places on the coast where they are scarce 
of grass. All breed als many as sufficiently serve themselve 
but the chief breeds in the shyre are the Earles of Strathmore, 
Southeske, Panmure, Edzell, Pourie, Balnamoone both for 
horses and cattle. The principall rivers of the Shyre are 
North Esk, having its beginning at a great distance in the 
Highlands and falls into the sea four myles be east Montross. 



FORFAR-SHYRE 23 

Southesc^ hes lykwayes its beginning in the highlands and 
runneth through a pairt of that excellent countrie called 
Strathmore by the towne of Brechine and thence to Montross 
where it maketh an excellent harbour and falleth in the sea, 
The water of Lounane hath its beginning in the mosses of 
Loure and falleth in the sea at Reidcastle, alongst that river 
is that fyne litle countrey called Strathbegg. Begg ane Irish 
word signifies litle and mor, great Brothock having its begin- 
ning in the meadowes of the Leyes, and running by the & 
walls of the yeards of Aberbrothock falls in the sea. Dichtie 
having its beginning in the loch of Lundie, runneth through a 
very fyne countrey called Strath Dichtie-Martine and falleth 
in the sea at Moniefieth four myles east from Dundie. Gourie 
which hath its beginning in the hills of the Carse of Gourie 
and falleth in the river of Tay at Innergourie four myles be 
west Dundie. Carbit taking its beginning in the Mosses of 
Dilla and Hyndcastle runneth by the castle Glammes and 
thence West till it joyrie with ane other water called the 
water of Dean coming from the Loch of Forfar and run Vjoth 
together westward and is called Dean untill they meet with 
ane other water coming from Glenyla, and all thrie running 
west together are called the water of Glenyla, untill they falJ 
in the river of Tay six myles above Perth, and there loose ther 
name, and these with many others make the river of Tay the 
greatest river in Scotland and is navigable to the toune of 
Perth, and falleth in the sea six myles from the toune of 
Dundie at a place called the Gae of Barrie, there are severall 
other small rivers which I judge imnecessare to speake off. 
There are two Abbeyes viz. Aberbrothock and Couper, one 
Pryorie Restennet with severall other religious houses all now 
ruinat and demolished, several great Lochs abounding with 
severall kind of fresh water fishes, as Pykes, Pearches and Elles, 
all kind of water foul and swans breeding in some of them. 
The lochs are Lundie Kinnordie, Glames, Forfar, Restennet, 
Rescobie, Balgayes Balmadies, Barrie. Abundance of Parks 
and Inclosures which shall be spoken to in ther own proper 
place, great plentie of wyld foul in all the places of the coun- 
trey especially in the highlands wher ther are great plenty of 
Muirfoules and Heathfoules and others, some heart and -hynd 



24 FORFAR-SHYRE 

29. Roebuck and Does in the low countrey abundance of pat- 
ridges plivers dotrills, quailes, snips, and other small foules 
in great plentie besides birds of prey as hawks of all kynds, 
ravens crows and such lyk, all kynd of salt and fresh waterfoul 
and one especiallie Kittiewauks nothing inferior in tast to the 
solangeese of the Basse. The countrey aboundeth in quarries 
of freestone excellent for hewing and cutting especiallie one at 
the Castle of Glammes far exceeding all others in the shyre of 
a blewish colour, excellent milne stones great abundance of 
sklait and Lymestone in diverse places ane excellent lead mine 
in Glenesk belonging to the Laird of Edzell, all alongst the 
sea coast there is abundance of that wee call ware, in Latine 
alga marina cast up by the sea and is gathered by the people 
and carried to ther land which occasions a great increase of 
cornes, where it is laid, there are abundance of amphibious 
creatures bred in the rocks betwixt Arbroth and Ethie called 
sea calves who gender as other beast doe, and bring furth ther 
young onesjin the dry caves, whereof there is abundance and 
suck them there till they be of some bigness and strength to 
swime in the water, the old ones are of a hudge bignes nigh 
to ane ordinare ox but longer, have no leggs but in place 
thereof four finnes in shape much lyk to a mans hand where- 
upon they goe, but slowly in the end of September, which is 
the tyme they goe aland for calving. Several! in the toun of 
Aberbrothock goe to the caves with boates and with lighted 
candles search the caves where apprehending they kill diverse 
of them both young and old, whereof they make very good oyll. 
There is lykwayes of them in the river of Tay but smaller 
whereof none are taken or any benefit made, there is lykwayes 
ane other creature in shape lyke to a fish called a mareswine 
and will be of twentie or four and twentie foot long, all 

so. alongst the coast but especially in the river of Tay where 
they are in great abundance killing a great deall of salmond 
and doing a great deall of injurie to the fishings in thir few 
yeires there were great numbers cast up dead all alongst the 
river of Tay with great wounds and bytings upon ther bodyes 
which gave occasion to conjectur that there had been some 
fight amongst them at sea. 






FORFAR PARISH 25 



PRESBETRIE of FORFAR. 

The Presbetrie of Forfar is divided in twelve parishes Viz. 
Forfar, Glames, Khmetles, Innerarite, Methie, Dunichine 
Aberlemno, Rescobie, Cortaquhie, Clovay, Tannadyce, Kerre- 
niuir. 

Forfar is a large parish, both toune and landward hath but 
one minister called Mr. Small, the toune are patrons of the 
church and is in the Diocese of St. Andrewes. the toune of 
Forfar being a burgh royall hath a provest two Bailzies have 
Commissioners at Parliaments, Convention of Estates and 
Borrowes John Carnegy Provost and Commissioner to the 
Parliament. It is a very ancient toune and we find in historie 
the first Parliament that was ryden in Scotland, was kept ther 
also King Malcome Canmore had a house and lived frequentlie 
there, the ruines of the house are yet to be seen in a place 
called the Castlehill. at litle distance is ane other litle mott 
where the Queens lodgings were, called to this day Queen's 
Manore. It is a considerable litle towne and hath some litle 
iicvd'" of cremrie ware and linen cloath and such lyke. It is 
prettie weel built. Many good stone houses sklaited therein 
and are presently building a very stately croce, hath a large 
church & steeple well finished with bells, they have some 
publick revenue and a good deal of mortifications to ther poor 
doled by the bountie of some of ther townsmen who going 
abroad became rich. They have a good tolbuith with a bell 
on it. They have four great faires yeirly and a weekly mercat. 
The Shirref keeps his Courts there, and all publick and 
privat meetings of the Shy re both in tyme of peace and war, 
are kept there. They have been very famous for their loyaltie 
especiallie in that base transaction when King Charles the first 
of ever blissed memorie was delyvered over by our Scots Parlia- 
ment to the Inglish at Newcastle Strang the then 
Provost of Forfar did enter his protestatione publictly against 
the same and presently rose from the table and deserted the 
meeting, which this present king Charles the 2 d so much 
resented that he called for the persone and publictly spoke 
to his advantage and added something to the priviledges and 



KINNETLES GLAMES 






immunities of the place he represented. In the landward parish 
therof there are severall gentlemens houses as Meikle-Loure a 
good hous and well planted with an excellent Moss good comes 
and well grassed belonging to the Earl of Northesk. Balma- 
shanner an old familie belonging to Patrick Cairncroce. Hal- 
kertoune Gray. Tarbeg Gray with a good moss the place is very 
ear and lyes in that excellent countrey of Strathmore. 

Kinnetles Mr. Tailieor Minister in the Diocese of St. 
Andrewes. Bishop of Edr. patrone hath in it. the house of 
Bridgetoune belonging to Lyon a grandchild of the 

house of Strathmore ; a good house well planted, excellent 
yeard & orchards very fruitful 1 in bear and oats and abund- 
ance of grass. Kinnetles ane excellent corne place, a tolerable 
good hous belonging to Patrick Bowar a burgess in Dundie 
it lyes upon the water of Carbit. 

Glames the Castle of Glames E. of Strathmores speciall 
residence in the shyre, a great and excellent hous newly 
reedified and furnished most stately with every thing necessare, 
with excellent gaites, avenues, courts gairdin bouling-greens, 
Parks, inclosures, hay meadowes and planting very beautifull 
and pleasant lying upon the river Carbit at that place called 
the Water of Glames, where there is hard by the house two 
great Bridges, one of stone of two arches and an other of 
timber, als large as the other be east the house and within the 
park is another called the yeat bridge by which ther whole 
peats are brought and by which his Lo: is served from his 
mosses be north the water in great abundance and hath ane 
other litle house there called Cossines In a litle distance to 
the Castle of Glames is the toune thereof all belonging to the 
E. it is a burgh of barronie, hath two great faires in it yeirly 
and a weekly mercat. there is a cuningare within the park 
and dovecoat at the burn. M r Lyon Minister thereof in the 
Diocese of St. Andrews. The E. patrone. the familie is 
very ancient and honourable one of the Lords of Glames 
haveing married King Robert 2 d his daughter and got at that 
tyme from the King the Thannadge of Tannadice and which 
he still enjoyes at this time, two of the familie have been 
Chancellors of Scotland and a third Thesaurere. the present 
Earle is one of his Majesties privie Counsell and was one of 



INNERARITIE DUNICHINE 27 

the Thesaurie he hath many considerable vassals in the Shyre. 
Glen belonging to the Laird of Claverhouse Grahame ane 
ancient gentleman of good extraction and great estate in the 
Shyre, a pleasant place a good hous and well planted, excellent 
quarrie of fine stone and sklait well furnished of peat and 
turfe and in the hill thereof abundance of Muirfoull. the 
sklait is carried to Dundie on horseback and from thence M. 
by sea to all places within the river of Forth. Dunoone 
belonging to George Innes the Earle of Strathmore superior. 

Inneraritie and Methie are now joyned in one parish & 
have but one minister viz. M r Grahame, in the diocese of 
St. Andrews the Kings Majestic patrone. Litle-Lour is a 
good hous belonging to the E. of Northesk who is superior of 
the haill parish of Methie well appoynted of peat and turff* 
for ther own and the countreyes use about. Wester Methie 
to Patrick Bower of Kinnetles Easter Methie to Alex r Bower 
of Kincaldrum, the kirk of Methie is ruinous and decayed. 
Barronie of Innerarite belongs to the Laird of Pourie 
Fotheringhame with a house of that same name with a great 
park and a birkwood therein. Item ane other excellent new 
built park called the Park of Tarbra and Inverichtie a good 
house belonging to Willm Gray. Kingoldrum to Alex r 
Bower who hath a considerable interest in the parish pur- 
chased by his grandfather a burgess of Dundie, this parish 
lyes on both sydes of the water of Carbit. 

Dunichine Barronie of Ouchterlony which formerly belonged 
to the Lairds of Ouchterlony of that ilk, but hath no house on 
it, is a considerable thing, and a plesant place belonging to 
the Earle of Southesk. Barronie of Tulcorse belonging to 
John Ouchterlony of Guynd only representative of the forsaid 
familie of Ouchterlony of that ilk. Dumbarrow Arrot the 
parish lyes on both sydes of the water of Lounane, which at 
that place is called Evenie. the Minister called M r Lindsay 
in the diocese of Brechine. Earle of Panmure patron therof. 
Aberlemno the Chief heretor therof is the Laird of Auldbar 
young chief of his name, ane excellent and great house, good 
yeards and planting built by one of the Earls of King- 
home and twyce given of to the second sons of the 34. 
house, which for want of aires returned to the family againe 



28 DUNICHINE RESCOBIE 

and was laitly sold to one Sinclair from whom this present 
Laird coft the same. Melgund belonging to the aires of Alex r 
Murray son to Sir Robert Murray lait provost of Edr. ane 
excellent hous good y cards & two fyne parks and much 
planting, ane excellent utter Court before the gait with ex- 
cellent stone walls about it. the house built by Cardinall 
Beatone and the parks by the Marques of Huntlie and some 
addition made to all by Henry Maull lait Laird thereof, it is a 
very sweet and pleasant place, fruitfull in comes well grassed 
and abundantly provyded of turf as is also Auldbar and the rest 
of the parish from the Muir of Montroymont. Carsgounie 
belonging to Alex r Campble. Tilliequhadline belonging to 
the ancient name of Thornetoune of that ilk. Balgayes 
anciently belonging to the familie of Ouchterlony of that ilk 
now to M r Jo n Wischeart advocat and Comrnisser of Edr. 
representative of the familie of Logic Wisheart and chief of 
his name. M r Ouchterlony Minister in the Diocese of St. 
Andre wes, the Kings Majestic and the Earle of Perth patron 
who presenter vices. 

Rescobie, there are severall gentlemens houses therein as 
Pitscandlie Lindsay a good hous and weel planted, the old 
priorie of Restennet, whereof the church walls and steeple are 
yet extant with the Loch formerly spoken the Earle of Strath- 
more Pryor dod hunter. Carsbank Guthrie Wester Carse a 
pleasant place well planted belonging to Sir Patrick Lyon 
advocat. Drummie Nisbet, Balmadie formerlie belonging to 
the Lairds of Ouchterlony of that ilk and was the mannore 
hous of the family and their burial was at the kirk of 
35. Rescobie untill they purchased the lands of Kellie where 
after having built ane. house, they changed both dwelling 
place and burial with ane loch abounding with pykes pearches 
and yels and all kynd of fresh water fowls as all the other 
Lochs thereabout are, and further in the Loch of Restennet 
do swans yearly bring furth ther young ones, ther are severall 
Eylarks on these lochs viz. Balmadies, Balgayes, Restennet, 
Guthrie, Pitmoues M r Lyon Minister, in the diocese of 
St. Andrews. E. Strathmore patrone. 

Tannadyce, most part of the parish belongs to the Earl 
of Strathmore called the Thannadge of Tannadyce and was 



TANNADYCE CORTAQUHIE KERREMUIR 29 

by King Robert 2 d given to the Lord Glames in tocher 
with his daughter, there are severall gentlemens houses in 
the parochine besyd as Kinnatie, Ogilvy, Inshewane, Ogilvy, 
Cairne Lindsay, Easter and wester Ogels, Lyons, Whytwall 
Lyon, Balgillie Lyon, Murthill, Lyell ane ancient familie and 
chief of his name, a pleasant place lying upon the water of 
South Esk. Memus, Livingstoune, Memus Guthrie. M r Lyon 
Minister, in the diocese of St. Andrews.' New Colledge thereof 
patrons to the Church. 

Cortaquhie and Clovay. Cortaquhie the E. of Airlies 
speciall residence is a good hous well planted, lyes pleasantly 
on the water of Southesque, the whole parish belongs to the E. 
Clovay belonging to Sir David Ogilvy brother to the Earle is 
a fyne highland countrey abounding in catle and sheep, some 
cornes, abundance of grass and Hay as all the highland 
countrey es of the Shy re are. it hath a chappel and some bene- 
fice for a Vicar that reads ther every Sabbath day and the 
Minister of Cortaquhie goes every third Sabbath and preaches 
there, the family is very ancient and honourable and have 
ever been very famous for ther loyaltie especiallie in the times 
of our civill warrs. the lait and present Earl of Airlie 
with his brethren Sir Thomas who dyed in his Prince's service 36. 
and Sir David now living, have with diverse others of their 
name given such evident testimonie of ther loyaltie to ther 
Prince that will make them famous to all succeding generationes 
which doubtles you will get account of to be recorded to ther 
everlasting honour. M r Small Minister in the diocese of 
Brechine, the Earl patron e. 

Kerremuir, a burgh of regalitie holden for the most pairt of 
the Laird of Pourie Fotheringhame who holds the same with 
the Milne of Kerremuir of the Marques of Douglas the rest of 
the Laird of Innerarite, who holds it in the same way. a very 
ancient and honourable family of the name of Ogilvy, who 
have been lykwayes very remarkable for their loyaltie. Sir 
Thomas young Laird thereof being execute at Glasgow for his 
concurrence in his Majesties service with his Commissioner the 
Marques of Montross. and his second brother Sir David 
father to the present Laird suffered very much be imprison- 
ment being taken prisoner at Worcester where he lay long was 



30 PRESBETRIE OF DUNDEE 

fyned and his estate sequestrat for a long tyme by the rebells, 
it is a great estate, a good old hous, fyne yeards and much 
planting it lyeth pleasantlie upon the waters of Southesque 
Carritie Glenprossine a fyne highland Interest belonging 
to the Laird of Bandoch in Perthshyre, it lyes at a great dis- 
tance from Kerremuir and therfor have a Curat who reads 
in the chapell every Sabbath day. Logic Ogilvy a cadett of 
the house of Balfour a good house, well grassed with excellent 
meadows and mosses Ballinshoe belonging to Robert Fletcher 
a pleasant place, good mosses lying within the ffbrest of 
Plattone, where the Earl of Strathmore has a very consider- 
able interest which with a great deall more lands ther- 
about belonged to the great and famous hous of Crawfoord. 
Gleswall Lundie. much of the parish hold of the Marques of 
Douglas as doeth all the regalitie ether waird or feu, hes his 
regalitie Court in the toun of Kerremuir where his deput, 
Clerk, and other officers put in by himself do reside, it hath 
thrie great faires and a weekly mercat of all kind of com- 
modities the countrey affoord but especially of timber brought 
from the highlands in great abundance. 

PRESBKTRIE of DUNDIE. 

Presbetrie of Dundie is divided in diverse parishes within 
the Shyre of Forfar the rest within the Shyre of Perth, viz. 
Dundie, Moniefieth, Monikie, Murrays, Maynes, Telling 
Ouchterhous, Liff, Strathmartine, Lundie, Benvie. 

Dundie hath a great landward parish besyd the toune which 
is a large and great toune very populous and of a great trade 
and have many good ships, the buildings are large and great 
of thrie or four stories high, a large mercat place with a very 
fyne tolbuith & croce, two great churches with a very high 
steeple well furnished of bells, as is also the tolbuith, they 
have thrie ministers, whereof the toune presents two, and the 
Constable of Dundie one, ther Magistrates are a provost, four 
bailies Dean of gild and others and are Shirreffs within their 
own bounds, they are joy tied in nothing to the Shyre except in 
the militia, whereunto they furnish 150 foot, it lyeth upon 
the water of Tay very pleasantlie and hath good yeards and 



DUNDEE 31 

meadowes about it. they have four great faires yeirly, two 
mercat dayes everie week and a great fish mercat dayly there is 
a great consumption there of all kind of victualls, the excyse 
of malt there being litle short of the whole excyse of the 
shyre and burghs besyd a great victuall mercat twice a week 
for service of the toune besydes great quantities of all kind 
of grain coft by the merchants and transported, by which t 
returnes they import all kynd of commoditie from Holland, 
Norway Denmark & the East Countrey. they export lyk- 
wayes all other our native commodities and import other things 
necessare for the service of the Countrey, which serves above 
520 myles round about ther toune, their trade is very great as 
is evident by the books of Custome, they have dependance in 
many things upon the Constable, who have been of the name 
of Scrimgeour, heretors of Dudop and Standart bearer of 
Scotland ane ancient loyall and honourable familie and of lait 
were made Earls of Dundie, but the estate falling in his 
Majesties hands as ultimus hceres, the Lord Hal tone now 
Earl of Lauderdaile was constitute the Kings donator and hes 
the same privilege and superioritie with the haill estate of the 
late Constable and Earle of Dundie, the toune hes a good 
shoar well built with hewen stone with a key, on both sydes 
whereof they load and unload ther ships with a great house 
on the shore called the packhouse where they lay up ther 
merchant goods, ane large hospitall with diverse easment and 
a good rent, the landwart parish thereof are first Dudop ane 
extraordinare pleasant and sweet place, a good house, excellent 
yeards, much planting, and fyne parks it lyes pleasantly on the 
syd of the hill of Dundie, overlook the toun and as of purpose 
built there to command the place. Dundie Law is at the 
back therof ane exceeding high small hill the bonnet hill of 
Dundie a large toune. All feuars of the house of Dudop. 
Claypots belonging to the laird of Claverhous. Blackness 
Wadderburne a good house with a considerable estate in acres, 
about the toune. Duntroone Grahame a pleasant place with 
fyne parks and meadows about it. Pitkerro belonging to 
Durhame a good house extraordinary well planted good yeards 
and orchards a very pleasant place Baldovie and Drumgeicht 
to Clayhills of Innergourie Cragie Kid excellent land and a 



32 MONIEFIETH MONIKIE 

39. good house with a litle new park. Balgey Davidsone a 
good house and good land. M r Scrimgeour, M r Guthrie, 
M r Rait Ministers M r Ranken Catechist in the Diocese of 
Brechine. 

Moniefieth. Laird of Balumbie brother to the Earl of 
Panmure. hath the kirktoun therof with salmond fishings on 
the river of Tay with a considerable estate in the parish 
besydes. Grange. Durhame ane ancient family and chief of 
his name, a good house, yeards and planting with salmond 
fishings on the river of Tay. Ardounie a good house yeards 
and much planting with dovecoats there and at Grainge both 
belonging to him. Balgillo Hunter with a salmond fishing 
upon Tay and a great cunningaire. Omarhie Durham with a 
house and dovecoat Kingdunie, Broughtie-Castle with a great 
salmond fishing belonging to the Laird of Pourie Fothring- 
hame who hes lykewayes ane other interest in the parish. M r 
Dempter Minister in the diocese of St. Andrews Earle of 
Panmure patrone. 

Monikie, most part of all the Parish with the Castles of 
Dunie and Monikie belong properly to the E. of Panmuir and is 
called the baronie of Dunie wherein is that sweet and excellent 
place Ardestie with excellent yeards hes meadow and a park 
the whole Baronie is excellent land and hath severall dovecoats 
therein, there is lykwayes a fine park at Monikie belonging 
to the said Earl. Auchinlek of that ilk a verie ancient 
familie which hes continued in that name these many genera- 
tions ane old high tower house which is scene at a great dis- 
tance at sea, and is used for a landmark by those that come 
in the river of Tay M r Rait Minister in the Diocese of 
Brechine Earl of Panmure patrone. 

Murrayes. Balumbie the Earle of Panmures second brother 
his designatione, ane old ruinous demolished hous but is a 
very pleasant place the Laird of Pourie Fothringhame a very 

40. honourable and ancient family of a great and flourishing 
fortune he hes lykwayes the Murrayes in that parish, both 
are good houses, sweet and pleasant places, excellent yards, 
well planted parks and hey meadows and dovecoats extra- 
ordinare good and a litle from the house of Pourie toward 
the south a fine litle wood of fir and birk with a stone dyk and 






MONIKIE 33 

is chief of his name Easter Pourie. Wadderburne formerlie 
belonging to the Lairds of Pourie Ogilvy who were repute 
Chief of that great and ancient name of Ogilvy it is a very 
good hous with good yeards and parks about it, and at the 
foot of the Castle-wall runs a litle rivulet which going to 
Balumbie and from thence to Pitkerro falls in the river of 
Dichtie a very pleasant place and he is Chief of his name 
whose predecessors have been clerks of Dundie for those many 
generations Westhall with a dovecoat [as also one at Easter 
Pourie] belonging to M r Archibald Peirsone. M r Edward 
Minister in the diocese of St. Andrews. Earl of Panmure 
patron e. 

Maynes. the Maynes of Fintrie belonging to the Laird of 
Fintrie Grahame ane ancient and honourable familie, whos 
predecessors was eldest son of a second mariage of the Lord 
Grahame. Severall considerable persones cadets of his house 
it is a good hous, excellent yeards with a great deal of good 
planting with parks and dovecoats. Claiverhouse. Laird of 
Claiverhouse speciall residence and litle-Kirktoun Scrimgeor 
laitly purchased by a merchant in Dundie of that name, the 
Laird of Pourie Fothringhame hes ane interest lykwayes in 
that parish, it is all extraordinare good land and lyes upon 
the water of Dichtie. M 1 Strachan Minister in the diocese of 
St. Andrews Earl Panmure patrone. 

Telling, the house of Telling Maxwell is a good hous 
well planted and good yeards. E. of Strathmore, Lairds of 
Pourie and Claverhous have interest in the parish, it is 
excellent good land well accomodat in grass and fir and 
lyes betwix Dundie and the hills of Sidlaw. M r M c Gill 
Minister, in the Diocese of Dunkeld the Kings Majestic 
Patrone. 

Ouchterhous belongs for the most part to the Earl of 
Strathmore, a fyne house, good yeards and excellent parks and 
meadows with a dovecoat, it formerly belonged to the E. of 
Buchane. M r Robertsone Minister within the Diocese of 
Dunkeld. E. Strathmore patron Liff, Logie, and Innergourie 
three churches joined in one. the lands in the parish are ex- 
traordinare good as Newbigging and Innergourie belonging to 
Robert Clayhills ane excellent house, good yeards much plant- 

VOL. n. c 



34 PRESBITRIE OF MEIGLE 

ing a great park and dovecoat Dryburgh Yeainan hath a good 
estate there, whereat a place belonging to him called Patalpe 
where that great battaill betwixt the Scots and Picts was 
fought and Alpinus head struck off, called from thencefurth 
Pasalpine and now Patalpie. Nether Liff belonging to the 
Lord Gray who have been formerly most ancient and honour- 
able, being still the first Lord of the kingdome and of whom 
are descended many considerable persons M r Cristiesone 
Minister in the Diocese of St. Andrews, the Kings Majestic 
Patron e. 

Strathmartine. the Laird of Strathmartine a good hous 
well accomodate with cornes and grass and chief of the name 
of Wyntoune. Baldovane, Nairne a very ancient name in the 
Shyre of Fyffe whose predecessors wer lairds of Sanfoord 
Nairne on the Southsyd of the water of Tay over against 
Dundie, and is chief of his name. M r Fergusone minister in 
the Diocese of St. Andrews Archbishop therof patrone. 

Lundie, E. Strathmore hes ane interest there, the greatest 
part of the rest of the parish belong to one Duncane a mer- 
chants son in Dundie. it is a big old house, hath a great 
loch abounding in pykes pearches and eles with abundance of 
fresh water foul. M r Campbell last minister, now vacant, in 
the diocese of St. Andrews and in respect the kirk is joyned 
in one with the kirk of Foules, the patronage is debaitable 
betwixt the Lord Gray, Laird of Auchtertyre heretor of 
Foules and some other pretenders. 

Benvie, the whole parish belonged formerly to the Earl 
4*. Dundie and now to the E. of Lauderdaill. by that same 
right he holds the rest of the Earle of Dundies estate, it 
holds of the E. of Panmtire as Superior and was anciently a 
pairt of the barronie of Panmure a very sweet place good 
ground and borders with the Shyre of Perth. M r Scrimgeor 
Minister, in the diocese of St Andrewes. Earle Lauderdaill 
patrone. 

PRESBITRIE of MEIGLE 

The Presbetrie of Meigle is divided in 12 parishes in the 
Shyre of Forfar, the rest are in Perth viz. Keatnes, Newtyld, 






KEATNES NEWTYLD EASSIE 35 

Eassie, Nether Glenyla, Over Glenyla, Blacklounans, Nether 
Airlie, Lentrathene, Kingoldrum, Couper, Ruthvene. 

Keatnes wherin is the hous of Pitcur belonging to the Laird 
of Pitcur Halyburtoune, it is a great old hous with much fyne 
planting it is ane ancient, great and honourable family, vvherof 
there are many persons of good quality descended, and they 
have been alleyed to many honourable families in the kingdom. 
Most pairt of the parish belongs properlie to him and the rest, 
most of them his vassals or otherways depend upon him. 
Fotherance whos Grandfather the Lord Fotherance a Senator 
of the Colledge of Justice was a nephew of the hous of Pitcur 
in the Diocese of Dunkeld, but the Ministers name and 
patron e is unknown to the informer. 

Newtyld the hous of Newtyld with the most part of the 
whole parish belonging formerly in propertie and the rest 
of the parish in Superioritie to the laird of Pitcur and 
laitly sold by him to Sir George M c Kenzie of Roshaugh his 
Majesties advocat is a very good hous, much planting an 
excellent countrey fertill in cornes abounding in grass for 
pastur and meadowes for hay, not inferior to any part of the 
shyre. Abundance of excellent moss and extraordinare good 
pasturage for multitudes of sheep on the hills of Kilpurnie. 
M r Black Minister, in the diocese of Dunkeld E. of Panmure 
patrone. 

Eassie and Newoy two small parishes served with 
Minister and have preaching in them every other Sabbath day. 
both the parishes are extraordinare good land and well served 
of grass & fir. the aires of the lait Lord Couper have a con- 
siderable interest there, the Laird of Newoy of that ilk an 
ancient gentleman and chief of his name, the Lord Newoy lait 
Senator of the Colledge of Justice who also assumes the titlle 
of Nevoy. Earl Strathmore hath ane interest in that paro- 
chine. M r Jon Lammie of Dunkennie. a pleasant place Kirk- 
toun of Essie belonging to the Laird of Baltkyock in 
Perthshyre. all thir parochins lye in Strathmore. M r Lammie 
Minister, in the diocese of St. Andrewes. 

Couper. the precinct of the Abbey built by Malcome 4 th 
King of Scotland and some rent belonging thereto is only in 
the Shyre of Forfar and pertaines to the aires of the lait Lord 



36 RUTHVENE OVER AND NETHER GLENYLA 

Couper it hes been a very sweet place and lyes in a very plea- 
sant countrey but now nothing but rubbish. M r Hay 
Minister, in the diocese of Dunkeld Lord Balmirrinoch 
patron e. 

Ruthvene a litle parish belonging altogether to a gentle- 
man of the name of Crightoune, ane ancient familie a good 
hous well planted and lyes pleasantly upon the water of Dean, 
and a prettie oakwood he hath ane estate equivalent therto 
in Nether Glenyla it and the former lye in Strathmore. M r 
Fife Minister, in the diocese of Dunkeld. Earl Panmure 
patrone. 

Over and Nether Glenyla are joyned in one parish and have 
severall small heretors therein holding of the Abbey of Couper 
they are highland Countreys, have some comes, abundance of 
cattle sheep goat and much hay. they live most on butter 
cheese and milk, they kill much venisone and wyld foull. the 
summer they goe the far distant Glens which border upon 
Brae Mar and ther live grassing their cattle in litle houses 
which they build upon ther coming and throwes doun when 
they come away called sheels, their dyet is only milk and whey 
and a very litle meall and what vennison or wyld foull they 
44. can apprehend. the Earl Airlie has a good interest 
in that parish called Forther with two great woods called 
Crandirth and Craigiefrisch, he hes a large Glen for grassing 
with abundance of Hay meadows with a free forrestrie, which 
in those places they reckone much worth, the nature of the 
people and these of Blacklounans a highland place in the 
parish of Alithie consisting of diverse small heretors holding 
of the Laird of Ashintillie Spalding all one with the other 
highland men that you will get descrived to you in other 
places except that the Irish is not ther native language for 
none speak Irish there except strangers that come from other 
pairts, notwithstanding that in Glenshie and Strath-Airlie 
ther nixt nighboures the Minister alwayes preaches in the 
afternoon in the Irish toungue. Minister M r Nevoy in the 
Diocese of Dunkeld Earl Airlie patrone. 

Nether Airlie the barrony of Bavkie pertaining to the Earl 
Strathmore a great interest and excellent land and als good 
cornes and a great deal more ear then upon the coast, the 



LENTRATHENE KINGOLDRUM BRECHINE 37 

hous of Airlie brunt in the tyme of the rebellion becaus of 
his loyaltie and never reedified, the Laird of Balfour Ogilvy 
hes lykwayes a considerable estate in it, it lyes in Strathmore. 
Minister M r Lyon, within the diocese of Dunkeld Earl Strath- 
more patrone. 

Lentrathene. most pairt of the parochine belongs to the 
Earl Airlie, there are some heretors besyd. Peell Ogilvy 
Shannalie anciently belonging to the Lairds of Ouchterlony 
of that ilk, now to Patrick Hay. Glenquharitie Ogilvy. 
M r Ogilvy Minister, in the diocese of Dunkeld. Earle Airlie 
patrone. 

Kingoldrum the Laird of Balfour Ogilvy hath the greatest 
ther. ane antient gentleman, and a great estate, it hath a great 
hous built by Cardinall Beatone and much planting. Persie 
Ogilvy Persy Lindsay Baldovie Hunter the Earl Airlie hath 
ane interest there Earl of Panmur hath a considerable feu 45. 
duetie payed out of that parish Kingoldrum and Lentrathene 
are two brae parishes but have abundance of corne, gras and 
fyre and lye pleasantly on the southsyd of the hills. Lentra- 
thene hes lykwayes a great Loch abunding with such fish and 
foull as the other loches of the Shyre are. M r Rait Minister, 
in the Diocese of Dunkeld. Earl Panmure patrone. 

PRESBITRIE of BRECHINE 

The Presbitrie of Brechine is divided in eighten kirks viz. 
Oathlaw, Fearne, Carraldstoune, Menmuir, Navar, Brechine, 
Strubathroe, Peart Logic, Dun, Montross, Inchbraick, Marie- 
toune, Kinnaird, Farnell Edzell, Lethnet, and Lochlie. 

Oathlaw, the whole parish formerly pertained to the Lord 
Spynie but now to the Laird of Phinnaven a second sone of 
the hous of Northesk. it was a great old hous but now by the 
Industrie of this present Laird is made a most excellent hous, 
fyne roumes and good furniture, good yeards excellent plant- 
ing and inclosures and avenues, it lyes as all the presbetrie of 
Brechine doe (except the brae countrey,) in Strathmore and 
the water of Southesk runs pleasantly by the foot of the castle 
of Finnavene and hes some bushies of wood upon the water, it 
is ane excellent corne countrey and well grassed M r Straitone 



38 FERNE CARRALDSTOUNE MENMUIH 

Minister, in the diocese of Brechine. Laird of Finnaven 
pat rone. 

Feme, the parish belongs totallie to the Earl Southesk and 
hath a very good hous therin called the Waine well planted 
good yeards. the house presently repaired by him and well 
furnished within, it hath ane excellent fyne large great park 
called the Waird of Fearne. it is a very fyne brae Countrey 
much corne and abundance of bestiall. plentie of muirfoul in 
the braes therof. M r Cramond Minister, in the Diocese of 
Dunkeld Earl Southesk patrone. 

Carraldstoune belongs totallie to the Laird of Balnamoone 
Carnegy whose grandfather was a sone of the hous of South- 
esk a great and most delicat hous well built, brave lights 
and of a most excellent contrivance without debait the best 
gentlemans hous in the shyre extraordinare much planting, 
delicat yeards and gardines with stone walls, ane excellent 
avenue with ane rainge of great ashtrees on everie syd, ane 
excellent arbour for lenth and breadth none in the countrey 
lyke it. the house built by Sir Hary Lindsay of Kinfaines after 
E. of Crawfoord which great and ancient familie is now 
altogether extinct it was formerly within the parochine of 
Brechine and being at so great a distance from the toune of 
Brechine Sir Alex r Carnegy grandfather to this Balnamoone 
built a very fyne litle church and a fyne Ministers Mans upon 
his oun expenses and doted a stipend and gave a gleib therto 
out of his own estate, it lyes on the northsyd of- the water of 
Southesk. M r Murray Minister, in the diocese of Brechine. 
Laird of Balnamoon patrone 

Menmuir the half of the parish belongs to the Laird of 
Balnamoone, with the hous well planted good yeards ane 
excellent corne countrey well accomodat of grass hay and fir 
Baljordie ane ancient familie and Chief of the name of Symmer. 
Balhall, Lyell, Barroun, Livingstoune, a pleasant sweet stance, 
good yeards and well planted. M r Campbel, Minister, in the 
diocese of Dunkeld. Balhall patrone. 

Navar, most pairt therof being a litle highland parish 
belongs to the E. of Panmure and Balnamoone, its a part of 
the E. of Panmures title of honour. Balnamoon hes a hous 
in it called Tilliebirnie well accomodat in grass, park and 



EDZELL LETHNET LOCHLIE 39 

nieadowes. M r Sympsone Minister, in the Diocese of Brechine 
the Kings Majestie patrone. 

Edzell, Lethnet and Lochlie being thrie parishes, have < 
only two Ministers, one in Edzell and one for Lethnet and 
Lochlie and have a Curate who hath a benefice and reads at the 
Chappie of Lochlie, belong all properly to David Lindsay 
Laird of Edzell, ane ancient and honourable familie and only 
representative of the famous and ancient familie and hous of 
Crawfoord Lindsay. It is ane excellent dwelling, a great hous, 
delicat gardine with walls sumptously built of hewen stone 
polisht, with pictures and coats of armes in the walls, with a 
fyne summer hous with a hous for a bath on the south corners 
therof far exceeding any new work of thir times, excellent 
Kitchine gardine and orcheard with diverse kynds of most ex- 
cellent fruits and most delicat. new park with felow deer built 
by the present Laird, it lyes close to the hills betwixt the 
water called the West Water and the water of Northesk which 
joyning together make as it were a demi Island thereof, it hath 
ane excellent outter court so large and level! that of old 
when they used that sport, they used to play at the football 
there and there are still four great growing trees which were the 
dobts. It is ane extraordinare warme and ear place so that 
the fruits will be readie there a fourthnight sooner than in any 
place of the shy re and hath a greater increase of bean and 
other graine than can be expected elswhere. West from 
Edzell lyes Lethnet & Northwest from Lethnet lyes Lochlie 
both highland countries but pay a great rent in moe, besydes 
casualiteis, of cowes, waderis, lambs butter, cheese wool & c . 
there is abundance of vennison muir and heath foules in the 
forrest therof great plenty of wood, in Lochlie is the great and 
strong castle of Innermark upon the water of Northesk. it is 
very well peopled and upon any incursions, the Highland 
Katranes (for so those highland robbers are called) the 
Laird can upon very short advertisment, raise a good number 
of weell armed prattie men, who seldom suffer any prey to goe 
out of ther bounds unrecovered. M r Irvyne Minister of Edzell, 
M r Norie Minister of Lethnet and Lochlie, in the diocese of 
Brechine. Laird of Edzell patrone to all. 

Brechine is a royall burgh, the Bishopp is Provost therof, 



40 BRECHINE STRICKATHROE 

hath the electione of a Bailie, E. Panmure hath the electione 
of the eldist Bailzie and the toune one, it lyes very pleasantly 
upon the north syd of the water of Southesk, which runneth 
by the walls therof. The yeards therof to the south end of the 
tenements therof, where there is a large welbuilt stone bridge 
of two arches, and wher E. Panmure hath a considerable 
salmond fishing and lykways croves under the castle walls, 
which lyes pleasantly on the water, and is a delicat house 
fyne yeards and planting, which with a great estate therabout 
belonged formerly to the E. Marr and now to the E. Panmure 
and is called the Castle of Brechine, the toune is tollerablie 
well built and hath a considerable trade by reason of ther 
vicinitie to Montross, being four myles distant from it but 
that which most enriches the place is ther frequent faires and 
mercats, which occasions a great concourse of people from all 
places of the Countrey having a great fair of cattle, horse, and 
sheep, the wholl week after Whytsunday and the Tuesday 
therafter a great mercat in the toune. they have a weekly 
mercat every Tuesday throughout the year, where ther is a 
great resort of highland men with timber, peats and heather 
and abundance of muirfoull and extraordinarie good wool in 
its seasone. Item a great weekly mercat of cattle from the first 
of October to the first of Januare called the Crofts mercat. 
Item a great horse mercat weekly throughout all Lent. Item 
a great horsefair called Palmsundays fair. It is a very 
pleasant place and extraordinare good land about it. E. 
of Southesk hes a great interest lykwayes in the parish. 
Ballnabriech belonging to the Laird of Balnamoone a good 
hous and a considerable thing Cookstoune to John Carnegy 
lyeth very pleasantly at the Northport of Brechine and is a 
good land, the laird of Findourie hath a considerable interest 
ther most of it in acres about the toun, a good hous and well 
planted Arrot belonging to the Viscount of Arbuthnet is a 
fine litle hous lying upon the northsyd of Southesk with a 
fishing. Auldbar hath lykwayes an interest there. Pit fort hie, 
Rait, Keathock Edgar with a good new hous built by this 
present Laird. M r Skinner Minister. 

Strickathroe a great pairt of the parish belongs to Sir 
David Falconer Lord President of the Colledge of Justice, and 






PEART LOGIE DUN MONTROSE 41 

lyes on the south syd of Northesk and is called the barronie of 
Dunlappie. Stricka throe, Turnbull hath a good estate in it, 
as also the E. Southesk M r Couttis Minister, in the diocese 
of Brechine. E. of Southesk and Lord President patrons and 
present per vices. 

Peart is'ane excellent sweet place, lyeth on the southsyd of 
Northesk, excellent good land and belongeth equallie to Sir 
Jo" Falconer of Galraw and James Scott of Logie, where 
there is a large stone bridge of two great arches over the 
water of Northesk built by one of the Lairds of Dun, but not 
being altogether finished, there was railles put upon the same 
of very good hewen stone amounting to a great expense by 
this present Laird of Dun. M r Guild Minister, in the diocese 
of Brechine, heretors patrone, the Ministers there are 
Chanters of Brechine. 

Logie, the chief heretor is the Laird of Logie Scot, a gentle- 
man of a good estate therabout. Gulraw belonging to Sir 
Jo n Falconer, ane excellent new built hous with much old 
planting and fyne yeards and salmond fishing. Craigs to M r 
James Carnegy all lying very pleasantly upon the southsyd of 50. 
Northesk. M r Symsone Minister in the diocese of Brechine. 

Dun the whole parish did formerly belong to the Lairds of 
Dun, as did the parish of Logie and barrony of Arrot. it is 
ane ancient and honourable family, it is a great hous, well 
planted, good yeards and orchards the situatione is pleasant 
and extraordinare good land, hath a large outter court and the 
Church on the southeast syd therof, and the Ministers manse 
hard by it lyes on the Northsyd of Southesk where he hath a 
good salmond fishing. M r Lichtoune Minister, in the diocese 
of Brichen the Laird patrone. 

Montrose is a royall burgh, have a provost, four bailzies and 
Dean of the Gild and others, its a very handsome, well built 
toune, of considerable trade in all places abroad, good houses 
all of stone, excellent large streets a good tolbuith and church, 
good shipping of ther own a good shore at the toune, a myle 
within the river of Southesk. but the entrie is very dangerous 
for strangers that know it not by reason of a great bank of 
sand that lyeth before the mouth of the entrie called Long 
Ennell, but that defect is supplied by getting pilots from the 



42 MONTROSE 

nighbouring fisher touns of UHshavene or Ferredene, who 
know it so well that they cannot mistake, its a very cheap 
place of all things necessare except hous rent which is dear by 
reason of the great distance they are from stones and makes 
ther building very dear, yet notwithstanding they are con- 
stantly building both in the toune and suburbs which is at a 
considerable distance from the toune in the links and is ther 
malthouses and kills and granaries for comes, of thrie storie 
high and some more and are increased to such a number that 
in a short tyme its thought they will equall if not exceed the 
toune in greatness, they are wel appointed of flesches and 
fishes which are extraordinare cheap in that place and have 
them in great abundance of all sorts, they have good publick 
revenue two wind milnes ane hospitall with some mortifica- 
tiones belonging to it, they are mightie fyne burgesses and 
delicat painfull merchants, there lies beene men of great sub- 
stance in that towne of a long time and yet are, who have and 
are purchasing good estates in the Countrey. the generalitie 
of the burgesses and merchants do very far exceed these in any 
other toune in the shyre. they have a good landward parish 
and severall heretors therein viz. Logic Scot before mentioned 
who hath very good houses and yeards in the toune Kinnaber 
Fullertoune a pleasant place lying on the southsyde of North- 
esk with salmond fishings. Borrowfeild Taylzeor Heatherweck 
a new built fyne hous belonging to David Scott M r Lyell 
and M r Mill Ministers, in the diocese of Brechine the toun 
patrons. 

Inchbraick formerly belonging to Sir John Carnegy a second 
son of the hous of Southesk, now to Patrick Scott son to 
James Scott of Logic sometime provost of Montross. it is a 
great estate, excellent good land lying upon the southsyd of 
the water of Southesk untill ye come to the mouth of the 
water and then turneth West the coast untill ye pass Ulis- 
havene a fishertoune of his. he hath another called Ferredene 
and hath salmond fishings ther the river makes ane Island 
betwixt Montross and Ferredene where the kirk in old stood 
and the whole parish is designed from the Island and is still 
the buriall place of the parish, they alwayes wait the low 
water and carries over ther dead then being almost dry on the 






MARIETOUNE KINNAIRD FARNELL 43 

southsyd, when it is low water. He hath thrie houses there 
viz. Craig, Rossie, two excellent houses welbuilt with excellent 
good yeards orcheards and planting. Craig hath ane excellent 
fountaine with a large bason of hewen stone whereunto water 
is conveyed by pypes of lead from a spring at a good distance. 
Baldovie a gentlemans hous of the name of Dundas farther 
up the southsyd of Southesk with a salmond fishing Duny- 
nald belonging to Thomas Allerdice a second son of the house 52. 
of Allerdyce of that ilk in Mernes, a good estat and a fyne 
new built hous, witli good yeards wher there is great plentie 
of excellent lyme stone, it lyes upon the coast, which all 
alongst from Montross is a rockie iron coast and there is a 
large spacious bay, which makes a sure and saif road for any 
ships in a storm called Lou nan houp. M r Mathie Minister, 
in the diocese of Brechine. 

Marietoune that parish lyes upon the southsyd of Southesk 
from Baldovie up to Kinnaird. there are therein Old Montros 
formerly belonging to the Marques of Montross and is their 
title, now to the E. Middletoune one of his Majesties Secre- 
taries of State a pleasant place good hous excellent yeards and 
planting delicat land with a salmond fishing on the water. 
Bonnietoun belonging to Sir Jon Wood ane ancient gentleman 
and good estate well planted, good yeard orcheard and dou- 
coat. and excellent good land. DysartLyell, a good hous lyes 
on the coast be west Dunynald with a doucoat. M r Lindsay 
Minister, in the diocese of Brechine. Bishop therof patrone. 

Kinnaird and Farnell, both those parishes belong entirelie 
to the E. Southesk. Without competition the fynest place, 
(taking altogether) in the shyre, a great hous, excellent gar- 
dines, parks with felow-deer orcheards, hay meadowes wherein 
are extraordinare quantities of hay. very much planting, ane 
excellent breed of horse, catle and sheep, extraordinare good 
land. Farnell is lykwayes ane extraordinare sweet place, 
delicat yeards and very much planting. My Lord is patrone 
of both, and are in the diocese of Brechine, the familie is very 
ancient and honourable thir six generations in Queene Marie 
Regent, Queen Marie, King James the Sixth King Charles the 
first and his Majestic now raigning, they have been Officers of 
State and privie Counselors and have all of them been very S3. 



44 ARBROATH KINNELL INNERKILLOR 

famous for ther loyal tie and of lait have suffered much upon 
that accompt and have been honoured by having this present 
kings Majestic his father and grandfather of blissed memorie 
at ther house of Kinnaird. upon the Westsyde of both 
parishes lyes that great and spacious forrest called Mont 
roy mont belonging to his Lordship and abounding in wyld 
foul and haires. 



PRESBITRIE of ARBROTH 

The Presbitrie of Arbroth is divided in eleven parishes viz. 
Kinnell, Innerkillor, Lounane, St. Vigeans, Arbroth, Arbirlot, 
Carmyllie, Idvie, Guthrie, Panbryd, Barrie. 

Kinnell. most pairt of the parish belongs to Earl Southesk 
being adjacent to Farnell and Kinnaird with the house of Bal- 
sliione well planted with excellent fyne yeards Easter Braickie 
belonging to Sir Franciss Ogilvy of New Grange a great grand- 
child of the house of Airlie. Wester Braickie a gentleman of 
a nigh relation of the hous of Gray both good houses and well 
planted. M r Thompsone Minister in the diocese of St. 
Andrewes. Archbishop patrone. 

Innerkillor, most part of the parish belongs to E. Northesk 
as the barronies of Ethie and Reidcastle with others. Ethie 
is the principall dwelling, a very good hous laitly reedified by 
Jo n E. Ethie Grandfather to this present E. and who was a 
son of the hous of Southesk a noble, worthie and loyall 
persone who suffered much for his loyaltie, as was also his son 
the Earl Northesk father to the present E. they have fyne 
yeards orcheards and park, it lyes pleasantly on the coast be 
west Lounanhoup formerly spoken to and is very good land 
and hath a fisher toune belonging therto called Auchmuthie 
54. belonging therto whereby they are abundantly served of all 
kinds of fishes all seasons of the yeir. in the rocks of Ethie 
there engendreth ane excellent falcone yearly. Abundance 
of sea foul and Kittie Waicks formerly spoken of. ReidCastle 
ane old hous upon the seasyd under the walls wherof runs the 
river of Lounane. King William when he built the Abbey of 
Arbroth, dwelt there. Laird of Boysack a grandchild of the 
house of Northesk, hath a good estate there and a good hous 






ST. VIGEANS ABERBROTHOCK 45 

called Boysack on the water of Lounan, the Laird of Bonnie- 
toune hath a considerable interest in the parish. Breyingtoun 
belonging to M r Jo n Rait Minister a gentleman of the hous of 
Halgreen in the Mernes. Lawtoune to Gairdyne of that ilk a 
very ancient familie and chief of his name. M r Rait Minister 
in the Diocese of St. Andrews. Earl Panmure patrone. 

St. Vigeans lyeth about a myll above Arbroth on the water 
therof ane old great kirk built upon ane high artificial mount, 
as is famed by one Vigeanus a religious man and was Canonized 
and the church beares his name, places in the parish are 
Innerpeffer with a considerable interest belonging to the E. 
Panmure. a pleasant sweet place lying upon the coast thrie 
myles be west Arbroth, fyne yeards orchard and planting and 
although it be in St. Vigeans, yet the whole parish of Abirlot 
is interjected betwixt them. Northtarrie belonging to E. 
Northesk welplanted with yeards and orchards, lyeth on the 
eastsyd of the water of Brothock. Lethem on the westsyd of 
the said water, a pleasant place with good yeards orcheard 
well planted with a hay meadow belonging to Sir Jon Wood 
of Bonnietoun. New Grange lyeing on the eastsyd of the said 
water good yeards well planted and pleasant meadowes. Col- 
lestoune presently purchased by Doctor Gordone, good hous, 55. 
planting and meadowes. Parkconnone Ramsay, Cairnetoune 
Ramsay, Muirhous belonging to the Laird of Guynd. Easter 
Seatoune, Crawfoord. Wester Seatoune Guthrie both lyeing 
together on the coast good houses, yeards and planting with a 
litlepark at the Easter Seatoun the rocks whereof abound with 
sea calves, sea foull and wyld pigeons. South Tarrie Leslie a 
fyne litle hous and yeards excellent ground lyeing at the east 
syd of the toune of Arbroth. Hospitalfeild and Kirktoune a 
pleasant place and good land belonging to a gentleman of the 
name of Fraser of the family of Filorth, where they gather 
abundance of that alga marina wherwith they dung their land 
to their great advantage. M r Strachane Minister, in the 
diocese of St. Andrews Earl Panmure patrone. 

Aberbrothock is a burgh royall, hath a provost, two Bailzies, 
whereof E. Panmure hath the electione of the first, it is a 
pleasant and sweet place and excellent good land about it. 
built upon the east syd of the water of Brothock. they have 



46 ABERBROTHOCK 

a shore some shipping and a litle small trade, it hath one 
long large street and some bystreets, its tolerablie well built 
and hath some very good houses in it, but the beautie and 
decorement of the place in tymes past, was that excellent 
fabrick and building of the Abbey therof built by King 
William King of Scots and endued by him and others with 
great rents and revenues and lyes buried there in a peice of 
very stately work built by himself for that purpose and is a 
very stately peice of work of thrie storie high, the wholl 
fabrick of the buriall place is still entier as at first and if it be 
not thrown downe may continue so for many generations, 
the laigh storie is the buriall place and the second and third 
stories were imployed for keeping the Chartours of the Monas- 
66. trie, there is one lodging remaining yet entier. it had a 
most stately Church with two great steeples on the west end 
therof. Most part of the church is ruined, but was the 
largest both for breadth and lenth, it is thought in Scotland 
there is much of the walls therof as yet standing in many 
places the tower thrie storie high is standing yet entier, and 
the roof on it ther was ane excellent roume called the fish hall, 
standing with ane excellent oak roof, but that with much more 
of the building by the avarice of the touns people about there all 
broken down and taken away, there was besyd the Cathedrall 
Church four chappies viz. St. Thomas Chappie, the Abbey 
being dedicat to St. Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canter- 
berrie. it was richly furnished and as a gentleman told me, 
he saw the verie things in a chappie at Parish and was told 
they were removed thither by the monks of Arbroth the tyme 
of reformation, extraordinare rich but of ane antique fashione. 
Lady Chappie, St. Ninians Chappie the Almeshouse Chappie 
is now possest be James Philp of Almryclose, his hous built of 
the stones therof, and hes all the apartments belonging 
therto, the fabrick was great and excellent, having many fyne 
gardines and orcheards now converted to arable ground about 
which is a high stone wall and now by the Kings gift belongs 
to the Bishop of Brechine. hardby the toune upon the eastsyd 
is Newgait belonging to a Gentleman of the name of Carnegy 
of the family of Southesque, a very good hous and pleasant 
place. Almryclose is in the head of the toune and good hous 



ARBIRLOT CARMYLLIE IDVIE GUTHRIE 47 

and yeards Sunddie croft a litle interest belonging to a gentle- 
man of the name of Peirsone is ancient and without debait 57. 
chief of his name. M r Carnegy Minister, in the diocese of St. 
Andrews, the Kings Majestic patrone. 

Arbirlot. most pairt of the parish with the hous of Kellie 
which formerly belonged to the Lairds of Ouchterlony of that 
ilk, belongs now to Henry Maull thrid brother to the present 
E. Panmure, is a good and very great house well planted and 
stands very pleasantly on the water of Eliot, the rest of the 
parochine belongs to the E. Panmure is excellent good ground 
and lyes alongst the coast two or thrie myles. M r M c Gill 
Minister, in the diocese of St. Andrews, the Earl of Panmure 
patrone. 

Carmyllie the most part of the parish belongs to the Earl 
of Panmure with the house of Carmyllie. Carnegy belonging 
to the E. Southesk and is the tittle of the eldest sone of 
the familie, is a good hous well grassed, a good moss with 
ane excellent large park. Guynd a good hous with yeards 
and planting, lying upon the water of Eliot, belongs to 
Jo n Ouchterlony, lineal successor chief and representative of 
the ancient familie of Ouchterlony of that ilk. Cononsyth to 
a gentleman of the name of Rait of the familie of Halgreen in 
the Mernes. M r Ouchterlony last Minister, now vacant within 
the diocese of Brechine Earl Panmure patrone. 

Id vie the Laird of Gardyne of that ilk formerly spoken of, 
hath the most part of the barronie of Gairdyne except the 
hous and Maynes which belong to a gentleman of the name 
of Ruthvene Barronie of Idvie to Sir Jo n Wood of Bonnie- 
toune. Pitmowes belonging to Jon Ogilvy a grandchyld of 
a second sone of the hous of Airlie, a good hous well planted 
and lyes pleasantly on the water of Evenie. M r Balwaird 
Minister, in the Diocese of St. Andrewes. Archbishop patrone. 58. 

Gu thrie the most pairt of the parish belongs to the Laird 
of Guthrie of that ilk, a very ancient gentleman and chief of 
his name, his hous is well planted, good yeards and orchards 
good land well grassed and lyes pleasantly on the head of the 
water of Lounane in Strathbegg. Pitmowes and Commisher 
Wisheart have some interest there. Carbuddo a gentleman 
of the name of Erskine a Cadent of the hous of Dun lyes at 



48 PANBRYD 

a great distance from the kirk and had a chappie of ther 
own, wherein the Minister of Guthrie preached every thrid 
or fourth Sabbath day but is now ruinous, it is abundantly 
served of peat and turf not only for ther oun use but for 
the service of the wholl countrey about, is a muirish cold 
countrey and at a great distance from all gentlemans houses 
and kirks about it. M r Strachane Minister in the diocese of 
Brechine. Guthrie patrone. 

Panbryd alias St. Brigid, the wholl parish except the 
barronie of Panbryd which belongs to the E. Southesk, apper- 
taines to E. Panmure, wherein stands the hous of Panmure 
new built and as is thought by many, except Halyruidhous r 
the best hous in the Kingdome of Scotland, with delicat 
gairdins with high stone walls, extraordinare much planting 
young and old, many great parks about the new and old house 
with a great deall of planting about the old house, brave hay 
meadows well ditched and hedged and in a word, is a most 
excellent sweet and delicat place, the family is very ancient and 
honourable and hes been alwayes very great and were reckoned 
befor they were nobilitat, the first barone of the shy re, they 
have allwayes been very famous for ther loyaltie and good 
59. service to ther princes. Patrick E. Panmure grandfather to 
the present Earl having served King James the Sixth and 
king Charles the first of blissed memorie, loyallie, faithfullie 
and truelie in the qualitie of Bedchamber man, was advanced 
by King Charles the first to the dignitie of ane Earle and did 
continue in his service and dutie to his sacred Majestic in 
all his solitudes and troubles through all the pairts of the 
Kingdome in the tyme of the rebellion and afterward in all 
places of his confynment and at the Isle of Weight till the 
bloodie traitors who afterwards imbrued ther hands in his 
sacred blood thrust him from his attendance, but was the 
last Scots man that attended his Majestic. It is lykwayes 
known how the late Earl his sone being a Colonel of horse 
behaved himself when this present King his Majestic, was in 
Scotland both at Dunbar Innerkething, and other places, and 
whose estate was robbed and spoylt by the usurpers forces, 
here, and fyned in a vast soume of money whereby he was 
forced to redeem his estate from forfaultre. the place is also 



BARRIE 49 

famous for that great battle fought there betwixt the Scots 
and Danes, wherin the Scots obtained a great victorie and is 
called the battle of Panmure ther was one of the Lairds of 
Pan mure killed at the famous battle of Harlaw and most of 
all his name in his princes service against rebells and usurpers. 
Balmachie belonging to a gentleman of the name of Carnegy 
of the familie of Southesk. M r Maull Minister in the diocese 
of Brechine Earl Panmure patrone and hes newly reedified 
his buriall place with a chamber above with a loft in the 
kirk most sumptous and delicat. he hath at Panmure a most 
excellent breed of horse and cattle. 

Barrie. it belongs to severall heretors. E. Panmure hath 60. 
an Interest therein and the wholl parish pay him few, hath a 
Bailiery and keeps courts there. Woodhill, Kid, a pleasant 
place, Grange of Barrie, Watsone, Ravensbay pertaining to 
the Laird of Gairdyne of that ilk Pitskellie Alexander, Car- 
nustie to M r Patrick Lyon advocat, the rest are but small 
heretors. It is an excellent countrey, good cornes and well 
grassed it is famous for that great battle fought betwixt 
the Scots and Danes in the links of Barrie wherein the Scots 
obtained the victorie with great slauchter of both Scots and 
Danes which is to be seen at this day by ther great heapes 
of stones castin together in great heapes in diverse places of 
that links, which is said to be the burial of the dead ther 
slain, those of the Danes who escaped the slauchter of that 
battle fled with ther General Camus and were overtaken by 
the Scots four myles from that place and defeat, ther Generall 
Camus being slaine upon the place with many others. Camus 
with all the dead were buried there and a great highstone croce 
erected upon him which is still extant and gives name to the 
place being called Camustone and the pillar the Croce of 
Camustoune it belongeth to the E. of Panmure. Within 
tlies two or thrie yeires the Croce by violence of wind and 
weather did fall, which the Earl caused reerect and fortifie 
against such hazard in tyme to corne. the remainder of the 
Danes that escaped that battle fled northward wher they were 
overtaken by the Scots at a place in this Shyre called Aber- 
lemno ten myles distant from Camustoune and ther beat and 
all of them either killed or taken and there its probable some 

VOL. II. D 



50 FAMILY OF OUCHTERLONY 

great man was killed ther being ane other croce erected there 
61. and called the Crocestoun of Aberlemno. they have both of 
them some antique pictures and letters so worne out with 
tyme, that they are not legible or rather the characters are 
not intelligible in thir tymes. Barrie lyes midway betwixt 
Dundie and Arbroth, six myles distant from either. M r Car- 
negy Minister, in the diocese of St. Andrews the Kings 
Majestic patrone. 

ANCIENT FAMILIES in the SHYRE. 

Noblemen. E. Strathmore, Southesk, Airlie, Panmure, 
L. Gray. Gentlemen Lairds of Edzell Dun, Pitcur, Pourie- 
Fothringham Fintrie Claverhous, Innercarritie, Bonnietoune, 
Ouchterlony of that ilk Gairdyne of that ilk, Auchinlek of 
that ilk. Grange-Durhame Balmashanner, Guthrie of that ilk, 
Baljordie, Balfour Ogilvy, Strath martine, Nevoy of that ilk, 
Ruthvene, Deuchar of that ilk. Thornetoune of that ilk. 

Many great families are extinct in this shyre within these 
few yeires as E. Buchane, Dundie, E. Crauford, Lords Spynie 
Olyfant besydes many considerable barrens and gentlemen 
whose estates are purchased by private persons and by mer- 
chants and burgesses of the severall burghs of the shyre. 

The Shyre is aboundantlie furnished of all things necessare 
for life, such abundance of cornes and cattle that the con- 
sumption within the countrey is not able to spend the sixt 
part therof. 

I will add no more for our familie of Ouchterlony of that 
ilk but what I have said in the generall description of some 
places we have and had concern in. but that I have ane 
accompt of the marriages of the familie thes fifteen genera- 
tions viz. first Stewart of Raisyth in Fyff'e, 2. Maull of 
Panmure, 3. Ogilvy of Lentrathene predecessor to the Lords 
of Ogilvy, 4 th Gray of the Lord Gray, 5 th Drummond of Stob- 
hall now Perth, 6 th Keith, Lord Mareshall, 7th Lyon Lord 
'~- Glames 8 th Cunningham of Barnes, 9 th Stewart of Innermeath, 
10 th Olyphant of the Lord Olyphant, 11 th Scrimgeor of 
Dudope, 12 th Beatoun of Westhall, 13 th Peirsone of Loch- 
lands, 14 th Carnegy of Newgait, 15 th Maull cousirie germane 



GALLOWAY 51 

to the deceist Patrick E. of Panmure. all these are daughters 
of the abovewrettin families, the familie is very antient and 
very great having above fourteen score chalders of victuall 
which was a great estate in those days, my Grandfather told 
me he saw a letter from Sir William Wallace Governour of 
Scotland directed to his trustie and assured friend the Laird 
of Ouchterlony of that ilk requyring him in all heast to repair 
to him with his friends and servants, notwithstanding his 
pass was not out, which pass did bear, allowing him to travaill 
from Cunninghame head to Ouchter Meigitie now Balmadies, 
which was his place of residence about his lawfull affairs and 
to repaire to him againe in a short tyme therein prescrived 
for its lyke, says he, we will have use for you and other honest 
men in the Countrey within a short tyme and accordingly 
the barns of Air were burnt shortly therafter, the letter and 
pass are both together, probablie the Laird of Drum who 
purchased the estate hath these and other antiquities of our 
familie but they cannot be had for the present. 

The Armes of our familie are thus blazoned beares Azur a 
Lyon rampant argent within a border Gules entoyre of eight 
buckles above the shield ane Helmet mantled Gules and 
doubled Argent and on the Torse for a crest ane Eagle dis- 
played Azur with ane Escolope in hir buik argent and the 
motto above the Crest Deus mihi adjutor. 



A LARGE DESCRIPTION of GALLOWAY the 63. 

parishes in it, by M r ANDREW SYMSON. 

Whereas there came lately to my hands some printed 
sheets, bearing the Nuncius Scoto-Britannus sive Admonitio 
de Atlante Scotice & c together with an account of the Scotish 
Atlas & c subjoynd thereto, wherein it is desired that you 
may receave Answers to severall queries emitted by you, or 
what other information can be had for the embellishment of 
that work which you are to publish in obedience to his sacred 
Majesties commands. I have judged it not altogether ex- 
centrical to my profession to comply something with my 
Genius and therefore have drawn up this following informa- 



52 GALLOWAY 

tion ; which although in generall it may serve for the whole 
tract of Galloway, and more particularly for the Meridian of 
the presbitry of Vigton, in one of the parishes whereof I have 
(by the providence of God, and the protection of his Sacred 
Majesties Laws) for more than twentie yeares been a residenter, 
per varios cams et per discrimina rerum. 

When I mention the distance of places, I would not be 
understood as speaking exactly, geometrically or in recta 
lined, but only according to the vulgar account, and as the 
Countrey people do commonly estimate the same. And so 
also mentioning East, West, North, South & c I do not always 
mean exactly, according to that very point of the compass, 
but only that the place spoken of lyes towards that part, 
although it may be three or four points distant from the 
exact Cardinal point made mention of. 

The tract of ground called commonly by the name of 
Galloway reacheth from the port which is upon the Bridge 
of Dumfreise (under which the river of Nith runneth) unto 
the Mule of Galloway and extendeth, according to the 
vulgare estimation, to about threescoir and four miles in 
length. 

This tract of ground hath on the east Nithisdale, on 
the south and west it is environed with the sea; on the 
North it is bounded with the shire of Air viz. Kyle and 
Camct. 

Although this whole tract hath the name of Galloway, yet 
it is not subject to one and the same Jurisdiction, nether 
Civil, nor Ecclesiastical, nor Consistorial. 

We shall divide it with respect to its civil Jurisdiction, and 
as we speake particularly thereof, we shall also take notice of 
the other Jurisdictions contained therein. 

With reference to its Civil Jurisdiction, it is divided into 
the Stewartry of Kirkcudburgh and the Shire of Wigton ; 
whereof the Stewartry exceeds the shire, both in bounds and 
Valuation, being valued at 5-5-8 parts; whereas the shire is 
only valued at Sn-8 parts. 

The Stewartry of Kirkcudburgh is bounded on the East with 
Nithisdale ; on the South with the sea; on the West with 
the shire of Vigton and parted therefrom by the river of 



TRAQUEER NEW ABBEY KIRKBEEN 53 

Cree. On the North it is bounded partly with Kyle, partly 
with Carrick. 

The Stewartry of Kirkcudburgh containes twenty eight prin- 
cipal parishes viz. 

1. Traqueer. The Bishop of Galloway is patron hereof it 
being a pendicle of the Abbacy of Tongueland of which more 
hereafter, when we shall have occasion to answer the Querie 
concerning the revenues of the Bishoprick of Galloway. The 
parish kirk is twenty four miles distant from the town of 
Kirkcudburgh and about a quarter of a mile distant from the 
town of Dumfreise. The parish of Traqueer is bounded on 
the east with the toun, and parish of Dumfreise, from which 
it is separated by the river of Nith. On the south it is 
bounded with the parish of New Abbey. On the West with 
the parish of Lochruiton and on the Northwest with the 
parish of Terregles. 

2. New Abbey. The Bishop of Edinburgh is patron hereof; 
which with six other Kirks depending thereon viz : Kirkcud- 
burgh, Bootle Keltoun, Corsemichael, Kirkpatrick and Orr, 
(of all which more hereafter) were formerly appointed for 
the maintaining of the Castle of Edinburgh, but when King . 
Charles the Martyr thought fit to erect the Bishoprick of 
Edinburgh, his Majesty disjoined the said Kirk of New Abbey, 65. 
with the other six Kirks depending thereon from the Castle of 
Edinburgh, and gave them to the Bishoprick of Edinburgh 
towards the maintenance of the Bishop of that Sea. The 
Kirk of New Abbey is bounded on the East with the parish 
of Karlaverock (in the shire of Nithisdale), from which it is 
separated by the river of Nith ; on the south it is bounded 
with the parish of Kirkbeen. On the West with the parish 
of Kirkgunnion. On the Northwest with the parish of Loch- 
ruiton ; and on the North with the parish of Traqueir. 

3. Kirkbeen. Maxwell of Kirkhouse is patron hereof. The 
parish kirk is twentie four miles distant from the town of 
Kirkcudburgh and nine miles distant from the town of Dum- 
freise. This Kirk [with some others, of which more hereafter 
in the description of the parish of Terregles] depended of old 
upon the pro vestry of Lincluden. The parish of Kirkbeen is 
bounded on the east partly with the parish of Karlaverock 



54 COWEND ORR KIRKPATRICK-DURHAM 

(from which it is separated by the river of Nith) and partly 
with the sea. On the south it is bounded with the sea. On the 
southwest with the parish of Suddick (of which in the descrip- 
tion of the parish of Cowend) on the west with the parish of 
Kirkgunnion, and on the north with the parish of New Abbey. 

4. Cowend. The Marquess of Queensberry is Patron of 
this parish of Cowend, (which also of old depended on the 
provestry of Lincluden, of which hereafter in the description 
of the parish of Terregles). But there is another parish 
annext thereto called Southwick (pronounced Siddick or 
Suddick) whereof the Bishop of Dumblain is patron It 
belonging, as I suppose to the Abbacy of Dundranan (of which 
hereafter) to which Abbacy the Bishop of Dumblain hath 
right as Dean of his Majesties Chapel Royal. Tis said that 
this Suddick is directly south from John a Groatis house in 
Cathness. The parish Kirk of Cowend is thirteen miles 
distant from the town of Kirkcudburgh and fourteen miles 
distant from the toun of Dumfreise. The parish of Cowend 
with the annext parish of Suddick is bounded on the east with 
the parish of Kirkbeen ; on the south with the sea ; on the 

66. west partly with the parish of Orr, and partly with the parish 
of Bootle (from which it is separated by the river of Orr) and 
partly with the parish of Dundranan (from which it is sepa- 
rated by ane arme of the sea. On the North it is bounded 
with the parish of Kirkgunnion. 

5. Orr. The Bishop of Edinburgh is patron hereof as 
depending on New Abbey. The Kirk of Orr is twelve miles 
distant from the toun of Kirkcudburgh, and twelve miles 
distant from the toun of Dumfreise. The parish of Orr is 
bounded eastwardly with the parish of Kirkgunnion. On the 
southeast with the parish of Cowend ; on the south southwest 
with the parishes of Bootle and Corsemichael from both 
which parishes it is separated by the river of Orr. On the 
Northwest it is bounded with the parish of Kirkpatrick 
Durham. On the North with the parish of Irongray, and on 
the Northeast it is bound with the parish of Lochmiton. 

6. Kirkpatrick. This parish to distinguish it from other 
Kirkpatricks is called also Kirk Patrick Durham. The lands 
in this parish belonging to M c Naiglit of Kilquonadie pertained 






KIRKPATRICK-IRONGREY TERREGLES 55 

of old to the name of Durham. The Bishop of Edinburgh 
as having a right to New Abbey is patron of this parish. 
This Kirk of Kirkpatrick Durham is thirteen miles distant 
from the toun of Kirkcudburgh, and eleven miles distant from 
the town of Dumfreis. The Parish of Kirkpatrick Durham is 
bounded on the East with Kirkpatrick Iron Gray. On the 
southeast with parish of Orr. On the south it is bounded 
with the parish of Corsemichael, from which it is divided by 
the river of Orr; on the southwest and westwardly it is 
divided from the parish of Partan by the river of Orr ; on the 
northwest and westwardly it is bounded with the parish of 
Balmaclellan from which it is separated by the said river of 
Orr. On the North it is bounded partly with the parish of 
Glencairn within the shire of Nithisdale and Presbetry of 
Pinpont and partly with the parish of Dunscore within the 
shire of Nithisdale and Presbetry of Dumfreise. 

7. Iron Grey called also Kirkpatrick Irongrey. M c brair of 
New Wark is patron hereof. The parish Kirk of Iron Grey 67. 
is twentie three miles distant from the toun of Kirkcudburgh 
and thrie miles distant from the toun of Dumfreis. This 
parish of Iron Grey is bounded on the East with the parish 
of Terregles. On the southeast with the parish of Lochmiton. 
on the south with the parish of Orr, on the south southwest 
with the parish of Kirkpatrick Durham. On the west and 
north with parish of Dunscore ; on the Northeast and North- 
wardly with the parish of Holy wood in the shire of Nithisdale 
and presbetry of Dumfreis, from which parish of Holywood 
to the Northeast, this parish of Iron Grey is divided by the 
water of Cluden. 

8. Terregles. Concerning the Latine name of it, one man 
told me it was terra regalls. Another said, it was tertia Ecclesia. 
A third said it was Terra Ecclesia, so that it should be spell'd 
perhaps Tereglise. And as there is some debate concerning 
its name, so there is about its patronage. The Earl of Nithis- 
dale and the Marquess of Queensberry each of them pretend- 
ing thereto. Which of them hath the best right, I shall not 
take upon me to determine however the Intrant for his better 
securitie, doth commonly procure a presentation from each of 
them, but then again the Archbishop of Glasgow comes in for 



56 LOCHMITON KIRKGUNNION 

his phare and pretends that Jus patronatus belongs to him 
and thereupon grants a presentation himself and gives Colla- 
tion only thereupon. The parish Kirk is distant from the town 
of Kirkcudburgh twentie three miles ; and a large mile distant 
from the toim of Dumfreis. It is but a small parish. It is 
bounded on the east with the parish of Dumfreis, and sepa- 
rated from it by the river of Nith, on the South East it is 
bounded with the parish of Traqueer. On the South and South- 
west with the parish of Lochmiton ; on the West with the 
parish of Iron Grey ; on the North with the parish of Holy- 
wood from which it is divided by the water of Cluden, which 
emptietli itself in the river of Nith. Near to this water of 
Cluden is a place called the Colledge or Provestry of Lincluden, 
on which this parish of Terregles, together with the parishes of 
Kirkbeen, Co wend and Lochmiton together also with the 
parish of Carlaverock in the shire of Nithisdale, did of old 
depend. 

9. Lochmiton. The Marquess of Queensberry is patron 
hereof. It did of old depend upon the provestry of Lincluden 
as hath been said in the description of the parish of Terregles. 
The parish Kirk is twenty miles distant from the town of 
Kirkcudburgh, and four miles distant from the town of 
Dumfreise. The parish of Lochmiton is bounded on the 
East with the parish of Traqueer. On the Southeast with 
the parish of New Abbey ; on the South with the parish of 
Kirkgunnion. On the Southwest and Westwardly with the 
parish of Orr : On the North with the parish of Iron Grey. 
On the North and Northeast with the parish of Terregles. 

10. Kirkgunnion (or Kirkgunguent as I am informed, ab 
extrema unctione, it being a pendicle of the Abbey of Holme 
in Cumberland). The Earl of Nithisdale is patron hereof. 
This parish Kirk is sixteen miles distant from the toun of 
Kirkcudburgh and eight miles distant from the toun of Dum- 
freise. This parish is bounded on the east with the parish of 
New Abbey, on the South with the two annext Parishes of 
Suddick and Cowend ; on the Southwest and Westwardly with 
the parish of Orr; and on the North with the parish of 
Lochmiton. 

As to the ecclesiastical Jurisdiction of these ten parishes 



KIRKCUDBURGH 57 

(being commonly called the ten Kirks beneath Orr) they ly 
within the Diocese of Glasgow, and are subjected to the care 
of the Archbishop thereof, and under him are a part of the 
Presbytry of Dumfreis and belong thereunto. These parishes 
.also (excepting Kirkgunnion) belong to the Jurisdiction of the 
Commissary of Dumfreis, who also hath his dependance upon 
the Archbishop of Glasgow. But as for Kirkgunnion it is a 
distinct Commissariot within itself where the Earl of Nithisdale 
is heretable Commissary, but from whom the said Earl derives 
his authority I know not. The reason why it is a distinct 
Commissariot within itself and independent upon any Bishop 
of Scotland, seems to be this, because, as said is, it being a 
pendicle of the Abbey of Holm in Cumberland and no Scottish 
Bishop hath any right to the said Abbey, and consequently 
hath no right to the Commissariot in Kirkgunnion, which is, 
as hath been said, a pendicle thereof. 

31. Kirkcudburgh. So called from the Kirk dedicated to 
St. Cudbert. It hath two other Kirks annext thereto viz : 
Galtuay (pronounced Gaata) where Lidderdail of 

Isle hath his interest, and Dunrod appertaining to Sir David 
Dunbar of Baldone. Kirkcudburgh is the headburgh of the 
Stewartry being about twenty four miles from Dumfreis West- 
ward, and about sixteen miles eastward from Vigton. It is 
a burgh royal, having a weekly mercat much frequented, 
together with some other annual faires. It is situated in a 
very pleasant place, in a flexure of the river of Dee, more 
than a large mile from the mouth of that river. It hath an 
excellent natural harbour, to which ships of a very great 
burthen may at full sea come, and ly safely from all stormes, 
just at the side of the Kirk wall. This toun is commonly 
pronounced Kerkcubree, yea and commonly written Kirku- 
bright. but the true name is Kirkcudburgh. The Bishop of 
Edinburgh is patron of the Kirk of Kirkcudburgh. it being 
a pendicle of New Abbey. Above the influxe of the river of 
Dee is the Isle, calPd of old St. Maries Isle, a Priory. And 
therefore there is a mistake in John Speeds lesser Mapps 
(which are the only Mapps I have beside me at present) 
for in his Map of the Southern part of Scotland, he places 
St. Maria, on the West side of the mouth of Cree, which 



58 RE RICK BOOTLE 

should have been rather placed on the east side of the mouth 
of Dee. 

12. Rerick. This parish is also called the parish of Monkton 
from the Monks that dwelt in the Abbey of Dundranen, and 
from the said Abbey it is also called the parish of Dundranen. 
Neer to the Abbey is a rivulet called Greggen, from whence 

70. (as some assert) the Abbey now called and pronounced Dun- 
dranen, should be called Dungreggen. It is reported [how 
true I know not] that the famous M r Michael Scot was a 
Monk belonging to this Abbey. This parish of Rerick is 
bounded towards the West with the parish of Kirkcudburgh 
(the Kirk of Rerick being about four miles distant from the 
Kirk of Kirkcudburgh). On the South it is bounded by 
the sea. On the South East it is divided from a part of 
the parish of Cowend by a bay of the river of Orr, more 
eastwardly it is bounded with the parish of Bootle and then 
from the East inclining to the North, it is bounded with the 
parish of Gelston of which more hereafter in the description 
of the parish of Kelton. The Bishop of Dunblaine as Deane 
of the Chapel Royal is patron of the parish of Rerick, or 
Dundranen, and has a part of his revenue paid out of the 
lands of that Abbacy, he hath also a bailerie here heretablie 
exerc'd by the Earl of Nithisdale, whose Jurisdiction reacheth 
over the whole parish, except one Baronie called Kirkcastel 
belonging to the Laird of Broughton. In this parish of 
Rerick there is a good Milstone Quarrie, on the sea, called 
Airdsheugh, not far from which is a very safe harbour called 
Balcarie, of which lyeth a litle Island belonging to the Earl 
of Nithisdale, of about a mile circumference called the Isle of 
Haston, belonging also to the parish of Rerick, though some say 
it belongs to the parish of Bootle as lying much neerer to it. 

13. Bootle. This parish Kirk is about nine or ten miles 
distant from the town of Kirkcudburgh. The Bishop of Edin- 
burgh is patron of this parish also ; it being one of the 
parishes which depend on New Abbey. The Kirk was of old 
called Kirkennen, and was situated upon the river of Orr, neer 
the mouth of it, but for the more conveniency was translated 
to the very center of the parish and called Bootle, because 
built in the Baronie so called. The parish of Bootle is 



BOOTLE KELTON 59 

bounded on the east by the river of Orr, which divides it 
from the parishes of Orr and Cowend, towards the south and '//. 
West it is bounded with the parishes of Rerick and Gelston, 
(of which hereafter in the description of the parish of Kelton) 
towards the northwest it is bounded with the parish of Kelton, 
and towards the north with the parish of Corsemichael. In 
this parish of Bootle about a mile from the Kirk towards the 
North is a well, called the rumbling well, frequented by a 
multitude of sick people, for all sorts of diseases the first 
Sunday of May, lying there the Saturday night, and then 
drinking of it early in the morning. There is also another 
well about a quarter of a mile distant from the former, towards 
the East, this well is made use of by the countrey people when 
their cattel are troubled with a disease called by them the 
Connoch ; this water they carry in vessels, to many parts, and 
wash their beasts with it, and give it them to drink. It is 
to be remembred that at both the wells they leave behind them 
some thing of a thankoffering. At the first they leave ether 
money or cloathes ; at the second they leave the bands and 
shades, wherewith beasts are usually bound. 

14. Kelton. This parish Kirk is about eight miles distant 
from the town of Kirkcudburgh. The Bishop of Edinburgh 
is also patron hereof, it being one of the parishes depending 
on New Abbey. This parish of Kelton is bounded on the 
North with Corsemichael, toward the Northeast, East, and 
Southeast with the parish of Bootle, more Southerly with 
the parish of Rerick, towards the West it is bounded with 
the parish of Kirkcudburgh, as also by a part of the parishes 
of Tongueland and Balmaghie, from both which it is separated 
by the river of Dee. This parish of Kelton hath two other 
parishes annext thereto viz. Gelston and Kifkcormock, though 
both those Kirks are ruinous. Gelston in which the Earl of 
Galloway pretends an interest, lyes distant from the Kirk 
of Kelton a large mile, towards Southeast. Kirkcormock is 
only a chapel, and not, as it would seem, a compleat parish, 
though so ordinairly called, it depends on the Bishop of 71 
Edinburgh, is distant from Kelton about two miles towards 
the southwest, the Kirk or Chapel of Kirkcormock lying upon 
the very brink of Dee. 



60 CORSEMICHAEL PARTAN BALMACLELLAN 

15. Corsemichael. This parish Kirk is twelve miles distant 
from the town of Kirkcudburgh, keeping the way thereto 
upon the eastside of Dee, but it is only eight miles the neerest 
way, but then you must cross the water of Dee twice, viz. at 
the boat of Balmaghie, and at the toun of Kirkcudburgh. 
The Bishop of Edinburgh is patron of this Kirk also, it being 
another of the parishes depending on New Abbey. The parish 
of Corsemichael is bounded on the East with the parishes 
of Kirkpatrick and Orr, from both which it is divided 
by the river of Orr. On the south with the parishes 
of Bootle and Kelton ; on the West with the parish of 
Balmaghie from which it is separated by the river of Dee. On 
the North it is bounded with the parish of Partan. 

16. Partan. This parish Kirk, (being about two miles to 
the Northward distant from the Kirk of Corsemichael) is 
fourteen miles distant from the town of Kirkcudburgh, keep- 
ing the way on the east of Dee but it is only ten miles the 
neerest way, but then the water of Dee must be crossed twice. 
There are three pretenders to the Patronage of this Kirk. 
The Viscount of Kenmuir, the Laird of Partan, and the Laird 
of Drumrash. Which of them hath the best right, I know 
not, but upon their disagreeing, the Bishop of Galloway is 
necessitat sometimes to present thereto Jure devoluto. This 
parish of Partan is bounded on the East with the parishes of 
Dunscore and Kirkpatrick from both which it is separated by 
the water of Orr ; on the south with the parish of Corse- 
michael. On the West with the parish of Balmaghie and 
part of the Kells, from both which it is separated by the 
river of Dee. On the North it is bounded with the parish 
of Balmaclellan. 

These sixe parishes last described viz. Kirkcudburgh, Rerick, 
73. Bootle, Kelton, Corsemichael and Partan are all lying betwixt 
the Rivers of Orr and Dee. 

17. Balmaclellan. This parish Kirk, being about five or 
six miles to the Northward of the Kirk of Partan, will be 
about twenty miles distant from the town of Kirkcudburgh, 
by the way on the east side of Dee, but crossing at the boat 
of the Rhone viz. at the influx of the river of Dee into the 
Loch of Kenn, it will be but about fourteen miles distant 






DALRY 61 

from Kirkcudburgh. The Bishop of Dumblain is patron of 
the Kirk of Balmaclellan, as also of the Kirk of the Kells, of 
which more hereafter. If I mistake not, his right of patronage 
to these two Kirks, is as being Dean of the Chapel Royal 
and as such, hath a right to the Abbacy of Dundranen, and 
the Kirks depending thereon. This parish of Balmaclellan is 
bounded on the North with the parish of Dairy. On the 
Northeast and East with the parish of Glencairn in the shire 
of Nithisdale, and presbytry of Pinpont; on the Southeast 
with the parish of Dunscore in the said shire of Nithisdale and 
Presbytry of Dumfreis. On the South it is bounded with the 
parish of Partan ; on the West with the parish of the Kells 
and separated from it by the river of Kenn. 

18. Dairy. This Kirk being about two miles to the North- 
ward of Balmaclellan, will be more than twenty miles distant 
from the toun of Kirkcudburg, going by the way on the East- 
side of Dee, but crossing the river of Kenn and thence crossing 
at the boat of the Rone, and then again crossing at the toun 
of Kirkcudburgh it will be about sixteen miles distant there- 
from. The Viscount of Kenmuir is patron of Dairy, and it 
is, at least should be, a free parsonage. The kirk of Dairy 
is seated upon the east brink of the river of Kenn, and 
there is a very pleasant valley from thence down the river 
side. About a furlong distant from the east end of the Kirk 
there is a litle toun commonly called St. Johns Clachan or 
the old Clachan, partly belonging to the Earl of Galloway'^ 
and partly to the Laird of Earlstoun. This parish is bounded 
on the South with the parish of Balmaclellan, on the West 
with the parish of the Kells, from which it is seperated by 
the river of Kenn. On the North it is separated from the 
parish of Corsefairn by the said river of Kenn. On the North- 
east it is bounded partly with the parish of Cumlock in Kyle 
and partly with the parish of Sanquhair in Nithisdale. On 
the East it is bounded partly with the parish of Pinpont at 
Polskeoch and then with the parish of Glencairn in Nithis- 
dale, from which it is separated by the water of Castlefairne. 
Severall years since there was one who 

travelling and trading in England, acquired great riches, and 
having no children left a vast summe for maintaining of a 



62 CORSEFAIRNE KELLS 

free school in the parish of Dairy, but his money and papers 
falling into sacrilegious hands the pious designe of the donor 
was almost wholly maid void, however the affair is not so 
desperat, but if honest men in that parish would be active in 
it, they might yet recover a considerable part of it, though far 
from that which was at first appointed. 

19. Corsefairne. This parish kirk, being eight miles distant 
to the Northward from Dairy, will be more than twentie eight 
miles distant from Kirkcudburgh, going by the way on the 
Eastside of Dee, but crossing the river of Kenn twice, and 
then crossing Dee at the boat of the Rone, and the boat of 
Kirkcudburgh. it will be but about twentie four miles distant 
therefrom. The Bishop of Galloway is patron of the kirk of 
Corsefairne. This parish is in part bounded on the South 
with the parish of Dairy (and separated therefrom by the 
river of Kenn) and in part with the parish of the Kells, being 
of old a part of the said parish but now separated therefrom 
by Bourn which emptieth itself into the water 
of Kenn. On the West it is bounded with the parish of 

75. Monygaffe. On the Northwest with the parish of Dumull- 
ington. This parish of Corsefairn running up as far as Loch 
Dune. On the North East and East with the 

In this parish of Corsefairn there is a consider- 
able water called the Water of Deugh having its rise in the 

and runneth hard by the Kirk 

of Corsefairn, On the Westend thereof, and at length loseth 
its name by entering into the river of Kenn two miles beneath 
the said Kirk of Corsefairne. 

20. Kells. This parish Kirk will be but about fourteen 
miles distant from the town of Kirkcudburgh. The Bishop 
of Dumblain is patron hereof, of which formerly in the descrip- 
tion of the parish of Balmaclellan. The Kirk of the Kells 
stands about a short half mile on the Westside of the water 
of Kenn, opposit to the Kirk of Balmaclellan, which will be 
more than a mile distant from the eastside of the said river. 
In this parish about a furlong from the Westside of the river 
of Kenn is a litle Burgh royal named New-Galloway or the 
Newtoun, and hath a pretty good mercat every Wednesday 
beside a yearly fair. To the Southward of this town, is the 



BALMAGHIE 63 

Castle of Kenmuir, one of the dwelling houses of the Viscount 
of Kenmuir, it is pleasantly scituated on a mount, having a 
wood of great overgrowne oakes on the one side, viz. betwixt 
it and the towne, and on the other side pleasant meadows 
lying on the river of Kenn, Where here begins to run in a 
deep loch for the space of seaven or eight miles but four 
miles beneath the Kenmuir, at a point called the boat of the 
Rone, the river of Dee meeteth the said Loch of Kenn, and 
from thence to the sea, the River bears only the name of 
Dee. This parish of the Kells is bounded on the East with 
the parishes of Dairy and Balmaclellan and a part of Partan, 
from all which it is separated by the river of Kenn. Upon 
the Northwest and North it is bounded with the parish of 76. 
Corsefairne and separated from it by Bourn which 

empties itself into Kenn. On the West it is bounded with 
the parish of Monnygaste and a point of Girthtown, and 
at the Rone it is bounded southwardly with the parish of 
Balmaghie, from which three parishes, it is separated by the 
river of Dee. This parish of Kells, excepting about the 
Newton and the Kenmuir, is for the most part Muirs and 
Mountaines. 

These four last parishes above described viz. Balmaclellan, 
Dairy, Corsefairn, and the Kells, ly eastward of the River of 
Dee, and because the River of Kenn runs through them, there- 
fore they are commonly called Glenkennes. 

21. Balmaghie. This Kirk is about seaven miles distant 
from the toun of Kirkcudburgh. The Laird of Balmaghie 
is patron hereof. The parish of Balmaghie is bounded on 
the East with the parishes of Partan, Corsemichael, and 
Kelton, from all which it is separated by the river of Dee. 
On the South it is bounded with the parish of Tongueland. 
Towards the Southwest it is bounded with the parish of 
Borgue. Westward and Northwest it is bounded with the 
parish of Girthton. On the North it is bounded with 
the parish of Kells, from which it is separated by the river 
of Dee. In the river of Dee a litle beneath a place called the 
Graimefoord, lyes an Island calld ye Th reave, belonging to 
the said parish of Balmaghie. In this Island the Black 
Dowglass had a strong house wherein he sometime dwelt. 



fi4 BALMAGHIE TONGUELAND TWYNAM 

It is reported, how true I know not, that the peeces of money 
called Douglas groats were by him coyned here. As also here 
it was that he detained Sheriff M c Clellan prisoner and when 
the King sent him a letter requiring him to set him at liberty, 
he suspecting the purport of the message, took the messenger 
in, and by discourse entertained him, but in the meantime 
gave private orders to hang M c Clellan instantly. At lenth 
the letter being receavM and opened and the contents known, 
he regrated that the letter came no sooner, for the man was 
just hang'd which he let the messenger see by opening of a 
77. window. The common report also goes in that countrey, that in 
this Isle of the Threave, the great iron gun in the castle of Edin- 
burgh, called commonly Mount-Megg, was wrought and made ; 
but I am not bound to believe it upon their bare report. 

22. Tongueland. So called from a tongue of land lying 
betwixt the river of Dee, and a litle Water called the water 
of Tarffe, which hath its rise in the same parish, at the meeting 
of which two waters, there was the Abbay of Tongueland ; the 
steeple and part of the walls are yet standing. The Bishop of 
Galloway is patron hereof, and hath a regality or at least a 
Baronrie here, the Viscount of Kenmuir being heritable Bayly 
thereof. This Kirk is two miles distant from Kirkcudburgh. 
The parish of Tongueland is bounded on the East with the 
parishes of Kelton and Kirkcudburgh from both which it 
is separated by the river of Dee. Toward the South and 
Southwest it is bounded with the parish of Twynam, more 
Westwardly it is bounded with the parish of Borgue. On 
the West and Northwest with the parish of Girthon and on 
the North with the parish of Balmaghie. 

23. Twynam. This Kirk is distant two miles northward from 
Kirkcudburgh. Sir David Dunbar of Baldone is patron hereof. 
This parish of Twynam is bounded on the East and South with 
the parish of Kirkcudburgh from which it is divided by the 
river of Dee. On the West with the parish of Borgue 

The parish of Twyname hath another Kirk annexed thereto, 
though altogether ruinous, called Kirkchrist, lying upon the 
Westside of the river of Dee, not far from the brink thereof, 
just opposit to the toun of Kirkcudburgh. 



BORGUE 65 

24. Borgue. This parish Kirk is three miles westward distant 
from Kirkcudburgh. The Bishop of Galloway is patron of 
this parish. On the east it is bounded with the parish of 
Kirkcudburg from which it is divided by the river Dee, on the 
south it is bounded by the sea, on the West and part of the 76'. 
North by the parish of Girthton on the North also, in part, and 
wholly on the Northeast by the parish of Twynam. This 
parish of Borgue hath two other parishes annexed thereto, 
the one called Kirkanders, and the other Senick, whereof the 
Bishop of Galloway is also patron. This parish of Borgue 
with the other two parishes annext thereto, is about four miles 
in length, and for the most part three in breadth, except 
towards the foot thereof towards the seaside, where it will be 
four miles broad. The minister hereof is one of the members 
of the Chapter and of old was Praecentor. This parish 
abounds with plenty of corne, wherewith it furnishes many 
other places in the Stewartrie, supplying them both with meal 
and malt. In the midle of this parish, there is a good strong 
house, called the Castle of Plunton-Lennox, possessed of a long 
time by the name of Lennox, till of late when it came into 
the possession of Richard Murray of Broughton, whose Lady 
is one of that name, and family. In the parish of Sennick 
there is a very famous and large harbour, called the bay of 
Bemangane, 1 it is one of the best harbours in the West of 
Scotland ; for there ships of all sizes are secure, blow the wind 
which way it will. Adjacent to this Bay is a promontory 
called the Mickle Ross, wherein is to be seen the ruines of an 
old castle where in times past some of the inhabitants have 
digg'd up silver plate, as I am informed, as also therein have 
found certain peeces of silver with a strange and uncouth im- 
pression thereon, resembling the old Pictish coine. Half a 
mile from the Ross is the famous well of Kessickton, medicinal, 
as it is reported, for all sorts of diseases, the people hereabouts 
flocking to it in the summertime. In the Kirkyard of Kirk- 
anders upon the ninth day of August, there is a fair kept called 
Saint Lawrence fair, where all sort of merchant wares are to be 
sold, but the fair lasts only three or four houres and then the 



1 ' Balmangan ' interlined.. ED. 
VOL. II. 



66 GIRTHTON ANWOTH 

people who flock hither in great companies drink and debauch 
and commonly great leudness is committed here at this fair. 
79. A litle above Roberton, within half a mile of the Kirk of 
Kirkandres, is to be seen the ruines of an old town calPd 
Rattra, wherein, as the present inhabitant thereabouts say, 
was of old kept a weekly market, but the town is long since 
demolished, and neer the ruines thereof is now a litle village 
which yet retaines the name of the old town. Upon the coast 
of this parish are many sorts of white fish taken, one kind 
whereof is called by the Inhabitants Greyheads, which are a 
very fine firm fish, big like Haddocks, some greater, some lesser. 

25. Girth ton. This parish Kirk is about five miles to the 
Westward of Kirkcudburgh. The Bishop of Galloway is patron 
hereof. This parish of Girthton is bounded on the East with 
the parishes of Balmaghie and Borgue. On the South with 
the sea. On the West it is divided from the parish of Anwoth 
by the water of Fleet, (Speed calls it Flint), that hath its rise 
from the great mountain of Cairnsmuir lying to the Northwest. 
On the Northwest it joynes with the parish of Kirkmabreck. 
On the North it is bounded with the parish of Monnygaffe, 
and on the Northeast with the parish of the Kells from which it 
is separated by the river of Dee. About two miles from the 
Kirk of Girthton in the road way betwixt Dumfreise and 
Wigton, at a place called the Gatehouse of Fleet, there is a 
market for good fat Kine kept on the friday after the first 
thursday which is after the first Monday of Nov r and so every 
Friday thereafter, till Christmass. This market being ruPd 
by the dyetts of the Nolt market of Vigton, of which more 
hereafter in the description of that town and Parish. 

26. Anwoth. This parish Kirk is near seaven miles distant 
from the town of Kirkcudburgh. Westward just in the 
way betwixt Kirkcudburgh and Wigton. Sir Godfrey 
M c Culloch of Myrton as Laird of Cardiness is patron hereof. 
It is separated on the East from the parish of Girthton by the 

<w. water of Fleet. On the south it is bounded on the sea. On 
the west it is divided from the parish of Kirkmabrek by a 
rivulet called Skairsbourn, which having its rise from Cairns- 
muir and the adjacent northern mountains, will even in the 
summertime and in a moment almost, by reason of the mists 



KIRKMABRECK 67 

and vapours in those hills, be so great, that it will be hardly 
foordable which occasioned the proverb of Skairsbourns warn- 
ing applicable to any trouble that comes suddenly and un- 
expectedly. This sudden inundation proceeds as said is, from 
the mists and vapours on Cairnsmuir hence the common 
people say when that Cairnesmuir hath a hat, Palnure (of 
which more hereafter in the description of the river of Cree) 
and Skairsburn laugh at that. On the North the parish of 
Anwoth is bounded with the parishes of Kirkmabreck and 
Girthton. 

27. Kirkmabreck. So called from some saint or other, 
whose name they say was M c Breck a part of whose statue in 
wood, was about thirty years since, in ane old Chapel at the 
ferrietoun distant about to the of the Kirk 

of Kirk M c breck, which Kirk about thirty years since was 
taken down and left desolate and the parish Kirk was then 
built at the said Chapel, and therefore the parish is sometimes 
also called the Ferritoun, which Ferritown is a litle clachan 
upon the Eastside of the river of Cree, where there us'd to be 
a boat for the ferrying of passengers over water of Cree in 
their passage to Vigton, which is just opposit thereto and in 
view thereof though three or four miles distant. This Kirk of 
Ferritown is twelve miles distant from Kirkcudburgh West- 
ward. The Laird of Rusco is patron hereof. It hath another 
parish annexed thereto called Kirkdale or Kirdale being dis- 
tant from the old Kirk of Kilmabreck about a mile towards 
the and is a pendicle of the Abbacy of Dundranen ; 

the Kirk is wholly ruinous. About a furlong from the Kirk of 
Kirkdale towards the Southeast there is a cairn or great heap 
of small hand-stone with five or six high stones erected, 
besides which high stones, the smaller ones being removed by 81. 
the countrey people for building of their corne dikes, there 
were five or six tombs discovered, made of thin whinstones. 
In Camerotmuir in the said parish of Kirkdale, about a mile 
from the said Kirk northward there is a stone four or five foot 
in diameter, called the Pennystone, under which money is 
fancied to be ; this stone hath upon it the resemblance of that 
draught which is commonly called the walls of Troy. The 
manse belonging to the minister of KirkM c breck or Ferri- 



68 KIRKMABRECK 

toun is called the halfe mark, and will be a mile distant from 

Ferrietown southwardly upon the bank of the river of Cree. 

It is a very pleasant place and the Minister hath the benefit of 

a salmond fishing there. This Manse called the halfe mark is 

distant to the westward about halfe a mile from the old kirk 

of KirkM c breck, there is a well, which I am informed, proceeds 

from Vitriol. This parish of Kirkm c breck with the annext 

parish of Kirdale, is bounded on the East with the parish of 

Anwoth, and separated from it by the little rivulet called 

Scairsbourn, which empties itself into the sea. On the South 

it is bounded with the sea. On the East with the river of 

Cree, which here at an high water will be three or four miles 

broad ; though at low water it is contained in a narrow chanel ; 

it divides betwixt Kirkm c breck and the shire of Vigton. On 

the North it is bounded with the parish of Monnygaffe and 

divided in part therefrom by the Graddockbourn, which hath 

its rise in the Mountain of Cairnsmuir and running westward 

empties itself into the river of Cree. 

These seaven parishes last described (viz. Balmaghie, Tongue- 
land, Twynam, Borgue, Girthton, Anwoth and Kirkmabreck as 
also Monnygaffe of which hereafter) ly betwixt the rivers of 
Dee and Cree. 

The seaventeen parishes last described viz. Kirkcud burgh, 
Rerick, Bootle, Kelton, Corsemichael, Partan, Balmaclellan. 
Dairy, Corsefairn, Kells, Balmaghie, Tongueland, Twynam, 
. Borgue, Girthton, Anwoth, and Kirkmcbreck, make up the 
Presbytry of Kirkcudburgh, one of the three Presbyteries 
within the Dioces of Galloway. Kirkcudburgh is the ordinary 
seat of that Presbytrie, where the members of the Presbytrie 
meet most commonly upon the first tuesday of every month, for 
exerceing of Church Discipline, and other Ecclesiastical affairs 
incumbent on them. 

The Commissary of Kirkcudburgh also hath Jurisdiction 
over these seaventeen parishes in reference to causes Con- 
sistoriall. he derives his Authority from the Bishop of 
Galloway and holds his Courts ordinarly at the town of Kirk- 
cudburgh, on every Fryday except in times of Vacance. 

