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The Scotsman in Canada 

Works by the same Author 

Collected Toems 

Mordred, a Tragedy 

Hildebrand, a Tragedy 

Morning, a Tragedy 

Daulac, a Tragedy 

Sagas of Vaster Britain 

Lake Lyrics 

Ian of the Orcades, a Scottish Historical Novel 

A Beautiful Rebel, a Canadian Historical Novel 0/1812 

Canada, a Description of the People and the Country 

The Canadian Lake Region 

Richard Frizell, a Canadian Historicat Novel of 1837 


The Scotsman in \ 

Eastern Canada, including Nova 
Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New 
'Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario 

Wilfred Campbell, LL.D. 

(Hut.) of jiterdttn Untvtraty j F.S.S.C. 

In Two Volumes. Volume I 

The Musson 'Book Company, Limited 
Toronto Canada London England 










TN the making of this volume my chief object 
A has been to produce a work which will be of 
use to those desiring a knowledge of the origin of 
the early Scottish settlements or community -cent res 
of Canada. 

Keeping this idea steadily in view, I have in this 
volume, which covers all Eastern Canada, dealt, 
first of all, with the many settlements which were 
essentially Scottish, and have laid stress on the 
other chief centres of Scottish life and influence in 
some of the leading cities, commencing with Nova 
Scotia and concluding with the later but scarcely 
less important immigration into Huron and Bruce 
in the Upper Lake region of Ontario. I have 
also in this connection given, where I was able 
to do so, lists of the founders and pioneers of such 
settlements, hoping that they might be of value 
to students in future individual research. 

Following this, I have endeavoured to deal with 
the Scottish influence in religion, education, 
politics, and other important questions connected 



with the national life. If I have paid a good deal 
of attention to the part played by the Scotsman 
in our higher education, it is because I am con- 
vinced that in this direction, more than in any 
other, he has performed his greatest work toward 
the development of the Canadian nationality as a 
part of the Empire. 

Throughout this work I have laid stress upon 
the Ulster Scotsman and the importance of his 
place in the Canadian community ; and have 
pointed out that the movement into Ulster was the 
first great emigration of the Scottish people in 
their attempt at settlement outside of their own 

In dealing with Scotsmen as individuals in 
Eastern Canada, it would be utterly impossible to 
include all persons deserving of mention in the 
necessarily limited confines of such a work as this 
is. Those only are referred to who represent, or 
were connected with, the different movements in 
the many communities or colonies out of which the 
dominion has gradually grown. 

In sending this volume out to the public, I feel 
that it is but an imperfect result of the ideal 
which prompted its making. There is much more 
that I would like to have included in the presenta- 
tion of this important subject. Such, however, as 
it is, I send it forth, hoping that it may have its 


share in giving to the student of the history of the 
Scottish race some slight idea of the great part 
which has been played by that illustrious stock 
during the last three hundred years, in the found- 
ing, peopling, and upbuilding of Britain's Western 

It might be added, in conclusion, that in 
addressing the readers of Scottish extraction, one 
is appealing to a vast constituency ; / as in 
Canada alone, outside of purely French Quebec, 
there are few families which are without a strain 
of the old Scottish blood in their veins. / 





















VIDUAL SCOTSMEN . . . . , . . 


























THE SCOTSMAN AND EDUCATION (continued) . .288 




















BY crag and lonely moor she stands, 
This mother of half a world's great men, 

And kens them far by sea-wracked lands, 
Or Orient jungle or Western fen. 

And far out 'mid the mad turmoil, 

Or where the desert-places keep 
Their lonely hush, her children toil, 

Or wrapt in world-wide honour sleep. 

By Egypt's sands or Western wave, 

She kens her latest heroes rest, 
With Scotland's honour o'er each grave, 

And Britain's flag above each breast. 

And some at home, her mother love 
Keeps crooning wind-songs o'er their graves, 

Where Arthur's castle looms above, 
Or Strathy storms or Solway raves. 

Or Lomond unto Nevis bends 
In olden love of clouds and dew; 

When Trosach unto Stirling sends 
Greetings that build the world anew. 

Out where her miles of heather sweep, 

Her dust of legend in his breast, 
'Neath Aged Dryburgh's aisle and keep, 

Her wizard Walter takes his rest. 
VOL. I. B 17 

The World-Mother 

And her loved ploughman, he of Ayr, 
More loved than any singer loved 

By heart of man amid those rare, 

High souls the world hath tried and proved ;- 

Whose songs are first to heart and tongue 
Wherever Scotsmen greet together, 

And, far out, alien scenes among, 
Go mad at the glint of a sprig of heather. 

And he, her latest wayward child, 

Her Louis of the magic pen ; 
Who sleeps by tropic crater piled, 

Far, far, alas ! from misted glen ; 

Who loved her, knew her, drew her so, 
Beyond all common poet's whim : 

In dreams the whaups are calling low, 
In sooth her heart is woe for him. 

And they, her warriors, greater none 
E'er drew the blade of daring forth ; 

Her Colin x under Indian sun, 
Her Donald 8 of the fighting North. 

Or he, her greatest hero, he, 

Who sleeps somewhere by Nilus' sands. 
Grave Gordon, mightiest of those free, 

Great Captains of her fighting bands ; 

Yea, these; and myriad, myriad more, 
Who stormed the fort or ploughed the main 

To free the wave or win the shore, 
She calls in vain ! she calls in vain ! 

1 Colin Campbell (Lord Clyde), hero of Lucknow. 
Sir Donald Mackay (ist Lord Reay), whose Mackay Dutch 
Regiment was famous in the Thirty Years' War. 

The World-Mother 

Brave sons of her, far severed wide 

By purpling peak or reeling foam ; 
From Western ridge or Orient side, 

She calls them home ! she calls them home ! 

And far, from East to Western sea, 

The answering word comes back to her ; 

"Our hands were slack, our hopes were free, 
We answered to the blood astir ; 

"The life by Kelpie loch was dull, 
The homeward, slothful work was done, 

We followed where the world was full, 
To dree the weird our fates had spun; 

"We built the brigg, we reared the town, 
We spanned the earth with lightning gleam; 

We ploughed, we fought, 'mid smile and frown 
Where all the world's four corners teem. 

" But under all the surge of life, 

The mad race -fight for mastery, 
Though foremost in the surgent strife, 

Our hearts went back, went back to thee." 

For the Scotsman's speech is wise and slow, 
And the Scotsman's thought it is hard to ken; 

But through all the yearnings of men that go, 
His heart is the heart of the northern glen ; 

His song is the song of the windy moor. 

And the humming pipes of the squirling din ; 
And his love is the love of the shieling door, 

And the smell of the smoking peat within. 

And nohap how much of the alien blood 
Is crossed with the strain that holds him fast; 

'Mid the world's great ill and the world's great good, 
He yearns to the Mother of men at last. 


The World-Mother 

For there is something strong and something true 
In the wind where the sprig of heather is blown ; 

And something great in the blood so blue, 
That makes him stand, like a man, alone. 

Yea, give him the road and loose him free, 
He sets his teeth to the fiercest blast ; 

For there's never a toil in a far countrie, 
But a Scotsman tackles it hard and fast. 

He builds their commerce, he sings their songs, 
He weaves their creeds with an iron twist; 

And making of laws or righting of wrongs, 
He grinds it all as the Scotsman's grist. . . . 

Yea, there, by crag and moor she stands, 
This mother of half a world's great men; 

And out of the heart of her haunted lands 
She calls her children home again. 

And over the glens and the wild sea floors, 
She peers so still, as she counts her cost; 

With the whaups low-calling over the moors, 
Woe ! woe ! for the great ones she hath lost. 




This mighty dream of the race I 
When, O when will it die? 

When the magic of being burns from the blood, 
When the violet fades from the sky ; 
When the mother turns from her child, 
When the son his father spurns ; 
And the blood of the mightiest race on earth 
To bloodless water turns. 

IN this introduction to a necessarily imperfect 
memoir of the exodus and wanderings of a 
great northern race, it will be my chief object to 
impress upon my readers the importance of the 
keeping alive of the dominant historic spirit which 
has inthe past made jioted our Scottish ancestors 
in theiFpwn land and throughout the world. I may 
sayTaFthe start, that I am not going to indulge in 
any mere historical or literary retrospect. My 
object is neither to flatter nor to condemn. As 
regards success, the Scottish race speaks for itself 
the world over ; and as for failure, the signs of this 
are also apparent. 

It would be easy to catalogue Scottish virtues 


The Scotsman in Canada 

and Scottish vices, and clothe the list in a flippant 
dress or a false rhetoric, as has, alas ! too often 
been done. 

A But this should be an age of few words and 
deep and serious thought, when great and vital 
subjects, such as this we are considering, should 
not be touched upon lightly or superficially. There 
never was a period in their history when our people 
needed all their sanity, all their ideals, all the aid 
that the spirit of the past can give them, more 
than they do to-day. We stand in great danger, 
and the keenest minds are too much engrossed 
in what one might call, to put it mildly, " the 
financial possibilities of the purely material." So 
that we, who represent, and strive to maintain, the 
ethical and spiritual aspects of life, cannot afford 
to make light of any influences which may keep 
alive or inspire the greater imagination of our 
people ; such as the splendid memories, the large 
and intense drama, the classic atmosphere of the 
history of Scotland. 

Yet, sad to say, for so tragic and so subtle a race, 
no people has feeen dealt with so often, in so 
childish, so shallow, and so claptrap a manner 
as has Scotland at the hands of orators and writers 
innumerable throughout the world. 

It is seemingly so easy to lecture on Burns or 
Scott, and these names are used as stalking-horses 
for all sorts of superficial efforts to acquire a 
patriotic or a literary reputation ; and all the 
while the real Burns and the true Scott remain 
utterly unknown and unappreciated, buried beneath 


The Scottish Ideal 

the volcanic irruption of cheap democracy, false 
patriotism, and pretence at religion and culture. 
The phrase " a man's a man for a' that " has been 
dinned into our ears, but how many who have 
quoted it know its real meaning and application? 
Burns was the first great founder of the true 
modern democracy, and, like all great reformers, 
he has been most shamefully misrepresented by 
those claiming to be his friends and disciples, 
who have interpreted him in a class, rather than 
in a human sense. Likewise has Sir Walter Scott 
been wrongly ignored by men claiming to be 
scholars and writers. Instead of being, as 
many would class him, merely a delightful 
romancer, he is, without doubt, one of the truest 
realists, and a remarkable student of humanity. 
It is marvellous how much of all Scotland is 
mirrored in his truly magic pages. 

Indeed, men may rave of the heather, the hills, 
the pibroch, and the Brig of Ayr, and all the time 
the real Scotland and the true Scottish people are 
a mystery to themselves and to others as they, to 
a great extent, remain to this day. 

As this essay is an attempt at some sort of 
explanation of the Scottish people, I may, in 
places, be seemingly harsh in pointing out what 
without doubt appear to be degeneracies and mis- 
representations of the Scottish race and character 
as an historical entity. 

Poetry and feeling are a boon, indeed necessary 
in their place, and belong to the finest instincts 
of a race. But where they degenerate into 


The Scotsman in Canada 

mere cheap sentimentality and vulgar melodrama, 
nothing is so nauseous and sickening in a com- 

For this reason, the greatest evil which has 
inflicted Scotland of late has been the rise of the 
so-called Kail Yard School of Fiction. It is 
already virtually dead. But it has accomplished 
in its short reign immeasurable harm. Hypocrisy 
and hysterics are an abomination in religion, but 
when they enter popular literature they are even 
worse. Some races, like the Irish, can afford to 
open their minds freely. It seems natural to that 
often frank and genial race. But it does not become 
the Scot. The true characteristic of the latter is 
his secretiveness, his un-get-at-ableness, his control 
of his inner feelings. This, in the past, made him 
the strong force that he became, and rendered his 
religion such a power in his personality. It 
simply permeated him in the subtlest manner, and 
was only recognised outwardly through his 
character. What his inner feelings were he kept 
to himself. But in these later, seemingly more de- 
generate, days, when religion from this standpoint 
had decayed, and what might be called literary 
emotion took its place, there came a change over 
the Scotsman's individuality which was not for 
the better ; and when he began to spout cheap 
sentiment to his neighbours, he became an object 
of ridicule to the serious -minded. When he began 
to grow enthusiastic over and self-conscious of 
what he should simply have lived, namely, his 
religious beliefs and character, he came down from 

The Scottish Ideal 

his unconscious dignity of centuries and became a 
very commonplace buffoon in the hands of Ian 
Maclaren and his ilk, who made a burlesque of 
what the Scotsman might have been at his worst. 
It may be difficult to realise this, but to the student 
who knows his Scott and Burns, and is in close 
touch with the real Scotland and the Scotsman of 
the past, it is very apparent. 

The present-day habit of trading in the Scottish 
dialect and idiosyncrasy is not only harmful to the 
race, but it is virtually bearing false witness 
against the people before the world. 

Of the Scotsman of to-day the least said the 
better. He is being weighed in the balance. But 
with regard to the Scotsman of the past, if he 
was a force, it was not because of his angularity, 
his dialect, his red hair, his so-called meanness, 
his poverty, his narrow " pig-headedness," as some 
have called his determination, and for all of which 
virtues or defects he has had to stand in literature 
and journalism. But it was because, in spite of 
all these, he was, for some occult reason, a man, 
and as an individual became a power at home and 
wherever he adventured throughout the world. 

It was not one of his special qualities to enjoy 
life and to give others pleasure, but it is through 
his ability for struggling with existence and over- 
coming obstacles that he has become famous. In 
short, the Scottish have been in the past a race 
of individual builders, a strenuous, adventurous, 
striving, ambitious folk. 

They are not a people who can afford to descend 


The Scotsman in Canada 

from this level of existence. They, are an angular, 
dour, silent race, who must maintain, through all 
their kindliness and humour, a stern dignity as 
one of their chief virtues, or else lose their influence 
and personality as a people. 

Now I do not intend here merely to scratch the 
surface of the Scottish idiosyncrasy, but to en- 
deavour to show wherein the Scottish ideal in 
Canada and in the motherland is worthy of our 
serious consideration. 

If we let our minds go out so as to grasp a 
comprehensive view of Scottish history and the 
Scottish race, we will realise that in the past, 
in what might be called the golden age of the 
Scottish people, they were a force in the world 
because of two things, namely, their religion and 
their determination to be freemen and rule them- 

Now these are two very important impulses in 
the life of any nation, and they mean a great deal 
more than appears on the surface of this state- 
ment. U* Religious consciousness," and " a deter- 
mination to be freemen and self -ruling," the one 
the natural result of the other, make a great com- 
bination in the life of any nation. But we must not 
be misled into thinking that religion, as Scotland 
realised it then, was the mere formalism that the 
Scotsman in Canada and the Old Land, in common 
with all Christians, makes of it to-day. Religion 
then meant much more than mere empty creed, 
mere class prejudice, mere observance of ceremony, 
mere hope of heaven or fear of hell. It was 

The Scottish Ideal 

something divine, something vital in the very life 
of the people, which so affected their whole nature, 
their very character as a community, that they 
rose above the common and the mean, and moulded 
gradually, during half a thousand years, their 
national ideals ; until out of these ideals grew, 
side by side with them, conceptions of life and 
sacred institutions as a part of the State, the 
Church, and the general fabric of society, and, 
with these, a highly ethical literature. It was 
essentially true of Scotland that her religion per- 
meated her whole national life. It was not 
crystallised into an isolated institution, but was 
found in the State, the University, and the family. 
The family, that most sacred of all human institu- 
tions, and the oldest on earth, was especially 
revered in Scotland ; and it was this, together 
with the rural and out-of-door character of her 
people, which was the real foundation of her 
Rational greatness. 

In present-day religion there seems to be a 
far cry to the lives of the New Testament Apostles 
as alone worthy of consideration ; whereas in old- 
time Scotland their own and all history was teeming 
with heroes, apostles and saints of God. I do not 
say that this was so of all Scotland. No country, 
no people is purely of one ideal. There was then, 
as now, the indifferent and the selfish, and added 
to these elements there were other conflicting 
influences for ever at work in the life of the people. 

Roughly speaking, there were three Scotlands 
the extreme wild, purely Celtic and Scandinavian 


The Scotsman in Canada 

west ; the great middle Scotland, stretching 
from Berwick to Cape Wrath ; and the purely 
Lowland folk and city dwellers. These three 
elements represented three distinct ideals, which 
fought for supremacy namely, feudalism, intel- 
lectual religion, and practical materialism. Of 
these three, the religious and intellectual element 
largely dominated, but feudalism even down to 
this day has left its influence in the heredity of the 
best of the Scottish people. 

Against feudalism I bring no charge. It was 
one of the most ideal forms of organisation of 
society that was ever developed on earth, and 
nowhere else did it arrive at such a perfect condi- 
tion of development as in the clan system of 
Scotland. It was aristocratic, but that was its 
virtue, as it made every man, from the highest 
to the humblest, a gentleman in blood ; and I 
claim that to be the most divine condition of society 
which makes every man, no matter how poor in 
intellect or worldly goods, proud of his lineage 
and his race. It linked the peasant and the king 
on the throne in one vast common kinship in 
this mutual pride in the past, and stimulated, as 
no other influence has done, the whole community 
to uphold the ancestral honour of the race. It was 
not the sharp antagonistic division between the 
rich and the poor of the present much -boasted 
democratic age. In it lay the secret of the spirit 
of the great Scottish fighting clan -regiments, and 
to it is owing much of that strong sentiment for the 
motherland which animates the Scotsman through- 

The Scottish Ideal 

out the world, even to the third and fourth 

The modern vulgar mind of a mongrel people, 
which has lost its race individuality, is inclined to 
sneer at the Celt's pride in his lineage. The 
other day a newspaper contained the following : 
' The man who is no good is he who is always 
bragging of his ancestors." This flippancy is as 
absurd as it is false. The truth is that to-day 
few men " brag " of their ancestors, for the 
simple reason that few can even tell who 
their grandparents were : a sad condition in a 
race having such a notable part in history and 
so long civilised. The influence that has brought 
this about, and which inspires the flippancy just 
quoted, is one not on the side of man's best 

It is the trail of the serpent of a modern 
money-tyranny, which would gradually degrade 
and trample on and break the high spirit of {a 
once great people. It is the same influence which 
has destroyed faith in Deity and a sense of 
responsibility, and is now attempting to throttle 
true culture and the intellect. It has striven to 
convince man that he is but a more capable ape, 
and that all of life is rolled up in the material 
possibilities of a bank cheque-book. The answer 
to this superficial cavil at what was once a part 
of religion, of Christianity itself, is, that for one 
person who is proud of his ancestors one hundred 
are ashamed of theirs, for some unholy and incon- 
sistent reason ; and others there are who impu- 


The Scotsman in Canada 

dently and blasphemously boast that they made 
themselves, and demand special privileges because 
they have done so. " He is a self-made man " is 
a common expression of praise. But, considered 
seriously, is it a worthy citizen who reflects on 
his own parents? Why should men vote for a man 
merely because he says his parents were humble 
any more than because they were lords or 
millionaires ? 

Is not this man also using his ancestry ,( on ty 
in a more contemptible manner) to his advantage? 
It should be the man alone and not his environment 
which should count. And this is the true applica- 
tion of Burns's " A man's a man for a' that." 
He is not a man merely because he is not rich, 
or not titled, or not otherwise favoured, any more 
than he is a man because he is all or any one of 
these. It is not the title or the obscurity, the 
rich apparel or the rags that make the man, but it 
is the man himself. There is too much pure 
flattery of and truckling to the poor to-day, and 
he is not the true friend of any class of men who 
flatters them for a base purpose. Every class 
should be educated to a stern sense of its own 
responsibilities. Therefore I would direct the 
sneerer at Celtic aristocracy to the instance of the 
Perfect Man, who, though in His generation said 
to be the son of a carpenter, is traced back through 
a line of kings to God Himself. I am not here 
making a plea for what is vulgarly called snobbery. 
I desire rather to carry the whole matter much 
deeper, to show a strong influence in certain races, 

The Scottish Ideal 

and an influence for good, in spite of so much cant 
and hypocrisy concerning the whole matter. This 
side of the Scottish ideal, the feudal pride and 
sense of honour, is very much needed to-day on 
this continent, where society is altogether too much 
dominated by what Mr. Dooley sarcastically calls 
" the plain rich." 

The feudal system no doubt had its weaknesses, 
as all human systems have. But it never lied to 
the average man. It never flattered him into a 
false idea of life, as the democracy has done. 
It never pronounced that monstrous absurdity that 
all men are born free and equal. No ! But it 
gave man high and austere ideals toward which to 
climb, and it recognised and fostered genius and 
all that genius has to give mankind. While it 
recognised the necessary social grades, into which 
all complex communities crystallise sooner or later, 
it dignified the humblest lot in life, a thing which 
the present-day democracy has signally failed 
to do. 

The next element in the Scottish community, 
and closely associated with feudalism, for which 
it had some affiliation, was that of religion anid 
the intellect. These two influences, religion and 
the intellect, dominated the race and made the 
aristocrat and the cottar as brothers. A stern, 
uncompromising sense of religious conviction per- 
\ meated the people, and affected them more than 
religion, in the deeper sense, has influenced any 
other race outside of the Hebrews. I would like 
to point out a strong similarity, which is plainly 


The Scotsman in Canada 

manifest, between these two great races, a similarity 
that is almost next to identity. In both peoples the 
Old Testament is lived or re-lived in the life of 
the people ; in both, religion is firm and unbend- 
ing, and the sense of sin is sure and real ; in both 
the theocratic idea in the nation is remarkably 
prominent and deep-seated ; and in both the in- 
tense and almost undying feud between the Church 
and the State or rather the fear of State inter- 
ference on the part of the Church is more than 
remarkable. Certainly no people in modern days 
has appreciated and absorbed the Jewish Scriptures 
as has the Scottish people. Then, in the poetical 
gift and temperament and their general nature they 
are singularly like the Hebrews ; and, sad to say, 
in their weaknesses, especially in their almost fatal 
genius for material success, and subserviency of 
all their highest ideals to the slavery of mere 
gain, the Scots are almost world -brothers to the 

Here we have something more than mere coin- 
cidence. We have, without doubt, a great 
ethnological study, which goes back into the 
remotest ages of human history. But the lesson 
we learn from both peoples is that the abnormal 
individual passion for gain on the part of the 
Jew destroyed the national fabric and alienated 
and scattered the race, and that such a disintegra- 
tion likewise threatens the Scottish nation and race 

* In likening the Scottish people to the Hebrew 
I am paying the highest, the very finest, compli- 

The Scottish Ideal 

ment to the race to which I belong ; because of 
all peoples in the annals of extant human history 
the Jewish is by far the greatest. Supposing we 
were to deny all belief in Christianity. Jesus 
Christ still remains without compare the ideal man, 
the highest type ever produced on earth, and un- 
explainable to the scientific mind ; and the Jewish 
literature is the greatest, ethically and humanly, 
and the one having the most tremendous and 
lasting effect on earth's greatest peoples. But 
if we accept the Divine idea, they are God's chosen 
people ; and if they have become in any sense 
inferior, it is not because of Christ, or their great 
literature, their mighty prophets, poets, rulers, and 
lofty ethics, but because they have allowed a, 
material individualism to degrade and denationalise 
them ; and let the Scot and the average Briton, the 
Canadian and American take warning and beware ! 
I am to that extent a prophet. Give but another 
century to our peoples over-material, over-cosmo- 
politan, over-fond of the present hour, and self- 
worshipping, self-indulgent and vulgar, with 
commonplace surroundings and the idea that they 
are but superior apes and he who lives will see 
a spectacle beside which the Jew will appear 
colossal and noble. 

But it may not be realised that the Scotsman 
has an affinity to another great people of the past, 
namely, the Greek ; and it is the marvellous ad- 
mixture of ethics and reason, of imagination and 
thought, of insight and feeling, that produced the 
Scottish interpretation of the Bible, and the 

VOL. i. c 33 

The Scotsman in Canada 

Scottish quality or level of Christianity, with its 
ethical and yet purely human literature, in Scott, 
Burns, and Carlyle. And I would go even farther. 
I claim to be something of an ethnologist, and 
believe that not all Scotland is north of the Tweed, 
and that the man who produced that wonderful 
combination of the Greek drama and the Hebrew 
conscience, " Macbeth," must have had some drop 
of the Scottish blood, somewhat of the northern 
heredity in his veins. 

This whole subject which we are now consider- 
ing, this historical and prehistorical personality 
of a people so subtle, so tragic, so spiritual, so 
heroic, and so intensely human as the Scottish 
personality, is almost a mystery to the historian 
and the ethnologist, but one which is well worth 
the study of the present-day thinker and 

The whole history of this people is a wonder a 
seeming contradiction. Historians have been too 
narrow and dogmatic in classifying personality. 
To the man who gets beneath the surface, Knox, 
Carlyle, and James the Sixth have an affinity in 
temper ; Burns and James the Fifth are brother- 
poets and individualistic men. It is only the super- 
ficial student, influenced by an ignorant class - 
prejudice, who would separate them. The genius 
for thought, for scholarship, for poetry, for piety, 
the strong, intrinsic love of race, permeated all 
ranks and made them one. But through it all 
there ran the silver or golden thread of a fine 
sense of pride, a high ideal of honour in the man, 

The Scottish Ideal 

a deep conviction that religion is in the life, that 
faith and conduct cannot be separated, and that 
the supreme blossom of all is character. 

To-day, however, the religious element has been 
largely supplanted by a cold, clear tendency of 
the mind working in purely material channels, and 
we now come to the third influence which has 
largely usurped the place of the other two, namely, 
the purely monetary and mercantile element in the 
Scottish people. The genius of the Scotsman for 
business is notorious the world over. He has been 
in the past the principal pioneer in commerce and 
mercantile pursuits. He has shown in this respect 
a single-mindedness and an indomitable force of 
character that has challenged the admiration of 
all peoples. Now, the combination of these 
three elements or influences in Scottish life, 
namely, feudalism, the religious intellect, and the 
genius for material advancement and acquirement, 
produced a wonderfully unique, forceful, and 
picturesque people. But the degeneration came 
when the more commonplace and material element 
crushed out the other two. The importance of the 
other elements may not appear to the average man 
in this age of " Does it pay?" " What is it to 
me? " " It will last our time," and many other 
expressions of a similar spirit or tone. But when 
religious ethics and ideals depart from a people 
that people is surely doomed. Some races cannot 
afford to practise even what others have thrived 
upon. The Saxon can safely be much more 
material than the Scot. But the Celt cannot risk 


The Scotsman in Canada 

the loss of his ideals and the vast dreams of his 
sensitive and subtle imagination. 

It was while the Scotsman was at his best in 
the influences of religion and feudalism that Jie 
pushed forth into the world. It was then that he 
came to Canada and founded this country for 
Britain. It was he who discovered her wilds, named 
her rivers, her mountains, and her lonely outposts. 
It Was he who planted religion, founded institu- 
tions of learning, and placed on them the seal 
of his ideals of culture and piety of that day. 
It was the Scot who largely peopled the wilds, and 
gave a thorough, honest, careful, and conservative 
character to Canadian business and financial life. 
He had much to do with the framing of laws, 
the fostering of legislation and education. This, 
in short, is the story of the sturdy Scotsman of 
the past who came to Canada and accomplished 
so much in the building-up of this country. 

But how does the Scotsman stand to-day? What 
part does he play? Is he a force in the com- 
munity or only an absorbed unit? Have all of 
the ideals which he brought with him wholly dis- 
appeared? We have seen the force which he was 
in the past ; but now, when things have changed, 
can and will the Scot still hold his own? Can 
he be successful under the new conditions? Will 
he, and does he, still hold his former ideals of 
creed, of the home, the family, the State, educa- 
tion and culture, with a sense of honour in public 
places and in commerce, and stability in business? 
Does he will he demand that these shall all be 


The Scottish Ideal 

maintained? It is to be feared not. The signs 
are that he has let go many of these ideals. But 
if we seek the one great Scottish national weak- 
ness, we will discover the answer to all this and 
that weakness is the over-development of the mere 
individual at the expense of the community. In 
short, the Scot has carried this now long-exploded 
democratic idea to an extreme. He has, both here 
and in the old land, perhaps fatally crystallised into 
an ultra-conservative antagonism to any ideal save 
what he calls the " individual good." The com- 
munity to him means nothing any more ; and while 
he is sometimes narrow as regards things which 
do not really matter, he is often careless regarding 
the interests of his religion and faith, his ethics 
and his national ideals, which his fathers struggled 
and died for, and continually sacrifices these in 
his attempts at compromise. 

* Fifty years ago the Scottish faith and ideal were 
a power in this land, and its adherents were un- 
compromising in their determination to perpetuate 
them in the community. But to-day, what a 
change ! A subtle influence has been at work 
(an influence which only he who has closely and 
patiently studied the life of our people can discover) 
to extinguish gradually this spirit and ideal in the 
interests of what has falsely been called toleration, 
but in which, sad to say, the Scotsman himself has 
taken a prominent part. It has been, in short, a 
distinct self-effacement as a community for the 
sake of personal interest and commercialism ; and 
it is just the natural result the virtual self- 


The Scotsman in Canada 

destruction of a race which has bartered its ideals 
and faith, its national dreams and ancestral pride, 
for the false favours of any community which 
demanded the sacrifice. 

At home, in the beautiful old land, the Caledonia 
and Scotia of the past, the country of Bruce and 
Wallace, of Knox and Argyll, of Scott and Burns, 
and a thousand and one other heroes and saints, 
leaders of men and martyrs, sad to say, the con- 
ditions are much the same. The feudalism, Scot- 
land's glory, which Bruce lived and Scott sang is 
virtually dead ; and with it has largely died Scot- 
land's faith, and with them both, it is to be feared, 
has perished the real spirit of that once great 
people. There they lie : a beautiful wreck of a 
former glory and power, buried under a confusion 
of infidelities and petty heresies, and all submerged 
in a vulgar muck of commercialism, which is not 
even true commercialism. 

In Canada we seek for the old spirit, but we find 
it not. The ancient Church of Scotland no more 
acts as a community. To the individual pulpit 
alone is left the attempt to arouse, inspire, and 
anchor the people. The Church as an organisa- 
tion no more stands for anything. It never dreams, 
as a body, of agitating or instituting reforms for 
the community. It has been gradually chained 
and muzzled, chiefly in the interests of party politics, 
and as it was never merely ornamental, it cannot 
live for ever. The Anglican Church, likewise 
leashed and manacled like the Scottish in the 
interests of party politics, may linger long in the 


The Scottish Ideal 

twilight charm, the dim religious light of its 
cultured ritual and its appeal to formalism and 
refinement. But the Scottish Church' has none of 
this outward attractiveness, and when it has lost 
its stern, aggressive Calvinistic personality, with ( 
its historic appeal to rugged truth and national 
and individual conduct, it is in danger of becoming 
merely a part of that vast element of the common- 
place and dreary which dominates present-day life. 
The other great ethical influence of the past was 
the University. But what power in national affairs 
does it wield to-day in Canada or Scotland? Is 
it really the same institution with the same ideals 
and objects for which it was founded? Has it not 
really abdicated its old place? Has it not drifted 
with the selfish tide in the direction of material 
success? Has not the word "success" replaced 
those of " ethics " and " culture " in the scrolls 
of its ideals? Has not the University, which 
originally stood side by side with religion for spirit 
and mind, for the soul and intellect, which demanded 
a place for character and genius in society, which 
really represented the middle, one time ruling, 
classes, and which mothered the formerly dignified 
and cultured professions of law, the Church, medi- 
cine, and the higher education has it not departed 
from its old-time place in the community? Has 
not this institution, this one-time tremendous force, 
which represented faith, scholarship, culture, litera- 
ture, legislation, and justice, which provided for 
the dignity and impeccability of the courts of 
justice, and from which there radiated a general 


The Scotsman in Canada 

influence of learning and refinement, been given 
over to or metamorphosed into a gigantic technical 
or scientific institution, run not so much in the 
interests of human truth or knowledge as in that 
of the mighty dollar? 

In the face of all this in the face of the fact 
that in the Church and the University the only man 
wanted or encouraged is he who can touch men's 
pockets, and not their hearts, minds, or imagina- 
tions ; that the Universities no more contain the 
national prophets and thinkers ; that in the legis- 
lative halls the conditions are similar and real free- 
dom shackled and crushed can you ask if it is 
well with the Scotsman here and in the old land? 




This is my creed, in face of cynic sneer, 
The cavilling doubt, and pessimistic fear ; 
We come from some far greatness ; and we go 
Back to a greatness, spite of all our woe. 

BEFORE dealing with the Scottish settlements 
in Ulster and the New World, we will take 
a short survey of the Old Land and its several 
communities, of the Lowlands and Highlands and 
their different characteristics, which have, through 
a thousand years, guided the fate and evolved 
the spirit of this great people whose migrations 
and settlements are the subject of this work. 

It has been in the past, however, a weakness 
of many chroniclers of New World history to begin 
their account somewhere about the period of the 
Flood or the Roman Conquest of Britain, and 
devote so much of their volume to this ancient 
and much overdone portion of the story as to 
leave little or no room for the real subject 
supposed to be dealt with. 

Now, no such mistaken course will mar or curtail 

The Scotsman in Canada 

this work, which will be solely an account, how- 
ever imperfect, of the Scottish origins and settle- 
ments in Canada. But it will add much to the 
value of the story of these settlements if a brief 
picture of the people under consideration and their 
history and environment in the Old Land be given 
at the outset. 

The northern half of the Island of Great Britain 
has been called North Britain, Scotland, and 
Caledonia. The latter was the ancient name of 
the country, when Scotia comprised what is now 
the province of Ulster in the North of Ireland. 

Caledonia stern and wild, 

Meet nurse for a poetic child, 

Land of brown heath and shaggy wood, 

was the ancient home of the Caledonians who 
kept the Roman cohorts at bay. But when we 
go back to the kingdom of Dalriada in Northern 
Ireland, South- Western Scotland, and Northern 
England, we feel that the origins of these ancient 
peoples, who were the ancestors of the northern 
Celts, are wrapped in a mystery, out of which 
looms the certainty of a tremendous civilisation 
coeval with, if not anterior to, the greatest civilisa- 
tion of remotest antiquity. 

Without doubt, the history of the ancient Britons 
would show, if all the facts were known, that 
they had been one of the three or four great 
kindred races reaching back to Noah and the 
Deluge. The others are without doubt the 

The Scotsman in Scotland 

Egyptian, Hebrew, Greek, and Carthaginian 

Those who in a superficial spirit sneer at the 
old British chroniclers, who assert this high origin, 
have no single proof upon which to base their 
[doubts. If a study of all the evidence is care- 
fully made, there is but one conclusion to arrive 
at with regard to this subject. Everything points 
to the fact that the so-called Darwinian theory 
of evolution is but a partial truth, and not the 
complete truth. That a portion of mankind 
evolved through the ape from the lower species 
may be true. But there is much stronger evidence 
to prove that a portion of mankind has come 
down a long way in the scale of human greatness. 
Indeed, the proof of the fall of man is as plainly 
written in the pages of human history as is that 
of the evolution from the primordial germ. 
Accepting this theory, which is here proclaimed 
for the first time in modern history as a solu- 
tion of the mystery of the human origin, we can 
easily come to a conclusion as to the strong 
kinship in civilisation and ideal between the few 
great races already mentioned. 

Not only is the evidence of the Fall, as it is 
plainly and tersely stated in the sacred Scriptures, 
deeply graven in the whole history and existence 
of mankind, but there is also, as all scientists 
admit, abundant evidence of the fact of the Deluge 
and the Garden of Eden. There is no space 
here to consider this important subject. Suffi- 
cient is it to assert, as a well-authenticated fact, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

the Divine origin of man, which the present writer 
hopes to deal with in a future volume. 

That the ancient history of Britain goes away 
back coeval with that of the Jewish, and beyond, 
is without doubt ; and that the four or five great 
stocks such as the Egyptian, Jewish, Norse, 
Greek, Carthaginian, and British are of a 
common ancestry and descended from colonies 
existing anterior to or at the time of the Deluge, 
is also, beyond dispute, verified by the facts. 

Much harm to the truth has been caused by 
a wrong conception of what is called mythology, 
which is, after all, largely decadent history. The 
simpler an account, the greater proof there is that 
it goes a long way back in the annals of time. 

It has been said of the old British historians that 
they dealt with their eras of a thousand years 
with a magnificent assurance, and marshalled kings 
and dynasties of kings in complete chronology and 
exact succession. They carried their genealogy 
so far beyond the Olympiads that, by the side of 
it, Greek and Roman history seem but a thing 
of yesterday. British antiquity is made to run 
parallel with Egypt's ancient lore and with the 
prophets and kings and judges of Israel. It stops 
with the Deluge and is everything but antedi- 
luvian. The old Welsh-British pedigree goes back 
to Brute, who is the great-grandson of yneas 
the Trojan who lands on the shores of Albion 
in the time of the Prophets Eli and Samuel B.C. 

The pedigree is as follows : Ap -Brutus, Ap- 

The Scotsman in Scotland 

Silvius, Ap-Ascanius, Ap-^neas, Ap-Anchises, 
Ap-Lapsius, Ap-Anarachus, Ap-Troas, Ap-Erich- 
thonias, Ap-Darden, Ap-Jupiter, Ap-Saturnus, Ap- 
Ccelus, Ap-Ciprinus, Ap-Chetim, Ap-Javan, Ap- 
Japheth, Ap-Noachen, Ap-Lamech, Ap-Methusa- 
lem, Ap-Enos, Ap-Seth, Ap-Adda (Adam), Ap- 
Duw (God). 

This tree agrees with that of Genesis, which 
records (chap. x. 2-5): " The sons of Japheth 
were Corner and Javan, and the sons of Javan 
were Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim [Chetim], and 
Dodanim. By these were the isles of the Gentiles 
divided in their lands ; every one after his tongue, 
after their families, in their nations." 

From Brute to Chetim (Kittim) the manuscript 
follows and agrees with the accepted record of 
(so-called) mythological history, Silvius, or, as 
sometimes written, lulus, being the son of 
Ascanius, the son of ^neas, the son of Anchises. 
Thus it goes on through Erichthonias and Darden 
to Ciprius, the father of Ccelus. Here what has 
been called sacred and profane history are inter- 
linked. In other words, they substantiate each 
other, and prove the great historical earthly line 
of the Divine race. To those old historians, to 
quote the words of a modern historian, ^neas 
the Trojan, from whom the Britons came, was 
no more the creation of Virgil than, to us, 
Richard III. is a mere fancy of Shakespeare. 
Also Dardan, Jupiter, and Saturn were not re- 
garded as deities, but once living men, who were 
of Divine origin. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Surely the ancient traditions of a great people, 
like the British, are preferable to any mere modern 
speculation based upon baseless doubt. 

In the face of this pedigiree, it is clearly evident 
that nowhere in the history of any people is proof 
of a primal aristocracy in the race more plainly 
present or hinted at in a thousand witnesses to 
a great and tremendous past than in Northern 

Coming down to the more recent stages of the 
Scottish and Caledonian peoples, we find a region 
divided into two portions by a range of mountains 
called the Grampians. This vast natural rampart 
was a place where a 'great race at different periods 
stood for liberty and independence. It is broken 
by noted passes or glens, through which, at certain 
times, the tide of invasion flowed north or south 
in the stress of the force of the peoples upon 
either verge. North of this line, which stretches 
in a north-easterly direction diagonally across the 
country, was the region of the Gaelic speech and 
the wild imagination and almost lawless spirit of 
the Highlands, and south of it and east was the 
Lowland tongue and the more careful ways of 
men and communities. The northern localities 
common to the Gaelic and the tartan were Argyll, 
Bute, the Western Isles, or Hebrides, Nairn, Inver- 
ness, Ross, Cromarty, Caithness, and Sutherland, 
and portions of Moray, Stirling, Banff, Perthshire, 
Dunbarton, Aberdeen, and Angus. There is 
throughout all this region, especially in the west 
and north, a great strain of the Norse blood and 

The Scotsman in Scotland 

influence, while even in Caithness and largely 
in the east the Lowland dialect is spoken by most 
of the inhabitants. 

There is no space here to dwell upon the many 
attempts to unravel or explain the mystery of the 
Celtic peoples, or to explain the personality of 
the Picts and the Scots. But there is no doubt 
that from the ancient kingdom of Argyll there 
flowed out a civilisation that influenced the culture 
and ethics of all Europe. There at some remote 
period flourished the purest religion and the noblest 
poetry and arts, together with a type of human 
ideal towards life only dreamed of now in the 
twentieth century. 

With such a great past, can we wonder that 
not only the people but also the very environs 
of Scotland are enfolded in a garment of mystery 
and lofty tradition, which have set the place and 
the race among the rarest and most hallowed in 
the history of the world? 

It is a significant fact with regard to Scotland 
that the people still dwelling there, even down 
to the close of the eighteenth century, could look 
back to a tradition of occupancy and race associa- 
tion with the local glen and mountain through 
many centuries into the mists of antiquity. 

