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I 




THE SCOTS IN EASTERN AND 
WESTERN PRUSSIA. 



4 



I 



THE SCOTS IN EASTERN 

AND 

WESTERN PRUSSIA 

A SEQUEL TO 

"THE SCOTS IN GERMANY 

A COHTRlBUnON TOWARDS THE HISTORY 
OF THE SCOT ABROAD" 



tTH. A-: FISCHER C^J^-*J' - -A-^ 



WITH (EVEH POKTKAm AKD A MAP 



OTTO SCHULZE & CO. 

JO SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH 

1903 



t 

V) 



^ 



0- 



Vedfcatefr 



TO THB 



SENATUS ACADEMICUS 



OF 



ABERDEEN 



r 32657 



^' 



PREFACE. 

To a conscientious author the writing of a Preface never 
win be an agreeable task. Now that the work is finished, 
and no change of style or any additional subject matter 
can be introduced, all the shortcomings of his book arise 
before him enlarged and made painfully visible to the 
critical reader as if through Rontgen rays. 

Whilst this is an experience common to all authors in 
a world where everything goes by approximation only, my 
present case is worse. I have not only to acknowledge 
the general human frailty, but to begin with special 
apologies. First, concerning the title. I am aware that 
the title of this volume is too narrow, but it could not 
very weU be made longer, knowing that long titles, once 
essential to a book, are now a fatal dowry on its way. I 
have therefore availed myself of the very modem and 
highly diplomatic method of making excursions into the 
*^ Hinterland,^^ that is, to Poland proper, to Pomerania and 
Mecklenburg. A second apology is due to the reader on 
account of the portraits, which, with one or two excep- 
tions, ought to have had their places in the Scots in 
Germany. The difficulty of procuring them, and the fact 
that both my volumes are really one, may serve as an excuse. 

A much more grateful task rem<dns : that of placing on 
record the very kind help received in Germany and else- 
where during the time of collecting materials for this 
volume. My best thanks are due to the Rev. J. Milne^ 
M,A, minister of Newlands Parish, Peeblesshire, who 
not only granted me the free use of his excellent polyglot 
library, but also looked over my proofs; to Archivrath 
Dr Joachim and staff at the Royal Archives, Konigsberg, 
in Prussia ; to Archivrath Dr Bar and staff at the Royal 

Vll 



viii PREFACE. 

Archives, Danzig; to the Director of the Episcopal 
Archives at Frauenburg ; to Archivrath Dr Warschauer 
at Posen ; to Geheimrath John Gibsone^ and the elders of 
the Presbyterian Church at Danzig ; to the Rev. Ladislas 
Sama^ Szebnie near Moderowka in Galicia; — for the 
kind assistance given me in my researches ; to the Director 
of the HohenzoUem Museum at Berlin^ to the Provost and 
Bailies of Stonehaven^ to the Historical Society at Wiirzburg, 
to the Lord Abbot of Fort Augustus^ to the Directors of 
the Picture Gallery at Danzigy and of the Royal Bavarian 
Observatory at Bogenhatisen near Munich ; — for their kind 
permission to reproduce paintings or sketches in their 
possession. 

The original of Field-marshal Keith, painted by Ramsay, 
adorns the walls of Town-hall at Stonehaven ; the small 
sketch of his aged brother, the last Earl Marischal, is 
taken from the original in possession of Prince Eulenburg 
at Berlin. Abbot Arbuthnot's portrait is in the library of 
the Abbey at Fort Augustus, Abbot Asloan's in Wiirz- 
burg. The portraits of the two Danzig celebrities are 
gratefully preserved in the museum of their adopted home, 
whilst the Observatory at Bogenhausen harbours the 
original likeness of its famous astronomer Lamont. 

I have also to thank Herm Eugen Jantzen at Stettin, who 
has made most diligent researches into the genealogy of 
the families of foreign settlers at Danzig, for the per- 
mission of using his sketches of Scottish coats-of-arms. 

The map, I hope, will be useful not only as proving the 
decreasing density of Scottish emigration as it advanced 
towards the West, but also as a companion and guide for 
those Scottish travellers who may wish to visit these far-off 
scenes of the labours and sufferings of their countrymen. 

THE AUTHOR. 

Edinburgh, .^^^11, 1903. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. ^j^j^ 

Thb Scottish T&idbr • • . . • i 

PART IL 

MlUTA&T, ECCLBSUBTICAL AND OTHER MaTTBRS 121 

PART III. 

Documents • • i$5 



SvFPLBMtNT • .334 

Ini»x •••.... 339 



IX 



INTRODUCTORY. 

NOTABLE PERIODS IN THE HISTORY OF DANZIG 

AND K0NI6SBER6. 

Danzig, now the Capital of the Province of Western 
Prussia, was, in the years 

1 200- 1 310 capital of Pomerellen. 
During 13 10-1454 it was ruled by the Teutonic Order ot 

Knights ; 
Since 1360 it joined the Hanseatic League. 
From 1 454- 1 793 it belonged to Poland, though retaining 

many privileges. 
In 1793 it was ceded to Prussia. 

1 807- 1 8 1 4 French Government. 
1 8 1 4 Finally ceded to Prussia. 

Danzig's internal afiairs were ruled over by the so-called 
three Orders besides the "Burggraf " as representative of 
the King of Poland; four burgomasters and councillors; 
bailies elected by the council from the citizens ; and the 
so-called ^^ Hundertmannen " » hundred men, representing 
the trades. 

Kbnigsbergy now the capital of Eastern Prussia, 
consists of the three old towns of Altstadt, Kneiphof and 
Lobenicht. It owes its existence to the Teutonic Order. 
This famous and valiant body of knights erected a castle 
on the river Pregel in 1255, which was called in honour 
perhaps of Ottokar II., King of Bohemia, who had 
supported the cause of the knights in one of their 

xi 



xii INTRODUCTORY. 

crusades, Konigsburg or -berg. Soon after the Altstadt 
arose round the castle (1256). The so-called Lobenicht, 
or New Town, was founded as a separate township about 
1 300, and the town of Kneiphof on an island of the river 
Pregel about the same time. Hence the denomination of 
the " three towned " Konigsberg. After the fell of the 
Marienburg, the old residence of the Hochmeister of the 
Teutonic Knights during a disastrous war with Poland 
in 1457, KSnigsberg became the seat of the Grand Master 
of the Order. The last of them was Markgraf Albrecht 
of Brandenburg, a scion of the House of Hohenzollem, 
who resided here as Duke of Prussia. He converted the 
possessions of the Order into a hereditary secular Pro- 
testant Duchy. After the demise of the ducal line, the 
Duchy passed to the Kurbrandenburg line of HohenzoUem, 
and the femous* " Great Elector " received homage at the 
Castle of Konigsberg as Sovereign Duke of Prussia in 
1663. Here also Frederick III., Elector of Brandenburg, 
crowned himself with the royal crown, and raised 
Brandenburg-Prussia to a kingdom (1701). During the 
Napoleonic tyranny. King Frederick William III. and his 
Queen Luise resided in Konigsberg in 1807-8. Konigsberg 
has a university. It is the native place of the great 
philosopher Kant, whose grandfather was of humble 
Scotch origin.^ 

^ See Scots in Germany^ pp. 231 ff., 317. 



PART I. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 



THE SCOTS IN EASTERN AND WESTERN 

PRUSSIA. 

The fact of a large emigration of Scotsmen to Prussia 
and Poland during the XVIth and XVIIth centuries has 
hitherto either escaped the notice of the Scottish historian 
altogether, or been deemed by him too unimportant an 
item to be registered in his pages. He has not forgotten 
the fame of the Scottish warriors in the armies of France 
or Sweden, whose heroic deeds commanded the admiration 
of the world ; but where the Scot lived out a quiet life of 
suffering, hardships, countless struggles bravely met, and 
£nal successes tenaciously secured, his claim to be remem- 
bered by the future historian has been brushed aside ; his 
tombstone and his name have been forgotten. 

This neglect would have been, and would be, excusable 
if the Scot abroad, rapidly and entirely losing his in- 
dividuality, had at once become amalgamated with the 
new hosts among whom he lived. But so little has this 
been the case, that a learned German writer of to^ay 
says: ^^A very characteristic element of the population 
of German towns in Eastern and Western Prussia is 
formed by the descendants of former Scotsmen. They 
being exposed to many dangers and persecutions as pedlars, 
gradually settled in the towns and married daughters of 
the citizens. The increase in strength and industrial 
capacity which this Scottish admixture instilled into the 
German was of the very highest importance, and it can 



4 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

scarcely be doubted that the peculiar compound of stubborn- 
ness and shrewdness which characterises the inhabitants of 
the small towns of Eastern Prussia has its root in the 
natural disposition of the Scot/' ^ 

The proof of this assertion can be found in innumerable 
instances, which, though not written largely in the annals 
of political history, nor proclaimed loudly by the blare of 
military trumpets, are still interestmg and dear to those 
students of history that see in it more than an illimitable 
ghastly stretch of battlefields or the hopelessly tangled 
web of poUtical intrigue. 

It is this ^^ vie intime '* of the Scot in Germany that is 
to form the main substance of the present volume. The 
facts of the Scottish settlements have been stated ; it now 
remains to fill up the sketch and to present to the reader 
as complete a picture as possible of how the Scot lived in 
those remote regions that they had chosen as the scene 
of their enterprise. 

Before entering upon our task let us clear up two mis- 
conceptions that might arise out of our former statements. 
We have almost exclusively spoken of the Scottish 
immigration of the XVIth and XVIIth Centuries. We 
are now compelled to admit the existence of the Scottish 
pedlar, in German called ^^ Schotte," in the XlVth Century, 
though not without hesitation. The word ^^Schotte** 
unmistakably occurs in this sense in the KramerroUe of 
Anclam, i.e. the constitution of the guild of grocers or 
small merchants in the Pomeranian town of Andam, dating 
as far back as 1330.' 

^ Dr F. Schmidt, Getchichte des Deutsch Kroner Kreiset, History oj 
the ^strict of Deutsch Krone (Western Prussia ), p. I45. 

^ The original document has since been lost ; it was first printed by 
Stavenhagen in 1773* The passage itself runs: *<Tho deme so scholen 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 5 

Now as it is difficult from Scotch sources to prove an 
emigration of Scotsmen to Germany at that early date 
sufficiently large to warrant the expression ^^Sthotte*' 
for the swarms of vagrant pedlars all over Germany, one 
is almost tempted to inquire whether this name at the 
period we speak of might not have a derivation altogether 
independent of nationality. But no other derivation has 
been put forward, and all our lexicographers headed by 
the successors of Grimm in the recent volume of the great 
German Dictionary adhere to the old meaning. There 
are, moreover, other laws and constitutions nearly as old 
as that of Andam, which leave no doubt as to the meaning 
of " Schotte.** 

Among the oldest rules of the cloth merchants at 
Stralsund, and dating back to about 1 370, we find this : 
^^ Vortmer so schal nen Schotte edder Engelsman varen in 
de lant, he sy we he sy '' ; ^ and a little later, about the 
year 141 2: ^^Nyn borger de nicht hefft de werdicheit 
der cumpanien des wantsnedes, Schotten edder Engelsman 
schal nidit varen yn de landen edder hyr bynnen der stadt 
sniden he sy we he sy ane he hebbe de werdicheit der 
kumpanien des wantsnedes," i.e. No citizen who has not 
obtained the dignity of a guild - brother of the cloth 
merchant's guild, no Scot or Englishman shall travel about 
the country or cut (cloth) within this town, let him be 
who he may be, without his being a member of the guild* 
Both these passages prove by the addition of ^^ edder 
Engelsman'' that ^^ Schotte'' cannot be taken in any 

hir ketne Schotten edder andere tafelichskremer • . • lynewandt edder 
andere knunware van htue to huae dragen " ; ue. Moreover no Scots or 
other dealers in linen ware shall in this place carry linen or other retail 
goods from house to house. Cp. Focky RSgen Ptmunerscbe GuclnchUf 
m» 950. 

^ Cp. ScoU m Germany. ' Pock» Lc. ir. SI4, si6. 



6 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA- 

other sense than that of Scotsman, a native of Scotland* 
We must therefore assume a much earlier date for the 
itinerant Scot in Germany, unless we suppose that the 
word Schotte, Scotus, in those earlier centuries referred 
to the Irish. There seems to be some show of reason 
in this, as the expression ^^ Schotte ^ for a vagrant pedlar 
is also common in Bavaria and the south of Germany, 
where the Irish had established the so-called ^^ Schotten- 
kl6ster."i We are told as early as the Vlllth Century 
that vagrant priests, called Scotti, passed themselves off 
as bishops. Be this as it may, of wide-spread Scotch 
settlements properly so-called we hear nothing till eight 
or nine centuries later. 

A second misconception may arise from passages* 
where it was stated that the situation of the Scot in 
Germany was tolerable, that his lot was not worse than 
that of the pedlar at home, that he suffered no religious 
persecution and obtained many privileges. These state- 
ments are rather too favourable. The obstacles put in 
the way of the Scot, particularly of the travelling trades- 
man, were innumerable. Only when he had succeeded 
in obtaining the rights of citizenship in the smaller or 
larger towns of Prussia did his difficulties diminish ; and 
to obtain these rights was for many a hopeless task. 
Religious persecutions in the old cruel sense, it is true, 
did not obtain, but nevertheless, the Calvinistic Scot was 
not looked upon with favour by his proud Lutheran 
brother of Germany ; in his eye he was an Arian, worse 
than an unbeliever and an anabaptist. This was a weapon 

1 See Schmeller, Bmruches WorterbucL The Police Regulations of 
Nuraberg prohibit the harbouiiDg or hoonng of any ragrant Scotsman or 
Scotswoman in the town or within a mile around it without permissioa 
of the magistrates (XVth Century). > The ScoU m Germany^ p. 50. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 7 

that was used with yirulence and success by the hostile 
trades. Only the unwearied and indomitable energy of 
the Scot, combined with physical endurance as great as 
his skill and his shrewdness as merchant and banker, 
made him succeed in many cases and obtain the highest 
honours in the country of his adoption. 

SCOTLAND AND PRUSSIA IN THB XVTH CENTURY. 

Whilst we hear but little of Scottish settlements in 
Germany at this time, notices are not wanting of the 
brisk commercial intercourse between Scotland and Danzig 
and between Scotland and the Teutonic Order, which 
from a religious Society of Knights for the defence 
and the spreading of Christianity had rapidly grown 
not only into a territorial Power, but also into a huge 
conunercial trading society. Thus King Henry IV. of 
England requests the Hochmeister yon Jungingen to 
grant the Scottish shipmasters who were then sailing to 
Prussia in order to bring home cargoes of food-stuffs, 
neither favour nor protection (Dec. 7, 1401). Kdnigs- 
berg writes to the Gubemator of Scotland, Rupert, ^^ duci 
Albaniae et comiti de Fifl^" with the request to order the 
restoration of goods confiscated from some Konigsberg 
merchants (July 23, 141 8) ; whilst the magistrates 
of Edinburgh petition the Hochmeister to make the 
city of Danzig raise the arrest put upon the goods of 
various Scottish merchants in Danske, notably of James 
Lawdre, Jacob King and Robert Young, ^^for Scotland 
had been altogether innocent of the alleged spoliation of 
Danzig merchants.**^ In a similar case King James I. 

^ The undated letter is to be feund in the Koniglichen Staati Archir 
at Kfioigaberg. On account of Jac. Lawdre Queen Mary also writes to 
the Hochmeister in 1448. 



8 THE score IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

writes two letters to the Hochmeister blaming a Prussian 
merchant called Claus 7am or Czam for the arrestment 
of Scottish goods (loth of March and a6th of March 
142?). 

The dreaded Earl of March appears again in the 
records of Danzig ^ting about the liberation of a 
Danzig citizen called Johann Lange, and charging a Scot, 
Ricardus de Camera, with the conclusion of a conmiercial 
treaty.^ 

Under the date of April 13th, 1438, there exists the 
rough draught of a letter of the Hochmeister to the 
King of Scotland and the Guild of Merchants in 
Edinburgh, praying them to hand over the goods which 
the merchant Heinrich Holthusen left behind him at his 
death in Leith, to the Danzig merchant Johann Fisch- 
meister.* 

Mayor and Bailies of << St Johann *' in Scoda (Perth) 
announce in a letter that by a decision of the law-courts 
the claim of the Danzig skipper, Hanneke How, must be 
disallowed (Jan. 20, 1439). Somewhat later King James 
recommends the Edinburgh merchant, John Foulis, who 
with some business friends is travelling to Danzig, to the 
notice of the magistrates there (March 28, 1475) ; 
<< quatenus auxilio Dei et yestro salve redeant** A letter 
of recommendation is also given by the magistrates of 
Edinburgh to Jacob Crag, who is going to Danzig on law 
business (1480). Similarly, Queen Margaret and King 
James intercede on behalf of the Scottish merchants, 
Thomas Halkerston, Thomas Lewis, and Robert Paisley 
(April 8, 1482). In every way the interest of the 

^ Letter written ** apod castrum noetmm de Dunbar,'' 26th of Aug., 
M.ix, in the AgL StaaU jircUvf Danzig. 
^ KgL Si* jfrcUvf Konigsberg* 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 9 

Scottish trader seems to haye been well taken care of. 
Instances of this are found in two other letters addressed 
to Danzig. In one of them Edinburgh declares that 
Stephen Lawson, a citizen of Haddington, had honestly 
paid for all goods which he had brought from Danzig to 
Leith about four years ago (June 5, 1483). Interesting 
is a letter from the magistrates of Aberdeen to Danzig in 
which they express themselves grieved at the fact that 
ships from that city for some time past sail to more 
remote ports of Scotland instead of to Aberdeen; and 
they declare themselves willing to indemnify the cloth 
merchant of Danzig who had suflFered loss at Aberdeen 
on account of spurious money being given to him in pay- 
ment, if he would personally appear before them. They 
pray that the old commercial intercourse should be re* 
stored.^ About the same time Aberdeen further proves her 
goodwill by explaining to the Danzig magistrates that all 
assistance would be given to the Danzig citizens, Vasolt 
and Conrad (or Connert), on their arrival in Scotland, to 
obtain payment for goods sold ; and in a later letter she 
explains to Danzig the measures taken for this purpose, 
adding the testimony of merchants from Stralsund, Greip- 
wald and Stettin.* 

The brothers John and Francis Tulane are appointed to 
take care of the commissioner sent by Conrad to Aberdeen. 

Besides Aberdeen and Leith, Dundee is again men- 
tioned in 1492 as trading with Danzig, and the name of 
Thomas Spalding occurs in this connection. 

How important the trade between the Baltic ports and 
Scotland was, is also seen from a notice in Weinreich*s 

1 Letter dated Aberdeen, May ist, 148*7, KL StaaU Arcbiv.^ Danzig. 
> Letters dated Aug. 6, 1487, and July 18th, 1489, KgL Stoats 
jircUvf Danzig. 



lo THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Prussian Chromcle^ inhere it is stated that between the 
years 1474 and 1476 twenty-four Scottish ships entered 
the harbour of Danzig.^ 

Thus the names of the great Baltic ports were well 
known to the trading communities of Scotland, and the 
way was prepared for the Scottish emigrant. 

What attracted them to Danzig besides the shipping 
facilities was a tradition that there they would be the 
recipients of numerous privileges granted — perhaps in 
grateful recollection of military assistance— ^by the Hoch- 
meister to the English and Scots. Frequently they refer 
to these privileges in their petitions — chiefly to a free 
retail trade throughout the country — but, as their adver- 
saries tauntingly said, they ^^ could never produce them.'' 
They remained merely traditional, though the names of 
the Hochmeisters, Paul von Russdorf — about 1426 — is 
mentioned in connection with the matter. At any rate, 
if they ever possessed these privileges, every trace of 
them was lost in the XVIth Century, as indeed it was 
much more in the spirit of the times to disfranchise people 
than to grant them trading liberties. 

However this may be, the Scots are present in Danzig, 
though not in great numbers, early in the XVth Century.' 

They are not unfrequently met with in the minutes of 
the courts of justice (SchSppenbiicher) there. Walter, a 
Scot and a dyer by trade, owns to certain debts in 1 447 ; 
in 1453, ^^ ^^^ ^3^ ^^ march, the Magistrates compose 
a quarrel between a citizen and a Scottish merchant; 
another Scot, called Thomas, sues a citizen for the debt 
of twenty-six marks in 1 469. More serious is the follow- 
ing entry: ^^A settlement has been arranged between 

^ Dr Theod. Hirachy WanracVs Ctnmsi.f p. xi. 
' English cloth is mentioned in Danzig in 1388. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 1 1 

Claus Wogerson, on the one part, and Peter Black, a 
Scot, on the other, on account of manslaughter committed 
by the aforesaid Peter Black against Reemer Wugerson, 
brother of the aforesaid Claus/' Peter consents to pay 
certain sums of money, and to undertake a ^^ Suhn-reise," 
i.e. a journey of e2q>iation ^^ to the holy Blood at Aken 
(Aix la Ch^pelle), to Einsiedelen, a famous place of 
pilgrimage in Switzerland, to St Jacob of Compostella, 
and to St Adrian, and to bring good proofs of his having 
visited these places" (1471).^ 

A similar compromise is entered upon four years later 
in 1475 between Wylm (William) Watson and Zander 
(Alexander) Gustis (J) "on account of a wound given 
by Zander to the aforesaid Wylm." * They decided that 
the culprit should bear all expenses, and undertake a 
pilgrimage to the Holy Blood, and, moreover, give to the 
Altar of the Scots in the Church of the Black Monks at 
Danzig two marks, and likewise two marks to Our Lady's 
Church at Dundee in Scotland. Therewith all dispute 
should be ended for ever (" geendet unde gelendet ").• 

That the Scots had their own Altar at the Schwarz- 
monchenkirche, as it is called, is an additional proof of 

^ ^< Eene Berichtunge is gescheen taschen Claus Wagerson (WagersTO ?) 
▼un eyne and tuschen Peter Black, eyne Schotten, van dem andern deele 
als Tan eynes dodslages wegen den de rorben* Peter Black an Reemer 
Wngerson des rorges Claus brodcr begangen hefIL'' • • • Kgi. St. Archive 
Danzig. 

3 ** Eene Berichtunge is gescheen tuschen . • • Tan eyner wunde wegen 
de • . • Zander an dem rorbem. Wylm gewracht hefit . • • also dat 
Zander up sik genamen hefIt alle ungelt • • • unde sal ok gan eyne 
hillige blodes reyse unde ok geren to den Schotten Altar hir to den 
•warten moneken 2 mark unde sal ok II. mark geren to unser leiwen 
Tronwen kerke to Dondyn yn Schottlande gelegen • • •'' KgL St. jfrcUvf 
Danzig. 

' AgL St. Arcbivf Danzig. 



12 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

the importance of their commercial interoourse with 
Danzig. 

The names of other Scotsmen, together with their 
debts, are entered in the Schq>penbuch ; e.g.j John 
Wylinck, curiously enough called ^ de swartte Schotte,'' 
the black Scotsman; William Simpson, Robert Lofitus 
and Richard, in 1427; also Will. Patrick in 1429, 
and Fenton and Grant in 1430. 

In consequence of the many acts of piracy in Scottish 
waters Heinrick Vorrath, the Burgomaster of Danzig, 
advises the Prussian and German ships to carry arms and 
ammunition (March 12th, 1437).^ 

Another curious light is shed on the political state of 
Great Britain and the neutral attitude of the Teutonic 
Order, by a complaint of the English merchants in the 
year 1439. They tell the woeful tale of a ship from 
Hull to Prussia called Peter and carrying a rich cargo. 
<< When we came to the Baltic, we came upon three ships 
from Scotland by which we were in warlike manner 
attacked during the night But by the Grace of God 
the English held their own, and took the Scottish ships 
together with their goods. Then the Scottish said to 
the English: "We know that we have done you great 
harm; therefore we ask you from a full heart to make 
known to us the estimate of the damage." And it was 
estimated then at two hundred and forty pounds sterling. 
And the Scottish placed five of their number as hostages 
on board of the English ship whilst the others were 
allowed to sail away unhurt. Now when the English 
brought these five with them into Prussia, they were 
compelled by the Hochmeister to set them iree and re* 
lease their goods, and it was done. After this the 



^ Hamerecusef 2iid Seriety ii* 49* 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER, 13 



Komptur of Danczke sent for the skippers and the 
merchants of the said slup, and ordered thirteen of them 
to be cast into prison, where they were nearly suffixated 
and scarcely got ont alive. Still they had to pay to the 
Komptm* twenty-four mark in Prussian coin, and a piece 
of doth to the value of twenty mark in order to be 
liberated." » 

On the whole, the information to be gathered regarding 
the Scots in Prussia during this century is but small It 
is only in the next century that light is thrown upon the 
difficulties and hardships of their life. 

THB SCOTTISH PBDLAR AND SBTTLBR IN PRUSSIA IN 
THE XVITH AND XVIITH CENTURIES. 

It is well to remember that a distinction has always to 
be made between the itinerant trader, the ^4nstitor 
drcumfbraneus," as the Latin documents call him, or the 
'< umbfahrende Schotte" of the German, and between 
those of his countrymen, who had settled in the towns as 
^^ foreign guests,'* as smaller or larger tradesmen, some 



^ ^ Item dagcD die Eogelucheii koafflewte das im jar 1439 eyn achiff* 
TOO Hull g^heysaen Peter mtt mancherhande Kouflenachatcz geladen ken 
Pniaaen zegelte und do sie quomen in die Osterzee do quomen sie by 
anderen dreyen achiflPen na Schotlande Tan welchen das Torbenante enge- 
liache Schiff in Kriegea weiae by nachtea czeiten bertiichen nnd gcweldig- 
Kcben angefbchten wart ; und die Scbotten eynfielen nnd eynbrochen in 
daa Engeltsche scbiff alao dacb das Tan den gnaden Goces die Torbenanten 
Engelischen die oberwyndinge daTon behilden und nemen die Scbotten 
mit eren gntteren. Und ia geacbach, daa die Scbotten zn den Enge- 
liacben sprocben, wir Triasen, das wir eucb groasen acbaden getan baben, 
bienunme bitten Trir eucb na ganczem berczen daa ir ns aolcben acbaden 
taxiren wellet und wart getaxiret uf 240 pfund Sterling. Und die 
Scbotten satczten den Engeliscben rvaaW Scbotten zu giisel und die 
Engeliscben iiessen die andern frey wegsegelen. Und do die Engeliscben 



14 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

of them haying eyen succeeded in obtaining ciyil rights. 
The life of the latter was much less burdensome; nay, 
thdr hardihood and energy often gained for them the 
highest distinctions, both in the goyeming body of the 
city, and within the sacred precincts of the guilds. 

The itinerant trader was the successor and companion of 
the Jew, the true Ishmael whose hands were against eyery- 
body while eyerybody's hands were against him. He was 
greeted by the jealous tradesmen with a general howl of 
execration ; he was driyen from yillage to yillage, the gates 
of the towns were closed against him except on fair-days ; 
laws and edicts innumerable were issued against him ; he 
was accused of being a spy, a cheat, an Aiian ; eyen his 
own countrymen disdained him. His life was so fenced in 
with prohibitions that he could hardly take a step without 
coming into conflict with the authorities. 

His difliculties conunenced with his arriyal in the foreign 
port. We haye a yery eloquent proof of this in a Petition 
addressed to the Magistrates of Danzig by some Scotch 
merchants in the year 1597. It runs: 

" Edle, ehrenfeste, hoch achtbare und wohlweise HerrenI * 
We, the undersigned strangers offer you our willing ser- 
yices after wishing you the strength of God's spirit to 
rule for the welfare of all, and we notify to you, the 

die vumflP Schotten mit en in Pnissen brochten, do wurden sie Tam 
Homeister getwungen, dieselben mit eren gutteren qwit zu geben und das 
geschach. Doraoch sante der Komptur van Danczke noch den achip- 
peren und koufflewten des Torbenanten SchifTes und lies ir 13 in eynen 
kerker setczen^ dorinne sie tiel noch Tersdgkten und kume lebending 
herus herquomen und musten gleichewol dem komptur geben 24 mark 
Preusch und ^ laken van 20 mark das sie gefreyet wurden." Hatuerecetse^ 
ii. 2, 73. 

^ Modes of addressing ; literally : noble, honorable, highly estimable 
and wise gentlemen. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 15 

ruling authority of this famous seaport of Danzig, that 
we haye arrived here with our slup and goods through 
God's grace for the coming Dominik's Fair, like other 
strangers to attend to our trade and gain our modest 
profit. But as soon as we left our ship we encountered 
the difficulty of finding suitable lodgings, we haying first 
sent to the honorable John Kilfauns, one of our own 
nation, who has been here for some years, but he excused 
himself as being a widower. After that Hans Gelletlie 
did the same on the plea of the pressiure of business. 
Others to whom we had introductions explained that they 
had no citizen's rights and were therefore prohibited from 
taking us in; so that we wonder how different we find 
everything in tlus famous city from what we were told 
by our countrymen in our own country. Now we know 
indeed that we must comply with the customs and rules 
of every place, nevertheless we think that the Magis- 
trates of Danzig in their free-trading port should meet 
the arriving tradesman and sailor according to their well 
known friendliness with humanity and good favour just as 
it is done in other countries. 

<<We understand that those indwellers belonging to 
foreign nations have been forbidden the other day to 
receive lodgers, whereby we feel aggrieved on this 
account, that whilst other strangers from the Nether- 
lands or other places can use their own language with 
the German citizen, we that come from Scotland cannot 
talk German and find very few here of our own nation 
who are dtizens, whilst those that enjoy this privilege 
partly excuse themselves, partly have no accommodation. 
Nor is it convenient for everybody to accommodate 
strangers not of their own race and tongue, especially 
when these must take their crew without distinction with 
them for their meals, that they also may enjoy a fresh 



i 



1 6 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 



morsel sometimes, our meals being very uncertain indeed. 
Some of us do our own ship's cooking in the houses of 
the innkeepers where we can find lodgings ; others order- 
ing sometimes breakfast, dinner and supper at our own 
expense, returning on board ship again after meal-dme, 
so that very few sleep away from their ship. 

'^Now, as every stranger likes best to stay with his 
countrymen if possible, and as experience taught us that 
the Germans don't like to take so much trouble with us, 
therefore we must humbly pray and look to the magistrates 
of this goodly town that they would grant us during the 
little time of the fair until we sail away again, the liberty 
of lodging with our fellow-countrymen. We also promise, 
as honest people, that we do not want to carry on for- 
bidden trade — ^for we hear that the new ordinance arose 
out of this — but that we will behaye orderly and duly like 
strangers and guests. We hope that the authorities of f 

this town will grant us our request for the sake of our '^ 

most gracious Lord, the King His Majesty of Scotland, 
and that they will likewise grant citizens' rights to some 
of our countrymen who have been dwelling here for long 
years past, so that they might haye the right to harbour 
us, and that the difficulties some of our nation suffer under 
when they sail to this town might be removed^ certain 
lodgings being provided for them and their necessities. 
This will not only add to the praise and honor of you, 
wise and noble sirs, but we shall also duly proclaim it 
before our most gracious master, the King's Majesty, and 
throughout the whole of our native country. Ever ready 
to deserve well of this glorious town, we sign in the 
expectation of a favourable answer : — 

John Trotter David Carnegie 

Gilbert Dick Thos. Greiff. 

Robt. Traquair Robt Luikup 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER- 17 

Gilbert Dickson Robt. Broun 

Adam Lindsay Will. Weir 

Robt. Stark David Gilbert 

Alex. Ramsay James Hamilton 

from Scotland, traders, skippers, for themselves and crew, 
and others of their countrymen arriving after them.'' ^ 

Now this law, according to which no Scotsman was 
allowed to harbour a Scotsman, issued for fear of illicit 
trading, was one of the chief complaints of the Scottish 
settler and trader and remained so for long years after- 
wards. The city of Danzig, however, more liberal in 
her treatment oiF strangers, especially of the Scots to 
whom she owed much in times of war, and remembering 
that the present case was one of occasional visitors 
only, resolved to investigate the matter. The Scotch 
interpreter, one Michael Kock, was commissioned to 
inquire who among the Scots at Danzig were willing 
to take lodgers. He draws up the following list, headed 
by the remark : *^ The following are the names of those 
who got the freedom of the city but are not willing to 
keep lodgers Q^ gest zu halten "), as much as I have been 
able to gather : Hans Kilfauns, Jiirgen Patherson, Hans 
Gelletlie, Jacob Gelletlie, William Roan, Hans Wolson, 
Andreas Hardy, Jacob Broun, Andreas Liddell, Jiirgen 
Kittrigk and Andreas Thomson. Four other citizens : 
Hillebrant Shorbrand, Jacob Konningk (King or 
Gumming ?), Andreas Teller and William Shorbrant keep 
lodgers and are still willing to do so, as far as I could 
ascertain, but they only take merchants.'' 

He then continues: ^^The following are those that 
possess no citizens' rights, but are willing to take honest 
lodgers if the magistrates would only relent: Thomas 

1 KgL Si. ArcUv^ Danzig. Handichrijien (MSS.) I. Bb, 33. 

B 



1 8 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Griffith's widow,^ who has kept a house here for over 
thirty years, is an old woman, has nothing else to live 
upon, and is well suited for it; Jacob Griffith, who 
married her daughter; Andreas Harvie, David Ardus 
(Allardyce), Thomas Carstairs and Jacob Schmert 
(Smart).*' 

The list concludes with the names of William Duncken 
and Alexander Ramisa (Ramsay), ^^who do not care much 
for lodgers, but take in their friends from Scotland as they 
arrive during the year." 

Prejudice, however, proved too strong even for Danzig, 
the petition was refused, and the Scots were referred to 
German citizens. 

The Scotch Pedlar was well received by the country 
folk, who, living many miles away from any town, were 
glad to have the shop brought to their doors. The 
^^ Schotte " on his yearly rounds became quite a familiar 
figure with them and entered into their proverbial speech. 
A proverb in East Prussia in days not long gone by, 
said, ^^ Warte bis der Schotte kommt," he. wait till the 
Scot comes, as a term of encouragement or maybe a threat 
for naughty children.* 

Tet his life was full of danger. Countless numbers of 
these^poor travellers must have succumbed to the rigour 
of an almost Russian winter. Dense forests covered the 
land, few and bad were the roads and wolves abounded. 
Thus a Scot is ^^ miserably murdered on the open road " in 
the district of Tapiau with the Scotsman's own knife, by 
a peasant who afterwards perished by the hand of the 
executioner, 1 609 ; the widow of Thomas Eland (Allan), 
a tailor by trade, declared before the court, in a case of 
succession, that Hans Eland was dead, ^^ being miserably 

^ « Die Griffitache/' In the GermaD of the day the ending ** sche " 
signified woman. ' FriBchbiery Spntchworterm 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 19 

slain on the road when he travelled in foreign parts" 
(16 1 2); thus a fine Scottish lad, Hans Rylands, was 
murdered at Rummelsburg, a small place in Pomerania, 
"by a wicked citizen" (1626); thus William Kyth 
(Keith), perished on his road to Jaroslaw (1636); and 
young Alec Forbes was killed on his journey in Poland 
in 1644. 

Or take the case of Gottfried Burnet, son of Jacob 
Burnet, who, according to the testimony of two Scottish 
merchants at Danzig, was sent by his master, Robert 
Brown, a citizen of Zamosc in Poland, to Lemberg on 
business. On the road, near a small town, he was shot 
in a wood, and miserably killed together with his senrant. 
The next day his body was brought to Janowitz and 
buried at a small village about sixteen miles off I^mberg 
(1692).? 

Another yery serious grievance of these Pedlars was the 
frequent abuse of power on the part of the over zealous 
bailiffs or other authorities in the country districts. The 
Burggraf (governor) of Rossitten, for instance, confiscates 
the goods of one Daniel Henderson of MemeL They are, 
however, released by the Duke's order because Hender- 
son not only proves that he did not want to hawk them 
about, but also that the Governor himself owes him the 
price of goods bought for the last four years (1589). 

Particularly severe was the so-called " Strandknecht," 
Le. the official whose duty it was to watch the strand of 
Samland, the peninsula north of Konigsberg, on account 
of its amber. Jacob Stien, a Scotsman and biurgess of 
Fischhausen complains of one of them, who confiscated 
his wares at Lockstedt ^^ under the lime-trees in front of 
the Castle whilst I had gone inside to report myself to the 
Governor." The Duke commands the bailiff to restore his 

^ KgL St. Arcbiv^ Danzig. 



20 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

goods at once to the plaintiff if found innocent (i 592). A 
similar complaint is addressed to Albrecht the Elder, 
Duke of Prussia, in 1557 by a Scotsman with the name 
of Thomas Gepson (Gibson t) He writes : " When I, last 
Christmas, like other small merchants went to the Fair at 
the small town of Rastenburg and spread my wares there, 
as in a free and public fair, and when I had already taken 
some money, there comes the Govemor together with some 
of the magistrates, in order to examine my yard-measure 
and my weights, according to an old custom. After he had 
found everything right he turns to me, and asks : ^ What 
are you doing here?' to which I replied, that I should like 
to make some money. Then he commenced : ^ Ton know 
very well that this Duchy is closed and forbidden to you ; 
because you have acted against this decree all your goods 
are forfeited.' When I answered, I knew well that it was 
forbidden to travel about from village to village and to sell 
my goods to the peasant, but that we should be pro- 
hibited from going to the free Fairs in the towns, of that 
I knew nothing, he flew at me in a rage, took everything 
I possessed to the value of four hundred marks from me, 
struck me, and cast me into a loathsome prison, where I 
was kept a fortnight in durance and almost on the point 
of starvation. At last I had to stretch out my fingers 
through a hole in the tower-wall and swear an oath before 
the bailies, whom he had ordered to be present, that I 
would straightways leave the country and never come 
back to it. How unwillingly I consented to do this 
everybody will understand. TTie Governor kept my goods 
and my money, and I was obliged to leave the land 
begging my bread in the most miserable and pitiful 
manner. Moreover, I am owing both in Danzig and in 
Konigsberg for my confiscated wares. . . Now since it 
has come to my knowledge that the above-named Governor 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 21 

lives at the present moment at Marienwerder under the 
immediate rule of your Serene Highness, I pray you, my 
most gracious sovereign, for the sake of eternal justice, 
to listen to my grievance and to order a restitution of 
my goods and due compensation for this uncalled for 
violence.** ^ 

The Duke wrote to one of his most trusted servants, 
the Bishop Paulus Speratus, asking him for a vmtten 
report on this incident. At the same time, he expressed 
astonishment that so young a Scotsman should possess so 
costly a stall. He also appointed a commission to look 
into the matter, and it is to be hoped that poor Gibson 
was indemnified for the harsh treatment he underwent. 

Another very serious complaint of the Scots was 
touched upon in a petition drawn up by Thomas Stien, 
Zander Donasson, William Lockerbie, Hans Rains 0, 
Hans Nemen (Newman?), Hans Hunter and Hans 
Morray, in the year 1581, iFor the magistrates of Danzig. 
It arose from the fact that these men having visited the 
fair at Elbing, had been asked to pay taxes there, a 
demand which was accentuated by the arrest of their 
goods. Now, it was obviously and grossly unjust to 
make those pay over again that had already satisfied their 
duties as citizens in Danzig. Petitioners also lay stress 
on the fact that they were not pedlars (Paudelkramer) 
but given to honourable trade and dealmg.« 

The worst enemy, however, of the Scot was the 
German tradesman and guild brother. Fair competition 
in business being then unknown he was eaten up with 
jealousy and envy,^ and ousted by the superior skill and 

^ KgL St. jfrcUvf JLoDigsberg. 

s « Sich eines aufrichtigeii Handels nnd Wandels befliMen." ( A^/. St. 
A. /).}. The tame combination of names occurs later on. William 
Lockerbie hailed from Dumfries. 

* Cp. Dr Fr. Schulz, Cbromk der StaJt Jattrnw^ 1896. 



22 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

the shrewd and yery likely not always scrupulous activity 
of the stranger. He was at the bottom of the number- 
less edicts and decrees that for more than two hundred 
years by every king, prince, bishop, and magistrates were 
hurled against the Scot. It would obviously be impossible 
to dte all these letters of complaint or even to enumerate 
them all. They were issued by the guilds of merchants, 
of clothmakers, of small traders, of tailors in nearly all the 
important towns of Prussia at that time. We can only 
mention some of them as specimens of the rest 

The clothiers of Marienburg in 1531 write to the 
Duke complaining of the ^Wagrant Scots'' (die losen 
Schotten), who are of no fixed abode nor pay the taxes 
or dues of any town, are getting so common with their 
cloths in the country that they are to be found and their 
presence felt in all the feu-s in great numbers, carrying 
their cloth to the villages and into houses and selling it 
to the great detriment of the King's resident subjects.^ 

The retail merchants of Thorn address a petition to 
the members of the governing Board of Prussia in 1556. 
They remind the crown of former prohibitions against 
Jews, Scots and pedlars who roam about the country to 
the ruin of the whole country, and they continue : ^^ These 
prohibitions are not obeyed. Much adulterated mer- 
chandise both in cloths and in silks and groceries is being 
carried into this land by the Jews and the Scots. They 
are also objectionable on account of their obstinacy, and 
their ways of selling. When they travel about the 
country and perchance arrive at a gentleman's estate, they 
sell to the steward or his wife not only pepper and 
saffiron, and especially cloth, linen and macheier,^ but 

^ G« Lengenich, Geichicbte Preustau^ ii. 97* 

* A kind of coarse woollen stuflP. Cp. Schiller and Liibben, Mtttel 
Nkdirdiuiicbet WorUrhucb. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 23 

talk them into buying all sorts of groceries. Now 
when it so happens, and it does happen frequently, that 
the steward or the stewardess have no money, they accept 
not only whey-cheese ^ and butter and especially oats and 
barley, but all sorts of skins and furs wluch are secretly 
purloined from the owner of the estate and given to the 
Scots for their spurious goods, their false weight and 
measures. Everybody knows, moreover, how much of 
what has been spun by our honest womenfolk is pawned 
to the Scot." 

Finally, the letter complains that the Scots have more 
than one booth at the Fair and always in the best place, 
and that they are masters in hiding their fraud.* 

Here we have not only the deceitful dealing of the 
Scots attacked, but also their mode of dealing, their 
giving and taking in exchange, perhaps even on credit. 

The grievances of the Kramers of Konigsberg are dealt 
with at the Prussian Diet of i $66. They draw attention 
to the fact that the Scots, because they know all the 
passes and roads in the country, might do great harm to 
the country in times of war.* 

Similarly the whole guild of retail merchants of Prussia 
in a petition dated November 16th, 1569, complain of the 
laws against the Scots not being obeyed. ^^ There is, for 
instance," the document continues, ^^ a Scot at Fischhausen ^ 
who maintains that he has the privilege of hawking about 
in every comer of the sea coast. The country folk no 
longer want to make their purchases in the towns. 



^ The word is *' twarge Kase " » Quark » whey* 

^ Original in the Episcopal Archives at Franenhurg. (See of 
EnnelancL) * KgL Si. Archw^ Konigsberg. 

^ A small place to the West of Konigsberg. Samland was and is 
the name of the country round Konigsberg bordered in the N. and W. 
by the Baltic Sea, in the S. by the river Pregel and in the £• by the 
Dieme riyer. There are famous amber pits on its coast. 



24 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Another Scot liyes at Zmten ^ who says he is a citizen of 
that place, but he does not live , as such, but keeps a 
number of unmarried young fellows, who in his name 
travel up and down the whole of Samlandt. And as if 
this were not enough, he himself hawks his goods about. 
And withal these Scots are obstinate and arrogant, not 
friendly spoken to anybody, not performing any dvil 
duties, but buying beaver-skins and marten-skins and 
amber at Pillau, selling it afterwards at Lublin or Thorn.* 
They betray the country." • 

To understand the above properly we must bear in 
mind that it went against the laws of the guilds to sell 
from house to house or to sell on commission. The trade 
in amber was a Government monopoly as it is now; it 
was the same with the trade in furs. To this long list of 
crimes, we have to add the buying up of old silver and 
copper, whereby the trade privileges of the silver and 
coppersmiths were infringed.* 

Very frequently in this connection the buying up of grain 
on the part of the Scottish trader forestalling is mentioned 
and in consequence of it the artificial rise in the price of 
com. Thus in 1 596 in a letter of the citizens and bailies 
of Marienwerder.' The clothmakers blame the Scots for 
buying the wool on the back of the sheep cheaply, ^^ so 
that in course of time nobody will be safe against their 
tricks, since they seek everywhere their own profit and 
the discomfiture of the native trader. To those that 
cannot work the wool up the buying of wool is forbidden 
by law ; let them be lords or commons, priests or peasants, 
Jews' or Scots, Poles or Masures.^ Moreover the inter- 
loper's hands are strengthened by the Scots, to whom 

^ A small place to the South of Konigsberg. 

^ That is to say smuggling it out of Prussia iuto Poland* 

* KgL St. Arclnv^ Kdnigsberg. * Ibidemm 

* IHdem. ^ Ibidem, 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER, 25 

they sell for a trifle their false cloths only to be sold again 
to the ignorant peasant on public fairs (1612)."^ 

When all these reasons for resenting the intrusion of 
the Scot had been exhausted others presented themselyes, 
some of a very amusing character. Thus in a petition of 
the guild of merchants at Konigsberg towards the close 
of the XVIIth Century it is said that the Scots slum the 
cream off the milk of the country^ usurp the whole trade 
and are so bold and so smart withal that nothing can 
happen in a nobleman's or a common citizen's house, be 
it even a case of death, without the Scot being there at 
the very moment offering to supply his goods. 

The same petition contains the following list of 
Scotsmen who carry on illegal traffic at Konigsberg, or 
travel all over the country ** fairs or no fairs." 

IN THE OLD TOWN. 

Collins, an Englishman, lives on the Market Square, 
takes in lodgers, ^^ raises his own smoke," * lets his rooms 
and sends out his ^^ bad servants during the summer to sell 
stockings publicly." 

2 

Robert Walker, a Scot, dwelling near the Market Place, 
has likewise his own house, keeps lodgers, lets rooms, has 
his store and an open shop near the castle as well, buys all 
his goods from strangers and nothing from citizens. 

3 
Robert Schwentor (?) is an unmarried fellow, lives at 

the wig-maker's house near the castle, travels about the 

country to Memel, Tilsit, Insterburg, and to other places. 

1 X^L St. Archiv^ Kdoigsberg. 

^ ** Seinen eigenen Rauch halten " for to own a house is odc of the 
many picturesque legal expressions in old German documents ; derived 
from the immemorial custom of lighting a fire on the hearth as a symholic 
token of taking possession. 



26 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

4 
Gilbert Morra (Murray), an anmarried fellow, lives also 
at the wig-maker's, has an open shop between the castle 
gates, buys all his goods from strangers, and boldly fetches 
the buyers away from the towns and the bridges and leads 
them to his shop. 

5 

The whole of the horse-market near the Steinthor is 
full of Scottish people, among them is one Morrisson, who 
keeps four carts and sends them up and down the country 
continually carrying doth, smallwares, etc. 

6 

One with the name of Walker has one store at 
Fischhausen and another at Pillau, and visits all the 
estates and villages in the Samland district. 

KNEIPHOP. 

Robert Mill, a Scot, not only keeps lodgers, but as soon 
as any English or Scotch arrive, he takes their goods and 
divides them again amqng his countrymen; visits the 
country, fair or no fair, and is guilty of all kinds of 
embezzlement 

2 

Fullert, a Scot, has two fellows to scour the small 
towns. 

3 
Andreas Marshall, a Scot, has many young fellows who 
travel for him throughout the country. 

4 
Jacob Wass (?), from Elbing, is a Scot, lives in 
Prusitzki's house, deals as much with strangers as with 
natives. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 27 

5 
The Ramit'sche, ^ a Scottish widow, has two shops with 
cloth and other wares. 

6 

John Elrehe* is well known for his knavery, having a 
store in his house and an open shop near the castle; he 
sells by the piece and by the yard cloth, silk, buttons 
and other things, he also trades with scythes and never 
neglects an opportunity where he can injure the town. 

7 
John Malkan (Malcolm), an unmarried fellow, and a 

Scot, keeps an open shop near the castle with cloth and 

dry goods, is now in the camp before Stettin,* but left a 

boy behind to look after his goods. 

8 

Peter Bewy, a Scot, dwells in Lobenicht,* has an open 
shop near the mill with various goods. 

9 
Robert Marshall, a Scot, lives near the mill gate, keeps 
a store as well as a shop, travels about, buys and orders 
all his goods from strangers, and not ^^ one thread ^ from 
the citizens. 

10 

Thomas Hervie, has no less than three shops, and 
wherever he espies an opportunity for doing business, he 
buys everything from and through strangers lest the 
dtizens should get a chance, and so noblemen are obliged 
to buy of him, as happened the other day when the 
Governor died and he bought up all the black cloth in the 

^ See note to page i8. * SerTing in the war against the Swedes* 

' See about him further down. ^ See Introduction. 



28 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

face of his fellow-citizens.^ He also in the summer time 
buys up the wool. 

Another amusing addition occurs in a similar petition of 
the end of the XVIth Century. " The wily Scots," the 
petitioners say, ^^ have hit upon a new trick Whenever 
there is a Fair in sight in a town, they scour the whole 
country for miles around, about a week previous, selling 
their goods. So that we, when we arrive in due time to 
turn an honest penny, find that the Scot has ^ bagged ' 
everything before us. Our dear wives often come home 
weeping.'' No less amusing is the charge preferred by 
the municipal authorities of Bartenstein against the 
vagrant Scots, that they ^^ aspire to barons' and earls' 
estates and to high offices in the State" (1590). 

Looking over these long and formidable charges, it 
would be unfair to deny that in some cases there may 
have been good reasons for them. Even now, to the 
moral sense of the uneducated Scot, it seems manifestly 
unjust that what he calls fishing should be spelt poaching 
by the judge ; and as to smuggling, a hundred or two 
hundred years ago, every reader of Sir Walter will know 
what the prevalent Scottish ideas were. In the letters of 
Francis Craw,* the youth of sixteen, who emigrated to 
Prussia in 1671, he carefully inquires after the price of 
amber at home and the fashion of wearing the beads. 
Moreover, it was natural, that when the emigration was 
at its height, that is, from about 1590 to 1630, a great 
many undesirable elements must have crossed the Baltic 
Of this there is no better proof than the petition of the 
Scots at Danzig, addressed to the magistrates, against 
their own countrymen in 1592; a most remarkable 
document, which we here give in its entirety : — 

1 « Vor der Naae wcg.*' 

* See Scots in Germany ^ pp. 250-255. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 29 

^^Herr Burgermeister, Gestrenge, Ehrenfeste, Ehrbare, 
etc. etc^ 

^^ Whilst oflFering to you our eyer-ready services, we 
cannot refrain from bringing to your notice, that among 
other evils from without and within, this also must be 
numbered, that many of our nation now arrived in this 
city sit with their baskets on the bridges among the 
warehouses, or go to the strangers in the public-houses, 
and, if they do not find them there, into the court-yards 
ot the Langemarkt,* or into the very houses of citizens, up 
one lane down the other ; but they especially crowd the 
bridges exhibiting and selling their wares, not being satisfied 
with the space before their houses. They have not obtamed 
any privileges. Their interloping and forestalling trade 
is now carried on not by the fellows themselves or their 
young assistants, but by lazy women and loose servants, 
who, whilst they refuse to serve honest people or to do 
well, allow themselves to be used for such unlawful trade. 
And yet did we formerly assist them with our alms, 
because they pretended to be crooked or lame. Such a 
state of things must, as we now see with our own eyes, 
of necessity be very detrimental to the citizens and to 
other small merchants, who gained their citizenship 
through the favour of the magistrates, owing them not 
only the greatest gratitude, but having also taken all 
sorts of burdensome duties upon them as citizens; to 
say nothing of the disgrace to our nation when such 
people, lazy and unwilling to work as they are, crowd 
the streets. This is the reason why we see, with a 
sorrow past telling, how every year many an honest 
citizen gets into debt, whilst we must be told that we 

^ Modes of addresnDg the mayor and bailies. 

' Not a market-place properly speaking, but the widening of the chief 
street of Danzig, the Langgasse, in the centre of the town. 



3© THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

ourselves are to blame for it. And although the aid 
of the police and the night watches has often been 
called in, no energetic steps haye hitherto been taken. 
Numbers of citizens have approached us concerning this 
matter, and begged of us to declare ourselves openly 
against such a prevalent abuse. 