28. Monnygaffe. So called as I suppose qu. Munnachs 
gulfe from the river of Munnach in this parish, which after 



MONNYGAFFE 



69 



many windings and turnings empties itself into the river of 
Cree. The parish Kirk of Monnygaffe, lying six miles to the 
Northwest of Ferriton or KirkM c breck is eighteen miles distant 
from the town of Kirkcudbright and six miles to the Northward 
of Vigton. The Bishop of Galloway is patron hereof. This 
parish is bounded on the East with the water of Dee by which 
it is separated from the parishes of Corsefairne and the Kells. 
Towards the Southeast and more Southwardly it is bounded 
with the parish of Girthton. On the South with the parish of 
Kirkmabreck, from which it is in part separated by the 
Graddock Bourne. On the West it is bounded with the 
parish of Pennygham, in the shire of Vigton. from which it is 
separated by the river of Cree. On the Northwest it is 
bounded with the parish of Cammonel in Carrick from which 
it is also separated by the river of Cree. More Northward it 
is bounded partly with the parish of Ban* in Carrick, and 
partly with the parish of Dumallington in Kyle. So that 
this parish of Monny gaffe is exactly lying betwixt the rivers 
of Dee and Cree, and though lying within the bounds of the 
Stewartrie of Kirkcudburgh and subject to the Stewart thereof 
of which more hereafter, yet it belongs both to the Presbytry 
and Commissariot of Vigton, by reason that it is eighteen & 
miles distant from the town of Kirkcudburgh and the way not 
very good ether, when as it is but six miles from Vigton, and 
that excellent good way both winter and summer, and it 
also most fit it should belong to the Commissariot of Vigton, 
because having a weekly Mercat in it, which is for the most 
part supplyed by people dwelling in that Commissariot, those 
people who supply that mercat with meal, malt & c . would be 
put to excessive trouble, should they be necessitate to pursue 
their debitors which often happens, before the Stewart for 
small summs at so great a distance. This parish of Monny gaffe 
is a very large one, being at least sixteen miles in length and 
eight miles in breadth. The greatest part whereof consists of 
great hills, mountains, Rocks and Moors. It hath in it a litle 
town oi % burgh of baronrie, depending upon the Laird of Larg, 
situate upon the Eastside of the river of Cree, neer the brink 
thereof. It hath a very considerable Market every Saturday, 
frequented by the Moormen of Carrick, Monnygaffe and other 



70 MONNYGAFFE 

moor places, who buy there great quantities of meal and malt 
brought thither out of the parishes of Whitherne Glaston, 
Sorbie, Mochram, Kirkinner & c of whicli places we shall have 
occasion to speake when we come to the shire. The Kirk of 
MonnygafFe is divided from the toun by a rivulet called Pink- 
ill bourn, which is sometimes so great that the people, in re- 
pairing to the church, are necessitat to go almost a mile about, 
crossing at a bridge built over the said rivulet a short half 
mile above the town. The farthest part of this parish is at 
least twelve miles distant Northward from the parish Kirk, and 
the way excessively bad, and therefore it hath been many 
times wisht that the parish were disjoined and made two 
parishes, and another Kirk built at a place called the house of 
the hill, some six miles Northward, in the highway betwixt 
Vigton and Air. The Inhabitants of that upper part of the 
parish would be content to contribute something to that 
effect. It hath been endeavoured to get a Kirk erected there, 

84. but as yet that affair hath been unsuccesfull and for any thing 
T know, will continue so to be, unless people concerned therein 
will learn to be more religious, which I fear, will not be in 
hast. Principall Edifices in this parish are (1) Gairlies. The 

Ancient Residence of the Lairds of Gairlies before that family 
was nobilitated. it doth yet furnish a title to the Earl of 
Galloway his eldest son, who is Lord Gairlies. This house, 
being about a mile to the Northward of the Kirk & toun stands 
in the midst of a very fine oakwood pertaining to the said 
Earl. Who also hath another excellent oakwood in this 
parish, lying upon the water of Cree, two miles above the Kirk 
and toun. This wood will be two or three miles in length, and 
hath good timber in it, from whence the greatest part of the 
shire of Vigton furnish timber for building of houses and other 
uses. The Earl of Galloways lands in this Parish being very 
considerable here, are, as I have been informed, erected into a 
Stewartrie, and the said Earl is heritable Stewart thereof. 
(2) Larg, appertaining to M c kie of Larg, a very 

ancient name and family in this countrey. Hereabout is a 
well called the Gout-well of Larg, of which they tell this 
story, how that a Piper stole away the offering left at this 
well, (these offerings are some inconsiderable thing which the 






MONNYGAFFE 71 

countrey people used to leave at wells, when they come to 
make use of them towards any cure) but when he was drinking 
of ale, which he intended to pay with the money he had taken 
away, the gout as they say, seized on him of which he could 
not be cure! but at that well, having first restored to it the 
money he had formerly taken away. (3) Macchirmore or 
the Head of the Macchirs, (of which word more hereafter, for 
indeed there is not much white ground above it) pertaining to 
Dunbar of Macchirmore. It is situated upon the 
Eastside of the river of Cree one mile distant to the south from 
the town of Monnygaffe, and here is the first foord of the 
water of Cree except that betwixt Kirkmabreck and Wigton of 
which more hereafter. This foord is five miles or thereby in 
recta linea to the Northward distant from Vigton. In the 85. 
moors of this parish of Monnygaffe not many years since, at a 
place called La Spraig, not far from the water of Munnach, 
but sixteen miles distant from the sea, there fell a shower of 
herring, which were seen by creditable persons, who related 
the story to me, some of the said herring were as I am in- 
formed, taken to the Earl of Galloways house and shown to 
him. 

These twentie eight parishes viz. 1. Traqueer, 2 New 
Abbey, 3 Kirkbeen, 4 Cowend including also Southwick, 5 
OIT, 6 Kirkpatrick Durham, 7 Kirkpatrick iron Gray, 8 
Terregles, 9 Lochmiton, 10 Kirkgunnion, 11 Kirkcudburgh 
including also Galtway and Dunrod, 12 Rerick or Monkton,or 
Dundranen, 13 Bootle, 14 Kelton including also Gelston and 
Kirkcormock, 15 Corsemichael, 16 Partan, 17 Balmaclellan, 18 
Dairy, 19 Corsefairne, 20 Kells, 21 Balmaghie, 22 Tongueland, 
23 Twynam including also Kirkchrist, 24 Borgue including 
also Kirkanders and Sennick, 25 Girthon, 26 Anwoth, 27 
Kirkmabreck or Ferriton, including also Kirkdale, 28 Monny- 
gaffe, are lyable to the Stewart of Kirkcudburgh which Office 
belongs heritably to the Earl of Nithisdale, and is at present 
by reason of the minority of the present Earl, exercM by Sir 
Robert Grierson of Lag, who keeps his head court at the town 
of Kirkcudburgh, and his ordinary Courts there also, ether by 
himselfe or his deputs for administrating of Justice on every 
except in vacation time. For the benefit of the 



72 WIGTON 

ten Kirks beneath Orr, he hath also a deput who keeps courts 
at Lochruton. 

The Stewartry of Kirkcudburgh, although exceeding the 
shire of Vigton both in bounds and valuation, sends only one 
Commissioner to the Parliament or Convention of Estates. 
But it is now high time I suppose that we crosse the river of 
Cree and go to the Shire of Vigton. 

The Shire of Wigton is bounded on the East with the 
Stewartry of Kirkcudburgh and parted from it by the river 
8v. of Cree. On the South West and Northwest it is environed 
with the sea. On the North it is bounded partly with Carrict ; 
and partly with the Stewartry of Kirkcudburgh viz. at or 
toward the head of Monnvgaffe, being parted therefrom also 
with the river of Cree, which towards the head bends some- 
thing to the Westward. 

The shire of Vigton extends in length viz. from the toun of 
Vigton, to the point of the Mule of Galloway, twentie eight 
or thirty miles, or rather counting from the brink of the river 
of Cree, at the Ferriton, it will be about thirty four miles in 
length. As for the breadth of it, from the Isle of Whithorn 
to the borders, of Carrick it will be more than twentie miles, 
although in some other parts of the Shire, the breadth will 
not be so much. 

The Shire of Wigton contains in it sixteen principal 
parishes viz. 

1. Vigton. The Earl of Galloway is patron. It is a 
Parsonage though but a small one. It is bounded on the 
South with the parish of Kirkinner and separated from it 
by the river of Blaidnoch. On the West, North & East 
it is surrounded with the parish of Penigham, and separated 
therefrom on the North and East, with a Rivulet called Bishop- 
bourn, which empties itself into the river of Blaidnoch, or 
Cree on the sands beneath Wigton. This parish hath in it a 
burgh royal called also Wigton, which town, as the Inhabitants 
say, of old stood more than a mile Eastward, but place is now 
covered with the sea every tide, however this is certain that 
of old it was called Epiack or Epiacte. A friend of mine 
conjectures and doubtless it is but a conjecture, that it was 
so called from Danewort or Dwarfe elder calFd also Chamiacte, 






WIGTON 73 

however sure I am this herb or shrub, call it as you please, 
grows here in great abundance and overspreads much of their 
bear land on the South East part of the town. And since 
we are speaking of an herb, I think fit to add that Henbane 
grows also very plentifully in the town through the streets, 
and upon every dunghill there. This town is the head burgh 
of the shire although it stands at the Eastmost end thereof. 
Ships of two hundred Tun may come neer to it at a spring 
tide, with a good Pilot, but yet it hath but litle trading by 87. 
sea. They choose annually a Provest, two Bay lifts, and a 
Thesaurer, with severall other Counsellours. Fryday is the 
day of their town Court. It is a Town of small tradeing; 
their market day is Monday, but is not frequented ; However 
they have four yearly faires, which are considerable. The first 
is calFd the Palm-fair, which begins the fifth Monday in Lent 
and lasts two days. The second Midsummerfair, or rather 
St. Albans fair, for on the Sevnteenth day of June, St. Albans 
day, if it fall upon a friday, or if not the next fryday there- 
after, they have a market for horses and young Phillies, which 
the borderers from Annandale and places thereabout, (the stile 
the Countrey calls them by, is Johnnies) come and buy in 
great numbers. The Monday and tuesday thereafter they 
have a fair frequented by merchants from Edinburgh, Glasgow, 
Air and other places, who her buy great quantities of raw 
broad cloath and transport part of it over seas and part of 
it they dy at home and sell for many uses. The third and 
greatest fair is calTd Lambmas fair, which is always just six 
weeks distant from the former, for on the fryday before the 
first Monday of August, they have another market for horses, 
much frequented by the forsaid Johnnies, and then on the 
next Monday and tuesday viz. the 1 st Monday and tuesday 
of August, they have the cloath fair, which is more frequented 
then the Midsummer fair, both by buyers and sellers because 
the countrey people have then had a longer time to work 
and make their webbs ready, which they could not get done 
at the former fair ; This fair is so considerable, that as I have 
been informed, no fewer than eighteen score of packs of Cloath 
have been sold thereat. The fourth is their Martinmas fair, 
which beginns always upon the first Monday of Nov r and so 



74 WIGTON 

every thursday thereafter till Christmas they have a Market 
for fat Kine ; this market is frequented by Butchers, and others 
from Dumfreis and other places thereabout for four or five 
market days only, for in that time, all the fattest and best 
kine are sold and gon. This town of Wigton is indifferently 
well built, with pretty good houses three story high toward 
the street, especially on the Northside. The street is very 
broad and large. The parish Kirk stands a litle without the 
East port. The Tolbooth standing neer the middle of the 
town, is lately beautify'd with a Pyramis erected upon a square 
platforme, upon the top of the steeple, set round with pylasters, 
which adds a fine ornament to the town. This town stands 
very pleasantly, being built upon a large and fruitfull hill of 
an easie ascent every way. On the Southeast of this town, 
there was long since a Friarie, but the very mines therof are 
now allmost ruined ; the greatest quantity of Agrimony that I 
ever saw in one place, grows about this Friarie. In this town 
of Wigton, about seaven or eight years since, there was a 
woman calPd Margaret Blain, yet living there, wife to John 
M c Craccan, a taylor, who is also yet living, who was brought 
to bed of three children, who were orderly baptized, having 
a quarter of a year or thereabout before that miscarried of 
another. In the parish there are no considerable Edifices 
except one viz. Torhouse, situated on the Northside of the 
river of Blaidnoch, and belongs to George M c Culloch of 
Torhouse ; not far from whose house in the high way betwixt 
Wigton and Portpatrick, about three miles Westward of 
Wigton, is a plaine call'd the Moor, or Standing Stones of 
Torhouse ; in which there is a monument of three large whin 
stones, calPd King Galdus's tomb, surrounded at about twenty 
foot distance, with nineteen considerable great stones, (but 
none of them so great as the three first mentioned,) erected 
in a circumference. In this Moor and not far from the tomb, 
are great heaps of small hand-stones, which the Countrev 
people call Cairnes, supposed by them to be the buriall places 
of the common souldiers. As also at severall places distant 
from the Monument are here and there great single stones 
erected, which are also supposed to be the buriall places of 
his Commanders and men of note, but herein I determine 



WIGTON PENYGHAM 75 

nothing only I think fit to add, that at several! places in 
this Countrey there are many great heaps of hand stones, 89. 
caird Cairnes, and those heaps or Cairnes of stones are very 
seldom single, but many times there are two of them, and 
sometimes moe, not far distant from each other. This place 
is the ordinary randezvouse of the militia troop which belong 
to the shire. This parish of Wigton is almost equal in 
breadth and length being about three miles and an half 
extent every way. 

2. Penygham. The Earl of Galloway is patron of this 
parish Kirk, which is about four miles Northward distant from 
the town of Wigton and therefore here again we may take 
notice of a mistake in Speeds Map, which placeth Penygham 
neer the sea beyond Whithern, to the Southward of Vigton 
about nine or ten miles. This parish of Penygham is bounded 
on the East, partly with the parish of Kirk M c brek and partly 
with the parish of Monygaffe, and parted also from it by 
the river of Cree. On the Northwest it is bounded with the 
parish of Cammonell in Carrick, On the West with the parish 
of Kirkcowan and divided therefrom by the river of Blaidnoch. 
On the Southwest it runs out in a point, which point is on 
the East bounded with the parish of Vigton, and on the South 
part of it, parted from the parish of Kirkenner by the river 
of Blaidnoch. The parish of Penygham is bounded on the 
South and Southeast with the parish of Vigton and parted 
from it by a rivulet called the Bishops bourn. This parish of 
Penygham is in length twelve miles, in breadth more than 
four, the farthest part of it is nines miles distant from the 
parish Church. It was of old the Residence of the Bishop of 
Galloway, who hath yet a Jurisdiction here, called the Lord- 
ship of Penigham comprehending such lands, as in this parish 
hold of the Bishop of Galloway. The Earl of Cassillis is 
heretable Bayly of this Jurisdiction. There is at present a 
Bell at the Church of Penigham with this Inscription in Saxon 
letters Campana Sancti Niniani de Penygham M. dedicat as 
it seems to Saint Ninian in the thousand year after the birth 
of Christ. There is a ruinous chapel in this parish called the 90. 
chapel of the Cruives, situated on the Westside of the river of 
Cree, four miles distant from the parish Kirk, which was long 



76 PENYGHAM 

since appropriated for divine service, but now ruinous. The 
. principal Edifices in this parish are, 1 The Clary ; the Earl 
of Galloway his winter residence, distant a short half mile 
from the Kirk, in the way to Wigton. 2 Castle Stewart, 
distant about four miles from the Kirk towards the North in 
the way to the town of Air. It is the residence of William 
Stewart of Castle Stewart, youngest brother to the present 
Earl of Galloway belonging to him in right of his Lady, 
Grandchild to that expert and valiant Collonell, William 
Stewart of Castle Stewart a valiant and fortunat souldier in 
the German Warrs, under the command of Gustavus Adolphus 
King of Sweden : of this Collonell Stewarts Lady, Grand- 
mother to the present Lady Castle Stewart, I have heard a 
strange passage, which I think fit to insert viz. The said 
Lady, before her husband went to the wars, one day combing 
her hair in the sun, her sight wholly departed from her, after 
which her husband betook himselfe to the wars in Germany 
and was there advanced to be a Collonell, his Lady in the 
mean time remaining at home blind, at length she resolves 
blind as she was to visit her husband and taking a servant 
with her, took shipping for Holland, from whence, after a 
tedious journey, she came to Germany and enquiring for the 
army and among them for the Scots Regiments met there 
with her husband, who own'd and receav'd her. The Lady 
being there, and some say seaven yeares after her blindness, 
combing her hair, some report in the sun also, yea and the 
same day of the month that it departed from her, her sight 
was restored as perfectly as at the first. The truth of this 
story in all its circumstances I do not assert, but only relate 
it as I heard it, however this is most certain, that by her 
91. being with him in Germany, she so managed what was acquired 
there, that with it he purchast a fair Estate in Galloway 
possessed at present by her grandchild. And since I have 
related a passage (as I have heard it) of the wife, Fie add a 
passage of the husband, of the which a very judicious person 
assures me he was an eye witness viz. The said Collonell 
Stewart being at home here in Galloway, was affected with a 
palsie for the space of about a year and an halfe, which affected 
the one side from head to foot, (occasioned perhaps through 



PENYGHAM KIRKINNER 77 

loss of blood in the warrs) and yet he fell into a most violent 
feaver, which affected the other side only ; he recovered of the 
feaver in a months time or thereby and lived neer two years 
after that, but the palsie continued till his dying day. The 
Minister of Penygham assures me also that there is a Gentle- 
woman at present living in his parish, that for a long time 
hath had the palsie on the one side, and lately had a violent 
feaver on the other side, out of which feaver she is now 
recovered, her palsie remaining. 3. Glasnick. The Residence 
of James Gordon younger of Craichlaw. this house stands on 
the East side of the river of Blaidnoch, and is distant about 
three miles from the parish Kirk to the Westward. 4 The 
Grainge belonging heritably to John Gordon of Grainge. This 
house stands upon the North and East side of the river 
Blaidnock neer a flexure of the said River, and is distant about 
three miles from the parish Kirk to the South west ward. 

These two parishes of Wigton and Penygham are almost 
environed with the rivers of Cree and Blaidnoch, both which 
Rivers after severall windings and turnings meet together a 
litle below Vigton and there empty themselves into the sea. 

3. Kirkinner. This parish Kirk is about two miles distant 
from Wigton Southward. The patronage of this parish of 
Kirkinner is controverted. The Laird of Bambarroch claimes 92. 
it by vertue of a gift from King James the Sixth to his Great 
Grandfather Sir Patrick Vaus who was also one of the Lords 
of the Session, and was sent to Denmark to wait upon Queen 
Anne. The subdean of his Majesties Chapel Royall claimes 
it as titular of the teinds of the said Parish. This parish of 
Kirkinner hath another little parish called Long Castle annext 
thereto, where was a little church for divine service, about 
two miles and an halfe distant from the Kirk of Kirkinner 
to the Westward in the way to the Kirk of Mochrum, but 
now the said Kirk of Longcastle is ruinous. In this parish of 
Longcastle, at a place called Cairnfeild, there is a monument, 
almost like that call'd Galdus tomb in the parish of Vigton, 
but it consists not of so good stones, nor yet placed in so 
good order. The parish of Kirkinner with Longcastle annexed 
thereto, is bounded on the East with the parish of Kirk- 
mahreck and separated therefrom by the river of Cree and 



78 KIRKINNER 

the large sands of Kirkinner. On the South it is partly 
bounded with the parish of Sorbie, and partly with the 
parish of Glasserton, from which last parish it is in part 
separated by the Loch of Longcastle called on the other side 
the Loch of Ravinston. On the West it is bounded with the 
parish of Mochrum. On the Northwest with the parish of 
Kirkcowan. On the North it is in a litle part only bounded 
with the parish of Penygham, and for the other parts bounded 
with the parish of Vigton, from both which parishes it is 
separated by the river of Blaidnoch. In this parish of Kirk- 
inner Sir David Dunbar of Baldone hath a park about two 
miles and an half in length and ane mile and an half in 
breadth, the greatest part whereof is rich and deep valley 
ground and yeilds excellent grass. Upon the Northside, it 
is separated from the parish of Vigton by the river of 
Blaidnoch. On the Eastside it lyes open to the sea sands 
. which at low water will be about two miles betwixt the 
bank of the said Park and the chanel of the river of Cree, 
which divides it from the parish of Kirkmabreck in the 
Stewartry. This park can keep in it winter and summer 
about a thousand bestiall, part of which he buys from the 
countrey, and grazeth there all winter, other part whereof is 
of his own breed, for he hath neer two hundred milch kine 
which for the most have calves yearly, he buys also in the 
summer time from the countrey many bestiall, oxen for the 
most part which he keeps till August or September, so that 
yearly he ether sells at home to drovers, or sends to Saint 
Faiths, Satch and other fairs in England about eighteen or 
twentie score of bestiall. Those of his own breed, at four 
year old are very large, yea so large that in August or 
September 1632 nine and fifty of that sort, which would have 
yeilded betwixt five and six pound sterling the peice ; were 
seiz'd upon in England for Irish cattell and because the person 
to whom they were entrusted, had not witnesses there ready 
at the precise hour to swear that they were seen calved in 
Scotland, (though the witness offered to depone that he liv'd 
in Scotland within a mile of the Park where they were calvM 
and bred) they were by the sentence of Sir J L and some 
others who knew well enough that they were bred in Scotland, 



KIRKINNER 79 

knockt on the head and kilFd ; which was to say no more, 
very hard measure, and an act unworthy of persons of that 
quality and station who ordered it to be done. 

On the bank of this Park, that lyes opposit to the sea, if 
there be in the winter time any high tides and storms from 
the South East, the sea casts innumerable and incredible 
quantities of Cockleshells, which the whole shire makes use 
of for lime and it is the onely lime which this countrey 
affoords. The way of making it is thus ; Upon an even Area, 
(the circumference they make less or more according to the 
quantity of the shells they intend to burne) they set erected 94. 
peits, upon which they put a layer of shells a foot thick 
or more, and then upon them again lay peits, though not 
erected as at first, and then another layer of shells and so 
SSS l till they bring it to an head like a pyramis, but as they 
put on these layers just in the center they make a tunnell of 
peits, like a chimney hollow in the middest reaching from 
the bottom to the top, (just almost as Evelyn describes the 
making of charcoal) this done they take a pan full of burning 
peits, and put them down into this tunnel or chimney and so 
close up all with shells. This fire kindles the whole kilne 
-and in 24 hours space or thereby will so burn the shells that 
they will run together in a hard masse, after this they let it 
cool a litle, and then with an iron spade they bring it down 
by degrees and sprinkling water thereon, with a beater they 
beat it, [or berry it, for that's their terme ; this word they 
also use for threshing and so call the thresher of their corne, 
the berrier] and then put it so beaten into litle heaps, which 
they press together with the broad side of their spade, after 
which in a short time it will dissolve, [they call it melting] 
into a small white powder and it is excellent lime. I 
have heard good masons say that as it is whiter, so also 
it binds stones together surer and better than stone lime 
itself. 

When the tide is ebbing from these banks, severall of the 
countrey people in summer and harvest time use to go a fishing 
with the halfe net : the forme and use whereof take as follows. 
They take four peeces of Oake, Alder or Willow, about three 



' Stratum super stratum' interlined. ED. 



80 KIRKINNER 

Inches diameter which they contrive almost into the forme of a 
semicircle about fourteen or fifteen foot diameter at the points 

and about five or six feetDiameter 
the other way, with aBalk athwart 
to keep all firme. These four 
peeces of timber they nail fast 
together after this forme putting 
also three or four lesser cross 
peeces of timber to make it more 
95. firm. To this they fasten a net 

much wider than the stales (For 
so they term the frame of timber,). 

With this at the ebbing of the tide, they go into the water, 
till it comes up to their breast, and sometimes to their 
shoulders, and turning their faces towards the streame, put the 
stale points to the ground, so that the net being large and 
wide, is carried by the streame on ether side ; from each 
corner of the net, they have a warning string comeing which 
they hold in their hand, which gives them warning, when the 
least fish comes in the net, and then presently they pull the 
stale points from the ground, which are instantly wafted to the 
top of the water, and so catch the fish. By this means, they 
catch Fleuks, solefleuks, tarbets and severall other fish, yea 
and oftentimes many salmon too : and thus they continue till 
low water, moving allways farther and farther, as the water 
ebbs, and then when the tide turns, they turn about to the 
stream, and do as formerly. The principall Edifices in this 
parish of Kirkinner are 1, Barnbarroch the residence of John 
Vaus of Barnbarroch, it lys about a mile from the Kirk to the 
westward. 2, Bildone. The residence of Sir David Dunbar 
of Baldone, Knight Baronet, it is seated in the Park and will 
be about a short mile from the Kirk to the northward towards 
the towne of Wigton. The whole parish of Kirkinner, the 
annext parish of Longcastle being included, is about four 
miles and an halfe in length and about as much in breadth : 
the farthest part from the Kirk will be about three miles and 
an halfe. This parish of Kirkinner (viz. about the Kirk there 
being neer halfe a score of excellent spring wells hard by it 
and in the Park) is accounted the best place hereabout for 



SORBIE 81 

fowling in the winter time, having then in it great abundance 
of wild geese wild ducks Teales Woodcocks & c . 

4. Sorbie. The Bishop of Galloway is patron of this parish 
Kirk. The distance of which from the town of Wigton is 
about five short miles to the Southward, the Kirkinner being 
in the high way (and almost of an equall distance) betwixt 
them. This parish of Sorbie hath two other litle parishes 
united to it, viz. Kirkmadroyn lying on the sea, Eastward, but 
the Kirk is ruinous, and Crugleton, lying also towards the 
Sea more southwards, the Kirk thereof is also ruinous. The 96. 
parish of Sorbie the saids two annexed Kirks being included, is 
bounded on the North with Kirkinner, on the East, Southeast 
and South with the sea, on the South and Southwest with the 
parish of Whitherne, on the West with the parish of 
Glasserton. The parish of Sorbie with the two annext parishes 
will be in length scarce four miles, and in breadth about three 
miles, the farthest part whereof will not be much above two 
miles distant from the parish Kirk. There is only one prin- 
cipall Edifice in this parish, calPd the place of Sorbie, seated 
about halfe a mile from the Kirk to the East thereof. It is 
a very good house, 'twas built by the Laird of Sorbie, whose 
name was then Hannay, a name very common in Galloway, 
but not any man now of note of that name in this countrey. 
This house now appertaines to the Earl of Galloway. In the 
parish of Kirkmadroyne there is a place called Inderwell, to 
which ships may have recourse in time of storme. In the 
parish of Crugleton there was long since upon an high cliffe 
on the sea side, a very strong house called the Castle of 
Crugleton but it is now wholly demolished and ruinous, it 
appertaines to Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw. In this parish 
of Cruglton there is also a Bay call'd Polton, whereat in the 
Months of July, August and September, there uses to be a 
herring fishing ; in some years they are so plentifull, that they 
are sold for five groats or two shillings the Maze (each Maze 
containes five hundred, at sixscore to the hundred), and some- 
times cheaper. But it is only in some yeares that this plenty 
happens and I have heard some people say, that it seldome 
comes to pass that the sea and land are plentifull in one and 
the same year. 

VOL. II. F 



82 WHITHERNE 

5. Whitherne. This Kirk lyes about eight miles from 
Wigton Southward and about three miles from the Kirk of 
Sorbie. The Bishop of Galloway is patron hereof. This 
parish is bounded on the South with the sea, on the West 
with the parish of Glasserton, on the North, Northeast, and 
east with the parish of Sorbie, the baronie of Broughton in 
this parish of Whitherne running out in a point, betwixt the 
two kirks of Sorbie and Crugleton. The parish of Whiteherne 
is in length about four miles and an halfe, in breadth not so 
97. much. The furthest parts will be but two miles from the 
Kirk. In this parish there is a burgh royall called Whit- 
herne (from whence the parish hath its name) Candida casa, 
or White-herne, Herne signifying a cottage in the Saxon 
language. They choose annually a Provest, two Baylies and 
a Treasurer (but there is litle use for him) with severall other 
Councellours. their market day is Saturday, but it is not at 
all frequented. It is a town of little or no trade at present, 
although of old it was a town of great trade, and resort ; they 
have a very advantageous Port belonging to them, calPd the 
Isle of Whiteherne : two miles distant from the town South- 
wards : in which ships of great burthen may be in safety in 
time of any storme. There was in this town a famous Priory ; 
and a stately church founded by St. Ninian and dedicated by 
him to his Unckle St. Martin Bishop of Tours in France as 
I have heard it reported. Sure I am there is a little hand- 
bell in this church, which in Saxon letters tells it belongs to 
Saint Martins Church. The Steeple and body of the church 
is yet standing, together with some of the walls of the pre- 
cincts. The Isles, Cross Church and severall other houses 
belonging thereto are fallen, but severall large and capacious 
vaults are firme & entire. The Bishop of Galloway as Prior 
of Whitherne, hath here a Regality comprehending not only 
the lands about Whithern and other adjacent parishes holding 
of the Prior, but also all the Priors other lands which were 
many in Carrick, Argyle and severall other places. The Earl 
of Galloway is heritable Bayly of this Regality. It was in 
this town of Whitherne that Patrick Makelwian Minister of 
Lesbury in Northumberland was borne, a wonderfull old man. 
concerning whom you may have this account from a letter 



WHITHERNE 83 

under his own hand dated from Lesbury Octob. 19. 1657. to 
one William Lialkub a citizen of Antwerp, which Plempius 
[as is recorded by Nathan Wanely in his book intituled the 
Wonders of the litle World lib. 1, cap. 32] saith he saw under 
his own hand, wherein after he had declared that he had lived 98. 
Minister of Lesbury for fifty years, he gives this account of 
himself: I was, saith he, born at Whithorn in Galloway in 
Scotland in the year 1546, bred up in the Universitie of Edin- 
burgh where I commenced Master of Arts whence travelling 
into England I kept school and sometimes preach'd till in the 
first of King James I was inducted into the Church of Lesbury 
where I now live. As to what concerns the change of my 
body, it is now the third year since I had two new teeth one 
in my upper, and the other in my nether jaw, as is apparent 
to the touch. My sight much decayed many years agoe, is 
now about the hundred and tenth year of my age, become 
clearer; hair adorns my heretofore balPd skull. I was never 
of a fat, but of a slender mean habit of body ; my diet has 
been moderat, nor was I ever accustomed to feasting and 
tipling ; hunger is the best sauce ; nor did I ever use to feed 
to satiety. All this is most certain and true which I have 
seriously, though over hastily confirmed to you under the 
hand of 

Patrick MakelWian. 

Minister of Lesbury. 

Thomas Atkins in his letter dated Sept. 28, 1657, [recorded 
by Nathan Wanely (ibid) from Fullers Worthies], declares that 
upon a Sunday he heard this old man pray and preach, about 
an hour and an halfe making a good sermon on Seek ye the 
kingdome of God and all things shall be added unto you, and 
went clearly through without the help of any notes, having 
first read some part of the common prayer, some of holy 
Davids psalms, and two chapters one out of the old and the 
other out of the New testament, without the use of spectacles, 
the bible out of which he read the chapters, being a very small 
printed Bible. After sermon the said Thomas Atkins went 
with him to his house who told him that his hair, (taking off 
his cap and shewing it) came again like a childs, but rather 
flaxen than ether brown or grey, that he had three teeth come 



84 WHITHERNE 

within these two years, not yet to their perfection; while he 
99. bred them he was very ill. Fourty years since he could not 
read the biggest print without spectacles and now he blesseth 
God, there is no print so small no written hand so small, but 
he can read it without them : for his strength he thinks him- 
self as strong now as he hath been these twenty years. Not 
long since he walked to Alnwick to dinner and back again six 
North countrey miles : he is now an hundred and ten years of 
age, and ever since last May a hearty body, very cheerfull and 
stoops very much; he had five children after he was eighty 
years of age ; four of them lusty lasses, now living with him, 
the other died lately ; his wife yet hardly fifty years of age. 

As for this old man, he was born in Whithern as said is, and 
hath some of his relations living there at present, there is one 
of his relations for the present serving the Laird of Barn- 
barroch in the parish of Kirkinner. The name they are callVi 
by in Galloway is MickleWayen, which according to the true 
Irish Orthographic should be MacgillWian ; for surnames that 
in Galloway begin with or are commonly pronounced Mai or 
Makel or Mackle or Mickle (all which severall ways they are 
oftimes both written and pronounced) should, as I am in- 
formed by an ingenious man that exactly understands the 
Irish language, be written Mac-gill, as Mac-gillmein, M c Gillroy, 
M c gill-raith, names frequent in Galloway and commonly pro- 
nounced Malmein, Malroy or Mickleroy, or Mickleraith & c . 
Principal Edifices in this parish of Whitherne are 1. Broughton 
about two miles distant from the Kirk and town towards the 
North East. This house belongs to Richard Murray of 
Broughton. Castle Wig more than a mile distant from the 
Kirk towards the North. It pertaines to William Agnew of 
Wigg. 3. The Isle, a good stone house on the seaside just 
beside the sea port of Whitherne called the Isle of Whithern, 
two miles towards the South from the Kirk, this house belongs 
to Patrick Huston of Drummaston. Neer to this place at the 
seaside there is the ruines of an old chapel called the chapel of 
the Isle, which as it is reported, was the first that was built for 
the service of Almighty God, in this part of the kingdom, 
100. yea, as some say, in the whole Kingdome. There is also in 
this parish of Whitherne, a bailirie called the Bailirie of 



GLASSERTON 85 

Busby, holding of the Bishop of Dumblaine as Dean to his 
Majesties chapel royall, whereof William Huston of Colr'eoch 
is Heritable Bayly. As also another Baylerie called the 
Baylyrie of Drummaston whereof Sir Andrew Agnew of Loch- 
naw is heritable Bayly. On whom it depends I do not well 
know, however the Minister of Portpatrick as Commendator 
of Soulseat [of which more hereafter] pretends right thereto. 

6. Glasserton commonly called Glaston. The Bishop of 
Galloway is patron of it. The Kirk of Glaston, being a large 
mile to the Westward of Whi theme, will be about nine miles 
distant from the toun of Wigton towards the South west. This 
parish of Glaston hath on the North and Northwest, another 
parish calFd Kirkmaiden annext thereto, on the west end of which 
parish is a ruinous Kirk calPd Kirkmaiden at the seaside going 
down a cliff and stands pretty pleasantly, it is the buriall place of 
the Maxwells of Muireith. In this parish of Kirkmaiden, there 
is a hill, called the Fell of Barullion, and I have been told, but 
I give not much faith to it, that the sheep that feed there, have 
commonly yellow teeth as if they were guilded. This parish 
of Glaston or Glasserton, the annext parish of Kirkmaiden 
being included, is bounded on the South and West with the 
sea, on the North partly with the parish of Mochrum, and 
partly with the parish of Longcastell, annext to Kirkinner 
from which it is divided in part with the Loch calFd on this 
side the Loch of Remeston. On the East it is bounded partly 
with the parish of Sorbie and partlie with the parish of Whit- 
hern. This parish of Glaston, the annext parish of Kirk- 
maiden being included is about five miles in length, and about 
three miles in breadth the farthest part of the parish being- 
above three miles distant from the parish Kirk. The prin- 
cipal Edifices in this parish are 1. Glasserton or Glaston the 
summer Residence of the Earl of Galloway and about twelve 
or thirteen miles distant from Clary his winter Residence. 
This house it is about a bow draught to the West from the 201. 
Kirk of Glaston, at which Kirk there is a vault which is the 
burial place of the Earls of Galloway. 2. Ravinstone com- 
monly called Remeston. It is a very good house belonging to 
Robert Stewart of Ravinstone second brother to the present 
Earl of Galloway. It lys almost thrie miles from the parish 
Kirk, Northwards. 3. Phisgill, a short mile distant from the 



86 GLASSERTON MOCHRUM 

parish Kirk southwards towards the sea. It pertaines to John 
Stewart of Phisgill a Cadet of the Earl of Galloways family. 
In this Gentlemans land under a cliff at the seaside, in a verv 
solitary place, there is a litle cave, calPd St. Ninians Cave, to 
which, as they say, St. Ninian us'd sometime to retire himselfe 
for his more secret and private devotion. 4, The Mower. 
This house together with the whole parish of Kirkmaiden, in 
which parish this house stands, belongs to Sir William Max- 
well of Muirreith. It is a mile or thereby distant from 
Ravinstone Westward and about three miles distant from the 
parish Kirk of Glaston, nether is the way thither very good. 

These three parishes last described, viz. Sorbie including the 
two annext parishes of Kirkmadroyn and Cruglton, Whithern 
and Glasserton including the annext parish of Kirkmaiden to 
which may be also added part of Kirkinner, are commonly called 
the Machirrs or Machirrs of Whithern, which word Machirrs, 
as I am informed, imports white ground, and indeed those 
parishes, contain by far much more arable and white land, 
than up in the Moors, though the parishes there be much 
larger, yea if I count aright, the parish of Monnygaffe for 
bounds will be larger than the parishes of Kirkinner, Sorbie. 
Whithern, Glaston and perhaps Mochrum too. 

7. Mochrum. The Bishop of Galloway is patron. This 
parish Kirk lys more than five miles to the Northwestward 
from the Kirk of Glaston, four miles Westward from the Kirk 
of Kirkinner and six miles to the Southwest from the town of 
Wigton. This parish of Mochrum is bounded on the East 
with the parish of Kirkinner. On the South with the parish 
of Kirkmaiden annext to Glaston. On the West the sea, On 
the Northwest with the parish of Glenluce, on the North 
partly with the parish of Glenluce and partly with the parish 
of Kirkcowand. This parish of Mochrum is about eight miles 
in length, and but three miles in breadth ; the farthest part 
will be six miles distant from the parish kirk. Principal 
Edifices in this parish are 1, Myreton pronounced Merton, the 
Residence of Sir William Maxwell of Muireith and lately 
bought by him from Sir Godfrey M c Culloch the Cheife of the 
family of M c Cullochs. Part of this house is built upon a 
little round hillock whereof there are severall artificial ones in 



MOCHRUM 87 

this countrey called Motes and commonly they are trenched 
about. This house ly's towards the South a large mile distant 
from the parish Kirk, it hath an old chapel within less than 
a bow draughts distance from it. On the Northside of this 
house and hard by it, is the White Loch of Myrton, but why 
called White I know not, except as Sir William Maxwell in- 
forms me, it be so called because the water (as he saith) hath 
this property that it will wash linnen as well without soap, as 
many others will do with it, and therefore in my opinion, it is 
an excellent place for whitening or bleeching of Linnen, holland 
and Muzlin Webbs. This Loch is very famous in many 
writers, who report that it never freezeth in the greatest 
frosts ; whether it had that vertue of old I know not, but sure 
I am it hath not now for this same year it was so hard frozen 
that the heaviest carriages might have carried over it : How- 
ever I deny not but the water thereof may be medicinal, 
having receaved severall credible informations, that several! 
persons both old and young have been cured of continued 
diseases by washing therein, yet still I cannot approve of 
their washing three times therein, which they say, they must 
do, nether the frequenting thereof the first Sunday of the 
Quarter viz. the first Sunday of February, May, August and 
Nov r , although many foolish people affirm that not only the 
water of this Loch, but also many other springs and wells 
have more vertue on those days than any other. And here 
again we may take notice of another mistake in Speeds lesser ws. 
Map, in which Loch Merton is placed betwixt Cree and 
lilaidnoch the ground of which mistake perhaps hath pro- 
ceeded from a Gentlemans house in the parish of Penygham 
lying betwixt Cree and Blaidnoch, calPd Merton, but there is 
no loch thereabout of that name. 2. Mochrum. A good 
house standing in the Moors towards Kirkcowand, it stands 
betwixt two Lochs and is about five miles distant from the Kirk 
of Mochrum. It is the principal Residence of James Dunbar of 
Mochrum. 3, Ariullan an house situated neer the seaside, 
about a mile and an halfe Northwestwardly from the Kirk of 
Mochrum in the way from the Kirk of Mochrum to Glenluce. 
This house in the year 1679 appertained to Alexander Hay 
of Ariullan. In this parish of Mochrum under the cliffe at 



88 KIRKCOWAN 

the seaside about three miles distance from the Kirk in 
the way to Glenluce, is a little ruinous chapel call\l by the 
Countrey people Chapel Finzian. 

These five parishes last described viz. Kirkinner, Sorbie, 
Whithern, Glaston and Mochrum are all situated Southwards 
of Blaidnoch and all of them border upon the sea. 

8. Kirkcowan pronounced Kirkuan. The patronage of this 
parish Kirk is the same with that of Kirkinner, to it is 
adjacent, lying about six miles therefrom towards the North- 
west. It was as old people informe me, long since subjected to 
the care of the Minister of Kirkinner, who preached two 
Sundays at Kirkinner and the third at Kirkuan. This parish 
of Kirkcuan is about ten or eleven miles in length and about 
four in breadth, the farthest part of this parish will be about 
seven or eight miles distant from the parish Kirk, which is 
distant six miles towards the West from the town of Wigton. 
This parish of Kirkcuan is bounded on the North with the 
parish of Cammonel in Carrick; on the East with the parish 
of Penygham, and separated from it with the river of Blaid- 
noch, on the SouthEast it is bounded with the parish of 
Kirkinner, on the South with the parish of Mochrum. On the 
West it is bounded with the parish of Glenluce, from which it 
104. is partly separated by the water of Tarffe, which beginning 
about the upper end of this parish of Kirkcuan, divides the 
same from the parish of Glenluce till at length it turnes more 
Eastwardly and runs through part of this parish of Kirkcuan, 
and running on the southside of, and neer to the said Kirk, 
empties itself more than halfe a mile beneath the same into the 
river of Blaidnoch. There is but one house of note in this 
parish viz. Craichlaw. A good house situated about a mile 
towards the West from the Kirk, and is the Residence of 
William Gordon of Craichlaw. 

These eight parishes last described viz. Penygham, Wigton, 
Kirkinner with Longcastle annext thereto, Sorbie with Kirk- 
madroyn and Cruglton annext to it, Whitherne, Glasserton 
with Kirk maiden annext thereto, Mochrum and Kirkcowan d 
in the shire together with Monygaffe in the Stewartry, make 
up the Presbitry of Wigton, another of the Presbitries per- 
taining to the Dioces of Galloway. The Ministers of the 






GLENLUCE 89 

Presbitry meet ordinarly at Wigton once a month upon a 
Wednesday and oftener as they find occasion for exerceing of 
Church discipline and other affair appertaining unto them. 

9. Glenluce i.e. vallis lucis, or vallis lucida, a pleasant 
valley, for such it is, or vallis sancti Lucae or Sanctce Lucice ; 
which of these I shall not positively determine, but however 
questionless it ought to be spell'd Glenluce, and not Glenlus 
as Speed and severall others spell the same. It is a large 
parish being bounded on the East with the parishes of 
Kirkouan and Mochrum. On the south partly with the sea, 
and partly with the parish of Stoniekirk from which it is 
separated by the river of Poltanton. On the West with the 
parish of the Inch. On the North with the parish of Cam- 
moiiel in Carrick. The Bishop of Galloway is patron of this 
parish. The Kirk is twelve miles distant from Wigton, 
westward in the way from thence to Stranrawer which is six 
miles farther westward. The farthest part in this parish is 
about eight or nine miles distant from the parish Kirk. In 
this parish about halfe a mile or more Northward from the 
parish kirk, is the Abbacy of Glenluce situated in a very 
pleasant valley on the Eastside of the river of Luce, the 105. 
steeple and part of the walls of the church together with the 
Chapterhouse, the walls of the Cloyster the gatehouse with 
the walls of the large precincts are for the most part yet 
standing. In this parish of Glenluce, there was a spirit, which 
for a long space molested the house of one Campbell a Weaver, 
it would be tedious to give a full relation of all the stories con- 
cerning it. Sinclar in his Hydrostaticks gives some account 
of it. This parish was in anno divided into two parishes, 

the one called the New Parish, and the other the Old, and for 
that effect there was a New Kirk built about thrie miles from 
the other Northward, but at present the saids two parishes are 
incorporated into one, as at first. The whole parish of Glen- 
luce holds of the Bishop of Galloway as Abbot of Glenluce, 
who hath a regality here, Sir John Dalrymple, younger of 
Stair is heritable Bayly thereof. This office is at present 
exerced by Sir Charles Hay of Park. Principall Edifices in 
this parish are 1, Corsecrook, An house standing in the Moor, 
two miles distant from the Kirk eastwards. It was long since, 



90 GLENLUCE INCH 

pertaining to the Lairds of Bambarroch, for the present it 
pertaines to Sir James Dalrymple of Stair, who hath lately 
built it de novo, and hath erected here a stately house accord- 
ing to the modern architecture, although it might have been 
more pleasant, if it had been in a more pleasant place. 2, The 
Park. A very pleasant dwelling standing on a level hight in 
the midst of a little wood, upon the Westside of the water of 
Luce, the Kirk being opposite thereto on the Eastside. It 
belongs to Sir Charles Hay of Park. 3, Balcarrie. It is about 
a mile from the Kirk towards the South, it belongs also to Sir 
Charles Hay of Park. 4, Schinnernes. A good stone house 
standing neer the sea upon a promontorie about two miles 
from the Kirk towards the Southeast. It belongs to the re- 
106. presentatives of Kennedy of Schinnernes. Midway 

betwixt Balcarrie and Schinnerness and about halfe a mile 
from each, there is an old chapel or Kirk, called Kirkchrist 
but now it is ruinous. 

10. Inch. The Bishop of Galloway is Patron of this Kirk ; 
which is sixteen miles distant from Wigton, and four miles 
from Glenluce towards the West, and two miles distant from 
the town of Stranrauer eastwardly. This parish of the Inch 
is bounded on the East with the parish of Glenluce ; On the 
South with the parish of Stoniekirk, from which it is divided 
by the water of Paltanton ; On the Southwest it is bounded 
with the parish of Portpatrick, which parish was once belong- 
ing to, and was a part of the parish of Inch, and to this day 
is yet called the black quarter thereof. On the West it is 
bounded with the parish of Las wait or Laswede, joyning 
thereto just at the Southside of the town of Stranraver which 
also bounds the parish of Inch on the West. On the North- 
west it is bounded with a great Loch or Bay of the sea, call'd 
Loch Rian, pronounced Loch Ryan. On the North it is 
bounded with the parishes of Ballantrea and Commonell in 
Carrick. The farthest part of this parish is about six miles 
distant from the parish Kirk. In this parish about a mile 
from the Kirk towards the Southwest, there is the ruines of an 
Abbacy environed almost with a great freshwater Loch, in 
fashon of an horseshoe, this Abbacy is commonly calTd 
Salsyde, by Speed Salsed though by him misplaced pot'ius Soul 



INCH 91 

Seat, sedes anlmarum ; some say it should be Saul Seat sedes 
Saulis one Saul being as they say Abbot or Monk thereat. 
The Manse belonging to the Minister of the Inch is seated 
here, though a mile distant from the Kirk and the Gleib is 
environed with this Loch, and a short trench drawn from one 107. 
corner to the other thereof. At this Manse is a stone pretty 
large, which I have seen, to the particles whereof broken off. 
the countrey people attribute great vertue for cureing of the 
gravel, and tell a long story concerning the progress of that 
stone, and how it came there, concerning which if you think 
fit, you may enquire at M r James Hutcheson, Minister of 
North Leith, who was a considerable space Minister of this 
parish and dwelt in this house. Principal Edifices in this 
parish of the Inch are 1, Castle Kennedy. A stately house 
and formerly one of the dwelling houses of the Earls of 
Cassillis who long since had great power in Galloway which 
occasioned then the ensuing Rhyme. 

Twixt Wig-ton and the town of Air 
Portpatrick and the Cruives of Cree 
No man needs think for to 'bide there 
Unless he court with Kennedie. 

This house now belongs to Sir John Dalrymple younger of 
Stair. It is environed also with a large freshwater Loch, and 
almost situated like the Abbacy of Soul Seat, it hath also 
gardens and orchards environed with the Loch. In this Loch 
there are two severall sorts of trouts, the one blacker than the 
other, and each keep their own part of the Loch, so that when 
they are in the dish at the table those that are acquainted 
with their differences, can easily tell in which part of the Loch 
such and such a fish was taken : Just on the other side of 
the Loch towards the Northwest stands the parish Kirk of the 
Inch, so caird from a little Island call'd the Inch situated in the 
Loch, a little distance from the Kirk, Within this litle Island, 
which is also planted with trees, is a little house built, into 
which the late Earl of Cassillis used to retire himselfe betwixt 
sermons, having a boat for that purpose, in which also he 
could be soon transported from Castle Kennedy to the Church 
and so back again, the way from the Kirk to the Castle by 108. 
land being about a mile on either side of the Loch. 2, Inder- 



92 STRANRAVER 

niessan situated neer Lochryan, about two miles distant from 
the Kirk towards the North West. This house belongs to Sir 
Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw. Here is a little hamlet or 
village, which of old was the most considerable place in the 
rinds of Galloway, and the greatest town there about, till 
Stranrauer was built. 3, Larg, distant about two miles from 
the Kirk Northeast. The residence of William Lin of Larg. 
4, Craig caffie distant two miles from the Kirk Northwest, it 
being not far from Indermessan. It is the residence of Gilbert 
Neilson of CraigCaffie. 

11. Stran raver called also the Chapel. This is a Burgh 
Royal lately enrolled. They choose annually a Provest two 
Baylys a Dean of Guild and a Treasurer, with severall other 
Councellours. This town is eighteen miles westward from 
Wigton. It lys upon the Bay called Lochryan, and is com- 
rnodiously seated for trade by sea. It is but a litle town, yet 
it is indifferently well built, their houses are within for the 
most part kept neat and clean and their meat well dress'd by 
reason of their correspondence with Ireland being only about 
four miles distant from port Patrick. They have a consider- 
able Market here every Fry day and two yearly faires the one 
being on the first Fryday of May, and the second being on the 
last Fryday of August and call'd St. Johns fair in harvest. 
The parish is of a small extent, having nothing but the town 
belonging thereto, being environed with the parish of Laswalt 
on the West and Southwest, and with the parish of Inch on 
the East and Southeast, which two parishes meet at the South- 
side of the towne and out of these two parishes this parish of 
Stranrauer is erected. On the Northside it lys open to the 
Lochryan. The Bishop of Galloway is patron hereof. On 
109. the Eastend of the town there is a good house pertaining 
to Sir John Dalrymple younger of Stair, calPd the Castle 
of the Chapel, where also there is a chapel now ruinous, from 
whence all on the Eastside of the Bourn is called the Chapel. 
Betwixt this house and the Kirk there runs a bourn or strand 
so that, so that perhaps the town should be spelFd Strandraver. 
This house and the crofts about it, though I have diligently 
enquired thereanent, yet I could never certainly learn to which 
parish it really pertaines, some asserting that it belongs to the 



KIRKCOLME 93 

parish of the Inch, others that it belongs to the parish of 
Stranraver though not lyable to the Jurisdiction of the burgh 
there, as some alledge. In this town the last year, while they 
were digging a Watergate for a mill, they lighted upon a ship 
a considerable distance from the shore, unto which the sea at 
the highest springtide never comes, it was transversly under a 
little bourne and wholly covered with earth a considerable 
depth, for there was a good yard with kale growing in it, upon 
the one end of it; By that part of it, which was gotten out, 
my informers, who saw it, conjecture that the vessel had been 
pretty large, they also tell me that the boards were not joyned 
together after the usuall fashion of our present ships or barks 
as also that it had nailes of copper. 

12. Kirkcolme pronounced Kirkcumm. This Kirk ly's to 
the Northwest of Stranraver, being about four miles distant 
from that town and twentie two miles distant from Wigton. 
The Earl of Galloway is Patron of this parish of Kirkcolm. It 
is bounded toward the South with the Parish of Las wait ; on 
all other parts it is surrounded with the sea ; the farthest part 
of this part is about three miles distant from the Parish Kirk, 
which is situated on the Eastside of the Parish neer the shore 
of Lochryan. As for Edifices in this Parish there is none 
considerable at present, but of old there was an house call'd 
the house of Corsewell, it was a considerable house, but is now HO. 
wholly ruinous, it is neer three miles from the Kirk to the 
Northwest and lys neer the shore, belonging in property to the 
Earl of Galloway, but possessed by way of Wadset by M r Hugh 
Dalrymple. In this parish of Kirkcolme about halfe a mile 
from the Kirk at the LochRyan, there is a place calPd the 
Skar, which runs into the sea, and is covered at high water, 
but at low water especially after spring tides, it wili be dry 
for neer the space of a mile, upon which oysters are gotten in 
great plenty. On the Westside of this Skar, muscles and 
cockles are also gotten in great plenty. In this parish also 
about a mile and an half from the Kirk, in the way betwixt it 
and Stranraver there was of old a Chapel called Killemorie but 
now wholly ruinous, within a litle croft of about fourty shill- 
ings sterling of yearly rent, possessed by a countrey man John 
M c Meckin, calPd ordinarly by the Countrey people the Laird, 



94 LASWALT PORTPATRICK 

he and his predecessors having enjoy M the same for severall 
generations. At the side of this Chapel in the Croft com- 
monly called the Lairds Croft, there is a well to which people 
superstitiously resort, to fetch water for sick persones to drink 
and they report that if the person's disease be deadly the well 
will be so dry that it will be difficult to get water, but if the 
person be recoverable, then there will be water enough. 

13. Laswalt pronounced Laswede. This Kirk lyes to the 
Northwestward of Stranraver, from whence it is distant about 
two miles, and distant from Wigton twenty miles. The 
Bishop of Galloway is patron. This parish of Laswalt is 
bounded towards the North with the parish of Kirkcolme. On 
the West with the sea that looks to Ireland, on the South it 
is bounded with the parish of Portpatrick, from which it is 
partly separated by the water of Paltanton. On the South 

in. East and East it is bounded with the parish of the Inch ; and 
on the Northeast it is bounded with the Loch Ryan and 
Stranraver. The farthest part in this parish of Laswalt is 
about three miles distant from the parish Kirk. Principal 
Edifices in this parish are 1, Loclmaw a very good house 
distant from the Kirk about a mile westward. This house 
hath a Loch neer to it. It is the principal Residence of 
Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw. The Office of Constabularie 
is annexed thereto, and the said Sir Andrew Agnew is herit- 
able Constable thereof. 2, Galdenoch a tower house more 
than a mile distant from the Kirk Northwestwardly being 
about a quarter of a mile distant from Lochnaw towards the 
North. 3. The Mark a new house lately built of brick made 
there. It stands about a bow draught from the town of Stran- 
rauer, and about two miles distant from the parish Kirk. It 
belongs to Agnew of Sheuchan. 

14. Portpatrick. The Laird of Dunskay is patron hereof. 
The parish of Portpatrick is bounded on the North with the 
parish of Laswalt, from which it is in part separated by the 
water Paltanton. On the Northeast it is bounded with the 
parish of the Inch. It is bounded on the East and South with 
the parish of StonieKirk. On the West it lyeth upon the sea 
and is the usual passage betwixt this Countrey and the King- 
dome of Ireland from which it is about leagues distant. 






PORTPATRICK STOMEKIRK 95 

The Minister of Portpatrick by a gift from King Charles the 
Martyr is Commendator of Soulseat, and by vertue thereof 
pretends to have a right to several superiorities priviledges 
and emoluments but I cannot positively affirme any thing 
thereanent by reason that his right thereto hath been long in 
debate before the Lords of Session and is not yet determined. 
The Kirk of Portpatrick stands just on the sea side neer to the 
harbour, which is four miles distant from Stranrauer and U%. 
twenty two miles distant from the town of Wigton towards 
the West. The farthest part in the parish of Portpatrick 
is about three miles distant from the Parish kirk. Principal 
Edifices are 1, Dunskay once a great Castle belonging to my 
Lord of Airds in Ireland, now belonging to John Blair of 
Dunskay son and heir to Master John Blair late Minister 
of Portpatrick, it is now wholly ruinous, it stood upon a rock 
on the seaside, within a quarter of a miles distance from the 
Kirk. 2. Killanringan about a mile distant from the Kirk 
towards the North lying neer the sea shore, the present 
Residence of the forsaid John Blair of Dunskay who is 
heritor thereof as also of the far greatest part of the whole 
parish. 

15. Stoniekirk. The Laird of Garthland is Patron hereof. 
There are two other parishes annexed to it, viz. Toskerton and 
Clashshant, both holding of the Bishop of Galloway, upon 
which account the Bishop alledges that Garthland should only 
present at every third vacancy, or at least that they should 
present per vices. This Kirk of Stoniekirk lys to the South- 
ward of Stranraver, from which it is distant about four miles. 
The parish of Stoniekirk, the other two parishes of Toskerton 
and Clashshant being included, is bounded on the East and 
Southeast with the sands or Bay of Glenluce ; on the South 
with the parish of Kirkmaiden. On the West with the sea 
looking towards Ireland ; Towards the Northwest and more 
Northerly it is bounded with the parish of Portpatrick On the 
North with the parishes of Glenluce and Inch from which it 
is separated by the water of Poltanton. The farthest part 
of this parish of Stoniekirk, Toskerton and Clashshant being 
included, is distant almost four miles from the Parish Kirk 
which is distant towards the West from Wigton, eighteen 113. 



96 STONIEKIRK KIRKMAIDEN 

miles. Principal Edifices in this parish of Stoniekirk are 1. 
Garthland a good old strong house distant from the Parish 
kirk about a mile N.N.W. or thereby. It is the dwelling 
place of William M c dowall of Garthland. 2, Balgreggan 
another good strong house distant from the parish kirk a large 
mile towards the South. It was the ordinary residence of the 
Laird of Freuch whose sirname is also M c dowal. 3, Ardwell 
distant from the parish Kirk three miles towards the South. 
It is the present residence of Sir Godfrey M c Culloch of Myrton. 
and lyes midway betwixt the Bay of Glenluce and the sea look- 
ing towards Ireland, the distance betwixt the two seas at high 
water being about two miles and an halfe. 4, Killaser distant 
from the parish Kirk about three miles and about half a mile 
to the Eastward of Ardwell, this house also belongs to Sir 
Godfrey M c Culloch. 

16. Kirkmaiden so called because the Kirk is dedicated tc 
Virgin Mary the Print of whose knee is fabulously reported to 
be seen on a stone where she prayed somewhere about a place 
in this parish called Maryport, neer to which place there was 
a chapel long since, but now wholly ruined, neer which place 
also at a peece of ground called Creechen about a mile distant 
from the Kirk, the sheep have all their teeth very yellow, yea 
and their very skin and wool are yellower than any other sheep 
in the countrey and will easily be known though they were 
mingled with any other flocks of sheep in the whole countrev. 
The Kings Majesty is Patron of the parish of Kirkmaiden, 
although the Lairds of Kilhilt pretend thereto and are in pos- 
session thereof This parish Kirk is about twenty miles 
114. distant from Wigton towards the Southwest and about 
miles distant from Stranraver more Southwardly. 
This Parish is an Isthmus or narrow tongue of Land reaching 
into the sea for the space of about miles and is sur- 
rounded with the sea on all quarters except at the one end 
thereof which is bounded with the parish of Stoniekirk. The 
broadest part of this parish of Kirkmaiden is litle more than 
a mile and an halfe or thereby ; the narrowest part will be 
about a mile ; and the Farthest part of the parish will be but 
a little more than three miles distant from the parish kirk. 
On the point of this Isthmus two large miles and more from 






KIRKMAIDEN 97 

the Kirk and at the South East part of the parish, is the pro- 
montory called the Mule or Mule of Galloway, to distinguish 
it from the Mule of Kintyre. At the which place there is 
most commonly a very impetuous current. Principall Edifices 
in this parish are 1, Logan The dwelling place of Patrick 
M c dowall of Logan, Lieutennent to his Majesties Militia 
troop of horse for this shire and distant from the parish Kirk 
about 2 miles and an halfe towards the North. In this 
Gentlemans Land at the seaside opposite to the coast of 
Ireland is a place called Portnessock very commodious for an 
Harbour, whereupon his eldest son Robert heir apparent of 
Logan hath lately procured an act of his Majesties privy 
Councill for a voluntary contribution towards the building of 
an harbour there. At this Portnessock there is an excellent 
Quarrie of slate stones, which are very large and durable. 
The countrey hereabouts especially in the summer time is very 
defective of Mills by reason that the litle bourns are there 
dryed up ; to supply which defect, the Laird of Logan hath 
lately built an excellent Wind-mill, which is very usefull not 
only to his own lands but to the whole countrey thereabouts. 
In this Gentlemans land about a mile and an halfe from the 
parish Kirk is a well calPd Muntluckwell, it is in the midst of 
a litle Bogg, to which well severall persons have recourse to 
fetch water for such as are sick asserting [whether it be truth 
or falshood I shall not determine] that if the sick person 
shall recover, the water will so buller and mount up, when the 
Messinger dips in his vessel, that he will hardly get out dry 
shod by reason of the overflowing of the well but if the sick 
person be not to recover, then there will not be any such over- 
flowing in the least. It is also reported [but I am not bound 
to beleeve all reports] that in this Gentlemans land there is a 
rock at the seaside opposite to the coast of Ireland, which is 
continually dropping both winter and summer, which drop 
hath this quality, as my Informer saith, that if any person be 
troubled with chine-cough, he may be infallibly cured by 
holding up his mouth and letting this drop fall therein. 
What truth there is in this information I know not, but this 
I am sure of, that on the other shore of this Isthmus in this 
Gentlemans ground, there is, or at least not long since was a 
VOL. ii. G 



98 KIRKMAIDEN 

saltpan where good salt was made, with peits instead of coals. 

2, Cloneyard. It was of old a very great house pertaining to 

Gordon of Cloneyard but now it is something ruinous. 
It lyes about a mile distant from the parish kirk northwardly. 

3, Drummore. This house is about three quarters of a mile 
distant from the parish Kirk towards the East, and apper- 
taines to Squire Adair of Kilhilt. 

These eight parishes last mentioned viz. Glenluce, the new 
no. Kirk being included, Inch, Stranraver, Kirkcolme, Laswalt, 
Portpatrick, Stoniekirk, Tosherton and Clashshant being in- 
cluded and Kirkmaiden, make up the Presbytrie of Stranraver 
one of the three Presbytries of the Dioces of Galloway. The 
Ministers of the Presbytrie meet ordinarly at Stranraver the 
first Wednesday of every month and oftener if they find 
cause, for exerceing of Church Discipline and others affairs 
belonging to them. 

The sixteen parishes last described, viz. 1 Penygham, 2 
Wigton, 3 Kirkinner, Longcastle being included, 4 Sorbic, 
Kirkmadroyne and Crughton being included, 5 Whitherne (j 
Glasserton, Kirkmaiden being included, 7 Mochrum, 8 Kirk- 
cowan, 9 Glenluce, including both the old and new Kirk, 10 
Inch, 11 Stranraver, 12 Kirkcolme, 13 Laswalt, 14 Port- 
patrick, 15 Stoniekirk, Toskerton and Clashshant being in- 
cluded, and 16 Kirkmaiden, are all lying within the bounds of 
the shire of Wigton and so lyable to the Jurisdiction of the 
Sheriff of Wigton, which office belongs heritably to Sir 
Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw whose predecessors have enjoy \\ 
the same for more than two hundred and fifty years. But at 
present that Office is excerc'd by Collonell John Graham of 
Claverhouse and M r David Graham his brother. They keep 
their head court at Wigton, and their ordinary Courts there 
too, either by themselves or their deputes every tuesday 
except in time of Vacation. They have another Depute also 
at Stranraver who keeps court there on Frydays for the 
benefit of such as dwell at a great distance from Wigton the 
head Burgh. The shire of Wigton sends two Commissioners 
to the Parliam: or Convention of Estates though far less both 
in bounds and valuation than the Stewartrie of Kirkcuburgh 
which sends but one. 






GALLOWAY 99 

The Commissary of Wigton who hath his dependance upon 117. 
the Bishop of Galloway hath jurisdiction over the whole shire 
of Wigton and parish of Monnygaffe in the Stewartrie. So 
that the Commissariot of Wigton comprehends exactly the 
whole Presbytries of Wigton and Stranraver. He either by 
himself or his Deputs keeps court at Wigton every Wednes- 
day except in vacation time, for confirming of testaments, and 
deciding in causes brought before him. 

Finis partis primes. 

PART SECOND 

ANSWERS to QUERIES concerning GALLOWAY l 

Thus much for the particular parishes of the Stewartrie of 
Kirkcudburgh and Shire of Wigton, which may serve for ane 
general answer to severall of your Queries, and yet I shall in 
this second part, give a more particular answer to some of 
them, which could not be conveniently inserted in the forsaid 
description of the several parishes. 

As to the first Querie. What the nature of the countrey 
or place is ? Answ : The North parts through the whole 
Stewartrie are hilly and mountainous. The whole parish of 
Monnygaffe consists for the most part of hills, mountains, wild 
forrests, and moors. The Southerne part of the Stewartrie is 
more level and arable. As for the Shire of Wigton, the heads 
or Northern parts of the parishes of Penygham, Kirkcowand, 
Glenluce & c are Moors and Boggs. The Southern part of the 
Presbytry of Wigton from the Kirk of Penygham to the sea, 
contains much arable land, especially in the Machirrs which, 
as I said formerly, imports white land. It consists generally 118. 
of a thin gravelly ground but towards the sea coast it is deeper 
and more inclining to a clay. The Park of Baldone for the 
most part, is a plain even ground consisting of a very rich clay 
bearing excellent grass fit for the syth. In this park of Bal- 
done the snow uses to melt shortly after it falls ; yea through- 
out the whole shire except in the Northern Moors thereof 
snow lyes not long, but melts within a day or two, unless it be 
accompanied with violent frosts. The Southern part of the 

1 This title is in pencil. ED. 



100 GALLOWAY 

Rirms (the Presbytry of Stranraver lying westerward of the 
water of Glenluce being commonly called the Rinns or Rinds 
of Galloway) is also arable and level and the land is more 
sandie than in the Presbytry of Wigton. Under this head I 
think it will not be amiss to inform you^ that although we 
have mice good store, yet we have no Rats, [in this Presbytrie 
I mean, but whither they are in the Rinns I know riot]. 
Whither this proceeds from the nature of the countrey I 
cannot determine, or whither they will live here or not. 
However there is a Gentleman in this parish of Kirkinner, who 
assures me that above thirty; yeafj$, sihce, he saw an innumer- 
able multitude of Rats in his barne, which overspread most of 
his corne there, but they only stayed a day or two, and then 
evanished, he not knowing whence they came or whither they 
went. In the shire of Wigton we have nether coal, nor lime- 
stone nor freestone nor any wood considerable, except planting 
about Gentlemens houses, and yet there are very few parishes 
but have one or two good stone houses very well built, wherein 
a Gentleman of a good quality and Estate may conveniently 
dwell; when they build, they furnish themselves with freestone 
from England. As for lime they are supplyed from the shell- 
119. bank of Kirkinner, and with timber for building from the 
wood of Cree in Monnygaff parish which yeilds abundance of 
good strong Oak. Those that live near the coast side, may if 
they please, furnish themselves with coales from England, but 
for the most part, the countrey, except towards the sea, is well 
furnished with Mosses, from whence, in the summer time they 
provide themselves with peits, which are so plentiful!, that in 
the parishes of Glenluce and Kirkmaiden, they sometimes have 
saltpans and with peits instead of coals make salt. In the 
parish of Whithern, because severall of them are a consider- 
able distance from the peit moss, they have a fewell, which 
they call baked Peits, which they take out of a stiff black 
marish ground in the summer time, work them with their 
hands, and making them like very thick round cakes, they 
expose them to the sun, and after they be throughly dry 
they yeild a hot and durable fire. . .. . : 

As to the second part of the Querie, What are the cheife 
products? Answ: Neat, small horses, sheep, and in some 



GALLOWAY 101 

parts of the moors, Goats ; Wool, white woolen cloath ; Beir, . 
Oats, hay. Their Bestial are vented in England, their sheep 
for the most part at Edinburgh; their horses and woolen 
cloath at the faires of Wigton ; their wool at Air, Glasgow, 
Sterling, Edinburg & c . Their wool is of three sorts: Laid- 
Wool, Moor Wool, and Deal Wool ; The most part of their 
Laid Wool called in other parts smeard Wool, is in the Parish 
of Monnygaffe, so called because about Martimas they melt 
butter and Tar together and therewith they lay for that 
is their expression, or smear their sheep by parting the wool 
and with their finger straking in the mixt butter and Tar on 120. 
the sheeps skin, which as it makes the wool grow longer and so 
the better for the finester, so it fortifies the sheep against the 
frost and snow, which uses to be far more excessive there than 
in the lower grounds. This Wool though far longer than the 
other two sorts will not give so much per stone, by reason 
that when the wool is scoured, and the butter and tar washed 
out, it will not hold out weight by far so well, as the next sort, 
viz. Moor Wool, this is the best of the three sorts, being very 
cleane, because not tarr'd and consequently much whiter. The 
best Moor Wool is said to be in Penygham, Kirkcowan, Moch- 
rum, Glenluce in the shire, and upon the water of Fleet in the 
Stewartrie. The third sort viz. Dale or deal wool is not 
usually so good as the Moor Wool, being much fouler than it, 
in regard of the toft Dykes which enclose the sheepfolds in 
the ground neer the shore, whereas in the Moors their folds 
are surrounded with dykes of single stones laid one upon the 
other. 

The Oates in the shire are commonly very bad, being com- 
par'd with the Oates of many other shires, having long beards 
or awnds, and although their measure be heaped, and the 
weakest and worst of their Oates which they reserve for their 
horses and seed, be winnowed and drawn out, yet three bolls 
of corne will not yeild much more than one boll of good and 
sufficient meal straked measure, however the countrey people 
have the dexterity of making excellent and very hearty meal, 
I mean when they make it designedly and for their own use, 
shelling it in the Mill, twice and sometimes thrice, before they 
grind it into meal and then they grind it not so small and 



102 GALLOWAY 

/.'/. fine, as they do commonly in other parts. It is fit to be 
remembred here, that before they carry the corne to the mill, 
after it is dry'd in the Killn, they lay it upon the Kiln flour in 
a circular bed about a foot thick, then being barefoot they go 
among it rubbing it with their feet, (this they call Lomeing of 
the corne), and by this means, the long beards and awnds are 
separated from the corne, and the corne made, as they terme it 
more snod and easie to pass through the mill, when they are 
shelling of the corne there. The ordinary encrease of this 
corne is but three for one, which, for they sow much, will, 
except in years of great scarcitie, abundantly satisfy them- 
selves and furnish the Moorlands plentifully with victual, yea 
and oftentimes they vend and transport much thereof to other 
countreys. In some places viz. neer the sea, they sow a whiter 
and greater corne, which hath a greater increase both to the 
mill and from it. They begin to plough their Oatland in 
October and begin to sow in February if the weather will 
permit, for that Maxime of Agriculture proper ato satio scepc 
solet decipere sera semper suits exactly with this countrey. 
They divide their arable land into eight parts at least, which 
they call cropts, four whereof they till yearly. Their first 
cropt they call their Lay, and this is that on which the 
bestial and sheep were folded the summer and harvest before 
and teathed by their lying there. The second croft they call 
their Awell, and this is that which was the Lay cropt the year 
before. The third, which was their Awell the former year, they 
call only the third Cropt. The fourth is that which was their 
third cropt the foregoing year, however good husbands till, 
but litle of this ; and then these cropts or parts remaine four 
years at least untilTd after this so that the one halfe of their 
arable land is only tilFd yearly, the other halfe bearing only 
grass and as they terme it lying Lee. Thus much for their 
tilling of their Oatland, save only that in the Shire they till 

H9. not ordinarly with horses, but with oxen, some only with 
eight oxen, but usually they have ten, which ten oxen are not 
so expensive by far in keeping as four horses, which must be 
fed dayly with corne, besides the oxen yeeld much more dung, 
as also when they grow old and unserviceable, they get a good 
price for them from the graziers and drovers. In several 1 



GALLOWAY 103 

parts of the Stewartrie they till with four horses all abreast, 
and bound together to a small tree before, which a boy or 
sometimes a woman leads, going backwards. In the mean 
time another stronger man hath a strong stick about four foot 
long with an iron hook at the lowest end thereof, with which 
being put into an other Iron fastened to the end of the plough- 
beame and leaning upon the upper end of the stick and guiding 
it with his hands, he holds the plough beam up or down 
accordingly as he finds the ground deep or shallow ; the land 
where they use this sort of tilling being far more rocky and 
stonier than in the shire. 

Their Beir is commonly very oatie, and in some places mixt 
with darnel, which they call Roseager, especially in wet land 
and in a wet year. This Roseager being narcotick occasions 
strangers to find fault with our ale, although it do not much 
trouble the inhabitants there, but is sometimes thought by 
them to be no ill ingredient, providing there be not too great 
a quantity thereof, because, as some alledge, it makes the 
drink to be the stronger. As for this Roseager, although I do 
not much plead for it, yet it is not to be imputed to this 
countrey as peculiar to our Beir, for sure I am as I was some 
years since riding in Lothian Within three miles of the Ports 
of Edinburgh I saw more plenty of it growing among barly 
there, than I ever saw growing in so little bounds ; in any part 
of Galloway. However as for the Beir itselfe, it is indifferent 
good, though not so birthy as in many other places, for its 
encrease is usually but about four or five for one, and yet they 
are abundantly able to serve themselves and to transport great 
quantities thereof to the Moors of Monnygaffe & c as also to 
Greenock and other places. They sow, contrary to their 
sowing of oates, the best seed they can get, and yet it comes 
up oatie, much whereof remaines after the winnowing. They 
deliver to the Maltman nine measures of beir, and he delivers 
back only eight measures of made Malt. They begin to till 
their beirland about the latter end of March or the beginning 
of April, and after the same hath been till'd twenty days, and 
the weeds begin to plant, as their phrase is, they sow it, tilling 
the same but once which is something peculiar to this 
countrey, yea and they sow their Beir in the same place every 



104 GALLOWAY 

year, and without intermission, which is also peculiar, in a 
peece of ground lying neerest to their house, and this peece of 
ground they call their Beir-Fay. On which they lay their dung 
before tilling, but their dung will not suffice to cover the same 
yearly, yea they think it sufficient if in three years space, the 
whole be dunged, and this I suppose is also peculiar to this 
countrey. After the beir is sprung up, about eight or ten 
days after the sowing, I have observed them towards the 
evening (if there hath been a little shower, or they perceave 
that there will be one ere the next morning,) to harrow their 
beirland lightly all over, which as they find by experience, 
plucks up and destroys the young weeds, which wither and 
decay, but the beir presently takes rooting again without any 
prejudice, unless a great drought do immediatly follow. It is 
frequently observed that better beir grows on the part of the 
Fay that was dunged the preceeding year, than on that which 
was only dunged the current year. Their beir is ripe about 
Lambas and sometime sooner. They have always at the end of 
their Beir-Fay an hemp-rigg on which they sow hemp yearly, 
which supplys them with sacks, cords, and other domestick 
uses, this Hemprigg is very rich land, as being their Dunghill, 
where they put all their dung, which in the winter and spring 
their Byres and Stables do furnish them with. 

As for Wheat, there is but very little of it to be found 
growing in this countrey. Nether have they any quantity of 
Rye, that which is, is usually to be found growing with the 
Moormen only. 

As for Pease, very few in this countrey sow them and yet I 
know by experience, that they might get very much advantage 
by sowing of them, the encrease being ordinarly sixteen and 
more for one, yea and it is a rare thing to see any pease worm- 
eaten; What the Reason is that they do not sow them, I do 
not very well know, however I suppose one reason to be, 
because their sheep (which are many and not at all housed as 
in many other places) would eat them all up, since the pease 
should be sowne much sooner than the ordinary time of their 
herding their sheep. 

As to the second Querie, concerning plants I can give no 
answer save this, that I know no plants peculiar to this 



GALLOWAY 105 

countrey, yet I have observed these following to grow more 
plentifully here than I remember to have seen in other places, 
viz. at the seaside, Glasswort, Eringo, sea-wormwood, Scurvy- 
grass, Sea Kale, and on the Rocks Paspier, Hindtongue. In 
the Moors, Spleenwort, Heath or Heather with the flower. In 
boggs, mosses and soft ground, Ros Solis (the countrey people 
call it Muirill grass, and give it to their cattel in drink 
against the disease called the Muir-ill) Pinguicula or Butter- 
niat or Yorkshire Sanicle (which being made into an ointment 
is very good to anoint the udders of their kine, when they are 
rocked or chapped) Hasta Regia or Lancashire Ashphodele. 
As also the true Osmunda Regalis, or filiae florida; many 
horse loads whereof are growing in the Caumfoord neer the 
Loch of Longcastle in this parish of Kirkinner ; this plant the 
countrey people call the Lane Onion or as they pronounce it 
the Lene Onion, the word Lene in their dialect importing a 
soft, grassie meadow ground, they call this plant also by the 
name of stifling grass, and they make much use of it for the 
consolidating of broken bones, or straines ether in man or 
beast, by steeping the root thereof in Water till it become 
like to glue water or size, wherewith they wash the place 
affected with very good success. Danewort also grows very 
plentifully on the Southeast of Wigton ; in the Churchyard 
of Anwoth, and in a place of this parish of Kirkinner called 
the Cruives of Dereagill ; l this vegetable, whether herb or 
shrub I shall not dispute, is found by experience to be very 
usefull against paines in the joynts or the contraction of the 
nerves and sinews by bathing the place affected, in a decoction 
of the leaves and stalks of the said plant in sea water. I had 
almost forgot to tell you that upon the low rocks covered 
every spring tide, in Skelleray in this parish of Kirkinner I 
found the Sea Lavender or Limonium, which Gerrard calls 
Britannia it is a fine plant with a pretty flower. I took up 
some of the plants with the clayie sand sticking to the roots 
and planted the same in my garden, which grew wellenough. 
I have seen this plant since, growing in M r Sutherlands 
Garden, who told me he brought it from Gravesend. In the 



1 ' DarigilP interlined. ED. 



106 GALLOWAY 

parish of Monnygaffe there is ane excrescence, which is gotten 
off the Craigs there, which the countrey people make up into 
balls, but the way of making them I know not, this they call 
Cork lit and make use thereof for litting or dying a kind of 
purple colour. There is also in the said parish another 
excrescence which they get from the roots of trees, and call it 
Woodraw, it is a kind of fog or moss with a broad leaf, this 
they make use of to lit or dy a kind of Orange or Philamort 
Colour. I shall end this head by telling you that the year 
after our arable Land is turned into grass, it abounds and is 
almost overspread with Digitalis or Foxgloves, the countrey 
people call them Fox tree leaves, or Deadmens fingers, some 
whereof have white flowers; as also with a small sorrell, and 
very commonly also with the lesser Asperula and with ornith- 
opodium or birds foot, by which you may easily guess at the 
nature of the ground. 

As concerning animals I can say nothing save that this 
countrey consisting both of Moors and Valley grounds along 
the sea shore. We have such as are usually found in the like 
places ; As in the Moors we have plenty of Moorfowles, Part- 
ridges, Tarmakens, & c . In our hills and Boggs, foxes good 
store. In our Lochs and Bourns otters ; Neer the sea several 1 
sorts of wildgeese, Wildducks, Ateales, small teales, Sea maws, 
Gormaws and another fowl which I know not the name of, it is 
about the bigness of a pigeon, it is black and hath an rid bill. 
I have seen it haunting about the Kirk of Mochrum. 

As to the third Querie concerning Forrests, I can say, but 
little, save that there is in parish of Monnygaffe a forrest or 
two, wherein are also some Deer, but of their bounds or juris- 
dictions I cannot give any certain or particular account. 
There is also in the parish of Sorbie, betwixt the kirks of 
Kirkinner & Sorbie a large Moor, called the Forrest Moor, 
but why so called I know not, except it be, as the people say, 
because there was long since a great wood growing therein 
. though at present there is not one tree growing there, unless 
two or three bushes may be caird so. And here I shall add that 
up and down the whole countrey, I have observed many Haw- 
thorne trees growing in several places, the boughs or branches 
of which trees, (and many times the bole too) I have observed 



GALLOWAY 107 

growing or inclining towards the South East. The countrey 
people commonly account the cutting down of those trees 
ominous, and tell many stories of accidents that have befallen 
such as have attempted it, especially those trees of the greater 
sort, Why they have such a regard to those trees I know not, 
only I remember to have read in Heylen, in his description of 
vEgypt, who speaking of the Palmtree, tells us that the nature 
thereof is, that though never so ponderous a weight were put 
upon it, It yeilds not to the burden ; but still resists the heavi- 
nes of it, and endeavours to lift up, and raise itselfe, the more 
upwards ; for which cause, saith he, it was planted in church- 
yards, in the eastern countreys, as an Emblem of the Resur- 
rection ; instead whereof we use the Ewtree planted in church- 
yards, as also very often the Hawthorntree, which is also 
something of the nature of the Palmtree, upon which account 
perhaps at first the people had a respect thereto, and now 
esteem it ominous to cut it down. 

As to that part of the Querie concerning springs and their 
medicinal qualities, I can say nothing save only what hath 
been said in the description of the severall parishes; as also 
that there are very many excellent springs in this Countrey, 
affording great plenty of excellent good water. Severall of 
them, the countrey people according to their fancy, alledge to 
be usefull against severall deseases, being made use of on such 
particular days of the quarter, which superstitious custome I 
cannot allow of, and yet I doubt not but there are severall 
medicinal wells in this countrey, if they were sought out and 
experimented by men capable to Judge thereanent. 

As to that part of the Querie concerning Parks I can only 
say that the Park of Baldone is the Cheife, yea I may say the 
first, and as it were the mother of all the rest ; Sir David 
Dunbar being the first man that brought parks to be in request 
in this countrey, but now many others finding the great benefit 
thereof, have followed his example as the Earl of Galloway, 
Sir William Maxwell, Sir Godfrey M c Culloch, Sir James Dai- 
ry m pie, the Laird of Logan, and many others who have their 
Parks or enclosed grounds, throughout the whole Shire. 

As concerning Rivers, the principal are Orr, Dee, Kenn, 
Fleet, Cree, Blaidnoch, Luce or Glenluce and Paltanton. 



108 GALLOWAY 

Orr hath its rise from Lochurr or Lochorr, which Loch is 
situated betwixt the parish of Balmaclellan, on the Westside 
and the parishes of Glencairne and Dunscore on the Eastside. 
In this Loch there is an old ruinous Castle with planting of 
Sauch or Willow trees for the most part about it, where many 
wildgeese and other waterfowles breed, to this place there is 
an entrie from Dunscore side, by a causey, which is covered 
with water knee deep. This Loch is replenished with pikes : 
Many salmon also are found there at spawning time; from this 
Loch the river comes and dividing the parishes of Glencarne, 
Dunscore, Kirkpatrick-Durham, Orr and Kowend, on the East- 
side, from the parishes of Balmaclellan, Partan, Corsemichael 
Bootle and a point of Dundranen on the other side. This river 
is observed to be in all places of it, both from head to foot 
about twelve miles distant from the town of Drumfreis ; except 
you go from the foot of Cowend under the Fell calPd Crustad- 
fell by the way of Kirkbeen, 

way, and then it will be fourteen 

distant from it, and the town of Drumfreis. This river is 
foordable in many places being foordable also 

when the tide obstructs not, although at 
spring tides the sea water flows up. 

however if the water be at any time great, there is a stone- 
bridge over it, called the bridge of Orr, which joines the 
parishes of Kirkpatrick-Durham and Corsemichael together. 

Kenn, hath its rise in the shire of Nithisdale, not far from 
the head of the water of Skarr in the said shire, and running 
westward divides the parish of Corsefairn from Dairy and then 
turning Southwards it divides the parishes of Dairy and Bal- 
maclelland from the parish of the Kells ; It joynes the river of 
Dee at a place called the boat of the Rone, four miles beneath 
the New town of Galloway. 

Dee hath its rise from Loch Dee at the head of the parish 
of Monnygaffe bordering upon 

and coming from thence hath 

on the westside the parishes of Monnygaffe, Girthton, Bal- 
niaghie, Tongueland, Twynam and part of Borgue. On the 
Eastside, it hath the parishes of Corsefairne, Kells, Partan, 
Corsemichael, Kelton, Kirkcudburgh, and empties itself into 



GALLOWAY 109 

the sea about two miles beneath the town of Kirkcudburg at 

an Island calPd the Ross. This River is navigable by ships 

of a great burthen from its mouth to the town of Kirkcud- 

btirgh and higher. This River is abundantly plenished with 

excellent salmon. Towards the mouth whereof Thomas Lid- 

derdail of Isle hath a large fishyard wherein he gets abundance 

of salmon and many other fish. Two miles above the said 

town of Kirkcudburgh at the Abbacy of Tongueland, just 

where a rivulet called the water of Tarfle empties itself into 

the river of Dee, are great Rocks and Craigs, that in a dry 

summer do hinder the salmon from going higher up, and here 

it is that Vicecount of Kenmuir as Bayly to the Abbacy of 

Tongueland hath priviledge of a Bayly-day, and fenceth the 

river for eight or ten days in the summer time prohibiting all 

persons whatsoever to take any salmon in that space so that 

at the day appointed, if it have been a dry season, there is to 

be had excellent pastime ; the said Vicecount with his friends 

and a multitude of other people coming thither to the fishing 

of salmon which being enclosed in pooles and places among 

the Rocks, men go in and catch in great aboundance with their iso. 

hands, speares, listers & c yea and with their very dogs. At 

this place upon the rocks on the Riverside are a great variety 

of very good herbs growing. I have heard it reported, how 

true I know not, that it was this place and the situation 

thereof, which contributed towards the quickening of Captain 

Alexander Montgomerie his fancie, when he composed the 

Poem entituled the Cherrie and the Slae. In this river about 

Balmaghie are sometimes gotten excellent pearles out of the 

great muscle, and I am informed that Master Scot of Bristow 

hath one of them of a considerable value. In this river is an 

Island calTd the Threave, but of this I have already spoken in 

the description of the parish of Balmaghie. About 

above the said Island of the Threave this river is a deep 

Loch which Loch extends itself into the river of Kenn and 

reaches as far as the Castle of Kenmuir, in the parish of the 

Kells to another residence of his in the parish of Corsemichael, 

called the Greenlaw lying on the Eastside of Dee, yea so neer 

to it that sometimes the inundation of the river comes into 

his cellars and lower roomes. The distance betwixt the saids 



110 GALLOWAY 

two houses of Kenmuir and Greenlaw, which is also the length 
of the said Loch, will be about eight miles. 

Fleet. This River hath its rise in the parish of Girthton, and 
dividing the parish of Girthton, on its Eastside, from the parish 
of Anwoth on its Westside, empties itself into the sea near 
the Castle of Cardonnes in the parish of Anwoth. This river 
towards the mouth of it abounds with many good fish, also at 
the mouth of it are some little Islands called the Isles of Fleet. 

Cree. This River hath its rise from Lochmuan in the parish 
of Cammonell in Carrick, and dividing the parishes of Monny- 
gaffe and Kirkmabreck on its Eastside from the parishes of 
Cammonell and Penygham on its Westside, empties itself into 
the sea beneath Wigton. In that part of this river which 
divides Cammonel from Mony gaffe I have seen severall pearles 
taken out of the great muscle. There is another river called 
Munnach, which hath its rise from the hills of Carrick, and 
131. after many flexures and turnings, for in the road betwixt the 
Rownetree bourne in Carrick and Palgowne in Monnygaffe 
parish which will be about the space of four miles ; this River 
of Munnach is crossed, if I remember right, about sixteen or 
seven ten times. It empties itself into the river of Cree, at a 
foord callM the Blackwrack about six miles from Monygaffe, at 
which place beginns the Loch of Cree, about three miles long 
or thereby, at the foot whereof William Stewart of Castle 
Stewart hath cruives wherein he gets good salmon. Upon the 
East bank of this Loch grows that excellent Oak wood, which 
I spoke of in the description of Monygaffe, opposite w here- 
unto viz. on the West side of the said Loch in the parish of 
Penygham the said Will 1 Stewart hath a wood, which in 
time may produce good timber, but it is far inferior to the 
other. There is another Rivulet called Pinkill bourn, that 
having its rise in the said parish of Monnygaffe, empties itself 
into the river of Cree, just betwixt the town and church of 
Monnygaffe and here again are good salmon caught with nets 
as also at other places betwixt the towne of Monnygaffe and 
Macchirmore, & which place being about a short mile dis- 
tant from Monnygaffe, there is a foord calle the foord of 
Macchirmore, unto which the tide comes and to which little 
barks may come also though more than six miles from the sea 



GALLOWAY 111 

in recta linea, but much further if we count the flexures of the 
said River, which at high water do something resemble the 
Crooks of the water of Forth betwixt Sterling and Alloa. 
This foord is the first foord from the mouth of Cree, except 
the foord against Wigton of which more hereafter. At this 
foord of Macchirmore in the month of March are usually 
taken great quantities of large Spirlings, the head of this fish, 
when boy led hath been observed to yeild severall little bones 
resembling all the severall sorts of instruments that shoe- 
makers make use of. Two miles beneath this foord of Maechir- 
more, there is another Rivulet called Palm ure which empties 
itself into the river of Cree it hath its rise in the hills of 
Monuygaffe ; and four miles distant from the towne of Monny- 
gaffe, it runns over a precipice betwixt two Rocks : and is 
there call'd the Grae- mares-tail which is just beside a great IM. 
Rock caird the Saddle-loup, at which, it being the road way, 
horsemen must alight for fear of falling off their horses, or 
rather least horse and man both fall, and never rise again ; 
And here it is to be observed that in Timothy Ponts Mapp 
(which I have only seen of late, and long after the first writing 
of these Papers) those two names viz. The Gray- mares- tail and 
the Saddle-loup are joyned together, and call'd by him, the 
Graymearstail of the Sadillowip, whereas the first viz. the 
Gray-mares-tail is the name of the water running down be- 
twixt the two Rocks which in the falling down resembles the 
taill of a white or gray horse, and the name of the other viz. 
the Saddle-loup is the name of a rock hard by and so called 
for the Reason before specified. Observe also that the name 
that he gives it is very ill spell'd, yea in that Map and Blaws 
Map too, which also I have only seen of late, the name of 
places are so very ill spelPd, that although I was very well 
acquainted with the bounds, yet it was a long time before I 
could understand the particular places designed in that, and 
in some other of his Maps. And hence we may also observe 
that in Maps and descriptions of this nature, it is hardly 
possible, after the greatest care and diligence, to be exact, 
especially where we must of necessitie make use of informations 
which we receave from severall hands, and therefore these 
papers upon the same account being liable to mistakes, the 



112 GALLOWAY 






Reader will, I hope, be inclineable to pass them by, they being- 
almost unavoidable. 

Beneath the influx of Palmure into the river of Cree, there 
is another Rivulet call'd Graddock, which hath its rise east- 
ward in the great mountain of Cairnesmuir and dividing the 
parish of Monnygaffe from the parish of Kirkmabreck, empties 
itself into the river of Cree. This River of Cree at high water 
will be three miles over, as reaching betwixt Wigton in the 
West, and Kirkmabreck alms Ferriton in the East, but at low 
water the river containes itself in lesser bounds, being not a 
133. bow draught over from the East bank of the Ferriton to the 
West bank towards the sands of Wigton. This place at low 
water is foordable ; but I would advise any that comes there,, 
not to ride it, unless he have an expert guide to wade before 
him, it being very dangerous not only in the foord of the 
River, but also on the banks thereof, as also in the sands 
betwixt and Wigton. for even on the sands about half way 
betwixt the foord and Wigton there is a bourn called the 
Bishop bourn having its rise in the parish of Penygham and 
dividing that parish from the parish of Wigton empties itself 
into those sands, may occasion prejudice to a stranger, unless 
he have a good guide. 

Blaidnoch. This River hath its rise from a Loch called 
Lochmaberrie, in the parish of Kirkcowan bordering upon 
Cammonell in Carrick and running southward divides the 
parish of Kirkcowan in the West from the parish of Penygham 
in the East and then runneth Eastwardly dividing the parish 
of Kirkinner on the southside from a corner of Penygham, and 
the parish of Wigton on the North, and running on the south- 
side of the towne of Wigton, empties itself into the sea, or else 
into Cree on the sands of Wigton. There is a lesser Rivulet 
called the water of Tarfle that hath its rise about the North- 
west part of Kirkcowan and for a while running southwardly 
divides the said Parish of Kirkcowan from the parish of Glen- 
luce, and then bending its streams more eastwardly, it runs 
wholly in the parish of Kirkcowan, hard by the southside of 
the said parish kirk, where at a place call'd Lincuan, the Laird 
of Craichlaw hath a salmon fishing, where sometimes he takes 
a good salmon with nets, from this place the said Water of 



GALLOWAY 113 

L'arfle runs still Eastward and a large halfe mile or more from 
Lincuan, It empties itself into the river of Blaidnoch. About 
i mile above the meetings of which two waters at a place 
:aird the mill of Barhoshe. On the river of Blaidnoch, the 
aid Laird of Craichlaw hath another salmon Fishing. About 
;wo miles beneath the meetings, the Laird of Grainge hath 
mother salmon Fishing; beneath which at severall places in 134. 
;he said River the Laird of Dereagill on Kirkinner side, and 
:he Laird of Torhouse on Wigton side, have several! places 
vhere they take salmon by nets, both which Lairds have an 
.'quail interest therein, and some years by mutual agreement, 
:hey fish day about, some years again they iish together and 
iivide their fish equally. There is also another Rivulet called 
:he Water of Malzow or Malyie. which hath its rise at the 
Loch of Mochrum, and running eastward, it empties itself 
into the river of Blaidnoch about a mile beneath the house of 
Dereagill in the parish of Kirkinner. At the head of this 
Hivulet of Malzow are many Eelles taken about Martimas> 
ivhich they salt, with their skins, in barrells, and then in the 
Winter time, eat them roasted upon the coals, and then only 
pilling off their skins. This rivulet hath also plenty of trouts. 
rhere is also another Rivulet call'd Milldriggen Bourn, that 
liath its rise above the place of Barnbarroch, the residence of 
Pohn Vaus of Barnbarroch in the parish of Kirkinner and 
running Eastwards enters into the park of Baldone at the 
Bridge of Milldriggen, and dividing the said park of Baldone, 
ifter many windings and turnings, empties itself into the river 
>f Blaidnoch just opposit to the town of Wigton, this Rivulet 
is also stored with Eels and trouts. This River of Blaidnoch is 
stored with excellent salmon, the Earl of Galloway possessing 
the whole benefit thereof from the mouth of the said river to . 
the lands of Torhouse in the parish of Wigton. The salmon 
fishing in this River is not very good in a dry year especially 
from Torhouse and upwards, because the salmon cannot swim 
up for want of water, but in wet years, it commonly affords 
Ljjood store. I remember to have seen a fish which the fishers 
took with their nets, in the salt water of this river beside 
Wigton, they call'd it to me a young whale, it was about three 
or four foot long, smooth all over without scales and of a 135. 

VOL. II. H 



114 GALLOWAY 

blackish colour, if I remember right, however sure I am it had 
no gills, but ane open place upon the crowne of the head, 
instead of Gills, it was a female, the sign thereof being ap- 
parent at the first view, they made oyll of it. I got about a 
pint of it from them which was very clear and good, and burnt 
very weel in a lamp. I also once saw a sturgeon, which some 
one or other of Wigton had found dead on the sands there, it 
had large boney scales on it, one of which I have. About the 
year 1674, there was a pretty large whale, which came up this 
river of Blaidnoch, and was kilPd upon the sands, I did not 
see it, but saw severall peices of it for the countrey people ran 
upon it, and cut as much as they could bring away and made 
oyle of it, which many persons got good of, but I am told 
if it had been managed right and not cut so in peeces as it 
was, it might have been improved to a far greater advantage ; 
the oyl that I saw and made use of, was very good and clear 
and burnt very well in my Lamp. 

Glenluce or Luce. This River hatli rise in the parish of 
Cammonell, in Carrict, and running southwardly to the new 
Kirk of Glenluce, meets there with another water called the 
Crossewater which also hath its rise in the parish of Cam- 
monel in Carrict, from the said new Kirk of Glenluce it 
runnes southward by the Westside of the precincts of the 
Abbacie of Glenluce, and then half a mile and more beneath 
that, on the Eastside of Park Hay belonging to Sir Charles 
Hay of Park Hay and from thence runs still southward, till 
it empties itself into the sea on the large and vast sands of 
Glenluce, towards the foot of this River of Glenluce Sir 
Charles Hay hath a fish-yard wherein he gets salmon, and 
sometimes great plenty of herring and Mackreels. 
136. Paltanton. This is a small River having its rise in the 
parish of Portpatrick and running southeastward dividing the 
parishes of Portpatrick and Stoniekirk on the Southside from 
the parishes of Laswalt, Inch, and Glenluce on the northside, 
it empties itself into the sea, on the sands of Glenluce. This 
river is not very broad but it is pretty deep in regard it runs 
through a clayie sandie ground and therfore strangers should 
have a care, when they ride the foords thereof. This River 
abounds with pikes and hath some salmon at the mouth thereof. 



GALLOWAY 115 

As to the fourth Querie, What Roads, Bays, Ports for 

Shipping & Answ. As for the Stewartry neer the mouth of 

the water of Orr, in the parish of Dundranen, or Rerick, not 

far from a place called Airdsheugh is a very safe harbour for 

ships called Balcarie, not far from which is the Isle of Haston 

spoken of in the description of the Parish of Rerick. At the 

mouth of Dee beneath Saint Marie Isle, where the river will 

be half a mile broad, there is a great Bay within land, where 

whole fleets may safely ly at anchor. As for the shire of 

Wigton. At Wigton with a spring tide, and a good Pilot a 

ship of a considerable burden may be brought up, and easily 

disburdened. Betwixt Wigton and Innerwell or Enderwell in 

the parish of Sorbie, which I suppose, will be about three 

miles in recta lined, at low water, is to be seen nothing but a 

large plaine of sandie clay : but at Innerwell, ships of great 

burthen may safely put in ; from whence doubling the point of 

Cruglton, till you come to the Isle of Whitherne, the coast is 

for the most part rockie, but the Isle of Whitherne, haveing a 

narrow entry, yeilds a safe secure and advantageous port to 

ships of a great burthen against all storms ; From thence the 

coast of Whithern, Glasserton, Mochrum and part of Glenluce 

is Rockie, but coming to the Bay of Glenluce, you will find a 

large Bay, and dry sand when at low water, then turning 

southward along the coast of Stoniekirk and Kirkmaiden, 

which runs to the Mule of Galloway, the shore is sandie, and 137. 

except at high water, you may ride for the space of twelve 

miles, or thereby, betwixt the sea and shore upon a plain even 

dry sand, and hardly so much as a pebble stone to trouble you. 

This Bay or Loch of Glenluce or Luce, Speed in his Mapps 

miscalls L. Lowys. About four or five leagues distant from 

this place in the sea are two great Rocks though the one be 

greater than the other, called Bigskarr. The point of the 

Mule is a great rock, on which, as I have been often informed, 

such as sail by it in a dark night, have observed a great light, 

which hath occasioned some to say, that there is a rock of 

Diamonds there, however the sea at this point is of times 

very boisterous. Turning about to the Westside of the Mule, 

towards Ireland, the shore is rockie till you come to Port- 

nessock in the parish of Kirkmaiden, where Robert M c Dowall 



116 GALLOWAY 

younger of Logan hath been at great paines and expences to 
build a port for ships and barks cast in that way. The Coast 
from thence to Portpatrick is rockie. Portpatrick itself is the 
ordinary port where the barks come in with passengers from 
Ireland from whence it is distant, as they say, about ten 
leagues. From Portpatrick to the mouth of Lochryan the 
coast is also rocky. The said Lochrian is a very large Bay 
wherein an whole fleet of the greatest burthen may cast 
anchor; it will be about two miles or thereby over, at the 
mouth, but then it will be about six or seaven miles long and 
about four miles broad. Ships may put to shore at the 
Claddow house in the parish of Inch, as also at the town 
of Stranraver which is at the head or southend of the said 
Loch. As to that part of the Querie, what Moon causeth 
highwater. I cannot give an exact account, but I conceave 
that a south moon maketh high water about Wigton and 
Whithern, for I have observed them frequently saying 

Full Moon through light. Full sea at Midnight. 

The seas have plenty of fish, such as salmon, fleuks, solefleuks 
188. Tarbets, sea eeles, whitings & c . these are taken between 
Wigton and the Ferriton some in the half net formerly 
described, some in cups h'xt on the sands neer to the Channel 
of the river of Cree. On the sands of Kirkinner are great 
multitudes of Cockles, which in the year 1674, preserved many 
poor people from starving. Further down the sands, neer the 
sea they take Keilling and Skait, by hooks baited and laid 
upon the sands, which they get at low water. At Polton in 
the months of July, August, and September are sometimes 
great quantities of Herring and Mack reels taken with nets. 
On the Coast of Whitehern, Glasserton and Mochrum, they 
take Cronands, Codlings, Lyths, Scathes or Glassons, Mack- 
reels by hook and bait in boats & c . On the mouth of the 
Water of Luce, they take Salmon, Herring, and Mackreels in 
a fishyard belonging to Sir Charles Hay of Park Hay as I for- 
merly said. On the sands of Luce they get abundance of the 
longshelPd fish calTd the spoutfish ; the man that takes them, 
hath a small iron rod, in his hand, pointed at one end like an 
hooked dart, and treading on the sands and going backward. 