Lost in this long vista of historic perspective is the 
origin of the various famous clan communities, with 
their noble and, in some cases, regal feudal rulers, 
whose claims to hereditary kingship went back to 
remote ages . Very significant are the famous earl- 
doms of Ross, Mar, Fife, Orkney, Strathearn, and 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Caithness, which were in truth ab initio, or from 
the 'beginning of time. In the days of Queen 
Mary the Earls of Argyll lived in regality, and 
the Earls of Huntley and Orkney assumed regal 
state, while the chief of the Mackays, with 5,000 
men behind him in the fastnesses of Strathnaver 
and Farr, forced even Queen Mary herself to make 
a treaty with him. No wonder that even to this 
day there is yet an atmosphere of an unconquered 
pride that permeates this country and its peoples, 
as it has no other land or race in modern times. 

The present Castle of Inveraray, the seat of 
the Duke of Argyll, is but a model on a much 
smaller scale of the ancient Castle of Inverlochy, 
which in very early times was the centre of a 
great capital of Caledonian or Scottish civili- 

Twenty-one Highland chiefs fought under Bruce 
at Bannockburn. They were Stewart, Campbell, 
Macdonald, Mackay, Macintosh, Cameron, Mac- 
Pherson, Sinclair, Drummond, Menzie, Sutherland, 
McLean, Ross, McGregor, MacFarlane, Munro, 
McKenzie, Cuming, MacNab, McGuarrie, Mac- 
dougall, and Robertson. Other old families were 
those of Rose of Kilravock, Bannatyne of Kames, 
Buchanan of Buchanan, which were all of ancient 
lineage . 

In 1745 a memorial was drawn up by the Lord 
President Forbes and transmitted to the Govern- 
ment, showing at that time the force of every clan, 
and the number of retainers the chieftains could 
bring into the field. 

The Scotsman in Scotland 

It was, in brief, as follows : 

Campbells in Gaelic, Clan O-Duine ; Chief, 
the Duke of Argyll ; called in Highlands 
MacCallean Mor. And his kinsmen can raise 
5,000 men ; that is, Argyll, 3,000 ; Breadal- 
bane, 1,000 ; and the Barons named Campbell, 
Arkinglas, Auchinbreck, Lochnell, Inverair, and 
others, 1,000. In addition, there is Campbell of 
Calder, and others of the narrie in Dunbarton, 
Stirling, and Perthshire. They are the richest and 
most numerous clan in Scotland. 

Maclean in Gaelic, Clan Lein ; Chief, Sir 
Hector Maclean of Dewart, lands under Argyll ; 
5 oo men. 

Maclachlan Gaelic, Clan Lachlan ; Chief, the 
Laird ; 300 men. 

Stewart of Appin Chief, the Laird ; 300 men. 

Mcdougall of Lorn Chief, the Laird ; 200 

Macdonalds of Sleat Chieftain, Sir Alexander 
Macdonald, in Skye and Uist ; 700 men. 

Macdonald of Clanronald Captain of Clan- 
ronald, in Moidart and Arnaig and Uist, Benbe- 
cula and Rum ; 700 men. 

Macdonald of Glengarry Chieftain, the Laird, 
in Glengarry and Knoidart ; 500 men. 

Macdonald of Keppoch Chief, the Laird. He 
is a tacksman ; 300 men his followers. 

Macdonald of Glencoe Chieftain, the Laird ; 
150 rnen. 

These five chieftains of the Macdonalds all 
claim a lineal descent from Alexander Macdonald, 

VOL. I. D 49 

The Scotsman in Canada 

Earl of Ross ; but none of them have any clear 
document to vouch the same, so that that great 
and aspiring family, who waged frequent wars with 
our Scotch kings, and who acted as sovereigns 
themselves, and obliged most of the clans to swear 
fealty to them, is now utterly extinct. The last 
Earl of Ross had no sons, nor any near male 
relation to succeed him. (The female descent 
in several lines exists to-day in a north of Scotland 
family, and with it the right to the Earldom of 
Ross, both through, and anterior to, the Macdonald 

Cameron A very potent clan in Lochaber ; 
Chief, the Laird of Lochiel ; has a good estate, 
but most of it holds of the Duke of Argyll, and 
the rest of the Duke of Gordon ; 800 men. 

Macleods Two distinct and very potent families 
of old, Macleod of Lewis and Macleod of Harris, 
both extinct and their lands possessed by the Mac- 
kenzie ; Chief, the Laird of Macleod ; he has a 
considerable estate in Glenelg and Skye ; 700 
men. (The representative of the Macleods of 
Lewis was living some years ago in the 
village of Inchnadamph, Assynt, Sutherland. He 
was in poor circumstances, but bore himself with 
the dignity of a gentleman, though living as a 
mere crofter. He is descended from a brother of 
Neil of Assynt.) 

Mackinnons The Laird is chief ; lands in Skye 
and Mull, 200 men. 

There are several persons of rank, and gentle- 
men who are chieftains, commanding many 

The Scotsman in Scotland 

Highlanders in Argyll, Monteith, Dunbarton, Stir- 
ling, and Perthshire, such as the Duke of Montrose 
(Graham), the Earl of Moray (Murray), and Bute 
(Stewart) ; also the Macfarlane, McNeill of Barra, 
MacNab of MacNab, and Buchanan and Colqu- 
houns of Luss, Macnaughtons, Lamont of Lamont, 
who can raise among them 5,000 men. There are 
Border families, Kilravock (Rose), Brodie of 
Brodie, Innis of Innis, Irvine of Drum, Lord Forbes 
and the Earl of Airlie, all loyal except the Ogilvie. 
Few or none have any followers except Lord Airlie 
from his Highland estate. 

Duke of Perth Is no clan family ; the Duke 
is chief of the barons and gentlemen called Drum- 
mond in the Low Country ; commands 300 High- 
landers in Perthshire. 

Robertsons Strowan is chief ; lands in Ran- 
nock and Braes of Athole, Perthshire ; 200 men ; 
500 Robertsons follow the Duke of Athole. 

Menzies Sir Robert of Weem is chief ; a 
handsome estate in Rannock and Appin, Dule, 
Athole ; 300 men. 

Stewart of Grandtully Lands in Strathbane 
and Strathay in Athole ; 300 men. 

Clan Gregor Name called down by Act of 
Parliament. Clan dispersed under name of Drum- 
mond, Murray, Graham, and Campbell, living in 
Perthshire, Stirlingshire, and Dunbartonshire ; 
chief (none) ; 700 men. 

Duke of Athole The Murrays are no clan 
family ; the Duke is chief, head of a number of 
barons and gentlemen of the name in the Low- 

The Scotsman in Canada 

lands ; 3,000 men from his estate and other 
folio wings, such as, Stewarts of Athole, 1,000 ; 
Robertsons, 500, Fergusons, Smalls, Spaldings, 
Ratrays, Mackintoshes ,in Athole, and Maclarens 
in Balquidder. 

Farquharsons The only clan family in Aber- 
deenshire ; chief, Laird of Invercauld ; several 
barons of same name, such as Monaltrie, Inverey, 
Finzean ; 500 men. 

Duke of Gordon No clan family ; the Duke 
is chief of a powerful name in the Lowlands ; 
following in Strathaven and Glenlivet ; 300 

Grant Chief, Laird of Grant ; ,in Strathspey, 
700 men ; in Urquhart ; 150 men. 

Mackintoshes Chief, Laird of Mackintosh ; 800 
men, including McQueens, McBeans, and McGilli- 
vrays . 

Macphersons Chief, Laird of Cluny ; 400 
men ; has lands in Badenoch from the Duke of 

Frasers Of Aird and Stratherrick in Inver- 
ness ; chief is Lord Lovat ; 900 rrien. 

Grant of Glenmoriston A chieftain of the 
Grants ; 150 men. 

Chisholms Chief, Chisholm of Strathglass ; 
200 men. 

Mackenzies Next to Campbells one of the 
most considerable clans ; Chief, the Earl of Sea- 
forth ; in Kintail, Lochbroom, Lochcarron, and in 
the Isle of Lewis, all in Ross -shire, 1,000 men ; 
the Earl of Cromartie, with the Lairds of Gairloch, 

The Scotsman in Scotland 

Scatwell, Killcowie, Redcastle, Comrie, 1,500 men 

Monro Sir Henry of Fowlis is chief ; 300 men. 

Rosses Chief, Lord Ross ; 500 men. 

Sutherlands Chief, Earl of Sutherland ; 2,000 

Mackays Chief, Lord Reay ; 800 men. (Mac- 
kay of Strathy was a leading cadet.) 

Sinclairs Chief, Earl of Caithness ; 1,000 
men ; many of them are under May, Dunbeath, 
Ulbster, Freswick, &c. 

This was the condition of the Scottish clans 
at the middle of the eighteenth century. Since 
then many thousands of kilted children of strath 
and glen have been dispersed to the ends of the 
earth. To-day they are an important element in 
many of the great colonies of the Empire, and, as 
will be shown in this work, have been largely, 
with the United Empire Loyalists, the founders and 
makers of British Canada. 

This short sketch of the Scottish race in the 
Old Land is given here to show frorri what a great 
stock the larger portion of our people have come, 
and through what iron strife of the centuries they 
have achieved their fame as a race. 

With such a past, such an origin, such great 
traditions and ideals, the Scottish peoples in 
Canada, if they do not forget their high origin 
and their race responsibilities, should yet carry 
out in the New World the best ideals of the Old. 
This will be so if they are loyal to the Old Land, 
to the old Flag, to the Crown and the Constitution. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

This they must achieve as a community, here, as 
in Scotland. May we be true to the past : 

We of the ancient people, 

We of the lion line, 

Will a shoulder of earth-hills hold us apart, 

Or billowy leagues of brine? 

The hearts of the far-swept children 

To the ancient mother turn ; 

When the day breaks ! when the hour comes ! 

The world will waken and learn. 




While far and wide their brethren swept, 
To build up Empire fair and free ; 
Or safe at home old Scotland slept, 
Forgetful of old feuds and thralls ; 
These faithful warders trod the walls, 
Sounding their grim old battle calls, 
For freedom, truth and unity. , 

IT must always be pleasant to an historian to 
write of a strong race or stock, just as it is 
a pleasure to be able to describe a rugged moun- 
tain or a great cliff of sea-wall, such as that which 
girds the historic coasts of Antrim, Derry, and 

Among the men of Scottish blood who have 
done so much to build up Canada, none is more 
important than those who came to the country by 
way of the North of Ireland. 

It might be said that they are the only true 
Scotsmen, if one was a stickler for exact history ; 
as in all the old maps of British antiquity, as far 
back as maps such as we have them go, the Scot- 


The Scotsman in Canada 

land of to-day is called Caledonia, and the original 
Scotia is that portion of Ireland, along its northern 
end, represented to-day by the countries above 
mentioned Antrim, Derry, Donegal, and Down. 

It was from this region that the Scotsmen came 
and spread over the southern portion of what is 
now modern Scotland. So that, if history is to be 
carried out literally, the title Ulster Scot is a 
redundancy, and Scot and Caledonian Scot would 
be more nearly correct when speaking of the great 
race dealt with in this work. 

Be this as it may and if we go back far enough 
in history it is strictly true it might also be said 
with equal truth that the first great Scottish settle- 
ment from modern Scotland was that of Ulster in 
the North of Ireland. Ever since the days pf 
Queen Elizabeth there has been a movement of 
emigration from Western and Southern Scotland 
into Ulster ; and so strong has been the movement 
and so persistent the development as a pure stock 
of northern Scottish people, in what is called the 
Scottish Pale, that it might be said that for the 
last four hundred years the province of Ulster has 
been held by Scotland. 

It is not to be denied that there is some of the 
Irish stock as well as much English blood in the 
north. But in every way in blood, religion, 
speech, character, and prejudice the Scotsman has 
dominated, and still dominates, the country. 

For many centuries the Scotsman had ventured 
forth over the Continent of Europe in search of 
(adventure equal to the desire of his spirit for 


The Ulster Scotsman in Canada 

conquest. In most cases he went as a soldier 
and became a professional fighter in other men's 
quarrels, for there was little to do or to be had 
at home. 

But this, the first great colony of adventurers 
who went forth from the land of the heather, was 
of a mature more peaceful and positive in its results, 
though, as the sequel showed, even here the 
Scotsman's share of fighting had to be performed. 

This migration was largely a question of over- 
population in the homeland, so that Scotland 
became too small to hold her children. Then in 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, the 
struggle with England having been settled by the 
union of the Crowns, the Scotsmen, Celts, 
Normans, Saxons, and Danes in their origin, like 
the earlier hordes, men, women, and children, 
began to go forth, and crossing the narrow seas, 
from the Campbelltown, Ayrshire, and Galloway 
ports, swarmed into the North of Ireland, and by 
right of population possessed themselves of the 
land, which they have held, more or less, ever 
since. As one writer puts it : ' The numbers 
which went were large. They took with them their 
Scottish character and their Scottish Calvinism." 
Or, as another writer says : " The foundation of 
Ulster society is Scottish. It is the solid granite 
on which it rests." The story of this the first 
great Scottish colony should evoke a deep interest. 
All Scotsmen should have a pride in its history, 
the tales of its sufferings and struggles. The 
men it has produced are well worthy of the parent 


The Scotsman in Canada 

stock. Perhaps more than those who stayed across 
the Channel have the Ulster men been true to the 
faith and ideals of the Scottish people at their 
strongest period. But the great lesson that they 
have shown to the world is that Ireland where 
inhabited by the Scotsman is a land of the pros- 
perous and the contented. 

It was really King James the Sixth who planted 
his people, brave and true, in this, then new, colony, 
and it was the success of this one which suggested 
the possibility of the second, or New Scotland, 
colony in North America. 

But all colonies must have their leaders or 
founders, and the first Scotsmen interested in lands 
in Ulster were Hugh Montgomery of Braidstone 
and James Hamilton, the first Earl of Clandeboye, 
ancestor of Lord Dufferin. Montgomery also 
became an Irish lord, as Lord Montgomery of the 
Ards of Down, and both obtained extensive land 
grants in the north. This was only the beginning', 
and the great houses of Ranfurly, Castlereagh, 
and many others in Ulster are but branches of 
the Knoxes, Stuarts, Hamiltons, Campbells, Boyds, 
and other famous families and clans of Scotland. 

The following quotation will give a slight con- 
ception of the Scottish element in the North of 
Ireland. Harrison, in his " Scot in Ulster," says : 
" The Scots of the Ards of Down have scarcely 
intermarried with the Irish during the three 
hundred years they have been in the Island." He 
further describes the people of Down and Antrim : 
" It is strange for any man who is accustomed to 


Tlie Ulster Scotsman in Canada 

walk through the southern districts of Scotland 
to cross into Ireland and wander through the 
country roads of Down or Antrim. He cannot 
feel as if he was away from his own kith and kin. 
The men who are driving the carts are like the 
men at home ; the women at the cottage doors 
are, in build and carriage, like the mothers of 
our southern highlands ; the signs of the little 
shops in the villages bear well-known names- 
Patterson, perhaps, or Johnstone, or Sloan ; the 
boy sitting on the * dyke/ with nothing to do, is 
whistling 'A man's a man for a* that.' He goes 
into the village inn and is served by a six-foot, 
loosely hung Scottish Borderer, worthy to have 
served drams to the Shepherd and Christopher 
North ; and when he leaves the little inn he sees 
by the sign that his host bears the name of James 
Hay, and his wonder ceases. He gets within sight 
of the South Derry hills, and the actors in the 
scene partly change. Some are familiar ; the 
smart maid at the inn is very like the housemaid 
at home, and the principal grocer of the little 
village is the very image of the elder who taught 
him at the Sunday School." 

One of the strongest evidences of Scotland in 
the North of Ireland is the great strength of the 
Presbyterian Church. It is a proverb that the 
really strong, old-time or " Black " Presbyterian 
is only to be found in Ulster. Nowhere, as 
Orangeism has shown, has Protestantism such a 
stronghold ; and nowhere has it had to fight so 
long and persistently for its rights and very 


The Scotsman in Canada 

The very men of Derry were, most of them, 
Scotsmen. The historian of the siege was a 
Graham, whose ancestor was among the defenders 
of Enniskillen. The names of the Scottish clergy 
in Derry during the siege were : John Rowan ; 
Thos. Temple ; John Campbell ; Barth. Black ; 
John Knox ; Johnston ; Wm. Carnighan ; 
Thos. Boyd ; John Rowat ; John McKenzie ; John 
Hamilton ; Robt. Wilson ; David Brown ; and 
Wm. Gilchrist. The commanders of sallying 
parties were mostly Scottish, as : Colonel Murray ; 
Captains Noble ; Dunbar ; Wilson ; Adams ; 
Hamilton ; Beatty ; Sanderson ; Shaw ; Wright ; 
Cunningham ; and Majors Stewart and Dunlop. 
Among the names of the leading signers of the 
address to William and Mary by the inhabitants 
of Derry, dated July 29, 1689, were the following 
of Scottish origin : Col. John Mitchelburn ; 
Col. Wm. Campbell ; John McLelland ; Jos. 
Graham ; Wm. Thompson ; Jas. Young ; Alex 
Knox ; Patk. Moore ; Humes ; Robt. Deniss- 
toun ; Marm. Stewart ; Jas. Flemming ; Andrew 
Grigson ; Christopher Jenny ; Thos. Smith ; 
Barth. Black ; Col. John Campbell ; John Cun- 
ningham ; H. Love ; Geo. Hamilton ; Andrew 
Baily ; John Hamilton ; Robt. Boyd ; Ralph 
Fulerton ; Michael Cunningham ; Jos. Johnson ; 
Robt. Bailey ; Danl. McCustin ; John Bailly ; 
Robt. Lindsay ; Francis Boyd ; Wm. Hamilton ; 
Arthur Hamilton ; Jos. Cunningham ; And. 
McCulloch ; Alex. Sanderson ; Arch. Sanderson ; 
Arthur Noble ; Phil. Dunbar ; Geo. White ; 

The Ulster Scotsman in Canada 

Thos. White ; Jos. Gledstanes ; Adam Murray ; 
Henry Murray ; Henry Campbell ; Alex. Stuart ; 
Thos. Johnston ; Jos. Gordon ; James Hains ; 
And. Hamilton ; Jas. Moore ; Nich. White ; Jas. 
Hunter ; Abr. Hillhouse ; Robt. Wallace ; Richd. 
F lemming ; Thos. Lowe ; Jas. Blair ; John 
Buchannan ; Wm. Stewart ; Mathew McLelland ; 
Robt. King; John Logan; Alex. Rankin ; Jas. 
McCormick ; John Cochrane ; Thos. Adair ; John 
Hamilton ; Jas. Case ; and Wm. Montgomery. 
These comprise seventy out of the hundred and 
thirteen names on the address. 

It has wrongly been said that Scottish Ulster 
has produced no men of genius. This statement 
is decidedly misleading. No people in the world 
has produced more noted men than have this breed 
of Ulster Scotsmen. In the Anglican Church in 
Britain and Ireland, some of the most distinguished 
bishops, preachers, and scholars have been of 
Ulster blood. Archbishop Magee, and Boyd- 
Carpenter, the present distinguished Bishop of 
Ripon, are two examples of many noted divines of 
this race. Among soldiers, Sir Henry Torrens and 
Lord Roberts have been men of Ulster descent. 
In literature alone, such names as Browning, Poe, 
Kipling, and the Canadian Drummond are suffi- 
cient to redeem Ulster from the long silence as to 
her men of genius. She has been exceedingly 
prolific in great scholars, divines, poets, soldiers, 
scientists, jurists, business men, and statesmen. 

A great many of the Ulster Scotsmen, during 
the eighteenth century, removed to the United 


The Scotsman in Canada 

States ; and such prominent men as McKinley, 
Roosevelt, Hanna, and James Stewart, the late 
merchant prince, are a few among the thousands 
of prominent Americans who have been proud of 
having the Ulster Scottish blood in their veins. 

Canada is one of the countries which owes much 
to the Ulster Scotsman, who has been a prominent 
factor in her progress and development. There 
is scarcely a part of the country where Ulster 
Scotsmen have not settled. There are many in 
the Maritime Provinces, in Prince Edward Island, 
Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, whose ancestors 
came out in solid settlements, or are mingled with 
the other Scottish elements in the cities, towns, 
and country places. 

The county of Truro, Nova Scotia, was jfirst 
settled by Ulster Scotsmen. In 1761, fifty-three 
families, comprising in all one hundred and twenty 
souls, who had emigrated from Ulster to New 
Hampshire, then a colony of Britain, became dis- 
satisfied and removed to Truro. They came under 
the guidance of Colonel McNutt, himself an Ulster 
Scotsman, who for years had been an active agent 
in the settlement of the Maritime Provinces. 

These emigrants were no poor crofters or out- 
driven fisher-folk. But they were a good inde- 
pendent stock of the Scottish race. They brought 
with them from New Hampshire household 
utensils, farming implements, seed-corn, and 
potatoes, besides over one hundred head of cattle. 
It jwas in the pleasant month of May when they 
arrived at their destination and got their first view 

The Ulster Scotsman in Canada 

of the land that was to be theirs and their 
children's for generations to come. They were, 
for the most part, of the stern Presbyterian stock, 
and the names of many of these first settlers and 
grantees of lands are strong evidence of their 
Scottish blood and general character for meeting 
the obstacles and privations of pioneer life in the 
New World. 

The list of Scottish names on the original grants 
are in this order : James Yuill ; James Yuill, 
jun. ; Alex. Nelson ; James Faulkner ; Andrew 
Gamble ; John Gamble ; Jemet Long ; Wm. 
Corbitt ; W. Corbitt, jun. ; Mathew Fowler 
Wm. Gillmour ; Wm. Nesbitt ; Charles Proctor 
Thos. Gourlie ; Jas. Gourlie ; John Gourlie 
Samson Moore ; James Moore ; James Johnson 
Jas. Johnson, jun. ; Adam Johnson ; James Dun- 
lop ; Thos. Dunlop ; Ely Bell ; John Crawford 
Adam Boyd ; John Morrison ; James Whidden 
Alex. Miller ; Thos. Archibald ; John Rains 
Robt. Hunter ; Wm. Kennedy ; John McKeen 
John McKeen, jun. ; Wm. McKeen ; John Fulton 
Wm. Logan ; Samuel Archibald ; Mathew Archi- 
bald ; John Archibald, jun.; David Archibald; 
Charles McKay ; Alex. McNutt. 

From these settlers have descended some of the 
most noted men and families in the province, in- 
cluding the Dickies and Archibalds ; and they 
have been represented especially by Senator Dickie, 
one of the Fathers of Confederation ; his noted 
son, the late Honourable Arthur Rupert Dickie, 
Minister of Justice for Canada ; the Honourable 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Adams Archibald, Lieut .-Governor of the Province ; 
and Senator McKeen. 

Quebec has also many Ulster Scotsmen among 
her most progressive inhabitants in the cities and 
towns and among her farming population. 

Ontario has a large admixture of this element, 
as is evinced in her strong Orange population. 
Many of the rural classes are of Ulster Scottish 
descent. There is hardly a county in the province 
that has not a large number among its well-to-do 
farmers and townsmen. The counties of Grey 
and Bruce have whole townships of Ulster men, 
who have made loyal and respected citizens and 
subjects of the Empire. They are to be found in 
all walks of life. The Anglican, Presbyterian, 
and Methodist Churches have contained many able 
clergy of this noted stock. Many of Canada's 
leading divines, legislators, jurists, financiers, 
scholars, and writers have been of the Ulster Scot- 
tish stock, whose families, through a period of 
residence in the North of Ireland, trace their blood 
and heredity back through a thousand years of 
Scottish history. It is therefore plain that no 
proper chronicle of the Scotsman in Canada can 
be complete without an account of this great and 
important portion of the Scottish race. 

All through the pages of this work mention will 
be made of the Ulster Scotsmen as they appear 
on the stage of the country's development. 




Over the hazy distance, 
Beyond the sunset's rim, 
Forever and forever 
These voices called to him. 
Westward! Westward! Westward! 
The sea sang in his head; 
At morn in the busy harbour, 
At nightfall on his bed 
Westward! Westward! Westward! 
Over the line of breakers, 
Out of the distance dim, 
Forever the foam-white fingers 
Beckoning, beckoning him. 

ONE of the most remarkable and interesting 
chapters in Canadian history is that dealing 
with the Scottish dependencies in the New World. 
Much has been written of New England, New 
France, and New Amsterdam. But few even among 
scholars know the real history of this page in our 
British colonial annals, and the story of New Scot- 
land in North America is almost unknown to the 
average reader of works on early America. This 
is the more to be deplored, considering that Scots - 
VOL. i. E 65 

The Scotsman in Canada 

men have had so much to do with the subsequent 
development of our country, and form such a large 
and important portion of the population. 

Like many attempts at early colonisation, this 
project, so far as its immediate objects were 
concerned, was destined to failure. But the 
attempt was far-reaching in its consequences. 
Its story reads more like a romance of the 
days of chivalry or a fairy tale than a plain 
chapter of our annals. But in all matters 
which have to do with Scotland and her 
history this element seems inevitable. Then, as 
has ever been the case in connection with the 
Scottish settlement and development of Canada, we 
have here to do with a strong, masterful and am- 
bitious personality, that of Sir William Alexander, 
Earl of Stirling and Viscount Canada, the first great 
Scotsman to couple his name and fame with our 

The story which leads up to the founding of New 
Scotland may be related briefly. 

In 1497 John Cabot and his son Sir Sebastian, 
those adventurous spirits, discovered Cape Breton, 
and set up the flag of Britain on its shores. Thus 
the territory became a part of the dominion of the 
British monarch, Henry the Seventh. Within a 
century afterwards, over three hundred fishing 
vessels were found upon the coasts in the vicinity 
of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. They were of the 
leading sea-going nationalities, British, French, and 
Spanish. But the harbours of the vicinity were 
held by the British. 

Nova Scotia 

A marvellous but not exaggerated account, as 
subsequent history has proved, was given in the 
Old World as to the vast riches of the New. The 
early explorers spoke of the mines of gold and 
silver, the forests rich in furs, the seas, rivers, and 
lakes, teeming with fishes, and there were even 
stories told of precious stones in the far interior 
to the north, and those stories are believed to this 
day. These tales of a vast, wealthy continent 
created a keen rivalry between the leading 
European Governments regarding the exploration 
of this dazzling treasure-house of the Far West.. 

In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert took possession 
of Newfoundland in the name of Britain ; mean- 
while the King of France, Henry the Fourth, had 
sent explorers to colonise Acadia. 

In 1608, Champlain's ship was steered up the 
St. Lawrence by the Scottish pilot Abraham 
Martin. So it was a Scotsman who had to do with 
the founding of Quebec, and gave his name to the 
famous heights. 

It was not until 1613 that Captain Argall, whose 
name suggests the Scottish one of Argyll or 
Ergadia, a brave Briton who had already made a 
name in the Western world by carrying* off the 
famous Indian Princess Pocahontas, captured, with 
a single ship of one hundred and thirty guns, the 
whole vast territory of Acadia, and took possession 
in the name of King James the Sixth of Scotland 
and First of England. 

This great and diligent Scottish monarch, the 
first of the later line of Stuart kings, was both a 


The Scotsman in Canada 

statesman and a scholar, and moreover a man of 
wide knowledge of the world as it then existed ; 
and he at once realised the great possibilities of 
his new possessions in the Far West. He also saw 
that here was a chance to form a rich colony in 
close connection with the great northern kingdom 
of his forefathers, and out of this grew the scheme 
for founding a New Scotland in North America. 
King James was a man of practical brain, and he 
saw that something would need to be done to per- 
suade his northern subjects to take a part in this 
royal project. But though kings can plan, they 
need men of affairs to carry out their schemes, and 
he found the man to his hand in his friend, favourite, 
and brilliant courtier, Sir William Alexander, a poet 
like himself, and, like all large Scotsmen, a 
strange mixture of the man of affairs and the 

That was a great age, like the Elizabethan which 
preceded it, when all from the monarch down were 
poets, scholars, and thinkers, and Alexander, the 
head of the first Scottish-Canadian community, 
could not escape the inspiration for verse -making 
which then prevailed. It was said sneer ingly of 
him and his royal master, that James was a king 
who dared to be a poet, and that Alexander was 
a poet who would found a kingdom. This last 
dream was indeed realised when, two hundred and 
sixty years later, his great fellow-clansman, Sir 
John Alexander Macdonald, proposed the union or 
federation of the British North American provinces 
under the title of the Kingdom of Canada. 

Nova Scotia 

The biography of Sir William Alexander Mac- 
donald, for such was his true name, is one of the 
most romantic and tragic in Scottish history. It 
not only carries the reader back to the peculiar 
relationship which formerly existed between the 
two great clans of Campbell and Macdonald, but 
also introduces us to the Earl of Stirling's first 
patron and friend, Archibald, seventh Earl of 
Argyll, to whom he became tutor and travelling 

Sir William Alexander, afterward Earl of Stir- 
ling, was of distinguished Scottish ancestry. He 
was descended from a collateral branch of the 
great family of whom the famed Somerled was 
the noted progenitor. His ancestor was Alexander 
Macdonald, and a branch of this family was that 
of the Macalisters of Loup, which like the 
Alexanders became residents in Argyllshire, and 
possessed of lands under the lordship of the Earls 
of Argyll. 

Sir William was the only son of Alexander 
Alexander of Menstrie, which place was the family 
seat for many generations, and he was born in 
the manor-house of that place. There is some 
dispute as to the exact date of his birth, but the 
best authorities place it at about 1567. Owing 
to the early death of his father, he was brought 
up by his paternal grand-uncle, a burgess of the 
historic old city of Stirling, and he was probably 
educated at the grammar school of that city under 
Thomas Buchanan, nephew of the famous George 
Buchanan, historian and tutor of James the Sixth. 

The Scotsman in Canada 

Having gained some reputation as a scholar, 
Alexander became travelling companion to Archi- 
bald, seventh Earl of Argyll, with whom he visited 
many European countries, including Italy, France, 
and Spain. This Earl became his friend and patron, 
and introduced him at the court of James the Sixth, 
where he became tutor to the young Prince Henry. 
Alexander's literary ability and general qualities 
appealed to James, and at the King's accession to 
the English throne, the Scottish poet and adven- 
turer became one of the thirty-two gentlemen 
attendants of the Prince of Wales. 

He had, ere leaving Scotland, already made a 
reputation as a poet. " The Tragedy of Darius," 
printed in 1603, was his first contribution to 
Scottish poetry, and was dedicated to the King. 
He wrote several other meritorious works. But 
it is rather of his work as a founder of Canada that 
we must speak here. 

In 1609 he is described as a knight, and soon 
became interested, though without profit, in some 
of the King's schemes to develop the gold and 
silver mines of Scotland. He at this period carried 
on a literary correspondence with the distinguished 
Scottish poet, Drummond of Hawthornden. In 
1614 he became Master of Requests, and in 1620 
the King sought his advice regarding his new 
acquired lands of Acadia, and Sir William wrote 
regarding this adventure : " My countrymen would 
never adventure in such an enterprise, unless it 
were, as there was, a New France, a New Spaine, 
and a New England, that they might likewise have 
a New Scotland." 

Nova Scotia 

This great and promising undertaking at once 
appealed to the poet's daring and active spirit, 
and he determined not to rest until there should 
be a newer Scotland, a " Nova Scotia," in the 
far continent beyond the Hesperides. 

Firmly fixed in this purpose, he obtained from 
the King that the new territory should be called 
New Scotlan'd, and immediately acquired a vast 
territory, which now includes all the Maritime 
Provinces, the peninsula of Gaspe in Quebec, and 
all the islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west 
and south of Newfoundland. This area included 
Anticosti, Cape Breton, and all other adjacent 
islands as far as Newfoundland. The bounds set by 
the King himself were : on the north the river St. 
Lawrence, on the east the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on 
the south the Atlantic Ocean, and on the west 
the river St. Croix to its head, and a line thence 
to run north to the first station for ships, or river 
falling into the great River of Canad r a, and thence 
northward by that river. 

The royal letter, dated August 5, 1621, com- 
municating the King's purpose to the Privy Council, 
is, in part, as follows : 

Having ever been ready to embrace anie good occasion 
whereby the honour or proffete of our kingdome might be 
advanced ; and considering that no kynd of conquest can be 
more easie and innocent than that which doth proceede from 
Plantations, especially in a countrey commodious for men to live 
in.yetremayneing altogether desert, or at least only inhabited by 
Infidels, the conversion of whom to the Christian fayth (intended 
by this means) might tend much to the glory of God ; since 


The Scotsman in Canada 

sundry other kingdoms, as likewise this our kingdome of late, 
vertuously adventring in this kynd, have renued their lands 
considering (praysed be God) how populous that our Kingdome 
is at this present, and what necessity there is of some good means 
whereby Ydle people might be employed preventing worse 
5 courses. Wee think there are manie that might be spared who 
i may be fitt for such a forraine Plantation, being of myned as 
' resolute and bodyes as able to encounter the difficulties that such 
adventurers must at first encounter with as anie other Nation 
whatsoever, and such an enterprise is the more fitt for that our 
Kingdome it doth crave the transportation of nothing from thence, 
but only men, women cattle and victualls, and not of money, and 
maie give a good return of other commodityes, affording the 
means of a new trade at this tyme when traffique is so much 
decayed. For the cause above specifcit, Wee have the more 
willingly harkened to a motion made unto us by Our trusty and 
wellbeloved Counsellour Sir William Alexander, Knight; who 
hath a purpose to procure a forraine Plantation, haveing made 
j choice of lands lying betweene our Colonies of New England 
aud- Newfoundland, both the Governors whereof have encouraged 
i him thereunto. 

Our pleasure is, that after due consideration, if you find this 
course, as wee have conceeded it to be, for the good of that our 
Kingdome, that you grant unto the said Sir William, his heirs 
and assignes or to any other that will joyne with him in the whole 
or in anie part thereof, a Signatour under our Create Seale of the 
sayd lands lying between New England and Newfoundland as 
he shall design them particularly unto yow, to be holden of us 
from our Kingdome of Scotland as a part thereof. 

The Privy Council having consented, a Royal 
Warrant for the Charter was issued on September 
10, 1621, and the Charter passed the Great Seal 
on the 2 Qth of the same month, appointing Sir 
William hereditary Lieutenant of the new colony. 
The patent was embellished with portraits of James 
and his lieutenant. 
72 . 

Nova Scotia 

But the first attempt to carry out the work proved 
a failure. Alexander obtained a royal Charter of 
the Cape Breton portion of New Scotland for his 
friend Sir Robert Gordon of Lochinvar, under the 
title of New Galloway, and dated November 8, 

In 1622, Alexander sent forth his first colonising 
ship to New Scotland. Early in the spring 
she sailed from London to Scotland, where, 
at Kirkcudbright, on Sir Robert Gordon's lands, 
emigrants were to be recruited. But though 
many inducements were offered, only a black- 
smith and a Presbyterian minister were in- 
duced to make the venture. The rest were 
agricultural labourers. The ship sailed from 
Old Scotland in June, but was delayed at the 
Isle of Man until August, and Newfoundland was 
not reached until the middle of September, where 
she was held by a storm. Sir William Alexander 
gives an account of the many difficulties encountered 
in his famous work, " Encouragement to Colonies." 

But the failure of the first vessel to arrive at 
New Scotland did not discourage its ardent Gover- 
nor. A second ship, the St. Luke, sailed in March, 
1623, and arrived at St. John's on June 5th. Im- 
peded by fogs and adverse gales, the emigrants 
finally arrived at Port de Mputon ; but the expedi- 
tion was, like the other, a failure, though by both 
Alexander sustained serious loss to his fortune. 

But he steadily persevered. In 1624 he pub- 
lished his work, " Encouragement to Colonies," 
which is, without doubt, the earliest serious emigra- 


The Scotsman in Canada 

tion literature published in connection with Canada. 
It is a great pity that the British people have not, 
since that date, done more in this way, especially 
during the last century, to direct British emigra- 
tion to the colonies, instead of allowing it to 
scatter over the globe. 

In his work referred to, Alexander included a 
map of New Scotland, and he traced the history of 
colonial enterprise from the days of the sons of 
Noah through the Phoenicians, Greeks, and 
Romans to his century. He praised the Spanish 
energy in establishing transatlantic colonies. He 
spoke of the success of Virginia, and proclaimed 
the discovery of America as the call of Providence 
to Britain to occupy the New World. We, in this 
later day, realising what has since happened, 
should appreciate the efforts, foresight, wisdom, 
and ardour of this, the first great colonist of 
British North America. He also hoped that the 
dignity of the royal sceptre would be further in- 
creased by the plantation of New Scotland, which 
would carry into unexplored tracts the influence of 
British culture and of the Christian faith. He 
described the richness of the country awaitirg its 
inhabitants, and pointed out that each year, like 
to a beehive, Scotland sent forth swarms of her 
people to expend their energies in foreign wars. 
This was only too true at that time and for long 
after, when we remember the famous Scottish 
Brigades, whose activities in different countries of 
Europe are a part of history. But Alexander; 
invited his fellow-countrymen to settle in a country 

Nova Scotia 

where the arts of peace might have full sway, 
where commerce and agriculture might develop, 
and the missionary have a vast field of work. 
Saw visions in the future, round the west 
Of Europe's fading sunsets ; held a hope 
Of some new Paradise for poor men's cure 
From despotisms of old dynasties 
And cruel iron creeds of warped despairs. 

This stirring appeal fell, however, upon stony 
ground. The period was evidently too early a 
one for such attempts to have any real effect. 
And the Governor of New Scotland was forced to 
resort to another method, which had already been 
aHonc ( in settling the Northern Pale of Ulster, or 
that inli Ireland. This was by means of the 
Castle, *hment of the now famous order of Baronets 
of the,vra Scotia, or New Scotland. The Ulster 
grants of Baronets suggested to Alexander the idea 
the fi Scottish Baronets, whereby Scottish land- 
June /rs and younger sons of the nobility might 

An a new noble order and also thereby benefit 
.ormtern colonisation. 

enkgain, on his recommendation, a royal letter 
was issued from the Court of Roystown to the 
Privy Council of Scotland informing the Council 
that Royalty had determined that the colonisation 
of New Scotland shouJi succeed, and that the 
King himself was, in thi^ connection, about to 
establish a new order of Baronets. 

To this the Council, under the guidance of 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Alexander, agreed, and in its reply, dated Novem- 
ber 23, 1824, asked that the honour be kept select, 
and given only to those of station, birth, and 
fortune ; and it also suggested that the scheme 
of colonisation might relieve Scotland of many of 
her surplus population. There were twelve signa- 
tures to the Council's answer, among them those 
of the Earls of Mar, Morton, and Lauderdale. 
The whole text of the royal letter, the reply, and 
the subsequent royal proclamation, are given in 
the Register of Royal Letters. TLe proclamation 
recapitulated the substance of the Council's reply, 
and invited the leading Scottish gentlemen to con- 
tribute to the colonisation fund and become 
members of the order of Baronets of New Scotland, 
and to repair for enrolment, either by pe>P^^-or 
agent, to the Lords of the Council. isdom, 

Even this apparent reward of hono\ist of 
aspirants did not have the desired effect, a** the 
William renewed his appeals in the form of a-r in- 
mandate dated March 23, 1624-5, inviting c^hich 
dates to apply to him personally or to his a*e of 
Sir John Scott, Knight ; and the fee He 
3,000 merks was reduced to 2,000, to itsa 
applied strictly to colonial purposes. rikf 

But the whole scheme was again retarded'' by 
a grave event, the death of the King on Sunday, 
March 27, 1625, just four days after the date 
of the royal missive referred to. 

However, on May 28th, the first three Baronets 
of Nova Scotia were made in the persons of the 
famous Sir Robert v Gordon, Knight, younger son 

Nova Scotia 

of the Earl of Sutherland, who thus became premier 
baronet of Nova Scotia ; William Keith, Earl 
Marischal ; and Alexander Strachan of Strachan. 
The next day five more were added : Sir Duncan 
Campbell of Glenorquie, Knight ; Robert Innis of 
Innis ; Sir John Wemyss of Wemyss, ancestor to 
the Earl Wemyss ; David Livingston of Dunipace ; 
and Sir Robert Douglas of Glenbervie. On 
July ist Charles the First granted to Sir William 
Alexander a charter of Novodamus, with a re- 
grant of all lands, powers, and privileges cited 
in the former charter, and additional clauses 
respecting the order of Baronets. By the new 
arrangement, Sir William resigned all his lands 
in New Scotland to the King, who re-granted them 
to the different baronets. It was also provided 
that infeftment should take place at Edinburgh 
Castle, as New Scotland was already made a part 
of the kingdom of Scotland. The whole of the 
grants were afterwards ratified and confirmed in 
the first Parliament of Scotland at Edinburgh on 
June 28, 1633, the King himself being present. 

An additional clause also promised that the 
former grant would be confirmed by Parlia- 

Under the charter the baronets were to be 
barons of large territories in New Scotland, which 
was parcelled out among them. The first created 
received, each, estates six miles in length by three 
in breadth. 