^^We consider further that not only single citizens, 
but the whole of this city suffers great injury from this 
state of affairs, especially since great numbers are re- 
quired for the common statute-labour in the fortifications,^ 
and yet this loose servant-pack* refuse to work. We 
therefore approve of the proposal of some good citizens 
to appoint men among ourselves — ^being most willing to 
mend matters according to our simple minds — ^who are 
to work together with the already appointed public 
servants, keeping an eye on these traders, reporting to 
the magistrates, and making daily seizures, the profit 
of which is to go to poor churches, schools, or the 
fortification works.> 

^'This we thought fit to bring before you. Hoping 
you will not blame us for it, and expecting a favourable 
answer in this case of urgent necessity, we remain, 

"Hans Kilfauns, Hans Gelletlie, 

" Geo. Patterson, Thos. Steen, 

"Geo. Magottry0, Andr. Eddel (Liddel), 

"Andr. Hardy, Hans Brown, 

"Jacob Gelletlie, H. Vorbrant (Shorbrant). 

" Citizens of Danzig^ for themselves and in the 
name of the whole Scottish nation dwelling 
there.'' 

The decision of the magistrates was to take down the 

1 « Scharwcrk." ? "Das leichtfcrtigc Gceindtlin." 

> *< Wallgebande/' U. the office for the fortification-works of the city* 



THE SCOTTISH TRADEIL 31 

names of the transgressors ; whereupon an order to seize 
the goods would be given if necessary, and the seizures 
brought to the police offices (April 15th, 1592).^ 

A similar case happened in Konigsberg in the year 
1620. There some small Scottish traders had re- 
ceived the privilege of living upon the so-called Ducal 
" Freiheiten," i.e. " liberties," or the ground surrounding 
the Castle, where most of the Duke's retainers had their 
dwellings. They were under the immediate jurisdiction 
of the Duke and the proud citizen of Konigsberg de- 
spised them. Four Scotsmen, Jacob From, Andreas and 
Heinrich Wricht (Wright), and Jacob Koch, write to the 
magistrates as follows: ^^We cannot hide from you that 
from time immemorial, when the Fairs in the small towns 
occurred, we have been in the habit of drawing lots 
about our stands with those Scots who have settled in 
those towns. We have also been permitted hitherto to 
visit the weekly markets unhindered by them, and the 
magistrates have willingly conceded us these rights, as 
we always bring good, fresh goods to the market of 
every description so as to please everybody, which goods 
cannot easily be procured from the Scottish inhabitants. 
But now we are to be deprived of this privilege, not, 
indeed, by the authorities of the small towns, but by 
our own countrymen who dwell in them. They call us 
and our gracious master names, maintaining that we were 
but ^ Gartner,' ' and refusing not only to draw lots, but 
to admit us to the markets, whilst they suffer those of 
the Scots who hawk their goods about from house to 
house; a thing which we would not do. We are 
indeed not ^Gartner,* but settled inhabitants here at 

1 KgL St* Arehiv^ Danzig. 

^ Gartner is a peasant without a field, a word denoting the lowest 
member of a community. It occurs in this sense in Luther. 



32 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Ednigsbergy paying taxes and dues to our sovereign and 
sharing in all other burdens that haye to be borne by 
all the dwellers on the Liberties, as pay for the watch 
service, for fortification work, and assisting at the harvest 
time. We therefore pray you to let us have an open 
letter, so that we, being settled inhabitants, may earn 
our living as well as those vagrant traders/' 

The same grievances against their own countrymen are 
presented to the Markgraf of Brandenburg by the Scots 
dwelling in the small town of Margrabova in the year 
1624. 

In short, the Scots themselves, as soon as they settled 
down, seem to have succumbed to the same infectious 
trade jealousy and narrow-minded trading principles that 
actuated their German brethren; only they did not go 
to the same extremes of inventing charges where there 
was no other foundation to go upon. 

Moved by these petitions, pouring in from all sides and 
quarters, the rulers of the whole north-east of Germany ^ 
issued, as we have seen, quite a number of edicts, laws 
and prohibitions against the Scots. So frequent did they 
become that we fancy we detect a slight indication of 
annoyance in many of thenu ^^We cannot for ever be 
bothered with the Scot; let our former mandates 
suffice." 

Most of these royal decrees date from the XVIth Cen- 
tury; but some were issued in Prussia much earlier. 
Fundamental for Poland was the so-called ^^ Royal 
Universale'* against the Scots of the year 1566. It is 
of a very sweeping character, forbidding the Scottish 

^ Indeed they were not behind-hand in the touth. In Regensburg a 
decree is issued in 1501 against the peddling Scots. Those^ howerer, 
who with ** good merchandise, such as gold, silver, veWet and silk,'' visit 
the monasteries and noblemen's seats, are excepted in 1 553 from a similar 
prohibition. See Supplement and Schmeller, I.e. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 33 

pedlars to roam about the country, and even going so 
far as to declare any letters issuing at any future time 
from the Royal Secretary's Office and purporting to con- 
vey different opinions to be null and void.^ 

Other prohibitions of later kings repeat the same reasons 
and restrictions. Thus Sigismund ni. issues a mandate 
against Jews, Scots and other vagabonds in 1594 at the 
request of the town of Kcyna. The Scots are chiefly 
forbidden to make large purchases of grain.' About a 
hundred years later King Augustus II., in a privilege 
granted to the town of Kosten, refers to the old laws 
against the Scots. He forbids that they should acquire 
any landed or town property with the significant addition 
that they were ^^ a religione Romana Catholica dissidentes *' 
(1699). 

The dukes of Pomerania issued similar mandates in 
1585 from Wolgast, also in 1594. Philipp Julius, Duke 
of Stettin, on the usual plea of ^^ false goods " and detri- 
mental competition, commands his governors to prevent 
the Scottish pedlar from hawking about in the country ; 
^^ those, however, who live at Stettin, sharing the common 
burdens of a citizen, shall be free to exhibit their goods 
and sell them at the usual fairs and during one week 
annually like the other merchants." ' 

In the Duchy of Prussia we have the edicts of 1525 
(7th of May), according to which, not only vagabondage 
of the Scots is forbidden, but also the drawing of lots for 
the position of stalls at the fairs. This edict of Albrecht 
the Elder was confirmed in 1530, 1542, 1545 and in 
1558, expressing at the same time astonishment that 
former Ducal laws had been evaded, and displeasure at 

^ One is tempted to pronounce the last clauses interpolated. 
' I^L Sl jfrchivf Poseny Dep. Exin., N. i. 
> Stettin, Wofgtut ArcUv^ Tit. 36, No. 14. 

C 



34 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

those of the nobility who harbour the Scots for any length 
of time (1549). On the whole, however, the rulers of 
Prussia showed a most remarkable sense of justice and 
fair play ; they never granted all the requests of the irate 
guilds, and, as we shall see by and by, often put them- 
selves in distinct opposition to the narrow-mindedness of 
the city magistrates. It was this same Albrecht, a man 
of great uprightness and a strong desire, to rule well, who 
in 1549 on the 9th of September writes to his minister 
Nostiz: ^^ Before us appeared the bearer of this letter, 
Wilhelmus Scotus, and told us how he for the sake of 
the gospel had been driven out of Scotland, at the same 
time asking us in our mercy for a contribution towards 
his sustenance. We have therefore promised him a plain 
suit of clothes as well as four Gulden for his food, and 
request of you to let him have it out of our Exchequer.*' ^ 
There are later edicts in the Lithuanian language 
(1589) ^ and in German, printed and unprinted. In some 
of them a certain district is assigned to the Scot for free 
trading, notably in the so-called Prussische Landesedict of 

In Mecklenburg also, where large numbers of Scottish 
Tabuletkramer • went about the country in the XVIth 
and XVIIth Centuries, we have the sketch of a mandate 
from the hand of Duke Johann Albrecht, and dated Feb. 
25th, 1554.* 

Even the bishops joined. The Bishop of Ermeland, 
whose territory cleaves the Prussian possessions like a 
wedge, draws special attention to the Scotsman's unlawful 

^ The charming naiTete of this Ducal note is quite lost in the trans- 
lation. We give the original in Part III. 

3 Printed in the Abpreius Monatsschrift^ 1878, pp. x 19 f. 
> So called from «« tabuiet " » the pedlar's box. 
^ Gr. St. Archivf Schwerin. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 3$ 

• 

dealing in furs and skins, which trade was a monopoly, 
and to the corruption of the magistrates and bailiffs in 
the country "who are not above receiving bribes." The 
goods of any hawking Jew or Scot in any part of his 
dominions are to be confiscated and sold, one half of the 
proceeds to go to the bishop, the other to the village. 
There is to be a fine of forty marks besides^ i'^SS^ ^^^ 

^579)- 
In short there seems to have been a general consent 

to stamp out the Scottish pedlars as a nuisance. Not 
only was their trade hampered, but they were heavily 
taxed. This tax varied somewhat in the different coun- 
tries; for Poland it amounted to two florins for a man 
on horseback, one florin for a pedestrian ; in Prussia the 
amount was fixed at two thalers. Besides this they had 
to pay for their stands at the fairs. The accurate amount 
of this rent is handed down to us in the account books of 
Marienwerder, a small town in Eastern Prussia. There we 
read (1606-7) : " Received forty marks * marktgeld ' from 
four Scotsmen who are allowed to sell their ' goods in the 
lower parts of this district. Formerly there used to be 
eight of them paying for their privilege at the rate of 
eight marks annually ; but four of them either died or 
moved elsewhere. The remaining four: Thomas 
Stehler(?) David Feller, Andres Morgiss and George 
Allan have paid at this time of Michaelmas their ten 
marks and are bound to do so annually.'* 

Two remedies were open to the much harassed Scottish 
itinerant trader : he could lay his complaints before the 
.sovereign of his country, or he could remove to the towns 
and acquire a fixed abode. He tried both, and in Prussia 

^ Cp. jicta Curug Efucop* Warm. ( 1 539-1 572) at Frauenburg. 
There is an edia also of the bishops of PoseD issued for the benefit of 
the merchant guild of the town of Buk (1595) which was confirmed in 
1619. Pot. St. jircifiv^ A. Sf 259 No. 5. 



36 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA, 

at least, he tried effectually. We have given some of his 
supplications bef<Mre/ showing how the Scots themselves 
proposed a tax and a central receiver and certain articles 
for their organisation. The Duke, partly influenced by 
the intercession of the King of Great Britain, to whom 
the Scots in their distress had appealed a few years pre- 
viously, appointed several influential men to investigate 
the matter. One was a certain Dr Mirander, a famous 
legal luminary of the day, who proceeded with prudence 
and energy, arguing with some of the more obstinate 
ones, and reminding them of the fact that not for their 
" yellow hair " but for the " princess liberality " they could 
earn so much in the country ; that they were very well 
off* indeed, and so forth. Finally he succeeded in making 
them agree to a self-imposed tax. 

Together with Mirander, Koch or Kook, a Scotsman, 
was appointed to make a census of the Kramers in 1615.' 
For this trouble he received an annual emolument of fifty 
thalers in gold, half a last of com, half a last of malt and 
a last of oats. 

His report is still extant. The Scots are willing, he 
says, to pay four Thalers annually for horse and cart, two 
Thalers when on foot ; he moreover recalls to the Duke's 
memory the fact that many Scots died in his country 
without heirs, in which case their property fell to the 
Crown, that their ships were bringing goods into his 
dominions for which duty was being paid. Finally, he 
proposes to collect the above tax against 1000 marks 
(16 1 5). He encloses certain rules ("RoUe") which the 
Scots had agreed upon, and adds the following introduc- 
tion : ^^ As many of the Scottish nation in this Duchy of 
Prussia seek their living up and down the country, most 

^ See Scots in Germany^ p. 265. See also pp. 37-38. Important waa 
the Scottiah petition of 161 2. ' IHiL^ p. 258. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 37 

of them without a fixed abode and under no jurisdiction, 
and as frequently transgressions of the law have taken 
place amongst them, the Governor of this country has 
granted them leave, some years ago, to draw up their own 
rules so as to remove the unjust stigma of vagabonds, and 
to found ^unanimo consensu* a fixed Brotherhood 
They are to meet four times a year . . . the whole guild 
is responsible for the pajrment of the tax ; the elders of 
each district forming a commission with their head com- 
mittee in Konigsberg," Then follow the articles which 
we have given elsewhere.^ 

Now at this time Patrick Gordon, of whom we have 
spoken,' was still British Consul or factor at Danzig. 
Meddlesome and officious character as he was, he felt 
aggrieved that somebody else shoukl take the credit of 
this transaction. He objected to the articles in their 
present form, promised the Scots to intercede for them 
with His British Majesty, so that they should not have to 
pay any taxes, and blamed Koch for having taken upon 
bim to act in an official capacity. A breach occurred. 
Some of the Scots, aggrieved at Koch having laid bare 
some of their unlawful trade practices, adhered to Gordon, 
whereupon Koch wrote pitiful letters to the Churfurst on 
his own behalf, quoting Gordon's threat, that his fate 
should be worse than that of Stercovius who had suffered 
the death penalty at Rastenburg,' but in the end the 
^^ mandatarius regis '' won. He relies on his dignity and 
refuses to be a procurator causae. Koch was guilty of a 
^^ crimen falsi,** he maintained, having deported himself 
as a regularly paid official of the Duke, which he was 
not, and he had no ^^causam litigandi.'' The Court 
declared in Gordon's favour; Koch was dismissed with 

^ See Sc9U m Germany. ' IMf p. 25$. 

' lie Scot* in Germany^ p. 255. 



38 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA- 

his complaint, and the Scottish nation receiyed a copy of 
the judgment (19th Sept. 16 16). 

The new articles, eighty in number, which Gordon 
now published, or rather submitted to the government of 
the Duchy of Prussia, were based upon the original rules 
given by us previously.* The first article deals with the 
constitution of the fraternity, and with the election of elders 
who are to officiate for one year only. They are to have 
jurisdiction in minor matters, and are to meet in proper places 
and at proper times, and not during ^^ dinner and talking 
hours." The second article bears the heading : "On the 
worship of God '* (De Divino Cultu), and enjoins regular 
attendance at church and at the communion, besides the clos- 
ing of the doors and windows of the shops on Sundays and 
the avoidance of religious controversies. The third article 
deals with the relations of master and servant. Every 
servant is to have a certificate of good conduct ; the master 
is responsible for his servant ; a servant (or journeyman), 
not knowing German, must bind himself to serve four years. 
Fines are fixed for various transgressions on the part of 
master or boy ; ^.g*., if the servant calls his master out to a 
duel or lays violent hands on him, he shall be deprived of 
the benefit of the Brotherhood. The fourth article deals 
with vagabonds, drunkards, gamblers and others. Nobody 
shall be allowed to hawk his despicable wares about unless 
they be worth fifty Gulden. Riotous living is to be fined. 
In the fifth article, treating of public moneys, provision is 
made for the maintenance of the poor, the care for the 
sick, and the burial of the dead. Guild brothers must 
make an inventory of a deceased brother's property. 
Debts and the stands or booths on the fairs are dealt 
with in the sixth and seventh articles ; whilst the eighth 
provides against adulterated goods and false measure. 

^ Scoii m Germany^ p. 42, ff*. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 39 

The ninth article is an enlargement of articles thirteen 
and fourteen of the original draft,^ the tenth of the 
eleventh ; the eleventh, on the dangers of travelling, of 
the original fifteenth. The twelfth article settles the 
contributions of the brethren, whilst the last two deal 
with appeals to a higher court and the carrying out of 
the sentence; the whole constitution ends with these 
words : ^' Should any articles of a similar description 
be deemed necessary by common consent, which are not 
expressly stated in the foregoing rules, the same shall be 
observed as if they were expressed" (161 6). 

As will be seen, the constitution is well drawn up, 
and Gordon, if he did nothing else, deserved well of the 
Scottish nation on account of its composition. Curiously 
enough, a confirmation of these statutes from the hand of 
the Duke or the magistrates could not be discovered ; all that 
remains is a short draft of marginal notes and annotations, 
probably drawn up by one of the members of the govern- 
ment.' The immediate eflfect, however, was the same. 

The advantages of the letters of protection, and the 
self-imposed tax, were eagerly embraced, and the lot of 
the Scottish itinerant trader considerably improved. 
Konigsberg became the centre of the Scottish settle^ 
ments and of the Brotherhood in Prussia. In a census of 
Scotsmen in the small town of Welau, only two, Jacob 
Ertzbell (Archibald ?) and William Schott were found that 
had no Schutzzeddel, both giving a reasonable excuse. 
Others were of the opinion that as citizens of smaller 
towns they did not require them. 

^ Scots in Germany^ p. 44. 

' The articles were written in English, it a[^arsy and then translated 
by Gordon. The corrections and annotations date from the year 1624. 
Various petitions for the confirmation of the rules date from 16 17 and 
1622. — KgL St, ArcbtVf Konigsberg. 



40 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

The original of one of these letters of protection is 
preserved in the case of Alexander Murray, a citizen of 
Memel, who is permitted to trade in Ermeland for a year 
with two horses and his pack. ^^ The bearer/' the docu- 
ment continues, ^^ in the name of His Grace the Duke, 
is to be protected by the magistrates of each place against 
all violence and oppression at the hands of soldiers and 
recruiting officers. And because Alexander Murray has 
paid as protection-tax the sum of two ducats this will 
serve as a receipt. He is, however, not to use false 
weight, measure, or merchandise under pain of confiscation, 
and to pay other taxes imposed by the diet of the country 
willingly" (July 3, 1656). 

As to the protection duty to be paid, the question 
arose whether the servants who went with their master's 
goods about the country were also liable. A number of 
Scots in Konigsberg petition the Duke in this matter, 
complaining, at the same time, that the present re- 
presentative of the fiscal had exacted the tax without 
distinction, and, being a slave of drink and lazy in the 
performance of his duty, had molested the Scots greatly 
in the fairs, when they had not yet earned a penny, 
^^ flying at them with slanderous speech in his drunken 
state,^ so that manslaughter and murder might have been 
the consequence.'' They pray the duke to rid them of 
this fellow, and rather to appoint a place at Konigsberg, 
either an office in the town hall or the governor's office, 
for the payment of their " protection-money " (Schutas- 
pfennig), and, as a term, the annual great fair.' 

In the neighbouring state of Pomerania the case of the 
Scottish pedlar was not settled satisfactorily. Here also 

1 •* Una trunckenerweise mit ehreDruhrigen worten anf'ahrt." 
' XgL Stm j/rtJUVf Konigsberg, N.D., but apparently not long after 
agreeing to the tax. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER, 41 

we have the proposal of appointing a captain or spokesman. 
A certain Colonel Getberg writes to the Duke asking to 
be given the mill at Lauenburg in reward for faithful 
services during twenty-six years. He then continues his 
letter in these terms : ** Because a week ago a handsome 
Scotch lad, Hans Rylands, a pedlar, was murderously slain 
with an axe by a wicked citizen at Rummelsburg, the Scots 
again urge me, praying me for God's sake to be their cap. 
tain, patron, and advocate, and to appoint a learned man of 
the law in each principality who would attend to their 
business. They offer to pay one Thaler each to the local 
treasurer in each place at Michaelmas. Now because His 
Majesty of Poland, my most gracious sovereign, ten years 
ago, appointed a captain called Adam Young ^ (Junge) for 
the purpose of advocating the cause of this foreign nation 
at court and of protecting them against uncalled for 
violence. Your Majesty might also grant such a privilege 
for thirty years to me and my successors, this being my 
£rst prayer, and it would in no way be derogatory to 
your own prerogatives. Therefore I trust your Serene 
Highness will arrange matters so that each treasurer at 
Michaelmas, when he hands in his accounts, shall also 
pay me a Thaler on the part of the Scots. For this service 
I shall give to each of these collectors, as an annual re- 
compense, a handsome young horse in token of gratitude. 
Not doubting the granting of my petition. 

"Peter Gbtbergk, Colonel. ** 

(Jan. 1626).' 

Unfortunately the Duke was of a diflferent opinion. 
He feared that if those traders, who were already tax- 
payers, had an additional tax laid upon them, they would 
raise the price of their goods, whidi would be a hardship 

^ Also called Abraham Young, tee Saa* m Germany^ p. 38. 
> Kgl St. Arcbiv, Stettin, Pars. II., Tit. 28, No. 41. 



42 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

to other inhabitants and to his ^^poor subjects.'* The 
petition was therefore refused, and the bailies had to go 
without their beautiful young horses. 

In Prussia, however, we hear much less of the grievances 
of the Scottish pedlar. Altogether he seems to have 
drifted little by little into the towns where the chances of 
earning an honest and less dangerous liyelihood seemed 
certainly better. From about the middle of the XVIIth 
Century we notice a large and steadily increasing influx of 
Scotsmen into the smaller and larger towns of Prussia and 
Poland. In many cases these men's hopes of finding at 
last a haven of rest were disappointed; for here also 
the trade hostilities were great, more bitter, perhaps, in 
close proximity than at a distance. Here also the magis- 
trates showed little inclination to grant any freedom of 
movement, though, it must be said, the towns varied 
greatly in this respect; Danzig, for instance, distinguish- 
ing herself by a certain amount of liberal treatment of 
the foreign merchant. In most other places, especially in 
Prussia, the Scots and other strangers — notably the Dutch, 
of whom there was at this time a large immigration ^ — ^had 
to submit to a number of irritating restrictions. They 
had to report themselves at their arrival, and tell the 
value of their goods and the character of their trading ; 
they were not allowed to sell to strangers ; they were not 
allowed to have more than one shop; they could not 
lodge or board their own countrymen, or sell any new 
clothes ; * they could not acquire any house property ; • the 
retail trade by the ell and the pound was closed to them 

^ KgL Su jirchhff Konigsberg. 

^ Decree from 1 580 at Danzig. See Libri Memoranda xxxiii.» D. 
1 2. In Konigsberg an exception was made in favour of married men 
with a family. 

* **Seinen eigenen Ranch zu halten'^ato raise his own smoke. See 
above, p. 25 n. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 43 

as well as the traffic on the riyer.^ They could not, as a 
rule, become burgesses, though they paid the taxes of such. 
It was this last restriction which caused most dissatisfaction. 

In Poland, King Vladislaus among others, had sanctioned 
the principle in 1635, and in Prussia a decree of the Chur- 
furst of Brandenburg, in 1613 (Feb. 3rd), in its fourth 
paragraph restated the former law that no Dutchmen, 
Scot, or Englishman could acquire civil rights. Sixteen of 
the smaller Prussian towns had also proclaimed this restric- 
tion which, so far from being an innovation, had already 
been imposed by the Hanseatic League more than a century 
ago. For a very long time the war between these German 
towns and the Scottish petitioners was waged with great 
bitterness, and, at first sight, we do not expect ever to 
hear of any Scottish-German citizens within the length 
and breadth of Prussia. 

The law, however, was more severe in its letter than in 
its administration. There were various ways of bringing 
a certain amount of pressure to bear upon the city fathers, 
and it goes without saying that in availing themselves of 
these the Scots had no equals. First of all, there was the 
intercession of the sovereign and other men of influence, 
and secondly — a more pleasant way — the fact of having 
married a German lady, the daughter of a native of the place. 

In Danzig we find after the year 1 5 77, in which the 
Scots together with the other citizens so valiantly helped to 
drive off the King of Poland, a number of applications for 
the freedom of the city at the intercession of the Scottish 
Colonel ; thus Andreas Moncreiff in 1577, Osias Kilfauns 

^ This was considered a monopoly of the townspeople. They com- 
plain most bitterly against ** the cunning Scots who use the calmest, nay 
the * holiest ' nights to put whole bales of their goods into boats, sail up 
the riTer, and smuggle great quantities of merchandise " (1678 Jan* iSth), 
K^L St. yfrchivf Konigsberg* 



44 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

,m 1578,^ and in the same year George Patterson. In 
1580 or 1 58 1, to keep the ball rolling, eight Scotsmen 
apply for the burgess-ship on the same grounds. Their 
names are Steen, Donaldson, Lockerbie, Simpson, New- 
man, Henton, More (or Murray). This William Locker- 
bie from Domfries (I) writes again in 1 609, after wishing 
a blissful rule to the magistrates : ^' I, poor man that I 
am, will not withhold from you, that I haye been at 
Danzig for the last thirty-six years, haying served in 
the wars as a soldier, married and reared children, and 
lived for twenty years on the Vendeten.* I have dragged 
myself to the f^irs of the small towns back and forward 
and thus kept myself, my wife, and my children alive with 
sorrow. Now the Almighty has taken my children and 
left me lonely together with my decrepit, sick old woman. 
Moreover, I am getting old, and being loth to travel, I 
should like to earn my bread honourably and with the 
help of God, as long as it pleases Him to prolong my life. 
But, because I need to be enrolled as a burgess for that, 
and having served this town in time of need and being 
still willing to serve it faithfully as long as I live, my 
prayer is, that you would grant my humble request and 
endow me with the citizens' rights as a Vendeter, for 
which I am ready to pay the necessary sum."^ 

Thomas Gregor in 1589 and 1592, and Thomas GrifEn 
or Grieff in 1583 adopt the same course, the latter adding 
^''that he had been sworn in as a soldier in the defence of 
the city and did not spare his gray hah-." In a similar strain 
Jacob Brown (Brunaeus), addresses the Danzig Courts in 

^ **Av£ Forpitt (interceasion) des Scbottiachen Herrn Obertten/' 
Compare Litt of Scottish Citizens at Danzig, in Part III. 

' A Vendeter or Venteter was an old-clothes man, also a pedlar, small 
trader* The Ventete was the place or street where this trade was carried on« 

' KgL St* jirehiv'f Danzig. 



THE SCOTTISH TILADER. 45 

1592. He writes: "I beg to state that I haye liyed in 
this good town more than twenty years, and haye by the 
grace of God and my own actiyity earned my Hying, and 
although in the last war I, being under no obligation, 
might with others haye sought my advantage elsewhere, 
yet haye I, without any pay, from sheer good nature and 
special affection, taken part m all the skirmishes under 
Captain Gourlay, and, after he was drowned, under Captain 
Trotter, haying been shot through the leg in consequence 
of my willingness on one of the bastions. Now, haying 
senred this good town in times of need to the risk of my 
life, I dkl so in the hope, that in the future, when I should 
be wishing to settle in this place, you would grant my request 
and enroll me on the list of your burgesses/' ^ Indeed it is 
stated in the petition of Gregor that ciyil rights were pro- 
mised to all Scots at the Colonel's intercession in or about 
1577, "provided they be faithful and of honest birth."* 

At other times we read of the intercession of Kings and 
Queens. One Jacob Hill and his friend John Tamson, 
towards the end of the XVIth Century, depend upon the 
recommendation of the King and Queen of Poland 
Sophia 'Charlotte, wife of the Markgraf of Brandenburg, 
intercedes for Andrew Marshall, a Scottish merchant, who 
desires to settle at Konigsberg. ^^ His character is known 
to us, his conduct is irreproachable," she writes (April 29, 
1690). Prince Radziwill intercedes for William Buchan ; 
and the good senrices of His Majesty the King of Great 
Britain are on seyeral occasions appealed to and obtained. 

The King of Poland pleads for seyeral Scotsmen, 
candidates for the citizenship of Danzig, at the request of 
Andrew Keith, Baron of Dingwall. But the third Order 

1 KgL St, ^rchivf Danzig. 

' Gabriel Foster obtains ciril rights at Bartenstein at the intercession 
of Captain Caspar Sack in 1 588. 



46 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

objects, because the city was OTerrun with strangers, and 
their own daily business interfered with by them (1588). 

With the nobility of the country, as well as with the 
ruling powers, the Scots had managed to live on terms of 
friendly intercourse. They had lent them money; they 
were raised to the high position of royal merchants in 
Poland ; they procured among other things the cloth for 
the uniforms of the soldiery in Prussia and had ingratiated 
themselves with the rulers by many other friendly services, 
such as offering to procure dogs for them from England,^ 
or silks and velvets from other countries. 

Numberless, in consequence, were the appeals to the 
different Dukes of Prussia from Scotsmen wishing to be 
enrolled as citizens of any of the towns of their Duchy. 
Indeed, these poor Dukes must have led a miserable life 
between the complaints of the guilds of merchants, clothiers, 
tailors, shoemakers and furriers against the Scots, and of the 
^' afiBicted " Scots against these, and, finally, having to listen 
to their recalcitrant and obstinate magistrates, especially 
those of Konigsberg, their capital, whose views did not 
coincide with the more liberal and broad-minded treatment 
of strangers inhabiting their towns proposed by the Head 
of the State. Already, in 1589, in the case of the Scottish 
pedlars, whose trade had been so seriously crippled by the 

^ William Watson writes to the Duke Albrerht of Prussia in 1 544 from 
Danzig : ** My brother Richard asked me in a letter to send some English 
dogs to Your Grace. I have ordered some^ and they have been put on 
board a vessel. Of these three one jumped overboard ; the other two can 
be fetched from Jiirgen RudlofF, the skipper. In case Your Grace wanted 
more, it would be well to let me know if You want them young or old. 
I shall then willingly order them." He also offers to procure court 
dresses or dress material for the Duke. — KgL St, Archiv^ Ronigsberg 
(Herzogliches Brief Archiv). Jacob Ramsay, asking for a passport for 
his servant, offers to bring fine cloth and silks to the Duke (1590) — Ibid* 
Already a century previous Jacob Wricht had made purchases of cloth, 
velvet and damask for the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order (1475). 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 47 

Ducal decrees forbidding their hawking about the country 
except on settled fair days, George Frederick the then 
Markgraf of Brandenburg or Duke of Prussia, had proyed 
his humane inclinations. It is true, neither he nor his 
successors could put themselves in opposition to the trades 
or emancipate themselves from the trading principles then 
adopted, so far as to give the pedlar free trade, or throw 
open the gates of the cities to the merchant-stranger. By 
doing so they would have had to override trade and city 
privileges sanctioned ages ago. But they could mitigate 
harsh laws as far as possible, and by an occasional ^^ sic 
volo sic jubeo " assert their own royal prerogatives against 
those of the cities. 

The case of 1589 was this. Hans Drum and his son, 
Scotsmen, had appeared before him protesting, that they, 
though acknowledging their duty to abstain from hawking, 
had given goods on credit and lent money up and down 
the country previous to the promulgation of the Duke's 
decrees, and that he could not recover these debts now, 
when the " Scots on the highways were seized and over- 
powered whether they carried their merchandise about 
them or no," without a letter of protection. This letter 
the Duke granted for the said purpose, and promised him 
protection throughout the whole extent of his dominions, 
with the exception only of the sea-board, where he was 
not allowed to set foot. From January till the next Easter 
the letter was to be in force, and its protection was 
extended to fifteen or sixteen other Scotsmen, and in the 
following year (1590) to two more: Hans Adie and 
Andrew Park.^ 

The same desire of mitigating the rigour of the law 
and of stemming the tide of petty persecution that had set 
in against the Scot in the towns was shown by the rulers 

^ Kgh St, Arcbiv^ Konigsberg. 



48 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

of Prassia on many occasions, giTing rise to much angry 
correspondence between the ciril rulers of the towns and 
their Soyereign. 

In Rastenburg, in 1 570, the magistrates return a petition 
of Zander Wilson, praying the Duke not to interfere with 
their ancient rights; ^'Let him settle elsewhere." And 
when, in 1594, a Scot named Andrew Schott asks to be 
enrolled as burgess, the magistrates immediately write to 
the Duke stating that they had never conferred civil 
rights on any but Germans, least of all on the Scots, who 
were given to all sorts of ^^ cunning devices " and cheating 
practices, enriching themselves and impoverishing the 
native trader. They go on quoting the case of a Scot 
at Bartenstein who, even although he married a citizen's 
daughter, was not admitted as a burgess and had to 
remove elsewhere. Moreover, the candidate was said 
to deal in amber '^secretly on the sea coast." In 1627, 
Rastenburg again refuses to admit a Scot with the name 
of David Hunter, for the same reasons. ^^ Such a thing 
never happened before," the letter of the magistrates says, 
^^ except once in the case of Andrew Ruperten Sohn 
(Robertson), at the intercession of the most gracious 
Lady the Duchess, who was then staying in the town 
during the time of the plague (at KSnigsberg ?)." 

Many complaints reach the Prince from Riesenburg, 
another small town. Andrew Rutherford had acquired 
civil rights there on account of the Prince's intercession 
about 1 560 ; ^ but when his widow had married another 

1 << Because Andrew Rutherford ( Rudersfurt) has performed all the 
duties of a citizen^ paying taxes, working at the fortifications, and so 
forth, and has also proved his honest birth by birth briefs, His Grace wishes 
him to be admitted as a citizen, and like his neighbours in their town of 
Riesenburg, to earn his bread by brewing, distilling and the sale of small 
merchandise. This is granted to him provided no deceit or false dealing 
be proved against him " (1561). — KgL St jfrcUv^ Konigsberg. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 49 

Scotsman and complained that the town did not give him 
these rights as well, the magistrates* reply was that in the 
meantime the rule had been adopted only to receiye 
Germans as citizens (1565). 

In Memel the magistrates, in a letter to the Duke, 
assert their right to refuse any but German burgesses, 
according to the statute-law of Cologne, which had been 
adq>ted by them. Theirs being a border town one Scot 
would draw many other Scots after him, and the con- 
sequence would be *^ that if the Lord gaye them daughters, 
their countrymen would conclude marriages and settle 
there, whereby we Germans would be oppressed. More- 
oyer, no trust could be placed in a Scotsman in times 
of need." This was their argument, and the Duke's reply 
and decision ran : ^4f you can show real priyileges and haye 
not giyen citizens* rights to other strangers already, your 
supplication shall be granted ** ; thus leaying a door open 
to the petitioner, one Hans Mancke (Mackey.^, whose 
condition was rendered all the more pitiful, since the 
yalidity of his promise of marriage had been made 
conditional upon his acquiring ciyil rights (2nd of May 
i6o6).» 

Another petition, signed by William Turner, Hans 
Bessett and Zander Bisset, Scotsmen of Memel, refers to 
former decrees in fayour of the admission of the Scots 
granted by Markgraf Joachim Friedrich in 1606, May 
and, and in 1608, July 5th; also by the father of the 
present Duke, Markgraf Johann Sigismund, in 161 1, 
Jan. loth, and complains of the dilatoriness of the 
magistates who had postponed the final meeting in this 
matter of dyil rights till October on account of the great 
fair ; though this fair was no business of theirs, and their 
purpose no other but to humble the Scottish nation and 

^ f^L Sl jfrcUvf KoDigsberg. 

D 



so THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

make it lose all patience.^ They wanted to elude the 
term, for in the end of October the ice was just beginning 
to bear on the Haff, rendering all trayelling most difficult ; 
the delay was indeed rooted only in the unwillingness of 
the authorities to show reason why the Scots should not 
enjoy the privileges of citizens when they did bear a 
citizen's burdens. Petitioners therefore pray to fix upon 
the earlier date of the ist of September for their meeting. 

In 1627 and again in 1636, by decree* of the Duke, 
the town of Memel was permitted until further notice to 
exact from the Scots who were admitted to the privileges 
of burgess ^^ the sum of one hundred thaler, in considera- 
tion of the great hardships it had to endure during the 
Swedish occupation in 1629- 1635, and of the exhausted 
state of its treasury.'' If the Scots were admitted in- 
discriminately they would deprive the inhabitants of their 
living, the decree says. In consequence of this high 
fee difficulties arose ; a Scotsman with the name of 
Gilbert refusing to pay more than 100 mark, although 
he neither served the town in times of war, nor had he 
stayed in it for a considerable length of time. As he was, 
moreover, a man of means, it was hoped that the Duke 
would not listen to his representations. Thus the Mayor 
and Town Councillors of Memel wrote in 1642, April loth, 
and the Duke saw no reason for changing his mind. 

Of all the cities in his realm, it was his own capital, 
however, that gave him most trouble. Fierce and long 
were the conflicts between the Dukes and the magis- 
trates of Konigsberg on account of the Scots. Let us 
take a few typical instances. 

Ab-eady in 1624 a Scotsman with the name of Dick 
tried hard to obtain civil rights there, and was finally 

1 ** Matt und miirbe machen.'' 

^ Dated Jan. 27, 1636. KgL St. jircbiv^ Konigsberg. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 51 

successful. But odIj after a roost determined resistance 
on the part of the city authorities. The latter wrote 
to the Duke complaining that Dick attempted to wrest 
the ciyil rights from them with his " cunning practices ; " ^ 
that he had certain friends among the councillors of the 
township of Kneiphof, and that he had approached the 
Duke in order to gain his intercession per importunas 
preces. Dick, it appears, relied on the fact of his having 
married the daughter of a famous Prussian legal adviser 
to the Crown, one Johannes Mirander. King Sigismund 
III. of Poland also supported his claim in a Latin letter 
to the magistrates, dated Warsaw, May 3rd, 1624, in 
which the merits of Mirander are extolled ; nor did the 
Churfiirst George Wilhelm hesitate to join issue with his 
royal cousin. He insisted on this candidature being an 
exceptional one, and pleaded with the town council not 
to consider Dick as a Scotsman, but as the husband of his 
wife.* Kneiphof, however, not only refused to enroll 
him but distrained his goods. Again it required the 
severe reproof of their sovereign, and even threats, to 
make the magistrates relent, restore the property to its 
owner (1626), and grant his request. 

Churfiirst (Elector) Frederick William in 1642 had 
yielded to the request of Hans Dennis, who had produced 
letters of recommendation from the Kings of England 
and of Poland, and granted him liberty of trading not 
only ^^ throughout our duchy by land and water, but 
chiefly also in and around our town of Konigsberg ; by 
which he may trade in cloth, woollen stuflFs, silks and 
other goods with the strangers and inhabitants at the 
annual fairs, especially those at Candlemas and Michael- 

^ <<Mit List nnd Practiken." 

' Letter dated Dec. 4, 1624. KgL St. jfrcbtv^ Konigsberg. About 
Mirander see also p. 36. 



S% THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

mas, freely and unrestrictedly. In this we will protect 
him against the magistrates of any place/* Soon this 
ominous addition was to be put to the test In the year 
1 644 Dennis's goods are distrained in the town on the pre- 
tence that he secretly carried his wares about by night ; that 
he had hired a house ; that he had made purchases outside 
the city boundaries ; and that he had defrauded the customs. 
The Churfursty on hearing of the matter, ordered his goods 
to be released, and sent for Dennis. He proposed to him 
to move his quarters to the Liberties and to restrict his 
trading to cloths. He might freely visit Memel and Tilsit 
and the rent of his house would not be required of him. 

Now the guild of merchants as the defendant showed 
itself at fib-st very hard and not at all inclined to desist 
from its suit ; it had also made such prc^sals of settle^ 
ment as could not be accepted by Dennis. They com- 
plain that Dennis had bought a house in the Kneip- 
hofische Langgasse, where he carried on business with 
strangers and natives alike for mere ^^ bravado" and 
against former orders of the Duke, and they actually 
propose to force not only Dennis but all other Scots that 
dwelt in the suburb of Kneiphof, occupying houses in the 
best situations with their families and receiving their 
countrymen as guests from abroad and from the country 
districts, to leave the town as quickly as possible. Finally, 
however, the guild gave in, and from the law courts of 
K5nigsberg the case was transferred to the Duke for his 
arbitration. The following conditions were proposed by 
the town : i , Dennis resigns his privileges ; 2, he settles 
on the Ducal liberties ; 3, he may buy his goods from 
the citizens and sell them either to strangers or to natives 
by the 6ll ; 4, the defendants have to be compensated for 
their expenses ; 5, insulting words or writings have to be 
retracted by Dennis. These conditions were considered 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. S3 

too hard ; Dennis is howeyer willing to concede i and 2 
if he had liberty to bring his goods from Elbing and 
Danzig and Thorn and sell them to strangers or natives 
alike by the piece and by the ell the whole year through. 
The Duke holds out the possibility that Dennis would 
restrict his commercial transactions to the trade in cloth 
and expects that an arrangement could be made with the 
widow from whom Dennis had hired the house for a term 
of six years, three of them having yet to run, so that he 
would not be pressed for the rent. As to law expenses 
he proposes share and share alike. To this the deputies 
of the town reply, that if Dennis was to restrict his trad- 
ing to cloth only, they would try to persuade the Guild 
to grant him one of the Konigsberg fairs where he could 
then make purchases sufficient for his living. They also 
agree after some more parley to allow him the great Dominic 
fiadr at Danzig as well as the fairs of Elbing and Thorn. 
Finally an arrangement is arrived at, according to which 
the Duke recedes from his privilege, Dennis settles on 
the Liberties, trades in cloth only, promises to pay an 
instalment on his rent and to revoke his insults as spoken 
and written ^^ nullo injuriandi ammo. ^ On the other hand 
he is free to buy his goods at the towns and times 
mentioned (but not from ships on the river and not dearer 
than at 6 gulden the yard), and to sell them here at 
Konigsberg and in the country towns to anyone by the 
piece or by the ell not only at the fairs but at all times 
unrestrictedly. In this way a reconciliation was effected 
in 1645 ^^ ^^ 22nA of November.^ 

1 The magistrates were unwilling also to enroll Dennis because of his 
religion. He had stoutly declared that he belonged neither to the Roman 
Catholic nor to the Lutheran, but to the Presbyterian Church, in which he 
had been born and brought up and in which he intended to remain 
(April 1 642). KgL St. jircbk>^ Konigsberg. 



54 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Some time later, aboat the year 1657, another ex- 
change of strongly worded letters took place between 
the Duke and the magistrates. ^^ Next to the loss of our 
means of subsistence,'' the latter say, ^^ the impairment of 
our privileges and customs must be our most anxious con- 
sideration. We therefore pray You not to receive our 
petition ungraciously since we have sworn solemnly to 
defend our civil liberties. As great difficulties are raised 
in these days about the conferring of civil rights upon 
strangers, we must insist on the fact that as long as our 
town of Konigsberg is in existence this has not been 
done indiscriminately, but only after due consideration of 
the petitioner's birth-place, his married state, etc. Above 
all, foreign nations, especially the Scots and the Dutch, 
have been refused admission to our rolls of burgesses. 
For this law, not unknown to Your Grace, there have 
been very weighty reasons, among others the fear of in- 
troducing foreign manners and customs. Nor do our 
own people in England or Scotland enjoy civil rights and 
unrestricted trading liberties. In spite of all this, two 
Scotsmen, Gilbert Ramsay, Andrew Bitch ^ and others by 
their importunate prayers have obtained intercessions 
from Your Highness and the privilege of free-trade and 
civil rights, though hitherto this concession has belonged 
to the magistrates only and has always been left undis- 
turbed ; whilst the principle has been confirmed by 
Markgraf Johann Sigismund in his decree of 161 3, para- 
graph 4." Then the letter reminds the Prince of former 
decrees against the Scots issued by his forefathers, and 
of the fact that in the case of Dennis he had promised 
not to create a precedent, and concludes with the old 
assertion that their trade would be ruined by the influx 
of the Scots. In conclusion they maintain their ancient 

^ The Churfiirst had interceded for these two men in 1656. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. $5 

priyileges and mention incidentally that the Scots, so far 
from having enjoyed equal rights with the citizens, had 
only been tolerated in their city, and that only during a 
certain time of the year, whilst they had had to leave in 
winter. To admit one or two Scots as burgesses would 
mean to admit many, on account of their extraordinary 
clannishness.^ 

In spite of all this opposition, guilds and civil authorities 
had to yield to the Duke's pressure and after having 
used their last resource, that of distraining these Scots- 
men's goods, they had to admit Ramsay and Ritch among 
the number of their citizens. 

Other instances presented the same difficulty owing to 
the obstmacy of the town guild and ma^strates. Take 
the case of Johann Ej-ehl (Crail) who had applied for ad- 
mission to the roll of citizens in Konigsberg. As usual 
the magistrates refuse on the ground of his being a 
stranger. Ej-ehl appeals to the Duke. 

In his petition, dated 1676, he stated that his goods, 
though properly re^stered at the Custom House, had 
been twice distrained and his offer to find security been 
rejected; nay, the magistrates of the three towns ap- 
parently ^^ tried to ruin me by appealing from one court 
to another, under the pretext that I, not being a citizen, 
had no right to trade at all. And yet," he continues, ^^ I 
have carried on my business unmolested on the Castle 
Liberties and under protection of the Duke for nearly 
sixteen years, having previously served my time with 
Gilbert Ramsay, now a citizen and a merchant in the 
town of Kneiphof, for which I again beg to thank Your 
Grace most humbly. To supply this want I am most 
ready to acquire citizens' rights ; but here again they 
refuse to admit me ^^ propter Nationemy Now, as I have 

^ ** Sie kleben an einander.'^ 



S6 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

no othar profession nor have learned any other trade by 
which I could earn bread for my wife and children . • « 
I should be compelled, if I be not allowed to trade here, 
to remove with my poor family to another place, and 
because others of my nation who live on the Liberties ^ 
would for the like reasons be forced to do what I did, 
Your Grace's customs would be deprived annually of a 
considerable sum. But because Your Grace's whole and 
well-known intention has always been to let everybody 
carry on his business securely in your domains, I pray to 
have my goods restored and my application for the citizen- 
ship granted." 

Thereupon the Duke, in 1677, issues the following 
letter : <^ John Krehl, a merchant in the Castle Liberties, 
has approached us and informed us how he had lived in 
Konigsberg almost from his boyhood up, and how after 
having attained ripe years, he had for more than sixteen 
years carried on his business there. He also complains 
that he has not been able, in spite of all his effi>rts, to 
obtain the rights of a burgess, on account of his being 
of Scottish extraction. He begs of us to intercede on 
his behalf. Now we are fully aware of the decrees 
issued by our diets in this matter, and we have no inten- 
tion to annoy you, but you will easily see for yourselves 
how ungracious a thing it would be on your part to let 
Krehl, a man who has dwelt among you so long and has 
been carrymg on a large trade, the benefits of which in 
taxes and duties you also reap, come under the common 
rule of the exclusion of Scotsmen, and to put him on a 
level with a stranger who only recently put foot in your 
town and as to whose intentions you are utterly ignorant. 
Such harsh treatment would be a discredit and a detri- 

^ The iDhabitants of the Liberties were not counted for full by the 
inhabitants of the towns of Kdnigsberg. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. $7 

ment to you and yours. It would be a disgrace in the 
eyes of the strangers and above all of the English nation, 
between which and the Scottish there is such excellent 
understanding (!) and with which you carry on so much 
<xHnmerce. We do not doubt, therefore, that you will 
take eyerything into due consideration, and that you will 
not refuse to admit Krehl as a burgess ; especially since 
this case shall not establish any precedent. 

Giyen in t|ie camp before Stettin, July loth, 1677.*** 
Still the magistrates remained obstinate, and the dispute 
grew in bitterness, especially when the Duke Frederick 
'William had granted Krehl's son, a lad of sixteen, the 
vemam atatis or majority, ostensibly because he had 
done well in business, and could manage for himself, in 
reality only to inyalidate the objection of being a stranger 
in the boy's case, who, being a German by birth, now 
had a right to claim citizenship (i68a). It was a 
cleyer stroke, but the civil authorities were still masters 
of the situation. They reply by another move. On 
the 30th of November the Duke writes to them : " We 
let you know that John Krehl complained that you 
refused his son civil rights under the pretext that he was 
not married yet, and that you also wrongfully seized five 
pieces of his clotL Now, as there are no other valid 
reasons to be brought against this son, to whom we have 
granted the veniam atoHs in order to let him continue his 
father's business, surely his being not married would 
make no difficulty. For although you may have in your 
laws certain passages to that effect, yet is it known that 
you yourselves have often made a change and have given 
to those who applied for civil rights, being bachelors, a 
certain time within which they might marry. This course 
would be the one to adopt in young KrehFs case until 

^ KgU St. jfrcUvf Kooigsberg* 



58 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

his years pennit him to take a wife. We therefore 
order you to restore the five pieces of cloth, and to 
remove the cause of his complaint. (1682, November 

3othy " 

As was to be expected the council and the magistrates 

persist in their refusal to receive young Krehl on the 

roll of burgesses. ^^ We will not admit boys instead of 

men ** they say. " When Your Grace recommends some 

one as a new member to the nobility, either his or his 

ancestors* merits are considered, but we can find nothing 

in Klrehl; he being still so young that he can neither 

carry on an ordinary conversation nor do useful services ; 

and as to the old one he is so obstinate and importunate 

that he not only ruins the guilds, but also disgraces 

the magistrates by his slanderous counter-statements and 

reports. The money he has accumulated in Prussia has 

made him insolent. Let him pay a fine of 1000 gulden.*'* 

This was in February 1683. In September of the same 

year Krehl's goods are at last restored after a severe letter 

of the Duke threatening to mulct the magistrates of 2000 

thaler. A good many more letters were required before 

the matter was finally settled by the Duke in a written 

order to the Konigsberg authorities to admit young 

fijrehl without fail and delay, in default whereof the 

threatened fine would certainly be exacted.* 

Sometimes the Scottish applicants for the honour of 
citizenship, when they did not rely on the intercession of 
royalty, preferred curious claims in their favour. 

Hans Abemethy from Aberdeen, .for instance, states on 
a similar occasion that he had married the daughter of 

^ KgL St. jfrchtVf Konigsberg. 

^ KgL St. jfrchivf Konigsberg (Kaufmannisches Archiv). 
' Letters dated 17th of January 1684, 7th of February and 7th of 
April 1684. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 59 

the bailie*8 man,^ and that he had provided the town of 
Danzig with butter for the last ten years. Jacob Hill 
and W. Tamson also married daughters of citizens, and 
have carried produce into the city. Alexander Demster 
(end of the XVIth Century) married the daughter of the 
clerk at the Com Exchange,' ^^ by whom he got nothing.** 
He had also for charity's sake taken his two sisters-in-law 
into his house after dieir father's death, ^^ one of them 
almost deaf.** 

No less remarkable were the conditions attached by 
the authorities to the enrolment of new burgesses. In 
Christburg, one Donalson has in a case like this to pro- 
mise only to marry a German girl on pain of losing his 
privileges (1640).* In the town of Posen not only had 
the candidates to present the town on their admission as 
citizens with ^Meather buckets** or a musket (^^sclopetum**), 
but they had also to conform to religious tests. In the 
year 1667 three other Scotsmen — Jacobus Joachimus 
Watson, George Edislay from Newbattle, and Wilhelmus 
Aberkrami (Abercrombie) from Aberdeen, are with 
others enrolled as burgesses after having produced their 
birth briefs. But this condition is added, that they 
should on Sundays and festival days go and hear the 
sermon at the Parish Church of S. Mary Magdalene and 
embrace the Roman Catholic faith within a year. In 
1630 three Scotsmen — ^Erasmus Lilitson^) from Aber- 
deen, and Gilbert Blenshel (7) and Georgius Gibson from 
Culross, produce letters from the King of Poland and are 
admitted as citizens on the pledge of Jacobus Braun, a 

^ ** Schulzendiener.'* There was a lower grade of citizenship at 
Danzig and a higher one. A higher fee waa charged for obtaining the 
latter, which comprised the merchants, and, in general, the better class 
people of the community. 

> «< Haberschreiber," Clerk of the Oats. 

* Schmidt, Gachkbte det Stubmer Kreuei^ Thorn, 1868, p. 133 f. 



€o THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

merchant at Posen. They promise to be present at all 
the Catholic services on festivals, and pay the large sum 
of 900 florins ^^ as wages for the poor workmen.*' 

It is only just, however, to add that these are the only 
two instances found out of a large number of Scottish 
names in the Civil Registers of Posen where a similar 
interference with the religious belief of the candi- 
date occurs. In two other cases the applicants are 
called ^'Calvini/* but no condition like ^e above is 
added.^ 

In Konigsberg David Grant is one of the few Scots 
who had gained the heart of the magistrates. Conskieiv 
ing that he had lived quietly and retired for thirty years 
in the town, and that neither his neighbours on account 
of his domestic life, nor the guilds of citizens on account 
of injury done to their trade ever complained of him ; 
considering also that he, after the death of his first wife, 
married the daughter of a German citizen, whereby he 
became rekited to and befriended with good and well-to- 
do people, and that the ministers of the Church give him 
an excellent character for piety; considering lastly that 
the guild of merchants intercedes for him, the magis- 
trates grant him permission to acquire his own house and 
to keep it, without, however, establishing a precedent 
(Sept. 5, i622).» 

Significant is the addition made when Thomas Smart 
from Dundee was admitted into the ranks of Danzig 
citizens ; it runs : ^^ but he is to refrain from buying up 
noblemen's estates" (1639).* Read together with the 

^ See the list of Scotdah citizens at Poten, a most taggettiTe and 
interesting document, in Part III. 