GALLOWAY 117 

he exactly knows where the fish is, which is deep in the sands, 
and stands perpendicular Whereupon he thrusts down his iron 
rod quite through the fish betwixt the two shells, and then by 
the pointed hook, he brings up the fish. On these sands I have 
seen many shells of severall sizes and shapes, but I pretend no 
great skill in Ichthuologie and therefore cannot give you their 
names. In the parish of Kirkcolme they take many keilling 
and skait, and sea carps with hook and line ; they have also 
there many good oysters, which they get at low water without 
any trouble. In the Loch of Lochrian, there is some years a 
great herring fishing and upon the Coast thereabout they 
take very good lobsters, and some of them incredibly great. 
In short our sea is better stored with good fish, than our shoar 
is furnished with good fishers for having such plenty of flesh on 
the shore, they take litle paines to seek the sea for fish. I 
have also heard them say, that it hath been observed, that 139. 
the sea and the land are not usually plentifull both in one 
year, but whither their plenty at land occasions them to. say 
so, I know not. 

As to the fifth Querie, concerning Monuments Forts and 
Camps, excepting King Galdus tomb, already spoken to in the 
description of the parish of Wigton, I can say nothing unless 
it be to tell you, that in a very large plaine calTd the Green 
of Macchirmore, halfe a mile to the southeastward of Monny- 
gaffe, there are severall Cairnes of hand stones, which if I 
mistake not, denote that some great battail or camp hath been 
there, that space of plain ground being, as I conjecture, suffi- 
cient for threescore thousand men to draw up in ; but I could 
never learn from any person what particular battel or camp 
had been there. I have also observed severall green hillocks 
called by the countrey people Moates, as particularly on the 
Westside of Blaidnoch in the Baronie of Clugstone pertaining 
to the Earl of Galloway, another at the Kirk of MonnygafFe, 
another at the Kirk of Mochrum, another at the place of 
Myrton pertaining to Sir William Maxwell of Muirveith, the 
one end of the said place of Myrton being built on it, another 
neer the house of Balgreggen in the parish of Stoniekirk, all 
which have had trenches about them, and have been all 
artificial!, but when or for what use they were made, I know not. 



118 GALLOWAY 

As to the sixt Querie concerning battells I can say nothing ; 
as to that part of the Querie concerning memorable accidents, 
what I know or have been informed of, you may find in the 
description of particular parishes. 

As to the seventh Querie concerning particular customes & c 
I have already given an account of their husbandry and 
occasionly also of some other things. I now think fitt to add 
these following particulars. Their Marriages are commonly 
celebrated on Tuesdays or Thursdays. I myself have married 
neer 450 of the inhabitants of this countrey all of which 
140. except seaven, were married upon a Tuesday or Thursday. 
And it is looked upon as a strange thing to see a marriage 
upon any other days, yea and for the most part also their 
marriages are all celebrated crescente Luna. 

As for their burialls, I have not observed any peculiarity in 
them save this which I have frequently observed at the 
burialls of the common people viz. as soon as ever the dead 
corp is taken out of the house in order to its carrying to the 
churchyard, some persons left behind take out the bedstraw 
on which the person dyed, and burne the same at a little 
distance from the house, there may be perhaps some reason for 
the burning thereof to prevent infection, but why it should be 
don just at that time, I know not well, unless it be to give 
advertisement to any of the people who dwell in the way 
betwixt and the Churchyard, to come and attend the 
buriall. 

The common people are for the most part great chewers of 
Tobacco and are so much addicted to it, that they will ask a 
peece thereof even from a stranger, as he is riding on the way. 
And therefore let not a traveller want an ounce or two of 
Roll Tobacco in his pocket and for an Inch or two thereof, he 
need not fear the want of a guide ether by night or day. 

The Moor-men have a custome of barrelling whey : which 
is thus don. When the Whey is pressed from the curds, they 
let it settle and then pour off the thin clear Whey into a 
barrell or hogshead which will work and ferment there ; the 
next time they make the cheese, they do the like and so daylv 
pour in the Whey into the barrell till it be full, this they close 
up, and keep it till winter and springtime, all which they have 



GALLOWAY 119 

but little milk, yea it will keep a twelve month, but it will be 
very sour and sharp, a mutch in whereof being mixt with a 
pint of spring Water, makes a drink which they make use in 
winter, or at any other time, as long as it lasts. 

They have also a custom e of tanning Cowhides for their 
owne and their families use, with hather instead of bark, 
which is thus done; having lim'd the hides, and the hair 
taken off, and the lime well gotten out, and well washed, 141. 
they take the bark and cropts of sauch, which they boyl very 
well, with the decoction whereof they cover the hide in a tub, 
the decoction being first very well coord ; this they call a 
washing woose, the next day or two thereafter, they take the 
short tops of young green heather, and cutt it small with an 
ax, then put a layer thereof in the bottom of a large tub, 
upon which they spread the hide, and put another layer of 
heather upon it, and then fold another ply of the hide and so 
hather upon it, and then another ply of the hide, till the hide 
be all folded up, always putting green heather betwixt every 
fold, then they put heather above all, and then make a strong 
decoction of heather, which being very well cooFd, they pour 
on the hides, till they be all covered and then put broad 
stones above all to keep the hides from swimming; when they 
find that the hides have drawn out the strength of the decoc- 
tion or woose as they call it, which they know by the water, 
which will begin to be very clear, they take fresh hather, and 
so repete the operation severall times, till the hides be 
thoroughly tann'd which the countrey shoemakers coming to 
their houses make into shoes for the use of the family. And 
here I shall add that many of the cords, which they use in 
harrowing are made of hemp yarne of their own growing or 
spinning, which they twine, twentie or thirtiethreeds together, 
according to the greatness of the cords they designe to 
make, and then they twist three ply of this together very 
hard, which done they let them ly in bark woose, which they 
say keeps the cords the longer from rotting. 

Some of the countrey people here in the nighttime, sleep 
not except they pull off not only their cloaths but their very 
shirts, and then wrap themselves in their blankets yea and I 
have known some of them, who have so addicted themselves 



120 GALLOWAY 

to this custome that when they watch their cattell and sheep 
in folds at night (which they do constantly from the beginning 
of May, till the corne be taken off the ground for fear they 
should break the fold dikes in the night time and do prejudice 
to themselves or their neighbours) they ly on the ground with 
straw or femes under them and stripping themselves stark 
naked, be the night never so cold and stormie, they ly there 
wrapping themselves in their blankets, having perhaps some- 
14*. times a few sticks placed cheveron wise and covered with Turffs 
to keep their blankets from the raine. 

Some of the countrey people, especially those of the elder 
sort, do very often omitt the letter H after T, as Ting ten- 
thing ; tree for three ; Tacht for Thatch ; Wit for With ; 
Fait for Faith, Mout for Mouth, so also, quite contrary to 
some north countrey people (who pronounce V for W as Voe 
for Woe, Volves for Wolves) they oftentimes pronounce \\ 
for V, as serwant for servant, wery for very and so they cal 
the months of February, March and April, the Wart 
quarter, W for V, from Ver; hence their common proverb 
speaking of the stormes in February ; Winter never comes 
till Ware comes ; and this is almost to the same purpose wit! 
the English saying, When the days beginne to lengthen, the 
cold beginnes to strengthen. 

The people of this countrey do very seldome or rather nol 
at all, kill or sell their calves, as they do in other places, 
that is a rare thing so see Veale except sometimes and at some 
few Gentlemens tables. They give two reasons for this; One 
is because as they say, the cow will not give down her milk 
without her Calfe [Mandeslo in his travels through Persia 
India and other easterne countreys relates the like of somt 
place there] and so should they kill or sell the Cow, thev 
should want the use of the Cow but this I suppose might be 
helped would they but train up the Cow otherwise at her first 
Calying. The other Reason is of more weight, viz. Since i 
great part of their Wealth consists in the product of then 
cattell, they think it very ill husbandry to sell that for ; 
shilling, which in three yearstime will yeild more thai 
twenty. 

The Weight by which they sell butter, Cheese, Tallow 



GALLOWAY 121 

Wool and Flax of their own grouth, is by the stone of 
Wigton, which consists exactly of twentie two pound and an 
half Trois, and of this they will give you down weight. 

The Measure by which they sell their Beir, Malt, and 
Oates is their half Peck, eight whereof make their Boll, four 
their furlet two their Peck. This Measure should be burnt 
and sealed by the magistrats of Wigton and is called in 148. 
bargains and written transactions Met and Measure of 
Wigton. The quantity of this Measure is not exactly 
knowne at least it is not always exactly the same, for it is hard 
in this countrey to get two measures exactly alike, the sides 
thereof being not made of hoops and staves as the Linlithgow 
measures are, but of one intire thin peice of Ash bended and 
nailed together like the Rim of an Wool wheel, and so is apt 
to cling and sometimes to alter and change its exact circular 
frame, and therefore the countrey people bargaining among 
themselves do usually condescend upon such a particular 
measure that such a Neighbour makes use of, to buy and sell 
with, The reason of this inequality seems to be a debate 
betwixt the town and countrey. the towne alledging that the 
half Peck should contain sixteen pints, the countrey that it 
should containe only fourteen pints, and a chopin and then 
again suppose they were agreed about the number of pints, 
yet they disagree about the measure of the pint, the town 
alledging that it should be Jugg measure and some of the 
countrey alledging that it should be only pluck measure. 
However they sell their Beir, Malt and Gates by heap, and 
the vessell is so broad that the heap will be more than one 
third part of the whole. The halfe of this Vessell they call 
an Auchlet qu an eightlet or little eight part, for it is the halfe 
of that Measure eight whereof make their boll. So that their 
Boll containes sixteen Auchlets; the furlet eight Auchlets ; 
the Peck four Auchlets and the half peck two Auchlets. By 
this Auchlet they sell Meale, salt and pease, all straked 
measure. About Kirkc-udburgh in the Stewartrie although 
their measures are made of the same forme, yet they differ 
very much as to the quantities and have another way for 
Counting the divisions of the Boll, but at Monnygaffe though 
in the bounds of the Stewartry of Kirkcudburgh, they count 



GALLOWAY 

the same way with the towne of Wigton and differ very little 
from their measure because it lyes contiguous to the shire and 
is for the most part furnished with Beir, Gates, Malt and 
Meal from the parishes of the Presbytry of Wigton in that 
shire, which are all regulated by the Met and Measure of 
Wigton. 

As to the eight Querie What Monasteries & c . Answ. Within 
144- the Stewartry of Kirkcudburgh there is 1 New Abbey neer 
Dumfreis. It with six churches depending thereon viz. Kirk- 
cudburgh, Kelton, Bootle, Corsemichael, Kirkpatrick-Durham 
and Orr, belongs to the Bishop of Edinburgh and granted to 
that Bishoprick at its erection by King Charles the Martyr, 
formerly the revenues thereof were brought in, as I am in- 
formed, towards the support of the Castle of Edinburgh. 
2 The Abbey of Dundranen in the parish of Rerick or Monk- 
ton. It belongs to the Bishop of Dunblain as Dean to the 
Chapel Royal. 3. The Abbey of Tongueland. It belongs to 
the Bishop of Galloway. The Vicecount of Kenmuir is herit- 
able Bayly thereof. In the shire of Wigton there is 1. The 
Priory of Whithern. It belongs to the Bishop of Galloway 
and hath a regality annext thereto. The Earl of Galloway is 
heritable Bayly thereof. 2. The Abbacy of Glenluce. It 
belongeth to the Bishop of Galloway. It is a regality, its 
Jurisdiction reacheth over the whole parish of Glenluce. Sir 
John Dalrymple younger of Stair is heritable Bayly of this 
Regality. 3. Salsyde or Soul-Seat, or Saul-Seat, now almost 
wholly ruined. It lyes in the flexure of a Loch within the 
parish of the Inch. The Minister of Portpatrick hath an 
action in dependance before the Lords of Session concerning 
the Superiority of the lands belonging to this Abbacy, and is 
sometimes called Commendator of Salside, but what will be 
the decision thereof I know not. 

As to the Ninth Querie I can only say that the house of 
Gairlies in the parish of Monnygaffe, the house of Glasserton 
in the parish of Glasserton, affoords titles to the Earl of Gallo- 
way, whose tittle is Earl of Galloway, Lord Stewart of Gair- 
lies and Glasserton. The Earl of Galloway his eldest son is 
called the Lord Gairlies. So Castle Kennedy in the parish of 
the Inch affoords a title to the Earl of Cassillis his eldest son, 



GALLOWAY 128 

who is stiled Lord Kennedy. As also the Castle of Kenmuir 
in the parish of Kells, affoords a title to the Vicecount of 
Kenmuir. 

As to the tenth, eleventh, and twelth Queries, they are 
answerd in the description of the particular parishes. As for 145. 
the rest of the Queries, to the Nobility, Gentry, Burrows, as I 
am not concerned therein, so it would be an attempt far above 
my capacity to give any satisfactory answer concerning them. 

I shall only presume to give some short account concerning 
the Bishop of Galloway and the Chapter. 

As to the Bishop of Galloway, his priviledges and dignities. 
He is Vicar Generall to Archbishop of Glasgow and in the 
V^acancie of that See, can do anything that the Archbishop 
himself could have done, viz. can present Jure proprio to vacant 
churches at the Archbishops gift, can present Jure devoluto to 
laick patronages that are elapsed can ordain, collate and insti- 
tute within the Archbishoprick of Glasgow & c . He takes 
place of all the Bishops in Scotland except the Bishop o 
Edinburgh. The Coat of Armes belonging to him as Bishop 
of Galloway is Argent, St. Ninian standing full fac'd proper, 
cloath'd with a Pontificall Robe purpure, on his head a Miter, 
and in his dexter hand a Crosier. Or. As for the time of the 
erection of this Bishoprick, better Chronologists and Historians, 
than I can pretend to be, must be consulted. 

As to the Chapter. Although the King in his Conge D 1 
elire keeping the ordinary stile, beginns thus Carolus Secundus 
Del gratia Scotice, Anglice, Fran'cios et Hibernice Rex, Fidei 
Denfensor & c Dilectis nostris in Christo, Decano et Capitulo 
Ecclesice Cathedralis Gallovidiensis, Salutem, and directs his 
literas commendaticias To our Trusty and Well-beloved the 
Deane and Chapter of the Cathedrall Church of Galloway. 
And although, as I have heard it reported, King Charles the 
Martyr, nominated and appointed the Minister of Whithern 
to be Deane, and mortified a salary for that effect, yet there 
is no Deane of Galloway ; onely an ArchDeacon who is Archi- 
diaconus vicem Decani supplens. This is and hath been in 
the constant possession of Penygham, yet he hath no salarie 
for that effect, nether have any of the rest of the Members of 
the Chapter one sixpence that I know of, or could ever hear 146. 



124 GALLOWAY 

tell of upon the account of their being members of the Chapter. 
However upon the Kings Conge D" Elire, the Chapter of Gallo- 
way, upon the Archdeacons advertisement, use to meet in the 
Cathedrall Church of Whithern, built by Saint Ninian, and 
dedicate by him, as they say, to his Uncle Saint Martin 
Bishop of Tours in France. The bell yet extant [of which I 
have formerly spoken in the description of Whithern] makes it 
evident that the Church is Saint Martins Church. However 
the Members of the Chapter of Galloway are 

I Penygham Archidiae ^| these are within 

The Min r of j Whithern, Pastor Candida Casa the Presbytery 

t Wigton, Pastor Victoniensis J of Wigton. 

finch, Sedis animarum pastor ^ these are within 

The Min r of-! Stoniekirk, Pastor Lithoclesiensis Uhe Presbytery 

I^Leswalt, Pastor Leswaltensis J of Stranrauer. 



The Min r of 



Kirkcudburgh, Pastor Kirkcudbureensis^ . 

these are 
llerick. Pastor Rencensis 

within the 

Presbytery 
ofKirkcud- 



Borgue, Borgensis, 
Twynam, Pastor Twynamensis 
Crosmichael; Pastor Crucemichael 
Dairy, Pastor Dalriensis. 



As for the number of the parishes in the Diocess of Gallo- 
way they are thirty four, viz. Within the Presbytery of Kirk- 
cudburgh seventeen. Within the Presbytery of Wigton, nine. 
Within the Presbytery of Stranraver, eight. These parishes 
have been particularly described already, together with several 1 
other little parishes annext to some of them. 

As for the Bishops of Galloway; their foundations for 
publick and pious uses, together with their revenues, I wish I 
could say more than I can. For such was the sacriledge and 
irreligious practises of many both of the Clergy and Laity, 
both of the Romanists and Protestants about the time of the 
Reformation in Queen Maries days that the foundations for 
pious Uses, were so diverted from the intent and design of the 
first founder, that the very remaines and vestigia, are hardly 
heard tell of which no doubt hath occasioned many good 
Protestant Bishops that have been there, to dispose of 
their Charity more privately and not to lay any fund that I 



GALLOWAY 125 

know of for any pious or publick use, lest it should meet with 
the like fate; Yea and for the revenues of the Bishoprick, 
they were so far delapidate, that when the Civil Government 
thought fit to settle Episcopacy, there could not be found any 
Revenue like a competency for a Bishop to live upon ; And 
therefore the Abbacy of Glenluce with the Superiority of the 
lands belonging thereto, the Priory of Whitherne with the 
Superiority of the lands belonging thereto, the Abbacy of 
Tongu eland with the Superiority of the lands belonging 
thereto, were all annext to the Bishoprick of Galloway to 
make a competency for him. The King also purchased the 
patronages and teinds of the kirks of Dumfries, Trailflat, 
Closeburn, Staple-Gordon, and Dumgree all lying within the 
Diocess of Glasgow, from the Earl of Roxburgh, which five 
kirks were pendicles of the Abbacy of Kelso, to which Abbey 
that Earl had a right, and granted the benefit accrescing from 
these Churches (the respective ministers of the saids five kirks 
being first provided for) to the Bishoprick of Galloway, so 
that now, although the revenues of the Bishoprick are not 
large and opulent, yet if times were peaceable, he might live 
there ; well enough upon it, and might moreover performe 
such acts of Hospitality and Charity, as would much ingratiat 
himself with the people of that countrey, had he also but a 
convenient house to live in, for as I formerly insinuated, the 
Bishoprick was so dilapidated, that there is not so much as an 
house in all the Diocess, that as Bishop of Galloway, he can 
call his owne, the pityfull dwelling the Bishops of Galloway of 
late, have hitherto had, being only in a Chapel belonging to the 
Abbacy of Glenluce, and within the precincts of that ruinous 
Abbacy : The Bishop himself, when dwelling in the countrey, 
preaching in the kirk of Glenluce on the Sundays in the fore- 
noon, and giving out of his revenue a salary to a Minister to 
preach for him in the afternoons, the Bishop being present, 
and to preach both diets, he being absent. 

As for the lands that hold of him as Bishop of Galloway, as 148. 
Prior of Whitherne as Abbot of Glenluce, and as Abbot of 
Tongueland and as having right to the five parishes above 
specified, they are very many, but yet considering, that the 
yeerly dutys payable forth of the lands are very small, as also 



126 GALLOWAY 

these lands are far distant, some of them lying in Annandale, 
some in Nithisdale, some in Eskdale, some in Argyle, some in 
Carrict, together with the set yearly salaries that his Baylies 
of Glenluce, Whitherne and Tongueland get from him, as also 
the yearly salary that he gives to his Chamberlain or Factor to 
uplift his revenues, so far scattered from each other, the profit 
that will come to him de claro will not be excessive, and yet 
moderate though it be, and may secure him from being pitied, 
yet it cannot secure him from being envied. 

The Bishop of Galloway is undoubted patron of one and 
twentie parishes. Whereof thirteen are principall parishes in 
his own Diocess. 1 Whitherne. 2 Sorbie with the two kirks 
of Kirkmadroyn and Cruglton thereto annext. 3 Glaston 
with the kirk of Kirkmaiden annext thereto. 4 Mochrum. 
5 Monnygaffe ; These five are within the Presbytery of Wig- 
ton. 6 Glenluce. 7 Inch. 8 Stranraver, 9 Laswalt. These 
four are within the Presbytery of Stranraver, where also we 
may add other two viz. Toskerton and Clashshant, which are 
annext to the parish of Stoniekirk. 10 Tongueland. 11 Corse- 
fairne. 12 Borgue with the two kirks of Sennick and Kirk- 
anders annext thereto. 13 Girthton, these four are within the 
Presbytery of Kirkudburgh. 

The other eight are without the bounds of his owne Diocess. 
Viz. 14 Killmoiden alias Glendaruell within the shire and 
Diocess of Argyle and Presbytery of Cowell or Dinnune. The 
Bishop of Galloway is Patron hereof as Prior of Whithern. 
15 Kirkmichael. This Parish lyes in Carrict within the shire 
of Air, Archbishoprick of Glasgow and Presbytery of Air. 
The Bishop of Galloway is patron herof also as Prior of 
Whithern. 16 Traqueir. This parish, as hath been said, lys 
within the Stewartrie of Kirkcudburgh and is under the Arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, within the Presbytery of Dumfreis. The 
149. Bishop of Galloway is patron of it as Abbot of Tongueland. 
17 Dumfreis. The head Burgh of the shire of Nithisdale, and 
a Presbytery seat, it lyes within the Archbishoprick of Glas- 
gow. 18 Trailflat. This parish Kirk is or at least was, an 
excellent structure, the roof thereof being fanTd for the curious 
and exquisite architecture thereof, it is now in part ruinous ; 
and is annext to the parish of Tinnal, both which parishes are 



GALLOWAY 127 

lying within the shire of Nithisdale, Presbytery of Dumfreis 
and Archbishoprick of Glasgow. 19 Closeburn. This parish 
lyes within the shire of Nithisdale, Presbytery of Pinpont, and 
Diocess of Glasgow the Kirk of Dalgarno, whereof the Bishop 
of Edinburgh is patron, is annext to this parish of Closeburn. 
20 Drumgree. This parish is within the Presbytery of Loch- 
rnaban, in Annandale, and Diocese of Glasgow. This parish 
of Drumgree is annext to the parish of except a little 

part thereof, if I mistake not, is annext to the parish of Kil- 
patrick and payeth yearly to the Bishop of Galloway 

about fourty pounds Scots. 21 Staple-Gordon. This parish 
is within the Presbytery of Middlebie in Eskdale lying within 
the shire of and Diocese of Glasgow. The patron- 

ages and superplus teinds of these five parishes viz. Dumfreis, 
Trailflat, Closeburn, Drumgree and Staple - Gordon were 
pendicles of the Abbacy of Kelso, and purchased from the Earl 
of Roxburgh by the King and granted by his Majestie to the 
Bishops of Galloway, as said is, towards the encreasing of their 
revenue. The Bishops of Galloway also had of old the 
patronages and teinds of two parishes in the Isle of Man, yea, 
and as 1 am informed, were in possession of them since the 
Reformation, but at present they are worne out of the poses- 
sion thereof. The Bishop of Galloway also pretends that he 
hath the priviledge of nominating the Provest of Whithern, 
for sure I am, when I was there with him, he refused to accept 
the Ordinary Complement from them, (which he took from 
other burghs) of being made Burgess there, lest his taking it 
from them, might militate against his own right. 

And thus, Sir I have given as full an answer to your Queries 150, 
as possibly I can, ether from my own knowledge and observa- 
tion, or from what information I have gathered from others, 
many of which perhaps may be founded upon mistakes, but I can 
assure you, that they are not de industrm in me. However if 
this do not satisfy a more curious inquirer, I shall be content 
to use my endeavour, that he may be better informed and this 
perhaps I may hereafter do, by way of an appendix, by affoord- 
ing him my help and directions to travel to the principal places 
of this countrey, yea and to Portpatrick itself (and thence to 
Ireland if he please) from Carlisle Edinburgh and Glasgow. 



128 STEWARTRIE OF KIRKCUDBRIGHT 

And now Sir, if these papers such as they are, can be any 
wise subservient to your designe in composing and publishing 
the Scottish Atlas, I shall not think my time and labour in 
collecting them, hath been spent in vaine ; yea and I shall be 
always willing In my station, to affoord my weak assistance to 
any publick good, that shall be carried on by commendable and 
innocent meanes, as these of yours are. Upon which account 
I am, 

Your humble serv* in all duty 

Kirkinner Anno Domini 1684. ANDREW SYMSON. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

Such passage as relate to time or persons are to be under- 
stood with respect to the year 1684, in which year these 
papers were at first formed, severall of them being only writen 
in short notes, which were to have been afterwards extended, 
but the troubles, which very shortly thereafter did ensue, 
occasioned these papers to be cast by, yea and almost wholly 
forgotten for some years ; being at length desired to extend 
and transcribe the same, I severall times set about it, but was 
diverted; however having here time and leasure enough, I 
have transcribed them. Wherein are inserted here and there, 
severall particulars, which were ether wholly omitted at first, 
or of which I had not then so full Information as I have since 
procured from many persons on severall occasions. 

Dalclathick in Glenartnae June 28, 1692. 



A GENEKALL DESCRIPTION of the STEWARTRIE 
of KIRKCUDBRIGHT. 

The Stewartrie of Kirkcudbright is much circular, whose 
center will be the south end of the great Loch of Kenne water 
and the most easterly point thereof which bordereth upon the 
Airds belonging to the Lairds of Earlstoun. The water of 
Kenne from its fountain while it meeteth with the water of 
Dee, and then the water of Dee to the Isle of Rosse where it 
entereth into the Ocean, maketh up the diameter of the 



STEWARTRIE OF KIRKCUDBRIGHT 129 

Circle, whereby the Stewartrie is very naturally divided almost 
in two equall parts. The diameter itself will be thirty myls 
at least, the head of the water of Kenne lyeth North Northeast 
from the forsaid Rosse, and the water generally runneth South 
South West. And the head marcheth with Nithsdale. Then 
the straightest way from the toune of Drumfris to the village 
of Minigoff goeth thorow the forsaid center and though it be 
not the rode way, will almost be equall very litle short of 
the former diameter crossing it at right angles and Minigoff 
marcheth with the shire of Galloway. The southern semi- 
circle whose circumference is from Drumfrise by the Rosse of 
Kirkcudbright round about to Minigoff is marched with the 
sea, for the sea floweth at spring tydes to the bridge of 
Drumfrize and a litle upwards. At spring tyds also it floweth 
to Minigoff village, from Drumfrise to the foot of the river. 
Nith divideth the Stewartrie from Nithsdal, then Nith entring 
into Solway firth, to the Rosse of Kirkcudbright it is marched 
witli Solway firth, the entrie of this Firth into the Ocean is 
betwixt the Rosse and Saint Bees head in Cumberland of 
England which will be 24 myls over, from the Rosse to the 
Minigoffe. the Firth of Cree marcheth, whose entry into the 
Ocean is betwixt the Rosse and the point of Whithorne in the 
shire called the Burrowhead, which is twelve myls over unto 
its head which is betwixt the toune of Wigtoun in the shire 
and Cassincarry in the Stewartrie belonging to an ancient 
family of the name of Muir and from thence to Minigofftoun 
being six mylls the water of Cree, both the water and the 
water separating the Stewartrie from the shyre of Wigtoun 
The third quadrant which is betwixt Minigoff and the head 1 
of Kenne, is yet divided by the Water of Cree from the shire, 
afterwards by a dry march to the great loch of Dun which 
separateth it also from Carik then Kyle near to the foot of the 
Loch marcheth the Stewartrie with a dry March near to the 
head of Kenne where Nithsdale cometh to march. The fourth 
or Northeast quadrant which is betwixt the head of Kenne 
and Drumfrise marcheth all alongst with Nithsdaile from the 
head of Kenne to the head of the water of Cluden by a dry 
march and then by Cluden to its end where it runneth into 
Nith a mile at Drumfrise from thence by Nith. but this 

VOL. II. I 



130 STEWARTRIE OF KIRKCUDBRIGHT 

fourth part of the Stewartrie faileth much from the nature of 
a quadrant for Nithisdaill doth incroach upon its very chord, 
but in the first quadrant the parish of Kirkbean doeth go 
beyond the Arch of the quadrant by its lowlands of Arbegle 
and Prestoun and the parish of Minigoff in some parts doth 
likewise extend beyond the Arch as also the parish of Carse- 
fairne, so ballancing the excesse of the first and third with the 
want of the fourth. I judge the Stewartrie of Kirkcudbright 
will be a 100 miles in circuite. 

The orientall part of the Stewartrie is very naturally 
divided into two parts by the water called Orre, which indeed 
is the Arch of a circle, whose center is the toun of Drumfrise 
from which every part of the water from the head to the foot 
is 12 miles distant. The water itself from the head of it 
which is the Loch of Orre, partly in the Stewartrie and partly 
in Nithsdale to the foot thereof where it entereth into Solway- 
firth at the Hand called Hestoun will be twentie miles long, 
in which ar contained ten parishes under the Jurisdiction 
of the Stewart of Kirkcudbright yet within the Diocese 
of Glasgow and Commissariots of Drumfrise thereunto be- 
longing. 

The most notherly of these parishes is Kirkpatrik Durham 
lying upon the Water of Orre, next to it is the other Kirk- 
patrik called Yrongray, upon the march of Nithsdaile : under 
Durham upon the Water of Orre lyeth the parish of Orre, 
eastwards from it lyeth Lockirtoun and to the east of that is 
153. Terricles upon the Water of Cluden. Southwards under 
Terricles is Traquaire towards the foot of the river from 
Drumfrise. Southwards from Orre and Lochirtoun is the parish 
of Kirkgunnion, then upon the firth of Solway betwixt Nith 
and On- lyest from east to west orderly New abbay, Kirkbeen, 
and Colven partly upon the firth and partly on the water of 
Orre. 

The westerne part of this eastern semicircle contained 
betwixt the water of Orre and the higher half of the water of 
Kenne and lowest halfe of the water of Dee containeth 8 
parishes the most northerly is Dairy to the south of that is 
Balmaclellan to the south of that is Partoun to the south of 
that is Crossmichael, all marching with the two waters except 



STEWARTRIE OF KIRKCUDBRIGHT 131 

Dairy, the which hath a dry march with Nithsdale under 
Oossmichaell lyeth Keltoun upon Dee, and Butle eastwards 
from it upon Orre whose forsaid Arch maketh the nearest 
distance betwixt the two waters to be only 2 miles, whereas at 
the foot it will be 12. 

Under these again are Rerik marching with Butle on the 
east and a bay called Hestoun within which the Hand of 
Hestoun is and in the south with the Solway Firth upon the 
West is the parish of and toun of Kirkcudbright, which partly 
lyeth upon the river and partly upon the Solway firth, the 
toune lyeth upon the side of the river four mils above the 
Rosse. 

The Westerne semicircle, which marcheth with the shire, 
Carrik, Kyle and a part of Nithsdaile is most naturally 
divided into three parts, the most northerly part whereof is 
contained betwixt the separate parts of the waters of Kenne 
and Dee, unto the Loch of Dee, and then the lane called the 
Currine Lane whose fountaine is within half a mile of the 
Loch of Dun, and runneth into the loch of Dee and the Loch 
of Dun and the forsaid drie marches of Kyle and Nithsdaill. 
this part containeth two vast parishes ; the most northerly is 
Carsfairne, the southerly is the Kells, about a part of which 
the Water of Dee and Currine lane go like the arch of a 
circle. 

The other part of this western semicircle is notablie divided 
into two by the Water of Fleete, whose fountaine is the loch 154. 
of Fleet within a mile of the water of Dee towards its head 
and at the foot runneth into the firth of Cree. the eastern 
part betwixt Dee and Fleete, which lyeth to the south of the 
Kells containeth five parishes, four whereof ly along the water 
of Dee, South on from another orderly as followeth Balm c ghie 
viz. next to Kells, Tungland next to Balm c ghie. Twiname 
next to Tungland, next to Twinam the parish of Borg lying, 
partly upon the water and partly upon the firth of Cree. The 
fift parish is Girth toun lying from the head to the foot of 
Fleet water and marching with all the former four parishes. 

The third part is contained within the Water of Fleet a 
part of Dee, the Currine lane, thence to Lochdun, upon the 
eastside and upon the south west and north betwixt the water 



132 STEWARTRIE OF KIRKCUDBRIGHT 

of Cree and its firth and the dry march of Carrik to Lochdune 
and in this third part ar 3 parishes. Minigoff lying to 
the North and Kirmabrike or Ferritoun lying to the South 
upon Cree and its firth and Anweth lying to the east 
of Ferritoun, all alongs the water of Fleet from the head 
to the foot. 



Oi THE ABBA YES PRIORIES and NUNRIES within 
the STEWARTRIE of KIRKCUDBRIGHT 

First in the parish of Terricles is a great church building 
called the Colledge, it was a Provestry called Lincluden 
situate most sweetly in the angle where Cluden runneth into 
Nith, a mile above Drumfrise built by Queen Margarete relict 
of King James the fourth when she was Countesse of 
Dowglasse. 

Secondly in the parish of Newabbay is an Abbay so called 
and the Abbot therof was called Dominus dulcis cordis or my 
Lord Sweet heart. 

Thirdly in the parish of Rerik is a large Abbay called 
Dundranen, where M r Michael Scot lived. 

155. Fourthly in the parish of Tungland is the Abbay called 
Tungland. 

Fyfthly in the parish of Galtua which now with another 
called Dunrod is joyned to the toun and Parish of Kirkcud- 
bright, is an Hand called of Saint Marie, wherein was a 
priorie a short mile south and be West from the town called 
the Priorie of Sainct Marie He, one of the most pleasant 
situations in Scotland. 

Sixtly in the parish of Kirkcrist which is now annexed to 
Twinam parish there was a Nunrie having the lands called 
Nuntoun and the Nunmilne thereunto belonging but now it 
is scarce known, where the Nunrie was. 

The latitude of the town of Kirkcudbright is 54* r 51 the 
longitude as I remember is 19 gr . 



NORTH COAST OF BUCHAN 133 

AN ACCOUNT of the NORTHSIDE of the COAST 
OF BUCHAN by ALEXADER GARDEN 
of TROUP. 

SIR 

All the account I can render you at present concerning the 
part of the kingdome we live in, is scarce of any remark 
unless I could give a particular account of our sea foules, 
shell fishes and white fishes all which we have in great abund- 
ance, and I shall endeavour (if you can procure me a sight of 
what accounts are alreadie of things of that nature) to give 
you a particular account how they hold good as to the 
figures, quantity, maner of production and tyme thereof their 
feeding and the time they are found with us, all which I can 
neither so easily nor exactly perform before the sight of what 
accounts are alreadie published. 

Our sea fouls, except very few kinds of them, remove from 
us about the fifteenth of August and we do not see them 
again till about the first of March. We have several kinds of 
them but the names we term them by, I question if they be 
known by them elswhere however they are as follows. 

The Scrath, the Badoch are two great black fowls, the Coot 
the Sea Coulter, the Taster, these five when they seek their 
prey or are pursued, dive under water, and making use 
of their wings do swim or rather flie under water, with verie 
great celerity. We have also the Maw and the Grey Maw, 
which is bigger than the other Maw the Sea Cock, the 
Kitwiack and Whap ; these five do not dive under water. Of 
all these except the Sea Cock and seldom that, the Whap, the 
badoch, the two kinds of Maws, and the Taster We see none 
in the Wintertime. We are not in use of eating any of these 
fowls, tho severals of them oftimes be killed at sport, except 
the Kitwiak whilst young, than which there is in many mens 
thoughts, no better flesh eaten, the Whap also uses to be eaten 
but I think it should hardly be termed a sea fowl, the eggs of 
the Cock and Maw use also to be eaten. 

Of shell fishes we have the Lobster, the Partan or Rodach, 
the Craib. Of Buckies or Wilks we have but one kind or two 
at most, if they be different, the one being long and large, the 



134 NORTH COAST OF BUCHAN 

other round and lesser both of a greyish colour, the lempitt 
and little kind of Mussell, the sea burr, the Claim-shell and 
the great black Cockle. The Craib differs from the Par tan in 
nothing but that it is of a greenish colour and has no great 
toes to grip with, as the other. Of all these, if you think 
fitt, you may have the shells, of themselves I can give litle or 
no account nor of the time they spawn, having never observed 
it but the lobster is best with us in the beginning of May at 
which time they have their ranns and are catch ed with any 
kind of fish at rock foots under water, and that only far out 
in the sea for they use to take hold of the seamens lines and 
are pulled up. The Partans are best about August. Of 
these shell fishes we use to eat none but the two last With the 
Clam and the great cockle, which two last are but seldom 
found here. Of all these shell fishes our seamen make bait, 
but mostly of the Lempitt, Muscle, and buckie or wilks which 
they gather in great abundance upon outrocks in summer 
time and sow them upon rocks they can reach to dry foot att 
low water for furnishing themselves with bait in Winter, they 
also make use of a worm called Lug digged out of the sands 
at low water and from May to August they make most use of 
157. the sand Eel, which they esteem preferable to any other, in 
Winter salt Mackrell do very well. 

The sea affords white fishes here in abundance, which are 
Keeling, Skaitt, Turbitt and Codfish, this they call their 
great fish, whereof they begin the fishing about the later end 
of Februar, making use of other Fishes for bait and especially 
haddocks, and continue it till the Dogfish come in which at 
the furthest is about Lambas and remove at Hallow day, or 
the first of Nov r at farthest. This fish fourtie years agoe was 
not known upon this Coast and at first was admired. When 
he comes, our seamen are necessitate to quit the fishing of all 
other except himself, for he destroyes what is fast upon their 
hooks and cutts their lines, but they fish himself with some 
advantage, for tho his flesh be not for meat, yet he affords 
some oyle viz. a dozen of them about a Scots muchkin at 
least. 

We have also haddocks, whitings, with another kind of fish 
not known on this Coast till of late which we term Carps, 



NORTH COAST OF BUCHAN 135 

which come in with the Mackrell. We have also the Seath 
fish, Mack reel and Flook, these we call our small fishes, the 
fishing of the three first With the young Codfish and Flook 
does begin when the Dog removes, and continues till the great 
fishing begin, then both the fishing of great and small fishes 
continues till the Dog return. the haddock spawns in 
Jan uar and is not thought good thereafter till May. Whit- 
ings and Flooks are most common with us in the summer- 
time, the small fishes are found within a mile of the shoar, 
but the great fishes at a greater distance, the Seath fish is 
catched at the foot of rocks close by the shoar and is only 
found upon this coast May June and July. About the latter 
end of July the Mackrell returns and for bait is fished with a 
peice of her own belly, they can also be catched with other 
fish ; they are lean when they come first, but they fatten 
here. 

This part of the Coast lyes very near East and West, for 
with a compass from the top of a high rock hard by this place 
we found that the point of Rose-heartie six miles Eastward 
and the Northside of the Binnhill being within a mile and a 
half of the sea, and seventeen miles westward did lye in a 
straight line East and West, this was tried about three 
years agoe, what Variation the needle then had I know not. 

This place of the Country is very mountainous and the sea 
rocks are very steep and high, some of them reaching to the 
height of six score fourteen or seven score ells Flanders 
Measure. Of this height is the hill of Gamrie, where the 
Danes at their landing received a repulse by the Thane of 
Buchan as Boetius mentions. Of this battell or rather 
skirmish we have at this day no great monuments save towards 
the top of the forsaid rock there are some holes in the Earth 
that bear the name of bloodie pots and eastwards a myle 
there is another artificial pairt which bears the name of Clow- 
dans, here are some sculls which are built upon the wall of the 
Church of Gamrie and said to be placed there in memorie of 
the victory. 

Other rocks we have none that reach this height by 
twentie four ells, for I had the curiosity to try them with a 
cord. All these rocks are very well replenished with sea 



136 NORTH COAST OF BUCHAN 

fowls and doves, in them also holds a faulcon yearly at a 
place two miles eastward from Gamrie, near two myles East- 
wards of which holds an Eagle of the largest size, in the rocks 
of Pennan, some places wherof afford very good millstone, 
that certainly there are none better if any so good in Scot- 
land; they are of a grayish colour enclining to red. Some 
places of these rocks afford stones for building but in no great 
abundance except the forsaid hill of Pennan, So that all our 
rocks are altogether useless affording neither slate nor Quarrie 
stone, the forsaid hill of Gamrie is of the slate kind, but 
they are so brittle that they serve for litle or no use the rest 
of our rocks are either of a black hard rock and as it were 
congealed heaps of peebles or a soft and reddish coloured rock. 
Our sea fouls frequent most the black rocks for our slate kind 
of rocks and reddish are not so much frequented by them. 
159. The severall positions and postures of the beds of rocks are 
as observable here as in most places and severall great rocks 
may be manifestly perceived once to have been whole, at least 
it appears so to me, tho now torn asunder. Several of the 
great Caverns or natural vaults, which are in great abundance 
amongst these rocks, are replenished with a white firm stone 
and very hard and it affords the best lime, but here we make 
not much use of it, it not being to be had in any considerable 
quantity. It evidently appears sometime to have been a fluid 
being always seen hanging from the tops of these vaults in 
such form as the congealed drops in frost hang at houses, 
with this only difference, in these stones I oftimes observed a 
hollowness to the length as the pillar of stone hangs, the 
hollowness would have been no bigger than the core of a tree, 
from Gamrie westwards the Coast descends, so that within 
three miles of it, the sea banks are very low. thus it is also 
from Pennan eastwards, the sea here affords several kinds of 
plants growing on rocks under water which we term under one 
name of Ware, this the sea casts in great abundance and 
there is no better dung for land than it proves, four hundred 
load being sufficient for an acre. We have nothing else cast 
in by the sea or any remark save firr that has lyen long in the 
sea, we find when cast in very much overgrown with a kind of 
shell fish which are rooted in the stock by a trunk of flesh or 



NORTH COAST OF BUCHAN 137 

resembling flesh about two inches long in so much that when 
cut or broke off it will bleed, the shells of this fish doe some- 
what represent the wings of a fowl and in the end of it 
farthest from the tree it hath a membrane, which I suppose to 
be the Gill, but it represents the train of a fowl, these two 
with the trunk of flesh, which some think to be the neck, gives 
occasion to that conjecture of this being a kind of the Clack 
Geese production, but sure it is not so, for we never find this 
creature bigger than about the quantity of a mans nail, but 
we will find them much lesse. however these trees bear the 
name of Clackfirr. In summer time We see abundance of sea 
nettles floating in the water with long roots at them. 1 
know nothing of their production, but their substance is like 
the white of an egg, but by far more strong and firm, it is 
sometimes cast in among ware, it prejudges the hands if much 
touched. 

Betwixt the watermouth of Devern six miles westward of 
this, and the Church of Raithen nine miles eastward of this, 
alongst the coast or at least within a mile or two of it, are 
severall verie great heaps of stones ; the biggest of which is 
Cairnbo three miles westward of this, it will be of perpen- 
dicular height from top to bottom twixt 29 and 30 foots Eng- 
lish measure. Of these in the forsaid bounds there are seven 
or eight, besides severall other lesser mounts of earth and 
stone, the common tradition is that these were the sumptuous 
tombs of our ancestors, but it is somewhat odd so many of 
them in so litle bounds. 

In severall places through Scotland there are to be seen 
very great stones (that it is wonderfull how men could have 
moved them) brought together and set on end, some one way 
and some another and for the most part on tops of risings of 
hills. It is the common tradition that they have been the 
places of Pagan sacrifices, for it is like that it hath been a 
ceremonie of the heathen worship to be on high places. I 
never minded to observe if there could be any footsteps of fire 
perceived on these stones. We find Jacob set up a stone 
Gen. 28, 18, and if this have been a Cerimonie of Religion in 
these days, as is lyke, the Pagan Idolatrie no doubt has had 
something in imitation therof. 



138 NORTH COAST OF BUCHAN 

This place of the Country is full of dens and rysings of 
grounds so that for the most part all our cornfeild lie very 
dry, so that they can be none of the most fertile, for the 
husbandman who payes the two part of the value of his seed, 
is thought to have a dear valued possession and they who pay 
the half or less are thought to have very cheap ones. Yet 
some of them are not able to pay so much and we have some 
grounds again so fertile, that if there were any considerable 
quantity so, the husband would be able easily to pay the 
double. 

161. We have also, as most part of Scotland hath, much barren 
ground almost wholly useless affording nothing but some 
short heath with very litle grass amongst it, so that ane acre 
of it were too little pasture for one sheep, in this kind of 
ground for the most part are all our mosses of which we make 
fewell. this kind of earth before it be cast up, it is ,all one 
which way it be cut, because of its great moisture and softness; 
I believe it cutts easiest, when cut even down, because that 
goes with the roots of the grass, with which some mosses are 
much replenished but when it is win and made dry it is found 
that it lyes in beds even as rocks do and I suppose these beds 
follow the levell or inclination of the soil which they lye upon 
however it is certain that it hath such beds and will cleave 
more easily one way than another, even as rocks will do. As 
also in the very best of moss grounds, which are ever on the 
tops of hills, whose peits when dry are exceiding hard and will 
suffer stress unbroken as well as brick, yet such of them as are 
cast downwards from top to bottom are so brittle that they 
will hardly carrie home they are so apt to break. Some of 
this kind of earth is found commonly in low marish ground 
with a green scroof, these mosses are not so good for few el, 
but they are better for pasture than our hill mosses overgrown 
with heath however our hill mosses afford a long small grass 
about the breadth of a straw and a foot or two high, which 
catle feed upon greedily : So that some mosses are so weel 
replenished with this moscrop as they call it, that they are 
very good pasture, none of our mosses afford firr or oak in any 
quantity, our hill mosses have none at all. 

As for our manner of husbandrie, there is little observable 



NORTH COAST OF BUCHAN 139 

in it. We have three or four kinds of earth. A black earth, 
which we call Marblie ground. Of this we have not most, but 
it is the best of all our soiles either in grass or corn ; for some , 
of it when rightly manured will" render the seventh or eight 
corn either of bear oats or other grain ; and when in grass, it 
affords the best of grass such as. cleaver and fitch grass and 
medden which I think may rather be termed a wild white 162. 
single daisie. these I have seen with severall other herbs and 
grass to grow and ordinarily does on sides and tops of hills 
where this earth is, to such length as might very easily be 
mown or shorn ; for this kind of earth is not very apt to be 
spoiled either with rain or drought. 

We have another black soile inclining to the nature of 
Mosse that affords only a kind of short hard grass, but is of no 
use for corn, unless when the furrows are set in heaps and 
burned, then it affords plentie of corn, but ever after is naught 
except where the ground is deep or has a clay sole, this kind 
of husbandry is not much in use with us not having abundance 
of such grounds. 

We have also a clay-soile which is exceeding ill, where the 
upper scrooff' is not mixed with a marble soile, which often 
falls out, but it is not so fruitfull neither as to grass nor corns 
however such fields when in grass are very pleasant, affording 
greate variety of beautifull flowers and usefull for grass, but 
not to that length that more marble ground does. We have 
of clay es three kinds, a yellow which is the strongest and best 
of them all for work either potters work or tyle. A reedish 
which is very good also. We observe where these two are the 
soile, the upper scrooft' of the earth is better both for corn and 
grasse than other sole, supposing alwayes the earth above to 
be marble enough. We have also a whitish kind of clay 
which is very bad for all kind of work, being wrought never 
so weell it remains alwayes brittle and other clayes the freer 
they are from the mixture of this, they are so much the better 
for work, this clay is not so good a sole as the other two. 

We have also a black yellowish kind of soile enclining to a 
dark reddish colour, this is that which we call Haslie ground, 
this kind of earth is not very fruitfull for grass, affording only 
some kinds of dog grass, but the more tincture it hath of 



140 NORTH COAST OF BUCHAN 

marble ground with it, the better it is both for grass and 
corne it is aptest for the growing of small corns and is very 

163. universall but the places near to the sea side are most re- 
plenished with the marble and the claye soile. 

Of all these earths and clayes there is such various mixtures 
that they cannot be exprest. All grounds as most of Scot- 
land are that encline to the nature of moors are esteemed 
late, cold ground and the more it enclines that way, it is the 
colder and later and apt to be spoiled with rains and frosts, 
these kinds of places are esteemed good for grazing and so 
much the better if they be upon a claye soile ; but nothing 
comparable to the pure marble soile, but that is not in great 
abundance, and where it is, it is ever keep'd in corne which 
makes the husbandmen in all such places ever complain for 
scarcity of grasse. 

We have except in marble and clay grounds, but one 
furrow of depth, so that much ground is now with often 
ploughing and manuring, turned so thin that it is altogether 
useless either for grass and corns and because of this many 
mens estates are not able to keep up the antient rentall. 

The husbandman keeps in some of his grounds constantly 
under corn and bear by dunging it everie thrie years, a third 
yearly with what dung his Cattle afford in Winter, and for his 
pains if he reap the fourth corn, he is satisfied, but in good 
marble and claye soiles they use to mix their Catle dung with 
marish earth or scrooff of useless ground and letting them rot 
a year together, put them to the land in the beginning of 
Winter and will reap after this the fifth or sixth corn, 
ordinarly they use to put at most, seven hundred cartfulls to 
the acre of land, that which hath a great tincture of Mossie 
soile, except the earth that is dunged with, encline much to 
claye : and pure heaslie ground will not answer with this either, 
unless the earth that it's dunged with be very marble, but 
these kinds of ground they only use to dung with what their 
Cattel affords because for the most part near them there is not 
earth sutable to dung them with. Land thus keeped in is 
called In town. 

164. O ur Outfields when they have been grass four or five years 
are ploughed up and letting them lie a summer thus ploughed 



NORTH COAST OF BUCHAN 141 

we plow them over again, and sow them the next spring and 
in our best outfields if we reap the fourth or fifth corn the year, 
we are satisfied, yea the third is very well thought off. Yet in 
some outfeilds thus manured I have seen the sixth or seventh 
but this so seldome that it is not to be noticed. We observe 
that land is much the worse (if it could be eschewed) to be 
plowed either in frosts or after great rain. 

Some of our grounds for keeping our cattell in the night 
time we enclose in summer and before the later end of harvest 
they dung this enclosed ground, so that it is as fruitfull for the 
first and second crops as the best of our Intowns and it will 
bear four crops before it need to lye in grass : but of our Out- 
fields that are not thus dunged, four crops is all that we 
receive. Four years of grass in the best grounds or five years 
in the worse with the number of crops as is above said, 
is the best method of manuring our Outfield grounds. 

Our sea coast affords abundance of sea calfs, some of which 
Avill be eight foot long but we have no way of catching them 
except be Gunshot. Our seamen doe oftimes see whales of 
very great bigness, as also the dolphin or a fish at least that we 
esteem to be so, severall times near the coast and we severall 
times see the whales of greater and lesser quantity but in 
no great abundance, and possibly that which wee esteem to 
be the dolphin is but a kind of them. 

Thus I have given you an account of what I thought was of 
any remark here, and shall if it be requisite give you a more 
full account of our fowls both by sea and land. As to the 
customs and fashions of our white fishers everie place hath its 
own way with them even within a very few miles distance and 165, 
the advantage that redounds to the Master for everie boat 
he has the convenience of, I reckon no better, tho improven to 
the best advantage, than fiftie pounds Scots a year, the worst 
of land which the fishers have, the manure is of such a kind 
that it improves it to be as good as any, and comes to be of 
that nature that they have lived a long time upon it, that it 
will never after yeild any plentie of oats : but all other grain 
it will yield in great abundance. We do not keep in much of 
our ground in this countrie with pease however some places 
near the coast, they use so to manure, the only universal 



NORTH COAST OF BUCHAN 

grains of this countrie are bear and oats any other are of 
litle or no use with us. 

Troup May 1683. 

I forgot in my last to acquaint you of the herbs that 
molest our corn in their growth but we are not troubled with 
any except the skellach or wild Mustard, which is in great 
abundance in our best cornfeilds but does not much prejudice, 
the Yarrow molests our black land that enclines to mosse 
this weed does in such soiles or marblie land that lies very 
moist, very greatly prejudge the Oats but mostly bear, but 
in Clay soile it never does much prejudice; in our best corn- 
feilds there are abundance of thistles but they do no great 
harm, however some use to cut them down in the beginning 
of June. As for the corn marigold we have them not in great 
abundance. 

We have no sand soyl in this place, but where it is, there is 
ever for the most part good cornfeild. I have oft observed 
places much overblown with sea sand to afford no other grass 
but medden or white single dasie. this is good food for all 
kind of Cattell but it comes to no great length. 

There is no marie to be found in this part of the countrie. 
We have no Corn Craiks here amongst our corns in summer. 
In winter there is great abundance of the small bird called 
the Snowfleck it is supposed to be the moor sparrow or 
166. Lintwhite having changed their colour a litle whiter in the 
winter. 

I was to have said something concerning the severall kinds 
of soyles with us, but there are a great many and diverse 
kinds of them however I see no reason to judge otherwise 
than that all of them proceed from the diverse and numerous 
mixtures of the beds, (such as clayes, gravell, and sand,) with 
the Marblie and Mossie soiles. We find a marblie soyle on a 
clay bed is absolutely the best both for corns and grass ; if it 
have a considerable mixture of the clay amongst it, it is the 
worse unless it have some mixture of sand or gravell, but this 
kind of mixture is not best for grasse. Land that has a great 
mixture of Clay will be excellent for grass if it be not the 
whitish kind of clay. We have of four kinds, a yellow, a 
reddish and blew, these three are excellent beds for a soyle 



NORTH COAST OF BUCHAN 143 

and are good for potters work, the whitish pale clay is good 
for neither and when the rest have a mixture of it, they are so 
much the worse. That which we call our hazlie ground is 
nothing else but when the soyle has a great mixture with the 
gravell and some little Clay. Whatever be the soyl, whether 
marble or Mossie kind, which we call cold black land, it hath 
ordinarily a great mixture of the sole or bed that it lies on, 
whether clayes, sand or gravell and it enclines to the colour of 
them and the sand or gravell often enclines to the colour of 
the subterraneous rocks and quarries of the place. I believe 
where there is much of a countrie of one kind of rock it 
never failes. 

I never observed any thing concerning the tides of the sea 
but the filling sea runs East, and the Ebb runs West. There 
are none of our sea harbours, that, except at stream tide, can 
receive above ten foot vessels. Bamf which stands at the 
infall of Divern six miles be west this, is so subject to 
banks of peebles that sometimes at full sea four foot is 
enough and too much, at other times it can receive nine or 167. 
ten foot. 

Down a naturall harbour half a mile be east it in the 
summer time is prettie secure for about eight foot water. 
About Roseheartie about eleven miles be east Down is 
expected such another harbour even for Winter by art as this 
of Down is by nature being begun some three years agoe 
by my Lord Pitsligo. Fraserburgh an artificial! harbour is 
the best on this part of the Coast being able to receive ten 
foot at neap tide. 

Our corns near the sea are much prejudged sometimes by 
great North winds coming off the sea in so much that they 
ripen no more, if they be shot before these winds come ; Corn, 
straw and all being made salt by it. this we call blasting and 
is such another prejudice near the sea as frost is in the moun- 
tainous countries. 

I observed once a mist that left a dew behind it which 
tasted like sea water but I saw no prejudice it did. 



144 HIGHLANDS COWELL 

168. ANE DESCRIPTIONS of CERTAINE PAIRTS of the 
HIGHLANDS of SCOTLAND. 

COWELL in Ardgyll a very fertill and profitable Countrie 
which doeth lye on the Northsyde of Loghloing, and on the 
southeast Syde of Loghfyne, and in this Countrie there is a 
toune callit Dunoun, whairin there is ane antient Castle, and 
certaine Kings were wont to dwell for one space therein, and 
the Earle of Argyll hes certane lands pertaining to this 
Castle, which is given for upholding and keeping of the said 
Castle, onlie appertaining to the Castle, of Antiquitie and the 
Bishopes and Ministers of the Diocie of Argyll and Lismore 
otherwayes called Lismarensis doeth conveen and gather 
themselves together once in the yeare in the same toune of 
Dunoune being the twentie fourt day of May, holds and keeps 
their schenzie and assemblie therin for the space of certaine 
dayes. Bot in antient tymes of Antiquitie, the clergie 
Ministers or Priests were wont to hold and keep their Assemblie 
and schenzie in ane ancient toune thrie miles from Dunoune 
which is called Kilmoune on the Northeast syde of Loghseant. 
The Interpretation of Loghseant in English is the holie 
Logh. And it is ane verie antient toune which hath ane 
prettie Church builded therin where monks friers and Nunns 
were wont to dwell and inhabite therein being ane ancient 
sanctuarie. And this toune is on the Northeast of this holie 
Logh called Loghseant. there is abundance of herrings taken 
in that Logh. And there is another Logh on the eastsyde of 
this Kilmoune which is called Lochgoill. And there is abund- 
ance of herrings taken in that Logh also. There is ane river 
running into Loghseant which is called Eagie and there is 
certaine lands Lyand on everie syde of the said river which is 
called Straeaghie. This Straeaghie is one pleasant and pro- 
fitable countrie being both fertill of corne, and abundance of 
milk therein. This Countrey doth Lye Southwest to Logh- 
169. fyne and there is a fresh water Logh betwixt these two sea 
water Loghes which fresh water is called Loghaik. It is 
rough everie syde with high mountaines and verie profitable 
to the Earle of Argyll the Master and Superior thereoff for it 
is very fertill of grass, for goods, goatis and sheep to feed 



HIGHLANDS INVERARAY 145 

theron. And there is aboundance of milk, butter and cheese 
in the said Loghaick And there is another Lands or Stra 
which is called Strayhurr between this two Strais or litle 
Countries Strayhnee and StradayMe ly e s that fresh water 
Logh which is called Loghaick. The one head of this Logh 
doeth lye southward to the heid of Loghseant and the other 
heid lyeth almost northwest to Lochfyne And so it doeth 
lye betwixt these two Strayes Just lie. These two countries 
are verie commodious profitable and most fertill countries 
both of corne, milk, butter and cheese And in this Stray- 
hurr there is a litle glen on the Northeast syde thereoff and 
litle river flowing in the sea out of this glen and the name 
of the said Glen is called 

There is ane Church in Strayhurr not far from the sea 
water and the ferrie of Loghfyne which is called Kilmaglash, 
there isfyfteen myles betwixt Dunoune and the ferrie of Logh- 
fyne And three myles betwixt the ferrie of Portchregan on 
the Northsyde of Loghfyne and Inerraray, the Earle of 
Argylls principall dwelling place in the Highlands of Scot- 
land. And there is a verie faire and plesant dwelling Pallace 
and yairds builded in that toun, be this Archibald Campbell 
Earl of Argyll, and sundrie zeairds, some of them with divers 
kynd of herbs growing and sett therintill. And other zairds 
planted with sundrie fruit trees verie prettilie sett, and 
planted, and there faire greens to walk upone, with one wall 
of stone and lyme builded laitlie about the said green. This 
toune of Inveraray is very profitable and fertill both of comes 
and abundance of herrings is taken there, for it lyeth at 
the seacoast and at the mouth of the water of Reray. This 
Inveraray is a village being one frie litle burgh in Argyll 
haveing libertie and full power to buy and sell all kynd 
of Merchandize and wares which they may amongst them- 170. 
selves both of the countrie stuff and other wares which they 
may bring with them out of other countries. The river which 
is called Reray, doth flow into the seawater Loghfyne. This 
Loghfyne doeth flow eastward from Inveraray And at the 
head of the said Logh there is a Church called Kilmoirch, the 
water or river of Fyne doeth run through ane glen which is 

VOL. n. K 



146 HIGHLANDS LOGHFYNE 

called Glenfyne, efter the name of the river of Fyne and this 
glen is verie profitable and there is abundance of fish, salmond 
and milk therein And in the said Loghfyne there are abund- 
ance of herring and several other fishes slain therin. Thaire 
is one Castle on the southsyde of this Loghfine called Ardkin- 
glais having faire yeards planted with sundrie kinds of fruit 
trees therein, and sundrie kinds of herbs. The Superior and 
Master of this Castle is called M c eanrich being one of the most 
ancient housis of the Name of the Campbells descendit of the 
Earle of Argyll his house and kin, there is one litle river on 
the east syde of this castle which is Ginglais, and there is a 
glen where throw this water or litle river doeth flow called 
Glenginglais efter the name of the water. There is certaine 
Mylls betwixt Keanloghgoill and Ardhinglais fyve mylls or 
therby : There is abundance of herring slaine in this Loghgoill 
as is affoirwrittin. And there is another glen at the head of 
this Logh and ane river running through that glen which is 
called Goillin And there is abundance of salmond fish slain 
in the river and the glen, and the Logh is called efter the 
Name of the water or river Glengoillin, and Loghgoillin, 
there are divers glens on the East, Southeast, and West or 
North syds of this glen, And they verie profitable fertill and 
plenteous of milk. There is one little church at the southeast 
syde of Loghfine not farr from this Glengoillin which is called 
Killcatherine. 

Thair is one glenn on the Northsyde of Loghfyne which is 
called Glensyro, and this Glensyro is one verie fertill glen both 
of butter, cheese and corne and profitable. There is abundance 
171. of salmond fish slaine in the river which goeth through that 
glen. This river is called Shiray And this river being verie 
strong and running swiftlie through the Countrey in tyme of 
speats and vehement tempest and stormie weather, hath taken 
away and destroyed manie lands, housis, biggings builded with 
stone and lyme and zairds with innumerable fruit trees planted 
therein, and sundrie other corne lands on everie syde of the 
said river, and in the place where the Countrey men were wont 
to slay the salmond fish before in the said river, now corne 
doth grow theron And it is verie profitable, fertill and plea- 
sant cornland, and whaire there was zairdis, cornelands, fruit- 



HIGHLANDS LOGHOW 147 

trees and sundrie herbs and housis biggings & other buildings 
before the river doeth runn throvvout the same to the sea and 
especial lie Kilblaen in the Glensyra on the southsyd of the 
water of Glensyra & it is in one lowplace betwixt Mountaines 
everie syd of it, And there is verie manie Deir in that Countrey 
pertaining to the Earle of Argyll. 

There is one litle fresh water Logh wherin this water dohh 
runn betwixt it and the seawater Loghfyne; and there is 
abundance of salmond fish slaine yearlie in that Logh, It is 
not fan* from Inveraray for the Earle of Argyll uses oftymes 
to come to this Logh to behold and sie the salmond fish slaine. 
This water doth runn through that Glen from the East to the 
South. As also there will be a great number of swans in this 
Logh. Glennaray is a verie profitable Glen, being of length 
from the toune of Inveraray to the farest off toune in the bray 
or head of that glen, but foure mylls onlie, and certaine length 
in breadth. And there is foure mylls from the head or bray 
of Glenaray, and the ferric of Lochow called Portsoinghan 
And these foure mylls they are verie dangerous to travel or goe 
through this hill, which is called Monikleaganich, in tyme of 
evill stormie weather, in winter especiallie for it is ane high 
Mountaine. 

LOGHOW is ane fresh water Logh, and its of twentie four 
mylls of length and one My 11 in breadth. The one head of it 
doeth ly southwest to Glasrie & Ardeskeodines and the other 
head thereoff lyeth oft* to Glenurquhy or somewhat Northeast. 
There is certaine Illands in Lochow And the Principall Illand 
called Inchtrayinch and there other Illands not farr from this 
Illand called Insheayll. And there is one Church therintill. 
There is one Castle on the southsyde of Lochow called Inshe- 
chonnill pertaining to the Earll of Argyll. There is another 
Castle pertaining to the Laird of Glenurquhy at the eist 
heid of Lochow at the southsyde thereoff; and on the North - 
syde of the east heid of this Logh there is a town which the 
M c Gregours were wont to dwell and inhabite in, sometimes 
which is called Stronimiallachan in Glenstra. This Castle of 
Glenurquheys is called Castle Cheilchorne and there is ane 
Church in Glennrquhie which is called Claghane-diseirt. this 
Stranimiallachan is now manured occupied and used be the 



148 HIGHLAiNDS LOCHOW 

Laird of Glenurquhie and his sone, there is abundance of 
salmond fish in this Lochovv. The river of Aw runneth out 
of this Logh certaine myles from the head thereof on the 
Northsyde, And the river of Aw is but sex or sevin mylles of 
length or thereby. And it is weel deep, and somewhat broad. 
There is abundance of salmond fish slaine yearlie in the water 
of Aw, in sundrie and divers appoynted pairts of the said 
river, and speciallie every syde of the mouth of the river. It 
runns into the salt sea, and Logh which is called LoghedifF 
And there is abundance of salmon fish slaine yearlie in this 
Logh and lykwayes ther is abundance of Eells, in that Loche- 
diff' which the men of the Countrey alleadges and perswade 
others that the saids Eells are alse bigg as ane horse with ane 
certane Incredible length, which I think not to be reported of, 
al waves it is liklie to be true in respect none of the Countrey- 
173- men dare hazard themselves in a boatt to slay the ells with 
lynes. They were wont to sie them slaine by ane ancienl 
man, who had great practize and arte of the said trade ; 
Ancient men of Mucarne and Beanderlogh the countrey* 
which are on the South and Northsyde of that Logh reportil 
that this Ancient fisher of the Eells his Lyne wherewith h< 
did slay these bigg and exceeding long Eells were alse bigg in 
greatness as a mans finger, and that his hook was excedin; 
bigg, and the Lyne whereon the hook did hang, was knitt al 
with feathers to hold and keep itself uncutt from the eells t( 
the length of tvvall inches or thereby And so these Marvelou? 
bigg eels were tane be the said Ancient fisher, and thereafter 
he did slay them with another device made for the purpose. 
And so the countreymen will not devyse anie Instruments t( 
take these Eels in respect of their bigness. Bot certane mei 
of the countrey do take and slay small Eels alse bigg as 
mans thigh or thereby with a lyne als big as ones finger. Am 
there hook is very bigg. And when Eell is tane on the hool 
to the land, they have a bigg crook of Iron or pikes made foi 
that purpose. 

The southwest end or head of the said Lochow from wheno 
this river of Aw runs, is at Arskeodnes and Glasrie. Thei 
is a castle at Arskeodness called Carnasrie which was build< 
be M r John Carswall Bishope of Argyll Lismore & of th< 



HIGHLANDS KNAP-DAL 149 

Illands of the highlands of Scotland, and this Castle was 
builded be him to the Earle of Argyll, and there is ane 
Churchtoune one Myll from Carnasrie which is called Kilmar- 
tine And this M r John Carswall and M r Neill Campbell 
which succeidit to the said M r John being Bishope of Argyll, 
were wont to dwell in that towne of Kilmartine. 

Att The East or Northeast head of Locliow there is two 
glenns and one river running throw everie of them. The one 
glen is called Glenurquhie and the river therof is verie profit- 
able for there is abundance of salmond slain therintill, there 
is verie pleasant and fertill lands on everie syd of this river 
and this Glen is twelfe mylls of length with a certane breadth 
And this River doth runn out of the head of Lochgoill And 
there is ane litle Castle at the heid of that Logh. the other 
Glen is called Glenstrath, and it appertaines to the Mac- 
Gregoirs of ancient, and it is bot twenty merks lands. 

In Glasrie there is one Church on the southsyde of the 
end of Lochow which is called Kilmichaell in Glasrie, is holden 
of the Constable of Dundee. The Laird of Achinabreck 
possesses the same. It lyeth betwixt the Westsyde of Loch- 
fyne, and Gnaptill l and it is possessed be that Constable. It 
is a verie fertill & profitable countrey, fertill of corne and 
plenteous off milk there is a river that doeth runn betwixt 
Glasrie and Arskedness and this river is betwixt Gnaptill and 
Arskcdness. There is one Castle in Glasrie called Duntrun, 
here is a logh on the West syde of Loghfyne fyfteen myles 
from Inveraray called Lochgair. And there is abundance of 
fish slaine in this loch and specially herrings. There is another 
Logh called Loghgailbe being out fyve mylls from Loghgur, 
there is abundance of herrings in this Logh. 

Cnaptill 1 is a verie profitable countrie being rough and 
craggie. And there is on the eastsyde thereoff a Mountaine 
called Glewffgaill and it is eight mylles of length. And in this 
Mountaine there is ane herb which if anie Man or Woman 
doeth goe over it, they will be verie faint, and have no power 
to goe whill the tyme they gett meat to eate, And this betwixt 
Loghgilbe and Terbett. 



' Knap-dal ' is interlined in MS. ED. 



1 50 HIGHLANDS TERBERT LORNE 

Terbert is alwayes called a Strait or narrow passadge where 
the sea almost cuttes betwixt two lands. 

And in this Terbert there is one Castle pertaining to the 
Earle of Argyll and one litle Logh which doeth come from the 
east and another Logh foregainst, which doeth flow from the 
West, And these two Locheids they are but one short myll 
175. betwixt them. It is thought that with great charges this 
passage might be cutt so that boats might pass from the east 
seas to the West without going about the Mule of Kintyre, 
which were verie profitable for such as travell to the North 
Illands in regaird the Strait betwixt the Mule of Kintyre and 
the glenis of Ireland being but sixteen mylles makes the stream 
to runn with such force, that when the tyde turnes, altho a 
ship had twentie saills all full of wind, she shall not be able 
to goe one myll against the tyde. 

Thair is one countrey next to Arskeadness on the North- 
west syde tharof which is called Craignes. Ther is sundrn 
litle Illands in this Countrey and one Castle and it is callec 
Castlecraigness. This countrie is commodious profitable am 
fertill both of corne butter and cheese and abundance of all 
kynd of fishes, and there is one church in this Countrie call< 
Killmoire in Craignes. 

Melverd is one litle countrie next to that Countrie of Craig- 
ness and ane verie fertill Countrie and profitable and abun- 
dance of fish slain in it. 

Next to Melverd Lome and ane litle profitable Glen which 
is called Glenewgher And this glen is profitable of corne and 
milk in abundance. 

Lome pertaining to the Laird of Rew is called Nether 
Lome. Lome pertaining to Mackcowl of that ilk is midell 
Lome wherein Dunolih stands. 

Dunnolih The principall dwelling, Castle and toune of 
Mackcoull of Lome, and this Castle is builded on ane heigh 
Craig or Rock above the sea. It is a verie strong castle. 

Dunstafnes is ane strong castle of the Earle of Argyll being 
the principall Palace or Castle in Lome. It is ane verie 
antient castell builded be one king called Ewin or Ewgenius 
and it doeth stand on ane high craig or rock not far from the 
seasyde. There is but thrie Mylls betwixt Dunnolih and 



HIGHLANDS LORNE KILMOIRE 1 51 

Dunstafnes and thrie my 11s betwixt the ferrie of the Gonnell 
in Lome and Dunstafnes. This ferrie called Gonnell when 
the sea aither ebbs or flows, cryes so vehementlie that it will 176. 
be heard far off in sundrie parts, at the least one myll or 
thereby, And when folks doeth goe over that ferrie, the boatt 
or scoutt doeth goe up verie high and otherwhiles doun verie 
low, that these which are in the boat, will think themselves 
likelie to be drowned in the sea, And the cause thereof is that 
there are Connalls and rocks in that ferrie, And especiallie 
those that are not acquaint with the ferrie, will be more aflfraid ; 
It is said that there sevenhundreth merklands in the Lordship 
of Lome divydit amongst sundrie barronns, the superioritie 
and regalitie thereof being holden be the Earle of Argyll. 

Thaire is one Logh of sea water, not far from Dunnolih, 
which is called Loghfaighin and there is one Church not farr 
from the head of this Logh which is called Kilmoire. In this 
town there is one springand fresh water, in which water there 
are two black litle fishes, And when they see anie coming 
hither to the springand water, they will hide themselves 
underneath a broad stone which is within the water. This 
stone is broad and thin. The saids fishes as the Inhabitants 
of that toune report, was wont to take this stone for their 
saiftie and refuge for keeping themselves for one space below 
the said stone, and they are seen verie oft in the said well both 
winter and summer and all other tymes of the yeare. And it 
is out of all men and woemen that was dwelling of ancient in 
that toune but that the saids fishes hes bein ever seen being 
neither more nor less in bigness nor yet having increasing mor 
decreasing of procreatione and anie of their own kynd nor of 
other kynde of fishes but ever since they wer aither seen or 
knowen, being of one bignes of one colour, which they doe 
take as a miracle or a marvelous thing in respect that there is 
neither decreasing nor increasing in procreatione of them or 
growing in bignes nor changeing of their colour in all tymes 
of the yeare. And therfore the Inhabitants Indwellers and 
tennants both ancient men and women and others in that 
place doe call the saids fishes Eisgseant that is to say holie 
fishes, there are manie Wyld gray gasis in this Countrey of 
Lome. 



152 HIGHLANDS MUCARNE KILLESPICK 

177 LOGHNAZELL is next to this Glenfaighin, in Lochnazell. this 
Countrie is verie fertill both of Corne and abundance of milk 
butter and cheese and in the Logh they gather manie Logh- 
leitches. 

Mucarne is ane very profitable and fertill Countrie, it doth 
lye southeast from Dunstafnes There is one church in that 
Countrie which is called Killespick Kerrell. And there is one 
litle river in that toune running by the Church, and they doe 
call this river Neant. It is verie profitable and a pleasant 
river in tyme of harvest for its abundance of salmond at which 
tyme the tennents and superiours of the Countrie, when the 
Laird of Calder is not in the Countrie, will conveen and 
gather themselves togidder by night oftentimes, and slay 
abundance and innumerable salmond fishes. And in the day- 
time also they doe slay abundance of fish in all pairts of the 
Water. This river runneth from the south to the North 
and doeth flow in Loghediff of which we spoke before. 
There is not one myle betwixt the mouth of the river of Aw 
and this litle river, in this Loghediff there is sundrie kynd 
of fishes slaine. Mucarne is on the southsyde of this Logh and 
on the Northsyde of Logh there is one church on the 
Northsyd of this Lochow which is called Kilchreanan, one 
myle from the ferrie of Lochow, and five myles betwixt this 
Kilchreanan and Killespickerrell a Church in Mucarne And 
one myle betwixt this Killespickerrell and the mouth of Aw. 
It is alleadgit that this river is in rentall for ane hundreth 
merk lands of Lome but it is not to be comparit to the lands 
in anie wayes, but alwayes it is verie profitable and they use 
to slay abundance of salmond in this river of Aw. The Laird 
of Innerraw is called M c Donachie alias Campbell, and hes 
certain lands on the eastsyd of this river and on the southsyde 
of Lochediff. There is another glen next to Innerraw called 
Glenkinglas And there is another litle river running throwgh 
this glen called Kinglas. 

178. There is another glen not far from this Glenkinglas which 
is called . It is ane fertill glen of come and verie 

profitable and abundance of milk in this glen. It is good for 
guids to feed intill the Glen is upon the Westsyde of Glenkin- 
lass betwixt it and the river of Awe. 



HIGHLANDS BEANDIRLOCH 153 

Att the head of this Loghediff there is a glen called Glen- 
ediff this glen is verie profitable. There is abundance of 
fish and milk. The river is ^EdifF, so the glen and Logh hath 
their name after the Water, Glenediff and Loghediff. 

Beandirlogh is on the Northsyde of Loghaediff forgainst 
Mucarne being on the southsyd of the Logh. This Countrey 
is divyded betwixt two superiours and it called Beanae- 
dirdalloch that is to say a Mountaine betwixt two Loghes. 
And so the same countrie doth lye between Loghediff and 
Loghgreveren. The southsyde of the said countrey pertaining 
to the Laird of Calder and the Northsyd pertaining to the 
Laird of Glenurquhie. There is one sanctuarie and one bigg 
Church on the southsyde of this Beandirlogh which is called 
Ardchattan, friers, moncks and Nunns were wont to dwell in 
this toune and Church in ancient tyme, But the parish 
Church is above the same bigg church a litle on the syd of ane 
hill in a pleasant place, where the sunn uses daylie to ryse 
upone, When it ryseth upone one pairt of the Countrie, and 
this is called Kilbedan. But this part where Ardchattan is 
builded, is more delectable and pleasant place then where 
Kilbedan is builded, for there is faire and most pleasant 
Greines below and verie neare to seasyde. This Countrie is 
verie profitable and fertill both of come, butter and cheese 
and fish. At the Westend of this Countrey of Beandirlogh 
verie near the seasyde below the Mountaine there is a chappell 
called Killchallumchill in Beandirlogh one myll from the ferric rw. 
off Connell in Lome. In this chappell toune there is ane high 
hill round and plaine about, and it is verie plaine above on 
the tope thereoff. Ane Springand Water is on the one pairt 
therof And it is likelie to have been one strength or fort in 
ancient tymes which ancient men and woemen of that 
Countrey alledges that certane gyants or strong men hes bein 
the builders and Inhabitants theroff and there is one kynd of 
graystone found in this toune, which when it is putt in the 
water, it will not goe to the ground as other stones uses to 
doe, and such stones as those are not to be had in anie pairt 
in these countries but in that chappell toune called in English 
St. Columbs Chappell. 

This northsyde of Beandirlogh which appertaines to the 



154 HIGHLANDS BEANDIRLOCH 

Laird of Glenurquhie, there is ane castle bulded not farr 
from this chappell which is called Castle Barchaldein, There is 
thrie myles betwixt the Connall forsaid, and the ferric of the 
Sion which is betwixt Beandirloch and the Appin. This North 
Beandirloch is verie profitable fertill and commodious both of 
come, butter cheese milk and fishes. It doeth lye on the 
southsyde of Loghgreveren, and the Appin, ane verie good 
countrie. On the other syde theroff being the Northsyde, 
there is ane glen at the head of this Logh which they doe call 
Glengreveren, and this Glenn is verie fertill and profitable 
both of corne milk and salmond fish, for there is abundance of 
salmond fish in that glen. There is one fresh water Logh one 
myll or thereby from the saltsea. The Superior was wont to 
come everie yeare to this Logh, and slay abundance of salmond. 
In this Loghgreveren there is one high Mountaine on the 
northsyde therof. And on the mid parte of the Mountaine 
betwixt the sea and the top of the Mountaine there is a 
chappell called Craikquerrelane And in this high craig where 
the Chappell stands, there is verie manie fresh springs and 
180. fountaine waters. And sundrie and divers multitudes of 
men and woemen from all Countries doe convein and gather 
togidder to this Chappell in the springtyme one day before 
St. Patrickmess day and drinking everie one of them of this 
springand fresh water alleadges that it shall recover them to 
their healthes againe, of the sicknes or desease which they 
have before their comeing to that place and uses the same 
yearlie. once a time in the year certaine of them doth come for 
pilgrimadge, and certane others in respect of their sickness 
bygone, of which they have recovered their health and certaine 
of them for their sickness present, And so they are perswaded 
to be restored to their health by the help and assistance of 
that holie saint, and drinking of the Waters. This holie 
place lies sundrie spring founts and wells of fresh water for 
divers and sundrie kynds of deseases and sickness whereof they 
are assured to be true in respect of the tryall they have had 
in this water. There is one fountaine springing out of the 
sand in the sea, of fresh water, not ane myll distant from the 
sanctuarie or holie Chappell in a toune called Ardnacloch 
which when anie in these pairts are sick, if the sick dieth, a 



HIGHLANDS APPIN ION A LISMOR 1 55 

dead worme is found in the bottome of the water or fountaine 
and if the sick shall recover a quick worme is found in it. 
This Countrey of Appin is verie fertill And the Superiors 
thereof are Stewarts of their surnames descendit of the Ancient 
Lords of Lome, and now the the Campbells succeeds in 
superioritie, dominion and regalitie of Lorne. There is 
abundance of milk and fysh in the Appin and plentie of corne. 
There is a big hill on the southwestsyde of this Countrie at 
the seasyde forgainst the ferrie of Lismore. And there is 
one craig there verie bigg. And in this craig there is a hole 
alse bigg as the port of a great pallace, they doe call this bigg 
rock or stone Clochholl, that is to say, ane stone hewed out 
through. There is a verie prettie toure or Castell in that 
Countrie of Appin not farr from this stone builded on a rock 181. 
or craig in the sea. This Castle is called Illand Stalker. 
There are Conals betwixt the toure and the sea that naither 
ship nor bark can come in anie syde of that tour. There are 
sundrie litle Illands forgainst this Countrie at the heid of 
Lismore on the Northend thereof where men and women, in 
pairte of harvest and summer use to dwell there, with certaine 
litle numbers of guids and sheep and goats, for there is abun- 
dance of fishes to be slaine about these Illands. There is 
another Illand not ane quarter of a myll from the Castle per- 
taining to the Laird of Appin, which is called IONA. This 
Illand is scarce ane myle of length and not ane half myll in 
breadth. It is the most profitable and fertilest in all these 
Countries, for it is but sex merks lands contenit, And it is 
verie fertill of Corne and abundance of butter and cheese and 
milk ; and fish to be slaine in the sea next to this Illand. 

LTSMOR is ane Illand containing eight mylls in length, and 
scarce one myle broad. The parish church of Lismoir is 
called Kilmaluag where the Bishops were wont to dwell. This 
Illand is most fertill of corne, and abundance of fish slaine in 
the sea next to that Illand. This Lismor or Lismorensis 
is a place where Bishops in ancient tyme were usit to dwell 
and haunt therintill, because they were styllit and nameit from 
Lismor being the principall or cheiffest place that the Bishops 
of Argyll hade of Antiquitie being equallie betwixt Cantyre 
and Glenelg, for Cowall Argyll and Lorne and Cantyre were 



156 HIGHLANDS LISMOR 

on the soutlisyde of Lismore, Morverne, Sunieord, Ardna- 
murquhan, Mudeort with the Illands of Inshgall on the west- 
syde thereof, Loquhabre or Loquhaber, Arisaick, Morrorib, 
Knoideor and Glenelg on the north, on the northend theroff 
and a pairt of Loquhaber on the eastsyde of the head theroff. 
And so the Bishopes of Argyll are now styllit of.Lismor and 
lykwayes were so in ancient tymes. There was of Ancient 
certaine Bishops of Lismor of the race and name of Clanvick- 
18:!. gilliemichaell and eftir these Bishopes there was other Bishops 
admitted and there was ane of these last Bishopes that wold 
depose and deprive certaine of the name of Clanvickgillie- 
michael, which were friends to the Bishope of that name, so 
called who had certaine Offices from their friend and Cosigne : 
and were in possessione theroff long tyme efter his death, being 
acceptit of sundrie bishopes that succeidit their Cosignes place 
and speciallie they having some right or title therto, and 
being better acquainted in that trade then others that were 
in the Countrie At last it fortuned that one Bishope wes 
admitted Bishop of Lismor He envying by hatred these 
ancient men or race of that Clane ; or others being willing to 
succeid in that Office, And to obtaine the Bishopes favour 
that they might obtaine that Office from him arid depose 
these ancient men which were in possession theroff for a long 
space ; out of their Office. These race and Clan of Clanwick- 
gilliemichael perceiving themselves to be so dealt with be the 
Bishopes evill will towards them, they took ane displeasure 
against him, and being strong in the countrey, was of Inten- 
tioun and mind to revenge the same with the Bishope And 
finallie determined how to frequent the Bishope in giveing ane 
equall satisfactioune according to his deserving Which they 
wold redound to the Bishopes uttermost destruction and 
ruine. Thaire pretendit determinatione being finished, on a 
day they did meet with the Bishope who looked not for such 
salutatione as he receaved at their hands and they did kill him 
And so he did finish his lyff out of this world And since that 
tyme as yet there was never a Bishope that did come to Lis- 
more to dwell. There are sundrie Little Illands on the south- 
eastsyde of Lismore where wyld birds or fowls doe breed. 
These Illands are verie high and stonie craiggie and rough, 



HIGHLANDS DURGOURE GLENCONE 1 57 

and certane other Illands on the Northwestend theroff and 
certaine on the Westsyde, and there is abundance of fish 
slaine about these litle Illands. 

DUUGOURE is the next Countrie to the Appin And there is 
a Chappell in that Countrie called Kilchallumchill And there 
is ane I Hand in the sea forgainst that Countrie called Illand 1S3. 
Ballanagoune. It is rough and full of wood. It hes ane 
verie good haven for ships on the southeast of it, and one 
good other on, on the West and of it. The Countrie of Dur- 
goure extends to thrittie merk lands, there is two litle rivers 
in it. The one called Awinch ultra and the other Awindur- 
goure that is the river of Durgoure, that water cometh south- 
east and floweth west. There is abundance of salmond fish 
tane in that litle river both summer, harvest and a pairt 
of the winter seasone. This Countrie is verie fertill and pro- 
fitable and plenteous of corne, butter and cheese and milk, 
and abundance of seafishes. And there is one glen in this 
countrie wherethrow the water of Cultin runns. And this 
glen hes bot thrie tounes in it, one on the southsyd theroft', 
another at the head of the Glen, and the thrid on ane high 
hill or litle mountaine that is between it and the rest of the 
countrie. This litle Glenn is verie fertill and plenteous of 
corne and milk. And it is on the southsyde of the Countrie 
betwixt Doungoure and the Appin in Lome. 

GLENCONE is the next Countrie to Durgoure eastward from 
Dungoure. this Glencone is a twenty merk land, which per- 
tain eth to certane of the Clandonald. This countrie is verie 
profitable fertill and plenteous of corne, milk butter cheese 
and abundance of fish both salmond and herrings and other 
kynd of fishes therein. There is one river in Glencone which 
is called the water of Glencone. This river doeth run out of 
a litle Logh which is called Loghrighittane from the East, 
and goeth into the sea Northwest. And they use to take 
abundance of salmond in this litle river, the Sea Logh wherin 
it doeth runne is called Lochlevin. This Loghlevin goeth up 
sevin mylls from the ferrie of Bellicheillis or therby And 
this Loghlevin lyeth betwixt Loquaber and Glencone and 
doeth goe up eastward at the heid theroff. This is a river 
called Levin and from that name the Logh is called Lochlevin, 



158 HIGHLANDS LOCHLEVIN BEANEVES 

and the Northsyde theroff being a pairt of Lochaber is named 
eftir the name of the Logh, and Glencone is on the southsyde 
thereoff. There is ane Church in ane Illand called Hand 
184. Moune betwixt that pairt of Lochquhaber, and Glencone. 
And this paroch Church hath three score and ten merklands, 
Glencone, Loghlevin, Mamoir and Glenneves. This Loch- 
levin is verie profitable fertill and plenteous both of corne 
butter, cheese, milk and abundance of fish. There is ane high 
bigg mountaine betwixt Mamoir and Loghlevin, is next to 
Mamoir Glenneves. And there is a litle river in that litle 
countrey which is called Neves. And the countrie is called 
Glenneves. And it is a profitable litle Countrey both of corne 
milk and abundance of salmond fish in that water of Neves 
There is one high or bigg mountaine on the Northeastsyde oi 
that Countrie which is called Beaneves And this mountain* 
is the biggest and highest mountain in all that Countrey and 
it is said that this Mountaine is the biggest and highest in a] 
Britaine. This water of Neves the ancient men and woemen 
did hear it of divers others, Ancient men in tymes by gone 
that war in Loquaber reported that Neves is deryvin from 
Naves because certane shipps wer wont to come with certam 
Kings, that used to haunt and dwell in Inverlochie, did lye at 
the mouth of the water of Neves. And so the water is called 
Neves and the Countrie Glenneves and the Mountain Bean- 
neves efter the name of the water so called. This Glenneves 
is but ten merkland of old rentall and it is divydit betwixt 
severall parish Churches. The southsyde of this litle countrie 
appertaines to Illand Moune and the Northeastsyde therof 
to the parish Church of Kilmanevag * Innerloghie now called 

* the river of Speachan comes from the bra of Lochabyr and runs by 
Kilmanevag and enters Lochlip betwixt it and the end is Galla garr 
Lochy. Lochlochy itself is 7 or 8 mile in lenth,, where breadest a mile. 
Between Lochlochy there is two litle mile to LochOcht, upon the North- 
syd therof where Garry runs in, stands Iiivergury. LochOchlig is 3 
mile long half a mile where broadest, from this Loch runs the river of 
Oich into Lochness, the distance between the two Loughs is 4 or five 
mile. Lochness is 24 mile long. One smal Hand at the West end 
belongs to Fraser of Colduthel. from Louchiell to Innerhelt is six mile, 
from Innerlingley to Innernesse a straight line 50 miles the Map makes 
it crooked but its streight. [Copied by Macfarlane's transcriber from 
the margin of the MS. he was following, on which Sir Robert Sibbald 
had written it in his own hand. En.] 



HIGHLANDS INNERLOGHIE LOGHYELD 159 

Gordoune is but ane mile from the mouth of Neves. This 
Innerloghie is ane ancient toune, and a palace builded be 
ancient King which was King Ewin the of that name, 

which is written in the Scots Chronicles, and sundrie Kings 
were wont to dwell therein. Innerlochie is sex miles from the 185. 
parosh Church of Kilmanevag, and not one mile from that 
Church and the heid of the Logh, where the river doeth runn 
out of the fresh water Logh, called Loghloghie, And it is 
twall mylls of length and one mile of breadth. The *one 
head of it goeth north or Northeast and the other Southwest. 
This river of Lochie doth flow into the sea called Loghzeld. 
There is abundance of salmond fish, herrings and all other sort 
of fish to be slaine there. It is but a mile betwixt the parish 
of Kilmalie on the Northsyde of Loghyeld, and Innerlochie. 
Att the head of Lochzeld there is ane litle river called the 
water of Keanloghyeld, and the men of the countrey uses to 
slay salmond fish in that water certaine tymes of the year. 
And there is one glen which goeth up northward, And there 
is verie manie firr trees in that glen but verie great difficultie 
to be transported anie of the saids wayes to the sea. There 
is great number of Oaktrees, and one bigg wood of Oak on the 
Northsyde of Loghyeld at the head of the said Logh which is 
verie pleasant and profitable. And they wont to build shipps 
of the said Oakin wood And the same wood pertaines to the 
Laird of Loghyeld being the Chieff and Principall house of 
the Clan cameron. f Also there are manie litle glenns in this 186. 
Loghyeld verie profitable for guids, sheep and goats. In 
this Logh there is litle Illands and the Laird and the 
Superiours of the countrey doeth dwell in one of them 
haveing but timber houses builded thereintill. There is 
a castle l two mylls from this Illand or Church of Killmalie 

* there is two rivers runn into Loughyell Doitellie on the south and 
Finella upon the North. 

t It is said of the family of Cameron, there came the families of 
Chamers and Kincaids and Banerman Mackeanduy. Kincaid is in Ii'ish 
the head of ane hundred. 

Some Judge the name Cameron came from a towne that in the 
Irish it signifieth a Crooked Nose. 

[These notes were also copied by Macfarlane's transcriber from Sir 
Robert Sibbald's holograph marginalia. ED.] 

1 The word three is given on the margin of the Macfarlane MS. ED. 



160 HIGHLANDS LOCH YELD 

called Toircastle. There was ane ancient castle builded 
whaire this Toircastle is, which was called Beragonium And 
this Torcastle was builded last by one which is called Ewin 
M c Allane the Cheiff of that Clancameron, This Name Cameron 
it is said, hath bein driven from Gamer ut a Gamer Cameroni. 
They alledge themselves to be descendit of ane ancient King 
of Denmark and the first Co un trie in Scotland that they did 
come into, wes Glenderune And then at that tyme they were 
called Sleick * Ouchgri Vic Millananay Vic Arden. Search the 
Scots Chronicle and you shall find more at lenth therintill. 

Glenluy is next to that Lochyeld and it is a verie fertill 
litle countrey, haveing a litle river running through it flowing 
into the water of Loghie, And it is called Ley, and the glei 
is named efter the water Glenley, And next to Glenley, 
Loghairdgaig being of twall myll of length, and not OIK 
myle of breadth. On the Southsyde of this Logh there is 
wood of fyne trees fourteen myles in length And on the North- 
side therof, faire oaktrees growing And is ane verie profitable 
Gountrie of milk, abundance in summer and harvest but nol 
much come growing there, for it is better for guids to feed ii 
these parts then for corne. The river or water which doetl 
run out of that fresh water Logh is called Airgak And th( 
Logh and the Gountrey is named efter the river Lochairgak. 
And this Airgak doeth flow in Loghloghlie.f At the North-east 
187. head of this Loghairgak there are two glens. The one is call* 
Glenpean, and the other Glendessorie. This Glenpean ther 
is one litle river running below by that glenn, and they use 
to slay salmond fish in that water. There is a bigg moun- 
taine betwixt these two glenns. And they are verie profitable 
for abundance of milk in these glenns for they are better foi 
goods to feed in than for corne. There is one litle Chappell 
in that Logh in the south-easthead theroff' which is called 



* There is yett a race of the Cameron called Sleith Outlay. 

t Loughargaig is a mile bread where breadest and in length twelfe 
miles, it and the Countrey on both sides belongs to Lochyell, where is 
saw mill upon the river of Argaig, where it comes out of the Loch am 
187. he is making ane Iron Mill, there is much Iron Ore over all the high- 
land, with which they furnished themself formerly, there be great 
woods on each side of Lochargaig the woods of Oake. 



HIGHLANDS LOQUHABER 161 

Illand Collumbkill that is the Illand of St. Columb. There 
is ten mylls betwixt this Illand and the church of Kirkmalie 
on Lochyell. On the south syde of Loghie doeth lye the 
parish church of Kilminevag. And there is one river run- 
ning by this church which is called Spean, by the toune 
called Cappach which was the Principall dwelling toune of 
M r Rannald in Loquhaber. And these two Glenns called 
Glenspean and Glenroy are verie pleasant profitable and fertill 
of corne and abundance of salmond slaine in these two waters. 
And plenteous of milk in summer and harvest in these two 
glenns. There was of ancient one Lord in Loquhaber called 
My Lord Gumming being a cruell and Tyrant Superior to the 
Inhabitants and ancient tennants of that Countrey of 
Loquahber. This Lord builded ane Illand or ane house on 
the southeasthead of Loghloghlie with four bigg oak Jests 
that were below in the water And he builded ane house there- 
upone and ane devyce at the entrance of the said house That 
whaire anie did goe into the house ane table did lye by the 
way, that when anie man did stand upon the end theroff going 
fordward that end wold doune and the other goe up and then 
the man woman or dog wold fall below in the water and 188. 
perish. This house being finished, the Lord Cuming did call 
the wholl tennants and Inhabitants of the Countrey to come to 
him to that house, And everie one that did come into that 
place did perish and droune in the water And it fortuned at 
the last that a gentleman one of the tenants, who had a hound 
or dog in his companie, did enter the house and fall below 
into the water through the house, and the dog did fall efter 
his master this dog being white, and comeing above the water 
in another place by the providence of God, without the house, 
The remant tennants which were as yet on going into the 
house, perceiving this to be rather for their destructione and 
confusione of these which were absent from them then for their 
better furtherance, did remove themselves and flitt out of that 
pairt wherin they were for the tyme to preserve themselves 
with their lives out of that cruell Mans hands But my Lord 
comeing to be advertised heirof perceiving the Countrie and 
tenants to be some what strong as yet, did goe away by night 
and his wholl Companie out of the Countrie, And never since 



162 HIGHLANDS KILMALIE 

came to Loquhaber And when summer is, certaine yeares or 
dayes, one of the bigg timber Jests the quantitie of ane ell 
theroff, will be seen above the water and sundrie men of the 
Countrie were wont to goe and see that Jest of timber 
q ch stands there yet, And they say that a man's finger will 
cast it to and fro in the water, but fourtie men cannot pull it 
up because it lyeth in another Jest below the water, and 
this which you heard, is hot one myle from Kilmanevag or 
therby. And sex mylls betwixt this church and Inverloghie, 
where my Lord Cuming did dwell. There is bot two myles 
from Inverloghie the Church of Kilmalie in Loghyeld In 
antient tymes there was ane church builded upon ane hill, 
which was above this church, which doeth now stand in this 
toune. and ancient men doeth say that there was a battell 
foughteon on ane litle hill not the tenth part of a myle from 
this Church be certaine men which they did not know what 
they were. And long tyme therefter certaine herds of that 
toune and of the next toune called Annaff both wenches and 
youthes did on a tyme conveen with others on that hill. And 
189* the day being somewhat cold, did gather the bones of the 
dead men that were slayne long tyme before in that place, 
and did make a fire to warm them, at last they did all remove 
from the fire, except one maid or wench which was verie cold, 
and she did remaine there for ane space. She being quyetlie 
her alone without anie other companie took up her cloaths 
above her knees or therby to warme her awhile, did come and 
caste the ashes below her cloaths, and some of the same 
entering into her privie member she was conceived of ane 
Manchild. Severall tymes therefter she was verie sick and at 
last she was knowne to be with chyld. And then her parents 
did ask at her the matter heiroff, which the Wench could not 
weel answer which way to satisfie them. At last she resolved 
them with ane Answer. As fortune fell upon her concerneing 
this marvellous miracle, the chyld being borne, his name was 
called Gille dow Maghre-vollich That is to say the black 
child, son to the bones so called His grandfather and friends 
send him to the schooll, and so he was a good schollar and 
godlie, he did build this Church which doeth now stand in 
Lochvcld called Kilmalie am Ewin M c Allane the chieff of 



HIGHLANDS KILMALTE ARDGOURE 163 

the Clancamerons which did build Torchastle did build the 
Northeast pairt of this Church, and this forsaid the West 
pairt. In anno ane thousand sex hundreth and twall years It 
fortuned that the Clancameron being unfreinds with others of 
themselves, in respect that certaine of them took lands from 
the Marques of Huntlie which Allane Cameron of Lochyeld 
had in his possession, the Cheiff and Captaine of the Clan- 
camerons and certane others of his kin and freinds followed 
and accompanied the said Allane. They did forgadder with 
others at Innerloghie the forsaid zeare the fyfteenth day of 
August in ane certaine Mossie place And verie hard to anie to 
goe throw in respect of such soft moss which is between 
Gleneves and Innerloghie. And there they fought so cruellie 
as if they had bein native Ancient enemies whill at last the 190. 
said Allane and the rest of his friends and complices did over- 
throw and slay the principall and Chieff men of their contra- 
versies. And so Allane did overcome the battell fought 
against his friends on that day, which was a great ruine to his 
familie. 

Ardgoure next to Lochaquber on the eist syd of Loquhaber 
In this litle countrie of ancient there were certaine Inhabitants 
(and which as old men report was siel eich and then were 
Inhabitants of certaine parts of Lochaber called Lochferin 
and Mamor forgainst Ardgour) And they did build ane house 
of timber in one litle Illand which was amongst Mosses next 
to the principall toune, which they hade in Ardgoure, And the 
saids Inhabitants having this Illand for ane strengh house to 
keep himself and the principall men of his kin and friends 
from their enemies. They being dwelling there for ane space, 
It fortuned on a tyme that ane monstrous beast being in that 
litle Logh, the most pairt of these Inhabitants being in this 
Illand It was overwhelmit and destroyed by that terrible and 
most fearfull Monstrous beast and so they all were perished 
and devoured. 

The next Inhabitants which did occupie and manure this 
litle countrie of Ardgoure, It was ane certaine race and Clan 
called Clanmaister alias Mackenis, And these did dwell ane 
certain space in this litle Countrie. Makconill Lord of the 
Illands of the hielands of Scotland, and other certane lands in 



164 HIGHLANDS ARDGOURE 

Scotland being superior and Master to the tenants and prin- 
cipal 1 Inhabitants of Ardgoure. And this Makmaister being 
the speciall man of that name, did certain occasiones which 
disconted this Lord Makconell and M c Claine haveing certane 
sones being valiant stout Young men, and had no lands that 
he could bestow on them but that he should give some lands 
to his eldest sone, did prefer them to Mackconiell to provyd 
for them, lands to serve his Lordship, as loyall servants at all 
tymes. And Mackconiell remembring his old anger which 
19 1. Makmaister deserved at his in tymes bygone and called all 
things to remembrance, did ask M c Cleans sons and speciallie 
the youngest to whom he had no lands to bestow upone. That 
if the case were that himself could find anie lands to be deso- 
late of tenants, which he might easilie conqueis. M c lenis sone 
to spy and look in all pairts and countries where he might find 
anie such lands, and that he should have his consent and 
power and frie. libertie to intromett with the same, The race 
and name of Clanlein perceiving no other lands to be more fitt 
for them to be easilie conqueissed then this Ardgoure by 
sundrie consideratione first that the superior or Laird of Ard- 
goure called M c Maister being ane old man and noght in good 
friendship with his next neighbours next haveing but few in 
number of friends and kin to defend helpe or assist him in 
anie place besyde his Countrie. thridlie Ardgoure being the 
next countrie to M c Leins kin and friends And last of all or 
finallie they remembring the displeasure which M c Coneill did 
beare against him, and the evill will he had against M c Maister 
in tymes bygone, All things being considerit be the said Clan- 
lein concerneing their purpose determined and pretendit by 
them. Certaine of them did gather togidder and come to 
Ardgoure with this M c Leans youngest sone, and finding 
M c Master being but few in number of companie with him of 
his kin for that tyme, they did enter into his house in the 
Coule in Ardgoure his principall dwelling place there, and 
did kill himself and the remanent of his friends and kin 
and sones, and entered themselvs possessors of those lands 
immediatlie efter the said slaughter and did sett the countrey 
peaceable into tenants. And so this M c Leans sones posteritie 
doeth bruik this countrie of Ardgoure as yet since that tyme. 