The second proclamation, that under Charles the 
First, was issued on August 31, 1625, giving the 


The Scotsman in Canada 

rank, powers, and responsibilities of the under- 
takers who became baronets. 

The King took a deep interest in the new order. 
He even wrote strong letters of rebuke to the 
Earl of Stair and others who were opposed to 
the making of the new baronets. Among the 
others was the Laird of Wemyss, who received a 
sharp summons to take advantage of the oppor- 
tunity of acquiring the offered rank, which he 
accepted, together with the promise that it would 
lead to higher promotion. 

There are some facts not generally known to 
the average student in connection with the Nova 
Scotia baronetcies. One of these is, that by right 
the titles are connected with New Scotland, rather 
than with the Old Land. For instance, the Camp- 
bell Baronetcies of Ardnamurchan and Auckin- 
breck, so-called, are rather New Ardnamurchan 
and New Auckinbreck in the Gaspe portion of 
New Scotland. Likewise the Laird of Wemyss 
became Sir John Wemyss, Baronet of New 
Wemyss. Thus it is seen that the whole under- 
taking was indeed the creation of a great Canadian 
aristocracy, whereby a long list of noted Scottish 
families became the nobility, though now in title 
only, of a great part of Maritime Canada and 
Southern Quebec. This significant historical fact 
should be of deep interest to all Canadians of 
Scottish extraction. 

The first Baronet of Nova Scotia, Sir Robert 
Gordon, was so created May 28, 1625, and the 
last to be created was Craigie of Gairsay in 1707 

Nova Scotia 

The descendants of these Baronets of Canada 
have, many of them, been since connected with 
the history of Canada, as governors, soldiers, 
colonists, statesmen, clergy, and in other important 
walks of life. Some of these families have become 
extinct and others lost to history, the titles becom- 
ing dormant through the loss of the rightful heir. 
It is known that some cadets of these families 
have drifted to the colonies, and have there lost 
sight of their connection with this old historic 
order of lesser nobility. 

The scheme of colonisation went steadily on. 
Sir William had been made Secretary for Scot- 
land, as well as Lieutenant of New Scotland. 

A small fleet was then announced as being in 
preparation to proceed to the new colony. The 
royal letter containing this pronouncement is 
dated: " Why thall," January 17, 1627. Money 
was also furnished from the royal Treasury to the 
amount of six thousand pounds . The ships, bearing 
the suggestive names of the Eagle and Morning 
Star, finally got under way. A Captain David 
Kirk, a colonist of Scottish descent, whose people 
had settled in France, was appointed Deputy- 
Admiral under Sir William. With a small force, 
he defeated the French squadron bound for Quebec 
and Port Royal, and captured eighteen transports. 
This gave prestige to Sir William's scheme, and 
fourteen patents of baronetcy were added between 
October, 1627, and February, 1628. 

Alexander now chartered new vessels, and his 
son and heir, Sir William, who was made Knight 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Admiral of New Scotland, sailed with four ships 
in May, 1628, carrying seventy colonists, who were 
safely landed at Port Royal, now Annapolis. Some 
English adventurers now attempted to procure the 
right of trafficking with the new colony, but were 
frustrated, and a royal patent was granted to Sir 
William Alexander the younger and others, as 
" sole traders " in the Gulf and River of Canada, 
and they were empowered to settle a plantation 
" within all parts of the gulf and river above those 
parts which are over against Kebeck [Quebec] 
on the south side, or above twelve leagues below 
Todowsack [Tadousac] on the north side." 

They were also, on February 4, 1629, em- 
powered " to make a voyage into the Gulf and 
River of Canada and the parts adjacent for the 
sole trade of beaver, wools, beaver skins, furs, 
hides, and skins of wild beasts." 

Sir William, the elder, was now made Keeper 
of the Signet for Scotland, with a deputy at Edin- 
burgh ; and, to further his colony, he established 
in 1627 a shipping port at Largs at the mouth of 
the Clyde, and secured a charter to build a free 
port and haven at that place " for advancing trade 
and commerce between the Old World and the 
New." This was the first beginning of what after- 
wards developed into the world-wide shipping and 
vast trade of Glasgow and the Clyde. 

Sir William and the King intended that Nova 
Scotia should be, in the New World, the same com- 
plement of Scotland as the sister Province of New 
England was to the mother country from which 

Nova Scotia 

it derived its name. It must not be forgotten, 
however, that Nova Scotia was a royal colony. 
Much injustice has been done to the memory of 
James the Sixth of Scotland and First of England. 
He was in many respects a man far in advance 
of his times. His colonial policy may have been 
paternal, but it was not any the worse because 
of that. It was certainly eminently practical and 
far-seeing, and decidedly commercial in its object. 
But the difficulty was to get men to leave their 
homes and adventure over an unknown sea into 
a far country, unless they were compelled thereto 
by persecution, a strong unrest, or a dissatisfac- 
tion with their own surroundings. It was in that 
age a difficult matter to move any people to 
emigrate, and hence the failure in interesting the 
people of Scotland in the new colony. 

That the scheme was strong in the mind of 
James is evident, as on his death -bed he referred 
to it plaintively but earnestly as "a good work, 
a royal work, and one beneficent to the kingdom 
in general," and he left it as an heritage of duty 
to his royal son to carry out. His object had 
been, no doubt, to found on the American conti- 
nent a country which should be a part of his 
kingdom of Scotland, and joined to it by bonds 
of sentiment and mutual commerce. It is a great 
pity that this great scheme, as originally intended 
by the King and Sir William Alexander, was not 
carried out in its entirety. The founding of the 
order of Baronets and Barons of the new commu- 
nity was for the sole purpose of interesting the 

VOL. I. F 8 1 

The Scotsman in Canada 

well-to-do people in this important scheme. Those 
writers who have sneered at or ignored this impor- 
tant undertaking have certainly missed the real 
significance of the adventure. If it had been made 
successful, what a blessing it would have been 
to the New World 1 . 

The premier baronet of New Scotland, Sir 
Robert Gordon, was created by Charles the First 
on May 28, 1625, and received a grant of 
16,000 acres of land in New Scotland. By 
July 1 9th nine other baronets with similar grants 
were added, and by 1630, fully fifty in all were 
created; and between 1663 and 1707, when the 
union of Scotland and England occurred, one 
hundred and twenty had been created. 

In the year 1845 tne memorandum 1 on the Nova 
Scotia question stated that there were in Great 
Britain one hundred and sixty baronets of this 
order, of whom forty were peers of the realm. 

The following is the correct roll of the baronets 
of Scotland and New Scotland, with date of 
creation and designations. 

1625 May 28. Gordon of Gordon (Sir Robert), 

Premier Bt Nova Scotia 

Strachan of Strachan New Brunswick 

Keith, Earl Marischal t) 

May 29. Campbell of Glenurchy (Mar- 
quess of Breadalbane) ... Anticosti 
Innis of New Innis (Duke of 

Roxburgh) ... 

Wemyss of New Wemyss (Earl 

of Wemyss) 

May 30. Livingston of Dunipace ... New Brunswick 

Nova Scotia 

1625 May 30. Douglas of Douglas New Brunswick 

July 14. Macdonald of Macdonald (Lord 


July 19. Murray of Cockpool (Earl 


Aug. 30. Colquhoun of Colquhoun ... Nova Scotia 
Aug. 31. Gordon of New Cluny 

(Marquess of Huntly) ... New Brunswick 

Sept. i. Lesly of Lesly 

Sept. 2. Gordon of New Lesmure ... 

Sept. 3. Ramsay of Ramsay 

Nov. 17. Forester of Corstorphine (Earl 

Verulam) Nova Scotia 

Dec. 28. Erskine of Erskine Anticosti 

Graham of Braco 

Hume of Palworth 

1626 Mar. 30. Forbes of Forbes New Brunswick 

Mar. 31. Johnston of Johnston 

Apr. 21. Burnett of Leys Burnett ... 

Apr. 22. Moncrieff of Moncrieff ... 

Apr. 24. Ogilvie of New Carnnosie 
May i. Gordon of Lochinvar (Viscount 


June i. Murray of Murray 

July 18. Blackadder of Blackadder ... Anticosti 

Sept. 29. Ogilvy of Ogilvy, Innerquharity New Brunswick 

1627 Mar. 18. Mackayof Reay (Lord Reay)... Anticosti 

Mar. 28. Maxwell of Mauldslie New Brunswick 

Stewart of Bute (Marquess of 


Apr. 1 8. Stewart of Corswall (Earl of 


May 2. Napier of Napier (Lord Napier) 

June 25. Livingston of Kennaird (Earl 

of Newburgh) Anticosti 

July 4. Cunningham of Cunningham... 

July 17. Carmichael of Carmichael ... Nova Scotia 

July 19. McGill of McGill Anticosti 


The Scotsman in Canada 

1627 July 20. Ogilvy of Banff (Lord Banff)... New Brunswick 
Oct. 1 8. Johnston of New Elphinstone 

Nov. 21. Cockburn of Cockburn ... 

Dec. 13. Campbell of Lundie-Campbell Anticosti 
Campbell of Aberuchill ... 

1628 Jan. i. Acheson of Monteagle (Earl 

Gosford) ... 

Jan. 10. Sandilands- of Sandilands (Lord 


Montgomery of New Skilmorly 

(Earl of Eglinton) 

Jan. 12. Haliburton of Pitcur 

Campbell of New Auckinbreck 

Innis of Balveny Nova Scotia 

Jan. 14. Campbell of New Ardnamur- 

chan Anticosti 

Feb. 19. Hope of Craighall 

Feb. 22. Skene of Curriehill New Brunswick 

Preston of Preston Airdrie ... 

Gibson of Durie Anticosti 

May 14. Crawford of Kilbirnie 

Riddell of New Riddell 

May 15. Murray of Blackbarony ... 
May 16. Murray of Elibank Murray(Lord 


May 21. Cadell of Cadell 

Mackenzie of Tarbat (Earl of 


June 20. Elphinstone of New Glasgow New Brunswick 
Sept, 29. Forbes of Castle-Forbes (Earl 

Granard) Nova Scotia 

Hamilton of Killach (Down) 

(Marquess of Abercorn) 
Oct. 2. Stewart of Ochiltree (Earl of 


Barrett, Lord Newburgh ... New" Brunswick 
1629 June 26. Bruce of Stenhouse 

Nicholson of Lasswade . Anticosti 


Nova Scotia 

1629 June 26. Arnot of Arnot 

June 28. Oliphant of Oliphant 

Agnew of Agnew 

Keith of Ludquhairn 

Nov. 30. St. Estienne of La Tour 

1630 Mar. 31. Hannay of Mochrum 

Apr. 20. Forbes of New Craigievar ... 
Apr. 24. Stewart (Lord Ochiltree) 


Crosbie of Crosbie Park Wick- 

May 12. St. Estienne of St. Denniscourt 
July 24. Sibbald of Rankeillor Sibbald 
Oct. 2. Murray of New Dunearn 
Nov. 13. Richardson of Pencaithland ... 
Nov. 25. Maxwell of Pollock 

Cunningham of New Robert- 

1631 Mar. 5. Wardlaw of Wardlaw 

June 2. Sinclair of Canisby (Earl of 


June 18. Gordon of New Embo 

Sept. 3. McLean of Movaren 

1633 Dec. 22. Balfour of Denmiln 

Dec. 25. Cunningham of Auchinharvie 

1634 June 7. Vernat of Carington (York- 


Bingham of Castle bar (Mayo) 

(Earl of Lucan) 

Munro of Foulis 

Foulis of Colinton 

1635 Jan. 6. Hamilton of Hamilton (Lord 


June 8. Gascoine of Barnbow (York- 

June 1 8. Norton of Chestone (Suffolk)... 

June 29. Pilkington of Stainlie (York- 


Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick 

Nova Scotia 


New Brunswick 


Nova Scotia 


Cape Breton 

The Scotsman in Canada 

1635 Sept 26. Widdrington of Cairntington 

(Northumberland) Cape Breton 

Dec. 10. Hay of Smithfield 

Dec. 19. Bolles of Cudworth (Notts) ... 

Raney of Rutain (Kent) ... 

1636 Feb. 17. Fortesque of Salden (Bucks) ... 
Feb. 20. Thomson of Duddington ... 
June 17. Browne of Neale (Mayo) (Lord 


June 1 8. More of Longford (Notts) ... 

Abercombie of Birkenbog ... 

Sinclair of Stevenson 

Curzon-Keddlestone (Derbysh.) 

(Lord Scarsdale) 

Nov. 21. Bailie of Lochead 

1637 Jan. 16. Nicholson of Carnock 

Mar. 13. Preston of Valley field 

July 3 1. Kcr of Greenhead 

The baronets created from 1638 to 1707 were : 
1638, Pollock of Jordanhill ; Musgrave of Hayton 
Castle ; 1639, Turing 1 of Foveran ; 1642, Gordon 
of Haddo (Earl of Aberdeen) ; 1646, Hamilton 
of Silverton Hill; 1648, Seton of Abercorn ; 
.1651, Primrose of Chester (Earl of Rosebery) ; 
1663, Carnegy of Southesk ; Hay of Park ; 1664, 
Murray of Stanhope ; Dalrymple of Stair (Viscount 
Stair) ; Sinclair of Longformacus ; 1665, Purves 
(Hume Campbell) of Purves ; Malcolm of Bal- 
beadie; 1666, Menzies of that Ilk; Dalzell of 
Glencoe (Earl of Carnwath) ; Erskine of Alva 
;(Earl of Rosstyn) ; Erskine of Cambo (Earl of 
Mar and Kellie) ; Wood of Boyentown ; Elliot 
of Stobs ; Ramsay of Banff ; 1667, Shaw-Stewart 
of Greenock ; Don of Newton ; Douglas of Kel- 

Nova Scotia 

head (Marquess of Queensberry) ; 1668, Barclay 
of Pierston ; 1669, Wallace of Craigie ; Cun- 
yngham of Caprington (now Dick-Cunyngham, 
Baronet of Preston Field) ; 1671, Halkett of Pit- 
firrave ; Cockburn of that Ilk ; Home of Black- 
adder ; Scott of Ancrum ; 1672, Cunningham of 
Corsehill ; Ross of Balnagowan ; Jardine of 
Applegirth ; 1673, Murray of Ochertyre ; Mac- 
kenzie of Coul ; 1675, Hamilton of Preston ; 1679, 
Clerk of Penicuik ; Cochrane of Ochiltree (Earl 
of Dundbnald) ; 1680, Baird of Saughton Hall ; 
Dundonald ; 1680, Baird of Saughton Hall; 
Maitland of Hatton (Earl of Lauderdale) ; 1681, 
Maxwell of Montreath ; 1682, Maxwell of Pol- 
lock ; Kennedy of Culzean (Marquess of Ailsa) ; 
Bannerman of Elsick ; i68j, Stewart of Grand- 
tully ; Pringle of Stitchel ; Maxwell of Sprinkell ; 
Seton of Pitmedden ; 1685, Grierson of Lag ; Kil- 
patrick of Closeburn ; Laurie of Maxwelton ; 
Dalzell of Brims ; Montcrieff of that Ilk ; 1686, 
Broun of Colstoun ; Kinlock of Gilmerton ; 
Nicholson of Tillicoultry ; Gordon of Park ; 
1687, Calder of Muirton ; Stuart of Allanbank ; 
Hall of Dunglas ; Thriepland of Fingask ; 1688, 
Dick-Lauder of Fountainhall ; Grant of Dalvey ; 
1693, Stewart of Coltness ; Dunbar of Burn; 
1698, Dalrymple of North Berwick ; Dalrymple 
of Cousland (Viscount Stair) ; 1700, Mackenzie 
of Gairloch ; Forbes of Foveran ; Livingstone of 
\Vestquarter ; Johnstone of Westerhall ; Elliot of 
Minto .(Earl of Minto); Dunbar of Northfield ; 
1702, Cunninghame of Milncraig ; Grant -suttie of 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Balgone ; 1703, Mackenzie of Scatwell ; Cathcart 
of Carleton ; Ferguson of Kilkerran ; Reid of 
Barra ; Hay of Alderston ; 1704, Murray of 
Melgun (Count Murray) ; Wemyss of Bogie ; 
Grant of Grant (Earl of Seafield) ; Sinclair of 
Dunbeath ; Wedderburn of Blackness; 1705, 
Grant of Monymusk ; Holbourne of Kirshie ; 
1706, Gordon of Earlston ; Naesmith of Posso ; 
Dunbar of Hempriggs (Lord Duffus) ; 1707, Dick 
of Preston Field (also Baronet of Capington) ; 
Stewart of Tillicoultry ; Cragie of Gairsay. 

It is interesting to trace the representatives or 
scions of these old houses who have since then been 
connected with Canada. There are descendants 
of Sir Robert Gordon's elder sister, Lady Jane 
Gordon, living in Canada to-day. The great 
Bishop Strachan represented well his family or 
clan, as the first Bishop of Nova Scotia repre- 
sented the Inglis family. A Douglas was one 
of the founders of British Columbia, and the 
Macdonalds have been notable. A Ramsay, Lord 
Dalhousie, was a noted Governor. Mackay of 
Reay has descendants in Canada. The noted 
Bishop Stewart of Quebec was a younger son of 
the Earl of Galloway. Several of the Campbell 
families, such as Arkinglas, Auchinbreck have 
representatives, and the distinguished chief of the 
clan was a Governor. No clan on the list but 
has had some one of its name playing an im- 
portant part in the subsequent life of the whole 
country from Cape Breton to Vancouver. 

The map of New Scotland, issued by Sir William 

Nova Scotia 

Alexander in 1630, is exceedingly interesting. It 
shows New France on the north bank of the St. 
Lawrence, with Kebec (Quebec) and the river 
Saguenay and Tadousac ; and New England 
parcelled out among the many English adven- 
turers. The St. Croix, which to-day is the 
boundary, is there called the Tweed, which, as 
that river separated England and Scotland, so the 
Tweed of the New World separated New England 
on the south-west from New Scotland on the north- 
east. The St. John River, in what is now New 
Brunswick, was called the Clyde, and the Bay of 
Funday was called Argal Bay, and the Sound 
west of Prince Edward Island, which had no name, 
was called the " Forthe " ; the St. Lawrence was 
called " the great river of Canada," and the gulf 
" Golfe of Canada." One of the large rivers 
running north into the St. Lawrence was called 
the " Sulway," and all the land south of the St. 
Lawrence belonged to New England and New 
Scotland. The latter was divided into two pro- 
vinces. All, now New Brunswick, and all Quebec 
from the Sulway down south of the St. Lawrence 
with Anticosti, was the Province of Alexandria ; 
while what is now Nova Scotia, with Cape Breton 
and Prince Edward Island, was the Province of 
New Caledonia. In this map the southern part 
of Newfoundland is called Alexandria. 

Sir William Alexander, in his " Encouragement 
to Colonies," gives an insight into his own 
personality, his scholarship, and original thought. 
The student reading this important work by this 


The Scotsman in Canada 

remarkable man, in the light of subsequent history 
and research, cannot but realise that his insight 
into the history of the human race was far beyond 
the common, and that his knowledge of the earth's 
surface and the emigration of the races, even those 
of the remote East and West, was that of no 
ordinary person. 

History will yet acknowledge that this, the first 
Scottish coloniser of America, was one of the great 
men of history, and, like Sir Walter Raleigh, 
lofty soul, whose imagination and aspiration for 
his race went far beyond his native borders and 
his own day and generation. Faults he, no doubt, 
had, as had Columbus, Chantplain, and Cabot. 
But his signal virtues of insight, vast courage, 
and imagination, his great knowledge of the New 
and Old Worlds both East and West, his deep 
scholarship, his indomitable energy, all directed 
toward the opening up of new worlds in the 
West, place him high up in the ranks of that 
immortal band of the world's adventurers" The 
Discoverers " who 

Feared no unknown, saw no horizon dark, 
Counted no danger, dreamed all seas their road 
To possible futures; struck no craven sail 
For sloth or indolent cowardice ; steered their keels 
O'er crests of heaving ocean, leagues of brine, 
While Hope, firm, kept the tiller ; Faith, in dreams, 
Saw coasts of gleaming continents looming large 
Beyond the ultimate of the sea's far rim. . . . 
Souls too great for sloth 
And impotent ease, goaded by inward pain 
Of some divine, great yearning restlessness, 

Nova Scotia 

Which would not sit at home on servile shores 
And take the good their fathers wrought in days 
Long ancient time- ward, reap what others sowed; 
But, nobler, sought to win a world their own, 
Not conquered by others, but a virgin shore, 
Where men might build the future, rear new realms, 
Of human effort ; forgetful of the past 
And all its ill and failure ; raising anew 
The godlike dreams of genius, knowing only 
Immortal possibility of man 
To grow to larger vastness, holier dreams. 

We know their story, read the truth, where they 

Knew only in man's hope and loftier soul, 

Which strove and dared and greatly overcame, 

Conquering scorn of man and veils of doubt, 

Wresting from Nature half her secret, cruel, 

Wherewith she darkens down in glooms apart 

The mystery of this planet. . . . 

We marvel at that stern defiance, where 

A single man in a degenerate age 

Would throw the gauntlet down against a world. 

We are a part of that great dream they dreamed, 

We are the witnesses that they were right, 

And all the small and common minds were wrong, 

The scorners of their faith, the laughers-down 

Of their sublime enthusiasms ; like as all 

Dim ages of this world have heard and seen ; 

Yea, we are witnesses that they who hoped, 

And greatly planned, and greatly dreamed and dared, 

Were greater and more godlike, truer souls 

And wiser in their day than those who sat 

With shaking head and shallow platitudes, 

Made foolish, vulgar prophecy of defeat. 

We are the dream which they did dream ; but we 
If we are great as they were, likewise know 


The Scotsman in Canada 

That man is ever onward, outward bound 
To some far port of his own soul's desire ; 
And life is ever the same in East or West, 
And human nature lost in its own toils 
Of earthly strivings, loses that gold thread 
Of life's sincerity, repeating o'er again 
The grim despotic tyrannies of old. 
All lands alike to tyrants are a spoil, 
From ills of race no continent is immune, 
We bear with us the despot in our blood. 

And we, who have no continents new to find, 
No shadowed planet darkening back our dream, 
We, too, as they, are earth's discoverers 
Dreaming far peaks of greatness on ahead, 
If we but strive and beat our weakness down, 
Setting our sails, invincible, for those ports, 
Beyond the common, sheltered shoals of self ; 
Cleaving with daring keel those open seas 
Of larger life, those heaving floors of hope; 
Marking our course by those fixed stars, alone 
Forever steadfast, witnesses of God ; 
Pointing to continents vast of holier dream. 




Iron-welded, O my people! Saxon, Celt, 
Victorious Northmen ; strenuous, masterful ! 
Not to be strangled in time's ocean flood, 
Sucked dawn in vortex of old ruin dire ; 
But to remain, contend, depose and rule. 



O valiarft venturers on the deep ! 
Whence bound ? Where steering ? 
Toward life and hope beyond the sweep 
Of old dead daring ! 

^T^HE history of the most noted of the Scottish 
A communities of Nova Scotia and the Mari- 
time Provinces, that of Pictou, is an important 
chapter in the annals of the Scottish race in 

It has two distinct periods. First, that dating 
from the earliest British settlement in 1765 to 
the arrival of the Hector in 1773 > an d the second, 
that of the direct Scottish settlements commencing 


The Scotsman in Canada 

with the arrival of that ship, and continuing until 
late in the first half of the nineteenth century. 

Among the early pioneers of the province, and 
especially in this locality, were rriany persons of 
Scottish and Ulster-Scottish stock, who had much 
to do with the early settlement and development 
of the province. In the early half of the 
eighteenth century several persons had already 
secured and taken up large tracts of land. 
Among these ambitious landowners was the 
subsequently prominent American revolutionist, 
Benjamin Franklin, who was in truth one of the 
greatest and most covetous landgrabbers and 
absentee landlords that our continent has ever 

In a letter from the Lieutenant -Governor to 
the Lord-Commissioner of Trades and Plantations, 
under date April 30, 1765, it is shown that 
several persons had arrived from Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, and other colonies with the object 
of settlement. Prominent among these was 
Alexander McNutt, who with his associates applied 
for very extensive grants. He is described by 
Haliburton as an enthusiastic adventurer from the 
north of Ireland, and had already helped to settle 
Truro, Onslow, and Londonderry. Two of McNutt's 
associates were William and Richard Caldwell, 
also north of Ireland Scotsmen. The amount of 
their grants reached hundreds of thousands of 
acres . 

This grant was called the Irish (more properly 
the Ulster-Scottish) grant, or that given to Scots 

The Pictou Settlements 

from Ayrshire and the other parts of Scotland 
who had settled in Ulster before removing to 

The other important gtant of lands was called 
the Philadelphia grant. It is dated October 31, 
1765, and is granted to several persons, among 
them the Reverend James Lyon, Thomas Harris, 
and Robert Harris ; the whole grant was for 
180,000 acres. In connection with this grant, 
which is of special interest as being closely con- 
nected with the early history of Pictou, the real 
promoters were Lyon and the two Harrises, with 
Dr. John Harris. The Rev. James Lyon, as his 
name shows, was a Scotsman from Ulster. The 
Harrises, Mathew and John, says the chronicle, 
were of the Scotch-Irish race, their ancestors, 
Edward Harris and Flora Douglas, having left 
Ayrshire in Scotland in the reign of Charles the 
Second, losing a fine estate for their attachment 
to Presbyterian worship. They settled near 
Raphoe, in the county of Donegal, Ireland, 
where so many other Scotsmen had settled since 
the Scottish plantation in 1608. Thomas, grand- 
son of Edward, and father of Mathew and John, 
and an elder son Robert, were members of the 
Philadelphia Company. Thomas was then of 
Maryland, and his son John a physician in Phila- 
delphia. John, the younger son, had most to do 
with the Pictou settlement. He was born on 
July 1 6, 1739. He acted as attorney for the Com- 
pany, recorded all the deeds in the vicinity, was 
the first magistrate, being appointed in 1769, and 


The Scotsman in Canada 

first registrar of deeds. He at first lived near 
Browns Point, but about 1778 removed to 
Onslow, became Clerk of the Peace, a Member 
of the Assembly for Truro, 1779 to 1785, and died 
in Truro April 9, 1802. His descendants are 
numerous in Colchester, Pictou County. His son 
John was Sheriff of Pictou. Mathew Harris was 
born in 1731 or 1735. His son Thomas was a 
surveyor of much land in Colchester, and Sheriff 
of Pictou. He had many children. One daughter 
married John Patterson and was ancestor of the 
Rev. George Patterson, the historian of Pictou 

The immediate result of this grant was the 
arrival of a small brig*, the Hope, from Phila- 
delphia, bringing the first little colony, consist- 
ing of only six families, intluding the Harrises, 
already described. Dr. Harris, being 1 the agent, 
was of the number, and the night after they reached 
the harbour Mrs. Harris gave birth to a son on 
shipboard, Thomas Harris, afterwards Clerk of the 
Peace, who died in 1809, and was the first British 
settler born in Pictou. Among the others on the 
Hope was John Rogers, with a wife and four 
children. He was a native of Glasgow, Scotland, 
as was his wife, a Miss Ric'hie. He emigrated 
to Maryland, and thence to Pictou. He left many 
descendants. He took up land and gave his name 
to Roger's Hill, and some of the apple-trees grown 
from seed he brought from Maryland were still 
standing in 1876. He helped to blaze the road 
to Truro, and also gave his name to Roger's 

The Pictou Settlements 

Settlement. Another pioneer on the Hope was 
Robert Patterson, who came as the surveyor for 
the Company ; he brought his wife and five 
children the eldest nine years, the youngest three 
months old. He has been called the father of 
Pictou. He was a native of Renfrew, in Scotland, 
but had emigrated to Maryland, and had been 
a pedlar and sutler to the army previous to 1763. 
He was for many years a surveyor and a leading 
man in Pictou, and was made magistrate in 1774. 
He built the first frame house in the place, on land 
conveyed to him by Governor Patterson. He died 
in 1808. He was long an elder in the Presby- 
terian Church, and left many descendants, among 
them a daughter Margaret, afterwards wife of 
Capt. Pagan of the Hector, and the Rev. George 
Patterson, the county historian, already mentioned. 

The Hope reached Pictou Harbour on June loth. 
But a party from Truro, having come over to 
receive them, built a fire on the shore to guide 
them, which made those on the Hope think them 
savages. But the next day the ship stood in for 
the shore, where those on board saw the wild, un- 
broken forest and virgin country yet to be con- 
quered, the famous white pines looming up con- 
spicuously to the height of 150 or 200 feet " like 
masts of some huge admiral." 

It -was, indeed, a brave and indomitable stock 
which could, without misgivings regarding the 
future, become the pioneers in such a wilderness. 
But what of the wives of the settlers? Mrs. 
Patterson afterwards said that when they finally 
VOL. I. G 97 

The Scotsman in Canada 

landed she leaned against one of those great trees 
and thought that if there was a broken-hearted 
creature on the face of the earth she was one. 
Indeed, so desolate did the place look, with the 
horror of savages in the minds of the newcomers, 
that the captain of the vessel, after landing their 
supplies, slipped out of the harbour in the night 
and left them to their fate. 

Of the five or six young men who had set out 
from the sister settlement of Truro to welcome 
and aid the immigrants we will now speak. They 
aided in building huts and in laying a rude road 
to Truro. The leader was Thomas Archibald, of 
Scottish descent. 

The Rev. James Lyon was already in Nova 
Scotia when the Hope arrived. He appears as one 
of the Philadelphia Company, being sent as their 
minister, but did not continue with the settlement. 
He was ordained in New Jersey and arrived in 
Nova Scotia late in 1764 or early in 1765, and was 
the first Presbyterian minister in the province of 
whom there is any account. He was residing in 
Pictou with his Ifamily since 1769, and gave his 
name to Lyon's Brook. 

Of the other early settlers in Pictou, many had 
arrived by 1769. A return of inhabitants taken 
in this year shows a decided increase, and most 
of them of Scottish or Ulster-Scottish origin. 

Of these were Thomas Skead, born in Scotland ; 
William Aiken, of Scottish descent ; James Fulton, 
an Ulster Scot ; Robert Stewart and William 
Kennedy, Ulster Scots. Kennedy erected the first 


The Pictou Settlements 

sawmill in the country. Barnabas McGee was born 
in the north of Ireland. In this connection it may 
be interesting to state that the McGees are a sept 
who came from the Rhinns of Isla, and settled 
at Island McGee, in Antrim. They are a sept 
or branch of the great Scottish clan of Macdonald, 
who settled and owned Antrim for centuries. 

James Davidson was another early settler of 
Pictou. He was born in Edinburgh, where he 
married, and where the first of his family was born. 
He came out with the Rev. Dr. Cook, of Truro, 
and was the first schoolmaster of Pictou. 

Such was the stock of the first settlement of 
Pictou down to the coming of the good ship Hector 
in 1773- 


Unhappy Greenock, 
Thou port of wailing ! 
Thou far-famed Burg ! 
From thee outsailing, 
Hath Scotland poured 
Her restless horde 
Of master-men I 
On every tide 
Of ocean wide, 
From mountain-side 
And misty glen, 
Her brood out-hurled, 
Hath won the world. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

The sailing of the Hector, with her Highland 
emigrants, from the Port of Greenock, was an 
event of significant importance in the history of 
Western emigration, and especially in that of the 
settlement of the Maritime Provinces and of all 

With the arrival of her passengers there began 
( the really effective settlement, not only of Pictou, 
but of the whole province. She was the first 
emigrant ship from Scotland to Nova Scotia or 
New Brunswick since the days of Sir William 
Alexander. With her voyage began that vast but 
steady stream of Scottish immigration which, as 
the years went on, flowed into, and over, not only 
the county of Pictou alone, but over much of the 
eastern portion of the province, into Cape Breton, 
Prince Edward Island, and portions of New Bruns- 
wick, and even into what was afterwards Upper 
and Lower Canalda. 

It might be spid that all the subsequent Scot- 
tish settlements originated in the coming of this 
one ship, because those who then came out wrote 
back to their relatives and friends in Scotland. 
These pioneers, after enduring great hardships and 
sufferings, not only achieved a position of inde- 
pendence, but also acquired an appreciation of 
the real value of the country and gave a good 
report of the land ; so that those at home likewise 
ventured their all and followed, to greater or less 
success, according to their ability and fortune. 

There is no one element in the population of 
Canada upon which its social, moral, and religious 

100 i : 

The Pictou Settlements 

development has depended more than upon its 
Scottish inhabitants ; and of this great element 
for good to the whole Dominion, the members of 
that little band in the Hector were the pioneers 
and vanguard. d What the arrival of the Don de 
Dieu was to French Canada, that of the Hector 
might be said to represent to the Scottish element 
of our country. History records that this was her 
last voyage ; that on her return to Scotland she 
was condemned as unseaworthy and went to sea 
no more. It is a pity that there is nowhere 
preserved, so far as is known, a picture of this 
historic ship, which, in her last sailing, made so 
remarkable and epoch-making a voyage. 

The Scot in America has ever seemed to have 
had to endure special hardships ; and it is said 
that no Nova Scotia settlement had such obstacles 
to encounter as that of Pictou. They came out, 
uibonused by any Government grant, and unpro- 
v.ded for, to a country covered with heavy forest ; 
arid were, from the first, thrown altogether on their 
own resources. One cannot but admire the 
heroism which faced such odds in winning a foot- 
hold in the New World. 

So far, the few settlers had struggled against 
great difficulties, until in 1773 the ship Hector 
Arrived with her Highland emigrants ; and a new 
era in the history of the settlement began. 

John Pagan was a merchant of the town of 
Sreenock, who purchased several shares of the 
tock of the Philadelphia Company. He had been 
engaged in the undertaking to settle the colonies 


The Scotsman in Canada 

of the South and this was not the first voyage of 
the Hector, which was owned by Pagan, in carry- 
ing emigrants to American shores. Pagan's 
partner was a Dr. Witherspoon, presumably of 
Philadelphia, who also had an interest in the 

Their Scottish agent was one John Ross, who 
was an earlier example of our present-day emigrant 
agent in the Highlands. He pictured in glowing 
colours the New World and its advantages as 
over the Old, and hundreds of poor souls, who 
knew nothing of the other side of the shield, and 
attracted by the prospect of owning a farm, with- 
out payment, accepted his terms, and, gathering 
together their all, prepared to seek their fortune 
across the ocean. The Hector (John Spear, 
master ; James Orr, first mate ; and John Ander- 
son, second mate) was the vessel fated to bear 
these pioneers to their destination. 

She sailed from Greenock, where three families 
and five young men embarked, and went north tfO 
Lochbroom, Ross -shire, where 33 families and 2^ 
unmarried jnen were added to her quota of pasf 
sengers. One account gives 189, and another 
179, as being the number of souls on her list.. 
Legge, the Governor, in his dispatch, refers t<j) 
them as 200 on their arrival. ( 

She sailed from Lochbroom early in July (prob- 
ably the ist), and was eleven weeks making the 
passage across the Atlantic. 

On her departure a piper went on board, and 
was ordered ashore ; but the emigrants interceded, 

The Pictou Settlements 

and he was allowed to sail. They were all new to 
the wide ocean, even the ship's officers only one 
sailor having crossed before and hope beat in 
every bosom, in spite of the fact that their native 
hills soon faded from view. 

But the Atlantic soon had them in its rolling 
trough, and their merriment was changed to tears 
and sea-sickness ; and home-sickness seized their 
dismayed bodies and souls. The ship was an old 
Dutch hulk, and a slow, lubberly sailor ; so that 
she made but a poor headway against contrary 
winds that smote and buffeted her dingy rotten 
hull and veered her sails ; and ere many days 
many an eye was scanning anxiously the grey 
sweep of desolate waters and skyline for the 
longed-for glimpse of solid land. 

But the brave Scottish hearts bore up with the 
lion -souls within, and the leaders encouraged the 
weak and the young by all sorts of amusements 
to overcome the tedious hours and days of waiting. 
At last, when they arrived off Newfoundland, a: 
severe storm beat them once more out into the 
bleak ocean. All this time the accommodations, 
never good, were becoming unendurable ; and 
their food, not over-well-provided, began to fail. 
Had it not been for the fantastic thrift of one of 
the emigrants, Hugh McLeod, who had gathered 
in a bag all the food cast away by the others, 
they would have starved to death at the last. Then 
smallpox and dysentery broke out, so that most of 
the poor children that had embarked died, cooped 
up in that rotten hulk ; and many a poor mother 


The Scotsman in Canada 

must have landed mournful and sad on the shores 
of the New World, who had left the Old hopeful, 
with her all in her infant shawled in her arms. 

Such is the tragic side of the making of new 
lands. Many must suffer tr^at in after-days others 
may reap the glory. 

However, nothing lasts for ever, not even 
sorrow ; and on September i 5th this pioneer ship- 
load of Scottish immigrants dropped anchor in the 
harbour of Pictou. 

In spite of their sad voyage, the Highlanders 
adorned themselves in their kilts and plaids for 
the disembarking ; and the Indians, who had 
threatened to be troublesome, on hearing the weird 
sound of the pipes, and seeing what they thought to 
be the dreaded petticoated soldiers who had cap- 
tured Quebec, fled in terror to the forest, and from 
that day ceased to be a menace to the pioneers. 

But the poor travellers were fated yet to endure 
hardship ,and suffering. Though the sick were 
cared for, several died, and only landed in the New 
World to be borne to their graves. So that it 
might ^be said that the first city established was 
that of the dead. Disease and death had lowered 
their spirits, and a sight of the bleak, unbroken 
forest and lonesome, desolate coast -line added to 
their despondency. But worse was yet to come. 

A free farm and plenty in the New World they 
had been promised, but the reality was ja rulde 
a'wakening from their dream of the Far West. 
Landing without provisions or shelter, the lateness 
of the season made their situation even more 


The Pietou Settlements 

desperate, as no planting could be done until the 
land was cleared during the following year. They 
also found that they would have to go inland for 
their farms, all these facing the shore being pre- 
empted. Many of them were fishermen, and had 
counted on the sea for a portion of their substance. 
The result was hunger, hardship, and misery ; with 
much heartburnings, even open rebellion, when 
some of the leaders of the party in desperation 
raided the Company's stores and took what they 
needed for the requirements of the suffering. That 
first winter was one of hardship and misery never 
to be forgotten. Many moved to Truro and 
Londonderry, some even to Halifax, Windsor, and 
Cornwallis, and hired themselves out, men, women, 
and children. The majority returned afterwards, 
but none forgot that dread winter, with its deep 
snow and its want of food and clothing, where 
a little flour and a few potatoes, often frozen, were 
all that, sometimes carried miles on a man's back, 
kept life in the community. 

Patterson, in his History, gives numerous inci- 
dents which illustrate the great privations endured 
not only that winter, but in some instances after- 
wards. But they struggled on with the Scottish 
pertinacity and belief in the future ; and, in spite 
of all, made themselves successful, and the land, 
if a land not of great plenty, a place of dignified 
and frugal comfort in which to cradle a God- 
fqaring and ambitious race. 

There is a list given in Patterson's History, 
which was drawn up about 1837, by William 


The Scotsman in Canada 

McKenzie of Lochbroom, containing the names 
of the passengers in the Hector, with short accounts 
of their personal and family history arid of the 
record of their places of settlement. 

As one of the objects of this work is to give as 
much information as possible regarding the real 
people themselves, the rank and file of the Scots 
who have made our country, I quote this important 
list in full as it is given, though omitting many 
notes and remarks, which will be found by the 
student in Patterson's " History of Pictou." 