^ Stiu^ Arcbiv^ Konugberg. This is the only example of the magis- 
trates looking fayoorably upon the ciril claims of the Scots. But what 
an imposing catalogue of virtues was demanded in exchange ! 

* KgL St. jfrcIuVf Danzigy xxiii. D. 28. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 61 

notice to be found in a document in which John and 
Andrew Tamson complain ^^of haying lent more than 
two tuns of gold to noblemen of the Polish kingdom on 
the security of their estates, of which large sum nothing 
could be recovered in consequence of the Cossack warriors** 
(1653), this speculation in landed estates does not seem 
to have been a very profitable one. 

Curious to say that in very many cases the young 
Scottish burgess who had encountered such great diffi- 
culties in gaining admission, now rapidly rose in the public 
estimation of his fellow-citizens. We find him in positions 
of trust as mayor, councillor, elder or president of the 
{^Ids. For the latter also had been obliged to open 
their gates most reluctantly at first, more willingly after 
the second generation of the Scot, retaining its Scottish 
name but bom in the country ^^of right, free German 
kind,** as the old documents call it, had grown up within 
the walls of a German city. In KSnigsberg, where 
popular prejudice and hatred of the stranger made itself 
much more noisily heard than at Danzig, there appear as 
members of the guild of merchants in the year 1690 — 
Charles Ramsay, son of Gilbert, another Charles Ramsay, 
Jacob Kuick, Jacob Herrie, John Brooke, Adam Fullert 
and William Ritch. In the same year Thomas Herrie^ 
a young merchant, applies for admission, stating that he 
was already a burgess, had been duly sworn in and was 
quite ready to submit to the laws of the guild. The 
elders thereupon declare their willingness to admit him 
as a guild brother on this condition that if he did not 
marry within a year's time, he should lose his ciyil rights 
as well as his guild priyileges. And since the reception 
of one unmarried was uncommon, not only were the laws 
read out to him, but he was also given to understand that 
he would do well to consent to an extra fee for admission to 



62 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

the guild. This admonition proved so effective that he 
subscribed ninety gulden, adding voluntarily another ten 
gulden for the treasury; setting, as the document quaintly 
adds, ^^a glorious example to his successors; and many 
were the wishes for his prosperity and happiness. May 
God keep him strong and in good health, so that he may 
work with much profit and acceptance in this honourable 
guild ! " 1 

The elders or presidents of the guild had each year on 
the accession to their office to deliver a long speech, 
which was duly reported in the minute-books. Now 
this must have been a hard task for some of the Scottish 
members. It explains, perhaps, why a good many bought 
themselves out, among them the above named William 
Ritch. In a marginal note of the minute-book of the 
guild we find this addition (1690) : *^ the money has not 
been paid yet, Ritch having gone to the wars in 
England." » 

But not only in the guilds, in Church and State matters 
also the Scots after they had settled in the towns, took 
an active part. They contributed liberally to all public 
undertakings and to all charitable institutions, especially 
the hospitals ; they were among the most active of the 
great German patriots who helped to shake off the yoke 
of a foreign tyrant.^ But their own Scottish community 
or ^^ nation," as it was then called, always remained 
nearest to their hearts. Their care for their own poor 
had almost become proverbial. There is not an important 
event in their families which did not find an expression in 
a donation to "our dear poor." In the dusty — ^very 
dusty — records of the Church of SS. Peter and Paul and 

^ WiUkurhuch der KndfhoJUchen Kaufmanns%unft (Roll of the Mer- 
chants' Guild at Konigsberg). For complete list of Scottish members 
from 1 602- 1 750 see Part III. 

3 Compare Scots m Germany^ pp. 272 ff. and elsewhere. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 63 

St Elizabeth, the two Presbyterian places of worship at 
Danzig, the congregations of which were largely joined 
by Scotch and Dutch,^ we find numerous and touching 
instances of this. Gourlay in 1682 gives two hundred 
gulden to the poor-box in memory of his son killed at 
Blois in France ; T. Carmichael contributes twelve gulden 
after the death of his ^^Sohnlein" Jacob; CoL Patterson 
gives six gulden on the occasion of the baptism of his 
son, whilst Chapman (16 19), Lumsdel, Ramsay (1672), 
Thomas Leslie, Robert Tevendale and D. Davidson ' on a 
like occasion contributed ten gulden each. Now as some 
of the Scottish families boasted of many children, the 
poor must have fared rather well We are glad to read 
that the same Carmichael was comforted for the loss of 
his ^^ Sohnlein " by the birth of another son m 1691 and 
of another in the following year : the Scottish poor pro- 
fiting each time twenty -four gulden. The Turner 
brothers, Andrew and William, also show the same liberal 
spirit, and so does Alexander Ross who at one time sends 
his contribution accompanied by the words : ^^ A debt of 

1 The Dutch had their own <* Church Books" written in Dutch, but 
of Scottish records written in English no trace could be discovered. 

^ Davidson wrote a sketch of his own life. The manuscript is in 
the Town Library of Danzig. He was bom at Zamosc in Poland in 1 647. 
His father, bom 1 591 at Edinburgh, came to Poland in 1606, served six 
years as a boy and three years as jouraejrman, after which he com« 
menced his own business. Later he came to Danzig where he ** by the 
advice of his friend Robert Tevendail," married a daughter of AL 
Aidie, the scholar. In 1683 he was enrolled as citizen and became 
President of the Board of the Smallpox Hospital, then a most important 
institution and one much favoured by the Scots in their last wills. He 
was also an elder at St Peter^s Church. His daughter married one John 
Clerk in 1699 and received as dowry the large sum of 25,000 gulden. 
In his will he left brge bequests to the poor, exhibitions for Polish 
students of the Calvinistic faith and legacies to the widows and orphans 
of Danzig. His name is also written Davisson* 



64 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

due gratitude to the Great God for the safe deliyery of 
his beloved wife" (1702).^ 

The same national spirit prevailed among the Scottish 
nation of Konigsberg. Unfortunately we have hardly 
any Church Records there, beyond what was told in our 
third chapter of ^^The Scots in Germany"; but the 
following document, dated May 27, 1636 ' will go far to 
prove it. It is signed by the Burggraf, i.e. the repre* 
sentative of the Sovereign who was at the same time the 
President of the Board of the Great Hospital in Lobe- 
nicht, and runs : 

^^ This day there appeared before us the representatives 
of the whole Scottish nation dwelling in this city and 
made known to us how they were unanimously of 
the opinion that it would be necessary and jMroper to 
have their own room or lodgment in the hospital, in 
which not only their servants but also their countrymen 
could find a refuge, comfort and assistance when they 
came here by land or by water and were according to 
God's will taken ill or fell into poverty. Now since they 
know of no other place so well provided for and fitted up 
as the large hospital of Lobenicht, where in such cases 
of necessity the sick would best be cared for, they there^ 
fore applied to us and urgently requested us to let them 
have a room and a small room for the sum of 1 500 mark 
and an annual perpetual rent due at Easter 1 637 of twenty 
mark. In answer to this request we, the masters of the 
hospital, have promised the above representatives of the 
Scottish nation to build them a room thirty-six feet long 
and broad, also another small apartment of about eight 
feet width but of the same length as the large room ; in 

1 Much prettier hi German : << Aus tchuldiger Dankbarkeit dem 
groesen Gott vor (sic) gliickliche Entbindung seiner Eheliebsten." 
^ KgL St. ArchiVf Kdnigsberg, Schieblade xxxii. 33. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 65 

the meantime we have assigned to them for their use a 
Tacant room situated near the gate, which they will haye 
to give up as soon as the new rooms haye been built. 
These new rooms they will haye to keep in repair for all 
time and to furnish with beds, bed-dothes, tables, seats, 
wardrobes and other furniture, and they will haye a 
right to make use of the rooms as their own property for 
their chUdren, servants and countrymen, should illness or 
poverty overtake them (which Gkxl prevent). But they 
ought to apply in such cases to the master and bring a 
letter from one of then: elders to prevent imposition. 
The sick shall then be taken in willingly and shall be 
furnished with the needful food and drink, wood for 
heating purposes, light and other necessaries as far as 
the means of the hospital allow ; and in order that there 
be no want of good and faithful nursing, a man and a 
woman, whom tlie Scots may select and submit to the 
approval of the hospital governors, shall be appointed for 
these rooms. In the case of death all moneys owned or 
acquired during the illness, all goods and clothes shall 
become the property of the hospital The same rule 
applies to those afflicted with morbo GallicOy who 
shall have been brought into these or other rooms at the 
request of the elders for their recovery; only that in 
such case the person afflicted with this abomination of 
the French shall be holden to pay his medical fee to the 
barber. Signed with my own hand. 

The Oberst Burgorap." 

In their marriages also a strong national tendency shows 
itself. It is true, in a great many cases the daughters of 
German citizens were chosen, especially in the second 
generation, and very often, it is to be feared, for the 
purpose of getting on socially as well as politically. But 



66 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

whereyer there were no such reasons, as a rule, the Scots- 
man preferred his own blood. Unfortunately, shall we 
say, the choice among Scotch girls was not a large one ; 
but then there were the widows. The widow of a Scots- 
man in Germany never had to wait very long before she 
was led to the altar again by one of her own nation. 
Numerous entries in the marriage register of the Presby- 
terian Churches of Danzig prove this. The very first 
name we meet is that of James Burges, who in 1573 
marries the widow of Simon Lang. In 1647, Alex. 
Nairn, a Scotch lieutenant, marries John Irvin's widow ; 
H. Saunders leads Davidson's widow to the altar in 1651. 
Other entries are : Hans Morton marries Mary Robertson ; 
Jacob Meldrum, Christina Balfour in 1629; William 
Balfour marries Anna Pilgram in 1 63 1 ; ^ Jacob Littlejohn, 
Barbara Edwards (1634); George Dempster marries 
Elizabeth Steven ; and Thomas Philip, the daughter of 
Hans Kant (1635); Elizabeth Muttray (Aberdeen) is 
chosen by Albert Bartelt (?), a Scotch glover ; John Wood 
marries Maria Robertson (1654) ; and Francis Gordon, 
the Consular Agent of Britain in 1655, Margaret, the 
daughter of James Porteous, a late minister in Scotland. 

At the christenings, too, godfathers and godmothers were 
mostly chosen from amongst their own people. Hans Tam- 
son has a ^'Sohnlein*' baptised in 1631, godfather and 
godmother are Williamson and Anne Pilgram. For David 
BiePs son Nathaniel Andrew Thin, ^^noch ein Schottsmann,'* 
and James Smith's wife perform the duty (1632) ; whilst 
William Balfour is godfather to David Moritz's (Morriss) 
son Henry, and again to Arnt Pilgram's son Jacob, together 
with Jacob Meldrum's wife and the German Suhnefelt.^ 

1 William Balfour married a second time in 1636. His wife was 
Maria von Hoffen. 
> See the Records of the Churches of SS. Peter and Paul and of St 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. (^j 

If Scottish children or widows required guardians, or a 
Scottish plaintiff or testator, witnesses : again we invari- 
ably come across Scottish names. All business transactions 
that had to be carried on by commissioners or delegates 
lay in the hands of Scotsmen. Thus David Nisbet gives 
Jacob Rhodo Q) at Danzig, power to call in certain 
moneys owed by A. Guthrie (1619) ; or David Maxwell 
as the assignee of the brothers George and Alexander 
Bruce ^^ de Camok," gives a receipt to J. Rowan at Danzig 
for a certain sum of money, whereby two contracts 
entered into at Culross and Edinburgh become void 
(1627). Thus Patrick and Thomas Aitkenhead depute 
R. Tevendale and D. Davidson concerning the property 
left by David Aitkenhead (1689).^ Or Anna Moir at 
Danzig appoints George Falconer to receive a legacy left 
to her children from the hands of Dr William Skene, 
the Rector of the High School at Edinburgh. Or the 
City of Aberdeen writes to one Chapman in Danzig to act 
as trustee for Mrs Janet Cruikshank, who is to receive 
three-fourths of the residue from George Cruikshanks' 
widow (1672). 

A very common event was the solemn declaration of 
the coming-of-age of a young Scot. For this purpose one 
or two of his friends accompanied him before the magis- 
trates, pronounced his apprenticeship finished, and gave 
him a verbal testimonial of good character. Hundreds of 
those cases are recorded. We shall only mention a few 
at random. Hans Morton at Danzig receives a certificate 
of good conduct from his brother-in-law Orem, and from 
Andrew Bell, and is declared of age ^^as a braidmaker.'*' 

Elizabeth at Danzig. The latter chorch was sold in consequence of the 
terrible distress after the French occupation^ there is now only one Pres- 
byterian Church there, that of St Peter, a very old, fine building. 

^ Edinburgh, Nov. i6th. KgU Si, jfrchivf Danzig. 

* Feb. loth, 1660. 



68 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Jacob Grieff receiyes the certificate from his two guardians 
and is declared of age (1619). Frequently this was 
accompanied by a short speech of the young Scot, in 
which he declared his gratitude to the guardians and 
absolved them from all further responsibility. 

In clannishness like this the Scot must have found a 
source of happiness ; for though now settled in a town, 
the hostilities of the trade and the ill-fayour of the magis- 
trates, consequent upon it, were by no means diminishing. 
Twice in Kdnigsberg did they reach quite an acute point ; 
in 161 2 and again in 1683. The orders to banish the 
Scots from the town had been given, and but for the 
energy and the wisdom of the Duke would ruthlessly 
have been executed. The Duke again was influenced by 
the British ambassador Georgius Brussius,^ who had been 
sent for the very purpose of assisting and protecting the 
Scottish subjects of His Majesty the King of Great 
Britain. 

Protesting against the narrow-minded policy of his 
capital, the Duke writes on the 3rd of February, 1613: 
^^That according to the laws of your town you refuse 
civil rights to the Dutch and the Scots may pass. But 
I do not find in your laws, or anywhere else, the least 
cause why those foreign nations should not be suffered in 
this country, nor why they should not have their own 
houses. On the contrary, this town of Kdnigsberg 
derives great advantages and profit from the commerce 
and trade of these nations. Moreover, it might prove a 
dangerous thing to proceed to extreme measures and give 

1 He was sent in 1604 by James VI., and waa a native of Caithness. 
His birth brief issued by the Comes de Caithness ( 1591 ) is still preserved 
at Daozigy as well as hu University Certiiicatey dated Wiirzburgy 1 594^ 
(KgL St. jirchivy Danzigy Handschr. I. B. C. 32). He had studied 
law at Wtirzburg for four years. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 69 

cause to pay us back with the like coin ; the commerce of 
our towns might easily be injured thereby. For these 
and other important reasons it is our will that the foreign 
tradesman as hitherto, so in the futiu-e, shall not be pre- 
Tented from acquiring house-property, it being not only 
inhuman and against good manners to deny any Christian 
nation, that lives with us without giving any offence, 
the jm bospitii^ but also per indirectum deducible from 
your conduct, that you, by such heavy taxes and unbear- 
able innovations, wish to drive the Dutch and the others 
out of this town of Konigsberg altogether. This would 
be a thing which we, for many and grave reasons, could 
not approve of and much less permit. 

Hans Sioismukd.** 

How there could be any doubt as to the Duke's way 
of thinking after an energetic letter like the above is 
beyond comprehension. Yet the struggle went on to 
the end of the century — the justly - aggrieved Scots 
against dense magistrates and jealous trades ; again the 
narrow-minded policy of the magistrates against the fair- 
ness of the sovereign. Obstinacy on both sides. In 
16 1 7 the Scots and the Dutch complain that they could 
only bury their dead at a much higher fee than that 
exacted from the citizens of Konigsberg, and that in 
some cases burial was refused to those who had not 
received the Lord's supper from the hands of a priest on 
their death-bed ; and from a petition to the Churfurst of 
the year 1622 it appears that the Scots had been threatened 
with expulsion. They write very indignantly as follows : 
^^ It could easily be proved from the annals of Prussian 
history that of the Scottish nation in this duchy, not 
only in the time of the Teutonic Order, but also since 
Prussia became a duchy, honest and upright merchants 
have been suffered by the three towns of Kdnigsberg. 



70 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

These merchants have always shown themselyes duly 
submissiye to their rulers and the city authorities, so 
that no great insubordination or unpleasantness occurred. 
But now they have not only refused us habitation, but 
given us to understand by public notice that we must 
leave this town at Michaelmas, and with our households 
betake ourselves elsewhere. This decree appears to us 
all the more grievous as our nation has been in passessime 
ultra centenaria^ a possession which it has never given 
up, so that the rule applies uti possidetis ita possideatis. * 
But may God prevent that our nation should rely upon 
the rigour of the law ; it has always preferred the way 
of supplication and humble petition. Moreover, our 
intention has always been, and is still, to risk our very 
lives ^ for the Crown of Poland and the Duchy of 
Prussia. We can prove by many examples how in war 
the Scots performed many glorious deeds. Therefore 
we do not expect that Your Highness will, as long as 
we live peacefully and like our neighbours, showing due 
reverence for Burgomaster and Council, consent to the 
steps taken by the three towns of K5nigsberg, whereby 
we would be cast off as ^ vile members.* ' Such a step 
would be a disgrace in the eyes of the whole world, which 
the Scottish nation could never 'extinguish. Moreover, those 
of us who perhaps did not obey the law at times have 
always been duly punished. We have hoped that the 
decision of this matter would have been deferred until 
Tour Highnesses home-coming. We would then not 
have doubted that a way would have been found to 
satisfy the magistrates. But since this was not done, 
we now humbly pray Your Highness to postpone the 
decision, or to remit the quarrel to Your Ducal Court 

^ ** Leib uod Lebeiiy Gut uod Blut aofsetzen." 
« «« Stunckcndc Gliedcr.*' 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 71 

of Justice. We can then show that we are in naturali et 
civili possessionem and that we cannot be expelled out of 
it by the three towns.'* 

The Churfiirst, in reply, sends a very angry letter to 
the magistrates, expressing his astonishment that they 
dared to assume an authority which did not belong to 
them. He commands them to postpone the matter until 
his return. We read no more of an expulsion, but the 
magistrates bewail the fact that their office was slighted 
much more by the present than by the former rulers, their 
decrees continually blamed and set aside, and that every- 
thing was either comprised under the title of regal rights 
or esteemed a lesion of royal prerogatives.^ 

Matters reached another climax in the years 1680- 
1690. It appears that in that time new taxes had been 
laid upon the Scots, whose unpopularity had increased 
with their increased success in business.' Moreover, as 
this was the time of religious controversy within the 
walls of the Protestant Church, the odium religionis had 
made itself felt in spite of the most urgent protests on 
the part of the sovereign of the country. Already in 
1680 the Churfurst Frederick William had written to 
Konigsberg requesting the authorities not to oppress 

^ Stads jfrcUv^ Kooigtberg. 

s One more letter of complaint to the Doke from the merchant! of 
Konigsberg may here be introduced, because it proves to what extremes^ 
both in statements and expression, trade jealousy had by that time driven 
the writers. They say in article 5, ** because it is plain that strangers and 
those unfit to acquire civil rights, especially the Scots, have usurped most 
of our trade ••• it is all the more a matter of complaint that this is 
not done secretly, but under the plea of just privileges* These people 
have, like a cancerous ulcer, grown and festered; they cling to each 
other, keep boarders, hire large houses, nay, sometimes oust honest 
citizens by offering a higher rent, furnish several stores, and this not 
because of their large capital — most of them are only commission- 
merchants — but because four or five of them collude, so that if we were 



72 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

the Scotch and English. In the following year the 
latter again bitterly complain against the severity of 
the magistrates, and ask for the liberty of acquiring 
civil rights, and of buying and hiring houses. The 
English Ambassador also at the Court of Prussia, Robert 
Southwell, interceded for his countrymen in a French 
letter, in which he says: 

^^Trois ann€es pass^es pour Tinterest particulier des 
mag^strats de la viUe ils ont ^t^ trait^s comme s*ils s*en 
^taiant rendus indignes quoy-qu'ils n*ont jamais en le 
malheur de le faire. On impose sur eux des impositions 
personelles comme le tribut par teste, ce qu'on ne 
pratique ailleurs contre les Strangers, on les taxe comme 
s*ils possedoient des fonds de terre, sans leur permettre 
de s'approprier aucun fonds, ni meme d*acheter les 
maisons ou ils habitent ni un lieu pour s'ensevelir,^ on 
leur demande un tribut de chaque chemin^' ... on 
se sert de toutes extremit^s pour lever ces deniers, 
jusqu'a mettre en prison ceux qui ne s'y conforment.'* * 

The opinion of the Churfurst was not long withheld. 
In 1 68 1, on the 28th of March, the sovereign writes 

to admit one as a burgess pablicly we should secretly create half-a*-dozen 
of them, who would prowl about the country towns from east to wett^ 
and finally leave by the gate with a patched knapsack, not, however, 
without leaving in their place at home a couple of green boys, who would 
afterwards carry on no better. • • . The great damage the Scot Jackson 
in the Crooked Lane is doing to our trade in spices under the cover of 
old Schonfeld is as plain as the light of day. In his and in Wobster's 
open shop not natives, but two or three Scottish boys are trained the 
whole year round to our ruin. We therefore pray you,'' etc., etc. Then 
follow the usual proposals for inhibiting the trade of the Scots, banishing 
them out of the town during winter, and so on. 

^ This charge is denied by the magistrates, who say that the Presby* 
terian burying-place was on the Neue Sorge (now Konigstrasse). 

' No, the magistrates say ; not for each chimney, but a smoke-tax. 

^ Names, names ! from the magisterial benches. Stadt A. Konigsberg. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 73 

from Potsdam: ^^We can not allow that the strangers, 
especially the Scotch and the English, be thus oppressed 
or expelled, but it is our will that every kindness should 
be shown them. Tou will have to take care, therefore, 
not to oppress them unfiurly.'* 

And again, on the 20th December 1681 : ^^ We com- 
mand you to remove all those new taxes which in fairness 
cannot be claimed from them, to show them good-will, 
and not to hinder them from hiring or living in decent 
houses." 

Similar letters were sent in 1682, in January and 
ApriL ^^ We again command you, with all our authority, 
to look to it lest the Scots be oppressed unfairly. This 
we do in the interest of your own city." 

In spite of all this, the matter dragged on till the year 
1693, vhen it needed another strong letter from the 
Ghuifiirst to make the magistrates desist from an ex- 
pulsion of the Scots. 

This humane spirit of the rulers showed itself every- 
where. Letters of protection are issued to Andreas 
Porter and Hans Adie in 1590 at Konigsberg, and con- 
cessions are given to sell on the public fair to Jacob From 
and Andrew Wright (1620) ; also to the brothers Lawson 
to visit the fairs in the districts of Welau, Memel and 
Tilsit (1698). The widow of a drowned Scottish soldier, 
Charles Ray, obtains permission to carry on her small 
trade (1697). Or, take the case of Mary Anderson, who 
had taken refuge in Konigsberg after the destruction of 
Wilda, a village in Posen, by the Russians. She had 
been driven, for the want of other means, to gain a living 
by making caps and bonnets, but was greatly annoyed by 
the guild of furriers, who took the finished goods from her 
by force. A letter of protection is issued to her in 1668.^ 

^ KgL St, Archivj Konigsberg. 



74 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

About the same time, one George Hotcheson appeals 
to the Duke and claims exemption from having soldiers 
quartered in the little house he built for himself at 
Tragheim, one of the suburbs of Konigsberg. The 
reply states that if the house was not built as a per- 
manent residence, or for the purpose of letting it, but only 
as a summer-house to be used in the time of the plague, 
no soldiers should be billeted in it (1663 and 1667). 

Gradually only, very gradually, and not till the 
eighteenth century had well commenced, did the Scots 
in Prussia enjoy civil rights and privileges. 

But even the enrolled Scottish citizen had often to 
suffer from the ill-will of the German fellow-citizen. A 
very curious and instructive case of this sort is recorded 
from Neidenburg. In this small town, to the south of 
Konigsberg, a Scot, with the name of Duncan, had settled, 
and for more than twenty years attended to his business. 
In 1603, he had a quarrel with the magistrates on account 
of a house which he had bought and of his having added 
cloth to his stock-in-trade. So far, this was only the 
common form of trade jealousy. But the matter went 
much further. Let us listen to poor Duncan's story in hig 
own words. "Some people in Neidenburg," he writes, 
" not only prevent me fit)m brewing my beer, but also try 
to hinder me from erecting on my own ground, bought 
by me twenty years ago, instead of the old coach-house 
another building to contain an upper room and a closet. 
In consequence of this, when the old building had already 
been taken down and the new foundation laid with all the 
wood-work ready, they send Wolf Geschell and Dominick 
Uttman to me on holy Easter eve to let me know that I 
was not to proceed with the building or else they would 
pull it down again. Whereupon on Easter Monday I 
complained to the governor, and asked for protection; 



I 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 75 

which he promised, bidding me at the same time go on 
with my building ; he would order the aforesaid two men 
in virtue of his office to leave me in peace. But when I 
was away at Thorn on Tuesday, and my carpenters had 
completed their work, Dominick Uttman, being then vice- 
consul, in the absence of the burgomaster sent from 
house to house, ordering every one under penalty of three 
marks to be present at nine of the clock on the following 
morning at the town-hall, with their axes and spears for 
to tear down my new building. At the appointed hour 
on Friday, the alarm-bell is rung to call the inhabitants 
together. But because many did not approve of proceed- 
ings so violent, and consequently stayed away, he again 
commands them under penalty of ten marks and imprison- 
ment in the tower to come forward, and when the bell 
had tolled twice at one o^clock, he, Dominick Uttman, as 
the author of this tumult, marches off with those who had 
gathered together ; although many others, and especially 
the judge, whom my poor terrified wife had implored for 
protection, tried to dissuade him, representing to him that 
the governor and burgomaster as well as myself were from 
home ; yet he, having some of the town council with him 
who were, together with himself, urging the armed rabble 
on, caused ladders to be raised against the house, and 
mounting to the top they strike, cut, break and throw 
down at their pleasure, until the whole upper story is 
demolished. Even strangers that passed, crowded to- 
gether, especially some of the Polish nobility who, viewing 
the turnout, deplore the great destruction, and express 
their detestation of the crime in words like these: ^In 
other places people are enjoined to erect pretty buildings, 
in Prussia they are forced to pull them down.' Some of 
the rioters, stung by this remark, were drawing back, 
when Dominick ordered the beadle to use his whip, as if 



76 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

they were a herd of cattle ; and the town carpenter, who 
did not want to participate in these acts of Tiolence, and 
had said to him he would rather sit in the dungeon for 
some weeks than assist in these unlawful doings, he had 
cast into prison after the rioting was over. He also caused 
my servant girl, who had jokingly asked one of the rioters 
to come in and have something to eat after a hard day's 
work, to be suddenly taken up in the lane unawares and 
to be put in prison for some days, so that I, poor man, can 
find neither justice nor protection in Neidenburg.*' 

Duncan, who, as will be noticed, did not want an 
eye for the picturesque, afterwards obtained permission 
to go on with the building.^ He was to pay to the magis- 
trates the sum of twenty gulden as ground rent and one 
mark annually, but he was not allowed to light a fire in his 
house. As to his dealing in cloth, he was not allowed to 
sell common cloths outside the public fairs. Fine cloths, 
however, at one and more gulden a yard, he was at liberty 
to sell and to cut. To this decision was added the note : 
^^Let him behave reverentially and be obedient to the 
magistrates, and do not let the latter be too hasty." The 
permission given to sell cloth at all was, however, very 
distasteful to the guild of cloth merchants. They complain 
again and again against Duncan and his son-in-law as the 
" blood-suckers " of the country. 

It was pitiful, indeed, that to a life already so full of 
trouble from within, new trouble should be added, arising 
in their own home. We have already mentioned the various 
begging missions of King Charles 11. and the names of 
those who, according to an extraordinary knack of this 
monarch always to appoint the worst persons to the worst 
place, were put in charge of them.* We are enabled now 

^ BrusBitts (Brace) also interceded for him as a 'mercator honestos' 
(1606). * See ScoUln Germany ^ p. aoa £ 



1 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. ^^ 

to giye additional details which will show the different 
attitudes of the King of Poland and the Kurfurst of 
Brandenburg towards the scheme of extracting money 
from Scotsmen now living within these territories. 

The first information we get of this plan is contained 
in a letter of Frederick William to the members of his 
council in the Duchy of Prussia, dated 1651, 20th of 
January. In it he simply declares that a subsidiiim 
cbaritativum^ as he calls it, be collected from the English 
and Scots living in his domains. Two months later, on 
March 30th, after due consideration he says, in a circular 
letter to all his Magistrates and Councils: ^^We have 
decreed that for the distressed Royalty ^ of Great Britain, 
ten per cent, should be coUected from the Scots and 
English within our territories. But after those Scots and 
English who have settled in our towns at this time and 
have borne all civil burdens and contributions have bumbfy 
besought us not to in^e this extraordinary tax upon tbem^ 
it is not our intention to grieve our subjects and citizens 
with a double and heavy taic, but we sludl be satisfied, if 
only those Scots who are not domiciliated are applied to, 
but the others who have obtained dvil rights and are 
settled in our towns passed by in the meantime.'* 

Scarcely had this letter been dispatched when on the 
following day a new letter was sent after it. Appoirently 
the Churfiirst was in great diflGiculties ; on the one side 
his sense of fairness, on the other hand his distressed 
royal brother and the strong appeals of the hot-headed 
ELing of Poland. He now writes : ^^ We do not see that 
anything worth speaking of could be collected from the 
vagabonds and pedlars alone, for there are not very many 
of them who would be able to contribute anything at all. 
It would be very disreputable if we were to send such a 

1 <« Die bedrangte Konigiiche Wiirde." 



78 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

trifling sum as a contribution. We consider it necessary, 
therefore, and wish to impress it upon you, and request 
you to send for all the inhabitants of the Scottish or 
English nation in our Duchy of Prussia and to represent 
to them in the most moving terms how they for the love of 
their country and respect for their King should not refuse 
to pay this subsidy willingly ; with this additional assur- 
ance that no precedent should be established thereby/' 

The temper of the Scottish and English residents in 
Prussia with regard to this matter is very well expressed 
in the memorial which the latter presented to the magis- 
trates of Konigsbei^ on the third day of October 1651. 

^^We have communicated with our countrymen, the 
English settlers in this town, of whom there are only 
four, respecting the contribution of a subsidy to His 
Majesty in Scotland. Now we would like very much 
indeed that we were in such a position as to be able to 
appease the restlessness and the disturbed state of our 
native country by it and to remedy all misfortune. But 
such is the condition of our dear fatherland that if we 
were to obey this request at once, and the people there 
came to know of it, not only our property but our lives 
and those of our own families would be forfeited after 
those that would assist the King having been declared 
traitors by Parliament. What have we done, that by a 
contribution like this, our total ruin should be wrought ? 
We who are only guests here and have never mixed our- 
selves up with the quarrel between King and Parliament, 
but have simply attended to our business and as factors 
to the orders of our principals? In so doing we have 
contributed large sums to the treasury not only but also 
enriched the community of this town. We can prove 
from our books that the duty paid by us amounted 
annually to 30,000 gulden. All this would cease if we 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 79 

and our principals and the whole English and Scottish 
trade were to be diiyen out from here. And how could 
it be otherwise since all the more important ports are in 
the hands of the Parliament ? The only way to save our 
lives and our property and that of our friends in England 
would be to emigrate to other places such as Danzig, 
Elbing, etc., where this request has not only been rejected 
but the person and the property of the English been 
taken under the protection of the authorities, whilst their 
trade was declared free and all magistrates enjoined to 
petition His Majesty the King on their behalf/' ^ This 
document was signed by John Cottam, Thomas Taylor, 
Joseph Wynde, and John Surges. 

In the meantime Cro£Fts, one of Charles' messengers, 
had not been idle. He was very anxious to know the 
result of his appeal. We find him writing from Thorn 
to the magistrates of Konigsberg, requesting them to send 
the details of the collection (June 14th, 1651) ; and again 
seven weeks later from Danzig to the Council Boards of 
Prussia. He had commissioned Colonel Seton to go to 
Konigsberg and confer with the magistrates there. He 
concludes by saying: ^^The matter suffers no delay 
since the King presses me for a detailed account which I 
cannot give without having received a definite answer 
from you." • 

It seems almost incredible that this could haye been said 
and done in the face of Charles^ letter, in which he 
disavows Croffts, and which was dated Dec. 9th, 1650. 
One is almost tempted to believe in a forgery, as was 
actually done by Johannes Casimirus, the Ejng of Poland, 
who, in an angry letter of Sept. 1651, threatens the 
Scots in his kingdom with expulsion because they made 

^ Stadt Arcbivf Konigsberg. 
s S«e Part III. 



8o THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

^< certain forged letters the pretext of not paying the 
contribution/' * 

But the rojral missive vrzs no forgery, as we know from 
a letter issued by the magistrates of Danzig to the Scots 
who had asked for a Latin translation of it. It oflGicially 
sets forth its genuineness. The signature had, by com* 
parison with other letters of the same writer, been found 
genuine, the seal intact, and the whole document free from 
any suspicious feature.* 

The half-heartedness of Frederick William, the Chur- 
fiirst, also appears, from a letter of protection issued on 
the first of June 1 65 1 to the following six Scotsmen : — 
Hans Dinings (Dennis?), Hans Simson, Gilbert Ramsay, 
Andrew Ritchie, Hans Brown and Hans Emslie, in which 
it is expressly stated that the bearers as inhabitants and 
citizens of Konigsberg paying taxes to the Prince, were in 
nowise obliged to give the tenth part of their possessions 
to His Royal ^^ Dignity*' in Great Britain, as the other 
Scots in Poland. The letter granted them safe-conduct 
for themselves and their goods, especially in their journeys 
to and from the fairs of Elbing and Danzig, where other- 
wise their property might have been confiscated at the 
instigation of the British Orator, because of their non- 
payment of the subsidy. At the same time, it certified 
that they were settled in Konigsberg and not at Danzig ; 
therefore not under the jurisdiction of Poland. 

Little remains to be told of this sad tale of double* 
dealing. The subsidium charitativum proved no success. 
All Croffts got amounted to about ^^i 0,000, as we have 
seen, and how little of this sum ever reached the King 
will perhaps never be fully known.* 

^ << SufForeta veritate . • literas quanim praetextu ab hac coQtributione 
immunes esse yolunt." 

* See Part III. • See ScoU in Germany^ p. 48. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 8i 

The reader of these old records concerning the Scots in 
Germany cannot fail to be greatly impressed by these 
facts: the comparatively inoffensive lives these colonists 
led, their unbroken energy and the quick way they 
ascended in the second or third generation to positions of 
trust and eminence. 

Barring that large and undesirable element that swept 
across the Northern States of Germany during the great 
flood of Scottish emigration — an element the greatest 
crimes of which seem to have been its youth and poverty 
— we seldom find the Scot implicated in criminal cases. 
We say ^^ seldom," of course, in consideration of the long 
centuries of their settlement and their vast numbers, which 
at one time must have exceeded by far the thirty thousand 
mentioned by Lithgow. Neither was the moral atmosphere 
of Germany in the XVIIth Century particularly fit to 
inspire and invigorate any man's character. Requesting 
the reader to keep both diese points in view we shall now 
give a few examples of the Scot as he appeared before 
the German Courts. 

In the minute books of the Courts at Bromberg we are 
told of Jacobus Herin (Heron), Scotus, who is accused 
of having sent his famulm David Heron to attack a 
Scotch tailor, with the name of Alexander, whom he 
wounded (1598). Heron replies that David was nobilis 
et Sid juris^ of noble birth and of age, and not his 
famulus. He himself knew nothing of the crime, having 
on the day of its committal been absent in Thorn on 
business (mercatum). The same books relate how a Scot 
with the name of Wolson (Wilson), who had been 
president of the court of bailies in the absence of the 
Starost, was called before the council of the town, and 
accused of having suppressed certain important documents 
to the detriment of the place (1671). He, however. 



82 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

appeared only to deny the competency of the court, and 
" went away." * 

In Stuhm, in the year 1594, a virago strangles her 
husband, David Trumb (?), a Scot, by means of his own 
suspenders, and throws his body out on the field of one 
Junker Brandis.* The small town of Hohenstein reports 
that two and a half years ago a quarrel and fight took 
place between some Scots and some peasants (1604).^ On 
Dec. loth, 1555, Alex. Paton, David Alston and George 
Fleck appear before the court at Neuenbiu-g. During a 
quarrel, George Fleck had wounded Alexander in the left 
hand, and he had to get it dressed in the town. The 
parties settle the matter amicably for the sake of good 
friendship, on condition that Alexander pay the barber. 
Jacob Forbes, in a case of manslaughter, is indignant at 
the Governor of Rastenburg for distraining a sum of 
money whilst he was quite willing to come to terms peace- 
ably with the family of the deceased, whom he had killed 
by accident only and not by malice (1569). 

To a similar charge, one Albrecht Braun has to answer, 
but it is not quite clear in his case whether he was a Scot 
or not (1586). 

Hans Wilandt, a Scot, in the town of Konitz, must 
retract his insults and swear not to^offend Andrew Bemt, 
a jeweller, again (1587); whilst some years later, on the 
13th of April, 1598, Alexander Nisbett has to vouch for 
the honesty of a certain purchase of com. In Tilsit, John 
Irving and his workman Anderson are taken before the 
bench on account of desecrating the solemn day of 

^ SchoffeDbuchy B. i, foL 74c, and Acta consularia, B. 9, fol. 356. 

* Geschichte des Stuhmer Kreises ▼. Dr Schmidt, Thorn, 1868, p* 132 
f. {History of the District ofStuhm). 

* This notice is interesting also from a linguistic point of view, the word 
for qoarrei or fight being ** parlament." 



THE SCOTTISH TEIADER. 83 

repentance by selling some goods to a Pole. He is 
admonished and fined in one thaler (1684). In the same 
town, Jacob Murray is brought up to pay his rent after 
having been called on forty times. He pleads great 
poverty, and promises to pay within a week (1687).^ 

Very curious is the case of Hamilton, or Hammelton as 
the German records spell his name. He was a citizen of 
Tilsit, a cooper by trade, poor, ^^ so that he seldom kept 
strange servants, but managed to get along with the help 
of his two grown-up sons, leading a respectable life/' as a 
certificate says, which the town, at his request, issued in 
1687. 

Now the peace of mind of father Hamilton is greatly 
disturbed by the slanderous behaviour of three or four 
other coopers, Germans, who in a letter had accused his 
son Christoph of having fraternised with the son of the 
executioner at Konigsberg. Nothing could be more 
disreputable, more hurtful to the moral feelings of those 
days, than to have any intercourse with those social 
outcasts, ^^unehrliche Leute,'' as they were called in 
German, of whom the executioner was the foremost and 
the most formidable. Accordingly, Hamilton appeals to 
the law, and the following judgment is given on the 1 5th 
of March 1688: 

^^ Whereas Master Andr. Lorentz, Master Abraham 
Slraus, as well as David Straus and Johann Lorentz, 
coopers by trade, defendants, have written to the cooper- 
guild at K5nigsberg accusing Christopher Hamilton, the 
plaintiff^ of having in a public beerhouse fraternised with 
the executioner's son, which, though denied by them, 
has been sworn to by two witnesses, and whereas they 
have refused to arrange matters amicably, the Court of 
Bailies decide that the defendants go to prison for a 

^ KgL St. jirclnVf Konigsberg. 



84 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

night and a day, binding them over to hold the peace. 
Thereupon they were at once marched off to the 
cells/' 1 

Hot temper seems to have been the origin of many of 
the reported crimes. Already in 1517 a case of that 
kind is reported .of a Scot from Dumblane, Henry 
Gorm, aggravated by an attempt of robbery. It was^ 
however, privately settled by the Danzig magistrates.* 
In Schoneck, a Scot is imprisoned on suspicion of having 
killed a man, but he is released on die testimony of 
Captain Sutherland, who testifies on his oath that the 
deceased was accidentally drowned (1599)- 

In Jastrow, Hans Forbes, father of the Burgomaster, 
Balthasar Forbes, was placed in the dock on the charge 
of having shot a man. Having sworn that it had not 
been done maliciously, he is fined in 150 gulden (1607).^ 
Very tragic is the story of Barry, another Scot of the 
same town, who quarrelled with his wife because she at 
one time had left him, accusing him of criminal relatione 
with his step-children. Barry himself then brought the 
matter before the court and had her sentenced to death. 
It was only through the intercession of the Starost, the 
president of the court, that the stubborn man was 
brought to a more conciliatory frame of mind, resulting 
in an amicable adjustment, ^^ because she had done it 
m great rashness.'* 

Rather frequent were the contraventions of the many 

1 KgL St. Archive Konigsberg, E. P. Fol. 

* KgL St. jfrcUvf Danzigy D. xvii. 

^ Cp. Fr. Schulz, Chromic der Stadt Jastrow^ 1896, pp. 55-57. Since 
1602 there were eleven Scotch families in Jastrow : Andr. Barry, Andr. 
Swan, Hans Forbes, Andr. Sym, Jorge, *^ a Schott," Thos. Hilliday, Elias 
Dennis, Jacob Krudde (?), Adam Darby, John Duncan, Hans and 
George Smedt (Smith). In the year 1647 there were only two left 
who could be called of Scottish nationality. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 85 

trade prohibitions. In this respect, as we have said, 
the Scottish moral code was lax. We do not wonder, 
therefore, at William Hutney, John Ray and William 
Turry having been called before the authorities to 
show reason why they had unlawfully imported into 
the kingdom and sold English cloths, which did not 
bear the mark of the city of Danzig^ (1630); or 
at one Mallisson from Elbing, who is caught fishing 
sturgeon in forbidden waters (1661). An offence sure 
to excite the reader's pity is that of Andrew Law, 
who is unable to live at peace with his mother-in-law, 
the widow of Andrew Morrisson, and is on that 
account brought before the magistrates of Neuenburg 
in 1643.* 

The worst cases seem to have taken place in a small 
town of Western Prussia, called Deutsch Krone. Here, 
at the beginning of the seventeenth century, two or 
three rich Scottish merchants ruled, and ruled with a 
high hand. They were the Wolsons, the Lawsons 
and the Malsons. The mischief commenced with John 
Malson in 1609 killing a man who had been a furrier 
by trade. Two of his countrymen become surety for 
him; but in the following year he is himself attacked 
and killed by two noblemen with the name of Jumo. 
John Lawson, who had taken upon himself to pay the 
alimentation money to the children of the slain Airrier, 
and who seems to have shared the violent temper of his 
friend, killed a Jew a few years later, a crime for which 
he was promptly called to account by the Woywod, 
governor, of Posen, the officially appointed protector 

^ ** Quod pannos Anglicanos contra coDstitutionem nullia tignis Cm- 
tatis Gedanensis notatos m regnum iDvexiMent et yenalet exposuenint." 
KgL St, jircbivf Danzig. 

» KgL St. Anhiv, Konigsbcrg, W. Pr. Fol. 



86 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA- 

of the Jews. But his extradition is refused by the 
Mayor of Krone, who maintains that he alone repre^ 
sented the proper authority (1615). Of Walson and 
his money-lending we have already spoken in another 
place; how he was accused of wearing the apparel of 
the rich and how tight a grip he had on the needy 
Polish nobility. Later in life he turned Roman Catholic, 
and wrote a last will and testament in favour of the 
Jesuits, which was, however, contested by the magis- 
trates of the town (1642).^ 

There are, of course, a number of other smaller civil 
cases of debt, pilfering and so on, but on the whole, here 
again we have an example of a people's moral worth 
being in the inverse ratio of the Aill enjoyment of its 
liberties. Not much energy is called forth by basking 
in the sun; it is in fighting that hearts of oak are 
made. Any other nation but a sturdy one, physically 
and mentally, would have succumbed to a life so full of 
privations. But the Scot was reared in hardship and 
poverty and on plain food; his saving disposition made 
him gather property under the most adverse circum- 
stances; his fidelity to his superiors was beyond sus- 
picion, and having once obtained by his wealth or the 
favour of the great a position of influence, his shrewd- 
ness and his clannishness made him use it to the most 
far-reaching advantage. In the face of never ending 
hostilities this was necessary. 

Even at the approach of death the Scots dared not 
lay their weapons down. They had to contend against 
two curious laws: the jus caducum and the quarta 
detractusy as they were respectively called. By the 
former the property of a man dying childless, or of a 

1 Cp» Scoti in Germany^ P* 55* ^^^ GescUcbte von Deutich Krone ^ by Fr. 
Schulz, T90i» p* 50. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 87 

stranger dying in the land, if not claimed within a certain 
time reyerted to the Crown ; the latter gaye the Crown 
the right to retain one-fourth of "the property of the 
deceased stranger^ provided that the other three-fourths 
went out of the country. The oflGicial who looked after 
the interest of the State was called the Fiscal. It is only 
natural that these laws proved a very fruitful source of 
dispute between Scotland and Germany. It was customary, 
therefore, in olden times for the Scottish claimant to 
provide himself with letters of introduction and recom- 
mendation ft'om King or Queen before he started on his 
voyage to the Baltic ports, in order to prove his rights to 
the property of a deceased relative. 

Thus both Queen Mary and Henry Damley supply 
David Melville with letters of recommendation, who went 
to Danzig in order to claim the inheritance of his brother 
James, after the latter's death from the plague two years 
previously (i 566).^ James VI. recommends Captain Amot, 
who goes to Germany claiming an inheritance of his wife, 
the daughter of William Forbes, a citizen of Danzig 
(158 1, July nth);* and in 1594, Joannes Strang, of 
Balcalzye, who is about to start to the same city, on a 
similar errand. Or the magistrates of Perth certify that 
Jacobus Stobie has been empowered to regulate certain 
matters of inheritance at Danzig by the parties concerned 

(1589)- 
Richard Bailly presents a letter from the magistrates of 

Edinburgh with respect to the inheritance of the late 

Robert Baillie of Danzig, from which it appeared that the 

rightfril heirs of Robert, who had died childless, were Maria, 

Jeanet and Margaret, daughters by a second marriage of 

Jacob Bsullie, late minister of Lamington, in the county of 

Lanark, the father of Robert. These three daughters 

^ KgL Sl jlrciivf Danzig. XCIX, A. 



88 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

transfer their rights to Richard Baillie, the bearer (1665).^ 
Thomas and Patrick Aikenhead appoint Robert Tevendail, 
or Teyendale, and Daniel Davidson, citizens of Danzig, 
trustees for the assets of Dayid Aikenhead, a PoUsh mer- 
chant.^ 

We also find the town of Dumfries on a similar occasion 
issuing a letter to a certain Greer or Grier, who went to 
Danzig to claim the inheritance of his brother (June 20th, 

I594)-* 
On the other hand, the magistrates of Konigsberg 

inform those of Glasgow that they desire to intercede for 

one Hannibal Spang, son of Colonel Andrew Spang, 

who claims an inheritance amounting to one thousand 

** Imperiales " (1661). 

But all these recommendations from high and official 
personages could not prevent frequent friction between the 
Fiscal and the Scotch heirs. Sometimes, and for certain 
periods and districts only the Kings would transfer their 
claims to the inheritance of a stranger to certain persons of 
merit as a favour ; as when the King of Poland granted the 
estate of John Tullidaff, who died at Neumark in 1 6 1 8, 
and whose property reverted to the Crown to Robert 
Cunningham, ^^ nobilis de Bemys aulico nostro " in grate- 
ful recognition of his faithful services, or when the same 
King Sigismund presents Colonel Learmonth^ with the 
inheritance of a certain Fritz in 16 19. 

A very interesting case, illustrating this law of reversion, 
happened in Bromberg in 1625. A Scot, with the curious 
name of Michael Nosek,^ had just died there and the 

1 Sec Part III. « Edinburgh, Nov. 16, 1689. 

• The witnesses to the letter are Robert Cunningham, Andrew 
Cunningham and ^Albertus Cunnrngharo, notarius publicus et scriba." 
Kgh Su Arcbiv^ Danzig. 

^ See Part II. ^ The name is evidently Polonised. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 89 

^^ royal notary/' Nicholas Gurski, a nobleman, demands 
the inheritance as a donation of the king. The bailies 
are about to hand over the property of the deceased when 
John Varuga and John Brommer, a medical practitioner, 
lodge a protest. Finally, the decision of the court is as 
follows : Considering 

1 . That the deceased Nosek had deposited an authenti- 
cated and unobjectionable birth-brief ; 

2. That he had done military service under King 
Stephen in Livonia ; 

3. That he had made Bromberg his domicile, acquiring 
real estate there ; 

4. That he had sworn the oath of fealty to the 
magistrates ; 

5. That he had married according to the rites of the 
Roman Catholic Church, and had begotten children ; 

6. That he had earned his living in an unobjectionable 
way; and 

7. That he has paid taxes, and had borne other civic 
burdens ; he has acquired the rights of a native. The ^^jus 
taducum^^ therefore^ can not be applied to his case^ although 
his wife and his children had died before him^ and his 
property was left to relations of his wife and to charitable 
institutions ^ 

The so-called quarta deductus^ or the right to 
deduct one-fourth of the inheritance for the Crown was 
applicable to Scottish citizens also. The Fiscal's duty was 
to have an inventory made of the deceased Scotsman's 
property. For instance, in 1 590, a Scot dies at Johannes- 
burg. Three of his countrymen — Andrew Robertson, 
Daniel NichoU and Alb. Meldrum — ^undertake the work 
of appraising in the presence of the clerk. The goods, in 

^ Brombergy Stadt. Gerichtsbiicher (Court minutes) : B 3^ fol. 251b. 
and 354b. 



90 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

this case mostly pieces of cloth, are taken to the Castle 
and there re-valued. Whatever was retained for the 
necessary use of the house must be brought to account 
and finally the quarter fixed, after the deduction of the 
debts due. If the property was small, the rulers of 
the country often refused to claim it. Thus, George 
Frederick, Markgraf of Brandenburg, writes from Konigs- 
berg in 1601 to his magistrates in the country: ^^ Whereas, 
two years ago, two Scotsmen named Jacob Chalmer and 
Richard Watson, travelled together to Livland, and 
quarrelled on the road till they came to blows, and 
Watson was slain by the other ; whereas, also, the culprit 
fled, and the property of the killed man fell to the Crown; 
but whereas, thirdly, the fiigitive has not only come to 
terms with the deceased's friends in Scotland, but His 
Majesty of Scotland has also written requesting us to give 
up whatever may be left of the dead man's goods in our 
Duchy to the bearer Alexander Crichton, who has 
arranged with the representative of our treasury concern- 
ing the " fourth ; " we command all our governors and 
magistrates to deliver the said inheritance to him without 
fail, and to assist him against Hillebrant Watson, who has 
already seized upon a great part of the property." * 

In 1633, there dies at or near Memel a Scot with the 
name of Butchart, leaving ^^ much cattle, money and out- 
standing bonds." A good deal of his money was invested 
in Konigsberg and Tilsit, and Paul Greiff, the Elector's 
receiver, was not slow to prosecute his inquiries. ^'In 
this way he discovered at the house of a Scot, called Jacob 
Guthrie, the sum of two thousand gulden, which he at 
once distrained until the deceased's brother should arrive 
from Scotland. Now, as the fourth of the 30,000 gulden 
left by Butchart were claimed by the Elector, though 

^ KgL St. jfrchivf Daozig. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 91 

Memel was at that time in the hands of the Swedes, he 
wrote a letter to that town maintaining the assets to have 
been accumulated within his own territories, and asking 
for a new inventory.* 

A long exchange of letters between the Churfurst and 
his councillors took place with respect to this same law at 
the death of a Captain Trotter in 1653. Forty-three 
years later, Frederick III. of Prussia decided that accord- 
ing to the treaties concluded with England in 1660, and 
again in 1690, the quarter could not be claimed of the 
inheritance of Thomas Scoles, a native of Hull, who had 
died at Konigsberg in 1697 or 1698.' As to Scotland, 
the treaties seem to have been forgotten until the year 
1725, when Allan, a Scotch merchant in Konigsberg, died, 
leaving a pretty considerable fortune. The magistrates 
inquired of the Churfurst concerning the " quarter," and 
were told to write to England in order to ascertain whether 
or not a duty was levied there on property left to Prussian 
subjects in Prussia. In his answer, the Fiscal at Konigsberg 
pointed out that in a convention between the Dutch and 
the English, it had been agreed that the subjects of 
neither country should come under the jus detractus ; * 
and that afterwards in 1661 an agreement with England 
was arrived at, according to which subditi sua Majestatis 
Brittannicaj i.e. comprising the Scots, should enjoy the 
same privileges as the Dutch. The Churfurst is not quite 
satisfied in his own mind by this reply. Scotland is not 
England, he writes back, and a different custom may 
obtain there. Therefore an assurance ought to be de- 

* A//. St. jfreiivf Konigsberg. 

s Id 1692^ when Thos. Taylor died at Kneiphof, the fourth was 
cUumed but not insisted upon if William Garforth, the heir, would remain 
in the country. KgL St. ArcUv^ Konigsberg. 