HIGHLANDS ARDGOURE KENGE ARLOCH 1 65 

This Illand which was devoured and perished with all men, 
woemen, bairnes and all others that was within it It is now 
one litle Logh being but ane stunk before when the Illand was 
in the midst of it And ane Tutor of Ardgoure named Charles 
M c lean thinking to find certaine riches within this Logh did 
transport ane boatt or scowtt from the sea to this place, but 192. 
could find nothing at the ground or bottom of the Logh but 
ane Jest or oakin timber, which they did pull up with Instru- 
ments hanging to roapes. This Countrie of Ardgoure doth 
lye on the Westsyde of the sea that goeth by, There is 
sundrie Glenns in this Countrie. one of them is called the Cow- 
glen * and there is a great number of firr trees in this glen. 
And it is verie profitable to the Superior and Master of the 
Countrie for it is good to feed guids therein being of twall 
mylls of lenght or therby. and there is a water in the glen 
which doeth transport great trees of firr and masts to the 
seasyde. There is another Glen on the southsyde of this Glen 
which is called Glenkaffitill. having an bigg, high mountaine 
betwixt the two glenns. there is aboundance of salmond fish 
slain in the water of skaffitill. There is a great number of fir 
trees in this glen, and easlie to be transported to the seasyde. 
There uses manie shipps to come to that Countrie of Ard- 
goure, and to be loadned with firr Jests Masts and Cutts. 
This Glen is verie profitable to the Lord. The whole Barronie 
of Ardgoure is twentie fyve merkland. there is another glen 
which is called Glengoure and there is one freshwater Logh in 
this Glenn, and abundance of salmond is slaine yearlie therin. 
also there is ane litle river which doeth run out of this Logh 
And there is abundance of salmond slaine in that water. 
There is abundance of herrings and severall other fishes slaine 
in this Countrie. It is not verie fertill of corne but it is rough 
sene of it [we], and verie profitable for cattell sheep and goatts 
to feed into it. 

Kengearloch next to Ardgoure. This Countrie is verie 
rough and hills and mountaines on the Westsyde theroff, and 
the sea on the south or southeast theroff'. There is abundance 
of fish in Kingearlogh and milk. It is not verie fertill of 



i.e. Dog's glen. [In MS.] 



166 HIGHLANDS DUARD MORVERNE 

come but it is good for guids cattell sheep and goats to feed 
intill. There is one castle in this countrey which is called 

193. Castle N'agair. The Inhabitants of this Countrey are called 
Sielleachin, that is to say the race or name of that Clan. And 
they are descendit of M c Lein Lochboy. These names of the 
Clanlein are divydit in two severall names for this M c lein of 
Loghboy is called Seilleachin. And the Clanlein of Duard is 
called Seill Laughlane. This Gillem from whence they are 
descendit, had two sones, the one which was the eldest, his 
name was Hector or in Irish Eachin, the other which was 
youngest his name was Laughlane, and these Clanlein of Duard 
hath the greatest dignitie and first place by the providence of 
God the ascending of such high estimatione and honour. 
These Clanlein they were of antient, servants and dependei s 
upon M c Coneill being Lord of the Illands of the hielands of 
Scotland, and did place them in great estimatione and sundrie 
others which was the occasione of the destructione of his owne 
house efterward. And placed all others and these in divers 
countries and makeing them men of great living in augment- 
ing and preferring them to great honoure and diminished his 
owne house. 

Morverne next to Keangerlogh. This Countrie is a verie 
profitable and fertill Countrey of Corne and abundance of fish 
butter, cheese, and milk There is one Castle in this Countrey 
pertaining to the Siell Laughlane alias Clanlein of Duard. and 
the principall of that name which doeth dwell in the Morverne 
is called Allane M c eandowie Vic gillein. 

Suineord is a Countrey forgainst the Morverne and it is ane 
verie fertill and profitable Countrie. and there is abundance 
offish both salmond and all other kynd of fishes. Suineord 
was holdin be the Clanean of my Lo. M c Donald Lord of Can- 
tyre and Ilia. And this Countrie is verie plenteous of milk 
for there is verie good grass and pasture in all Suineord having 
Glenns and bigg Mountains on the Northeastsyde therof. And 
on the other syde ane Logh of the sea comeing betwixt the 
Morverne and Suineord. There is thrittie merk lands in this 
Countrey and the paroch Church thereoff' is Illandfynan and 

194. this Illand wherein the Church doeth stand is ane fresh water 
Logh called Logh seell, and Muydard is on the Northwest 



SUINEORD ARDNAMURQUHEN MUYDORT 167 

syde of this Logh, and Someord [sic] on the southsyde. And 
Loquahaber and Ardgoure at the easthead thereoff, And there 
is one river running out of this Logh westward to the Sea, 
And there is abundance of salmond fish slaine in this river 
yearlie when there is no great speats nor raine in the yeare but 
fair weather, there is sundrie good glenns on the Northwest 
syde of this Logh, ane of them at the head theroff' called Glen- 
feanain. And there is ane litle river runneing through this 
glen And there is abundance of salmond slaine in that water 
at certaine tymes of the yeare. And this glen is verie profit- 
able and abundance of milk in it. And there is another glen 
forgainst Suineord in Muydort called Glencalmidill. And 
there is ane litle river running through this glen. And there 
is abundance of salmond fish slaine thereintill. And this glen 
is verie profitable and plenteous of milk. As for comes these 
glenns hes but few of come lands 

Ardnamurquhen in Argil is next to Suineord on the west- 
syde or end theroff. Somewhat southwest Ardnamurquhen 
was held by the Clanean of my Lo. M c Donald Lord of Ilia and 
Cantyre This countrie is verie profitable and fertill countrie 
both of corne, abundance of fish, and plenteous of milk being 
a fourscoire merkland. There is a castle and strength in it 
called Castell Miggarie. The Clanean Murquhenich were the 
Inhabitants there of ancient, And the Campbells hath dis- 
possess*^ and putt them out of ther Castell and other places 
of the Countrie except few. and hes planted sundrie others in 
ther tounes and countries. The Clanean Murquhenich were 
verie ancient possessors and superiors of Ardnamurquhen. 
There is one Church in this Countrie which is called Kilmoire 
in Ardnamurquhen. 

Muideort next to Ardnamurquhen on the Northwest syde 
theroff. This Muideort is plenteous of milk and fishes Deir 
and roe but not fertill of corne. There is certaine rough 195. 
Illands in Muideort And the countrie itself is verie rough and 
craggie. There is one castle in this countrie which is called 
Illandtirrein. And it is builded on a rock high above the sea 
and shipps doeth come to the castle and there is one high 
mountaine above the castle on the west and southsyde theroff 

Arryseig next to Muideort. This countrie is plenteous of 



168 HIGHLANDS ARRYSEIG KNOIDART 

milk and fish abundance but verie fertill of corne. There is 
one Church in this countrie called Kilmaroy in Arrisaig. 

Next to this Countrie two Morrours one pertaining to the Siell 
Allane vie Rannall on the southsyde or south somewhat west a 
And this is a verie rough and craggie Countrie having bigg 
hills or mountains and there is abundance of fish slaine in it. 

The other Morrour on the Northsyd of the Loch pertaines 
to the Laird of Glengairie. And it is a verie litle Countrie 
and there is abundance of milk and fish in this countrey but 
not fertill of corne for it is verie rough and craggie Countrey 
with high mountaines. On the northsyde of this North 
Morrour there is ane sea Logh comand between both the 
countreys of Morrour and Knoidort and this countrey of 
Knoidort is very fertill of corne, and abundance of milk and 
all kynd of fishes in this Countrey. There is sundrie litle 
rivers and speciallie fyve litle rivers, two of them at the head 
of Loghneves And there is a bigg mountaine betwixt these 
two rivers and the river which doeth lye on the North westsyde 
of this high bigg mountaine and it doeth run through a glen 
and there is abundance offish in this glen. There are other two 
Rivers. One of them running through a glen called Meddill. 
and there is ane fresh water Logh wherthrou another litle 
river doeth run and there is abundance of fish in this fresh 
water Logh and the two waters doe meet togidder and they 
runn by th parish church of the said Countrie callit Kilghoan 
196. and this is the principall dwelling toune of the Superior of 
that Countrie. And there is abundance of salmond fish slaine 
in this water of Killhoan. And on the Northsyde of this 
Countrey there is a verie profitable glen for guids and cattell 
to feed, And there is a river runneing throwgh this glen And 
there is abundance of salmond fish slaine therin and this river 
is called Gaisiron, and the glen is called after that name Glen- 
gaisiran. There is one Logh of saltwater on the Northsyde of 
Knoidart, and it goeth farr up above eastward. There is 
abundance of herrings, salmond and sundrie other fishes slaine 



11 Westward of Lochmorrours one fresh water Loch of certaine miles of 
lenth and one of bredth being between big- mountaines on every syde as 
lykways big mountain at the Westheed yroff. [Footnote in MS.] 



HIGHLANDS GLENGAIRIE 169 

in this Logh it is called Loghvoirne. There is one glen at the 
southestsyde and there is ane litle river or glen therintill. 

Glengairie a is the next countrie to Loghairgak and there 
one litle stray betwixt the head of Loghloghie and the other 
fresh water Logh which is called Erigh and this litle Strath is 
one myll of lenth and not the eight part of a myll breadth 
it is called Achadron And it is alleadgit be ancient men that 
this b Achadron is the midst of Scotland in lenth. And there 
is one stone in a plaine ground in the stray which stands, and 
it is called the stone of the Ridge of Scotland And so the 
strath is named the mid part of Scotland. The sea doeth 
flow Northeast throwgh this strath and southwest. The water 
or river of Gairie is but two mylls from the strath of Acha- 
drone and doeth runn out of Loghgairie, Loghquheigh and 
sundrie others is fresh water Loghes, This Glengairie is verie 
profitable and fertill of come fish and milk And on the south- 
westsyde therof there is a wood of firr trees groweing therin 
of ten or twall mylls in length, and on the Northsyde of this 
Countrey of Loghgarrie, there is a faire Oakenwood, The 197, 
length of this fresh water logh is sex mylls, This river of 
Garrie doth flow into a fresh water Logh called Logheoig; and 
in the spring tyme there is abundance of salmond slaine in 
this Logheoig, The principall dwelling place or toune of the 
Superior of Glengarrie is at the Southwest head of this Logh. 
This Glengarrie and Achadrom is of the Lordship of Loqu- 
haber and Sherifdome of Innerness the names of the haill 
glenns, straths of the Lordship is Mamor, Loghlevin, Glen- 
neves, Gargawach, Glenspean, Glenroy, Dawghnassie, Logh- 
yeld, Glenley, Loghairgak. Achadrome and Glengarrie. These 
branches of the Countrey are dividit to sundrie Churches such 
as Ardgoure in the Lordshipe of Morverne and Sherifdome of 
Inverness. Lochyell Glenley, Loghairgak. Achadrome and 
Glengarrie pertaining to the paroch church of Kilmalie, Logh- 

a Jt beginneth at Innershy, Glenley and Lochargaik and to the Seill 
at Louchlive divides Innernesshyre and Argyllshyre. [Footnote in MS.] 

b Achadron is the country betwixt Lochoich and Lochlohy there is a 
litle burn fra the hill syde that divides, one branch runs to the Westsea 
into Lochlohy and the other branch runs to the Eastsea through 
Lochoich. [Footnote in MS.] 



170 HIGHLANDS GLENGARRIE 

levin, Mamore and the sevin merklands and half merk of 
Glenneves pertaineing to Illand-Moune, Thrie merklands and 
ane half merkland of Glenneves Gargawah Glenspean, Glenroy 
and Dawghnassie with the sex merkland of Glenley pertaineing 
to the paroch of Kilmanevag. There is one litle toune where 
there was a chappell builded of ancient, not two mylls from 
Kilmanevag and ancient men and women did say that they 
did sie in this chappell called Achanahannat, manie Inhabi- 
tants and houses of that toune selling and buying wyne, ale, 
aquavitse & sundrie drinks and merchandice. And these 
ancient men do testifie that the Scotts quart of wyne, which is 
asmuch as four English quarts was sold for Scotts eighteen 
pennies which is but thrie English halfpence And one quart 
of nutts for and ane Scots quart of Ale good and strong 

for a shill. and a quart of oatmeall for thrie Scots pennies. 
And that this chappell was a sanctuarie and holie place keipit 
amongst the Countreymen in the said antient tyme. And that 
they did report that it is not long nor manie years since the 
same hes bein, and that this toun is without anie Inhabitants 
but waste and desolate. 

In the water or river of Airgaik there was seen in the zeare 
1620 yeirs. the fourteenth of August, the tennants and gentle- 
men of the Countrey being at the building of a bridge of 
IBS. timber on the said river, at the latter end of the making of 
the bridge, there appeared Innumerable Adders in this 
water of Airgaick Immediatlie efter the Hnitione of the said 
bridge, The gentlemen and tennants perceiving the Adders 
and all the water in such a pairt a litle above the bridge full 
of cruell and terrible beasts and certain e of the biggest of the 
adders did lope high above the water, and certaine others of 
them comeing to the land, did goe through the hadder and 
grass so fast that the whole Companie which did behold, were 
much affraied at this terrible and Marvelous sight. And at 
last they were forced to leave their work and depart from that 
place, which they did say, if there had bein such sight at the 
beginning of the work, they had never did it. 

Abirtarff is next to Glengarrie betwixt the southeast head 
of Loghness. and the Northeast head of Logherig. This river 
of Erigh doth run out of Logherigh throw that countrey of 
Arbitarff And at the mouth of this river there is ane ancient 



ABIRTARFF GLENMORIESTOUNE 171 

Castle and verie pleasant plaine of Corneland about this 
antient Castle and it stands at the Southwest heid of Lochnes. 
There is ane Church toune not half a myll from the mouth of 
the river which is called Killchuimen in Abirtarff', and there 
is no church in this toune but it is the Paroch of Abirtarff 
and where the church should stand, there is a river called 
Tarff. and running by it, and so from the name of the water 
the countrey is called Abirtarff as efter followes. 

Next to Glengarrie and Achadrome at the North or Northeast 
heid of this Logh is Abirtarff It is divydit in two pairts be- 
twixt the Laird of Glengarrie and my Lord Lovatt, it is a verie 
profitable and fertill Countrie. And there two rivers which 
doeth runne through this Countrie of Abirtarff. The one of 
the rivers doeth flow out of Logherigh to the fresh water Logh- 
ness. it is called Erigh or the water of Erigh, and efter the 
name theroff, the fresh water is called. The other river or 
fresh water is called Tarff' and the countrie is named efter 
the Water Abirtarff. This doeth runn through a glen efter the 199. 
oune Name Glentarff. from the east and floweth in Loghness to 
the North. This fresh water Loghnes is twantie foure my 11s 
in length, and two mylls in breadth or therby. The north- 
westsyde of this Logh there is certaine countreys pertaining to 
the Laird of Grant, And to another Barrone of his kin & 
freinds of the name and race of the Grants. 

This next Countrey next Abirtarff is Glenmoriestoune and 
it is a verie profitable and fertill litle glen, or countrie both 
plenteous of come and abundance of butter cheese and milk 
and great and long woods of firr trees doeth grow in that 
countrey. and the river doeth transport big Jests and Cutts 
of timber to the fresh water Loghnes. there is very manie 
Deares and Raes in this Countrie and high mountaines verie 
bigg in everie syde of it. The glen is named efter the water 
of Glenmoristoune. The water is called Moristoune and 
this river runneth out sundrie fresh water Loghes. and there 
is sundrie glenns in this Countrey verie profitable for goods and 
cattell to feed in. And there is ane litle parish Church of 
timber in this countrey called Millergheard. And there is 
verie faire and pleasant cornelands in everie syde of this water 
or river of Moristoune. 

The next Countrie to Glenmoristoune on the Northwestsyde 



172 HIGHLANDS WRQUHATTIN STRANEARNE 

of this Logh is called Wrquhattin. And this countrie is 
verie profitable and fertill of corne and abundance of milk in 
the high pairts theroff called the bray of Wrquhattane. In 
the midle of this Countrey there is a fresh water Logh and 
abundance of fish are slaine with lynes in all tymes of the 
zeare. there is ane litle river running out of this Logh called 
and doeth flow in Loghness There is one litle 
Chappell at this Loghsyde in Wrquhattane which is call 
Kil Saint Ninian. and certaine hieland men and woemen 
doeth travell to this chappell at a certane tyme of the zeare 
expecting to recover there health againe and doeth drink of 
certaine springand wells that is next to the Chappell. 

Wrquhattan is but twall mylls from Inverness And the river 
200. of Nes doeth flow into the sea North, and runneth out of 
Lochnes. And so this fresh water Logh hath name efter this 
river of Nes, Loghnes. And at the mouth of this water or 
river, not ane my 11 from the sea syde there is a burgh called 
Invernes And there is a castle biggit upone ane high hill or 
grein above the toune on the westsyde of the said burgh. 
There is abundance of salmond slaine in this river And this 
burgh is ane ancient toune and large shyre. 

On the east or southeastsyde of Loghnes next to Abirtarff 
there is a countrey which is called Straharriggaick And it is 
alleadged this countrey is the highest countrey in Scotland, 
and it is likelie to be true in respect that everie countrey which 
is next to Straharriggaick is below, and it as it were upon a 
mountaine above all other Countreys. Ane verie cold Countrey 
and eivill, fresh waters therintill being reid colloured running 
through Mosses, this countrie is oftymes verie profitable and 
fertill of corne and abundance of milk. There are certaine 
Churches in Abirtarff' and Straharrigaick Kilquhimen in Abir- 
tarff and Boleskie in Straharrigaick and there is sundrie glenns 
in this countrey which is verie profitable for feeding of guids. 
And there is a forrest on the southeastsyd of this countrie and 
there is great store of deire in that glen and verie manie llaes 
in all the glenns and woods of Straharrigaick and Arbitarff. 

Stranearne next countrey to Straharrigaick eastward, there 
is ane river in this countrey of Stranearne which is called 
Nearne. And there is faire corne lands in everie syde of this 



HIGHLANDS STRANEARNE BADENOCH 173 

water or river. This Stranearne is a verie profitable and fertill 
countrie and pleasant lands, and there are sundrie Castles 
everie syde of this river pertaining to divers Superiors. On the 
Northwest syde of this river at the mouth of it almost at the 
seasyde there is ane ancient litle burgh called Invernearne 
And it is not fair from Inverness eastward, And there is ane 
litle burgh laitlie builded not two myles from Invernearn 
called Alterne. The Inhabitants of that toune come to Inver- 
nearn with certain companie and brake the cross of that 
antient toune and did cast it down and hes friedome them- 
selves now. 

Badenoch eastward from Loquhaber and there is ane fresh 801. 
Water Logh in bray of Badanich called Loghlagan and the 
water of Spean doth run out of this logh doun through the 
bray or high pairt of Loquhaber. And sundrie other waters 
cloeth flow into this water out of Loghtreig, Loghgulbin with 
sundrie other Loghs and waters. This Loghtreig is verie pro- 
fitable for guids to feed therintill. There is abundance of 
milk in this Logh in summer harvest and spring tyme. There 
is no corne lands in this Logh but onlie guid for pasture and 
feeding of guids. It doth lye betwixt high Mountaines. the 
one head of this Logh lyeth North somewhat Northeast, the 
other head south or south west. There is abundance of litle 
fresh water fishes oftymes slaine in this Logh. 

This Loghlagane is in the bray or highest pairt of Badenich 
and this bray is next to Loquhaber. There is a church in the 
bray of Badenoch called Lagankenith. There is sex mylls 
betwixt Kilcherrill in bray of Loquhaber, and West head of 
Loghlagan and also there is sex mylls betwixt west head of 
the Logh and Lagankenich. that church toune so called. 

There is one river in Badenoch running through the Coun- 
trie which doth runn and come out of ane litle Logh in the 
brae or heid of Glenroy in Loquaber. This river is called 
Spay. This Countrie of Badenoch is verie fertill of corne. and 
plenteous in milk. And verie much and pleasant corne. lands 
in this countrey in sundrie and diverse glenns and litle rivers 
or waters which doth flow in this river of Speay. Oftymes this 
river in tyme of speat or stormie weather will be alse bigg as 
if it were a Logh, and also als broad and overflowes all the low 



174 HIGHLANDS BADENOCH KNODEARD 

corne lands of the the Countrey next to itself, on everie syde 
of the said river of Spey. The next Church in Badenoch to 
Lagankenich is Kenzeossigh. there is betwixt Lagan- 

kenich and Kenzeossigh. There is ane castle in Badenoch 
forgainst the Church of Kenzeossigh pertaining to the Marquis 
of Hun the which is the Castle of Ruthven in Badenoch and 
it is a strong Castle. There is one church sex mylls from 
Kenzeossigh called Reallavie There is other parosh churches 
in Badenoch And there is great store of Deare in Badenoch. 
202. Knodeard is a very rough countrey full of mountaines, Glens 
and sundrie litle rivers wherin is abundance of salmond fish 
slaine And in the sea of Knodeord there is abundance of all 
kind of fish slaine, and bigg mountains on everie syde of this 
countrie and some of the lands theroff doeth lye southward, 
some other pairts West and some North forgainst Glenelge, 
The lands which are in Loghneves forgainst Morrour is rough 
being the southsyde of the Countrey. The midst of the 
countrey lyeth westward foregainst Sleit, and this is the most 
plain and pleasant place of the countrey The Northsyde 
forgainst Glenelg is verie rough and abundance of salmond 
fish and herrings and other kynd of fish is slaine in that Logh 
called Loghuirne, in some little rivers at the syd of the Logh 
in a glen called Glenbaristill and another river at the head of 
the Logh And there are great store of deare and rae in 
Knoidord. 

Glenelg * ane countrie being on the Northsyde of Loghurne 
pertaining to M c Leod of Harie. is one verie profitable fertill 
and faire pleasant corne land Countrie. haveing two glenns most 
fertill and pleasant of corne milk and abundance of salmond 
fish in that two rivers which doth runn through these two 
glens And this countrie is good for cattell to feed. There is 
one church or Parosh in this Countrie called Killchinnen in 
Glenelge there is one Keyle or ferric one narrow part of the 
sea which runneth between Glenelg and Slait and there is 
abundance of fish slaine in that Logh and it is called Kilraa. 
This countrey of Glenelg is marched with Kintaill and it is of 



* Glenelg is forgainst Kneadort on the Xorthsyde of Loghurne which 
doeth flow eastward between Knedert and Glenelg. [Footnote in MS.] 



GLENELG KEARERAY COLLA MUCK 175 

the Diocie of Argyll and Sheriffdome of Invernes. On the 
south syde of this Countrie forgainst Knoidart there is a litle 
toune and a litle river running through the toune to the sea. 
And if anie man or woman will cast a tree in this water, all 
that is above the water will be a tree as it was affbir, and all 
that is under the water will be transformed in a stone als hard Mi 
as anie other stone and this was tryed oftymes and anie tree 
that falls from the mountains into it is lykwayes transformit in 
a stone And this toune is called Arnistill in Glenelg. 

Keareray is ane Illand pertaining to Makcoull of Lome next 
to Dunnoligh forgainst the Northend of that Illand. the 
Castle of Dunnoligh standing on the Westsyde of the head of 
Keareray. This Illand is verie fertill and profitable or corne 
and abundance of milk, it is of two mylls and ane half in 
length or therby between the two ends of it and not one myll 
in breadth There is one litle Castle or tour on the southwest 
end of it. And it is called Dundouchie. In this Illand there 
are manie foxes which will kill sheep and lambs and they are 
somewhat bigger then the foxes that are on mainlands and 
more bold in killing sheep and lambs for upon the maineland 
the foxes doeth no harme to anie kynd of cattle, sheep nor 
goats but the wolfes which is the destructione of horses, cattell, 
sheep, goates Deare and Rae. 

Colla is ane Illand being of certaine mylls in length and 
breadth pertaining to certaine of the name and race of the 
Clanns of our M c leans That Illand of Colla is verie fertill 
and profitable for corne and speciallie of barley which doeth 
most grow in that Hand. There is abundance of seafish in 
this countrey and lykwayes there is ane Castle therin 

Next to this Illand of Colla there is ane Illand called Illand 
Muck that is to say the hoggisilland and it is on the southend 
of It is verie profitabill and fertill of corne and 

abundance of milk and fish in this Illand and there is a strenght 
in it on a rock or craig builded be the Master and Superior of 
the Illand in tyme of warrs which was betwixt him and cer- 
taine enemies. This Illand appertaines to the Bishop of the 
Illes of the highlands of Scotland being but sex merkland 

Eig. this Illand is profitable and fertill of corne and milk 
and abundance of fish in the sea about that Illand but they 



176 HIGHLANDS EIGG RHUM 

804. have no skill to slay the said fish. There is ane litle Church 
in this Illand called Kildonayne And this is the principall 
toune of the Superior of the Countrey. And there is ane high 
mountaine on the southwest syde of this Countrey. And it is 
ane verie good strength against enemies, that wold doe anie 
harme or skaith to the Countrey for it wold keep themselves 
that are Inhabitants of the Hand saiff, and their wyffs and 
children with all their moveable goods or geir which they could 
bring or carie with them to the tope of that hill, or moun- 
taine, In this mountaine there is a Mure, and Mosses and in 
the midst of the tope of that mountaine there is a fresh water 
Logh. And in the midst of that Logh there is ane Illand 
which wold hold a certain number of men and women with 
their bairnes. This Illand of Eig is thirtie merks lands, thrie 
mylls in length or thereby and two my 11s broad. They 
perished and destroyed with the smoak of the fyre the number 
of both of men and woemen an barnes within ane Cove or den 
that is in this Illand of the Inhabitants by M c Leod of Harie 
being in warrs against him for that tyme, and taking this place 
for their safetie and refuge. 

Rhum is ane big Illand being on the Westsyde of Eig and 
on the southeast syde of Canna, This Illand appertaines to 
the Laird of Colla containing therintill but two tounes of 
Cornelands. One of these two tounes upon the North westsyde 
of this bigg Illand of Rhum And another toune on the West 
and southwestsyde theroff. The toune which is on the North- 
west syde theroff is called Kilmoir in Rhum and the other 
Glenhairie in Rhum, the Illand is verie profitable for there 
is abundance of butter, cheese and milk in this Illand for there 
is no cornelands in it, but such as doth grow in these two 
tounes forsaid, but it is verie good for goods to feed intill in 
respect that it is full of muires, mossis, glenns hills and verie 
bigg mountaines, there is verie manie Deare in this Illand 

'"'> and certane foullis which will be taken in these mountaines 
and are exceeding fatt, of the fattest birds or foulis which is 
in all the sea they are no bigger then a dove or somewhat les 
in bignes. Somewhat gray in coloure of their feathers being 
of the most delicate birds to be eaten that is bred within the 
whole Illand, except that doe taste oyld. 



HIGHLANDS CAINNA BARRAY 177 

Cainna ane Illand pertaining to the Captaine of the Clan- 
ronnald being next to the Illand of Rhum, on the westsyde of 
Rhum betwixt it and Wist. This Cainna is verie profitable 
and fertill both of come and milk with abundance of all kynd 
of seafishes And there is verie manie of these foulls and birds 
aforsaid which are found in Rhum, are found in this Illand. 
There is one litle Illand on the Southwest end or syde of this 
Illand called Haysgair nequissag. And when scutts boats or 
gallys cannot land in Cainna nor in Haysgair nor yet in Tiry 
The ancient Inhabitants and principall of these Countries do 
say that saids Gallies boats nor scutts can nowayes land neither 
in Scotland England nor yet in Ireland. 

Barmy is one Illand being in the Maine seas farr from the 
Mainelands. it is of fyve myls of Length with certane glenns 
verie profitable for goods to feed therintill. And this Illand 
is verie fertill of come and milk and abundance of fish is slaine 
in the sea of Barray. There is certane Illands on the North- 
end of Barray pertaining to the Superior which are named 
Erisgae fuda Linga fara with certaine other litle Illands. 

On the Southend or southwest there are severall litle 
Illands which are profitable and fertill both of corne and 
abundance of milk. And none can goe with scutts or boatts 
to those Sowthwest Illands but in those tymes of the yeare 
such as Aprill and Summer and in the beginning of August. 
The Master or Superior of these Illands hath in due payment 
from the Inhabitants and tennants of the saids Illands for his 
dewtie. the half of ther cornes butter cheese and all other 
comodities, which does Incres or grow to them in the yeare, 
And hath ane officer or Serjeant in everie Illand to uptake the 
samen. The names of those Illands is called Watersa, 
Sandira, Pappa, Mewla, and Bearnera. These Hands are farr 
off from all Countries. There is one Church in Barray on the 
North or Northeast end of it which is called Kilbarray. And 
in this toune there is one springand fresh water Well. And 
the Inhabitants and ancient men and woemen both of men and 
woemen in this toune and of the Countrie especiallie one 
ancient man being of fyve or sexscoir zeares old doeth say 
that when appearance of Warrs wer-to be in the Countrey of 
Barray That certaine drops of blood hath oftymes bein sein 

VOL. n. M 



178 HIGHLANDS BARRAY 

in this springand fresh Water Well. The Laird and Superior 
of this Countrey was called Rorie M c Neill being ane verie 
ancient man of sexscore yeares old or therby did report this 
to be true. And also did report this to be true lykwayes 
whensoever appearance of peace wold be in the Countrie That 
certain litle bitts of Peitts wold be sein. There is one litle 
springand fresh water running out of ane grein hill above the 
Church, which doeth flow into the sea, And there is springand 
there certane litill Cockles shells which they alleadge that the 
samen doth flow into the sea out of the Well and doeth grow 
in another place next the Church not the tenth part of ane 
myll from the Church of Barray called Kilbarray. And 
there is abundance of choice litle cockle shells found. The 
wholl countreymen and tennants doe conveen togidder to this 
place when the sea doeth ebb and bring with them certaine 
number of horses and gather in this place abundance of 
Cockles. The length of this sandie place is ane myll and ane 
half or therby. and no less broad. Certaine of these Inhabi- 
tants will come fyve mylls with ther horses, and bring home 
asmuch with them as their horses will beare of these cockles. 
And if ten thousand cold come, they should have als many as 
there horses were able to carrie everie day gotten and gathered 
in this place. And it is gotten below the sand, And when 
you doe come and stand on that sand with your horses you 
will think the place verie dry, but when you doe put zour 
hands below into the sand you shall see abundance of the saids 
su7. cockles comeing above the sand, and als much of the sea Water 
as will wash them from the sand. 

Next to this place there is ane plaine ground of faire green 
earth on the Westsyde of this sandie place. And this is 
called Mealloch. In this Mealloch there is ane litle Chappell 
called Kilmoir and it lyeth on a verie pleasant grein. And 
one litle hill of green ground is betwixt this Chappell and the 
principall Church of the Countrie. for this Church of Kilmoire 
is on the Northsyde of the litle hill, and the Chappell of 
Kilmoire on the Southsyde. In this Chappell as the Inhabi- 
tants say that there is certaine earth within this Chappell 
which if anie man wold carrie the samen with him to the sea, 
And if the wind or stormie strong weather were cruell and 



HIGHLANDS BARRAY 179 

vehement if he wold caste a litle of this earth into the sea it 
wold pacific the wind and the sea wold grow calme im- 
mediatlie efter the casting the earth into the sea. The Main 
seas and the seas next to Scotland are on everie syde of this 
Chappell. The Main seas doth come from the West, and the 
other sea from the east, and almost the saids two seas doth 
forgadder and meet with other. And they have cutt and 
broke the lands in divyding the Illand of Barray into two 
pairts almost next to the litle Chappell of Kilmore. The 
Inhabitants of this Illand are called Clan Neill Barray. 

There is one castle in this Illand on the South end in one 
litle Illand of Craig or rock builded verie strong. And there 
is ane fresh water Logh betwixt Kilbarr and this castle of 
Kilsimull. And there is a litle toure of stone and lyme 
builded in ane litle Illand in the midst of this Logh, and the 
toune wherin this litle toure is builded is called Arnistill. 
there is no great rivers of fresh water in Barray but one litle 
Water in a toune called Quir, and there is a litle mill in that 
water and no more mills in all the Illand. Bot everie hus- 
bandman in the countrey hes ane Instrument in their houses 
called one Kewrne and the two stones doth lye on the house 
Hoore, and that place is made cleane 

The most corne which doeth grow in this countrie is good 
barley and one verie fertill countrie of that kinde of Corne 
and there are manie Wyld birds or fowles in this Countrey. 
The Inhabitants theroff' are verie antient Inhabitants and the 
Superior or Laird of Barray is called Rorie M c Neill. he is sex 208. 
or sevin score of years as himself did say. This ancient man 
in tyme of his youth being a valiant and stout man of warr 
and hearing from skippers that oftymes were wont to travell 
to ane Illand which the Inhabitants of the Illand alledged this 
M c Neill and his predecessors should be their Superiors, 
which Illand is sein oftymes from the tope of the mountaines 
of Barray. 

This Rorie hearing oftymes the same newes reported to him 
and to his predecessors, he fraughted a shipe but nowayes 
could find the Illand, at last was driven to Ireland on the 
West syd theroff. And took up a Spreath, and returned home 
therefter. 



1 80 HIGHLANDS WIST 

This M c Neill had several! Noblemens daughters and had 
sundrie bairnes. and at last everie one of them thinking and 
esteeming himself to be worthie of the Countrie after the 
fathers deceass being on lyff as yet. the saids sones haveing 
sundrie mothers, at last everie one of them did kill others 
except one that is alyffand another drowned in the sea. 

Wist the next cotmtrie or Illand that is to Barray North- 
ward and there is sexteen mylls of sea betwixt Wist and 
Barray. This Countrie is verie profitable and fertill of come, 
milk and abundance of salmond and other fishes. There are 
verie manie wilde Gray Gasis, and sundrie other wilde fowls. 
There are sundrie litle toures builded in the midst of fresh 
water Loghes, and exceeding bigg Mountaines on the south- 
east theroff. And the sea fishes are slaine on that syde of the 
Countrie. And the Mainland is one the West and Northwest 
syde theroff The sea doth flow into the fresh water Loghes 
in Wist, and all the fresh water in this Countrie doth taste of 
salt sea water exceptand fresh spring wells. Much Barley doth 
grow in this countrey Ancient men in that Countrey were 
reportand that there is much of the lands of Wist over- 
whelmed and destroyed with the sea, and the sand doeth flow 
209. with the winde and destroyes both the lands and hyds the 
houssis below the sand, and so the most pairt of the Countrie 
is overwhelmed with sand. 

There was ane Ancient man in a toune in Wist called Kill- 
pettill and this old man said that he was sex or sevinscoir of 
years old and he did sie another church with the lands of the 
Parish wherein that church did stand. And these lands were 
more profitable fertill and pleasant then these that are in 
Wist now. And that his father and mother, his grandfather 
and Grandmother did see another parish Church which was 
destroyed with the sea long agoe. And that they did call that 
Church Kilmarchirmore The next was called Killpettill, 
And this Church wherin he doth dwell now into, was called 
Killmony which is now called Killpettill that is to say the 
Mure Church, because it lyeth next the Mures. Mosses and 
Mountains And this Church is below the sands except foure 
or fyve foot length of the pinnacle of that church And the 
pairt of there houses which are nearest the seasyde for the 



HIGHLANDS WIST HARIE 181 

Wind doth blow up the sand upon the lands and the churches 
were destroyed with the sea which were principall Churches of 
Ancient. Certaine of them will be seen when the sea ebbs in 
the summer tyme. And the Countrie people will take 
Lobsters out of the windowes of the Pinnacle of that which 
was first called Killpettill before it was destroyed with the 
sea. Ther is one castle in this Countrey in one pairt theroft* 
called Beinmhaill And there is one church in the Southend of 
Wist which is called and in this tonne there is thrie 

Churches. This pairt of Wist which we have writt, is the 
southern! of this Countrey and the Superior theroff is the 
Captaine of the Clanrannald of the race and name called 
SieCallane or Clanronnald being of the Clandonalds descendit 
of the house of M c Donald. 

The North end of Wist is verie pleasant and profitable 
Countrie both fertill of corne, and speciallie of barley, there 
is abundance of fish, milk and herring. There is ane Illand 
pertaining to the Superior and Lord of this Countrie which is 
called Heysker and there is certaine Illands besyde that 
liland in the Main seas, And the Inhabitants of the Countrey 210. 
doe meet and gather themselves togidder once in the yeare 
upon ane certaine tyme in faire and good weather and bring 
bigg trees and stafs in ther hands with them as weapons to 
kill the selchis which doeth Innumerable conveen and gather 
to that Illand at that tyme of the yeare. And so the men 
and the selchis doe fight stronglie And there will be Innumer- 
able seiches slaine wherwith they loaden ther boatts, which 
causes manie of them oftymes perish and droune in respect 
that they loaden ther boatts with so manie selchis. 

The Harie ane Illand of M c Leod of Harie. This Countrie 
is verie fertill and plenteous of corne and abundance of fish 
slaine And milk butter and cheese abundance, There is 
manie Deir in this Countrey. And also there is certaine 
Illands in this countrey belonging to M c Leod, where the 
Inhabitants doe slay a number of fish. This Countrie and 
Lewis they are one Illand almost, but there is two Loghes of 
the sea which doeth come betwixt the two Countries and ther 
two heads are but one myll from another. There is a church 
in Harie in the toune of Rovidill and there is a litle tonre in 



182 HIGHLANDS HARIE SKYE 

this toune named by ane Saint called Cleamean which is in 
English called St. Cleaman. There is thriescore mylls in all 
the Harie and Lewis of length. There is twantie foure mylls 
betwixt the Harie and Maine corneland of Lewis, of 
Mountaines Glenns Mures and Mosses. The race and 
names of the Clanleod of Harie are called Siall Tormend 
or Siol Tormad. 

Skye is a verie bigg and long Illand. The one end lyeing 
south and the other north. There are sundrie Countries con- 
tained in this Illand, Sleitt being on the South pertaining to 
Donald Gorme M c Donald, is a verie fertill Countrie of corne 
and abundance of milk for it hes faire and pleasant corne 
lands And verie good for grass and cattell to feed in. There 
, are two ancient Castles in this Countrie. The one doth ly on 
the east or southeastsyde of this Countrie forgainst Knoideart 
and the other castle doth lye on the North westsyde of Sleitt. 
And the first is called Castle Chames, and the other Dunskaig. 
This countrie is bot thirtie merk lands. 

Next to Sleitt there is a countrie caller Straquhardill and 
doth lye amongst Mountaines that is betwixt Sleitt and it 
And betwixt certaine Countries of M c Leod of Harie and 
Donald Gormes Countrey, and Straquhardill. This countrie 
doth lye in ane plaine and it is verie fertill of corne and 
plenteous of milk and fish, and abundance of herrings. The 
Laird or Superior theroff is called Mackfenayne. 1 And the 
Inhabitants of this Countrie are of that name, and are called 
Clanfenayne there is much pasturadge for guids in this 
Countrey. And abundance of Deir and Roe. There is ane 
Illand on the Northeastsyde theroff' called Scalpa. The deir 
in summer and especiallie in harvest doeth eatt the corne in 
this Countrie. This Church doth stand on the Eastsyde of 
this Illand. There is a litle toure in Straquhardle att the 
narrow pairt of ane Logh of the sea which floweth between 
the Northcoast and the Skye and this toure is called the 
Castle of Killagin 

The next Countrey to Straquhardill is Brayhairport and 
Tronderness. This Brayhairport pertaines to M c Leod of 



1 ' Mac-Innon ' interlined in MS. ED. 



HIGHLANDS SKYE LEWIS 188 

Harie And thrie other litle Countries which are Meiknes, 1 
Bragadill and Dewrenes. These Countries are profitable, fertill 
and plenteous of Come and milk, and abundance of all kynd 
of fish in these Countries and there are litle rivers in them 
where there are abundance of salmond fish slayne. There is 
a Castle in Durenes which is called Dunfeggan. 2 And this is 
the principal! dwelling place of M c Leod in this litle countrie 

Next this countrie There is a litle countrie called Vadarnes 
and this countrie pertaines to M c Leod of Haries being of 
ancient in possession by M c Leod, Lewis is a verie profitable 
and fertill countrie both of corne, milk and abundance of 
fish, it is hot foure daughes of land, this is a thrittie two 
merkland. 

Drointernes is the next Countrie to Vadernes and Brayhair- 
port, doeth lye North from M c Leods countrie, and two Loghes 
doeth come, one of them from the west betwixt Drointernes. 
The one of them called LoghRi which doeth come east and 
floweth West. The other Loghsinsort on the West end of the 
Countrie and floweth east. These two Loches maketh almost 
Drunternes to be ane yland be itself. There is a Castle in 
this countrie which is called Duntoylme in Drointernes. And 
it is builded on ane high rock above the sea, There is a 
parosh Church in this Countrie and it is a most pleasant pro- 
fitable and most fertill Countrey both of corne and abundances 
of milk. The Lord and Superior therof Donald Gornie 
M c Donald of Sleitt. There are great mountaines in this 
Countrey it is sixteenscoir merklands. It is of length sexteen 
or twantie mylls and in breadth in some places sex, others 
eight mylls. There is abundance of all kinde of fishes in this 
countrie. 

Lewis is the next countrie to the Harie, for both these coun- 
tries are but one Illand conjoyned togidder. Lewis being on 
the Northend and the Harie on the Southend. There is two 
Loghes in the sea betwixt these two Countries. And one 
Myll of plaine land at the heids of these two Loghes. The 
one of them doeth flow west and the other southeast. There 
is twentie four mylls of bigg mountaines Glenns, Mosses and 



Mig-inis ' interlined in MS. ED. 2 Veggan ' interlined in MS. ED. 



184 HIGHLANDS LEWIS 

Mures betwixt Lews and the Harie. There are certaine 
parochins in the Lewis. The first that is on the Westsyde of 
Lews is called the Parish of Wuicg the principall toune 
wherin the M c Leods of Lews were wont to dwell into. 
Within this countrie parish wes Pappa being ane Illand in 
the sea. The Paorish of Bearnera is next to that countrie of 
Wuicg. There is thrie Loghes of the sea which doeth flow, 
Loghgarlua on the Northsyd of Bearnera Loghrogan on the 
southwestsyde. And on the southeastsyde Logh Keanhewli- 
vaig. And at the heid of this Logh there are thrie litle 
rivers or fresh waters where there are abundance of salmond 
fish slaine. And next to Bearnera the parish of Charlnay. 
And the rest of the paorishes of that countrie of Lewis are 
called the paorish of Braiggarie the Paorish of Claddigh, 
the paorish of Nes and these paorishes are on the Northsyd of 
Lewis. The paorish of Haye on the eastsyde of Lewis. 

Steornua is the principall and chieffest toune where the 
M c Leods of Lewis wer wont to duell intill, And there is a 
castle in this toune, which was builded of ancient be these 
Inhabitants and Superiors of Lewis. And this toune which 
was their cheiffest dwelling place in all Lewis is betwixt the 
Paorish of Nes and the paorish of Loghes on the Southsyde of 
Steornua and on the eastsyde of the countrie and one of the 
M c leods principall ffbrrests which is called Oysserfaill in Irish 
and in English Oysserfeild on the southsyde of the parish of 
Loghes, wherein there are bigg mountaines with Innumerable 
Deir. There is sundrie Loghes of the sea in this Illand of 
Lews and abundance of all kynd of fishes slayne thereintill. 
The name of the first is Logh sivard in the Hairie The heid 
theiroff is eastward and the mouth theroff southward, there 
are abundance of herrings in this Logh. and one litle river 
doeth runn into this Logh, called the water of Sivard and 
oftymes there is abundance of salmond fish slayne in this water 
of Sivard. There is another river which is called the water of 
Logsa running from the North and flowing into ane Logh 
called Loghserisford. the mouth of this logh is to the east, 
there is abundance of salmond fish slayne everie tyme of the 
yeare in this Logh and of all kynd of fishes is slaine in 
Loghaerisford. And this Logh is next to the Forrest where 



HIGHLANDS LEWIS 185 

M c Leod wont and usit to hunt at the Deire. In the parish of 
Wuicg there is a Logh which is called Loghdua. And there 
is a river runneing in that Logh where there is abundance of 
fish slaine in one round water at the mouth of that river, 
And when the sea doeth flow there will come abundance of 
fish in that pairt of the river therein. And efter the sea ebbs 
abundance and Innumerable fisch will be slaine in that place. 
There is on the Northwest en of Lewis ane Logh which is 
called Loghbervais and the fresh water river which doth runne 
out of this Logh is but half!' a myll in length, there was 
thrie thousand bigg salmond slayne in this river in anno 1585. 
There is a bigg forrest in that place in the North end of the 
Lewis being a mountaine called Cadsoill or Cadfeild and the 
Deir which doeth remaine in this Mountaine or forrest hath 
two tayles and speciallie the Native and kind of Deir of this 
Mountaine by all other forrests or mountaines in the 
Lewes 

There is another place in the Countrey called Duhakabaick 
wherin there is slaine a kynd of fish that hes foure feet like 
a Lizard or Snake. And this fish is litle, thick and broad, 
And colloure of it is red. The length of Lewis is fourtie 
my 11s and in breadth in certaine pairts twentie or fourtie 
mylls and certaine other pairts of the Countrey twall or ten 
mylls This Countrie of Lewis is profitable, commodious and 
fertill of corne, and abundance of all kynd of fishes slaine in 
this Countrie zearlie. The principall Superior and cheiff 
Master or Laird theroff was these M c Leodis whose surnames 
are called the Race and Clan of Toirgill, alledging that they 
came heire first out of Denmark and Germanie, of antiquitie 
and they are verie ancient Inhabitants of that Illand and 
sundrie other pairts and countries in that pairt of Scotland. 
The principall Church in that Countrie is. 

There are sundrie rivers in Lewis, wherein abundance of fish 
are slaine. The name and race of the Superiors of the Harie 
and there kin and friends are called Clantoirmoid that is Clan 
Normond. These Clanns or races descendit of Normond 
M c Leod. 



186 HIGHLANDS GLASRIE KNAPTILL 

915. The Tarbett at the mouth of Loghfyne the North- 

east syde thereoff 

This following is to be written after A^skeednes 
This to be written after Craignes, there being the 
rest of the description of Glasrie and Knaptill 
and Kintyre. 

On the westsyde at Knaptill syde there is ane castle and 
one church called Kilberrie. From the Terbert upon the 
westsyde of Kintyre there is eight mylls and alsmuch on the 
eastsyde pertaining to the Earles of Argyll since the foirfeitting 
of the Lord M c donnald of the Illands, Killmuycoll is upone 
the West, and the castle of Skeipness upon the east that 
makes the march of the Earle of Argyll s pairt of Kintyre from 
the Clandonnalds pairt. And Skeipnes wes wont to be a 
dwelling house of the Lairds of the Illands of ancient This 
pairt betwixt the Terbert and Skeipnes is called Borlume that 
is to say, ane plane land betwixt two countries so the length of 
Kyntire from the Terbert to the Mull is fourtie Mylls and 
certaine pairts some sex, eight or nyne Mylls broad. The 
North part of it is full of high mountains full of hather and 
certane glenns amongst these mountains verie profitable for 
cattle to feed in. 

The Westsyde of Kintyre there is verie pleasant and profit- 
able come lands, Upon the eastsyde of it, there is two Glens 
verie pleasant and profitable called Glenarindill and Glen- 
saidill and there is rivers or waters running throw thir two 
Glenns, and there is abundance of salmond slain in these 
waters. And there is verie pleasant fertill and profitable 
corne lands on everie syde of these glens. And there is 
good woods in them. In Glensaidill there is ane ancient 
Monastrie where there was wont to be ane Abbott and 
UG. Convent of friers, and of St. Bernards Order. It wes founded 
thrie hundred yeares agoe be Donnald M c Rannald Lord of the 
Isles and these Countries, and dedicate to oure B: Ladie so that 
these lands of Said ill are now called Our Ladies lands and the 
Marqueis of Hamiltone is Superior theroff. eight mylls from 
Saidill upon the same syde is the Logh of Kilkerrane, it is two 
mylls long and one myll breadth of salt water. It is ane 
verie sure and saifF harborie for shipps both great and small 



HIGHLANDS KINTYRE 187 

and for all kynd of shippes. Neither wind nor tempest can 
doe them harme be reasone it is compast round about be the 
Maine land on the Westsyd and on the eastsyd at the verie 
mouth of the Logh is a verie high Mountaine called Illand 
dabar which saiffs and gairds the shipps from the wind which 
doth come on the east Upon the southsyde of this Logh. 
There is a Church which is called Kilkearrane and ane ancient 
castle which K. James the fourth- builded. At the end of the 
Logh there is a certaine village and a new Castle which the 
Earle of Argyll builded laitlie and in this Logh there is 
abundance of all sort of fishes and especially of herrings and 
mackrells. Thrie mylls from the head of this Logh there is a 
ffresh water Logh of foure mylls of length, there is abundance 
of salmond slaine in this Logh which is called Loghsainesse, 
LTpon the West syd of this countrie It is verie plaine low and 
pleasant sandie ground nyne mylls from the Logheid marches 
the Maghairmoir and the Logheid. And there is verie 
faire pleasant Cornelands in this glenn. And there is a river 
running throw this glenn, and abundance of salmond slaine in 
it, and on everie syde of it, there is faire corne lands. And 
less then a myll from the Maghairmoir at the seasyde there is 
ane ancient Castle builded upon a rock or craig called Duna- 
wardie. at the foot of the water of Conglen. And eastward 217. 
from Dunawardie two mylls off' the land there is ane litle 
Illand of ane Myll length and half ane myll breadth called 
Awin, which the Romans did call in the tyme of Julius Caesar, 
Porta Eosa Avona. Upon the Landsyde of it, next to 
Cantyre is a verie good harborie. On the east end of it is the 
Sheep Illand where there is verie manie Coneys and arrettis. 
The streame runns so swiftlie that no shipps can remaine near 
it, except they be within the harborie. In this Illand of Awin 
there is ane litle Chappell and at the syde of that Chappell 
there is a litle well or compass of stones foursquare of ten foot 
length and breadth within. And they say that the bones of 
certaine holie men that lived in that Illand is buried within 
that place. It hes bein tryed that neither man nor beast that 
doth goe within that place will live to ane yeares end. There 
is in this Illand ane spring or fresh water well called St. Ninians 
Well and it doth recover severall men and women which doeth 



188 HIGHLANDS KINTYRE ILLA 

drink theroff, to their health againe. Upone the westsyde of 
Dunawardie two mylls from it there is a verie good glen called 
Glenbreagrie, there is fyne fertyll and faire corne lands in this 
glen on everie syde of the river, which runneth through the 
glen, there is abundance of salmond fish slayne in this water. 
And at the foot of this water west from it beginnes the great 
Promontarie or Mountaine at the seasyde called the Mull of 
Kintyre, it is sexteen mylls compast about that neither boatts, 
gallies nor shipps can land except it be litle fishing boates. 
There was abundance of deir in this mountaine of ancient 
tyme but now there is none to be sein nether in this Moun- 
taine nor in the rest of the mountaines and lands of Kintyre 
but foxes and Raes whereoff there is abundance in this countrie 
and from the tope of this Mountaine of Mull one may decerne 
518. the corne lands and houses of Ireland And in Kintyre there 
is ten paorish Churches more then the Monastrie of Saidill. 
Kintyre lyes south and North the southend of it lyes towards 
Ireland, and the Northend toward Argyll, Upone the eastsyde 
of it lyes the Illand of Arrane. And upon the westsyde of it 
lyes Ilia. Twentie foure mylls of sea betwixt Ilia and Kintyre. 
And betwixt Ilia and Kintyre upon the westsyde lyes the 
Hands of Gigha being foure mylls of length and ane myll of 
Breadth. Cara is a litle Illand scarce half a myll in length 
full of Coney es. and a litle Chappell in it belonging to Icolm- 
kill. There is abundance of fisches and selchis about this 
Illand of Gigha and it is verie fertill of barley and the most 
pairt of it all is corneland. there is ane church in it. this 
Illand pertaines to the M c Donalds. Ilia sexteen mylls west 
from Gigha of sea, It is ane Illand lyand south and North 
and upon the North it borders with Jura and Collinsa, upon 
the South with Ireland being thrittie mylls of sea from Ireland. 
This Ilia is twentie foure mylls in length and sexteen mylls 
broad. It is divydit in thrie pairts. The Largki and the hoo 
is one pairt. the midlevard and the Harie is another. And 
the Rhinns of Ilia the thrid pairt. The castle of Dunowaig 
lyes on the eastsyd of that pairt called the Largki. It is ane 
verie strong castle almost in the sea upone ane high rock or 
craig. It hes bein ane ancient fortress but latelie builded with 
castles and tours be James M c Donnald. And there is one 



HIGHLANDS ILLA TEX A 189 

litle hill neare to the castle, which when the race and principall 
name of Clandonnalds of that house wer to decay, there was 
before that tyme wont to be heard in that place the voice of a 
womans lamentatione oftymes both in the Night and Day but 
especiallie in the Night. One myll from Dunowaig layes ane 
litle Illand called Illand Texa, And there is a litle Chappell. ; 
North and Northeast from Dunowaig along the coast the 
space of fyve or sex mylls, there is manie rocks Connals and 
litle Illand s, some of them a quarter and some of them half a 
myll, Such as Illand Bride, Illand Crowie, Illand Charnie, and 
Illand Wicolworie that is the Illand of Maurice, and the 
Illand of Corskeir. Thir Illands are full of wyld fowls, gray 
geese and all kynd of seafowles, where they do lay their Eggs. 
And it is verie fertill of grass in these Illands, where the 
Inhabitants of the Countrie doe put their horses and lean 
catle to feed in wintertyme. And all the coasts about Duno- 
waig there is abundance of salmond thereintill, and all other 
seafishes. This pairt of Ilia called the Largi and the Hoo, 
they are two paorish churches called Kildalton and Kilnathan. 
In the Hoo also there is a great fortress called Dunaynt, and 
with litle or or small expensis it might be maid ane Invincible 
strength. From this Dunaynt to Portman is the length of 
the Illand of Ilia, alongst which it is all hills and Mountaines 
full of reid deire, hares and muirfowls lyand along the eastsyde 
of Ila. Westward from the Mountains declyneing downward 
to the valley ground is the midle pairt of Ila, called the Harie, 
this pairt is mixt with rivers and waters, wherein there is 
great store of salmond fish, also good corne land fyne woods 
and parks and good grass. Betwixt the lower pairt of the 
Hairie and the Rinnis there comes ane arme of the sea from 
the southsyde called Loghnadaill, sex mylls of length and two 
mylls in breadth. It is a fyne harborie for ships, galley es and 
boatts. And it is full of all kynd of fishes and wyld sea 
fowles. Just opposit to Loghnadaill another Logh comes foure 
myls within the Countrie from the Northsyde called Logh- 
cruinord. it ebbs and flowes almost the one half of it. And 
there is great store of salmond in this Logh, betwixt the head 
of the Logh and Loghnadaill there is but one myll of ground or 
land, which almost makes the Rinnis of Ila to be ane Illand. 



190 HIGHLANDS ILLA 

Att the end of this Loghgruineord in the yeare of God 1597, 
the fourteenth of August There was a battell foughten betwixt 
Sir James M c Donald and Sir Laughlan M c lean of Duard, 
wherin Sir Laughlane and thirteenscore of his men were 
killed and Sir James deidlie shot with ane arrow and twentic 
four of his men killed, and thriescoir hurt all with arrowes. 
Sir James being accompanied with two hundred men and Sir 
Laughlane haveing above four hundreth. The Contraversie 
was about the Rhiims of Ila, Sir Laughlane alleadgeing ane 
new lease and right be the Kings Controller the Lord of 
Scone and Sir James alleadging ancient right, title and posses- 
sioune and loath to quarrell with the said Sir Laughlane being 
his Uncle, did offer, before the battle was foughten, to submitt 
both their rights to the King and eight of the Lords of 
Sessioune, which being refused by Sir Laughlane, Sir James 
secondlie offered the sight of their ffriends and Neighboures of 
eight of the principal! men of the Illes. Sir Laughlane re- 
plyed and said that which he hade gotten once right of, he 
would not put it in question. Last of all Sir James offered 
that eight of his friends that were present there and alse 
manie of M c leans should meet betwixt the armies to decerne to 
whome those lands of the Rinnis were most kindlie and to 
decerne presentlie to which both the pairties should be sworne 
be word and writt to byde by their sentence. Which Sir 
Laughlane refuised and said that he should have present 
possessione in the Rhinnies or that his buriall grave should 
be there ere he left the ground, which fell out so as he said, 
for upon the morrow efter, his bodie or Corps were buried 
with eight of his speciall men in the Church of Kilchonan 
21. being the Principall Church of the Rinnesof Ila, It is thought 
that the reasone wherfore Sir Laughland did refuse these 
offers, was that the speciall Tennants of the Rinnes come to 
him to the field and told that Sir James was but ane small 
number of two hundreth men, so that if he wold not be slack 
in his demands they wold yeeld to give him possession of the 
saids lands. There was ane old prophecie that one M c leane 
should be slaine there at the head of Loghgruineord which wes 
never fulfilled till this tyme. 

Concerning this pairt of Ilia which is called the Rhinns is 



HIGHLANDS ILLA JURA 191 

verie fertill of comes and great store and abundance of fish. 
There is thrie Churches in this Rinnes, of which there are two 
paorish Churches, Kilcherran and Kilchonan. There is two 
litle Illands at the southend of the Rinns called Illand Oursa 
and Illand Chaymie, where some Hermitts were accustomed to 
dwell. There is at the Northend of the Rhinnis there is a 
peice of Land of thrie mylls of lenth of plaine sandie ground 
called Ardnewft' There is one litle Illand oft' the poynt of this 
Ardnewff called Illand Neiff betwixt Ardneuft'and Kilchoman. 
There is one fresh water Logh called Loghgorme, wherin 
ther was ane ancient castle builded by M c lean of Ardnamur- 
(juhan and casten doune be Angus M c Donald Lord of Kintyre. 
And the cause theroff was that the upholding of it was charge- 
able to the tenants of the Countrie. There is other manic 
fresh water Loghes in Ila full of great and bigg trowts and 
fresh water eels. There is one Logh in a mountaine in a 
Countrie called Beanlargi which is called Loghnabreak which 
is by interpretatione the trowt Logh. There is verie manie 
trouts in that Logh and neither spring water running nor sein 
goeing into that Logh, nor comeing out of it. Upon the 
Northeast of Ila, there is another Illand twentie foure myles in 
lenth and sex mylls of breadth. The half of it sometime 
pertaining to the Clandonnalds as Ila, the other half of it per- 
taining to the Clanlein. There is a Logh which divyds the 
Clandonalds pairt of this Illand of Jura from the Clanleins 
parte theroff called Loghterbert it is ane arme of the sea that 82- 
comes from the West being full of salmond fish, Oysters 
Cockles mussells. And all the corne lands of Jura lyes on the 
east syde except a pairt of the south of it which pertained to 
the Clandonald wherin there is verie good cornelands and all 
the Mountaines and woods and verie manie deir and wyld 
foull. There will be monstrous bigg adders or serpents sein in 
this Countrey or Illand of Jura, Betwixt Ilia and Jura there 
are two Illands which are called Freigh Illand and Illand 
Cravie. There is the ground of ane old castle in that Island 
Freigh. There is another Illand upon the eastsyde of Jura 
which is called Illandnagowre which is by interpretation the 
goatt Illand. Betwixt it and the land there is a good harbourie 
both for bigg shipps and small. Upone the westsyde above 



192 HIGHLANDS JURA DUNBARTON 

the sea there is a number of great Coves that is within the 
same alse whyte as if they wer fylled and laid with Lyme, and 
are lyk vaults of Stone and lyme. And the King and all his 
howshold wold come therintill, they wold gett lodgeing and 
chambers therin. And in tyme of stormie weather and in 
tyme of great tempest of snow the deir doth lodge in these 
Coves. The M c Donalds and the M c leans in ancient tyme, 
when they wer wont to come to Jura to hunt, they did lodge 
in these Coves with their companies. 

Betwixt Ilia and Jura runns that most dangerous channell 
called the Sound of Ila, It is neare ten mylls of length and 
two mylls of breadth. Upon the Northend of Jura is the 
Illand of Scorba and it is all one high Mountains. There is 
but two tounes of corne land in it. Betwixt it and Jura runns 
the most dangerous gulff called Coirrabreaggan. there can 
neither shipps gallies nor boatts goe nor sail! between these 
two Hands except it be in ane quarter of ane hour in respect 
of the strong streame of this gulff, Nor goe throw the samen 
unless it be ebbing or full sea. Direct Lyand North from Ilia 
eight mylles of sea Lyes the Illands of Orinsa and Collinsa In 
Orinsa there is a verie fyne Monastrie which was builded by 
Saint Columb. wherin there was Prioris and Schenons. It is a 
plaine Illand of Corneland The sea ebbs and Howes betwixt 
Olinsa and Corinsa. Corinsa is sex mylls in length and thrie 
mylls in breadth. 



223. A SHORT DESCRIPTION of DUNBARTON from 
loose sheets unbound, dated of Lochlow- 
mond. 

This Countrey is bounded on the East with Clydsdaill and 
Stirlingshyr to the south with the river of Clyde all along the 
firth, to the Western with the Shy re of Argyle and to the 
north with Pearth and pairts of Stirling. The Baronies of 
Lenzie are alsoe reconed in the Shyr of Dunbartoun, tho 
Stirling interveens some myles, is the propertie of the Earls of 
Vigtoun most pairt, and make up two paroches vidz. the 
Easter and Wester Lenzies alias the paroches of Kirkintilloch 



DUNBARTON 193 

and Cumbernald which runs to the bridge of Bony, where it 
borders upon West Lothian to the East Clydsdaill to the 
South Stirling upon the West and North. This part of the 
Country of Uunbartoun lying near to Lanrick shyre and West 
Lothian, partakes somewhat both of the fertility and pleasure 
of these Countrys. It belonged antiently to the Cumings and 
upon their forfaulture, was given to the Fleemings. Sir Mal- 
colme Fleeming was a constant companion with the renouned 
King Robert Bruce and from that King obtained the baronie 
of Leinzie. Sir Malcolme Fleming was created Earle of Wig- 
toun by King David Bruce in anno 1354, as a very honourable 
patent yet extant testifies. This family failed in the person 
of Tho. Fleming Earle of Vigtoun grandchild of Malcolme 
formerly mentioned, whose Estate came to the Douglasses and 
he disponed to Sir Malcolme Fleming of Biggar his Cousin the 
lands and Barrony of Leinzie in anno . Sir Malcolme 

Fleming was killed in Edr Castle with the Earle Douglass 
1440. Sir Robert Fleming of Biggar was created Lord Flem- 
ing by K. Ja: the d about 1445. and his successour John Lord 
Fleming 1606 Earle of Wigtoun. 

In Lenzie is alsoe Gartshore an antient family Chief of that 
surname, whose posterity enjoy the same. Alex r Gartshore is 
now of that Ilk 

In Lenzie is also the Barony of Bonheath with the tour and 
castle, which of a long time hath been possessed by the family 
of Boyd and in K: Ja: the 5 th9 time, given a younger son of 
the family butt returning again was lately sold by William 
Earle of Kilmarnock to Sir Ar d Hamilton of Roshall. 

This Country is all in the Diocese of Glasgow and makes up 884. 
one Presbetry consisting of Kirks vidz. Kilpatrick 

Easter and Wester, Dunbartoun, Bonill, Buchanan, Luss, 
Arochar, (lately dissolved from Luss) Cardross, Row, Rosneath. 
Kilmarenock. 

The principall rivers are Earn, Kelving which heath its rise 
about Kilsyth and dividing Dunbartonshyre from Stirling 
and Lanrick to the east, empties itself into Clyde att Partick. 

Liven river heath its rise from Lochlomond and heath its 
course throw the Country for 5 myles till it emptie itself into 
Clyde at the rock and castle of Dunbartoun. In Liven is 

VOL. n. N 



194 DUNBARTON 

plenty of excellent salmond and other fishes common in such 
rivers. 

In this Country is the Gairloch about a mile broad, and 
runs up the Country some 5 myles and is an arme of the sea 
and divides the Country of Leven (commonly the Isle above 
Leven,) from Rosneth, which makes it very near an Isle by 
Lochloumond to the North Leven to the East. Clyde to the 
South and this to the West, and Rosneth is made also an 
Island by the Gairloch to the East, Clyde to the South and 
the Helly Loch to the West, and Lochlomond to the North. 

There is no toun of any consideration save the royall 
burough of Dunbartoun. 

A description of the severall paroches in their order 
beginning at the east end of this shyre, The first we notice 
is Kilpatrick which was antiently all in one paroch but 
divided into two distinguished by the caster and wester Kil- 
patrick's. The whole was antiently a pairt of the Abbacie of 
Paslay mortiefied by the Earles of Lennox and erected in a 
regality, was sold by the Earle of Abercorne to Sir John 
Hamiltoun of Orbestoun and lately to the Lord Blantyre. 

In Kilpatrick are the seatts of severall Antient families as 
the Logans of Balvie a son of the antient Logans of Restalrig. 
The heretable bailiary of the regality of Dunbartoun be- 
longed to this family and upon their failing came to the 
family of Ardincaple : came afterward to the Colquhouns from 
them to one Sanderson Castle Sanderson in Ireland who heath 
lately sold Balvie to Robert Campbell Writer in Edr. below 
Balvie is Mains an antient possession of the Douglasses 
discended of Nicoll Duglass a younger brother of the family 
of Dalkeith in K. Robert the 3 ds time, and produced sevrall 
brave gentlmen younger sons of the family of Sir Robert 
Douglass of Spott M r of horses to Prince Henry and created 
Viscount Belhaven. died without succession, leaving his Estate 
to Sir Archbald Douglass of Spott and Sir Robert Douglass 
of Bleckerstoun his nephews by Sir Alexr Douglass of Mains. 
The lands of Mains were sold by these Douglasses to the 
Douglasses of Keystoun whose successour and representative 
is James Douglass now of Mains. 

Hard by Mains is Kilmardiny, which belonged to the 



DUNBARTON 195 

Colquhoims a branch of the antient family of Luss but are 
now decayed and belongs to Walter Graham who is now of 
Kilmardiny. Below Mains is Garscubo antiently a pairt of 
the Lardship of Luss sold by Sir John Colquhoun late of 
Luss to John Campbell of Succoth, of the house of Arkin- 
glass, whose son and heir is William Campbell, now of 
Succoth deputy Governour of Dunbartoun. Upon the same 
river of Kelvine is pleasantly situate Killermont, belonged to 
the Starks of the house of Achinwooll, came afterward to 
James Hunter late of Murrays, the same way lately to John 
Forbess of Knapernie brother of Sir Samuell Forbess of 
Foverane in Aberdeenshire Baronett 

In Easter Kilpatrick is also Dugalstoun the possessioun of 
John Graham, to whom it gives designation, below Dugal- 
stoun is Cloberhill a pairt of the Lop of Drumray, which 
barony of Drumray belonged to the Livestouns and by 
marriage came to Ja : Hamiltoun of Finnart with Margaret 
Livestoun, heiress of Easter Weems and Drumray which last 
he exchanged with Laurence Craufurd of Kilbirny for the 
barrony of Crawfurd John in Clydsdaill in the year 1528. 
and to this day continues in the possession of the family of 
Kilbirny and gives title of Lord to the right honourable . 
Patrick Viscount of Garnock.* The barony of Drumray 
comprehends the lands of Drumray, Cloberhill, Hutchieston 
Law, Drumchappell and Knightswood. The Viscount of sue. 
Garnock hath the propertie of most, and superiority of the 
whole. The lands of Cloberhill were feued by Hew Craufurd 
of Kilbirny, to Hew Crauford of Knightswood of the house 
of Spangoe, whose posterity yett Injoy the same. 

Huchieston was acquerd by the Logans of Balvie and from 
them to the Hamiltouns of Barns. James Hamiltoun is now 
of Hutchieston a brother of Barns. Law alsoe a pairt of Lp 
of Drumray was aquir'd from Hugh Craufurd of Kilbirny. by 
W m Stirling of Gloratt and given in patrimony to Andrew 
Stirling of Portnallan also in this shyre. whose lineall succes- 
sour is John Stirling of Law. This pairt of the shyre of 
Lennox is bordered with Renfrew about two myles. which is. 



* 1708 to 1735. [Marginal note in MS. ED.] 



196 DUNBARTON 

only that part of Renfrew upon the northsyde of Clyde. In 
Kilpatrick alsoe is Cochnay which was a pairt of the Lop. of 
Paslay and given to a younger son of the house of Abercorne 
from whom that with the lands of Barns came by acquisition 
to Claud Hamiltoun a son of the house of Raploch. whose 
successour is Claud Hamiltoun of Barns. 

Below the Barns the Country of Lennox or shyre of Dun- 
barton lyeth along the bank of Clyde, upon which is pleasantly 
situate. Buquhanran a pleasant dwelling of the barrens of 
Duntreath. below which is the Clachan of Kilpatrick, where 
is a paroch church, below Kilpatrick upon the very shore is 
the castle of Dunglass, the Chief Messuage of the barony of 
Colquhon, which hath been of long time possessed by the 
family of Luss, who I find from many authenick documents, 
were promiscously designed Colquhoun of that ilk or of Luss. 
This is one of the antientest families in Scotland and had 
ample possessions in this country and a considerable Jurisdic- 
tion. This family were first baronet in the person of Sir 
Alexander Colquhoun of Luss in 1625, whose great grand- 
child is Sir Humphray Colquhoun of Luss. This Barrony 
belongs in property to Luss. Above Dunglass is a convenient 
227. litle new house lately built by John Colquhoun of Achintorly 
whose daughter and sole heiress is married to Captain James 
Colloquhoun of the family of Luss. hard by Achintorly is 
the hill of Dunbuck which ends a vast ridge of mountains 
running a great way throw this Country to the eastward, 
about this end the wall built by the Romans extending from 
Abercorne to the Firth of Clyde, the tract wherof in this shyre 
in caster Kilpatrick is observable some myles together. There 
are severall stones digged up by the country people with 
Inscription which by the Heritours of the ground were given 
in present to the Colledge of Glasgow. A myle below Dun- 
buck we have the castle and fort of Dunbartoun situate upon 
Clyde at the Influx of Leven into that river and is fortified 
admirably weel by nature and by art tolerably, its situate 
upon a plain ground a myle every way from any hills, it's 
commanded by a Captain or Governour a Lieutenant and 
Deputy Governour and an Ensign. It was surprized by 
Captain Thomas Crawfurd of Jordanhill when held out by 



DUNBARTON 197 

John Lord Fleming for the Interest of Queen Mary in 1571. 
About half a myle from the Castle is the toun of Dunbarton 
most pleasantly situate upon the banks of Leven. a burgh 
royal), and once a place of considerable trade but of late is 
much in decay. The run of Leven tide flows up Leven above 
the toune of Dunbartoun and can carrie up ships to the 
harbour of some burden. There was also a Collegiate 
Church founded by the Countess of Lennox, is now entirely 
demolished, nothing remaining of the fabrick save one of the 
gates which is very large and vaulted above Dunbartoun, to 
the north pleasantly situate, upon the eastsyde of Leven is the 
house of Kirkmichall which was an old possession of the 
Semples of Fulwood a family of good account in this shyre 
and possessed of a plentiful! fortune. John Semple late of 
Fulwood sold the lands of Kirkmichell to W m Earle of Dun- 
donald and is now the propertie of M r W m Cochran of 
Kilmaranock, which barrony of Kilmarenock was antiently 
one of the duelling places of the family of Dennestoun, 
which by Janet one of the daughters and Coheiresses of Sir 
Robert Denniestoun of that Ilk, came to Sir William Cunning- 
hame of Kilmares ancestour of the family of Glencairn, which 
came afterward to the Dukes of Lennox and acquired lately 
by W m Earle of Dundonald and given in patrimony to M r W m 
Cochran his grandchild, to whom it gives designation and to 
whom much of the paroch of Kilmaronock belongs in 
property. 

Above the barrony of Kirkmichell upon Leven is situate 
the house and paroch church of Bonnill, which belongs and 
gives designation to Sir James Smollett of Bonnill. Above 
the paroch of Bonnill upon the south and Eastsyde of Loch- 
lomond is most pleasantly situate the paroch of Buchanan 
which antiently gave designation to an antient family of the 
same name, who are considerable in the reign of King Robert 
Bruce, but lately failed in the person of Sir John Buchanan 
of that Ilk from whom that Estate came to James late 
Marquess of Mont rose 

Having gone throw slightly the shire of Dunbarton upon 
the Eastsyde of this Countrey to the east of the river Leven. 
I now come to that Countrey above Levein commonly called 



198 DUNBARTON 

the Isle above Levein, which is upon the shore a most pleasant 
and fertill country, to the north of this Country its very 
mountainous, toward Glenfroon and Rosdoe and the Countrey 
of Arrochar, which is excessively mountaneous. Upon the 
firth of Clyde below Dunbartoun is the tour of Airdoch 
the antient dwelling place and designation of the Bunteins 
Chieff of that name, Weel planted above Airdoch is Kiper- 
minehoch the possession of Humphray Noble descended of the 
Nobles of Ardardan. two myles to the Westert lyes the 
barony of Kilmahew, which hath been for many ages possessd 
by a respectfull family of the Napiers whose representative is 
George Napier now of Kilmahew son and heir of Margaret 
Napier daughter and heiress of John Napier of Kilmahcu 
married Patrick Maxwell of Newark by whom he had George 
Napier, formerly mentioned now of Kilmahew. Hard by Kil- 
mahew is Mildevein the possession of the Bunteins a branch 
of the house of Airdoch. Robert Buntein is now of Mil- 
devin. below Kilmaheu upon the shore is situate Jeilstoun 
which also belonges to John Buntein descended of Ardoch. 
hard by Jeilstoun is Drumhead and belongs to Andrew 
Buchanan a Cadett of Drumiekill. below this upon the 
shore is most pleasantly the hill of Ardmore upon a rising- 
ground weel planted and hes a most agreable prospect many 
myles of the river of Clyde, hes belonged of a long time to 
an antient family of the Nobles Chieff' of that name, who ar 
also proprietours of Ardardan. hard by William Noble is now 
of ferme. Above Ardardan is Keppoch weel planted, the seatt 
of Thomas The propriatour from which he takes 

designation. To the northert of Keppoch is the tour of Dar- 
lieth which belonged antiently to propriatours of the same 
surname but about 1670 acquired by John Zuill. whose grand- 
child is Thomas Zuill of Darlieth Chief of that name, above 
Darlieth is the tour of Banochran, antiently belonged to the 
family of Luss and from the Colquhouns acquird by M r James 
Donaldson minister att Dunbartoun. Upon the shore is 
pleasantly situate the dwelling and designation 

of a branch of the family of the Denniestouns of that ilk, 
and is now the representative of that family, have been 
possessed of the lands of Campsasken with these of Congrain 



DUNBARTON 199 

from whence they have taken designation John Denestoun 
younger of Congrain is the lineall heir of that family. 

Lower upon the firth of Clyde is Ardincaple antiently 
possessed by a family of the same surname, but about the 
reign of King James the 3 d from Aulay Ardincaple of that 
Ilk. the name of M c Aulay came to be the surname of this 
antient family whose successour is Archbald M c Aulay of 
Ardincaple. Upon the northsyde of the Gairloch above 
Ardincaple is the mines of the old Castle of Faslain the 
antient dwelling place of the old Earles of Lennox as the 
tradition of that countrey bears, hard by is Glenfroon famous 
for the scirmish betwixt the M c Gregors who ravadged this 
Countrey in 1603. where the Colquhouns and their friends were 
defeat and many of the Gentry in this nighbourhead killed. 

Above this is the high Country of the Arrochar which is 230. 
the outmost Confynes of this Country and bordering upon 
Couall. It belongs to the Laird of M c Farlane of Arochar alias 
of that Ilk, who claim the honour to be descended of Parlane 
a younger son of the antient Earles of Lennox, whose armes 
this family carried without any distinction, and say that their 
sirname is from their predecesours name Parlane and so 
M c Farlane. 

Below Arochar upon the northsyde of the Isle above Leven is 
most pleasantly situate Rossdoe the habitation of Barrons of 
Luss, who I find, have promiscously designed themselfis of that 
Ilk or of Luss and said by some to be descended of a son of 
the antient family of Lennox but they refuse this Origin of 
late, they are and have bein in all tymes a family of good 
account and ever loyally disposed to their soverain and his 
intrest. Sir Humphray Colquhoun of Luss Baronet the heir 
and representative of this antient family 

Rosneth which is the furthest Westpart of this Shyre and 
is almost Inclosed by water upon all corners save a litle at the 
Gairlochhead. Its antient proprietour ar the Campbells much 
of it belonged once to Arkinglass but was acquered by Arch- 
bald Earle of Argyle from Sir John Campbell of Arkinglass in 
King James the 6 ths time. The family of Argyle have heir a 
good house most pleasantly situate upon a poynt called the 
Ross, where they have good planting and abundance of con- 



200 DUNBARTON 

veniency for good gardens and orchards. Below Rosneth house 
is the paroch church of Rosneth, which antiently belonged to 
the Abbacy of Paslay, hard by the Church is the house of 
Camsaill the dwelling place of the Campbells of Carrick a 
branch of the Campbells of Arkinglass. there is in Rosneth 
severall other smaller heritours of less account. 
Off Lochloumond 



SSL ADDENDA to DUNBARTOUN SHYRE 

Upon the water of Enrick Drummiekill the possession of 
Archbald Buchanan representative of an antient family of the 
Buchanans which produced the Buchanans of Moss of which 
family was M r Geo. Buchanan our historian. 

Balgair which belongs to the Galbraiths, Glens belonged to 
the Colquhouns of the house of Luss. 

bordering on Clydsdaill. 

Gartscubo which belongs to William Campbell of Succoth. 
Boghouse, which belongs to the Viscount of Garnock and is a 
pairt of the Lop of Drumray. 

Dalmure upon Clyde belonged to the Spreuls of Loudoun 
and now to the Earle of Dundonald. Kilbovie a feu of the 
Laird of Bairns and belongs to wealthy feuers. Achintoshau 
situate upon the shore belongs to propriatours of the name of 
Hamiltoun Achinkick a litle country place holding of Barn, 
Duntochir hard by Kilpatrick Cochnae which belonged to the 
Hamiltouns a branch of Abercorn and belonges now to 
Hamiltouns of Barns, hes a good house and weel planted. 
Miltoun of Colquhoun a few of the Laird of Luss. Midleton 
a pairt of the barony of Colquhoon and belonged to one 
Colquhoon. Stonyflat belongs to Sir James Smolat of Bon- 
nill. Chapelton belongs to heretours of the name of Watson 
Corslett belongs to one Williamson, Noblestoun which be- 
longed to the Nobles. Tylleychuin which is upon Leven, and 
belonged to Humfray Colquheon now of Tilyquhyn a brothers 
son of Luss. Dalquhirn which belonged to the Dennestoun.s, 
then to the Elemings and now to Sir James Smollat of Bonill. 



RENFREWSHYRE 201 

A DESCRIPTION of RENFREWSHYRE from 232. 
some loose unbound sheets. 

This Countrey antiently a pairt of the shirefdome of Clyds^- 
daill was the patrimony of the Great Stewarts of Scotland and 
upon the succession of K Robert the 3 d to the Crown Erected 
in a shirefdom in the fourteen year of his reign 1404 in 
favours of James, Prince and Stewart of Scotland his son. The 
family of Semple were hereditary shirefs which they Injoyed 
till Hugh Lord Semple sold the shirefship in 1636. to Bryce 
Semple of Cathcart who afterward sold the same to the Lady 
Ross. 

It is bounded on the East with the shirefdome of Lanrick. 
On the North with the Countrie of Lennox seperate by the 
River Clyde and lyes all upon the South syde of that river 
save the lands of Jordanhill, Scotstoun and Blairthill with 
their pertinents, litie above a mile in Lenth and about a 
mile broad and is a part of the parochin of Renfrew, 
and upon the lower pairt of this Country to the West 
opposite to the shire of Argyle to the West. South all 
bounded by the Bailiary of Cuninghame, Sherifdom of Air. 
The rivers of most note ar White Cart which hath its rise 
above the head of the paroch of Egilsham, upon which 
stands first the castle of Punoon the antient seat of the Mont- 
gomeries. Lower upon the same river stands the castle and 
Barony of Cathcart the Inheritance of antient barons of the 
same surname from whom in 1547 it came to the Semples. 
then we have Pollock and Pollockshaws a Clachan at which 
ther is a bridge of two Arches over the river, the possession of 
a very antient family of the Maxwells descended of Carlawrock 
in the reign of K. Alex r the 3 d and then upon the same river 
we meet with Castle of Cruxtoun, pleasantly situate in a pretty 
rising ground and overlooks most of the Countrey. The seat 
of the Stewarts Lords of Darnly not far descended of Allan 
Stewart of Dregorn son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkle which 
family still florished more and more till at last it produced 
many noble branches, hard by is Cardonald an antient Inheri- 833. 
tance of the branch of the Stewarts of Darnly and Cruxtoun 
and a litle to the southward lyes Raiss the antient possession 



202 RENFREWSHYRE 

of Alex r Stewart a son of Darnly, from whom issued the 
Stewarts of Halrig. Lower upon the same river of Cart plea- 
santly stands Halkhead the possession of the barons Ross of 
Haukhead. derive their descent from Robert Ross of Wark in 
the reign of K W m the Lyon Were barons of great Estate and 
account till Sir John Ross was created Lord by K Ja the 4 th 
1492. Below which, pleasanly situate upom the same Cart 
stands the tour of Whiteford, q ch gives title to an antient 
family of the same surname now decayed To the Northert 
of which Lyes the lands and barony of Ralstoun (a family of 
good note in this Countrey from the reign of K. Alex r the 2 d ) 
with pleasant woods. Near to which upon Cart stands the 
Monastry of Pasley founded by Alex r High Stewart of Scot- 
land 1160 erected in a temporall Lordship in favours of 
James Hamiltoun son of Claud Commendator of Pasly with 
the title of Lord Pasley 1604 Earl Abercorn 1606. A litle to 
the Westward of Pasley lyes Woodsyde a litle pretty house 
pleasantly situate upon a rising ground, hard by is Stainly an 
old Castle belonging to Gentlemen of the name of Maxvell 
and family of Newark but now belongs to W m Lord Ross. 
Near to which is Falbar the Inheritance of an antient family 
of the name of Hall. Instructing their possession from the 
time of David Bruce below which is Eldersly Castle the patri- 
mony and designation of the renouned Champion Sir William 
Wallace, but returnd again to the Wallaces of Cragie and 
Ricartoun and about the end of K. David^s the 2 d reign came 
to a younger son of that family, who have made a good figure 
since, hard by is Cochran tour the old seat of the Cochrans in 
this countrey. Ancestors of the Earls of Dundonald There is 
upon the river Cart at Pasly a very handsome weel built bridge 
of two large Arches Joyning the Smidy hills and the Abbay of 
234. Pasly with the toune Below the bridge of Pasley We have the 
Easter and Wester Walkingshaws, both some tyme the Estate 
of antient Gentlemen of the same name, came to heiresses who 
were married One to a Gentleman of their own name and 
family, obtained therby Wester Walkingshaw the other married 
to Mortoun of Leven, from whose heiress Easter Walkingshaw 
came to the Algoes people of good respect in this country but 
now decayed. Opposite to which upon the same river is Knox 



RENFREWSHYRE 03 

the antient possession of the Knoxes of that Ilk, and memor- 
able for Marjory Bruce wife of Walter Great Stewart of Scot- 
land, by a fall from her horse at hunting, broke her neck at 
which place there is a large stone erected with stairs round it 
in the common moor of Renfrew; the ordinary place of Rande- 
vouse of the Militia of that County. Within a mile is the 
Brugh of Renfrew, the only royall burough in this County, 
where the Stewarts of Scotland had a Castle and palace, the 
place where its said to have bein retains the name of Castlehill. 
and below the Kings meadows about a mile below Renfrew 
Cart empties itself into Clyde. Upon a poynt betwixt the 
rivers of Clyde and Cart stands pleasantly situate Ranfield in 
a pleasant plain, weel planted, is the possession of Colin Camp- 
bell of Blythswood acquered from the Hays who obtained these 
lands at the reformation and he and his successors were for 
4 generations Parsons of Renfrew. A litle above Ranfeild 
stands the Kirk of Inchenan antiently belonging to the Knights 
Templars Upon the bank of Clyde after Cart heath Emptied 
itself into it, the first place we meet with of note is the palace 
of Inchenan one of the antientest possessions of the family of 
Lennox It is pleasantly situate in an open plain feild and 
the place that is now ruinous, was built by Mathew first Earle 
of Lennox and Helen Hamiltoun his spouse. The principall 
Entry bears that Inscription. 

Below Inchenan is the old tour of the Bar the dwelling 235. 
place of the Stewarts of Barscube, a branch of Lennox a family 
of good account now decayed and acquired by Donald M c Gil- 
christ of Northbar 1671, from Tho. Stewart of Barscube last 
of that race, who being a merchant of considerable business 
founded a harbour upon Clyde and built a very pretty house 
hard by with pleasant gardens which he called Northbar, 
which is now the Designation of James M c Gilchrist his son 
and heir. A litle below this upon the very brink of the 
river of Clyde stands the sweetly situate house of Erskin 
the possession of the Antient Barons of Erskin, when they 
took surname and designation of Barons and Lords, now 
sold in the reign of King Charles the first by John Earl of 
Mar to Sir John Hamilton of Orbestoun and by his Grand- 
child William lately to Walter Lord Blantyre. it is nobly 



204 RENFREWSHYRE 

adorn'd with fine gardens and abundance of excellent stately 
barren planting with pleasant woods, hard by opposite to 
Erskin upon the Lennox side is the Regality of Kilpatrick, 
which belonged antiently to the Abbacy of Pasly, but after 
the erection in favours of James Earle of Abercorne, it gave 
the title of Lord to that family and was from them acquir'd 
by Orbestoun and so came to Blantyre lately. 

Below Erskin standeth Bishoptoun the Inheritance of a 
very antient race of Gentilmen of the surname of Brisbane 
nigh to which is Bargaran the seat of ane old litle family of 
the Shaus which hath been possessd by them for severall 
hundreds of years, three miles below upon the river Clyde 
upon a stately rising ground hard by the river is Finlastoun 
the antient dwelling place and Inheritance of the Deniestouns 
of that Ilk who ar making a Considerable figure in the reign 
of Da: Bruce 1360. which failed in K. James the first's time. 
Sir Robert leaving two daughters his heires Margaret maried 
Sir William Cunningham e of Kilmaurs with whom he had 
Finlastoun Castle & c and Sir John Maxwell of 

Calderwood hath with ther Fynlastoim afterward called the 
barony of Newark which from the year 1477 was possessed by 
George Maxwell son and heir of Sir John Maxwell of Cader- 
wood. was first of the Maxwells of Newark, and is lately sold 
by them, they were a race of brave Gentlemen and in reputa- 
tion inferior to none in this country. Hard by is port 
Glasgow a feu of the City of Glasgow from the Lairds of 
Newark where they have built many statly houses and harber 
for ships, this lenth the river of Clyde is navigable and there 
is the Custome Office and Port-Glasgow is dissolved lately from 
Kilmalcolm and erected in a paroch. A mile below Port- 
Glasgow is Inch Gren an litle Hand belonging antiently to the 
Crawfurds of Kilbirny Opposite to which upon the Continent 
they had a good Estate and an antient possession of ther 
family weel known by the name of Easter Kilbirny alias 
Kibery-Grenock sold 1667 by Dame Marg* Craufurd to Sir 
John Shaw of Greenock. Below this is Craufurdsdyk a part 
of the Estate of the Craufurds of Cartsburn hard by erected 
in a burgh and barony wher ther is a good harbour for ships 
and a very pretty litle toun most built by Tho. Craufurd of 



RENFREWSHYRE 205 

Cartsburn Merchant in Glasgow a son of Jordanhill. who was 
a son of Kilbirny and fewed to his servants. A very litle 
lower is Greenock a weel built toun and a brave large harbour- 
building by Sir John Shaw of Grenock and a fine com- 
modious new Church built by Grenock and Cartsburn and 
their vassals Upon a rising ground stands the house of 
Grenock the old dwelling of the Shaws of that race since the 
days of James the 3 d and ar now Barons of an opulent fortune. 
Two myles lower on the firth lyes Garioch toun and castle with 
a harbour for ships. The possession of Sir William Stewart 
of Castlemilk. but then the shore wynding southward, we 
meet with Leaven the antient Inheritance of the Mortons sold 
by Adam Morton of Leven in 1547 to William Lord Semple, 
from whom it was sold to the Stewarts of Ardgowan. Then 
below Leven we have Ardgouan a plesant seat of the Stewart 
of Blackball, situate upon a point rising high, weel planted 
with goodly orchards and a most stately magnificent house. 
Near this a litle rivulet Kip emties itself into the sea and 
gives denomination to that paroch it waters for some miles 
called Innerkip upon which hard by Ardgouan there is a 
bridge over it. ther shews itself Dunrod the antient dwelling 
and Designation of the Lindsays of that race, two myles <?,?7. 
lower we have Kels the Estate of Archbald Banatyne, near 
to which is Skelmorly water that separates Renfrew and 
divides it from Cuninghame to the West, above Cochran* 
tour. We have nixt the old castle and tour of Eliestoun the 
antient designation of the Barons Semple in this Countrey, 
near to which is a bridge over black Cart at the Mouth of 
the Loch of Semple, above which lyes Beltrees antiently 
belonging to the Stewarts but now a possession of the Semples 
here is Semple Loch above a mile in lenth and about a half in 
breadth hes communication with the loch of Kilbirny by a 
litle Rivulet. On the East side of Semple loch lyes the tour 
of the Barr which belonged to a race of respectfull Gentlemen 
of the name of Glen now decayed, plesantly situate upon a 
high ground above the loch and below good medows Litle 
lower upon the same loch is the Clachan of Lochunnoch be- 
longing antiently with a good pairt of that parock to the 
Abbacy of Paslay but consists now of a great many wealthy 



206 RENFREWSHYRE 

feuers vassals to the Earle of Dundonald. A litle below is 
the Castle and Barony of Semple the Inheritance of the Lord 
Semple Baron of Eliestoun to whom the Jurisdiction of this 
Country belonged as hereditary high Sheriff till Hew Lord 
Semple was oblidged to pairt with it in King Charls the first 
time, there is a Collegiat Church here consisting of three 
Prebends founded by John first Lord Semple anno 1506, is the 
burieing place of that noble family with some of the gentry in 
the nighbourhead their relations, where they have a vault 
below ground some of the family are wrapt in lead. Out 
of this loch comes black Cart river which empties and con- 
joins itself in White Cart above Inchenan at the head of 
which is pleasantly situate Thridpart the dwelling of the 
Semples of Beltrees beautified with most pleasant meadows 
below. A litle from the river upon a high rising country is 
Achinames the seat of the Craufords of Corsby, and Achnames 
is a very high tour 6 or 7 stories high, below which is Johns- 
toun an old possession of the Nisbets, came from them to the 
Wallaces, continued six generations a house of good account, 
now decayed. Near to Johnstoun is the Clachan of Kil- 
barchan with a paroch Church, the toun belongs to Craigends 
and Achinames. Upon black Cart below Johnstoun two myles 
is Blackstoun the summer duelling of the Abbots of Paslay 
built by George Shaw Abbot of Paslay, where his armes are to 
i be seen, but upon the reformation the house was improven and 
much beautified by James Earl of Abercorn and Dame Marion 
Boyd his Lady, from Abercorn Blackstain was transfer'd to 
Sir Patrick Maxwell of Newark and given to John Maxvell his 
2 d son his patrimony from whose heiress Kattrin it came by 
marriage to Alex* Naper now of Blackstoun. A litle below 
where black Cart falleth into Grieff and conjoins upon a 
pleasant point betwixt the meeting of the two rivers is 
Walkingshaw house the possession of the family of the same 
name, mightily pleasant fyne orchards and gardens and excel- 
lent regular avenues of barren timmer, and is certainly one of 
the pleasantest seatts in this Countrey. a very handsome house 
and weel adorned, was burnt lately but is now a rebuilding, 
here as I said, black Cart and Grief Joyn. Grief hath its rise 
in the moor and parish of Kilmalcom, at the head of which 



RENFREWSHYRE 207 

stand the old Castle and fort of Duchall the antient Inheri- 
tance of the Barons Lyll of Duchall, made Lords of Parlia- 
ment by K. James the 3 d failed in the reign of Q Mary in the 
person of James Last Lord Lyll dead about 1550. The lands 
of Duchai came to M r John Portarfeild of that ilk, alsoe an 
antient family in this Country from the time of Alex r the 2 d 
This river gives denomination to the whole County of Renfrew 
by the Barony of StrathGrieff, but after the erection unto a 
sherifdom, it gives only name to that Country it waters for 
some myles. Upon which is situat the stately high tour and 
castle of Houstoun the barrony and designation of a very 
antient and powerfull family in this tract who have been seated 
here since the tymes of K. Malcolm the 3 d . Houstoun is 
situate upon a rising high ground overlooks a good pairt of 
the countrey, most excellently adorn'd with fyne orchards and 
gardens with woode hard by and vast number of barren 
timber, with which this country abounds Below Houstoun 
upon Grieff stands Craigends the possession of a very worthy 
and respectfull family of the Cuninghams, a branch of the 
noble family of Glencairn descended of a younger son of the 
first Earls, admirably weel planted both by airt and nature, 
not far from Craigends. Up toward the rising Countrey the 
house of Barochan an antient family of the Flemings from the 
time of K. Robert Bruce and hes ever since been a family of 289. 
good note. Upon the high Country above Grieff stands Ran- 
furly the antient dwelling place of the family of the Knoxes of 
that Ilk above 400 years standing, and was Original of the 
worthy and renouned M r John Knox the great Instrument of 
our blessed Reformation. The last of this race Ochta Knox of 
Ranfurly died in K. Charls the 2 ds time, leaving a daughter his 
sole heiress, married John Cuningham of Caddell, and belongs 
now to the Earle of Dundonald. Below this is Waterstoun 
an antient possession of the Cuninghams, a Caddet of Glen- 
cairn but ar now decayed in this countrey. Lower upon the 
bank of Grieff, pleasantly situat in a plain Country is Fulwood 
the possession of an antient and honourable race of the 
Semples a branch of the noble family of Semple before the 
reign of K. James the l rst . were gentlemen of a plentifull 
fortune was sold lately by John Semple of Fulwood to John 



208 RENFREWSHYRE 

Portarfield of that Ilk and is now the patrimony of Alex r 
Portarfield his second son. now of Fulwood. Not far from 
Fulwood to the north is the house of Boghall the old Estate 
of the Flemings descended of Wigtoun, but returning to the 
house of Fleming in the Minority of K. Ja 6. John Lord 
Fleming give Boghall in patrimony to James Fleming his & 
son, from whose posterity it was acquird by the Earl of Dun- 
donald. Near where Grieff runs into black Cart is Selviland 
antiently belonging to the Knoxes a branch of Ranfurly but 
acquired from them by the Brisbans of Barnhill. After Grieff 
and black Cart ar conjoined, it hath its course for near two 
myles untill it meet with White Cart at the Kirk of Inchenan 
an half a mile below which it empties itself into Clyde at the 
lower end wherof upon the river Clyde is situate Inchenan and 
so downward upon the coast till I come to Kelly bridge. 

The Country of Renfrew to the southert is both moun- 
tainous and moorish and is in resemblance like a hedge which 
makes the lower country all like an Inclosure and is remote 
from any river, there being in the paroches of Mearnes and 
. Neilstoun nothing memorable. In the Mearns is an old tour 
belonging antiently, to the Lord Maxwell but is now belonging 
to the Stewarts of Blackball, is pretty pleasant, overlooking 
the countrey of Renfrew, a good way, and some pairts of 
Lanrick with the view of the City of Glasgow. To the west 
of Mearns lyeth Pollock the antient patrimony and Inherit- 
ance of a race of Gentlemen of the same surname who were 
considerable here since the days of Alex r the first, whose 
lineall successour is Sir Robert Pollock of that Ilk but who 
hath mightily Improven his house by stately new building and 
fyne gardens and stately dykes and sommerhouses and 
Pidgeonhouses for magnificence inferiour to few in this 
Countrey. to the West of Pollock is Balgray the possession 
of Tho. Pollock of the family of Pollock weel planted. A 
litle above Balgray to the south is Fingletoun the first 
possession of the Hamiltouns of Prestoun, but now belongs to 
on Oswald. Near Fingiltoun in the parish of Neilstoun is 
Glanderstoun which is the Inheritance of William Muir the 
6 th in descent from William his predecessor a younger son of 
the antient family of Caldwell of Glanderstoun. many respect- 



RENFREWSHYRE 209 

full people ar descended. to the West of Glanderstoun 
lyeth the barony of Syde the old possession of the Mont- 
gomeries of Skelmorly. Sir Robert is now of Skelmorly. but 
the barony of Syde is the extremes t south pairt of Renfrew 
bordering with the paroch of Dunlop. to the North of Syde 
is the Castle of Caldwell antiently belonged to barons of the 
same surname but went most pairt with an heires in the reign 
of maried with a brother of the Muirs of Abercorn. 

The Muirs of Caldwell have been always a family of great 
consideration and gentlemen of great bravery and possessed of 
a very competent Estate here and elswhere. William Muir 
late of Caldwell being forfaulted 1668 the gift of Caldwells 
Estate was given to Gen. Dalziell who ruffled the house and 
now stands ruinous but his heirs. were restored at the Revolu- 
tion, hard by to the westert is litle Caldwall the only remain- 
ing Gentlemans family of that name in this Country and say 
they ar a son of the old Caldwalls of that Ilk. the lands of 
litle Caldwall are lately acquird by the Earle of Dundonald. 
The litle Caldwall is borderd with Dunlop to the south and 
Beeth paroch to the west and Lochunnoch to the South. 

Mistilaw is upon the confynes of Renfrew and heirto ther is 
the Queens Loch out of which issues Care [sic] that separates 
Kilbrny and Lochunnoch. the first thing we have is Milbank 
which antiently belonged to the Semples and were the patri- 
mony of James Semple of Milbank. Airthurly, Nilstansyde, 
Houshill belonged to Minto, now to Dunlop, Dargevill. 
Roslin, Freeland. Flatertoun. Southhook, Quarlton, Privick, 
Brunchels, Achinbetly Wadellaw Achinbot Blair Achingoun 
Logans. Raiss Stainly Fulbar Newton, Fergusly Eldersly, 
and latly failed heir is also Brunchels once belonging to the 
Semples now to Dundonald above Kilbarchan is Lochunoch 
to the Westert and to the northert Kilelan antiently a depend- 
ing on the Monastry of Paslay in this paroch there are several! 
seatts as the Fulwood and Boghall. 

The paroches and patrons 

Egilsham of which the Earle of Eglinton is patron. 
Eastwood the Earle of Dundonald patron 

Cathcart the Earle of Dundonald patron 

VOL. II. O 



210 LEWIS 

Mearns Laird of Blackball patron 

Renfrew a burgh royall. 

Paslay the Earle of Dundonald patron 

Kilbarchan 

Inchenan Duke of Montrose patron 

Erskin Lord Blantyre patron 

Kilmalcolm Earle of Glencairn patron. 

Port Glasgow 

Greenock Laird of Greenock patron 

Innerkip Laird of Blackball patron 

Lochunnoch Earle of Dundonald patron 

Kilelan Laird of Barochan patron. 

Houstoun Laird of Houstoun patron. 



DESCRIPTION of the LEWIS by JOHN 
MORISONE Indweller there 

The remotest of all the Western Islands of Scotland is 
commonlie called the Lews, by strangers the Nito; Yet it is 
divyded and cutt be severall sounds and rivers of the sea into 
five severall countries, belonging to live severall heritors as 
Barray to the Laird of Barray, Suth Uist to the Captaine of 
Clanrale and North Uist to Sir Donald, the Herrish to the 
Macleod of Dunveggane. and that which is properlie called 
the Lews to the Earle of Seaforth: Of which we are now to 
speak e 

This cuntrie of the Lews by the situation lyeth longwayes 
from Northeast to southwest sixtie myle in length including 
the Herrish and in bread 8 myles and in some places 
twelve. 