1. Those shipped at Glasgow. 

Mr. Scott and family, history unknown. George Morrison and 
family from Banff ; settled west side of Barney's River ; gave his 
name to Morrison's Island, left one daughter Mrs. David 
Ballantyne of Cape George. John Patterson, mentioned in 
Patterson's " Pictou." George McConnell, settled at East River ; 
descendants numerous. Andrew Man and family, of Dunfermline, 
settled at Noel ; descendants. Andrew Wesley, history unknown. 
Charles Eraser, a Highlander, settled at Cornwallis. Fisher 
Grant, married, has descendants. John Stewart, history un- 

2. Those from Inverness-shire. 

William Mackay and family, afterward Squire Mackay, settled 
at East River ; died in 1828, aged ninety-seven, a leading man, 
left three sons Donald, Alexander, and James ; had a daughter 
Sarah, married Wm. Eraser. Roderick McKay and family of 
Beauly, Inverness-shire ; came with three brothers, William, 
Colin, and Donald, to Pictou, was a blacksmith ; a man of great 
character ; placed the chain across Halifax Harbour to prevent 
the entrance of hostile vessels during the Revolutionary war. 
He died at East River. One daughter married Dr. McGregor. 
Another was mother of J. D. B. Eraser, Esq., and one son was 
Robert McKay, Esq. Colin McKay and family, in Eraser High- 
landers at Quebec and Louisburg ; settled at East River. McKay 
1 06 

The Pictou Settlements 

Bros., of Liverpool, England, were his grandsons. Hugh Eraser 
and family ; was a weaver of Kiltarlity, Scotland ; had three 
children in the Hector Donald, Jane, (Mrs. Cameron), and Mary 
(Mrs. John Eraser) ; another son was John. The Rev. Wm. 
Eraser, Bondhead, Ont, was a grandson. Donald Cameron and 
family the only Roman Catholic on the Hector; served at 
Quebec, settled at East River, drowned ; family removed to 
Antigonish. Donald McDonald and family, settled at Middle 
River ; his daughter Marion married Alex. Eraser ; his niece, 
Mary Forbes, married Wm. McLeod. Colin Douglas and family, 
settled at Middle River ; his daughter married Peter Eraser. 
Hugh Eraser and family, settled at West River ; descendants 
numerous. Alexander Eraser and family, settled at Middle River ; 
descendants numerous ; said to be connected with Lord Lovat. 
His family involved in the " forty-fives." Had three brothers 
fighting for the Pretender at Culloden, two killed ; was witness, 
though too young to fight, of the scene of the day ; married 
Marion Campbell, youngest daughter of Laird of Skriegh in 
Inverness, also a Jacobite at Culloden. Eraser had six children 
in the Hector Alexander, Simon, Catherine (married Alex. Ross, 
afterward to John Eraser), Isabella (married David McLean, Esq., 
of East River, Hugh at Middle River), Donald and Hugh 
James Grant and family, went to King's County ; sons, Alexander, 
Robert ; grandfather of Dr. W. R. Grant of Pennsylvania Med. 
Coll. Family afterwards claimed connection with President Grant. 
Donald Munro, went to Halifax ; one son, Henry ; descendants 
numerous. Donald Me , name illegible and history unknown. 

3. Those from Lochbroom. 

John Ross, agent, history unknown. Alex. Cameron and 
family, was seventeen years old in 1745. His brother followed 
the Prince ; was a herder ; gave the name of Lochbroom, his 
native parish, to the place where he settled. Children, several, 
among them Alexander and Christiana, born in the Hector; the 
latter married Alex. McKay of New Glasgow, died 1831, aged 
104. Alex. Ross and family, advanced in life, parents of Alex. 
Ross and family ; settled at Middle River. The children went to 
Ohio ; Alexander, had daughters married to Arch. Chisholm and 
Blair. Colin McKenzie and family, settled as East River, said 


The Scotsman in Canada 

to have died aged 104 ; one son, Duncan, died 1871, in his looth 
year. John Munro and family, history unknown. Kenneth 
McRitchie and family, probably on lists as Kenneth McClutchcon. 
William McKenzie, engaged as schoolmaster of the party, settled 
at Lochbroom ; descendants there. John McGregor, history 
unknown. John McLellan, settled at New Glasgow, gave his 
name to McLellan's Mount. William McLellan, relative of John, 
settled at West River ; descendants there. Alexander McLean, 
settled at East River, one son; descendants there. Alexander 
Falconer, settled near Hopewell. Donald McKay, brother of 
Roderick, settled at East River ; a grandson, Duncan, living there. 
His brother Hugh died without a family. Archibald Chisholm, in 
84th Regt, said to have settled at East River. Charles Matheson, 
history unknown. Robert Sim, settled at Pictou, then went to 
New Brunswick, never married. Alexander McKenzie, history 
unknown. Thomas Fraser, history unknown. 

4. Those from Sutherlandshire. 

Kenneth Fraser and family, settled at Londonderry, then 
Middle River; Pictou descendants numerous. William Fraser 
and family, history unknown. James Murray and family, at 
Londonderry ; descendants there. Walter Murray and family, in 
Mengounish ; descendants there. David Urquhart and family, at 
Londonderry ; one daughter, Mrs. Thos. Davidson. James McLeod 
and family, at North River ; had no children ; his farm descended 
to his relative, Geo. McLeod. Hugh McLeod and family, at 
Middle River; one son, David, three daughters one Mrs. Donald 
Ross, another Mrs. Shiels. Alexander McLeod and family ; three 
sons, one Donald of West River ; left descendants. John McKay 
and family, history unknown. Philip McLeod and family, 
uncertain. Donald McKenzie and family, probably at Schuben- 
acadie. Alex McKenzie and family, history unknown. John 
Sutherland and family, history unknown. William Matheson 
and family, at Londonderry, afterwards at Roger's Hill, where his 
descendant, John S., resided in 1876. Donald Grant, history 
unknown. Donald Graham, history unknown. John McKay, 
piper, history unknown. William McKay, went to work with 
McCabe and took the latter's name ; descendants still known as 
McCabe. John Sutherland, went to Windsor, then settled at 

The Picton Settlements 

Sutherland River. Angus McKenzie, sixteen years old on the 
Hector, finally settled at Green Hill ; descendants there. 

This is, in brief, the history of the Pictou Scot- 
tish settlements, which also included many Ulster 
Scotsmen. These were the pioneer settlements for 
the Dominion. From here many families at a 
later date removed into Upper Canada, and helped 
to form Scottish communities in what is now 




Stern tide of time, roll back thy crest! 

Re-surge from history's, memory's shore ! 
Give back the names of those who rest, 

Who once were all; but now no more! 

FROM the earliest days of the British colo- 
nisation, Nova Scotia was, in keeping 
with its name, extremely Scottish. In 1843 
statistics from authentic sources gave one -third 
of the whole population as Scottish or of Scottish 

Many of the early settlers, before the United 
Empire Loyalists, were from Scotland or were 
Ulster Scotsmen, as is shown in the Pictou settle- 
ments. Among the United Empire Loyalists there 
were also many Scotsmen, and wherever their 
people settled Scottish surnames were plentiful. 

There were many descendants of the famous 
Fraser Highlanders, such as John Fraser, who died 
at Shelburne in 1840, aged eighty -eight. This 
clan was one of the most noted in connection 
with the history of Canada. As soldiers, dis- 

Other Nova Scotia Settlements 

coverers, statesmen, and divines, many representa- 
tives of the name Eraser are famous in our annals. 

At Pugwash Harbour there were important 
Highland settlements. They were men from the 
Hebrides, and were hardy and industrious. Fort 
Wallace was another successful settlement. 

In 1774 a number of Lowlanders from Dum- 
friesshire were brought from Prince Edward Island 
to Pictou. In 1783 the 82nd or Hamilton Regi- 
ment was disbanded at Halifax, and the men 
received grants in Pictou. 

Early in the nineteenth century the Erasers 
made a settlement at Millbrook, and from there 
certain Macdonalds, Rosses, and Gordons went to 
Middle River. The Mount Thorn settlement was 
Protestant. The settlers were McLeans, McLeods, 
Macdonalds, Chisholms, Camerons, Thompsons, 
Grants, and Browns. 

During the years 1790, 1791, and 1792 many 
Roman Catholic Highlanders came to the Mari- 
time Provinces, and their numbers were added to 
year by year up to 1828. Those in Nova Scotia 
settled chiefly in Antigonish County, Pictou, and 
Cape Breton. They were principally Chisholms, 
Macdonalds, Camerons, and Erasers. It is said 
that the chief of the Chisholms evicted many of 
his tenants to establish sheep-walks on his estate 
of Strathglas. A great many left there in 1801, 
and another party in 1803. 

The first Highland Catholics settled the 
parish of Arisaig in Antigonish County. Bishop 
Macdonald, in a dedication sermon, said : "In 


The Scotsman in Canada 

1787 the first Catholic Highlander, the pioneer 
of the faith, took up his solitary abode in the 
* forest primeval/ which then wound in unbroken 
grandeur on these shores." 

For years there was a steady stream of immi- 
gration into Nova Scotia of people from Suther- 
land and Lewis. All Antigonish was purely Scot- 
tish. Fox Harbour in Cumberland County was 
settled by Highlanders, and New Edinburgh in 
Annapolis and Grenville Township were settled 
by Scotsmen. From the opening of the nineteenth 
century the Scottish Highlanders flowed steadily 
into Cape Breton. The late Edward Fraser aided 
much in the movement. At Grand Anse there 
was a Scottish colony. Along the Straits of Canso 
the majority of the inhabitants were descendants 
of Scottish Highlanders. 

The principal immigration into the province in 
the earlier days was from Inverness, Ross, and 
Sutherland, and in later years from Argyllshire, 
Perth, and Caithness. These were chiefly Mac- 
donalds, Macdonells, Frasers, McKenzies, Mackays, 
Camerons, McLeods, Campbells, Grants, Robert- 
sons, Stewarts, Mclntoshes, Malcolms, Mclntyres, 
McNeills, MacNabs, Munros, McLeans, McDougals, 
Chisholms, McPhersons, Sutherlands, McKinnons, 
and McQueens. 

By the returns in 1887 there were in the pro- 
vince 48,000 Presbyterians, and 47,000 Catholics, 
upwards of one -half of which were Scotsmen by 
descent. In the 50,000 inhabitants of Cape Breton 
of that date, nearly half were Presbyterians, and 


Other Nova Scotia Settlements 

a large proportion of the remainder Scottish 

The county of Pictou in 1843 had a population 
of 25,000, principally Scottish and Presbyterian, 
from Inverness, Ross, Argyll, and Sutherland. 

The shores of the Gulf were lined with High- 
land settlements such as Wallace, Tadmagouche, 
and other places. 

Boulardie Island, St. Anne's Harbour, Bedeque 
Inlet, and the Straits of Barra were all settled by 

The city of Halifax, long a great military depot 
as well as a great seaport and commercial centre, 
has had from the first a large Scottish element 
in its population. 

Probably the best picture of Scottish Halifax 
is given in the history of the Halifax North 
British Association, the strongest and oldest Scot- 
tish organisation in Canada. We get in its 
published transactions a long list of Scotsmen of 
all walks of life soldiers, merchants, divines, pro- 
fessional men, and statesmen ; some with world- 
wide reputation and others obscure ; but all 
representing the great clans and families of Scot- 
land. In Halifax were stationed some famous 
Scottish regiments. Here His Royal Highness 
the Duke of Kent, of the Royal Scottish line 
of Stuart, spent some years as a military com- 
mander. Here, like the Allans at Montreal, the 
Cunards, another noted Scottish family of ship- 
owners, founded the greatest Atlantic line of 
steamships. Here lived the great Scottish families 
of Haliburton, Archibald, Inglis, and Young ; and 

VOL. I. H 113 

The Scotsman in Canada 

here to-day, as half a century ago, the names of 
Scotsmen are prominent and powerful, as is but 
fitting in this famous capital of New Scotland. 

Among the leading Scotsmen of the city of 
Halifax and Nova Scotia have been distinguished 
and noted men, like Lord Dalhousie ; Sir Colin 
Campbell ; Hon. Wm. Annand ; Hon. Alexander 
Brymer ; Hon. John H. Duncan, R.N. ; Hon. 
Jas. Fraser ; Hon. Wm. Garvie ; Lieut. -Col. 
Charles Gordon ; Principal Grant ; Sir Brenton 
Haliburton ; Thomas Haliburton ; Hon. John 
Haliburton ; Col. Irving ; Hon. Alex. Keith ; 
Chief Justice Macdonald ; Col. Macdonald ; Prof. 
Macdonald ; Col. McGregor, 93rd Regiment ; 
Prof. A. Murray ; Gen. Ogilvie ; Hon. James 
Stewart ; Hon. Alex. Stewart, C.B. ; Hon. Judge 
Sedgewick ; Chief Justice Strange ; Hon. Wm. 
Wallace ; Hon. John Young ; Chief Justice 
Young ; Hon. Wm. Young ; Hon. Senator Dickie ; 
and Hon. Arthur Rupert Dickie, Minister of 
Justice for Canada. At the present day, there is 
the able Premier of the province, the Hon. W. H. 
Murray ; and the late Lieut -Governor, one of the 
most eloquent and enthusiastic Highlanders in 
Canada ; His Honour the Hon. D. C. Fraser, 
who has just passed away. He was a noted 
politician and later a justice of the Provincial High 
Court, which position he resigned to become 
Lieut. -Governor. 

Nova Scotia has given to the Dominion some of 
her most distinguished men, and it is safe to say 
that at least the majority of these were of Scottish 



O Uttle Isle down by the blue, 
Where glad seas wander in between 
Your balmy hills of pleasant green ; 
Kind to the lonely folk were you, 
The dour, lone folk from Inverie : 
They laid aside the targe and glaive, 
They left the mountain and the glen 
To climb the ever-mounting wave 
And show the world that Scots were men. 

IN 1758, Lord Rollo, a Scottish Peer, and a 
trusted colonel under Wolfe, captured Prince 
Edward Island, and as early as the year 1767 the 
island was parcelled out among a number of 
landed proprietors from the Old Land. Three of 
these, who were prominent as having established 
fisheries and having made other extensive improve- 
ments on the island, bore Scottish names, such as 
Spence, Muir, and Cathcart. Capt. Walker Patter- 
son, another son of Southern Caledonia, and who 
was one of these proprietors, was appointed 
Governor, and arrived at the island in 1770. 

In the following year Mr. John Stuart was 

The Scotsman in Canada 

appointed agent for the island in London by the 
House of Assembly. Another proprietor was 
Capt. Macdonald, who had much to do with the 
early affairs of the colony. At that period there 
were trouble and strife among the colonists con- 
cern jng the lands, which continued for some years. 
In 1803 the successors to Stuart in London were 
William and Thomas Knox, two Scotsmen, and at 
the same time Messrs. McGowan, Stuart, and 
Macdonald were made members of a committee of 
five to draw up a new Bill for the province ; 
showing that Scotsmen were the leading spirits 
in the affairs of the colony. 

A Scottish chief who was prominently asso- 
ciated with the island was John Macdonald of 
Glenaladale, who purchased an extensive tract of 
land there, and conceived the idea of emigration 
of Highlanders on a large scale. He sent ihis 
brother, with an overseer and labourers, provided 
with all the requirements for farming for several 
hundred settlers, whom he shipped out soon after- 
\wards. It is said that Macdonald's real object 
I was to relieve the wants of his distressed clans- 
men and other Highlanders, whom the late Jacobite 
jwars and other causes had impoverished. His 
Emigrants were gathered from his own estates and 
from those of his cousin and chief, Clanronald, 
in Moydart ; with others from the Island of Uist. 
From this large immigration many descendants 
remain to this day. In 1843 there was estimated 
to be fully 24,000 people of Scottish descent in 
the island, and of these not less than 4,500 bore the 

In Prince Edward Island 

name of Macdonald. Capt. Macdonald of Glenal- 
adale took a leading part in the life of the 
province. He refused the position of Governor, but, 
at the head of a portion of the 84th Regiment of 
Highland emigrants, he performed good service for 
the Crown. During the war of the Revolution an 
American man-of-war landed part of her crew on 
the Nova Scotian coast near where Glenaladale 
was stationed with a portion of his regiment. Capt. 
Macdonald, with a few men, captured this vessel 
and sailed her to Halifax, then returned with more 
men and captured the surprised crew of Ameri- 
cans and French. He died in 1811. Though a 
good Catholic, he was of a broad, tolerant nature, 
and made no difference because of the religion 
of his settlers or acquaintances. He left behind 
him a good record as a fine type of the old-time 
Highland military gentleman. 

In 1803 another great Scottish immigration 
came to Prince Edward Island, when Lord Selkirk 
brought out about eight hundred Highlanders to 
occupy his lands. These people were located in 
the vicinity of Point Prim, and many of them 
made very successful inhabitants. 

The earliest historian of the island colony was 
the Rev. John McGregor, who was a Scotsman 
by descent, but a native of the island. He gives a 
faithful description of its settlement and growth. 

In 1813 Charles Douglas Smith became Gover- 
nor, and the Receiver-General was John Edward 
Carmichael. At this period, says the historian, 
King's County, the most thickly populated district 


The Scotsman in Canada 

on the island, was inhabited by Highlanders, whjo 
spoke no other language than their native Gaelic. 
" They were men," he says, " who would have 
faced open fire in the field with the courage 
characteristic of the Celtic race, and had a pro- 
found respect for law." 

During that period we find John McGregor, 
afterwards Member of Parliament for Glasgow, 
High Sheriff of the island. 

In 1827 the membership of the House of 
Assembly included the following names of Scots- 
men Cameron, McAuley, Campbell, McNeill, 
Montgomery, and a Stuart was Speaker. 

In 1830 Cobbett wrote thus flippantly of this 
colony as a home for emigrants. " From Glas- 
gow," he says, " the sensible Scots are pouring 
out amain. Those that are poor and cannot pay 
their passage, or can rake together only a trifle, 
are going to a rascally heap of sand, rock, and 
swamp, called Prince Edward Island." Such were 
the views of this much over-rated man. But he 
knew even less of the island than he did of the 
Scotsmen who went there and made for them- 
selves happy and comfortable homes in this verit- 
able garden of the Canadian Gulf. 

The late Col. Fraser also did much toward the 
colonisation of Prince Edward Island. Indeed, 
it can be seen that the greater part of its settle- 
ment was brought about by Scotsmen from 
Highlands and Lowlands. The result of all this 
was, that in 1841 the statistical returns showed 
natives of Scotland, 5,682 ; adherents to Church 

In Prince Edward Island 

of Scotland, 10,000 persons, and Presbyterians, 
5,089, and nearly 20,429 Highland Roman 

So much for the Scottish settlements, and we 
may glance at some of the leading personages 
connected with Prince Edward Island who were 
of Scottish birth and extraction. 

In 1834 there died John Stuart of Mount Stuart, 
aged seventy-six. He came to the island in 1778, 
and was Speaker of the Assembly for many years. 
This worthy old pioneer was a good friend to the 
inhabitants, and a dignified official. He took an 
interest in the early struggles of the people, and 
wrote a valuable book dealing with the island and 
its colonisation. 

Another prominent personality was John 
McNeill, who did much for education. In 1837 
he was appointed official visitor of schools, being 
the first appointment, and in his return he shows 
the number of schools to be 51, and the total of 
pupils, 1,533. He instituted important reforms in 
education, and, when he retired ten years later, 
there were over 120 schools and 5,000 scholars. 

Walter Johnston, writing in 1824, says that the 
agriculture of the island was largely improved 
through the influence of the Lowland Scots from 
Perthshire and Dumfriesshire. 

The Scotsman was also prominent in politics. 
In 1847, at the elections in the Belfast district 
for the Assembly, there were four candidates, all 
Scotsmen, as their names, Dowe, McLean, Little, 
and McDougal, will show. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

About this date, Sir Donald Campbell, of Dun- 
staffnage in Argyllshire, was sent out as Governor, 
and as a noted member of a distinguished High- 
land family, he received an enthusiastic welcome. 
He possessed all the qualities of a good Governor, 
but unfortunately died within a year of his appoint- 
ment. The next Governor was Sir A. Bannerman, 
and later, in 1857, George Dundas, Esq., M.P. for 
Linlithgowshire, filled the position. 

In 1859, there died at St. Dunstan's College, the 
Right Rev. Bernard Donald Macdonald, the Roman 
Catholic bishop. He had for years been a hard- 
working and faithful missionary among his people, 
and a worthy member of his famous clan. Another 
noted figure in the Roman communion was the 
Venerable Bishop McEachern, who came to the 
island in 1790, and was long a prominent person- 
ality in his own Church, and as a public man. One 
of his duties was that of Road Commissioner, and 
he had an earnest co-adjutor in the Rev. William 
Douglas, another worthy Scotsman of the Presby- 
terian fold. These two divines not only pointed 
the road to heaven, though by different theological 
paths, but also worked loyally together to promote 
good roads and highways on earth, in so far as 
Prince Edward Island was concerned. It seems 
that much evil has been done of late in thrusting 
the clergy out of public affairs and into mere 
ecclesiastical functions. This has had as one result 
to separate the Churches and deteriorate them as 
organisations for the community's good. What 
greater aid to religious union can there be than 
1 20 

In Prince Edward Island 

where the leading divines of different communions 
work together on committees for the common good? 
They not only learn to know and respect each 
other, but it broadens and humanises their outlook, 
and gradually teaches them and their respective 
followers that in the best interests of all that per- 
tains to the weal of the community, all religions 
are, or should be, one. 

The Rev. Donald Macdonald, who died bewailed 
in 1867, was another venerable Scotsman, who as 
a Protestant missionary was known and beloved 
all over the island. He was a remarkable preacher 
and a fine scholar, and his funeral was said to have 
been the largest ever witnessed in the colony. The 
Rev. D. Kerr, who succeeded Dr. McCullough, be- 
came the leading representative of the Presbyterian 
Church. He, like many of his confreres of his 
day, was noted for his strong moral fibre and his 
great influence as a personality throughout the 
whole community. 

That was the day of strong men in religion. 
They were scholars, statesmen, and rulers in their 
way. Since they have been driven out of public 
affairs, not only have the divines deteriorated, but 
the public men as a class have sadly declined and 
degenerated, and public spirit and opinion are 
almost dead. 

Prince Edward Island has given its share of 
strong, useful, and brilliant men to the life of the 
Dominion. Among them are many of Scottish 

The most distinguished islander now living is 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Sir William Macdonald, the noted philanthropist 
and merchant prince of Montreal, whose career 
will be dealt with in another place, and who is a 
descendant and the representative of Macdonald of 
Glenaladale, one of the leading colonisers of the 
island. Another noted son of the island province 
is Dr. Falconer, President of Toronto University. 

That the colony was, in its early foundation, 
largely Scottish, will be shown by a return of the 
inhabitants in 1798. Out of a list of 750 heads of 
families, 350 bore Scottish names, many of them 
being Highlanders. Thus it will be seen that the 
beautiful little island-province of the Gulf owes 
much to the daring and courage of Scottish navi- 
gators and colonisers from Sir William Alexander 
down, and that the character of its people is 
founded on the energy and high moral qualities of 
its Scottish settlers, who have done so much to 
give it the place it holds among the provinces of 
the Dominion. 

Thus might the early islanders, the pioneer emi- 
grants from the great British Island, have sung 
with the Poet Marvell 

What should we do but sing His praise, 
Who led us through the watery maze 
Unto an Isle so long unknown, 
And yet far kinder than our own, 
Where He the huge sea monsters wracks, 
That lift the deep upon their backs ? . . . 
He lands us on a grassy stage, 
Safe from the storms' and prelates' rage, 
And on these rocks for us did frame 
A temple where to sound His name. 



They were a simple rugged folk, 

A lonely people by the sea : 

But round their coasts old ocean broke, 

One vast shore-sounding harmony : 

And from the old unrest awoke 

A spirit surging to be free. 

WHILE there are not as many people of Scottish 
descent in New Brunswick as in the sister 
province of Nova Scotia, there are a large number 
of the population who are proud of having in their 
veins the blood of the race of Albion. 

In the year 1761, Fort Frederick in St. John 
Harbour was garrisoned by a Highland regiment, 
and during the same year the harbour was for the 
first time regularly surveyed by a Scotsman, Captain 
Bruce, of the Royal Engineers, and a map then 
made is still extant. 

In the following year, an exploring party, con- 
sisting of about twenty persons, came to St. John 
from Newburyport in New England, and journeyed 
up the river as far as Fredericton and beyond. 
They found at the mouth of the Nashwack River 


The Scotsman in Canada 

the remains of a very old fortress. The single 
Frenchman whom they encountered told them that 
it was originally built by a party of settlers from 
Scotland, who were without doubt those sent out 
by Sir William Alexander, under Claude de la Tour. 

In 1764, William Davidson, a native of the north 
of Scotland, most probably Caithness, came and 
settled at Miramichi, and received extensive grants 
of lands. With him was associated a Mr. Cort of 
Aberdeen. Four years before, in 1760, a prominent 
trader named Walker, who also hailed from Scot- 
land, founded a trading post on Alston Point. 
These were a few of the very early, hardy pioneers 
who settled on those coasts and who were of Scottish 

As already shown, a large portion of the United 
Empire Loyalists and Treasury or Military Loyalists 
were of Scottish birth or extraction. They were 
for the most part soldiers. In McGregor's 
" British America " it is shown that of the 
thousands of Loyalists who poured into the pro- 
vince, many were of Scottish descent. They settled 
principally on the St. John and St. Croix rivers, 
and the list, which is still extant, shows their origin 
and place of settlement. 

It would be impossible in a work of this limited 
nature to include the names of all the United Empire 
Loyalists of Scottish origin who settled in Canada 
or the Maritime Provinces. 

A few of the leaders in New Brunswick will, 
however, be referred to. A prominent Scotsman 
was Captain Archibald McLean, who settled in St. 

TJie Scotsman in New Brunswick 

John in 1783. Another founder of that city was 
Charles McPherson. Hugh Mackay and two 
others of his clan were early settlers at this 
time, and the military Loyalists furnished eleven 

The county of Restigouche was a leading Scottish 
settlement, as the place-names of Dunlee, Glenlivet, 
Glenelg, Campbelltown, and Dalhousie show. The 
settlers here were direct from the Old Land. Many 
were fisher -folk, and not really by experience fitted 
to till the soil. But they were a sturdy folk in 
the main, and managed to make their way. 

A great many of the Scotsmen entered the lumber 
trade on the different rivers in the province, and 
many acquired large fortunes. The great draw- 
backs to the settlements for nearly a century were 
the terrible fires that swept the country, partly 
owing to* the great areas of pine lands. 

One of the Governors, Sir Howard Douglas, who 
was a Scotsman, took a deep interest in education 
and the general improvement of the people. He 
did much to foster the foundation of colleges and 
schools, and, being of that Church, he encouraged 

John Fraser, father of the Hon. John James 
Fraser, Provincial Secretary, was an early settler. 
He came from Inverness-shire in 1803, and settled 
at Miramichi. Alexander Wedderburn of Aber- 
deen was an author and a public officer in the 
province. His son was the Hon. William Wedder- 
burn, Speaker of the Assembly. Urbain Johnston, 
Member of Parliament for Kent County, was the 


The Scotsman in Canada 

representative of a Scottish family which inter- 
married with the Acadians. 

In connection with the history of the Scotsmen 
in New Brunswick, there is no more interesting 
chapter than that dealing with the Queen's Rangers, 
Simcoe's famous regiment, as there was a large 
element of Scotsmen among its soldiers. It was 
the most noted of all Royalist colonial battalions, 
chiefly because Simcoe was its commander. In 
official documents it was sometimes called " The 
King's First American Regiment." It was founded 
in 1776, in the colonies of Connecticut and New 
York, and soon mustered fully four hundred men 
who were at first all American Loyalists. But as 
time went on, the composition of the regiment 
changed, and it became more European than 
American. According to the muster rolls, dated 
August 24, 1780, out of the forty commissioned 
officers attached to the regiment, nineteen were of 
Scottish birth. This was during the period when 
Colonel Rogers held the command and before 
Colonel French succeeded him. French had as his 
successor a Scotsman, Major Wemyss, under whose 
command the regiment on September u, 1777, 
at the victorious battle of Brandy wine, covered 
itself with glory. The worst of the battle fell 
upon the Rangers, then about four hundred strong, 
and a detachment from the 7ist Regiment under 
another Scotsman, Major Ferguson. After this 
period the regiment consisted of eleven companies, 
one of which was purely Highland, with kilts and 
a piper. 

The Scotsman in New Brunswick 

The regiment, on its disbanding, settled mainly 
in New Brunswick, and there are many descendants 
of the officers and men in the province. 

The muster roll of 1781 includes the 
following list of Scotsmen, who were officers 
and privates : Major Richd. Armstrong ; Rev. 
John Agnew ; Quartermaster Alex. Matheson ; 
Surgeon's Mate James Macaulay ; Capt. John 
Mackay ; Ensign John Ross ; Sergeants, Donald 
Macdonald, John Macdonald, and George Suther- 
land ; Corporals, Geo. Walker, James Gunn ; 
Drummer Win. Mackay. Privates, John Craigie, 
Alex. McKinnon, Alex. McLean, R. McDougal, 
Angus McDonald, Hugh McKinlay, Murdoch 
McLeod, Alex. McDonald, Lachlan McKinnon, 
Alex. McClure, Alex. Curry, Wm. Smyth, John 

Capt. Stephenson's Company : Capt. Francis 
Stephenson ; Lieut. Alex. Matheson ; Corporals, 
Michael Burns, George Miller ; Privates, Carbray 
Burras, Wm. Chisholm, Thos. Lowe, David Oliver, 
John White, N. Ayres, Jos.Dawson, Jas. Sparks. 

Capt. McCrea's Company : Capt. R. McCrea ; 
Lieut. Chas. Dunlop and Lieut. Patterson ; Ser- 
geant W. Burnett ; Privates, Digory Sparks, Wm. 
Davidson, Michael Mclntyre, James Smith, Michael 
McDonald, Peter Wood, John Brown, Thos. 

Capt. Murray's Company : Capt. Jas. Murray ; 
Ensign Edward Murray ; Sergeants, Jas. McConell 
and Samuel Burnett, ; Privates, N. Huston, J. 
McEwen, John Burns, Wm. Kirk, Alex. Ross, Jas. 
Gremer, J. B. Miller. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Capt. Kerr's Company : Capt. Jas. Kerr ; 
Ensign Creighton McCrea ; Privates, Jas. Cochrane, 
Patrick Read, Wm. Armstrong. 

Capt. Agnew's Company : Capt. Stair Agnew ; 
Lieut. Hugh McKay ; Ensign S. Armstrong. 

Capt. McGill's Company : Lieut. Adam Allan, 
Robert Richey ; Privates, Patrick Allan, T. Coyne, 
J. Brown, Wm. Scoby. 

Capt. Smith's Company : Ensign Andrew Arm- 
strong ; Sergeant S. Stevens ; Privates, Wm. 
Burns, John Thomson, Wm. Graham, Alex. 

Capt. Whitlock's Company : Capt. John Whit- 
lock ; Sergeant John King ; Drummer Daniel 
McKay ; Privates, Henry Adam, Chas. Boyd, Chas. 

Capt. Shaw's Company : Capt. ^Eneas Shaw ; 
Lieut. Andrew McCan ; Ensign Jos. Matheson ; 
Drummer Black Prince ; Privates, Hugh Morris, 
Jno. Scriver, John Smith, Jas. McFarland, Geo. 
Murdock, Thos. Patterson, Thos. Crawford, Jno. 

Capt. Wallop's Company : Lieut. St. John 

Cavalry Hussar Troop : Lieut. Allan MacNab 
(father of Sir Allan MacNab) ; Quartermaster John 
McGill ; Privates, Robt. Ferguson, John McConnel, 
Saml. Lindsay, David Lindsay, Andrew Shields, H. 
Cochrane, David Mitchell, John Stephens, Jas. 
Campbell, Geo. Killan, Duncan Campbell, Jno. 

Capt. Shanks' Troop : Lieut. Geo. Spencer ; 

The Scotsman in New Brunswick 

Privates, Angus Mclntyre, N. Gladstone, John 
Houston, Jas. Johnston, Jos. Mitchell, F. Miller, 
Archd. McKinley, Jno .Clark. 

Capt. Saunders' Troop : Corporal John Haney ; 
Privates, R. Brown, Jas. Campbell, J. Inglis, J. 
Sparks, J. Blair. 

Capt. Sutherland's Troop : Cornet B. Thomp- 
son ; Quartermaster Wm. McLachlin. 

At the settlement of the regiment in Nova 
Scotia at the peace in 1783, the return of the 
Rangers totalled 575. They were disbanded at St. 
John on October 13, 1783, and settled largely in 
York County, the parish of Queensbury being 
named after the regiment, and formed the 
largest body of military Loyalists that settled in 
the Maritime Provinces. 

Of the officers, Major James Wemyss was after- 
wards Lieut. -Col. of the 63rd Regiment. In 1819 
he petitioned the Prince Regent from New York 
for assistance. He was then in his old age, and 
said he had hopes to end his life in Scotland, his 
native land. But he suffered a loss of property, and 
at the time of the petition was in indigent circum- 
stances. He was of the noted Scottish family of 
whom the Earl of Wemyss is the head. Capt. 
Arthur Ross was killed in the West Indies. Capt. 
Michael Armstrong saw a great deal of service. 
Simcoe recommended him. He went with the 
regiment to New Brunswick, where he received 
a large grant of land at the mouth of the Nacawick. 
He became a magistrate, and was afterwards Lieut. - 
Colonel of the Militia, but finally rose to be Lieut. - 

VOL. I. i 129 

The Scotsman in Canada 

General in the British Army. He died at Frederic - 
ton in 1817. The Rev. John Agnew was of an old 
family in Wigtonshire, of which shire he was a 
native. He became Rector of Suffolk, Virginia. 
He settled in New Brunswick, and became a mem- 
ber of the House of Assembly. He died in 1812, 
aged eighty-five. Capt. James Kerr was born in 
Dumfries, was in New York at the time of the 
Revolution. He raised a part of a company of the 
Rangers. He returned to Scotland, but later settled 
in Nova Scotia at Parrsboro. He died at Amherst 
on June 6, 1830, in his seventy-sixth year. He 
was a Colonel of the Militia, and had several sons : 
Thomas, an ensign in the Royal Newfoundland 
Regiment, was killed at the battle of Frenchtown ; 
James died in the Navy on board the Royal 
William; another son, John, became a wealthy 
merchant of St. John, New Brunswick ; and 
another, Joseph, an extensive mill -owner at Wallace, 
Nova Scotia. 

Capt. John McGill was a native of Scotland. He 
went to St. John at the peace, and had lands there ; 
but he moved to Upper Canada, and became a 
member of the Legislative Council. 

Capt. Stair Agnew, son of the chaplain, followed 
the war, and being captured, was imprisoned at 
St. Malo, in France, until the peace. He settled 
in York County, New Brunswick ; was a member 
of the House of Assembly for thirty years, and a 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas for York 
County. Capt. Jas. Murray drew land in Parrsboro, 
Nova Scotia, close to Capt. Kerr, but did not 

The Scotsman in New Brunswick 

remain there. Capt. John Whitlock settled in 
Queen's County, was colonel of Militia and a 
Justice of the Peace. Capt. John Mackay, a native 
of Scotland, settled in York County, where he died 
in 1822. Lieut. Allan MacNab settled in Upper 
Canada. Ensign Hugh Mackay, settled at St. 
George, New Brunswick, and was elected a mem- 
ber of the Assembly during thirty years. He was 
a colonel of Militia and Senior Judge of Common 
Pleas for Charlotte County. He died in 1843, 
aged ninety -seven. Adam Allan settled in New 
Brunswick in York County, and became lieutenant 
in the King's New Brunswick Regiment. 

From many sources there was a continual influx 
of Scottish peoples, until in the year 1843 tne 
census showed about 30,000 persons of that descent 
in the province. Many of them were, as is shown, 
of United Empire Loyalist or military ancestry. 
Many soldiers of the famous Black Watch 
Regiment, or 42nd Highlanders, settled on the 
St. John close to Fredericton. The towns of 
Bathurst and Dalhousie on the Bay of Chaleurs 
were also largely of Scottish origin. 

The following list of Scottish Presbyterian 
families in New Brunswick in the year 1843 
may be of interest in this connection : St. John 
City, 300 to 400 families ; Kingston, 100 families ; 
Parish of St. James, Charlotte County, 150 
families; St. Andrews, Charlotte County, 150 
families ; Digdequash, 100 families ; Magaguave- 
dick, 100 families ; Sudbury County, 150 families. 

There were also many settlers of Scottish origin 

TJie Scotsman in Canada 

at Nashwack, in York County, at Fredericton, New- 
castle, Chatham, Richibucto, Restigouche, Dorches- 
ter, Norton, and Woodstock. It must not be for- 
gotten that many of these Scotsmen were of Ulster 
Scottish origin as a large number of Ulster Scots- 
men came into the country. A noted Ulster Scots- 
man was the late Senator Wark, of New Brunswick, 
who was sitting as a Senator of the Dominion at 
Ottawa only a few years ago, in his one hundred 
and first year and still having all his faculties. 
He died a year later aged one hundred and two. 
There is a fine portrait of the old Senator, aged 
one hundred and one, painted by a leading 
Canadian artist, which is now hanging in the gallery 
of the Senate at Ottawa. It may be interesting to 
know that the portraits of almost all of the 
Speakers of the Senate or Upper House at Ottawa 
that are not Frenchmen are those of Scotsmen. 
The names are : Ross, Miller, McPherson, MacNa;b, 
Allan, Sir William Campbell, and Sir Alexander 

Some notable Scotsmen in early New Brunswick 
are well worth chronicling. Many of the clans 
and families were represented. Daniel Grant, who 
settled at the purely Scottish colony of St. 
Andrews, was from Golspie in Sutherlandshire, 
where Dunrobin Castle stands. He died in 1834, 
aged eighty-two. The family of Gray, Scottish 
United Empire Loyalists, numbered thirteen, 
children of Joseph Gray, who settled at Halifax. 
A brother William became a magistrate in King's 
County, New Brunswick, and died in 1824, aged 

The Scotsman in New Brunswick 

ninety-six. The Scottish settlements in New Bruns- 
wick date from the very earliest period, that of Sir 
William Alexander's settlement on the St. John 
River. While the present population is not as 
distinctly Scottish as that of Nova Scotia, there 
are many people of that and Ulster Scottish blood 
in the province, and no chronicle of this province 
can be perfect without reference to the influence 
and personality of the Scotsman. 

Further mention of Scotsmen in New Bruns- 
wick will be found in the chapter on Scottish 




Whose heart was loyal to his word, 
Whose hand was faithful to his sword, 
Who won a hero's world-renown, 
In every quarrel save his own. 

IT is not generally known that from the very 
earliest period of the history of the Province 
of Quebec the Scottish race have been in some 
manner connected with its settlement and develop- 
ment . 

Every Canadian of Scottish extraction should 
be proud of the fact that the very vessel which 
sailed up the St. Lawrence, and from the arrival 
of which was to date the foundation of French 
Canada, was steered by a Scotsman, the now noted 
Abraham Martin, dit ecossais, whose Christian 
name is immortalised in connection with the famous 
heights along with the rriemories of Wolfe and 

The fact that the Scottish sailor was the pilot 
of the Don de Dieu is merely one more instance 
of the worldwide genius of the Scotsman as a 

The Scotsman in Quebec 

master-man in all ages and among all lands and 

That he received the lands where the battle 
was afterward fought as a reward for his skill 
and labour is also evidence of the Scotsman's gift 
in acquisition the world over. 

The sons of the land of the heather had to pene- 
trate everywhere in their restless adventuring, and 
even French Canada could not escape the almost 
universal experience. In truth it has seemed that, 
the world over, wherever practical skill, sagacity, 
and hard work were needed, a Scotsman has ever 
been found in the forefront, ready to essay the 
difficult task, and to achieve the seemingly 
impossible undertaking. 

It is, however, a strange picture to contemplate, 
this -presence of the Scotsman, Abraham Martin, 
on this pioneer vessel of New France. This 
adventure to Canada was the undertaking of a 
French people ; a great French discoverer was 
the leader of the expedition ; the Don de Dieu 
was a French ship sailing from a French port to 
found a French province in the wilds of the New 
World, under the mandate and prestig'e of a .French 
monarch ; and yet as the brave little vessel forged 
her way past the gloomy and forbidding entrance 
and sailed up that vast lonely gulf into the great, 
silent, eld-haunted river it was the hand of that 
lonely, self-contained, dour Scotsman who guided 
the wheel ; and it was his indomitable will that 
would not be defeated, and his unerring brain that 
marked the latitude and longitude, and guided, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

by the compass or the stars of heaven, the first 
Canadian vessel into her virgin port. 

How true a prophecy was this of the future 
of the vast region which lay beyond that narrow 
river gateway, wherein many notable Scotsmen, 
chief among whom were Macdonald and Strath - 
cona, were to control, during a remarkable century 
of our own history, the direction and development 
of its great destinies. Indeed, this picture of the 
pilot Abraham Martin is but one of many 
examples in Canadian history of the energy, 
endurance, and daring of that remarkable people the 
iron-souled children of famous Northern Britain, 
who had then, and have had ever since, their hands 
on the wheel-spokes of all great ventures of the 
modern world. 

Sir James McPherson Lemoine, the noted 
Quebec historian and essayist, himself a Scotsman 
in descent, makes, in his " Scot in New France,'* 
a suggestive remark to the effect that Master 
Abraham, the Scotsman, may have experienced but 
a mild regret at seeing a new Governor of Scottish 
descent, Louis Kirke, the Calvinist, hoist his 
standard on the bastion of Fort St. Louis, which 
had just been evacuated by Cham'plain. 

Another significant picture is given by Lemoine ; 
he writes : " The first British Governor of Quebec, 
a Scotsman, General James Murray, as it were, 
took loyally and bravely the keys of the city gates 
from the last French Commandant of the place, 
Major de Ramezay, a Ramsay of Scottish 


The Scotsman in Quebec 

He also hints, as others have done, that some 
of Cartier's sailors were Scotsmen, and he suggests 
that Michel Herue was no other than a Scotsman, 
Michael Harvey. 

A ^ very interesting and remarkable work is 
that of the French savant, Francisque Michel, 
entitled " The Scot in France." 