' ^ Quod utriusque subditi a jure detractus eximant.'* 



92 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

manded from Scotland that in a similar case no quarter 
would be levied in that country either (May ist, 1725). 
Thus the matter drags on till 1727. A certificate issued 
from London is not considered sufficient. The sister of 
the deceased, after having sent various petitions, at last 
appoints a delegate or trustee, who succeeds in procuring 
the necessary documents from Dundee and Aberdeen. 
The former city says: "To all and everybody reading 
this letter, we Bessy Allan, the widow of the late John 
Leitch, baker in Aberdeen, but now the wife of Alexander 
Reid, inhabitant of Old Aberdeen, with the consent of 
said Alexander Reid for his portion, and Agnes Leitch, 
eldest daughter of the said John Leitch, now the wife of 
Alexander Webster, shipbuilder in the port of Dundee, 
send our greeting. Since the late George Allan, 
merchant and dyer at Konigsberg, left certain moneys to 
the above-named Bessy Allan, his sister, and to Agnes 
Leitch, his niece, we appoint Christoph Heidenreich our 
attorney. Signed by W, Cruikshank, W. Chalmers, and 
others," 

From Aberdeen, the following document was sent in 
1 729 : ^^ As His Majesty the King of Prussia consented to 
hand over a certain legacy to our citizens, Bessy Allan 
and Agnes Leitch, without deducting the regal fourth part 
or any other part, on that condition that we should bind 
ourselves to forward any sums of money left in succession 
to Prussian citizens likewise free of duty, if such case 
should arise, we testify that not only has hitherto nothing 
been detracted but we also promise faithfully on the part 
of this town not to do so in future." ^ 

Examples of this kind could easily be multiplied. In 
1737, for instance, Alexander Fairweather, a native of 
Montrose, died at Goldap, a small town in Western 

^ The original is written in Latin. St, jfrchiv, Korngsberg. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 93 

Prussia. He left to each of his sisters, Catherine Fair- 
weather, the wife of James Smith, at Inrine in Ayr, and 
to Marjory Fairweather in Montrose, the sum of three 
hundred gulden. This legacy the magistrates of Goldap 
had in the meantime put on interest, and they now 
claimed the fourth part of it. David Barclay, a merchant 
in Konigsberg, who had been appointed trustee, appeals 
to the King ; but only in 1 740 the legacy is given free, 
reference being made to the treaties mentioned above. 
About twenty years later, Alexander Moir died at 
Konigsberg, leaving the large fortune of 38,000 gulden, 
of which the greater part went to three brothers and 
sisters at Danzig. About five thousand gulden were left 
to his nephew, Samuel Cutler in London. Here, also, the 
question of the fourth part arose. 

Sometimes it happened that Scotsmen or Scotswomen, 
settled in Germany, acquired property in Scotland by the 
death of a relative; as when the magistrates of Dirschau 
write to the town council of Aberdeen stating that Jacob 
Koliszon (CoUisson) had sold his portion of the inheritance 
of his father Duncan in Aberdeen to one Andrew Walker, 
(May 2nd, 1542), to whom he remitted at the same 
time the money due for teaching him the weaving 
trade. Likewise, Hans Anderson and Albr. Kuk struck 
a bargain with reference to a house in Aberdeen in- 
herited by the former (1567).* Some years later the 
sisters Elizabeth and Isabella Murtay, the latter being 
the widow of the late John Dale, a Scot in Danzig, 
appear before the magistrates of this city. They had 
inherited some houses in Aberdeen from their grand- 
father John and their father Andrew Murray, and appoint 
Robert Munro their trustee. The situation of the houses 

^ AltBtadtischet Schoppeobuch — ** Bailie's Minute Book of the Alt* 
ttadty" Konigsberg. 



94 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

is accurately described.^ In 1597, Alexander Morell (or 
Norell) at Danzig, son of the late James Morell, sells his 
father*s house in Edinburgh, situated on the west of the 
Erleus Street (?), for 1500 gulden. A case somewhat 
similar occurs in the year 1632, when George Forbes, 
only son of the late Andrew Forbes, declares before the 
court that he gives his movable and immovable goods, 
moneys and so forth, especially a house in Aberdeen, 
^^ situated near the lower Kirkgate, between the 
houses of Samuel Mason and Robert Patterson," to 
Marian Moor for her use during her lifetime ; after 
her death to Peter Moor and his heirs ^'as a reward 
for the many benefits received from his hands" (Aug. 
1 8th). 

Again, in many instances an arrangement was made by 
the Scottish heirs, by which property left to them in 
foreign countries was sold to third parties, as when in 
1589 James Wright appears before the court at Linlith- 
gow, certifying that he had transferred his part of the 
inheritance of his late brother, who died at Johannisburg 
in Prussia, to George Nicholl from Edinburgh, by whom 
he had been fully compensated;' or, in 161 9, when 
William Allanson from Glasgow, died at Belgard in 
Pomerania, and his inheritance was sold to one William 
Kammer (Chambers), at Col berg. In this case, however, 
a birth-brief and two letters of surrender from the 
brother and sister of the deceased were required, and 
even then the magistrates were not satisfied. Only after 
a letter of King James himself in favour of Chambers, 

^ KgL St. Archiv.f Danzig» xxxiii.^ D 149 2oa. ** In platea inferiori 
ecdesiae inter sedet seu domum Capellariae S. Stephani ex auatrali parte 
inter acdes Thomge Philipaon ex Boreali parte inter acdes sea domum 
quondam Andres Dortie orientem TersuB et inter viam regium occidentem 
versus sitas." 

' KgL St. jirchivf Konigsberg. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 95 

dated Greenwich, June 12, 162 1, in which it was 
stated that ^^ Camerarius *' had acted quite properly, 
the property was released.^ Or, when in 1628, Thomas 
Melville, a citizen of Aberdeen, ^^who cannot talk 
German very well,'* declares at Tilsit that he had sold 
the shop left to him by the late Hans Philipp in that 
town, to Thomas Hay, also of Tilsit, for the sum of 300 
gulden.* 

But, apart from the legal aspect, the wills and bequests 
of the Scots dying in Prussia and Poland are very often 
highly interesting on account of the insight they afford 
into the domestic life of those days and into the character 
of the deceased. 

Very frequently the assets left were exceedingly small, 
hardly worth enumeration in a special inventory. Yet, 
however small, a charitable bequest, either to the Scottish 
poor-box or to one of the Danzig or Konigsberg hospitals 
or otherwise, is always there. Take the case of Alex. 
Wright mentioned above. The whole of the money left 
amounted to nine thalers and eighteen groschen, of which 
sum one thaler and fifteen groschen was to be handed to 
the schoolmaster. Besides this, there were found sixteen 
pieces of coarse linen; two and a ^^half parcels of red 
trousers ; " one parcel of veils ; two pieces of ticking ; 
fifteen of linen ; one piece of green cloth for aprons ; one 
half stone of cummin, and one fourth of pepper.' There 
were also a horse and a cart, but they were claimed by the 

^ KgL Sl jfrcInVf Danzig. 

' KgL Si, jircifivf Konigsberg. The Scotdth heirs in this case had 
much trouble given them by the young clerk of the deceased, John Laurie, 
whom they suspected of having kept back certain goods. 

^ In an edict against the Scots they are called *' apothecarii," not 
exactly druggists but dealers in drugs. Spices formed a valuable item 
of their stock-in-trade. Itinerant drug vendors were also known in Scot- 
land in the Middle Ages. 



96 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Duke and valued at ten gulden. With very many of the 
Scottish small merchants something like this must have 
been their stock-in-trade. 

Equally modest were the assets of Hans Patrzin 
(Patterson) from Aberdeen, who died at Konitz in 1574. 
An inventory of his property was made on ^^ Thursday 
before Holy Easter/' as the old records tell us, ^^ by Alex. 
Symson, a burgess of Tuchel, and another Scot . . . and 
there were found twelve gulden of outstanding debts and 
goods valued at sixteen gulden which Symson was told to 
C(mvert into cash and to hand over to the relations of the 
deceased, in case the inheritance should be claimed within 
a year and a day. If not, he is to deposit the money with 
the magistrates.'' 

By the side of this, for the sake of contrast, we shall 
now put the last will of William Robertson, who died at 
Danzig in 1670. It was translated from the ^^ Scottish 
into the German language" by one Robert Mello, a 
broker and an interpreter; but this was done with 
a total disregard of grammar and idiom, making it diffi- 
cult at times to arrive at the proper meaning of the 
document : 

"I, William Robertson," it runs, **of legitimate birth, 
am the son of Thomas Robertson, citizen and merchant 
of Ross, in the Kingdom of Scotland, and of his wife, 
Christina Lefries, and I was bom after they had lived 
together in matrimony for some years. I, William Robert- 
son, do write this my last will and testament ,being in 
sound healthy God be praised. I ordain that my body 
shall be buried in St Peter's Church. To the clergyman 
preaching the funeral sermon I leave eight thaler, to the 
Smallpox Hospital 300 gulden, to the Scottish Poor Fund . 
300 gulden. . To William Robertson, my brother's eldest 
son, my god-son, the money owed to me by Archibald 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 97 

Campbell on the lands of Hillpont (or Killpont?) in 
Lothian, Scotland, namely, 20,000 mark Scottish; more- 
over, I bequeath to him the money I sent to Scotland in 
1665 with George Skene, i.e. 2438 thaler in specie. . . . 
I give and bequeath to this my godson, after my death, 
everything that is in my room at Danzig ; my large cash- 
box and all in it, my small chest of drawers with all my 
linen ... my upright bed, including bedding, my cover- 
let, my two pillows, my sheets and mattresses ... my 
wardrobe with all its contents, my big basket (?) and my 
small basket, my four chairs, my bottle-stand, my large 
wardrobe with my cloak and coat in it, my hand-tub, my 
tankard with the lid of English tin, my close-stool lined 
with tin . . . three doublets of satin and three caps of 
sable and other two of marten ; two coats lined with sable 
and marten; a small silver bowl, another silver bowl gilt, 
a small clock and other things ; my silver tankard, three 
brass candlesticks, and a coat lined with fox. All these 
articles I give to my godson William ; and more, as soon 
as my debt has been collected from Patrick Simson, which, 
at eight per cent, interest, will amount to more than 
8000 thaler in specie; and from Alexander Kemp 12,000 
mark Scottish. To my friend and relative, James Aber- 
crombie, I leave 2000 mark, besides what he received from 
me long ago. The rest of my debts when called in I 
leave to Jacob and Johann, the two brothers of my god- 
son. My mirror and my carriage I give to William 
Robertson, my godson. As executors I appoint James 
Campbell, Writer to the Signet, my friend Jacob 
Abercrombie, my brother's son William, and my friend 
W. Anderson, When this money has been received, let 
it be invested in landed estate in Lothian and not lent on 
written security. Ye know, dear friends, that God gave 
me the opportunity in His grace to be helpful to my 



98 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

friends ; therefore I pray you to take a special care of this 
my last will and testament, as you must give an account on 
the last day to the Judge of all things." ^ 

Another large fortune was left by Jacob Balfuhr who 
died childless in 1622. His wife received 14,000 gulden; 
Andreas, his brother, about 7000. Legacies were given to 
Margaret Balfuhr, daughter of the late Duncan Balfuhr ; to 
William Balfuhr, son of the same ; to Christina Balfuhr, 
daughter of the late William Balfuhr. Moreover, to David 
Baliuhr's stepson 500 gulden, the interest of it to go to the 
mother Isabella till her death. To each of the two children 
of his late brother Duncan at St Andrews 500 gulden ; to 
William, his brother Duncan's son, who is now in the 
service of the testator, 400 thaler ; to Stephen Balfuhr, 
who is now serving his time abroad, 500 gulden ; and to 
Christina Balfuhr, in Danzig, at her marriage, 1000 
gulden. To the son of his late brother William in St 
Andrews 500 gulden. Likewise to each clergyman of his 
own persuasion at Danzig 50 gulden ; to the Hospital of 
St Elizabeth 100 gulden; to the Scottish Poor-box 100 
gulden, besides another hundred gulden to be distributed 
among the poor after his decease. Lastly, his servant, 
Daniel Robertson, on account of his faithful services, shall 
have as much added to his due wages as to amount to 
400 thaler, and his servant girl, Elsie, shall have 50 
gulden.* 

George Kilfauns in 1657 leaves three fourths of his 
fortune to Christina Hebron (Hepburn). As legacies 
he gives to each of the four Presbyterian clergymen ten 
ducats, five ducats for his funeral sermon, ten ducats to 
the poor ; twenty for the poor of the Scottish congrega- 
tion. His brother Hans is to receive the remaining fourth* 

1 Danzig, Jan. 4, 1670. 

* KgL St. Archiv^ Danzig. See also LvsMn, Beiirage^ ii. 69. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 99 

Mrs Smith, n^e Leitch, leaves ^^ half a house " in the 
Heilige Geist Gasse at Danzig, together with the sum of 
1000 gulden, to the daughter of Catherine Lermonth. 
She also bequeaths 700 gulden to the Scottish Poor-box 
(1660). 

W. Garioch leaves a certain sum to the Scottish com- 
munity, and to the Small-pox Hospital at Danzig. He 
left only distant relations in Scotland ^^ with whom he had 
not corresponded for the last thirty-two years " (1669). 

The will of John Turner, written in English, was 
deposited in Aberdeen with a George Skene; but it 
appears that he left another will at Danzig with reference 
to the property not disposed of in the Scottish document 
As the testator had died childless, his cousins William 
and Andreas, merchants in Poland, are declared heirs. 
The following legacies are bequeathed : To John Turner 
in Poland, 6000 gulden ; to William Lumsdel, 1 500 ; to 
Peter Dunbar's and Thos. Smart's widow, 100 gulden 
each ; to the Scottish Poor-box, 300 ; the Elizabeth 
Hospital, 200; the Small-pox Hospital also 200 gulden 
(i688).i 

A very wealthy man Jacob Carmichael must have been, 
who died at Krakau in 1696. His brother Robert 
succeeds him. A taste for art jewellery seems to have 
distinguished him, for he left, besides many silver and gilt 
articles, one diamond ornament, one ruby necklace and 
pendants, six diamond rings, one signet ring set with 
diamonds, one ring set with emeralds, two bracelets and 
three strings of pearls. 

At Danzig again, one Robert Gellentin bequeaths to 
the Scottish Poor 300 gulden, to the Smallpox Hospital 
300, and to the preacher of his funeral sermon ^ pro labore * 
the goodly sum of 200 gulden. ^ : :- 

^ Cp. ScoU m Germany^ p. 6o. 



100 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Of Daniel Davidson's charitable bequests we haye 
already spoken. 

Good common sense is shown in the will of Robert 
Chapman, who died in 1675. He makes his sister's son, 
William Tampson, his heir. ^^ Taking into consideration," 
he says, ^^that he has a good heart, and is a youth of good 
promise, and that my mother" — she had married a second 
time — ^^ has plenty of means as it is, and has been richly 
blessed by God." ^ He then gives various legacies to the 
Small-pox Hospital and other hospitals of the city, leaves 
to the poor of the Scottish congregation 300 gulden, and 
to Alb. Duggel (Dugald), "apoor Scotsman," thu-ty gulden. 

Now and then these last testaments give rise to legal 
wrangling and quarrels among the heirs and creditors 
themselves. One of these last, named Laurence Gream 
(Graham), after the death of George Hutcheson, opposes 
James Masterton from Edinburgh, ^^ who wants to make 
himself paid first " (1649). ^ similar case occurred some- 
what earlier, in 1642, after the death of Laurence Orr in 
Insterburg, when the son of Regina Oliphant, living in 
Scotland, thus writes to the Elector of Brandenburg : ^^ I 
cannot help complaining that William Olifiant cunningly 
tries not only to deprive your Electoral Highness of the 
quarter but also his brothers and sisters and their children 
of the inheritance left by his late brother Conrad Olifiant, 
late inhabitant of your Highness's town of Insterburg. 
Under the pretence of being a burgess, he demands 
possession of the goods ; but as there are four other heirs 
his portion can only be one-fifth."* 

^ Again the archaic flavour of the German is totally destroyed by the 
translation. The sentence reads : ** Da sie aber ohne das in guten mitteln 
sitzety und von dem lieben Gott reichlich gesegnet, m ansehung er gutes 
GemijUi^ imd ein Jiingling von guter Hoftiung ist." KgL St, jirch'tv^ 
Danzig.^ ' •' 3 KgL St. jfrcbivf Konigsberg. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER loi 

Very remarkable is the last will of Robert Porteous or 
Porcyus, as his name is written in Polish documents 
We have in our former volume ^ been able to give a very 
few details only of this successful Scot. Further researches 
have brought to light other circumstances of his life, 
enabling us to complete the portrait' 

When still a young man, Porteous emigrated to Krosno 
in Poland previous to the year 1623, when his name occurs 
in a business transaction. Where his Scottish home was 
is not very certain. His being called " de Lanxeth *' • on 
a painting m the Church of St Peter and Paul at Krosno 
may probably point to a place " Langside," which* again 
would refer us to Dalkeith and neighbourhood. A certain 
violent rashness of his character early manifested itself. 
When serving his time with a certain Johann Laurenstein 
he caused his master the loss of 50 florins, and a short 
time later he is mulcted in the same sum for wounding a 
man in a quarrel. The records in the Episcopal Archives 
before the year 1627 call him a "heathen," that is a 
follower of Calvin or Luther. In that year he embraced 
the Roman Catholic Religion of which he remained 
a most devoted member to the date of his death. He 
also married in 1627, then twenty -six years old, the 
widow of one Bartholomew Mamrowitz, whose maiden 
name was Anne Hesner. She was his senior by eleven 
years, and had a son Paul, who is frequently mentioned 
as a Doctor of Medicine in the testament of Porteous. 

^ ScoU m Girmat^f p. 6o. 

' Rev. Ladislas Sana, 0^ powiatu KrwitUtuiUgo, Przemysly 
1898. Cf. pp. 166-68, 277, 183 f, 190, 318, 335-338, 495- 
505. 

^ The additional ** k " lengtheos the preceding ** e," and makes the 
syllable sound like *< aid/' 



I02 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Three of his own children, two daughters and a son, 
died. 

The commercial enterprise of Porteous soon extended 
over Lithuania, the whole of the Austrian empire, Prussia, 
Silesiaand Scotland, and was encouraged by several privileges 
granted to him by successive kings: Sigismund IIL in 1632, 
Ladislaus IV. in 1633, and John Casimir in 1649.^ They 
also permitted him freely to dispose of his property. The 
chief trade of Porteous consisted in Hungarian wines, of 
which he practically held the monopoly. This gave cause 
to the citizens of Krosno to complain of his high handed 
manner of doing business : buying wine at 50 florins and 
selling it to the town at 200. Moreover, the town was 
compelled to borrow money from him, the only very rich 
man in Krosno, and this also he used for his own advantage. 

Nobody, however, could deny that Porteous, if mclined 
to carry out his own will in a manner rather imperious, 
was a man of strict honesty. A story is told of him con- 
firming this. Once there arrived for him a cargo of wine 
from Hungary. When they were lowering down the 
casks into his cellars, it was thought that one of them 
was unusually heavy. On being opened how great 
was Porteous* surprise when he found it to be filled with 
ducats instead of wine. He informed the owner in 
Hungary immediately, but received for an answer: that 
what was once sold was sold for ever. Not satisfied with 
this Porteous brought the matter before the courts of 
justice, and the money which was owned by nobody was 
finally devoted to pious purposes. To this honesty he 
joined a most generous public spirit, not only for the 

^ The exact dates are : 2odi April, i ith of February^ and 8th of 
February* 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 103 

benefit of churches and hospitals, but also of town 
improvements. 

Porteous died in 1661.^ His brother Andrew survived 
him, but seems to have left Krosno. Another brother 
Thomas is strangely enough not mentioned in his will. 
Other relations of his were John Dawson (Dasson), a 
nephew, and Francis Gordon (Gordanowitz), who had 
married a cousin of his.' 

The Parish Church of Krosno looked upon Porteous as 
its ^^ secundus fundator.'* He restored the nave and the 
vaults which had been destroyed in a previous conflagra- 
tion ; he covered the roof with copper ; he presented to it 
new bells, a baptismal font, many precious vestments and 
paintings, and a set of bells.' His own burying vault is 
below the Chapel of St Peter and St Paul. It has 
remained undisturbed, though other graves had long since 
to give way to new sanitary improvements of the town. 
His funeral was attended by over a hundred members of 
the Catholic clergy, who at the request of the Bishop of 
Przemysl thus honoured their benefactor. It almost seems 
a pity that, according to a chronicler of the time, each of 
them was given 3 " imperiales " for his trouble. 

Porteous* last will in its chief enactments reads as 
follows: "As it is the duty of everyone, especially of a 
Christian, to redeem his soul, bought by the most precious 
blood of the Son of God, I, Adalbert * Porcius, citizen ot 
the Royal town of Krosno and a merchant, being of sound 

^ Not in 165 1 at crroneouily stated on hit portrait in the Chapel of 
St Peter and Paul 

' The name of Porteout continued in Kroeno up to the i8th century. 

* The biggett of thete weight 50 cwt., hat a circumference of about 
1 4 feet, and a height of about 4 feet and 6 inchet. The circumtcription 
containt, betidet the namet of the makert, that of the donor, Porteout and 
hit coat of armt : three ttart, a book, and a tword. The date it 1639. 

^ Porteout to called himtelf after hit Patron Saint. 



I04 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

body and mind, and not knowing when my last hour shall 
strike, make the following declarations in writing : As I, 
by the grace of God, commenced my life in the Christian 
Roman Catholic Religion, I shall also end it according to 
its teaching. I therefore commend my soul into the hands 
of our God and Creator; but since it was joined to a 
sinful body and could not therefore be without sin and 
offences in God's eyes, I wish that it should for its eternal 
redemption have an advocate here below, for which 
purpose I set aside certain portions of my property. My 
body being made of earth, may again return to earth, and 
be buried in the Parish Church of Krosno in the vault of 
the Chapel of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul which I 
have founded. As to my moveable and immoveable 
property, I shall, according to the privileges granted me 
by three successive Kings of Poland, and in order to avoid 
quarrels amongst my relations, make the following dis- 
positions which I beg my executors to obey in all points 
for the salvation of their souls : 

" For the renovation of the belfry of the Parish Church, 
the covering of its roof with sheet-copper, and the making 
of iron shutters, also for the raising of the steeple by ten 
yards in order to hang the bells, I bequeathe 6000 florins 
to be paid by my executors. 

^^The lustre made of brass and stag's horn, which is 
now in my large room, I also bequeathe to this Chnrch, 
and request that the same may be hung up above the 
magistrates' and judges' pew in the centre. For wine and 
wax for the two chapels of Peter and Paul, and of 
Adalbert, my Patron Saint, I leave the sum of 200 fl. 
Moreover I assign to these two chapels my farm ^ . . . 
and that field which is situated ... for the renovation 

^ Here follows the exact sitaation. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 105 

of several church vessels or for other repairs. If necessary 
the wine and the candles for the two brass candlesticks and 
the gilt wooden one are also to be paid out of these farm 
rents. Whatever remains of the rent is to be put aside 
in a separate box, and to be placed in the treasury well 
locked, the key of it to be kept by the priest. All sacred 
utensils, cups, vestments and sacred silver vessels which I 
bought for these chapels are to be used in them only, and 
not in other churches. Should one of my relations wish 
to buy the said farm and field, he may do so on condition 
of his investing 1000 florins in safe and unencumbered 
property for the purpose of redemption. . • . No pay- 
ments of the priest out of these funds must be made 
without the consent of the clergymen of Krosno. But if 
the farm be sold to strangers, let it be done to the best 
advantage of the chapels, so that new sacred vessels may 
be bought, and all repairs duly carried out. 

^^ As the clergyman of the Church at Krosno is but 
poorly paid, I bequeathe the sum of 1 200 florins to be 
invested in good security, the interest of which will go 
to him. For this he will say two masses for the repose 
of my soul in the Chapel of St Adalbert, one for my 
wife and one for my relations, on Mondays and on 
Thursdays. . . . Myself as well as my wife, now resting 
in God, having been members of the Confraternity, 
called St Anne, it is my wish that our souls should be 
remembered at Mass, and I assign to the Priest of the 
said Confraternity the sum of 300 florins; but as the 
Confraternity of St Anne already owes me 160 florins, 
only 140 florins shall be paid to it out of my property, 
the interest to be used only. 

^^To the Organist I leave 600 florins on condition of 
his taking his degree at the Academy of Krakau, and I 



io6 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

impose upon him the duty of singing the Litany Omnium 
Sanctorum with his school-children after Vespers on Wed- 
nesdays in the Chapel of St Peter and Paul, and on Fridays 
in the Chapel of St Adalbert the Litany of the Sacred Heart. 
He has also to insist that his scholars obey the call of the 
Church Bells on Saturdays and on the days preceding each 
Holy Day, when they will dust the pews. To the Bellringer 
I leave 200 florins, the interest of which he is to receive; 
he shall be obliged, however, to summon those of the 
Church Beggars who are strong enough, to assist him in 
cleaning the sacred paintings, and he is to ring the Angelus 
on the big Bell every mid-day about 1 2 o'clock. To the 
bellows' blower I give and bequeathe in consideration 
of his small salary, 100 florins. For the beggars in the 
porch of the Church I bequeathe 200 florins, of which 
legacy they will receive the interest monthly from the 
hands of the clergymen on condition that they clean the 
font every month and the two brass candlesticks as often 
as it appears necessary. . . . The house which my step- 
son Paul Mamrowitz bought of me I leave to my brother 
Andrew and to the said Mamrowitz, Doctor of Medicin. 
They will also have to share in equal parts my clothes, 
tin-vessels, guns, horses, grain, flour, pictures and other 
things. My farm Suchodol. ... I likewise leave to my 
brother Andrew and Paul Mamrowitz* One of them 
may live on the farm, as I have done, and pay half of its 
proceeds to the other, or they may live there alternately 
as they may think desirable. . . . 

^^ Having enjoyed the trade monopoly in Rrosno I leave 
to the said town for the repair of the town-walls and 
the bridge behind the Krakau Gate, which has been 
allowed to fall into decay, as well as for the improve- 
ment of the pavement, the sum of 2000 florins. It is 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 107 

my wish that this should be done as soon as possible, 

as it will not be difficult for the town to provide carts. 

Let my servants get their due wages and a decent sum of 

acquittance besides, and let them pray for my soul to God. 

" To George Hay I leave 1 500 florins in the hope that 

he will remember my kindness, and conscientiously hand 

over everything to my executors so as to avoid the judge- 
ment of God. ... To my steward I give 50 florins, to 

my head coachman 100 florins, to my head cook Elizabeth 

40; to the younger cook 15 florins besides their due 

wages, so that they may buy suitable mourning. ..." 

After enumerating certain other legacies left to the 
Brotherhood of St Anne, of which, as we have seen, both 
the testator and his wife had been members, Porteous 
continues : — 

^^ Having acknowledged all through life His Majesty 
John Casimir as my gracious King and Protector, I wish 
to give him a further proof of my loyalty by leaving to 
him the sum of 10,000 florins. I also present to him an 
altar made of pure gold. My relations Francis Gordon 
and John Dasson (Dawson) will attend to this my 
request. ... To the Revd. priest Prazimorski I leave 
2000 florins and 3 casks of wine; to the Bishop of 
Przemysl, my benefactor, likewise 2000 florins and 3 
casks of wine, with the humble prayer that they would 
accept these gifts and assist in the carrying out of my 
last will. My brother Andrew and Dr. Paul Mamrowicz 
will see that all my creditors who can duly prove their 
claims be satisfied. 

^^As to my funeral, I cannot say of course what the 
expense will be, but I request my executors to invite the 
clergy of all the neighbourhood, to receive them hospitably, 
and to give each of them one thaler. Before the funeral 



io8 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

let all poor beggars be treated to a dinner. I leave 
besides 50 pieces of linen at 6 gulden each, 50 pieces of 
Krosno Cloth at 16 or 18 florins, for distribution among 
the poor. Should there be found ready made linen and 
conmion cloth in my house, only so much must be bought 
cLS will complete the number of pieces." 

Porteous requests the treasury of the Government to 
assist in calling in his outstanding debts, of which one 
part is to be employed for the payment of the soldiery. 
Debts under 100 gulden are to be entirely remitted; all 
other debtors are allowed 10 per cent, in their favour 
and in no case is there any great rigour to be employed. 

^^ All my moveable and immoveable possessions in the 
Crownland of Hungary, as well as my claims against 
Hungarian noblemen, merchants and citizens, I leave to 
my sister's son, Johann Dasson, and to Francis Gordon 
and his wife, with the strict injunction to be guided 
entirely by my information written in the Scottish language 
and signed by two witnesses. 

^^ In Danzig also I have some outstanding money with 
Thomas Gielent for potash bought from me. All this I 
leave to John Dasson, according to the wishes expressed 
in my Scottish codicil 

^^As additional ^Protectors' of my last will I name 
I, His Majesty our most gracious King; 2d " . . . Here 
the Testament of R. Porteous suddenly comes to a close, 
the last page being torn off. 

No wonder that his memory is still honoured in Krosno. 
A portrait of himself, his wife and his brother, probably the 
work of later years, is still to be seen in the Church of 
St Peter and Paul. Very different from the wills of most 
of the Scots Porteous left nothing of his vast wealth to 
his countrymen as such or to the Scottish ^^ Nation." 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 109 

How important a part was played by this Scottish 
** Nation," and how in eyery place where there was a large 
number of Scots such directing body was established 
and demanded implicit obedience, we haye frequently 
had occasion to remark. It is seen also in a succession 
case of Jacob Kyth (Keith) in the year 1637. 

It appears that the late Jacob Hill owed the late 
William Kyth, a brother of the above, who died in 1636 
on his journey to Jaroslaw, a sum amounting to between 
five and six thousand gulden, but the Scottish ^ Nation ' at 
that town thought it right, for reasons not stated, to 
reduce the sum to two thousand seven hundred gulden. 
Jacob Kyth agreed, and gives the children of Hill a 
receipt for that sum. 

Looking over these last wills and testaments, which 
only represent a small portion, we arrive at the natural 
conclusion that the most influential Scotsmen settled in 
Germany were merchants. They possessed houses in 
good localities,^ they traded oversea and overland, their 
services were much sought after by kings and nobles. 
Their natural propensities and their characteristic mental 
features made necessarily for success in this branch of 
human industry. 

Whilst in France we hear of nothing but of the heroisms 

^ Alex. Anderson bays a house m Neuenburg in 1 590. ** Honestos 
Kilianus Makkien Scotns ciro Bidgosdensis '* (Bromberg) sells his garden 
and shed behind the hospital of St Stanislaus to Michael Normanth 
(Anglicus or Scotus) for 50 gulden (1615) ; Hans Wricht in Memel 
is in possession of 2 hides of land and 21 <^ morgen'* (1650) ; Gilbert 
Baillie in Konigsberg obtains permission to sell 2 hides of his lands in 
1665 ; the Irwings in Memel also owned considerable property (1740)1 
the fiimily of Darisson were in possession of the Schonfeld estate near 
Danzigy not to speak of the great number of those that acquired house 
property in the large towns, especially at Danzig and Konisberg — a &ct 
brought to our knowledge in many a trade complaint. 



I lo THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

of Scottish warriors ; it was the Scottish trader in Germany 
who chiefly left his imprints upon the country of his 
adoption, ready when the times demanded it to show a 
heroism quite as great as that of his more celebrated and 
more loudly acclaimed countryman-in-arms. 

But there were a good many handicraftsmen among the 
Scottish emigrants also, Scottish linen-weayers being among 
the very earliest settlers of Danzig.^ Numerous were 
those that had to do with wool and cloth, as weavers, 
dyers, tailors, braidmakers and clothiers. Another large 
class represented the leather trade, such as shoemakers, 
belt and hamessmakers, and tanners ; a few of them were 
brewers and distillers, notably the Barclays in Rostock^ and 
James Littko (Lithgow) of Danzig. We have only come 
across one butcher, one pastry-cook, a few coppersmiths,' one 
or two coopers, one or two jewellers, one letter-painter, but 
no joiner, carpenter, or mason. Very soon, as we have seen, 
we find the Scot occupying positions of trust, as coun- 
cillors of state, governors, magistrates, bailies, presidents 
of guilds in Poland, as well as in Prussia, Pomerania, and 
Mecklenburg. Their foreign extraction and language did 

^ Cp. p. 53 in Scots in Germany. It is curious to notice how loDg these 
Scottish weavers remained in their old settlement of Alt Schottlandy south 
of Danzig proper. There exists an agreement of the year 1 5 1 7 (June 8th) 
between the guild of linen weavers in Danzig and the Scottish masters of 
the trade on the Rivers Radaune, and, as we have seen, on the Bishop of 
Leslau's territory, concerning trade difficulties and the obligations of the 
Scots towards the maintenance of the Chapel of St Thomas {KgL St. 
jfrcbiVf Danzig). 

^ There was a Paul Barclay, brewer, in 1 592 ; Henry Barclay enrolled 
as a citizen in 1659 and Ludwig in 1685, all of them ** Groszbrauer " « 
brewers on a large scale. 

' Handicraftsmen were preferred in bestowing dvil rights on the Scots. 
Hans Witte, a coppersmith from Cupar, obtains citizenship at Danzig in 
1575, because his craft gave him the preference. He had to promise, 
however, not to carry on any trade, and not to keep any lodgers, but strictly 
to attend to his handicraft (Biirgerbuch, Kgl St. jirMv^ Danzig). 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 1 1 1 

not even preyent them from serving the state in the capacity 
of post-office clerks and postmasters. In the annual account 
book of Marienwerder (1607-8) we find that a Scotsman 
attends for two weeks to the letters at the magistrates* 
office for the fee of three marks, by the command 
of the elector; and at the end of that century 
one Low was postmaster at Danzig. Princes liked to 
haye Scotsmen for their trusty waiting-men, as well as for 
their body-guard. Thus the Duke of Mecklenburg, 
Frederick William, in 1 697 kept two Scotsmen as running 
footmen, John Macnab and John Macullen ; and among 
the citizens of Cassel in 161 8 occurs the name of 
Alexander Arbotnit (Arbuthnot), a footman or ^^ lackai.** ^ 

Of the eminent position many Scotsmen in Germany 
took in the world of letters and science we have spoken at 
length elsewhere.' A special mention deserves Gilbert 
Wachius (Waugh), prorector of the school of St Peter 
and Paul at Danzig ; * and the Latin poet, Andreas Aidie, 
whose son Alexander occurs as one of the contributors to 
the Marshal College Fund. He was headmaster of the 
High School at Danzig from 1609 to 161 3, and his 
appointment so pleased King James that in 161 1 he 
wrote a special letter of thanks to the Magistrates/ 

The next generation of Scotsmen in Germany had, of 
course, a much easier life to lead than their fathers. Being 

1 Catukr Burgerbueh^ edited by F* Gimdlach, 1 895. 

* Scots in Germany f Part IV. 

' He left 50 gulden to the Scottiah poor at KSnigsberg in 1692. 

4 M Quod pro aliia Andream Aidium gymnaato vettro praefeciaus • • • 
nobia gratum eat. £iToreque Teitro baud indignum [futurum plurimum 
aperamua.'* KgL St. Archkv^ Danzig. Aidie wrote aereral philoaophtcal 
worka — e^.^ ** De snbjecto et acddrate,'' ** De Foiailium et Metallomm 
natura ; ^ De somniia.*' He ia alao said to hare written a commentary to 
the Ntcomachean ** Ethica of Ariatotle " (Cp. Athnut Gedanemet^ Lipa* 



1 12 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA, 

bom in the country of ** rechter, freier, deutscher Art," 
as the German phrasing then was, all the former dis- 
abilities disappeared. They were now no longer classed 
with the Jew, especially as the type of the vagrant Scot 
gradually became extinct,^ and was supplanted by the type 
of the plodding, well-to-do citizen. Marrying into rich 
and influential German families, they rose in favour and 
sodal distinction in the same measure as they lost much 
of their nationality. Let us adduce a few examples of this. 

Alexander Niesebet (Nisbet) from Edinburgh appears 
as a citizen of Elbing towards the close of the sixteenth 
century. He built the two houses in the Schmiedegasse 
next to the Schmiedethor in the comer. He married 
first the daughter of a town councillor, and when she died, 
in 1 6 14, another councillor's daughter. His own child 
Catherine became the wife of Johann Jungschulz, Mayor 
of Elbing, and died one year after her father in 161 8.' 

William Patterson, a colonel, married a daughter of 
Adrian van der Linde, an old Patrician family of 
Danzig (1664).' 

Thomas Gellatlay from Dundee, bom 1590, emigrated 
to Danzig, where he changed his name into Gellentin. 
He was of good family, and connected with the Wedder- 
bumes of Dundee. In 1623 he married Christine 
Czierenberg, daughter of the town councillor Daniel 
Czierenberg of Danzig. A daughter of his second 
marriage became the wife of Reinhold Bauer (1657), 

^ That the Scots themselTea were smartingunder this common classification 
appears from a short but yaluable note which says : ** Dietrich Lobstan, 
* the Scot at Wehlau,' as he is called, craves permission for carrying his 
goods about the country unrestrainedly, so that he might get out of the 
great distress, misery and wretchedness into which the Jews had brought 
him (1570), K^I. Si. jirchivf Konigsberg. 

s EOmg, Siadt BibBotbek, MS. F 48. 

s Damugir Siadt BiBSoiM^ MS. xt. f. 467. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER- 113 

and the mother of C. Ernst Bauer, burgomaster of 
Danzig.^ 

Charlotte Constance Beata Davisson, a daughter of 
Daniel Dayisson and a great granddaughter of Daniel 
Dayisson, who came as a struggling Scottish merchant 
to Poland, married in 1783 Carl Friedrich yon Gralath, 
twice burgomaster of Danzig and the historian of his 
natiye town ; whilst her aunt — i.e. her father^s sister — 
became the wife of a town councillor Broen.^ 

The process of Germanising was a rapid one. It 
first showed itself in the nkmes which were adapted to 
the German pronunciation: Wallace becoming Wallis, 
Cochrane Cockeren, Mackenzie Mekkentsien, Taylor 
Teler, Wood Wud, Allardyce Ardus, Crawford Craffert, 
Moir Muhr, Murray Morre or Morra, Morris Moritz, 
Rutherford Riderfarth, Bruce Bruss. Sometimes the mean- 
ing of the name was rendered by a German equiyalent. 
Thus Miller was changed into MoUer, Smith into Schmidt, 
Gardiner into Gertner, Cook into Koch ; or Polish endings 
were added to the name such as Ross » Rossek or Rosek, 
Cochranek, Tailarowitz, and so forth. 

The Christian names also underwent a metamorphosis. 
Where the original immigrants only changed their 
James into Jacob, John into Hans, Andrew into Andreas, 
we now meet such names as Dietrich, Gottlieb, Ulrich, 
Albrecht, Otto, and so forth. Whereyer these names 
occur we haye a sure sign of the bearer belonging to 
the second generation, which not unfrequently affords us 
a welcome clue to an approximate date. 

'^Danzigir StaJt BihBoihek^ MS. XT. f. 440 f. Carl Ernst Bauer 
married a daughter of Jacob Wright and Anne Horo. Thomas 
Gellatlay's great grand&ther was one Walter Gellatlay of Templehall 
and Borrohally who had married Isabdla Wedderbume, John Wedder- 
bume's daughter, of Dundee. 

* Kgl. St. jirebiVf Danzig, MS. Bb. 31. 



1 14 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

It is in this and the later generations of Scotsmen 
generally that we find, too, a much greater number of 
literary men among the Scottish settlers. Their educa- 
tional passion had not deserted them. Especially large is 
the number of Scottish names among the . clergymen of 
the new Presbyterian Churches. 

But with all this process of Germanising going on till 
hardly the name remained to testify to an extraction 
foreign to the fatherland, still eyen to this day one finds 
and gladly notices among the descendants of the Scottish 
settlers the old origin remembered and cherished, like the 
far off echo of an old tune or the dim halo around a 
sacred head. Sometimes it takes the form of certain 
pronounced" mental or moral qualities, sometimes that of a 
predilection for the English tongue, or of a longing for 
the country where their cradle stood, most frequently that 
eminently characteristic one of long pedigrees, intricate, 
and hard to unrayel. 

The heart-throb is still there ; but now it is the heart- 
throb without the pain of separation. 

It now remains to cast a glance at the foreign relations 
between Scotland and those parts of Germany we are con- 
cerned with during the sixteenth century and later. We 
have already mentioned the various plenipotentiaries and 
factors sent by Scotland to protect the interests of the Scot 
abroad. The Scottish kings neyer lost an opportunity of 
interceding for their subjects, and the German Powers were 
eager to rely on the support of Scotland. One of the acts 
of the last Hochmeister of the Teutonic Order of Knights, 
Albrecht, better known as the first Duke of Prussia, was the 
mission of Dietrich yon Schonbom to England and Scotland, 
professedly to ask for help in military expeditions against 
Poland, secretly, if secondarily, to devise a common plan for 
checking the growth of Protestantism. He went in the 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER- 115 

year 1522, and so well pleased was Albrecht with his recep- 
tion at the Court of King James, that he sent this sovereign 
a valuable cuirass as a present in 1 523. In return James 
in 1522 issues a proclamation emphasising his friendly 
feelings towards the Order, and enjoining his subjects to 
grant and afford the skippers and merchants, subjects of 
Albrecht, every possible safety and liberty of trading in 
all his lands, cum omnibus mercenariis ei rebus quibuscunque^ 
with all their goods of whatever description, in terra vel 
marique^ both on land and sea.^ 

Many letters were again exchanged on the subject of 
piracy, in 1535 and notably so in 1592 and in 1593, with 
regard to the " Grite Jonas " and " Noah's Ark," * and in 
1597 when a ship had been plundered at Burntisland. 

In 1 508 the King of Scotland desires Danzig to pro- 
mote in every way the exportation of slups' masts,' whilst 
twenty years later Edinburgh writes a letter to the 
magistrates of the same city apologising that no com- 
pensation had as yet been given for goods which had 
been unlawfully taken from the Danzigers in the harbour 
of Leith. But the commission appointed had not been 
able to arrive at a decision on account of the rising that 
had taken place in other parts of the country. 

Other diplomatic exchange of letters takes place between 
the two countries in cases of succession ; they have been 
dealt with in another place. 

Very curious is a more recent attempt to establish 
a Scottish colony on a small scale in Prussia, and it also 
led to a good deal of official correspondence. In the year 
1823 the Hon. David Erskine wrote as follows to Privy 
Councillor Kelch at Kdnigsberg from Dryburgh Abbey : — 

^ Dated Edinburgh, Not. 3, 1522. KgL St. jfrcbivf Korrigsberg. 
' Kg/, St, jfrcinVf Danzig. See also Scots m Germany , p. 19, 27. 
' Cp« Sceii in Germany, p. 22. 



1 1 6 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

"Sir, — ^Haying been requested by Mr Thomas Kyle, 
late of Fenns, in this part of the country, to inform you 
that he is known to be a first-rate agriculturist and gentle- 
man farmer, and that few indeed understand husbandry in 
all its branches better than he does, he is yery anxious 
that you would inform His Maj esty of Prussia of the grant 
of 2 coo morgens of land awarded to him by His Highness, 
Prince Hardenberg. Should this be confirmed to him, I 
know several young gentlemen of good families and con- 
nections who wish to turn their mind and time to 
agriculture in Prussia, among the number my present 
wife's brother, who is an officer in His British Majesty's 
service, and another officer also who is connected to me 
by marriage, with seyeral others ; as they are aware of 
the superior abilities of Mr Kyle in that department his 
establishment is of the first moment to them, and they 
only wait to learn from him of his being fixed in Prussia 
to follow him immediately; and as the year is advancing 
they are anxious not to lose time in commencing ^ oppora- 
tions ' (sic). 

^^ You, sir, may wish to know who it is that is addressing 
you; exclusive of my near relationship to the Earl of 
Buchan, with whom 1 now always reside from his Lord- 
ship's advanced age (82), I was married to his brother's 
daughter (Lord Erskine, late High Chancellor of England). 
I am an officer in His Rojral Highness the Duke of York's 
Rangers (Yagars).^ I also belong to the Household of 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence. I past three 
of my early years in Deutchland (j/r), in Lauenburgh and 
Hamburgh, but having been thirty years out of Germany 
I have very much forgotten the language, and dare not 
venture to write it to a native. My heart still warms to 
Germany where I was most kindly treated, and I shall 

^ The writer means ** Tiger" -> chaasears. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 117 

eyer remember it with gratitude. — I haye the honom- to 
remain, etc., David Erskinb." 

Kelch then asked Kyle at Konigsberg to come and see 
him, when he was told that the latter had resolyed to 
settle on a Prussian domain of about 2000 morgen, if the 
conditions were fayourable, and to farm it according to 
the Scottish methods of cultivation. ^^ I told him,*' Kelch 
writes to the Goyemment, ^^ that first of all ready means 
were required, and that there would be plenty of oppor- 
tunities of buying estates advantageously at the present 
juncture. I also drew his attention to the fkrm of 
Kobbelbude,^ which was shortly to be sold by auction. 
He is going to realise a capital of about eighteen hundred 
pounds, but he has not giyen me any youchers for it. 
This Thomas Kyle is the same with whom I negotiated 
last year by order of the Goyemment with regard to the 
acquisition of another estate, when the afiair was broken 
off." 

Finally, Kyle received the following official reply: ^^The 
farm of Kobbelbude is already disposed of. We beg to 
draw your attention to the fact that your knowledge as an 
experienced agriculturist has been testified to sufficiently 
in the private letter of Mr Erskine and other private 
persons, but that this is not sufficient for the County 
Council in whose hands the administration of the proyince 
is put, and which can only be persuaded to fayour the 
settlement of foreign agriculturists by an unprovement 
held out to inland farming. Neither haye you giyen us 
sufficient proof of funds large enough for the acquirement 
and management of such an estate. As long as you can- 
not lay before us certificates of your knowledge in practical 
husbandry from qualified and official bodies in your own 

^ Clote to Konigsberg. 



1 18 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

home, we are afraid that we cannot hold out to you any 
hopes of realising your plans of settlement in Prussia.^ " 

Thus somewhat ignominiously did this rash plan of 
improving the Prussian methods of agriculture end. 

In conclusion we wish to warn against an erroneous 
impression which the foregoing sketch of the Scottish 
settler's life in Eastern and Western Prussia might not un- 
naturally produce lipon the minds of our readers. 

Looking at the thousand and one obstacles put in th6 
way of the stranger Scot, looking at the almost cruel 
mockery which forbade the * umbfarende ' pedlar to traverse 
the country and earn his bread by the toilsome sale of his 
pack on the one hand, and then closed the gates of the 
towns against him, when he wanted to exchange the 
vagabondage, for which he was reproved, for a settled life 
to which he had been invited; one feels at first sight 
inclined to assume some particularly aggravated feeling 
against the Scot on the part of the Germans; some 
specially prepared hatred and malevolence to be used 
with or without discretion at certain frequent intervals 
against him. 

But this assumption would be wrong. The Scot was 
not the only recipient of these strange gifts of hospitality. 
He shared them with the Jew, the Spaniard, and above all 
with the Dutch, who vied with the Scot in their enter- 
prise and the number of their settlements' throughout 
the north-east of Germany. He would have shared them 
with an angel from heaven if such a one could have been 
induced to live in Prussia. The gifts were doled out 

1 Kgl St. Archiv^ Koaigtberg. 

' A yery interesting pamphlet on these Dutch settlementt has just 
been published by B. Schumacher under the title : NleJerlanSschi Anmd^ 
hmgen im Herxegthum Preussen %ur Zfit Her%og AlbreehtSf Kdnigsberg, i. 
P. 1902. 



THE SCOTTISH TRADER. 119 

quite irrespective of the person, they were the outcome 
of a principle under which all Europe, as under a baro- 
metrical minimum, then suffered. 

There is not the slightest doubt that a German or 
any numbers of them, that had landed in those days on 
the coast of England or emigrated to Scotland trying 
to pursue their trade to better advantage, would have 
been treated in the same fashion. They could not have 
been treated otherwise, except by a few enlightened 
minds born before their time. 

This, if it does lessen the severity of our judgment 
on the Germans of those days, does not lessen the pity 
and the sympathy felt for the persecuted. 

Many of them have succumbed ^^ uncoffined and un- 
knelled " ; of others we are told on many a stately stone 
and in the turgid eloquence of many an epitaph ; many 
again have survived and bear witness in their names of 
the old flood of Scottish emigration. All have left, very 
literally and very legibly, their footprints in the sands 
of time. 

It is with the memory of those among them that have 
neither obtained fame nor wealth that we were specially 
concerned here, and to them we would fain have erected 
a humble cairn in the long row of sand-swept Scottish 
graves on the shores of the Baltic. 



PART n. 

MILITARY, ECCLESIASTICAL AND OTHER 

MATTERS. 



El 



' • 



ARMY— CHURCH— AND OTHER MATTERS. 

One of the earliest, if not the earliest record of Scottish 
military assistance being given to the Powers of the 
Baltic, is to be found during the Crusades of the Teutonic 
Order against their neighbours, the Lithuanian heathens, 
or Letten as they are called, in the last decade of the 
fourteenth century. Then Scottish knights among the 
knights of all Europe flocked thither to offer their swords 
in the cause and the propagation of Christianity. 

The death of Lord William Douglas of Nithisdale in 
1390 or 139 1 is related to us by various Scottish, 
English, French and German sources, all of which have 
been enumerated in our previous volume.^ To these 
may now be added the oldest Hochmeister Chronik 
dated about the beginning of the fifteenth century .> 
It mentions Lord Douglas in these words : '^ Do erslugen 
die Engelischen gar eynen erbam graffen awsz Schotten 
do grosse leide umb was undir aUer herrschafft, wen her 
was gar eyn truwer man leibes guttes und ere"; Le. 
** There the English slew a very honourable earl out of 
Scotland on whose account there was great grief amongst 
all the Lords, for he was a very staunch fellow in body, 
possessions and honour." * 

Simon Grunau also, a Dominican monk, who vnrote 

^ See Seoii m Germaty^ pp. 274-278. The newest Douglas Book 
by Sir H. Maxwell refers very briefly to the murder of Lord William. 
Of course it did not occur in a war against the Turks as stated there. 
The Turks at that time were very hr off indeed. 

^ Dr Hirsch, Scrifiores Rerum Prutsuamm^ iii. 620. 

' The writer of the Chronicle seems to refer to Konigsberg. 

taj 



124 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA- 

a Prassian Chronicle about the year 1526 makes mention 
of Douglas, adding the words : ^^ It was he whose father 
allowed himself to be killed in order that his master 
the King might live." ^ 

Of the various embellishments of this story we have 
also spoken previously. Curious it is that the fact of 
a gate at Danzig, the Hohe Thor, having once been 
called the Douglas Gate, and of its having been adorned 
with the Coat of Arms of this nobleman, should occur 
in the following three Scottish writers: the author of 
the Atlas Geograpbus^ Hume of Godscroft, in his 
Douglas book, and John Scot in his Metrical History 
tf the War in Flanders. The last of these has the 
lines : — 

** And at Dantkin eren in our own time 
There wai a gate called Douglas Port 
Now re-ediified again and called Hochindore.' 

To these must be added the testimony of an English 
merchant, who in his description of the city of Danzig 
writes: "Upon account of a signal service which one 
of the Douglas family did to this city in relieving it 
in its utmost extremities against the Poles, the Scotch 
were allowed to be free burghers of the town, and had 
several other immunities granted them above other 
foreigners, but now excepting the successors of those 
who were so incorporated they have no distinction or 
privileges, but indeed a better half of the families are of 
Scotch extraction'' He then mentions the Hohe Thor 
being called Douglas Gate even in his time (1734).' 

1 The Chronicle has been published by Perlbach, L 676 and 679. 

' Metrical Hut. of the War in Flanderiy 1 701-17 12, by John Scot* 
a soldier. Published in the ScotUib Br^ade in Holland^ vL 522 
{Scott, Hut. Sac. PubUcatums). 

8 A Particular Description of Danzig by an English Merchant, lately 
resident there. London, 1734. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 125 

In Danzig, where the beautiful Hohe Thor still stands, 
restored and freed from its former encumbrances, nothing 
is known of this story. But then Danzig is rather badly 
off for a good history, and at some future time a verifica- 
tion may be found of what, till now, must be considered 
tradition only. 