There are on the eastsyde of the Cuntrie 4 lochs, wherin 
shipps of anie burden may ryde viz. the Loch of Stornuway 
being the first and nixt to the North a verie good and 
ordinarie harbour within but in the entrie hath twa rocks 
invisible with high water, one on each syde of the entrie. 
that on the Northsyde and the outmost of the two is called 
the beasts of Holm and that on the South syd and innermost 
is called the Roof of Arinish ; Within those two there is no 



LEWIS 211 

danger of rocks. The nixt harbour towards the south is Loch 
Herrish, where lyeth the birkin Island a verie good and usuall 
harbour, next to it is Loch Shell, which is a more open place, 
yet there is speciall good ryding in it. And nixt to it and 
southmost is Loch Seafort. The distance betwixt those places 
is from the Bawlinehead which is the northmost Promontarie 
of the Lews to Loch Stornuway 18 myles of land, which are 
thus divided from Loch Stornuway to Loch Herrish five myles , 
of land ; thence to Loch Shell five myles, from which to Loch 
Seafort 8 myles. There are severall other creeks and bays 
weel knowne to seamen quhilk I omit. Upon the west syde of 
the Countrie there are no harbouring for shipps except the 
Loch of Carluvay, streeking in almost in the middest of the 
countrie. The entrie of it is opposit to the North haveing 
rnanie brockne Islands on the west syde. the Loch itself 
streaching within the land in severall Creeks and bayes. As 
for the Islands and rocks without the land, former Chrono- 
logers have most exactlie descrived as Buchanan and others ; 
Onlie there are seven Islands 15 myles Westward from the 
Lews, called the Isles of Sant Flannan, lying closs together; 
wherin there is a cheaple, where Sant Flandan himself lived 
ane heremit. To those in the summertyme some Countriemen 
goes, and bringeth home great store of seafouls and feathers. 
The way they kill the fowls is, one goeth and taketh a road 
10 or 12 foot long, and setts his back to a rock or craig, and 
as the fouls fiieth by, he smiteth them continuallie, and he 
lies ane other attending to catch all that falls to the ground ; 
for the fouls flee there so thick that those who are beneath 
them cannot see the firmament. Those Isles are not inhabited, 
but containeth a quantitie of wilde sheep verie fatt and weel 
fleeced. When the people goe there, they use everie two men 
to be Comerads. They hold it a breach of the sanctitie of the 
place (for they count it holier than anie other.) if any man 
take a drink of water unknown to his comerade or eat ane egg 
or legg of ane foull, yea take a snuff of tobacco: It is for 
certaintie that upon a tyme a Countriefellow being sent there 
and left in it, be reason he could not be keept from thift and 
robberie and so on a time the fire went out with him, without 
which he could not live, and so despaired of lyfe and since he 



LEWIS 

saw that there was no remead, he betook him to pray both to 
God and the Sainct of the Island as they termed it and by 
night being fallen in a deep sleep, he sees a man come to him 
well clade saying aryse, betake thee unto the Altar and there 
thou shall find a peate in fyre for the Lord hath heard thy 
prayer. So he arose and accordingly found the fyre, which he 
preserved untill he was taken home, and henceforth he proved 
as honest a man as was in the Countrie 

There are also 17 leagues from the Lews and to the North 
of it two Islands called Saliskerr which is the Westmost and 
Ronay fyve myles to the east of it. Ronay onlie inhabited 
and ordinarlie be five small tennents. there ordinar is to have 
all things commone. they have a considerable grouth of 
victuall onlie bear, the best of ther sustinance is fowll which 
they take in girns, and somtyms in a stormie night they creep 
to them where they sleep thikest and throwing some handfulls 
of sand over there heads as if it were hail, they take them be 
the Necks : Of the grease of these fowls especiallie the soline 
goose, they make ane excellent oyle called the Gibanirtich, 
which is exceeding good for healing of anie sore or vound or 
cancer either on man or beast. This I myself found true by 
experience by applying of it to the legg of a young gentle- 
man which had been inflamed and cankered for the space o 
two years : and his father being a trader south and north, 
sought all Phisicians and Doctors, with whom he had occasione 
to meet, but all was in vaine : Yet in three weeks tyme being 
in my house was perfectlie whole be applying the forsaid Ovle. 
The way they make it, is they put the grease and fatt into the 
great gutt of the fowll and so it is hung within a house untill 
it run in oyll. In this Ronay there are two litle cheapels, 
where Sanct Ronan lived all his tym as an heremite There 
are likewise three Islands called the Island Chants or Sanct, 
lying to the southward about third part way towards the Isle 
of Skye abounding also in sea fowl sheep and other catle. 
Other Islands lying close to the cost of the Lews are in the 
mouth of Lochshell, Island Evart, and in the mouth of Loch- 
herish are Haray, Hava and the birkne Island and in the 
mouth of Loch Stornuway are Holme and Island Cowll On 
the west syde of the Countrie are those first Island Mcali- 



LEWIS 213 

stay, Mangray, Pabay Vaxay Wuiay minor and Wuiay major 
betwixt those Isles of Waxay and Vuiay, ships might venture 
to Loch Rogue, but without a good Pylate I would not desyre 
them. There are Hkways Berneray major, Berneray minor, 
Kiartay Cavay Grenam Kialinsay, Berisay. Fladday and ane 
high rockie Island lying fardest out to the Westward of Loch 
Carluvay called the roch Island. 

This countrie of the Lews is a fertile soyle for bear and 
oats other grain they use not, such as whet, peas, beans, & 
I take the reasone of it to be the multitude of catle which are 
seldom housed but are constantlie in the open feilds and such 
seeds wold not endure to be ordinarlie traded upon as bear 
and oats will doe. It is verie plentifull in all sorts of catle, 
such as kyne, sheep, goat, horse. It is also plentiful off all 
sorts of vyld fowl, such as wilde goose, Duke, draike, whape, 
pliver, murefowl and the lyke. It is also served with a most 
plentifull forrest of dear naturallie environed with the sea, and 
as it were inclosed betwixt Lochseafort and Herish, having 
two myls of ground onlie betwixt both the loch ends, full of 
goodlie hills and wast bounds so that there is litle differ 
betwixt it and a Pene Insula. 

But of all the properties of the countrie, the great trade of 
fishing is not the least, wherin it exceeds anie countrie in 
Scotland, for herine, cod ling, salmone and all other sorts of 
smaller fishes 

There are manie fresh water Loghes dispersed through the 
countrie about 500, streaming into the sea on both sydes of 
the land, all weel plenished with black trout and eele and also 
salmone. All the arable land of the Countrie lyes be the sea- 
syde round about. In severall places there are great stones 
standing up straight in ranks, some two or three foot thick and 
10, 12, and 15 foot high ; It is left by traditione that these 
were a sort of men converted into stones by ane Inchanter. 
others affirme that they wer sett up in places for devotione. 
but the places where they stand are so far from anie such sort 
of stons to be seen or found either above or under ground, that 
it cannot but be admired how they could be caried there. 
There is a strange fountain in a place called Garrabost the 
water of which being put with either fish or Hesh in a pot or 



LEWIS 

kettell, it will not boy 11 though it were never so long keept at 

246. the greatest fyre and yett will still playe. There is likewise a 
well in another place called Chader, the water wherof if it be 
brought and drunk be a seek man he sail immediatlie dye or 
recover. 

There are no woods in this Countrie, onlie some small 
shrubbs in some few places. Yet the Inhabitants dig up great 
trunks and roots of trees 10 or 12 foot under moss. 

The sea casteth on shore sometimes a sort of nutts growing 
upon tangles round and flat, sad broun or black coullored, of 
the bread of a dollor some more, some less, the kernell of it 
being taken out of the shell, is ane excellent and experienced 
remedie for the bloodie flux, they ordinarlie make use of the 
shell for keeping ther snuff Ane other sort of Nutt is found 
in the same maner of a less syze of a broun cullour, flatt and 
round with a black circle about it. quilk in old tymes women 
wore about ther necks both for ornament and holding that it 
had the vertue to make fortunate in catle and upon this 
account, they were at the pains to bind them in silver, brass, 
or tinn according to their abilitie. There are other leaser 
yett, of a whitish coulour and round, which they call Sanct 
Maries Nutt quhilk they did wear in the same maner, holding 
it to have the verteu to preserve woemen in child bearing. 

There is no castle in this Countrie saving the old Castle of 
Stornuvay but lately brokne doun by the Inglish garisone in 
Cromvels tyme. 

The first and most antient Inhabitants of this Countrie 
were three men of three severall races viz. Mores the sone of 
Kenannus whom the Irish historiance call Makurich whom they 
make to be Naturall Sone to one of the Kings of Noruvay. some 
of whose posteritie remains in the land to this day. All the 
Morisones in Scotland may challenge there descent from this 
man. The second was Iskair Mac.Awlay ane Irish man whose 
posteritie remain likvise to this day in the Lews. The third 
was Macknaicle whose onlie daughter Torquill the first of that 
name (and sone to Claudius the sone of Olipheous, who like- 
wise is said to be the King of Noruway his sone,) did violentlie 
espouse, and cutt off Immediatlie the whole race of Mack- 

247. naicle and possessed himself with the whole Lews and con- 



LEWIS 215 

tinueth in his posteritie (Macleud Lews) dureing 13 or 14 
generations and so extinct before, or at least about the year 
1600 the maner of his decay I omitt because I intend no 
historic but a descriptione. Onlie for the tyme the countrie 
is possessed and safelie governed by the Earle of Seaforth, by 
whose industrious care and benevolence, the people formerlie 
inclined to rudeness and barbarity are reduced to civilitie, 
much understanding and knowledge by the flourishing schooll 
planted and mantained by the saids Earls all the tyme in the 
toun of Stornuway. And not onlie the people of the Lews but 
also those of the nixt adjacent Isles, the gentlemens sons and 
daughters are bred in that schooll to the great good and 
comfort of that people ; so that there are few families but at 
least the maister can read and write : I do remember in my 
own tyme that there was not three in all the countrie that 
knew A. b by A Bible 

Nota that there are neither Wolf, ffox nor venemous 
creature in the Countrie except a few snakes. 

Of anie famous batle in this Countrie, I cannot say much 
but manie and assiduous skirmishes hes been of old betwixt 
the Inhabitants : The fights and skirmishes betwixt the 
Countrie men and the Lairds of Fyff are to be found in Spots- 
wood his Ecclesiasticall historic to which I referr the reader : 
Onlie the late Earle of Seaforth coming with a fleing armie 
fought with the English garrisone under Cromuall, killed 
many of ther men but being destitute of artilrie, could 1 storm 
the garisone, notwithstanding that he assaulted the trenches ; 
neither would they be drawne out to the fields to encounter. 

Nota There is a litle Island hard by the coast where it is 
said that Pigmeis lived some tyme by reason they find by 
searching some small bones in the earth ; but I cannot give 
much faith to it since greater mens bones would consume in a 
short tyme but I hold them to be the bones of small fowls 
which abound in that place finis 

Finis coronat opus. 

1 Macfarlane's transcriber has here omitted (between the words 'could 'and 
' storm ') the word ' not,' which is in the MS. from which he copied. ED. 



216 IONA 

248. A SHORT DESCRIPTION of I. or IONA 1693. 

This He lyes straight in lenth to the south, south vest two 
myles in lenth, one in breadth, full of litle hillocks, pleasant 
and healthfull vith a store of common medicinall hearbs 
naturally growing, and some 1 Monks transplanted thither from 
other places both esculent and medicinall. The He is fruitfull 
and hes plaine arable ground in good measure, interlyned 
betwixt the litle green hills theroff the product and cheif 
commoditie is barly, its seveared from the south end of Mull 
by a narrow sound 3 part of a leg, which makes it verie com- 
modious for fishing and all water and sea foules. This He hes 
been famous first by Columbus his dwelling there. 2 do by the 
large and curious Church, Abbacie and Nunerie founded there. 
A considerable citie vas in the Isle of old called Sodora, the 
vestiges whereof is yett visible by the port and streets 
thereoff. it lay in the midst of the He upon the east cost, 
weell stored with naturall fontanis in great aboundance, great 
many gardens yett visible and many chapells of whose par- 
ticular uses, (safe that they served for divine worship,) we can 
give litle account One of these vas dedicated to the Saint 
Oranus commonly called Oran. It is situate neer the great 
Church and Abbacie vith a particular precinct. In which 
many of our kings and the kings of Irland & Danemark lyes 
buried vith severall other tombs of the heads of Clans. 3 tio 
by Columbus his buriall there in a litle Chapell be himselfe. 
tho the Irish alledge he is buried with them, their credulativc 
fancie is founded on a verse forged by some flattering Priest. 

Hi tres sunt una, tumulo tumulantur in uno 
Brigida, Patricius atque. Columba pius. 

But I have seen his life extracted out of the Popes librarie 
and translated in Irish by a priest verbatim as it vas in latin 
in the said librarie shewing he died and vas buried at I. the 
priest vas Caal O horan. Ther hes been many Inscriptions 
upon the tombs and pillars, the most is obliterat. Many 
%&. curious knotts of Mosaick vork yett to be seen, tho many is 

1 Macfarlane's transcriber has here omitted (between the words ' some ' and 
' Monks '), the words ' yt ye,' which are in the MS. from which he copied. ED. 



IONA TIRRY 217 

overgrown and covered with Earth. The buriall places of the 
Nuns is about the Nunerie. No Woman is yet tolleratt to be 
buried neer the great Church or where the men are buried, 
this is alledged to be by Columbus speciall Order. In this He 
vas a great many crosses to the number of 360, which vas all 
destroyed by one provinciall assembly holden on the place a 
litle after reformation, ther fundations is yet estant, and two 
notable ones of a considerable hight and excellent work un- 
touched ; In this Hand is marble enouch Whereof the late 
Earle of Argyle caused polish a peice at London aboundantly 
beautifull. In a particular place of the Hand neer the sea 
ebbing and flowing therinto is found transparent stons of all 
collours but more ordinarly green, much resembleing agatts, 
they yeild to the file and toole and I have severall sealls of 
them. In this He vas a societie of the Druids when Columbus 
came there, but it seems they were non of the best for he 
banished them all. Here is yett a few people upon the Isle 
called Ostiarij from their Office about the temple who is 
observed never to exceed 8 in number, which is said to be for- 
tokl by Columbus to be their Judgement for some atrocious 
fault committed by ther progenitor. The registers and 
records of this He was all written on Parchmen but all 
destroyed by that Assemby that destroyed the crosses. 

ANE ANSWER to SIR ROBERT SYBALDS m. 
QUERIES for the IYLS of TIRRY, 
GUNNA, COLLE, and ICOLMKILL 
all lying within the SHERYDOME of ARGAYLL 
and the BISHOPRICK of the IYLLS. 

Marked on the back. A Description of Tyrie 
Gonna Colla and Icolmkill Given into me by the 
Bishop of the Isles. 

The Ille of Tery laying aff the Ille of Mulle towards the 
west about 24 myils of sea and within the latitude of 56 
degrees 20 minuts. is 8 mails in lenth from East Northeast 
to West southwest and three in breadth where broadest. This 
Ille is gouid for cattell, productive of corne and grasse abun- 






218 TIRRY GUNNA COLLE 



dantly. it is commodious for fowling and fishing only ther is 
no salmon nor herrin taikin in it there being no arms of the 
sea entering the land nor any rivers of anie account. In the 
midst of this Illand is a large grein 2 mails in diameter and 6 
in circumference of excellent gouid and kyndly grasse many 
watter Lochs are in this Illand, in on of which is a small 
Illand on which standith ane ruinous tour surrounded with 
ane trintch of stone and earth. Many gouid springs are in 
this 111 and one remarkable to be gouid for persons in con- 
sumtions and that hes weak stoamocks severall medicinal! 
herbs is found hear bot no woods, the ground being most 
sandy and dry. here are small cheapells of no great account, 
the lairgest pairte of the Hand being Churchland. To one of 
these Chapels called Sorrabij the deanry of the Ills is annexd. 
Sometyms Spermacete is cast on this Coast and lapides preg- 
nantes of the whijt and blake kynde, the Coast round about 
this 111 is verij dangerous for manij rocks sandij banks and 
violent tyds there are some harbors of bad entryes, yet when 
entred, pretty safe for small gellijs and barks. Eastern and 
,'5i. Western Moons makes alwayes highe water in this 111 and in 
the other Ills nixt to it. 

Directlie northward from Tirij is the 111 of Gunna about a 
myle of sea, it is ane maile in lenth, of small breadth pretty 
fertiall, and commodious for fishing, in the midst of it is a 
ruinous Chepall. 

From that to the North laijs the Ille of Colle, severid by a 
smal streame weadable sometymes when it is low water, this 
111 extends to the North 12 mails in length, only 2 in breadth 
sufficiently fertill, it hes small woods, many fresh water Lochs 
gouid springs and nledicinall herbs, pettie rivers, here is found 
the myne of Iron in abundance In this Ille ar two ruinous 
chepals and a strong compak toure, seated near the sea. The 
Coast of this Illand is better than that of Tvrie or Gonna for 
ther entreth ane arme of the sea in the suth and sutheast syde 
of it called Loch Jern, wher ships may saflie venter it is plea- 
sant for fishing and fouling. 

Icollumkill antiently called lona, layes from Colle to the 
south and southeast about 36 mailes of sea and is distant from 
the south end of Mulle about 1 maill of sea. it is 2 miles in 



ICOLLUMKILL SKY 219 

lenth and almost from east to west and 1 mile in bredth it 
is verij fertill, commodious for fishing and fowling it hes two 
fresh water Lochs gouid springs and medicinal herbs, here the 
sea casteth up in ane place a number of small stones of divers 
collours and transparente, verij fair to looke upon, they reallij 
are peculiar to the place for the longer they lay upon the shoar 
they reapen and turns more lively in their coulors, they yeild 
to the feile and admits of gouid polishing and engraving. 
Marble also of divers colours and with beautijfull vains is 
found in this Illand. It hes bein counted renouned pairtly for 
the gouid discipline of Columbus who is buried in it and partly 
for the monuments of the place. In it is 2 Monastryes. One ^' 
of Monks, another of Nuns a Church of considerable dimen- 
sions dedicated to Columbus this hes been the Cathedrall of 
the Bishops of the Ills since Sodora in the 111 of Man came 
into the Inglishes hands. In this Illand ar many other small 
chepalls. The vestiges of a citie is zit visible in it, which as 
some old manuscripts testifies, was called Sodora: Many of 
the Kings of Scotland some of the Kings of Irland and Nora- 
way was buryet heer. Manij tombs appropriat to the families 
of the Illanders, as ther inscriptions, tho now allmost obliterate 
do testifij, heer the famous Columbus himself was also interred, 
the Coast round about lona is verij bade full of rocks and 
violent tyds. the whole Illand is Church land, so is also a 
gouid pairt of Tyrie, the 111 of Gonnaj wholly and the two ends 
of Colle. It is remarkable that there is in lona a few people 
called to this day Ostiarij from their Office about the Church 
in Columbus tyme, this people never exceeds the number of 
8 persons in perfyte ege, this is found to had true, and there 
is a tradition that for some miscarriage of ther predecessors in 
Collumbus tyme, this malediction was left them The Inhabi- 
tants of all the said Illands is naturally civill and bountiful), 
right capable of all gouid Instructions all thir Illands hes bein 
possessed be M c Leane and the Cadette of his family 

Jo. FUASKK 

A DESCRIPTION of SKY 253. 

Sky or Skianach is the greatest of all the jEbuds or West 
Isles. It lyeth from south to North 42 miles in length and 



220 SKY 

12 miles in breadth in other places 8 m. The south place 
therof called Sleatt is divided from the Continent of Kyntaill, 
Glenelg and Knodort by a narrow firth. The promontaries 
thereof are stretched into the sea like wings for which it is 
called by some Writers Alata since the word Skia in the old 
language signifies a wing. 

This Isle is blest with a good and temperate Air, which 
though somtymes foggy and the hills often surrounded with 
mist, so that they can scarce be discerned, yet the summer by 
reason of the continuall and gentle winds so abating the heat, 
and the thickness of the air yet frequent showrs in the winter so 
asswageing the cold that neither the one nor the other proves 
obnoxious to the Inhabitants, the summer not scorching nor 
the winter benumming them. 

The whole Island is verie fertile, their grains for the most 
part is barly, oats and some pease with which they furnish 
those in the continent yearlie. here is great store of Cattell 
such as Cowes, sheep, goat swine & c as also dear, rae with all 
sorts of wild foull a swans solangeese, wildgeese duke and drake 
woodcock, heathcok, patridges plivers, doves, hauks and hun- 
dreds of other sorts tedious to relate Its seas and rivers are 
sufficientlie provided with variety of excellent fish, as herring 
salmonds, trouts eels, Makerel, Whiting, Lobster. Cod. an 
infinit number of Oysters. In the bowels of the Earth there 
are severall mines of Iron and some presumptions to believe 
there are in it of gold also, and some Coal. 

The commodities this Isle produces are wool, hides, tallow, 
goat, sheep calves fox and otter skins, as also butter and cheese 
which they transport to Glasgow, for which they receave in 
exchange sundrie other commoditeis. 

The Inhabitants of this Island are for the most part of a good 
stature strong and nimble, of a good complexion, lives verie 
long, much addicted to hunting, arching, shooting, swimming 
wherin they are verie expert. Ther language for the most 
part is Irish which is verie emphatick and for its antiquity. 
Scaliger reckons it one of the maternal! languages of Europe, 
they are great lovers of all sorts of Musick, have a good 
ear. 

As to ther women, they are verie modest, temperat in ther 



SKY 221 

dyet and apparell, excessively grieved at the death of anie near 
relation. 

All the Inhabitants here have a great veneration for ther 
superiour whom with the King they make particular mention 
of in ther privat devotion, besides ther land rents thev ordi- 
mirlie send gratis to ther superiours of the product of ther 
land, of all sorts. They honour there Ministers in a high 
degree, to whose care under God they owe their freedom from 
Idolatrie and many superstitious Customes. There traditions, 
wherin they are verie faith full, gives account that this Isle hes 
been in time of the Danes and since, the scene of many warlik 
exploits. Some of ther genealogers can nether read nor writt 
and yett will give an account of some passages in Buchanan 
his Chronicles Plutarches lives yea they will not onlie talk of 
what hes passed in former ages but in ther pedegree will almost 
ascend near Adam as if they had an Ephemerides of all ther 
ancestors lives. They treat strangers with great civility and 
gives them such as the place does afford, without ever demand- 
ing any payment. There among them who excell in poetrie 
and can give a Satyre or Panegyrick extempore on sight, upon 
anie subject whatsomever 

The southern part of this Isle is called Sleatt. it exceeds 
anie part of the whole, as to its woods. Its cheife place is 
Armidill one of the chief places of residence belonging to 
M c Donald it is adorned with a house fine gardens with all sorts 
of fruits, it hes also a wood & park. It is verie commodious 
for its fishing of all sorts. On the west side of it within two 
miles lyes a fort called Dunskaich not far from Locheafort 
which excells all other Lochs for the bigness of its herring. 
In this part of the Countrie there is a Coave from the one end 
to the other, twelve mill in length the eastside of Armidill 
lyes Island Diermand a safe harbour near Lochdale betwixt 
which and the Kyle is a wood two mile in length. 

To the north of which is Strath its chieff place is Kilmirrie, 
belonging to M c Kinon. On the east side of Strath are the 
Isles Croulin, Ilan ni liy (and Scalpa 2 mile in length) to the 
north of which is portrie a most excellent harbour for ships it 
abounds with all sorts of fish, severall rivers glide into it 
abounding with salmond. Opposite to this Lough lyes Rasay 



222 SKY 

5 mile in length, it is beautified with house and yairds with 
all sorts of fruits, on the east side of which is ane excellent 
Quarrie. here is latelie found a huge Mass of lime whit as 
snow. In the midle of this Isle is a rock Duncan of such 
height as takes a view of the whole Isles. It hes its name 
from Cannus whom they relate to be Denmarks son, who 
being banished Sky. possessed himself of this rock. 

In the west wing of this Isle is a mountaine of a great hight 
covered with snow all summer, it is of universall vertue as 
appears by the snow which is found to be congealed into 
Crystall of the shape of a Pyramid, some peices quadrangular 
octangular triangular, the Ladies in this Isle have a great 
many of them. 

To the West lyes the Isles Soa bretill benorth it lyes buia n 
mile in circumference, not within a canon shot of Land, there 
is no access to it but at two narrow passes which if secured it 
beis Invincible. It is opposit to the mouth of Lochbrackidil. 
The chiefest place in this part of the Isle is Dun vegan belong- 
ing to M c Leoid, it is built upon a rock at the head of Loch 
fallort commodious for its fishing and a good harbour, in this 
Loch lyes Ilan Isa. 

There remains three things of which this Isle makes its 
boast and these verie remarkable in all preceding ages, it is 
ordinar saying with the inhabitants, they can never be ruined 
as long these three ar to the fore. The first of which is a 
well in the parochin of Uig the 2 d Loughsent dulce 3 d Hehri 
rock, all three within nine mile circumference. As to the 
first its unparalelled for its goodness, ther one other excepted. 
the second being but ane effect of ane more noble cause we 
will first speak of the Cause and nixt of the effect the Cause is 
Loughsiant, or hollowed Lough in the side of it is an principal 1 
spring beside which is (a botle). 1 

This well is not only by the Inhabitants in this Isle but 
also by all the ^Ebuds and Continent esteemed a Catholicon 
for all deseases which occasion the resort that is to it from all 
airts. Severalls by it have been restored to ther health 

1 The word 'botle,' within round brackets, is meaningless. It is clearly 
enough written in Taitt's transcript for Macfarlane, but in the MS., from 
which he copied, the word seems to be ' bath.' ED. 



SKY 223 

others to engage ther coming to it, ty themselves by a vow, < 
which they endeavour to perform, the Loch will not exceed 
200 paces in circumference. about it round ther are 24 
herbrys 1 all of which pay this Lough the tribute of there 
water, its surrounded with a fair wood which none presumes 
to cutt and such as have attempted it, have been observed to 
tryste either at that Instant or therafter with some signall 
Inconvenience. As to the second thing the Dulce the water 
from the well running over it, gives it a yellow tincture which 
renders it pleasant to the taste, it is good for some deseases. 
ther is another effect the water produces under the sands over 
which it runs are found stones of a finger lenth and pyramid 
shape which they call bots ston because it kills worms in horse 
which they call bots. this is confirmed by dayli experience, 
they drink of the water wherin it is steeped, it is to be found 
no where else but here. To the above mentioned Lough 
Mackdonald brought sevin fair trouts, the product of which 
now innumerable. On the West of this lyes a strong rock 
bord cruin or round table according to Irish it is Invincible, it 
fears no Canon one man is able to defend it against a whole 
fleet, there is no access to it but in one narrow place and 
that by climbing it hes a good well. 

Duntalme the chieff place of Residence belonging to 
M Don aid built upon a rock 200 fathom above the sea. 



D under ig. 
Trod a. 



1 The word ' herbrys ' seems to be 'springs' in the badly written MS. from 
which Macfarlane's transcriber copied. ED. 



224 ABERDEEN BANFF 

ADNOTATA ad DESCRIPTIONEM duarum praefec- 
turarum ABERDONI^E et BANFI^E 
in SCOTIA ULTRAMONTANA. 

Duae ha? Praefecturae Grampios montes et Beam flu vi urn a 
meridie, Speam autem rapidissimum fluvium non tota ipsius 
longitudine, sed jam emensum Badenocham et Strath Speam, 
tractus terrarum ad eum positos, ab occasu limites habent. At 
ingentis sinus pars, qui Ptolomeo Varar, hodie Murray fyrth, 
eis praetenditur ad Boream ; csetera aperto Oceano pulsantur. 
Proximae sunt provinciae ad meridiem Mernia et nonnulla 
Angusiae pars, ad occasu m Badenocha, Strath Spea, et Moravia? 
nonnulla pars. Ccelum ut in hoc climate frigidiusculum, inas- 
suetis et calidiore aere natis : temperatum tamen et salubre. 
^Estates nonnimquam imbribus spem messis retardant, non 
fallunt. Hyemes supra fidem climatis mites, quod exteris hue 
advectis Danis, Prussis Polonis mirum, cum apud eos terra 
totam hyemem perpetuis nivibus, rigido gelu concreta, ac abdita 
lateat. Nullus hie hypocaustorum usus ; luculenter foci instru- 
untur effossa gleba nigra, bituminosa, non ilia levi et fungosa, 
sed gravi et solida : haec ad ventos et solem siccatur non ex 
fluminum alveis aut paludibus, ut apud Belgas, depromta sed 
passim in superficie telluris, cespite remoto se prodit; cujus 
haec causa et origo. Cum ante aliquot saecula, omnia silvis in- 
horrescerent magno agricultural impedimento, desectis iis, aut 
aevo putrescentibus, supercrevit muscus, udis potissimum et 
depressis locis : muscus hie primum levis et fungosus sed novo 
singulis annis accrescente auctus induruit, et in terrain solidam 
pinguem abiit, non illam sane aratris utilem, nisi combustam, 
turn enim cineribus mirum in modum luxuriant segetes : post 
unum aut alterum annum novis ignibus novi cineres habeantur 
necesse est. has terras avide agricolae appetunt, hoc com- 
pendio letaminis allecti. Tellus ipsaad octo, nonnunquam 
duodecim, altitudine pedes hoc corio vestitur ; sed detecta 
aperit ingentes arborum truncos radicibus defectos aut aevo 
putres, saepe ignibus evictos. In regionibus inferioribus 
adusc^ ipsa littora robora et quercus, alni, salices, corili, prae- 
pollebant. in montanis abies, pinaster, picea, quae etiam hodie 



ABERDEEN -BANFF 

ut plurimum durant, frequentiores : Betula vero utrist^ S5S. 
communis : sed hsec tanta copia in inferioribus : ubi tellus 
agricultures aptior, jam in inopiam degeneravit unde materies 
ad sedificia e vicina Norvegia mari devehitur, ad rusticam rem 
satis est domi. Silvarum domesticarum quod superest difficilis 
vectura ex aviis, itineribus asperis. Ingenium soli varium ; 
ubi procul mari abest, montibus attollitur, inferiora collibus 
distincta qui fluviis aut rivis irrigantur. ubi variet tellus, in 
sequentibus narrabitur, at in genere non infaecunda. quae 
humanus usus postulat, si diligentia adhibeatur cum foenore 
reddit. triticum, secale, hordeum, avena abundanter habentur 
pisa, faba? ex leguminibus, caetera negliguntur, cum tamen 
non deessent adhibita cultura. Stirpes, herbae, planta?, ad 
usus medicos in hortis, campis, montibus non desunt; peregrinis 
etiam vel semine vel plantis advectis tellus hospita, quod 
quotidianis curiosorum experimentis compertum habemtis. 
adeo ut si quid desit aut adsit, totum hoc incolarum socordiae 
aut industries debeatur. In superioribus et montanis regioni- 
bus, invitante locorum natura, pastui, quag vita otiosior, in- 
dulgetur, at in inferioribus, ubi solum mitius, uberes campi, 
colles frugiferi, totos se agriculturae dedunt. hoc unicum 
studium, nulli loco parcitur, ubi segetis spes - , aut aratris com- 
moditas ; non prata, non pascua aviditatem hanc effugiunt ; de 
foeno segnis cura, cum eum defectum stramine avenaceo et 
hordeaceo, quo maxime delectantur animalia domestica hyeme 
tectis conclusa sarcire experiantur. Mare semper apertum et 
navigation! opportunum nisi tempestates impediant, quibus 
non solum nostrum sed omnia maria obnoxia sunt. Egregie 
itidem piscosum, sed homines e foece vulgi, qui huic vitae 
sese addixerunt, illud ad quotidianos usus non ad lucrum 
ex negotiatione exercent, unde exteri, praesertim Belgag, dum 
quotidie inspectantibus nobis ex halecium aliorumc^ piscium 
captura magnum quantum faciunt, illis quibus hoc studii esse 
debet ignaviam exprobrare videntur. Quamvis autem littora 
haec syrtibus, pulvinis, vadis libera, arenaceo fundo anchoris 
apta sint, importuosa tamen et paucis portubus quorum 
postea erit meminisse, navibus praesertim majoribus pervia. 
Flumina mirum in modum piscibus, salmonibus potissimum 259. 
fueta : quibus naves aliquot quotannis oneratae, aliisc^ quae 

VOL. II. P 



226 ABERDEEN BANFF 

regio fert mercibus, referunt quae domi non sint, aut si super- 
abundaverint merces, redit pecunia. huic piscaturae tanto 
studio opera impenditur, quanta socordia oceani opes negli- 
guntur. si incolarum ingenia speetentur, cum his locis debeam 
natales modeste dicendum est, et in hac parte, ut etiam ubiq^ 
veritati litandum est : attamen ne quid supra veritatem dicam, 
qui haec loca apprime norunt fatebuntur incolas mitioribus 
ingeniis, subacto judicio, cultura animi, morunu^ vicinis 
omnibus, praesertim vero qua regnum nostrum hinc in septen- 
trionem et occasum vergit praepollere: debetur hoc ex parte 
peregrinationibus apud exteros et Athenseo Aberdonensi quo 
undiq,, confluunt quam multi : juventus e montanis ad de- 
ponendam nativam feritatem, alii ut rudimenta pietatis et 
scientiarum altiorum suscipiant, et se pares negotiis vel 
pnvatis vel publicis praestent. Jam si humiliorem sortem et 
vulgus spectes, agriculturae plurimum student, aut vilioribus 
artificiis se dedunt, quae vix fceliciter exercent, nonnulli tamen 
emergunt. At pars melioris notae aut claris, natalibus edita, 
cives etiam oppidaniq^, a primis annis literis exercentur, adultis 
peregrina educatio cordi est. Negotiatio civibus et urbanis 
relinquitur. Meliores magno suo malo, id vitae genus ut 
natalibus suis impar dedignantur, unde inopia, ad quam 
levandam ad tractanda arma se accingunt, quae multis locis 
apud exteros et potissimum Belgas, Germanos, Gallos semper 
amicam et illis adamatam gentem jam a multis annis cum 
laude exercuerunt, ingeniis enim acribus et fervidis, sive- 
Musis sive Marti se mancipent, non parum proficiunt. 
Quibus aetas deferbuit, domi otium in villis et praediis suis 
agitantes, urbanam vitam rusticae posthabent, oppida nisi 
negotiis invitantibus raro visentes. Sed nec^ mercatores et 
negotiatores urbani hanc otii notam eft'ugiunt ; horum quam-' 
plurimi opibus aucti, domi desides reliquam vitam laboribus 
immunem transigunt. Majoribus nostris parsimonia in virtu- 
tibus habebatur, hodie commerciis peregrinis, alii mores 
imbibiti, ebrietas, commissationes, vestium luxus, qua 1 multis 
pauperiem fecere, nee tamen absistitur. Flumina diversorum 
generum piscibus abundant, supra casteros truttis, quorum sex 
distincte habentur species, omnes sapidissimi et non ingrata 
palato nec^ negantur aegrotis cum saxatiles sint, nee habitent 



ABERDEEN BANFF 

nisi puras etlimpidas aquas; nullus rivusqui non mirum quan- 160. 
tu in iiis seateat. Flumina haec postea dicenda ferunt conchas 
margaritiferas unde quandoq^ uiiiones pretio digni habentur. 
Concha 1 hfe limoso fundoinveniuntur. expiscandi ars vilioribus 
relinquitur, qui ignari artis, sajpe inanes redeunt. Non 
desunt volatilium varia genera, sive aquis sive montibus 
deleetentur, unde aucupii frequentis occasio. Est ferina 
venatio cervorum ac damarum, sed nemorum, silvarum et 
nioiitiuin propria, hac prae caeteris majores nostri unice delecta- 
bantur. Noxia et gregibus infesta anirnalia absunt praeter 
vulpes easc^ raras, lupi enim jam tantum non interiisse 
creduntur, aut si qui sint, procul a mitioribus plagis et homi- 
nuin cultu absunt. Serpentum unicum genus, saxosis montibus 
aut muscosis ericetis abditum, unde ab illis parum periculi. 
Bufo ranis ne^, quod sciam, aliud venenatum reperitur. 
Habentur diversis locis lapidis arenacei venae eaeq^ multorum 
generuui qui politi, et artifici manu in varias formas secti, 
marmoris defect um supplent, aedificiis decoram venustatem 
addunt. Lapidis calcarii tanta copia ut nonnullis tractibus 
ad ietandos agros adhibeatur, unde segetum eximia foelicitas ; 
multi solo hoc letamine ad effoetos agros, sic prosecuerunt, ut 
censum auxerint. sunt itidem lapidum molarium diversa genera 
necnon lapidum sectilium ad tegulas et imbrices tectorum 
satis est. Nequeo mihi temperare, quin describam lapilli 
genus his locis quasi peculiare, nulli scriptori hactenus cogni- 
tuni aut memoratum, quod miror quomodo Boetii nostri 
diligentiam eftugerit qui hie maximam aetatis partem egerit, 
in talibus saepe nimius ; non ille lapillus aut pretiosus aut 
pellucidus; huic materia durissima et fragillissima silex, cujus 
hie plus satis est: lapilli hi artem referunt, sed qualem ex tarn 
fragili materia nemo artifex assequatur ; duabus formis reperi- 
untur, una ferro hamati teli persimilis, in tria distincta capita 
desinens triangula figura: altera species venabuli ferrum plane 
refert magnitudine sicut colore varia, duum aut unius aut 
dimidiati pollicis, crassities ad duorum aut unius frumenti 
granorum accedit; totus asper, impolitus. manent tanquani j/;/. 
feiTamentorum vestigia, quae levigari desiderent ac latera omnia 
acuta; solo hoc lapilli hi mirandi casu aliquando in agris, in 
publicis tritist^ viis reperiuntur, nunquam autem vestigando 



228 ABERDEEN BANFF 

inveniuntur. hodie fortasse reperias, ubi heri nihil. Item a 
meridie, ubi horis antemeridianis omnia vacua et haec ut 
plurimum sudo ccelo, aestivis diebus ; rettulit mihi vir probus et 
fide dignus sibi equo iter agenti, in summa ocrea unum reper- 
tum, idem contigisse scio faeminae equo vectae, quae unum e 
sinu vestis deprompsit. Hos vulgus patrio sermone (Elf arrow- 
heads) vocant. Si interpreter! s latine, ferreas [sic] sagittarum 
cuspides quibus lamiae sagittant, sonat. Faunos enim lamiasc^ 
et id genus spirituum Elfs nominant ; de his haruinc^ apud eos 
sagittarum usu, ea fabulantur, multiq^ credunt, quae chartis 
dare ineptum esset. formas et magnitudines curavi adji- 
ciendas. sed de his plus satis. Manent adhuc paganism! 
vestigia, non in animis hominum sed locorum ab iis cultui 
dicatorum: visuntur septa ingentium saxorum in orbem dis- 
posita, unum latitudine conspicuum obversum austrum, arse 
locum praebuisse videtur. Saxa haec difficili vectura saepe e 
longinquo petita. Sunt etiam nonnullis in collibus, etiam in 
fastigiis rnontium, immensi lapidum minorum cumuli, ante 
Christianismum procerum tumuli, nam disjectis et erutis o^sa 
inventa: sunt etiam lapides aut saxa erecta, longitudine 
insignia: quaedam figuris inscriptis, at nuilis literis, creduntur 
victoriarum aut cladium monumenta, quarum memoria inter- 
cidit. Nundinae frequentes et celebres aperiente se anno, 
donee brumales dies, hie breviores prohibeant, totis liisce 
regionibus agitantur, nulla fere ecclesia parochialis qua 1 non 
suas habeat, pleraeq^ plures, quae referre otiosi est. Jam ad 
situm singulorum districtuum properanti moram facit, quod 
in iis describendis non raro Baronum Parlamentariorum 
memenerim, quae vox novitia, quid ea significetur dicendura. 
Dignitatum et honorum gradus Romanis incogniti hue me 
impulerunt. sic igitur habe. Antiquissimaet nobilissima apud 
262. nos dignitas etiam suscepto Christianismo, Ab-Thanorum et 
Thanorum nomine habebatur. Jam a multis saeculis dignitas 
ilia evanuit, manet nomen, multis praediis inde hodie ad hue 
nomen referentibus. Postea auctis rebus supremus rcgni 
senatus diversis ordinibus distinctus est, quibus omnibus 
princeps prasidebat, huic senatui intercedente illo, rertim 
agendarum nullum jus, annuente, leges figebantur et refige- 
bantur. Constabat aiitem his Ordinibus : Duces si qui essent ; ; 



ABERDEEN BANFF 229 

non raro autem nulli erant, Marchiones, Comites, Vicecomites 
et Barones quos Parliamentarios voco, (consessui enim huic 
Parliamento nomen) unum Ordinem explebant. ex his 
Marchiones et Vicecomites nuperi admodum apud nos : 
Comitum qui patria voce Earls, et Baronum Parlamentariorum 
qui Lords, prae caeteris antiquior dignitas; Barones vero sic 
simpliciter dicti cum reliqua nobilitate, quorum ingens et 
numerus et robur, ut quibus regni vires stant, per delectos e 
suis ad vitandam turbam, alterum ordinem constituebant. 
Tertium itidem cives ab oppidis et urbibus suis delegati. 
Episcopi itidem dum essent, et antiquioribus temporibus, illis 
adjunct! caeteri Praelati,justum senatum explebant. hi propter 
sacrarum rerum reverentiam primi censebantur. Equestris 
autem honos apud majores nostros, magni habitus, nee nisi 
justa de causa etiam honoratissimis collatus, virtutis militaris 
praemium erat, ut nunc alia rerum facie, postquam ad fora, ad 
urbes descendit a melioribus neglecta eviluit. maxime autem 
cum non ita pridem emendicato a Principe monopolio hsere- 
ditarius facttis venalis omnibus patuit. Armigerorum qui in 
vicina nobis Anglia frequentes, nullus apud nos usus. Hie 
etiam admonitum lectorem meum cupio, cum paucis pagis 
regnum nostrum ut plurimum habitetur, non ideo infrequen- 
tiam incolarum aestimandam. cujus rei causa haec est. Coloni 
agriculturae studiosi jam ab initiis rerum videbantur sibi pagis 
arctari nec^ in tanta vicinia rei rusticae satis prospectum ; 
primum enim in pagos divisae regiones fuerant ; horum singulis 
tantum arabilis soli tributum quantum quatuor aratris singulis 
annis proscindi posset ; hae sectiones terrarum prisca lingua 
Daachs vocabantur quae pagum significat. manent adhuc 
multis locis in superioribns regionibus et agnoscuntur termini 
quanquam divisis sedibus. At desectis silvis, non jam quatuor 
aratra sufficiebant. finium lax itas Agriculturae officiebat, unde 
domini divisis agris, singulis ad facultatum rationem terminos 
posuerunt, sic ut continuae non contiguae sedes essent: memini 
me primis meis annis hujus rei exempla vidisse; statim desertis 
pagis, singuli in sua demigrarunt, ubi vena aliqua uberioris soli 
invitaret, hie lares fixi, hodiec^ sic manet. Sed jam singula 
lustremus. 

Praefecturae hae varias provincias et tractus in se continent, 



230 ABERDEEN STRA-DOWN MORT-LICH 

quorundam nominum ratio dari potest. Strath enim vox qure 
nonnullis praefigitur vallem aut tractum montibus obseptum 
prisco sermone denotat. Inner et Abir quandoc^ confluen- 
tiam fluminum aliquando fluminis ostia significant, at qui 
Marriae, Buchaniae, Boenae, Banfiae etyma vestigaverit, nee ille 
operam luserit. Incolae Ptolomeo Taezali, et extimum promon- 
torium qua terra in ortum procurrit Taezaluni promontoriuni 
(hodie Buchanness) nomine nostris historicis ignoto. 

STRATH-AVINIA. STRA-DOWN. 

Regiuncula haec tota mediterranea, Marchionis Huntilaei 
avitum patrimonium, ad decursum Avinni amnis jacet, quern 
omnium universi regni nostri limpidissimum et purissimarum 
aquarum esse retulit mihi Timotheus Pont, qui universa lustra- 
verat, sed nulla inde nota laudabilis telluris, est enim admo- 
dum macra, parca segete et nonnullis annis vix maturescente, 
unde incolis maxima semper in pastu spes, quae illos nunquam 
elud-it. Avinius (Awen) ex asperrimi et nivalis Montis Binawen 
(Bin autem elatum ac asperum montem lingua prisca denotat) 
dicti jugis e lacu exiguo profluens, post pauca passuum millia, 
fluviolum Bulg e lacu ejusdem nominis effusum a dextris sus-. 
cipit, dein per scopulosam et confragosam vallem, torrentis 
ad modum praecipitatus multis undic^ susceptis rivulis, ad 
36/,. infimam vallis partem Liffetum flu vi urn multos secum rivos 
trahentem a dextris itidem accipit, et toto cursu nisi ad 
principia in arctum tendens, ad Balnadallach arcem, extra 
Strath Aviniam, Spaeae miscetur: ad confluentes Avinii et Liffeti 
sunt parietinae antiquae arcis Drim-min. supra ad Liffetum 
Blair-Findie sedet, Caetera tenent casju rusticanae per valles 
horum fluviorum sparsae, et quantum vis asperitas montium pro- 
hibere videatur, non infrequenter tamen habitatur a t-on- 
fluentibus Bulg fluvioli. 

BALVANIA, BALVENIE VEL MORT-LICH. 

Balvauia sequitur mitioris aliquantulum soli, tota tanien 
montibus horrens ; a Danis qui haec loca etiam appetierant 
nomen sortita, (adeo nihil ab iis non tentatum.) Bal enim 
villam aut pagum significat, cui Van pro Dan, levi metathesi 



ABERDEEN MORT-LICH STRATH-YL A 231 

literarum adjecta est. hsec autem literarum transmutatio 
priscae lingua familiaris, et pro elegantia sermonis agnoscitur. 
hunc tractum iritersecat Fiddich fluvius amcenus, qui suscepto 
Kinnes fluviolo, multis aliis ignobilibus rivulis ut in regione 
montana par est, in Speam se fundit. ad hunc tractum perti- 
nent fontes Ylae fluvii, a quo proxime dicenda regio nomen 
habet. Caeterum Fiddichi fontes non sunt hujus agri. Tractus 
ad ejus fontes Glenfiddich dictus cum arce Achindown huic 
in sacris adnexus est. At jurisdictio Marchionum Huntilaei 
est, totus nemorosus et gramine laetus. Ad Fiddichi ripas est 
arx Balvaniae, unde tractui nomen: paulo inferius ad eundem 
fluvium Kinin-noway. ad Rinnes vero ad unum a dicta lapidem 
Mortallich Ecclesia unde trequenter toti regioni nomen. Prima, 
ante aliquot saecula, Episcoporum et antiquissima Episcopo 
Beano. Ad Achl uncart villam vix mille passus a via regia 
qua? Elginam in Moravia ducit, rupes est et vena nobilium 
cotium quarum quaedam asperae,aliae lenes, hae durae, illae molles, 
aqua aut oleo aciem trahentes, tanta autem copia ut toti 
Britannia? sufficere possint. his tegularum vice ad tecta aeedi- 
ficiorum vicini utuntur: ad Balvannam autem scaturigines sunt 
aquae aluminosae et intra terrain lapidis unde alumen excoquitur 265. 
venae. Ditio haec jam inde a Jacobo secundo ejus nominis 
hoc est ab anno 1440, ad Comites Atholiae Stuartos spectavit, 
qui fratrem uterinum hac donavit ; qua stirpe deficiente, earn 
sibi pacta pecunia asseruere Barones Parlamentarii de Saltoun, 
ab illis eodem jure ad Inneseorum familiam transiit: nunc earn 
eodem jure Comes Rothesiae tenet. 



STRATH-YLA. 

Ubi jam montes deficere incipiunt, Strath- Yla ad ripas ejus 
fluvii porrigitur, qui magnis et sinuosis flexibus primum in 
ortum dein in Boream conversis undis, iterum ad ortum 
aestivum deflectens Dovernum fluvium paulo supra Rothe- 
mayum subit. Districtus hie feraci solo et segete et gramine 
laetus multum juvante lapide calcario, cujus hie tanta abun- 
dantia, ut aedificia his constent, aliorum generum saxis rari- 
oribus: hie calci excoquendae turn ad suos usus, turn ut 
emptoribus parata sit, non segniter ab incolis adlaboratur. 



232 ABERDEEN AINYEE 

telis etiam lineis tenuioris fili, rem faciunt : quae tamen omnes 
in nundinis a Strath Bogia nomen habent : Keath vicus cum 
Ecclesia ad ripam, stato mercatu singulis 'septimanis loci 
opportunitate allicit e superioribus locis homines, paratis 
semper emptoribus. Est autem ad viam regiam; picric^ nobiles 
inferioris notae Barones nonnulli hie aedes habent. vix ullae quae 
arcium nomen mereantur. cum totus hie ager in multos dominos 
partitus sit, ilium a Strath Bogia, juga excelsi montis Ballach 
dicti dividunt, ab Ainia tractus humilium collium qui Alt- 
mor dieuntur. 



AINIA AINYEE. 

Regiuncula haec ab occasu Speam fluvium, ad Boream sinum 
Oceani jam mihi dictum, ad ortum vero Boenam regionem 
limites habet. Mediterranea contingunt Strath Ylam. tota haec 
frugibus dicata, numquam coloni spem fallit: gramine parco 
tamen et quanquam Moravia divite solo, miti caelo, frugibus et 
fructibus supra omnes cis Deam provincias palmam ferat, Ainia 
tamen frugibus par fructibus hortensibus inferior incolarum 
vitio potius quam terrae genio; mare piscosum. Hie deficiente 
calce, agri Oceano vicini alga marina stercorantur, cujus magna 
vis accedente bis quotidiano aestu in littus ejicitur. adsunt 
servi observatis horis et ne quid pereat, recedente aestu, algam 
fugientem retrahunt, sese undis saeva hyeme, etiam noctu im- 
mergentes. Caeterum labor hie non his locis proprius, sed quam 
late patent littora et mare propinquum omnibus communis nisi 
scopuli prohibeant. Ripae Speae assidet Bog of Gicht, arx, 
culta, laxa, in magnam altitudinem evecta et supra omnes 
alias harum regionem splendida, cui, sive voluptatem sive 
usum spectes, nihil desit: hortis amaenis et vivario amplo septa 
quod muro firmo clausum, quadripartitum est, ad usum cer- 
vorum quorum illic duum generum abunde est, sicut cunicu- 
lorum, leporum, anserum ferorum, anatumq^. loco nomen a 
depresso et silvestri positu: hanc superioribus annis magnifies 
auxit Marchio Huntlaeus totius hujus tractus dominus: huic 
et vicinae Boenae interjacet silva proceris quercubus adhuc me 
juvene vestita, nunc tota excisa in novam sobolem per vicinos 
colles revirescit. 



ABERDEEN STRATHBOGIE 233 



STRATH-BOGIA. 

Strath Bogia ampla et antiqua baronia, nunc in Comitatum a 
Jacobo Rege evecta; earn Dovernus et Bogius omnes irrigant, et 
in ea miscentur. Torrentes et rivuli frequentes, quibus ubertati 
glebae tarn ad messes quam gramina inultum proficitur. Veteri 
sevo in quadraginta octo pagos divisa quos prisci homines ut 
dixi Daachs vocabant, quorum singulis tantum agri assignatum, 
quantum per annum quatuor aratris proscindi posset. Singula 
autem aratra, quatuor aut quinq^ bourn jugis aguntur. unde 
non exiguum soli postulatur. cum moris apud nos sit desectis 
messibus per totam hiemem exercere aratra ad Martium mensem 
unde sementi initium, sed non nisi senescente Maio requiescen- 
tibus, hodie excussis silvis, omniq^ agro unde spes segetis ad 
culturam translate, omnia plus quam duplicata sunt. Telse linese 267. 
tenues hie laboratas praecipue commendantur, unde omnium 
in vicinia telis eorum qui huic labori se dederunt, ab hoc 
nomen et laus ; hinc incolis emolumentum, qui eas in nundinis 
aestivis venales exhibent. Bourn maxime autem ad macellum 
gramine saginatorum magna vis; ovium, equorum ad rusticos 
usus quantum abunde sufficiat, necnon quibus instruantur fora. 
Incolae ut plurimum Marchionis Huntilaei necessarii, omnes vero 
ejus clientes, jam ante annos trecentos et quinquaginta, hujus 
tractus domini : Cuminiorum enim familia, quae in varias pro- 
pagines difFusa, formidolosa regibus, dubiis rebus, laesse Majes- 
tatis damnata, et toto regno depulsa, Robertus primus eo 
nomine Rex, hoc patrimonio auxit Huntilaei majores, quorum 
antea sedes in Mercia provincia Angliae proxima fuerant. Strath 
bogiae unde regioni nomen ; caput est Arx amaeno situ ad con- 
fluentes dictorum flumiimm, hortis laxis, jucundis ; ad fores 
Dovernus ponte saxeo stratus et ad confluentiam fluminum 
vena plumbi cinerei quod bisemutum dicitur. Est ad Bogium 
Lismor arx, infra ea in diversa ripa Gartly. Ad Dovernum est 
Innermarky, Carnborrow item, a fluvio, ad amoenum rivum 
Petlurg, ad eundem Achanachy. Malta praeterea festinanti 
indicta. Hujus tractus appendices sunt Rothymaia arx cum 
adjuncta paroecia, tribus infra Strath Bogiam milliaribus, 
postquam jam Dovernus, Bogius et Yla confluxerunt; Olim 
Baroniai" Strathbogiae pars, Baronum Parlamentariorum de 



234 ABERDEEN STRATI I BOGIE BOYN 

Saltoun haeredium, nunc ad Gordonios devoluta. Item ad 
fontes Doverni jacet districtus humili inter montes positu, 
Cabrach ei nomen, ad radices asperi et praecelsi mentis Buck 
dicti, ex adverse, Strath-Aviniam spectans intercurrentibus 
montibus, qui a [sic] scabra propter praeeipitia nomen habent. 
Montes hi fiuviolum Nigrum dictum tractant, qui Dovernum 
subit: totus hie gramini et pascuis sepositus, quorum hie mira 
luxuries: per aestates mapalibus pastoritiis frequens: hieme 
ut plurimum demigratur. Omnium horum tractuum, regiun- 
cularumq^ de quibus egi, sunt incolae homines robusti, strenui, 
industrii, rei militari et castrensi discipline, quando hue animos 
intendunt, egregii milites. Sed verum fatear, non enim gen- 
tilibus meis parcendum est, tarn pace quam bello neglectis 
musis, Marti litatur. 

BOENA. BOYN. 

Boena regiuncula laeto solo, qua mari ad arctum propin- 
quior, mediterranea non item. Ab Ainia secundum littora ad 
Doverni ostia se porrigit. in aditu ejus est Cullena, vetusta 
satis; oppidi jure fruitur, sed portu defecta, vix mediocris vici 
nomine digna ; earn solum commendant ager frugifer, et comi- 
tum Finlaterii aedes qui deserta arce Finlater scopulo marino 
inaedificata, ad milliare unum hue migrarunt, anucnitate loci 
illecti: illis in vicinia ampla et opulenta latifundia, habent 
enim ad rivum, qui hie confluit mari, ab oppido ad duo passuum 
millia arcem Desfoord, nee incle longe Durn ; est hie in vicinia 
Birkenbog Abircromiorum arx, est itidem Glassach Gordoni- 
orum. Legendo littus ad orturn ad quatuor a Cullena milliaria 
occurrit arx, cui Rupis Boenae Crag of Boyn, nomen, arx 
pulchra sane, et versus Banfiam est Buch-chragie ; utriusque 
Dominus a tota regione titulos habet. Banfia vero oppidum 
praefecturae hujus caput, ad Doverni ostia sedet, non ilia magni 
momenti , cum locus importuosus sit. Cauro ventorum saevissimo 
objectus, unde quandoc^ fluminis [sic] avertitur: arcis relliquial 
supersunt. Gives rari et negotiation! maritimae impares vicinos 
oppido agros strenue exercent. Salmonum quoc^ est piscatura: 
non procul urbe est Inch-Drevir, villa Baronis parlamentarii 
qui ab oppido titulos habet. Longius in mediterraneis est 
Park, Gordoniorum arx sub excelso monte, cui nomen Knock, 



A B M RDEEN BO YN BUCH AN 235 

sed qua? huic tractui vix accenseatur. Praefectura juridica 
universi districtus qui Banfire nomen habet, ante Robert! 
primi regis aevum, haereditaria fuit Curniniorum Comitum de 
Buchan : qua familia omnes reliquas universi regni, opibus, 
numero, viribus supergressa, crimine majestatis cecidit, ut 
diximus ; his beneficio regum successere Stuarti quorum familia 
superior! saeculo, cum Feoda masculina rariora essent jure con- 
nubii ad Duglassios transiit, codeine^ jure nostra memoria 
successere Areskini e familia Comitum de Marr. Regiunculam 
vero quam describimus, maximam partem tenent Ogilvii aut 
eorum clientes. Hujus familise in his locis primus Comes 
Findlater, cujus majores ex Angusia haud procul Taoduno, 
hie primum consederunt; jure maritali acquisita haerede San- 
claria ; ab his prognata familia Baronum de Boyn et ab hac 
tertia itidem Baronis Parlamentarii cui a Banfia oppido 
titulus. 

BUCHANIA. BUCHAN. 

Buchania ab ostiis Doverni initium sumit, secundum littus 
porrecta, in ortum tendens ad principium sinus Varar dicti, inde 
littora circumflectuntur ad meridiem ; in mediterraneis fines 
incerti, quidam censent earn adusc^ Donam fluvium exporrigi 
debere. Alii cam Ythanno flumine terminant, reliqua Formar- 
tini nomine habent. Novi ego antiquam Baroniam eo nomine 
dictam, quae jam a variis possessa cum nomine evanuit. 
Buchaniam totam cam pi aut colles tenent, totam aratro et agri- 
culturae dicatam innumeris rivis irrigatam ; bourn oviumc^ dives, 
nulli montes: unus solum caeteris praecelsior, quem Mor-mound 
dicunt, vix modico colli in superioribus regionibus par ; nullibi 
per totum regnum telluris aequalis et rnontibus liberae cernere 
est aequale spatium. Ugius fluvius e duplici fonte manans, 
duplici fluvio ab occasu ad ortum means, post decem milliaria 
confluunt, et uno nomine ad Inner-Ugiam oceanum subeunt. 
Ythannus vero nec^ ille longi cursus, at multis rivis auctus, 
Ugio longe ditior aquis, sub pagum Neoburgum (Newburgh) 
Oceano itidem rniscetur, reflexo in ortum hybernum ostio, 
piano solo lapsus, aestum sentit altius supra reliquos harum 
praefecturarum fluvios, sed arenosa littora portui nocent, qui 
non nisi minoribus navigiis aditur. At ut redeam unde 



236 ABERDEEN BUCHAN 

ciigressus sum. Legendo littus a Banfia in ortum visitur Colen 
ubi aedes sunt Barclayorum Baronum de Towy. Sequitur 
Troup superaedificata scopulo in Isthmo, nunc neglecta. 
Sequitur in littore Pennan ubi nobilis molarium lapicidina, 
qui longe late evehuntur. proxima est Petslego arx Baron is 
Parlamentarii e familia Forbesiorum. cui paene contigua Pet- 
tuliae villa Baronum de Phillorth. dein visitur promontoriolum 
Kynards-head. etad illud, oppidulum Fraserburgum,ubi moli- 
tus oppidum ante annos quinquaginta Alexander Fraserius 
illustris Eques, Phillorthi Baro, libertatibus a Rege concessis 
locum auxit. Molem etiam lapideam magnis sumptibus oceano 
objecit, primum loco iniquiore, dein translatis alio operibus 
portum munivit, unde hodie locus frequentior. Barones 
Parlamentarii Fraseriorum cognominis superioribus sseculis 
clari, jam a multis annis, defectu haeredum masculorum 
evanuere. Eorum qui supersunt, antiquissima est haec de 
Phillorth, cui suam originem debent quotquot ejus nominis circa 
Innernessam in multas progagines diffusi, ampla tenent lati- 
fundia. Ad duo millia progresso occurrit Carn-bulg arx 
Baronum Parlamentariorum de Mulkal e Fraseriorum familia, 
quam sequitur Inner- Allochy Fraseriorum itidem arx; jam 
littora incipiunt in meridiem sinuari, ubi exiguus sinus est 
Strabeg, olim portu nobilis, nunc arenis paene obstructus. 
manent oppidi Ratray vestigia, quod nunc portus fortunam 
sequitur. Boetius noster historicus miratur salmones hunc 
solum amnem non subire : sed nihil hie est quod majores pisces 
suscipiat, praeter duos rivulos limosos, aquarum sic indigos, ut 
vix pares truttis habeant. Hinc ad austrum ad quinque 
milliaria se offert Inner-Ugia, ad Ugii ostia, Comitum Mares 
callorum arx illustris: Baronia haec cum multis latifundiis olim 
fuerat Baronum Parlamentariorum quibus Cheyn cognomen, 
sed defectu haeredum masculorum, jure connubii ad Kethorum 
veterem et nobilem familiam (cujus Princeps haereditarius 
regni Marescallus) transiit. Hi a Pictis originem suam re- 
petunt, qui quanvis ante multa saecula avitis sedibus et toto 
regno pulsi, non est incredibile, multis parcitum fuisse. Doinui 
huic Kethorum super caeteros omnes per totam hanc pro- 
vinciam amplissimae fortunag sunt ; etiam in Marria et Mernia 
non exigua praedia tenet, de quibus alias. Ad duo milliaria 



ABERDEEN BUCHAN 237 

hinc, sequitur Taezalum promontorium, et ad illud Peterhead, 271. 
loco ad rem maritimam opportune, si industria adhibeatur, 
at quae fuerat ad portum moles psene defecit. Adhuc legendo 
littus prima occurrit memoratu digna hie Bowness, qua voce 
curvum promontorium significatur. hie in scopulosa Chersoneso 
sunt aedes illustrissimi Comitis Erroll, haereditarii Conestabilis 
hujus regni, cujus familise insignem originem attexere, non est 
hujus epitomes opus: historian! dignam memoratu, historicorum 
nostrorum consensus non neglexit, quasq^ ad Loncartim vicum 
ad annum contra Danos Hayo autore, hoc enim huic 

familiae cognomen, gesta sunt. Avitse illis sedes Errolia cum 
amplissimis latifundiis ad Tai fluminis ripam ubi hodiecj^ 
familiae hujus posteri praepollent. At hie in Buchania, casu 
Cuminiorum, magnis praediis a rege Roberto primo donati 
consederunt. Vix mille hinc passus in arenoso littore cum 
Danis pugnatum ; manet loco nomen adhuc, et Ecclesiae ibidem 
extruetae Crow Dan. Ulterius in littore sunt ruinae castri de 
Slanis, et at illud scatebrae aquarum lapidescentium oriuntur 
ad centenos aliquot a scopuloso littore passus. quacunc^ 
meant in anfractibus rupium, lapidescunt : differunt autem 
mollitie ac colore qui illis subalbidus, a nigredine scopulorum. 
Unum antrum est quod non nisi recedente aestu adiri potest, 
ubi guttae aquarum per scopuli rimas defluentes, non statim 
sed lapsu temporis lapidem induunt, at non tota aqua, magni 
enim per lapidem pori ubi pura aqua substitit. qua arescente 
nianent pori, sicut in tophis videre est: ex hoc lapide excoquitur 
albissima et tenacissima calx tectoriis operibus utilissima. 
Novi ego diversis regionibus tales aquas reperiri, caeterum in 
Britannia vix alia. Jam Ugii cursum persequamur, qui 
quamvis feraces campos irriget, pauca memoratu digna habet, $?. 
cum meliorem ejus partem teneant Comitis Marescalli eoloni. 
ad Ugium septentrionalem est Strechin Fraseriorurn arx : ad 
alterum Ugium prima est Fedderet et huic proxima Brucklay 
Irwinorum familiae de Drum arces, descendendo est Glackriach. 
infra hanc ad flumen in valle fuit Caenobium Deir Cistertiensis 
Ordinis. Amoenum et locuples, nunc vix rudera supersunt. 
Situs ejus in depressa valle undic^ silvis opaca, ubi hodie 
nullum fruticis vestigium. Georgius Comes Marescallus 
legatus a Jacobo rege in Daniam ad desponsandam Annam 



238 ABERDEEN BUCHAN 

Reginam hoc Caenobio ab eo donatus est. qui tamen plus 
damni quam lucri hide sensit. adeo vix quicquam, vere nobili.s 
illius viri magnanimitati par. ad mille a coenobio passus, est 
pagus ejusdem cum Caenobio nominis, cum ecclesia, hide ad 
ortum hybernum altero a fiumine milliari sunt Kynmundie et 
Ludwharn, haec Kethorum, ilia autem Gordoniorum villae, ad 
ostia vero ex ad verso Innerugiae Craig arx Comitis Marescalli. 
Nunc sequar ascendendo Ythanni alveum ; qui sicut tract us 
illi et Donae flumini interject us, pinguid agri, innumeris nitet 
arcibus et villis nobilium, quorum nonnullas, additis domi- 
norum cognominibus lubet enumerare, patrio autem sermone, 
qui latinitatem non sapit. Utrinc^ ad ostia jam a multo tempore 
non parum damni sensere domini, feracissimis agris ad mare, 
arena sublatis omni cultui. Sunt autem Fovern Irviniorum. 
Knok-hall. Udniorum arces; cum pago Newburg; Dublertie 
major et minor, Innesiorum et Setoniorum villae : Fuddes ad 
alterum a flumine lapidem, Udniorum : Dudwick ad septen- 
trionem Fullertoniorum ; ad flumen sunt Abbotshall, Forbes- 
iorum ; ArdGicht Kennedorum ; Ellen pagus parocbialisJ 
Ochter-Ellen, Udniorum : Essilmonth Comitis Errolia; arx : a 
flumine absunt ad septentrionem Arnadge Irwinorum : Saok 
Buchaniorum : Nethermuir Gordoniorum : et Achnagat 
. Strachanorum : Dumbreck Mowettorum vel de Monte-alto : 
Petmaedden Setonorum. Tarves, Tulielt, Park of Kelly, Udny, 
Udniorum : Tolwhon Forbesiorum : Shethiun Setoniorum : 
Gicht, Gordoniorum : Sheeves Greyorum : Fyvie pulchrae et 
nobiles tedes Comitis Fermelinoduni : Towy, Barclay orum : 
Bucholly, Mowettorum. haec loca maximam partem ad flumcn 
sunt. At septem a Banfia milliaribus, a Doverno vero unico 
est pagus pulcherrimus Turreff, loco venationi opportuno 
patentibus circum campis, multis nobilium villis cincta, ut 
Lathers et Cragstoun Urchartorum Murresk Leontum, 
Delgattie Hayorum. 

Supra Banfiam ad septem milliaria, obversus austrum jacet 
pagus paullum a Doverno, Tiirravia dictus ad rivum Mii 
nominis, ama3iio situ, patentibus circum campis, aucupio 
praesertim et venationi sic aptus, ut nullus alius in his piu'fVc- 
turis, vix in aliis ei par sit. Sex inillia indu ad austrum ad 
Ythanni ripas visuntur Fivaei nomine ajdes magnifies et laxjc 



ABERDEEN FORMARTINE 239 

quae Fermelinoduni Comites dominos agnoscunt. Jam per- 
sequenti Ythanni ripas adusc^ Oceanum videntur colles aut 
cam pi, pinguibus cultis aut herba laeti, arcibus nobilium decori. 
Gicht arx est ad amnem ad eunic^ silva, quod nunc his locis 
rarum ; legendo ripam occurrunt Ochter Ellen, Ardgyth, 
Abbots-hall, arces in vicinia, cum pago Parochiali de Ellen : 
et hide ad quatuor milliaria, fluminis ostia. quibus immorari 
inutile. 

FORMARTINA. 

At quicquid terrarum Ythannum et Donam fluvios inter- 
jacet, Formartinae nomine apud incolas, qui se Buchaniae 
acccnseri dedignantur. Regio in qua nullum oppidum. Vicina 
enim Aberdonia negotiationem omnem intercipit. At si soli 
ingenium aut incolamm genium spectes, consideratione digna, 
et nulli harum praefecturarum region! non par. quamplurimas 
autem, incolarum frequentia, bonitate soli, arcium et villarum 
numero et amoenitate, mansuetudine et morum cultu longe 
vincit, quae omnia minutim persequi, nimii laboris est. Haec 
ab Ythaniio udusc^ Gareocham et Mariam se expandit. Sed 274- 
ad occasum earn a Strath bogia dividit terrarum tract us nulli 
alii provincial 1 accensus, nondum proprii nominis potens, partim 
ab una partim altera prefecture jjus petens; Ecclesias in eo paro- 
cliiales InnerKeithnie, AbirKirdir, Forrig Ochterles : in hoc 
tractu visuntur Frendraught et Kynairdy, arces Vicecomitum 
de Frendraught, cum aliis nonnullis diversorum villis. 



GAREOCHA. GARVIACH. 

Gareocha inter Strathbogiam, Marriam et Formartinam 
conclusa, nullibi mar! contigua: nominis origo incerta, prisca 
lingua Garve, asperum, saxosum, inaequale solum significat, 
Ach vero campum vel campestre, qua, 1 non respondent regionis 
indoli. duobus enim amnibus multisq^ rivulis intersecta, in 
convalle tota posita est. Collibus frugiferis expansa, opulenta 
et tempestiva messe, nunquam non coloni votis respondens. 
Bennachius mons in septem vertices assurgens, asper et saxeus, 
ei ad meridiem praetcnditur, qui praeternavigantibus se con- 



240 ABERDEEN G A REOCH 

spicuum prsebet. Urius amnis non procul arce Gartlye dicta 
humili jugo effusus, per sterilem vallem lapsus, per montium 
confragosa eluctatus, et campis immissus, mediam inaequali et 
tortuoso alveo secans, ad Inneruriam urbeculam Donae con- 
fluit. Ad radices vero Bennachii montis ejusq^ longitudinem 
emensus Gadius fluviolus, ad alterum supra Inneruriam milliare 
eidem miscetur. Hie non defit venatio leporum jucunda, 
aquatilium avium, perdicum, vanellorum aliarumc^ abunde 
est, gramen parcius. Ad milliare unum supra pagum Inche 
dictum, collis est undic^ rotundus, mediocri altitudine, nullis 
vicinis montibus contiguus, totus laeto gramine virescens : in 
ipso hujusfastigio manent parietinae arcis, regis Gregorii prinii 
opus circa annum salutis 880, ubi et fato functus : quod vix 
referrem nisi fabula ovium ibidem pascentium (non omnium, 
sed quorundam aliquando) me monuisset, quorum denies maxil- 
lares aureo colore niienies inveniuntur, quorum nonnullos 
vidisse me inemini. unde Boetius nosier parum rei metallica- 
gnarus, existimavit auri venam telluri subesse. At uncle 
hujusce rei causa sit, scrutentur physiologi. tellus exacie 
consideranti nihil tale promittere videtur. Ad confluentiam 
Donae et Urii, posita est urbecula Inneruria, pagi facie, uberi 
agro, antiqua satis, et privilegiis urbis, ut vocant, regalis 
gaudens, sed vicina Aberdonia jam a multis annis commercium 
omne ad se traxit ; prioribus saeculis ad ripas praesertim Dona-, 
omnis vicinia silvis potissimum quercus inhorruit, quaruin 
hodie nee vestigia apparent, adeo nimia copia, dum non 
advertitur, nee posteritati consulitur, in inopiam degeneravit. 
Non longe hinc Robertus i. Rex, aeger et lectica vectus, acic 
fudit Joannem Cuminium Buchaniae Comitem, eoq^ certamine 
vires illius factionis plane sic contrivit, ut nunquam posiea 
surgeret. Buchaniam totam infestis armis populatus, ei 
vicinisc^ regionibus inde pacifice imperitans. Post ad annum 
1411 Alexander Siuartus Marriae Comes Donaldum Insula- 
nuni .Ebudarum viribus fretum, circa haec loca, ad Harlauni 
vicum cruento praelio vicit, et pacem hisce regionibus dedit. 
Universa haec regio incolis frequens, nec^ desunt arces, villa-, 
aedes, hominum genere insigniorum. Districtus hujus maxima 
pars jam a multis annis Comitatui Marriae adnexa iitulus 
cjus hodie auget. 



ABERDEEN MARK 241 

MARRIA. MARR. 

Marrise pars inferior et oceano propior Dea et Dona flumini- 
bus coercetur, in superioribus extra haec flumina expatiatur. 
longitudine insignis, latitudine impar. Qui hos duos fluvios 
et confluentes illis amniculos descripserit, omnia quse ad 
earn pertinent, paene dixerit ; adeo mediterranea montibus et 
ericetis abundant. Dea namc^ Grampios montes a fontibus 
secans adusc^ ostia ubi in colles desinunt, toto alveo inter 
hos montes praeceps devolvitur, imde maxima liujus provinciae 
pars segeti inepta, at quicquid messibus cedit, optimae notae 76. 
est, desecaturc^ tempestivis semper autumnis. Montes hi 
armentis bourn et ovium lectissimarum, gratissimic^ saporis 
gregibus, equis ad rustica opera, capris etiam in superioribus 
oris, satis divites. Lanae et vellera, omnium tractuum a me 
descriptorum longe optimae, candore, mollitie, tenuitate pili 
laudatae, avide expetuntur. Non tamen haec sarciunt damnum 
inutilis soli. Aer saluber, Incolse robusti, sani, et homines 
frugi. Tellus arida, et ut dixi, quam plurimis locis infrugi- 
fera ingenia incolarum accendit. Dea fontes habet non procul 
humilium montium serie Scairsach dicta, qui Marriam 
superiorem a Badenocha dividunt, ad radices montis praecelsi 
Bini-Vroden dicti, susceptoq^ amniculo Galdy. nonnihil in 
ortum hibernum lapsus, statim vero in ortum se reflectens, 
nullis paene flexibus impeditus, quanvis altis asperisq^ montibus 
ab utracj^ ripa coercitus, celer, limpidus, illimis, glareoso semper 
alveo, ad alterum supra Aberdoniam (cui nova nomen) lapidem 
ponte stratus, juxta oppidum oceano miscetur. Ad Inner-ey 
cui ab amniculo Ey nomen, septem a scatebris milliaribus, 
primum culturam sentit: deinde auctior aquis, quas multi 
magnick amnes e montibus vicinis suppeditant, alluit a 
dextris Casteltoun (villam castelli dixeris,) Comitum Mai-rise 
arcem, cum vicina Ecclesia Kindrocht. in adversa ripa est 
Innercald, a rivo cui incumbit ei nomen, quam sequitur 
Crathy pagus parochialis. Paulo inferius a dextris Abirgeldie 
arx, ubi tractus hie Strath Dea? nomine audit. Hinc Glen- 
gardina ad arctum, unde Gardinus fluvius manat, reliquis 
aquis ditior; circa haec loca montibus arctatur flumen, sed 
silvae proceris abietibus spectandae non desunt: hie se tollit 
VOL. TI. Q. 



ABERDEEN MARK 

mons praealtus, a ceteris quasi praecisus, totus undiquac^ silva 
vestitus : cacumina, rupes et ipsum fastigium tenet immen- 
> sarum abietum semper virentium decorum nemus, devexa 
mentis, camposc^ flumini proximos, tiliarum et betularum 
grata viriditas. Crag-Gewis monti nomen, crag montem, 
Gewis autem abietem significante ; inter quamplurima nemora 
quibus fluvius silvescit, in superioribus praesertim locis, mons 
hie amoenissimus visu. Sequitur Glen Muick exigua vallis ab 
amne nomen ei, qui e lacu ejusdem nominis effluens, post non 
multa milliaria, Deae confluit, a dextris ex ad verso paene 
Gardini : Infra Glen Muick in eadem ripa videtur Pannanicli 
silva, unde materies frequenter Aberdoniam devehitur sed ad 
vecturae commodum praeparata et dedolata in rusticanos 
usus. Tigna enim et integri arborum trunci, aspero et saxoso 
itinere nec^ deferri possunt, nec^ rapidissimo flumini, (quan- 
quam aquarum satis sit) tuto committi. Sequitur in eadem 
ripa amcena arx, Keannakyll, quae vox caput silvae significat, ad 
secessum voluptuarium a Marchione Huntlaeo ante non multos 
annos condita loco undiq^ silvis opaco, piscatui, aucupio, 
venationi cervorum et damarum opportune. Inferius legendo 
ripam, Tanarus amnis Deam subit ; ortus hie e jugis altissi- 
morum montium, qui Angusiae et Marriae limites faciunt; 
ingenti silva procerarum abietum ripae coronantur. Sequitur 
parochia Birs dicta, quae a flumine ad fontes amnis Feuch 
dicti excurrit, ubi superioribus annis ingens betularum 
arborum silva regionis inferioris usibus abunde satisfecit, 
nunc tota dissecta incuria eorum quorum interest, tarde sobo- 
lescit : nulla telluris ad hoc aptissimse injuria. Jam Marria 
Deam limitem habet, qui earn a Mernia proxima ad austrum 
provincia dividit, imo Mernia flumen transgressa parochiam 
Banchori Devinici dictam ei subtrahit, ubi non longe a ripa 
est arx Crathes. Thomas Burnetus baro, loci dominus, cura 
et ingenio loci genium vicit, consitis enim abietibus, aliisc^ 
multifariam arboribus horridas cautes texit, hortis instruxit, 
voluptatem induxit. Descendendo sequitur Drum Arx, ad 
milliare a flumine sejuncta, loco aspero et saxoso, et aedificiis 
et hortis egregie culta. Alexandrum Irwinum baronem, 
antiquae et illustris prosapiae, gentisq^ suas principem dominum 
habet: nihil praeterea memorabile, antequam fluvius poiitem 



ABERDEEN MARK 243 

subeat. At in superior! regione post Gardini amnis ostia, 
tractus est Cromarr dictus, ab omni vicinia montibus divisus, 
ad occasurn Morvin praecelsus supra caeteros mons et Kilblena 
silva terminum faciunt, caetera montibus ignobilibus terminan- 
tur, quamquam autem Deam adusq^ pertingat, nullibi tamen 
infeliciore tellure quam quae flumini proxima, in illis enim 
campis nee segeti nee herbae locus, tota inculta, horridac^ 
ericetis vestitur. at a flumine supra milliare unumaut alterum, 
alia rerum facies, intra supra dictos montes pandit se laeta 
planicies, non ilia in ullos expansa campos, sed crebris collibus 
distincta, tota cereri dicata, vicinorum omnium horreum ; nihil 
hie non egregium, nihil non tempestivum ; in quinq^ parochias 
divisa diversos dominos agnoscit, duobus rivulis intersecta, et 
quod mirere, nullae in ea arces, nullae insignes villas, nihil 
deniq^ praeter unius aut alterius arcis parietinas. egregie tamen 
exculta. Proxima ei adhaeret Aboyne, qua? titulos Baronis 
Parlamentarii dat Marehionis H until aei filio, cui vicinus in 
valle laeus Achlessin, et ad eum culta terra, ad fluvium vero 
jacet Kincardin pagus cum ecelesia, ad viam regiam qua trans- 1 
mittuntur montes; ad tria milliaria infra hanc Cannius 
fluviolus Deae se immergit ; tractus hujus amnis amoenus, ferax, 
conchis margaritiferis abundans ad ostia attingit Banchoriam 
a nobis jam dictam. 

Dona flumen, quantum Deae magnitudine impar, tantum 
ilium ubertate terrae vincit, in jugis montium qui Strath 
Aviniam a Mama dividunt, ortum, tenui alveo seeat vallem 
Strath Donam dictam, et multis rivis auctum, ad Inner Noch- 279. 
team, suscipit Nochteum fluviolum, paulo inferius Descrium, et 
ex adverse Buchetum ubi arx Inner Buchet: tractus hie gramine 
Inetus, nee desunt segetes. Toto autem cursu fluvius hie non 
ut Dea rapidus, sed placidis ut plurimum undis variis maeandris 
multurn soli irrigans, quandoq^ angustiis montium eompressus. 
saepe faecundas valles aperit ; non longe a boreali ripa est arx 
Kildrummie, vetus ilia regum ut creditur opus, nec^ tamen 
situ jucunda, neq^ foelici solo posita, eampis tamen in vicinia 
feracibus: at oppidum in campis illis eonditores molitos indicat 
nomen Burrowstoun, quod oppidum vel burgum significat, ac 
firmo muro crebris et ingentibus turribus distincta, eo saeculo 
ad vim tuta: comitum Mania: his in loeis primaria sedes est. ; 



244 ABERDEEN MARK 

legendo fluvii oram est Ecclesia et parochia cui nomen Forbes, 
cujus non erat meminisse nisi ut referunt annales, primus autor 
clarissimae in his oris familiae hie sedes habuerit. Cujus posteri 
in his locis adusq^ Donae scaturiginem multum pollent, nec^ 
hie solum sed in varies diffusi ramos, faecunda propagine 
multas illustres familias peperere, quae in inferioribus regionis, 
opibus et numero clarae habentur, ad unam domum omnes 
originem referentes, cujus principes viri, quanquam nee stem- 
matis antiquitate, aut numerosa sobole paucis cederent, procul 
hodierna ambitione, mansere Baronum Parlamentariorum 
honore contenti, qui gradus statim ab initio iis collatus. 
Hie loci Marria catenam montium praetergressa, parochiam 
Cletam, arcem Drymminor cum latifundiis Baronis Parlamen- 
tarii de Forbes, Gariochse et Strathbogiae subtrahere videtur. 
At Dona unde digressus sum, arctis faucibus paulum impedi- 
tus jam liber, per amplam et pinguis soli vallem leniter means, 
accepto Leochello amne, ad quern Cragivar arx, et Alfordia 
parochialis pagus jacent, post quatuor milliaria emensa, 
angustiis Bennachii montis stringitur rupibus et scopulis 
horridis, sed campis immissa, amplam et amoenam planitiem 
aperit. hie videtur Monimosk Forbesiorum arx, ubi antea 
ejusdem nominis Prioratus, ut vocant, cujus latifundiis in 
280. privatos usus aversis, aedes quoc^ intercidere. diverso a flumine 
itinere, Clunia arx visitur, nee longe hinc Mulcalia, firma et 
egregii operis arx, sedes Fraseriorum qui inde titulos baronis 
Parlamentarii habent. descendendo flumen diversis ripis, 
. Kemnay et Fettyrneir habentur, ubi iterum fluvius clusuris 
strictus, non ante liberatur quam Inneruriam subeat, ubi 
Marria arctatur et postea toto itinere Donam limitem habet. 
Hie in austrum reflexus suscepto Urio, variis meandris campos 
cultissimos, si qui in omnibus hisce provinciis secans, primuni 
Kintoram celebrem ad viam regiam pagum, cui proxima arx 
Comitis Marescalli, Hall of Forrest dicta, jacet,praetergressus, 
iterum in ortum flexo alveo, campos feracissimos et spatiosos 
de Fintray dictos, lenis et tortuosus pererrans, nullis amplius 
montibus impeditus, ripis tamen altioribus neq^ dictis campis 
conferendis gurgitem trahens, Oceano post aliquot milliaria 
miscetur, sed arenaceo fundo, ostia navibus impervia. intersunt 
horum fluminum ostiis plus minus tria millia passuum littoris 
arenacei. 



ABERDEEN MARK 245 

Aberdonia duplici nomine, itemc^ oppido : ad utriusc^ ostia 
posita est, quae Nova dicitur, ad Deam, altera Veteris nomine 
ad Donam intervallo plus minus mille passuum. Hie Ecclesia 
Cathedralis bono fato sacrilegas manus evasit. plumbeo tecto 
spoliata, quod damnum hodie tegulae lapidea? utcunq^ supplent. 
hie Episcopi dum vigeret honos et officium, sedes, oppidum 
ager suburbanus illius erant. nunc sic omnia mutata, ut nee 
Episcopio parcitum sit, neque eo diruto, ipsis lapidibus 
requies. Collegium vere regale Episcopus Gulielmus Elphin- 
stonius ad annum 1521 hie struxit, nullis sumptibus parcens, 
amplis reditibus et agris in ejus perpetuum usum conversis. 
vix tamen tanto operi superstes, prospectum ab eo de magis- 
tris eorumq^ stipendiis omnibusc^ illis quorum servitutis usus 
necessarius. Geronticomium, quod in animo habebat, exe- 281. 
cutoribus voluntatis suae, legata pecunia, mandavit, nec^ opus 
cura successoris sui neglectum. Dona fluvius Oceano proxi- 
mus, ripas ponte nectitur. unius arcus aut fornicis, sed illius 
sane immensi, egregii et firmi operis. nescitur autor, quod 
minim cum Deae pons id non uno loco testetur, adeo diversa 
sunt hominum ingenia. Circa pontem et paullum supra eum 
molem lapideam toto fluminis alveo artificiose objectam ad 
piscaturse compendium, unde Celebris et lucrosus ex salmonibus 
quaestus non est opus referre. 

Aberdonia Nova tribus superstructa collibus editiore positu, 
undic^ ascendendo aditur, exteriora ejus, multis locis tanquam 
suburbia in plana expatiantur. Gregorius Rex circa annum 
890, loci commoditate allectus, jura, immunitates largitus est, 
regiis aedibus decoravit, quae postea Ecclesiae donatae, et fratrum 
Trinitariorum usibus dicatae sunt. Monetariam illic officinam 
fuisse arguunt nummi argentei ibidem cusi, quorum aliquot a 
cive servatos in rei fidem, adhuc adolescens vidisse me memini. 
Sed adhuc rebus infirmis, oppidum haerebat in suburbio cui 
viridis nomen, postea auctis opibus, se per proximos colles 
diffudit ; aedibus, plateis, templis, praetorio et quibuscunq^ aliis 
ad urbanum usum necessariis se instruxit, rempublicam, magis- 
tratibus electis instituit, quam Aristocratiae proximam esse 
voluit, commercia maritima agitavit; irde aucto civium numero, 
Praefecturae sedem juridicae, tribunal! Vicecomitis ibi locate, 
merita est. Collegium fundavit Georgius Kethus Comes, regni 



246 ABERDEEN MARK 

Marescallus, coemptis et in eum usum conversis Franciscanorum 
aedibus ad annum 1593, sed tarn tenuibus initiis, ut nisi piorum 
hominum liberalitas subvenisset, jam defecisset. Portus urbe 

282. abest, ad mille passus quo alveus fluvii recta fertur, relicto 
paulum ad sinistrum oppido, sed allabente aestu omnia adus^ 
cothonem aquis operiuntur, sic minoribus navigiis patet aditus : 
majora in portu deponunt onera; ante has civiles turbas, cives 
moliti sunt toto maritime lateri cothonem praetendere, jactis 
in id operis fundamentis. At bellicis motibus impediti, non 
omissum sed intermissum opus est. Arx in colle, cui ab ea 
nomen, cum libertati infesta esset, jam a multis annis diruta. 
Non ita pridem tentatum est oppidum ad usus bellicos muniri, 
sed infceliciter, cum natura locorum repugnet. ex adverse et 
in conspectu oppidi, in flumine exercetur nobilis ilia salmonum 
piscatura, unde non exiguus civibus quaestus ; hie lex agraria 
Licurgi locum habet ; tota ilia in sortes divisa est, quarum 
unam solam uni possidere fas. si altera accedat, vel ut 
haeredi vel aliter, alterutra cedere necessum habet. Flumen 
ad alteram lapidem insigni septem fornicum ponte stratum 
est, firma et duratura ex sectili lapide architectura, Galvini 
Dumbarri Episcopi opus. Proxime oppido ad occasum, in 
radicibus humilis collis, cui a mulieribus nomen est, manat 
copiosa scaturigo aquae limpidissimae, sed acidae, et ferrei 
saporis, haec statim se immergit vicino rivulo. creditur, testante 
experientia, arnica affectis visceribus, similesq^ vires aquis 
Spadanis in Belgio tantopere celebratis habere : unde et his 
cum illis commune nomen. ad eosdem morbos efficaces. 
Medici nonnulli nostrates de hisce nostris scripsere, earning 
viribus exploratis, quae invenerant literis mandavere. Sunt 
sane potui suaves, neq^ quisquam vel largissime haustis 
damnum sensit, caeterum vel ad eluendam linteam vestem vel 
ad coquendam cerevisiam aut rei culinariae plane inutiles : et 
a natura, ut videtur, ad medicos usus sepositae. Utriusc^ oppidi 

983. Athaenaea praeter Philosophica studia, habent theologiae, juris, 
medicinae et Matheseos Professores : Unde eorum quibus ad 
haec animus, et ingenium, concursus ; hinc prodiere multi viri 
egregii et reipublicae utiles, quorum non pauci vitam apud 
exteros non ingloriam egerunt, aguntq^ quorum nominibus 
modeste parco ; horum nonnulli scriptis suis satis cogniti, aliis 



ABERDEEN MARK 247 

latere placitum, cum a scribendi cacoethe, nimis huic aevo 
familiar! abhorrent abhorreantc^. 

Non omnino transmisi ad Typographum haec sequentia, 
nam nihil ad rem sunt. 

Multa me dehortabantur, ne calamo manum admoverem, 
senecta, quae ut corpus enervat, etiam vigor animi plerum^ 
vapulat ab ea, mala fides nostrorum procerum, qui ante plus- 
culos annos promissis mihi ad haec studia halcyoniis hue me 
impulerant, quorum turbulentum regnum quanquam desiit, 
non tamen, dum arma tractantur, pax videri potest. Obstabat 
praeterea intermissum mihi cum Typographo qui Amstelodami 
agit, commercium, cum illic omnia sicut apud nos, confusa, 
pace vix restituta. horum studiorum apud nos despectus et 
supina negligentia. Moverunt me tamen patriae, cum his pro- 
vinciis debeam natales, necessitudines, lares et quicquid caris- 
simum. Impulit me etiam, ut animos facerem aliis, qui ad 
haec idonei, ut provincias in quibus nati, aut aetatem agunt, 
vere et fideliter describant et ne quid in eorum script! s sit 
nimis aut supra veritatem, ne ex musca Elephas : quo morbo 
pleric^, dum narramus nostra, laboramus. Vera fidelis et plena 
regionum nostrarum descriptio intacta manet. Boetius noster 
neglectis his, ad rerum miranda deflexit, in quibus plerisq^ 
veritate eruta, nihil miri. Buchananus vero desultorie haec 
praetervehitur. Jam mihi venia a proceribus et nobilitate 
harum praefecturarum detur, si non satis honorifice, stirpium 
latifundiorum, art-ium^ meminerim ; sciant me carceribus 2 
arctatum, non debuisse in ilia expatiari ; animus mihi solum 
fuit, nostris qui hisce studiis pares, veternum excutere. Haec 
qualiacunc^ ut parum historica, lectoribus fortasse injucunda 
videbuntur, cognitis tamen locis, vel mappa adhibita, fasti- 
dium levabitur. 

Aliud hujuscemodi. 

Multa me dehortabantur, ne calamo manum admoverem, 
senectus, quae ut corpus enervat, etiam ab ea vigor animi 
plerumc^ vapulat, mala fides eorum Procerum qui ante plusculos 
annos, promissis halcyoniis me ad haec studia impulerant. nihil- 



248 ABERDEEN BANFF 

dum a typographo transmission eorum quae ad eum impor- 
tunis flagitationibus evictus, semiperfecta, curaveram dari. 
horum studiorurn supina apud nos, pace non satis adulta, 
negligentia, coactus tamen dedi hoc amicorum votis et 
desideriis, eorum praesertim, qui jubere imo imperare poterant: 
movit me etiam, ut nostrorum hominum qui huic negotio 
pares, studia accenderem, ut provincias in quibus nati, aut a 
quibus non longe absunt, vere et fideliter describant, et ne 
quid sit nimis, quo vitio pleric^ dum nostra narrantur, labo- 
ramus. Multa sunt, quae sciantur non indigna, intacta adhuc. 
Boetius noster intactis regionum descriptionibus, deflexit ad 
rerum miranda, in quibus plerisq^ veritate eruta, nihil mirum. 
cum Herodoto tantum non originem nostram ad Deos refert, ut 
nonnulli ejus naevi in historia retegantur, qui multos, qui nobis 
malevolebant, scriptis in eum conciverunt. Buchananus vero, 
cum venia tanti viri dictum sit, utinam quse prioribus tribus 
libris historiae suae scripsit, tanquam apparatum ad ipsum opus 
seorsim servasset : neq^ in supremis sic affectibus indulsisset, ut 
etiam exteris lectoribus, ab historico in partes transiisse vide- 
atur, descriptionem regni desultoria levitate praetergressus. 
Ausim sancte affirmare, jam senex, quae juvenis a senibus 
fando hausi, parum sinceri in historia nostra haberi, a Jacobi 
Quinti morte, hoc est ab anno 1542, adeo omnia apud nos 
confusa, adeo partium studiis nimiis quam multa. non satis 
fideliter in literas relata, veritatem temporis filiam adhuc 
occultam expectent. Jam mihi venia a proceribus nostris 
detur, si non satis honorifice eorum stirpis, latifundiorum 
arciumq^ meminerim. Sciant me carceribus epitomes arctatum, 
non debuisse in ilia expatiari. Animus mihi solum in hac 
fuit, nostris qui ad haec idonei, veternum excutere et hoc 
specimine, absit verbo invidia, praeire. Haec qualiacunq^ ut 
parum historica legentibus fortasse injucunda videbuntur, 
cognitis tamen locis vel Mappa adhibita, fastidiuni levabitur. 

m . AD TABULAM ABREDONENSEM et BANFI- 
ENSEM. 

Scotiae tractum ilium, qui quam maxime in orientem pro- 
currit, limpidissimis fluminibus Dea et Spea et oceano con- 



ABERDEEN BANFF 249 

clusum hac tabula exhibemus ; qui duos Vicecomitatus 
Abredonensem et Banfiensem comprehendit, totos trans 
Grampios montes ad septentrionem porrectos. Regio est coelo 
salubri et dementi satis, quod vicinus Oceanus et frequentes 
fluvii largiuntur. Armentis, frugibus, sibi sufficiens aliorum 
que defectui large ministrans. Olim tota silvis horrida, quae 
nunc in avia refugere, quarum succrescenti soboli pastio aut 
satio impedimento est; Unde qui paulo longius iis absunt, a 
vicina Norvegia sibi prospiciunt ad aedificia aliosq^ usus, namq^ 
ad ignem nihil opus est ; Terra enim bituminosa, cespitesq^ 
abunde sufficiunt optimumq^ praebet ignis alimentum, non 
solum effossis cespitibus, in superficie terras, sed ad altitudinem 
orgiae unius aut alterius, semper paene ubi olim frequentes 
silvae, quod testantur radices et immanes trunci quotidie eruti. 
Olim regio haec in provincias quasdam divisa. Marriam, 
Buquhaniam, Gariocham, Formartinam, Boenam, Ainiam, 
Strath- Ylam, Strathbogiam, quarum hodie vestigia et nomina 
supersunt, caeterum omnium distinctos limites definire difficile 
esset. Incolae omnium Scotorum, qui ultra Grampium montem 
sedes habent, bellicosissimi, humanissimi. Nobiliora flumina 
sunt Dea qui ex humilibus montibus Scairsoch dictis, per 
aspreta Grampiorum montium continue devolutus, eaq^ non 
raro dividens, recto cursu in orientem tendens, multis ignobi- 
lioribus rivis commistis, ad Abredoniam magno et eximii 
opens ponte junctus Oceanum subit. Dona a Strathdonae 
montibus defluens, eundem quern Dea cursum, sed variis 
ludens meandris, molitur, et duobus milliaribus a Dea, 
Oceano itidem mergitur, ad ostia amplissimo ponte unius arcus 
connectitur. Ythanna brevis cursus, et per campos evolutus 
tardus, Oceani aestus altius quam quivis harum regionum 
fluvius sentit. Ugius, duplex interioris et citerioris cognomi- 
nibus, qui simul confluentes, Buquhaniam intersecant, et ad 
Innerugiam in Oceanum efFunduntur. Doverna a jugis com- 
pascuae regiunculae Cabrach ortus, ad Strathbogiam, Bogiam 
recipiens et infra paulum a sinistris Ylam, et nonnullos alios 
ignobiles fluviolos, in Circium tendens, ad Banfiam desinit. 

Spea a dorso Badenochse ortus, in Circium cursu tendens, , 
totam Badenochse longitudinem emensus, multis illic auctus 
fluminibus, Strath -Speam irrigat, ubi Dulnanum suscipiens et 



250 ABERDEEN BANFF 

infra a dextris Aviniam rapidissimo cursu, Moraviae limes, 
infra amplissimos Marchionis Huntilaei aedes Bog of Gicht 
dictas, aquas perdit. 

DESCRIPTIO DUARUM PR^EFECTURARUM ABER- 
DONI^E et BANFI^E. 

Aggredior descriptionem duarum praefecturarum quae 
Grampiorum montium parte et Dea fluvio ab ipsis usc^ 
fontibus a meridie, Speae insignis et rapidissimi fluminis 
decursu ab occasu, a septentrione, parte magni sinus cui Varar 
antiquum nomen, hodie Murray fyrth, ad orientem vero 
aperto Oceano conclusae jacent, in qua si supra caeteras regni 
provincias me exerceam venia detur, cum his locis debeam 
natales, culturam ingenii, fortunae bona, aut si quid his 
charius, nihil tamen supra veritatem (cui in his litavi) ut in 
rebus mihi probe cognitis dicendum erit. Non erant haec 
loca, quamquam extra Romanes limites, perspicacissimo Alex- 
andrino Geographo plane incognita, qui rudi forma, non 
longe tamen veritate ipsa, littora situmq^ terrarum describit. 
Incolas Taezalos, et extremum ad ortum promontorium 
Taezalum promontorium hodie Buchanness, nomine nostris 
scriptoribus plane ignoto designat. Nostri ab origine totum 
hunc tractum in varias partes distinctis nominibus secuerunt. 
est Marriae inferior et superior, hodie Marr, Cromarr, Strath- 
Dee, Brae- Marr, ulterius Gariocha, itidem his ad septentrionem 
Buchania, tota secundum littus, est Boena, Ainia, ad usc^ 
Speam fluvium, supra in mediterraneis, Strath-Bogia, Strath- 
Yla, Balvania, Strath Avinia et nonnullae aliae quas in tempore 
memorabo. Harum quae Strath praefixum habent, a fluviis 
qui illas secant, nomen referunt. vox enim ilia prisca lingua 
regionem significat flumine intersectam, at reliquorum nominis 
rationem qui vestigaverit nee ille operam luserit. Multarum 
S87. o, 110 ^ limites incerti. hodie tota haec ditio in duas praefecturas 
dividitur, quae ab oppidis, ubi jus dicitur, nomen habent: ilia 
Aberdonia et Banfia sunt. Caelum temperatum, salubre, quan- 
quam inassuetis et calidiore acre natis frigidiusculum, quod 
larga foci abundantia sarcitur, quanquam nullus unquam 
hypocaustorum usus. hyemes mites, quod oceano magnam 
partem circumfuso debetur. raro nivosae, magis fatigant pluviae, 
quod itidem Oceano debetur. Miraculo haec sunt exteris hue 



ABERDEEN BANFF 251 

advectis, presertim Suecis Danis Polonis, Pruseis, ubi terra 
totam hyemem perpetuis nivibus, rigido gelu concreta et abdita 
riget [? latet]. Mediterranea montibus crebris sed iis compascuis 
attolluntur. Dea fluvius Grampios monies secat, quorum pars 
ad arctum a flumine relicta, in diversa brachia dispersa, loca 
quae longius mari absunt, in montes tollit, At inferiora et 
secundum littora porrecta mitiora, montibusc^ libera. 
Buchania universa magno tractu, tota campis aut collibus fusa, 
montes [non] agnoscit. Neq^ per universum regnum depresso 
solo montibusq^ plane immuni asquabitur. Ventorum infestior 
vis, quorum Aparetias cseli frigidi, ssepe nivosi. Notus varius, 
Zephyrus nunquam non serenus, at Caurus omnium infestis- 
simus vi, frigore, nive. Incolarum ingenia, si humiliorem 
sortem aut faecem vulgi spectes, agriculture ut plurimum 
student aut vilioribus artificiis se dedunt, quae vix faeliciter 
exercent; nonnulli tamen ex his emergunt at pars melioris 
notae, aut claris natalibus editi, cives etiam oppidorumc^ 
cultores, ante omnia, a primis annis, literis exercentur: haec 
studia sectantur, genioq^ et annis auctis externa educatio 
praecipue apud Gallos amicam et semper adamatam iis gentem 
cordi est. Negotiatio civibus et urbanis relinquitur. Meliores 
magno suo malo, earn dedignantur ut natalibus imparem suis. 
unde aut inopia, aut armorum studium, quod multis locis apud ; 
exteros cum laude jam a multis annis exercuerunt. Ingeniis 
enim acribus et fervidis, sive Musis sive Marti se mancipent, 
non parum proficiunt; quibus jam aetas deferbuit, domi otium 
et in villis suis rusticam vitam urbanae praeferunt. unde pauca 
oppida, eaq,^ praeter unam Aberdoniam, quantivis momenti cum 
tamen tota regio frequenter satis habitetur, nisi invia aut avia 
prohibeant. Sed nec^ Urbani hanc otii notam vere effugirent, 
cum mercaturae et negotiation! non quantum facile possint in- 
dulgeant. 

Nunc antequam ulterius provehar necessario praefandum 
existimavi, quomodo inter haec factiosae nobilitatis perpetua 
dissidia, Ecclesiasticorum ambitionem et avaritiam quibus 
nobiles in suum commodum abutebantur, Regibus tutis esse 
licuerit. Sciri igitur operae pretium erit. Jacobo Quinto satis 
cedente, (nam supra ea tempora non est mini sermo) relligio 
reformata hie radices agere caepit. Regina regni haerede 
tenera aetate in Galliam abducta, ab iis qui Gallis favebant, 



252 ABERDEEN BANFF 

regimen regni Aranio Comiti traditum qui proximus regni 
haeres: hac dignitate ille cessit Mariae Lotharingae Jacobi 
Quinti viduae. ilia se reformation! opposuit, cumc^ videret a 
Reformatoribus arma parari, advocatis Gallis militibus, se 
contra vim tutatur. Interea adoleverat Jacobus postea 
Moraviae Comes ; ducem se reformatoribus praebuit, advocatis 
in subsidium Anglis donee regno pellerentur Galli. Regina 
autem Gubernatrice mortua, in Galliam properat speculaturus 
quid consilii Maria regina, extincto Francisco secundo jam 
vidua, caperet ; si forte ilia Gallia magis caperetur quam 
turbulenta Scotiae sceptra regere primum sibi locum ambi- 
turus. Ilia regressa quomodo se gesserit, historiae loquuntur; 
omnia ejus acta abunde testantur eum perpetua regni cupidine 
aestuasse ; et nisi immatura ejus consilia properata caedes tur- 
basset, procul dubio nihil non ausurus ut ad sceptra ei pateret 
aditus. Ante eum Atholiae Comes Jacobo Primo struxerat 
insidias, (rerum aestimatoribus sinceris) longe justioribus de 
causis, quas hie inserere longum esset, sed Moravii spurii 
tyrannis nullum habitura specimen recti : Superioribus autem 
saeculis nemo unquam extra regiam domum sceptra concupivit ; 
non Duglassiorum nimia et regibus gravis potentia hue 
collimitavit, non ilia- conjuratio quae Jacobum tertium neci 
dedit, sed eorundem opera sceptra filio tradita. Nobilitas 
inter se frequenter collidebatur, anhelantes, qui apud regem in 
maxima gratia florerent. Unde ad nos germani et regii san- 
guinis incorrupta series propagata est. 