It shows that for centuries there was a close 
connection between Scotland and France, and that 
since the year 1400, when Scotsmen landed by 
thousands in France to fight the English, many 
of that nation have continually settled in the 
country, and he cites many names of noted families 
showing plainly a Scottish origin, such as Siche- 
lant (Sutherland), Coninglant (Cunningham), Dro- 
mont (Drummond). For centuries the Scottish 
Ramsays had settled in France ; De Ramezay's 
father was for twenty years Governor of Montreal. 
Later, under British rule, another Ramsay, the Earl 
of Dalhousie, was to represent his monarch at the 
Castle of St. Louis. 

In 1745, when the Scottish Highlanders had 
made a vain and last attempt to restore the 
Jacobite Prince to the British throne, France was 
indifferent ; and it is significant that many of the 
Fraser Highlanders who stormed and took Quebec 
under Wolfe so shortly afterwards had been strong 
Jacobites and followed Prince Charles in 1745. 
It has been suggested that the kilted sealers of 
the Heights of Abraham, were only too eager to 
avenge on her chief colony what they considered 
as France's bad faith with the Jacobite cause. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Those hardy mountaineers, who thought nothing 
of exposure to frost and cold, whose diet and dress 
and manner of life inured them to all hardships, 
became ideal soldiers and afterwards splendid 
settlers, when once they had become accus- 
tomed to the necessities and habits of a pioneer 

The Highland garb they wore by choice in 
their regiments and out of them ; and even an 
Act of Parliament failed to do away with this 
most picturesque of all costumes civil or mili- 

In 1780, it will be remembered, the soldiers of 
the 42nd and 7ist Highlanders mutinied when 
ordered to wear the Lowland military dress, and 
in the end they recovered their rights to wear 
their ancient dress ; so that to-day among the 
finest British regiments, both Regular and Militia, 
are the kilted corps of the Highlanders. 

History shows that as soon after Culloden as 
1759, it was Eraser's kilted Highlanders who 
stormed and captured Quebec, and planted the 
British flag on the ramparts. 

The Master of Lovat had been a Jacobite, and 
his father, the noted Lord Lovat, was one of the 
two last Scottish lords beheaded at the Tower 
in London, paying the penalty of treason in the 
Jacobite cause. The young Master, who, but for 
his father's attainder, would have been Lord Lovat, 
commenced early to evince his loyalty to the House 
of Brunswick in gratitude for the pardon granted 
to him ; and seeing, as so many soon did, the rank 

The Scotsman in Quebec 

folly of the late rising and the great injury which 
it had caused to the flower of Scotland's clans, he 
turned his attention to the purpose of using the 
siplendid fighting stock of the Highlands in the 
cause of Britain rather than against her. His 
estate had been lost, his wealth gone, and he a 
suspected man ; all he had left was the hereditary 
attachment of his clan to their chief. In spite 
of all this, he went to work to raise a Highland 
regiment, and in the space of a few weeks had 
recruited fully 800 men, who were ready to fight 
anywhere under his leadership. 

The Cadet gentlemen of his clan and other 
officers and neighbouring gentlemen added 700 
more ; and the result was the famous Fraser 
Highlanders. They wore the full Highland dress, 
with musket and broadsword, dirk and pouch. 

The list of the officers of the Fraser Highlanders, 
whose commissions are dated January 5, 1759, 
were : 

Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant : Hon. Simon 

Majors : James Clophane ; John Campbell, of 
Dunoon, afterwards commanding the Campbell 
Highlanders in Germany. 

Captains : John McPherson, brother of Clunie ; 
John Campbell, of Ballrmore ; Simbn Fraser, of 
Invsrlochy, killed on the Heights of Abraham, 
1 75 ; Donald Macdonald, brother of Clanronald, 
killed at Sillery, 1760 ; John Macdonald, of Loch- 
garry, afterwards Colonel of the 76th or Mac- 
donald's Regt. ; Alexander Cameron, of Dun- 


The Scotsman in Canada 

gallon ; Thomas Ross, of Culrossie ; Alexander 
Fraser, of Culduthel ; Sir Henry Seton, of Aber- 
corn, Bart. ; James Fraser, of Belladrum ; Simon 
Fraser. Capt. Lunn died a general in 1812. 

Lieutenants : Alex McLeod ; Hugh Cameron ; 
Ronald Macdonald, of Keppoch ; Charles Mac- 
donald, of Glengarry, killed at St. John ; 
Roderick McNeill, of Barra, killed on the Heights 
of Abraham ; Wm. Macdonald ; Archibald Camp- 
bell, son of Glenlyon ; John Fraser, of Balnain ; 
Hector Macdonald, brother of Boisdale, killed 

1 759 '> Allan Stewart, son of Innernaheil ; John 
Fraser ; Alexander Macdonald, son of Boisdale, 
killed on the Heights of Abraham ; Alexander 
Fraser, killed at Louisburg ; Alexander Campbell, 
of Aross ; John Douglas ; John Nairn ; Arthur 
Rose, of the family of Kilravock ; Alexander 
Fraser ; John Macdonald, of Leeks, died at 
Berwick, 1818 ; Cosmo Gordon, killed at Sillery, 

1760 ; David Baillie, killed at Louisburg ; Charles 
Stewart, son of Col. John Roy Stewart ; Ewen 
Cameron, of the family of Glenevis ; Allan 
Cameron ; John Cuthbert, killed at Louisburg ; 
Simon Fraser ; Archibald McAlister, of the family 
of Loup ; James Murray, killed at Louisburg ; 
Donald Cameron, son of Fassifern, died on half- 
pay, 1817. 

Ensigns : John Chisholm ; Malcolm Fraser, of 
Errogie ; Simon Fraser ; James Mackay ; Malcolm 
Fraser, afterwards Capt. of the 84th Regt. Royal 
Emigrants ; Donald McNeill ; Henry Munro ; 
Hugh Fraser, afterwards Capt. 84th Regt. ; 

The Scotsman in Quebec 

Alexander Gregorson, Ardtornish ; James Hender- 
son ; Robert Menzies ; John Campbell. 

Chaplain : The Reverend Robert Macpherson. 

Adjutant : Hugh Fraser. 

Quartermaster : John Fraser. 

Surgeon : John McLean. 

The Fraser Regiment comprised thirteen com- 
panies, numbering in all 1,460 men, who upheld 
the military honour and reputation of the Scottish 

A host of men of ,the Fraser name throughout 
Quebec and other parts of Canada trace their 
descent back to this famous regiment. Likewise 
do numerous Macdonalds, Campbells, Rosses, 
Stewarts, Murrays, McPhersons, Camerons, Mc- 
Kenzies, and Munroes, who are now Canadians of 
several generations. 

The regiment was disbanded in 1764. But in 
1775, when the call to arms to defend the country 
for the King went forth, none were more eager 
to respond than the Fraser Highlanders who were 
settled in Canada ; and out of them, and other 
loyal Highlanders from the St. Lawrence to 
Newfoundland, was raised the 84th or Royal 
Emigrants, spoken of elsewhere in this work. 
These became the garrison of Quebec during that 
awful winter of siege when they held Canada for 
the Empire. 

The following extracts are from the manuscript 
journal of Col. Malcolm Fraser, then lieutenant 
of the 78th Regiment of Eraser's Highlanders, 
relating to the operations before Quebec in 1759. 

141 " 

The Scotsman in Canada 

Colonel Fraser died in 1815 at the age of eighty- 
two : 

8th May 1759. Set sail from Sandy Hook, under convoy of 
the Nightingale, Captain Campbell, having Colonel Eraser's 
Regiment on board. . . . Captain Campbell was of Colonel 
Eraser's Regiment. 

Sunday, ist July. I was ordered with Ensign McKenzie to the 

1 8^ July. Kennedy's Grenadiers were on board the Diana. 

2oth July. A man of Capt. Simon Eraser's Company (63rd) 

2 ist July. Lieutenant Charles McDonald of our Grenadiers 
wounded in the thigh. . . . About fourteen privates, all High- 
landers, wounded. 

24/7* July. Col. Fraser with 350 men of his Regt. marched 
down river to take prisoners. 

26th July. Lieut. Alex. Fraser, junior, returned to camp. . . . 
In evening the Colonel came to camp, wounded, with Capt. 
McPherson wounded by the same shot. 

3 ist July. Col. Eraser's Regt. embarked in boats to cross the 
river at Point Levy. 

ist August. This day General Wolfe in his orders had the 
following paragraph : " Amherst's and the Highland Regiments 
alone, by the soldier-like, cool manner they were formed in, 
would undoubtedly beat back the whole Canadian Army if they 
had returned to attack them." 

15^ August. Capt. John Macdonald, seven subalterns (of 
whom I was one), eight sergeants, &c., crossed over from Point 
Levy to the Island of Orleans. 

2$rd August. We were reinforced by a company of Rangers 
under Capt. Montgomery of Kennedy's or 43rd Regt. . . . Joined 
by Capt. Ross, with his company. . . . Capt. Ross joined 
Colonel Murray. . . . Brigadier Murray has returned to his 

$rd Sept. This day died, my worthy Captain, Alexander 
Cameron of Dungallon, universally regretted by all those who 
knew him as a fine gentleman and a good soldier. 

The Scotsman in Quebec 

4/& Sept. Arrived Captain Alexander Eraser of Culduthel with 
a i4th Company to our Regt. Capt. Cameron was interred in 
front of our colours. 

i$th Sept. In a short time the whole army was landed at a 
place called Le Foulon (now Wolfe's Cove. . . . Our regiments 
were then ordered by Brigadier-General Murray to draw their 
swords and pursue them (the enemy who were now fleeing). . . . 
Our Regiment, the Highlanders, . . . behaved extremely well. . . . 
At this time the rest of the army came up. . . . General Murray 
having put himself at the head of our Regiment, ordered 
them to march through the bush of wood. . . . We had a few 
men killed and officers wounded. . . . The enemy . . . began 
firing on us from the bush and from the bank . . . they killed 
and wounded a great many of our men, and killed two officers, 
Lieutenant Roderick, McNeill of Barra, and Alexander Mac- 
donald, and John MacDonald, and John McPherson, volunteer, 
with many of our men were killed before we were re-inforced : 
and Captain Ross ... of the third Regt. . . . was mortally 
wounded in the body by a cannon-ball from the hulks 
in the River St. Charles. . . . We had of our Regiment, three 
officers killed and ten wounded, one of whom, Capt. Simon Eraser, 
afterwards died. Lieutenant Archibald Campbell, thought to be 
mortally wounded, recovered. Capt. John McDonald through 
ooth thighs ; Lieut. Ronald McDonald through the knee ; Lieut. 
Alex. Campbell through the leg ; Lieut. Douglas through the arm. 
who died of the wound ; . . . Ensign Gregorson, Ensign 
McKenzie, and Lieut. Alex. Eraser, all slightly ; I received a 
slight contusion in the right shoulder or rather breast, which pains 
me a good deal. . . . Thus (he says) ended the battle of Quebec, 
the first regular engagement that was fought in North America, 
which has made the King of Great Britain master of the Capital 
of Canada, and, it is hoped, ere long will be the means of subject- 
ing the whole country to the British Dominion ; and if so, this 
has been a greater acquisition to the British Empire than all that 
England has acquired by conquest since it was a nation, if I may 
except the conquest of Ireland in the reign of Henry the Second. 

Thus writes this gallant Scottish officer in his 

The Scotsman in Canada 

journal, and how true were his words as to the 
importance of this battle our history has since 
shown. The most significant fact, however, for 
the purposes of this work, was that this history- 
making battle was fought and won, as this journal 
shows and as all history acknowledges, largely by 

But though the day was won, the French, a 
gallant foe, were not ye*t conquered ; and we learn 
more of what happened in Col. Eraser's journal. 
He continues : 

We lay on our arms all the night of the i3th of September. 

ijth Sept. Monsieur de Ramsay (Fraser gives it the Scottish 
spelling), Governor of Quebec, sent out a flag of truce. . . . Article 
of Capitulation signed on the i8th. 

Oct. Admiral Sanders sailed for England. On the 

General Moncton sailed, having appointed Brigadier Murray (a 
Scotsman) Governor of Quebec. 

Col. Fraser does not bear out Lemoine regard- 
ing the kilts and the severe climate. He says : 

is/ Dec. The winter is now very severe. 

2oth Dec. The winter is now almost unsupportably cold. . 
The garrison in general are .but indifferently clothed, but our 
regiment in particular is in a pitiful situation, having no breeches, 
and the Philibeg is not at all calculated for this terrible climate. 
Col. Fraser is doing all in his power to provide trowsers for them, 
and we hope soon to be on a footing with other regiments in that 

i$th Feb., 1760. Detachments sent over to drive the French 
from Point Levy (they crossed on the ice), Lieut. McNeill of 
our Regt. and some men wounded. 

2$th Feb. The General went to attack him (M. St. Martin) with 
the 1 5th, 28th, and Col. Fraser's Regts. 

The Scotsman in Quebec 

2nd March. Capt. Cameron of our Regt. was pitched on by 
the General as a proper person to command at Lorette, as he 
spoke French. 

ijth March. Capt. Donald McDonald of Col. Eraser's Regt. 
with the Light Infantry, &c., attacked the French Post took 
eighty persons . . . returned . . . having suffered very much by 
the excessive cold of the preceding night ; several having lost 
the use of their fingers and toes. The scurvy, occasioned by 
salt provisions and cold, has begun to make fierce havock in the 

26//* Apr. Information that Levis with 12,000 men, regulars 
Canadians and savages coming. 

27/A Apr. Governor marched out with Grenadiers, &c. . . . 
Vanguard of the French army appeared. . . . Sent orders the 
28th, 47th and 58th and Col. Fraser's Regt. to march to St. 
Foy and cover his (the Governor's) retreat. . . . The company of 
volunteers of the garrison, commanded by Capt. Donald 
McDonald of our Regt. . . . having been almost destroyed . . . 
Colonel Fraser's Regt. being in danger of being surrounded. . . . 
We had about sixty killed and forty wounded, and of thirty-nine 
officers, Capt. Donald McDonald and Lieut. Cosmo Gordon, 
both killed ; Lieut. Hector McDonald and Ensign Malcolm 
Fraser died of their wounds. . . . Twenty-three officers wounded, 
of this number Col. Fraser . . . Capt. Alex. Fraser wounded. 

ist May. Capt. Cameron, dangerously burnt and bruised. . . . 
Lieut. McGregor, left on the field wounded, narrowly escaped 
being killed . . . said he saw the savages murdering the 

These extracts afford some idea of the pro- 
minence of Scotsmen in the memorable battle and 

Another vivid picture is possible fifteen years 
later, when the 84th or Highland Emigrant 
Regiment defended Quebec from the Americans. 

During all that terrible time, in the face of 
fearful odds, Col. McLean, the head of the 

VOL. i. K 145 

The Scotsman in Canada 

regiment, proved himself to be a fine type of 
Scottish commander. With traitors, disease, and 
famine to contend with, and the whole province 
outside of the walls of Quebec in the hands of 
the American Army, the Governor, Guy Carleton, 
with his brave officers, McLean, McKenzie, and 
Hamilton, and others equally brave, withstood the 
foe and kept the province for Britain. 

For these important services the officers and 
men received grants of land in the province. 
Major Nairn received the seigniory of Murray's 
Bay and Lieut. Malcolm that of Mount Murray. 
The men of their companies settled about them, 
and one of the noted Scottish colonies in Quebec 
Province was formed. 

In that locality the names of McLean, McNeill, 
and other clan names connected with the famous 
78th Regiment are to be found. But the mass 
of this noted fighting stock has been so absorbed 
in the French population that it is doubtful how 
much of Scottish stock is not now animating 
the present-day French Canadian. They settled 
all over the province ; and in the year 1880 the 
then known descendants numbered fully three 

But there are other Scottish settlements in 
Quebec, besides the great scattered stock, which 
has come in from time to time during the 
nineteenth century. Among these, Metis was 
founded in the year 1823 by Mr. McNider, of 
Quebec : and there are many Scotsmen of good 
standing and means settled in the Baie des 
Chaleurs district. 

The Scotsman in Quebec 

These are neither of United Empire Loyalist 
origin nor descended from the Fraser Highlanders. 

Of these, Lemoine mentions William McPherson, 
who was for years Mayor of Port Daniel. Lemoine 
himself was grandson of another McPherson, a 
noted United Empire Loyalist, who was born in 
Inverness, Scotland, in 1752. With this family 
there had settled, about the year 1790, a numerous 
colony of Kennedys, Arnetts, Morrisons, and other 
Scottish and United Empire Loyalist families. In 
addition to these settlements, all through the 
province will be found intermarriages, with the 
best French families, of Scottish officers of the 
different regiments, as is instanced by such families 
as those of Stuart, Fraser, McPherson, and Camp- 
bell. The present Baron de Longuiel is in the 
male line of the great clan of Grant. 

It will be impossible to deal with all the Scots- 
men in the province since its foundation. But 
the Scottish element in the cities of Quebec and 
Montreal will be of interest to readers of this 
work, and much of this will be referred to in 
other chapters later on. 'In this connection, how- 
ever, the religious element in the life of the 
province, which will be examined later, is im- 
portant, as the Scotsman is nothing if not religious. 
In the year 1802 a memorial to King George the 
Third was signed at Quebec city by leading Scots- 
men asking for a site for a Presbyterian church. 
It is dated October 5th. The list of names which 
follows is representative of the business and pro- 
fessional men of the day : Alexander Sparks 

The Scotsman in Canada 

{Minister) ; Jas. Thompson, jun. ; Fred Stuart ; 
Jno. Greenshields ; Chas. G. Stewart ; Jas. 
Sinclair ; Jno. Urquhart ; Wm. Morrim; 
Jno. Eifland,; Jno. Barlie ; Geo. McGregor ; 
iWm. Holmes ; James Ward ; Jno. Purssi; 
J. Brydon ; Jno. Fraser ; James Somerville-; 
J. A. Thompson ; Wm. Hall ; W/m. Thompson, 
fun.-; D. Monro ; J. Blackwood ; M. Lym- 
burner ; W. Roseburg ; Jno. McCord*; J. G. 
Hanna ; J. McNider ; Adam Lymburner*; Jno. 
Lynd ; Peter Stuart ; Wm. Grant*; J. A. 
Todd ; Jno. Mure ; Jno. McLeod ; Hugh Munro ; 
Geo. Geddes ; Archd. Donaldson ; Sandford 
Hoyt ; Robt. Haddon, sen. ; Robt. Haddon, 
jun. ; Alexander Hadden ; Wm. Brown ; Geo. 
Morrison ; Jno. Goudie ; G. Sinclair,*; Walter Car- 
ruthers ; Wjn. Petrie ; Jno. Ross ; Wm. McKenzie ; 
Thos. Saul ; J. Ross, jun. ; Jas. Mitchell j 
Geo. King ; Alex. Thompson ; Jas. Orkney ; J. 
Neilson ; Danl. Fraser ; A. Ferguson*; Robt. 
Eglison ; Robt. Cairns ; Wm. A. Thompson ; 
Wm. McWhirter ; John McDonald ; Jno. Auld ; 
Jno. Shaw ; Charles Hunter ; Wm. Anderson*; 
Hugh McQuarters, jun. 

That the influence of the Scotsman in the intel- 
lectual life of the province was not wanting is 
shown by the royal charter granted to the Quebec 
Literary and Historical Society by William the 
Fourth on October 5, 1831. In the list of charter 
members appear the names of many prominent 
men of Scottish birth such as George Earl of 
Dalhousie ; John Caldwell ; Hugh Caldwell ; 

The Scotsman in Quebec 

Archibald Campbell ; Charles Campbell ; John 
Saxton Campbell ; John P. Cockburn ; Andrew Wi. 
Cochrane ; John Davidson ; Wm. Findley ; Jas. B. 
Forsyth ; John Fraser ; John Malcolm Fraser ; 
James Hamilton ; Wm. Henderson ; Wm. Lyons ; 
Fredk. Maitland ; John McNider ; Wm. McKee*; 
Wm. King McCord ; Rodk. McKenzie ; John I. 
Mills ; Wm. Rose ; James Smillie ; Hon. and 
Rt. Rev. Chas. James Stewart, Lord Bishop of 
Quebec ; James Stuart ; David Stuart ; Andrew 
Stuart ; Robt. Symes ; Rev. Daniel Wilkie. In 
1835 the corresponding secretary was George Okill 

Robert Sellar, in his history of Huntington, 
Chateauquay, and Beauharnois down to the year 
1838, gives us a glimpse of the Scottish Settlement 
in that part of Quebec. 

The first Scotsman whom' he mentions, as in 
the settlements, is a Scottish United Empire 
Loyalist, John Fisher, who was a native of Killin, 
in Perthshire, Scotland. Fisher moved into 
Hemingford in 1800. A little earlier, in 1798, 
Rach Gordon, a Scottish Loyalist, at Sorel, settled 
on one of the first three lots in Havelock. In 
1 80 1 Andrew Gentle, of Stirlingshire, a brewer, 
arrived with certificates of his good character frorri 
the minister of Dunblane. He came by way of 
the States and brought an American wife. He 
settled in Hemingford. Near him settled James 
Gilfillan, a Highlander. About 1808 Archibald 
Muir, another Scotsman, was manager of the first 
great mill on the English River. In Franklin, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Dewar, a Scottish blacksmith, established his trade 
in 1 8 1 1 . 

As has been seen, Hemingford's infant settle- 
ment had her Scotsmen. Likewise the young 
settlement on the Chateaugtiay had its representa- 
tive of this indomitable race. In 1800 a Mr. 
toudy came to the settlement. He was the fore- 
runner of the great body of Scotsmen who were 
afterwards to settle the community. He sold his 
farm to a relative, William Ogilvie, who left 
Scotland in 1802. About 1810 John Milne, from 
Aberdeen, was the agent for making out deeds 
of the Seigniory. In 1800 John Simpson, a 
Scottish millwright, built a mill at Beauharnois. 
Opposite St. Martine there settled William Reed. 
Each year saw the coming in of more Scottish 
settlers. Alexander Hassock, from Cromarty, came 
in 1 80 1, and settled in North Georgetown. He 
was followed by his nephew -in -law, James Wilkin- 
son, and John Raleston, from Ayrshire, who 
claimed to have known Robert Burns. 

At English River in 1807 settled James Wright, 
a shoemaker, of Cupar. Other Scottish settlers were 
Somerville, a miller, Andrews, Williamson, Alex. 
Logan, from Ross-shire, John Hervie, Neil 
Morrison, from Lochgilphead, Argyllshire, John 
Stewart, Thompson, James McClatchie, from Ayr- 
shire ; Renshaw, a schoolmaster. 

In 1802 the Nephton arrived at Quebec with 

seven hundred Highlanders on board. They were 

chiefly from Glenelg, in Ross-shire. Many of them 

at first settled on Sir John Johnson's property in 


The Scotsman in Quebec 

Chambly, but finding much of the land too swampy 
three of their number, John Roy McLennan, John 
Finlayson, and Finlay McCauig, in 1812, found 
lands for many of them in Beauharnois. The rest 
went to Glengarry in Upper Canada. 

Many of the officers of the Scottish regiments 
settled in the city of Montreal, and some of them, 
with other adventurous Scottish spirits, founded 
the North-West Trading Company, so noted in 
the fur trade. Others became prominent business 
men and financiers. These were augmented by 
many other Scottish emigrants, who, as time went 
on, made themselves masters of Canada's trade 
and finance. Wherever her vast wilds were, by 
her lakes and rivers, in the lone North-West, there 
Montreal Scottish traders adventured or sent their 
agents, until they became the builders of financial 
and trading Canada. Many of the most noted of 
these progressive and persistent Scotsmen will be 
mentioned in other parts of this book. But there 
are to-day many distinguished representatives of 
the Scottish colony in Montreal. The names of 
a few, like the late Honourable Sir George Drum- 
mond ; the Honourable A. B. Angus ; Sir 
Montague Allen ; Sir Hugh Graham ; the 
Honourable Robert Mackay ; the Honourable Jas. 
Meighen ; and Sir William Macdonald, are among 
a long list of present-day Scotsmen who dominate 
the financial and commercial world of Canada. 




True to Empire and to King, 

They deemed all loss of wealth and lands 

As little, as a petty thing 

Weighed in the scales. Heroic bands, 

Devoted, patriot, wandered forth 

To build new Empire in the North. 

" The Loyalists." 

UNLIKE that of Pictou, the Glengarry settle- 
ment in Upper Canada was a great military 
Community. It had its origin in the disbanded 
Scottish regiments composed largely of members 
of the great clan Macdonald or Macdonell, a name, 
as history shows, famous in Canadian as well as in 
British annals. 

Claiming a common descent from the stock of 
the Lords of the Isles, the several branches of 
the clan spell the name differently. The Mac- 
donells of Antrim and those of Glengarry are of 
the same stock as Lord Macdonald of Slate in 
Antrim and the late Sir John A. Macdonald. 

The Glengarry Settlements 

The history of the Glengarry settlement is, in" 
a sense, a history of the Highland regiments and 
of the great Jacobite wars. These Macdonells . 
were of an undaunted stock of fighting men, who 
strove to the last for the Stuart cause. But since 
then they have been as steadfastly true to the 
House of Hanover, which now represents the Royal 
House of Stuart. 

When Pitt, in 1757, started out to raise the 
Highland regiments, as one writer says, " this call 
to arms was responded to by the clans ; and 
battalion on battalion was raised in the remotest 
parts of the Highlands among those who, a few 
years before, were devoted to, and too long had 
followed, the race of Stuart. Frasers, Macdonalds, 
Camerons, McLeans, McPhersons, and others of 
disaffected names and clans were enrolled." 

All the world knows how they soon, at Quebec 
and Aboukir, added fame to Britain. Lord 
Chatham, in his famous eulogy of their regiments, 
said : "I sought for merit wherever it could be 
found. It is my boast that I was the first Minister 
who looked for it and found it in the mountains 
of the North. I called it forth and drew into your 
service a hardy and intrepid race of men men 
who, left by your jealousy, became a prey to the 
artifices of your enemies, and had gone nigh to 
have overturned the State in the war before last. 
These men in the last war were brought to combat 
on your side ; they served with fidelity, as they 
fought with valour, and conquered for you in every 
part of the world." Of these, this account has to 


The Scotsman in Canada 

do with those who emigrated to the Crown colonies 
in America, and who proved their worth and loyalty 
on this continent, as their brother Scots had done 
in other parts of the Empire and the world. 

Since then the name of Macdonald has continued 
famous in Canada and elsewhere. One has only to 
mention Sir John A. Macdonald, Sir William Mac- 
donald, John Sandfield Macdonald, Bishop Mac- 
donell, and a host of others of this clan, in the 
State, the Church, the Bench, and many other 
walks in life in Canada, to show how one at least 
of the great Highland clans has made its name 
synonymous with the best life of this country. 

The history of the Glengarry settlement is 
similar to that of Pictou, in that it has to be dealt 
with under several heads, those of the first and 
second and third immigrations. The first im- 
migration was the United Loyalist one, under Sir 
John Johnson, from Tryon County, New York. 
It was on a small scale, but the second and third 
were great movements, the third being the coming 
of a whole regiment of Highland soldiers in 1802. 

One of the most important of all the United 
Empire Loyalist settlements was that of Glengarry, 
which contributed during the wars more fighting 
men in proportion to its population than any other 
portion pf the province. 

But Jo explain its settlement we must go back 
to the Old Land and the old days, as no people or 
generation lives merely in the present. We are 
a part and parcel of the past, and are much what 
our forefathers made us ere we were born. To 

TJie Glengarry Settlements 

understand and explain the Scotsman in Canada 
we must know of the Scotsman in the Old World. 
And as he was inspired there, so his children and 
children's children will be led here. 

Among the leading Jacobites were the sept of 
the Macdonald clan, the Macdonells of Glengarry. 
They had followed Montrose and Claverhouse. In 
1715 they joined the Earl of Mar, and in 1745 
were staunch adherents of Prince Charles Edward. 
They met defeat, and paid the penalty like men. 

And yielded, indignant, their necks to the blow, 
Their homes to the flame, and their lands to the foe. 

After the disarming Acts and the abolition of 
the feudal system, thousands of Highlanders were ' 
forced to emigrate. 

Among these were several gentlemen of the clan^ 
Macdonell of the Glengarry branch Aberchalder, 
Leek, Collachie, and Scothouse, so designated from 
their several estates. These, collecting a number - 
of their people together, emigrated to America, " 
and settled on tracts of land in what was then 
called Tryon County, in the beautiful valley of 
the Mohawk in the Province of New York. 

They had hoped, in crossing the ocean, to live 
in peace and make up for the disasters of fortune 
which the Jacobite wars had helped to cause in 
the Old World. 

But their fate was destined to be otherwise ; 
and it was not long ere they had to take up arms 
for George the Third, as they had for the Stuart 
cause. And once more for an ideal the monarchy 


The Scotsman in Canada 

they forsook all, and went forth into the northern 
Canadian wilderness to establish the foundation 
of a new Empire on this continent. 

The man who was to lead them was Sir John 

Johnson, son of the famous Sir William Johnson, 

.- the friend and ally of the Redman. Sir William 

s was from Ireland, and descended from a branch 

of the famous Lowland Scottish family of Johnson 

"""of the borders. 

When the rebellion broke out in 1775 Sir John 
armed his retainers for the King, and his Scottish 
allies, who were Roman Catholics, took the side 
of their monarch against the rebels. It was not 
long before the Highlanders were denounced by 
v the Continentals as Tories, and were commanded to 
deliver up their arms. This they appeared to do, 
but an attempt was made to seize Sir John Johnson 
and his friends and allies, the Highlanders. But, 
being warned in time, he escaped and made his 
way, after a hard march, to Canada, accompanied 
by many of his friends and associates, chief among 
whom were the Macdonnells and other Highland 
gentlemen and their clansmen who had followed 
his fortunes and had stood for the Empire. 

On their arrival, Sir Guy Carleton issued a com- 
mission to Johnson to raise a fencible regiment 
from among the two hundred followers who had 
accompanied him from New York. This regiment 
was called " The King's Royal Regiment of New 
York." Among others the Highland gentlemen 
from Tryon County received commissions, and 
their men enlisted. The following is a list of the 

The Glengarry Settlements 

Scottish officers in this regiment, in Butler's 
Rangers, and in the 84th or Royal Highland 
Emigrant Regiment : 

King's Royal Regiment, Battalion. Alexander Macdonell (Aberchalder). ^ 

Capt. Angus Macdonell (Ensign 6oth Regt.). 

Capt. John Macdonell (Scotas). 

Capt. Archibald Macdonell (Leek). 

Capt. Allan Macdonell (Leek). 

Lieut. Hugh Macdonell (Aberchalder). 

Ensign Miles Macdonell (Scotas). 

King's Royal Regiment, N.Y.2nd Battalion. 
Capt. James Macdonell. 
Lieut. Ronald Macdonell (Leek). 

Butler's Rangers. 

Captain John Macdonell (Aberchalder), Lieut, in 84th Regt. 
ist Lieut. Alexander Macdonell (Collachie). 
2nd Lieut. Chichester Macdonell (Aberchalder). 

Seventy-first Regiment. 

Lieut. Angus Macdonell. 

Other Scottish gentlemen who held commissions 
in the King's Royal Regiment of New York were : 

Major James Gray. , 
Major John Ross. 
Capt. S. Anderson. 
Capt. John Munroe. 
Capt. William Morrison. 
Capt. Redford Crawford. 
Lieut. Malcolm McMartin. 
Lieut. Joseph Anderson. 
Lieut. Jacob Farrand. 
Lieut. Walter Sutherland. 
Lieut. Hugh Munro. 

Lieut. William Mackay. 
Lieut. William Eraser. 
Ensign Duncan Cameron. 
Ensign John Mann. 
Ensign Ebenezer Anderson. 
Ensign Alexander McKenzie. 
Ensign Samuel Mckay. 
Ensign John Mackay. 
Chaplains, the Rev. John Doty 

and the Rev. John Stewart. 
James Stewart, Surgeon's Mate, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

As will be seen by these lists, the Macdonells, 
who are in a list by themselves, are in the great 

The Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment, or the 
old 84th, was raised from the Highland emigrants 
then arriving in Canada, and Lieut. -Col. Allan 
McLean, of the io4th Regiment, was Commandant 
of the First Battalion, and Captain John Small was 
Commandant of the Second Battalion, raised from 
the discharged soldiers settled in Nova Scotia, who 
afterwards re -settled there. 

A large proportion of the King's Royal Regi- 
ment of New York and the Royal Emigrants were 
of the Scottish stock. 

The First Battalion of the Royal Emigrants 
settled in Canada. The following is a list of its 
officers in 1778 : 

Lieut.-Col. Allan MacLean ; Major Donald McDonald. 

Captains : Wm. Dunbar, John Nairne, Alexander Eraser, 
George McDougall, Malcolm Eraser, Daniel Robertson, George 

Lieutenants : Neil McLean, John McLean, Lachlan McLean, 
David Cairns, Donald McKinnon, Ronald McDonald, John 
McDonell, Alexander Stratton, Hector McLean. 

Ensigns : Ronald McDonald, Archibald Grant, David Smith, 
Archibald McDonald, John Pringle, Hector McLean. 

Rev. John Bethune, Chaplain ; Ronald McDonald, Adjutant ; 
Lachlan McLean, Quartermaster ; James Davidson, Surgeon ; 
James Walker, Surgeon's Mate. 

In 1778 this regiment was numbered as the 

Though many of the United Empire Loyalists 

The Glengarry Settlements 

were of Scottish stock, yet Glengarry must be^ 
considered as the great centre of the Scottish ' 
Loyalists. The Empire Lists, which are only par- * 
tially complete, show that the name Macdonell, * 
or Macdonald, outranks in the numbers of its * 
representatives any other United Empire name in C 
the Province of Upper Canada. There were on * 
the Lists the representatives of almost every High- 
land clan and Scottish name. Then there were 
many of . the Highlanders who never registered 
their names. Bishop Macdonell, who came to "" 
Canada more than twenty years after the Loyalists, 
wrote that he had not been long in the province 
before he discovered that few or none among the 
earliest settlers had legal tenure of their proper- 
ties, and it took him months' of hard labour to t 
secure for the Highland emigrants of Stormont l 
and Glengarry proper deeds for their lands. 

Lord Dorchester's original United Empire List, 
which was only the nucleus of the Royalist 
immigration into Upper Canada, showed nearly 
six hundred Scottish names, of which 84 were 
Macdonells, 35 Grants, 28 Campbells, 27 Erasers, 
and 25 Camerons. 

Of these Scottish Celtic settlers in early Canada, 
their enemies have striven to say that they had no 
mental qualifications to rank them with the early 
settlers of Massachussets, Virginia, Maryland, and 
Connecticut ; that long subjection to their Highland 
chiefs had paralysed those nobler qualities which 
make men desire freedom and progress. But their 
manner of conquering nature in their new home 


The Scotsman in Canada 

during the earlier years of pioneer life, the spirit 
they showed in repelling the foe in 1812 and 1837, 
give the lie to such a false estimate of the Glen- 
garry, Storrriont, and other Scottish settlers of 

In the grave crisis of the summer of 1812, when 
the gallant Brock stood alone, when cowards and 
traitors had combined to make the holding of 
the young province for Britain almost impossible, 
who was it who stood loyally, as Brock himself said, 
but his loyal Glengarry men? And it was a Mac- 
donell of the clan who died on the same field of 
glory while rallying his forces at the untimely 
death of his great general. 

But they have evinced a host of other qualifica- 
tions, mentally, morally, and physically, to show 
them to be the equal, if not the superior, of the 
members of any other community which ever 
settled on this continent. Almost supreme as has 
been the Scot in many parts of the great Republic 
to the South, it seems that there is somewhat in 
the very climate and austere seasons and natural 
environment of Canada that brings out the Scottish 
nature, as in his own dear homeland, at its very 
best, and blossoms, as nowhere else outside of the 
northern isle, the very flower of the Scottish per- 
sonality. Where else has there developed a Lord 
Strathcona, a Sir John Alexander Macdonald, a 
Sandfield Macdonald, a Lyon McKenzie, an Oliver 
Mowat, a Principal Grant, a Sir William Dawson, 
a Bishop Strachan, a Bishop Macdonell, or a 
thousand other remarkable individualities, rugged 

The Glengarry Settlements 

scions of the Scottish stock, but Canadians of the 
Canadians, because this land of ours is so much 
of Scotland and Scotland so much a part of us? 
This individuality has been both the strength and 
curse of the Scottish race, and it is alike the curse 
of the Canadians, because we are too strong as 
individuals in our own conceit and will not band 
together for any cause save a vulgar party one 
and therefore, though we still are Grits or Tories, 
at least in name, we have ceased to be true 

The early settlement of Glengarry developed 
slowly. The county of Glengarry, where the 
settlement was made, is the most easterly county 
of what was old Upper Canada, now Ontario, 
Alexandria, the centre of the county, being about 
halfway between the Ottawa and the St. Lawrence 
Rivers, and about fifty miles from Ottawa city. 
The neighbouring counties are Stormont, Dundas, 
and Prescott, where many of the early settlers 
found tiieir homes, and most of them were soldiers 
and United Empire Loyalists of Scottish descent. 
Cprnwall was the great early county town for 
\ districts, and a famous Scottish centre in 
Tpper Canada. Here Bishop Strachan, then 
Tohn Strachan, taught his famous school ; 
W here, at Williamstown, the Rev. John 
founded the first Presbyterian Church in 
anada. Here, during the early pioneer 
eighteenth century wore itself out, and 
nineteenth came the third great influx 
with the disbanded regiment of the 

L 161 

The Scotsman in Canada 

The second immigration into the Glengarry 
community took place soon after the close of jhe 

The Rev. Alexander Macdonell brought out 
some five hundred colonists, who came chiefly from 
the Knokdart portion of the Glengarry estates in 
the Western Highlands. These Highlanders came 
and settled on land among their fellow -clansmen 
,in the county of Glengarry. They sailed for 
America in the ship McDonald, Captain Robert 
Stevenson, from Greenock. She arrived in Quebec 
on September 7, 1786, and her reverend colonist 
and her 520 pioneers made their way up the St. 
Lawrence to the land which was to be their home. 

Father Alexander Macdonald was one of /the 
earliest Catholic missionaries, not French, in Upper 
Canada. He founded the parish of St. Raphael's, 
the pioneer paris^of Upper Canada, and died at 
Lachine in iSoj'j^ged about fifty-three years, after 
a long and faithful pastorate. 

Mr. Macdonald, of Greenfield, who emigrated in 
1792, also brought out emigrants who were of his 
clan. He was brother-in-law of Col. John Mac- 
donald, the first Speaker of the Upper Can- 
'Assembly. c 

The county now became noted as a 8? 
colony, and emigrants were attracted to it 
parts of Scotland ; and among the^ Q 
McPhersons from Badenoch and Camer Dawson 

Lochiel's country, who settled in Lane. 

iieii or a 

Lochiel. > 

There is also a tradition that a Capt 1 ! 

The Glengarry Settlements 

McLeod, of the family of Moule, in 1793 chartered 
a vessel and brought from Glenelg in Scotland 
forty families, principally of McLeods, Mclntoshes, 
McGillivrays, and McCuaigs. They arrived in 
Glengarry in 1794, and settled in the north of the 

These were the principal Scottish immigrations 
into these settlements prior to the coming of the 
regiment in 1802. 




Hearts of Scotland who inherit, 
As of old, her martial blood; 

Rouse, once more, the hero spirit 
Of her ancient island brood! ! 

OVER one hundred and sixty years after Sir 
William Alexander sent his first shipload 
of Scottish colonists across the Atlantic, there 
laboured on the borders of the counties of Perth 
and Inverness in the Highland mountains of Scv/. 
land a devoted missionary of the old Celtic blood, 
whose name was Macdonell. He was of the same 
race as the Earl of Stirling, those descendants of 
the renowned Somerled. He was a practical man 
as well as a dreamer, and was, no doubt, a poet 
at heart as all his race are. But unlike Alexander 
the poet, courtier, colonist, and psalm -writer 
this man was a priest of the Roman Church, whose 
*' chief interest was the spiritual welfare of that great 
v *nass of Catholic Celts who, since the decay of 

The Glengarry Settlements 

the clan system, were out of place in the High-^ 
lands, which were then being turned into sheep-*' 
walks and agricultural experiments, on a large 

Of this great man I will speak at length later. 
But here his work as a successful coloniser of one 
of the most important Canadian communities will 
alone be dealt with. Affected by the distress of his 
countrymen, who, as he said, had been driven out of 
their glens to turn the latter into sheep-walks, he 
was debating what to do to alleviate their con- 
dition, when he heard of an emigrant ship which, 
sailing from Barra, had been wrecked and had 
put into Greenock, leaving her passengers in ,a 
destitute and helpless condition. He at once went 
to Glasgow in the spring of 1792, and by interest 
with the University authorities and merchants, 
strove to get the evicted farmers and shipwrecked 
people into the local manufactories. For this 
vocation, however, these poor people were ill -fitted 
both by inclination, ability, and knowledge. They 
preferred the wild life of the open, and made 
splendid soldiers and deer-stalkers. Then they 
spoke only the Gaelic and were Catholics in 
religion, so that a double barrier separated them 
from the factory people of Lowland English- 
speaking Protestant Glasgow. But the College 
professors and merchants appreciated his efforts, 
and in spite of all the difficulties enumerated, in 
two months he had procured employment for fully 
six hundred Highlanders. 