Skipping over a period of nearly two centuries we arrive 
at a period where Danzig was sorely pressed by the enemy. 

In 1575 a scion of the royal family of Batori h^d been 
called to the throne of Poland as Stephen IV. Danzig, 
though nominally belonging to Poland, refused to 
acknowledge him and declared for the German Emperor, 
Maximilian IL, who promised the town important trading 
privileges. Even after the death of Maximilian in 1576, 
its opposition did not cease. Stephan, therefore, laid 
siege to it, but its defence was so obstinate and so skilful 
that he had to withdraw very soon, express his regret, 
and pay 200,000 gulden as an indemnity. 

For this war Scotland, the great recruiting dep6t of 
Europe, furnished a force of six or seven hundred men. 
They were drawn not, however, from Scotland itself, but 
from the Scottish forces in Holland. The first indication 
of it we find in the Calendar of State Papers when 
(August 3, 1577) Walsingham writes to the Regent : " It 
may please you, therefore, to stay such of that (the Scottish) 
nation as lately served in Holland, who, as I am informed, 
are otherwise minded to repair to the service of the town 
of Danske, for unless the matter be speedily compounded 
their cause requires speedy relief."^ To Danzig they 
went, anyhow, and, as it appears, by sea. ' They were 
commanded by Colonel William Stuart and the Captains 

^ KgL Su jfrcUvf Danzig. Militaria. 

> Some of them under Gonrlayy Trotter and Tomaon, arrived at 
Danzig in the middle of June 1577 s others on the 20th of August. 



126 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA- 

Gourlay, W. Moncrieff, John Crawford, John Tomson, 
John Dollachy (?), Alex. Morra and Will Rentoun. Their 
engagement was to last till May 1578; good pay and 
plenty of ammunition and provision was promised. We 
also hear that their sergeant-major was called Ambsteroder 
(Anstruther), their surgeon (Feldscheer), John Orley, their 
Provost, Robert Schwall, and their preacher (Predikant), 
Patrick Griech (Greig), the latter drawing two hundred 
gulden as his pay. 

Now powder and shot seems to have been forthcoming 
in abundant quantities — we are told in the treasury-accounts 
of Danzig that at one time fifty-four schock {i.e. three score) 
of slow-matches at an expense of eighty-one gulden were 
handed out to the forces — but it was somewhat different 
with the offcers' pay, and some little pressure was required 
on the part of the claimants. Captain Murray addresses 
the Magistrates on this matter, and scornfully states that 
he has wasted a whole week and got nothing, and William 
Moncrieff writes a long letter with respect to the same 
business. 

"Gestrenge, edle, ehrveste, erbare, nahmhaffte, gross- 
giinstige Herren ! " he begins with that waste of adjectives 
which delighted the soul of the German official at that time. 
" After offering you my very willing and humble services, 
I beg to draw your attention to the fact that I have, a few 
weeks ago, brought all the men under my standard from 
the Netherlands at my own expense to this good town to 
serve against her enemies. I have thus laid out in food, 
conveyance and other expenses more than six hundred 
thaler, by which I was compeUed to pawn my best clothes 
at Holschenore^ in Denmark. Though I did formerly 
apply to you for a reimbursement, I received only the 

^He means EUinore. Cp. KgU Su Arctiv^ Danzig. Miiitaria. See 
Part III. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 127 

answer that I must put down all my expenses with regard 
to the soldiers serving under me, carefully in writing, and 
send it to the magistrates, when I should duly receive 
what was right. Now to put down every item in con- 
nection with my said expenses clearly and distinctly, is 
quite impossible, for I, have kept no account-books. I 
therefore leave it to you and to your decision, and trust 
that I shall receive what is due to me, with which I shall 
be well content Hoping to receive a favourable reply, 
your humble servant, 

*' WiLHBLM MoNKRiBPP, Captain.*^ 

Matters, however, seem to have been settled amicably, 
for we soon read of the valiant deeds of the little Scotch 
garrison. They were the chief stay of Danzig in all her 
troubles, say the State Papers, ^^They have done so 
much noble service that they have got great fame for 
their country in these parts." ^ 

Poor Gourlay had to pay with his life. An old 
chronicler of Danag tells us that he, being wounded 
under the arm, wanted to jump into a boat, but he jumped 
short, and in his heavy armour he was drowned. ' His 
funeral was a very solemn afiair. ^^ All the Scots, with 
their muskets under their arms, went first with their 
colours, and drums beating. After the coflin came the 
magistrates, the bailies and the burgesses." 

Colonel Stuart himself had a narrow escape. ^^ On this 
Saturday, December 7th, 1577," writes an old chronicler, 
^^ the Scottish colonel, a handsome and imposing warrior 

1 See Lotchin, Gescbichte Dam%igSt u 235. Cal. of State Papert 

(Foreign) 1577-?^ P- 4^ 

> See Curicke, Der Siadi Datixig bistoritcbe Bescbrabmigt 1^57* 
'* Gourlay welcher mit schwerer Riistong in em boht springen woUen 
aber wcil er zu korz gesprungen ond iiber das unter dem Arm wundge- 
•choeten war, ist er ersoffien." 



128 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

of royal blood, went for a ride with the horses he had 
lately bought, outside the town, and exercised them 
opposite the hills near the shooting range of the citizens. 
But when the enemy noticed this, he rushed out of his 
coyer, wanting to attack him. He, however, with his men, 
quickly galloped towards the Heilige Leichnams Thor, 
where he was under the cover of the guns, and the enemy 
dared not follow him.^ 

After the siege had been raised the services of Colonel 
Stuart were asked for by the Danish King, but Danzig 
would not let him go before all the Scots had been paid 
oflFfor "fear of a rising '*« (1578). As to the "Predi- 
kant *' or military chaplain, as we would now say, he held 
services after the manner of the Presbyterians, in the 
Church of St Nicholas, also called the Church of the 
Black Friars, whilst the Pastor of St Elisabeth also cele- 
brated the Holy Communion in the same way for the 
benefit of the levied Dutch and Scottish troops.' 

Danzig seems to have retained some at any rate of the 
Scottish soldiers in her pay. We read now and then of 

1 ** An diesem Sonnabend ist auch dcr Schotten Oberstery ein feiner 
und ttattlichcr Kxiegtmann tod kdnigUchem Geschlechte mit seinen 
Pferden die er gekauft hatte vor die Stadt spaziereo geritten und tummelte 
sich beidem geburge an der Burgerschietzstange. • • . Wie aber der Feind 
flolches merkte, stiirzte er ans dem Geburge herans und wolJte ihn 
berennen. Er rannte aber flugs mit seinem Volk nach dem Heil. 
Letchnami Thor. Do dnrften sie nicht onter das Geschiitz ebenteuem 
und zogen tich zoriicL'' K^L St. Arclnv^ Danzig* Handschr. LL 
9a. 

3 KgL St. Archiv^ Danzig. Misaiybiicher. Letter to the King of 
Denmark, dated February ai, 1578. Colonel Stuart it in Edinburgh 
in 1590 wridng to the Danzig Magistrates on behalf of the Danish 
Councillor Ramel, who had lent King Sigismund money to redeem the 
Crown Jewels which the latter had pawned. 

' Dttisburgy Versuch einer topographisch historischen Beschreiburg, 
Danzigs i. 163, 170 f. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 129 

Scottish names, the bearers of which ^^ now served in this 

town's soldatesca/' 

Hans Ejrafort, for instance, and Oliver Ketscher, both 

soldiers, testify before the Magistrates of the town that 
the late Hans Rehe (Ray), bom in the Kingdom of 
Scotland, did serve as a sergeant under Colonel Fuchs in 
the Russian War, that he was killed during the siege of 
Smolensk, and buried with all martial honours (1634). 
Or when Maj or-6eneral Gaudi explains that Jacob Black, 
bom at Danzig, who had served in his company as a 
dragoon, had died on the march behind Casimirs four 
years ago (1662). Very numerous, of course, were the 
Scottish officers in the service of the King of Poland. To 
the names already mentioned we may here add those of 
Captain James Murray, who in 1627 commissions Jacob 
Rowan at Danzig to collect his pension ; ^ Captain Reay 
who figures in a rather curious case of wrongful imprison- 
ment ; and Maj or-6eneral Count von Johnston, who was 
also Colonel of a Regiment of Cuirassiers.^ 

In 1 624 King Vladislaus IV. grants to the Scot, Thomas 
Fergusson — * egregius ' — who had served under Jacob Wil- 
son and Captain Earkpatrick as a sergeaot against the 
Russians, permission to return to his own country, char- 
acterising his conduct during the campaign as brave and 
honourable (1624). 

Very sad was the case of Alexander Ruthven, who lost 
his life in the service of Poland. It is on account of his 
widow that Edinburgh addresses the following letter to 
the Magistrates of Danzig in the year 1605 : ^' We make 
it known to you that to-day appeared before us the noble 
Margaret Munro, the widow of the late Colonel Alexander 

1 KgL St* Jirehhf^ Daozig, Schoppenb. 

' See Gesclficbte der FanuBe von JobnsUm^ by M. yon Johnston- 
Rathen ; printed priyately, 18919 p. 42. 



130 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Ruthven, and explained to us how her late husband had 
spent and lost all his property in various wars in Poland 
and Sweden, so that after he had sacrificed his life m the 
service of the King of Poland she had hardly enough to 
live with her orphan children. Her only hope was placed, 
next to God, in the liberality of His Majesty, King Sigis- 
mund III., whose Chancellor and Field-marshal, Johannes 
Zamoscius, had promised him, when he was about to meet 
his death at the siege of Volmer, to see that the King 
would provide for his wife and children liberally ; and 
as she herself for the want of means and otherwise is 
prevented from accomplishing such a long journey to call 
upon His Majesty and General Zamosc, she by the terms 
of this letter solemnly appoints George Bruce to approach 
the said persons in her name, and to remind them of their 
promise, and to act in all matters relating to her deceased 
husband as her representative, with this only limitation, 
that he shall have no power to arrange about money 
matters and pensions unless George Smyth, a goldsmith, 
and George Hepburn, a merchant, both citizens of Danzig, 
consent and approve. She makes these two her trustees, 
and empowers them together with her representative, 
George Bruce, to administer all matters relating to the 
late Alexander Ruthven, to pay his debts, or to call in 
debts just as if she had been present herself; and she 
will consider everything that has legally been done by 
these her representatives as binding, pledging at the same 
time all movable and immovable possessions she owns at 
present or may own in the future. In testimony whereof 
we have ordered our first secretary, Alexander Guthrie, 
to append the seal of our city to this document. Given 
at Edinburgh, on the sixth of April, one thousand six 
hundred and five.*' ^ 

^ KgL Su jtrcihf Danzig. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 131 

Another well desenring officer in the Polish Army was 
Peter Leennonth, whose name occurs in the Minute Books 
of Marienburg in 161 9. He is called ^^nobilis/' and the 
King, in granting him the property of a late stranger, 
which according to the Jus caducum fell to the Crown,^ 
says of him : ^^ He showed himself a brave and active soldier, 
not only against the Duke of Sudermannia, but also 
during the whole of the Russian War when we were 
besieging Smolensk . . . and again in the reign of our 
son, Wladislaus Sigismund, he fought very bravely, and 
was an example to others (et aliis dux et aucior existens 
ad pugnani)^ It is well known that the Russian Poet 
LermontoflPs Scottish ancestor Learmonth came to Russia 
about this time. The poet's father's name was Petro- 
witsch, showing that Peter was a family name. 

It would fill another volume to write exhaustively on 
the Scottish officers in the service of Poland. Their 
numbers were, as we have stated, very large, their 
services much appreciated. It is owing, no doubt, 
in great part to these services that so many Scottish 
families were ennobled and enrolled among the 
Polish nobility in the sixteenth, seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. We find the following names 
who were granted titles of nobility by the Polish Crown : 
Bonar, Chambers (1673), M^d^sty^ Macferlant, Ogilvie, 
Murison, Miller, Guthrie (1673), Forfeit (Forsyth), 
Patterson, with the surname of Hayna, Gordons, Fraser, 
Halyburton, with the surname Stodart, Watson, and 
Karkettle, the last two at the end of the eighteenth 
century.* 

Prominent among the Scottish officers of Gustavus 

^ See abore. 
* Cp. Emilian t. Zeniicki— Szelika, Der Polmiche Add^ Hamburg 
1900. Pp. 57, 91, 254, 324 and elsewhere. 



13^ THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Adolphus, King of Sweden, was William Lewis,^ who 
emigrated to Sweden at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. His ancestral home was Castle Manor in Peeble- 
shire. He also saw a good deal of senrice in Germany. In 
the camp of Altbrandenburg he was made colonel on the 
1 7th of August 1 63 1. In 1640 he was garrisoned with his 
regiment in Stralsund, Pomerania. His grateful Kmg 
acknowledged his faithful services by bestowing upon 
him the estates of Panton and Nurmis in Livonia. 
Colonel Lewis died in 1675. 

A descendant of his was Lieutenant-General Friedrich 
von Lowis of Menar, who, in 1813, for several months 
commanded the Russian army during the siege of Danzig, 
Danzig then an important fortress. His portrait and a 
memorial tablet is to be seen in the Waisenhaus Kirche 
(Chapel of the Orphanage) at the last named place. 

How this portrait got into the Orphanage is told in the 
records of the institution. According to them a letter of 
recommendation to the heads of all the villages in the 
territory of Danzig had been granted by the magistrates 
to the Master of the Orphanage, who intended to set out 
on an expedition with some of his pupils in order to collect 
contributions in money and in kind for the institution, and 
to relieve the great want and distress occasioned by the 
protracted siege of the town. It must be remembered 
that Danzig at that time was held by the French, and 
that it was besieged by Russians and Germans, under the 
chief command of Alexander, Duke of Wiirtemberg, to 
whom General Frederick von Lowis of Menar acted as 
second in command. "On the 24th of August," our 
records continue, "at half-past nine in the morning, one 

^ To thia day there are ** Lowis of Menar ** in Litronia. Baron K. 
TOO Lowif of Menar at Riga had the kindnett of fiimithing me with the 
abore data. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 133 

hundred and thirty-four orphans, accompanied hj their 
teacher, sergeant and some nurses, left the orphanage and 
moved in procession, and singing the old hymn, ^When 
we are in the depth of woe,' to the Church of St Mary's 
in the town, where the senior clergyman and chaplain of 
the institution delivered an address and pronounced the 
benediction. Then the children went to the melody of 
the hymn, ^Now God be merciful,' to the Langemarkt, 
the chief square of Danzig. Here one of them spoke 
a few touching words of farewell. Everybody crowded 
around them, and even the poorest showed their sympathy 
by some little gift. It is told that an old apple-woman 
divided her whole barrel of fruit and vegetable amongst 
them, a present not to be undervalued in those days of 
famine and distress. With their master Gehrt at the 
head, the procession then moved out of the High Gate, 
past the little village of Ohra. But here their difficulties 
commenced. Scarcely had they passed the French out- 
posts, when to their dismay they beheld at no great 
distance the Russian outposts, who had advanced as far as 
the "Three Boars Heads." Now, as neither the French 
would allow them to return to the city nor the Russians 
to proceed on their errand of mercy, they had to encamp 
where they were under the sky, starvation staring them 
in the face. 

" At last. General Frederick von Lowis, moved by compas- 
sion and himself deeply afflicted by the recent loss of a young 
and promising boy, succeeded in effecting their release. 
The Duke of Wiirtemberg having written to him on the 
occasion of his sad loss, he replied that his grief would be 
greatly assuaged if the poor orphans of Danzig received a 
free pass. Upon this the Duke allowed them to proceed. 

" They were first placed in the monastery of St Albrecht, 
where Ldwis had his quarters, later they found an asylum 



134 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

in the little village of Ottomin, where they were well fed 
and clothed by good Samaritans, until, in January 1814, 
Danzig was restored to Germany, and they were allowed 
to return to their old home. 

^^ In memory of this act of kindness on the part of the 
Russian General, the following tablet was placed in the 
Orphanage chapel : ^ During the siege of Danzig under 
Alexander, Duke of Wiirtemberg, Friedrich von L5wis, 
Imperial Russian General and Knight, our deliverer in the 
fatal days between the outposts at Niederfelde, from the 
24th of August to the 8th of September 1813.'"^ 

An additional glimpse of Scottish officers in Germany 
is afforded to us in the history of the City of Thorn,* 
which was occupied by Sweden from the year 1655 until 
1658, when it was retaken by Polish and Austrian forces. 
The garrison at that time consisted of two thousand five 
hundred men, amongst them the Scottish Body Guard 
numbering five hundred, whilst some of the other regi- 
ments were also commanded by Scottish officers such as 
Colonel Cranston, Hatton and Douglas. 

The following officers were serving in the Guard : — 

Colonel Hamilton. 
Majors Mercer and Wilson. 
Captain Eske (Erskine). 
„ Ramsay. 
„ Orcheson (?). 
„ Lawson. 
„ Robertson. 

^ Kindly communicated by the Directors of the Orphanage at Danzig. 
Frederick von Lowis was the son of Major-General Fred ron Lowis and 
Hiiz. Clapier of Cologne. He was bom i6th Sept. 1767, at Hopsal in 
Esthonia, and died as Lironian Marshal after a brilliant military career 
against the Swedes, the Poles and the French in 1824 on the i6th of 
April. 

3 E. Kestner, Beitrdge zur Geichlchte der Stadt Thom^ 1883, p. 205 f. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 135 



Lieutenant Fraser. 
,y Jamieson. 



J7 



Stirling. 

Montgomery. 

Kuming. 
Macdougall. 

Lenegis ^). 

Karr. 



In the chronicles of the time the excellent discipline of 
these troops is praised. 

Once again, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
the city of Danzig entrusted the post of commander of its 
forces to a Scotsman. This was Major Sinclair, who 
was called out of Holland in 1698. He was an energetic, 
able man, and took an interest in the improvements of 
the city. In 1 704 he was made Colonel, and he died as 
Major-General in 1731, when he was buried with great 
pomp in the Frauen or Marien Kirche, where there is still 
to be seen a monument erected in his memory.^ 

In the armies of Brandenburg and Hanover also Scottish 
officers were found in great numbers during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. In the Brandenburg 
Prussian service such names occur as Captain Trotter 
(ti653), Captain Hamilton (1669), Lieut. -Colonel Black 
(1665), and Colonel Spang. Very likely the following 
letter of introduction also refers to an officer. It was 
written by one Robert Stewart from Danzig in 161 1, and 
addressed to the Elector of Brandenburg, Johann Sigis- 
mund. The writer recommends ^^ Joannem Drummond,'* 
his countryman, who is honest and of good birth, and 

^ Kdhler, Geschubte dtr Fuhmgen Danz^ wid fVekhsdnmiuU 
(1893). Pawlowtkiy Popidare Getehkhu^ Danzig, p. 142. There is a 
long Latin inicription on the tomb» bat no biographical details. His coat- 
of-arms that used to hang up abore the monoment has disappeared. 



136 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

possesses famous friends. ^^ The very great friendliness 
and condescension with which Your Highness received me 
may excuse the boldness of interceding for another friend. 
I most urgently commend him to your favour and kind- 
ness."^ In more recent times we find no less than four 
Hamiltons mentioned in Konigsberg: General Hamilton 
(18 10), Colonel Hamilton (1819), and two other Hamil- 
tons, non-commissioned officers (1832). A Colonel 
Leslie also occurs in the town of Preussisch Holland 
(ti82i).' In the Hanoverian army the most eminent 
Scottish names in the seventeenth century are : Graham, 
Crichton, Gordon, Ramsay and Stuart ; in the eighteenth : 
Henderson, Macphail and Robertson, and in the nine- 
teenth : Mackenzie, Murray, and General Sir H. Halkett. 
Of these the Robertsons or " von " Robertsons, as they 
are now called, are distinguished by a long and honourable 
service. The first of them, belonging to the Strowan 
branch of the family, came to Germany about the middle 
of the seventeenth century, and entered the army of the 
Prince of Celle as a Major. He returned to Scotland in 
1687 and died on his estate of ^^ Clerkensheede," a name 
which has not yet been identified. Another Robertson 
was Governor of Nienburg in Hanover ; a third. Captain 
in the Hanoverian Guards ; a fourth. Knight of the Bath 
and the Order of Guelph, fought at Waterloo, where he 
was dangerously wounded. He died in 1849. Grand- 
sons of his are still living in the North of Germany. 

^ **» • . Joannem Drummond conterraneum quem constat bene 
oriundum, amicos enim claros habere, et ipsum ni fallor satis probum ; 
Serenitatis Vestrae humanitas et incredibilis dementia qua me ipsom 
excepistis eo me audaciae protraxerunt ut pro alio etiam Serenitatem 
Vestram interpellari audeam, quo-circa eondem solitae Vestrae benignitati 
et dementiae itenim atqne iterum commendo.'' K^L St. jircbiv^ Kooigs- 
berg. H%gL Brief jircbiv* 

* KgL St. ArcbiVf Konigsberg. Testamenti Akten. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 137 

A great many of the second generation of Scotsmen 
followed the calling of the Church. Among the preachers 
of the Presbyterian Church of St Peter and Paul at 
Danzig we find Sam. W. Thomson towards the end of 
the eighteenth century and his successor, Peter J. 
Buchan. Thomas Burnet was the first preacher of the 
Scottish congregation there about the year 1692, when 
Scotch services took place in his private dwelling in the 
Frauengasse. From the great number of entries in the 
Church books of St Peter and Paul and of St Elizabeth, 
however, we conclude that from an early date the bulk of 
the Scots attended divine worship in these German Pres- 
byterian Churches; though they may have formed and 
did form an ecclesiola in ecclesia, having their own poor- 
funds and so forth. They also had their own ^^ Umbitter," 
a sexton or low church official, who was sent round to 
the members of the congregation announcing deaths, and 
funerals and marriages. His name is given as David 
Grim (Graham), and he died in the hospital of St 
Elizabeth in 1667, at the age of seventy-eight. Not 
only did the Scots of Danzig attend the services of St 
Peter and Paul, but they had clergymen of their own 
nation or extraction at that church as well, though of 
course the sermons were delivered in the German language. 
Two Buchans, Jacob and Peter, and probably father and 
son, were preachers there from 1749- 1776, and from 
1 804-1 8 14 respectively. Besides these the name of S. 
W. Turner occurs in the list of clergymen (178 1- 
1806). 

Among the Lutheran clergy of Danzig, as far back as 
1624, a Scot, Magister Adrian Stoddart, deserves mention. 
He was bom in 1 598, and filled other responsible positions 
in the government of the town besides being Dean of the 
Parish Church of St Mary's. His portrait is still to be 



138 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

seen in the vestry. The most valuable Chronicle of 
Curicke is dedicated to him. 

In the remaining Province of Western Prussia we 
find no less than five Lutheran clergymen of the 
name of Achinwall, the same family that has already 
furnished us with the name of the famous Professor of 
Jurisprudence and Political Economy at Gottingen. The 
eldest of these was Thomas Achenwall, bom 1695, at 
Elbing. He afterwards became clergyman of the Heilige 
Drei Konigskirche in his native town, and died in 
1755. '^^^ ^^^^ ^^ another Thomas, a cousin, bom at 
Elbing in 1702. He became preacher at St Mary's 
Church there and died in 1764. The third is his son 
Gottlieb Thomas Achenwall, bom in 1731. After having 
taught at Elbing for some years, he was called to the 
village of Fiirstenan as clergyman in 1759. His son 
Daniel Thomas Gottlieb, bom in 1766, came as minister 
to Lenzen (1804) and died there in 1807. The last of 
the Achinwall theologians was Thomas Christlieb, bom 
at Elbing in 1751 ; ordained in 1778, he officiated in 
various churches, latterly in St Mary's. He died in 

1810.1 
Another Scottish clergyman at Elbing was W. 

Rupsohn (Robinson) who was bom in 1664. Having 

^ The following is a table of descent of this remarkable family : 
Thob&as Achinwall (Auchinvale) 1 615-1674. 

Michael, A. (1664-1716). Laurentius (1668.1718). 

Gottfried, merctuiDt and brewer Thomas, Pfarrer of St Mary's, 

I (1691-1745). Elbing (1701-1764). 

Gottfried, the famous Professor Gottlieb, Thomas (1731-17S7), 

at Gdttingen (1771). Professor and Clergyman at 

Fursrenau. 

Daniel Thomas Gottlieb at 
Lenzen. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 139 

studied at the University of Rostock, he spent some 
time in travelling through Germany, Belgium and France, 
not so much for the sake of scenery, but in order to enjoy 
the intercourse with famous men.^ After his return in 
1689, ^^ ^^^ chosen clergyman at the Heilige Leichnam 
Kirche' in Elbing, an office which he held until 17 18, 
the year of his death. 

In Nassenhuben, a village not far from Danzig, and 
where there was a Presbyterian Church, no less than four 
clergymen of Scottish descent officiated. Gilbert Wachius 
was the first. He came there from Konigsberg in 1694, 
and was called to Bremen five years later, where he died 
in 1720. Alexander Davidson from Danzig succeeded 
him in the ministry. He died in 1725. Of John R. 
Forster we shall have to speak later. Finally we have in 
this same village the name of S. W. Turner, whom we 
have just mentioned as having been called to St Peter's 
at Danzig in 1781. 

In other places of Western Prussia such as Thorn,' 
Thiensdorf,^ Graudenz,^ Rosenberg * and Preussisch 
Mark,^ we find clergymen of Scottish extraction filling 
the ministry. 

Turning to Eastern Prussia the names of four Andersons 
occur since 1775. We have two W. Crichtons, Chaplains 
and Doctors of Divinity at Konigsberg ; the elder of these 
came from Insterburg, became preacher in the Royal 

^ This was the main object of trayelling in those days. To travel for 
the sake of natural scenery is altogether of modem growth. 

> Corpus Christi Church. , See Stadt Bibliothek^ Elbing, MS. F. 48. 

* Th. Albert Young (i 719-1 745) and Ernest Wauch (1789- 
1791). * G. Kraffert (Crawfiird), (1721-1737). 

* Dan. Lamb (1703- 1708). 

^ Michael Scotus, 1738. He was first in Neidenburg. 
^Th. Marschall from Elbing (1708-1710). See Rhesa, Presly 
ierlologie von Ost und West Preussen. 



140 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Orphanage (1715-1718), and, since 1730, Court Preacher 
and Consistorialrath in K5nigsberg. He died sixty-six 
years old in 1749. His son William, bom 1732, at 
Konigsberg, was for a time Professor of Theology at 
Frankfurt. In 1772 he succeeded his father. 

Another Court Preacher, there used to be three, was 
J. Thomson, bom at Warsaw in 1675. After haying 
occupied the post of headmaster of the reformed School 
at Konigsberg he entered upon the diaplaincy in 1707.^ 

In the Polish Presbyterian Church at Konigsberg, 
mention is made of a clergyman named Chr. Henry 
Karkettle, who died in 1751. 

In Rastenburg, Emest Fr. Hammilton officiated ; ' in 
Pillau, David Hervie, a native of Konigsberg, but of 
Scottish descent,' whilst in 1665 Jacob Glen was a 
minister at Stallupohnen. 

In Tilsit we find besides A. Dennis, who died in 1699, 
a clergyman named von Irwing, a native of the place, 
where the Scottish Irvings were widespread. Another 
Wach, bom at Goldap, occurs as clergyman in the 
village of ToUmingkehmen. 

With regard to Jacob Brown who was appointed to 
Konigsberg in 1685,^ there exists a remarkable letter 
addressed to Hofprediger Schlemiiller, on the 3rd of 
April 1668, by the Churfiirst, showing and completing our 
evidence of the desire of the numerous Scots to enjoy 
the worship of God in their own tongue many years 
before. 

*' Your Reverence will remember," it runs, "how about 
two or three years ago, some of the Scottish Nation here 
held private meetings in their houses and had sermons, 

1 Hediedin 1732. * ^7SS'^7^S' * '707-I77S- 

^ Scots m Germany f p. 1 90 f. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 141 

aboat which people in the town spoke very harshly, 
under the name of false and forbidden doctrine, asking 
our government very earnestly and humbly to stop 
such suspicious conventicles. Now when we caused an 
enquiry to be made into the matter of these secret 
gatherings and found that a Scottish exile of pure doc- 
trine and good morals and an adherent of the Reformed 
(i.e. Presbyterian) Form of Religion had come hither to 
visit his good friends, but was not able now to return 
to his native country on account of the naval war lately 
broken out between Holland and England, and further 
that he, not wishing to eat his bread in idleness, desired 
to preach the Word of God to his countrymen in their 
own tongue ; we have in order to remove all grounds of 
suspicions and complaints and to assist them in this 
praiseworthy undertaking, graciously been pleased to 
allow them to continue their religious exercise publicly 
after the close of the service of the Reformed Church on 
Sundays, in the Hall at the Castle. 

^^ But as we have now been informed, shortly before 
our departure, and not without very great surprise on 
our part, that the said Scots against our prohibition 
continue their private meetings, that there were some 
points in their doctrine not altogether sound and that 
all this would be brought forward as a great ^ gravamen ' 
at our next diet, we desire your Reverence (it being 
very necessary to prevent this) to let these people know 
in our name, that, because the diet is approaching now 
and we are in nowise anxious to see a matter allowed 
by us disallowed by them,^ they should discontinue both 
the public as well as the private exercise of religion in 
their own tongue. But if afterwards they desire to have 
their own preacher besides our two Court-Preachers, 

^ The meaning of this sentence is not quite clear. 



142 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

they may duly petition for it, when, we have no doubt. 
His Electoral Highness will graciously consider such a 
request." ^ 

It is curious to observe not only the liberal and humane 
views of the Prince, but also his dread — so often the 
dread of a military hero who knows of no fear in battle — 
of having his previously and magnanimously given privilege 
denounced, torn to shreds by discussion, and perhaps can- 
celled by the diet. The Scottish predilection for private 
religious meetings as well as the extreme importance 
attached to points of doctrine and their ^^ soundness '* 
is again highly characteristic. 

We know the further development : how Brown was 
found wanting in some minor doctrinal matters, how 
the Elector interceded for him, and how he, after 
having promised to teach or do nothing against the 
mode of worship in Konigsberg, was finally appointed 
preacher to the Scottish congregation.' 

Going across the strict boundaries of the two Prussian 
Provinces we may add to this already long list of Scottish 
Presbyterian Clergymen the name of C. Musonius (1545- 
161 2), son of the Scot, Jacob Musonius, at Lobsens, in 
the Province of Posen, and that of his brother Simon 
who died in 1592. Some of their descendants were like- 
wise ministers. We even hear of Scotsmen preaching to 
Polish congregations, for instance Andrew Malcolm, who 
was Presbyterian clergyman at Ziillichau in Silesia, his 
congregation consisting of a colony of Polish immigrants. 

In Pomerania about the year 1650 one Hamilton 
occurs as the clergyman of Wachholzhausen, not far from 
Treptow, whilst in Mecklenburg Ludovicus Barclay, 
Archdeacon at Rostock, took a prominent position among 

1 KgL Stm jfrchivf Konigsberg. See the original in Part III. 
' See Scoti in Germany ^ p. 190 f. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 145 

the learned theologians and writers of sermons of the 
day. 

The interest taken by the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland in the religious well-being of their 
countrymen abroad has been illustrated in our previous 
volume. Once again in 1722 the Assembly took occasion 
to write to those far-off parts of Europe. The Protestant 
Church of Lithuania was in a pitiable condition at the 
time, chiefly for the want of funds and for their inability 
to give their young candidates for the ministry a suit- 
able training. On the seventh of May in the year given, 
the National Synod assembled in Edinburgh takes this 
sad condition of the sister Church into consideration, 
and deliberates on the ^^ friendly request" to train at 
its own expense two Lithuanian Students at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. Finally they resolve to spend 
the four distinct collections from Lothian and Tweed- 
dale, which were formerly devoted to the bringing up 
of other students, for the said purpose of educating 
two Lithuanian youths at the University, beginning at 
Martinmas 1723. They commission Jacob Young of 
Killicantie to gather in these tithes, and send copies 
of their resolution to the Prussian ambassador at London, 
Baron vom Wallenrode, as well as to the Rev. Boguslaus 
Kopyewitz at Vilna.^ The letter written to the Re- 
formed Synod of Lithuania in connection with this matter 
is dated May 17th, 1722' and runs: — 

^^Dear and Honoured Brethren, — The Reverend 
Boguslaus Kopyewitz, minister of Ood's Word at Vilna, 
when he was here in 17 18 as a delegate of the Re- 
formed Church of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 
witnessed with his own eyes, with what great pity for 
his brethren who profess a purer faith among your 

^ In LiToniay Russia. * KgL St. jtrcUv^ Konigsberg. 



144 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

people, the story of your afflictions, as read by him in 
your letters, had filled the Scottish Church then holding 
her National Synod, and how heartily she advocated 
a collection of funds on your behalf. The event has 
sufficiently taught us that our lay-brethren have been 
animated by the same feelings towards you as we our- 
selves. We have handed over to you all the money 
except nine pounds and two shillings of British money, 
which small sum not being considered large enough 
for the purpose, was given to Samuel Chien, a student 
of Divinity, and a Pole, as a donation. As a further 
proof that the kind feeling of our Scottish Synod towards 
you has remained unaltered, and that our mind is most 
ready to spread the Kingdom of our Saviour and most 
willing to assist our brethren tied to us by the same 
Reformed faith, the members of the Synod commissioned 
me to let you know in their name, that they have, in 
consequence of your letter, by their resolution, a copy 
of which is enclosed, provided for the board and the 
education at the University of Edinburgh, of two students, 
who will have to be recommended by your certificates. 
We hope that this proposal of our Synod will be agree* 
able to you, and a fresh token not only of its interest 
in your own Synod but of its sincere love towards those 
among your nation who are united to us by the true 
teaching of Christ. It remains for me to add with how 
great a pleasure I received the commission of com- 
municating this to you by my letter, havmg thus an 
occasion of assuring you of my own sincerest wishes, 
with which I beg to sign. Reverend and dear Brethren, 
in brotherly love, your humble servant, 

GuLiELMUs Mitchell, 
May 17, 1722. Moderator. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 145 

Verum Exemplar Epist. ab Ecclesia Scoticana ad Synod. 
Reform. Lithuaniensem.^ 

How zealously the Scots attended the German Presby- 
terian Churches of St Peter and Paul and of St Elizabeth 
at Danzigy and how eagerly they availed themselves of 
their ordinances is shown in the Church registers and books 
which have been kept and preserved uninterruptedly since 
the year 1573, that is to say only about fifty years after 
the introduction of the doctrines of the Refon^tion.' In 
the marriage registers we find between the years 1573 
and 1699 over one hundred Scottish names, from Jacob 
Surges who marries Anne, Simon Lang's widow (1573) 
to D. Nichols, who marries Anne Merivale a hundred years 
later. In the lists of baptisms from 1590 to 1632, about 
seventy Scottish names occur, amongst them Mackomtosh, 
Cochran, Skoda, Hewell and Grieve, names that we do 
not find elsewhere. 

In the fifty years dating from 1 63 1 to 1 68 1 , finally close 
on sixty Scotsmen and Scotswomen were buried in St 
Elizabeth's alone, a great many also in the Church of St 
Peter and Paul, two or three in the Church of St Mary 
(Frauenkirche) and three in St Johannes. Of one Daniel 
Beer, it says, ^^ a Scot of ninety-five buried in the Church- 
yard of St Barbara,** another whose name from Fergus be- 
came " Vergiss " seventy-two years old, was buried in the 
Churchyard of Corpus Christi. The notes, short as they 
are, very often are extremely interesting. Of Edward 
Kincaid we read that he was a late " Feldprediger " (Army 

^ KgL St. jfrcbhf KoDigsberg. See alio Part III. The name 
Chien occurs amoagtt the Scots in PoUnd, so that the above named 
student would htfve been a ** Scoto-Polonus/' 

^ According to Simon Grunau it was the son of a Scot from Niimberg, 
with the name of Matz Koningk, a councillor and rery eloquent, that first 
brought the message of Luther and his books into the town of Dantzke. 
Grunau, III., 115. But Grunau is not an authority of the first order. 



146 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Chaplain) in the army of the Swedish General Baner 
(1641); another, Jacobus Ross, is described as a late 
lieutenant and an innkeeper ; the name of Johann Cant is 
accompanied by the following note : ^^ a Scottish lieutenant 
who died on his way through Danzig fifty-six years old " 
(1652).^ Gertnid Uphagen is described as Lieutenant 
Jacob Stuart's "housewife" (1658), Catherine Watson, 
seventy-seven years old, as the '^Scotch" Catherine (1639), 
and of Alexander Watson we are told that he was " a 
Scottish youth of twenty-four who was wounded on the 
walls of Schoneck."« 

Besides these entries we have the more enduring records 
of numerous tombstones and mural tablets, many of them 
adorned with their proud Scottish coats-of-arms, in the two 
Churches of St Peter, St Elizabeth and St Mary at Danzig. 

Danzig, always ready to receive the sea-tossed Scots in 
the shelter of her harbour, has now granted them a last 
safe anchorage. 

The Scottish traveller, who gets into ecstasies of delight 
at the sight of the foreign Campo Santos under the brighter 
sky of Italy, would do well to remember that here also far 
in the '* rude North," forgotten and lonely, is a Campo 
Santo intimately connected with the life-history of his own 
people : the true Campo Santo of the Scot abroad. 

On those Scots in Germany eminent in the walks of life 
we have now to make a few remarks. To the notices 
given concerning Alexander Alesius, the celebrated Scottish 
Reformer, we may add that when he threw up his pro- 

1 ** Ein schottischer Lieutenant, so auf der Durchreise gestorben." 
Another Cant or Kant, Andreas, was a tanner and dwelt in Petershagen, 
a part of Danzig. In 1661 he is described as a *< musketeer under Sergeant 
Major Goltz in the army of the Elector of Brandenburg.'' 

^ ** Ein schottischer Gesell so einen Schuss ufm Thurm zu Schoneck 
empiangen.'' For a complete list see Part III. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 147 

fessorship at Frankfurt on the Oder, so poor seem to have 
been his circumstances that Johann Friedrich, the Duke of 
Saxony, had to provide forty ducats as travelling money 
for him ; ^ that his name occurs written on the fly leaf of a 
Latin Bible (1549) belonging to the German reformer 
Scribonius and that his chief work was his Lectures on St 
Paul's epistles to the Romans.' 

There is another Scottish professor at Frankfurt 
mentioned with the name of yobann Walter Leslie^ who 
died in 1679. He wrote various theological works;* whilst 
on the Roman Catholic side mention must be made of 
William Jobnstm^ who was a Jesuit and taught Philosophy 
and Theology at Gratz in Austria* He died in 1 6o9> 

Other descendants of the Scots took to the Law. To 
complete our list given elsewhere we may mention the 
names of Christof Pathon or Patton who was a lawyer 
at Elbing in 1648,^ and of John Immanuel Hamilton, 
the son of the above named clergyman, who became an 
advocate and professor of Philosophy at Halle University 
and died as a judge at Stargard in Pomerania in the year 
1728. Another Pomeranian solicitor, John Mitzel 
(Mitchel) was bom in 1642, at Stralsund, and went as a 
lawyer to Rostock after having finished his University 
course at Helmstadt. In 1670 he became Professor of 
Jurisprudence at Konigsberg, where he died in i677.^ 

To the famous Scottish doctors of medicine must be 
added the name of John Patterson, who was Imperial 

^ Corpus Reform.^ IL» 885. 

' Omnei disfutaAonei Z). Akx. Aletu tie toia Efutola ad Romanoif 1553- 

' Wrote : De jfmmOf De regimme Ecclemutko^ etc. 

^ He wrote among other works an Epitome Historiae Sleidam and a 
Commentary on leasaA, 

6 Stadt BiUiothei, Elbing, M.S., Q. 117. 

^ He wrote among other works: Oecononua juris provinciaRs Ducaius 
Bonusiae ; De Tutelis ; De Prmc^Oe juris ; De Testimoimsfoenttnarum^ etc 



148 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Physician, and lived in the small town of Eperies in 
Hungaria, in the latter half of the X Vlth. Century. 

In the walks of Science and Natural ICstory the Forsters, 
father and son, were eminent. Their ancestor, George 
Forster, emigrated, together with the swarm of his country- 
men, about the year 1 642, when he settled at Neuenburg, 
in Eastern Prussia, as a merchant. His son Adam removed 
to Dirschau not far from Danzig, where he also obtained 
citizenship. A grandson of his, George Reinhold, became 
famous as the companion of Cook, with whom he sailed 
round the world from 1772 to 1775. He was a man of 
a very unsettled disposition, and quite incapable of adapt- 
ing himself to the exigencies of life. After having been 
a clergyman at Nassenhuben, a village with a Presbyterian 
Church near Danzig, he turned to the study of Natural 
History and made a scientific journey, by order of the 
Empress Katherine, through the Colonies of the Govern- 
ment of Saratow (1765). A year later we find him in 
England supporting himself as a teacher of German and 
Natural History at Warrington. After his voyage with 
Cook, he ruined his chances with the English Government 
by allowing his son, who had accompanied him, to publish 
a diary of his travels, in contravention of the Government 
order forbidding any printed publication except its own 
official report. The D.L. of Oxford was the only reward 
he reaped for his scientific researches during his voyage. 
It was only by the generous act of Frederick the Second 
of Prussia that he escaped imprisonment for debt. In 
1780 he was appointed Professor of Natural History at 
Halle, where he died in 1798. He understood seventeen 
languages and stood in the first rank of the Zoolc^ical 
and Botanical scholars of the day.^ 

^ Johann Reinhold Forster wrote an Introduciion to Mmeralcgy ; a 
Gescbkbte der Entdechu^en und Scbiffahrtm im Norden^ Frankfurt on the 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 149 

His son, Johann George Adam, accompanied his father 
as a botanist, though he was then only seventeen 
years old. He then studied at Paris and in Holland. 
Being of the same roaming disposition as his father, he 
was for a short time Professor at S^assel, but changed this 
pleasant place for Vilna in Russia. A Russian voyage of 
discovery to the Northern Regions of the Pacific Ocean 
was abandoned on account of a war with the Turks 
(1787). In his disappointment Forster accepted the offer 
of a librarianship at Mayence. Here in very rigid Roman 
Catholic surroundings his cosmopolitan views as a Re- 
publican were strengthened. He joined a Republican 
Club^ of the town, then in the hands of the French, was 
sent to France in 1793 ^^ advocate the French occupation 
of the left border of the Rhine and spoke and wrote much 
in favour of his political ideals. But, having seen Paris, 
his was a rude awakening. Moreover, the German army 
retook Mayence in 1793 and Forster was thus rendered 
homeless. His plan of visiting India was cut short by 
his death in 1794. He belongs to the classics of German 
style and is a model of clear and spirited diction, whilst he 
was among the first to rouse the feeling for the beauties 
of outward nature, a merit which has been warmly acknow- 
ledged by Humboldt.^ 

Other Scottish families still existing in Germany are 
the Barclays. We have seen that a great number of 
them settled in Rostock in the XVIth. Century. They 



Oder, 17S4S BeUrage zur Lander~ umi yoiieritrnde^ 1 781-1783. He 
alao issued a Magazine of recent Travel, Cp. Deutsche AUgemane 
Biographte* 

^ One of the younger Forster's chief books was his Naturgesehiebte 
und Pinlojofbie dee Lebetu (^Natural History and Philoatpby of Life)^ 
1789, in six Tolumes. He was also the first to introduce KaMatdt 
Sakuntala to German Readers. 



ISO THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA, 

all descended from one Peter Barclay^ who immigrated 
from Scotland and became a burgess in 1657, as a sUk 
merchant His eldest son called himself Joannes Barclay 
" de ToUi." * Peter's other son Ludwig was the clergyman. 
Descendants of his on the female side are still alive. 

Of the Spaldings in Mecklenburg who have now spread 
oyer the whole of Northern Germany and of the services 
they tendered to their adopted country in the calling of 
arms and in the learned professions, we have already 
spoken. The third Scottish family that settled in 
Mecklenburg were the Gertners (Gardiner). Join 
Gardiner from Brechin in Scotland was made a burgess of 
Schwerin on the 19th of July 1623. His son was enrolled 
in 1 647 and afterwards rose to the dignity of " Rathsherr '* 
(councillor). 

The Muttrays at Memel, of which family descendants 
are still living at Danzig and elsewhere, trace their origin 
to Thomas Muttray who is said to have accompanied 
James II. to France in the year 1688. He afterwards 
came to Memel when the King of France did not prove 
the liberal supporter of the adherents of the fugitive 
British prince, he was expected to be. 

The Simpsons^ another Scottish family in Memel, 
which spread from there all over Prussia, came originally 
from Cupar Angus in Forfar. An old birth brief, dated 
1680, is issued there. It seems that they first settled at 
a small place about twenty miles north of Memel called 
Heiligen Aa,* from a river Aa which emptying itself into 
the Baltic at the same time formed the boundary between 
Kurland and Szamaiten. Besides the Simpsons, tradition 

1 He 18 called ^'ex peraDtiqua et illustri baronum de Barclay familia.'* 
^ The Russian General of the same name, who became Field-marshal 
and Prince (1761*1818), is said to belong to the same stock. 
8 •< Aa '* means water. " Heilig " is ** sacred." 



L 



I ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 151 

mentions the names of Muttray, Douglas and Melviiie as 
settlers. They traded with the produce of Szamaiten, 
com and flax, which they chiefly sold to Danzig. The 
inhabitants of Memel, feeling themselves aggrieved at 
this proceeding, lodged a complaint with the Crown of 

I Poland, at that time exercising supremacy over the 
Duchy of Prussia; and effected an interdict of King 
Vladislaus, dated February 6th, 1639, by which all 
trading across the Heilige Aa was strictly prohibited. 
His captains received orders to bum the place. To this 

* day, there is a fishing village called Heiligenaa on the 
borders of Curland, but the harbour has long ago been 
choked with sand. Simpson and the other Scots fled to 
Memel, where they soon held positions of influence and 

I trust. The Simpsons trace their descent from one 

f Andrew Simpson, whose son, Jacob, was married to 
Barbara Young, a descendant of Magister Will. Young 

j of the Ruthven family and of Catharine Bruce (Robert 
Brace). They are related by intermarriage to the 
Macleans, Muttrays and Stoddarts. 

The Macleans also are numerous in Prussia ; some of 
them call themselves ^^ of Coll " from the island of that 
name in the Hebrides group ; others hail from Banff; on 
a tombstone in the churchjrard of St Salvator at Danzig, 
the home of Maria MacLean, who died seventy years old 
in 1806, is given as Duart in Scotland, which is on the 
island of Mull. This is all the more interesting as among 
the many thousands of Scotsmen emigrating to Prussia 
and Poland in the centuries spoken of, very few from the 
far West and of Celtic blood are to be found.^ 

As to Baron GibsonCy the proprietor of the large 
Neustadt estates which he left to the husbands of his 

^ The Scots were known in Prussia for their fair hair ; a dark Scot i« 
immediately called *' de swarte Schotte/' 



152 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

nieces, the Counts Keyserling,^ he caused his nephews 
John and Alexander Gibsone to come over from Scotland 
to Danzig in order to take up his business, as we have 
seen. Of these the second, Alexander, did a large export 
trade of grain under the style of ^^ Gibsone and Co/' 
He took for partners other two young Scotsmen, Marshall 
and Stoddart, of whom the latter, after Gibsone's death, 
carried on the business, leaving it to his son Francis Blair 
Stoddart,' who is the present owner of this well-known 
house. Alexander died unmarried. His elder brother 
John, generally called Baron Gibsone, who was at the 
same time the elder brother of Sir James Gibsone Craig 
of Riccarton, lived at Potsdam, was a member of the 
Prussian Court, and as such accompanied King Frederick 
William HI. on his flight to Konigsberg in 1807. He 
instructed the Crown Prince, later on King Frederick 
William IV., in the English language. Like his brother 
Alexander, he was an active member of the ^^ Tugendbund," 
a secret association for the rousing of the nation against 
Napoleon. Later in life he resided some time at Rome, 
and to judge by his correspondence with Wilhelm von 
Humboldt, then Prussian ambassador at Naples, appears 
to have been something of a political agent for Prussia. 
He died only fifty-three years old and is buried in the 
old churchyard of Potsdam, along with his daughter, 

1 See Scots in Germany f 270 f. 

^ There were Stoddaru or Stodderts in Danzig in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuriesy but a connection between these and the present 
bearer of the name cannot be established. The father of the Stoddart 
who came to Danzig in iS^i, served in the English Navy against 
Napoleon and died as Vice-Admiral. Originally, the family hailed 
from Peeblesshire, and Selkirkshire, where they owned the property of 
Wiiliamhope on the Tweed and Hartwoodburn. Many members of this 
old family are buried in St Mary's aisle by the shores of " lone St 
Mary's silent lake/' or in the venerable graveyard by the manse of Yarrow. 



ARMY, CHURCH AND OTHER MATTERS. 153 

Cecilia, who outlived him more than sixty years, and was 
a friend of Alexander yon Humboldt and the famous 
Mendelssohn family in Berlin. Of his sons, the eldest, 
William, and the youngest Gustavus Adolph died 
unmarried. William went back to Great Britain, estab- 
lished a mercantile house at Liverpool, and was appointed 
German Consul there. After haying given up business, 
he travelled a good deal and died very aged at Scone, in 
Perthshire. His younger brother, Gustavus Adolph, was 
an officer in the British navy, was sent home an invalid 
from India and died on the Hamburg roadstead, where 
his father had gone to meet him. 

John's second son, Alexander, remained at Danzig and 
took to ship owning under the firm of Alex. Gibsone & Co. 
about the year 1820. He was greatly esteemed by his 
fellow-citizens, who conferred on him their highest honours 
appointing him president of the Chamber of Commerce 
and of the Town Council. 

Of his three sons, the eldest, Alexander, was a student 
who finally settled at Nuremberg where he worked for 
many years voluntarily at the great Museum Germanicum ; 
the third son, Thomas, an officer in the East Indian navy, 
died in India, twenty-three years old at the time of the 
mutiny. The second son, John, who alone of the 
brothers is alive, inherited his father's business in 1 853, 
and enlarged it considerably, so that he was known as 
one of the largest shipowners in the Baltic. Being also 
entrusted with a good many honorary offices by his 
fellow-citizens, he now chiefly devotes his time to the 
building of labourers' cottages, being honorary secretary 
of the so-called " Abegg Stiftung," a legacy left for this 
purpose in 1870. 

As neither Mr Gibsone nor Mr Stoddart has any 
direct heirs bred to the business, the mercantile firm of 

K 



154 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Gibsone, so well-known in Danzig for several hundred 
years, is doomed with their demise to disappear. 

Casting back a look over the yast numbers of Scotsmen 
in Prussia in the seventeenth century, far exceeding the 
thirty thousand mentioned by Lithgow,^ and noting their 
gradual assimilation and absorption, we do not wonder at 
the statement of the anonymous English Merchant, and 
Resident in Danzig, of the eighteenth century, that one 
third of that city was of Scottish blood, nor at the other 
statement of the German scholar of the nineteenth, who 
attributes the stubbornness and the shrewdness of the 
Eastern Prussian to the influx of the Scots. 

Let us rather hope that some of the higher qualities of 
the Scots also : their tenacity of purpose, their sense of 
duty, their great charitableness, their saving disposition 
and their general trustworthiness contributed something 
towards shaping the character of the mhabitants of these 
remote German Provinces ; provinces, that may no longer 
now be looked upon with that stolid indifference or cheer- 
ful ignorance which is generally vouchsafed abroad to 
German geography and ethnology, but must be considered 
as the Canada and the Australia of the seventeenth 
century, into which much of the best strength and blood 
of Scotland has been poured, if to less glorious advantage, 
still not all in vain and always to the incentive interest 
and delight — let us hope — of the student of this phase of 
exterior Scottish history. 

1 « Scots in Germany," p. ja. 



PART III. 

DOCUMENTS. 



DOCUMENTS. 

I. 

Edict of 1556. 