Hie mirabitur forsan Lector quomodo inter tot factionum 
monstra, quae a procerum ambitione procedebant, Regi 
adolescent! et ad haec prohibenda impari, tuto esse licuerit. 
Nobilitas factiosa inter se collidebatur, unde omnia omnibus 
qui se immiscerent mala, at aliquid contra reges attentare aut 
sceptra audere, nulli per haec tempora, neq^ per super iora ulli 
unquam in mentem venit. Unde servata semper regia domus 
ad nos pervenit. Saepe civilia bella in regia familia, bella 
civilia eos exuere. quandoc^ pulsis legitimis regibus tyranni ad 
aliquod tempus regnavere, sed illis bello aut insidiis sublatis, 
omnia ad legitimos principes rediere. 

Sed jam singulas partes percurramus; a Banfiae praefectura 
incipiendo, Strath Avinia in mediterraneis regiuncula, hodie 



ABERDEEN BANFF 

Stra-down, Marchionunr Huntilaei avitum patrimonium. ad 

decursum Avinni fluminis jacet, quod omnium hujus regni 

fluminum limpidissimum et aquae purissimae esse retulit mihi 

Timotheus Pont, qui universa haec lustravit. Sed nulla inde 

nota laudabilis soli, macerrimum enim est, parca segete, et 

nonnullis annis vix maturescente, unde incolis maxima semper 

in pastu spes, quae nunquam illos fallit. Avinnus ex asperrimi 

et nivosi mentis Bin Awen dicti jugis, e lacu exiguo profluens, 

post pauca decursus milliaria, fluviolum Bulg e lacu ejusdem 

nominis effusum suscipit. dein per saxea et confragosa loca, 

multis undiq^ susceptis rivulis, eluctatur potius quam meat, 

dum suscipiat Liffetum, hunc autem et ilium alterum a dextris, 290. 

jam auctior aquis, in Speam se praecipitat, toto cursu in 

Boream tendens ; ad ejus cum Liffeto confluentes parietinae 

sunt vetustae arcis Drimin, exiguoc^ inde intervallo 

caetera tenent rusticanae casae. Neque haec, nec^ quae sequitur 

Balvania Speam attingit, tractus enim Strath Spaeas qui ad 

Praefecturam Moraviae spectat, intercedit. Balvania mitioris 

aliquantum soli, tota tamen montibus horrens, Fiddicho 

Huviolo et nonnullis aliis ignobilioribus iritersecta est, a Danis, 

qui haec loca insederunt, nomen sortita. Bal enim oppidum 

aut villam significat, cui Van pro Dan levi trajectu literarum 

supposita est per metathesim priscae linguae familiarem. In ea 

Mor-Tullich prima jam ante aliquot saecula Episcoporum 

Aberdonensium sede, nunc est ecclesia parochialis. Balvania 

egregia et amaeni situs arx ditionis caput. Achindounae [arx] 

autem et superior Fiddichi fluvii pars, silvestribus vallibus sedet, 

vix huic tractui accensi, cum ad Marchiones Huntilaeos spectent. 

fluvius hie se Speae miscet, postremus alicujus momenti qui 

ejus aquas augeat. Yla enim fluvius in vicinia ortus, post 

aliquot milliaria in hac regione decursum, subit tractum, cui 

nomen suum impertit. Sunt hie praeterea multae villae melioris 

notae hominibus habitatae, quibus recensendis hoc compendio 

non est immorandum: tota haec ditio jam inde a Jacobo 

Secundo ejus nominis rege nostro, hoc est, ab anno ad 

Comites Atholiae Stuartos spectavit, qui f rat re in uterinum hac 

donavit. qua stirpe deficiente, earn sibi pacta pecunia asseruere 

Barones Parlamentarii de Saltoun,ab iis eodem jure ad Innesi- 

orum familiam devoluta est. Nunc earn jure emptionis tenet 



254 ABERDEEN BANFF 

Rothesise Comes. Ubi jam montes deficere incipiunt, Strath- 
Yla ad ripas ejus fluvioli porrigitur, qui sinuosis flexibus 
primum in boream dein in ortum converse cursu, Dovernum 
fluvium paulum supra Rothemayam postea dicendam subit. 
29 L Tractus hie felici solo et segete et gramine laeta, multum 
juvante calce, cujus hie ingens ubic^ copia. huic excoquendae 
turn in suos usus, turn ad vicinorum aedificantium commodum 
(unde illis lucrum quotidianum) non segniter ab incolis labo- 
ratur. telis etiam lineis tenuioris fili, rem faciunt. Ketha 
vicus cum eeclesia ad amniculi ripam, stato singulis septimanis 
mercatu, loci opportunitate, e locis superioribus homines 
montanos ad sua vendenda aut permutanda invitat. Tota 
haec in varios dominos dispertita, a multis inferioris notre 
nobilibus habitatur. a Strath-Bogia excelso monte Ballach 
dividitur, ab Ainia proxima tractu humilium collium, quibus 
a rivulo, Altmore nomen. 

Ainia? vulgo Ein Yee, ab oceasu Spea, ad Boream sinus 
oceani Varar dictus, hodie Murray fyrth, ad ortum Boena re- 
giuncula adusc^ Cullenam oppidulum limites faciunt. Tota 
haec frugibus dicata nunquam coloni spem fallit, gramine 
parco tamen: haec vicinae Moraviae ubertate soli nihil cedit. 
fructibus tamen hortensibus, vitio incolarum potius quam 
terra genio vincitur. Mare piscosum ; hie deficiente calce, agri 
Oceano vicini alga marina stercorantur, cujus magna vis 
accedente bis quotidiano aestu, in littus ejicitur : adsunt servi 
observatis horis et ne quid pereat, recedente aestu maris, 
algam fugientem retrahunt, sese undis saeva hyeme etiam noctu 
immergentes. Ripae fluminis assidet Bog of Gicht arx culta, 
laxa, in magnam altitudinem evecta, tota splendida supra 
omnes alias harum regionum, cui sive voluptatem sive usum 
spectes, nihil deest. hortis amoenis et vivario amplo septa, 
quod muro firmo conclusum, in quatuor diversa, muris itidem 
separatur, ad usum cervorum, quorum illic duum generum 
abunde est. Loco nomen a depressiore situ, et opaca silva, 
superioribus annis hanc magnifice auxit Marchio Huntilaeus 
ejus sicut totius regiunculae dominus. Huic et proximse 
Boense interjacet silvula olim, etiam me juvene, proceris et 
immanibus quercubus decora, mine tota excisa : succrevit 
iterum querctis admista betula aquifolia 



ABERDEEN BANFF 255 

Strath Bogia, ampla et antiqua Baronia, nunc in Comita- 292. 
turn a Jacobo Rege erecta : earn Dovernus et Bogius secant, in 
eac^ miscentur. torrentes et rivuli frequentes, qui omnes 
ubertati gleb, tarn ad messes quam gramina multum pro- 
ficiunt. Veteri aevo in quadraginta pagos divisa, quas prisca 
lingua Daachs vocabat, quorum singulis tantum agri adjectum, 
quantum singulis annis quatuor aratris proscindi possit. neque 
id exigui spatii. cum moris apud nos sit, desectis messibus, per 
totam hyemem exercere aratra, ad Martium mensem, unde 
sementi initium, sed non nisi senescente Maio requiescentibus, 
hodie excisis silvis, omniq^ agro unde spes segetis ad culturam 
verso, omnia plus quam duplicata sunt. telae linese tenues 
hie laboratse precipue commendantur, unde omnibus vicinarum 
partium qui in hoc studio non alantur, telis ab hac regione 
nomen et commendatio. non exiguum hinc incolis emolumen- 
tum, qui omnes aestivas nundinas cum his frequentant. Bourn 
praesertim ad macellum gramme saginatorum, ovium equorum 
itidem ad rusticos usus quantum abunde sufficiat, nee non 
quibus instruantur fora. Incolae ut plurimum Huntilaei 
Marchionis necessarii, omnes vero ejus clientes, jam a seculis 
aliquot hujus tractus Domini. Strathbogia unde regioni nomen 
arx amoeno situ ad confluentes dictorum fluminum, regionis 
caput, hortis laxis jucundis ; pro foribus Dovernus ponte saxeo 
stratus. 

Omnium horum tractuum regiuncularumc^ quarum memini 
Incolae homines robusti, strenui, industrii si usus et exercitatio 
adsit, egregii milites sed verum fatear, non enim gentilibus 
meis parcendum est, tarn pace quam bello neglectis musis plus 
Marti semper litarunt. 

Hujus appendices sunt Rothymaia, arx cui Ecclesia adhaeret, 
tribus milliaribus infra Strath Bogiam ad fluvium eundem 
sita, olim ejusdem etiam pars. Baronum Parlamentariorum 
de Saltoun avitum haeredium nunc ad Gordonios devoluta. ^.y. 
Ad fontes vero Doverni, districtus jacet humili inter montes 
solo, alius fluviolus nigri nomine quern Melam dixeris, hie 
Doverno adhuc tenui confluit; quisc^ aquas duplicando justo 
fluvio pares facit. Cabrach loco nomen. totus gramini et pascuis 
sepositus. quod hie mirum in modum luxuriat. per aestatem 
mapalibus pastoritiis frequens. hyeme ut plurimum demigratur. 



256 ABERDEEN BANFF 

Boena regiuncula, ubere et toto solo nulli reliquarum 
cedit, qua mari obversa est, mediterranea ejus non item: ab 
Ainia secundum littora ad Doverni ostia porrigitur ; in aditu 
ejus est Cullena, vetusta satis; oppidi jure fruitur, sed 
portu defecta, vix mediocris vici nomine digna : earn solum 
commendant ager frugifer et Comitis Finlaterii aedes, qui 
deserta arce Finlateria scopulo marino inaedificata, ad milliare 
unum, hue migrarunt amoenitate loci illecti. illis in vicinia, 
ampla et opulenta latifundia. Ulterius ad ortum in littore, 
medio itinere qua Banfiam itur, est arx pulchra sane, cui rupes 
Boenae nomen, cujus dominus totius regionis titulum praefert. 
Baro ille, et antiquae stirpis. Banfia vero oppidum, praefectura 
hujus caput, ad dicti fluvii ostia sedet, non illamagni momenti, 
cum fluvius importuosus sit, procelloso cauro objectus, unde 
quandoq^ alvei mutatio: arcis relliquiae sunt ; cives rari et 
negotiationi impares, vicinos oppido agros exercent. Salmo- 
norum quoq^ est piscatura non incelebris. 

Sequitur Buchania, ampla et late patens provincia, ad initium 
sinus Varar adusq^ Taezalum promontorium, unde sinus ille prin- 
cipium sumit, ad ortum vero longo tractu Oceano incumbit; in 
mediterraneis incerti fines: quidam earn censent adusq^ flumen 
Donam exporrigi debere. Alii earn Ythanno fluvio terminant. 
reliqua Formartinae nomine habent. Novi ego antiquam 
Baroniam eo nomine dictam quae jam a variis possessa, cum 
nomine evanuit. Itinere sane qua a Taszalo Strath Bogiam 
itur, sunt nonnulla quae nulli provincias tributa, ab ecclesiis 
suis parochialibus nomen habent, qualia sunt Ochterles, 
Abirkirdir et Frenderacta Vicecomitum Crichtoniorum arx, 
294. etiam nonnulla alia. Caeterum Buchaniam totam campi aut 
colles tenent, tota aratris dicata, bourn oviumq^ dives, innu- 
meris rivis intersecta ; Ugius fluvius e duplici fonte, quorum 
utriq^ idem nominis, anterioris et posterioris cognomine dis- 
tincto, post decem milliaria emensa confluunt et ad Innerugiam 
arcem, Oceano se condunt. Ythannus vero non longi cursus, et 
multis rivis auctus ; Ugio longe ditior aquis, infra vicum NVo- 
burgum Oceano itidem miscetur, reflexo in ortum hybernum 
ostio ; piano solo means aestum supra reliquos omnes harum 
prsefecturarum fluvios sentit, sed arenosa littora portui nocent, 
qui non nisi minoribtis navibus aditur. At ut redeam undo 



ABERDEEN BANFF 257 

digressus sum: supra Banfiam ad septem milliaria paullum a 
Doverno est ad rivum sui nominis Turravia amcenus cum 
ecclesia pagus, rei falconariae percommodus, apertis campis 
aut collibus in tantum venationi apta, ut nullus in his praefec- 
turis, vix in aliis par sit; inde ad austrum ad sex millia, 
visuntur ad Ythanni ripas, a?des magnificae et spatiosae Ferme- 
linoduni Comitum Fivai nomine; totus hie fluvius villis et 
arcibus Baronum et nobilium inferioris Ordinis tenetur. Ab 
ostio ejusdem, flexo in arctum itinere prima jacet Slanis arcis 
dirutae Comitum Erroliae parietinae. qui inde migrarunt, 
structis aedibus in Bownfess] peninsula in littore scopuloso. Ad 
ipsurn promontorium Taezalum sedet Peterhead loco ad exer- 
cendam rem maritimam opportune, portui accomoda si adhi- 
beatur industria, ut quae fuerat moles, ad frangendas undas, 
jam paene labefactata est. Neq> succurritur, sed loci egregia 
opportunitas plane negligitur. Caenobii de Deer quondam ille 
fuerat, nunc Comitem Marescallum Dominum agnoscit. inde ad 
alterum milliare provectis Innerugia in littore habetur ampla et 
illustris arx, magnae et veteris Baroniae sedes primaria, Comitis 
dicti patrimonium. Jam superato promontorio duodecim ab 
eodem passuum millibus visitur Fraserburgum. abante annos 
quinquaginta, molitus oppidum est Alexander Fraserius illus- 
tris Eques et Baro : libertatibus a rege concessis auxit, molem 
etiam lapideam magnis sumptibus Oceano objecit, primum 
loco iniquiore dein translatis alio operibus, portum munivit, $ 
qui hodie frequentatur, et oppido incrementa dat. 

Supra earn in mediterraneis ad Ugium sunt ruinae aut 
ruinarum locus vetusti et locupletis Caenobii de Deer nomine 
quercum prisca lingua (etiam referente Beda,) significante, qui 
non tamen hujus, sed alius ejusdem nominis meminit ; fuerat 
illud nostrum Cisterciensis Ordinis ; habeo apud me antiquam 
cartam pergamenam, sigillo Gulielmi Cuming Comitis de 
Buchan impressam qua non obscure videtur eum aut illud 
fundasse aut cum primis terras ei donasse. Sedebat in depressa 
valle undic^ silvis opaca. Vidi ego prima adolescentia, templum, 
aedes, Monachorum cellas, hortos amoenos, aliaq^ tantum non 
Integra, sed nunc avectis ipsis lapidibus triumphat aratrum. 
hoc coenobio Jacobus Rex donavit Georgium Comitem Mares- 
callum, dum eum legatum ad desponsandam Annam Reginam 

VOL. II. R 



258 ABERDEEN BANFF 

in Daniam mittit, qui tamen plus damni quam lucri inde 
sensit. Ultra Ythannum adust^ Donam nihil memorabile 
occurrit, praeter inferioris Ordinis Nobilium, quorum multi 
Barones audiunt, arces et aedes frequent! ssimas, aut ubi desunt, 
rusticanse caesae omnia paene tenent. Nihil aut quam exiguura 
otiosae telluris. Memoria exciderat nullos in hac provincia 
montes, unus est, Mormond dicunt qui caeteris terris paulum 
supereminens, mediocri colli in mediterraneis impar. At bourn 
oviumq^' ingens copia, segete quasi tota vestita, non raro 
aliorum penuriae medetur, smgulis annis etiam devectis Letham 
frugibus, cum australioribus commercia agitant. Incola? 
secuti genium soli, strenui agricolae, ad maritima segues. 
Materies ad aedificia e Norvegia petitur, quae si deficeret, male 
cum iis actum foret, adeo infestos et inimicos silvis majores 
habuimus, ut ubi omnia ante aliquot saecula inhorruere silvis 
adusc^ ipsa littora, nunc penuria laboretur. 

Gariocha (Garviach vulgo Gheriach,) inter Strath Bogiam, 
Buchaniam et Marriam conclusa, nullibi mare attingens, 
nescitur unde origo nominis ; prisca lingua (Garve) asperum, 
saxosum inaequale solum significat, Ach vero campum vel 
campestre. haec non respondent regionis indoli quae duabus 
amnibus multisq^ rivulis irrigua, in convallibus tota posita esi 
Collibus frugiferis expansa, opulenta et tempestiva messe, nun- 
quam coloni votis non respondens, Bennachius mons secundum 
longitudinem, earn pasne totam ad meridiem metitur, qui in 
septem acutos et distinctos vertices assurgens, se conspicuum 
praeternavigantibus praebet. inferiora namq^ omnia plana. Urius 
amnis non procul Gartlia arce, leni jugo ortus, per sterilem 
vallem decurrens, inter duorum montium confragosa eluctatus, 
et campis im missus, mediam inaequali et tortuoso alveo secans, 
ad Inner uriam urbeculam Donae confluit. Ad radices vero 
Bennachii montis, ejusc^ longitudinem emensus Gadius fluviolus 
ad alterum milliare supra Urii ostia eidem miscetur. hie non 
defit venatio leporum jucunda, aequatilium avium, perdicum 
vanellorum aliarumcj^ abunde est. gramine parcior est. Ad 
milliare unum supra pagum Inche dictum Collis est undic^ 
rotundus, mediocri altitudine, nullis vicinis montibus con- 
tiguus, totus laeto gramine virescens ; in ipso hujus fastigio 
manent parietinae arcis, Regis Gregorii I. opus, ubi et vita 



ABERDEEN BANFF 259 

functus, quod vix referrem, nisi fabula ovium ibidem pascen- 
tium auratis dentibus insignium me monuisset. quarum non- 
nullas gingivas auratis dentibus notatas vidisse me memini, 
unde fabula vulgi, Boetio historico nostro illusit, collem ilium 
venis auri divitem ; at qui locum exacte perpendet nullius 297. 
metalli vel suspitionem esse videbit, adeo refragatur loci 
natura. gramini id potius tribuendum videtur, neq^ mihi in 
hoc satisfacio, cum enim pastura omnibus libera, cur tarn 
rarum id solum nonnullis contingit ? Ubi a Dona absorbetur 
Inneruria jacet, antiqua satis, burgensibus ut vocant immuni- 
tatibus gaudens sed quae in Abredoniae vicinia, mediocris 
|)agi honori vix sufficit : in itinere qua ab illo oppido Elginam 
in Moravia itur, posita est, prioribus seculis tota silvis opaca, 
quarum nunc nee vestigia manent : omnia aperta : non longe 
hinc Robertus rex ejus nominis primus, acie fudit Cuminium 
Buchaniae Comitem illi rebellem, fugientem secutus Buchaniam 
populatus est ; acta haec sunt circa annum 13 Postea 

Alexander Stuartus Marrise Comes, Donaldum Insulanum 
^Ebudarum viribus fretum, omnia vastantem cruento praelio 
vicit ad Harlaw vicum in vicinia, quod incidisse in Annum 
1411 annales nostri referunt. Districtus hujus maxima pars 
Comitatui Marrise adnexa, titulos ejus hodieq^ auget. 

Marria (cujus nominis etimologiam nemo dixerit,) inferior 
et oceano proxima ab austro, et septentrionibus, Dea et Dona 
Huminibus coercita, in superioribus extra utrunq^ expatiatur. 
Longitudine insignis, latitudine longe impar. qui hos fluvios et 
confluentes iis amnicolas descripserit, omnia paene dixerit, adeo 
mediterranea montibus et ericetis abundant, Dea namc^ Gram- 
pios montes a fontibus secans adusq^ ostia, ubi in colles 
desinunt, non exiguam eorum partem a dextra relinquens, 
provinciam hanc montanam et quam multis cultures ineptam 
reddit. quicquid tamen messibus cedit, optimae notae est, 
desecaturq^ tempestivis semper autumnis. Montes hi armentis 
bourn, ovium eximiarum et gratissimi saporis gregibus, equis 
ad rusticana opera, capris in superioribus oris satis divites 
lanae, caeterorum omnium tractuum a me descriptorum longe 
optimse, candore, mollitie, tenuitate laudatae avide expetun- 
tur. Non tamen haec sarciunt damnum inutilis soli. Aer 29 
saluber, incolae robusti, sani, et homines frugi ; tellus arida, 



260 ABERDEEN BANFF 

nec^ satis frugifera eorum acuit ingenia. Dea fontes habet 
juxta humilium montium seriem Scarsach dictam, quae Mar- 
riam superiorem Bra of Mar a Badenocha dividunt ad montem 
praecelsum, Bini-vroden vocant. recepto Galdi amniculo, non 
nihil in orientem hybernum decurrit, statim in ortum sese 
retorquens, nullis paene flexibus impeditus, quanquam asperis 
altisq^ montibus ab utraq^ ripa coercitus, celer, limpidus, illimis, 
glareoso semper alveo, ad Aberdoniam cui novae nomen, 
pontem subiens jam proximus oppido, Oceano miscetur; ad 
Inner-ey ab amniculo Ey dicto septem milliaribus a scatebris 
primum culturam sentit. deinde auctior aquis quas multi 
magniq^ rivi e montibus devehunt, alluit a dextris Casteltoun, 
urbem castelli dixeris, Comitum Marriae aedes, ad mod urn 
castelli aedificatas cum vicina ecclesia. In adversa ripa est 
Innercald villa, paulo inferius ecclesia cum pago Crathy, inde 
a dextris Abirzeldie arx itidem, ubi vallis Strath Deae nomine 
audit: nisi Glengardinam adjicias, a fluvio cui incumbit nomi- 
natam, caetera loca rusticanis casis habentur, hie parca seges, 
valle Deae montibus arctata ; at silvae procerarum abietum non 
desunt, quae multo auro in regionibus inferioribus redimeren- 
tur, Ad milliare unum infra Abiryeldeam mons est praecel- 
sus, ad fluminis ripam, nulli alteri contiguus, quanq^ nimium 
quam multi ei approximent ; totus undiquao^ silva vestitus, 
cacumina et rupes tenet immensarum abietum semper virescen- 
tium decorum nemus, devexa adusq^ fluvium camposq^ betu- 
larum et tiliarum silva, tarn proceris densisc^ arboribus, ut 
nihil ex toto monte praeter silvam videas. Crag-Gewis monti 
nomen, crag rupem, gewis abietem significante. Proxima his 
est Glen Muick exigua vallis ab amne nomen habens, qui e 
lacti ejusdem nominis ortus, post non multa milliaria Deae 
miscetur a dextris, ex adverso paene Gardini fluvii. Infra 
Glen-Muick in eadem ripa sese offert silva Pananich dicta 
299. quae frequens devehitur Aberdoniam usq^, sed ad vecturae com- 
modum praeparata, in rusticorum usus, ad aedificia enim integri 
arborum trunci aspero et saxoso itinere, neq^ deferri possunt, 
neq^ rapidissimo flumini, quanquam aquarum satis sit, tuto 
committi. Sequitur in eadem ripa amcena arx Kean-na-kyll : 
caput silvae vox significat. ad secessum voluptuarium a 
Marchione Huntilaea ante plusculos annos aedificata, 



ABERDEEN BANFF 261 

silvis opaca, loco piscatui, aucupio venation! cervorum et 
damarum peropportuno : inferius legendo ripam Tanerus 
fluviolus Deam subit, ortus hie e jugis altissimorum montium 
qui Angusiae provinciae ac Marriae limites faciunt. ingenti 
silva procerarum abietum ripae coronantur, quae ad multa mil- 
liaria protenditur. Proxima ei Birs dicta paroecia quae a 
flumine ad fontes amnis Feuch dicti excurrit, ubi superioribus 
annis, silva betularum arborum, omnium vicinorum usibus 
abunde suffecit ; nunc desecta, incuria eorum quorum interest 
tarde reflorescit, nulla telluris injuria ad hoc aptissima. Jam 
Marria Deam limitem habet, qui earn a Mernia vicina pro- 
vincia dividit, imo flumen id loci transgressa, parochiam 
Banchoriam Dominici dictam ei subtrahit, ubi non longe a 
ripa, saxoso situ arx est Crathes ; Thomas Burnetus Baro, loci 
dominus, cura et ingenio loci genium vicit, consitis enim manu 
abietibus, aliisq^ arboribus, horridas cautes texit, hortis in- 
struxit, amcenitatem induxit. descendendo sequitur Drummia 
arx ad milliare a flumine sejuncta, loco alto et aspero at 
aedifiiciis, liortis egregie culta, Alexandrum Irwinum Baronem, 
antiques et illustris prosapiae, gentist^ suae principem Dominum . 
habet. Nihil praeterea hie quod referatur, memoria dignum, 
antequam fluvius pontem subeat. At in superioribus, post 
Gardini ostia, tractus est Cromar dictus, a tota vicinia monti- 
bus divisus ; ad occasum, Morvin praecelsus supra caeteros mons 
et Kiblena silva ei terminus; tractus vix ultra quatuor mil- 
liaria, vel in longum vel in latum diffusus, rivulis duobus 
intersectus, collibus aut campis expansus, reliquam Marriam & 
feraci solo longe vincit, totus Cereri dicatus, vicinorum omnium 
horreum, nihil hie non egregium, nihil non tempestivum, et 
quod mirere, ubertas haec non attingit Deam, quae ab eo 
ericetis et sterili tellure interjecta, supra milliare abest. in 
quatuor ecclesias parochiales divisus, diversos dominos agnoscit. 
Proxima ei stat Obyne, quae titulos Baronis Parlamentarii 
dat Marchionis Huntilaei filio cui vicinus in proxima valle 
lacus Ach-lossin dictus. ad fluvium vero stat Kincardina pagus 
cum ecclesia, ad viam regiam, qua transmittunt montes ; abest 
Aberdoniae ad octodecim milliaria ; infra earn Cannius fluviolus 
tribus milliaribus a flumine Dea suscipitur. tractus hujus 
fluvioli totus amcenus, totus eximie ferax, conchis margariferis 
abundans, ad ostia attingit Banchoriam jam a nobis dictam. 



262 ABERDEEN BANFF 

Dona fluvius, quantum Dese magnitudine et longitudine 

impar tan turn ilium ubertate terrarum vincit, jugis montium 

qui Strath Aviniam a Marria dividunt ortus, tenui alveo secat 

vallem Strath Donam dictam, multis rivis auctus, ad Inner- 

nochteam Ecclesiam, Nochtium fluviolum suscipit a sinistris. 

Paulo inferius a dextris Descrium, et ex adverso Buchetum. 

tractus hie gramine laetus, pasturae commodus, quanquam non 

desint segetes ; ad Buchetum fluviolum eluctatur inter angustias 

montium. Toto autem cursu non ut Dea rapidus, sed placidis 

ut plurimum undis, variis meandris multum soli irrigans, 

fcecundas valles aperit, quandoq^ montibus arctatus, iterumq^ 

in campos expatiatur. Infra Buchetum et ad ilium Inner- 

buchetum arcem primi nominis, est ad sinistram Arx Kil- 

drumia vetus ilia, et regum ut creditur, opus ; mirum est earn 

loco neque amceno montibus impendentibus, iisq^ sterilibus, et 

campis adeo eivicinis positam; atoppidum in campis molitoscon- 

ditores indicat nomen Burroustoun quod oppidum vel burgum 

significat. At firmo muro, crebris et ingentibus turribus unde 

invicem commeare licet adversus vim eo seculo tuta : nunc novis 

SOI. structuris commodior et amoenior, Comitum Marrias primaria in 

his locis sedes est. Donee ripam legendoinfluit Mo sett us am ni- 

culus, et non longe hinc Ecclesia Forbes ad ripam fluminis, inter 

confragosos montes posita est, cujus non erat meminisse, nisi, 

annalibus nostris referentibus, primus autor clarissima? in 

his oris familise Forbesiorum, unde mihi maternum genus im- 

manem Ursum omnia circumqua^ vastantem hie neci dederit, 

cujus rei signa hucusc^ clypeo gentilicio posteri praeferunt, qui 

in multos ramos diffusi in his oris a fluminis hujus scatebris et 

per multa harum prsefecturarum loca, quamplurima latifundia 

ditione tenent ; hie Marria montes praetergressa, parochiam 

Cletam, arcemq^ Baronis Parlamentarii de Forbes cui Dryra- 

minor nomen, Gariochae et Strathbogiae subtrahere videtur. 

Jam Dona angustiis liber, per amplam et pinguis soli vallem, 

accepto Leochello amne et Alfordiam pragterlapsus, post 

quatuor milliaria emensa, iterum angustiis Bennachii mentis 

stringitur, per quas rupibus et scopulis horridas in meridiem 

reflectitur, et campis immissus, iterum ad suum cursum, ad 

ortum labitur. amcena et fbecunda haec planities Monimosk 

habet, Forbesiorum arcem, ubi an tea prioratus ejusdem nominis, 



ABERDEEN BANFF 263 

cujus latifundiis in privates usus versis, aedes quoq^ interiere. 
diverso a flumine itinere Clunia arx visitur, nec^ longe abest 
Mulkalia arx firma et egregii operis, sedes Fraseriorum Bar- 
onum Parlamentariorum de Mulkall, infra adhuc ad flumen 
di versis ripis sunt Kern nay et Fettyrneir, ubi iterum fluvius 
clausuris strictus, non ante liberatur quam Ineruriam subeat, 
ubi Marria arctatur, et flumen limitem habet. hie in austrum 
reflexus suscepto Urio variis meandris campos cultissimos si qui 
in his omnibus provinciis [sic] primum Kintoram celebrem 
pagum, cui proxima Arx Comitis Marescalli, Hall of Forrest 
dicta sedet, praetergressus. ea inde iterum ortum versus, campos 
de Fmtray dictos tortuosus pererrans, nullis amplius montibus 
infestis, solo altiore nec^ campis conferendo means, Oceano 
post aliquot milliaria miscetur. Intersunt horum fluminum 
ostiis plus minus trium millium passuum iter littoris arenacei. 302, 
Aberdonia duplici nomine, itemq^ oppido, ad utriusc^ ostia 
visitur. quae nova ad Deam, altera veteris nomine ad Donam 
posita, intervallo plus minus mille passuum ; hie ecclesia 
cathedralis et episcopi (dum esset) sedes : oppidum, agri, 
illius erant. nunc adeo omnia mutata ut non Episcopio par- 
citum sit neq^ eo diruto, ipsis lapidibus requies. Collegium 
vere regale Episcopus Gulielmus Elphinstonus hie struxit, 
nullis sumptibus parcens ; vix illud, morte absumptus, perfec- 
tum videns, prospexit de stipendiis, magistris omnibusc^ iis 
quorum servitutis necessarius usus ; geronto quod in 

animo habebat, executoribus, legata pecunia mandavit nec^ ii 
opus neglexere. Dona fluvius proximus Oceano ripis nectitur 
ponte unius arcus, sed illius immensi : egregii et firmi operis, 
nescitur autor, quod mirum, cum Deae pons id non uno loco 
testetur. Adeo diversa sunt hominum ingenia. Circa pontern 
et paullum supra eum, molem lapideam toto fluminis alveo 
artificiose objectam etiamq^ celebrem et questuosam salmonum 
piscaturam non est opus referre, alio properanti. Nova 
Abredonia tribus superstructa collibus editiore solo undic^ 
ascendendo aditur. Gregorius Rex circa annum loci 

commoditate allectus, primus pago jura, privilegia largitus 
est ; aedes habuit, quae postea in Fratrum Trinitatis, ut vocant, 
Collegium mutatae sunt : moneta hie signata, cujus unum aut 
alterum numisma me adolescente civis habebat, sed adhuc 



264 ABERDEEN BANFF 

tenuibus rebus oppidum haerebat in suburbio cui hodie viride 
(green) nomen. postea auctis opibus sese per altiores colles 
diffudit, sedibus, plateis, templis,praetorio et quibuscunq^ rebus 
aliis ad urbanum usura sese instruxit, rempublicam magistrati- 
bus electis instituit quam Aristocraticam voluit. Commercia 
maritima agitavit. Sic crescentibus civibus hie juri dicundo 
totae praefecturse tribunal institutum. Collegium fundavit 
Georgius Kethus Mareschallus Comes, conversis in eum usum 
Franciscanorum sedibus, sed tarn tenuibus initiis, ut nisi 
piorum hominum liberalitas subvenisset, jam defecisset. portus 

303. abest urbe ad mille passus, quo alveus fluminis recta defluit. 
Allabente aestu omnia adusq^ cothonem aquis operiuntur, sic 
minoribus navigiis ad urbem patet aditus, majora in portu de- 
ponunt onera. ante plusculos annos cives moliti sunt cothonem 

, per totum maritimum latus producere jactis etiam funda- 
mentis, at civilibus nostris procellis non omissum sed 
intermissum opus est. Arx in colle cui ab ea nomen, com- 
plexa in ea totius collis summa planicie, nunc diruta ; non ita 
pridem tentatum est urbem ad usus bellicos munire, sed in- 
faeliciter cum natura locorum repugnet, neq^ aliter toto regno 
se res habent ; quicquid muniatur infestis temporibus, pace 
facta negligitur. ex adverso et in conspectu urbis, exercetur 
nobilis ilia piscatura. Ubi lex agraria Licurgi locum habet : 
ilia in sortes divisa est, quarum unicam uni possidere licet. 
Si altera vel haeredi vel aliis modis accedat, alterutra cedere 
necessum habet. Flumen ad alterum lapidem insigni septem 
arcuum ponte, stratum est, firma et duratura architecture, 
Gavini Dumbari Episcopi opus. Utriusq^ oppidi Athenaea, 
praeter philosophica utrisc^ communia, habent Theologiae, Juris, 
Medicinae et Mathematum Professores, unde eorum quibus ad 
haec animus et ingenium, concursus. hinc prodiere viri egregie 
eruditi, et reipublicae utiles, quorum multi apud exteros 
vitam non inhonoram egerunt, aguntc^ quorum nominibus 
modeste parco ; horum nonnulli scriptis suis satis cogniti, alii 
latuerunt, cum a scribendi cacoaethe nimis huic aevo familiari 
abhorrerent. Ab oppido ad occasum in radicibus collis cui a 
mulieribus nomen, manat copiosa aquae acidae et ferrei saporis 
scaturigo; haec statim immergit se vicino rivulo. Creditur, 
testante experientia similes vires aquis Spadanis in Belgio 



ABERDEEN BANFF 265 

tantopere celebratis habere, ad eosdem morbos efficax. Medici 
nostrates nonnulli has aquas, scriptis in earn rem editis earum . 
viribus exploratis laudavere. Sunt sane potui satis suaves, 
neq^ quisquam, iis larga copia haustis, damnum sensit. 
Caeterum vel ad eluenda lina vel ad coquendam cerevisiam 
plane inutiles, et a natura, ut videtur, ad medicos usus 804. 
sepositae. Urbem hanc regiam sedem fuisse, ante Pictorum 
excidium testantur annales ; monetariam illic officinam arguunt 
nummi argentei ibidem cusi, quorum nonnullos in manibus 
civis adhuc servatos, me adolescente memini. aedes regiae 
postea Ecclesise donates et fratrum Trinitariorum usibus 
dicatae. 

Durant adhuc antiqui paganismi vestigia; diversis locis 
visuntur septa magnorum saxorum in orbem disposita. Unum 
latitudine conspicuum obversum austro, septo paene contiguum, 
altaris vicem supplesse videtur. Immania haec saxa e lon- 
ginquo saepe petita. Sunt etiam variis locis in collibus aut 
solo edition immensi lapidum minorum cumuli, humano 
labore aliunde hue convecti, in quibus, rudibus saeculis et 
Christianitate nondum agnita, proceres sepelire solenne 
fuerat. disjectis namque saxis, scrutatisq^ fundamentis, cada- 
verum relliquiae repertae sunt. Inveniuntur praeterea lapides 
aut saxa erecta verum nonnulla, sculptura aut rudi caelatura 
honestata, nonnulla rudia sunt. Victoriarum aut praeliorum 
procul dubio monumenta, quorum memoria intercidit, at 
quorum ex annalibus nostris historia manet, prodantur. Dani 
cum Angliam infestarent nec^ haec loca extra anni solisc^ vias 
intacta reliquerunt. Semel descensu facto ad Buchaniae littora 
orientalia, in scopulosa peninsula Bowness dicta sese munien- 
tibus, quae hodie Comitis Erroliae aedibus ornata est, nostris 
copiis occurrentibus in sabuloso littore, ad mille a peninsula 
passibus concursum est. Victi Dani intra munimenta sua 
refugerunt, et statim pace facta navibus avecti sunt. partium 
duces communi consilio pepigerunt, ad locum praelii Ecclesiam 
statuendam Divo Olao dicandam, quod et factum est. postea 
exeso mari littore, Ecclesia ad mille passus interius statuta 
manet, cui sicut et vicino tractui Crowdan hodie nomen est 
Iterum ad Cullenam in Boena oppidulum terra conscensa et 
vicina vastantibus copiae opponuntur, illi per agros sparsi, 



266 ABERDEEN BANFF 

sese colligunt praelio confligitur, millia aliquot passuum ab 
305. oppidulo illo, victi illi, et regione depulsi sed ea pugna Regem 
amisimus. Haec istis locis quae describimus con- 
tigerunt, sed hie non stetit horam praedonum rabies, multa 
praeterea loca per omnes ortivas regni oras ab iis tentata sunt, 
quae commemorare non est hujus instituti ; Patrum quoc^ 
memoria, civilibus armis quater depugnatum est, etiam^ 
nuperis hisce turbis, quae mirum quantum nos exercuerunt, bis 
infestis armis concursum est, quorum utinam oblivio nos 
teneat, et succedat amnestia. 

Non desunt frequentes nundinae annuae, sed vicis aut locis 
ut plurimum mediterraneis : celebriores narrabo. Exeunte 
mense Junio ad nundinas convenitur in apertis campis, in 
itinere qua Aberdonia itur Strabogiam. Hae a Serfio indigete 
Divo nomen habent; causa frequent iae opportunitas loci, est 
enim commune distributorium inter populos longe discretos. 
Succedunt Calendis Augusti ad Turraviam in Buchania vicum, 
iterum ad Divi Laurentii diem in Rania tenui Garviochae 
viculo ; succedunt omnium celeberrimae et frequentissimae ad 
Kincarnum Ecclesiam Marriae parochialem ad Deae fluminis 
ripam, per quam iter facientibus trans Grampios montes in 
Moraviam, aut ulterius in septentriones transeundum est. 
Proxima septimana habentur ad Ketham in Strath Yla 
mundinae die Divo Rufo, Indigeti itidem Divo vocato. Paulo 
supra Kincarnum ad Deae itidem ripam meridionalem, sed 
quae huic praefecturae accensetur, exeunte Septembri ad Divi 
Michaelis diem, frequens est mercatus, ad ecclesiam parochialem 
Birs vocatam. In extrema Garriochae ora, qua Strathbogiam 
spectat, circa idus Octobres, est mercatus, a Regulo, Indigete 
itidem Divo nomen habet. Succedit qui a Covano ejusdem 
farinae Divo, Turaviae itidem celebratus post nonas Octobres. 
Dein omnium sanctorum, ad ecclesiam parochialem Fordisio 
in Boena, ad Calend. Novemb. Divi Martini forum Strathbogiae 
habetur idibus Novembris. Postremus quiq^ annum claudat, 
ad solstitium hybernum, Deerse in Buchania, Nundinae qua^ a 
306. Dunstano non illo Anglo, sed nostrate Divo nomen habent. 
Hisce diebus confluit omnigenum genus hominum faeminarumq^ 
Negotiatio et permutatio equorum, bourn, ovium stremie 
exercetur, ut plurimum ad plusculos dies producto commercio, 



ABERDEEN BANFF 267 

prostat venale quicquid domi habetur quod possit argento 
mutari, telse presertim laneae rudes, quae ad evehendum a 
mercatoribus urbanis avide expetuntur, telae itidem lineae 
candidissimae, tenuissimae e Strathbogia et Strathyla, quae in 
hoc primas tenent, hue advectae ; non desunt exoticae merces 
sed magna copia proponitur undecunq^ lucri spe. Nihil 
praeter suum genus deesse videas, hoc animalis genus alibi 
teiTarum in deliciis si quod aliud nescio quo fato, a gente 
nostra ut plurimum negligitur; non desunt tamen, sed in 
pretio non sunt. Ex infmitis nundinis levioris momenti, haec 
memorasse satis sit. Jam quod Divorum toties meminerim, 
ignoscant severae frontis homines et nostri saeculi Aristarchi, 
non enim aliter haec referri possunt, cum vulgus omnia haec 
nundinarum sic nominibus et temporibus distinguant et desig- 
nent, quos in hoc sequi ut intelligar plane necesse fuit. 



The following is a translation into English of 
the five Latin parts of the Collections relating 
to the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff. 

Some remarks on these are given in the 
Introduction in regard to the authorship and 
other points of interest. ED. 

NOTES for a Description of the two shires of ABERDEEN 
and BANFF in Scotland beyond the Mountains. 

These two shires have as their boundaries on the south the Grampian 
mountains and the river Dee,, and on the west the very rapid river Spey, 
not in its whole length, but after it has already traversed Badenoch and 
Strathspey. But a part of the extensive bay that is Ptolemy's Varar, 
now the Moray Frith, stretches along them on the north ; the other sides 



268 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BANFF 

are lashed by the open sea. The adjacent districts on the south are the 
Mearus and a part of Angus ; on the west Badenoch and some portion 
of Moray. The air in this region is somewhat cold for those unaccus- 
tomed to it and for natives of a warmer clime, but it is temperate and 
healthy. The summers never defer the hope of a crop with rains, nor 
disappoint it. The winters are mild beyond what might be expected in 
the region, which appears strange to the foreigners Danes, Prussians, 
and Poles who sail hither, since in their countries the land during the 
whole winter lies hidden under perpetual snows and hardened with keen 
frost. There is no occasion here for stoves ; the hearths are well supplied 
with peat, which is dug out of the ground, and is black and bituminous, 
not light and spongy, but heavy and firm ; it is dried by exposure to the 
winds and the sun, since it is not taken out of the beds of rivers and marshes, 
as in Holland, but when the turf is removed it betrays itself everywhere 
on the surface of the ground. The following is the original cause of 
this. When, several centuries ago, all places were shaggy with woods to 
the great hindrance of tillage, as these forests were felled, or were rotting 
with age, moss grew over them, especially in wet and sunken places. 
This moss was at first light and spongy, but, increasing every year by 
new additions, grew hard, and became firm and fertile land, which, no 
doubt, is unfit for the plough unless it is burned, and then the crops 
luxuriate wonderfully with the ashes. After a year or two new ashes 
must be had with new fires. Farmers, induced by this store of manure, 
eagerly desire these lands. The earth itself, to a depth of eight, and 
sometimes twelve feet, is clothed with this layer, but when opened up 
it discloses huge trunks of trees parted from their roots or rotten with 
age, and in many instances destroyed by fire. In the lower districts, 
down even to the very shores, esculent and hard oaks, alders, willows, 
and hazels used to be in great abundance. In the mountainous tracts 
pine, Scots fir, and spruce, which for the most part remain, were more 
frequent, but the birch was common to both the higher and the lower 
grounds ; it was, however, in greatest plenty in the lower. Where the 
land is more suitable for tillage, the wood has fallen off and grown 
scarce, and for this reason timber for buildings is conveyed by sea from 
the neighbouring Norway ; there is enough at home for country pur- 
poses. What remains of the home woods is difficult to transport from 
remote places over rough tracks. The configuration of the ground is 
variable ; where it is far from the sea it rises into mountains, and the 
lower parts are separated by hills, which are watered by rivers or burns. 
Where the land changes will be told in the subsequent pages, but in its 
nature it is not unproductive. It returns with interest what human 
needs require, if care is taken. Wheat, rye, barley, and oats are to be 
had in plenty, and of the leguminous plants, pease and beans ; the other 
crops are neglected, though, however, they would not fail were their cul- 
tivation attended to. Shrubs, grasses, and plants for medical uses are not 
lacking in gardens, plains, and mountains ; the land gives a hospitable 



TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BANFF 269 

reception even to foreign importations, whether in the seed or in slips, as 
we have found from the daily experiments of inquiring men, so that what- 
ever is absent or present must be set down entirely to the indolence or 
the industry of the inhabitants. In the higher and mountainous locali- 
ties, as the nature of the ground suggests, pasturage, which is a more 
leisurely life, is fancied, but in the lower tracts, where the soil is more 
genial, the plains fertile, and the hills fruitful, the people devote them- 
selves wholly to tillage. This is their sole pursuit, and no place is spared 
where there is hope of a crop, or facilities exist for the plough ; meadows 
and pastures do not escape this avidity. Their attention to hay is slack, 
while they try to remedy this deficiency with oat and barley straw, of 
which the domestic animals, housed during the winter, are very fond. 
The sea is always open and navigable, unless storms hinder, to which not 
only ours, but all seas are exposed. It also abounds remarkably with fish, 
but men from the dregs of the populace, who have given themselves up 
to this life, follow the fishing for daily requirements, and not for gain 
from trade. In these circumstances foreigners, especially Dutchmen, 
while they make great profit every day before our eyes from the capture 
of herring and other fish, seem to upbraid with laziness those whose pursuit 
this ought to be. And although these coasts, being free from sandbanks, 
shoals, and shallows, afford a suitable anchorage with their sandy bottom, 
still they are harbourless, and accessible, particularly for larger ships, at 
only a few ports which I shall have to mention afterwards. The rivers 
are wonderfully productive in fish, mostly salmon. Every year several 
ships are laden with these and other goods which the country yields, and 
bring back what is not produced at home, or if their gains have been plen- 
tiful there is a money return. On this fishing as great pains are 
expended as there is indolent neglect of the wealth of the sea. 
If the genius of the inhabitants is looked at, since I owe my birth 
to this quarter I must speak with modesty, and here, as also every- 
where, we must worship at the shrine of truth ; yet, not to say a 
word beyond the truth, those who are intimately acquainted with these 
localities will admit that the inhabitants surpass in gentler temperament, 
in subdued judgment, and in culture of mind and manners all their 
neighbours, but particularly those who live where our kingdom lies to 
the north and west of these shires. This is due partly to foreign travel 
and to the University of Aberdeen, to which great numbers flock from 
all quarters, the youth from the mountainous country to lay aside their 
native barbarism, others to get up the rudiments of piety and the higher 
sciences, and fit themselves for business, whether public or private. 
Now if you look at the humbler class and the common crowd, they follow 
agriculture mainly, or devote themselves to the meaner trades, which 
they practise hardly with success ; still, some come to the front. But 
the class of better quality or distinguished birth, citizens also and towns- 
people, from their earliest years are trained in letters, and when they 
grow up, a foreign education suits them. Trade is left to the dwellers 



270 TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BANFF 

in cities and towns. The better classes, to their own great misfortune, 
disdain that kind of life as unsuitable to their birth, and hence comes 
poverty, to alleviate which they address themselves to the profession of 
arms. This, in many places abroad, and especially in Holland, Germany, 
and France, a nation friendly to and beloved by them, they have prac- 
tised for many years with distinction, for with their keen and fiery 
genius, whether they bind themselves to the Muses or to Mars, they 
make no little headway. Those whose time of life has grown cool, 
spending their leisure at home in their country-houses and on their 
estates, prefer a rural to a city life, seldom visiting the towns except at 
the call of business. But neither do merchants and tradesmen escape 
this brand of idleness : very many of them, increased in wealth, settling 
at home, spend the rest of their life free from labours. By our ancestors 
frugality was reckoned among the virtues ; at the present day, through in- 
tercourse with foreign lands, other manners have been acquired, drunken- 
ness, revellings, luxury in dress, which have brought many to poverty ; and 
yet they do not desist. The rivers abound with fishes of various kinds, 
especially trouts, of which six distinct varieties are to be found, all very 
well-flavoured and pleasant to the taste, nor are they denied to the sick, 
since they live among rocks, and are found only in pure and clear waters. 
It is wonderful how every watercourse teems with them. These rivers 
afterwards to be mentioned yield pearl-bearing shells, from which some- 
times large pearls worth a price are got. These shells are found in a 
muddy bed. The art of fishing them out is left to the meaner people, who 
being unacquainted with the business often return empty-handed. There 
are not lacking various kinds of birds, whether these disport themselves 
on the waters or on the hills, and thus there is an opportunity for frequent 
fowling. There is the chase of wild beasts, such as stags and does, but 
it is confined to woods and forests and mountains ; in this sport, more 
than in any other, our ancestors took special delight. Noxious animals 
and such as prey upon flocks are absent, except foxes, and these are 
rare, for wolves are believed to be now all but extinct, or if any exist, 
they are far away from the more cultivated localities and human civilisa- 
tion. There is only one class of serpents, hidden in rocky mountains or 
mossy heaths, so that there is little danger from them. The toad is 
rare, nor, so far as I know, is any other poisonous creature found. 
Veins of sandstone occur in different places, and these of many kinds. 
When polished and cut by skilful workmanship into various shapes, 
these stones supply the lack of marble, and lend a fair gracefulness to 
buildings. Of limestone there is such abundance that in many districts 
it is used for manuring the fields, the results being highly satisfactory 
in crops. Many, with only this manure for exhausted fields, have so 
ploughed them up as to increase their income. There are likewise 
different kinds of millstones, and also plenty of stones that can be cut 
for house-slates and gutters. I cannot refrain from describing a sort of 
small stone peculiar as it were to these localities, known to or mentioned 



TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BANFF 271 

by no previous writer, and I wonder how it escaped the diligence of our 
Boece, who spent the greatest part of his life here, and was often too 
keen about such things. This stone is neither precious nor transparent ; 
it is composed of very hard and brittle flint, of which there is too great 
abundance here. These small stones display art, but of a quality that no 
artist could attain from material so fragile. They are found in two forms, 
one very like a dart hooked with iron, ending in three distinct heads 
of a triangular shape ; the other kind exactly represents the iron of a 
hunting-spear, and is of various sizes and colours, the length being two 
inches or an inch and a half, while the thickness is nearly that of two 
grains of corn or one, all rough and unpolished. There remain traces 
as it were of iron tools ; these marks require to be smoothed down, and 
all the sides are sharp. In this soil these wonderful little stones are 
occasionally discovered by chance on the fields and on the public and 
beaten highways, but they are never found by searching. To-day 
perhaps you may discover them where yesterday there was none, and 
likewise after midday where in the hours of the forenoon all was clear 
of them. It is on summer days when the sky is cloudless that this 
usually occurs. An upright and trustworthy man told me that one was 
found by himself on the top of his legging, as he was riding on a journey, 
and I know that the same thing happened to a woman, who when on 
horseback took one out of a fold of her dress. The common people call 
them in their native tongue elf arrow-heads. If you translate this into 
Latin it means the iron [sic] points of arrows which the fairies shoot. For 
they name fauns and fairies and that class of spirits, elves. About these, 
and the use of those arrows among them such stories are told and 
many believe them as it would be silly to commit to paper. I have 
taken care to add their shapes and sizes. But I have said more than 
enough about them. There still exist traces of paganism, not in the 
feelings of men, but in the remains of places dedicated by those pagans 
to worship. Enclosures of huge stones arranged in a circle are to be 
seen ; one stone conspicuous by its breadth, facing the south, appears 
to have supplied the place of an altar. These boulders were in many 
instances, by difficult means of carriage, fetched from a distance. There 
are also on some hills, and even on the tops of mountains, immense cairns 
of smaller stones, the graves of nobles who lived before the Christian era, 
for when they are dislodged and dug up, bones are found. There are 
also standing stones or boulders ; some with figures inscribed on them, 
but no letters, are believed to be monuments of victories or defeats, of 
which the recollection has perished. Numerous well-attended fairs, 
from the beginning of the year until the days of midwinter, here 
shorter than in the south, stop them, are held in all these districts ; 
there is hardly a parish church that has not its own, and most have 
several, which it were idle to mention. Now as I hasten to the situation 
of the individual districts, I am delayed by the circumstance that in 
describing them 1 frequently mention Parliamentary Barons, and I 



272 TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BANFF 



must tell what that novel expression means. Degrees of honours and 
offices unknown to the Romans have compelled me to do this. Thus, 
therefore, take it. The oldest and noblest dignity in this country, even 
at the beginning of Christianity, was held under the name of Abthanes 
and Thanes. That dignity disappeared many centuries ago ; its designa- 
tion remains, as many estates at the present day thence derive their 
names. Afterwards, as prosperity increased, the highest council of the 
realm was divided into several orders, over the whole of which the 
sovereign presided ; when he exercised a veto this council had no 
right of transacting business, and with his approval laws were made 
and unmade. It consisted, then, of three orders : Dukes, if there were 
any, and frequently there were none, Marquises, Earls, Viscounts and 
Barons, whom I call Parliamentary (for this assembly had the name of a 
Parliament), made up one order. Of these, Marquises and Viscounts are 
very recent among us. The dignity of the Counts, who are Earls in the 
native language, and of the Parliamentary Barons, who are Lords, is more 
ancient than that of the rest, but the Barons, simply so called, with the 
remainder of the gentry, whose numbers and power are great, as on them 
the strength of the country depends, constituted the second order 
through persons chosen by themselves, so as to prevent crowding. In 
like manner citizens deputed by their towns and cities formed the third. 
The Bishops also, while they existed, and in more ancient times the rest 
of the Prelates in addition, filled up a regular senate. The latter, on 
account of reverence for sacred things, were reckoned as first. The rank 
of knight was held in the highest esteem among our ancestors, not being 
conferred even on the most honourable men without good reason. It 
was the reward of military bravery, though now in a new phase of affairs 
it is despised by the better class, and has become worthless because it has 
descended to the market-places and the cities, and especially since, the 
privilege having been sent a begging by the sovereign, it became heredi- 
tary and lay open to all for a price. Of squires, who are numerous in 
England, our neighbour, we have no experience in our country. Here 
also I desire to warn my reader that though our kingdom is, generally 
speaking, populated with few villages, paucity of inhabitants must not be 
inferred. The reason of this state of matters is as follows. Husband- 
men eager for tillage thought from the very first that they were restricted 
in villages, and that, when they had so many neighbours, too little pro- 
vision was made for agriculture ; for at first the districts were divided 
into village settlements. To each of these so much of arable laud was 
allotted as could be tilled with four ploughs. These sections of lands 
were called in the ancient language daachs, which signifies village allot- 
ments. In many places in the higher districts the boundaries still 
remain, though the homesteads have been separated. But when the 
woods had been cut down four ploughs were no longer sufficient. Wide 
extent of bounds was inimical to agriculture, so that the proprietors, 
dividing the fields, set limits for each farmer according to his means, in 



mil 



TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN MORT-LACH 273 

such a way that the homesteads were continuous but not contiguous, I 
remember seeing instances of this procedure in my early years. The 
farmers abandoned their villages and removed each to his own posses- 
sion, where any vein of more fertile soil attracted him. Here the home 
was fixed, and so it remains at the present day. 

These shires embrace within their limits various districts and tracts, and 
the reason for some of their names can be given. For the word strath, 
which is prefixed to several, in the ancient language denotes a valley or 
tract bounded on both sides by mountains. Inner and Abir mean some- 
times a confluence of rivers, and sometimes a river-mouth ; but he who 
traces the derivations of Mar, Buchan, Boyne, and Banff will not throw 
away his labour in play. According to Ptolemy, the inhabitants were the 
Tsezali, and the furthest cape where the land runs out to the east, now 
Buchan Ness, was the Tsezalum Promontorium, a name unknown to our 
historians. 

STRATH-AVON or STRA-DOWN. 

The whole of this small inland district, the ancestral property of the 
Marquis of Huntly, lies on the lower course of the river Avon, which 
Timothy Pont, who had surveyed all its reaches, told me is the clearest 
and the purest in its waters of all the streams of our entire kingdom, 
but this gives no indication of valuable land, for it is exceedingly poor, 
with scanty crops which in some years hardly ripen ; and owing to this, 
the inhabitants place their greatest hope in pasturage, which never dis- 
appoints them. The Avon, flowing out of a small loch among the ridges 
of the rugged, snow-clad Bin-avon (bin in the ancient language denoting 
a lofty and rough mountain), after a few miles receives on its right bank 
the Bulg burn, which issues from a loch of the same name ; then rushing 
like a torrent through a rocky and rugged valley, receiving many streams, 
it is joined likewise on the right bank by the Livet, a river that conveys 
the waters of many streams with it ; and flowing northwards throughout 
its whole course, except at its source, joins the Spey at Ballnadalloch 
Castle outside Strath-Avon. At the confluence of the Avon and the 
Livet are the ruins of the ancient castle of Drimmin. Further up on the 
Livet, Blairfindie is situated. The rest of the locality is occupied by 
country cottages scattered throughout the valleys of these rivers, and 
however much the ruggedness of the mountains may seem opposed to it, 
still the population from the Bulg burn is not sparse. 



BALVANY, BALVENY or MORT-LACH. 

Next comes Balvany with somewhat kindlier soil, but all rough with 
mountains. It obtained its name from the Danes, who had grasped 
these places also (so thoroughly was everything assailed by them). For 
bal means a village or hamlet, to which van, by a slight letterchange for 

VOL. II. S 



274 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN STRATH-ISLA 

dan, is added. This transposition of letters is common in the ancient 
language, and is recognised as a refinement of speech. The pleasant 
river Fiddich intersects this tract. After receiving the Rinnes burn and 
many other inconsiderable streams, as is natural in a mountainous 
district, it discharges into the Spey. The source of the river Isla, 
from which the district next to be described has its name, belongs to this 
stretch of country. But the source of the river Fiddich is not a part of 
this domain. The tract at its source called Glenfiddich, with the Castle 
of Achindown, is united to it ecclesiastically, but the civil rights belong 
to the Marquises of Huntly. It is all wooded and rich in grass. On the 
banks of the Fiddich stands the Castle of Balvany, from which the dis- 
trict has its name. A little below, on the same river, is Kininoway, and 
on the Rinnes, one mile from the said place, is the church of Mortlach, 
whence the whole district often has its name. It was the chief see of the 
bishops several centuries ago, and is very ancient, having had Bean as its 
bishop. At the village of Auchl uncart, hardly a mile from the king's 
highway which leads to Elgin in Moray, there is rock and a vein of fine 
hones, of which some are rough, others smooth, the latter hard, the former 
soft, drawing an edge with water or oil, and in such abundance that they 
could supply the whole of Britain. The people of the neighbourhood use 
these instead of tiles for the roofs of buildings. At Balvany is a spring 
of water impregnated with alum, and underground are veins of stone from 
which alum is got. This domain, down from the time of James, the 
second of that name, that is from the year 1440, belonged to the Steuart 
Earls of Athol. He presented his uterine brother with it, and on the 
failure of this line, the Parliamentary Barons of Saltoun claimed it by a 
pecuniary bargain ; from them by the same right it passed to the family 
of the Inneses ; and by the same right it is now held by the Earl of 
Rothes. 

STRATH-ISLA. 

Where now the mountains begin to be left behind, Strath-Isla extends 
on the banks of that river, which turning its waves in great winding 
loops first to the north and then to the east, and again bending to the 
north-east enters the river Deveron a little above Rothiemay. This 
district has a fertile soil and is rich in both corn and grass, being greatly 
benefited by the limestone which is found here in such abundance that 
houses are built of it, as stones of other kinds are somewhat scarce. 
Here the inhabitants work industriously at making lime both for their 
own use and to have it ready for purchasers. They also carry on a pro- 
fitable trade in linen webs of rather fine yarn, all of which however derive 
from Strathbogie their repute at the fairs. Keith, a village with a church 
on the river's bank, with its stated weekly market, attracts people from 
the higher grounds owing to the convenience of its situation, and cus- 
tomers are always ready. It is, besides, on the king's highway. Very 
many gentlemen of lower rank and some barons have houses here. 



TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN STRATHBOGIE 275 

There are hardly any that deserve the name of castles. While the 
whole of this land has been divided among many proprietors, the ridges 
of the lofty mountain called Balloch separate it from Strathbogie, and 
the range of low hills which are called Altmor, from Enzie. 

ENZIE. 

This small district has as its boundaries on the west the river Spey, on 
the north the bay of the sea already mentioned by me, and on the east 
the district of the Boyne. The inland parts border on Strath-Isla. It 
is entirely devoted to crops, and never disappoints the husbandman's 
hope. Grass, however, is scanty, and although Moray with its rich soil, 
its mild climate, its crops and its fruits, bears away the palm over all the 
districts on this side of the Dee, yet Enzie while equal in crops is inferior 
in garden fruits, more through the fault of the inhabitants than the 
nature of the soil. Here, in the absence of lime, the fields near the sea 
are manured with seaweed, of which a great quantity is thrown on the 
beach by the tide twice a day. Servants, noting the hours, are in attend- 
ance, and lest any of it should be lost, at ebb tide they drag the fugitive 
seaweed back, plunging into the sea in the tempestuous winter, even by 
night. This occupation, however, is not confined to these localities, but 
as far as the shores extend, and where the sea is near, it is common to 
all, unless rocks prevent it. On the banks of the Spey is situated Bog 
of Gight, an elegant and spacious castle, built to a great height, and 
magnificent beyond all others in these districts, a castle to which, 
whether as regards pleasure or utility, nothing is wanting. It is sur- 
rounded by charming gardens and an extensive park, which is enclosed 
with a strong wall and is in four divisions, for the rearing of deer, of 
which two kinds are here in abundance, as also of coneys, hares, wild 
geese and ducks. The place derives its name from its sunken and 
wooded situation. The castle was in former years splendidly enlarged 
by the Marquis of Huntly, the proprietor of all this district. Between 
it and the neighbouring Boyne lies a wood clothed with tall oaks when 
I was still a young man ; but now the whole having been cut down it 
flourishes again in a new growth among the hills. 

STRATHBOGIE. 

Strathbogie is a wide and ancient barony, now raised to an earldom by 
King James. It is watered by the whole of the Deveron and Bogie, and 
in it they unite. Burns and rivulets are numerous, and from these 
much benefit accrues to the fertility of the soil both for crops and for 
grasses. In the olden time it was divided into forty village settlements 
which, as 1 have said, they called daachs, and so much land was allotted 
to each of these as could be tilled with four ploughs. Now every plough 
is drawn by four or five yokes of oxen, so that no little ground is 
required. Since it is the practice in our country, when the harvest is 



276 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN STRATHBOGIE 

ended, to work the ploughs through the whole winter to the month of 
March, when the sowing begins, but with no cessation till the end of 
May, all the ploughs are doubled it the present day, when the whole 
of the woods have been cut down, and all the land whence there is hope 
of a crop has been made over to tillage. Fine linen webs manufactured 
here are specially commended, so that name and praise come to the 
webs of all those in the neighbourhood who have devoted themselves to 
this occupation ; and hence there is profit to the inhabitants, who expose 
them for sale at the summer fairs. Of oxen particularly there are great 
numbers, fattened on grass for the mart ; of sheep and horses there is 
all that is required for country needs, and also for supplying markets. 
The inhabitants are for the most part the relatives, and all are the 
dependants, of the Marquis of Huntly, the proprietor of this district for 
now three hundred and fifty years ; for the family of the Comyns, which 
was divided into several branches formidable to the kings in critical 
times, having been condemned for treason and banished the entire 
kingdom, Robert, the first king of that name, enriched with this property 
Huntly's ancestors, whose seat before that time had been in the Merse, 
the shire nearest England. The castle, which is the capital of Strath- 
bogie, whence comes the name of the district, is in a pleasant situation 
at the confluence of the said rivers, with extensive and delightful 
gardens. At its door the Deveron is spanned by a stone bridge, and at 
the junction of the rivers there is a vein of ash-coloured lead which is 
called bismuth. On the Bogie stands Lismor Castle, and below it, on 
the opposite bank, Gartly. On the Deveron is Innermarky and also 
Carnborrow ; and away from the river on a pleasant stream is Petlurg, 
and on the same stream Achanachy. Many other places are left without 
mention as I hurry on. Additional parts of this district are Rothiemay 
Castle, and the adjoining parish three miles below Strathbogie, after the 
Deveron, the Bogie and the Isla have already united. This was once a 
portion of the Barony of Strathbogie, being the property of the Parlia- 
mentary Barons of Saltoun, but now it has come to the Gordons. There 
lies also at the source of the Deveron a district in a low situation in the 
midst of mountains, named Cabrach, at the foot of the rugged and lofty 
mountain called the Buck, looking across to Strathavon, with those hills 
running between which have their name from rough precipices. This 
hilly ground is the basin of the burn called the Black Burn, which enters 
the Deveron. The whole of this locality is reserved for grass and 
pasture, of which there is here a wonderful luxuriance. In the summer 
it is thickly dotted with shielings ; in the winter time the people remove 
for the most part. The inhabitants of all these tracts and localities that 
I have been treating of are vigorous, active, and industrious, and when 
they give their attention to the art of war and the discipline of camps, 
they make excellent soldiers. But let me confess the truth, for I must 
not spare my clansmen : in peace and in war alike they neglect the 
Muses and worship Mars. 



TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BOYN 277 



BOYN. 

The small district of the Boyn has a fertile soil where it is nearer the 
sea, towards the north, but it is not so in the inland parts. It extends 
from Enzie along the shore to the mouth of the Deveron. At the 
entrance to the district is Cullen, a town of considerable antiquity. It 
enjoys the rights of a burgh, but it is without a proper harbour, and is 
scarcely worthy of the name of a moderately-sized village. Its sole 
recommendations are its productive land and the mansion of the Earls 
of Findlater, who, abandoning the Castle of Findlater, which is built on a 
rock in the sea, removed to this place, a mile distant, being attracted by 
the agreeable situation. They own extensive and rich estates in the 
neighbourhood, for they have on the stream that here flows into the 
sea the Castle of Deskford, two miles from the town, and not far from 
thence, Durn. In this vicinity stands Birkenbog, the castle of the 
Abercrombyes, and also Glassach, belonging to the Gordons. In skirting 
the shore eastward we come, at a distance of four miles from Cullen, to 
a castle called Crag of Boyn, a beautiful castle certainly, and towards 
Banff is Buch-chragie. The proprietor of both derives his titles from 
the whole district. The town of Banff, the capital of this shire, is 
situated at the mouth of the Deveron, but is not of great importance, 
since the place is harbourless. It is exposed to the fiercest of the winds, 
the north-west, by which sometimes the water of the river is diverted. 
The inhabitants are few, and being unequal to trading by sea, they 
energetically labour the fields near the town. There is also salmon- 
fishing. Not far from the town is Inch-Drevir, a country-house of the 
Parliamentary Baron who has his titles from the town. Further inland 
is Park, a castle of the Gordons at the base of a lofty mountain named 
the Knock, but it can hardly be reckoned in this district. The judicial 
superintendence of the whole country that goes under the name of 
Banff was, before the time of King Robert i., the heritable right of the 
Comyns, Earls of Buchan, a house which, surpassing all the others in 
the whole kingdom in wealth, numbers, and power, fell through a charge 
of treason, as we have said. By favour of the kings they were succeeded 
by the Stuarts, whose house in the last century, when male fiefs were 
rarer than now, passed by right of marriage to the Douglases, and by the 
same right within our memory these were succeeded by the Erskines of 
the house of the Earls of Mar. But the small district that we are 
describing is chiefly held by the Ogilvies or their dependants. The 
principal personage of this family in this locality is the^Earl of Findlater, 
whose ancestors, coming out of Angus from the neighbourhood of 
Dundee, here first settled. As the estate was acquired by a husband's 
right in virtue of his marriage with an heiress named Sinclair, from 
them is descended the family of the Barons of Boyn, and from this 
family also a third, that of the Parliamentary Baron who has his title 
from the town of Banff. 



278 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BUCHAN 



BUCHAN. 

Buchan begins at the mouth of the river Deveron, lying along the 
coast and stretching eastward to the entrance of the bay called Varar 
(the Moray Frith) ; thence the shore bends round to the south. Inland 
the boundaries are uncertain. Some think that it ought to be continued 
to the river Don, while others make it end at the river Ythan, naming- 
the remainder Formartine. I know an ancient barony called by that 
name,, which, after being possessed by various persons, disappeared with 
the name. Plains or hills occupy the whole of Buchan, which is entirely 
devoted to the plough and agriculture, and is watered by innumerable 
streams. It is rich in oxen and sheep, and there are no mountains. 
Only one height is loftier than its surroundings, which they call Mor- 
mond ; it is scarcely of the size of a moderate hill in the higher districts. 
Nowhere else throughout the whole kingdom is it possible to see an 
equal space of level land clear of mountains. The river Urie issuing 
from two sources, and running from west to east in two streams, flows in 
one after ten miles, and enters the sea under one name at Innerugie. 
But the Ythan, which has not a long course, being enlarged by many 
streams, is far richer in water than the Ugie, and likewise mingles with 
the sea below the village of Newburgh, bending at its mouth to the 
south-east. Gliding through level ground, it meets the tide higher up 
than the remaining rivers of these shires, but the sandy shores injure the 
harbour, which can be entered only by smaller vessels. Now to return 
to the point where I deviated. In skirting the shore from Banff east- 
ward, Colen, where the mansion of the Barclays, Barons of Towy stands, 
is seen. Next follows Troup, built on a rock on a neck of land, but now 
neglected. Pennan follows on the shore, where there is a noted quarry 
for millstones, which are transported far and wide. Petslego, a castle of 
the Parliamentary Baron of the house of Forbes, is next, and almost adjoin- 
ing it the country-house of Petulie, belonging to the Barons of Philorth. 
Then is seen the promontory of Kynairds-head, and at it the small town 
of Fraserburgh, where fifty years ago the distinguished knight Sir 
Alexander Fraser, Baron of Philorth, built a town and enlarged the 
place with liberties granted by the king. He also formed a stone break- 
water at great expense, first on unsuitable ground, and then, transferring 
the works elsewhere, he made a harbour, so that at the present day the 
place is pretty busy. The Parliamentary Barons of the surname Fraser 
were famous in former centuries, but disappeared many years ago 
through the failure of heirs-male. Of those who survive, the most 
ancient house is this one of Philorth, to which all of that surname about 
Inverness, who are spread out into many branches, and hold large estates, 
owe their origin. Proceeding two miles, you come to Carnbulg, the 
castle of the Parliamentary Barons of Mulkal, of the Fraser family, 
which is followed by Innerallochy, also a castle of the Frasers. The 
coast now begins to bend to the south, where there is the small bay of 



TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BUCHAN 279 

Strabeg, once noted for its harbour, but now almost blocked with sands. 
Traces remain of the town of Rattray, which now follows the fortunes of 
the harbour. Our historian Boece is surprised that this is the only river 
that salmon do not enter ; but there is nothing here to bear the larger 
fishes except two muddy rivulets so scant of water that the fishes they 
contain are hardly equal in size to trouts. Five miles south of this, 
Innerugie, at the mouth of the Ugie, a famous castle of the Earls Maris- 
chal, presents itself. This barony, with many estates, had once been the 
property of the Parliamentary Barons whose surname was Cheyn, but by 
the failure of heirs-male it passed by right of marriage to the ancient 
and noble house of the Keiths (whose Chief is hereditary Marischal of 
the kingdom). These derive their origin from the Picts, who, though 
driven many centuries ago from their ancestral seats and the whole 
kingdom, were, as we may easily believe, in many instances spared. This 
house of Keith has, beyond all the rest, the largest properties in the 
whole of this district; even in Mar and the Mearns it holds considerable 
estates, about which I will write elsewhere. Buchan Ness follows, two 
miles from this, and at it is Peterhead, in a place suitable for a sea trade 
if industry were applied ; but the breakwater which was once at the 
harbour is almost gone. As we still proceed along the shore, the first 
object worthy of mention that we meet here is Bowness, a name by which 
a curved promontory is meant. Here on a rocky peninsula stands the 
famous mansion of the Earl of Errol, hereditary Constable of this realm, 
but it is not the business of this summary to add the story of the remark- 
able rise of this house. The general consent of our historians has not 
neglected its memorable annals, and the deeds that were done at the 
village of Luncarty in the year by its founder Hay, for this is the 

family surname. Their ancestral seat was Errol, with its magnificent 
estates, on the banks of the Tay, where at the present time the 
descendants of this family are very strong. But they settled here in 
Buchan on the fall of the Comyns, having been presented with large 
estates by King Robert i. About a mile from this, on the sandy beach, 
a battle was fought with the Danes ; the name Crow Dan [Cruden] is still 
given to the place, and to the church built in the same locality. Further 
along the shore are the ruins of the Castle of Slains, and at it, several 
hundred yards from the rocky shore, there rise springs of waters that 
turn to stone. Wherever they flow among the bends of the rocks they 
petrify ; but they vary in softness and colour, which is somewhat dim 
from the blackness of the rocks. There is one cave, which cannot be 
reached except at ebb-tide, where drops of water trickling down through 
the chinks of the rock assume the form of stone, not immediately, but in 
the course of time, but not the whole of the water, for there are big pores 
in the stone where the pure water stops. When this dries up, the 
pores remain, as may be seen in tuffs. From this stone a very white and 
tenacious lime, most useful for building purposes, is got. I know that 
such waters are found in various countries, but there is hardly any other 



280 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BUCHAN 

in Britain. Now let us follow the course of the Ugie, which though it 
waters fertile plains has few objects worthy of mention, while the tenants 
of the Earl Marischal hold the better part of it. On the North Ugie is 
Strichen, a castle of the Erasers ; on the other Ugie first is Fedderet, 
and next to it Brucklay, castles belonging to the Irvines of Drum ; as 
we descend there is Glackriach. Below it on the river in the valley was 
the Monastery of Deir belonging to the Cistercian Order. It was 
pleasant and rich, but now hardly the ruins survive. Its situation was 
in a low-lying valley shaded with woods, where now there is not a vestige 
of shrubs. George, Earl Marischal, a Commissioner to Denmark from 
King James for the betrothal of Queen Anne, was presented by him with 
this monastery, but experienced more loss than gain from this, as hardly 
anything was equal to the magnanimity of that true nobleman. A mile 
from the monastery is a village of the same name as the monastery, with 
a church. Thence to the south-east, two miles from the river, are Kin- 
mundie and Ludwharn, the latter a country-house of the Keiths, and the 
former of the Gordons. At the river-mouth opposite Innerugie is Craig, 
a castle of the Earl Marischal. Now I will follow the channel of the 
Ythan upwards. This part, like the tract between that river and the 
Don, is rich land, and looks bright with noblemen's castles, and country- 
houses innumerable, some of which, with the addition of their proprietors' 
surnames, I have pleasure in recounting, but in my native tongue, which 
does not smack of Latinity. At the mouth of the river the proprietors on 
both sides have for a long time suffered no little loss by the withdrawal 
of highly productive fields near the sea from all cultivation owing to the 
sand. The names, then, are Foveran, the property of the Irvines; Knok- 
hall ; the castles of the Udnys, with the village of Newburgh ; Meikleand 
Little Dublertie, country-houses of the Inneses and the Setons ; Fuddes, 
two miles from the river, the property of the Uduys ; Dudwick, towards 
the north, belonging to the Fullertons ; on the river are Abbotshall, 
the property of the Forbeses ; Ardgicht, of the Kennedys ; the parochial 
village of Ellen ; Ochter-Ellen, belonging to the Udnys ; Essilmonth, a 
castle of the Earl of Errol; at a distance from the river, to the north, 
are Arnadge, belonging to the Irvines ; Saok, to the Buchans ; Nether- 
muir, to the Gordons ; and Achnagat, to the Strachans : Dumbreck, the 
property of the Mowett, or de Monte-alto family ; Pitmaedden, of the 
Setoris ; Tarves, Tulielt, Park of Kelly, Udny, belonging to the Udnys ; 
Tolwhon, to the Forbeses; Shethiun, to the Setons; Gicht, to the 
Gordons ; Sheeves, to the Greys ; Fyvie, the fair and noble mansion of 
the Earl of Dunfermline ; Towie, belonging to the Barclays ; Bucholly, 
to the Mowetts. These places are for the most part on the river. But 
seven miles from Banff, and only one from the Deveron, is the beautiful 
village of Turreff in a place suitable for hunting, with extensive plains 
about it, and surrounded by many gentlemen's houses, such as Lathers 
and Cragston, owned by the Urquharts, Muiresk by the Lyons, and 
Delgattie by the Hays. 



TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN GARIOCH 281 

Seven miles above Banff, with a southerly exposure, lies, a little from 
the Deveron, a village called Turreff, on a stream of its own name, in a 
pleasant situation with extensive plains around, so well fitted for fowling 
and hunting that there is no place in these shires, and hardly in others, 
qual to it. Six miles from thence towards the south, on the banks of 
the Ythan, is seen the magnificent and spacious mansion called Fivie, 
which acknowledges the Earls of Dunfermline as its owners. Now as 
we follow the banks of the Ythan to the sea, hills or plains are seen, 
smiling with rich cultivation or grass, and adorned with noblemen's 
castles. On the river is the Castle of Gight, and at it a wood, which Li 
now a rare thing in these places. As we skirt the bank, we come to 
Ochter-Ellen, Ardgyth, and Abbotshall, castles in the neighbourhood, 
with the parochial village of Ellen, and four miles from that to the 
mouth of the river ; but over this it is useless to linger. 

FORMARTINE. 

But all the land that lies between the rivers Ythan and Don goes by 
the name of Formartine among the inhabitants, who disdain to be 
reckoned in Buchan. It is a country in which there is no town, for the 
neighbouring Aberdeen intercepts all trade. But if you have regard to 
the nature of the soil, or the characteristics of the inhabitants, it is 
worthy of consideration, and second to no district in these shires. Nay, 
it far surpasses very many of them in population, in fertility of soil, in 
the number and amenity of its castles and country-houses, and in mild 
and cultured manners ; but it would be far too laborious to go minutely 
into all these matters. It stretches from the Ythan to Garioch and Mar. 
But towards the south it is separated from Strathbogie by a tract of land 
united to no other district, as yet possessing no proper name, and seek- 
ing justice partly from one shire and partly from the other. The parish 
churches in it are Innerkeithnie, Abirkirdir, Forrig, and Ochterles. 
In this district are seen Frendraught and Kynairdy, the castles of the 
Viscounts of PYendraught, with some other country-houses belonging 
to various persons. 

GARIOCH. 

Garioch is enclosed between Strathbogie, Mar, and Formartine, and 
nowhere borders on the sea. The origin of the name is uncertain. In 
the ancient language garve means rough, rocky, uneven land, and ach a 
plain or level ground, words that do not correspond with the configura- 
tion of the district. For, intersected by two rivers and many burns, it 
is entirely situated in a valley. It expands in fruitful hills, with a rich 
and seasonable harvest, always responsive to the husbandman's prayers. 
The rugged and rocky mountain of Benachie, rising to seven summits, 
stretches along its southern boundary, and shows itself conspicuous to 
those who sail along the coast. The river Urie, taking its rise in a low 



282 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN GARIOCH MAR 

ridge, not far from the castle called Gartly, flowing- through a barren 
valley, struggling through broken hills, and reaching the plains, inter- 
sects its centre with its uneven and winding channel, and joins the Don 
at the little town of Innerurie. The Gadie burn, running at the base of 
Benachie, and measuring the mountain's length, mingles with the same 
river two miles above Innerurie. Here there is no lack of agreeable 
hunting of hares. There is abundance of waterfowls, partridges, lap- 
wings and other birds ; but grass is rather scarce. A mile above the 
village called Inche there is a hill rounded on every side, of moderate 
height, and adjacent to no mountains in the vicinity. It is all green 
with rich grass. On its very top remain the ruins of a castle of King- 
Gregory i., built about the year of salvation 880, where also he died. I 
should hardly refer to this, were it not that I am reminded by the story 
about sheep feeding there, of which, not in the case of all the sheep, but 
of some occasionally, the maxillary teeth are found shining with a golden 
colour. I remember seeing some of these. From this circumstance our 
Boece, who knew little about metals, thought that there was a vein of 
gold under the ground. But let the physiologists examine what the 
cause of this phenomenon is. When one considers the matter carefully, 
the ground seems to give no indication of any such thing. At the junc- 
tion of the Don and the Urie is situated the little town of Innerurie, 
with the appearance of a village, amid fertile land, a place of some anti- 
quity, and rejoicing in the privileges of a royal burgh, as they call it; 
but the neighbouring Aberdeen many years ago attracted all business to 
itself. In former centuries, especially on the banks of the Don, the 
whole neighbourhood bristled with woods, particularly of oak, of which 
at the present day no traces are visible, to such an extent has excessive 
abundance, while no attention is paid to it and there is no thought of 
the future, degenerated into want. Not far from this, King Robert i., 
though sick and carried in a litter, routed John Comyn, Earl of Buchau, 
and in that battle so completely crushed the power of that faction that it 
never afterwards rose. He laid the whole of Buchau waste with hostile 
arms, and thenceforth ruled it and the neighbouring districts in peace. 
Later, in 1411, Alexander Stuart, Earl of Mar, defeated Donald of the 
Isles (who trusted in the might of the Hebrides) in a bloody battle at 
the village of Harlaw in this locality, and gave peace to these districts. 
The whole of this country is thickly populated, and there is no lack of 
castles, country houses, and mansions belonging to men of distinguished 
birth. The greatest part of this district was many years ago annexed to 
the Earldom of Mar, and at the present day adds to the earl's titles. 

MAR. 

The lower portion of Mar nearer the sea is narrowed by the rivers Dee 
and Don. In the highest parts, it broadens away from these rivers, 
being remarkable for its length, but unequal in its width. He who 



TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN MAR 283 

shall describe these two rivers and their tributary streams will have told 
almost all that belongs to it, so much do the inland parts abound in moors 
and mountains. For the Dee, cleaving the Grampians from its source 
to its mouth, where they end in hills, rolls headlong in its whole 
channel among these mountains, so that the greatest part of this district 
is unfit for corn crops ; but all that it yields to the sickle is of excellent 
quality, and is cut down always in seasonable autumns. These mountains 
are fairly rich in herds of the choicest oxen and in flocks of sheep whose 
flesh is of the most agreeable flavour, in horses for country work, and in 
goats also on the higher ground. The wool and fleeces in this of all the 
districts described by me are far the best in the whiteness, softness, and 
fineness of the hair, and are eagerly sought after. But these advantages 
do not compensate for the loss caused by a useless soil. The air is 
salubrious ; the inhabitants are vigorous, shrewd, and frugal people. 
The aridity of the land and, as I have said, its barrenness in very many 
places sharpen the wits of the inhabitants. The Dee has its source not 
far from the range of low hills called Scairsach, which separate Braemar 
from Badenoch, at the base of the lofty mountain called Ben-Vroden, 
and receiving the small river Galdy, and flowing a little to the 
south-east, but immediately bending eastward, without hindrance from 
almost any windings, although confined on either bank by high and 
rugged mountains, running swift, clear, and free from mud, always in 
a gravelly bed, after being spanned by a bridge two miles above New 
Aberdeen, as it is called, mingles with the sea near the town. At 
Innerey, which has its name from the Ey burn, seven miles from its 
source, it first meets cultivation. Then, augmented with water which 
many large rivers from the neighbouring mountains supply, it washes 
on the right Castletown (meaning the village of the fort), a stronghold 
of the Earls of Mar, with the church of Kindrochit in its vicinity. On 
the opposite bank is Invercauld, deriving its name from the stream on 
which it is situated. Next comes Crathie, a parochial village. A little 
below on the right is Abergeldie Castle, where this district is called 
by the name of Strathdee. After this is Glengairn to the north, whence 
flows the river Gairn, richer in water than the others. About these 
places the river is narrowed by mountains, but forests notable for tall 
firs are not wanting. Here rises a high mountain, cut off as it were 
from the others, completely covered with woods on all sides, with its 
rocks and its summits to the very highest point occupied by a beautiful 
forest of tall evergreen firs of immense size, while the pleasing greenery 
of limes and birches clothes the slopes of the mountains and the plains 
nearest the river. The name of the height is Crag-Gewis, crag meaning 
a mountain, and gems fir. Among the numerous forests with which 
the river is wooded, particularly in the upper parts, this mountain is 
very pleasant to see. Next comes Glen Muick, a small valley deriving 
its name from a river that issues from a loch of the same name, and 
after a course of a few miles joins the Dee on the right bank, nearly 



284 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN MAR 

opposite the Gairn. Below Glen Muick on the same bank is seen the 
Pannanich wood, from which timber is frequently carried down to 
Aberdeen, but after being prepared and rough-hewn for country uses. 
For logs and entire trunks of trees can neither be brought down by 
the rough and stony road nor safely cast upon the swift-flowing river, 
(although there is sufficient water). There follows on the same bank 
a pleasant castle, Kennacoil, a name that signifies the head of the wood, 
built not many years ago at a delightful retreat by the Marquis of 
Huntly, in a place everywhere shaded by woods, and suitable for fishing, 
fowling, and the hunting of stags and does. Lower down, as we skirt 
the bank, the river Tanar enters the Dee ; it rises on the ridges of the 
lofty nountains that form the boundary between Angus and Mar. Its 
banks are crowned with an immense wood of tall firs. Then follows 
the parish called Birse, which extends from the river to the source 
of the stream named the Feugh, where in former years a great forest 
of birch-trees abundantly satisfied the needs of the lower district ; but 
now having been entirely cut down through the carelessness of those 
concerned, it is slowly growing up again without any injury to the land, 
which is very well adapted for this. Now Mar has the Dee as the 
boundary that separates it from Mearns, the nearest province on the 
south ; Mearns even crossing the river takes away from Mar the 
parish called Banchory Devenick, where not far from the bank stands 
the Castle of Crathes. The Baron Thomas Burnet, proprietor of the 
ground, has by care and skill subdued the genius of the place, for 
by planting firs and other trees of many kinds he has covered the 
forbidding crags, laid it out with gardens, and clothed it with pleasance. 
As we descend, next follows Drum Castle, distant a mile from the river, 
in a rugged and rocky place, and excellently equipped with buildings 
and gardens. It has the Baron Alexander Irvine who is of ancient and 
famous lineage and is Chief of his clan as its owner. There is nothing 
further of note until the river passes under the bridge. But in the 
upper district, beyond the mouth of the river Gairn, there is the tract 
cabled Cromar, separated by mountains from the whole neighbourhood. 
On the west, Morven, a mountain loftier than the rest, and the forest 
of Kilblene [Culblean] form its limit ; the other parts are bounded by 
mountains in no way remarkable. But though it reaches the Dee, yet 
nowhere has it less fertile land than where it is nearest to the river, 
for in those plains there is no place for corn crops or grass ; for all is 
uncultivated and wild, heather-clad moorland. But beyond a mile or 
two from the river the aspect of matters is different : within the said 
mountains a rich, level country spreads out, not into any extensive plains, 
but marked with numerous hills, and entirely devoted to corn, thus 
forming the granary of all the neighbours. Everything here is excellent, 
everything seasonable. Divided into five parishes, it acknowledges 
various proprietors, and, what may surprise you, there are no castles 
in it, and no noteworthy country-houses, nothing in short except the 



TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN MAR 285 

ruins of one or two castles, yet it is extremely well cultivated. Imme- 
diately next to it is Aboyne, which gives the titles of a Parliamentary 
Baron to the son of the Marquis of Huntly ; and in its vicinity is the 
Loch of Auchlossin in a valley, where there is cultivated land. On the 
river is situated Kincardin, a village with a church, on the king's high- 
way by which the mountains are crossed. Three miles below this the 
Canny Burn falls into the Dee. The course of this stream is pleasant 
and fertile. It abounds in pearl-bearing shells, and at its mouth touches 
Banchory, already mentioned by us. 

The river Don, which surpasses the Dee in the fertility of its land as 
much as it is unequal to that river in size, rises in the ridges of the 
mountains that separate Strathavon from Mar, and in a shallow channel 
intersects the valley called Strathdon. After being enlarged by many 
streams it receives the Nochty burn at Innernochty, the Deskry a little 
below, and the Bucket on the opposite bank, where the Castle of Inner- 
bucket stands. This tract is rich in grass, and corn crops are not 
lacking. Throughout its whole course this river is not rapid like the 
Dee, but, with generally placid waves and in various meanderings, waters a 
great deal of land. It is here and there confined by steep mountain 
defiles. Not far from its northern bank is the Castle of Kildrummy, an 
ancient stronghold, the work, it is believed, of the kings, but it is not 
placed in fertile soil, though the plains in the vicinity are productive. 
That the founders set about building a town is shown by the name of 
Burrowstoun, which signifies a town or burgh ; and the castle is marked 
by a strong wall and numerous massive towers, being safe against force 
in that age. It is the principal seat of the Earl of Mar in this quarter. 
As we skirt the border of the river, we come to a church and parish called 
Fortes, which I did not intend to mention were it not that, as history 
records, the original founder of a family very celebrated in these borders 
had his seat hei-e. His descendants are very strong in this locality, as 
far as the source of the Don, and not only here, but spreading out into 
various branches in prolific descent, they have produced many families 
which in the lower parts of the district are held in honour for their 
wealth and birth, all tracing their origin to one house, whose Chiefs, 
though they would yield to few in antiquity of lineage or in number of 
offshoots, have, being far removed from modern ambition, remained con- 
tent with the rank of Parliamentary Barons, the dignity conferred on 
them at the very fii-st. At this place Mar, crossing the mountain chain, 
appears to take the parish of Clatt and the Castle of Drumminor, 
witli the estates of the Parliamentary Baron of Forbes, from Garrioch 
and Strathbogie. But the Don, from which I made a digression, after 
being obstructed a little by narrow passes, now free and flowing gently 
through a wide and fertile valley receives the river Leochel, on which 
Craigievar Castle and the parochial village of Alford are situated. 
After traversing four miles it is confined by the defiles of Bennachie 
with their wild rocks and crags, but entering the level ground, discloses 



286 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN 

a wide and charming' plain. Here is seen Monimosk, a castle of the 
Forbeses, where formerly there was a Priory, as they call it, whose estates 
having been appropriated for private uses, the house also has disappeared. 
In a different direction, away from the river is seen Cluny Castle, and 
not far from this, Mulcal, a strong and well-built castle, a seat of the 
Erasers who derive the titles of Parliamentary Baron from it. As \ve 
descend the river, Kemnay and Fettyrneir are reached on opposite banks, 
where the stream is again confined by narrows, nor is it freed until it 
reaches Innerurie, where Mar is contracted, and all the way after that has 
the Don as its limit. Here, turning to the south, on receiving the Urie, 
and with its windings intersecting the best cultivated plains in all these 
provinces, first it passes Kintore, a village of note on the king's highway, 
near which a castle of the Earl Marischal, called Hall of Forest, stands, 
and again bending its channel to the east, it wanders slow and tortuous 
through the wide and highly productive plains called those of Fintry, 
no longer obstructed by mountains, but yet pouring its flood within high 
banks not to be compared with the said plains, and mingles with the sea 
several miles further down, though owing to the sandy bed its mouth is 
impassable for ships. Between the mouths of these rivers there are three 
miles more or less of sandy shore. 

ABERDEEN. 

Aberdeen has two names, and also two towns. It is situated at the 
mouth of either river, the town that is called New Aberdeen on the 
Dee, and the other, with the name of Old Aberdeen on the Don, at an 
interval of a mile more or less. Here the cathedral church by good luck 
escaped sacrilegious hands. It was stripped of its leaden roof, a damage 
that slates make good in some fashion at the present day. While the 
dignity and office of bishop flourished, his see was here, and the land near 
the town belonged to him. Now everything is so changed that the 
bishop's palace has not been spared, and even the stones, after its 
destruction, have found no rest. A truly royal college was built here in 
the year ]521 by Bishop William Elphinstone, who spared no expense, 
converting ample revenues and lands to its use in perpetuity. Hardly, 
however, surviving so great a task, he made provision for the masters and 
their stipends, and for all those whose services were necessary. An alms- 
house for old men, which he meditated, he entrusted to the executors of his 
will, bequeathing money, and the work, through the care of his successor, 
was not overlooked. The river Don near the sea is spanned by a bridge of 
one bow or arch, but that a very great one, well and strongly constructed. 
The builder is unknown, which is strange, considering that the bridge of 
Dee gives similar information in more than one place, so different are the 
dispositions of men. It is unnecessary to mention that at the bridge 
and a little above it a stone weir has been skilfully constructed across 
the breadth of the river-bed, to form a fishing cruive, from which there 
arises a noted and profitable trade in salmon. 



TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN 287 

New Aberdeen, built on three hills in a pretty high position, is 
approached from all sides by an ascent. Its outskirts spread into the 
level ground in many places, like suburbs. King Gregory about the 
year 890, attracted by the convenience of the place, bestowed on it 
rights and immunities, and adorned it with a palace, which was after- 
wards gifted to the Church and dedicated to the use of the Trinitarian 
Friars. It is shown that a mint stood there by the existence of coins 
struck in the same place. I remember seeing, when a youth, some of 
these which were preserved by a citizen in proof of the fact. But while 
its circumstances were still humble, the town was confined to the suburb 
which is called the Green ; afterwards, when its wealth increased, it 
extended to the nearest hills. It provided itself with houses, streets, 
churches, a town-house, and whatever else was necessary for the require- 
ments of a city. It elected magistrates and set up a form of government 
which it meant to be nearest to an aristocracy, and conducted a trade by 
sea. As the number of the citizens was augmented by this, it secured 
I the distinction of becoming the seat of the justiciary of the shire, the 
Sheriff's court being fixed there. A college was founded by Earl George 
Keith, Marischal of the kingdom, who bought and turned to that use 
the house of the Franciscans in the year 1593, but with such slender 
beginnings that, had not the generosity of pious men come to its aid, it 
would already have failed. The harbour is distant a mile from the city, 
where the channel of the river runs in a straight line, and the town is 
a little to the left, but when the tide advances all the space up to the 
quay is covered with water, and so an entrance is open for smaller ships. 
The larger vessels discharge their burdens at the harbour. Before the 
present disorders in the State the citizens endeavoured to extend the 
quay along the whole sea-side, and the foundations of the work were 
laid with that object in view. But they were prevented by the outbreak 
of war, and the work was stopped but not dropped. A castle on a hill 
which has its name from the building was many years since destroyed, as 
it was a menace to freedom. Not very long ago an attempt was made 
to fortify the town for military purposes, but unsuccessfully, as the 
nature of the ground is opposed to this. Overagainst the town, and in 
sight of it, the famous salmon fishery is carried on, from which no small 
gain is derived by the citizens. Here the agrarian law of Lycurgus 
obtains : the whole fishery is divided into lots of which an individual 
can possess only one. If a second lot falls to his share, whether by 
inheritance or otherwise, one or the other must be given up. At the 
second milestone the river is crossed by a fine bridge of seven arches 
strongly and durably built of freestone, the work of Bishop Gavin 
Dunbar. Quite near the town on the west, at the base of a low hill 
which has its name from the Women, there flows a copious spring of the 
clearest water, but acid and of an iron taste. It immediately falls into 
a neighbouring burn. From the test of experience it is believed to be 
a cure for bowel complaints, and to possess qualities similar to those of 



288 TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN 

the waters of Spa in Belgium, and on this account both these waters arid 
those have a common name. They are efficacious for the same diseases. 
Some medical men of our country have written about these waters of 
ours, and on ascertaining their virtues have committed their discoveries 
to paper. They are certainly pleasant to drink, and no one experiences 
any harm from the deepest draughts ; but for washing linen clothes, or 
brewing ale, or for cooking they are altogether useless, and appear to 
have been reserved by nature for medical uses. The Universities of 
both towns have, besides philosophical courses, professors of Theology, 
Law, Medicine, and Mathematics, so that many of those who have inclina- 
tion and ability for such studies resort thither. From these seats of 
learning numerous men of eminence and of usefulness to the State have 
gone forth ; of whom many have spent and are spending a not inglorious 
life abroad, but their names I modestly spare. Some are sufficiently 
well known from their writings ; others are content to remain unnoticed, 
since they shrink and may they continue to shrink from the itching 
habit of scribbling, too common in this age. 



These remarks that follow I did not transmit to the printer 
at all, as they are not to the purpose. 

Many things discouraged me from putting my hand to the pen : old 
age, which as it weakens the body has also such an effect that vigour of 
mind is usually shattered by it ; and the bad faith of our nobles who 
some few years ago with fair promises to me regarding these studies led 
me to this. Though their stormy rule has ceased, still while arms are 
handled there cannot seem to be peace. Besides, I was hindered by the 
interruption of correspondence with the printer, who lives at Amsterdam, 
since there, as in our country, everything is in confusion and peace has 
hardly been restored. Among us there are contempt and indolent neglect 
of these studies. I was, however, moved by ties of country, and home, 
and all that is dearest, since to these districts I owe my birth. I was 
also induced by a desire to encourage others who are qualified for this, 
truly and faithfully to describe the districts in which they were born or 
spend their life, and not to have anything in their writings too extrava- 
gant or beyond the truth, nor make an elephant of a fly, a failing that 
most of us in relating our affairs are subject to. The true, faithful and 
full description of our districts remains untouched. Our Boece neglected 
this, and turned aside to marvels, in most of which, as the truth has been 
thrown overboard, there is nothing marvellous. And Buchanan passes it 
lightly by. Now I must be pardoned by the nobility and gentry of these 
shires if I have not made sufficiently honourable mention of their lineage, 
their estates, and their castles. They should understand that I have been 
restricted by limits, and ought not to have dwelt at length on those 
topics. My sole aim has been to shake off the lethargy of our country- 



TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN MAR 289 

men who are fitted for these studies. However uninteresting these 
descriptions may perhaps appear to readers, as containing- too little 
history, still if they know the localities, or use the map, their aversion 
will be mitigated. 



Another piece as follows : 

Many things discouraged me from putting my hand to the pen : old 
age, which as it weakens the body has also such an effect that vigour of 
mind is usually shattered by it ; and the bad faith of those nobles who 
some few years ago with fair promises led me to these studies. The printer 
has as yet sent to me nothing of what, induced by persistent requests, I had 
caused to be given to him in a half-finished state. In our country there 
is indolent neglect of these studies, since peace is not sufficiently assured. 
I have, however, on compulsion granted this to the entreaties and 
wishes of my friends, of those especially who were in a position to bid 
and even command me. I was also moved by a desire to kindle the zeal 
of our countrymen who are qualified for this undertaking, so that they 
may truly and faithfully describe the districts in which they were born, 
or from which they are not far distant, and not say anything too extra- 
vagant, a failing that most of us in relating our affairs are subject to. 
Many things well worthy of being known are as yet untouched. Our 
Boece, leaving the description of districts untouched, has turned aside 
to marvels, in most of which, as the truth has been thrown overboard, 
there is nothing marvellous. With Herodotus he all but ascribes our 
origin to the gods, so that some faults of his are disclosed in his history 
that have roused against him many writers who bore ill-will to us. And 
I wish that Buchanan, if I may be permitted to say it about so great a 
man, had kept what he has written in the first three books of his history 
separate, as a sort of supplement to the work itself, and had not indulged 
in such lofty conceits that even to foreign readers he appears to have 
gone over from the historian to the partisan, passing the description of 
the kingdom rapidly and lightly by. I venture solemnly to declare, as 
now an old man, what, when a young man, I gathered in conversation with 
old men, that there is little sincerity to be found in our history from the 
death of James v., that is from the year 1542, so much confusion reigns 
among us ; and our affairs, very many of which have been committed to 
writing with so little fidelity, through excessive party zeal, must await 
Truth the daughter of Time yet concealed. Now I must be pardoned by 
our nobles if I have not made sufficiently honourable mention of their 
lineage, their estates, and their castles. They should understand that I 
have been restricted by the limits of a summary, and ought not to have 
dwelt at length on those topics. My sole aim in this description has been to 
shake off the lethargy of our countrymen who are qualified for these studies, 
and with this example let me use the word without boasting to lead 

VOL. IT. T 



290 TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BANFF 

the way. However uninteresting these descriptions may perhaps appear 
to readers, as containing too little history, still, if they know the localities, 
or use the map, their aversion will be mitigated. 



NOTES to the Map of ABERDEENSHIRE and 
BANFFSHIRE. 