The faithful and energetic priest became the 


The Scotsman in Canada 

vXspiritual father of these people, and for a couple 
^ of years all went well, though his followers failed 
.x to learn English. But soon came the troubles 

of the French Revolution, and war between 
^England and France and the subsequent decline of 

"trade and labour ; and amid the general misery 
S the poor Highlanders lost their employment. 

Again the ardent missionary met the crisis. He 
*" conceived the daring idea of embodying his idle 
^ labourers into a Catholic Corps in His Majesty's 

service, and setting to work he soon received the 
s Royal assent, and by June, 1795, na ol embodied 

the Glengarry Fencible Regiment, the first Catholic 
*' Corps raised since the Reformation. 

S Becoming chaplain of the regiment, with his 
chief, Macdonell of Glengarry, as colonel, he got 

the regiment to offer their services where they 
-' might be wanted. At first starting in Guernsey, 

they soon went to Ireland, where they, with the 
S Reay Fencibles, put down the Rebellion of 1798. 

Their faithful chaplain was their constant atten- 
^ dant down to the year 1802, when all the Scottish 
*-" Fencibles were disbanded. 

S In 1 798 there were twenty-six Scottish regiments 

x" in the British Army, and the Glengarry s were, no 

y doubt, among the finest of that splendid group of 

fighting men who made the British soldiers dreaded 

all over the world. The following list of the 

officers of the Glengarrys is found in the British 

Army List of 1798 : 

Macdonald of Glengarry, 
General of the Brigade. 

Col. Donald Macdonald. 
Lieut.-Col. Charles McLean. 

The Glengarry Settlements 

Major Alexander Macdonald. 
Capt. Archibald McLachlan. 
Capt. Donald Macdonald. 
Capt. Ranald Macdonell. 
Capt. James Macdonald. 
Capt. Archibald Macdonell. 
Capt. Roderick Macdonald. 
Capt. Hugh Beaton. 
Capt. Lieut. Alex. Macdonell. 
Lieut. John Macdonald. 
Lieut. Ronald Macdonald. 
Lieut. Archibald McLellan. 
Lieut. James Macdonell. 
Lieut. James McNab. 
Lieut. D. Mclntyre. 

Lieut. Donald Chisholm. 
Lieut. Allan McNab. 
Ensign Alexander Macdonell. 
Ensign John Macdonald. 
Ensign Charles Macdonald. 
Ensign Donald Macdonell. 
Ensign Donald McLean. 
Ensign Archibald Macdonell. 
Ensign Alexander Macdonell. 
Ensign Andrew Macdonell. 
Ensign Francis Livingston. 
Adjutant Donald Macdonell. 
Quartermaster Alexander Mac- 
Surgeon Alexander Macdonell. 

Could a regiment be any more thoroughly 
Scottish and Highland than this? 

On the disbanding of the Fencibles, the ^ 
Glengarrys found themselves in as desperate 
a position as ever. But their resolute chap- ' 
lain conceived the idea of their emigrating ^ 
to Canada, and appealed to the British Govern- 
ment for assistance to enable them to do so. 
The Government, while regretting the great flow ^ 
of emigrants from Scotland, offered to bear 
a colony of the regiment to Trinidad. Thanking] ^ 
the minister for his offer, the chaplain replied that ~ 
his people preferred to go to Upper Canada where ^ 
their friends were already settled and doing well. * 
The result was that Mr. Addington, the Premier, 
procured an order with the Sign Manual to the 
Lieut. -Governor of Upper Canada to grant two 
hundred acres of land to every one of the High- " 
landers who should arrive in the province. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

This wholesale emigration alarmed the Scottish 
landlords of the Western Highlands, and an effort 
was made to induce the Highlanders to stay at 
home. They were even offered the waste lands 
of Cornwall. 

At this juncture, however, as in the case of 
Sir William Alexander, a member of the great 
rival clan Campbell came to the Reverend Mr. 
Macdonell's assistance in the person of Major 
Archibald Campbell, who proposed a plan of 
making a complete military organisation of all the 
Scottish Fencible regiments which were disbanded, 
and of sending them all to Upper Canada and so 
prevent them going to the United States. This 
was a feasible and wise scheme, could it have 
been carried out, but just then Addington resigned, 
Pitt returned to office, and the war was renewed 
with France under Napoleon, who was just then 
rising in power, so the greater part of the Fen- 
cibles remained at home or drifted into other units 
of the army. 

At this time also strict regulations were enforced 
as to vessels carrying emigrants abroad, owing to 
cruelties said to be practised by owners of vessels 
in that business. The result of these regulations 
was that an embargo was laid on all emigrant 
ships in British harbours. By good fortune the 
Glengarrys had, the most of them, got away ere 
this was enforced, and set sail for the New Scotland 
across the water. 

Curiously, at this time their chaplain, who had 
stayed behind in London to complete his business, 
was approached by another noted Scottish colonist 

The Glengarry Settlements 

in Canada, Lord Selkirk, whose operations will be 
dealt with by Dr. Bryce in another volume of this 
work. Lord Selkirk proposed to join with Mac- 
donell in his colonisation scheme, but announced" 
that his idea was to settle the country between v 
Lakes Huron and Superior with Highlanders, the 
climate there being similar to that in Scotland 
and the soil richer and more productive. This 
offer was refused because the location chosen was ' 
beyond the jurisdiction of the Government of Upper " 
Canada, and too remote from other settlements. 

The Fencibles arrived in Upper Canada and v 
received their lands according to the despatch from 
Lord Hobart, Secretary of State for the Colonies, l 
to Lieut. -Governor Hunter, dated March i, 1803. - 
By this order twelve hundred acres were granted to 
Mr. Macdonell, and two hundred acres to every 
family he introduced into the colony.-' 

Of other Scottish immigrations into Glengarry 
since that date, those of Locheil and the McLeods 
have been mentioned. 

The year 1803 saw other emigrations of Scots- 
men, and in the ships that carried the Glengarry * 
Fencibles were other Scottish immigrants into 
Canada, many of them from Kintail and Glenelg. + 
One old resident of the county, Murdoch 
McLennan, had released a valuable farm in Kintail 
rather than separate from his kinsmen and friends 
who were emigrating. He said that there were 
eleven hundred persons on the ship, and that they 
were four months crossing in stormy and wintry 
weather, especially off Labrador. 

The county was divided into settlements: 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Breadalbane of the Campbells and others of North 
Argyllshire who settled there ; Dunvegan, named 
by the McLeods, a large number of whom settled 
in that locality ; Strathglas suggests the Chis- 
holms ; and Uist and Knokdart certain septs of the 

Stormont, the adjacent county, was also settled 
originally by Scottish United Empire Loyalists, and 
St. Andrews in that county is a suggestive name. 

The early settlers in Glengarry came chiefly 
from the neighbourhood of the Mohawk River in 
New York. They selected their land on the shores 
of the St. Lawrence and Lake St. Francis, and 
on the borders of the river Raisin as far inland 
as Williamstown and Martintown. They were 
joined in 1784 by 'officers and privates of the 84th 
Regiment, and of that of Sir William Johnston, 
from whose Christian name the former place 
acquired its name. 

From the very first the greater proportion of 
the people were Scottish folk, most of whom had 
come to the colony in 1783- Such names as those 
of Grant, Rose, McLean, Murchison, and Bethune 
are witness to this fact. 

Among the officers who settled in the town- 
ship of Lancaster were Col. Sutherland and Mr. 
Gunn. In 1786 Capt. John Hay, from Glen- 
brae in Aberdeenshire, who had come out to Prince 
Edward Island in 1773 and afterwards joined the 
84th Regiment, settled on the border of the river 
Raisin. His place was named Glen of Hay 
(Gaelic, Gleana-feair). 

Among others who settled in Lancaster were the 

The Glengarry Settlements 

McPhersons from Badenoch. Kenneth, the son 
of John, was for over thirty years postmaster and 
general merchant at Lancaster village. His father 
was John McPherson, who came out and took up 
lands. Kenneth came out in 1822 as a follower of 
Cameron of Thora. One of the McPherson family 
named Murdoch died in his io;th year. 

In the Scottish emigration of 1802 there came 
out Mr. Donald Fraser, who became a merchant at 
Williamstown. He bought Sir John Johnson's 
place at Point du lac, and renamed it Eraser's 
Point. His son, Lieut. -Col. Alexander Fraser, of 
the Glengarry Militia, was living and over eighty 
years of age in 1887. 

A number of retired officials of the Hudson's Bay 
Company settled in Glengarry. Among them were 
the Hon. John McGillivray, whose eldest son, Neil, 
became heir to the chiefship of that clan and to 
the ancestral estate in Scotland ; Duncan Cameron, 
father of the late Sir Roderick Cameron, of New 
York city ; Mr. John McDonald, who resided at 
Gray's Creek ; and Mr. Hugh McGillis, of 

This is the story of this famous old Canadian 
community whose history is linked with the martial 
valour and prowess of 1812. Many of the 
descendants of the rugged old Highland settlers 
have drifted west or into other parts of Ontario. 
But whenever the Scotsman in Canada is spoken 
of, the Glengarry settlements have a foremost place 
in the memory and hearts of our people. 

Bonnet, plaid, and dirk in han' 
The heilan chiel's a fightin' man. 




"Behold the Tiber," the vain Roman cried, 
Viewing the ample Tay from Baiglie's side ; 
But where's the Scot that would the vaunt repay, 
And hail the puny Tiber for the Tay ? 


MONG all the provinces in Scotland," says 
Sir Walter Scott, " the most fertile and the 
most beautiful is the county of Perth.'* If this 
cannot be said of Perth in Ontario, at least it 
can be asserted that it has much beauty and 
fertility of soil and is a pleasant home for Scots- 
men in the New World. This was one of the 
Canadian settlements of purely Scottish and 
military origin. The names of the old town 
and of the river on which it is founded at once 
suggest the famed city and stream of Perth and 
Tay in Scotland. The terrible depression iri trade 
and manufactures in the Old Land that followed 
the close of the Napoleonic wars produced a 
large class of people who were out of employment ; 
and suffering and privation began to be felt in 

The Perth Settlement 

different parts of Britain and, among other places, 
in certain districts of Southern Scotland. Realising 
the necessity of some relief from this condition, 
the British Government deemed that it would be 
wise to send many of the superfluous population 
to Upper Canada, and not only relieve the Old 
Land of her burden, but also fill the young colony 
with loyal subjects of the Crown. As a result 
of this idea, late in May, 1815, three transports 
sailed from Greenock in Scotland, that famed port 
of departure for emigrants, loaded with Scottish 
families destined for Upper Canada. 

These ships were the Atlas, the Baptiste 
Merchant, and the Dorothy. These vessels, for 
some strange reason, were all summer on the 
ocean, and did not reach Quebec until the middle 
of September. Arriving too late to go to the 
new settlements that winter, the emigrants were 
brought up to Brockville and Prescott, and kept 
there in quarters until the following spring. By 
April 1 8, 1816, they were conveyed to their future 
home in the back townships on the Tay and Rideau, 
having to travel through blazed trails in the, as 
yet, uncleared forest. A letter of the Deputy 
Quartermaster-General of October 13, 1816, 
describes this settlement as follows : 

Rideau. This settlement was commenced on the i8th April, 
1816. The new village of Perth is situated on a small river, now 
the Tay, formerly the Pike, which empties itself into the Rideau 
Lake, at about five and a half miles below ; it is distant from 
Brockville forty-two miles, twenty-one of which is an established 
and good road. ... In the village there are twenty houses, and 


The Scotsman In Canada 

in its immediate vicinity there are 250 habitations, which will be 
in readiness for occupation before the winter. . . . The settle 
ment generally is provisioned to the 2 4 th October, about fifty 
families of Scotch, to the 24th December. 

Meanwhile another source was to provide settlers 
for the new settlement. After the close of the 
war of 1812-14, many of the regiments which had 
taken part in the struggle were disbanded, and 
the rank and file were induced to becorrie dwellers 
and landowners in the country which they had 
helped to defend. In the month of June following 
the settlement of the Scottish emigrants at Perth, 
three regiments the Glengarry Fencibles, the 
Canadian Fencibles, and what was known as De 
Watteville's Regiment arrived at the settlement, 
and the town plot of Perth was laid out, a bridge 
was built over the Tay, and the foundation of the 
settlement was carried forward. 

The first settlers were purely Scottish, and many 
of them Highlanders. A great number of the 
military settlers were also Scotsmen ; and during 
1816 many other ships, such as the Canning, the 
Duke of Buckingham, and the Commerce, brought 
hundreds of families, the majority of whom were 
Scotsmen and Ulster Scotsmen. 

The settlement at its foundation was a military 
one, and under the control of the commander of 
the forces. The troops were used at first to build 
houses for the rest of the settlers and provide 
roads and bridges. Among many other neces- 
saries, axes for felling the forest were given the 
settlers ; and though they had much to contend 

The Perth Settlement 

with, they were lucky in having the care and aid 
of the Government during the first years of pioneer 
life. Clothes and rations were also served out, 
and everything was done to give these sturdy 
pioneers a favourable start in their conquest of 
the wilderness. There are in the archives at 
Ottawa lists of supplies that were furnished ; and 
that under the heading of hardware included all 
sorts of articles from palliasses, blankets, billhooks, 
and Flanders kettles, down a long list to shingle- 
nails, brads, and iron wedges. 

Another letter, dated Quebec', November 21, 
1815, refers to the first settlement as follows : 

I have the honour to report to His Excellency that, of the 
settlers recently arrived from Scotland in the Transports, Dorothy, 
Atlas, and Baptiste Merchant, and since forwarded to Upper 
Canada ; eight or nine unmarried men have proceeded to 
Kingston, and are there employed by the Engineer Department 
on the King's works. At Brockville thirty large families are 
accommodated in the Barracks, in some adjoining huts, and in 
the neighbouring farmhouses, where most of them have pro- 
cured employment ; this station being considered the principal 
depot of the Settlement about to be formed under the superinten- 
dence of Alex. MacDonell, Esq. ; the ^aff Surgeon, Mr. Thorn ; 
the Deputy Adjutant-Commissary-Ge/ jral, Mr. Grieg ; and Lieut. 
McTier, Acting Deputy-Supt. 

It is seen that those in charge were all Scotsmen. 

The following statement will be of interest. It 
is dated Scotch Settlement, Perth, August 10, 
1818 (over two years later) : 

We, the undersigned Scotch emigrants, do hereby certify that 
Mr. John Holiday, who accompanied us from Scotland as our 
Schoolmaster, taught our children in Brockville Barracks from 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Martimmas, 1815, to Whitsunday, 1816, for which he received 
no fee whatever, nor did we even hear Mr. Holiday express an 
idea of making charge for the same. (Signed) John Thompson, 
James Taylor, James McLaren, James Millar, Ann. Boldness, 
Hugh McKay, Abraham Loner, Thos. Baker, John Ferguson, 
James Eraser, John Furrier, Wm. McGillivray, James McDonald, 
Alex. McFarlane, Thomas Barrie, John Brash, Alexander Kidd, 
George Wilson, Wm. Johnston." 

Another petition of inhabitants of Perth shows 
"Much regret at the removal of the Rev. Wm. 
Bell from the public school at this place, having 
the highest opinion of his abilities as a teacher, 
as well as of his moral and religious character." 
The petition, which is a long one, is addressed 
to the Deputy Quartermaster-General, and is dated 
at the Scotch Settlement, Perth, December 27, 
1820, showing that the settlement was still under 
military supervision. It is signed by the following 
fifty-five inhabitants, who are all Scotsmen : John 
Alston ; Jos. Taylor ; A. Fraser ; Wm. Mackay ; 
J. Watson ; John Adamson ; Jas. McLean ; Jas. 
Ferguson ; John Campbell ; N. B. Thomas ; Wm. 
Brown ; Jas. Robinson ; Angus Cameron ; Peter 
McPherson ; John Ferguson ; John Paterson ; 
Robt. Smith ; Chas. Jamieson ; James Bows ; 
Wm. McPherson ; Jos. Barrie ; Jas. Bryce ; John 
Fletcher; Hugh Scott; Edwd. Harkness ; Jas. 
Roberts ; Jas. Scott ; John McLaren ; John 
McLeod ; Austin Allan ; Geo. Wilson ; John Allan ; 
Abraham Ferrier ; John Ferrier; Jas. Fraser; 
Samuel McEachern ; Jas. McCraken ; Donald 
Gillies ; Alex. Kidd ; E. C. Mallock ; John Hay ; 
Alex. McDonald ; Richard Jamieson ; Jas. Mc- 

The Perth Settlement 

Intosh ; Francis Allen ; John McNee ; Duncan 
Cameron ; Wm. McGillivray ; Jas. McDonald ; 
John Holiday ; Wm. Rutherford ; John McNiej; 
Colin Campbell. 

The following petition, addressed to the Lieu- 
tenant -Governor of Upper Canada, asks for title 
deeds to their lands, without which they were not 
qualified to vote at the elections. Perth was just 
then set apart to elect a member to the Provincial 
House, and hence the request to be legally quali- 
fied as electors. The petition, which is dated at 
Perth, Upper Canada, March, 1820, is signed on 
behalf of the inhabitants of the Perth Settlement 
by twenty -four persons, all Scotsmen : Al. Thorn, 
J.P. ; A. McMillan, J.P. ; R. Matheson ; Wm. 
Bell ; Josh. Taylor ; J. Watson ; Alex. Matheson ; 
John Jackson ; Josh. Holesworth ; Robt. Winch- 
worth ; Thos. Cousin ; John Ferguson; W. 
Morris; G. H. Reade ; Wm. Baily ; N. B. 
Townes ; John Alston ; James Young ; Wm. 
Matheson ; H. Graham ; David Bay ; A. Fraser. 

The officers of the Glengarry Light Infantry 
Fencibles in 1816 were Col. Edward Baynes ; 
Majors Robt. McDonald and Alex. Clark ; 
Captains R. M. Cochrane, Alex. McMillan, Wm. 
Campbell, W. Coates ; Lieutenants Jas. Stewart, 
A. Leslie, Walter Kerr, Jas. McCaulay, Rodk. 
Matheson, Angus McDonald, Robt. Kerr, John 
McKay ; Ensigns Jos. Frobisher, Alex. McDonell, 
Alex. McDonald, John Fraser, John Wright ; 
Adjutant Wm. Blair ; Surgeon Alex. Cunningham. 

The Scotsmen among the officers of the 

VOL. I. M 177 

The Scotsman in Canada 

Canadian Fencibles, 1816, were : Lieut. -Col. Geo. 
Robertson ; Capt. G. R. Ferguson ; Lieutenants 
John Johnston, Alex. Grant, J. McKenzie ; Ensigns 
Walter Davidson, Wm. Mitchell, J. H. Kerr ; 
Quartermaster Alex. Fraser ; Surgeon T. Robert- 

The following letter from the Rev. William Bell, 
who has already been mentioned, will be of interest 
in its picture of early conditions in the settlement. 

It is dated Perth, Upper Canada, October 10, 
1 8 1 8 . He says : 

This being a military settlement, there are a great number of 
discharged soldiers amongst us, but few of them come to church. 
My congregation consists chiefly of Scotch settlers, together 
with the half-pay officers of four regiments who are settled in the 
neighbourhood. You will scarcely credit the extent of country 
over which my labours at present extend. It is no less than 
fifty miles around Perth, there not being any Protestant clergyman 
nearer in any direction ; but the country is still very thinly 
inhabited, though extremely fertile. The number of emigrants 
arriving every year is great, but they are in a manner lost in a 
country of such great extent. The town of Perth is situated on 
the banks of the Tay, a beautiful river which falls into the 

The Rev. William Bell was the youngest son 
of Andrew Bell, of the parish of Audrie in Scot- 
land. He was teacher of a grammar school in 
Bute before entering the ministry. Of his many 
sons, Andrew, the eldest, was the father of Dr. 
Robert Bell, Chief Geologist of the Canadian 
Geological Survey. His fourth son, Robert Bell, 
was Member for North Lanark during the 

The Perth Settlement 

McKenzie regime. James, the seventh son, 
the first male child born in Perth, and was foi 
forty years Registrar of Lanark. The youngest 
son, Rev. Dr. George Bell, was the first student 
enrolled at Queen's University, and afterwards 
Registrar of that institution. The only daughter 
married John G. Mallock, first Judge of the county 
of Lanark. 

Another Perth family was that of Peter Camp% 
bell, who came out in 1817. He was descended 
from an old Highland family. Three of his sons 
were Presbyterian ministers, the most noted being 
the Rev. Dr. Robert Campbell, ex-Moderator and 
present Clerk of the General Assembly of Canada. 
Another son was Archibald, of Perth, father of 
Archibald M. Campbell, the Ottawa explorer and 
economic geologist. 

Judge Mallock, of Brockville, was a brother of 
Judge Mallock, of Lanark. 

The Hon. Roderick Matheson was paymaster of 
the military settlements on the Rideau. He was 
afterwards appointed to the Legislative Council for 
Upper Canada, and became one of the first 
Dominion Senators. One of his sons is the 
Honourable A. J. Matheson, Provincial Treasurer 
for Ontario. Another was the late Marshall 
Matheson, Master-in-Chancery at Ottawa. 

The Honourable William Morris and Malcolm 
Cameron are mentioned elsewhere in this work. 

Judge John Wilson fought a duel in Perth in 
1833 with Robert Lyon, and killed him. Wilson 
gave himself up, pleaded his own cause, and was 


The Scotsman in Canada 

acquitted. Perth was the scene of the famous 
litigation in connection with the MacNab and his 
unfortunate settlement. 

The McLaren family, the well-known lumber- 
men of Buckingham and Ottawa, were Perth 
settlers. Some noted members of this family have 
been the late Senator McLaren, Peter McLaren, 
of Perth, David McLaren, of Ottawa, and Pro- 
fessor McLaren, of Knox College, Toronto. 

James Wilson, M.D., was a well-known prac- 
titioner of Perth. He became a noted geologist. 
He died in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1881. 

The Honourable John Graham Haggart, late 
Postmaster-General and Minister of Railways and 
Canals, is a prominent citizen of Perth. He has 
represented Lanark County in many Parliaments, 
and is one of the veterans of the Macdonald regime 
still in the House of Commons. In addition to 
his energy and abilities as a politician and a man 
of business, Mr. Haggart is a fine scholar and a 
close student of classical literature. 

Another prominent Perth family is that of 
Balderson, one of the oldest and most respectable 
in the locality. Lieut. -Col. Balderson, of Perth, 
and his brother, Mr. James Balderson, barrister, 
of Ottawa, are the present representatives of that 

1 80 



Should fate command me to the farthest verge 
Of the green earth, to distant barbarous climes, 
Rivers unknown to song ; where the first sun 
Gilds Indian mountains, or his setting beam 
Flames on the Atlantic isles, 'tis nought to me, 
Since God is ever present, ever felt, 
In the void waste, as in the city futt ; 
And where He, vital, breathes, there must be joy. 

DURING the years from 1816 to 1820, there 
was, as pointed out in the last chapter, 
much depression in the motherland owing to com- 
mercial declension, and this caused a great deal of 
privation among certain classes of people in the 
south of Scotland whose means of living depended 
largely upon production and manufactures. 

This class of people in the Scottish counties of 
Lanark and Renfrew had suffered a great deal 
from this depression, so that many of them, despair- 
ing of eking out an existence at home, began to 
look abroad with that hope eternal which inspires 
the human breast to dream of a new life in the 
more promising regions of the Western world. 

Having this object in view, a considerable num- 
ber of families in the two counties, during 1820, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

banded themselves together into societies for the 
purpose of petitioning the Government for the 
power and means of emigrating to Upper Canada 
and for grants of land in that province. The 
Colonial Secretary of the day was Lord Bathurst, 
and to him and his Majesty's other ministers the 
petitions of these societies were presented by 
several Members of Parliament, who were aware 
of the distress existing in Glasgow and the sur- 
rounding country, and of the difficulties affecting 
the petitioners. During the following winter much 
was done by philanthropists to relieve the suffer- 
ing of the poor, and work was made by the 
magistrates of Glasgow to relieve the existing 

Meanwhile the interests of the several emigrating 
societies were advanced by Lord Archibald 
Hamilton, Kirkman Findlay, Esq., and John Max- 
well, Esq., Members of the Commons. The result 
was that grants of land were procured in Upper 
Canada for heads of families and individual 
petitioners, whose names were entered on lists 
sent into the Colonial Office. These grants were 
given on the understanding that the expense of 
their passage and sustenance as far as Quebec 
would be guaranteed by the societies. 

Fully a thousand heads of families or individuals 
in the county of Lanark were, through local assist- 
ance, able to accept this offer ; while a local sub- 
scription in Glasgow enabled those in that vicinity 
to do likewise. Each man received one pound, 
which was to be paid to the owners of the vessels 
as part payment of passage money. The ships 

The Lanark Settlement 

which carried out these people were the Prompt 
and the Commerce. 

Immediately after this an additional sum of 500 
was raised in London to enable the remaining 
families in the societies, who had no means to do 
so, to emigrate. These were decided on by ballot, 
as out of 149 persons, only one-tenth of the expense 
could be raised. One hundred of these families 
were sent out in the ship Broke. Some account 
of the details of this emigration will be of value 
in showing the great difficulties undergone, and 
the privations endured in early emigration to 
Canada from the Old Land by the sturdy Scottish 

On October 24, 1820, a meeting was held at 
the Black Bull Inn, in Glasgow, at which Lord 
Archibald Hamilton, Colonel Mure, Kirkman 
Findlay, James Oswald, Robert Dalglish, William 
McGavin, and Robert Brown were the gentlemen 
present. The following list of societies, including 
altogether 6,281 individuals, was laid before the 
meeting : 

Cambuslang and Govan, 227 persons ; Kilbride, 
40 ; Stonehouse, No. I, 70 ; Stonehouse, No. 2, 
89; Strathaven, 70; Wishawton, 81 ; Hamilton, 
295 ; Lesmahagow, 112 ; Glasgow Highland and 
Lowland, 167 ; Brownfield and Anderston, 395 ; 
Glasgow Wrights, 200 ; Glasgow Junior Wrights, 
205 ; North Albion, 127 ; Barrowfield Road, 269 ; 
Rutherglen Union, 175 ; Camlachie Transatlantic, 
215; Rumford Streets, 115; Glasgow Loyal Agri- 
cultural Union, 118 ; Stockwell Street, 162 ; St. 
John's Parish, 202 ; Kirkman Finlay, 158 ; 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Lanarkshire, 158 ; Parkhead, 145 ; Glasgow 
Union, 119; Paisley Townhead, 603; Cathcart, 
100 ; Emigrants from Renfrewshire, not of 
societies, claiming means to emigrate, 188 ; 
Glasgow Canadian, 284 ; Abercrombie, 160 ; 
Bridgetown, 284 ; Bridgetown Transatlantic, 225 ; 
Mile-end, 225 ; Spring Bank, 139. 

The agent appointed was Mr. Robert Lamond, 
43, Ingram Street, Glasgow. 

The Government aid to these Lanarkshire, Ren- 
frewshire, and West of Scotland emigrants was 
on the following terms : 

One hundred acres were assigned to every family 
on arrival in Canada on condition of residence 
and partial cultivation within a limited period. 
The Government were to defray expense of sur- 
veying and charge of removal of emigrants from 
Quebec to the place of location. The emigrants 
were to arrange means and pay passage to Quebec 
at rate of four pounds a head ; that the settlers 
should receive at place of settlement not less than 
three pounds a head for every emigrant, and 
another advance of three pounds a head to be made 
six months after their arrival ; all to be advanced 
to enable them to establish themselves in the 

The following ships sailed carrying the Canadian 
emigrants to their destination in the New World. 

The ship Broke sailed from Greenock, July, 
1820, with 176 passengers, the greater portion of 
whom belonged to the Abercrombie, Transatlantic, 
and Bridgetown societies. They were all poor, 
and unable to pay th]eir passage. They left in good 

The Lanark Settlement 

spirits. A letter to the Secretary is dated on board 
at Greenock, July 8, 1820, thanking the Committee 
for the care and accommodation, and for being 
relieved from their miseries of years past. It is 
signed on behalf of the others by John McLachlan 
and Thomas Whitelaw. 

The ship George Canning, registering 485 tons, 
sailed from Greenock, April 14, 1821, carrying 
490 individuals, men, women, and children ; and 
arrived in Quebec on June ist, all well, there 
being only one death, that of a boy, who fell over- 
board. Three children were born on the voyage. 

A letter dated Gourock Bay, April 14, 1821, 
from the representatives of the heads of families on 
board the George Canning, thanks the Committee 
who had embarked them, and also the owners of 
the vessel. The eleven representatives who signed 
in the name of the societies on board the Canning 
were : Wm. McEwen, John McPherson (probably 
father of Kenneth of Lanark), Duncan Mclnnis, 
James Braidwood, James Youll, jun., James Paul, 
James Borrowman, Walter Black, John Kilpatrick, 
Robt. McLaren, and James Aikenhead. 

The ship The Earl of Buckinghamshire, Captain 
Johnson, sailed from Greenock on Sunday morning, 
April 29, 1821, with 607 passengers, old and young, 
of whom 287 were from Lanarkshire. She arrived 
at Quebec on June 1 5th, all well. There were 
seven births on the voyage, and one death from 
premature birth. 

The Greenock Advertiser of May 2nd, describing 
the sailing of the vessel, said : " The emigrants, 
generally, have a most respectable appearance ; 


The Scotsman in Canada 

and amongst them are various artificers, such as 
smiths, joiners, &c., whose labours in their respec- 
tive occupations must prove peculiarly valuable 
to the other settlers in their agricultural operations, 
to which the whole purpose to devote themselves 
under the encouragements held out by the Govern- 
ment, whose bounty, we are well persuaded, has 
in few instances been more judiciously bestowed." 

The ship Commerce, Captain Coverdale, sailed 
from Greenock, May 1 1, 1821, with 422 individuals. 
She arrived at Quebec, all well, on June 2Oth. Two 
children and one woman died on board. There 
were no births. 

The ship David, Captain Gemmell, sailed from 
Greenock on May I9th, carrying out 364 indivi- 
duals. She was sent off in a fair wind under favour- 
able circumstances, all on board in good spirits. 
The passengers were chiefly from the counties of 
Lanark, Dunbarton, Stirling, Clackmannan, and 
Linlithgow. A letter to the Secretary of the Com- 
mittee on Emigration, Mr. Robert Lamond, was 
dated on board the ship David at Greenock, 
May 19, 1821. 

It was written on behalf of the several societies, 
and thanked the Government for the several grants 
and other advantages conferred upon the members 
going to Canada, and also thanked the Emigration 
Committee for their exertions on their behalf, 
among other things for the many copies of the 
Bible received from the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. The letter was signed by five representa- 
tives : Samuel Stevenson, John Blair, David Young, 
George Bremner, and Archibald Paterson. 
1 86 

The Lanark Settlement 

The comfort of the passengers in these ships was 
well provided for by the Committee. The ships 
themselves were thoroughly inspected, and pro- 
nounced sound and staunch, and in every way fitted 
for conveyance of emigrants to Canada, and the 
ship's officers and men were also certified to be 
sober and expert seamen, and well acquainted with 
the navigation of the Gulf of the St. Lawrence, 
that most dreaded part of the voyage to Canada. 

The emigrants were exhorted in the new land 
to " call to mind the days of old, the precept and 
example so beautifully exemplified in Scotia's 
cottages, where the daily worship of God might 
have been heard in every family ; . . . see," the 
advice ran, "that you do likewise ; and with the 
blessing of God on your exertions, the difficulties 
which may bear hard upon you for a little time, 
will gradually pass away like a cloud." 

The principal settlement in Upper Canada, which : 
was the destination of these emigrants, was the 
Lanark settlement. It was described in 1820 by 1 
Captain W. Marshall, the superintendent of the 
settlement, as consisting of three townships each 
ten miles square, situated immediately behind the 
Perth settlement, and named respectively Dal- 
housie, Lanark, and Ramsay. These three town- 
ships were named respectively after the Governor- 
General, Lord Dalhousie, his family name Ramsay, 
and Lanark, the county in Scotland from whence the 
settlers had come. The village of Lanark, fourteen 
miles from Perth, contained a Government store 
and dwelling-house, three stores, and about a dozen 
other houses. It was fifty miles from Brockville 


The Scotsman in Canada 

on the St. Lawrence, and sixty-five from Kingston. 
The land was described by a settler as hilly and 
well watered. 

There were in all forty different Scottish societies, 
engaged in this settlement, which actually sent out 
settlers. According to the original receipt of instal- 
ments of loans authorised by Earl Bathurst, and 
paid by Colonel William Marshall, the agent, there 
were six hundred and five heads of families who as 
settlers received these loans in three instalments, 
which were paid during 1820, 1821, and 1822. 
Each Preses, who represented the members of a 
society, had to sign his name and to witness each 
member sign his. The names of the Representa- 
tives, or Preses, are as follows : 

Kirkman Finlay Society, James Donaldson. 

Parkhead Emigration, William Wallace. 

St. John's Parish, Robert Grant. 

Rutherglen Union, Alexander Wark. 

North Albion, John Miller. 

Camlachie, William Bryce. 

Spring Bank, Hugh and Robert Campbell and Robert Ruthven. 

Balfron, John Blair. 

Go van, Andrew Hill. 

Milton, Dumbartonshire, Archibald Paterson. 

Brownfield and Anderston, Thomas Craig. 

Bridgetown Transatlantic, James Braidwood ; William Walker 

and James Murray. 
Wishawton, Walter Gordon. 
Cambuslang, John McPherson. 
Glasgow Union, James Paul. 
Glasgow Trongate, John Gemmill. 
Glasgow Wright, Robert McLaren. 
Glasgow Wright, Junior, Duncan Mclnnis. 
Glasgow Emigration, Duncan McPherson. 

The Lanark Settlement 

Glasgow Canadian, Walter Black. 

Glasgow Loyal Agricultural, Wm. McEwen. 

Bridgetown Canadian, John Cumming and William Stirling. 

Cathcart, William McLellan. 

Transatlantic, Daniel McFee. 

Hopetown Bathgate, David Young. 

Anderston and Ruglen, James Hood. 

Hamilton, Robert Chalmers. 

Abercrombie Friendly, Wm. Gordon. 

Abercrombie, John Young. 

Abercrombie Street, James Horn. 

Abercrombie Society, James Youll, junior. 

Alloa, Samuel Stevenson. 

Strathaven and Kilbride, James Aikenhead. 

Muslin Street, Peter McLaren. 

Lesmahagow, Thos. Scott and James Brown. 

Barrowfield Road, James Barrowman. 

Deauston, George Bremner, senior. 

Paisley Townhead, Daniel Richie. 

Lanarkshire Society, James Gilmour. 

Different Societies, David Freeland. 

Lord Dalhousie, Governor-General, in a letter to 
the Duke of Hamilton, dated Quebec, January 23, 
1821, says that he has received during the past 
summer nearly 1,200 emigrants from Lanarkshire, 
and has placed them in a special district named 
after their old home shire, Lanark. He says that 
they are likely to prosper as they are willing and 
have a good example of prosperity around them. 
He adds that one of the earliest wants, aidf to build 
a church and schoolhouse, he cannot grant, but 
hopes that the Duke, or Lord Archibald Hamilton, 
may be able to raise 200 or 300 in Lanarkshire 
for the purpose. The money asked for was, as a 
result, raised and forwarded. 



He was a chief of high renown, 

Of ancient line was he : 
But he had to leave his ain, and dree 

His weird far o'er the sea. 

ONE of the most interesting and instructive 
episodes in the history of Scottish settle- 
ments in Canada is that of the founding of the 
township of MacNab by the last laird or chief 
of that Ilk. 

This settlement, like that of Col. Talbot, was 
the result of the ambition, effort, and ideal of 
one man, and has about it, moreover, a suggestion 
of what some have called the feudal system of 
founding society in the New World. This aspect 
has been somewhat exaggerated by writers who 
had but a superficial idea of the real facts con- 
cerning the matter. It is true that MacNab's effort 
failed, so far as his ambition aimed. But, in spite 
of the amount of abuse and scorn heaped upon 
the founder of this settlement, the greater portion 
of the settlers were the gainers as the result of 
what some would call their chief's absurd attempt 

The MacNdb Settlement 

to transplant a Celtic feudal community into the 
New World. The only real loser and sufferer was 
the poor old chief himself, 'who, owing to his own 
impracticability and the ingratitude and disloyalty 
of his settlers, failed to make any profit out of ? 
his years of struggle to colonise a portion of Upper 
Canada. It seems that, owing to some strong 
prejudice, it is impossible for the average man to 
see anything but evil and tyranny in the attempts 
at colonisation made by such men as Talbot, Mac- j 
donald of Glenaladale, and MacNab. The whole j 
idea is scouted as dangerous to what is called the 
democratic idea. The cry of landlordism and 
feudalism is raised by people who have been 
wrongly educated to believe that such men as 
George Washington and Benjamin Franklin had 
freed the world from such Old World serfdoms 
as these colonisations would suggest. So cruelly 
has the truth been hidden from the masses on this 
continent and in Britain that it is only now, after 
a century and a quarter of false teaching, that 
the public are being informed of what a few have 
always known, that Benjamin Franklin was the 
engineer of a similar scheme of colonisation, only 
on a far larger scale ; and that he and a few 
other colonists approached the British Government 
shortly before the Revolution with the modest 
request for about 2,500,000 acres of land west 
of Virginia, of which they were to be masters by 
charter, to dispose of, settle, and rule as they 
thought fit. Now that a century has gone by 
since, and men are discovering that the idols of 


The Scotsman in Canada 

the democracy are not as white as they have been 
painted, and that the people on the other side of 
the struggle were not all wrong in their endeavours 
to be loyal to a strong and lonig-tried social and 
political system and tradition, it may be that they 
may find that even men like Talbot and MacNab 
were not all evil and absurd in their ideals, though 
they have been somewhat misunderstood and mis- 
judged by persons whose mere prejudice was 
stronger than their knowledge of human social 
conditions. The press and the average political 
orator had much to do in falsely educating the 
people into an exaggerated idea of what was 
wrongly called the rights of man, with an utter 
f orgetfulness or an unprincipled ignoring of his 
responsibilities to others. It was this false con- 
ceptionnamely, that the land belonged essentially 
to the people which incited thousands in the States 
at the Revolution, and in Canada afterward, to 
strive to repudiate community contracts made 
under sacred obligations. 

Though Mr. Fraser, the clever chronicler of the 
MacNab settlement, and others holding the same 
popular views, see nothing but oppression and 
tyranny on the part of the chief, and nothing but 
heroism and love of liberty and unmerited suffering 
on the part of the people involved, yet, in spite of 
this, the very bare account of MacNab 's settlement 
which they give shows that their attitude is an 
unjust and partial one. 

It is not intended here to palliate or ignore any 
of the failings of this sturdy Celtic chief ; but it 

The MacNab Settlement 

is not only wrong, but absurd, to see no wrong- 
doing or failure of contract on the side of any 
of the settlers. 

The plain truth of the whole affair is as follows : 
MacNab, like many another Scottish gentleman 
at that day, had been ruined partly as the result 
of his own fault and partly owing to the times., 
He hoped to retrieve his fortunes in Canada, and, 
coming out, formed a scheme of colonisation similar 
to those of Talbot and Bishop Macdonell, the latter 
of whom encouraged him strongly to attempt the 
undertaking. Having first approached the Pro- 
vincial Government of the day, they looked favour- 
ably on his offer to colonise a portion of the then 
desolate, forest-clad regions of the Upper Ottawa. 
They offered him a township no great tract in 
those days, where the settlements were sparse, 
and land so far from markets and uncleared was 
virtually worth nothing. The next proceeding was 
to appeal to his brother-in-law, Dr. Hamilton, in 
Scotland to send out settlers who would be willing 
to be assisted to settle on the land on the chief's 
terms. While his detractors have accused MacNab 
of duplicity and deceit toward the settlers and 
the Government, they fail to remember that these 
people were virtually conveyed from Scotland to 
Canada and aided to settle by MacNab ; that they 
had not any means of their own ; and that it was 
not reasonable that any man in his senses would 
undertake to perform all this for such settlers and 
expect no return. Thousands of people have since 
settled in Ontario on Government lands, and, to 

VOL I. N 193 

The Scotsman in Canada 

enable them to do so, have placed far heavier 
liens on their property in mortgages than did Mac- 
Nab's settlers to their chief. It is true that 
MacNab was often a hard master ; but the fact 
that the people came under his community rule as 
they did proves that they did not altogether resent 
this attitude on the part of their chief. They, on 
their part, were not altogether an ideal people. 