SiGiSMUNDUS Augustus D. 6. rex Polonias gratiam nos 
tram Regiam. Intelleximus complures ex vagabunda gente 
Scotorum cum rebus mercibus — que suis per regnum et 
dominia nostra passim discurrere eoque fieri ut ncHi modo 
hominibus nostris honestas victus comparand! rationes 
maxime praedudantur, sed multse etiam fraudes impos- 
turaeque in mercandis yendendisque rebus impune fiant. 
Quia yero non dubium est quin ex hac jam usitata licentia 
discurrendi eorum praesertim hominum qui lucri gratia 
nihil non audent, maximum ad homines nostros, nisi 
consilio tempestiye occurretur, sit penrenturum incom- 
modum, cupientes ejusmodi licentiam autoritate nostra 
tandem cohiberi, mandamus sinceritati ac fidelitati yestrae 
omnino habere yolentes, ut pro ratione officii sue hoc 
genus hominum yagum nullis certis legibus et jurisdictioni 
subjacens emptione yenditioneque rerum ac discursu per 
regnum et dominia nostra prohibeant arceantque neque 
permittant commoda hominibus nostris quoquo modo 
praeciudi et impediri non obstante Uteris si quae posthac 
in contrarium ex cancellaria nostra prodierint : quas nullius 
roboris esse yolumus ac jubemus pro gratia nostra non 
aliter facturi. Datum Varsoyiae, Dec. i %tb^ i $^6. 

»57 



158 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

II. 

Edict against the Scots issued by Sigismund III. 

SioiSMUNDus Tertius Dei gratia Rex Poloniae. . . . 
Significamus praesentibus Uteris nostris quorun interest, 
uniyersis et singulis cum post felicem nostrum e patrio 
regno in has alterius regni nostri partes reditum in oppi- 
dum nostrum Kcyna diyertissemus, suppiicesque nobis 
ejusdem oppidi incolae inscripto certa gravamina, quibus 
a Judaeis^ Scotis et aliis ceteris yagis hominibus premun- 
tur, obtulissent, pro eisque nonnulli consiliarii nostri 
intercessissent ut eorundem oppidanorum, qui et nostra 
et reipublicae onera ferre consueverunt, potiorem quam 
Judaeorum yagorumque hominum rationem habere digna* 
remur, Nos cum plurima nostra reipublicae interesse 
yideamus^ ut ciyitates et oppida quae in pace regnis 
omamento in bellis autem praesidio tempore felids regimi- 
nis nostri ad meliorem deveniant condicionem, in diesque 
locupletentur pro regali nostra munificentia et fayore, 
quos subditos nostros prosequimur, faciendum esse nobis 
duximus ut praerogatiyas et libertates infra scriptas in yim 
priyilegii aetemis temporibus duraturi, ipsis dare et con- 
cedere dignaremur, damns et concedimus praesentibus hisce 
Uteris nostris primum quidem quoniam, ut inteUeximus, in 
praedicto oppido numerus Judaeorum augetur ne ob earn 
causam inyictus quaerendi ratione cives ab eis in posterum 

magis impediantur statuimus Deinde cum Scoti 

apotecarii et alii extemi yagi homines jus dyitatis non 
habentes non solum nostrorum hominum yictus, rationem 
sua negotiatione praeripiant, sed et alia regno nostro 
detrimenta adferant, yolumus et ordinamus, ne tales uUam 
postea mercaturae exercendae potestatem in foris septi- 
manalibus praedicti oppidi habeant. Postremo cum nobis 



DOOJMENTS. 159 

relatum est hocce oppidum non modo a Judaeis et Scotis 
sed etiam a revenditoribus framentorum grayari . . • 
Tolumus et statuimus ne reyenditores ... in foro publico 
. • • ante meridiem frumenta coemant . . .^ {Sept. 12, 

»594)- 

III. 

Letter of Duke Albrecbt the Elder of Prussia to 

Kaspar Nostiz. 

Es ist allhier bei Uns gegenwartiger Zeiger Wilhelmus 
Scotus erschienen und hat yermeldet, wie ehr aus Schot- 
land umb des Eyangelii willen yertrieben, unns auch umb 
eine gnedige Steuer zu seiner unterhaltung gebeten, 
als haben wir aus gnaden ein Chleydlin desgleichen 4 
Gulden zur Zehrung geben zugesagt. Ist demnach unser 
Beyhell du wollest Ihme ein Chleydlin daneben die 4 
Gulden aus der Kammer geben lassen. (Sept. gtb^ 1549).' 

IV. 

The eighty Articles drawn up by Patrick Gordon for the 

Scots in Prussia (16 16).' 

Titulus Primus. 

1. Institutio fratemitatum et seniorum Electio. — Societas 
ista Scoticae gentis in tres fratemitates distincta erit 
quarum prima erit Samlanden secunda Notlangen, tertia 
in ea ducatus parte quae superioris terrae nomine? 
censetur. 

2. Hae fratemitates iisdem legibus et conditionibus 

^ Poseny KgL St. jircbroy Dp. Exin, N. i. 

' JC^i. Si. ArcUv^ Konigsberg. 

* Kgl. St. jtrchivf Konigsbergy Etau Minisf. 20 A. 



i6o THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

erunt astrictae, mutuamque operam et opem in omnis 
fratemi amoris et officii yinculo, ad omnes honestas 
actiones asserendas et propugnandas et contrarias puni- 
endas profiigandasque ex priyilegii praescripto invicem 
praestabunt. 

3. Quotquot in singulis supra dictis locis mercaturam 
exercent, tempore'' publicarum nundinarum loco opportuno 
quotannis semel convenient et communi aut saltern 
majoris partis consensu quatuor suae gentis homines 
pietate prudentia et experientia praestantes sensores 
eligent, qui ceteris juxta priyilegii tenorem praesint 

4. Quicunque ad banc electionem citatus non compa- 
ruerit mulctabitur 2 fl. 

5. Si quis yero communi consensu aut plurimorum 
suffi-agiis electus officio fungi detrectayerit, praeterquam 
quod e fratemitate excludetur, mulctam solyet 5 fl. 

6. Seniores hi ipsa electionis bora publice coram frater- 
nitatis sociis solenne juramentum praestabunt se sincere 
nuUo babito amoris, aut odii, diyitiarum aut paupertatis, 
beneficii aut incommodi aut ullius denique personae 
respectu officio functurdls. 

7. Similiter singuli singularum fratemitatum socii prae- 
sentes et futuri, pari solemni juramento ad debitam 
obedientiam senioribus jus secundum Priyilegium dicenti- 
bus praestandum tenebuntur ; aut ab omni popularium 
suorum conversatione extrusis, omni mercaturae genere 
contumacibus interdicetur. 

8. Nemo Seniorum in officio ultra unius anni spatium 
permanebit nisi denuo ad id legitime electus fuerit. 

9. Singuli seniores anno elapso rationem officii sui 
fratemitatis sociis una congregatis aut ad id deputatis 
reddent sub poena 10 fl. 

10. Si quem Seniorum in officio existentium negotia 
sua aut in patriam reyocayerint aut alio migrare cbegerint 



DOCUMENTS. i6i 

uniusque mensis ante discessom spatio fratres praemonebit 
et officii rationem reddet sub poena i o fl. 

11. Quotiescunque generaie per universum ducatum 
subsidium colligetur (quo tempore solum a fratemitatibus 
nostris ad Reipubl. usus contribuendum est) seniores in 
singulis fratemitatibus Collectorem idoneum constituent 
qui pecuniam coUectam in aerarium deferet et quieta- 
tionem recipiet. 

12. Ad generaie autem subsidium solyendum singuli 
pro modo census obligabuntur nisi forte nonnulli civitate 
donati cum concivibus solvere teneantur. 

13. Seniores convenienti loco et tempore (non inter 
conyiTandum aut confabulandum, aut alias ubi et quando 
non decet) jus dicent ; ne priyilegii auctoritas aut officii 
ipsorum respectus yilescat. 

14. Ut senioribus modeste se gerentibus reyerentia 
merito debetur ; ita eosdem fratribus suis arroganter in- 
sultare non conyenit 

15. Si quis seniores praesertim yero officio fungentes 
irriserit aut ulla injuria aJBFecerit, totius fratemitatis arbitrio 
in eum animadvertetur. 

16. Quicunque yero propter sententiam adyersus se 
latam minaciter murmurans non impetrata yenia se sub- 
duxerit mulctam luet 2 fl. 

1 7. Legitime citatus non comparens persolyet 2 fl. 

18. Arrestationum literae seniorum Chyrographo sig- 
nentur alioque nullius erunt efficatia. 

1 9. Violator arresti praeterquam quod causa cadit per- 
solyito I fl. 

20. Et quo conyenientius negotia quaecunque exped- 
iantur, Seniore scribae fidelis opera utentur qui omnia 
scripta comprehendat ad perpet. rei memoriam. 

21. Si qui fratemitatis socii uUum hominem uUo modo 
ofienderint, seniores pro eorundem delictis aut debitis 
satisfacere non erant obligati. 



1 62 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

22. Neque quisquam in fratemitatmn Catalogum coo- 
scribet a praesenti die et aono nisi qui septem fl. intra 
biennium sit numeraturus. 

Titulus Secundus. 
De Divino Cidtu. 

23. Quia timor dei initium est omnis Sapientiae sine quo 
omnia humana consilia successu carent: Unus quisque 
commoda utens yaietudine singulis diebus Sabbathi publicae 
concioni in ecclesia, ut yerbum Dei attente et reyerenter 
audiat, tempestiye aderit sub p. — 2 fl nisi necessitas 
iegitimi negotii aut longinqui itineris impediyerit. 

2'4. Similiter omnes et singuli semel ad minimum 
quotannis ad Communionum Coenae Deae in timore et 
dilectione accedent, digne ad tam sacrum opus praeparati 
sub p. 10 fl« 

25. Absentiae autem causam praetexeutes, seniores serio 
admonebunt : quorum salutare consilium si aspemati fuerint 
hi eosdem Ecclesiae deferent: quam si non audiyerint a 
fratemitatis consortio secludentur, donee yera poenitentia 
ducti. Deo et proximis reconcilientur. 

26. Nemo tabemae mercatoriae foris aut fenestras 
tempore Concionis ad merces diyendendas aperiet s. p. 20. 

27. Ne quisquam inutiles de Religione quaestiones, 
disputationes aut controyersias proponere, aut ad propositas 
respondere praesumet, quia ut captum indoctorum superant, 
ita nil nisi malitiosas et noxias plaerumque rixas et con- 
tentiones gignunt s. p. i fl. 

Titulus Tertius. 
De heris et servis. 

28. Quia praecipuum^fratemitatum nostratum robur hie 



DOCUMENTS. 163 

consistit necessarium est ut utrorunque munus diligenter 
expendatur Proinde nemo servum sufficiend vitae antea 
honeste actae testimonio carentem conducet, alioqui si 
quod damnum servus is commiserit, herus iilius pro ilio 
non modo respondebit et satisfaciet sed etiam mulctam 
representabit, 5 fl. 

29. Quicunque vero testimonium yitae et morum non 
habuerit persolvet 2 fl. 

30. Et quicunque conscius exit aliquem ejusmodi testi- 
monio carere nee senioribus significayerit, is itidem per* 
solvito I fl. 

31. Nemo seryum noyitium linguae Germanicae aut 
negotiandi prorsus imperitum assumet nisi integrum 
quadriennium ad seryiendum se obligayerit, sub p. 10 fl. 

32. Neque etiam seryitio et mercaturae autea assuetum 
conducet nisi ad biennimn adstrictus fiierit sub p. 2 fl. nisi 
forte fratemitatis ejusdem socius sit. 

23. Si quis senrus antea exactum seryitii terminum 
herum secum derelinquerit, nemo eundem conducet aut 
assumet donee seniores eausam et oceasionem explor- 
ayerint, s. p. 10 fl. 

34. Et quieunque siye herus siye seryus deliquisse aut 
oflFendisse deprehendetur, arbitrio seniorum pro modo 
delicti punietur. 

^S. Si quis herus aut senrus aliquam bonorum sibi 
eoncreditorum partem deglutiyerit, decoxerit et luxuriose 
comsumpserit et fuga supplicium eyitare yoluerit singulis 
fratemitatis sociis integrum erit eundem sub arresto 
detinere ubicunque deprehensus . . fiierit : ut bona quae 
adhuc supersunt, recuperentur et culpae reus sen arbitrio 
seyere eastigetur. Sumptus yero legitime in hoe negotio 
iacti ex bonis recuperatis persolyentur. 

^6, Seryus peryicax hero irreyerenter obganniens per- 
solyet 15 gr. 



1 64 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

2^"]. Senrus yero herum ad monomachiam proyocans aut 
in herum manus injiciens yiolentes, solario amisso, frater- 
nitatis beneficio priyabitur atque si in malitia perseyerayerit 
justo supplicio afficietur. 

38. Sin herus seryum yerberibus durioribus aut damno 
insigniori absque justa causa afFecerit, seniorum censurae 
se submittet ut seryo afflicto satisfaciat et injuria damnosa 
reparetur. 

39. Nullus cum seryo alieno priyatim inibit conditionem 
ante exactum debitum seryitii prions terminum, s. p. 5 fl. 

40. Si quis quoyis modo ad aliam fratemitatem trans- 
fugerit, seniores ibidem requisiti eundem eo unde yenerat 
remittere teneantur. 

Titulus Quartus. 
De Circun^oraneis^ aleatoribuSy ebriosis et id genus aliis 

turpiter vitam transigentibus. 

41. Quoniam multi nimia licentia et otio luxiirianter 
diyitiarum tamen et judicii expertes, sine respectu aut 
propriae infamiae aut patriae et popularium pudoris, cir- 
cumforanei yiles et pudendas merces in sinu aut coUo 
gestantes omnibus intuentibus ludibrio sunt et ipsi omni 
fere turpitudini dediti raro ad frugem peryeniunt, nullo 
prorsus modo tolerandi sunt : sed aut ad aliis inseryiendum 
aut eo unde yenerant redeundum cogendi sub poena 
amissionis bonorum quae habuerit et corporis seyere 
castigandi. 

42. Et ut hujusmodi incommodis in posterum commode 
occuratur nemini licebit libere negotiari aut merces yenales 
uUibi exponere nisi bona possideat aut propria aut legitime 
concredita ad yalorem 50 fl. aestimata, nisi ob yirtutem et 
industriam alicui seniores libertatem indulserint, s. p. 5 fl. 

43. Itidem in oppidis liberis, nuUi alibi degenti licitum 



DOCUMENTS. 165 

erit nisi nundinarum tempore merces dam et aperte 
diyendere cum ciyium oflensione, popularium damno et 
gentis opprobrio, s. p. 20 fl. 

44* Praeterea si quidem multi insolentes juyenes aleis, 
ebrietati libidini, aliisque enormibus yitiis dediti bona 
yel sua yel sibi ab aliis credita summo cum dedecore et 
damno consumunt et ne illonum turpitudo palam fiat 
locum subinde mutant; nemo cum illis conyersabitur 
neque ejus ore aut opere subseryiat ut praedpites ad 
interitum ruant ; s. p. 2 fl. 

45. lidem quoque sic turpiter yiyentes et fratemitatis 
sodalitio exterminabuntur donee agnita culpa misericordia 
impulsi seniores arbitrio suo eosdem in gratiam receperint 
neque quisque cum iis interea conyersabitur. 

46. Si quis yero furtum aut perjurium commiserit e 
fratemitate absque ullo testimonio ejicietur. Et si quis 
testimonium dederit damni inde sequentis merito con« 
demnabitur. 

TittUus Quintm. 
De Pecuniis publUis. 

47. Ad pauperum et afflictorum necessitatem sub- 
leyandam ad inopum defunctorum sepulturam et ad 
omnium honestarum actionum quae publico auxilio 
opus habent, patrocinium, siye in aula siye in urbibus 
aut rure, pecunia singulis diebus Sabbathi et alias quoyis 
tempore opportuno coUigetur et seniorum custodiae 
tradetur. Eodem etiam mulctae omnes et bonorum 
yirorum yoluntariae eleemosynae et testamentis legata 
inferentur. Quas pecunias uniyersas seniores ad usuras 
publici boni causa proyide exponent cum consensu frater- 
nitatis; parique modo easdem, ut necessitas postulabit 
ad indigentium et communes usus erogabunt. 



i66 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

48. Verum, si seniores mo priyato arbitrio pecuniam 
publicam non necessario aut cum damno exponent, eandem 
restituere tenebuntur, una cum mulcta, quae offensae 
correspondebit ex arbitrio totius fratemitatis. 

49. Si quis paupertate aut morbo laborans in patriam 
redire desiderat, seniores eidem e publica pecunia sumptus 
ad iter necessarios suppeditabunt atque is tpm absque 
ulteriori mora ad proximum portum maritimum se con- 
feret, ut inde commode prima occasione transyehatur. 

50. Si quis obstinate impudens mendicus ad laborem 
corporis perferendum yalidus, cui semel abunde proyisum 
est, discedere noluerit, sed ab unis nundinis ad alias 
oppidatim mendicare perseyerabit, in eundem omni rigore 
animadyertetur. 

51. Aegrotis yero, infirmis, coecis, surdis, mutilis et 
senio confectis aut in nosocomiis aut alibi pro fratemitatis 
facultatibus ex Christ, charitate proyidendum erit. 

52. Si quis e morbo decesserit aut quoyis modo occisus 
fuerit bona relinquens proximis haredibus longe absent- 
ibus; ejusdem seryus aut socius bona ea tum possidens 
aut eisdem postea potitus, senioribus de ratione creditoribus 
et haeredibus legitimis reddenda sufficienter cayebit. Quod 
si nee seryus nee socius ullus bona ulla possideat, seniores 
eorundem inyentarium conficiendum curabunt, ne creditor- 
ibus aut haeredibus fraus ullu fiat: quoscunque yero 
sumptus seniores in hoc negotio fecerint, creditores et 
haeredes jure optimo eosdem refundent una cum con- 
yenienti eleemosyna pauperibus ex sententia seniorum 
distribuenda. 

$^. Seryus autem aut socius defuncti, aut Seniores 
penes quoscunque bona ejusdem fuerint, eorum tantum 
modo quae in potestate sua habuerunt, rationem reddere 
tenebuntur. Salya omni modo ea, quae ad Serenissimi 
Principis Fiscum pertinet portione, eo inferenda. 



DOCUMENTS 167 

Titulus Sextus. 

De debitoribus. 

54. Singuli debitores lubenter et gratanter creditoribus 
debita persoiyere, aut iisdem saltern satisfacere jure 
tenentur. Quod si debitor die solutionis neglecto, 
dilatione dolo malo utatur seniores norum solutionis 
terminum longiorem aut breviorem pro natura debiti 
praecise debitori observandum assignabunt sub poena 
competenti. 

$$. Si quis publicae pecuniae debitor aliis etiam debeat ; 
publicum debitum primo solyendum eric Caeteris deinde 
Creditoribus secundum jus et aequitatem satis fiat, prout 
debitoris facultates suppetunt. Neque quisquam huic 
solutionis ordini contracUcat aut resistat sub p. 3 A- 

Titulus Septimus. 

De tabernis mercatoriis. 

^6. Nemo tabemam in nundinis eriget, nisi ex con- 
suetudine et ordine illius oppidi ubi nundinae celebrantur 

I p. I fl. 

57. Nemo alterius tabemam occupabit aut detinebit 

injuste s. p. 2. 

58. Nemo tabemam aut stationen ab alio conductam 
aucto pretio denuo conducere praesumat s. p. 2^ fl. 

59. Duo ejusdem negotiationis participes una tantum 
fruantur tabema, s. p. 10 fl. 

60. Nullus duplicem negotiationem id est duobus in 
locis per diyersas personas simul exercebit, s. p. 20 fl. 

6i. Nullus yoce, nictu, nutu, manus extensione aut alio 
modo aut gestu emptores aut yenditores a yidni tabema 
abducere tentabit, s. p. 2 fl. 



1 68 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Titulus Octavus. 
DefaUis atU corrtiptis mercibus et injusta mensura. 

62. Quicunque fraudulenter falsas aut corraptas 
merces pro yens et sufficientibus yendideiit ad proximi 
damnum et fraternitatis infamiam, praeterquam quod 
emptorem indemnem praestabit pretio reddito merces 
quoque suas ad publicos et operum usus extradet una 
cum 2^ fl. 

63. Quicunque illegitimas aut suspectas merces uti 
aurum argentumye integrum aut fractum, yestesque 
noyas yel detritas et alias hujusmodi a suspectis personis 
emerit aut pignoris loco sumpserit aut ab ejusmodi 
personis quicquam mutuo sumpserit aut eis mutuo dederit 
aus cum illis famiiiariter yixerit praeter arbitrariam poenam 
ex seniorum decreto irrogandam propter pubiicam igno- 
miniam mulctam etiam persolyet 2^ fl. 

64. Quicunque mensura falsa siye ulnae siye ponderis 
usus fuerit aut falsam mensuram . . . primo sic depre- 
hensus persolyet, 2 fl., secundo, 10 fl., tertio tanquam 
bonorum yirorum sodetate indignus censebitur. 

Titulus Nonus. 
De Injuriis. 

65. Nullus proximi aut amicorum aut domesticorum 
illius famam probrosis yerbis laedet nee parentum aut 
propinquorum progeniem exproprabit nee quemque 
agnomine indecore compellabit aut deridebit, s. p. 
2 fl. 

66. Quicunque yero manu alteri alassam impegerit aut 
alias nocendi animo ullum manu percusserit persolyito, 2 fl. 
Sin utraque pars pari offensionis modo deliquerit parem 
mulctam pendat. 



DOCUMENTS. 169 

67. Nullus gladium aut pugionem evaginabit aut a)ii8 
armis minas ulli intentabit, s. p. 5 fl. 

68. Nullus proximi merces secreto aut aperte ad 
yenditionis impedimentum contemnet, 8. p. 8 fl. 

Titulus Decimus. 
De bospitiis, 

6g. Singuli in honestis hospitiis diversentur, s. p. 3 fl. 

70. Neque quisquam yicini hospitium ingrediatur ut 
rixas jurgia cieat, aut hospitibus molestus sit, 2 fl. 

71. Si quis lupinaria aut famosas domos frequentaverit 
persolyito, 10 fl. 

Titulus Undecimus. 
De iiineris periculis. 

72. Si quis in itinere morbo correptus fiierit, aut 
laesionem damnumye corporis aut bonorum incurrerit, 
socii itineris unus aut piures, eundem solatio et auxilio 
destitutum nequaquam relinquent, sed ad hosp. aut 
locum tutum, ubi ipse curetur et consoletur et bona 
ejus conseryentur ut Christianos decet, deducent Quod 
si facere recusayerint aut neglexerint, damni inde sequentis 
participes erunt et mulctam persolyent, 5 fl. 

73. Si quis in publicis yiis in diyersoriis aut alibi 
ubicunque publice yel secreto a latronibus, proditoribus 
aut praedatoribus obtruncatus, mutilatus aut spoiiatus 
bonis fuerit, ad facinoris auctorem jure apprehendendum, 
persequendum et piectendum omnes fraternitatis socii 
sint obligati. 

Titulus Duodecimus. 
^ De Contributionilnu. 

74. Ad omnes honestas et licitas actiones yeiuti ob 
subsidiorum solutionem Serenissimo Principi pariter cum 



lyo THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

indigenis ad defensionem honoris patriae, ad yindicandas 
pubUcas et privatas odiosas injurias fratribus nostris illatas 
et hujusmodi alias singuli pro modo census contribuent' 
Ad quod debite efficiendum Seniores quatuor honestos 
homines solemniter juratos deputabunt. 

Titulus Decimus Tertitis. 
De appellationibus. 

75. A seniorum sententia in actionibus, 20 £L non 
excedentibus nulla fiat appellatio, s. p. 3 fl. 

76. Si quis ad totius societatis Seniores sive ad 
ordinarium superiorem judicem inutile appellabit, mulctum 
luet, 5 fl. 

Titulus Decimus Quarius. 
De senteniiae executione. 

yy. Ubi ad omnium et singulorum articulorum observa- 
tionem omnes et singuli fraternitatis collegae sunt obstricti 
ita ad sententiam eatam jure exequendam Seniores tenentur. 

78. Si quis yero sententiae legitime latae stare noluerit 
aut honestae discipiinae se subj icere penricariter recusayerit 
Seniores Superioris judicis auxilium implorabunt. Ad quod 
praestandum mandato Ser^ Principis justitiae exequendae 
et decentioris ordinis obseryandi causa est obligatus. 

70. Si quis ciyitate donatus iibertatem suam popularium 
suorum contemptus praetexens praedictos articulos . . . 
aspematus fiierit, is yeluti patriae ingratus, pristinae 
condition! oblitus, successu fortunae elatus, et diyini 
beneficii immemor omnibus fraternitatis sociis odiosus 
habebitur et communi cum ipsis mensa et omni negotia- 
tione excludetur. . . . 

80. Postremo si qui alii articuli hujus generis ratione 
contractuum Chirographorum . . . mutua negotiatione 



DOCUMENTS. 171 

necessarii hie praetermissi sunt, iidem omniDO observandi 
erxmty acsi hie expressi forent. 

V. 

Letter ofCrqffts (Crofts)^ Regis Angliae Legatus^ to the 
members of the Council Boards in Prussia. 

Annuntiaveram non ita pridem Thorunis Generositatibus 
vestris subsidium Sacrae Regiae Majestati Anglieae in 
Comitiis Generalibus anno proxime praeterito laudatum ; 
nune yero in prodnctu itineris mei promissam mihi hae in 
parte a Generositatibus vestris expeeto resolutionem 
peramiee rogando, ut latori praesentium Domino Seton, 
Saerae Regiae Majestatis eolonellum, eui hoeee eommisi 
negotium, pienariam in omnibus fidem adhibere suamque 
mentem Generositates vestrae aperire velint. Res enim 
moram pati nequit, eum Seren. Rex totalem a me exigat 
informationem quam dare non potero donee certum a 
Grenerositatibus vestris habuero responsum, quarum bene- 
volentiae diligenter me commendo. 

Gedani (Danzig), 31 July 1651. 

VI. 

Letter of the Magistrates of Danzig concerning the Letter 
of King Charles IL to his subjects in Poland. 

Universis et singulis eujuseunque status, gradus, eon- 
ditionis sen dignitatis . . . praesentium notitiam habituris 
imprimis vero quibus id seire expedit, praemissa salute et 
officiorum nostrorum eommendatione nolum testatumque 
fadmus Nos Praeeonsules et Consules Regiae civitatis 
Gedanensis exhibitas esse nobis iiteras papyreas infra 
seriptas authenticas Serenissimi M. Brit, et Hyb. Regis 
ejusdem sigillo munitas manusque Regiae super inscriptione 



172 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

roboratas ac idiomate Anglico ad Joannem Moleyson 
atque alios nationia Scoticae in Regno Polonico habitantes 
mercatores et factores directas, petitumque a nobis est, 
ut earum literarum in latinam linguam translatarum 
exemplar fide dignum ... sub sigiUo nostro ederemus. 
Quo circa iisdem Uteris visis et diligenter perspectis et cum 
aliis ejusdem Regiae Majestatis Uteris coUatis ac undique 
quam in sigillo et scriptura salyis integris et ab omni 
suspicione alienis repertis aequis praedictorum Nationis 
Scoticae in Regno Poloniae incolarum petitis annuimus. 
Quarum Uterarum ex AngUco in Latinum idioma fideUter 
translatarum tenor talis est ut sequitur : 

Carolus Rex.^ 

Vere fideles ac dilecti salutem. Expositum Nobis 
vestro subditonim nostrorum in Regno Poloniae habi- 
tantium atque negotiantium nomine, exactas fuisse a Vobis 
per ColoneUum Cochram praetextu mandati cujusdam 
nostri magnas pecuniae^ summas eoque ilium processisse 
ut pro eis facilius consequendis autoritatem interponendam 
soUicitaverit Serenissimi Polon. Regis, fratris nostri 
honorandi, qua de causa yos certiores facimus nihil tale a 
nobis unquam CoIoneUo nostro demandatum fuisse. 
Praeterea audiyimus Vos denuo urgeri per Baronem Croft 
pro tertia parte facultatum et bonorum ... in subsidium 
nostrum exsolyenda. Et quamyis modo memoratum 
Baronem Croft ex Hollandia ad Sen Polon. Regem, 
fratrem nostrum honorandum, ablegayerimus nullum tamen 
ipsi mandatum dedimus ut autoritate aliqua munitus 
quicquam a quopiam subdito nostro in praedicto Polon. 
regno aut aUis mundi locis degentibus. Et banc yolun- 
tatem Nostram Regiam significandam duximus omnibus et 

1 As there are tome tlight verbal ▼ariations from the rerston giTeo io 
the Staii in Germany^ the letter in here reprinted from the Danzig MS. 



DOCUMENTS. 173 

singulis Scotis subditis nostris in Polonia yersantibus, 
benigneque ipsis concedimus ut siye habitent sive negotia- 
tiones exerceant m praedicto Pol. regno aut aliis terrae 
locis praesentibus Uteris Nostris Regiis atantur ut coram 
Regibus Principibus, Statibus ac Judicibus quibusvis eas 
producant, contraque impositiones exactionesye quasyis ad 
instantiam praedicti Baronis Croft aut alterius cujusdam 
pro usu et commodo Nostro aliorumye flagitandas et 
imponendas iisdem sese defendant. Valete. Datum in 
Curia Nostra Perthensi 9 die Mensis Decembris 1650. 
Regn. nostr. secundo anno. 

The accuracy of the translation is certified by the 
Secretary, Amoldus yan Holten, Danzig, April 4th, 1651. 

VII. 

Credentials of Richard Baillie issued by the Magistrates 

of Edinburgh^ April ytb^ 1665. 

Universis et singulis • . . notum testatumque fsicimus 
quod hodie coram nobis comparuit Joannes Howison, 
apothecarius Edinburgensis nominibus quibus infra 
Marionae Baillie sponsae Adami Baillie de Eastertoun, 
Margarethae Baillie sponsae Thomae Adair, Sartoris 
Edinburgensis, et Janetae Baillie sponsae Guildoni Thomson 
in Normigall, filiarum legitimarum def uncti Magistri Jacobi 
Baillie quondam ministri yerbi Dei apud Lamington infra 
Vicecomitatum de Lanark cum speciali consensu dictorum 
eorum sponsorum, ac etiam coram nobis produxit quandam 
literam dispositionis factam datam et concessam per dictas 
Mareonem Margaretam et Janetam Baillie in fayorem 
Ricardi Baillie filii legitimi secundogeniti dicti quondam 
T» Baillie, pistoris Edinburgensis in qua dispositione pro 
causis ibi insertis dictae personae superscriptae dis- 



174 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

posuerant dicto Ricardo Baillie totas et integras terras, 
tenementa, legata, pecuDiarum summas et alia accreta aut 
accrescentia per decessum dicti Robert! fiaillie mercatoris 
DaQtiscani. 

Ramsey, Praefectiu. 
Calderwood \ 
Davidson f 
fullerton | 
Drummond / 



\ Bailies. 



VIII. 

Birth-briefs and Legitimations. 

There were two ways for the Scottish settler to prove 
his identity and his legitimacy. One was the birth-brief 
which was issued in the town of his birth, signed by one 
or more of the magistrates and duly sealed ; another was 
the oral declaration of legitimate birth. It was accepted 
instead of a birth-brief. Two friends of the person 
concerned had to declare on oath before the magistrates 
of the German town, here Danzig, that they knew him 
(or her) to be the legitimate son (or daughter) of so-and- 
so, and his wife in Scotland. 

Either of these proofs was needed for the acquisition of 
ciyil rights and in cases of succession. 

The Royal State Archives at Danzig preserve a great 
number of these birth-briefs and birth-declarations ; whilst 
the two Archives at Konigsberg, the Royal State Archive 
and the Stadt Archiv or Town Record Office,^ offer none 
or hardly any material. 

In the following list birth-briefs have been marked by 

^ The Stadt Archiv of Konigsberg has pasaed through a long period 
of thamefol neglect. Owing chiefly to the energetic induitry of Archir- 
rath Doctor Joachim, the small remnant of records is now well arranged 
and secured fix>m further spoliation. It is kept in the Kneiphofische 
Rathhausy whibt the State Records are kept in the Castle. 



DOCUMENTS. 175 

the letters ^^Bb.'' The bracketed numbers after the 
names refer to the age of the witnesses. D. s Danzig. 

1. Robert Ainslie^ father James Ainslie, late barber at 

Jedburgh. Witnesses: James Ainslie, glover 
and soldier, and Albert Ainslie, a burgess and 
silk merchant at Stolp in Pomerania. (1649.) 

2. A. Allanty witness: Ernest Maxwel. (1627.) 

3. Alb. Anderson^ from Perth. Witnesses : Thamson and 

Andr. Anderson. 

4. David Anderson^ father Jacob Anderson; mother 

Margaret Oggelberg, at Danzig. Witnesses: 
A. Lobel and Ernest Maxwel, stocking-weayer. 

(16?) 

5. Fr. Anderson^ father Gilbert Anderson, late skipper 

and burgess of Aberdeen ; mother Isab. 
Carnegie. Witnesses: Ths. Gordon and J. 
Swien (?), from Aberdeen. 

6. J. Bage (?), pastry-cook, from Edinburgh. Witnesses : 

Ths. Tamson and Matthew Frisell, from Edin- 
burgh. 1596. 

7. Jacob j8/i/z£;ray, father, John Balwray, from St Johannis 

Stadt (Perth). Witnesses : Chs. Andrew and 
Ths. Dundy, a glover of Danzig. 1 653. 

8. David Balfuhr^ father Patrick Balfour of St Andrews ; 

mother Agnes Inglis. Witnesses : Robt. 
Morris, a tailor, ^^ near the Dominican Abbey 
Danzig,'' and John Gourlay, skipper and 
burgess of Anstruther. 1652. 

9. Robert Baylie^ of Lamington, in Lanarkshire; his father 

a retired clergyman. Witnesses: W. Currie, 
of Barten in Prussia, and J. Ballentine from 
Edinburgh, now at Danzig. 1659.^ Bbr. 

10. Andrew Belly of Bamoyil, near Cupar Angus ; mother^ 

^ Compare Part III., p. 174. 



176 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Catharina Blair. Witnesses : Captain A. Blair 
(6$) and James Halyburton. 1637. Bbr. 
II. Elisabeth andAgneta Bell, of Dundee. Bbr. 1603. 

1 3. Andrew Blacky from the village of Alreck Q)^ near 

Banff. Witnesses : Alb. Morrisson, an illumina- 
tor, and J. Robinson at Danzig. 1 6 1 9. 

1 5. Jacob Blacky father James Black, in Hirschberg, later 

in Annaberg, Silesia. 1634. 

16. James Bruce^ son of Robert Bruce, in the town of 

Skellitoun (?), parish of Dunserf ; grand-parents 
John Bruce and Grizel Hamilton, daughter of 
Gavin Hamilton. 1673. Bbr. 

17. Robert Bruce^ in the parish of Erroll. 

1 8. Mariot Bruce^ wife of Ths. Mar, in Kilspindie. 

19. Isabel Bruce^ wife of John Robertson, Kinnaird. Nos. 

17-19 are. certified to be brothers and sisters of 
the late John Bruce atDanzig. Bbr. Perth. 1654. 

20. Will. Brown^ father Henry Brown ; mother Margaret 

Houston (or Hewiston), from Dundee. Wit- 
nesses: Robert Lesslie and Jacob Houston, 
burgesses of Dundee. Have been school- 
fellows. 1663. 
7. 1 . Jacob Burnet^ from Aberdeen, son of Thos. Burnet, 
^^dominus a Campbell," and Margaret Keith. 
1652. Bbr. 

14. Albr. Blackball^ son of the late A. Blackball at Aber- 

deen. His brother William having died at 
Prauenburg in Prussia, he and his sister Catha- 
rine, who married Hans Porquart (Farquhar), 
became heirs. 1655. 

22. H. Buchanan^ father Hans Buchanan, in Danzig. 

1651. 

23. W. Cbisholm^ father John Chisholm, in the town of 

Laming ton; mother Christina Portiers(Porteous). 



DOCUMENTS. 177 

Witnesses: Robt. Baillie and Ja. Anderson, 
glover, neighbours* children. 1662. 

24. Geo. Cleghom^ from Edinburgh, son of John Cleghom 

of (^hitsome (Whitsome), Berwick ; mother 
Helen Innerwick. Witnesses: Revd. Geo. 
Cleghom, minister of Domick (Domock), 
Alex. Kinnair, minister of Quhitsome. Bbr. 
24A. Jac. Jeffi-ey and W. Flockhart in Duns. Bbr. i S^Z* 

25. Will. Clerkj parents John Clerk and Anne Porter, in 

Dunfermline. Birth-brief issued by the Consules 
Fermelinodum ciyitatis, Dunfermline. March 29, 

1669. B^i^- 

27. Geo. Cuikj from Glasgow, son of J. Cuik and Janet 

Neilson of Glasgow. Sept. 8, 1645. ^^'^- 

26. J. Grockart. Bbr. from Aberdeen, 1687. "Nos 

subscribentes Pastor et Seniores ecclesiae Fin- 
triensis in Diocesi Abredonensi in regno Scotiae 
testamur praesentium laborem Alexandrum 
Crockart honestis apud nos parentibus de> 
functo Andrea Crockart agricola et Margareta 
Ray legitima ipsius conjuge natum esse. Alex. 
Taylor, senior ; Robertus Smith, senior ; Alex. 
Forbes, pastor; Georgius Melvine, senior; 
Alex. Sangster. 

28. Dan. Davidson^ ^^ Patricius *' of Zamosc in Poland. 

Witnesses : John and Andrew Davidson, cives 
et mercatores ; Jacob Ventour, Secretary of the 
King; William Forbes, famatus ci?es. 1680.^ 

29. Geo. Davidson^ father William Davidson of Aberdeen; 

mother, Elizabeth Menzies. 1668. 

30. John Davidson^ father, Alexander Davidson of Marien- 

culter (Maryculter), ^^ about a mile's walk from 
Aberdeen.'* Witnesses: Thos. Mengis from 

^ See about him Part L 



178 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

CoUerlie, near Aberdeen; and Hans Brown, 
from Aberdeen, gloyer and indweller of Danzig. 
1652. 

31. Andr. Dellor^ from the village of Alborti (?), ten miles 

off Aberdeen. Witnesses: Will. Anderson 
and Ths. King, from Aberdeen. 1592. Bbn 

32. David Demster, son of Geo. Demster and Isabella, 

from Brechin. 1 63 1 • Also written Dempster. 
Bbr. 

^2. Thomas Demster^ son of the late Jas. Demster, " one 
of the nobility '' (einer yom adell), domiciled in 
Engelsmead (Inglismaldie in Marykirk, Kincar- 
dineshire), near Brechin, and of Agneta Lyall, 
his mother. Witnesses: Alexander Demster, 
burgess and merchant of Danzig, and Alb. 
Demster, a braid maker. 1633. 

34. R. Dempstarton^ mother Christina Balfour, at Stir- 
ling. Witnesses at Stirling: Alex. Cousland, 
Geo. Nonrel, Alex. Miller. Juli 3, 1610. 
Bbr. 

^S. Gilbert Dennis , hther in Zamosc, Poland; mother 
Susanna Boyd, from St. Johannis Stadt » Perth. 
Witnesses : Gleghom and Jacob Lyon, a gloyer. 
1657. 

^6. John Dugetj son of the "noble" John Duget, domi-^ 

ciled in Disblehr (Disblair in Fintray), ^* seven 

miles from Aberdeen"; mother, Margaret 

Siton (Seaton). 1655. 

rr fi [ So^^ of Thomas Duncan in Konigs- 

38: >. Tmcan ^?' '^S^' ^ ^tnesses : Jacob 

ir-L T^ I Ruthven and Hans Short, of 

^g. Tbas. Duncan \ ^.. . . 
^^ { Komgsberg. 

43. P. Forbes^ son of Robert Forbes of Mowney and 

Margareta Farquhar. Witnesses: Duncan 



40. William Farqubar 

41. Robert Farquhar 



DOCUMENTS. 179 

Forbes of Camphill, and Joannes Forbes, 
burgess of Aberdeen. 

44. William Forbes^ son of Geo. Forbes and Catharine 

Reedfurth of Baltingtuhr (?) in Aberdeenshire. 

Witnesses : William Forbes and Alex. Mitchell, 

burgesses of Aberdeen. Bbr. 1 6;^ 2. 

Emigrated from Aberdeen in 
1639. Sons of Arch. Farquhar, 
de Dillab infra parochiam de 
Monymusk et generosa femina, 
Marg. Ritchie. 1687. Bt>'-^ 
42. David Fermer^ son of William Fermer, Kirkcaldy. 

1 61 6. Bbr. 

45. William Fraser^ son of W. Fraser, " magistri de Phop- 

pachi." (Fopachy on the Beauly Firth.) 1670. 
Bbr. Inverness. 

46. John Fyffe^ son of Jas. Fyffe in St Andrews. Wit- 

nesses : David Brodie and Robt. Morrisson, 
tailor at D. 1652.* 

47. Tbs. Gallj son of Ths. Gall in Montrose. Witnesses : 

W. Grub and W. Jeffrey at D., both from 
Montrose. 1632. 

48. Hans Gilmore^ father, burgess in Thorn. Witnesses : 

J. Ruthven and Jacob Lyon, burgesses and 
glovers at D. 1653. 

49. James Grun (Green.) Witnesses: Hans Robertson 

and Gelletlie, burgesses of D. 1582. 

50. Robt. Guthrie^ son of the " noble ** William Guthrie 

of Minus, not far from the town of Fervor 
(Forfar), and of Elis. Fenton. Witness : Henry 
Guthrie, merchant at D. 1662. 

1 Id the Kgh Si. jireUv^ Posen ; adorned with coat-of-annt. 
' ** Robt. Morrisaon has been growing up with J. Fyffe, the younger, 
and was a tchoolfellow of hit.'' 



i8o THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

51. FT. Halyburton^ son of the "Magister" Andr. Haly- 

burton of St Andrews and Cath. Lumsden. 
Witnesses : Morrisson and Cassinus of D. (8o). 
1680. Bbr. 

52. Andr. Hervie^ son of William Hervie of Torreloyth 

(?) near Aberdeen. Witnesses : W. Anderson 
and Oswald Dirring, of Aberdeen, inhabitants 
of D. 1 598. 

^^a. AU Henderson^ son of John Henderson, burgess of 
Perth, and Elis. EUor. Witnesses : W. Ander- 
son, Hans Snell, Alex. Salmon, natives of Perth, 
now of D. Alex. Henderson died 1597 at D. 

$2jb William Henderson^ son of William Henderson, the 
Earl of Orkney's late "Court Butcher*' in 
Kirkwall, and of Anne Spens. Witness : Elis. 
Sinckler, widow of Peter Wilson. 1653. 

54. W, Hewison^ son of W. Hewison, Aberdeen. 1650. 

55. Dan Heij (Hzy). Witness: Alex. Karkettle. 1690. 

56. Hans Innes^ son of Alb. Innes, an " arrendator " at Park 

in Banffshire and of Marg. Leitch. Witnesses : 
Jacob Stewart, a lieutenant, and Ths. Mackie, a 
tailor, both of D. 1660. 

57. Albrecbt Jack^ son of Thomas Jack, merchant of D. 

Witnesses: W. Wadrop and David Hogg, 
burgesses of D. 162 2. 

58. Tbos. Jamieson^ son of John Jamieson, domiciled in 

Sklete (or Sklote), " about a mile's walk from 
Aberdeen," and of Barbara Simson. Wit- 
nesses : Alexander Simson, burgess of Krakaw, 
and Will. Hewison, burgess of Posen. 1658. 

59^1 Andreas Kant^ a tanner, now a musketeer under 
Sergeant-Major Goltz, son of And. Kant. 
1661. 

Sgb W. Kant^ son of the late John Kant, a tailor. 



/ 



DOCUMENTS. 18 1 

Witnesses: Robt. Morisohn (80) and Alex. 
Stuhrt (73), in the Elizabeth Hospital, D. 
1681. 

60. Hans Kilau Q), son of the late I. Kilau, shoe- 

maker and burgess of Aberdeen. Witnesses : 
Gilb. Tzamer (Czamer), and Will. EUhus 
(Ellis) of Aberdeen, now at D. 1637. 

6 1. yacob Kingawer (?), son of Jas. Kingawer, late 

weaver at Wasserkamey (?), ** three miles' walk 
from Aberdeen/' and of M. Young. 1 666. 

62. yacob Leo (Lyon)^ son of David Lyon, burgess of 

Edinburgh, and of Cath. Patterson, a citizen of 
Danzig and a glover by trade. Died without 
male issue. One of the witnesses is Alb. 
Morris, a tailor of Danzig and son-in-law to 
David. 

63. yacob Lermontj father J. Lermont, late burgess and 

gunsmith of St Andrews ; mother, Elis. Smith. 
Witnesses : S. Robertson, burgess of St 
Andrews, and Jacob Smith, burgess of Dan- 
zig. 1636. 

64. Walter Leslie^ from Aberdeen ; father Patrick 

Leslie, Provost of Aberdeen; mother, Isab. 
Chien. Witnesses : Ths. Leslie, burgess of 
Danzig, an uncle, and J. Littgo (Lithgow), 
burgess and distiller, D. (73). 1683. 

67. yobn Littko^ son of Jas. Littkow, citizen and distiller 

of D. (formerly a "lieutenant" in Aberdeen), 
bom in Aberdeen; mother Elis. Henderson. 
1669. 

68. Will. Lfttgow, from Sandwick (Shetlands). Witness : 

Jacob Lissko, stocking-weaver (48). 1657. 
6$. Tbos. Ledderdel (Litherdale .^, father, Jas. Lither- 



1 82 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

dale, domiciled on St Mary^s Isle, County 
Galway (Galloway). 1649. 
66. Abr. Lindsay^ son of Will. Lindsay and of Euphemia, 
from Edinburgh. 1598. 

69. yohn Macallen. 1648. Bbr. 

70. John Mackie. 1640. Bbr. 

yu A. Marshall^ Bbr. issued by the town of Aberdeen, 
son of Robt. Marshall and Marg. MoUisson. 
Witnesses : Alex. Davidson, ^^ advocatus/* John 
Tullydafl^ Hector Smith and Jas. Bimie. 
Dec. I, 1634. 

72. yohn Maxwell J son of James Maxwell, peasant, in the 

village of Auchtermuchty, " a two miles' walk '* 
from Facheln (Falkland), *^a small town in the 
Kingdom of Scotland." Witnesses : Alex. Ross 
(75) and Hans Casin (90), labourers of D. 1 682. 

73. J. Millj father burgess of D. ; mother Anne 

Robertson. Witnesses: Hans Morton and 
Jas. Duncan (66), burgesses of D. 1675. 

74. Robt. Milly father Robert Mill, in Aberdeen ; mother 

Jane Burnett. 1674. 

75. Robt. Mitchell, son of Robert " Dominus de Preston 

Grange," and Janeta Wilson. 1697. Bbr. 

76. G. Moiry from New Aberdeen. Mother Anna 

Paip, daughter of Alex. Paip of Mickley Rany. 
1738. Witnesses: And. Turner (76) and John 
Marshall (56), burgesses of D. 

77. Alex. Moncrieff, skipper, from Burntisland. Mother, 

Marg. Brown. Witnesses: Andr. Alexander 
and John Scott of Burntisland. 
Hennerson, an interpreter, "verstabet" = repeated 
and translated the oath to them. 1678. 

78. Hugh Mongall, son of George Mongall, judge and 

burgess of Fallkirch; mother, Marg. Hall. 1664 



DOCUMENTS. 183 

79. R. Morrisson^ son of John Morrisson of St Andrews. 

Witness : David Brachy of St Andrews. 1655. 

80. Tbs. Murray^ son of Al. Murray, late merchant in 

Aberdeen, and of Cath. GuUen. Witnesses: 
Robt. Chapman and J. LiddeL 1681. 

81. Hans Ogilvie (boy), from Kopenhagen. 1685. Bbr. 

82. Peter Ogilvie^ father, the " noble *' Thos. Ogilvie of 

Balgowen, near Gowrie (Perth) ; mother, Elis. 
Morton. Witnesses : Major Ths. Anderson 
and Hans Watson of D. 1 649. 

83. AL Paip from the town of Tania (Tain) in Ross- 

shire, son of Gilbert Paip of Mickle Rainy and 
Anne Munro, daughter of John Munro of 
Pitonachy. Witnesses: Alex. Ross of Cock- 
enzie and John Fergusson ^^ de Allan. '^ 1686. 

84. AL Paip^ son of the above. Witnesses : Geo. Buchan 

(70) and John James Gorman, burgess of D. 

1696. 

85. A. Patterson^ from Eiling (?), Aberdeenshire. 16 19. 

86. David Patterson^ son of Hans Patterson in Erbraht 

(Arbroath). Witnesses: Jacob Smith, "a 
horse soldier,'' and David Patterson. ^'Went 
to school together." 1656. 

87. H. Pollock^ from Glasgow. Bbr. 

88. Archibald Raity son of A. Rait and Elis. Abercrombie, 

parish of Rayne, Aberdeenshire. Left Scotland 
1 65 1. Bbr. issued by J. Gordon, ballivus, 
Geo. Gruikshank de Berrihill, Ja. Basken de 
Orde et Robt. Gruikshank de Rainystone. 
1677.* 
SSa. Samuel Ramsay, father and grandfather in Elbing. 

^ In the KgL Si. Arcbiv^ Posen. The Bbr. is adorned with the coat- 
of-arms of the Raits of Halgrein, Abercromby de Birkenbog, Craikshank 
of Tullymorgan and Leith of Likliehide. See further on. 



i84 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Witnesses : John Mallison, burgess and brewer, 
and Thos. Smeaton, burgess, both of Elbing. 
1687. 

89. William Ramsay^ son of Patrick Ramsay, in the village 

of Wettray (?) Angus. Witnesses : Will. 
Ramsay and David Macrecht. ^^ Scottish 
Kramers.'* Bbr. 1629. 

90. Jacob Ramsay^ father a small grocer at Praust near 

D. 1656. 

91. Alexander Ramsay ^ son of No. 89. " Freyer deutscher 

art gezeuget." ^ 1689. 

92. Walter Ramsay^ \ sons of Al. Ramsay of Galre Q) 

93. Gilbert Ratiuay^ ) near Coupar Angus, and of Marg. 

Halyburton. Walter is said to have died when 
journeying in Wallachia; Gilbert settled in 
ESnigsberg. 1652. 

94. Alex. Rennie^ son of Al. Rennie. 1637. 
94^7. M. Riese from Edinburgh. 1701. 

95. Jas. Robertson^ son of Geo. Robertson, burgess of D. 

1591- 

96. Z)^7^;i^/ /{^^^r/i^n, from Pomerania. 1638. Bbr. 

97. Thomas Robertson^ from Brandenburg. 1638. Bbr. 

98. Will. Robertson^ son of Jas. Robertson (95) in D. 

Bom at D. 1662. Bbr. 

99. Jacob Rossy son of John Ross at D. and of Margaret 

Essken (Erskine). Witnesses : Jas. Lyon and 
David Dempster (60), glovers and burgesses of 
D. 1657. 

100. Abr. Sinclair^ son of W. Sinclair of D. Witnesses : 

Hans Fergusson and Jacob Soto (Soutar)^ 
burgesses and shoemakers of D. 1669. 

10 1. David Skene ^ from Bahelwick (Balhelvie), near 



^ <' Of free Germaa ofFspring. 



99 



DOCUMENTS. 185 

Aberdeen. Mother Mabel Kennett. 1586. 
Bbr. 

102. ^acoh Sinckler^ father Jas. Sinckler, a " seafaring 

man''; mother, Agneta Morton. Witnesses: 
Ebns Morton, burgess of D., and David Brady 
of St Andrews. 1659. 

103. Thomas Smarts from Dundee. Son of David Smart 

and Elizabeth Smith. Witnesses : Geo. Brown 
and Mallisson from Eonigsberg. 1639. Bbr. 

104. Jacob Smithy son of James Smith at Dundee and of 

Marg. Gillin. Witnesses : Robert Lessli, bur- 
gess of Dundee, and John Cargill, clerk in 
D. 1664. 

105. yobn Stracban^ son of Al. Strachan, merchant at D., 

and of Barbara Schmidt (Smith). Witnesses : 
J. Smith, burgess and jeweller of D., and 
William Lumsdehl, burgess of D. 1680. 

1 06. Alb. Strebren^^ son of Matth. Strehren from Penket- 

land (Pencaitland), ^^ eight miles''' walk from 
Edinburgh. Witnesses: Hans Gumming, bur- 
gess of D. 1665. 

107. Jas. Sieffen^ from Glaskaw, son of the late B. 

Steffen. Witnesses : B. Hall and Hans Donnell, 
burgesses of Glasskaw. 1 6 1 2. 

108. Donald Sutherland^ from Caithness. Bbr. 1751* 

109. James Sutherland^ „ „ Bbr. 1752. 

110. John Thomson^ son of Math. Thomson of Glasgow. 

Witnesses : Matth. Macleish, glover, and Henry 
Simson, retail merchant, D., ^^ neighbour's 
children." 1667. 