In this Map we show that tract of Scotland which runs out very far 
to the east, bounded by the rivers Dee and Spey and by the sea. It 
comprises the two sheriffdoms of Aberdeen and Banff stretching in their 
entirety on the other side of the Grampian mountains to the north. 
The country has a sufficiently healthy and mild climate, bestowed by 
the neighbouring ocean and the numerous rivers. It suffices for its own 
wants in herds and crops, and largely supplies the necessities of others. 
Of old the whole was shaggy with woods which have now retreated to 
pathless places, while their subsequent growth is hindered by pasturage 
and sowing ; consequently the people who are some distance away from 
those woods make provision from the neighbouring Norway for building 
and other purposes. There is no need of firewood, for the earth is 
bituminous, and divots and peats are in abundance, and furnish excellent 
fuel, not only when they are dug on the surface of the ground, but at 
a depth of a fathom or two, almost always where formerly the woods 
were thick, as is shown by the roots and large trunks which are often 
taken out. This country was of old divided into certain districts, Mar, 
Buchan, Garioch, Formartine, Boyne, Enzie, Strathisla, and Strathbogie, 
of which at the present day the traces and names remain, but it would 
be difficult to determine the strict boundaries of all of them. The 
inhabitants are the most warlike and the most cultured of all the Scots 
who have their abodes beyond the Grampian range. The more notable 
rivers are the Dee, which flowing from the low hills called Scairsoch 
along the Grampians, and often cleaving its way through them, and 
running in a straight course to the east, enters the sea at Aberdeen, 
after being joined by many streams of less note, and spanned by a great 
bridge of excellent workmanship ; the Don, which descending from the 
mountains of Strathdon pursues the same course as the Dee, but with 
many playful windings, and likewise mingles with the ocean two miles 
from the Dee ; at its mouth it is crossed by a wide bridge of one arch ; 
the Ythan, which with a short course, rolling slowly through the plains, 
is affected by the tide higher up than any river in these districts ; the 
Ugie, consisting of two streams named the Inner and the Nearer Ugie, 
which unite and intersect Buchan, flowing into the sea at Inverugie; 
the Deveron, which, rising in the hills of the small pastoral district 
of Cabrach, receiving the Bogie at Strathbogie and the Isla a little 
below on the left, and flowing to the west-north-west, ends at Banff; 



TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BANFF 291 

the Spey, which taking its rise in the ridge of Badenoch, flowing- in its 
course towards the west-north-west, and measuring the whole length of 
Badenoch, being there enlarged by many rivers, waters Strathspey, 
where receiving the Dulnain and further down on the right the Avon, 
it runs with a very swift current, and forming the boundary of Moray 
loses its waters below the splendid mansion of the Marquis of Huntly 
called Bog of Gicht. 



A Description of the two Shires of ABERDEEN and 
BANFF. 

I begin a description of the two Shires which lie bounded on the south 
by a part of the Grampian mountains and by the river Dee from its very 
source, on the west by the course of the noble and rapid river Spey, 
on the north by a part of the great bay whose ancient name was Varar, 
now the Moray Frith, and on the east by the open sea ; and if in this 
description 1 exert myself more than in that of the other districts of the 
kingdom, I must be pardoned, since to this quarter I owe my birth, my 
education, my position, and all that is dearer than these ; still I shall 
have to say nothing beyond the truth (to which in these matters I have 
paid court), on a subject thoroughly well known to me. These localities, 
though beyond the Roman limits, were not altogether unknown to the 
acute Alexandrian geographer, who in rude fashion, but not far from 
the actual truth, describes the shores and the situation of the lands. 
The inhabitants he calls Taezali, and the furthest cape to the east, now 
Buchan Ness, the Taezalum Promontorium, a name quite unknown to 
our writers. Our countrymen from the first divided the whole of this 
tract into various parts with distinctive names. They are Mar, Lower 
and Upper (now Mar, Cromar, Strathdee and Braemar) ; beyond that, 
Garrioch, and likewise north of these, Buchan all along the shore ; and 
there are Boyne, Enzie reaching to the Spey, and above, in the inland 
parts, Strathbogie, Strathisla, Balvauy, Strathavon and some others 
which I will mention in good time. Those of them that have strath 
prefixed derive their names from the rivers that flow through them ; 
for that word in the ancient language means a district intersected by 
a river ; but he who traces the reason for the names of the rest will not 
throw away his labour in play. The boundaries of many of them also 
are uncertain. At the present day the whole of this dominion is divided 
into two shires, which have their names from the towns where justice is 
administered : they are Aberdeen and Banff. The climate is temperate 
and healthy, though to those unaccustomed to it, and natives of a 
warmer country, somewhat cold ; but this is mended by the great 
abundance of fuel, though there is never any use for stoves. The 
winters are mild, which is due in a great measure to the surrounding 



292 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BANFF 

ocean. They are rarely snowy ; the rains are more trying, and this too 
is due to the sea. These features are a wonder to foreign sailors who 
come here, especially Swedes, Danes, Poles, and Prussians, in whose 
countries the land throughout the whole winter is stiff with hard frost, 
and lies hidden. The inland districts rise into numerous mountains, 
which however are pastoral. The river Dee cuts the Grampians, of 
which a portion left by the river on the north divides into several ranges, 
and elevates the localities that are more distant from the sea into 
mountainous country. But the lower grounds and those that stretch 
along the seaside are softer, and clear of mountains. 

Buchan in the whole of its wide extent, spreading entirely into plains 
and hills, knows no mountains. Nor in all the kingdom will it be equalled 
for low-lying land and immunity from mountains. The violence of the 
winds is somewhat disturbing, and, of these, the north wind brings a cold 
and often snowy air. The south wind is variable, the west always clear, 
but the north-west is the worst of all in violence, with cold and snow. 
The dispositions of the inhabitants, as regards the humbler class or the 
dregs of the population, incline as a rule to the pursuit of agriculture ; 
or they devote themselves to the meaner trades, which they practise 
with little success ; some, however, rise from this position. But those of 
the better class, or of distinguished birth, citizens also and dwellers in 
towns, are trained in letters from their earliest years. These studies 
they continue, and when their ability and intellect have increased, a 
foreign education, especially in France, a nation friendly to and always 
beloved by them, is to their mind. Trade is left to citizens and towns- 
people. The better classes, greatly to their hurt, despise it as unsuitable 
to their birth, whence comes poverty or the pursuit of arms, which they 
have practised in many places abroad for many years with distinction. 
For being of keen and fiery genius, whether they serve the Muses or 
Mars they make no little headway ; those whose time of life has grown 
cool prefer ease at home and a country life in their mansion-houses to 
a city life, so that the towns are few, and these are of very little im- 
portance, with the exception of Aberdeen alone, though still the whole 
country would be thickly enough populated, did not inaccessible or 
pathless tracts prevent this. But neither do the townspeople really 
escape this brand of idleness, since they do not pay so much attention to 
merchandise or trade as they might easily do. 

Now, before I proceed further, I have thought it necessary to tell in 
some prefatory remarks how amid these everlasting dissensions of a 
factious nobility, and the ambition and avarice of the clergy, which the 
nobles misused for their own advantage, the Sovereigns were allowed to 
be safe. It will, then, be worth knowing. As James v. was sufficiently 
yielding (for I do not speak of the previous time), the reformed religion 
began to strike root. The queen, the heiress to the throne, was carried 
off into France by those who favoured the French, and the regency of 
the kingdom was handed over to the Earl of Arran, who was the nearest 



TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BANFF 293 

heir to the throne. He gave up this office to Mary of Lorraine, widow 
of James v. She opposed the Reformation, and seeing the Reformers 
preparing for war, she summoned French soldiers and defended herself 
against force. In the meantime James, afterwards Earl of Moray, had 
grown up, and came forward as leader of the Reformers, summoning the 
English to his aid until the French should be expelled from the kingdom. 
Then, on the death of the queen regent, he hurried into France, to see 
what policy Queen Mary, now a widow through the death of Francis n., 
would adopt. Should she be more inclined to France than to the 
turbulent government of Scotland, he was prepared to seek the chief 
place for himself. History tells how she, on her return, conducted 
herself. All his actions abundantly testify that he burned with constant 
desire for royal power, and had not speedy slaughter disturbed his plans, 
which were riot yet ready, beyond doubt he would have ventured every- 
thing in order that a way to the throne might lie open for him. The 
Earl of Athol before him had laid a plot for James i., in the opinion of 
those who judge honestly, with far better reasons, which it would be too 
long to insert here ; but the bastard Moray's reason was not calculated to 
exhibit to usurpers any model of what is right. In former ages no 
one outside of the royal family coveted the throne ; the power of the 
Douglases, excessive and formidable to the kings as it was, did not come 
up to this, nor that conspiracy which caused the death of James m., 
but through the services of the same men the sceptre was handed over 
to his son. The nobles came into frequent collision with each other, 
panting to decide who should floui'ish in the greatest favour, and thus a 
pure line of true and royal blood was continued to our time. 

Here perhaps the reader will wonder how amid such horrors of 
factions, which were the result of the ambition of the nobles, it was 
permitted to the king, young and incapable of preventing these proceed- 
ings, to be safe. The factious nobles came into collision with each 
other, whence arose all evils to all who mixed themselves up with the 
factions, but it never occurred to any one in these, or in former times, to 
make any attempt against the kings or their thrones ; so that the royal 
house, being always preserved, has reached our time. Civil wars often 
raged in the royal family, and civil wars dethroned kings. Sometimes 
the lawful kings were banished, and usurpers reigned for a time, but on 
the removal of these by war or plots, everything came back to the legiti- 
mate sovereigns. 

But let us now traverse the several parts. To begin with Banff : the 
small district of Strathavon now Stradown, the ancestral property of the 
Marquises of Huntly, is situated on the course of the river Avon, which 
Timothy Pont, who surveyed the whole of these parts, told me is the 
clearest and has the purest water of all the rivers in this kingdom. But 
no proof of valuable soil can be derived from that, for it is very poor, 
with scanty crops, which in some years hardly ripen, and therefore the 
inhabitants place their greatest hope in pasturage, which never dis- 



294 TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BANFF 

appoints them. The Avon from the ridges of the rugged and snowy 
mountain called Bin A wen, issuing from a small loch, after a course of a 
few miles receives the Bulg burn, flowing from a loch of the same name. 
Then it struggles rather than flows through rocky and broken ground, 
receiving many burns from all sides until it receives the Livet, and this 
stream and that other one on the right ; now increased in water, it falls 
into the Spey, flowing northward in its whole course. At its junction 
with the Livet are the ruins of the old Castle of Drimmin, and at a short 
distance from it . The rest of the locality is occupied by 

country cottages. Neither this district nor Balvany, which follows, reaches 
the Spey, for the tract of Strathspey, which belongs to Morayshire, 
intervenes. Balvany has a somewhat kindlier soil, but it is all rough 
with mountains. It is intersected by the Fiddich and some other unim- 
portant burns, and derives its name from the Danes who settled in this 
locality. For bal means a town or village, to which is added van for dan 
by a slight transmutation of letters, a change common in the ancient 
language. In it is Mortullich, several centuries ago the chief seat of the 
Bishops of Aberdeen, now a parish church. Balvany Castle, a noble and 
beautifully situated pile, is the capital of the domain. But Achindoun 
Castle and the upper part of the Fiddich are situated in wooded glens, 
and the inhabitants are hardly reckoned in the district, since they are 
under the Marquises of Huntly. This river mingles with the Spey, and 
is the last of any importance that augments its waters. For the Isla, a 
river that rises in the neighbourhood, after a course of some miles in 
this district, enters the tract to which it gives its own name. There are 
here, besides, many country-houses occupied by men of the better class, 
to enumerate which in this compendious description we must not linger. 
The whole of this domain, down from the time of James, our second 
king of that name, that is from the year , belonged to the Stuart 
Earls of Athol. He presented his uterine brother with it. This line 
failing, the Parliamentary Barons of Saltoun claimed it by a money 
bargain ; from them by the same right it passed to the Iimeses. Now 
the Earl of Rothes has it by right of purchase. Where now the moun- 
tains begin to disappear, Strath Isla extends to the banks of that small 
river, which turning its course first to the north, then to the east, enters 
the Deveron a little above Rothiemay, afterwards to be mentioned. This 
district with its fertile soil is rich in both corn crops and grass, being 
greatly benefited by the lime of which there is here on all sides an 
immense supply. The inhabitants are actively employed in burning this, 
both for their own use and for the convenience of their neighbours in 
building, whence they make daily profit. They also carry on a trade in 
linen webs of rather fine yarn. Keith, a village with a church 011 the 
river-bank with its stated weekly market, owing to the convenience of 
the spot, attracts the hill-men from the higher grounds to sell or barter 
their wares. All this district, which is divided among various proprie- 
tors, is inhabited by many gentlemen of lower rank. It is separated 






TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BANFF 295 

from Strathbogie by the lofty mountain Ballach, and from Enzie, the 
next district, by the range of low hills named from a burn Altmore. 

The Spey on the west, the bay of the sea called Varar (now the Moray 
Frith) on the north, and Boyne up to the small town of Cullen on the 
east, form the boundaries of Enzie, in common speech Ein Yee. Devoted 
entirely to corn crops, it never disappoints the husbandman's hopes, but 
it produces scanty grass. This district does not yield to the neighbouring 
Moray in fertility of soil ; it is beaten, however, in garden fruits, through 
the fault of the inhabitants rather than the nature of the soil. Here in 
the absence of lime the fields near the sea are manured with seaweed, of 
which a great quantity is thrown upon the beach by the advance of the 
tide twice a day. Servants, noting the hours, are in attendance, and 
lest any of it should be lost they drag back the fugitive seaweed at ebb- 
tide, plunging into the waves in the tempestuous winter, even at night. 
On the river-bank is situated Bog of Gicht, an elegant and spacious 
castle built to a great height, a mansion to which, whether as regards 
pleasure or utility, nothing is wanting. It is surrounded with charming 
gardens and an extensive park, which is enclosed with a strong wall, and 
divided also by walls into four different parts for the rearing of deer, of 
which there is abundance here of two kinds. The place has its name 
from its somewhat low-lying situation and shady wood. In former years 
it was splendidly enlarged by the Marquis of Huntly, the proprietor of 
this place, as of the whole district. Between this and Boyne, the adjoin- 
ing district, once lay a small wood adorned with tall oaks of immense 
girth even when I was a young man ; but now the whole has been cut 
down, and the oak has again grown up, mixed with pointed-leaved birch 
and other trees. 

Strathbogie is a wide and ancient barony, now raised into an earldom 
by King James. It is intersected by the Bogie and the Deveron, and in 
it they unite. It has numerous burns and rivulets, all of which are very 
beneficial to the fertility of the soil, both for harvests and for grasses. 
In the olden time it was divided into forty village settlements, which the 
ancient language called daachs, to each of which so much land was 
allotted as could be tilled with four ploughs every year. Nor was that 
a small extent of ground. Since it is the practice among us, when the 
crops are cut down, to work the ploughs during the whole winter to the 
mouth of March when the sowing begins, but with no cessation till May 
is far advanced, at the present day, with all the woods felled, and all the 
land from which there is hope of a crop turned to tillage, all the ploughs 
have been more than doubled. Fine linen webs manufactured here are 
specially commended, so that among all the inhabitants of the neighbour- 
ing parts who are not brought up to this pursuit, webs from this district 
have name and fame. Hence arises no small profit to the inhabitants, 
who attend all the summer fairs with them. Of oxen, particularly those 
fattened on grass for the mart, of sheep, and of horses also for country 
needs there is the requisite abundance, and likewise for the supply of the 



296 TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BANFF 

markets. Most of the inhabitants are the relatives, and all are the 
dependants of the Marquis of Huntly, now for several centuries the 
proprietor of this district. The Castle of Strathbogie, whence the district 
has its name, pleasantly situated at the junction of the said rivers, is the 
capital of the district. It has extensive and delightful gardens, and 
before the door the Deveron is crossed by a stone bridge. 

The inhabitants of all these districts and localities that I mention are 
vigorous, active, and industrious, and would make excellent soldiers if 
they had practice and training. But let me confess the truth, for I 
must not spare my clansmen, in peace and war alike, neglecting the 
Muses they have always paid more court to Mars. 

Additions to this district are Rothiemay and its castle with the church 
adjoining it, situated three miles below Strathbogie on the same river, 
and formerly a part of the same tract. It was the ancestral property of 
the Parliamentary Barons of Saltoun, but has now come to the Gordons. 
At the source of the Deveron lies a stretch of low-lying country among 
mountains. Another rivulet with the name of the Black burn, which 
one might call the Melas (black) here joins the still tiny Deveron, and 
the two by doubling the volume of water form a stream equal to an 
ordinary river. Cabrach is the name of the locality, which is entirely 
devoted to grass and pasturage, here luxuriating wonderfully. During 
the summer it has numerous shielings, but the people as a rule remove 
in winter. 

The small district of Boyne yields to none of the rest in the fer- 
tility and general character of its soil where it is on the sea-coast, 
but this is not the case with the inland portions. It stretches along the 
shore from Enzie to the mouth of the Deveron. At the entrance to the 
district is Cullen, which is of considerable antiquity. It enjoys the 
rights of a town, but as it has no proper harbour it is hardly worthy of 
the name of a village. Its sole recommendations are its productive land 
and the mansion of the Earl of Finlater, whose family abandoned the 
Castle of Finlater, built on a rock in the sea, and removed hither, 
attracted by the amenity of the situation. They have extensive and 
rich estates in the neighbourhood. Farther eastward on the shore, half- 
way to Banff, stands a very beautiful castle named the Crag of Boyne, 
whose proprietor bears the title of the whole district. He is a baron and 
is of ancient lineage. The town of Banff, the capital of this shire, is 
situated at the mouth of the said river, but is not of great importance, 
as the river is harbourless, and exposed to the north-west wind, so that 
occasionally its channel is changed. There are the remains of a castle. 
The citizens are few, and being unequal to trading by sea they labour the 
fields near the town. There is also a salmon fishery of some note. 

It is followed by Buchan, a large and wide - stretching province 
beginning at the head of the Moray Frith, and reaching Buchan Ness 
where that Frith commences ; on the east it lies along the sea to a 
great distance. Inland its boundaries are uncertain. Some think that 



THANSLATION : ABERDEEN BANFF 297 

it should be continued to the river Don ; others make it end at the 
Ythan, naming the rest Formartine. I know an old barony of that 
name, which after being held by various proprietors disappeared with 
the name. On the route by which one goes from Buchan Ness to Strath- 
bogie, there are certainly some places that are assigned to no district, but 
have their names from their own parish churches, such as Ochterles and 
Abirkirdir, with Frendraught, a castle of the Crichtons. There are also 
some others. But the whole of Buchan is occupied by plains or hills, 
and it is all dedicated to the plough, being rich in cattle and sheep, and 
intersected by numerous streams. The river Ugie comes from two 
sources, and both streams have the same name, distinguished by the 
addition of Outer and Inner. After flowing ten miles they unite and 
lose their waters in the sea. But the Ythan has not a long course, and 
is enlarged by many streams ; it is far richer in water than the Ugie, and 
likewise mingles with the sea below the village of Newburgh. Flowing 
through level land, it meets the tide further up than all the rest of the 
rivers in these shires, but sandy beaches injure the harbour, which is 
entered only by smaller ships. 

But to return to the point from which I made a digression : seven 
miles above Banff, a little way from the Deveron, on a stream of its own 
name, is Turriff, a pleasant village with a church. It is very well suited 
for falconry, and with its open plains or hills so thoroughly adapted for 
hunting that there is no place in these shires, and hardly in others, equal 
to it. Six miles south of that is seen on the banks of the Ythan the 
magnificent and spacious mansion of the Earls of Dunfermline called 
Fivie. The whole course of the river is occupied with the country- 
houses and castles of barons and gentlemen of lower rank. On the road 
turning northward from the mouth of the same river first is situated 
Slains, consisting of the walls of the ruined castle of the Earl of Errol, 
who removed from thence on building a mansion on the peninsula of 
Bowness, by the rocky shore. 

Peterhead is situated just at Buchan Ness in a place suitable for carry- 
ing on a trade by sea, and convenient for a harbour, if industry were 
shown. But the breakwater which once existed is now almost in ruins. 
Nor is any effort made to remedy this, but the splendid advantages of 
the situation are altogether neglected. It once belonged to the Abbey 
of Deer ; now it acknowledges the Earl Marischal as its proprietor. 
Proceeding two miles from thence we come to Innerugie on the shore, a 
large and noble castle, the principal seat of a great and ancient barony, 
and the property of the said earl. After Buchan Ness is passed, and 
twelve miles from the same, Fraserburgh is seen. Fifty years ago the 
noble knight and baron Sir Alexander Fraser founded the town, enlarged 
it with liberties granted by the king, and also at great expense built a 
stone sea-wall, first in a somewhat unsuitable place, and then transferring 
the works elsewhere, made the harbour, which is now much used, and 
increases the prosperity of the town. 



298 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BANFF 

Above that castle, in the inland district on the Ugie are the ruins, or the 
site of the ruins, of the ancient and wealthy Abbey of Deer, a name signifying 
oak in the ancient language, as is also remarked by Bede, who however 
mentions not this, but another abbey of the same name. This one of 
ours belonged to the Cistercian Order. I have in my house a parchment 
charter stamped with the seal of William Cuming, Earl of Buchan, from 
which it distinctly appears that he either founded the abbey or was 
among the first to make a gift of lands to it. It stood in a sunken 
valley shaded by woods on all sides. In my early youth I saw the 
church, the house, the monks' cells, pleasant gardens, and other objects 
almost intact. But now the very stones have been carried away, and the 
plough is triumphant. King James presented George, Earl Marischal, 
with this abbey, when sending him to Denmark as a Commissioner for 
the betrothal of Queen Anne. He experienced, however, more loss than 
gain from this. Beyond the Ythan as far as the Don, nothing of note 
presents itself save the numerous castles and mansions of gentlemen of 
lower rank, many of whom are called barons ; or where they are not 
found, the cottages of the peasantry occupy almost the whole countryside. 
Of idle land there is very little or none. Through a lapse of memory I 
said that there are no mountains in this province ; there is one they 
call it Mormond which is a little higher than the rest of the land, but 
it is not equal in size to a moderate inland hill. But there is an extra- 
ordinary abundance of cattle and sheep, and the land is as it were com- 
pletely clothed with crops, which frequently supply the wants of others. 
A trade is carried on with those farther south, and every year corn is 
conveyed even to Leith. The inhabitants, following the genius of the soil, 
are energetic husbandmen, but are inactive in trading by sea. Timber 
for buildings is brought from Norway, and if this source of supply 
were to fail they would be in an evil plight ; so deadly hostile to forests 
were our ancestors that, where all places some centuries ago bristled with 
woods down to the very shores, the people now suffer from scarcity. 

Garioch or Garviach, in common speech Gheriach, is enclosed be- 
tween Strathbogie, Buchan and Mar, nowhere touching the sea. The 
origin of the name is unknown. In the ancient language garve means 
rough, rocky, uneven land, and ach a plain or level ground. This does 
not correspond with the configuration of the district, which, watered by 
two rivers and many burns, is entirely situated in a valley. It expands 
in fruitful hills, with a rich and seasonable harvest always responsive to 
the husbandman's prayers. The mountain Bennachie bounds it along- 
its length almost wholly, on the south. This mountain rising to seven 
tops shows itself conspicuous to those who sail along the coast, for all 
the lower grounds are level. The river Urie, rising in a gentle ridge not 
far from the Castle of Gartly, flowing through a barren valley, struggling 
amid the broken defiles of two mountains, and reaching the plains, cuts its 
centre with its uneven and winding channel, and joins the Don at the 
little town of Innerurie. At the base of Bennachie, and measuring its 



TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BANFF 299 

length, the Gadie burn mingles with the same river two miles above the 
mouth of the Urie. Here there is no lack of agreeable hunting of hares; 
there is abundance of waterfowls, partridges, lapwings and other birds, 
but grass is rather scarce. One mile above the village called Inche 
there is a hill rounded on every side, of moderate height, and adjacent to 
no mountains in the neighbourhood, all green with rich grass. On its 
very top remain the ruins of a castle, the work of King Gregory i., where 
also he died. I should hardly refer to this were it not that I am re- 
minded by the story of sheep feeding there that are remarkable for gilded 
teeth. I remember seeing some of their gums marked with gilded teeth. 
Hence the story of the common people, which deceived our historian Boece, 
that this hill is rich in veins of gold. But any one who carefully examines 
the place will see that there is not even a suspicion of any metal, so 
completely is the nature of the ground opposed to this. It seems rather 
to be due to the grass, and yet I am not satisfied with this explanation, 
for while the pasture is free to all, why does the peculiarity occur so 
rarely, and only in a few cases? Innerurie lies where the Urie falls into 
the Don, and is a place of some antiquity, rejoicing in burghal immuni- 
ties, as they call them, but as it is in the neighbourhood of Aberdeen, it 
hardly occupies the rank of a moderate village. It is situated on the 
road leading from that town to Elgin in Moray, and in former centuries 
was all shaded by woods of which not a vestige now remains ; it is all open. 
Not far from this, King Robert, the first of that name, routed in battle 
Comyn, Earl of Buchan, who had rebelled against him. Pursuing him 
in his flight the king devastated Buchan. This happened about the year 
13 . Afterwards Alexander Stuart, Earl of Mar, in a sanguinary battle 
at the village of Harlaw in the vicinity, defeated Donald of the Isles, 
who trusted in the might of the Hebrides and was laying all the country 
waste. Our annals tell that this occurred in the year 1411. The 
greatest part of the district was united to the Earldom of Mar, and at 
the present day adds to the earl's titles. 

Mar (a name whose derivation none can tell) in its lower part, nearest 
the sea, is narrowed by the rivers Dee and Don, but in the upper parts 
it extends beyond the one and the other. It is remarkable for its 
length, but very unequal in its breadth. He who describes those rivers 
and their tributary rivulets will have told almost everything about it, so 
much do the inland parts abound in mountains and moors ; for the Dee, 
cutting its way through the Grampians from its source to its mouth, 
where they end in hills, and leaving no small portion of them on the 
right, renders this province mountainous and in very many places unfit 
for cultivation. But all that it yields to the sickle is of excellent 
quality, and is cut down always in seasonable autumns. These moun- 
tains are fairly rich in herds of cattle, in flocks of fine sheep, whose flesh 
is of the most agreeable flavour, in horses for country work, and in goats 
on the higher grounds. In this, of all the districts described by 
me the wool is far the best. It is praised for the whiteness, softness 



300 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BANFF 

and fineness of the fibre, and is eagerly sought after. But these 
advantages do not compensate for the loss caused by a useless soil. The 
air is salubrious, the inhabitants are vigorous, shrewd, and frugal people. 
The soil being arid and not sufficiently fruitful sharpens their wits. The 
Dee has its source near the range of low mountains called Scarsach 
which separate Upper Mar, or Bra of Mar, from Badenoch, at a lofty 
mountain which they call Bini-Vroden. Receiving the Gadi burn 
it runs a little to the south-east, but immediately bending again to 
the east, hindered by almost no windings, though confined by high 
mountains on either bank, flowing swift, clear and free from mud, it 
mingles with the sea at New Aberdeen, as it is called, after passing 
under a bridge when now very near the town. At Innerey, so called 
from the Ey burn, seven miles from its source, it first meets cultivation. 
Then, augmented with the water that many large rivers bring down from 
the mountains, it washes on the right Castletown (you might say the city 
of the fort), a mansion of the Earl of Mar, built in the style of a castle, 
with the neighbouring church. Then on the right is Abirzeldie, also a 
castle, where the valley is called Strathdee. Unless you add Glengairn, 
named from the river on which it is situated, the rest of the countryside 
is taken up with country cottages. Here the crop is scanty, as the 
valley of the Dee is contracted by mountains ; but forests of tall firs are 
not lacking, which would be purchased with much gold in the lower 
districts. One mile below Abirgeldie is a lofty mountain, near the bank 
of the river, adjoining no other, though very many indeed come near it, 
and entirely clothed on every side with wood. Its summits and rocks are 
occupied by a beautiful forest of immense evergreen firs, and its slopes, 
down to the river and the plains, by a wood of birches and limes with tall 
and thickly-planted trees, so that one can see nothing of the whole 
mountain except the wood. Craig-Gewis is the name of the mountain, 
craig meaning a rock and gewisfir. Next to this is Glen Muick, a small 
valley deriving its name from the river which rises in a small loch of the 
same name, and, after a few miles, mingles with the Dee on the right, 
almost opposite the river Gairn. Below Glenmuick, on the same bank, 
the wood called Pananich presents itself. Its timber is largely conveyed 
to Aberdeen, but after being prepared for the use of the country-people, 
as entire trunks of trees for buildings can neither be brought down on 
the rough and stony road nor safely cast upon the very rapid river, 
though there is sufficient water. The pleasant Castle of Kean-na-kvll 
follows on the same bank. It was built some few years ago by the Marquis 
of Huntly at a delightful retreat shaded on all sides by woods, in a 
situation highly suitable for fishing, fowling, and the hunting of stags 
and does. Lower down, as we skirt the bank, the Taner burn enters the 
Dee. It rises in the ridges of the very high mountains that form the 
boundary between the province of Angus and Mar. Its banks are 
crowned with an immense forest of tall firs, which extend for many 
miles. Next to it is the parish called Birs, which runs from the Dee to 



TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN- BANFF 301 

the source of the river called the Feuch, where in former years the 
wants of the neighbours were abundantly supplied by a forest of birch 
trees. It has now been cut down through the carelessness of those 
concerned, but is slowly growing up again, with no injury to the ground, 
which is very suitable for this. Now Mar has as its boundary the Dee, 
which separates it from the neighbouring province of Mearns ; nay, 
Mearns, crossing the river at that place, takes away from it the parish called 
Banchory Dominick [Devenick], where not far from the bank in a rocky 
situation is Crathes Castle. The Baron Thomas Burnet, proprietor of the 
ground, has by care and skill subdued the genius of the place, for by plant- 
ing firs and other trees with the hand, he has covered forbidding crags, 
laid out gardens, and clothed it with amenity. As we descend, next comes 
Drum Castle, distant a mile from the river, in a high and rugged 
situation, but of remarkably elegant aspect with its gardens. It has as 
its proprietor the Baron Alexander Irvine, who is of ancient and dis- 
tinguished lineage, and Chief of his clan. Nothing further that could be 
referred to here is worth mentioning until the river passes under the 
bridge. But in the upper parts, beyond the mouth of the Gairn, there 
is the tract called Cromar, separated from the whole neighbourhood ; on 
the west Morvin, a mountain higher than the rest, and the forest of 
Kilblene [Culbleari] are its boundary. The district extends hardly more 
than four miles either in length or in breadth. Intersected by two 
rivers, and spreading out in hills or plains, it far surpasses the rest of 
Mar in fertility of soil, and is altogether devoted to corn, forming the 
granary of all the neighbours. Everything here is excellent, everything 
seasonable ; and, what may surprise you, this productiveness does not 
reach the Dee, which is distant from the tract more than a mile, with 
moors and barren land lying between. Divided into four parish churches 
it acknowledges various proprietors. Next to it is Aboyne, which gives 
his titles as Parliamentary Baron to the son of the Marquis of Huntly. 
Near it in the next valley is the loch called Achlossin. At the river is 
situated Kincardine, a village with a church, on the king's highway, where 
they cross the mountains. It is eighteen miles from Aberdeen. Three 
miles below it the Canny Burn is received by the river Dee. The course of 
this burn is all pleasant, and all highly fertile. It abounds in pearl-bear- 
ing shells, and at its mouth touches Banchory, already mentioned by us. 
The river Don, as it is unequal to the Dee in size and length, so sur- 
passes that river in the productiveness of its lands. Rising in the 
mountain ridges that separate Strathavon from Mar, it intersects in a 
shallow channel the valley called Strathdon, and augmented by many 
rivulets receives the Nochty burn at the Church of Irmernochty, the 
Deskry a little below, and on the opposite bank the Bucket. This tract 
is rich in grass, and suitable for pasturage, though corn crops are not 
lacking. At the Bucket burn it struggles amid mountain defiles. But 
in its whole course it is not rapid like the Dee ; but watering a great 
deal of land with generally placid waves, it discloses fertile valleys. 



302 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BANFF 

While sometimes confined by mountains, it again gets wider in the plains. 
Below the Bucket, with Innerbucket a castle of the first name on it, 
stands on the left bank Kildrummy Castle, an ancient pile believed to be 
the work of the kings. It is strange that, with plains so near, it was 
placed in an unattractive situation overhung by barren mountains. But 
that its founders set about building a town is shown by the name Bur- 
roustoun, which signifies a town or burgh. With its strong wall and 
numerous massive towers, which have passages from one to another, it 
was safe against force in that age. It is now more commodious and 
attractive with new buildings, and is the principal seat of the Earls of 
Mar in this locality. As we skirt the bank of the Don, the Mosett burn 
flows into it, and, not far from this, the Church of Forbes is situated on 
the bank of the river, which I did not intend to mention were it not 
that, as our own annals tell, the original founder of the family of the 
Forbeses, from which I am descended on my mother's side, here killed 
a huge bear that was devastating the country round about ; and the 
tokens of this exploit are borne on the shield of their clan by his 
descendants, who, spreading out into many branches, hold under their 
sway very many estates in these borders, from the source of this river, 
and throughout many localities in these shires. Here Mar, crossing the 
mountains, seems to take away from Garioch and Strathbogie the parish 
of Clatt and the castle of the Parliamentary Baron of Forbes named 
Drymminor. Now the Don, free from the defiles, flowing through a 
wide and fertile valley, receiving the river Leochel, and passing Alford, 
is again confined by the narrow passes of Bennachie after a distance of 
four miles, and amid these, rugged with rocks and crags, it bends to the 
south, and reaching the level ground, it once more flows in its own 
course eastward. This charming and fertile plain has Monimosk, a castle 
of the Forbeses. There formerly stood a priory of the same name, 
whose estates being turned to private uses, the house also disappeared. 
In a different direction, away from the river, is seen Cluny Castle, and, 
not far off, the Castle of Mulkall, strong and of excellent workmanship, 
the seat of the Parliamentary Barons of Mulkall, and below, but still 
near the river, on opposite banks are Kemnay and Feltyrneir, where 
again the river confined by narrows is not freed until it passes Innerurie, 
where Mar is contracted, and has the river as its boundary. Here, 
bending to the south, after receiving the Urie, and in various meander- 
ings intersecting the best cultivated plains in all these provinces, first 
passing Kintore, a village of note, near which the Earl Marischal's 
castle called Hall of Forrest is situated, the river again turns eastward. 
Wandering in a tortuous course through the plains called those of 
Fintray, with mountains no longer opposing it, while flowing through 
high ground not to be compared with the plains, it mingles with the ocean 
after several miles. Between the mouths of these rivers there is a 
distance of three miles more or less of sandy shore. 

Aberdeen, which has two names, and also consists of two towns, is seen 






TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BANFF 303 

at the mouth of either river. The town called New Aberdeen is situated 
on the Dee, and Old Aberdeen on the Don, with the space of a mile 
more or less between them. At the latter was the cathedral church 
and the see of the bishop (when there was one). The town and its fields 
belonged to him. Now everything is so changed that the Bishop's 
Palace has not been spared, and after its destruction the very stones 
have not been allowed to rest. A truly royal college was built here 
by Bishop William Elphinstone, who spared no expense: cut off by 
death and scarcely seeing it finished, he made provision for stipends, 
masters and all those whose services were necessary. An almshouse for 
old men which he meditated he entrusted to his executors, bequeathing 
money, and they did not neglect the work. The river Don, near the 
sea, is spanned by a bridge of one arch, but that a very great one, well 
and strongly constructed. The builder is unknown ? which is strange, 
considering that the bridge of Dee gives similar information in more 
than one place, so different are the dispositions of men. It is unneces- 
sary to refer to the stone weir, at the bridge and a little above it, 
skilfully constructed across the whole river bed, and also to the noted 
and lucrative salmon fishery, as I am hastening to another part of my 
subject. New Aberdeen, built on three hills in a pretty high position, 
is approached from all sides by an ascent. King Gregory, about the 
year , attracted by the convenience of the place, was the first to 

bestow rights and privileges on the village. Here he had a mansion, 
which was afterwards converted into the College of the Trinity Friars, 
as they call them. Money was coined here, of which, in my youth, a 
citizen had one or two pieces ; but while its circumstances were still 
humble, the town was confined to the suburb whose name is now the 
Green ; afterwards, when its wealth increased, it extended over the 
nearest hills. It provided itself with houses, streets, churches, a town- 
house, and whatever else was needful for the requirements of a city. 
It elected magistrates and set up a form of government which it meant 
to be nearest to an aristocracy, and conducted a trade by sea. The 
number of citizens thus increasing, the court for the administration of 
justice for the whole shire was established here. A College was founded 
by George Keith, Earl Marischal, and the house of the Franciscans was 
turned to that use, but with such slender beginnings that, had not the 
generosity of pious men come to its aid, it would have already failed. 
The harbour, to which the river flows in a straight channel, is distant a 
mile from the city. When the tide advances, all the space as far as 
the quay is covered with water, and so an entrance up to the city is 
open for smaller ships. The larger vessels discharge their burdens at 
the harbour. Some few years ago the citizens endeavoured to extend 
the quay along the whole seaside, and the foundations of the work were 
even laid, but owing to our civil commotions the work was stopped but 
not dropped. A castle on a hill that has its name from it, occupying 
the whole level top of the height, is now destroyed. Not very long ago 



304< TRANSLATION: ABERDEEN BANFF 

an attempt was made to fortify the city for military purposes, but un* 
successfully, since the nature of the ground is opposed to this ; nor are 
matters different throughout the whole kingdom : the fortifications built 
in time of war are neglected on the conclusion of peace. Over against 
and in sight of the town the famous salmon fishery is carried on. 
There the agrarian law of Lycurgus obtains. The fishery is divided into 
lots, of which an individual can possess only one. If a second falls to 
his share whether by inheritance or in any other way, one or other of 
the lots must be given up. At the second milestone the river is crossed 
by a fine bridge of seven arches, strongly and durably built, the work 
of Bishop Gavin Dunbar. The Universities of the two towns have each, 
besides philosophical courses common to both, professors of Theology, 
Law, Medicine, and Mathematics, so that many of those who have inclina- 
tion and ability for such studies resort thither. From these seats of 
learning many men of great erudition and of usefulness to the State 
have gone forth, of whom not a few have spent and are spending a life 
of distinction abroad, whose names I modestly spare. Some of them 
are sufficiently well known from their writings, others have remained 
unnoticed, since they shrank from the itching habit of scribbling, too 
common in this age. On the west of the town, at the base of a hill 
that has its name from the women, there flows a copious spring of acid 
and iron taste. It immediately falls into a neighbouring burn. From 
the test of experience it is believed to possess qualities like those of the 
waters of Spa in Belgium, so greatly celebrated. They are efficacious 
for the same diseases. Some medical men of our country on ascertain- 
ing their virtues have praised these waters in writings published for that 
end. They are certainly pleasant to drink, and no one experiences any 
harm from deep draughts of them ; but for either washing linen clothes, 
or brewing ale they are altogether useless. History shows that this 
was a royal seat before the destruction of the Picts. That there was a 
mint here is proved by the existence of silver coins struck in this same 
place, of which I remember that some were still preserved in the hands 
of a citizen when I was a youth. The palace was afterwards gifted to 
the Church, and dedicated to the use of the Trinitarian Friars. 

There still remain traces of paganism. In different localities en- 
closures of large stones arranged in a circle are seen. One stone, 
conspicuous by its breadth, facing the south and almost adjoining the 
enclosure, seems to have supplied the place of an altar. These huge 
stones were in many instances brought from a distance. In various 
places there are, on hills or high ground, great cairns of smaller stones, 
conveyed hither by human labour, in which, in times of ignorance, when 
Christianity was not yet professed, it was customary to bury the nobles. 
For, when the stones are dislodged and the foundations searched, the 
remains of bodies are discovered. Some standing stones are found 
adorned with rude sculpture or figuring, but some are plain. They are 
doubtless monuments of victories or battles of which the recollection has 









TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BANFF 305 

perished. But those whose history remains in our annals may be men- 
tioned. When the Danes were troubling England, they did not leave 
even these localities ' beyond the sun's annual path ' unassailed. One 
descent was made on the coast of Buchan, and as they were fortifying a 
position on the rocky peninsula called Bowness, which at the present 
day is adorned with the mansion of the Earl of Errol, our forces came 
up, and a battle was fought on the sandy shore, a mile from the penin- 
sula. The Danes, being defeated, fled within their fortifications, made 
peace immediately, and sailed away. The leaders of both parties agreed 
by common consent that a church should be erected at the battlefield, 
and dedicated to St. Olaf, and this was done. Afterwards, when the 
shore had been worn away by the sea, a church was built a mile inland, 
and still remains, bearing like the neighbouring locality the name of 
C'rowdan at the present day. Again, at the small town of Cullen, in 
Boyne, the Danes landed, and, while laying the neighbourhood waste, 
were opposed by our forces. The enemy, who were spread over the 
fields, rallied, and engaged in battle some miles from that town. The 
Danes were beaten and driven out of the district. But in that fight we 
lost King . The fury of the robbers, however, did not stop 

here. Many places besides, which it is no part of my design to mention, 
were attacked by them all along the eastern coasts of the kingdom. In 
the memory of our fathers also there were four obstinate battles, and 
further, in these recent troubles which exercised us so surprisingly, there 
were two fierce engagements, but would that they were buried in 
oblivion, and succeeded by an amnesty ! 

Big annual fairs are held, but as a rule, in villages or inland places. 
I will detail the more famous of them. In the end of June people 
assemble at a fair in the open fields on the road that leads from Aber- 
deen to Strathbogie. This fair has its name from Serf, a native saint. 
The cause of the crowding to it is the convenience of the place, as it is a 
centre of distribution for communities wide apart. Next on the first 
of August comes a fair at Turriff, a village in Buchan, and again 
on St. Lawrence's day at Rayne , a small hamlet in Garioch. This 
is succeeded by the most famous and most numerously attended of 
them all at Kincarn [Kincardine], a parish church in Mar, on the bank 
of the Dee, by which those who journey across the Grampians into 
Moray or farther north must pass. In the next week a fair is held at 
Keith in Strathisla on St. Rufus' [Malrubius'J day. He was likewise 
called a native saint. A little above Kincarn, and also on the south 
bank of the Dee, but reckoned in this shire, at the end of September, on 
St. Michael's day, there is a large market, at the parish church called 
Birs. In the farthest border of Garioch, where it inclines to Strath- 
bogie, a market is held which derives its name from Regulus, likewise a 
native saint. This is followed by the one named after Covan, a saint of 
the same kidney, and held after the first week of October. Then there 
is the fair of All Saints at the parish church of Fordyce in Boyne, on 

VOL. II. U 



306 TRANSLATION : ABERDEEN BANFF 

the first of November. St. Martin's fair at Strathbogie is held on the 
twelfth of November. The last one, closing the year, is held on the 
shortest day at Deer in Buchan, and is the fair which derives its name 
from Dunstan [Durstan], not the great Englishman, but a saint of our own 
country. On these days there is a concourse of all sorts and conditions of 
men and women. A brisk trade is done in selling and bartering horses, 
cattle, and sheep, business, as a rule, being continued for a few days. 
Everything that is produced at home and can be exchanged for money is 
exposed for sale, especially coarse woollen webs, which are eagerly sought 
after by city merchants for export ; and likewise very white and fine 
linen webs from Strathbogie and Strathisla, which in this particular hold 
the first place, are brought hither. Foreign wares are not lacking, but 
a great supply from all quarters is shown in the hope of gain. You may 
see nought to be wanting but the class of swine. This kind of animal, 
which in foreign countries is considered a delicacy more than any other, 
is somehow, unluckily, neglected by our nation. Swine exist, however, 
but they bring no price. Out of an endless number of fairs of less 
importance suffice it to have mentioned these. Now the men with sour 
faces and the Aristarchuses of our age must pardon me for mentioning 
the saints so often, as the subject of markets cannot be referred to other- 
wise, since the common people thus distinguish and designate these fairs 
with names and dates, and it has been absolutely necessary for me to 
follow them in this, in order to be understood. 



307. MORAVLE DESCRIPTIO. 

Tractus hie Moravian!, nobilem Scotiae septentrionalis 
provinciam continet, ad sestuarium Varar Ptolomaeo dictum, 
porrectam quod ad septentriones aspicit. ^Estuarium autem 
hoc a Taizalo promontorio hodie Buquhannes, totius regni 
maxime orientali promontorio, longo tractu sese terris in- 
fundens ad 72 m. p. porrigitur, Buquhaniam, Boenam Ainziam 
et Moravian! a Rossia Southerlandia et Cathenesia dividens. 
Tractus igitur hie ad occasum [? ortum] Speam rapidum fluvium 
limitem habet. Australia montes terminant qui earn a Strath- 
spea et Badenocha dividunt. Nessus lacus et fluvius claudit ad 
Occasum reliqua prsedictum aestuarium concludit Regio 

haec amrena frugifera fructifera, supra fid em climatis jacet 
enim inter 57 et 58 grad latitudinis, ccelo adeo miti ut non 
immerito incolae glorientur hanc provinciam 40 diebus sereni- 



MORAY 307 

oribus quotannis tota vicinia illustrari. optimarum frugum 
egregia ubertas, uncle frequens exportatio et dives negotiatio. 
fructuum hortensium in tanta cceli ac soli bonitate laudata 
fsecunditas. Sinus maris qui earn alluit, innumera piscium 
examina suppeditat, quae vili praetio venalia ubiq^ prostant. 
ferinam vicini montes larga copia exhibent, Unde region i 
nomen, ex antiquitate parum constat, Danis autem dum 
infestant nostra littora, superioribus seculis concupita, qui 
stragibus suis earn sui juris reliquerunt. Monumenta ejus rei 
lapides erecti et praeliorum picturis ornati ad Foressam refer- 
untur. Ecclesiastica ab Episcopi cura pendent qui Elginae 
templum collegiatum et in vicina arce Spynie dicta ad lacum 
ejusdem nominis sedem habet. Jurisdictio civilis penes Vice- 
comites qui tres in hoc comitatu. Elgina et Foressa unum 
constituunt forum. Praefectura haec ad Dumbarorum familiam 
nobilem et antiquam spectat. Narniensis praefectura vicinae 
regioni jus dicit. Innernessa autem praefectura omnium 
Scotiae vicecomitatuum olim amplissima, quae quicquid hujus 
regni vel a se ad septentrionem vel occasum jacebat, sub se 
tencbat. Non ita pridem in varias praefecturas minores dis- 308. 
secta est. Duo opulenta Caenobia provinciam nobilitant. 
Killos et Pluscarden, quorum reditus nunc privatis cesserunt. 
Fluminibus, rivis, lacubus variis amcenis et piscosis irrigatur, 
qui omnes defluunt a montibus illis qui Badenocham et Strath- 
speam ab ea dividunt. Spea limpidissimus ac rapidissimus 
fluvius in extreme Badenochae dorso ortus, earnc^ mediam 
secans, multis auctus fluminibus, longo cursu in ortum aestivum 
decurrens, Oceano miscetur ad Garmathum viculum; supra 
omnia Scotiae flumina salmonum ferax nusquam ponte, vix 
vado permeabilis, a mediterraneis tanta rapiditate fertur ut 
vix aestum Oceani ad dimidium milliare sentiat, unde importu- 
osus et navibus parum tutus. Lossia brevi cursu ac placido 
Elginam praeterlapsus, arenoso fundo, fertili solo vicino, 
Oceano itidem miscetur. Findornus ex dictis montibus editus, 
per Tarnwayam Comitis Moraviensis arcem, baud procul 
Foressa lapsus, infra Coenobium Killos Oceano se miscet. 
piscosus, et portu nobilis. Narnia flumen amcenum frugiferos 
irrigans agros, ad urbem ejusdem nominis perdit aquas. 
Nessus ab occasu defluens, ortum debet lacubus qui in medi- 



308 MORAY 

terraneis magni et frequentes. Harry lacus fundit ejusdem 
nominis fluvium, qui conditur alio lacu Eawich indigete ser- 
mone dicto. Eawich autem aquas effundit in lacum Nessum 
dictum qui 24 m. p. longitudinis, duorum ut plurimum latitu- 
dinis, fluvium verius quam lacum refert, nisi aquarum quies 
reluctaretur. Nessus autem lacus omnes suas aquas effundens 
ad tria m. p. supra Innernessam urbem, fluvium ejusdem 
nominis cum lacu efficit. Mirum est lacum hunc solum inter 
vicina flumina, et vicinos lacus, nullis frigoribus, nulla glacie, 
nullis nivibus unquam congelari. Sed neq^ teporem ullum 
sentias in aquis ipsis, aut fluvialibus aut lacustribus. Suspicio 
est loco subesse thermas easc^ non modicas quas immensa 
aquarum profunditas celat. A lacu Eawich qui ipse exiguus, 
lacus Lochy abest ad mille passus tantum, humilis soli. 
Lochy autem lacus ipse 12 m. p. longitudinis Abriae accensus 
309. efFundit egregium fluvium ejusdem nominis, qui Oceano occi- 
dentali in Abria miscetur, tarn parvo interstitio abest, 
quin tota Scotia in duas partes intercurrente aqua divi- 
datur. Quatuor primariae urbes Elgina, Foressa, Narnia, et 
Innernessa. caetera tenent arces nobilium, aut villa? aut 
yici. 

Elgina ad Lossium fluvium, mediterranea potius quam 
maritima urbs, Cathedrali Ecclesia superbi et magnifici operis 
ex albo sectili lapide olim illustris, quae superiori saeculo ut 
pleraeq^ aliae sacrilegas manus sensit. Arcis ad occasum in 
colle vestigia, Urbs haec beata solo et nullius rei ad vitam 
necessariae indiga. Foressa inde ad occasum octo millia 
passuum abest amoena potius quam civibus frequens. Narnia 
ad ostium fluvii ejusdem nominis; Innernessa egregium 
emporium loco positum opportune, populo numerosa, nego- 
tiatione dives, quicquid enim in iis regionibus nascitur, hue 
tanquam ad mercatum convehitur ; ad occasum Nessus ponte 
junctus urbem alluit. Septentrionalia mare claudit, portu 
tuto, arce in colle ad fluvium insignis. Comitatum hujus 
provinciae, Comitis titulo tenuit ad Roberti primi, et Davidis 
Brussii tempora, ejusdem Roberti Regis ex sorore nepos, vir 
fortissimus Thomas Randulfus, quo sine liberis defuncto, 
Comitatus ille varias mutationes expertus, variis familiis 
possessus, quarum obscurior memoria, nunc Stuartorum familiar 



TRANSLATION : MORAY 309 

haereditarius, hodie^ earn tenet nobilissimus et illustrissimus 
Jacobus Stuartus; Antiqua Comitum sedes Tarn way arx ad 
Findornum fluvium ; nuperas aedes extruxit Comes idem, 
nomine Castri Stuarti, baud procul Innernessa. Innesiorum 
familia in orientali provinciae parte, antiqua et populosa. Ad 
Foressam et viciniam, Dumbarorum familia, de qua dixi. 310. 
Occidua et montana Catanesorum sedes sunt. Magis ad 
Nessum lacum in valle ad flumen Erregig Baro Fraserius 
nobilis et antiqua? prosapiae ; caetera diversis sparsim possessa. 



The following is a translation into English of 
the Latin Description of Moray. 

Some remarks on it are given in the Intro- 
duction, as to the authorship and other matters. 

A Description of MORAY. 

This tract contains Moray, a noble province of northern Scotland 
lying on the frith called by Ptolemy Varar, which looks towards the 
north. This frith, spreading inland over a wide space from Cape 
Ta3zalum, now Buchan Ness, by a long way the most easterly cape in 
the whole kingdom, extends for seventy-two miles. This district, then, 
has the rapid river Spey as its limit on the east. Its southern parts are 
bounded by the mountains that separate it from Strathspey and Badenoch. 
Loch Ness and the river Ness enclose it on the west, and the remainder 
is bounded by the aforesaid Frith. This region is pleasant, and 

fertile in crops and fruits beyond what might be expected from its 
geographical position, for it lies between the 57th and 58th degrees of 
latitude, with a climate so mild that the inhabitants justly boast that 
this province is brightened every year with forty days of greater clear- 
ness than the whole vicinity. Its productiveness in all the best crops is 
remarkable, so that it has a large export trade and rich traffic. With 
so favourable a soil and climate its fertility in garden fruits is a subject 
of praise. The bay of the sea that washes it supplies innumerable shoals 
of fishes, which are everywhere exposed for sale at a cheap price. The 
neighbouring mountains yield venison in great plenty. Whence it 



310 TRANSLATION: MORAY 

derives its name is not clear from ancient records ; but it was coveted by 
the Danes in former ages while they were infesting our shores, and by 
their carnage they kept it under their own sway. Standing stones, orna- 
mented with pictures of battles, are pointed out at Forres in proof of 
this. Its ecclesiastical concerns are under the care of the bishop, who 
has a collegiate church at Elgin, and his seat at the neighbouring castle 
of Spynie on the loch of the same name. The civil jurisdiction is in the 
hands of sheriffs, of whom there are three in this earldom. Elgin and 
Forres make one judicature. This shire is under the Dunbar family. 
The shire of Nairn administers justice to the neighbouring district. 
Inverness-shire was once the largest of all the Sheriffdoms in Scotland, 
and had under it all of this kingdom that lay either north or west of it. 
Not very long ago it was divided into various smaller shires. The 
province has distinction given to it by the two monasteries of Killos and 
Pluscarden, whose revenues have now come into the hands of private 
persons. It is watered by various rivers, rivulets, and lochs, which abound 
in fish. All these streams flow from the mountains that separate Bade- 
noch and Strathspey from it. The very clear and rapid river Spey, 
rising in the furthest ridge of Badenoch and intersecting its centre, 
enlarged by many rivers, and flowing in a long course to the north-east, 
mingles with the sea at the small village of Garmouth. It yields more 
salmon than any other river in Scotland. Nowhere crossed by a bridge, 
and .hardly even by a ford, it rushes from the inland regions with such 
swiftness that it is affected by the tide for scarcely half a mile, so that it 
is harbourless and unsafe for ships. The Lossie, which has a slow and 
smooth course, flows past Elgin, and likewise mingles with the ocean. Its 
bed is sandy, and it is surrounded by fertile soil. The Findhorn, issuing 
from the said mountains, and flowing by Tarnaway, a castle of the Earl 
of Moray, not far from Forres, mingles with the sea below the monastery 
of Killos. It abounds in fish, and is noteworthy for its harbour. The 
fair river Nairn, which waters fruitful fields, loses its waters at the town 
of the same name. The Ness, flowing from the west, owes its rise to the 
large and numerous lochs in the inland districts. Loch Garry discharges 
a river of the same name, which falls into another loch called Oich in the 
native language, and Loch Oich sends its waters into a loch called Ness, 
which, with a length of twenty-four miles, and a general breadth of two, 
represents a river more truly than a loch, were not the calmness of its 
waters opposed to this. Now Loch Ness discharges its waters three 
miles above the town of Inverness, and gives rise to a river of the same 
name as the loch. It is surprising that this loch alone among the 
neighbouring rivers and the neigbouring lakes is never frozen with any 
cold, ice, or snow. But you would never feel any warmth in the waters 
themselves, either those of the loch or those of the river. It is sus- 
pected that there are hot springs underneath, and these of no moderate 
degree of heat, which are concealed by the immense depth of the waters. 
From Loch Oich, which is itself small, Loch Lochy is only a mile 



TRANSLATION: MORAY 311 

distant, in low-lying ground. Now Loch Lochy, which has a length of 
twelve miles, and is reckoned to be in Lochaber, discharges a noble river 
of the same name, which mingles with the western sea in Lochaber, so 
narrowly does Scotland miss being divided into two parts by water 
running between them. The four principal towns are Elgin, Torres, 
Nairn and Inverness. The other parts of the district are occupied by 
noblemen's castles or country-houses, or by villages. 

Elgin, on the river Lossie,an inland rather than a seaside town, was of 
old noted for its cathedral church, of superbly magnificent workmanship 
in white freestone, on which as on most others in the last century 
sacrilegious hands were laid. On a hill towards the west are traces of a 
castle. This town is rich in soil, and is in want of none of the neces- 
saries of life. Forres, a pleasant rather than populous town, is eight 
miles west of it. Nairn is at the mouth of the river of the same name. 
Inverness, a fine trading station situated in a convenient place, is 
populous and rich in traffic, for all that is produced in those districts 
is conveyed hither as to a market. The river Ness, which is crossed by 
a bridge, washes the town on the west. The sea bounds it on the north, 
and there is a safe harbour. It is noted for its castle, on a hill near the 
river. The earldom of this province was held in the times of King 
Robert i. and David Bruce by the gallant Thomas Randolph, nephew 
of the same King Robert through his sister, with the title of earl, and, 
as he died without children, that earldom, after experiencing many 
changes and being possessed by various families whose memory is some- 
what obscure, is now the inheritance of the House of Stuart, and is held 
at the present day by the noble and distinguished James Stuart. The 
ancient seat of the earls was Tarnaway Castle on the river Findhorn. The 
same earl has built a new mansion called Castle Stuart, not far from 
Inverness. The family of the Inneses resides in the eastern part of the 
province, and is ancient and numei'ous ; the family of the Dunbars, of 
which I have spoken, in Forres and the neighbourhood. The western 
and mountainous parts are the abodes of the Clan Chattan. More 
towards Loch Ness, in the glen at the river Errigig, lives the Baron Fraser, 
who is of noble and ancient lineage. The other parts are sparsely 
possessed by different owners. 



PROVINCES and COUNTREYS of SCOT- 
LAND by ther names. 

Cathnes. Strath Naverne. Sutherland, Ros under which 
name is conteyned Assyn, Coggach signifying in English the 
fyft part, for it is raconed the fyft part of Assyn. then is 
Ardincanach which lyes betwix ye two firths. Cromartie on 



312 PROVINCES OF SCOTLAND 

the north and the firth of Murray on the south and east. 
Besyd these peeces bearing names apart, Ros goeth from the 
West sea to the East sea. Murray from Spey to Nesse, all 
along the coast, it hath the bray of Murray that taketh up 
the high countrey of it. for itself hath no great breadth, then 
under it is Strath-Earne upon the river Findorne and Stra- 
narne upon the same river that giveth it a name. Stratherrig 
lying upon the southeast syd of Lochness, but the best land 
of it not touching the loch. 

Ther be other pettie countreys south and southwest from 
Ros as Knoydert, Moydert, Glengarry and Ardgaur, which 
doth touch at Lochabyr. 

Lochabyr itself. Badenoch al upon the draught of Spey. 
under it upon the same river followeth Strathspey. And upon 
Avin River Strathavin. lower upon the same river the Lordship 
of Balvany and last of all upon the east brink thereof is Aynie. 

The Lordship of Strathbogie upon the two rivers of 
Bogie and Doverne which do meet there. There is also 
Strathyla. Boyne reaching from Aynie eastward to Doverne. 
. Buquhan a large playne countrey taking up from Doverne 
eastward to Buchannes and from that far south to Ythan. 
Which sum extend furthir to Done. Uthers do call that 
portion, beneth the Garvioch eastward from it to the sea 
betwix Don and Ythan Formartin which is truelie the name 
of ane old baronie yr. now dismembred, but no name of a 
province. 

ADNOTATA EXBED.E HISTORIA ECCLE- 
SIASTIC A GENTIS ANGLORUM qua- 
nostras Antiquitates tangunt. Vixit anno 
735 centum annos ante exactos Pictos. 

Beda obiit nonagerius Anno 735, ergo natus est 
anno 645. 

LIB. 1. CAP. 1. 

Imprimis Britannia Brittones solos incolas habuit, a quibus 
nomen accepit, qui de tractu Armoricano, ut fertur, in Bri- 
tanniam advecti, australes illius partes sibi vendicarunt. 



NOTES FROM BEDE 313 

Et cum plurimam insulse partem possedissent Brittones in- 
cipientes ab austro, contigit gentem Pictorum de Scythia, ut 
perhibent, longis navibus non multis Oceanum ingressam : cir- 
cumagente flatu ventorum, extra fines omnes Britanniae, in 
Hyberniam pervenisse, ejusc^ septentrionales oras intrasse at<^ 
inventa ibi gente Scotorum, sibi quoc^ in partibus illis sedes 
petiisse, nee impetrare potuisse. 

Procedente autem tempore, Britannia post Britones ac Pictos 
tertiam Scotorum nationem in Pictorum parte recepit, qui duce 
lleuda de Hybernia egressi, vel amicitia vel ferro, sibimet inter 
eos sedes quas hactenus habent, vindicarant. 

Est autem sinus * maris permaximus, qui antiquitus gentem 
Britonum a Pictis secernebat, qui ab occidente in terras longo 
spatio irrumpit, ubi est civitas Britonum munitissima usc^ 
hodie, quae vocatur Alcluitbf ad cujus partemj septentrionalem 
Scoti quos diximus, advenientes, sibi locum patriam fecerunt. 

CAP. 2. LIB. 1. 

Verum eadem Britannia Romanis usc^ ad C. Jul. Caesarem in- 
accessa, atc^ incognita fuit qui, anno ab urbe condita 593, ante 
vero incarnationis Dominicae tempus anno 60 in Britanniam 
ex Morinis navibus actuariis et onerariis circiter octuaginta 
trajecit. 

CAP. 3. LIB. 1. 

Anno ab urbe condita 797 Claudius Imperator eandem in- 
sulam cum exercitu adiit ibic^ plurimam Insulae partem in 
deditionem accepit, Orcadas etiam insulas ultra Britanniam 
in Oceano positas Romano adjecit Imperio, ac sexto quam 
profectus erat mense Romam rediit. 

Ab eodem Claudio Vespasianus qui post Neronem imperavit, 
in Britanniam missus, Vectam Insulam Romanae ditioni subegit. 

Postea Beda omnia Romanorum gesta in Britannia ad 
Severum omittit, quae clare ex Tacito in Agricola et aliis 313. 
auctoribus peti possunt. 

CAP. 5. LIB. 1. 
Severus receptam insulae partem a caeteris indomitis gentibus 

* fretum Glottiae. t Dunbritton. J Argathelia. 



314 NOTES FROM BEDE 

non muro ut quidam aestimant, sed vallo distinguendam 
putavit, a mari ad mare. 

Severus vallum extruit inter Carleolum et Novum Castrum, 
ut omnes consentiunt et Beda postea refert. Unde multum 
Romanam provinciam imminuit, retractis munitionibus a vallo 
Adrian! inter Glottam et Bodotriam de quo vallo Beda saspe 
postea, quanquam nusquam Adriani meminit. Valli ejus 
vestigia manent; Adriani opus frequentes lapides inde eruti 
testantur. 

CAP. 12. LIB. 1. 

Britannia tyrannorum delectibus exhausta, hostibus primum 
patuit duabus gentibus transmarinis vehementer saevis, Sco- 
torum a circio, Pictorum ab aquilone multos stupet gemitc^ per 
annos. Transmarinas autem dicimus has gentes, non quod 
extra Britanniam essent positae, sed quia a parte Brittonum 
erant remotae,duobuss inibus maris interjacentibus, quorum unus 
ab orientali mari, alter ab occidentali, Britanniae terras longe 
lateq^ irrumpit, quamvis ad se invicem pertingere [non] possint. 
Orientalis habet in medio sui urbem Giudi, occidentalis supra 
se, hoc est ad dextram sui, habet urbem Alcluith, quod lingua 
eorum significat petram Cluith, est enim juxta fluvium nominis 
illius; ob harum ergo infestationem gentium Brittones * 
prolatas illuc munitiones a Theodosio Theodosi principis par- 
ente, Imperante Valentiniano, et postea saepe de ea praetentura 
certatum ut clare loquitur Beda, at postremis temporibus 
languente imperio, ea relicta ad Severi vallum reditum est. 
314. Deinde eodem loco refert Beda, ut Romana legio, depulsis 
hostibus, hortata sit Britones murum inter duo maria instruere, 
quern Insulani struxerunt. 

Fecerunt autem eum inter duo freta vel sinus, de quibus 
diximus maris per millia passuum plurima & c cujus operis 
ibidem facti id est valli latissimi et altissimi usc^ hodie certis- 
sima vestigia cernere licet.* Incipit autem duorum millium 
spatio a monasterio Abercurnig,f ad occidentem in loco qui 
sermone Pictorum Penevahell lingua autem Anglorum Pen- 



Vallum Adriani. t Hodie Abercorn. 



NOTES FROM BEDE 315 

veltun appellatur et tendens contra occidentem, terminatur 
juxta urbem Alcluith.* 

IBIDEM. 

Turn Roman! denunciavere Britonibus, non se ultra ob eorum 
defensionem tarn laboriosis expeditionibus posse fatigari, quin 
etiam quia et hoc sociis, quos derelinquere cogebantur, aliquid 
commodi allaturum putabant, murum a mari ad mare recto 
tramite inter urbes quae ibidem ob metum hostium factae 
fuerant, ubi et Severusf quondam vallum fecerat, firmo de 
lapide locarunt, quern videlicet murum hactenus famosum atq^ 
conspicuum sumptu publico privatoq^ adjuncta secum Britan- 
norum manu, construebant octo pedes latum et duodecim 
altum, recta ab oriente in occasum linea, ut usq^ hodie intuen- 
tibus clarum est. 

IBIDEM. 

Quibus ad sua remeantibus, cognita Scoti Pictc^ reditus 
denegatione, redeunt confestim ipsi, et solito conh'dentiores 
facti,J omnem aquilonalem extremamq^ Insulae partem pro 
indigenis ad murum usq^ capessunt. 

CAP. 13. LIB. 1. 

Anno Dominicae Incarnationis 423, Theodosii Junioris anno 
3, Palladius ad Scotos in Christum credentes a Pontifice 
Romanae Ecclesioe Caelestino primus mittitur Episcopus. 

CAP. 14. 

Revertuntur impudentes grassatores Hyberni domum post 315. 
non longum tempus reversuri, Picti in extrema Insulae parte 
tune primum et deinceps quieverunt. 

CAP. 4. LIB. 2. 

Deniq^ non solum novae, quae de Anglis collecta erat, ecclesiae 
[curam] gerebat (Laurentius Episcopus Canduariensis) sed et 

* Alcluith i.e. Dunbritton, nam Cloich vetere lingua petra est. 
t Nunc demum retrahitur vallum ad vestigia Valli Severi. 
| Hostes omnia intra vallum Adrian et Severi sibi vendicant. 
Hyberni hi videntur auxiliares Scotis fuisse r iiam longe autea Scoti 
habuere sedes in Insula, quanqam Camdenus statuat hoc eorum initium. 



316 NOTES FROM BEDE 

veterum Britanniae incolarum, necnon et Scotorum qui Hyber- 
niam * Insulam Britanniae proximam incolunt populis, pas- 
toralem impendere sollicitudinem curabat. Inscribitur ejus 
epistola. 

CAP. 5. LIB. 2. 

Mevaniaef Britonum insulae inter Britanniam et Hyberniam 
sitse sunt. 

CAP. 9. LIB. 2. 

Quarum (Mevaniarum scilicet) J prior quae ad austrum est, 
et situ amplior et frugum proventu atq^ ubertate foelicior 960 
familiarum mensuram, secunda 300 et ultra spatium tenet. 

CAP. 19. LIB. 2. 

Honorio Pontifice Romanae defuncto, ante novam electionem, 
Presbiteri Romani misere epistolam ad Episcopos Scotos de 
controversia Paschatis, cum Scoti, Hyberni et Britones, omnes 
quartadecumani essent, eorum nomina in eorum memoriam 
sunt: Thomianus, Columbanus, Chromanus, Dimanus, Bathanus 
Episcopi ; Chromanus, Hermannus, Laustranus, Scellanus, 
Segianus Presbiteri. 

LIB. 3. CAP. 3. 

Porro gentes Scotorum quae in Australibus Hyberniae insulae 
partibus morabantur jam Pascha quartadecimanum reliquerant. 

Scoti, Picti, Hyberni, imo Britones omnes quartadecimani. 

316. IBIDEM. 

Imbuebantur praeceptoribus Scotis parvuli Anglorum & c . 
Nam Monachi erant maxime qui ad praedicandum venerant. 
Monachus ipse Episcopus Aidanus utpote de insula Hy desti- 
natus, cujus monasterium in cunctis psene septentrionalium 
Scotorum et omnium Pictorum Monasteriis non parvo tempore 



* Quanquam gens Scotorum nomine immigraverat jampridem in Bri- 
tanniam, mansit tarn en ea appellatione numerosa gens in Hybernia ut 
stepe testatur Beda. 

t Mevaniae non sunt Hebrides aut JEbudse Insulae Bedae. 

| Prior est Anglesey, posterior Mannia. 



NOTES FROM BEDE 317 

arcem tenebat, regendisc^ eorum populis praeerat. Quae vide- 
licet Insula ad jus quidem Britanniae pertinet, non magno ab 
ea freto discreta, sed donatione Pictorum, qui illas Britanniae 
plagas incolunt, jamdudum Monachis Scotorum tradita, eo 
quod illis predicantibus fidem Christi perceperunt. 

Hy exigua insula proxima Mulae Insulae ad occasum hybernum 
hodie est Y-colm-kill. id est Hy Columbi cella vel ecclesia. 
quomodo hie locus Bedae sibi aut veritati constet non video, 
cum in illis locis Pictos aliquid possedisse incertum sit. 

LIB. 3. CAP. 4. 

Anno 565 Imperante Justino minore venit de Hybernia Pres- 
biter et Abbas,* habitu et vita monachi insignis nominis, nomine 
Columbanus Britanniam, praedicaturusseptentrionalibusPictis,f 
qui a caeteris cjus gentis, arduis montium jugis separantur. 
Nam Australes Picti multo ante tempore, ut perhibent, fidem 
acceperant praedicante eis Ninia Episcopo reverendissimo et 
sanctissimo viro de natione Britonum, Romae edoctus, cujus 
sedein Episcopatus, Sancti Martini Episcopi nomine et ecclesiam 
insignem ubi ipse etiam corpore una cum pluribus Sanctis 
requiescit jam nunc Anglorum gens obtinet. Qui locus ad 
provinciam Berniciorum pertinens vulgo vocatur Candida 
Casa, eo quod ibi Ecclesiam de lapide, insolito Britonibus 
more, fecerit. 

IBIDEM. 317. 

Venit autem in Britanniam Columbanus regnante Pictis 
Bridio filio Meilochon rege potentissimo, nono anno regni ejus, 
gentemq^ illam in fide erudivit. Unde et prefatam insulam Hy, 
accepit, nec^ enim magna est, sed quasi familiarum quinc^ 
quam successores ejus usq^ hodie tenent, ubi et ipse sepultusj 



* Columbae adventus in Britanniam de Hybernia, erat autem ut 
videtur, Scoto-Hybernus, de gente ilia Scotorum, quae mauserat in 
Hybernia. 

t Videntur Picti Gallovidiam aliquando tenuisse, aliter referente 
Boetio, eamq, a Nordanhumbris Saxonibus iis extortam, nam Candida 
Casa, quae Ptolemeo etiam cognita fuit, est nunc Whyttern in Galloway. 

| Columba in Hy Monasterio sepultus reclamante Camdeno. 



318 NOTES FROM BEDE 

est cum esset annorum 77, post 32 annum adventus ejus in 
Britanniam. Habere autem solet ipsa insula Rectorem semper 
Abbatem Presbiterum, cujus juri omnis provincia, et ipsi 
etiam Episcopi ordine insolito debeant esse subject! juxta 
exemplum primi doctoris illius, qui non Episcopus sed Pres- 
biter exitit et monachus. 



IBIDEM. 

Mansere illi omnes Quartadecimani ad annum 716, donee 
Egbertus Anglus Sacerdos eos aliter erudiit. 

LIB. 3. CAP. 24. 

Oswi Rex Nordanhumbrorum, gentem Pictorum maxima ex 
parte, regno Anglorum subjecit circa annum 660. 

Anno 660, id est ante Bedam natum 25, Picti magna ditionis 
parte a Northumbris Saxonibus spoliati, videntur autem ex 
multis Beda3 locis tenuisse omnia ad Bodotriam et Glottam, 
unde iis postea exactis, mansit lingua Saxonica, cui hodie 
prisca lingua maximam partem cessit totius regni nostri. 

LIB. 3. CAP. 26. 

Cedente Colmanno de Episcopatu Lindsfarne et in Scotiam 
$18. redeunte successit Eata, qui erat Abbas in Monasterio de 
Mailros. quod aiunt Colmannum abeuntem petisse et impe- 
trasse a Rege Oswi. 

LIB. 4. CAP. 3. 

Wilfridus administrabat Ecclesiam Eboracensem jure Epis- 
copi, necnon et omnium Nordan-Humbrorum sed et Pictorum 
quousc^ rex Oswi imperium protendere poterat. 

LIB. 4. CAP. 26. 

Anno 684 Egfridus Nordanhumbrorum Rex misso in Hyber- 
niam cum exercitu duce Berto, vastavit misere gentem innoxiam 
et nationi Anglorum semper amicissimam. 

IBIDEM. 

Anno proximo idem Rex cum temere exercitum ad vastan- 
dum Pictorum provinciam duxisset, multum prohibentibus 



NOTES FROM BEDE 319 

amicis, maxime vero Cudberto Episcopo .... in insidias lapsus 
urn maxima exercitus parte extinctus est, et quidem amici 
prohibuerunt ne hoc bellum iniret, sed quomodo anno praece- 
dente audire noluerat Cudbertum ne Scotiam nil se laedentem 
mpugnaret, datum est illi & c . 

IBIDEM. 

Ex quo tempore spes coepit et virtus regni Anglorum fluere 
ac retro sublapsa referri, nam et Picti terram possessionis suae 
quam tenuerunt Angli, et Scoti qui erant in Britannia et Bri- 
tonum quo<k pars nonnulla libertatem receperunt quam et 
liactenus habent per annos circiter quadraginta sex. 

Ubi inter plurimos gentis Anglorum vel interemtos gladio 
el servitio addictos, vel de terra Pictorum fuga lapsos, etiam 
reverendissimus vir Domini Trumvinus qui in eos Episcopatum 
acceperat, recessit cum suis qui erant in Monasterio Ebber- 
carni, posito quidem in regione Anglorum, sed in vicinia freti 
quod Anglorum terras Pictorumq^ disterminat. 

LIB. 4. CAP. 27. 

Cudbertus intravit primo Monasterium Mailros, quod in 
ripa Tuidi fluminis positum. 

LIB. 5. CAP. 23 [22]. 319. 

Hyenses monachi vel de Y Colmkil anno 716 suadente 
Egberto Sacerdote suscepere pascha canonicum, Coenredo 
regnante apud Nordan-Humbros, 20 anno post caedem Osredi 
regis eorundem. Coenredo successit autem Osricus cui successit 
Ceolulfus Coenredi frater. 

Circa haec tempora, id est an. 725, coepit fluctuare regnum 
Nordanhumbrorum, et non multo post tota concidit. 

LIB. 5. CAP. 24. 

At vero provincial Nordan Humbrorum, cui Ceolwlf prseest, 
quatuor nunc prsesulatum tenent : Wilfridus in Eboracensi 
Ecclesia, Edilvaldus in Lindisfarnensi, Acca in Hagustaldensi, 
Pecthelmus in ea qua Candida Casa vocatur, quae nunc mul- 
tiplicatis fidelium plebibus, in sedem Pontificatus addita, 
ipsum primum habet antistitem. Haec circa an. 730. 



320 NOTES FROM BEDE 

IN APPENDICE AD HISTORIAM BED.E. 

Anno 740 Edilwaldus Rex Merciorum per impiam fraudem 
vastabat partem Nordan Humbrorum, eratq^ rex eorum Ead- 
bertus occupatus cum suo exercitu contra Pictos. 

IBIDEM. 

Anno 761 (Engus, qui nostris Hungus est, Pictorum Rex 
obiit, qui regni sui principium usq^ ad finem facinore cruento 
tyrannus perduxit carnifex, et Oswini occisus est. 



The following is a translation into English of 
the foregoing Extracts from Bede. 

Some remarks in relation to these extracts 
are given in the Introduction. 



NOTES touching our ANTIQUITIES from BEDE'S 
ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH 
NATION. He lived in the year 735, a hundred years 
before the expulsion of the Picts. 

Bede died at the age of ninety in the year 735 ; he 
was therefore born in the year 645. 

BOOK 1, CHAP. 1. 

' At first Britain had the Britons as its only inhabitants, and from them 
it received its name. They sailed, as it is said, from the region of 
Armorica into Britain and appropriated its southern parts. 

( And when the Britons had gained possession of the greatest portion 
of the island, beginning from the south, it happened that the nation of 
the Picts, from Scythia as they tell, entered the ocean with no great 
number of ships, and as the force of the winds drove them round, they 
reached Ireland, landed on its northern coasts, and finding the nation 
of the Scots there, sought settlements for themselves also in those parts, 
but could not obtain them. 



TRANSLATION: NOTES FROM BEDE 321 

(: But as time went on, Britain, after the Britons and the Picts, received 
in the Pictish portion a third nation, that of the Scots, who departing 
from Ireland under the leadership of Reuda had secured for themselves 
also either by friendship or by the sword settlements among them, 
which they hold to this day." 

' ' Now there is a very great bay * of the sea which of old separated the 
nation of the Britons from the Picts, and which breaks in upon the lands 
a long way, where there is even at the present time a strongly fortified 
city of the Britons that is called Alcluith,t and the Scots, coming to the 
northern side | of this, made the place their country." 

BOOK 1, CHAP. 2. 

' ' But this same Britain was unvisited by, and unknown to the Romans 
down to C. Julius Ca;sar, who, in the year 593 from the foundation of the 
city, and the year 60 before the time of our Lord's incarnation, crossed 
from the Morini with about eighty swift sailing vessels and ships of 
burden." 

BOOK 1, CHAP. 3. 

"In the year 797 from the foundation of the city, the Emperor 
Claudius invaded the same island with an army, and there received the 
greatest part of the island into surrender. He also added the Orkney 
Islands, situated in the ocean beyond Britain, to the empire, and 
returned to Rome in the sixth month after he had set out." 

" Vespasian, who was emperor after Nero, was sent also by Claudius 
into Britain and brought the Isle of Wight under the Roman sway." 

Bede after this omits all the doings of the Romans in Britain down 
to Severus, but these can be clearly discovered from Tacitus in his 
Agricola, and from other writers. 

BOOK 1, CHAP. 5. 

" Severus thought that the annexed part of the island should be 
separated from the remaining unconquered tribes, not by a wall as some 
judge, but by a rampart from sea to sea." 

Severus built a wall between Carlisle and Newcastle, as all agree, 
and as Bede mentions afterwards. By this he greatly diminished the 
Roman province, putting back the defences from Adrian's wall between 
the Clyde and the Forth, about which wall Bede often speaks afterwards, 
though he nowhere mentions Adrian. Traces of that wall remain. That 
it was the work of Adrian numerous stones dug out from it bear witness. 

BOOK ], CHAP 12. 

" Britain first lay open to its enemies on being drained by the levies 
of the rulers. For many years it has been stupified and groaning under 

* The Firth of Clyde. t Dunbritton. Argyle. 

VOL. IT. X 



322 TRANSLATION: NOTES FROM BEDE 

two exceedingly savage nations dwelling" beyond the sea, that of the 
Scots from the north-west, and the nation of the Picts from the north. 
Now we speak of these nations as dwelling beyond the sea, not because 
they had been situated outside of Britain, but because they had lived 
remote from the part of the Britons, with two bays of the sea lying 
between, one of which breaks in upon the lands of Britain from the 
western sea, and the other from the eastern, far and wide, though they 
cannot reach one another. The eastern bay has in its centre the city 
of Giudi, and the western has above it, that is on its right, the city of 
Alcluith which in their language means the rock of Cluith, for it is near 
the river of that name ; owing, therefore, to the hostility of these nations 
the Britons. . . ." the fortifications were brought forward to that place 
by Theodosius, father of the Emperor Theodosius, in the reign of 
Valentinian, and afterwards there were disputes about that line of 
defence, as Bede distinctly says, but in the latest times, at the decline 
of the Empire, it was abandoned, and a return was made to the wall of 
Severus. 

Then, at the same place, Bede tells how the Roman legion, on 
driving the enemy back, advised the Britains to construct a wall be- 
tween the two seas, which the islanders built. 

"Now they made it between the two friths or bays of the sea, of 
which we have spoken, for very many miles, etc., and at the present day 
one may see the remains of this work made in the same place, that is, 
of a very broad and high rampart.* It begins at a distance of two miles 
from the monastery of Abercurnigt to the west, at the place which 
in the language of the Picts is called Penevahell, but in the tongue of 
the English Penveltun, and stretching to the west ends near the city of 
Alcluith. "$ 

AT THE SAME PLACE. 

" Then the Romans informed the Britons that they could no longer 
be troubled with such toilsome expeditions for their defence, and further, 
because they also thought that this would bring some advantage to the 
allies whom they were obliged to forsake, they placed a strong stone wall 
from sea to sea in a straight course between the cities, which had been 
built in the same district owing to fear of the enemy, where also Severus 
had formerly made his rampart, and this wall to wit, celebrated and 
conspicuous to this day, aided by a band of Britons, they constructed at 
the public and at private expense, making it eight feet broad and twelve 
high, in a straight line from east to west, as is plain to view even at the 
present day." 

* Adrian's wall. f Now Abercorn. 

J Alcluith : that is, Dunbritton, for Cloich is in the ancient language a rock. 

Now at length the wall is withdrawn to the remains of Severus's wall. 



TRANSLATION: NOTES FROM BEDE 323 

AT THE SAME PLACE. 

" And on their going back to their own country, when their refusal to 
return was learned by the Picts, these immediately came back, arid 
becoming bolder, they seized all the northern and remotest part of the 
island instead of the original inhabitants." 

CHAP. 13, BOOK 1. 

1 ' In the year of our Lord's incarnation 423, and the third year of the 
younger Theodosius, Palladius is sent to the Scots believing in Christ 
by Celestine, Pontiff of the Roman church, as their first bishop." 

CHAP. 14. 

e< The shameless Irish* robbers return home, to come back in no long 
time, and the Picts in the farthest part of the island then for the first 
time, and thereafter, were quiet." 

CHAP. 4, BOOK 2. 

" Lastly [Laurence, Bishop of Canterbury] not only took charge of the 
new church that had been gathered from the English, but also was at 
pains to bestow pastoral care on the communities of the ancient 
inhabitants of Britain, and also of the Scots who dwell in lreland,t an 
island close to Britain." His letter is inserted. 

CHAP. 5, BOOK 2. 

" The Mevaniae,! islands of the Britons, are situated between Britain 
;and Ireland." 

CHAP. 9, BOOK 2. 

" Of these [that is, of the Mevanise] the first, which is towards the south, 
is both larger in extent and more fortunate in the production of crops 
.and in fertility. It is of a size to contain 960 families, and the second 
has room for 300 and more." 

CHAP. 19, BOOK 2. 

" After the death of Honorius the Roman Pontiff, and before the new 
election, the Roman presbyters sent a letter to the Scottish bishops 
about the Easter controversy, since the Scots, the Irish, and the Britons 
were quartadecimans ; and their names in memory of them are : 
Thomianus, Columbanus, Chromanus, Dimanus, and Bathanus, bishops, 

* These Irish seem to have been auxiliaries to the Scots, for the Scots had 
settlements in the island long before that, though Camden fixes this as their 
beginning. 

t Though a tribe named the Scots had come into Britain long before, still there 
remained in Ireland a numerous tribe with that designation, as Bede often 
shows. 

The Mevaniae are not the Hebrides or Ebudae Insulce of Bede. 

The first is Anglesey, the second is Man. 



324 TRANSLATION: NOTES FROM BEDE 

and Chromanus, Hermannus, Laustranus, Scellanus, and Segianus, 
presbyters." 

CHAP. 3, BOOK 3. 

e< Further, the tribes of Scots which remained in the southern parts of 
the island of Ireland had now abandoned the quartadeciman Easter." 

"The Scots, Picts, Irish, and all the Britons are quartadecimans." 

AT THE SAME PLACE. 

"The children of the English, etc., were educated by Scottish teachers, 
for the persons who had come to preach were mostly monks. Bishop 
Aidan was himself a monk, as elected from the island of Hy, whose 
monastery among the whole of the northern monasteries of the Scots 
and of all the Picts, held the chief position for no little time^ and was 
over the government of their communities. This island, then, belongs 
to the jurisdiction of Britain, being separated from it by a small strait, 
but it was a long time ago given as a present by the Picts, who inhabit 
those districts of Britain, to the monks of the Scots, because through the 
preaching of those monks they had received the faith of Christ." 

The small island of Hy, close to the Isle of Mull on the south-west, is 
now Y-colm-kill, that is, Hy, the cell or church of Columba, but how 
this passage of Bede is consistent with himself or with the truth I do not 
see, since it is not certain that the Picts had any possessions in 
those places. 

BOOK 3, CHAP. 4. 

' ' In the year 565, in the reign of Justin the Younger, there came 
from Ireland to Britain a presbyter and abbot * in the garb and manner 
of life of a monk of noble name, called Columba, to preach to the 
northern Picts,t who are separated from the rest of that nation by lofty 
mountain ridges. For the southern Picts a long time before, as they 
tell, had received the faith when it was preached to them by Ninian, a 
most reverend bishop and most holy man of the nation of the Britons, 
instructed at Rome, whose episcopal see with the name of St. Martin the 
Bishop, and the notable church where he himself rests in the body along 
with more saints, are now held by the nation of the English. This place, 
belonging to the province of the Bernicians, is commonly called the 
White Hut, because there he built a church of stone, a style unusual 
among the Britons." 



* Columba's arrival in Britain from Ireland. He was, as it seems, Scoto- 
Irish, and belonged to that tribe of Scots which had remained in Ireland. 

t The Picts appear to have held Galloway at one time, tho.ugh Boece says 
otherwise, and to have wrested it from those Northumbrian Saxons, for Candida 
Casa, which was even known to Ptolemy, is now Whyttern in Galloway. 



TRANSLATION: NOTES FROM BEDE 325 

AT THE SAME PLACE. 

" Now Columba came into Britain when the powerful king Brude, son 
of Meilochon, was ruling over the Picts, in the ninth year of his reign, 
and he instructed that nation in the faith. For this reason he also received 
the aforesaid island of Hy, for it is not large, but, as it were, capable of 
containing five families, and his successors hold it even to this day ; 
where also he was buried * at the age of seventy-seven, thirty-two years 
after his arrival in Britain. The island itself is wont always to have as 
its ruler an abbot-presbyter, to whose jurisdiction the whole province, 
and the bishops themselves, contrary to the usual custom, are bound to 
be subject, according to the example of that first teacher, who was not a 
bishop but a presbyter and monk." 

Ax THE SAME PLACE. 

"All those remained quartadecimans to the year 716, until Egbert, an 
English priest, taught them otherwise." 

CHAP. 24, BOOK 3. 

"Oswy, king of the Northumbrians, subjected the nation of the Picts 
for the most part to the kingdom of the English about the year 660." 

In the year 660, that is, twenty-five years before the birth of Bede, 
the Picts were stripped of a great part of their possessions by the 
Northumbrian Saxons. They appear from many passages of Bede to 
have held all the country to the Forth and the Clyde, where, after they 
were subsequently driven out of it, the Saxon language remained, to which 
now the ancient language has given way in the greatest portion of our 
whole kingdom. 

CHAP. 26, BOOK 3. 

" Colman, on retiring from the bishopric of Lindisfarne, and returning 
to Scotland, was succeeded by Eata, who was abbot in the monastery of 
Mailros. This, they say, Colman at his departure begged and obtained 
from King Oswy." 

CHAP. 3, BOOK 4. 

"Wilfrid with the rights of a bishop ruled the church of York, and also 
those of all the Northumbrians and of the Picts, as far as the power of 
Oswy could extend." 

CHAP. 26, BOOK 4. 

"In the year 684 Egfrid, king of the Northumbrians, sending his 
general, Bert, into Ireland, with an army, miserably devastated an 
innocent nation which had always been most friendly to the English 
people." 



Columba was buried in the Monastery of Hy, notwithstanding Camden's 



326 TRANSLATION: NOTES FROM BEDE 

AT THK SAME PLACE. 

te Next year the same king, having rashly led his army to devastate 
the province of the Picts, though his friends tried much to prevent him, 
and especially Bishop Cudbert . . . falling into an ambush was killed 
with the greatest part of his army ; and indeed his friends forbade his 
entering on this war, but as in the previous year he had refused to listen 
to Cudbert, and to refrain from attacking Scotia [Ireland], which was 
doing him no harm, it was given to him, etc." 

AT THE SA3IK PLACE. 

' ' From this time the hope and strength of the kingdom of the English 
began to fail, and, slipping back, to ebb away, for both the Picts regained 
possession of the land which the English held, and the Scots who were 
in Britain, and also some part of the Britons likewise, recovered their 
freedom, which they still have, now for about forty-seven years." 

"Then, among very many men of the English nation, whether cut off 
by the sword or escaping by flight from the land of the Picts, the most 
reverend man of God, Trumwine, who had received episcopal charge 
over them, withdrew with his company who were in the monastery of 
Ebbercarni, situated in the territory of the English, but in the neigh- 
bourhood of the frith which separates the lands of the English and the 
Picts." 

CHAP. 27, BOOK 4. 

"Cudbert first entered the monastery of Mailros, which is situated on 
the bank of the river Tweed." 

CHAP. 23, BOOK 5. 

"The monks of Hy or Y Colmkil in the year 716, through the per- 
suasion of the priest Egbert, adopted the canonical Easter when Crenred 
reigned over the Northumbrians, in the twentieth year after the 
slaughter of Oswed king of the same people. Now Coenred was 
succeeded by Osric, who was succeeded by Ceolulf, brother of Coenred." 

" About that time, that is, in the year 725, the kingdom of the 
Northumbrians began to totter, and not long afterwards fell altogether." 

CHAP. 24, BOOK 5. 

" But four prelates now hold the supremacy of the province of the 
Northumbrians which Ceolulf rules : Wilfrid in the church of York, 
Edivald in that of Lindisfarne, Acca in that of Hagustald [Hexham], and 
Pecthelm in that which is called Candida Casa [the White Hut, now 
Whithorn], which, now that the numbers of the faithful have multiplied, 
is added to the see of the Pontificate, and has the Pope himself as its 
hrst bishop. These things took place in the year 730." 

IN THE APPENDIX TO BEDE'S HISTORY. 

" In the year 740 Edilwald, king of Mercia, through wicked fraud, 
devastated the part of the Northumbrians, and their king, Eadbert, was 
engaged with his army against the Picts. " 



ANTIQUITY OF SCOTS IN BRITAIN 327 

IN THE SA3IE PLACK. 

"In the year 761 CEngus, who is Hungus among our countrymen, 
died. He began, and continued his reign to the end, with bloody ill- 
doing, as a butchering tyrant; and Oswine was slain." 



ADNOTATA ad ANTIQUITATEM SCO- 
TORUM et in BRITANNIAM TRA- 
JECTUM. 

Non erat mihi animus, in geographicis nostrae regionis 
tabulis corrigendis, supplendis, describendis occupato, ad hoc 
manum admovere, et nisi tuis, Doctissime Buchanane, iteratis 
flagitationibus victus, siluissem, cum haec Antiquitatis investi- 
gatio tibi jure cesserit. Attamen quid in multis sentiam, 
libere apud te profitebor, et si quandoc^ dissentiam, tui erit 
judicii de me sententiam ferre. 

Non erat necesse de nostris antiquitatibus, regni primordiis 
et in hanc insulam immigratione, longum sermonem instituere 
cum maxima earum rerum pars, multis saeculis a nobis semota, 
sicut et aliarum gentium, caligine tecta delitescunt et veluti 
fluviorum origines, initio exiguae, ita et gentium primordia, 
tenuia, obscura, lapso demum tempore innotescunt. Sic apud 
veteres, illi quorum initia ultra historiae tempora repetuntur 
Aborigines dicti. Aliter se res nostrae habent cum ma j ores 
nostri, uno eodemc^ tempore, magno numero in Britanniam ex 
Hibernia transvecti, statim a principio sub regibus fuere; 
statim reipublicae for mam habuere. Neq^ erat opus tarn anxie 
in primordia nostra inquirere, nisi Angli historici nobis quon- 
dam ex quotidianis dissidiis, ut vicinis gentibus saepe usu venit, 
infesti, nostrum adventum in ea tempora, aut paulo supra ea 
tempora conjiciant, quibus Saxones, ad Pictos etiam^ Scotos, 
majores nostros, finibus Britonum provincialium depellendos, 
ab illis accersiti sunt. atq^ haec omnia tanti erant, ut gravis 
controversia de iis institueretur, cum jam nobis cum illis in 
unurn imperium conspirantibus, lingua, religione et moribus 
optime conveniat, et multa in nos studio partium impudenter, 
et contra rerum fidem prolata, retractaverint quicunq^ in 
hisce studiis supra vulgum sapiunt. At cum quamplurima 



328 ANTIQUITY OF SCOTS IN BRITAIN 

de hisce rebus scripta a quibusdam iisc^ 11011 minimis, sed qui 
familiam ducunt, latine edita, ad exteros emanaverint, asse- 
renda nostra erant aut vadimonium deserendum. 

Primum illis ludibrio fuit de Scota et Gathelo vetus narratio, 
391. quam neq^ nobis asserere animus est, cum nullis prolatis autori- 
bus ea fulciri possit : nostri Annales, secundum rudioris saeculi 
consuetudinem, liinc exordia sumpsere, at detur antiquitati 
venia, cum non soli nostri in hoc peccaverint : Annon Franci 
Francionem suum, Dani Danum multiq^ alii ejusdem farinae, 
ante renatas bonas literas depraedicabant, quibus jam omnibus 
exilium indicium ? et non injuria nostros historicos hinc modu- 
lum sumpsisse non inanis suspicio est : praecipue vero ad viciniae 
imitationem, credibile est Brutum Britaimicum ejusq^fabulam, 
ne nostri in postremis haberentur, animos fecisse, quam ante 
annos quadringentos a Galfrido Arturio CambroBritanno 
cusam latinis literis, ut tempora ilia tulere, editam, illo ipso 
tempore, doctorum et fide dignorum hominum censura notatam, 
quod mirari liceat doctissimum et omnis Antiquitatis scientis- 
simum Gulielmum Cambdenum, tantum non habuisse pa- 
tronum, qui diserte fatetur se ingenii nervos ad earn fulciendam 
adhibuisse, sed frustra, nolle se tamen ei prejudicium adferre, 
sed intactam relinquere. 

Idem dum nostram antiquitatem acriter convellit, nos ante 
inclinationem Imperil Romani hoc est paulo ante Saxones 
suos in Britanniam advectos, qui demum anno Christi 449 
primum auxiliares provincialibus hue appulerunt, nullas in 
hac insula sedes tenuisse, et paulo ante ilia tempora, nostrum 
Orbi innotuisse demum nomen contendit. At si gentium 
origines et antiquitas ex Romanorum de iis notitia pendent, 
Deus bone, quot illustres gentes patria sua per multa saecula 
cariturae sunt, immo Britanni ipsi serius Romanis cogniti, 
prius certe Graecis, non effugient hanc notam, nisi Caesar eos 
indigenas maximum partem pronunciasset. Jam quid de 
Gotthis, Alanis, Vandilis, Francis, Burgundionibus et in- 
numeris aliis sentiendum ? At de immigratione patrum nos- 
trorum in hanc insulam serior quaestio est, quam non tantis 
confusam tenebris, tantus rei antiquariae dictator non poterat 
non vidisse. eum igitur praejudicio laborantem hoc dissimu- 
Jasse fatendum est. 






ANTIQUITY OF SCOTS IN BRITAIN 329 

Optimum harum controversiarum judicem advocemus S2. 
Bedam, in vicinia nostra apud NordanHumbros Saxones 
natum, educatum, quiq^ iis locis omnem exegit aetatem, quae 
sane Jonga illi contigit, qui annum circa salutis 730 e vivis 
excessit, jam si fides epitaphio ejus, nonagerius; is nostram 
gen tern Picticamq^ optime norat ; cum iis ex vicinia, et 
relligionis commercio multum versatus, cujus fides ipso Camb- 
deno multum in omnibus probata, quern incorruptum et 
ingenuum veritatis et antiquitatis testem pronunciat. 

Is initio historian suae Ecclesiasticae, incolas Britannia?, 
eorumq^ initia referens, primes recenset Bri tones, procul dubio 
antiquissimos de quorum origine, neq^ illi neq^ ipsis, teste 
Caesare aliquid constabat, adeo illi omni prophana historia 
antiquiores. Proximos his enumerat Pictos, quorum adventus 
causas describit, qui, ut ait, hue appulsi, jam pridem plurima 
insulae parte ab austro incipiendo, a Britonibus possessa. 

Subjungit tertios incolas Scotos, in partem Pictorum re- 
ceptos, qui duce Keuda de Hibernia egressi vel ferro vel 
amicitia sibi inter eos sedes quas hactenus habent, vindicarunt. 
Sedes autem hae Bedae tempore ut postea narrabitur, non 
excedebant aestuarium Glottae, illis simul et Pictis, in illas 
angustias, vi NordanHumbrorum Saxonum coactis. 

Jam collocatis in insula his tribus distinctis populis, 
Romanorum primum adventum, ut rem quae posterioribus 
temporibus acciderat, describere aggreditur. Haec legentibus 
clara, perspicua sunt, nec^ ullis verborum ambagibus involuta, 
sed secundum laudatam patris hujus consuetudinem simpliciter 
tradita. 

Scoti, referente doctissimo Antiquario Cambdeno, paulo 
ante Saxonum adventum, in insula consederant ; vix illud certo 
concedit nam ex verbis [Bed&] referentis impudentes grassa- 
tores Hibernos domum regressos, statim reversuros, et ex 
verbis Claudiani : 

totam cum Scotus lernam 
Movit, et infesto spumavit remige Tethys, 

contendit Scotos nondum hie consedisse, sed ex Hibernia 323. 
navibus advectos, praedas egisse. Longe aliter Beda, trans- 
niarinas autem dicimus has gentes, inquit ille, de Pictis et 
Scotis sermonem instituens, non quod essent extra Britanniam 



330 ANTIQUITY OF SCOTS IN BRITAIN 

posita, sed quia a parte Britonum erant remotae, duobus 
sinibus interjacentibus & c . Sod ad rem : Saxones hue accersiti 
trajecerunt anno Dom. 449. fuerunt in insula Scoti panels 
ante annis, puta novenis, ita Seoti anno 440 primum insulam 
tenuerunt. 

At referente Beda jam ante Caesaris prirnum adventum jam 
in ea sedes ceperant, ille autem secundum eundem autorem, 
anno ante Christum natum sexagesimo (sic scribit Beda, sed 
veriori calculo, trajectus primus Caesaris incidit in annum 
Christ! 53) primum ad hsec littora appulit. ita videtur Cam- 
denus decerpsisse Bedse ealculo, a Caesare ad annum 440. 
annos quingentos, ingens certe temporis intervallum ; super- 
sunt adhuc anni, qui Reudae et Caesaris adventum interces- 
serunt, quos nostri Annales definiunt 144 fuisse, et novem 
Regum tempora complectuntur ; ut quinc^ priores Principes a 
nostris enumerati non veniant in censum. Demus nostros in 
annorum compute a Bedse Reuda, qui nostris Reutharis est, 
aberrasse, certe nemo non fatebitur plusculos annos intercessisse, 
neq^ in numerum nobis erit anxie inquirendum, cum omnibus 
iis annis subtractis, procul dubio Cambdenus causa cadet, sed 
hsec aequo lectori judicanda relinquo. 

Jam ad alia properanti moram fecit anthropophagiae nota, 
priori libri sui editione majoribus nostris inusta, advocatis in 
testimonium Strabone et Hieronymo. in Strabone nihil tale 
me legisse memini, neq^ apud ilium aliqua Scotorum mentio, 
qui pauca et incerta de Britannia recenset ; ait hoc se de 
Hibernis, qui Britannis feriores et magis ineulti, audivisse. 

Cavendum nobis ab Hieronymo erat, nisi quod videam 
posterioribus hujus viri curis, hanc nobis remissam noxam et 
. infame crimen ad Attacottos relegatam, ex fide manuscrip- 
torum codicum Erasmo consentiente, qui locum corruptum 
agnoscit, et Antiquarius noster refert se non posse non fateri, 
in quibusdam manuscriptis se Attigotti, Catagotti, et Cattitti 
legisse. At fuerit verier lectio Attacotos fuisse. Populus 
ille si non Scoti, cum Scotis censetur a Marcellino, unde si 
credendum Hieronymo, regio nostra anthropophagia infamis, 
quanquam majores nostri ea labe immunes, at sane, si quis 
recte hnec perpendat, tutius multis Rom. historicis priorum 
saeculorum fidem habebit, illis sane, quorum incolae harum 



ANTIQUITY OF SCOTS IN BRITAIN 331 

regionum infestissimi hostes, qui cum de incolis multa refer- 
rent, nihil tale scriptis mandavere ; non Tacitus ea siluisset, 
non Herodianus, non Dio, qui convitium Juliae Severae, 
Argetecoxi uxoris refert de concubitu in propatulo. Non 
denic^ Marcellinus, nullus denic^ prseter hunc unum Hierony- 
mum hominem iracundum, et cui displicuisse neino impune 
tulit. 