The Western Scottish Celt was not a purely 
self-reliant person. He had for centuries de- 
pended upon his superiors to act for and to pro- 
tect him, and these settlers would never have seen 
Canada at all had it depended on their own means 
and initiative. 

In 1823 MacNab left Scotland, where his estates 
were deeply involved owing to the Jacobite move- 
ment and his own extravagance. He was the last 
of one of the oldest families in Scotland, and was 
first cousin of Buchanan, or Hamilton, of Arnproir, 
head of another old family of royal descent. 
MacNab, when he arrived in Canada, was well 
received by the gentry of Montreal ; but he was 
not to be turned from his heart's project. He 
proceeded to Glengarry, where he was for some 
days the guest of Bishop Macdonell. Then, visiting 
Toronto, he was offered, and accepted, his town- 
ship of 81,000 acres, which had been surveyed by 
P. L. Sherwood. This tract of land adjoined the 
township of Fitzroy. MacNab gave to the district 
his own name, and agreed to the terms offered by 
the Government, dated November 5, 1823, which 
were as follows : ' That the township be set apart 

The MacNab Settlement 

and placed under MacNab's direction for eighteen 
months as an experiment ; that patents be issued 
to settlers on certificate from MacNab that the 
settling duties are well performed, and that his 
claims are arranged and settled, or that patents 
do issue to the petitioner in trust for any number 
of settlers ; that the conditions between MacNab 
and each settler be fully explained in detail ; that 
a duplicate of the agreement be lodged with the 
Government ; that MacNab may assign not less 
than one hundred acres to each family, or male of 
twenty -one years of age, on taking the oath of 
allegiance ; that a grant of twelve hundred acres 
be assigned to MacNab, to be increased to the 
quantity formerly given to a field officer on his 
completing the settlement of the township ; that 
the old settlers pay the interest on the money 
laid out for their use by MacNab, either in money 
or produce at the option of the settler ; and that 
the settler have liberty to pay both principal and 
interest at any time during the first seven year5. 

MacNab at first built a large log-house on his 
place as a headquarters of operation, and which 
he named Kennel Lodge, after his ancestral place 
in Scotland. Then he wrote to his brother-in-law 
to send out settlers. His own letter to Hamilton 
speaks for itself, and shows his honesty of purpose 
in settling the township. It is dated August 10, 
1824. He states that he has already informed 
Hamilton of his purpose and progress. He now 
says that he is ready for the proposed settlers, 
that he desires twenty families at first ; they are 


The Scotsman in Canada 

to be provided with three months' provisions arid 
passage tickets. But before receiving such, each 
head of a family is to sign a bond of agreement. 
Hamilton is to see to the embarkation at Greenock, 
and MacNab promises to meet them at Montreal 
and see each one located on the land, and to pro- 
vide for their transport to their destination. This 
was no slight task for these two men to perform. 
One was to procure the emigrants who might be 
willing to venture, arrange for their leaving their 
places, get them and their families to Greenock 
on the Clyde, arrange for their passage, and pro- 
vide food, passage and other supplies ; while 
MacNab's part was to meet the emigrants at 
Montreal and keep them there and provide their 
passage, and provide for them until they could 
procure homes in the new settlement, which was in 
a remote place up the Ottawa. MacNab had also 
to pay ; for the surveying of their lands. 

The bond signed by the settlers bound each 
man to the amount of 36 for himself, 30 for a 
wife, and 16 for every child, with interest in 
money or produce. On April 19, 1825, the settlers 
sailed from the Port of Greenock in the ship 
Niagara, and arrived in Montreal on the 2 7th of 
May following. Here they were met by MacNab 
and his attendants, and before the end of June 
they had reached the township and were put up 
at Kennel Lodge, or in camps in the vicinity. 

The following list of first settlers is given in 
Mr. Eraser's book as having signed in the pre- 
ceding January the bond which had been especially 

The MacNab Settlement 

prepared by the Attorney-General of Upper 
Canada : James Carmichael ; Donald Fisher ; 
Peter Campbell ; Peter Drummond ; James 
Robertson ; Alexander MacNab ; James McFar- 
lane ; Duncan Campbell ; James McDonald ; 
Donald McNaughton ; John McDermid ; John 
Mclntyre ; Peter Mclntyre ; Donald Mclntyre ; 
James McLaren ; Peter McMillan ; James Storie ; 
James McFarlane ; Alexander Miller ; Malcolm 
McLaren ; and Colin McCaul. 

In spite of the condemnation of MacNab, the 
whole proceeding on his part seems to have been 
a particularly hazardous one. He had gone to all 
the expense referred to, besides providing each 
settler with three months' provisions after leaving 
Greenock ; and there was little chance of his 
ever getting any compensation. In the end he 
was virtually ruined. He had undertaken an 
impossible task to establish a community in 
the New World wherein he would be the 
leader and intermediary between them and the 
Government . 

He was accused of having pretended to settlers 
that he owned the township. But as Judge Jones, 
who presided at the trial for libel brought by 
MacNab against Mr. Hincks, of the Examiner, 
remarked : " The chief gave the settlers location 
tickets, in which he promised to procure them 
patents from the Crown, which proved that he 
never claimed the township at his own property." 
The reply to this was that poor ignorant emigrants 
such as these were could not know the difference 


The Scotsman in Canada 

between a patent and a title-deed. Such a state- 
ment is a sad reflection on the class of settlers, 
and does not hold good, as there were persons in 
the icommunity, one of them a schoolmaster, who 
from the first were hostile to the chief, who could 
read and did know better. No doubt MacNab 
naturally felt that he had a certain power in the 
township under the superintendency granted him 
by the Government. It must be remembered that 
he felt a responsibility to the whole community, 
even if he exercised it in the feudal manner. 

The great mistake was his attempting such a 
scheme at all. He might have known that so soon 
as the settlers who came out under his guidance 
and at his expense came into contact with others 
who had made no such agreement, that dissatisfac- 
tion would ensue ; and, as is ever the case, the 
settlers would be persuaded that they were justified 
in repudiating all obligations. He, on his part, 
was no doubt exacting and arbitrary, and played 
the laird overmuch in a community which fancied 
that Jock was as good as his master. Then there 
were the demagogues and the reformers, who were 
only too glad to show up the idiosyncrasies of 
such a conservative as the exacting old chief prob- 
ably was ; who would exaggerate all his demands 
into tyrannies, and proclaim his rights as wrongs 
against the people. In this world there are always 
the two sides to a question, and the historian 
should strive to do justice to both sides. 

The real difficulty in MacNab's case was that 
only the first settlers were brought out to the 

The MacNab Settlement 

country by him, and that the more recent settlers 
came in under different terms. In all cases, how- 
ever, the laird lacked judgment in exacting terms 
which were never carried out, and only hurt his 
reputation and prevented his finally recovering 
what was his own by right. In 1830 MacNa;b 
met a band of emigrants in Montreal, and per- 
suaded them to become settlers in his township. 
They were from Isla, in the Campbell country, 
and were MacNabs, Camerons, Campbells, 
McKays, and McNevins. These he agreed to settle 
and to procure their patents, but demanded a 
feudal quit -rent for him and his heirs as Chief of 
MacNab for ever of three barrels of flour, or their 
equivalent in Indian corn or oats, for every two 
hundred acres. 

We are not told what expense MacNab went to 
in getting them from Montreal or in settling these 
peoples ; but they accepted these terms, which 
were never fulfilled. It is not fair to be too hard 
on the old laird. He was no more peculiar than 
his settlers, who at first were willing to be assisted 
and promise anything, which afterwards they did 
not perform. The whole miserable succession of 
after -troubles was but a translation into the New 
(World of what has often been repeated in the 
Old. It meant the relations existing between a 
Highland chief and his people or dependants, and 
there were faults on both sides. 

In 1834 a large party of Stewarts, Fergusons, 
Robertsons, McLachlans, and Duffs arrived from 
Blair Athol, in Scotland, and settled in the town- 


The Scotsman in Canada 

ship, accepting the same terms as the last 
emigrants, with the addition that all the pine 
timber was reserved for the Arnprior Mills. We 
are told that these people accepted these terms 
without a murmur, because " all this time they 
believed that the land was MacNab's own 
property.'* And yet we are told that the location 
tickets were the same as those of others, which 
promised that MacNab would procure their patents 
from the Crown. 

It seems that there was something wrong on 
both sides ; and while MacNab was no doubt im- 
provident, impractical, and somewhat of a tyrant, 
who, by heredity, thought his will the only law, 
yet what sort of people were these who would go 
blindly into such a bargain as we are told they 
made during several years? There is a strong 
suspicion of either crass stupidity on their part 
or else a feeling that they could afterwards do 
what many of them certainly did, namely, avoid 
or ignore the obligation made, and thus, in their 
turn, play the part of dishonour. No one wants to 
palliate any attempt to rob or oppress the poor of 
any land or clime, but the mere abuse of so-called 
landlords in the Old Land, and of colonists on a 
large scale in the New World, has gone too far, 
and too many writers have painted the picture 
of pretended or fancied oppression in far too 
glaring colours. Even a man like MacNab de- 
serves the justice due to him for his well-meaning, 
if impractical and narrow, attempt at providing 
a home for his peasant countrymen in the wilds 
of the New World. 



Where are ye groin', my canny, canny, Scot, 

Far o'er the salt, salt sea? 
Fm groin' to fare wi' honest Johnnie Gait 

And the Canada Companie. 

THE foundation of the city of Guelph and the 
settlement of the surrounding country by 
John Gait, the Scottish novelist, is an interesting 
and important chapter in the annals of Scottish 
settlements in Canada. 

After the war of 1812 Upper Canada became 
better known in the Old Land as a country of 
promise and possible prosperity. The fine struggle 
made by the loyal settlers side by side with the 
Regulars to keep the country under the British 
flag had gained respect for the province in Britain ; 
and the returning officers of the regiments proved 
good emigration agents in the interest of the young 

Later, in 1822-23, the debates in the Imperial 
Parliament on the subject of the proposed Union 
of Upper and Lower Canada, and the vote of 


The Scotsman in Canada 

100,000 for the payment of losses sustained by 
citizens of Upper Canada in the late war, turned 
the tide of emigration in that direction. 

At this period the founding of the Canada Com- 
pany by John Gait was brought about ; and in 
this connection he had seriously considered the 
emigration on a large scale of Scottish and English 
settlers to the western part of Canada. 

Of a keen, shrewd, practical nature, and well 
known as a writer and as a student of the 
people of his own country, Gait was able to 
secure the confidence of the Government and 
the public, and a favourable consideration of his 
schemes . 

Consulted by Mr. Robertson, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, on Canadian affairs and Upper 
Canada's liabilities, Gait established the Canada 
Company, and became its secretary. 

He was then appointed, with Sir John Harvey, 
Col. Cockburn, and Messrs. McGillivray and 
Davidson four other Scots a Commissioner of 
the Government for the valuation of Upper 

Meanwhile he had consulted a noted Scotsman, 
Bishop Macdonell, of Glengarry, Upper Canada ; 
and when the question of the Clergy Reserves 
had to be settled it was left to arbitration between 
him and another noted Scotsman in Upper Canada, 
the Honourable and Rev. John Strachan, then 
Archdeacon of York. 

He early turned his attention to the new lands 
in the western peninsula, where Gait, named after 

Golfs Settlement at Guelph 

him by his friend Col. Dickson, was already a 
flourishing village. Near here was the noted town- 
ship of Dumfries, a well-known Scottish centre 
of settlement. 

On April 23, 1827, Gait started out into the 
virgin forest, some miles north of the village of 
Gait, for the purpose of founding what was after- 
wards known as the town, then later the city of 
Guelph, which he named after the Royal Family. 
With him on this memorable occasion were 
other Scotsmen Dr. Dunlop, a noted character 
Western Ontario ; Charles Pryor ; John 


McDonald, land surveyor, afterwards Sheriff of 
Huron County ; George Corbett, since of Owen 
Sound ; and James McKenzie, who finally settled 
in Guelph. 

The ceremony consisted in the felling, in a 
solemn manner, of a large maple -tree, each man, 
commencing with Gait, cutting a few strokes. We 
are told that the tree was duly cut down, an im- 
pressive silence following the thundering jar of 
the fallen forest monarch ; while Gait says : " The 
silence of the woods that echoed to the sound 
was as the sigh of the solemn genius of the 
wilderness departing for ever." 

Then the humorous Dr. Dunlop produced a flask 
of whisky and " we drank prosperity to the city 
of Guelph.' 1 

Among the earlier settlers were the following 
of Scottish origin : Thomas Stewart, shoemaker ; 
Wm. Gibbs, baker ; Jas. Anderson, carpenter. 
Others arriving in 1827, with their place of settle- 


The Scotsman in Canada 

trient, are found in the books of the Canada 
Company as follows : 

Lot i Jos. D. Oliver. Lot 19 Andrew McVean. 

2 Allan McDonell. 20 Wm. Elliot. 

6 Aaron Anderson. 23 Wm. Reid. 

12 Jas. Thompson. 24 Jas. Smith. 

13 Jas. McLevy. 27 Dobbin. 

14 Robt. McLevy. 42 Jas. Corbett. 

15 David Gilkison. 71 Chas. Armstrong. 

Another party of emigrants arrived later in the 
summer of that year direct from Scotland, and, 
being for the most part farmers, they founded 
what was afterwards known as the Scotch Block 
on the Elora Road. 

In Burrows' " Annals of Guelph " the names of 
the most of these good Scottish settlers are given. 
They were : Alex. McTavish ; Donald Gillis ; 
Alex. Reid ; McFie ; Peter Buchart ; Angus 
Campbell ; Halliday ; Joseph McDonald ; Capt. 
McDonald, uncle of a Lieut. -Governor of Ontario ; 
Jas. Stirton ; Jos. McQuillan ; Wm. Patterson ; 
Rose ; McCrae ; John Dean ; Jas. Mays ; Thos. 
Knowles ; the Kennedys, three families. 

Many of these moved elsewhere afterwards ; the 
Bucharts, I think, going north to Owen Sound. 
Those who stayed became well-to-do citizens of 
the community. 

A third party came to the locality of Guelph 

about the same time and settled in what was called 

the Paisley Block, from the city of that name in 

Scotland. Prominent among these were : John 



Golfs Settlement at Guelph 

Inglis ; Robert Laidlaw ; J. McCorkindale ; Drew ; 
Campbell ; Alexander ; Gideon Hood ; Wm. Hood ; 
Thos. Hood ; Boyd ; McKenzie ; John Spiers ; 
Thos. Jackson ; John Jackson ; Jos. Jackson ; 
Wm. Jackson ; and George Jackson. 

These people all had families ; and many of 
them became prominent and wealthy members of 
the community and the province. 

The historian gives John as the name of the 
Laidlaw whose name is second on the list, but 
his real name was Robert. He was grandfather 
of Mr. Robert Laidlaw, the present able attache 
of the Dominion Archives, the discoverer of many 
valuable collections of historical documents, and 
formerly a well-known journalist. 

Gait took a deep interest in the educational 
facilities of the young community, and insured half 
the price of the building lots as an endowment 
and maintenance of a school. 

During the summer of 1828 Mr. Pryor was 
sent out by Mr. Gait to survey the Huron tract 
and lay out the plot of the proposed town of 

In September Mr. Buchanan, British Consul of 
New York, came to Guelph and inspected the 
affairs of the Company, there being a conspiracy 
to wreck it. The result of his inspection was 
that he wrote to England praising Mr. Gait's 
management. Before leaving Canada Gait paid 
a visit to the sister settlement of Goderich. 

On his leaving Guelph an expression of regret, 
signed by 144 heads of families, expressed the 


The Scotsman in Canada 

obligation he had conferred upon the settlers whom 
he had brought into the country. 

He left the country regretted by all in the 
community ; for through the busy, indefatigable 
energy of this wonderful Scotsman a large portion 
of what is now the Province of Ontario was opened 
up and settled by a number of sturdy, self-reliant 
communities, the most of whose citizens were 
emigrants from that glorious land of Wallace, 
Bruce, Robert Burns, and Walter Scott, his one- 
time friend. For his able management of the 
Canada Company alone the province owes Gait's 
memory a debt of gratitude which can never be 
repaid. Is there a statue to this remarkable man 
in Guelph or Goderich or Gait? If not, there 
should be one erected in the public square of 
each of those places. 

Certainly Guelph and Goderich should pay some 
lasting tribute to the memory of that doughty 
Scottish genius who laid their first foundations. 

Far over the wave, in the old maritime city 
of Greenock, from whose quays so many vessels 
have sailed bearing Scottish adventurers to 
Canadian shores, this fine writer and father of 
Western Ontario communities sleeps in the tomb 
of his fathers. 





What a farce, Henrico, is this public iwll 
We hear so much about, but never see : 
Who lies to the mob, may ever use them ill 
Where honest Jack could never set them free. 

Old Play. 


ONE of the most remarkable chapters in the 
history of Canadian pioneer life is that of the 
Talbot settlement, in what is now the county of 
Elgin in Ontario. 

The history of this important undertaking, with 
that of the eccentric and remarkable undertaker 
is related in a very able and exhaustive contribu- 
tion to the Royal Society of Canada by Dr. Coyne, 
F.R.S.C., of St. Thomas, whose grandfather was 
a prominent member of the early Talbot settle- 

The Honourable Thomas Talbot, of Port Talbot, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

on the shores of Lake Erie, and the founder through 
long years of toil and expense of one of the most 
successful Upper Canada settlements, remains to- 
day as one of the most picturesque and interesting 
personalities in the history of our country. About 
the lives of few men has there gathered so much 
of the romantic and the mysterious as has become 
attached to his. When his real story is known, 
the elements of tragedy lie deep beneath the seem- 
ingly strange events of his life and his sudden 
self-banishment from the court and camp of the 
Old World to the rough hardships of a pioneer 
condition in the New. 

As regards the man himself and his evident 
life -tragedy, those who care to study the subject 
will find all the details in the ably-collected memoirs 
of Dr. Coyne, with its long list of documents bear- 
ing on the subject. Let it suffice here to say that 
Col. Thomas Talbot, the intimate friend of the 
Duke of Cumberland and Arthur Wellesley, after- 
ward Duke of Wellington, suddenly sold his com- 
mission in the army in 1800, and came out to 
Upper Canada, where he got a grant of 5,000 
acres of land, with the avowed object of settling 
that part of the province with emigrants from the 
Old Land. He had been in Upper Canada some 
years before as aide-de-camp to Simcoe, and his 
settlement included a large area along the northern 
shore of Lake Erie. 

Because of his aristocratic connections, his 
prominence in British society, and for other reasons, 
Talbot has by some been compared with MacNab, 

The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements 

whose settlement has already been dealt with. In 
some few superficial aspects there is a similarity 
in their object, but there the comparison ceases. 
Both, it is true, were regarded as eccentric, but 
whereas MacNab has been shown to be impractical 
in his ideals and methods, the opposite is true of 
Talbot. Dr. Coyne, who is an impartial and not 
by any means a too lenient student of this remark- 
able man, says of Talbot : " But aristocrat as he 
was, and with all his eccentricities, there was a 
practical side to Talbot's character, and he looked 
forward as well as backward. His importance as 
one of the makers of Canada is based upon the 
plan of settlement which he formed, or rather 
adopted, and which he continued to carry out with 
characteristic determination for nearly half a cen- 
tury." Dr. Coyne gives a proper estimate of 
Talbot's place in Canadian history in the following 
summary of his accomplishment as a father of 
Canadian pioneer settlement : " As founder of the 
Talbot settlement, he attached his name to one 
of the richest and most prosperous agricultural 
regions in the world, extending from Long Point 
to the Detroit River. The Talbot Road is the 
longest, and was for many years the best, as it 
still is one of the best, in the province. The pro- 
perty of the Talbot settlers was systematically and 
extensively advertised. The Government made use 
of it for the purpose of attracting immigrants to 
all parts of the province. Throughout Upper 
Canada the settlement was held up as a model for 
VOL I. O 209 

The Scotsman in Canada 

Talbot's scheme of settlement, so far as the 
Scottish settler was concerned, included especially 
the townships of Dunwich, Aldborough, South Dor- 
chester, and North Yarmouth, which he settled 
largely with Argyllshire Highlanders. Their lan- 
guage was principally Gaelic, and many of them 
had emigrated as a consequence of proclamations 
offering grants of from one hundred to two hundred 
acres to each settler. The settlement, which was 
started in 1803, was for many years stayed by 
the war of 1812-14 ; an< ^ these pioneers suffered 
much from invaders from the south across the lake. 
When the war was closed in 1816, a few Scottish 
and Ulster Scottish settlers arrived from the United 
States and settled in Dunwich and Aldborough. In 
the same year some families of the Selkirk settle- 
ment of Kildonan on the Red River, who had 
removed into Upper Canada, among them the 
McBeth family, came in and settled/ These were 
followed about 1819 by a large influx of Argyll- 
shire Highland emigrants who took up land in 
Aldborough. These settlers formed a very desir- 
able addition to the population, being of a superior 
class. So many came from Argyllshire, that when 
the Marquess of Lome, as Governor-General, 
visited St. Thomas in 1881, the descendants of 
these early settlers gathered in thousands and pre- 
sented him with an address. A printed copy of this 
address, which was composed by the Rev. Dr. 
McNish, a noted Gaelic scholar and a native of 
Argyll, is in the Library of Parliament at Ottawa. 
It is signed by hundreds, including many Camp- 

The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements 

bells. The Marquess, in his reply, informed his 
audience that he had never seen, even in Argyll- 
shire itself, so many Argyllshire people present 
at one time. 

The following is a list of persons of Scottish 
extraction who were settled by Col. Talbot in the 
townships of Dunwich and Aldborough, dated 
March 20, 1820 : 

William Bannerman ; George Bannerman ; 
James Black ; Neil Blue ; Arhd. Blue ; Duncan 
Brown ; Robert Blue ; John Brodie ; Alex. Brodie ; 
Alex. Baxter ; George Brodie ; Hugh Black ; Henry 
Coyne ; Donald Currie ; John Currie ; John Clark ; 
Wm. Clark ; Alex. Cameron ; Donald Campbell 
(i) ; Donald Campbell (2) ; Archd. Campbell 

(1) ; Donald Campbell (3) ; Archd. Campbell 

(2) ; Dougald Campbell (i) ; John Campbell (i) ; 
John Campbell (2) ; Dougald Campbell (2) ; 
Duncan Campbell ; James Campbell ; Archd. 
Campbell (3) ; Archd. Coswell ; Neil Camp- 
bell ; John Campbell ; Alex. Campbell ; Angus 
Campbell ; Archd. Campbell (4) ; Donald 
Campbell (4) ; John Campbell (4) ; Donald 
Cameron ; Donald Campbell (5) ; Thos. 
Dewar ; John Douglas ; James, George, Thos. 
and John Dixon ; Thos. Dewar (2) ; Alexd. 
Dewar ; Malcolm Downie ; Colin Ferguson ; John 
Ferguson ; Duncan Ferguson (i) ; Alex. Forbes ; 
Mungo Forbes ; James Ferguson ; Donald Fer- 
guson ; Angus Gunn ; Donald Gunn ; George 
Gunn ; Alex. Gunn ; John Gibson ; Jas. Gibson 
(i) ; James Gibson (2) ; Hugh Graham ; David 


The Scotsman in Canada 


Gibson ; Wm. Gibson ; Robt. Gibb ; George s 
John Gillies (i) ; Archd. Gillies; Col 
John Gillies (2) ; Wm. Gunn ; Angus Gray John 
Gillies (3) ; John Gillies (4 ; Alex. Gray , John 
Gray ; Duncan Gillies ; Neil Galtaaith 
Haggard ; Alex. Haggard ; John Kerr ; 
Kerr; John Livingston ; John Lertch i) ; Dun- 
fan liitd. ; Colin Leitch ; Malcolm ; Leitch ; John 
Leitch (2) ; Neil Leitch ; Donald Mclntyre ; John 
McPherson; Duncan McLelland ; Robt. McDer- 
mand Wm. McDermand ; Abr. Mclntyre ; James 
McKay; John McCallum (i) ; John McCallum 
7 2 ) John Matheson ; John McLyman ; Hugh 
McKean ; Carson McCurdy ; James McLean ; 
Neil McPhail; Alex. McNabb; Duncan McNabb; 

Daniel McKinley ; John McLean ; Peter McKmley 
(!) ; John McDugald (i) ; Duncan McFarland 
DonJ McGregor ; Archd. Mclntyre (i) ; Angus 
Mclntyre (i) ; Findlay McDermod ; Donald Mcln- 
tvre (2) ; Donald McNaughton ; Allan McDonald , 
Angus McKay ; Gregor McGregor ; John Menzie ; 
Laughlan McDugald; Donald McEwen; Ned 
McLean ; Duncan McLean ; Duncan McKinley , 
James McKinley; Peter McKellar (i) ; Arch. 
McLean ; Donald McLean (i) ; John Mclntyre : ; 
Malcolm Mclntyre ; Duncan Mclntyre (i) ; Donald 
McDermod; Malcolm McNaughton ; Duncan 
McCallum ; Duncan McCall ; Thos. McCall (i) ; 
Samuel McCall ; Duncan McKillop ; Archd. 
McKillop ; Donald McKillop ; Donald McAlpme ; 
Malcolm McAlpine ; Donald McGregor ; Angus 
Mclntyre (2) ; Donald Mclntyre (3) ; John 


The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements 

McTavish ; John Munro ; Colin Munro ; Archd. 
Munro (i) ; George Munro ; John McKellar (i) ; 
Peter McKellar (2) ; Neil Munro ; Archd. Munro ; 
Alex. Mclntyre ; Dugald Mclntyre ; Duncan 
Mclntyre (2) ; Dugald McLarty ; Donald McPha- 
drain ; Neil McPhadrain ; Alex. Munro ; Donald 
McArthur ; John McKellar (2) ; Archd. McKellar ; 
Dougald McKellar ; Archd. Mclntyre (2) ; Dun- 
can McCallum (2) ; John McLean ; Donald Mcln- 
tyre (4) ; Alex. McPhail ; Archd. McTavish ; John 
McCachna ; Donald McCugan ; Donald McKean 
(2) ; John McDougald (2) ; Archd. McArthur ; 
John McArthur ; Duncan Patterson (i) ; Archd. 
Patterson (i) ; Donald Patterson (i) ; James 
Paul ; Donald Patterson (2) ; Archd. Patterson 
(2) ; John Patterson ; Duncan Patterson (2) ; Hugh 
Ruthven ; Colin Ruthven ; James Ruthven ; Mal- 
colm Robertson ; Wm. Stewart ; Duncan Stewart ; 
Robt. Shaw ; Donald Sutherland ; George Suther- 
land ; Alexander Sutherland ; John St. Clair ; 
Daniel St. Clair ; John Smith ; David Full ; Neil 
Walker ; Angus Walker ; Donald Walker. 

What is especially remarkable in this list is the 
number of emigrants bearing the same name. 
There are four Archibald Campbells and the same 
number of Donald Mclntyres, and in the list they 
are each known by their special number. The 
descendants of these 207 heads of families number 
thousands in all parts of Canada who are among 
our most prominent citizens. 


The Scotsman in Canada 


The county of Middlesex was largely settled by 
Scottish immigrants, and many of the townships, 
such as McGillivray and Lobo, bear witness to 
this in their names. 

The first ministers of the Church of Scotland 
in Middlesex were Alexander Ross and Donald 
McKenzie, who both took the oath of allegiance 
in 1832. Other early Presbyterian clergy were 
John Scott ; William Proudfopt ; ,W. McKellican, 
1833 ; Alexander McKenzie, 1837 ; Daniel Allen, 
1838 ; Donald McKellar, of Lobo, 1839 ; Duncan 
McMillan; Williams, 1839; Lachlan McPherson, 
Ekfrid, 1846 ; and William R. Sutherland, Ekfrid, 

In the history of Middlesex there is given the 
following lists of Scottish marriages, by Presby- 
terian ministers. Twenty-four marriages, from 
August 6, 1833, to April 29, 1835 ; twenty-three 
from May 7, 1835, to Nov. 20, 1836; and nine 
from February 17, 1837, to December 8th of same 
year ; all recorded by the Rev. Wm. Proudfoot of 
the Associate Secession Church. 

In 1835 seven marriages are recorded by the 
Rev. James Skinner, of the United Secession 
Church; and in 1836-7 he records four others. 
In 1835 the Rev. Wm. Fraser registered two con- 
tracts ; and the Rev. D. McKenzie four in 1834-7. 

All of these marriages are, with a few exceptions, 

The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements 

between Scottish persons, and will be valuable 
data for family history. 

Owing to a scarcity of clergy of the Scottish 
Church, many of the settlers joined the Baptist 
and Methodist Churches. In the former denomina- 
tion and its offshoot, The Church of the Disciples, 
prominent clergy in Middlesex were. : Dugald 
Campbell, 1838 ; Isaac Elliot, 1839; Dugald Sin- 
clair, Lobo, 1839 ; and Richard Andrews, 1840. 
There are also recorded marriages by Baptist and 
Methodist clergy, many of which were between 
persons of Scottish birth or origin. 

In 1831, the chairman of the Quarter Session 
was John Bestwick, while two other Scotsmen, Dun- 
can McKenzie and John Mitchell, sat as magis- 
trates. In 1842 the County Council contained the 
following Scotsmen : Lawrence Laureson, Andrew 
Moore, Thomas Coyne, Thomas Duncan, John D. 
Anderson, Archibald Miller, Isaac Campbell, Hiram 
Crawford, John Edwards, and John S. Buchanan. 
In 1843, Thomas Graham replaced Moore, James 
Murray replaced Buchanan, and Samuel Kirkpatrick 
replaced Duncan. 

In the First Regiment of the Middlesex Militia 
were the following Scottish names : Lieut. -Col. L. 
Patterson ; Major J. McQueen ; Captains A. 
Gillis, J. McKinlay, J. Patterson, G. Munro ; 
Lieutenants McCall, Gillies, D. McKinley, Black- 
wood, and E. McKinley ; Ensigns Mclntyre, 
McGregor, and Sinclair. 

The first settler in London, the county town, was 
Peter McGregor, a Scotsman, who settled there 


The Scotsman in Canada 

in 1826. In June of 1827 Robert Corfrae, another 
Scotsman, came to the place. 

The township of Ekfrid was one of the leading 
Scottish settlements in Middlesex. Among the 
pioneers were : John Campbell, Angus Campbell, 
Donald McTaggart, Archibald Miller, John 
McLachlan, John Elliot, Donald McGugan, and 
Duncan McCall. Among those who came in 1835 
were Dougald Patterson, Duncan Campbell, 
Donald McFarlane, Hugh Rankin, and Alexander 

Among the pioneers and early settlers of Ekfrid 
still living there in 1880 were, with the date of their 
settlement : Angus Campbell, 1828 ; Duncan 
McGregor, 1830; Lachlan and Angus McTaggart, 
1831 ; Robt. Orr and N. McLellan, 1832 ; Jas. 
Gowanlock, A. Stevenson, and A. McDougal, 1833 ; 
David Dobie, 1834 ; Jas. Allen, Hugh McLachlan, 
Hector McFarlane, and C. McRoberts, 1835 ; 
Angus Chisholm, 1836 ; Alexander McBean, 1837 ; 
John E. Campbell, 1839 ; J onn A - Dobie, Alex- 
ander McKellar, and Archibald Mclntyre, 1840 ; 
Jas. G. Begg, Alexander Eddie, George C. Elliot, 
Robert McKay, Alexander McNeill, and Daniel 
McCrea, 1842 ; David Cowan and Adam Clarke, 
1845 ; Duncan McRea, 1849. 

The first township offices on record are those 
of 1833. Those elected then were : Duncan 
McLean, clerk ; Christopher Sparling and James 
Mclntyre, assessors ; D. McLean, collector ; John 
Mclntosh, John Campbell, Hugh McAlpine, John 
Galbraith, Robert Parker, James McLellan, Andrew 

TJie Talbot and Middlesex Settlements 

Wilson, Malcolm Galbraith, John McCallum, Alex. 
Mclntyre, and Peter McDonald, road masters ; 
Thos. Curtis, Donald McTaggart, and Joseph Provo, 

In 1840, John Mclntyre, Malcolm Campbell, and 
John McKellar were elected wardens, with Malcolm 
McFarlane, collector. The first mentioned school 
and library commissioners, in 1844, were John 
Mclntyre ; Donald McFarlane, senior ; John R. 
McRae, senior, Humphrey Campbell, and John 

The township of Lobo was another noted Scottish 
settlement. It was surveyed in 1819 by Burwell, 
and the next year a large immigration of settlers 
from Argyllshire in Scotland poured in, and took 
up land throughout the whole township. Archibald 
McArthur and Thomas Caverhill were the senior 
or first councillors. John Harris was the first 
treasurer, Duncan McDougall was collector of 
taxes. In 1842, Hugh Carmichael was clerk, and 
Duncan McLean was chairman of Council. Among 
the pathmasters were John Edwards, Neil Mclntyre, 
Archd. Paull, McLean, Donald McAllister, Hugh 
Johnson, John Campbell, Hugh Dewar, Duncan 
McBain. Other officials were Archd. McKellar, 
Malcolm Gray, Jos. Mclntosh, Hugh Johnson, and 
Donald Johnson. In 1844 Alexander Sinclair was 
chairman of Council ; John Brown, clerk ; John 
Gray, assessor ; and Archd. McVicar, collector of 
taxes. In 1842 there were six schools in the town- 
ship. The Scottish teachers were John Campbell, 
Donald McCrea, William Munro, and John Ross. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

The first inspector for Lobo in 1844 was Alexander 
Sinclair, and in 1862 Thomas Ure. The names of 
the first settlers who were heads of families jn 
j820 were: Malcolm McCall, Donald Lament 
Dugald McArthur, and the Johnson Smclair, and 
McKellar families ; also Duncan McKeith, Neil 
McKeith, Hugh Carmichael, Charles Carmichael, 
John Mclntyre and family, Duncan Mclntyre 
Archibald Campbell, Malcolm Campbell, John 
McLachlan, John McCall, John McDugalL after- 
wards Justice of the Peace, and John ' 


The township of McGillivray was not as 
thoroughly Scottish in its origin as Ekfrid and 
Lobo, but contained a very strong Scottish ele- 
ment Scotsmen are mentioned at different periods 
as being among the leading township officers. In 
1843, Thos. Laughlin was pound-keeper; W. 
Henry, R. Long, and Isaac Moodie, wardens ; and 
Thos Laughlin and George Barber, school com- 
missioners. In 1846, James Simpson was assessor. 
In 1848, Andrew Neil was a warden, and m i5> 
John Graham was an auditor. In 1852, John Cor- 
faett was reeve. Andrew Erskine took up land in 
i8s2 David Cameron settled here in 1849, aged 
seven years. His father Samuel came from Scot- 
land in 1842 and settled in Lobo. Other names 
are: Donald McKenzie, Jas. Corbett, 1843; A. 
Erskine 1849; Wm. Fraser, 1858 ; T. Mclnms, 
?8 53 7' James Marr, 1852; C. T. McPherson, 
,853 R. Neil, 1852; Duncan Stevenson, 1851. 
Other families mentioned in !866 were either 

The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements 

Scottish or Ulster Scots, such as the Hannas, 
Kennedys, Camerons, Nichols, Lathrops, John 
Me Vicar, Logans, and Christies. 

Another strongly Scottish settlement of Middle- 
sex was the township of Mora. 

Leading Scotsmen among its early settlers were : 
John Coyne, Archibald Mc"Callum, Archibald Camp- 
bell, Andrew Fleming, George Fleming, John D. 
Anderson, Donald Ferguson, who married Jane 
McLachlan in 1 8 1 8, and died in 1851. Hugh 
McLachlan was another old settler. 

Capt. William Symes, of Glencoe (1834) ; 
Donald McLean (1834), and Archd. Campbell 
(1818), were other noted settlers. Other names 
are Dobie, Parr, Mclntyre, Walker, Simpson, 
McAlpine, and Armstrong. In the oldest extant 
record-book, dated 1857, Neil Munro, George 
Currie, and Charles Armstrong are councillors. 
The village of Glencoe is so called after the famous 
gleu of that name in Scotland. The first sur- 
veyors were A. P. McDonald and Ross. As late 
as 1860 the leading citizens included many Scots- 
men. J. W. Campbell was the first reeve. Other 
names are Dr. Mclntyre, Charles Murray, John R. 
McRae, Dr. McKellar. 

The township of East Williams formed part of 
the lands of the Canada Company, and were sur- 
veyed by McDonald, of Goderich. It was settled 
in 1833 by many Scotsmen and their families, such 
as those of Donald Mclntosh, Donald Henderson, 
Donald Fraser, James Ross, James McPherson, 
James Bremner, Hugh McKenzie, and Hugh Craw- 
ford. Alexander Stuart, 1832 ; John Stewart, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

1832 ; Donald Henderson, 1832 ; David Clu- 
ness, 1833 ; John Levie, 1834, were early 
settlers. The Rosses and Mclntoshes were 
noted families. Capt. Hugh Mclntosh, the 
Andersons, Campbells, McQuillicans, McNeills, 
Colin Scatcherd, Wm. Fraser, David H. Craig, 
Alex. B. McDonald, Neil McKinnon, William Hal- 
bert, were all noted residents. In 1880 the leading 
old residents of the township were : Tafford Camp- 
bell, 1847 ; James Campbell, 1846; John Ding- 
man, 1833 ; Donald McNaughton, 1834 ; John 
Levie, 1834 ; John Leitch, 1843 ; Neil McTaggart, 
1831 ; Wm. Mclntosh, 1831 ; Hugh McDonald, 
1840 ; David McKenzie, 1836 ; John L. McKenzie, 
1831 ; Malcolm Mclntyre, 1875 ; Wm. Menzie, 
1844 ; John More, 1846 ; John Milligan, 1848 ; 
Tas. D. McDonald, 1848 ; A. J. Ross, 1833 ; 
Donald Ross, 1832 ; Duncan Stewart, 1844 ; 
Donald C. Stewart, 1833; John Stewart, 1845. 

This is a good example of the Scottish stock 
in a representative Canadian community founded 
by men of Scottish extraction. The village of 
Nairn, in 1885, was also composed largely of 
Scottish inhabitants. 

West Williams was settled by the same stock as 
East Williams, the names being Stewart, McKenzie, 
Campbell, Cameron, Cluness, Ross, McNeill, &c. 

There are to-day hundreds of families in that 
and adjoining districts who are descendants of 
these early settlers in the Middlesex townships. 
There are also thousands of people of Scottish 
descent scattered all through Western Ontario, of 

The Talbot and Middlesex Settlements 

whom no mention can be made in a work of this 
size and purpose. The author has endeavoured in 
this volume to give but a general description of the 
leading and most noted Scottish hives or central 
communities, and it is to be hoped that the material 
gathered together in this work may encourage local 
historians to pay more attention to the archives 
of the counties and towns throughout the 
different provinces of the Dominion. As Joseph 
Howe said : " A wise nation preserves its records, 
gathers up its monuments, decorates the graves of 
its illustrious dead, repairs the great public struc- 
tures, and fosters national pride and love of coun- 
try by perpetual reference to the sacrifices and 
glories of the past." 




A homely folk, 

They filled one glen, 

With Highland dream and glee; 

But now they're George's fighting men, 

To win across the sea, 

And find their graves where none may ken, 

In a far countrie. 

THE Scottish settlers of Western Ontario were, 
for the most part, folk who had dared to 
come out from the Old Land because they willed 
to do so. They were, some of them, evicted tenants 
from strath and glen. They were, however, not, 
like the people of other Highland settlements, 
driven forth, or led by some Moses of colonisa- 
tion, into a new and strange country, depending 
on a leader to bring them into their promised 
land of milk and honey. There were in all the 
counties sturdy Lowland settlers from Glasgow and 
the Clyde borders or other Lowland county places. 
Then there were Highlanders in groups, or mingled 
with Lowlanders and other folk not of the land- 
o' -cakes, southern men and women, who knew not 
the heather and loved not Robbie Burns. 

Zorra Settlement and the Maclcays 

Chief among this great body of Scottish folk 
was the noted Highland settlement of the town- 
ship of Zorra, in the county of Perth, in Western 

As early as 1820 two Scotsmen, brothers, named 
Angus and William Mackay, came there into the 
dense, uncleared wilderness, and started to make 
it their home. They were sturdy Highlanders from 
the far north of Scotland, and belonged to the 
great clan Mackay, whose land is historic Suther- 
landshire. They cleared a bit of the forest and 
planted the ground, and fought the fight of the 
early pioneer with brave hearts and a faith in 
the future of their adopted land. Nearly ten years 
later one of the brothers, Angus, returned to Scot- 
land and bore favourable witness concerning the 
new land in the northern Scottish shire of his 
fathers ; and the following* year returned to 
Canada, accompanied by his aged parents and a 
whole shipload of his f e How -shir errien . 