111. John Turner^ son of John Turner and Marg. 

^ See Scots m Gemuuy^ p. 261. 

' See about him above. The reader will do well to compare the lists 
above with those given in the Appendix of the Scots m Germany. 






1 86 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Keith, Aberdeen. Witnesses: William and 
Andr. Turaer, merchants at Przemysl in 
Poland, the heirs. 1688. 

112. Richard Turner^ father in D. as clerk. 1684. 

113. Hans Walks (Wallace), son of H. Walles in D., 

and Cath. Robertson. Witnesses : H. Morton 
and Geo. Cleghom, burgesses of D. 1660. 

114. Will. Watson^ from Stolp in Pomerania, son of J. 

Watson, there. 1676. Bbr. 

115. Andr. Watson^ son of A. Watson in St Johnstown 

(Perth). Witnesses: P. Wadrup, a soldier, 
and William Puri (Pourie). 1649. 

116. Jacob Watson^ son of H. Watson, bom in the 

village of O. Q)^ ten miles from D. 1686. 

117. Jacob Wright^ bom Vomtr^xiidu Bbr. 1653. 

IX. 
Three Birth^briefs as Specimens.^ 

I. 

Birth-brief of the Brothers Francis^ Simon and 
Gilbert Johnston (1596). 

Unhtersis et singulis ad quorum notitias praesentes 
litterae pervenerint . . . nos ballivi et consilii senatus 
burgi Lanercae in regno Scotiae salutem. Quatenus 
Franciscum Johnstoun, Simonem Johnnstoun et Gilbertum 
Johnnstoun filios fratresque germanos inter quondam 
nobilem Joannem Johnnstoun de Cragabume et Mareotam 
Mure ejus legitimam conjugem rite et legitime procreatos 
fiiisse notum facimus ac tenore praesentium attestamur. 
C^ae quidem Mareota legitima fuit filia quondam Joannis 

1 I hxwt purposely selected three birth-briefs ^ery different io style. 



DOCUMENTS. 187 

Mure, nobilis domini de Aanestona, nee non in ecclesia 
parochiali de Spinemton (Symmington) infra vicecomitatum 
de Lanark debite et secundum divini numinis ordinem dicti 
quondam Joannes et Mareota ejus conjux in conjugali 
nexu perimplerunt. Ilia autem Mareota adhuc favente 
Deo vitam agente. Nunc vero veritatis causa dictorum 
Francisci, Simonis et Gilberti legitimae procreationis fide- 
le testimonium perhibeamus perque has literas nostras 
attestamur. Quapropter hoc nostrum testimonium serio 
scribere mandayimus et vos procul dubio certiores reddimus 
et ipsa veritate notum facimus [ac] dictos fratres germanos 
minime nothos sed de legitimo thoro honestoqne conjugio 
genitos per parentes praedictos procreatos esse : quorum 
primores absque originis memoria nobiles ac honestos fuisse 
attestamur [nobiles ad honestos fuisse usus scimus]].^ 
Vobis itaque universis et singulis, quibus ipsa Veritas et 
pia bonorum generatio cordi est, hos fratres germanos et 
de legitimo thoro natos commendamus eosque honesta 
societate in omnibus rebus dignos obnixe rogamus, 
quemadmodum, si quando par referendi facultas a vobis 
dabitur qua possumus opera compensatum iri pollicemur. 
In omne rei testimonium sigillum commune dicti nostri 
burgi de Lanark ad causam praedictam testandum prae- 
sentibus appendi curavimus. Lanercae, decimo quinto die 
mensis Maji anno Domini millesimo quingenresimo 
nonagesimo sexto. 

David Brentoun, notarius ac scriba ejusdem. 
Antonius Lokhart, balivus dicti burgi. 
ViLELMUS MoNAT, commuuis clericus dicti burgi, 
manu mea propria. 

^ Thus the Vienna copy. There are two authenticated copies of the 
lost original, one at Breslau from which the above text is taken, the other 
at Vienna. See Urhunden %ur Guchkchte der FamUse von Jbiniton, 
firesiau, 1895. 



i88 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

2. 

Birtb^bruf of John and Gabriel Spalding (1675). 

Carolus Dei gratia Magnae Britanniae Franciae et 
Hyberniae Rex fideique defensor universis et singulis 
Regibus, Principibus . . • atque ceteris quibuscunque has 
patentes nostras literas inspecturis perpetuam felicitatem et 
salutem in domino nostro summo et magistro. Quando> 
quidem summa eorum quibus administratio rei publicae est 
commissa cura esse debet ut virtutis studiosis et bene 
merentibus debitus honos conferatur et vitiosorum scelera 
constitutis suppliciis coerceantur nos hactenus quidem ne in 
his negligentius providisse videremur obnixe quantum a re 
nata fieri potuit et sedulo dedimus operam semperque 
damns et quaecunque generosi sanguinis praeclarive facin- 
oris amajoribus derivata sunt jura et encomia eadem apud 
posteros . . . qua longissima fieri possit serie sarta et 
tecta maneant quo et ipsi post geniti stemmatis sui memores 
nihil parentum amplitudine aut Integra ^ma indignum 
committant sed ad parem accensi laudem aliquam propria 
yirtute lucis accessionem claritudini majorum superaddant 
et sic pari conatu proavos aemulati fideles et probos regi et 
patriae se subditos et cives pro virili prestent, hinc factum 
est ut famam nobilis quondam yiri domini Joannis Spalding 
virtutis splendore et prudentia inclytam hac commendationis 
et benevolentiae nostrae tessera exomare statuerimus . . . 
et nos idcirco notum et certum facimus . . . praedictum 
nostrum subditum et civem dominum Johannem Spalding 
legitimum et legitimo thoro et matrimonio et ex utroque 
parente nobili et generoso natum esse ; et ex illustribus et 
praeclaris f amiiiis patemum et matemum genus jam multis 
retro seculis traxisse utpote ortum patre nobili yiro domino 
Georgio Spalding, comarcha de Milhaugh ayo domino 
Georgio Spalding Toparcha de Grange Airly gentis anti- 



DOCUMENTS. 189 

quissimae et nobilissimae Spaldingorum Phylarcha proavo 
Jacobo Spalding Toparcha de Grange Airly et ex uxore sua 
domina Joanna Gaimes filia domini Gaimes baronis de 
Lantoun gentis sue etiam Phylarcha avia vero patema 
domina Isabella Ogilvia filia domini Gualteri Ogilvie 
baronis de Clova et conjugis suae dominae Margarete 
Creightoun filie domini Crightonii baronis de Ruthven, ex 
stirpe vero matema genitum esse nobili matrona domina 
Helena Ogilvia filia domini Guilelmi Ogilvie baronis de 
Keiler nepte domini Roberti Ogilvie baronis de Keilor et 
conjugis suae dominae Anna Lindsei filie domini Lindsei 
baronis de Eagle et Gleneske pronepte domini Davidis 
Ogilvie iUustrissimae et fbrtissimae Ogilviorum Phylarcha 
. . . et conjugis suae dominae Euphemiae Forbesiae filiae 
illustris domini baronis de Forbes gentis suae predarissimae 
Phylarchae, avia vero matema domina Maria Collesia filia 
domini Alexandri Colessii baronis de Bellinamoon gentis suae 
antiquae Phylarchae et conjugis suae dominae Helenae Car- 
negiae filiae illustrissimi domini baronis de Carnegie postea 
vero comitis de Southesk gentis suae inclytae nobilissimae 
et prudentissimae Phylarchae. Qui omnes legitimis nuptiis 
copulati ex legitimis et ipsi thoris et ex illustribus et 
nobilissimis familiis oriundi fuere, onmes generis et virtutis 
splendore claruere et a Serenissimis Scotorum regibus de- 
cessoribus nostris ob praeclara sua in hostes facinora et 
probatam in patriam fidem magnis honoribus muniis et 
muneribus ab omni ferme memoria jure merito omnes con- 
decorati famam suam cum sanguine puram et integram sine 
labe aut uUo contamine ad posteros etiam adhuc superstites 
majorumque suorum virtutum aemulos transmisere. Quorum 
tenore vos omnes amicos nostros . . . rogatos obtestatosque 
cupimus ut modo laudatos dves nostros D. D. Joannem et 
Gabrielem Spalding fratres praedictos in omni human- 
itate virtute et prudentia . . . omnibus human! tatis honoris 



I90 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

et dignitatis officiis persequamini . . . quae omnia sicut ex 
se vera sunt et firma itidem ut apud universos et singulos 
testatiora et certiora fiant . . . has patentes nostras literas 
praedictis D. D. Joanni et Gabrieli Spalding fratribus 
germanis concessimus . . . ^ 

3- 

Birth-brief of Archibald Rait. 

Issued by the City of Aberdeen. 

March 21, 1676. 

We have chosen the following letter out of a vast 
number of birth-briefs, because it is a fair specimen of the 
grandiloquence and the turgid Latinity of letters of the 
sort. The family of the applicants is always ^^ perantiqua " 
— ^yery old — ^and often '* nobilis " ; coats-of-arms of grand- 
father and grandmother are more or less faithftdly 
reproduced; all to impress the benighted Prussians and 
Poles with the idea that in Scotland every tradesman or 
small farmer was in the happy possession of a patent of 
nobility, hoary with old age, and that in one of the many 
daughters of Robert Bruce was to be seen the great- 
great-great-grandmother of every young Scot who found 
himself compelled to push his fortune by the poverty 
of his country and cast upon the ^^ inhospitable shores " of 
the Baltic. 

Universis et singulis in quacunque dignitate civili, 
ecdesiastica vel militari ubivis gentium constitutio ad 

^ The brother of old Johann Spalding in Gothenburg was Andreas, who 
settled at Plau in Mecklenburg, and became the ancestor of the many 
Spaldings now spread oyer the North of Germany* See : GescbkbtUches^ 
Urkunden^ Stammtafeln der Spaldmg. Privately printed Gloedenhof^ Krds 
Greifi*tuaidf by Eduard Spalding, 1898. 



DOCUMENTS. 191 

quorum notitiam praesentes literae pervenerint, Nos 
Praefectus, consules reliquusque senatus civitatis Abre- 
doniensis in Scotia salutem in Domino sempiternam. 

Cum yeritati non adesse nostro deesse sit officio sine 
fuco aut failaciis candide et ex animo testificamur, 
quod quo die datae sunt haec literae coram nobis pro 
tribunali ad jus dicendum causasque audiendas sedentibus 
apparuit generosus yir Jacobus Skenaeus Leoni regi 
armorum in Scotia substitutus, qui in gratiam generosi 
yiri Archibaldi Rait, mercatoris Leisnensis (Lissa) qui 
yiginti sese aut eo circiter abhinc annis e Scotia in 
exteras profectus est regiones, petiit et rogayit, ut nos 
qua poiiemus auctoritate tarn popularibus quam exteris 
testatum redderemus eum generoso stemmate et honesta 
prosapia oriundum et ex parentibus conjugali foedere sibi 
consociatis susceptum esse. Cujus petitioni tam aequae 
pro officii ratione deesse non potuimus. Itaque ut 
innotescat Nos non temere aut ex assentatione sed 
diligenti prius scrutinio hoc super negotio instituto 
praesens diploma indulsisse, in judicium yocayimus pro- 
batae fidei, spectatae probitatis proyectaeque aetatis yiros 
Johannem Gordon Balliyum, Bamfiensem Georgium Cruik- 
shank de Berrihill, Jacobum Basken de Orde et Robertum 
Cruikshank de Rainystone qui solemni interposito jure- 
jurando elatis dextris sanctissime confirmarunt dictum 
Archibaldum Rait filium fuisse le^timum generosi yiri 
Archibaldi Rait de Lentuss infra parochiam de Rayne et 
yicecomitatum de Aberdene, ex generosa foemina 
Elizabetha Abercrombie legitima ipsius conjuge, dictum 
yero Archibaldum Rait praefati Archibaldi patrem filium 
fuisse legitimum generosi yiri Gulielmi Rait de Lentuss 
praefati Archibaldi ayi patemi ex generosa foemina 
Joanna Kruikshank legitima ipsius conjuge praefati 



192 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Archibald! avia materna, filia legitima generosi yin 
Robert! Cruikshank de Glenmaglen infra parochiam de 
Forige (?) et yicecomitatum de Aberdeen ex antiqua famiSa 
de Cruikshank de Tillimorgan oriundi ; dictosque praefati 
Archibald! majores ex linea patema ex antiqua fanilia 
de Rait de Halgreine ^ legitime oriundos esse. Praefktam 
vero Elizabethan! Abercrombie diet! Archibald! matrem 
filiam fuisse legitimam generosi yiri magistri Walter! 
Abercrombie praefati Archibald! avi matemi, iUii legitim! 
Domini de Birkenboge, ex generosa foemina Margaretta 
Leith legitima ipsius conjuge, praedict! Archibald! ayia 
materna, filia legitima Domini de Liklieheide (or cbeide) ; 
Nominatosque omnes praefati Archibald! majores ex 
testibus supradictis constat nuUo thalami probro aut 
degeneris labis suspicione laborasse sed sub sacratissimo 
matrimonii vinculo yitam suam transegisse illibatam. 
Quae cum ita sint omnes et singulos apud quos prae- 
dictum Archibaldum versari contigerit rogatos percussimus, 
ut ilium generoso stemmate et honesta prosapia oriundum 
et ex parentibus conjugal! foedere sib! consociatis legitime 
prognatum esse intelligant et pro innata sib! humanitate 
ingenito virtutis studio cum omni (qua par est) benevolentia 
acceptum in destinatum dirigere terminum non graventur. 
Quam gratiam non minus quam in singulos hujus civitatis 
collatam et cum foenore (si se dederit occasio) quantum 
in nobis est, referendum meduUitus apud nos perennaturam 
unanimes spondemus. Et ut huic nostro testimonio sua 
constet et maneat fides, secretarii nostro autographo 
(nostro omnium nomine) signatum appenso civitatis 
nostrae sigillo muniendum curavimus. 

Datum Abredoniae vigesimo primo die mensis Marti! 
anno Domini millesimo sexcentesimo septuagesimo sexto 
et regni serenissimi principis nostri Carol! secund! Dei 

^ In Kincardineshire. 



DOCUMENTS. 193 

gratia Magnae Brittanniae, Franciae et Hibemiae regis, 
fideique defensoris, anno vigesimo octavo. 

L. S. Magister Alexander Robertson. 

Secretarius Abredonensis.^ 



X. 

List df Scotsmen 
who became burgesses of DanzigJ^ 

1 53 1. Thomas Gilzet from Dundee. 
1 536. Jacob Bruce. 
1552. James Eilfauns. 
1552. John Watson. 
1552. James Brathinson (?). 

1558. Andr. Robbertson from Aberdeen. 

1559. ^^^- Robbertson ,, „ 

1563. Butchart from Dundee. 

1564. James Somerfeld (yille). 

1565. Robt. Hoddon (Hutton) from Daikona. 

1 565. Andr. Dehlhoff (?) from Aberdeen. 

1566. Hans Forbes ,, ,, 

1566. Hans Kilfauns. 

1567. Andr. Bruin from Dundee. 

1573. John White (Witte) from Cupro (Cupar), 
a coppersmith. 

1577. Andr. Moncreiff. 

1578. Osias Kilfauns. 
1578. Geo. Patterson. 

^ K^ St. jirebivf Posen. Dep, Lissa C i a. N. i. 

s K^L St. jircbh}, Danzig, D. XXIII. XCVII. A Burgerbiicher. 



194 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

About 1580. William Forbes. 

581. Geo. Kittrick (?) from Dmnfries. 
581. Alex. Mirhi (Murray) from Ban£ 

581. Geo. Smith from St Andrews, a goldsmitlu 

582. Hans Gelletlie from Dundee.^ 
587. Andr. Hardy „ „ 
587. James Gelletlie ,, „ 
592. Andr. Liddel. 
592. James Kignet (?)• 
592. James Brun from Aberdeen. 

592. John Watson „ „ 

593. Will. Roan (Rowan). 

503. Andr. Thomson from "\ ,, . 

^ r?j- 1. u I " Intercessione 

Edmburgh. I p.^^. ,^ 

593. Andr. Telliour (Taylor), f Z^^^^^\ 

- T ir- Regmae." 

593. James Kmg. J ^ 

598. Andrew Steven from Aberdeen. 

598. William Duncan ,, ,, 

598. Abr. Lindsay frx)m Edinburgh. 

598. Jas. Greger „ „ 

598. Andr. Goring frx>m Aberdeen. 

598. Peter Blair frx)m Dundee. 

598. Thos. Blair „ „ 

598. Alex. Ramsay from Aberdeen. 

599. Geo. Hebron (Hepburn). 
606. John Stoddart. 
606. Hans Kilfauns. 

About 16 10. Al. Rennie. 

612. Arch. Williamson. 
614. Alex. Newland from Edinburgh. 
614. Jas. Smith from St Andrews. 
616. Alex. Demster frx>m Brechin. 

^ He hat a house in the FrauengaMe in 1655. 



DOCUMENTS. 195 

1 62 1. W. Lamb from Sandwick. 
1 62 1. David Hogg from Stirling. 

162 1. Hans Kammer (Chambers) from Edin- 

burgh. 

1622. Hans Pratus frx>m Dunfermline. 

1623. Thos. Makkenssin (Mackenzie) from 

Dundee. 

1624. J. Abemethy from Aberdeen. 
1626. Thos. Stalker. 

About 1630. Thos. Demster. 

163 1. Reinhold Portus from Douglas. 

163 1. Jas. Meldrum. 

1632. Jas. Man from Dundee. 

1633. ^^' Cleghom fix)m Quhitsome. 

1 634. W. Balfour from St Andrews. 

1638. W. Kenrick from Culross. 

1639. Thos. Smart from Dundee. 

1639. Henckly (?). 

1640. Alb. Agnus from Lochiedt (?). 

1640. William Gordon. 

1 641. W. Ramsay from Rattray; a twiner. 

1642. John Duncan from Dunblane. 

1642. Alex. Bell from Bamoyll. 

1643. Hans Morton from St Andrews, a twiner. 

1647. ^^* C^i^ ffo°^ Glasgow. 
1652. David Demster.* 

1652. J. Smith from Auchenthaw (?). 

1653. J^^ Tamson. 

1658. Geo. Mitchell. 

1659. Adrian Stoddart.^ 

1662. Robt. Guthrie from Minus, near Forfar. 

1663. Thomas Fraser. 

^ An emiDCDt man, who as ** Syndic " took an acdre part in the politics 
and the goTernment of the City* Cp. Part II* 



196 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

1663. A. Guthry. 

1664. Alex. Barclay. 

1664. Robt Baylie from LamingtoiL^ 

1664. W. Robbertson. 

1666. Al. Hotchisson (Hutchison). 

1668. Rqbt Chalmer from Aberdeen. 

1669. J. Litgow from Aberdeen. 
1668. W. Brown from Dundee. 
1674. Al. Karkettle. 

1 674. Jas. Bruce from Edinburgh. 

1675. Robt. Mill. 

1676. W. Clerk from Dunfermline, and two sons. 

1676. W. Watson. 

1677. Arch. Rait from Aberdeenshire. 

1678. AL Moncrieff frx)m Burntisland. 

1680. W. Halyburton from St Andrews. 

1 68 1. Dan. Davidson. 

1682. Thos. Fraser from Aberdeen. 
1682. Thos. Murray „ „ 
1682. Hans Ogelbey. 

1682. Thos. Burnet. 

1682. Dan G. Davidson. 

1683. John Geme from Zamosc. 
1685. Peter Forbes from Aberdeen. 
1687. William and Robert Farquharson. 
1689. AL Paip with two sons.' 

1689. Thos. Leslie from Aberdeen. 

1 69 1. Andr. Turner from Wreatoun (Rathen ?). 

1 69 1. William Turner from Kininmond, Aberdeen* 

shire. 
1691. Thos. Davidson from Aberdeen. 

1 See Birth-briefs. 

* For obtaining ciyil rights Paip had to pay 3000 gulden ; Andr. 
Turner for himself and his brother 5000. 



DCX:UMENTS. 197 

1695. Francis Moncrieff 

1695. (?) Walter Leslie.^ 

1700. James Leitch. 

1705. AL Bucfaan.' 

1 705. Peter Stuart from Posen. 

1705. Jas. Irying. 

1705. A. Majoribanks. 

1705. 6. Malabar. 

1 7 10. Gilbert Moin* 

17 10. John Farquhar. • 

The following Scottish names are also mentioned in 
Danzig^: Mustard (1475) ; Seymour (1557) ; C. Lawson 
(1546); Dickson (1557); P. Law (1558); Melville, 
Stirling, Simson (1556) ; Andrew Cromforth (Crawford) ; 
W. and AL Forbes (1556); Stein (1585); Middleton 
(1598) ; Murray (1599) i Jac Agilbey (Ogilvie), (1599) i 
Al. Mitchell (1604); Andr. Eeay (1611); Nisbet, 
Wolson (161 1); Jacob Rennie (abt. 1640) 5; Th. Duff 
(ti6i9); P. Masterton (1620); Wadrop (1622) 
Macallen (1621); D. Haig (1637); Norrie (1637) 
Hans Ingram (t 1649)* ; Patterson from Arbroath (1656) 
Jac Ruthven (1653); Jac. Lyon (1653) 5 ^* Morton and 
Jas. Morton, his son (1660); 6. Ochterlony (11644); 
W. Konigem (Cunningham) ; H. Roy or Ruy (t 1683) ; 

^ He paid 2000 gulden. See Scoii m Gemuuiy^ p. i68« 

' See ScoU in Germany y pp. 2689 ^^9* 

' After paying 1400 gulden. 

^ In the Sehoppenlmcber and elsewhere ; most of theae Scotsmen were 
also citizens. 

^ He was a cattle-dealer; in 1649 ^ ^ "^ ^tA\. distress about 120 
oxen, which he had ordered firom Poland* Only a few of them arrived 
at Danzig on account of what he calls the <* Kosackische Rerolte." 
KgL Su Arelnv^ Danzig. 

* He left a house in the ** andere Damm '' Street, Danzig. 



198 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Geo. Morton (t 1665) ; A. Baylie (t 1665) ; Robt. Teven- 
dale (1689); JohnBrown,^ AL Coutts* (about 1720). 

It will be seen from the above list how much more 
generous Danzig was in the admission of the Scots to the 
freedom of the city. A grateful remembrance of the 
military services of the Scots in times of war has, no doubt, 
to do with it. The town deserves the eulogy of some 
Scottish petitioners who write in 1594 : " The Magistrates 
of Danzig enj oy the honour and giory with foreign nations, 
of not wholly avoiding good people for the sake of their 
difference of tongue and language to the exclusion and 
refusal of civil rights, but they make known their name 
far and wide above many other countries and towns by 
means of their humanity and friendliness." 

XL 

List of thirty-seven 

Scottish Kramers attending the Fair at Wehlau. 

1644. 



1. Will. Anderson. 

2. Jacob Marshall. 

3. AL Demster. 

4. Andr. Daschach(?). 

5. Alb. Nucastoll. 

6. W. Kinkett (Kincaid). 

7. Th. Gregor. 

8. J. MitchelL 



9. AL Nick (from Norden- 
burg). 

10. Ja. MongalL 

11. J. Lietschwett (?). 

12. Ja. Grant. 

13. Will. Abemetti. 

14. Hans Lowry (from 

Konigsberg). 



^ John Browo was made Burgess and Guild Brother of Edinburgh in 
1684. He also receiTed a baronetcy. His patent is still preserTed in 
Danzigy and is signed by Sir George Drummond. In 17 17 he possessed 
a fine house on the Langemarkt. 

3 Alex. Coutts and Company^ merchants at Danzig, send a fine brass 
drum with the town's arms upon it, a present to the burgh of Banff 

(1730). 



DOCUMENTS. 



199 



15. Andr. Hunt. 

16. Thos. Schmidt. 

1 7. Balzer Dayidson. 

1 8. W. Schott. 

19. Robt. English. 

20. Jac. Morra, burgess of 

Domnau. 

21. Jac. Hamilton, ,, ,, 

Sensburg. 

22. Geo. KLriegschank. 

23. Ja. Ritterfart (Ruther- 

ford). 

24. Hans Nielson (burgess 

of Kdnigsberg). 

25. Jac Allison. 

26. J. Ertzbell (Archibald). 



27. Ch. Small 

29. Jac Mohr (burgess of 

Nordenburg). 

30. David Watson. 

31. Thos. Strach (?). 

32. E. Karr (from Ragnit). 

33. W. Kurrie (from Bar- 

ten). 

34. Ths. Moir (burgess of 

Drengfiirt). 

25. Andr. Johnstone. 

26. Ths. Hamilton (burgess 

of Augerburg). 

27. H. Domthon (Thorn- 

ton). 



XII. 

List of Scottish Members of the Guild of Merchants 

at Konigsberg {Kneiphof). 

As the old burgesses' rolls have been lost at Kdnigsberg, 
the following list of Guild members obtains an additional 
Talue. 

Hans Greiff, 1602. 

R. Mitchell, 1648. 

Chr, Patton, 1659, entrance fee 2 Thaler. 

H. Wolson, 1650. 

Th. Penicuik, 1662, for 100 Thaler. 

Gilb. Ramsay, 1669, 99 ^^^ Marks. 

Andr. Ritch, 1669, „ „ 

M. Mickel, 1669, „ „ 

Geo. Gordon, 1677, „ „ 

Jac. Kuik, i68i. 



n 



n 



» 



aoo THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 






4 


Thaler. 


30 
12 


7J 

Gulden. 


18 
160 


11 


100 
18 





Jac Herrie, 1684, for 100 Thaler. 

J. Krehl, 1684. 

C. Ramsay, 1685. 

W. Ritch, 1686, „ 

Ths. Hervie, jun., 1691, for 

C. Ramsay, Gilbert's son ,, 
Dav. Hervie, 1692, 
Andr. Marshall, 1693, 
J. Morisson, 1699, 
John Irwing, 1700, 
W. Tevendale, 1700. 
H. Hunter, 1701, 
J. Rait, 1701. 

D. Cramond, 1706, 
J. Mitchelhill, 1706, 
A. Gem, 1707, 
W. Gordon, 171 1, 
L. Birrell, 17 16. 
Geo. Gray, 17 16, 
A. Karkettle, 1720, 
Ths. Hervie, 1723, 
Peter Kuik, 1726, 
Dan. Hunter, 1740. 
L. Crichton, 1742, 
G. Fothergill, 1749. 
Mackmiiller (Macmillan). 

Pennicuik soon obtained the eldership. Among the 
possessions of this Guild, there is or was a silver shield 
with the Coat of Arms of Scotland crowned, and two 
" Euchhomer " (squirrels ?) ^ as supporters. 

Amongst the Guild members of the Altstadt were: 
H. Wolson, Will. Hervie (1695), John Duglass (1720), 

^ The word may also read ** Einhonier '' « unicorns. Stadi jirclnv^ 
Konigsberg. Cp. Scott in Germany^ pp. 26 1» 262. 



200 
200 

200 



M 



)5 



>J 



>> 



J) 



?> 



») 



30 
5 Thaler. 

140 Gulden. 



DOCUMENTS. 



20 1 



and Geo. Ross (1723). The last two also being 
" Grossbiirger **  fall burgesses. 

XIII. 

List of Scottish Settlers and Burgesses at Kffnigsberg 

up till 1700.1 

•A. Rutherford (1561). •W. Buchan, 1616 (?). 



D. Bewick (1586). 
Gregor Kolbom (1562). 
Two Ogilvies (1562). 
W. Kinloch 1 
P. Kinloch J '584- 

• •]. Stein (1586). 
• (US22). 

A. Wright (1620). 

D. Lindsay (*i637). 
•D. Grant (1622). 
•H. Dennis (1642). 
•H. Abemethy. 
*G. Ramsay \ 
•A. Ritch > 1656. 
•M. Mickel ) 

P. Leermonth. 
•G. Weyer (Wier), 1661. 

Calander. 

*Ths. Pennicuik, 1664. 
•J. Krehl (Cnul), 1676. 

Jackson. 
♦Wopster, 1660. 

D. Barclay. 

A. Fullert, 17th century. 



♦A. Dunbar, 1616 (?). 

•G. Bayllie, 1660. 

G. Murray v 

Rob. Walker / 

Morrisson > 

R.MiU V 



End of 

17th 
centurj. 



*Robt. Marshall 

J. Gertner, 1690. 

J. Wass. 
*A. Dennis. 
•J. Henrie, 1691. 
*G. Hutcheson, abt. 1660. 

EL Brown. 

W. Ritch. 
•D. Hervie. 

W. Gray, 1694. 
*A. Marshall, 1692. 

J. King. 

Th Taylor (•1692). 
•Ths. Hervie 



•Fr. Hay 
*Ch. Ramsay 

H. Lowry 
•H. Nelson 

J. Allison 



1699. 



1614. 



^ Compare the list giTen in Seoti in Gemum^f p. 261, comprising the 
years 1700-1740. Those marked with an asterisk are burgesses. 



202 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

♦J. Hay 1 D. and J. Lawson, abt. 

•Adrian Hay J '^^^" 1690. 



XIV. 

List of Scottish Burgesses and Settlers in other towns of 

Eastern and Western Prussia.'^ 

Eastern Prussia. 

In Memeli Hans Wricht (1650), D. Henderson (1589), 
A. Adams, A. Murray (1657), Eliz. Ogilvie 
(*i746). 

In Tilsit: Jac. Koch (161 1), Hans Butchart (1627), 
Hans Philipp (died about 1626), Thos. Hay 
(1637), Thos. Ritch (1637), Charles Ramsay 
(1628), Geo. Johnston, Alex, and Bastian 
Dennis (1679), James Murray (1680), M. 
Hamihon (1687), Chr. Anderson (1697), Jacob 
Lamb (1698), J. Napier (1605), Ths. Crichton 
(1687), R. Kerr (1696), Irwing (1743). 

In Goldap: *H. Dempster, *H. Anderson (1604), A 
Fairweather (*i737)- 

In Fischhausen: J. Stein (1592). 

In Sensburg: A. Meldrum (1594). 

In Tapiau: Andr. Geddes. 

In Pr. Holland: Albr. Kinkaid (1627), G. Porteous. 

In Rastenburg: A. Robertzon, A. Schott, J. Andres, 
D. Hunter. 

In Ragnit: Scotowski (1604), Thos. Wilson (1604). 

In Ortelsburg: Ths. Norrie (1601). 

In Insterburg : A. Abemetti. 

In Braunsberg: Al. Anderson (1607), H. Morra (161 1), 

^ Cp. Scots in Germany^ Appendix^ pp. 262^ 263. 



DOCUMENTS. 203 

W. Barclay (1682), Ths. Zander, Jacob Lafiis 

(Laws), A. Bennett, H. Midday. 
In yobannisburg: A. Wright, A. Robertson, G. Meldrum 

(1587), Mickel. 
In Barienstein : P. Ray (1589), G. Forster (1588), Z. 

Wilson, Z. Koch, John Cochran, W. Patton, 

P. Rehe (1590), G. Forster (1588), Miller. 
In Angerburg: H. Andres (1602). 
In Bart en: Ths. Gordon, M. Ogston (1652). 

Western Prussia. 

In Neuenburg: •Jacob Bennett (1573), John and Alb. 
Morrisson (1640), A. Law (1643), ^' Anderson 
(1590), A. Patton (1555), D. Alston, G. Fleck 
(1555), G- Foster, Al. Linn, Hector Munro, 
Will. Bruce. 

In Stuhm: •Hans Drom and *Jacob Rennie (1595), •M. 
Steinson. 

In Elbing: Will. Lamb (1637), W. Ramsay (1620), 
P. Ramsay, Patton (1648), Nisbet (16 17). 

In Marienburg: Rischyson Gilchrist (1509), H. Wricht 
(1640), Jac. Kant, P. Ogilvie, A. Johnston, A. 
and Will. Hay (1650), B. Konigheim (Cun- 
ningham), (1622), J. Duncan (1657), Al. Seton 
(1658), J. Steen (*i622). 

In Marienwerder: Th. Smith, J. Mackarty, A. George 
(1587), O. Hutcheson, A. Morriss, M. Stirling, 
J. Lawson (*i657). 

\nTborni Gourlay (1637), A. Hewison, Ths. Ogilvie 
(1720). 

In Konitz : H. Wieland, A. Bemt, a jeweller, M. Dayid- 
son, H. Patrszin, •M. Reise, a hatter (1701). 

In D. Krone: J. Malson (about 1600), J. Lawson, J. 
Walson (about 1630). 



204 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

In Cbristburg : J. Smith, G. and Th. Blackball, D. 
Schott, B. Zander. 



XV. 



List of Scottish Burgesses at Posen. 1585-17 13. 

1585. Alexander Reid Scotus de Edenburg adscriptus in 

numerum ciyium feria quarta post festum Scti. 
Matbiae Apostoli proxima anno domini 1585 
pro quo quidem Alexandre Rei[n]dt fideijus- 
serunt famati Andreas Gencz et Casparus • 
Hempell, ciyes Posnanienses, quod litteras testi- 
monii de honesto et legitimo ortu suo et bona 
conservatione pro die festo Sancti Bartbplomaei 
proxime yenturo spectabili consulatui Posna- 
niensi autbentice offeret et exbibebit. Actum 
ut supra. 

1586. David Skin (Skene), Scotus, jus civile suscepit die 

et anno quibus supra [feria sexta post festum 
S. Bartbolomaei apostoli]. 

1587. yoannes Scotus Broun ^ adscriptus juri ciyili feria 

quarta ante Dominicam Palmarum proximo anno 

quo supra. 
1589. yoannes Peterson Scotus jus ciyile suscepit die et 

anno quibus supra [feria sexta ante festum S. 

Bartbolomaei apostoli]]. 
1593. y^^^b^ Loson (Lawson) ex Trimelendia Scotus 

patre Toma Lason adscriptus juri civili feria 

sexta ut supra . . . fidejusserunt famati Andreas 

Gencz et Joannes Peterson cives Posnanienses 

^ Very poatibly this man's name was Brown, and Scotus should haTe 
been written after it. 



DOCUMENTS. 205 

quod litems ortus pro festo S. Bartholomaei 
Apostoli proximo adferet. 
1 595. Jacobus Czap de Berwig ex civitate Scotie adscriptus 
juri civili feria quarta ante festum natiyitatis 
beatae Mariae Virginis anno quo supra, fide- 
jusserunt pro eodem Michael Reichnaw auri 
faber et Caspar Hempell, locularius, cives Pos- 
nanienseSy quod intra hinc et duos menses 
literas ortus adferet sub priyatione juris 
ciyilis. 

1597. Ricardtis Tonson mercator Scotus statutis testibus 

jure legitimi sui ortus itidem Scotis recognos- 
centibus adscriptus juri civili. 

1598. Jacobus Gordon Scotus Abredoniensis, ostensis 

Uteris ortus sui legitimi adscriptus juri civili 
feria quarta pridie festi visitationis gloriosissimae 
virginis Mariae anno quo supra. 

1598. Roberttis Ramze^ Scotus Eideburgensis die et 
anno quibus supra juri civili est adscriptus pro 
eodem famati Martinus Schubert et Jacobus 
Czap, cives Posnanienses, quod literas legitimi 
ortus pro nundinis quadragesimalibus proxima 
futura adferet, fideijusserunt 

1600. Bemardtis Bellenten de Leswad nee non Valterus Rob 
e Dundi Scoti juri civili adscripti sunt die et 
anno quibus supra. Fideiussit pro cis Albertus 
Wocziechowski institor civis Posnaniensis quod 
abhinc pro festo S. Bartholomaei Apostoli literas 
ortus sui legitimi adferent. 

1600. Patricius Cbalmer Abredonensis Scotus ostensis 
Uteris legitimi ortus sui adscriptus juri dviU feria 
sexta m crastino SS. Viti et Modesti martyrun 
anno quo supra. 

1602. Joannes Older Dupertatensis Scotus adscriptus 



2o6 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

juri civili feria sexta ante festum S. Michaelis 
Archangeli proxima a. q. s. 

1605. Joannes Ondrom de Edenburk in Scotia praestito 

corporal! juramento iuxta formam dyium solitam 
turn de Don exercenda cum extraneis ratione 
mercimoniorum campania iure ciyili donatus 
feria quarta post clominicam Inyocavit proxima 
anno q. s. pro quo de afferendis Uteris ortus 
ipsius legitimi pro festo natali S. Joannis 
Baptistae yenturo famati Jacobus Gordon et 
Bemardus Bellendin fideiusserunt. 

1606. Georgius Less el Canaricensis (Camach) Rossensis 

Scotiae adscriptus iuri ciyili . . . 

1608. Caspar Wass Scotus Ouwemensis (?) iure civili 
donatus . . . pro quo fideiusserunt famati 
Jacobus Gordon et Joannis Ondron Scoti^ dyes 
Posnanienses, de afferendis Uteris ortus ipsius 
legitimi et officio praesentandis in praetorio pro 
festo S. Joannis Baptistae proxime futuro sub 
poena priyationis eiusdem iuris ciyilis. 

1608. Archibald Kokker Scotus de ciyitate Monte Roza 
dicta adscriptus iuri ciyili feria quarta ante 
festum exaltationis S. Crucis pro quo fideius- 
serunt famati Jacobus Gordon et Gaspar Wass 
Scoti, dyes Posnanienses^ quod sit legitimus 
literasque sui ortus pro festo Paschalis adferet. 
Presentayit literas originis feria sexta ante 
Inyocayit anno millesimo sexcentesimo dedmo. 
Cassatur fideiussio. 

1 608. Georgius Jobnstowne oriundus de ciyitate Abredoniae 
regni Scotiae filius Georgii Jobnstowne artium 
liberalium magistri quondam eiusdem ciyitatis 
consulis, prout literae legitimi ortus coram 



DOCUMENTS. 207 

spectabili consulatu Posnaniensi productae test- 
antur, iure civili donatus. . . . 

1608. Jacobus Bran (Brown?) decivitate Endeburg feria 
quarta in vigilia S. Stanislai iure ciyili donatus 
pro quo fideiusserunt famatus Jacobus Gordon 
et Gaspar Wass Scoti, cives Posnanienses, de 
afferendis literis ortus ipsius legittimi . • . pro 
festo S. Michaelis proxime imminente sub poena 
privationis eiusdem iuris civilis. . . . 

1624. Vilhelmtis Brun Scotus ad mandatum sacrae et sere- 
nissimae regiae Majestatis manu eiusdem propria 
subscriptum ac sigillo regni minori communitum 
quo Sacra Regia Majestas ipsius eximiam dexteri- 
taten^modestiam et fidem singularem per eundem 
tarn in aula suae serenissimae Majestatis quam 
in variis expeditionibus praestitam et probatam 
commendare utque ad privilegia et libertates 
ciyitatis huius recipiatur ac in album ciyium 
adscribatur mandare dignatur. Tum ad literas 
itidem commendacitias serenissimi Domini domini 
Wladislai Sigismundi principis Poloniae . . . 
iuri ci?ili est adscriptus. Literas yero legitimi 
sui ortus quoniam ad praesens ob distantiam 
loci transmarinalis praesto non habet, ideo de 
a£Ferendis et producendis intra quatuor menses 
eisdem literis spectabilis Christopherus Amoldt 
scabinus pro eodem Vilhelmo spectabili con- 
sulatui fidem suam interposuit. Produxit literas 
A.D. 1 63 1. 

1630. Erasmus Lilitson Abardiensis 

Gilbertus alias Gasparus BlenscbeL f _, 
., J. . >Scoti 

Abardiensis 

Georpus Gibson^ Curosiensis 

die hodiema literis reproductis sacrae regiae 



4o8 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Majestatis Domini domini nostri dementissimi 
quarum contextus actis infertus habetur iuri 
ciyili ut moris et iuris est adscripti. Literas 
yero iegitimi sui ortus quoniam ad praesens ob 
distantiam . . . praesto non habent ideo de 
afferendis et producendis intra annum et diem 
. . . spectabilis et famatus Stephanas Gruszowicz 
et Jacobus Broun cives Posnanienses pro eisdem 
spectabili magistratui fidem suam interposuerunt 
eidemque cayerunt eundem ab omnibus im- 
pedimentis ubivis locorum et contra quosyis 
conditionisque cujusyis eyincendi propriis sump- 
tibus eiiberandi ratione quorum omnium sese 
successoresque suos prout et ipsimet superius 
dicti nunc yero recenter fact! ciyes conjunctim et 
diyisim super omnibus bonis tam mobilibus 
quam immobiiibus obligant etque inscribunt 
ratione sibi coUati iuris ciyilis promittentes, 
desuper omnibus CathoUcis concionibus diebus 
festivis adesse et funera, si contigerit aliosque 
actus expedire sub poena decem marcarum 
toties quoties submissioni suae contrayenerint 
spectabili magistratui irremissibiliter iuenda et 
persolyenda. Sabbatho ipso die S. Margarethae 
yirginis et martyris anno millesimo sexcentesimo 
trigesimo. Superius dicti Scoti dederunt ad 
aerarium ciyitatis noningentos florenos Poioni- 
cales pro mercede solyenda artificibus et operariis 
pauperibus. . . . 
1636. Feria quinta yidelicet die quinta mensis Junii anno 
I domini 1636. In praesentia totius spectabiiis 

I magistratus famatus yacobus Watson ^ de ciyitate 

I Dondi in Scotia oriundus in ius ciyitatis adscitus 

^ Cp. ScoU in Germany^ p. 149* 



DOCUMENTS. 209 

et ad praerogatiyas prae?io juramento turn et 
libertates adscriptus. Literas genealogiae suae 
commonstrabit in festo S. Michaeli Arcfaangeli 
pro quo fideiusserunt iamati Jacobus Brun et 
Caspar Blenzel ^ Scoti itidem ciyes Posnanienses 
qui postea quietati sunt coimnonstratis Uteris ex 
Scotia feria sexta ante festum S. Andreae 
Apostoli A.D. 1636. 

1636. Famatus Gilbertus Blenisczel^ Abredoniensis ex 
regno Scotiae et Georgius Gibsone apud Culros 
itidem in regno Scotiae oriundi ortus sui legi- 
timi literas pergameneas ex iilis civitatibus 
emanatas exhibuerunt feria sexta ante Sanctorum 
Viti et Modesti in Junio anno currenti iuxta 
fideiussionem de afferendis pro se per famatas 
Stephanum Grussewitz et Jacobum Braun, dytz 
Posnanienses, sabbatho ipso die S. Margarethae 
yirginis et martyris anno 1630 factam et prae- 
stitam, quapropter fideiussores supradicti liberi 
pronundati de sententia officii. 

1640. Famatus Jacobus Choijt (I) Scotus de ciyitate 
Scotiae Dondij oriundus in ius ciyitatis Posnani- 
ensis adscriptus est, juramentum super fidelitate 
praestitit. Literas legitimi ortus commonstrabit 
in decursu unius anni pro quo fideiussit famatus 
Jacobus Kenadei feria tertia ante festum 8. 
Crucis proxima a.d. millesimo sexcentesimo 
quadragesimo. 

1642. Honestus Alexander Feirdosen (Finiayson) de 
Edenburg Scotiae ciyitate oriundus ad fideiussi- 
onem famati Wilhelmi Braun de producendis 
Uteris ortus sui legitimi intra annum et sex 

^ The spelling seeins to hare given ccmtiderable trouble* 



2IO THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

septimanas praestitoque fidelitatis iuramento per 
spectabiles dotninos proconsulem et consules 
ciyitatis Posnaniae iuri civili adscitus est 

1 642. Honestus Albertus Smart de Dundia Scodae oriun- 
dus ad fideiussionem famati Wilhelmi Braun 
Scoti, ciyis Posnaniensis, pro illo officio praes- 
titam, quod litera$ sufficientes legitimi ortus sui 
e patria sua authenticas intra dimidium anni pro- 
curabit et producet, praestito fidelitatis iuramento, 
iuri civili . . . per spectabiles dominos pro- 
consules et consules est adscriptus feria quarta 
ante festum S. Valentini Presbyteri et 
Martyris . . .^ 

1645. Famatus David Makili Roy (Mackilroy) de dvitate 
Kulross in regno Scotiae oriundus ad fideius- 
sionem famatorum Adami Maturski et Jacobi 
Watson de producendis Uteris ortus sui legitimi 
intra annum et sex septimanas praestito fidelitatis 
et oboedientiae iuramento ad ius civile civitatis 
Posnaniae per spectabiles dominos proconsulem 
et consules est susceptus. . . . Exhibuit et 
commonstravit literas ortus legitimi authenticas 
et sufficientes quibus spectabilis . . . fideiussores 
eius a fideiuissione liberos prononciavit con- 
sulatus (1648). 

1645. Ing^nuus Joannes Orrok de Brattellen ^ civitate in 
regno Scotiae oriundas ad fideiussionem famati 
Jacobi Watson et honorati Stephani Lawni- 
kowitz . • . ad ius civile civitatis Posnaniensis 
praestito iuramento per spectabiles dominos 
proconsulem et consules adscriptus est. . . . 

1649. Famatus Jacobus Fergtison Edinburgensis ex regno 

1 Birth-brief prodaced in the same year. See Scias m Gemumyf 
p. 54, n. 

s Burntisland (?). 



DOCUMENTS. an 

Scotiae oriundus mercatoriae addictus, exhibitis 
Uteris ortus legitimi a ciyitate regia Edinburgo (?) 
praestitoque fidelitatis et oboedientiae juramento 
ad ius civile ciyitatis Posnaniensis per spectabiles 
dominos proconsulem et consules est admissus 
feria quinta ante dominicum Misericordia 
proxima. . . . 

1649. F^inatus Wilbelmus Hayson^ Aberdoniae in regno 
Scotiae oriundus ad fideiussionem famatorum 
Jacobi Douni Scoti et Andreae Czochran 
(Cochran), de producendis Uteris ortus legitimi 
intra annum et sex septimanas ... ad ius civile 
est admissus, feria secunda in vigilia festi S. 
Mathaei Apostoli et Evangelistae. . . . 

1649. Fsunatus Thomas yamieson de ciyitate Aberdoniae 
regni Scotiae oriundus ad fideiussionem fama- 
torum Andreae Czochranik' et Jacobi Dounij 
institorum civium Posnaniensium . . . per 
spectabiles dominos proconsulem et consulas 
admissus anno die ut supra. Exhibuit literas 
authenticas Dantisco. Fideiussores liheri pro- 
nunciantur. . . a.d. 1650. 

1649. Honestus Jacobus Mora (Murray), de civitate 

Edeburg regni Scotiae oriundus ad fideiussionem 
famatorum Andreae Czochranik et Jacobi Douny 
... ad ius civile est susceptus feria sexta post 
festum S. Matthaei Apostoli et Evangelistae. . . . 

1650. Ingenuus Jacohus Lindzay de civitate Abredoniae 

in regno Scotiae oriundus exhibitis Uteris suffi- 
cientibus ratione ortus sui legitimi emanatis 
praestitoque . . . iuramento ad ius civile 
civitatis Posnaniae . . . admissus. 
1650. Ingenuus Andreas Watson de Fano S. Joannis in 

^ Probably Hewison. ' Cochrane. 



II a THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

regno Scotiae oriundus exhibitis Uteris ortus 
legitimi a ciyitate Gedanensi emanatis . . . 
praestitoque . . . juramento ad jus civile . . . 
admissus eodem die ut supra. 

1 667. Ingenuj et honesti . . . jacobus Joachimus Watson 
Graboviensis, Georgius Edislay Neubattlensis in 
Scotia. . . . WilbelmusAberkrami^ Aberdomen'- 
sis in Scotia .... reproductis sufficientibus 
ortus sui legitimi Uteris praestitisque more 
aliorum ciyium iuramentis super oboedientiam 
et fidelitatem ad ius civile civitatis Posnaniensis 
per spectabiles dominos proconsulem et consules 
ea conditione quaienus condones diebus dominicis 
et festis in ecclesia parochiali S. M ariae M ag- 
dalenae frequentent et audiant^ possessiones 
immobiles quam primum poterint procurent et 
Jidem Catholicam Romanam intra annum stiscipi- 
ant et quidem Watson, Edisiai, Aberkrami . . . 
cum liberis iam procreatis suscepti ad omnes 
praerogativas et immunitates civitati huic servi- 
entes admissi sunt ; sclopeta ' vero ad aerarium 
civile infra tres menses inferre tenebunter. . . . 

1685. Ingenuus Wilhelmtis Watson Dundinensis ex Scotia 
ad fideiussionem famatorum Stanislai Piatkowic 
et Alexandri Sztuard mercatorum . . . de pro- 
ducendis ortus legitimi Uteris intra annum et 
sex septimanas post praestitum fidelitatis . . . 
iuramentum ad ius civile civitatis Posnaniae 
. . . admissum est, sclopetum autem intra 
tempus suprascriptum ad aerarium civili inferet 
. . . Reproduxit sufficientes ortus sui legitimi 
literas et sclopetum ad aerarium civile reddidit 
quapropter de fideiussione et satisfactione eidem 

^ Cp. Scotim Germany f p* 245. ' Sclopetum — a musket* 



DOCUMENTS. 213 

fideiussioni pro se factae una dum suis fideius- 
soribus quietatus est per officium consulare 
. • • A.D. 1688. 

1687. Ingenuus Joannes Ines ex Scotia oriundus ad 
fideiussionem spectabilis Jacobi Watson advo- 
cati subdelegati et Thomae Ryt (Reid) 
mercatoris de producendis ortus sui legitimi 
Uteris intra annum et medium factam post 
praestitum fidelitatis . . • iuramentum iuri 
civili Posnaniensis per spectabiles dominos . . . 
adscriptus est, sclopetum yero circa productionem 
literarum ad aerarium civile inferet ; actum Sab- 
batho ante festum S. Fabiani et Sebastian! 
Martyrum . . . Reproduxit sufficientes . . . 
literas ex Scotia emanatas . . . et sclopetum 
ad aerarium publicum intulit^ . . . a.d. 
1691. 

1696. Ingenuus Albertus Watson de ciyitate Dondia in 
Scotia oriundus ad recommendationes ecorum- 
dem quorum supra praestito . . . iuramento 
ad ius dyitatis Posnaniensis per spectabiles 
dominos proconsulem et consules est susceptus, 
literas legitimi ortus intra annum producere, 
sclopetum, dictum ^^ Flint/'* ad aerarium ciyitatis 
intra tres menses importare tenebitur. 

1696. Ingenuus Albertus Rydt (Reid) de ciyitate Clac- 
manen in Scotia oriundus artis mercatoriae 
socius ad recommendationem famatorum Vilhelmi 
Watson et Alberd Farquhar,' mercatorium 
ciyium Posnaniensium de producendis legitimi 

^ Here follow the tame phrases as aboTe. 

> The word ^ flint '' cr <* fliote " is German and means musket. 

' See ScuU m Germmy^ p. 247. 



214 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

ortus sui Uteris ... ad ius civitatis Posna- 
niensis ... est susceptus. Literas legitimi 
ortus intra annum producere, sclopetum dictum 
flint ad aerarium civile intra tres menses impor- 
tare tenebitur . . « Die 27 mensis Octobris 
1700, sufficientes literas reproduxit. 

17 10. Honestam Robertum Rytb artis mercatoriae socium 
de ciyitate Klakmanin oriundum in Scotia, 
Calvinum, ad recommendationem famatorum 
Vilhelmi Watson et Joannis Friderici Fogelsank 
mercatorum civium Posnaniensium in consensu 
suo debite factam et interpositam proconsul et 
consules civitatis Sacra Regiae Majestatis 
Poloniae ad ius civile . . . susceperunt 
qui solitum fidelitatis ac oboedientiae corporate 
iuramentum flexis genibus ad imaginem crucifixi 
domini nostri Jesu Christi praestitit, in fundo 
civili et non alias mansurus, sclopetum ad 
aerarium civile in spatio mensis importaturus 
et literas legitimi ortus in spatio unius anni 
producturus est . . . 

171 3. Ingenuum Guilbelmuni Ferguson artis mercatoriae 
socium de Eaverun (Irvine?) civitate in Scotia 
oriundum calvinum ad recommendationem fama- 
torum Guilhelmi Forbes et eiusdem nominis 
Thausor, mercatorum civium Posnaniensium 
recepto ab eo positis super sacra crucifixe 
duobas dexterae manus digitis et flexis genibus 
corporali iuramento iuxta articulos solitos 
praestito, nobiles et spectabiles domini pro- 
consul et consules . . . ad ius civile eiusque 
praerogativas susceperunt, literas legitimi ortus 
producturus et duo vasa coriacea^ in spatio 

* " Leather buckets.'* 



DOCUMENTS. 215 

medii anni ad aerarium civile importaturus. 