Jam anxie a nobis inquiritur nominis Scoti etymologia. 
Sugillatur doctissimus Buchananus ignorantiae aut oscitantiae 
arguitur, quod in hoc spem fefellerit. in re tamardua, profecto, 
auxilium fert, et facem praefert, ex conjecturis suis, suffragan- 
tibus quibusdam subobscuris scriptoribus, et vocum aliqua 
similitudine, in Scythiam nos amandat, quibuscum regionibus 
aut populis nihil nobis unquam fuit negotii ; post multa tandem 
ex farragine plurimorum infimae classis deprompta concludit 
male se metuere, quod ad originem, ne 2KOTAIOI semper 
futuri simus. Magnum profecto crimen ad Antiquarii tribunal 
causam dicturo. Bene se habet quod non soli nos rei ; jam 
reddant rationem Romani, cur Hellenes Graecos, cur trans- 
rhenanas gentes Germanos vocarint. Reddant rationem 
nominis sui Franci, Alemanni, Suevi, Catti, Gotthi, Alani, 
Vandili, et innumerae aliae gentes ; aut Dictator! huic non erit 
satisfactum. ille ipse in Britanniae etymo misere se torquet. 
Sed quando illi cum Luddo homine Britanno, e veteribus Bri- 
tannis oriundo, linguae Britannicae antiquae peritissimo et in 
hisce rebus non leviter exercitato non conveniat nescio quam 
fidem conjectura ejus merebitur; conjecturam autem suam 
fatetur, quae de ea re profert, neq^ quicquam certi statuere audet 
et nos quod non aliquid de nomine nostro conjiciamus, quod 
fortasse nos aliorum ludibrio aut irrisui exponeret, homini 
severo vapulamus. 



332 TRANSLATION : ANTIQUITY OF SCOTS IN BRITAIN 

The following is a translation into English 
of what goes before in Latin regarding the 
Antiquity of the Scots in Britain. 

Some remarks as to author and date are 
given in the Preface. 



NOTES relating to the ANTIQUITY of the SCOTS 
and their CROSSING into BRITAIN. 

It was not my intention, most learned Buchanan, engaged as 1 was in 
correcting, supplementing, and describing the maps of our country, to 
apply my hand to this ; and had 1 not been overcome by your repeated 
solicitations I should have been silent, since this inquiry into antiquity 
has fallen to you by right. I will, however, freely set forth to you what 
my thoughts are about many points, and if at any time I disagree witli 
you, it will be in your judgment to express your opinion of me. 

It was not necessary to make a long discourse on our antiquities, the 
beginnings of the kingdom and the immigration into this island, since 
most of these matters, being removed from us, by many centuries, are, 
like those of other nations as well, hidden in a mist, and as the sources 
of rivers are small at first, so also the beginnings of nations, slender and 
obscure, become evident at length in the course of time. Thus among the 
ancients, those whose origin is traced beyond historical times are called 
aborigines. Our history is different, since our ancestors, crossing into 
Britain in great numbers at one and the same time, had kings from the 
first, and possessed a settled form of government. Nor would there he 
any need to inquire so anxiously into our commencement, did not 
English historians, who were formerly hostile to us owing to daily 
quarrels, as often happens in neighbouring nations, place our arrival 
at the time, or a little before the time, when the Saxons were summoned 
by the Britons to expel the Picts, and also our ancestors the Scots, from 
British territory. And all these matters were of such importance that a 
serious controversy arose about them, when, as we are now united with 
the English in one government, there is an excellent agreement between 
us in language, religion and manners ; and all who have more than a 
common knowledge of these studies have anew brought forward and 
published much against us, through shameless party zeal. But since not 
a little that has been written on those subjects by certain men, and those 
not obscure, but able to trace their lineage, being published in Latin 
has reached foreigners, we had to assert our claims or desert our case. 

First they found matter for ridicule in the ancient story about Scota 
and Gathelus, which we have no intention of defending, as it cannot be 



TRANSLATION : ANTIQUITY OF SCOTS IN BRITAIN 333 

supported by the production of authorities. Our annals, according- to the 
practice of a ruder age, took their orgin from this source, but ancient 
writers must be pardoned, since our countrymen have not been the 
only sinners in this respect. Before the revival of learning did not the 
Franks boast of their Fraucio, the Danes of their Danus, and others of 
similar founders, against all of whom sentence of banishment has been 
pronounced? There is, rightly, strong ground for the suspicion that 
our historians took their cue from this, and especially that, lest our 
countrymen should be considered as among the latest in origin, they 
were encouraged to imitate their neighbours, as we may believe, by 
Brutus Britannicus and his story. This myth, done in Latin letters, as 
those times Required, and published by the Welshman Galfrid Arthur, 
four hundred years ago, was at that same time branded with the censure 
of men of learning and credit; and we may therefore be surprised that it 
all but found a defender in the most learned writer, so highly skilled in 
all antiquity, William Camden, who frankly confesses that he applied 
all the powers of his mind to support it, but in vain, though he is un- 
willing to do anything prejudicial to the myth, and leaves it untouched. 
The same author, while he keenly plucks up our antiquity, maintains 
that we held no settlements in this island before the decline of the 
Roman Empire, that is, a little before his Saxons sailed into Britain, 
who landed here first as auxiliaries to the provincials as late as the year 
of Christ 449, and that our name became known to the world shortly 
before that time. But if the origins and antiquity of nations depend 
on the knowledge of them possessed by the Romans, good God, how 
many famous nations will be without their fatherland for many 
centuries ! Even the Britons themselves were late in becoming known 
to the Romans, as the Greeks were certainly acquainted with them 
previously, and they will not escape this aspersion, only that Caesar 
declared most of them were natives of the soil. Now what is to be 
thought about the Goths, the Alans, the Vandals, the Franks, the 
Burgundians and others without number? But the question of the 
immigration of our fathers into this island is later, and so great a 
dictator could not fail to have seen that it was not involved in such 
darkness. It must therefore be acknowledged that under the influence 
of prejudice he concealed this. 

In these disputes let us call as judge Bede, who was born and bred 
among the Northumbrian Saxons, spending all his life in those places 
and it was certainly a long life that fell to his lot, for he died about the 
year of salvation 730, when he was now ninety years of age, if we believe 
his epitaph. He knew our nation and that of the Picts very well ; with 
them, owing to neighbourhood and religious intercourse, he was much 
engaged, and his credibility is highly approved by Camden himself in all 
points, for he declares him an incorrupt and candid witness to truth and 
antiquity. 

At the commencement of his Ecclesiastical History, when speaking of 



334 TRANSLATION : ANTIQUITY OF SCOTS IN BRITAIN 

the inhabitants of Britain and their beginnings, he reviews the Britons 
first, as doubtless the most ancient, about whose origin, on the authority 
of Caesar, nothing was known for certain to him or to themselves, so 
much older were they than all profane history. Next to these he 
mentions the Picts. They, as he says, landed here after the greatest 
part of the island, beginning from the south, had been long possessed by 
the Britons. He adds as the third set of inhabitants admitted into the 
part of the Picts, the Scots, who, under the leadership of Reuda, depart- 
ing from Ireland, secured for themselves, either by the sword or by 
friendship the settlements which they still possess. But these settle- 
ments in Bede's time, as will be narrated afterwards, did not go beyond 
the Frith of Clyde, the Scots at the same time as the Picts being driven 
into those fastnesses by the power of the Northumbrians. 

Now having placed these three distinct nations in the island, he pro- 
ceeds to describe the first arrival of the Romans as an occurrence of 
later times. These events are plain and perspicuous to readers, and 
are not wrapped in ambiguous words, but, according to the praiseworthy 
style of this father, told in simple language. 

The Scots, in the narrative of the most learned antiquary Camden, 
had settled in the island a little before the coming of the Saxons. He 
hardly grants this as a certainty, for from the words [of Bede], who 
mentions that the shameless Irish robbers had returned home, to come 
back immediately, and from the verse of Claudian 

' When the Scot stirred the whole of Ireland, 
And the sea foamed with hostile rowers,' 

he maintains that the Scots had not yet settled here, but sailing in ships 
from Ireland had carried off plunder. Bede's statement is quite dif- 
ferent : ' Now we speak of these nations as dwelling beyond the sea,' he 
says, in beginning his discourse on the Picts and Scots, 'not because 
they had been situated outside of Britain, but because they had lived 
.remote from the part of the Britons, with two bays lying between,' etc. 
But to the point. The Saxons, being summoned hither, crossed in the 
year of the Lord 449. The Scots were in the island a few years before 
that, namely nine, and thus the Scots first reached the island in the 
year 440. 

But, as Bede relates, they had already formed settlements in it before 
the first arrival of Caesar, and he, according to the same author, first 
lauded on these shores in the sixtieth year before the birth of Christ 
(so Bede writes, but by a truer calculation Caesar's first crossing was in 
the year of Christ 53). Thus Camden appears to have deducted the 
five hundred years from Caesar to the year 440 from Bede's reckoning, 
certainly an immense length of time. There still remain the years that 
intervened between the coming of Reuda and of Caesar, which our annals 
determine to have been a hundred and forty-four, and embrace the 
reigns of nine kings, so that the first five sovereigns mentioned by our 
writers do not come into the reckoning. Granting that our historians 



TRANSLATION : ANTIQUITY OF SCOTS IN BRITAIN 335 

went wrong 1 in computing; the years from Bede's Reuda, who is the 
Reutharis of Scottish writers, certainly every one will admit that 
some years intervened, and we need not anxiously inquire into the 
number, since, when all these years are deducted, beyond doubt Caniden 
will fail in his case. 

Now, as I hasten to other subjects, delay is created by the stigma of 
cannibalism with which he brands our ancestors in the first edition of 
his book, calling Strabo and Jerome to witness. In Strabo I do not 
remember that I read any such thing-, nor in his book is there any 
mention of the Scots, for he treats briefly and obscurely about Britain : 
he says that he heard this about the Irish, who are more savage and 
uncultured than the British. 

We should have to be on our guard against Jerome, were it not that 
I see, in the later labours of this man, this vile and offensive charge 
departed from in our case, and brought against the Attacotti, according 
to the testimony of manuscripts, with the approval of Erasmus, who 
recognises the passage as corrupt ; and our Antiquary says he must 
admit that in some manuscripts he has read Attigotti, Catagotti, and 
Cattitti. But let the truer reading have been Attacoti. That nation, 
if not Scots, is enumerated with the Scots by Marcellinus, so that, if we 
believe Jerome, our land was infamous on account of cannibalism, though 
our ancestors were free from that stain ; but surely if any one weighs 
this matter aright, he will place his confidence with more safety in the 
numerous Roman historians of previous centuries, whose bitterest 
enemies were the inhabitants of these regions, and who, while they 
relate much about the inhabitants, have inserted no such charge in their 
writings. Tacitus would not have been silent about it, nor Herodianus, 
nor Dio, who mentions the reproach of Julia Severa, wife of Argete- 
coxus, about concubinage in public. Lastly, Marcellinus would not 
have omitted it ; in short, none mentions it except this Jerome alone, a 
passionate man, from whom no one that had incurred his displeasure got 
off scot-free. 

Now the derivation of the name Scots is anxiously inquired of us. The 
most learned Buchanan is vilified, and charged with ignorance or 
negligence because he has disappoiuted expectations in this matter. On 
a point so difficult he 1 undoubtedly gives help and supplies a stimulus 
with his guesses to those who favour certain somewhat obscure writers, 
and from some similarity of sounds he relegates us to Scythia, though 
we never had any business with those regions or nations. At length, 
after much that is taken from the hash of numerous writers of the 
lowest class, he comes to the conclusion that he is badly afraid that as 
regards the derivation we shall always be 2KOTAIOI [in the dark]. 
Truly a momentous charge for one who is to stand his trial at the bar of 
the Antiquary. It is well that we are not the only defendants. Let the 



Camden. ED. 



336 ROMAN WALLS 

Romans now account for their calling the Hellenes Greeks, and the 
tribes beyond the Rhine Germans. Let the Franks, the Alemanni, 
the Suevi, the Catti, the Goths, the Alans, the Vandals, and other 
nations innumerable account for their names, or this dictator will not 
be satisfied. He himself twists about painfully in the derivation of 
Britain. But while there is no agreement between him and Lhuyd, a 
Briton, descended from the ancient Britons, deeply versed in the 
ancient British tongue, and having no little practice in these matters, 
his guess will deserve some credit. He admits it is his own guess which 
he puts forward, but yet he does not venture to determine anything for 
certain ; and we, because we make no conjecture about our own name, 
which might perhaps expose us to the mockery or derision of others, are 
chastised by this severe person. 



ADNOTATA AD PR^ETENTURAS, 
MUROS, VALLA qine Scotos a pro- 
vincialibus (listing tiebant. 

Cum doctissimus Cambdenus omnia lustraverit et collegerit 
quae ad hanc rem faciunt, non erat opus hanc eandem re- 
coquere, nisi controversia aliqua subsit de iis qui diversis 
temporibus has praetenturas statuerunt. ego, ut quid sentiam 
libere dicam, existimo Julium Agricolam primum id conatum 
potius quam perfecisse inter Glottam et Bodotriam : praesidiis 
eum tractum ilium firmasse Tacitus refert, at de muro aut 
vallo nihil refert. 

Neq^ ilia praesidia continuisse hostes, sub Trajano aliis curis, 
Dacico scilicet et Parthico bellis distento, innuit Spartianus, 
subactos tamen, id est ut ego conjicio, intra priores angustias 
rejectos, hostes. 

Sequitur Adriani Imperium, qui primus celebre munimentum 
per transversam insulam duxit; vallum hoc fuisse ex Spartiani 
verbis conjicere licet ad modum castrensis munitionis. primum 
egesta humus, fossa patens facta; humus sic egesta, vallo 
materiem praebuit, in summitate densis stipitibus munitum, 
aut si suspitio ulla valli in fossam delabendi, cespite ora tege- 
batur: haec erat praetenturae quam Imperator ille duxit ratio, 
At cardo rei est, ubinam terrarum collocetur praetentura haec. 
Contendit Cambdenus ibidem positam ubi Severus postea 



ROMAN WALLS 337 

earn munivit. videtur mihi potius, inter duo praedicta freta 
sita. 

Nullus erat locus commodior, nullibi tarn angusta insula. 
jam Agricolae opus eum ad hoc invitare poterat, nec^ verosimile 
est ilium Imperatorem tanta regione cessisse hostibus, quanta 
has duas praetenturas interjacet, quae recens ante eum pars im- 
perii fuerat. Quod adfert Cambodenus de ejus longitudine ex 
Spartiano, exigui roboris est, cur non mihi liceat dicere mendam 
in numeris esse et pro 80, 30 reponi debere cum ille in numeris 326. 
valli Severi hoc sibi licere vult. ubi enim Eutropius habet 35. 
m. p. reponit ille 80. ubi Orosius habet 122 m. p. ille retrahit 
ad 80, ita in numeris parum praesidii. at quae affert de praesidiis, 
quae postea nominantur ad vallum Severi excubasse, quae 
Adriani referunt nomen, ut pons ^Elius, Classis ^Elia, Conors 
JElia, Ala Sabiniana, Dii boni, quam invalidum hoc. quis nescit 
legiones, alas, cohortes, semel lectas et ad militiam compositas, 
nominibus distinctas, semper postea ubicunc^ militarent, nomina 
sua retenuisse, quae exemplis multarum aetatum probare est 
facillimum. unde Ala Scriboniana, Legio Septima Galbiana 
Jovii, Herculii ; haec nomina viguere longe post illos extinctos, 
qui primi eos ad militiam allegerant, nominac^ dederant. Nec^ 
moror Scotum ilium de quo ille refert, qui Rotam Temporum 
scripsit, ut neq^ Boethium nostrum, qui nihil hie praesidii ad- 
ferre possunt, nisi testem antiquitatem proferant. 

Sed neq^ Lollii Urbici tertia praetentura locum aut veritatem 
habet, nam si totum hoc inter duas praedictas interval! um, 
probe vestigetur, nullum ullius aut vestigium, aut suspitio, 
cum regiones illae montibus ut plurimum horridae, praesertim 
in mediterraneis, talibus operibus cessurae non erant, neq^ legati 
alicujus cum exiguis copiis talia moliri erat quae Imperatorem 
ipsum et plenum exercitum desideratura erant. 

Duae tantum legiones sub eo praesidia tune agitabant, Legio 
secunda Augusta, et legio vigesima Valens Victrix, quarum 
frequens mentio in lapidibus erutis de vallo hoc, quod Hadriani 
dixi : unus sic habet. 

LEG II 
AVG. 

Alter qui ad hue celebri loco extat. Extat in porticu Duno- . 

VOL. II. Y 



338 ROMAN WALLS 

trii, quse comitis Marescalli arx est in provincia Mernia. Sic se 
habet. 
sg?. IMP. CAESARI. T. AELIO. 

ADRIANO. ANTONINO. AVG. 

P. PP. VEXILLATION. LEG. 

XX VAL. VIC. FP. MIL. P. III. 

posterior haec Inscriptio veritatem de Lollio Urbico testatur, 
ilium nullum novum murum aut praetenturam excitasse, sed 
suum opus quod Antoninum Imp. praefert, veteri Hadriani prae- 
tenturae superstruxisse. Commodo imperante, res se pejus ha- 
buere, donee Severus cum ingenti exercitu advenit, qui se ipsum 
et hostes fatigavit, senio^ confectus vitam in provincia finivit, 
nondum sopito contra hostes bello. certe, cum saepe evolvissem 
quaecunq^ de hac postrema expeditione bellicossimi hujus Im- 
peratoris, literis mandata sunt, in multis non est mihi satis- 
factum, adeo confuse multa prodita sunt. fatendum est euni 
aut filios celeberrimum ilium murum statuisse, cujus magna 
pars hodieq^ extat, ab Ituna ad Tinam procurrens, sed quomodo 
tanto agro cesserit hostibus, nulla necessitate coactus manente 
bello, non capio. et tamen autores volunt opus hoc ipsius esse. 
si dixissent, mortuo patre, filios, ad capessendum Imperiuni 
aut Imperii voluptates, in Italiam festinantes, cum hostibus 
pepigisse, et opus hoc statuisse, credibiliora nobis retulissent. 

Certe praetentura haec, et novus hie limes, semper postea 
litibus, bellis, caedibus aeterna semina praebuit ; nam cum Scoti, 
Picti, Attacotti, Dicaledones, Vetturiones, Maeatae, suis sedi- 
bus divisi, sed sub duobus principibus, Scotorum et Pictorum 
nomine, ut paulo ante ex Beda monui, primum ab Agricola 
rejecti ultra Bodotriam et Glottam, tota ora occidentali erepta 
Scotis et orientali depulsis Pictis, illi primum ad omnes motus 
intenti ad sua recuperanda, magnas turbas sub diversis Im- 
peratoribus dederant, sed semper coerciti et ad Agricolae 
vallum rejecti, donee Severus tanto agro iis cessit, quantum 
optare quidem, sperare autem non possent. Et certe videtur, 
si Roman! se vallo Severi continuissent, eos vicinos non hostes 
habuissent. At postquam, ut referunt historic! quidam non 
infimae notae, Nennius qui vixit An. 620, Carausius, imperante 
328. Diocletiano, iterum ad Bodotriam promovit limitem, et imper- 



ROMAN WALLS 339 

ante Valentiniano, Theodosius Imperatoris Theodosii parens, 
agrum omnem prastenturis interjectum in provincial formam 
redegit Valentias nomine, hostes nihil non moliti contra 
Romanes tanquam fcedifragos, et quae amisissent tanquam sua 
repetentes. sed frustra base omnia, unde tristis rerum facies, 
per totam illam controversam, incendia, caedes regionem vastitas 
et quaecunq^ in bello licent. 

Attamen Romani quae ceperant, constanter retinuerunt, 
quandiu stetit incolume Imperium, et murus ille vel praetentura. 
quern primus Agricola fixerat, mansit postremus limes, ilium 
Gallic Ravennas munierat, ilium videtur Stiliconem muniisse. 
illo postremum amisso, postquam Romani insulam deseruere 
.ad vallum Severi munitiones retraxere teste Beda, in quo 
absentibus jam Romanis, nihil erat firmum. Hostes caedibus 
efferati, in provinciales a Romanis desertos et delectibus 
Tyrannorum exhaustos, quod fatendum est, crudeliter saevie- 
runt, dum odiis indulgent, aut praedae libidine aguntur. nec^ 
finis antequam Saxones advocati. 

Haec ideo fusius persecutus sum, ut belli causas, quae tot 
Scriptores intactas praetermisere, aperirem, neq^ illos barbaros, 
illos bostes, tanta pertinacia bella continua prosecutes, sine 
legittima, ut sibi videbatur, odii causa, cum haec omnia Romanis 
imputarent,qui limites legittime statutes avaritia sua violassent. 



The following is a translation into English of 
the Notes relating to the Walls and Ramparts 
separating the Scots from the Provincials. 

Some remarks as to authorship and date are 
given in the Preface. 

NOTES relating to the DEFENSIVE LINES, 
WALLS, and RAMPARTS which separated the 
SCOTS from the PROVINCIALS. 

Since the most learned Camden has surveyed and collected all that 
makes for this subject there would be no need to recast the same, unless 



340 TRANSLATION : ROMAN WALLS 

some controversy still existed about those who at various times con- 
structed these defensive lines. To speak freely what I think, I am of 
opinion that Julius Agricola was the first to attempt rather than accom- 
plish that work between the Forth and the Clyde. Tacitus mentions 
that he strengthened that tract with garrisons,, but says nothing about 
a wall or a rampart. 

Spartian indicates that those garrisons did not check the enemy in 
the reign of Trajan, who was engaged in other wars, namely, those 
against the Dacians and the Parthians, but that the enemy were sub- 
dued, that is, as I conjecture, pushed back to their former fastnesses. 

Next comes the rule of Adrian, who was the first to make the celebrated 
fortification across the island. We may gather from Spartian that 
this was a rampart after the manner of the fortification of a camp. 
First the earth was dug out and a broad ditch made ; the earth thus dug 
out supplied the material for a rampart, which was fortified on the top 
with thickly set trunks of trees, or if there was any fear of the wall 
falling down into the ditch, its face was covered with turf. This was 
the formation of the line of defence which that general made. But the 
cardinal point is where in the world this line is placed. Camden holds 
that it was in the same position where Severus afterwards fortified a 
wall. To me it rather appears to have been situated between the two 
friths aforesaid. 

No place was more convenient ; nowhere is the island so narrow. 
Now, Agricola's operations might invite him to this, nor is it likely that 
that general retired before the enemy from so great a tract as lies 
between these two lines, a district that shortly before his time had been 
part of the Empire. What Camden adduces from Spartian about its 
length is of little moment to hinder my saying that there is a mistake 
in his numbers, and that 30 should be put for 80, seeing that he takes 
this upon himself in the numbers of Severus's wall. For where Eutropius 
has 35 he puts 80, and where Orosius has 122 miles he reduces that 
to 80. Thus there is little assistance to be derived from numbers. But 
what he alleges about the garrisons which are afterwards named as 
having kept watch at the wall of Severus, and which bear Adrian's 
name, as the ^Elian Bridge, the JElian Fleet, the ^Elian Cohort, and the 
Sabinian Horse, ye good gods, how weak this is ! Who does not know 
that legions, auxiliary horse and cohorts, once raised and embodied for 
military service with distinctive names ever afterwards retained their 
names wherever they served, which it is very easy to prove by instances 
in all ages ; whence the Scribonian Wing, the Seventh Galbian Legion, 
the Jovians, and the Herculians. These names flourished long after 
the death of those who had first enrolled them for military service, 
and given the designations. Nor do I waste time with the Scot about 
whom that author speaks, and who wrote the Rota Temporum [the 
Wheel of the Times], nor our own Boece, as they can give us no help 
here, unless they bring forward antiquity as witness. 



TRANSLATION: ROMAN WALLS 341 

But a third wall, made by Lollius Urbicus, has no place or reality, 
for if the whole space between the two lines aforesaid be properly 
examined, there is no trace or suspicion of any, since those regions are 
for the most part mountainous, especially in the inland districts, and 
would be impracticable for such works ; and it was not in the power of 
any lieutenant-general with a few troops to construct what would require 
the commander-in-chief himself with a full army. 

Only two legions supplied the garrisons under him at that time, the 
Second Legion, the August, and the Twentieth Legion, the Strong and 
Victorious, frequently mentioned on stones dug out of this rampart, 
which I have said is Hadrian's. One has this : 

LEG II 
AVG. 

There is another which is still extant in a celebrated place. It stands 
in the entrance-hall of Dunottar, a castle that belongs to the Earl 
Marischal in the shire of Mearns. It runs as follows : 

IMP. CAESARI. T. AELIO. 
ADRIANO. ANTONINO. AVG. 
P. PP. VEXILLATION. LEG. 
XX. VAL. VIC. FP. MIL. P. III. 

This latter inscription testifies the truth about Lollius Urbicus, namely, 
that he raised no new wall or line of defence but superimposed his own 
work, which recognises the Emperor Antonine, on the old line of 
Hadrian. In the reign of Commodus affairs were in a bad way, until 
Severus came with an immense army and wore out himself and the 
enemy. Weakened with old age he ended his life in the province, ere 
yet the war against the enemy was over. In truth, though I have 
pondered all that has been committed to writing about this, the last 
expedition of this warlike emperor, on many points I cannot satisfy 
myself, so confusedly are many matters handed down. It must be 
acknowledged that he or his sons built that wall, of which a great portion 
is still in existence, stretching from Ituna [on the Solway] to the Tyne, 
but how he gave up so much land to the enemy I do not understand. 
And yet authors will have it that this is his own work. If they had 
said that on the death of their father, his sons, hastening to Italy to 
snatch empire or the pleasures of empire, had come to terms with the 
enemy and built this work, they would have told a story easier for us to 
believe. 

At any rate, this new line of defence and this new boundary ever after 
afforded grounds for quarrels, wars, and massacres ; for when the Scots, 
the Picts, the Attaccotti, the Dicaledones, the Vetturiones, and the 
Ma3atae, with settlements apart, but under two chiefs of the Scottish 
and Pictish nations, were first, as I showed a little ago from Bede, 



342 TRANSLATION : ROMAN WALLS 

driven by Agricola beyond the Forth and the Clyde, the whole of the 
western coast being 1 taken from the Scots, and the Picts expelled from 
the eastern, they first, being bent on all movements for recovering their 
own, had given much trouble under various emperors. They were, 
however, constantly checked and driven back to Agricola's wall, until 
Severus yielded to them as much territory as they might indeed wish,, 
but could not expect. And, no doubt, if the Romans had kept within 
the wall of Severus they would not have had those tribes as near 
enemies. But, as mentioned by certain historians not of the lowest 
repute, such as Nennius, who lived in the year 620, after Carausius in 
the reign of Diocletian again advanced the boundary to the Forth, 
and, in the reign of Valentinian, Theodosius, father of the Emperor 
Theodosius, reduced all the territory lying between the lines into the 
form of a province with the name of Valentia, the enemy spared no 
effort against the Romans as treaty-breakers, and sought to recover as 
their own what they had lost. But all this was in vain ; so that the 
face of affairs was gloomy, and throughout that disputed tract there 
were burnings, massacres, devastation, and all that may happen in war. 

The Romans, however, kept with a firm grasp what they had taken, 
as long as the Empire stood safe, and that wall or line of defence which 
Agricola was the first to fix remained the farthest boundary. Gallio 
of Ravenna had strengthened it, and Stilicho seems to have fortified it. 
Ultimately when it was lost, after the Romans left the island, they 
withdrew the defences to Severus's wall, as Bede testifies, in which, since 
the Romans were absent there was no security. The enemy, maddened 
with slaughters, took cruel measures, as we must admit, against the 
provincials, abandoned by the Romans and exhausted by the levies of 
the usurpers, while they gratified their hatred or carried off plunder at 
their will ; nor was there an end of it till the Saxons were summoned. 

I have treated this subject somewhat fully in order that I might 
explain the causes of the war which so many writers have passed by 
untouched, and show that those barbarians and those enemies conducted 
warfare with so much determination not without legitimate grounds for 
hatred, as it appeared to themselves, since they attributed all these 
evils to the Romans, who in their greediness had violated the limits 
lawfully fixed. 



ADNOTATA DE ORIGINE LINGUAE 
SAXONICZE apud nos cum priina nobis 
fuisset Hybernica. 

Non injuria ssepe quseritur quomodo nobis usu venerit, ut 
cum majores nostri ex Hibernia hue advecti, una etiam linguam 



ORIGIN OF THE SAXON TONGUE 343 

illam advehentes, jam ut plurimum earn plane dedidicerint, 
ei<k successerit Saxonica primum, quas variante apud Anglos 
dialecto, ita etiam apud nos variaverit. nec^ ulla re differamus, 
nisi quod crassior paullum minusc^ quam apud illos culta, pre- 
sertim in vulgo, quemadmodum in plerisq^ regnis non ubic^ 
eadem puritas, ut in Hispania, in Gallia, Italia, ceterisq^ fere 
usu venit, nec^ certius peregrinitatem in ullo discas quam ex 
sermone. Apud Anglos qui purius loquuntur, vocibus pere- 
grinis quotidie civitatem dant nec^ illud inopia, sed luxu ser- , 
monis et novitatis aviditate, unde varise provincial apud illos, 
quse longius ab hac vocum recens allectarum, ut ita dicam, 
officina, absunt, serins illam novitatem hauserint, prassertim 
vulgus. Nostratibus qui longissime distant et quam minimum 
talia curant, sermo antiquior in usu, quern delicatuli isti 
novatores fastidiunt et ut obsoletum aspernantur, ita a primaeva 
Saxonica tam longe recessum ut si hodie legatur, nemo earn 
amplius intelligat et quemadmodum hodierna Gallica a Celtica, 
sic a sua matrice, nostra abiit. ista Anglica jam totum fere 
nostrum regnum pervasit si oram occiduam a Glottae freto ad 
septentrionem excipias, ubi profunda barbaries priscum ser- 
inonem retinet. At hunc nobis non fuisse ab initio patrium, 
luculentus testis est Beda, qui refert suo tempore Deum praedi- 
cari apud Britannos quinc^ diversis linguis, Britannica Saxonica, 
Pictica, Scotica, et Latina omnibus communi. 

Jam videamus quomodo adrepserit nobis sermo hie ab initio 
peregrinus, et cum tempore tam altas radices egerit ut noster 
primasvus deportatus in extremas oras exulet. non edicta Im- 
peratorum, non omnis Imperil Romani vis, quantumvis in hoc 
enixa, provinciales sermones potuere vulgo excutere. Impera- 
torum edictis intelligo non fuisse provincialibus suum idioma 
vetitum. sed latine solum apud tribunalia jura dabantur, et pro 
majestate imperil et ut provinciales necessario ad id discendum 
incumberent, cujus illis in tota vita tantus usus. 

Cum mutatio haec non fuerit repentina, ne<^ fieri potuerit, 
jam facta tantum intelligitur, et quemadmodum alluvies in 
Huminibus jam nata cernitur, unde apud historicos altum ea 
de re silentium. 

Quidam ex commercio et communione nostra cum vicinis 
Anglis primordia hujus rei manasse volunt. Postquam 



344 ORIGIN OF THE SAXON TONGUE 

Saxones Christianismum amplexi sunt, et sub uno pncsertim 
rege haberi coepti sunt, maxima inter has vicinas gentes 
330. amicitia fuit, prsesertim postq m nostri vendicaverant sibi, quae 
Saxones NordanHumbri iis jure belli eripuerant, sed nulla 
talis aut tanta consuetudo eos tenuit, ut nativo nostro sermoni 
aliquid decerpi potuerit: nec^ videtur conjectura haec aut vera 
aut verosimilis. 

Alii ad tempora Milcolumbi tertii regis nostri haec referunt, 
quae incidunt in paucos annos ante Normannicam in Anglia 
procellam, turn enim Eadgarus regni legittimus haeres, sceptris 
exclusus cum tota familia in has oras advectus, Hberaliter a 
Milcolumbo susceptus est, qui non ita pridem exul, in illo 
regno tutum perfugio locum invenerat, et ad sua redeunti, ut 
MacBethum tyrannum regno usurpato depelleret, multos 
eosc^ non infimi ordinis Anglos comites fortunae habuit, unde 
succedentibus rebus ille Hberaliter eos agris, praediis, honori- 
bus remuneratus est. testantur annales nostri, multas claras 
familias, quorum posteri hodiecj^ supersunt, huic expedition! 
debere suas origines, eorumq^ cognomina manent, et multuin 
numerosa prole diffusa sunt. Eadgarus igitur Hberaliter habi- 
tus, novae affinitati ansam dedit. Margareta ejus soror, castitate, 
sanctitate, omnibus virtutibus lectissima virgo Milcolumbo 
desponsa est, unde illis quibuscunc^ cum Normannis non bene 
conveniret, tutum hie erat asylum ; inde expeditiones et bella 
suscepta ad coronae Anglicae jus repetendum, sed irritae, cum 
jam plebs, ecclesiastici omnes, et maxima procerum pars 
victori Normanno manus dedisset. At nec^ Eadgari comi- 
tatus, aut ante eum Milcolumbi reducis socii tantum potuere 
ut linguam nativam extinguerent, nullus talis eorum nurnerns 
fuit ut plebi et populo praevalerent. et res haec certe suffrages 
nititur, mera hie democratia, aut, quod deterius, ochlocratia 
est. plebs, populus sermoni praeest, nec^ in imperantis manu 
est ut aliter fiat. 

At quid sentiam dicam, et si quis aliud verosimile adferat 

quod meo praeponderet sensui, aequo animo feram, pedibus in 

SSI. sententiam ejus ibo, adeo mihi non obluctari veritati certum est. 

Cum primum majores nostri, et antea Picti sedes suas in 
hac insula cepissent, paulatim sese difFudere, et crescente 
sobole auxere quoq^ limites, primum aestuariis Forthaet Glotta 



ORIGIN OF THE SAXON TONGUE 345 

coerciti, ultra ab utrisc^ processum est. Picti sequuti orientale 
littus, Lothianam et quicquid ab austro Forthse est sibi vendi- 
carunt. si limitem quaeras, videntur possedisse totum id, in 
quod pulsis illis, successere nostri. Scoti vero occidentalem 
oram trans Glottam sibi vendicavere. prima utrisq^ certamina 
cum Britonibus erant, variante fortuna, donee Julius Agricola 
cum exercitu Romano litem diremit, neq^ tamen ille pacata 
omnia a tergo reliquerat; multum belli supererat, multa? 
gentes nondum jugum acceperant, sed haec omnia virtus 
Komana pervasit, ita nostri Pictiq^ ultra duo sestuaria rejecti, 
et limes hie constanter ad Severum mansit. quanquam saepe 
perruptus, nihil tamen possessum, praemium belli depraedatio 
agrorum fuit. Primus Severus limitem mutavit et vallum de 
nomine suo dictum aut ille aut filii statuere. Sed Carausius 
qui insulam sibi vendicavit, sub Diocletiano et Maximiano 
protulit munimenta et ad Adriani vallum terminum fixit. 
quern postea sequuti Romani constanter tutati sunt, quandiu 
Britanniam habuere, nisi quod extremis Romani Imperil in ea 
insula satis prasvalentibus hostibus, iterum ad Severi vallum 
reditum est, quod absentibus Romanis non potuit arcere 
hostes. 

Jam advocantur Saxones, eaq^ medicina adhibetur quae 
excessit malum ; perfidia sociorum plus misera3 genti nocuit, 
quam ulla hostium crudelitas. illi non content! praeda, spoliis, 
provinciam, ut notum est, sibi vendicant. nee imperare contenti 
ut quondam Romani, aut miti victoria sese victis miscere ut 
Franci Gallis, eorumq^ nepotibus, postea Dani, non ante excisam 
gentem, aut in avia oblegatam, in vacuas sedes successere. illi 
multis ducibus diversa loca invasere, at omnibus idem studium 332. 
vastitatem facere, et turn demum nova regna condere. Qui 
septentrionalia invasere NordanHumbrorum nomine, valido 
exercitu sub duobus ducibus, duo regna Deirae et Berniciae 
nominibus condidere. illi quicquid Severus Scotis Pictisq^ ex 
fcedere reliquerat, de quo postea tantis cladibus certatum erat, 
jam iterum majoribus nostris Pictisc^ eripuere; Limitem ad 
vallum Agricolae et Hadrian!, hoc est ad duo freta, protulere. 
neq^ inde ulla vi, etiam post receptum Christianismum divelli 
potuere donee primum discordiis civilibus, postea incumbenti- 
bus Danis, debilitati et fracti paulo ante exactos Pictos ex 



346 ORIGIN OF THE SAXON TONGUE 

insula. Scoti et Picti in sua rediere et miti victoria usi, popuJo 
ut plurimum sedibus suis permisso, domini regionum facti 
sunt, quas postea constanter ad hunc diem tenuere. 

Harum rerum veritatem usq^ ad Saxonicam procellam, satis 
quae dicta sunt testantur, cum de praetenturis verba facerem r 
at quae successere Bedam autorem habent, qui ea omnia 
optirne norat ; ex eo multa haurire licet, quae veritatem hanc 
stabiliant. Meminit ille Twedae fluvii Muilrosii ccenobii, imo 
quod magis est, Abircurnig ad fretum Bodotriae quae hodie 
Abircorne est. ubi turn temporis Coenobium fuisse ait, quod 
ad initia valli Romanorum collocat ; meminit quoq^Episcopatus- 
Candida? Casae, quae hodie in Gallovidia noscitur. haec omnia 
et longe plura loca operi ejus inspersa refert, ut regni Nordan 
Humbrorum membra illudq^ solum agnoscentia, neq^ ilia ex 
auditu, sed quae suis temporibus oculis hauserat. Refert ille 
Regem NordanHumbrorum Oswin, gentem Pictorum magna 
ex parte Anglis subdidisse circa annum 660. Refert quoq^ 
Aidanum Scotorum regem cum numeroso exercitu contra 
NordanHumbros conflixisse infeliciter, unde postea nemo- 
illis de provinciis bello partis controversiam facere ausus est. 
Atc^ hie erat rerum status Bedae tempore. 

Sed contusis et fractis Saxonum NordanHumbrorum 
opibus, nostri Pictiq^ in sua rediere. non quidem vacua, sed 
Saxone cultore plena, victores, posita iracundia, victoria 
clementer usi sunt; donee in unum corpus cum victore, ut 
postea factum, coalescerent. mansit lingua quae mere Saxonica, 
nec^ eis iis regionibus quae Forthae et Glottas ad austrum sunt, 
exigi potuit, cum illae novos dominos, antiques colonos habe- 
rent. hae tertiam regni partem, si locorum spatia respicias,, 
constituunt. at si bonitatem agrorum, incolarum multitudinem, 
opes, primas tenet, unde regio, posthabitis ulterioribus, hie 
sedem h'xit, inde jus, commercium, negotiatio, et quicquid ad 
bene vi vend urn avide quaeritur, potissimum viget, floret, et a, 
multis aetatibus viguit floruitq^. Cum igitur tanto tempore a 
Saxonibus possessa sermo, intactis ut dixi, colonis manserit, quis- 
dubitet hinc nos hodierni sermonis cunabula repetere debere? 



TRANSLATION : ORIGIN OF THE SAXON TONGUE 347 



What follows is a translation of the Latin 
Account of the Origin of the Saxon Tongue in 
Scotland. 

Some remarks on this item of the Collec- 
tions are given in the Preface. 

NOTES on the ORIGIN of the SAXON TONGUE in 
our country, whereas our first language was the IRISH. 

The question is often asked with propriety how it happened to us that 
while our ancestors sailed hither from Ireland bringing- with them also 
the Irish language., they quite unlearned it for the most part, and how 
first it was succeeded by the Saxon, which, varying in dialect among 
the English, has also changed in this country. Nor should we differ 
in any point except that it is a little rougher and less polished than in 
England, particularly among the common people, since in most realms 
there is not the same purity everywhere, just as is generally the case in 
Spain, in France, in Italy and the other countries, nor can you discern 
a foreign element in any one more readily than by his speech. In 
England the purer speakers adopt foreign words every day, and that 
not from poverty but from wealth of language, and a desire for novelty ;. 
so that various shires of that country which are further distant from the 
manufactory, so to speak, of these newly introduced words are late in 
borrowing that innovation, especially in the case of the common crowd. 
Our countrymen, who are most remote and least concerned about such 
matters, use the older speech, which those nice innovators disdain, and 
despise as obsolete. It is also so far removed from the primitive Saxon 
that if it were read nowadays nobody would any longer understand it ; 
and our language has left its original form, as modern French ha& 
departed from the Celtic. That English tongue has now overspread 
almost the whole of the kingdom, if you except the west coast from the 
Frith of Clyde northwards, where the profound barbarism preserves the 
ancient speech. But Bede is a clear witness to the fact that this was not 
originally hereditary with us. He tells that in his time God was preached 
in Britain in five different languages, the British, the Saxon, the Pictish,. 
the Scottish, and the Latin common to all. Now let us see how at first 



348 TRANSLATION : ORIGIN OF THE SAXON TONGUE 

this foreign language crept in amongst us, and in time struck its roots so 
deep that our primitive speech was banished to the farthest coasts, and 
is in exile. Neither the edicts of emperors nor all the power of the 
Roman Empire, whatever its efforts in this direction, could make the 
common people discard the provincial languages. I do not mean that 
their own idiom was forbidden to the provincials by imperial edicts. 
JJut justice was administered at the law courts in Latin only, both in 
accordance with the majesty of the Empire, and in order that the 
provincials might, of necessity, apply themselves to learn what they 
were to use so much during all their lives. 

While this change has not been sudden, and could not be created, it 
is understood only after it has been made, and like puddles in rivers, is 
seen when produced ; and hence there is deep silence in historians 
about that subject. 

Some will have it that the beginnings of this change came from 
our intercourse and communications with our English neighbours. 
After the Saxons embraced Christianity, and began to be ruled by one 
king in particular, there was the greatest friendship between these 
neighbouring nations, especially after our countrymen recovered what 
the Northumbrian Saxons had snatched from them by the right of 
war ; but no such intimacy bound them that anything could be taken 
away from our native speech, nor does this conjecture seem either true 
or probable. Others refer its origin to the time of our King Malcolm in. , 
which falls a few years before the Norman upheaval in England ; for 
then Edgar, the lawful heir to the kingdom, being with all his family 
excluded from the throne, came to these borders, and was generously 
befriended by Malcolm, who, when in exile not long before, had found 
a safe asylum in that kingdom, and returned to his own country to 
dethrone the usurper Macbeth, who had seized the royal power. 
His fortunes were shared by many Englishmen, and those not of the 
lowest rank. He, therefore, in his prosperity rewarded them liberally 
with lands, estates, and honours. Our annals bear witness that 
many illustrious families, whose descendants survive at the present 
day, owe their rise to this expedition ; their surnames remain, and are 
widely diffused among a numerous offspring. Edward, therefore, being 
.generously entertained gave a handle to the new alliance. His sister 
Margaret, a maiden excelling in purity, saintliness, and all the virtues, 
was betrothed to Malcolm, and hence there was a safe refuge here for 
all those who disagreed with the Normans ; and then expeditions and 
wars were undertaken to regain the right of the English crown, but 
they were ineffectual, since now the common people, all the clergy, and 
most of the nobles had yielded to the victorious Norman. But neither 
Kdgar's retinue nor, before him, that of Malcolm at his restoration was 
so influential or so numerous as to destroy the native tongue, or prevail 
over the commons and people. And this is a matter of opinion, whether 
we have here pure democracy, or what is worse, ochlocracy. The 



TRANSLATION : ORIGIN OF THE SAXON TONGUE 



commons, the people, rule the language ; nor is it in the power of a 
sovereign to make it otherwise. 

But I will say what I think,, and if any one can bring forward 
another probable theory to overbalance my feeling, I will bear it with 
equanimity, and vote for his view, so determined am I not to struggle 
against the truth. 

When first our ancestors, and the Picts before them, took up their 
abodes in this island, they spread out by degrees, and as their 
descendants multiplied, they also extended their bounds ; having been 
at first restricted by the friths of Forth and Clyde, they advanced 
beyond the two. The Picts, following the east coast, claimed Lothian and 
all that is south of the Forth. If you seek a limit, they appear to have 
possessed all that to which, on their expulsion, our ancestors succeeded. 
But the Scots claimed the west coast, beyond the Clyde. The first 
battles of both were fought against the Britons with varying success, 
until Julius Agricola with a Roman army ended the contention ; yet 
even he had not left all at peace behind his back. Much of the war 
remained, and many tribes had not yet accepted the yoke ; but Roman 
valour penetrated all these, and so our countrymen and the Picts \vere 
pushed back beyond the two friths, and this boundary remained con- 
tinuously till the time of Severus. Though it was often passed, still, 
nothing was permanently retained, and the reward of war was the 
plundering of the fields. Severus was the first to change the boundary, 
and either he or his sons built the wall called by his name. But 
Carausius who claimed the island for himself, under Diocletian and 
Maximian, brought the defences forward, fixing the limit at Adrian's 
wall, and the Romans subsequently followed his example as long as 
they held Britain, except that in the later times of the Roman Empire, 
when the enemy were very powerful in that island, there was a return 
to the wall of Severus, which, at the departure of the Romans, could not 
check the foe. 

Now the Saxons were summoned, and that remedy was applied which 
proved worse than the disease. The treachery of their allies did more 
harm to the miserable nation than any cruelty of their enemies. The 
Saxons, not content with plunder and spoils, secured the province for 
themselves, and not satisfied with ruling, as were the Romans before 
them, or with exercising their victory mildly, and mingling with the 
conquered inhabitants, as the Franks did with the Gauls, and the Danes 
afterwards with their descendants, they cut the nation off, or banished it 
to pathless tracts, and succeeded to the vacant settlements. Under 
many leaders they invaded different localities, but all were fired with 
the same zeal for creating devastation, and then at length founding 
new kingdoms. Those who invaded the north, and were named the 
Northumbrians, with a strong army under two leaders founded twa 
kingdoms called Deira and Bernicia. They again took from our 
ancestors and the Picts all that Severus had left to the Scots and the 



350 TRANSLATION : ORIGIN OF THE SAXON TONGUE 

Picts according to the treaty about which there was afterwards so 
much disastrous contention, and pushed their boundary forward to the 
wall of Agricola and Hadrian, that is to the two friths. Nor could 
they be dislodged from thence by any force, even after the adoption of 
Christianity, until, through civil discords at first, and then owing to the 
pressure of the Danes, they were weakened and broken, a little before 
the expulsion of the Picts. The Scots and Picts returned to their own 
possessions, where, using their victory mildly, they left the people in 
their homes, and became proprietors of those districts, which they have 
ever since held to this day. 

What was said when I spoke of the Defensive Lines bears sufficient 
witness to the reality of these events down to the Saxon Invasion. But 
for subsequent events we have as our authority Bede, who knew all 
about them very well. From him one may gather much to establish the 
truth of this history. He mentions the river Tweed, the monastery of 
Melrose, and what is more, Abircurnig, which is now Abercorne, on the 
Frith of Forth, where he says there was at that time a monastery. He 
places it at the commencement of the Roman wall. He also mentions 
the bishopric of Candida Casa [the White Hut], which is known at the 
present day in Galloway. He refers to all these and many more places 
in various passages of his work as parts of the kingdom of the North- 
umbrians, which acknowledged it alone ; and he does so not from hear- 
say, but as what he had seen on his own time with his eyes. He tells 
that Oswy, King of the Northumbrians, brought a great part of the 
Pictish nation under the sway of the English about the year 660. He 
also tells that Aidan, King of the Scots, was defeated with a numerous 
army by the Northumbrians, so that no one afterwards ventured to 
dispute with them about the provinces gained in war. 

But when the power of the Northumbrians was crushed and shattered, 
our ancestors and the Picts returned to their own possessions, which 
were not, however, vacant, but filled with Saxon inhabitants ; and the 
victors, dismissing their anger, used their triumph mildly, with a view 
to an incorporating union, which afterwards took place. The language, 
which was purely Saxon, remained, nor could it be driven out of those 
districts which are to the south of the Forth and the Clyde, since they 
had new owners, but old inhabitants. These districts form the third 
part of the kingdom, if you have regard to the extent of land, but if to 
the fertility of the fields, and the number and wealth of the inhabitants, 
they hold the first position. Therefore the country, neglecting more 
distant places, here fixed its capital, and from it law, commerce, trade 
and all that is conducive to living well, are eagerly looked for, and here 
chiefly are stro.ng and flourishing, and have for many ages been strong 
and flourishing. Since, therefore, the language spoken by the Saxons 
has for so long a time remained in the mouths of undisturbed inhabitants, 
who can doubt that from this circumstance we ought to trace the in- 
fancy of our modern speech ? 



THULE 351 



DE THULE INSULA DISSERTATIO. 

Thule vatum carminibus, etiam historicorum relationibus 
apud veteres Celebris, hodie in tanta literarum luce, tanto 
qngeniorum pro vent u, adhuc ignoratur et latet, et certe nisi 
Ptolomseus digito hue intendisset, adhuc lateret. Cum ea 
'Orbis Britannic! aut pars esset aut appendex, nil mirum 
exteros de ea parum sollicitos. At sane non effugisset saga- 
cissimum Cambdeni ingenium, si hac animum advertisset, sed 
illi extra tabulam fortasse deerant ilia legittima ad hanc 
rem subsidia ; nondum viderat insulas omnes quse nostrum 
regnum circum ambiunt natural! situ descriptas, nam hsec 
omnia nupera sunt. Quidam recentiores, qui earn tenebris 
eruere conati sunt, existimarunt Shetlandiam aut Shetlandicas 
oostras insulas antiquorum Thulen habitas, eo argumento 
persuasi, quod illse insulae in nostro orbe ultimas sint. nam de 
Islandia nemini unquam tale aliquid in mentem venit. At 
Komanos vidisse Shetlandicas insulas, aut unquam eo perrexisse 
navibus, sentire vanum est. Claudii classis primum Orcades 
aperuit, quas poetarum adulatio eum domuisse refert: non 
erat res magni negotii, eas omnes subjugasse, ubi nullum er&tss4, 
victorias operas pretium praeter famam, quam Imperator ille 
desultoria ilia in Britanniam expeditione aucupabatur, earnc^ 
abunde consecutus est. Postea Julii Agricolae classis, insulam 
circumvecta, plures insulas ad occidentem detexit, sed illas 
omnes, sicuti Orcades, sicuti septentrionalia regni nostri 
despexerunt, et ut sibi inutilia neglexerunt. illi his circum- 
navigationibus oram legentes, ob immensi et periculosi oceani 
metum, contenti fuere littora aut littori apposita vidisse ; neq^ 
mirum, cum vel hodie maria ilia quamvis omnia glacie imrnunia, 
non semper navibus pervia sint, ventis, procellis et vorticosis 
sestibus infamia. Fretum illud quod Scotiam et Orcades inter- 
jacet, Picticum dictum, ignaris et sine perito nauclero non 
facilem habet trajectum. Quid igitur de Romana in Shet- 
landiam navigatione, ut ibi Thule inveniatur, sperandum est ? 
est quoc^ ilia tellus ex multarum insularum congerie compacta, 
cum Thulen unius insulae nomine agnoscamus, quam Romani 
non auditu, sed visu hauserant; illuc quandoq^ appulsa est 



352 THULE 

inter Shetlandicas una, plane ex iis quae maxime in Boream 
vergunt, exigua sane, et scopulus verius quam insula, cui hodie 
nomen Fula. aliqui allusione nominis decepti, hie Thulen 
quaesivere. nonnulli insulam quae Fayr-yle, id est pulchra insula, 
medio inter Shetlandiam et Orcadas itinere, aperto mari, ad 
Thulen retulere. sed ilia nullo modo Ptolomaicae descriptioni 
quadrat, cum ille Thulen non exiguam, sicut pulchra ilia est, 
sed insignem magnitudine nobis exhibeat. cujus medium et 
quatuor latera expressis numeris signat. Alibi igitur quae- 
renda est, talis autem quam Romanae classes adire ausae sunt. 
haec est non procul a continente, et quae magnitudine sua 
numeris ejus aliquo modo respondeat. 

Si quis igitur Ptolomaicam tabulam ob oculos sibi ponat, 

S35. accurate illam secundum numeros ejus descriptam, deinde 
mutet plagas cceli, et quae illi ad dextram, ut orientalia, 
imaginetur borealia esse, sicut revera sunt, quae vero ille pro 
borealibus in universa tabula descripsit, pro occiduis habeantur r 
habebitur non inconcinna totius regni nostri descriptio; quod 
non abhorrebit ab hodierno regionum situ. Ille vir tantus 
male sane de Oread um posit u edoctus, eas in occasum ultra 
naturalem si turn produxit. et e tribus promentorium illud 

. quod maxime in occasum vergit, Orcadis nomine insignivit,. 
quod hodie Farro vel Farrohead nominatur. Orcadibus in- 
ventis, de quibus nullum dubium est, Thule ex eo investiganda 
est, nemo enim praeter ilium unum, quicquam de ilia insula 
praeter nudum nomen nobis retulit. At si ilium ducem 
sequamur, obversa ut dixi tabula, aut plagis mutatis, in occi- 
dentem tentandum est, ubi prima et omnium quae in illo mari 
sparguntur, longe maxima occurrit insula Leogus Buchanano 
dicta, alii Levissam dicunt, communiter Lewis, cujus pars 
australis tenui isthmo reliquae insulae adhaerens Haray nomen 
habet. Insula haec quadraginta sex milliaria nostratia in 
longum patet, quae in Italica resoluta, quinquaginta septeni 
dabunt, latitudine inaequali, alicubi quindecim Italica, ali- 
cubi angustior. ilia longe ab Orcadibus in occasum porrecta, 
non tamen longe abest Skia insula, quae fere Continenti adhaeret. 
ilia omnium in illo mari ultima, ut non sine ratione ultimae 
Thules vocabulum egregie ei quadret. 



TRANSLATION: THULE 353 



What follows is a translation into English of 
the Latin Account of Thule. 

The Preface contains some remarks regard- 
ing this Account. 

A DISSERTATION on the ISLAND of THULE. 

Thule, celebrated in the verses of poets, and also in the narratives of 
historians, is at the present day, with all the brilliant light of letters 
and all the advance of intelligence, still unknown and concealed ; and 
certainly had not Ptolemy pointed with his finger hither it would remain 
concealed. Since it was either a portion or an appendage of the British 
world, it is not surprising that foreigners cared little for it, but it would 
have surely not escaped the shrewd intellect of Camden if he had turned 
his thoughts in this direction ; but perhaps those legitimate aids to his 
subject that are outside of the map were wanting to him. He had not 
yet seen all the islands that surround our kingdom delineated in their 
natural position, for all these works are recent. Some later writers, 
who have attempted to rescue it from darkness, have thought that 
Shetland or the Shetland Isles were the Thule of the ancients, con- 
vinced by the fact that those islands are the most distant in our world. 
For no such thought occurred to any one about Iceland. But it is idle 
to think that the Romans saw the Shetland Isles or ever reached them 
in ships. The fleet of Claudius first discovered the Orkneys, which the 
flattery of poets represents him to have subdued. It would not have 
been a matter of much difficulty to subdue all those islands, where there 
was no reward of victory but fame, which that emperor pursued in his 
hasty expedition into Britain and abundantly secured. Afterwards the 
fleet of Julius^ Agricola, sailing round the island, discovered more 
islands on the west ; but they despised all those, as they did the Orkneys 
and the northern parts of our kingdom, and neglected them as useless 
to themselves. Those navigators, skirting the coast as they sailed 
round it, owing to fear of the immense and dangerous ocean, contented 
themselves with viewing the shores or the places near the shore ; nor 
is this surprising since even now those seas, while free from any ice, 
are not always navigable, being of ill repute with winds, storms, and 
eddying tides. That frith which lies between Scotland and the Orkneys, 

VOL. ii. z 



354 TRANSLATION : THULE 

called the Pictish [Pentland] Frith, is not easy to cross for those 
ignorant of it, and not having a skilful pilot. What then are we to 
expect about a Roman voyage to Shetland for the discovery of Thule 
there? That land is also composed of a group of many islands, while 
we know Thule as the name of one island, which the Romans knew not 
from hearsay but by sight. There is an island, which is sometimes 
visited among the Shetlands, evidently one of those that lie farthest 
to the north. It is very small, and is more truly a rock than an island. 
Its name is Fula, and some, misled by the similarity of the name, have 
sought Thule here. Some have represented the island of Fair-yle, that 
is, beautiful isle, situated in the open sea, mid-way between Shetland 
and the Orkneys, as Thule. But that island does not at all square with 
Ptolemy's description, since he exhibits Thule to us not as small, like 
Fair-yle, but as remarkable for its size. Its diameter and four sides he 
marks in express numbers. Therefore it must be sought elsewhere, and 
must be such as Roman fleets ventured to approach. It must be not far 
from the mainland, and must be one that would correspond in its size to 
his numbers in some measure. 

If then any one place Ptolemy's map before his eyes, carefully 
marked according to the geographer's numbers, then change the 
cardinal points, and imagine those parts which he has on the right, as 
being easterly, to be north, as they really are, so that what he has 
marked in his whole map as north may be considered as west, a just 
delineation of our whole kingdom will be obtained, which will not differ 
from the modern situation of the regions. That great man, being ill 
instructed in the position of the Orkneys, placed them to the west, 
beyond their natural position, and, of three capes, he marked the one that 
inclines farthest west with the name of Orcas [Orkney], which is now 
called Farro or Farrohead [Cape Wrath]. When we find the Orkneys, 
about which there is no doubt, Thule must be investigated according 
to Ptolemy, for no one except him alone has told us anything about 
the island save the bare name. Now if we follow him as our guide, 
turning his map, as I have said, or changing the directions, we must 
try the west, where first we meet by far the largest island of all that 
lie scattered in that sea, called Leogus by Buchanan, while others name 
it Levissa, commonly Lewis. Its southern part, united to the rest of 
the island by a narrow isthmus, has the name of Haray [Harris]. This 
island extends in length forty-six Scots miles, which being reduced to 
Italian miles will give forty-seven. It is of unequal breadth, being in 
some parts fifteen Italian miles, and in some narrower. It lies a long 
way to the west of the Orkneys, but is not far from the Isle of Skye, 
which almost adjoins the mainland. That island is the most remote 
in that sea, so that, not without reason, the expression Ultima Thule 
corresponds with it remarkably well. 



MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 355 



ADNOTATA AD TABULAM VETERIS SCOTIA. 

Terras, flumina, maria, aut exiguum aut nihil mutare situm 
in comperto est, unde quanquam nominibus varietur, quae 
mutationes aut transmigrationes populorum ad suum sermonem 
accomodant, tamen ilia immutabilis rerum facies, ad anti- 
quorum et recentiorum locorum investigandas differentias, 
quaec^ conveniant quae non item, quasi manu ducunt. Com- 336. 
paraturi igitur hodiernum regionis nostrae situm cum illo 
quern prioribus saeculis habuit, exactam hodiernse tabulam, 
Ptolomaicam item oculis subjecimus. ille enim solus Romanis 
temporibus plus omnibus praestitit, nisi eo duce omnis labor 
in vanum cecidisset. Adjunxi etiam quae ex historicis nostris 
nancisci potui ad hanc rem necessaria. sane omnia haec mul- 
tum imperfecta, cum maxima regni hujus pars extra Romanum 
orbem posita sit, et nostri historici plus satis harum rerum 
incuriosi. Regiones regionibus aptare, non est arduae operae, 
at in urbibus et oppidis, quae sane pauca sunt, difficilior investi- 
gatio est, et si in quibusdam ab aliis dissentiendum erit, venia 
opus erit, cum ad veritatis normam collineam, quam si non in 
omnibus assequar, aut vera aut verosimilia sectabor. 

Incipiendo igitur a limite nostro maxime australi, et ad 
mare Vergivium spectante, hoc aestuarium nos ab Anglis 
dividit secundum littus, hodie Solway fyrth. ubi hodie 
regiunculae Liddisdail, Eskdail, Eusdail, Wachopdail, Nithes- 
dail, a fluminibus quibus irrigantur nomina sortitae. Romanis 
temporibus Selgovae ea loca tenuerunt. Nith fluvius anti- 
quorum Novio satis quadrat ; oppida vetera censebantur Oxel- 
ium, Carbantorigum, Trirnontium. hodie in eo tractu sunt, 
Annand, Dumfreis, Loch Maban, quorum nullum videtur 
recens, sed ea nominibus veteribus aptare non est mei ingenii. 

Magis ad occasum in eadem ora fuere Novantae complexes 
Chersonesum insignem, quae hodie the Mul of Galloway agnos- 
citur. Deva fluvius hodie fere nomen retinet, et Dee appella- 
tur. vetus oppidum Ptolomeo Lucopibium, ubi doctissimus 337. 
Cambdenus reponit apposite sane, Leucicidium, hodie Whytt- 
ern, latine Candida casa, et multa in Ptolomei exemplaribus 
graecis, luxata esse tarn in numeris quam nominibus certum 



356 MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 

est couferenti exemplaria ejus cum Antonini itinerario, unde 
nobis audacia quaedam, non sine ratione, variandi. Jena 
aestuarium, hodie Wigton bay, paulo ulterius, Rerigonius 
sinus, nunc the bay of Glenluce. ex ad versa Chersonesi parte, 
alter sinus, Ptol. Vidogara aestufarium] hodie Lochryan. quae 
vetera nomina clarorum sinuum doctissimus Geo. Buchananus 
contendit mutari debere, ut veteri nomenclature respondeatur 
cui non obluctor nisi refragetur Rerigonii oppidi nomen ad 
ilium sinum positi, ubi est, aut haud longe hodie abest, Glenluce 
urbecula, cum crenobio olim celebri. 

Jam praetervectis Chersonesum et Promontorium Novantum 
populorum, aperit se Glottse aestuarium, non multum a veteri 
nomine degenerans, vocatur enirn the fyrth of Clyd. fretum 
autem vel magnum sinum nostri a fyrth vocant. ad ejus orani 
orientalem Novantae itidem colebant, ubi hodie regio Carrick. 
et intimum ejus secessum Damnii tenuere, ubi hodie Kylle, 
Cuninghame, Renfrew ; imo tractus Glotta fluminis hodie 
Clydsdaill eorum agri pars videtur fuisse, nam Cozia, ubi 
hodie Ruglan, notatur et Colonia, ubi hodie Lanrick. Glascua 
enim novitia prae illis. Vanduara veterum satis exacte 
respondet situi oppidi Ayr. 

Historic! nostri totam illam oram quae Gallovidiae nomen 

adhuc habet Brigantes antea tenuisse referunt. Doctissimus 

D. Buchananus videtur universam oram ab Ituna ad Cherso- 

338. nesum iis tribuere. illi auctoritate. ille rationibus pugnat, nec^ 

libet interponere meum judicium. 

Damniis ad ortum proximi fuere Gadeni, aut ut vere vide- 
tur sentire Cambdenus, potius Ladeni, quibus accensebatur 
universa Lothiana vel ut hodie efFertur Loudian, magis ad 
Ladenos proximante voce. Alaeuna urbs ejus regionis procul 
dubio Edimburgo situ respondet, quam urbem autor noster 
Damniis attribuit, quos ad utriusc^ freti initia habitasse 
innuit, Sterlinensem agrum et Levinise partem illis attribuens. 
Lindum urbs apprime quadrat Sterlino, at de Edimburgo 
Bedam plane siluisse mirum est, cum de Guidi urbe ad lineani 
valli Adriani meminerit, nee oblitus Coenobii JSbercurni, unde 
non longe praetentura ilia capiebat initium. 

Erat mihi animus hie subjecisse tractum valli Adriani 
et loca praesidiaria eidem apposita, quorum vestigia 



MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 357 

ad hunc diem durant, sed meliore consilio conjeci ea 
in tractatum de praetenturis, cui argumento magis 
respondent. 

Sequuntur Ottadeni, de quibus nobis cum erudissimo Camb- 
deno nonnihil controversiae est. ille ex ratione nominis, eos 
adusq^ Tinam fluvium qui Novo castri moenia subit, trahit, 
nullum ejus nominis fluvium nos habere audacter asserens, 
cum duos habeamus, unum in Lothiana, cui Hadina antiquum 
oppidum assidet, qui hand procul Dumbaro, Oceanum subit; 
ejus situi secundum Ptolomeum Alaunus fluv. pulchre re- 
spondet. Alter in Fifa regione est ut dicendum nobis est. 
Nihil illi opus erat de Ottadinis tantopere solicitum fuisse, 
cum Maeatae, Ptolomaeo indicti, loca ilia proxima vallo Seven 
tenuerint, ut testantur Scriptores antiqui. grave non illi 
homini satis nobis Ottadinas abstulisse, Vedram fluvium 
anferre conatur et Tina? accomodare suo, cum situs magis 
Twedae respondeat. Etsi leve hoc est, nam si ille apud veteres 
omnia evolvent, quantumvis sagax, multi illi in sua Anglia 
exsiccabuntur fluvii, multi item nobis. Ptolomaeus enim 339. 
quorundam meminit, multos praetermittit, unde non est anti- 
quarii vel loca vel fluvios de suis alveis dimovere. Autor ille 
aestuarium Humbri, Abus fluvii nomine comprehendit, quot 
igitur egregia flumina Cambdeno peribunt, q use in sinum ilium 
confluunt si Ptolomaeo stabitur. At institutum nostrum 
sequamur. Sequitur Bodotria ^Estuarium Ptolomaeo Boderia, 
hodie Forth, cujus nominis fluvius initia ejus constituit. 

Fortham vel Bodotriam transgressis prima occurrit Fifa 
Venniconum veterum sedes, adTai aestuarium porrecta, nostris 
historicis Othlinia quondam dicta ; in hac alter Ptolomaeo Tina 
fluvius, incolis hodie Edin, adeo vestigium nominis antiqui 
adhuc durat. qui haud longe Andreapoli mergit se Oceano, ad 
cujus ripas autor collocat Orream urbem, ubi hodie Cuprae 
nomine oppidum est; interius Victoria oppidum autori nostro 
memoratur quo loco Falcolandia hodie sedet. Sed Damnios 
hucusc^ extendit, unde nulla oppido fraus, situm enim suum 
egregie tenet. Taoduni ad Taum nulla mentio, cum recentior 
sit, quanquam historic! nostri ejus sub nomine Allecti 
meminere. 

Supra hos in mediterraneis sedent antiqui Vacomagi, Lelan- 



358 MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 

nomium sinum qui hodie Lochfyn, attingentes. Lomandi 
autem lacus nulla apud veteres mentio. nam sinum maris solum- 
modo Ptolemfaeus] memorat. qui igitur diversorum in hac ora 
maximus. Britannodunum ad Laevini ostia neglectum autori 
nostro, non item Bedae sub Al-Cluith, vel Al-Cluich nomine, 
hodie Dunbritton. secundum ejus numeros Damniis quoc^ 
accensendum est, sicut tota Levinia provincia, historicis nostris 
Elgoniae nomine cognita. Vacomagi autem tenuere mediter- 
ranea et montium juga a sinu Lelannomio dicto ad Taum, non 
jam aestuarium sed fluvium. et, si Ptol. fides, ultra perrexere, 
et nonnullam Atholiae partem vendicavere. recenset ille 
oppidum eorum Tamiam quod ubinam sit, dubitatur. nisi 
Pertha sit, quam recentiorem ilia aetate fuisse constat. at 
340. Vacomagi mediterranea tenent infra Atholiam quidem nonnihil 
illius regionis sibi vendicantes et per Grampii montis aspera 
juga prope Deam attingentes, ubi fontes duorum insignium 
fluminum, quibus utrisc^ Eskae nomen : quae vox aquam signi- 
ficat, quanquam non secundum linguae nativam pronuntia- 
tionem efferatur. Supra Vacomagos et illi ad occasum 
aestivum statuuntur Caledonii, qui lacum unde effluit Taus 
accolunt. Maxima Atholiae pars, universa ilia regio quae 
hodie sub nomine Braid Allaban, iis accensetur, cum parte 
aliqua tractus Tai fluminis, nam oppidum eorum Duncalden 
ad ripam ejus fluminis, ut notat doctissimus Geo. Buchananus 
vestigia nominis antiqui retinet. 

Sequuntur Epidii humilis Chersonesi incolae, quae mine 
Cantyr, sonat ea vox caput terrae, eorumq^ promon tori urn 
alterum latus aestuarii Glottae concludens, male autori nostro 
cognita, sicut tota haec occidua ora, ac satis est hie novisse qui 
populi, quae loca tenuerint. At Cerones populi tenuere post 
Caledonios quaecunq^ Argatheliae nomine censentur, etiam 
plura, nam in hunc censum venit Covallia Cowell, Cnap-dalia, 
Lorna, et caetera adusc^ sinum ilium, Lochabriae ab ea parte 
limitem. nominat in hoc littore Longum fluvium, qui mihi 
transpositus videtur; nullus in illo tractu quantivis pretii 
fluvius, at in recessu aestuarii Glottae, sinus ejus nominis 
angustus et longus, ad quod nomen illud nomen potius spectare 
videtur. 

Legendo adhuc littus illud occiduum, primi occurrunt 



MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 359 

Creones quas sedes liodie tenent varii Dinastae suis terri- 
toriolis et barbaris regiuncularum nominibus distincti, quae 
vix latiali ore efferri queunt : Ardgaur, Keangher-loch, 
Moroern, Ard-na-Murchen, Swyneord, Muydeort, Arisaig, 
Murron, Knodeort, Glen-Elg, Kintail et ipsa Lochabria, 
quae vel quantitate vel qualitate praevalet omnibus. Hym 
fluvium in hoc tractu locat autor noster, qui Cerones et 
Creones dividit. Apposite ad hanc rem se offert Lochus 
ingens fluvius qui per Lochabriam fluens e lacu sui nominis 
effluens multis amnibus auctus, quorum duo e magnis item 341. 
lacubus delabuntur, in canalem vel angustum sinum desinit qui 
hodie Lochyell agnoscitur nomine. 

Sequuntur in ora Carnanacae, ubi terras irrumpit sinus 
Volsas dictus, hodie lacus Briennae nomine satis notus, atc^ 
liaec orae pars, Rossiae accensetur, quae provincia mare attingit. 
Rabeus fluvius hodie Tralliger in Oceanum exit. Terra haec 
sterilis, inculta, nomen hodie Assynt et Edir-da-Cheuls habet. 
cujus extimum promontorium, extra omnem controversiam, 
autoris nostri Orcadi promontorio respondet. 

Ab hoc promontorio, cui Tarvedro et Orcadi antiquum 
nomen, littus reflectitur in ortum, ad alterum itidem cui 
Veruvium apud autorem nostrum nomen est, hodie Duns-Bey 
head, cui objacent Orcades, freto navigantibus periculoso 
paucorum millium interjecto. Inter haec duo proxime dicta, 
paulum eminet tertium Ptolom. Virvedrum, hodie incolis Row 
Rachy et Strathy head. Interiora tenuerunt Carini, Cornavii, 
Mertae, ubi Ileas fluvius, hodie Helmdail. Regiones hae Strath 
Naverniam et Cathenesiam hodie comprehendunt, ubi antiqua 
arx Gernica, (cujus nomen nunc in castel Sinclair nmtatum) 
vestigia Cornaviorum retinuisse videtur. 

Sequitur apud Ptol. oppidum Ripae Altae, cujus nullum 
hodie indicium, imo nullum tale unquam fuisse ibi locorum 
justa suspitio, sicut nec^ Loxae fluminis in his oris, quae in 
Moravia hodie ad Elginam urbem nomen vetus tuetur, nulla 
litera immutata. Uncle videntur non suis locis aptata, quod 
vero Boethius Ripam altam, ad Cromarty transfert. ilia enim 
longe hinc ad austrum jacet, freto sui nominis adposita; Logi 
respondere videntur Sutherlandiae, quam Ileas flumen, et mons 
ingens in mare procurrens hodie Ord dictus a Cathanesia dividit. 



360 MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 

342. Proximi Cantae ea loca tenuere, quae Rossiae partem 
orientalera constituunt, adusq^ Vararis aestuarium. Vara 
fluvius hodie id ipsuni nomen retinens, in intimum sinum 
effunditur, unde verosimile est sinui nomen factum, qua? vox 
nunc latius diffusa, hodie toto illi ingenti sinui qui a Veruvio 
Promentor : ad Taezalum Prom : de quo mox, sub nomine 
Murray-firth nomen dedit. 

Proximi et nobis nunc ultimi Taezali populi, a dicti Vararis 
initio ad Deam extensi. ingens terrarum tractus, multis populis 
habitatus. illic hodie Moravia, Ainia, Boena, Buchania, 
Mama, praeter monticolas in mediterraneis habitantes. Magna 
enim illic est Grampiorum montium pars. At a Varan 
sequendo littora, occurrunt alata Castra, autoris nostri, quo 
loco Narnia urbecula est, olim majoris famae, ubere circum 
terra, quam ut plurimum mare aggestis arenis hausit. manent 
vestigia in littore celeberrimae olim illius arcis, sed nunc 
accessu maris sepulta. Proxima huic in littore Tuesis urbs et 
Tuesis aestuarium, urbecula? sane Forres situi respondet, sed 
nullum aestuarium, nullus littoris recessus, qui vel fuisse 
arguat. Unde conjicere licet vel aestuarium delendum ex 
exemplar!, quod minquam fuit, vel urbeculam hanc ad 
Cromartie in adversa ora ablegandam ubi sinus egregius, 
capacissimus, navibus tutissimus, quo tanquam ad anchoram 
sacram, adversis rebus in tota hsec ora, fuga nautarum est, 
qui scopuloso littore servat priorum saeculorum faciem. Alter 
sinus longius in terras seinfundens qui Sutherlandiam a Rossia, 
id est Logos a Cantis [sic] importuosus et navibus infidus. 
Spea deinde fluvius toto regno a Tao secundus Ptol. ignotus 
sequitur. At Celnius ejus fluvius apprime respondet Dovernae 
fluvio, qui Banfiam urbeculam veteribus ignotam alluit. Ab 
hoc flumine, ubi littus paucis milliaribus in ortum processerit, 
reflectitur in Meridiem, ad quern reflexum cernitur Taezalum 

343. promontorium, hodie nomine Btichanness notissimum, quo loco 
terra quam maxime in orientem procurrit. Proximus autori 
nostro memoratur Diva fluvius, hodie paulum inflexo nomine 
Dea ; qui Devanam oppidum in mediterraneis collocat, quam 
ego conjectura nominis ductus, rectius ad Deae ostia collocari 
debere existimo, quod hodie Aberdoniae nomine agnoscitur, a 
Dona vicino flumine. earn Geo. Buchananus in veteribus 



MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 361 

scriptis testatur se reperisse Aberdeam, (rectius forsan, quan- 
quam aliter prevalente usu) appellatam; ad utmnq^ fluvium 
oppida sunt, mille passuum ab invicem intervallo. bane ad 
Deam Gregorius Rex auxit, palatio ibi structo, et officina 
monetaria instituta, cujus monetae ego nummos argenteos vidi. 
Acta haec sunt circa annum 900, sed oppidum longe vetustius 
fuisse arguit loci celebritas praesertim uberrimo salmonum 
piscatu, e duobus vicinis fluminibus, qui ab omni aevo nun- 
quam defecit, et reliqua regni longe vincit. 

Post Deam fluvium sequitur Mernia, delude Angusia, autori 
nostro Taezalum pars ; in hac oppidum Montis rosarum vulgo 
Monros, scriptoribus nostris Celurca. illae duae provinciae illis 
itidem Horestia dicta, neq^ falso, cum Tacitus commemoret 
Agricolam post victum Galgacum, in Horestas deflexisse, quod 
videtur fecisse, ut a pugna reficeret exercitum maritimis copiis, 
nam classis qui comitabatur, videtur turn temporis Taum 
subiisse. 

Ista prascedentia paucis diebus concinnata, cum saepe a me 
peterentur, transmissa sunt primum Edinburgum, deinde ad 
Typographum in Hollandiam. sed dum ea rescribo, multo sunt 
aucta, mutata, interpolata, nec^ tamen ea cura adhibita, quam 
lucubrationes lucem visurae desiderabant. una transmissa est 
tabula veteris Scotiae etiamcj^ Ptolomaica, ad assertiones quas- 
dam illustrandas aut probandas. haec omnia sub aestatem ann. 
1649 utinamq^ libertas ilia tranquilli animi mihi daretur, 
qualem hae antiquitates desiderant, ut possem omnia sub in- 
cudem revocare, multa enim ingenue fateor festinanti excide- 344. 
runt, quae limam nondum sensere, sed haec aliis transmitto, 
cum filiorum amissorum mseror aciem animi obtuderit, ne<k in 
tanta mea astate, meliorum spes ulla supersit. 

Haec scripsi primis diebus mensis Decembris 1649. 
Quae sequuntur, longe antea in paginas conjecta 
tumultuarie et sine methodo, ut spuria rejeci. 

R. GoRDONIUS. 



TRANSLATION : MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 



The following is a translation into English of the 
Latin Description of the Map of Old Scotland. 
In the Preface there are some remarks on 
this Description. 

NOTES to the MAP of OLD SCOTLAND. 

It is certain that lands, rivers, and seas change their position either little 
or not at all, so that although there may be a variation in the names, 
which the changes or migrations of nations adapt to their own language, 
yet that immutable face of nature, and the noting of what is consistent 
therewith and what is otherwise, lead us, as it were, by the hand to the 
investigation of the differences between ancient and modern places. 
When, therefore, we are about to compare the modern situation of our 
country with that which it had in former ages, we have placed before the 
eye an accurate modern map and also Ptolemy's. For he alone in 
Roman times was more outstanding than all, and every labour would 
have been in vain unless under his guidance. I have also added the 
necessary aids that 1 could find from our historians. All this is no 
doubt very imperfect, since the greatest part of this kingdom lies outside 
of the Roman world, and our historians were more than sufficiently 
careless about these matters. To fit district to district is not a difficult 
task, but in the case of cities and towns, which of course are few, the 
investigation is more difficult. And if about some of them I shall have 
to differ from others, indulgence will be extended to the work, since I 
direct it according to the rule of truth, to which if I do not attain in all 
points, I shall be following either what is true or what is probable. 

If then we begin at our most southerly limit, which looks to the 
Vergivian Sea, this estuary, now the Solway Frith, separates us from 
the English along the coast. Here are now the small districts of 
Liddesdail, Eskdail, Eusdail, Wachopdail, and Nithsdail, deriving their 
names from the rivers by which they are watered. In Roman times 
these localities were held by the Selgova?. The river Nith squares 
sufficiently with the Novius of the ancients. The old towns enumerated 
were Oxellum, Carbantorigum, and Trimontium. There are now in that 
tract Annand, Uumfreis, and Loch Maban, none of which seems recent, 
but to fit them to ancient names is beyond my ability. 

More to the west on the same coast were the Novanta?, embracing the 
peninsula which is now known as the Mull of Galloway. The river 



TRANSLATION : MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 363 

Deva almost retains its name at the present day, and is called the Dee. 
Ptolemy's old town of Lucopibium, where the most learned Camden very 
appropriately restores Leucicidium, is now Whyttern, in Latin Candida 
Casa ; and it is certain that in the Greek copies of Ptolemy there are 
many dislocations both in numbers and in names, if one compares copies 
of him with Antonine's Itinerary ; so that we make somewhat bold, not 
without reason, to vary them. The Jena estuary is now Wigtown Bay, 
and a little further on is Rerigonius sinus, now the Bay of Glenluce. 
On the opposite side of the peninsula there is another bay, Ptolemy's 
Vidogara ffistuarium, now Lochryan. These old names of \vell-known 
bays, the most learned Geo. 1 Buchanan holds, ought to be exchanged, 
so as to correspond with the old nomenclature. To this I have no- 
objection, only that opposed to this view is the name of the town of 
llerigonium situated on that bay, where, or not far off, is now the small 
town of Glenluce, with a once famous monastery. 

Now when we have sailed past the peninsula and the cape of the 
nations of the Novantes, the Glottse sestuarium opens out, not much 
corrupted from the old name, for it is called the Frith of Clyde. Our 
countrymen give the name of frith to a strait or a large bay. The 
Novantae likewise dwelt on its eastern coast, where now is the district of 
Carrick, and its inmost reach was held by the Damnii, where now are 
Kyle, Cuninghame, and Renfrew. Even the basin of the river Clyde, 
now called Clydesdail, appears to have been part of their territory. 
Cozia, where Ruglan is now situated, and Colonia, where now is Lanrick, 
are marked. For Glasgow is recent compared with them. The Vanduara 
of the ancients corresponds pretty accurately with the position of the 
town of Ayr. Our historians state that the whole of the coast which 
still has the name of Galloway was formerly held by the Brigantes. The 
most learned D. Buchanan seems to assign to them the entire coast 
from Ituna [on the Sol way] to the peninsula. They uphold their con- 
tention by authorities, and he by reasoning, nor am 1 inclined to inter- 
pose my judgment. 

Nearest to the Damnii towards the east were the Gadeni, or rather, as 
Camden appears to be right in thinking, the Ladeni, to whom was 
ascribed the whole of Lothian, or as it is now pronounced Loudian, 
with a sound approximating more nearly to Ladeni. The city of Alaeuna 
without doubt corresponds in position with Edinburgh. This city our 
author assigns to the Damnii, who, he indicates, dwelt at the heads of 
both friths, giving them the territory of Stirling and a part of the 
Lennox. The city of Lindum squares very well with Stirling, but it is 
strange that Bede is altogether silent about Edinburgh, though he 
mentions the city of Guidi on the line of Adrian's wall, and does not 
forget the monastery of Abercorn, not far from which the famous de- 
fensive line began. 

(It was my intention to have here treated of the course of Adrian's wall, 

1 David Buchanan is probably meant. ED. 



364 TRANSLATION: MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 

and the garrison posts situated at the same, of which traces remain to 
this day, but thinking better of it, 1 have thrown those matters into the 
tract about the Defensive Lines, to whose subject they are more 
appropriate. ) 

They are followed by the Ottadeni, regarding whom we have some 
dispute with the most erudite Camden. He. judging from the name, 
takes them even to the river Tyne which passes the walls of Newcastle, 
boldly asserting that we have no river of that name, whereas we have 
two, one in Lothian, on which the ancient town of Hadiua [Haddington] 
i* situated, and which enters the sea not far from Dunbar : the river 
Alauuus in Ptolemy corresponds nicely with its position. The second is 
in the county of Fife, as we have to tell. He did not require to be so 
anxious about the Ottadeni. since the Mzeatae, not mentioned by Ptolemy, 
held the localities nearest the wall of Severus, as ancient writers testify. 
Jt was not serious enough for that man to have taken the Ottadeni away 
from us : he tries to take the river Vedra and to suit it to his own Tyne, 
though its position answers better to the Tweed. And yet this is a 
small matter, for if he clears away everything in ancient authors, shrewd 
as he is, many rivers will be dried up for him in his own England, and 
many likewise for us. For Ptolemy mentions some and omits many, so 
that it does not appertain to the Antiquary to remove either places or 
rivers from their beds. The former author embraces the estuary of the 
H umber under the name of the river Abus. How many noble riven- 
which flow into that bay will therefore go out of existence, according to 
Camden, if we stand by Ptolemy 1 But let us follow our subject. Next 
comes the Bodotria aestuarium, in Ptolemy Boderio, now the Forth, the 
head of which is formed by the river of the same name. 

After we cross the Forth, or Bodotria, we first come to Fife, the country 
of the ancient Vennicones. extending to the Frith of Tay. and formerly 
called Othliiiia by our historians. In this district is the second Tyne of 
Ptolemy, the Edin of the inhabitants, so distinctly does a trace of the 
ancient name still remain. It falls into the sea not far from St Andrew--. 
and on its banks the author places the city of Orrea. where now there 
is a town called Cupar. Further inland the town of Victoria is men- 
tioned by our author, in the locality where at the present day Falkland 
is situated. But he makes the Daniuii come thus far. by which he d> 
injury to the claims of the town, for it keeps its position with remarkable 
exactness. There is no reference to Taodunum [Dundee], since it is 
more recent, although our historians mention it under the name of 
Allectum. 

Above those peoples, in the inland parts, are settled the ancient 
Vacomagi bordering on the Lelannomius Sinus, which is now Lochfyn. 
Of Loch Lomond there is no mention in ancient writer?. For Ptolemy 
marks only the arm of the sea. It is then the largest of various bays on 
this coast. Britannodunum at the mouth of the Leven is omitted by 
our author, but not so by Bede, under the name of Alcluith or Alcluich. 



TRANSLATION-: MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 365 

now Dunbritton. According- to his numbers it must be put down to the 
Damnii, like the whole shire of the Lennox, known to our writers by 
the name of Elgonia. Now the Vacomagi held the inland parts and the 
mountain ranges from the said Lelannomian Bay to the Tay not yet 
the frith but the river and if we are to believe Ptolemy/ they extended 
farther and claimed some portion of Athol. He notices their town of 
Tamia, about which there is a doubt as to where it is, unless it be Perth. 
It is agreed that this town is more recent than that age. But the 
Vacomagi hold the inland localities below Athol, and indeed claim a 
part of that district, while they reach almost to the Dee across the 
rugged ridges of the Grampian Mountain ; where are the springs of two 
notable rivers, each with the name of the Esk, a word that means 
water, although it is not sounded according to the native pronunciation 
of the language. Above the Vacomagi, and towards the south-west, are 
set the Caledonii, who dwell by the loch from which the Tay issues. 
The greatest part of Athol and the whole of that district which now 
goes by the name of Braid Allaban is put down to them, with some 
portion of the course of the river Tay, for their town of Duncalden 
[Dunkeld], on the bank of that river, preserves traces of the ancient 
name, as the most learned George Buchanan remarks. 

Then follow the Epidii, the inhabitants of the low peninsula that is 
now Cantyr (that word means the head of the land), and their Cape, 
bounding one side of the Frith of Clyde. Like the whole of this 
west coast, it was ill known to our author, and it is sufficient here to 
know what the tribes were and what localities they held. The tribes of 
the Cerones, next to the Caledonii, occupied all the parts that are 
enumerated under the name of Argyle, and even more, for into this 
number come Cowal, Knapdale, Lome, and the rest as far as that 
bay [Frith of Lome], which is the limit of Lochaber in that direction. 
On this coast he names the river Long, which appears to me out of 
place. There is no river of the smallest size in that tract, but in a far- 
withdrawing portion of the Firth of Clyde there is a long and narrow 
inlet to whose name that designation seems to point. 

In still skirting that west coast we first meet the Creones, whose 
settlements are at the present day held by various chiefs distinguished 
by their small strips of territory and the barbarous names of their little 
districts, which can hardly be pronounced by Latin lips : Ardgaur, 
Keaiiirherloch, Moroern [Morvern], Ardnamurchen, Swyneord [Sunart], 
Muydeort, Arisaig, Murron [Morar], Knodeort, Glenelg, Kintail, and 
Lochaber itself, which both in extent and in productiveness surpasses 
them all. In this tract our author places the river Hym, which 
separates the Cerones from the Creones. Suitably to this the large 
river Lochy presents itself. Issuing from a loch of its own name, and 
flowing through Lochaber, it is augmented by many tributaries, two of 
which rise in large lochs, and it ends in the channel or narrow inlet 
that is now known as Lochyell [Lochiel]. 



366 TRANSLATION : MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 

Next on the coast come the Carnanaca?, where the arm of the sea 
called Volsas, now well known by the name of Loch Brienn [Loch 
Broom, Gaelic Loch Braoin] breaks into the land ; and this part of 
the coast is reckoned in Ross, a shire that touches the sea. The river 
Rabeus, now the Tralliger [Traligill], falls into the ocean. This barren, 
uncultivated country is now called Assynt and Edir-da-Cheuls. Its 
outermost cape, beyond all doubt corresponds to the Orcas promon- 
torium of our author. 

From this cape, which was anciently called Tarvedrum and Orcas, the 
coast bends eastward to another likewise, whose name in our author is 
Veruvium, now Dunsbey Head. Opposite to this are the Orkneys, 
with a strait intervening a few miles wide, and dangerous to sailors. 
Between these two last-mentioned capes a third, Ptolemy's Virvedrum, 
is conspicuous. It is now called Row Rachy or Strathy Head by the 
inhabitants. The Carini, the Cornavii, and the Mertse, where the river 
Ileas, now the Helmdail, flows, occupy the inland parts. These districts 
comprise at the present day Strathnaver and Caithness, where the ancient 
Arx Gernica (whose name is now changed to Castle Sinclair) seems to 
preserved traces of the Cornavii. 

Next, according to Ptolemy, comes the town of Ripa Alta, of which 
there is now no sign, nay, there is a well-founded suspicion that there 
never was any town in that locality, and also that on these coasts there 
was no river Loxa, which preserves its old name in modern times at the 
city of Elgin in Moray, without the change of a single letter ; so that 
they seem not to be fitted to their positions, even though Boece transfers 
Ripa Alta to Cromarty. For that town lies far to the south of this, 
being situated on the frith of its own name. The Logi seem to corre- 
spond to Sutherland, which the river Ileas and the lofty mountain 
that runs out into the sea, and is now called the Ord, separates from 
Caithness. 

Next, the Cantae held those localities which form the eastern part of 
Ross as far as the Yarar estuary. The river Vara [Farrar], preserving 
that very name at the present time, flows into the innermost part of the 
bay, whence it is probable that the name of the opening arose. This 
word, coming to be used in a wider signification, gave its name to the 
whole of that great bay which extends in width from Duncansby Head 
to Buchanness, and about which we shall presently speak under the 
name of the Moray Frith. 

The next, and for us at present, the last nations are the Twzali, 
stretching from the commencement of the said Varar to the Dee, over a 
vast tract of land inhabited by many tribes. There the modern Moray, 
Enzie, Boyne, Buchan, and Mar are situated, besides the mountaineers 
dwelling in the inland parts. For a great portion of the Grampian 
Mountains is there. But in following the shores from the Moray Frith, 
we come to the Winged Camp of our author, in the locality of the 
small town of Nairn, formerly of great repute for the fertile land 



TRANSLATION: MAP OF OLD SCOTLAND 367 

surrounding 1 it, which for the most part the sea has destroyed with 
accumulations of sand. On the shore traces remain of its celebrated 
castle of old, but it is now buried by the inroads of the sea. Next to 
this on the coast the town of Tuesis, with the estuary of Tuesis, answers 
well to the site of the small town of Forres, but there is no estuary, and 
no indentation of the coast to show that there even was one ; so that we 
may conjecture that either the estuary must be deleted from the copy, 
because it never existed, or that the small town must be relegated to 
Cromarty, where there is a fine inlet, very capacious and safe for ships, 
to which, as to a sacred anchorage, in stress of weather the sailors from 
all parts of the coast run for shelter, and which with its rock-bound 
shore preserves the appearance of former ages. Another inlet stretch- 
ing farther into the land, and [separating] Sutherland from Ross, 
that is, the Logi from the Cantae, is harbourless and treacherous for 
shipping. Then follows the river Spey, second to the Tay in the whole 
kingdom, though unknown to Ptolemy. But his i-iver Celnius corre- 
sponds exactly to the river Deveron, which washes the small town of 
Banff, unknown to the ancients. When the shore has stretched a few 
miles eastward from this river, it bends to the south, and at the bend is 
seen the Tsezalum promontorium, the very well-known Buchanness, at 
which point the land runs farthest to the east. Our author next 
mentions the river Diva, now the Dee with its name slightly changed. 
Inland he places the town of Devana, which I am led by a conjecture 
from the name to think should be more properly placed at the mouth of 
the Dee, because that is now known by the name of Aberdeen, derived 
from the neighbouring river Don. George Buchanan testifies that in 
ancient writings he found it called Aberdea (perhaps more correctly, 
though the prevailing usage is otherwise). There are towns on either 
river, distant a mile from each other. The one on the Dee was enlarged 
by King Gregory, a palace being built there, and a mint founded, of 
whose coinage I have seen silver pieces. These events happened about 
the year 900 ; but the town is proved to have been much older by the 
celebrity of the place, especially owing to its highly productive salmon 
fishery on the two neighbouring rivers, which has never failed in all 
time, and far surpasses those in the remaining parts of the kingdom. 

Mearns comes next after the river Dee, and then Angus, forming, 
according to our author, a part of the Tsezali. In it is the town of Mons 
Rosarum, in common speech Monros [Montrose], and in our writers 
Celurca. Those two shires are also called Horestia, not wrongly, since 
Tacitus mentions that Agricola after defeating Galgacus turned aside 
into the Horestse, which he seems to have done to reinforce his army 
with maritime troops, for the fleet that accompanied him appears to have 
at that time entered the Tay. 

Those foregoing remarks, put together in a few days, as they were often 
asked from me, were sent first to Edinburgh, and then to the printer in 



368 ADRIAN'S WALL 

Holland, but while I was rewriting them they were much enlarged, 
altered, and improved, yet without such care being taken as lucubra- 
tions meant to see the light required. Together with them was sent a 
map of old Scotland, with Ptolemy's as well, to illustrate or prove certain 
statements. All this was done in the beginning of the summer of 1649 ; 
and I wish that the freedom of a peaceful mind, as these antiquities 
demand, were given me in order that I might again put them all on the 
anvil, for I candidly confess that in my haste much has fallen from me 
without yet having received the finishing touches ; but these matters I 
hand over to others, since sorrow for the loss of my sons has blunted 
my mental acuteness, and at my great age there is no hope of better 
things. 

I wrote this in the first days of the month of December 1649. What 
follows, long ago thrown into pages confusedly and unmethodi- 
cally, I have rejected as spurious. II. GORDON. 



DE VESTIGIIS VALLI AGRICOL^ et 
postea A BRIAN I hsec adnotavit TIM. 
PONT. 

Tangit et initium sumit a Bodotriae aestuario, baud procul 
Abircorna nunc semidiruta arce, tempore vero Bedae, coenobio, 
qua Abrecorna respicit trajectum qui a regina nomen habet. 
inde tendens in occasum juxta arcem Kinneil, pergit ad locum 
Inner-ewin dictum, nee longe hide abest locus praesidii, dum 
vallum staret egregie munitus, quo se recipiebant praesidiarii 
milites, sicut multa alia praesidiariorum loca ad lineam valli 
suis ruderibus se hodie monstrant. primum hoc abest a Vario 
Sacello hodie Falkirk ad milliare unum ad ortum, ad Lang- 
toun. proximum ad Rowintree-burnhead, ad Wester Cowdon 
supra Helins Chapell, ad Croyhil, ad Barhill, ad Achindevy, 
ad Kirkintillo, ad East Gaidar, ad Hiltoun of Calder, ad 
Balmuydie, ad Simmertoun in trajectu Kelvini fluvii, ad 
Carestoun, ad Achter-minnie, ad Rochhill juxta Westwood, 
ad Bankyr juxta Castel Carey, ad Dunbass. 



DEFENSIVE LINES OF THE ROMANS 369 

The following is a translation of Font's Notes 
on Adrian's Wall. 

The Preface contains Notes on this item 
of the Collection. 

The following NOTES were made by TIMOTHY PONT 
about the traces of AGRICOLA'S and afterwards 
ADRIAN'S WALL. 

It touches and begins at the Frith of Forth, not far from the now half- 
ruined castle, but in the time of Bede the monastery, of Abircorn, where 
Abrecoru looks back on the Passage that is named after the queen. 
Then stretching to the west near the Castle of Kinrieil it runs to the 
place called Innerewin [Inveravon], and not far from thence is a post 
for a garrison, strongly fortified when the wall was standing, to which 
the soldiers engaged in the defence used to betake themselves ; as many 
other garrison posts on the line of the wall are at the present day 
marked by their ruins. The first of these is one mile east of the Speckled 
Chapel, now Falkirk, at Langtoun. The next is at Rowintree-burnhead 
and [others are] at Wester Cowdon above Helins Chapell, at Croyhil, at 
Barhill, at Achindevy, at Kirkintillo, at East Caldar, at Hiltoun of 
Calder, at Balmuydie, at Simmertoun beside the crossing of the river 
Kelvin, at Carestoun, at Achterminnie, at Rochhill near Westwood, at 
Bankyr near Castel Carey, and at Dunbass. 



ADNOTATA DE PR^ETENTURIS ET 

MURIS qui PROVINCIAM ROMANAM a 
reliqua BRITANIA separabant. 

Primus Julius Agricola, a Glotta ad Bodotriam tract urn 
praesidiis firmavit, summotis velut in aliam insulam hostibus. 

Sub Trajano defecisse videntur Britanni, et subactos fuisse 
innuit Spartianus. 

Imperante Adriano ipse Imperator ad pacandas res venit, 
anno Dom. 124, hoc est tertio suo consulatu. ex Spartiano 
primus per insulam multa correxit, murum^ per 60 pass, primus 
inter Barbaros Romanosc^ duxit, stipitibus magnis in modum 
muralis sepis, funditus jactis atc^ connexis. 

VOL. n. 2 A 



370 DEFENSIVE LINES OF THE ROMANS 

Sub Antonino Pio bellum denuo exarsit, quod per Lullium 
Urbicum Legatum compositum, alioc^ muro cespititio barbaros 
summovit. Capitolinus. Pausanias in Arcad. 

Sub Antonino Philosopho novi motus ad quos sedandos 
Calpurnius Agricola missus. 

Sub Commodo omnia turbata, et barbari murum transgressi 
multa vastarunt ; contra eos missus est Ulpius Marcellus qui 
fortiter boc praestitit. Xiphilin e Dione. 

Severe Imperatore, Heraclianus ab eo missus prim urn 

agit, deinde Vivius Lupus Pr. Pr. qui plura castra restauravit 
sed a Maeatis coactus est pacem pecunia redimere, cum Cale- 
donii promissis non starent, qui Maeatas cohibere polliciti 
erant, unde ipse Imperator accersitus, cum filiis ac ingenti 
exercitu trajecit, ubi ut Dio habet, 50.000 militum ex insidiis 
ac laboribus castrensibus, silvis casdendis, pontibus faciendis, 
paludibus siccandis \sic\ Herodianus refert eum velitationibus 
quibusdam victorem eos ad conditiones redegisse, ita ut non 
parva regionis parte cederent bostes ; at illi iterum rebellarunt, 
unde missis ducibus, jam afFectus senio, ipse Eboraci residens 
eos compescuit, ubi etiam tandem expiravit, nondum sopito 
bello. 

346. Quomodo hoc fuerit non capio, eum magnum agrum de hoste 
cepisset tamen munimenta retraxisse. 

Antoninus Caracalla, bellum per duces aliquantisper adminis- 
travit, sed statim pacem fecit, cupidine redeundi Romam, agris 
ac castellis hosti cessit. 

Imperantibus Diocletiano et Maximiano, Carausius, ut notum 
est, hie purpuram sumpsit, et aliquot annos tenuit, qui ut refert 
Nennius Britannus, contra Barbaros murum inter Cludae at 
Carunae ostia reaedificavit, et septem castellis munivit, domum^ 
rotundam politis lapidibus super ripam fluminis Carun, qui a 
suo nomine, nomen accepit, fornicem triumphalem in victoriae 
memoriam erigens construxit. 

Vixit Nennius sub. Heraclio Imp. anno 620 Bangorensis 
Co?nobii antistes. 

Valentiniano patre imperante, Picti in duas gentes divisi, 
(Ammianum audis) Dicaledones et Vecturiones ; itidemq^ Atta- 
cotti, bellicosa hominum natio, et Scoti per di versa vagantes 
multa populabantur, (et post multa addit quod ad rem prae- 



DEFENSIVE LINES OF THE ROMANS 371 

sentem facit). Instaurabat urbes ac praesidiaria ut diximus 
castra. limites^ vigiliis tuebatur et prastenturis, recuperatamq^ 
provinciam, quae in ditionem concesserat hostium, ita reddide- 
rat statui pristine, ut, eodem referente, et rectorem haberet 
legittimum et Valentia deinde vocaretur arbitrio principis. 

Sub Gratiano, Maximus qui Gratiano caeso imperium arri- 
puit incursantes Pictos et Scotos strenue superavit. 

Sub Honorio, testatur Claudianus, Stiliconem munivisse limi- 
tem et ab incursu Scotorum et Pictorum tutum reddidisse,postea 
rebus imperil turbatis, Roma ab Alaricho capta legionibus per 
Constantinum [sic] qui Arelate aliquantisper rebellis Honorio 
regnavit. Britanni sibi ipsis relicti, cum hostibus pares non 347. 
essent subsidium ab Honorio petunt et impetrant, legione in 
subsidium missa, quae hostibus profligatis, eos provincia exegit, 
niurumck cespititium inter fretum Edenburgense (ubi antea 
Julius Agricola castella posuerat, et Adrianus Imperator, et 
Carausius murum statuerant) et Glottam ducendum curavit, 
qui murus nulli fere usui. 

nam abeunte legione, hostes reversi, muro multis locis diruto, 
omnia crudeliter vastant. 

Iterum mittuntur legati, querulis fletibus auxilium poscentes. 
jam Valentinianus iis imperabat, Honorii sorore genitus, et 
Honorius diem obierat extremum. Valentinianus auxilia mittit 
duce Gallione Ravennate qui depulsis hostibus, murum ilium 
inter duo freta iterurn reparavit, unde Romani, Britaniam non 
amplius visuri, in continentem trajecerunt. 

EXSCRIPTA E CAMBDENO DE MURO VEL PR.ETENTURA. 

Primam praetenturam posuisse videtur Julius Agricola cum 
angustum terrarum terminum inter Bodotriam et Glottam 
praesidiis firmavit, quod postea subinde communitum. 

Hadrian us in hac insula 80 plus minus milliaribus recessit. 
ille, inquit Spartianus, murum per 80 mill, passuum duxit, 
quern ex stipitibus in modum militaris sepis funditus jactis et 
connexis fuisse ex ejus sequenti narratione liquet. 

Subjungit Cambdenus : hie es