. . . Vasa duo dedit civitati.^ 
This list contains forty-four names of Scotsmen, seven 
of them haUing from Edinburgh, nine from Aberdeen^ 
six from Dundee, two from Culross, two from Clack- 
manan, and one each from Newbattle, Camack, Lasswade, 
Montrose, Perth, Irvine and Berwick. The following 
place names could not be identified: Trimelendia, 
Dupertat, Ouwemensis, Brattellen (Burntisland?) 

XVI. 

Letter of Captain William Moncrieff to the Magistrates 

of Danzig. ^$77- 

Gestrenge edle ehrveste erbare nahmhafFte grossgiins- 
tige Herren! Nach erbietung meiner allezeit gantz 
wUIigen untertanigen dienste wirt sich E. G. giinstiglich 
wol zu erinnern haben, das ich zu kurtz verschienen (?) 
wochen alle die Kriegsleute unter meinen Fahnen aus den 
Niederlanden auff mein eigen Unkosten unnd Zehrung bis 
anhero dieser gutten Stadt Danzigk zum besten kegens 
ihren feind zu dienen gebracht. Nun hab ich meines 
eigenen geldes der Unkosten, Zehrung und Fracht halber 
mehr dan inn die 600 Thaler auszgegeben, wodurch ich 
denn auch zu Holschenore zu Dennemarken meine besten 
Kleider versetzen habe miissen. Und ob ich nun wol bei 
E. G. umb erstadtung solcher Unkosten anngehalten unnd 
gebetten, habe ich derhalben den Bescheidt bekommen, 
das ich alle unnd jede Unkosten so auff gemelten Kriegs- 
volk unter meinen Fahnen gewendet, schrifftlich auffsetzen 
unnd ubergeben soil. Darauff mir alsdann was billich 
sein wiirde auch mir gegeben werden sollte. Dass ich 

^ Compare with this list Scots in Gemumj^ p. 54 f. KgL St. j^rcUv^ 
Poseo. 



2i6 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

aber alle und jede Per8ehlle(?) der gemelten ausgaben 
unnd auffgewandten Unkosten so klarlich irnnd schriStlich 
auffiietzen unnd ubergeben sollte, wie dieselbe geschehen, 
ist mir zu thuende unm3glich, den ich deshalb keine 
Register gehalten. Derohalben stelle ich solches Allesz 
der 600 Thaler halber E. G. unnd einem ehrbam hoch- 
weisen Rath zur rechtlichen Erkenntnusz verhoffende 
E. G. werden mir was billig und recht seyn wirdt hierauiF 
zu erkennen geben unnd zustellen. Damit ich auch 
alsdan wol zufrieden sein will. Hierauf E. G. gunstige 
Antwort erwarttende. . . . 

Dienstwilligst, 

WiLHBLM MONCRIBPP, 

Captain, der geburt aus Scb^ttland. 

XVII 

Letter from the Magistrates of Edinburgh to Danzig^ 

April 6th^ 1 605. 

Univbrsis et singulis cujuscunque dignitatis gradus et 
conditionis fuerint pertinentium literarum notitiam habi- 
turis Nos Praefectus Balliyi et Consules Regiae Civitatis 
Edinburgensis in Regno Scopie Salutem in Domino sem- 
pitemam. Vestris Prudentiis notum testatumque facimus 
hodiemo die coram nobis comparuisse Nobilem Mar- 
garetam de Monro defimcti non ita pridem Generosi 
Alexandri Ruthyen militum Praefecti yiduam et nobis 
exposuisse quemadmodum praefectus Alexander Ruthyen 
quondam ejus maritus bona ejus omnia tum mobilia quam 
immobilia in yariis expeditionibus Polonicis et Sueticis 
impendent ita ut eo yita functo in militia Serenissimi 
Regis Poloniae et Suetiae jam parum ei suppetat ad se 



DOCUMENTS. 217 

cum familia et orphanis liberis tuendam solamque spem 
secundum Deum in liberalitate Serenissimi Sigismiindi 
Tertii, Poloniae Regis, positam habere cujus vices in 
bello regeus lUustrissimus Dominus Johannes Zamoscius, 
supremus Poloniae Cancellarius et Capitanus Generalis 
mortem pro rege in oppugnatione Volmeriensi oppetenti 
praefato Alexandro Ruthyen ejus marito effecturum se 
addixit si quid ei humanitus illo in bello contigerit ut 
Regia Majestas Poloniae liberaliter uxori et liberis de 
omnibus ad yivendum necessariis proyideret ideoque cum 
ipsa rei familiaris angustia aliisque urgentibus negotiis 
impedita tantum yiae conficere non posset ut Sacram 
Majestatem Poloniae et ejus yicarium generalem Domi- 
num Johannem Zamoscium appellet, omnibus melioribus 
modo, yia forma et jure quibus melius et efficacius potuit 
et debuit, potestye aut debet, fecisse et constituisse solem- 
niter ordinasse et in mandatis dedisse prout harum liter- 
arum nostrarum tenore facit constituit solemniter ordinat 
et m mandatis dat Generoso Guilelmo Brussio, ut ejus 
nomine tam Serenissimum Poloniae regem quam lUustris- 
simum Cancellarium adeat et compellat ut ei juxta fidem 
publice datam prospicere benigne dignentur atque eum 
ejus mandatarium et plenipotentcm tam in hoc negotio 
quam in omnibus actionibus persecutionibus et petitionibus 
ad defunctum quondam maritum spectantibus, ita tamen 
ut transigere de bonis aut pensionibus quibuscunque non 
possit nisi approbantibus et consentientibus yel Georgio 
Smyth aurifice yel Georgio Hepbume mercatore, ciyibus 
Gedanensibus yel utroque si utriusque copia fuerit, yel 
eorum alterutro, ambos enim curatores deligit eisque cum 
suo mandatario praefato Georgio Brussio conunodum 
potestatem quatenus de jure potest, concedit res quaslibet 
ad se yel defunctum maritum spectantes administrare 
debita exigere apochas dare omnia agere quae ipsa posset 

o 



2i8 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

si praesens adesset, tutrix liberonim defuncti saepe nomi- 
oati mariti; ratum autem gratum firmum et stabile id 
omne se habitunim quod a dictis suis mandatariis yel eorum 
majore parte in premissis rite gestum fuerit Nobis stipu- 
lantibus sancte et fideliter promisisse sub poena et obii- 
gatione omnium bonorum suorum mobilium et immobilium 
presentium et fiiturorum. In quorum omnium et singu- 
lorum fidem et testimonium praemissorum his Uteris nostris 
per Alexandrum Guthrie primarium nostrum scribam 
sigillum Ciyitatis appendi curavimus. Datum Edinb. 
sexto Aprili millesimo sexcentesimo quinto. 



XVIII. 

Letter of the Elector bf Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia 
to the Revd. Schlemiiller in Kontgsberg. 

EhrwOrdioe wird es annoch im Gedachtnus Tor- 
schweben T¥ie das ohngerahr vor zweien oder dreien Jahren 
einige yon der Schottlandischen Nation allhier in ihren 
Hausem Privatzusammenkunft mit Predigen gehalten, 
darwider aber die yon den Stadten unter dem Namen 
irriger und yerbotener Lehre gar hart geredet und umb 
Verbietung dergleichen yerdachtigen conyenticuln bei 
der Churfurstlichen Regierung in Unterthanigkeit eifrigst 
gebeten. Als vfir nun hierauf in solche heimliche 
Zusammenkunft inquiriren lassen und befimden, dass ein 
Schottlandischer Exulant yon reiner Lehre und gutem 
Wandel der reformirten Religion zugethan gute freunde 
zu ersuchen anhero gekommen ware und aber wegen des 
entzwischen eingefallenen Seekrieges zwischen Engeland 
und Holland in sein Vaterland nicht sicher zuriickreisen 
konnte, unterdess aber sein Brot allhier nicht geme 



DOCUMENTS. 219 

miissig essen und demnachen die Gelegenheit hiesigen 
seinen Landsleuten in ihrer Muttersprache Gottes Wort 
predigen woUte, da haben wir den Argwohn und Klagen 
zu benehmen und diesem in so christlichen Beginnen zu 
willfiahren ad tempus gnadigst yerstattet, das nach yerrich- 
tetem Sonntaglichen Gottesdienst der Reformirten Gem- 
einde sie in dem Churfiirstlichen Kirchensaal im Schloss 
yorerwahntes Exercitium o£fentIich yortsetzen mochten. 
Wann wir aber eben jetzund kurtz fur unserer Abreise 
nicht ohne Befrembden yon widrigem Theil yernehmen 
miissen, wie das dennoch gedachte Schottlander wider 
unsem Zulass die priyat Versammlung zu continuiren 
sich unterstehen, und auch in der Lehre etwas yorIau£fe 
... das nicht allerdings richtig set und das deswegen 
auf yorstehendem Landtag ein gross Grayamen gemacht 
werden soli, welches in Zeiten zu yerhindem hochnotig, 
als ist an Ew. Ehrwiirden Unser gnadiges Begehren 
hiemit diesen Leuten in unserm Nahmen auzudeuten das 
weil nunmehr der Landtag herzunahet und zu Verlust 
durch dieses yon uns zugeiassene Werk Aniass zu geben 
wir billiges Bedenken tragen, Sie beide das publicum 
und priyatum religionis exercitium in Schottlandischer 
Sprache einstellen sollen; dafem sie aber hemachmals 
neben den Churfiirstlichen Hofpredigem einen dritten in 
ihrer Sprache zu halten gedenken, konnen sie bei Seiner 
Churfiirstlichen Durchlaucht selben darumb in Unter- 
thanigkeit auhalten wie wir dann nicht zweifeln Seine 
Churfiirstliche Durchlaucht werden ihnen dergleichen 
petitio gnadigst deferiren. 

Konigsberg d. 3tten April 1 668.^ 

^ KgL St. Archiv^ Konigsberg. 



a2o THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

XIX. 

Letter of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland 
to the Synod of the Reformed Church in Lithuania. 

Revbrbndissimi et carissimi Fratres, 

Vir reverendus Boguslaus Kopyewicz Verbi 
Diyini apud Vilnensis Minister cum hie esset anno Decimo 
octavo supra Millesimum septingentesimum a Reformatis 
ecclesiis Magni Ducatus Lithuaniae delegatus suis ipse 
oculis testatum habebat quanta miseratione fratrum suorum, 
puriorem in yestra gente religionem profitentium, res 
afflictae literis vestris ab eo coram traditis conmiemoratae 
Ecclesiam Scoticanam nationalem timi Synodum agentem 
affecerint, quantoque ea studio suis commendarit ut 
pecuniis corrogandis eorum inopia subveniretur. Eyentus 
autem satis docuit populares nostros eodem plane modo 
erga vos quo Synodus nationalis animatos fuisse. Caeter- 
um eam omnem pecuniam ad yos ex praescripto yestro 
praeferendam curayimus praeter noyem libras duosque 
asses monetae Brittanicae quam quidem summulam nupera 
nostra Synodus nationalis tanti esse non rata quae ad yos 
mitteretur, juveni Polono Samueli Chien sacrae Theologiae 
in Academia Edinburgensi operam nayanti donandam 
existimayit. Porro ut noyo documento constaret eandem 
Synodi Nostrae Nationalis erga yos manere beneyolentiam, 
animumque ad beatissimi nostri Redemptoris regnum pro- 
movendum et ad fratres nostros ejusdem Reformatae 
religionis communione nobis conjunctos, quantum in se est, 
ope subleyandos promptissimum, ea mihi negotium dedit 
ut yobis eorum nomine significarem se literis yestris morem 
gerenteSy Decreto suo — cujus exemplar et una missum est, 
duobus studiosis yestroque testimonio sibi commendandis 
in Academia Edinburgensi alendis educandisque proyidisse. 



DOCUMENTS. 221 

Speramus autem hoc Sjmodi nostri propositum et yobis 
gratum novoque simul indicio futurum, quantopere Synodo 
yestrae Lithuaniensi ipsa studeat quamque sincero amore 
Ecdesia nostra fratres suos yeram in yestra gente Christ! 
doctrinam amplexos prosequatur. 

Mihi yero gratissimum accidit quod Nostra Sjmodus per 

literas meas haec yobiscum communicari yoluerit, unde et 

ampla datur occasio testandi quanta sim yobis animi pro- 

pensione. 

Reyerendissimi et charissimi fratres 

Suinmo obsequio et fraterna dilectione eleyinctissimus 
sic subscribitur 

GuuBLMUS Mitchell, Moderator. 
lytb May^ 1722. 

(Verum exemplar Epist. ab Eccles. Scoticana ad Synod. 
Reform. Lithuaniensem.) 



XX. 

The Church Records of St Peter, and Paul, and of St 

Elisabeth at Danzig. 

Marriage Register. 

1573. Jacob Burgiss, marries Anne, Simon Lang^s widow. 

1574. Jacob Hardy. 

1 577. Simon Ritch. 

jy Hans Crockett. 

1578. Hans Dunckel (Duncan). 
„ Al. Gray. 

,, C. Sinclair. 

1579. Andr. Marshall. 
,, M. Nickell. 

,, Andr. Mutter. 



222 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

1579. ^* Alanth. 

1582. U. Mitzell. 
,, P. Dennis. 
„ Jacob Ross. 

1583. M. Burgiss. 

1584. Th. Schottc. 

1585. Simon, Generosi Domini Scoti, working man, and 

Helen of Copenhagen. The marriage took 
place in Heinrich Steffens* house in the large 
room of Mr Scott. 

1586. Hans Stodertt 
1 593. Gregor Brun. 
1595. Math. Black. 

1600. Al. Steen. 

1 60 1. Thomas Schotte.^ 
1606. B. Rowell. 

1608. A. Burnet. 

jj Hans Stewert 

1609. Andr. Anderson. 

161 5. Dan. Lofson (Lawson). 

1620. Jacob Hamilton. 

1624. M. Withom and Joanna Baillie. 

* J J Jacob Scot and Maria Nun. 
,, Jacob Morriss. 

* „ W. Chalmer and Maria Leslie. 
1629. Hans Morton and Maria Robertson. 

,, Jacob Meldrum and Christina Balfour. 

1 63 1. Wilhelm Balfour and Anna Pilgram. 
,, Dan. Ramsay and Sarah Nisbett. 

1632. Nicl. Duget. 

♦1633. Jas. Law and Anne, widow of the late Hans Hay. 

* „ Hans Kylow, a Scot, and Susanna, the widow of 

H. Dalen. 

^ ProbaUy not the famSy name. 



DOCUMENTS. 223 

♦1633 Will Simson, a soldier, and Elis. Moritz (Morriss). 

* „ Jac. MessuQ (Mason), from Edinburgh, and E. D. 

Warthum (?). 

* „ Jac. Black and Anna Kamer (Chalmer) or 

(Chambers). 
•1634. Peter Wilson and the widow of the late Robt 
Olifant in Denmark. 

* „ Martin Dennis and Maria Matthis. 

* „ Will. Armack. 

* „ Will. Davis and Susan, widow of Glaser. 

1634* Jacob Littlejohn, His Majesty's of Poland servant, 
and Barbara Edwards. 
„ Francis Gordon, H.M. the King of Great Britain's 
Resident and Privy Councillor, and Anna 
Wegner, Apothecary to the King of Poland. 

1635. Thos. Philipp and Hans Slant's daughter. 
„ Alex. Stuart. 

„ Alex. Donaltson. 

„ Geo. Dempster and Elis. Stephen. 

1636. Adam Law and Anna Nisbett. 

„ Laurence Grohn and the ^^ virtuous virgin Christina, 
legitimate daughter of the late Robt. Marshall, 
burgess of Aberdeen." 
*i636. Alb. Kocherin (Cochrane) and the daughter of the 
late Griffith at Aberdeen. 

* „ Thos. Blackball and Hans Morris's daughter. 

1636. The Honourable W. Balfuhr and Maria von 

Hoffen. 
„ Thos. Gellentin. 
♦1637. Hans Tuchal (Dougal). 

1637. Jac. Gurley, burgess of Thorn, and Anna Norry. 

* „ Alb. Bartels, a glover, and EL Muttray, from 

Aberdeen. 
,^ Geo. Innes and Leonore Wicherling. 



224 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA, 

♦1637. Jac. Kelly from Aberdeen. 

 „ Alex. Donaldson. 

 „ Robt. Wilson. 

 „ J. Withon. 

 „ A. Morris and Anna Leons (Lyon) from 

Edinburgh. 

1638. Andr. Law. 

„ Thos. Smart and Anne Wolson. 

1639. Bruin. 

,, Alex. Reilly and Abigail Thin. 

1640. Gilbt. Lonsdale and Barbara Schmidt. 
Hans Karkettle and Anna Saunders. 
Alex. Hamilton. 
H. Robertson and the daughter of the late J. 

Home in Aberdeen. 
Alex. Cranston. 
Will. Patton. 
Hans Wricht and Anna, daughter of the late W. 

Lichthdn. 
J. Duncan. 
Gabriel Maxwell. 
Richard Lewis, the Honourable ^^ Administrator ** 

of the Royal Treasury and Governor of 

Marienburg.^ 

1 641. Andreas Peacock and Anna Maria Morrisson. 
,, John Collins. 

,, Geo. Sterling and Sara Thin. 
yj Anth. Bidney and Dan. Patterson's daughter. 
„ Will. Anderson and Mary Warden. 
♦1645. Jacob Crichton. 

 „ Andr. Bell. 

^ PoMiUy of the Lewis of Maaor (PeebleMhire) fiunilyt members of 
which are known to hare emigrated to Russia and Poland in the XVIth 

Ceptury. 



« 


n 


• 


99 


« 


« 


« 


jj 


« 


Ji 


« 


» 


« 


»> 




Jj 




Ji 



DOCUMENTS. 225 

♦1646. Will. Forbes and Widmann*s widow. 

„ And. Skott. 
•1647. Alex. Berne tt. 

* „ Alex. Nairn, a lieutenant, and J. Unwin's widow. 
*i648. David Thomson from Leith. 

* „ Robt. Brown. 
•165 1. W. Smith. 

* „ R. Turner. 

* y, H. Sander and J. Davidson's widow. 

^1654. Jacob Ramsay, a Scottish captain, and Maria Gall. 

* „ John Wood and Maria Robbertzon. 

^1655. The Honourable Franciscus Gordon and Mar- 
garetha, daughter of the late James Porteous, 
minister in Scotland.^ 

*i662. Jacob Anderson. 

♦1667. John Dew. 

*i668. Geo. Lawder. 

*i66g. G. Hutchinson. 

•1670. W. Halyburton. 

* „ D. Nichols and Anna Merivale. 
•1672. W. Halyburton.* 

♦1673. Al. Karkettel. 
•1676. J. Gourlay. 

* „ J. Davidson. 

^1677. Geo. Nisbett and Miss Littlejohn. 
♦1696. Peter Wobster. 
♦1697. Robt. Mill. 

* 1 699. David Hervie.* 



^ His •ecood 

' There teem to have been two W. Halyburtooa, oolett the first 
died Tery soon. 

* Those marked* were married in St Elisabeth, the second Presbyterian 
Church at Danzig. 



aa6 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

XXI. 
List of Names in the Baptismal Register ^ 

♦1573. M. Orem. 
 „ A. Ross. 
•1583. A. Brun. 
/ Wolson. 

.,-/.^r.r J Marlowe. 
1593-95. ^La^ 

I Tamson. 

Rennie. 

Fuller. 

Hunter. 
1599. Littlejohn. 

Kock. 

Stein. 

Williamson. 

Allan. 

Schott. 

Ballentine. 

A. Malloy. 

Th. Forbes. 

Tamson. 

Skoda. 

Mitchell. 

Fergus. 

Klerk. 
1 614. Tsapman. 
♦162 1. Patterson. 
1622. Masterton. 

^ In most cases the name of the father only has been given. The 
records are carefiil to add the names of the godfathers and godmothers 
(com]Nitres)| as also the donations received for the Poor-Box. 



DOCUMENTS. 227 

♦1624. Achterlony. 

 „ P. Wilson, mother Chr. Wadrup. 

 „ A. Dunbar. 



• 



i» 



ji 



Reinhold Porteous' son Reinholt 



* „ H, Ingrain. 

* „ W. Mubree (Mowbray). 

* „ Th. Morton. 

* „ D. Bell. 

* „ J. Crichton. 

♦1625. David Mauritz (Morriss). 
Patterson. 
Ray. 

Bally (Baillie). 
HewelL 

Muttreich (Muttray). 
Gore. 
Allan. 
Pilgram. 
Prinsloe (?). 
Lamb. 
Morton. 
Jac. Meldrum. 
Duncan. 
B. Hamilton. 

1 63 1. H. Tamson. 

1632. D. Biel. 

1633. W. Balfuhr*s son William. 
Adam Wood. 

J. Morris. 

Robertson. 

W. Ramsay. 

Hunt 

D. Dempster. 

Gillis. 



aa8 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Smart. 
1637. W. Balfiihr*8 8011 Theodor. 

Wallis. 

Bishop. 

A Barclay, a Colonel. 

Henderson. 

Al. Rennie. 

H. Strachan. 

David Mutro. 
1639. W. Balfiihr^s daughter Maria 

1639. John Cochrom. 
Walker. 

1640. Dickson, 
f, A. Grieye. 

„ AI. Wobster. 
„ J. Dougal. 
,, Dayis. 
I) Lonsdale. 

1641. Woltzon. 

,, W. Balfour*8 son Jacob. 
y, D. Machomtosh. 
,, D. Moritz. 
,1 A. Pilgram. 
P. Masterton. 



>» 



xxn. 

Extracts from the Burial Registers in the Records of St 
Peter and PauPs Church at Danzig (1631-1681). 

BuRiBD in 5/ Mary^Sj the principal Church of Danzig, 
called Marienkirche : — 

George Pattersen (1602). 
Thomas Demster, Aug. 5, 1631 



DOCUMENTS. 

Jacob Black, 1 635. 

Th. Burnett, 

Adeigunda Wright, 1708. 

Tho. Gellatlay (Gellentin), 1665. 

Buried in St Peter and Paul's Church :— 

Peter Dunbar(t), 1657. 

Jacob Gourlay's wife, 1669. 

G. Krukshank's wife, 1671. 

Will. Clark, 1678. 

Robt. Teyendale, 1686. 

Thomas Wolworth, 1688. 

David Wolworth, 1689. 

Alex. Tamson, 1689. 

Alex. Aidy and family, 1690. 

Thos. Murray and family, 1690. 

Peter Forbes and family, 1686. 

Dan Dayisson and family, 1685. 

Jacob Carmichael and family, 1693. 

Thos. Marshall and family, 1692. 

Buchan and family, 1698. 

John Clerk and family, 1700. 

Jacob Gourlay and family, 1706. 

Thos. Leslie and family, 171 2. 

W. Robertson and family, 1723. 

G. Moir and family, 17 15. 

Jacob Boyd, 1726. 

A. Paip and family, 1727. 

John Farquhar and family, 1 727. 

Alex. Ramsay, 1731. 

W. Forret and family, 1 730. 

Thos. Coutts and family, 1737. 

A. Turner and family, 1 736. 

J. Gibson and family, 1746. 



229 



230 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

A. Kabrun and family, 1 75 1 • 

A. Ross and family, 1765. 

There are also Burnetts, Bennets, Elliots, Scotts, Setons 
and Thomsons buried there. 

Buried in 5/ Elisabetb : — 

Alex. CoUen, 1631. 

Elis. Futthy (.?), "eine schottische Hausmutter," 

1631. 
Hans Gieche (Geikie), from Glasgow, 1635. 
Peter Metland, from Aberdeen, 1635. 
Gilbert Edgear, from Aberdeen, 1635. 
John Bailie, 1635. 
Elis. Anne Constapple, 1635. 
Peter Laudien, 1636. 
Alex. Marschel. 
George Mortimer. 
Peter Irwing. 

Chr. Sutton, a glover, 1638. 
Elis. Robertson, 1639. 
Hans Cra£Ford, 1640. 

Elis. Doncan, Alex. Cranston's wife, 1640. 
Edward Kincaid, late Army Chaplain in the army 

of General Baner, 1641. 
G. Hutcheson, 1641. 
Alex. Rowy, 1642. 
Jacob Ross, 1643. 
Jacob Donaldson, 1643. 
Alex. Watson, a Scottish youth, who received a 

shot wound on the walls of Schoneck, 1643. 
Elis. Colvin, Ramsay*s widow, 1643. 
Jacob Ross, late Lieutenant and Innkeeper. 

B. Wilson. 
Nich. Morris. 



DOCUMENTS. 231 

J. Jack, a Scottish youth, 1644. 

Adam Watt, 1645. 

Chr. Muttreich, W. Law's wife, 1646. 

Alb. Stevenson, 1646. 

Andr. Wilson. 

C. Meriyale, 1648. 
Hans Moll, 1650. 

D. Robertson's wife, 1652. 
W. Ramsay's wife, 1652. 

Johann Cant, a Scottish Lieutenant, who died in 

passing through this town, 1652. 
R. Meking (?) , 1653. 
Jacob Crichton, 1653. 
Agneta Donaldson, 1653. 
Hans Allen, 1654. 

Alex. Norry, ninety-three years old, 1656. 
Jacob Norry, 1658. 

Gretrud Uphagen, Lieutenant Jacob Stuart's wife. 
Bl. Hamilton, 1659. 
P. Stewart, 1660. 
N. Lofson, 1661. 
P. Ramsay, 1664. 
Mary Dawson, 1 664. 
Anne Wadrup, 1665. 
Barbara Gourlay, 1669. 
W. Halyburton's wife, 1672. 
W. Barclay, 1673. 
H. Brun, 1680. 

Buried in St JohanrCs : — 
William Ramsay, 161 2. 
Thomas Bisset, 1643. 
David Heggie, burgess and merchant. 

Buried elsewhere : — 



23* THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

Daniel Beer, in the churchyard of St Barbara. 
Alex. Vergiss, in the churchyard of Corpus Christ! 

(Fronleichnam). 
Cath. Watson, called the ^^ Scotch Catherine/' in 

the Hospital 
Maria MacLean, from Duart in Mull, 1806, in the 

churchyard of St Salvator. 
Ramsay, St Salyator's churchyard. 
Alex. Gibsone, in the churchyard of Corpus Christi, 

1836. 
Brothers Mackensen(zie), 1768, in the same place. 



XXIII. 

Schotte and Scbottland. 

B£SiDB8 the name Schott or Schotte, which came to 
signify throughout the German Empire a pedlar, and its deri- 
vations as "Schottenkram," " Schottenhandel," "Schotten- 
pfaffe," " Schott enfrau," we have quite a number of traces 
of the old immigrants in local topography. There is a 
village called ^^Schottland" in the district of Lauenburg, in 
Pomerania, with eighty-four inhabitants and ten houses ; 
another Schottland in the Danzig lowlands in Western 
Prussia, numbering some 200 souls ; a kirchdorf (village 
with a church), " Schottland,'' in the district of Bromberg 
in Posen, also numbering about 200 inhabitants. A 
so-called Schottenkolonie exists near Neuhausen, in the 
district of Konigsberg, Eastern Prussia. There are 
besides three so-called ^^ Schottenkriige " = Scotch inns, 
one four miles distant from Marienburg, in the Danzig 
district, another in the district of Marienwerder, a third 
near the city of Cuhn, in Western Prussia. What the 



DOCUMENTS. 233 

precise connection of these inns with the Scots was, 
whether they were at one time in possession of Scotsmen, 
or because they were placed in a district where many 
Scots lived, or finally, because they were much frequented 
by the Scots — ^and who would deny the latter eventuality ? 
— it would be difficult to say. They are there, at any 
rate, witnesses of a dim past, when the county was 
flooded by Scottish traders. 

There was also a " Schottengang ^ = " Scottish lane," at 
Danzig,^ which aheady boasted of an Alt-and Neu-Schott- 
land, as we have seen. 

The small town of ^^ Schotten," in Hesse, however, has 
nothing to do with the Caledonian Scot or the Scottish 
trader of the XVIth and XVIIth Centuries. It was 
originally called ^^Zu den Schotten " = ^^ at the Scots," 
and owes its existence and church to the labours of 
Scoto-Irish missionaries. There were no less than nine 
such ^^ Schottenkirchen " in Mayence and Upper Hessia, 
all of them founded in the ninth or tenth century, and 
dependent on Straszburg, where Florens, an Irish hermit, 
had been elected a bishop in the year 679. 

The church at ^^Schotten" is traditionally connected 
with two Irish royal ladies, daughters of Brian Boru, 
whose names are variously given as Alcmudis and 
Dicmudis, or Rosamund and Dicmudis. After the disas- 
trous battle of Clontarf in 10 14 they fled and devoted 
themselves, like so many royal ladies at the time, to 
church and missionary work on the Continent. 

This tradition receives a support from two very ancient 
gilt busts which are to this day preserved in the vestry 
of the church at Schotten. Tliey represent two ladies 
with flowing hair ; one of them has a crown on her head, 

^ DMuhfXf FiTiweh emer hisioruci iopegn^Uicim Beutreihm^ Dmm^s^ 
i. 362. 

P 



234 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

the other a wreath of flowers. The work is attributed 
by archaeologists to the eleventh century. There was 
also a document found in the ball on the church spire, 
dating from the latter half of the fourteenth century. 
It says: **In the year of our Lord 1015, in the reign of 
the king called the Lame,^ two sisters, natives of Scotland, 
one of whom was called Rosamunda, the other Dicmudis, 
commenced the building of this town and of our first 
Schotten kirche.'*' In connection with this question it 
must always be remembered that the Teutonic word Scot 
occurs in Germany as a man's name long before surnames 
derived from nationalities were thought of. At least so 
Foerstemann in his '^ Altdeutsche Namensbuch" assures 
us when speaking of the occurrence of that name in the 
Book of the Brotherhood of St Peter at Salzburg.' 

Supplement. 
Scots at Ratisbon. 

Whilst the present volume was in the press the following 
list of Scotsmen acquiring citizenship at Ratisbon in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries reached us. 

Considering it an important document, and one that 
raises the curious question of Scottish settlements in those 
cities of Middle and Southern Germany, where the famous 
Schottenkloster already existed and probably exercised an 
attraction for a large contingent of Scottish trading and 
lay immigrants as well, we had the choice of either burying 
it in some of the daily papers or in one of the antiquarian 
monthlies, which, formally speaking, would have been 

^ Henry 11., Emperor of Germany^ I002-I024« 
* See Ph. Heber, Die nam vormaUgen Schottenkirchen in Mainz und in 
Oherhisten. Darmstadty i860, p. 137 f. 

' See R. FergasoDy Surnames as a Science^ p. 7. 



Lent Ahhsl of iririiirf, 1641 



DOCUMENTS. 235 

correct, or of tacking it on to a book from which the 
southern parts of Germany are excluded. 

In preferring the latter irregular mode of proceeding, 
our excuse is the intimate connection of the two volumes 
on the Scots in Germany and the wish to let the reader 
have all available information on the subject up to the 
present date. 

We therefore publish the list as it reaches us, asking 
the kind reader mentally to transfer it to its proper place, 
which would have been the Appendix of our first volume 
on the Scots in Germany. 

One characteristic fact of the Scottish settlers in 
Ratisbon is, that none of them were vagrant Scots. 
The Scottish pedlar does either not occur at all or he is 
included in the general name of " Abenteurer " = adven- 
turer, of whom there is mention on several occasions, for 
instance, in 1460, 1461, 1462, 1467, and frequently after- 
wards. Curious also is the admission of two Scotswomen 
to the citizenship of Ratisbon. The first on the list is 
Hannes Tung (John Young), 1484, with the addition of 
**a Scot swore the civil oath.** Each of the following 
names occurs with the addition ^^ Schott '* == a Scot : — 

1 493- Straichin (Strachan), Alexander. 
1495. Alexander (without family name).^ 
1498. Flemyng, Wilhelm. 
1 504. Guttler (?), Rubrecht 

„ Strang, Reichart (Richard). 
1506. Konigerm (Cunningham), Alexander. 
1508. Kochever (rer), (Cochrane), Jacob. 

„ Small, Andreas. 

„ Anndersi (Anderson), Reichart. 

„ Metland (Maitland), Hans. 

^ Or withoat Christiao namey accordmg to the word Alexander being 
taken at a surname or not. 

p* 



%S6 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 

1 509. Lynndefeur (?), Alexander. 

1 510. Tampson, Wilhelm "der Klain" ("the 

small "). 

1 5 1 1 . Jung (Young), Simon. 

„ Rebischam (Robinson) ?), Wilhelm "yon Eden- 
burg." 
„ Lynns, Wilhalm. 

151 2. Dubles (Douglas), Linhart (Leonard). 

1513. Tumsen (Thomson), Hanns (maister » master 

of the craft). 

1514. Wald, Thomas. 

„ Hubm(?), Uirich. 

151 5. Abemit (Abemethy), Heinrich. 

1 5 16. Werckler (Farquhar?), Andreas. 
„ Goldstain, Jacob. 

151 8. Dewesen (Davison), Wilhalm. 

„ Strang, Thomas. 
1520. Porthus (Porteous), Karl. 
1522. Daxenpel (Dahymple ?), Alexander. 

„ Law, David. 
1525. Huttung (Hutton), Andre. 

1527. Maffen, Wilhalm. 

1528. Ranol (Ranald), Hans. 

„ Bartleme, Brigitta, ^'a Scotswoman." 

1530. Suderlandt (Sutherland), Alexander. 
„ Herwart, Albrecht. 

,, Lind, Agnes, '^a Scotswoman." 

1 53 1. Currawr (CraflFord), Hans. 
„ Eglinthon, Hans. 

1532. Kochman, Jacob. 

„ Schwartza, Wilhalm (probably "Black"). 

1533. Praun (Brown), Andre. 
,, Pock or Pack (?), Hans. 

1534. Mattissun, Hans. 



DOCUMENTS. 237 

1536. Kray (?), WUhalm. 
1538. Willison (Williamson), Albrecht 
„ Schmidt (Smith), Wilhahn. 
„ Walker (?), Wilhalm. 
1540. Demet ^, Wilhalm. 

Raberzon (Robertson), Thomas. 
Lom, Davit. 

1542. Wach (Waugh), Hans. 

1543. Andersson, Hans. 

1548. Englenthon, ^^ a Scotswoman." 
1559. Thene (Tain or Thin.?), Wilhahn. 

Among those that were married are :— 
1 548. Dirscham, Paulus (T). 
1 564. Pirckenson (Parkinson .^, Jacob. 

„ Arta (?), Hans. 

„ Matisson, Hans. (See above.) 
1566. Gier (Grier.?), Hans. 

„ Thene, Wilhalm. 

1575. Niclason (Nicholson), David. 

1576. Gadel(?), Thoman. 

1577. Zarrer, Ott (?).^ 

^ Cp. Siadt jfrehivf Regensburg. Politicaiii., i, 117. 2, 31^ 37t 58. 
3i as* *7» 37» 4^, 49> 53» 59» 65, 66, 71, 73, 77, 89, 93, 1 10 bit., 121. 
4, 8, 12, 29, 43, 46 bis., 48, 55, 59, 69, 74, 82 bis., 91, 97, 105 bii. 
106, 117, 119 bis., 129, 142. 57, 19, III, 124, 126, 129 bis., 135, 
160, 181, 189, 19a 58, 10 bis., 53 bis., 157. 59, I, 14. Politica, I, 
7, 232 ff.; i., 15, 17, I43» 185- 



A SELECTION OF COATS-OF-ARMS OF 
SCOTTISH-GERMAN FAMILIES 



GEO. BARCLAY 



± 



MACLEAK K4MUHN (coCKBUMi ) 



CAR MICH AC LL 



Mi 



INDEX. 



Aa, the riTer, 151. 

Aberdeen, 9, 91, 93, 95 £., 176 £., 191, 

104 f. 
Abercrombie, J., 97. 

„ W., 104. 
Abernethy, 58, 198, loi. 
Aidie, Andr., xii. 
Ainille, Robt., 176. 
Aiz U Chapelle, ix. 
Albrecht, the Elder, 10, 33 f., 46, 1x5, 

z6o. 
Aletlus, 146 f. 
AlUnt, A., 175. 
AncUm, 4. 
Anderson, Al., xxo n. 



99 

If 



F. ^175. 
W.J 97. 



Anttruther, 175. 

„ Sei:g.-Major, 116. 
Andrews, St., 175, 194 f., 179 f., 183, 

184. 
Angerburg, town of, 103. 
Apothecaril, Scottish, 95 n. 
Arbroath, 183, 197. 
Aristotle, Ethics of, x x x n. 
Amot, Oipt., 87. 
Articles, Eighty, x6o f. 
Assembly, General, X41. 
AnchinTale, X38 f. n. 
Anchtermnchty, x8i. 
Augustus II., 33. 



Bailui, R., 173. 
Balfuhr, Darid, 175. 

„ Duncan, 98. 

„ Jacob, 98. 

„ Stephen, 98. 

„ W., 66 and n., 98. 
Balwrmy, J., 185. 
Baner, General, X45. 
Banff, 194, Z98 n., 176. 
Baptisms, Scottish, 66, 116 f. 



Barclays in Rostock, xxo, X41. 

Barten, 103. • 

Bartenstein, 18, 46 n., 48, 103. 

Batori, Stephen, X15. 

Bauer, R., xxs. 

BaTaria, 6. 

Bajrlie, A., X97. 

Belffard, 94. 

Bell, A., X75. 

Berwick, 105, 107. 

Black, A., 176. 

„ Col., 135. 

„ J., 176. 
Black Friars at Danzig, x i. 
BUckhall, 176. 
Blentschell, 107, 109. 
Brandenburg, Markgraf of, 31, 43, 46, 

49- 
Brattellen (?), 115. 

Brechin, 150, X78. 

Bromberg, 8t, 89. 

Brown, J. X40. 

„ W. X76. 

„ J., Bart., 198. 

Bruce, G., 68 and n. 

„ Jaa., X76. 

„ John, X76. 

„ Robert, X76. 

„ of Carnock, 67. 

„ W., 1x7. 

Buchan, P. J., 136 f. 

Buchanan, H., 176. 

Bnk, town of, 35 il 

Burnet, J., X76. 

„ Th., X36. 

Buigesses, Scottish at Danzig, 193 f. 

„ „ Kdnigsberg, zox f. 

„ „ Posen, 204 f. 

„ „ Ratisbon, 134 f. 

Burial Register of St Peter and St 

Paul, 1x8 f. 

Burntisland, xx5, x8a, X96. 



C. 



CAirmfiss, comes de, 68 n. 
Camera, Ricardas, 8. 
Campo Santo, a Scottish, X46. 

•39 



240 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 



Cant (Kant), A., 146 n., 180. 
„ J., 146, 180, 1x3. 

Carmlchael, J., 99. 

Carnack, 1x5. 

Cazimir, Johann, 7a. 

Celle, Prine of, 136. 

Chalmer, P., 105. 

Chapman, R., xo8. 

Charles IL, 76, 171. 

Chlsholm, W.,i76f. 

Christburff, 59, 104. 

Chnrch ofSt Peter and St Paul at Dan- 
zig, 61 f., 136 f. 

Chnrch of St Elizabeth, 6% f. 

Cleghorn, G., 177. 

Clerk, W., 177. 

Cloth, earliest mention of English, 
ion. 

Colberg in Pomerania, 94. 

Cook, the tniTeller, 140. 

Coapar, 151, 175. 

Coutts, A., 198 n. 

Crail, see Krehe. 

Cra^viiird, A., 197. 

„ Capt. J., i»5. 
„ Hans, 110. 

Crichton, W., X39f; 

Crockhart, A., 177. 

Crimes among the Scots, 8x f. 

CroiRs, 79, 17X. 

Cuik, O., X77. 

Culross, 195. 

Cupar, no n. 

Czierenberg in Danzig, xii. 



D. 



Damask, trade in, 46 n. 

Danzig, 7, 9, 10 f., 14 f., X7, ix, 18, 41, 
44f 53» 5^1 ^o, 62 f., 66, 68 n., 84 f., 
^7^^93)96} xo9n.,iio f.,iiz, 113 f., 

»44. iS3» »83 ^-1 «93 f» »«5» »«6,i2i f. 
DaTidson, A., X37. 

D. 63, 108, 109. 



" ?" } '77. 
Dellor, A., X78. 

Dempsterton, 178. 
Dennis, H., $1 1 
„ O., 178. 
Deutsch Krone, town of, 85, 103. 
Dick, 50 f. 
Dirscfaian, 93. 
Dogs, English, 46. 
Dominik Fair at Danzig, 15, 53. 



Douglas, Lord W., 113. 
Drummond, J., xs6. 
Drybimh Abbej, 1x5. 
Duff, Th., 194. 
Duget, 178. 
Dumfries, 88, 194. 
Dunbar, town oS^ 8 n. 
Dunblane, 19^. 
Duncan. ~ 



Dundee, 9, n, 60, 91, xiz, 176, X85, 

«95- 
Dunfermline, 177, 195. 

Dunserf, 176. 

Dupertat, 215. 

Dutch, the, 61, 91, ixo n. 



E. 



EoiMBDtoH, 7, 8 f.,87, 94, 1x5, X4S, 176 f., 

181, X84, 216. 
Edislay,G.,2Xi. 
Einsiedeln, ix. 

Elbing, 21, 85, 1x2, 139, 147, 184, 
Elisabeth, St, Church of, at Danzig, 

221 f. 
Eperies in Hungary, 147. 
Ermeland, Bishop of, 34. 
Erroll, 176. 
Erskine, D., 1x5 £ 
Erskine, Capt., 134. 
Executioner, the, 83. 



Falurk, x82. 
Falkland, x82. 

Fergusson, Th., 129 
Fermer, D., 179. 
Finlavson, A., 209. 
Fischnausen, 23, 202. 
Forbes, A., 197. 

ff P , 178. 

» W., X79, X97. 

Forfar, 179. 

Porster, J. O. A., \ ,^. * 

n I '47 *' 

II ''•I J 

Fraser, W., 179, 

Frankfurt-a-O, X38 n., X46. 

Frauenburg 23, 24. 

Frederick III., ox. 

Frederick William, Duke of Prussia, 

57» 77- . , , „ 
Fiederick, John of Sazonj, X46. 



INDEX. 



241 



Frederick WiUiam III., 

Fftrttenau, 139. 
Pyffc,J.,i79. 



:.} '«•• 



o. 

Gall, Th., 179. 

Gkrdiner, 150. 

Garioch, W., 99. 

Gartner, 31 n. 

Gaudl, A&jor-Oeneral, 1%^, 

Gehrt, 133. 

Gellentin, R., 99. 

„ Th., III. 
Geoi:gFriederich, Markgnf, 90. 

„ Wilhelm, 51. 
Getbei:gk, Col., 41. 
Gibfone, A., 151 f. 

GUmore, J., 179. 

Glaagow, 88, 94, 195, 177, 185. 

Glen, J., 140. 

Goldap, 93, xoi. 

Gordon, Francis, Z05 f., 1x3. 

» P., 37 f- 
Gowrie, 183. 

Gourlay, Capt., 115 f. 

Gralath, K., 113. 

Grant, D.,60. 

Gratz, 146. 

Graudenz, 138. 

Green, J., 179. 

Greiftwald, 9. 

Greig, P., 116. 

Griimn, Dictionary of, 5. 

Gninau, S., 144 n. 

Guardians, Scottish, 66, 

Guildbrethren, Scottish, 198 f. 

Gnthrie, R., 179. 



H. 

Habeb8chkiibb&, a., 59 n. 

Halg,D.,i97. 

Halle, 148. 

Halkett, General H., 136. 

Halybnrton,A.|,3^ 

Hamburg, 116. 
Hamilton, A. Cooper, 83. 

„ Capt., 135. 

„ Col. 134. 

„ General, 136. 

„ E. F., 138. 

„ J. I., 147. 



Hardenberg, xi6. 

Har, D., 180. 

Helmstadt, UniTersity of, 147. 

Henderson, Al. \ • 

Henrie, A., 179. 
» D., 139. 

Hohenstein, 82. 

Holland, Preussisch,town of, 136, soi 
Humboldt, A. r., 149, 153. 
tf W. T.,151. 



I. 

lM<aUjc, J., 197. 

Innes, J., x8a 

Insterbury, town of, 108, »oi. 

Inrings at Memel, 109. 

IrTine, zoj. 



J. 



Jack, A., 180. 

James I., 7, 8. 

James VI., 68 n.,87, xxx n. 

Jameson, Th., x8o. 

Jaroslaw, town of, 19, 109. 

Jastrow, 84. 

Jedburgh, town of, 175. 

Johann Albrecht, Duke of Mecklen- 

Johann Sigismnnd, 54. 
Johannesburg, town of, 98, xo», 103. 
Johnston, Brothers, 186 f. 

„ Maior-General, 129. 

„ Will.. 146. 
Julius, Philipp, Duke of Stettin, 33. 
Jungingen, Ton, Grand Master, 7. 
Jungschulz, J., Mayor of Elbing, xxa 



KAAcmxt, C. A., 138. 

Kassel, town of, 148. 

Kcrna, town of, 33. 

Kelch, Geheimrath, 1x5. 

Keay, Andr., 197. 

Ketcher, a Scottish soldier, 110 

Kilau, H., 181. 

Kil&uns, G., 98. 

Kingawer, J., z8x. 

Kincaid, £., X45. 

Koch, 36 f. 

K6nigsberg, 7, 19, 13, 15, 3X f.,40,41. 



242 THE SCOTS IN EAST AND WEST PRUSSIA. 



50 f., 5a f., 60,61,63, 68 f.,71, 79 f., 

83, 90 f't 93» «09 ">•» "* "•» "5, 
136, 144, «47i »7^ «9«i «99 ^-f »o» 
f., 118 f. 

Konitz, 8x, 103. 

Konningk, M., 144 n. 

Koppelbude, Domain, 117. 

Kopyewiez, 143. 

Knkau, town of, 99. 

Krehl, 55 f. 

Kyle, Th., 117 f. 

Kyth, 109. 



L. 



Lamb, D., 138 n. 

Lunington in Lanark, 87, 167. 

Langemarkt in Danzig, 19. 

Langga«fe in Danzig, 29. 

Lasiwade, 197. 

Lauenburg, town of, 117. 

Law, P., 197. 

Lawson, 197. 

Lermonth, Cath., 99. 

I^armonth, Col., 89, 130 f. 

Leith, town of, 8, 225. 

Lembeig, 19. 

Lenzen, 138. 

Lermontoir, the Rnttian poet, 131. 

Leslie, J. W., 147. 

„ CoL, 136. 

,, Walter, i8x. 

Lewis, W. Col., 131. 
Lewis (Ldwis) von, 131 n. 

„ F. General Ton, 131. 
Lindsay, A., z8x. 
Linlithgow 04. 
Litherdale, Th., i8x. 
Lithgow, no. 
Llttko, W., 181. 
Lobsens, town of, X4x. 
London, 93. 
Lublin, 24. 
Lnms<Ule, W., 99. 
Luther, 31 n. 



M. 

Macallan, J., 182, 197. 
Macheier, 22 n. 
Mackie, J., 182. 
Mackien, K., 109 n. 
Macleans of Coll, ^ 

,, of Duart, V15X. 

„ of BanfT, J 
March, Earl of, 8. 
Margaret, Queen, 8. 
MargraboTa, 32. 



Marienburg, 22, 203. 

Marienwerder, town of, 24, 35, xxx« 

203. 
Mark, Preussisch, 139. 
Marriaees, Scottish, 65 f., 145, 211 f. 
MarshiOl, A., 182. 
Marshall, Th., 139, 152. 
Masterton, 100, 197. 
Mary, Queen, 7 n. 
Mary and Damley, 87. 
Maximilian IL, Emperor, 125. 
Maxwell, J., 182. 
Mayence, 149. 
Mecklenburg, 34, 150. 
MeWille, 150, 197. 
Memel, town of, 19, 40, 48 f., 73, 90, 

91, X09, 150, 202. 
Mendelssohn, 153. 
Merchants, Guild of Edinburgh, 8. 
Merchants, Scottish, Petition of, 14 f. 

Mirander, Doctor, 36, 51. 
Mitchell, A., 197. 

„ '^i Io2. 

Mitzel, 147. 
Moir, G., 182. 
Moncrieff, A., 182. 
Moncrieff, Capt. W., 125, 2x5. 
Mongall, W., 182. 
Montrose, town of, 93, 179. 
Morrisson, R., 183. 



Morton, A. \ 

J/ 



t» 



»97- 

„ G., 198. 
Munroe, Margaret, 2x6. 
Musonius, 142. 
Mustard, J97. 
Muttray 



I i?7- 
, Th.,150. 



N. 

Napoleon, X52. 
Nassenhuben, 138, 148. 
Neidenburg, 75 f. 
Neumark, 88. 

Neuenburg, 82, 109, 147, X48. 
Newbattle, 2x2. 
Nieaburg in Hanover, X36. 
Nisbet, A., 112. 
Nostiz, C, 159. 
Nurnberg X44n., 153. 

O. 
OomaLONT, G., X97. 



INDEX. 



M3 



Ohrm, Tillage ot^ i^y> 
Older, J., 105. 
OlU&nt, Reg.,^ 

„ C. Vioo. 

« W. j 
Ondnim, J., 100. 
Orky, J., Z16. 
Oiphanage at Danzig, 154. 
Orr, L , 108. 
Orrock, no. 
Ottomin, Tillage of, 135. 
Oxford, 148. 






Paip, A., 183. 
Paris, 148 f. 
Park in BanlT, 180. 
Parlaments Quarrel, 83 n. 
PatterK)n,A.,\ jj 

J., 148. 
„ W.,iii. 
Patton, C, 1^7. 
Pennycuik, Tn., 190. 
Perth, 8, 87, 17c, x8o, x86, 203 f. 
Peter, ship, 11 f. 
Peter and Paul, Church of, xii, 137, 

14s f, 113 ff. 
Pillau, 14, 138. 
Pollock, R, 183. 
Pomerania, 40, 14s, 147. 
Porteous, R., iox-108. 
Posen, town of^ 59 f. 

„ Scott at, 104 f. 
Priests, Tagrant, 6. 
PriTileees, supposed, xo. 
ProTerb, Prussian, 18. 



IL 



lUiaiwiLL, Prince, 49. 

Ragnit, town of, 194. 

Rastenburg, town of, 37, 47, 8a f, 138. 

Rait, A., 183. 

Ramsaj, A., 



>» 
•I 
•» 



183, 184. 



O., 
J., 

s., 

Walter, 

William,; 
Ranch, 41 n. 
Rajne in Aberdeenshire^ 183. 
Regensburg, |t n, 118 f. 
Rennie 




, O., 184. 



Rentoun, Capt., xi6. 
Riese, 184. 
Riesenbuig, 48. 
Ritch, A. , 54. 
„ W,, 61. 
Robert, « Comes de FyfT," 7. 
Robertson, D., 

it . . 

Rosenberg, 140. 

Ross, J., 184. 

Rossitten, 19. 

Rostock, 1x0, X39. 

Roy, H., X97. 

Rnmmelsburg, X9, 4X. 

Russdorf, P. Ton, xo. 

Rutherford, A. , 48 and n. 

RuthTen, A. Capt., 1x6, 130. 

i> Jm 197- 

Ryth, Rob., 106. 



S. 



St Jacob di ComomLLA, i x. 

St Peter and Paul's Church at Danxig, 

see Peter. 
St Elisabeth, see Elisabeth. 
St Mary's aisle, x8i. 
St Mary's Loch, 151 n. 
Samland, X9, 13 n. 
Sandwick, x8i, X95. 
Scharwerck, 314 n. 
Schotte, the Word, 4, IS4 f. 
Schottland, Alt, xio n. 
Schdnborn. D. t., XX4. 
Schdneck, 84. 
Schulzendiener, 58 n. 
Schwerin, X50. 
Scoda (Skoda), X44. 
Scone, X53. 
Soott, Sir Walter, i8. 
Scots as Guild Members, 6x f. 

M acquiring cItII rights, 40 f. 
Sottish Poor, ProTislon for the, 6j. 

„ Room in the Hoepltal,'/^. 

„ Footmen, xxz. 

„ WcaTers, no n. 
Scotnt, M., X38 n. 
Seton, Col., 79. 
Settlers, Scottish In Konlrsbeig, sox f. 

„ Scottish in E. and W. Prussia, 

soif. 
Seymour, X97. 

Ship masts. Exports of, xx5. 
Sigismund III., 33, 51, 89, 119, X57, 

158.