Many of these were the former tenants of glens 
made over into sheep-walks by the middle farmers 
or better-class tenants, who were willing to rent 
the land from the landlord for a fair rental. Much 
has been written on this subject, and writers have 
waxed eloquent over what they have considered 
the brutal treatment of the evicted glensmen. But 
the truth was that the glens were overcrowded 
with a well-meaning, but often impracticable, 
people, who had for centuries depended on their 
lord or chief for livelihood. They had all been 
fighters or deerstalkers or cattle-drovers or 


The Scotsman in Canada 

fisher-folk. For farms there were none, seeing 
that nine -tenths of those regions were mountains 
and lochs, and the glens deep and narrow and 
only fit for a covert for deer or a place of ambush 
when besieged by an invading; foe. They had 
been for centuries the children of a feudal system 
of clan-fealty and clan-service, where chief made 
war on chief, and his men followed at their leaders' 
beck and robbed their enemies and harried their 
lands. It was an age of fighting and open 
robbery, where now, under a democratic system, 
men steal and dispossess others of their worldly 
gear in a more subtle and crafty, though less 
noble, manner. It was an age when life itself 
was the price of failure, and the leader and his 
followers went down together to the last man. 
But after the first half of the eighteenth century, 
with the ending of the Jacobite wars, all of this was 
changed. The old order of clan foray against clan 
and Highland raids of the Lowlands was put down 
with an iron hand, and the great chiefs became 
civilised, or were in hiding or driven abroad, and 
the great mass of the Highlanders were left without 
any leaders or without any means of subsistence 
beyond deer-stealing or the making of illicit spirits. 
Then was the one great cure for all this found 
in the formation of the Highland Fencible regi- 
ments, whereby thousands of idle glensmen were 
(made to perform great martial service for the 
Empire. But a great many more there were who 
were at a loss what to do. In the old days they 
were retainers on great chiefs or lords, who fed 

Zorra Settlement and the Mackays 

and clothed them in return for services performed. 
But when left to their own resources they knew 
not what to do ; the men especially were im- 
practical, not loving to cultivate the land, and 
with no knowledge of the art if they had cared 
to. To this great surplus population of Northern 
and Western Scotland the idea of emigration to 
the New World came as a godsend, and was, 
though at the time considered as a terrible hard- 
ship, a real blessing. Serious as was the pioneer 
life of the New World, they were thrown on their 
own resources, and it was a case of struggle or 
perish. They had no landlords to house and feed 
them, no factors to blame for their ills ; they 
had to get up and put their own shoulders to 
the wheel and literally do or die. 

Too much has been written in a prejudiced 
manner of the cruelty of the landlords by writers 
who have not made a complete study of the subject. 
It has been falsely represented that these people 
were driven off lands that they had owned or had 
tilled for centuries. 

The truth is that in Scotland in those days the 
people no more owned the land than the people 
of Canada do to-day. Then, as now, the land 
belonged to the man who had the wealth to keep 
it up or own it. How much of the land of Canada 
to-day belongs to the people? Scotland was a 
small country with a dense population in places ; 
but we are a small population in a vast territory, 
and yet how little, if any, of our millions on 
millions of acres of land is owned by the bulk of 

VOL. I. P 225 

The Scotsman in Canada 

our people. The very descendants of those who 
were said to have left Scotland to become land- 
owners in the New World own less of the land, 
and get less off it than their ancestors did in 

On the other hand, there was then, and is now, 
little good tillage land in many of the Scottish 


There was probably, in cases, cruelty on the 
part of landowners and factors ; but such cruelty 
and injustice exists in some form in Canada and 
the United States to-day. In the vicinity of the 
capital of Canada there are now large tracts of 
land held by speculators and others who refuse 
to sell it unless extravagant prices are paid, and 
which literally places the privilege of owning a 
portion of the soil of this country out of the power 
of many of our Canadian citizens. 

But, be the reasons for their leaving Scotland 
what they may, those hardy Highlanders bade 
farewell to their straths and glens, and sailed to 
the westward, feeling that if their position was 
to be improved at all, they must seek homes abroad. 
Those good Zorra pioneers were a fine and 
superior stock. They were, as has beeen said of 
the Pilgrim Fathers of New England, the sifted 
wheat, chosen men. They had a good education, 
or in its place a proper estimate of its value in 
the preparation of a life career. Wherever they 
settled there rose the walls of a schoolhouse ; and 
the few books brought into the wilderness were 
of a high standard and deeply valued. The names 

Zorra Settlement and the Maekays 

most common in this prominent Scottish settle- 
ment were those of Mackay, Sutherland, Morrison, 
Gordon, Murray, Bruce, Ross, McLean, McDonald, 
Gikhrist, Matheson, Fraser, Gunn, McKenzie, and 
Munro. Many bearing these names have gone 
forth from the pioneer community and made them- 
selves prominent places in the life of our country 
and in that outside its borders. There has been 
a great group of distinguished Churchmen, 
scholars, financiers, and others who have made 
the Zorra community noted in the history of 
Canada . 

Probably no Canadian community has made its 
influence felt over a wider sphere of action and 
effort than has the Zorra settlement and its 
adjoining groups of Scottish families. 

It has been especially noted in the missionary 
world ; so much so, that it might be called a 
nesting-ground for preachers of the gospel. This 
has been owing largely to the fact that the men 
and women of Sutherland were, in the pioneer 
days of Canada, and before then in the Old Land, 
the most earnest, God-fearing element in the north 
of Scotland. 

But scholarship, and literature, and the more 
worldly interests of life have had worthy 
followers in the sons of this the most distinctive 
Scottish settlement of Western Ontario. In 
connection with the history of such a settle- 
ment as this of Zorra a great lesson is 
taught Canadians ; and it is this, that we are 
liable to forget the great influence which heredity 
and the social influences of the Old Land have 


The Scotsman in Canada 

had on our whole community. It is true that the 
Scottish race has been a peculiarly strong, hard- 
headed, careful, cautious, and deep-thinking 
people. But much of this is the result of 
their peculiarly strong, deep nature, which has been 
influenced as perhaps that of no other people by 
a long-continued conservative training in a severely 
spiritual school. Religiously speaking, to know 
God inwardly and to keep His commandments has 
been the great impulse and national intent of the 
Scottish people ; and grave as are their weak- 
nesses, no people on earth have developed so deep 
and self-punishing, self-searching a conscience as 
have this people. This is true of both Highlanders 
and Lowlanders, and of that large community of 
Scottish folk who are a mixture of both. 

The Rew. W. A. Mackay, in his interesting 
little work " Pioneer Life in Zorra, says : " No 
Zorra boy to-day is ashamed of either the porridge 
or the Catechism on which he was reared." He 
also adds : " The motto of the typical boy is 
' Don't sleep when you ought to be awake ; don't 
stay awake with eyes closed and hands folded ; 
work with your hands ; think with your head ; 
and love with your heart ; and never forget that 
character is capital.' ' The best result of this 
creed of life has been such noted men as Arch- 
deacon tiody ; the late Hon. James Sutherland ; 
Rev. C. W. Gordon ("Ralph Connor"); and 
the distinguished Eastern missionary, " Formosa 

Like the Glengarry settlement, the Zorra com- 
munity was, in its day, a little Highland Scotland 

Zorra Settlement and the Mackays 

in itself. But, as in the other,, the Macdonell clan, 
the great Roman Catholic Highlander of the 
Western Isles predominated ; so, in Zorra and its 
surrounding settlements, it was the great northern, 
Protestant, Presbyterian clan Mackay that formed 
the bulk of the population. It is remarkable, after 
all, how alike Highlanders are. Though separated 
in creed, both of these were fighting clans ; and 
both produced great soldiers and " saints of God." 

Strange to say, these two clans contributed the 
two most famous of the Scottish Fencible regi- 
ments. The first Lord Reay, the chief of the 
Clan Mackay, was the commander who made the 
Reay Regiment famous in the fighting annals of 
Europe. Lord Reay was one of the first baronets 
of New Scotland, and his uncle, Sir Robert Gordon, 
was Premier or First Baronet of Nova Scotia. 

General Hugh Mackay of Scourie was William 
the Third's Captain-General of his Scottish forces, 
and met Claverhouse at Killiecrankie . A ballad 
of that day ran : 

Valiant Jockey's marched away 

To fight the foe with brave Mackay. 

Mackay of Scourie was a great Christian 
soldier ; and without doubt he saved Scotland for 
William. He died afterwards in the action at 
Steenkirk fighting the French. The King attended 
his funeral, and when the body was laid in the 
grave said, " There he lies ; and an honester man 
the world cannot produce." Comparing Mackay 
with another general who was also killed in the 
same action, William said : " Mackay served a 


The Scotsman in Canada 

higher Master, but the other served me with his 

In 1798 the Glengarry Fencibles and the Reay 
Fencibles were both ordered to Ireland to quell 
the rebellion there ; which they did in a short 
time. It may not be known that a granddaughter 
of the commander of the Reay Regiment which 
went to Ireland, lived and died in Woodstock, and 
is buried in the Scottish graveyard there in the 
heart of the Zorra settlement of " fighting Mac- 
kays." She was a descendant of the great Lord 
Reay and of the family of Hugh of Scourie, his 
famous cousin. Her father-in-law and cousin was 
the last Mackay of the family who owned lands 
in Scourie. 

Thus is the Zorra Mackay settlement, as is the 
Glengarry settlement with the great Macdonald 
chiefs, closely associated with the great Mackay 
names in Scotland's history and that of the 
Empire . 

The Glengarry settlement was, as has been 
pointed out, closely associated with the Macdonald 
settlements in Prince Edward Island. 

The Zorra settlement was also linked to the great 
Pictou settlement of Mackays, many of the latter 
of whom removed to Zorra from Nova Scotia on 
the decline of the shipbuilding trade. 

The men of Zorra are now to be found scattered 
all over the Dominion, in the far west and middle 
west, and some in the republic to the south. But 
all are bearing witness to the splendid ideals and 
fighting qualities of the great race to which they 



Domed with the azure of heaven, 
Floored with a pavement of pearl ; 
Clothed all about with a brightness 
Soft as the eyes of a girl ; 

Girt with a magical girdle, 
Rimmed with a vapour of rest, 
These are the inland waters, 
These are the lakes of the west. 

Miles and miles of lake and forest, 
Miles and miles of sky and mist, 
Marsh and shoreland, where the rushes 
Rustle, wind and water kissed; 
Where the lake's great face is driving. 
Driving, drifting into mist. 

TWO leading ideas are for ever closely asso- 
ciated in our minds with patriotism, and 
they are the land of our birth and upbringing 
and the race or stock from which we have sprung. 
In these two respects the hardy sons and ,the 
fair daughters of Huron and Bruce are, without 
doubt, among the highly favoured of earth's 


TJie Scotsman in Canada 

Nowhere in the world is there to be found a 
more healthful and beautiful region than that 
bordering upon Lake Huron, where it forms the 
coast -line of those two picturesque and progressive 

iWith a splendid soil, productive of fine fruits 
and grains, and rich in pasturage for cattle, a 
climate at once invigorating and salubrious, it is 
a (region of pleasant meadows and sloping hill- 
sides, delightful streams, and a bold and, in many 
places, sublime coast -line of cliffs and bays and 
jutting promontories, facing one of the most 
splendid sweeps of fresh water in either hemi- 
sphere. It is a region in all respects the fit cradle 
for a hardy, self-reliant, and happy race of men 
and women fit home alone for the indomitable 
and nobly strong. 

But dear as is the soil whereon we tread 1 , arid 
the waters and lands and hills and sky-line of the 
region of our birth and youth, even dearer to us 
all must ever be the thought and memory of the 
race or stock to which we belong, and from which 
we have sprung. 

If of late we, as a people, have failed to realise 
this idea, it is not because it is not a sacred 
obligation thrust upon our higher nature, as the 
proper attribute of any great and heroic people, 
but rather because our life in a new country has so 
exaggerated the stern necessity and the ephemeral 
achievement of the present, that all natural and 
fine feelings and ideals have been forced into the 
'background . If we only go back to the days of 

The Huron and Bruce Settlements 

our grandparents we will enter a condition of 
society where it was quite common to have three, 
and even four, generations dwelling under one 
roof ; and we will witness a community where 
for generations all were knit in the, same bonds 
of blood and kinship, where the joys and sorrows, 
the good and ill, the faith and speech and song 
were those of one people, when the rich and poor, 
the great and humble, were all, though remotely, 
of a common stock or origin. 

On this Western continent of aliens from many 
lands, in this hurried day of constant change and 
mutual struggle, it is difficult for us to understand 
the -conditions of society just described. But if 
we pause to remember and consider, we must 
realise that it was from just such a stock that we 
have sprung. 

When, less than three-quarters of a century ago, 
the pioneers of Huron and Bruce began slowly at 
first an influx of settlement, which continued up 
to the latter end of the last century, into what 
was then a wild and lonely region of almost track- 
less forest, they came in for the most part in 
Companies^ sons, fathers, and grandfathers, new 
from the more strict, more narrow, but ideal 
society of the loved Old Land of mountain and 
misty glen. 

Whatever of good, whatever of hope, whatever 
of ideal and character they brought out and estab- 
lished in the New World was the product and gift 
of the Old Land and the old days. The very 
manner of life, the quaint accent of speech, the 


The Scotsman in Canada 

wonderful old Gaelic tongue, the stern faith in 
God, the very manner of prayer and praise were, 
and have continued ever since as, the blessed gift 
of the old homeland away a whole ocean apart 
from the new, yet ever near and dear to the 
remembering heart and the Celtic imagination. 

It is impossible for the observant traveller to 
visit this region of a sturdy, happy, industrious, 
and intellectual people and not see, down every 
roadside and village street, in the school, the 
church, the market, and home, strong evidence, 
even yet, that the bone and sinew, the brain and 
ideal, the faith and energy, that have made these 
counties what they are to-day, are the product of 
the great Scottish and Ulster-Scottish race, cradled 
for a thousand years in the storied land of Wallace 
and Burns and Bruce and Bannockburn. 

While we are all Canadians in this promising 
young land, yet it is well that we should not forget 
how much of our blood is of the old Scottish and 
Ulster -Scottish stock that people of the iron will 
and the dourest, sternest, most uncompromising 
Christianity in the whole world. While we lead in 
the mart or senate, or guide the ship or the plough, 
or weld the character or the iron at the anvil, it 
is for our good to remember that the faith in earth 
and heaven is still at root the old faith ; that 
even though we may forget the Old Land and 
the old accent, the old slower, sterner, narrower 
ways, that we have to think of God as did our 
fathers, and that though in a stranger and far 
land He leads us still. 

The Huron and Bruce Settlements 

In this connection it is but due to our ancestry 
if we, not in any spirit of boasting, but of reverence 
and thoughtfulness, remember what Scotland has 
meant to our sires and grandsires in this land of 
their adoption, and of what it may yet mean to 
us in the present and the future. 

It is significant to recall that the first British 
connection with Canada was a purely Scottish one, 
and that the first name given to the Maritime 
Provinces and all of Quebec south of the St. 
Lawrence was New Scotland, or Nova Scotia. This 
vast territory was, by act of the Scottish Parlia- 
ment, made an adjunct of the Scottish kingdom, 
and Sir William Alexander was constituted its 
Governor. Nearly three hundred years have 
passed since then ; and during all this time there 
has not been a portion of what is now under our 
vast Dominion that has not been conquered, 
reclaimed, and settled by members of our hardy 

From Sir William Alexander, the first Governor 
of New Scotland, and Abraham Martin, the brave 
old Scottish pilot who guided Champlain's ship 
up the St. Lawrence, to Lord Strathcona, we have 
had a long list of mighty men in all walks of 
life, prominent in the upbuilding of Canada, bear- 
ing the clan and family names of our race such 
as Macdonald, Mackenzie, Gait, Fraser, Mowat, 
Campbell, Drummond, Ross, Cameron, McLean, 
Logan, Fleming, Wilson, Grant, and Smith. 
Indeed, there is not a clan or family name -of 
Highland or Lowland Scotland that has not been 


The Scotsman in Canada 

in some way associated with Canadian development 
from sea to sea. 

The people of Huron and Bruce have been 
specially favoured in this respect. It is true they 
have a notable proportion of English, Irish, and 
German stock among their population who have 
borne witness to the fine qualities of their stock ; 
but it is not any the less a fact that the greater 
portion of the two counties is settled by direct 
Scottish or Ulster-Scottish stock. Everywhere in 
the .towns and country places of this beautiful 
lakeside region are met the characteristics of the 
Scotsman, either direct from the old land of Burns 
and Scott or from that first great Scottish colony 
of sturdy Scotsmen, Ulster ; where Edward Bruce, 
the ibrother of the famous Robert, made the first 
Scottish invasion, and where, throughout the cen- 
turies since, the Scotsman has settled and made 
the land his own, and where to-day he is more 
Scottish, and his Presbyterianism is more of the 
old school, than anywhere else in the world. 

The very name of the more northerly of these 
two counties is significant and fitting. The name 
of Bruce will ever be associated with Scotland and 
Scotsmen, and is synonymous with the cause of 
liberty and national freedlom ; and as the great 
Scottish royal hero and patriot fought against 
oppression without and ills within, so may the sons 
of Bruce and Huron ever be found on the side of 
true liberty of thought and action, and enemies 
of all tyranny and ill in the community and State. 

Goderich, the leading town of the county of 

The Huron and Bruce Settlements 

Huron, was founded by a noted Scottish writer 
and coloniser, that remarkable man John Gait, 
who was second only to Sir Walter Scott as a 
novelist, and who had so much to do with the 
pioneer settlement of Western Ontario. The 
present city of Gait bears his name, and Guelph 
was founded by him and named in honour of the 
Royal Family. He called the beautiful capital of 
Huron County after Lord Goderich, the Colonial 
Minister for that day. Associated with Gait in his 
early settlements for the Canada Company was 
that eccentric and original character Dr. Dunlop, 
another Scotsman, who personally built the first 
building erected at Goderich. 

In his autobiography Gait describes the first 
appearance of the Huron coast and the site of 
Goderich : 

We then bore away for Cabot's head ... we saw only a woody 
stretch of land, not very lofty, lying calm in the sunshine of a 
still afternoon . . . and beheld only beauty and calm ... in the 
afternoon of the following day we saw afar off, by our telescope, 
a small clearing in the forest, and on the brow of a rising ground 
a cottage delightfully situated. The appearance of such a sight 
in such a place was unexpected ; and we had some debate, if it 
could be the location of Dr. Dunlop, who had guided the land 
exploring party already alluded to ; nor were we left long in 
doubt, for on approaching the place, we met a canoe having on 
board a strange combination of Indians, velveteens and whiskers, 
and discovered within the roots of the red hair, the living features 
of the Doctor. About an hour after, having crossed the river's 
bar of eight feet, we came to a beautiful anchorage of fourteen 
feet of water, in an uncommonly pleasant small basin. The place 
had been selected by the Doctor, and is now the site of the 
flourishing town of Goderich. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

The chief agents in the early settlement of the 
county of Bruce were Scotsmen. The townships 
have nearly all Scottish names, the rest being 
mostly Indian. The Scottish ones are Lindsay, 
Arran, Carrick, Bruce, Culross, Elderslie, 
Greenock, Kincardine, and Kinloss. 

The surrenders of the lands from the Indians 
were procured through Scotsmen. Lord Elgin, 
for whom Bruce was named, was the Governor of 
the day. His Secretary was Lawrence Oliphant, a 
noted Scottish writer who was the author of the 
account of Elgin's mission to China. The village 
of Oliphant, on the Huron shore opposite Wiarton, 
was named after him. Oliphant also held the 
position of Superintendent of Indian Affairs. He 
effected in 1854 the surrender to the Government 
of (what is called the Saugeen Peninsula, com- 
prising the greater part of Northern Bruce. He 
had as coadjutors three noted Scotsmen James 
Ross of Belleville, a well-known lawyer ; Charles 
Rankin, a noted land surveyor ; and Alexander 
Mac Nab, the Crown Lands Agent, who resided 
at Southampton, and was father of Mr. John 
MacNab of that place. 

In 1848 the Lake Huron shore in this region 
was surveyed by Alexander Murray, Assistant 
Geologist to Sir William Logan. One of the 
earliest pioneers of Bruce was Capt. Alexander 
McGregor of Goderich, who, in 1831, developed 
the fishing trade at the famous Fishing Islands 
above Saugeen. The old stone building now a 
ruinon Main Station Island, opposite Oliphant, 

The Huron and Bruce Settlements 

was the first permanent building erected in the 
county of Bruce. Doctors Dunlop and Hamilton 
of Goderich formed a new company to exploit 
these fisheries. Another fishing company of Scots- 
men of Southampton was that formed in 1848 by 
Captains Spence and Kennedy, who purchased the 
rights of the Goderich Company. Capt. Kennedy 
was a Scottish half-breed. He went in command 
of a party to discover Sir John Franklin. Spence 
was an Orkney man, probably of the Selkirk settle- 
ment. The present writer knew Spence. He died 
in I94- He was a cousin of Mr. William 
Houston, the well-known journalist and compiler 
of the Constitutional Documents on Education. 

One of the two pioneer settlers of Kincardine 
landed at that place in the spring of 1848. His 
name was Allan Cameron, or " Black " Cameron. 
The pioneer settler on the Durham Road was ja 
young Scotsman named John Beatty. His sister, 
Miss Beatty, was the first white woman to under- 
take the hardships of bush life in Bruce County. 
The Eeatties walked on foot from Owen Sound 
by way of the Indian trail to Southampton, and 
from there they followed the beach to Kincardine. 
This was in 1848. 

This year more Scotsmen began to come into 
the Kincardine district. They were Alexander 
McCallay ; William Dowall ; three brothers, 
Donald, Alexander, and John McCaskill ; George 
McLeod ; two brothers, James and Alexander 
Munro ; and Patrick Downie. The following year 
Capt. Duncan Rowan and his brother John arrived, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

and the land was gradually taken up. In 1849 the 
first free -grant lands in Huron township were 
settled by a Scottish group Duncan and Alexander 
McRae and Findlay McLennan and their families. 

Among the pioneers of Brant township were 
John Lundy ; Thomas Todd ; Jos. L. Lamont ; 
and three Stewarts Archibald, Alexander, and 

Up to 1852 the settlers were mixed, with a good 
average of Scotsmen ; but in that year 109 
families, from the Island of Lewis, in Scotland, 
settled in the township of Huron. They were 
mostly fishermen, shepherds, and crofters, who only 
knew Gaelic, so that they had a hard time for 
many years. The Island of Lewis is in the iWestern 
Hebrides, is a part of the shire of Ross, and is a 
famous place. 

From there have gone forth many adventurers 
into our West and North-West, and into all parts 
of the world. The people are a hardy crofter 
and fisher -folk, who have endured much from 
Nature in the past and have looked mostly to the 
sea for a living, and often a burial. The lan,d 
of the Island of Lewis was, in the past, largely 
in the hands of certain families of the McLeods, 
Mackenzies, Rosses, and Mclvors, with some 
McDonalds, all of whom were connected with the 
Hudson's Bay Company. 

The people who came to Bruce were a simple, 

God-fearing, and steadfast folk, but who had all 

their troubles ahead of them by reason of their 

utter ignorance of farming as it is carried on 


The Huron and Bruce Settlements 

upon this continent. A complete list of the Lewis 
emigrants is given in Robertson's " History of 
Bruce County." Of the 109 heads of families 
there were 29 Macdonalds, 16 McLeods, 10 Mac- 
kays, 1 1 McLennans, and 7 Mclvors. These 
people were mostly fishermen, and had their 
passage provided by the proprietor of the Island 
of Lewis. 

There were many other Scottish Highlanders 
settled in Bruce besides the Lewis emigrants, and 
so numerous were the " Macs " that all sorts of 
nicknames had to be given to distinguish indi- 
vidualssuch as Little, Big, Black, Red, Long, 
and Short ; and Robertson says of one school 
section the John Macdonalds were so plentiful that 
they had to be separately designated by a letter 
of the alphabet, as John A, John B, until John U 
closed the list. 

With such a stalwart and enduring stock, it is 
not to be wondered at that these counties became 
noted among the finest of the Canadian communi- 
ties. They not only produced able local repre- 
sentatives in all walks of life, but they also sent 
their sons and daughters out to the settlements 
of the Far West, and had their part in the building 
up of that part of Canada. The youth of Bruce and 
Huron distinguished themselves in South Africa, 
as well as in our own North-West Rebellion. 

From the first settlement the Bruce people were 

loyal and ready to defend their country. The 

earliest Militia rolls of 1859 show that the majority 

were of Scottish origin. A list of these veterans 

VOL. I. Q 241 

The Scotsman in Canada 

is interesting : Col. Alexander Sproat ; Richard 
Mclnnis ; Neil McLeod ; John MacNab ; Donald 
Campbell ; William Walker ; James Hogg ; 
George Hamilton ; Alex. Angus ; Peter Angus ; 
Donald McPherson ; James Calder ; Alex. Mcln- 
tosh ; James Mclntosh ; Edward Ferguson ; 
Andrew Laurie ; Thos. Smith ; Edward Kennedy ; 
Wm. Chisholm ; James Jack ; James George ; 
Thomas Sharp ; Thomas Montgomery ; John 
Murray ; Alex. Munro ; Peter McGregor ; James 
Fleming ; James Mason ; Duncan Ross ; Thomas 
Adair ; James Orr ; Alex. Robertson ; John 
Spence ; W. S. Scott, M.D. ; Neil Campbell. 
This comprises the Scottish members of No. i 
Company, ist Battalion of Bruce in 1859. 

When {he Militia Act was amended in 1868, 
the following year three Bruce Scotsmen received 
commissions Lieut. -Col. Andrew Lindsay ; Major 
John Gillies ; and Major James Rowand. 

The Captains of Companies were also all Scots- 
men : Robt. Scott; M. McKinnon ; J. H. 
Coulthard ; John Mclntyre ; James Stark ; 
Andrew Freeborn ; and James Allan. 

In the Reil Rebellion of 1870 the Scotsmen 
from Bruce were Capt. Hunter ; Capt. Thos. 
Adair ; A. Mclvor ; Jas. Glendenning ; Wm. 
McVicar ; Duncan Kerr ; James Gilmour ; J. Gil- 
roy ; Donald Robertson ; George Smith ; Robt. 
McFarlane ; and John Kerr. In 1885 the second 
North- West Rebellion broke out, and the Bruce 
battalion distinguished itself under Capt. Douglas. 

In South Africa, Bruce gave a hero to the 

The Huron and Bruce Settlements 

Empire in Trooper Gordon Cummings, pf 
Kitchener's Horse. He was born in Saugeen in 
December, 1875, and was killed at the Battle of 
Nooitge-dacht on December 13, 1900, while gal- 
lantly striving to procure ammunition for his 

An account of some noted residents of the 
county of Bruce of Scottish extraction must close 
this brief essay. 

Lieut. -Col. Alexander Sproat, who was one of 
the earliest settlers, was of Scottish descent, a 
graduate of Queen's College, a provincial land 
surveyor ; then a bank manager ; County 
Treasurer, 1864 to 1873 ; first Member for Bruce 
in the Dominion Parliament ; and Colonel of the 
32nd Battalion. He was made Registrar of Prince 
Albert, North-West Territory, in 1880, and died 
in 1890. 

The Rev. John Eckford was born in Scotland, 
educated at Edinburgh University, and came to 
Canada in 1851. He was a noted preacher in 
Bruce County, Reeve of Brant in 1857, and 
Superintendent of Schools up to 1871. 

Alexander Shaw, K.C., came to Bruce in 1858 ; 
was County Solicitor in 1867 ; was elected to 
Parliament in 1878 in the Conservative interest. 

Donald Sinclair was born at Islay in Scotland 
in 1829, and came to Bruce in 1853. He taught 
school, became a merchant at Paisley, and was 
elected to the House of Assembly from 1867 to 
1883, and was aopointed Registrar that ytear ; a 



The Scotsman in Canada 

William Gunn was born in 1816 near Glasgow. 
In 1852 he came to Kincardine from Napanee. 
He was a merchant ; then Superintendent of 
Schools from 1853 to 1858; and Deputy Clerk 
of the Crown to 1894. He was also a Commis- 
sioner to Scotland on the Herring Industry. 

Henry Cargill, Esq., M.P., was of Ulster- 
Scottish stock. He was born in 1838, and 
educated at Queen's College, Kingston. He 
became a successful lumber merchant in the 
tounty of Bruce, and was elected to Parliament 
for East Bruce from 1887 to 1903. He was a 

Alexander McNeill, Esq., M.P., was a distin- 
guished Member of the Canadian House of 
Commons, where he represented North Bruce for 
eighteen years in the Conservative interest, being 
noted as a leading Imperialist. He introduced the 
first motion in the Canadian House of Commons 
leading to closer commercial relations with the 
mother country. He was born in Larne, 
county of Antrim, Ireland, of Ulster-Scottish 
and Scottish stock. His father's family was 
a branch of the McNeills of Gigha, who went 
into Ulster with the Scottish settlements and 
had lands in Antrim. His mother, his father's 
cousin, was a sister of the famous Duncan 
McNeill, Lord Colonsay, Lord Justice of Scot- 
land. Mr. McNeill's maternal grandfather was 
McNeill of Colonsay. He studied for the Bar 
t the Inner Temple, London, England, but came 
o Bruce County about 1870, and has been a 

The Huron and Bruce Settlements 

successful farmer. His residence, " The Corran," 
near Wiarton on Colpoys Bay, is one of the most 
beautiful places in the county. He is an earnest 
and able student of all public questions concerning 
both Canada and the Empire. 

Alexander MacNab was born in 1809. He was 
appointed Crown Lands Agent for Bruce, and was 
for thirty years connected with the Land Office in 
the county. His son, John M. MacNab, residing 
at Southampton, is an authority on the county 

John Gillies, Esq., M.P., was born at Kilcalom- 
nell, Argyllshire, Scotland. He came to Canada 
in 1852 ; was Warden of Bruce in 1863, 1869, 
1870, 1871, and 1872 ; was elected to Parliament 
from 1872 to 1882, when he was defeated by 
Alexander McNeill. He was a strong Liberal. 

John Tolmie, Esq., M.P., the present popular 
Member of the Dominion House for North Bruce, 
is a Scotsman by birth, having been born in the 
parish of Laggan in Scotland in 1845. His 
mother was Mary Eraser. Mr. Tolmie came to 
Canada in 1868, and has been a farmer and salt 
manufacturer. He has been returned to the House 
of Commons four times in the Liberal interest for 
West and North Bruce. 

James Ernest Campbell, Esq., J.P., merchant 
and manufacturer, of Hepworth, is a prominent 
man in the county. He was nominated three times 
in the Liberal interest in North Bruce. Mr. Camp- 
bell is of Ulster-Scottish stock, being a son of 
the Rev. Thomas Swainston Campbell (Anglican), 


The Scotsman in Canada 

of >Wiarton, whose father, the Rev. Thomas 
Campbell, M.A., of Glasgow University, and first 
Rector of Belleville, Upper Canada, was son of 
James Campbell, Esq., of Kilrea, of a cadet branch 
of the House of Argyll. Mr. Campbell was 
appointed by the Canadian Government as Com- 
mercial Agent for Canada at Leeds and Hull, 
England, but declined the position. His elder 
brother, Thomas Francis Campbell, M.D., of Hep- 
worth, is a well-known local physician. 




Such were our memories. May they yet 
Be shared by others sent to be 
Signs of the union of the free 
And kindred peoples God hath set 
O'er famous isles, and fertile zones 
Of continents ! Or if new thrones 
And mighty states arise ; may He, 
Whose potent hand yon river owns, 
Smooth their great future's shrouded sea ! 

" Quebec," a poem by the Duke of Argyll. 

NO stronger link has bound Canada to the 
Motherland than that of her Governors- 
General, who have so ably and faithfully repre- 
sented the British Sovereign in the Western world. 
It must naturally be a matter of pride to all men 
of Scottish descent in Canada to realise that the 
greater majority of our viceregal representatives 
have been of Scottish birth or extraction. Certainly, 
in a work of this nature, it is but right to lay 
stress upon this remarkable fact, which is but one 
more witness to the proof that Canada is, indeed, 
newer -Scotland. 

v When we go back in our Canadian history to 


The Scotsman in Canada 

the first quarter of the seventeenth century, down 
a period of nearly three hundred years, we find 
that Canada, or New Scotland, is made part of, 
or an outlying" extension of, Scotland ; that even 
then our country was connected with the Scottish 
race ; and the object of movements and ambi- 
tions arising among and influencing that ancient 
people. Ever since, in some manner, Canada has 
been connected with Scottish success or Scottish 
failure. Scottish dreams, having their birth in the 
Old Land of mountain and glen, have had more 
than their fulfilment in the forests and plains and 
seaports of the Caledonia of the West. From 
Alexander to Strathcona Canada has been closely 
woven into the web of Scottish life and its trustee- 
ship of the outer-lands of the broad earth. 
Likewise can it be said that the history of Canada 
is but an extension of that of Scotland, and that 
during a period of three hundred years past the 
secret of the greatness and weakness of the greater 
portion of our Canadian peoples is to be sought 
for and found, not so much in our borders, as in 
the misty mountains and glens, the castles and 
sheilings of the loved Old Land. The pride and 
race-ideal of the Canadian boy and girl should, 
if truly inculcated, go back beyond Wolfe and 
Brock and Queenston and the Heights of Abraham 
to Bruce and Bannockburn. Truly if the race 
and the blood count for anything (and if they do 
not, what else should?), the greater majority of 
our people have in their veins that fierce and hot 
blood which brooked no conqueror, either martial 

The Governors- General 

or religious, for the glorious period of a thousand 
years of Scotland's greatness ; and it would seem 
worse than madness to expect to build up on 
this continent a new race --patriotism from which 
so much of splendid achievement and venerable 
race -memory were excluded. 

Therefore, from this important standpoint, it will 
be more than merely interesting to the Scottish 
Canadian to know that the greater number of our 
viceregal representatives were of Scottish blood, 
and connected with, or representatives of, families 
renowned in the splendid history of North Britain. 

Whatever may be the future fate of the country 
now called Canada, she will never, so long as the 
present race predominates, be separated from the 
history and dominant spirit of Scotland ; and if 
we but travel from Nova Scotia to the Fraser 
River, we will find many a name of place or 
treasured chronicle as lingering witness to the 
conquering will and fearless spirit of those, her 
missioners of material advancement and intellec- 
tual and spiritual enlightenment, whom she has 
sent forth into all lands. 

The first Scotsman appointed a Governor in 
Canada was the famous Raleigh, of Scotland ; Sir 
William Alexander, Viscount Canada, and Earl of 
Stirling, who was in 1621 by James the Sixth and 
the Scottish Parliament appointed hereditary Lieu- 
tenant of New Scotland. Alexander's Governor- 
ship was over all that country now known as the 
Maritime Provinces, including Prince Edward 
Island and all the islands in the Gulf, except New- 


The Scotsman in Canada 

foundland, with all of what is now Quebec south 
of the river St. Lawrence. Canada has every 
reason to look back with pride upon this her first 
Governor, who was also her first founder. 

It is about time that a statue to this great man 
should be erected in the Dominion ; and it is no 
credit to the Canadians of Scottish extraction and 
no witness to their exact knowledge of Scottish 
and Canadian history that long ere this no monu- 
ment to him as the real founder of British Canada 
has been thought of or deemed necessary. 

It is a disgrace to British Canadians to have 
to say that while monuments to Champlain have 
been erected in the Maritime Provinces and Quebec 
and one is soon to be placed in the capital at 
the expense of the Canadian Government that no 
monument has ever been suggested to this great 

The second Governor, if we except the second 
Earl of Stirling, who, like his illustrious father, 
was deeply interested in the founding and colonisa- 
tion of early Canada, was Sir David Kirke, another 
distinguished man of Scottish extraction. 

The first Governor of Canada under British rule 
after the capture of Quebec was another Scotsman, 
General Murray, a brother of Lord Elibank, who 
succeeded to the command on the death of Wolfe ; 
and when the civil Government was formed in 
1763 he became the first civil Governor. In 1782 
Henry Hamilton, a Scotsman, was Lieutenant - 
Governor ; and he was Administrator in 1784. 
In 1805 Thomas Dunn was President and 

The Governors-General 

Administrator of the Government of Lower 
Canada. In 1797 Peter Hunter was Adminis- 
trator of Upper Canada ; and in 1814 Sir Gordon 
Drummond, a distinguished soldier, occupied the 
same position. 

The Duke of Richmond, who was Governor - 
General front 1818 to 1819, when his able career 
was ended in so sudden and tragic a manner, was 
of royal Scottish extraction on the paternal side, 
being descended from Charles the Second, while 
his mother was the daughter of the fourth Marquess 
of Lothian, head of the great House of Kerr. 
When the Duke died in so sad a manner, th,e 
result of the bite of a mad fox, he was on a 
journey through the Ottawa district, studying the 
country in the interests of development and emigra- 
tion. The privations consequent on his journey 
in the wilderness, Where he succumbed, must have 
added much to his sufferings in his last hours. 
He died literally in the performance o'f his duty, 
as so many faithful Britons have done in connection 
with the upbuilding of Canada. 

The Duke's daughter, the Lady Sarah Lennox, 
married Sir Peregrine Maitland, a scion of another 
noted Scottish family. He became Lieutenant - 
Governor of Upper Canada, and was Administrator 
of the Canadian Government in 1820, following 
the Duke's death. He was fated to govern in a 
difficult period when restless spirits, suffering under 
some real grievances, were being influenced by 
less sincere intriguers to break the bond to the 
Motherland. There is proof that ever since the 


The Scotsman in Canada 

early years of the nineteenth century, when Wilcox 
was sent over from 1 the United States as a paid 
emissary of insurrection, there was always such 
an influence in the country. 

Lord Dalhousie was appointed Governor -General 
in 1820, as successor to the Duke of Richmond. 
He was the representative of the noble Scottish 
House of Ramsay, and his mother was of the old 
family of Glen in Linlithgowshire . He was a dis- 
tinguished scholar and statesman, and a success- 
ful Governor in that difficult period which pre- 
ceded the Lower Canadian Rebellion. History 
shows this Governor to have been a kindly and 
refined gentleman, with a fine mind and a strong 
ideal to serve his Sovereign and the country well. 
Lord Dalhousie was recalled and sent to India 
as Governor, where his son, the tenth Earl, went 
later, in 1847, and remained until 1856. 

Lord Gosford, who became Governor-General 
in 1835, and remained up to 1837, was of the 
ancient Scottish family of Acheson of Gosford, 
county of Haddington, Scotland ; from which place 
the family take their title as Earls of Gosford, 
though the title belongs to the Irish peerage. He 
was also a baronet of Nova Scotia. His ancestor, 
Sir Archibald Acheson, of Gosford in Hadding- 
ton, was one of the noted undertakers for land 
in the great Scottish settlement in Ulster in the 
seventeenth century. 

Lord Gosford was fated to be a Governor in 
a critical period of our history, when no Governor 
could cope with the extreme conditions which 

The Governors- General 

existed in both Upper and Lower Canada, and 
which evidently had to come to a sharp ending 
in the Civil War which ensued. It has now been 
proved that much of the so-called misrule of the 
Governors was really traceable to the local 
politicians, whose several factions each strove to 
use the Sovereign's representative for their own 
particular uses. Lord Gosford strove to do his 
duty under a trying ordeal which neither he nor 
any other single man could prevent. In Lower 
Canada it was a plain case of a clever dema- 
gogue and his short-sighted allies, who foolishly 
dreamed that they could destroy British rule and 
set up a pocket republic of their own on the St. 
Lawrence. The " representative Government " 
plea as the cause of this rebellion was just as 
much a pretence as was the " no tax without 
representation" of the American rebels in 1776. 
In Upper Canada it was different ; but the Upper 
Canadian Rebellion would never have come to a 
real .active head had there been no previous 
outbreak in Lower Canada. 

Lord Cathcart, 1845-46, was the next Scottish 
Governor. He belonged to one of the oldest 
Scottish families, who were Barons since 1447. 
His mother was of the Border Scottish family of 
Elliot, and was first cousin to the Earl of Minto. 
His connection with Canada was during the in- 
teresting period of the Union, the last and vain 
political experiment before Confederation. During 
this period the seat of Government was removed 
from place to place in both provinces, and the 


The Scotsman in Canada 

continual race jealousy between Upper and Lower 
Canada was becoming stronger year by year. The 
truth was that the great growth of the Upper 
Province demanded an adequate representation not 
agreeable to the claims and privileges of the 

Lord Cathcart's successor was Lord Elgin, 
during whose tenure of office the party and race 
feeling reached their climax for the second time. 
Lord Elgin was one of the finest of our Governors ; 
but he was made the victim of extreme party 
hatred, and was hooted and insulted in the streets. 
In spite of this he did his duty as he conceived 
it ; and history has justified hirri and now con- 
demns the actions of both parties in the country, 
who made his position as Governor almost im- 
possible. The idea has been instilled into the 
minds of our people that the whole trouble arose 
out of what was called the family compact, and 
the cruel tyranny of withholding 1 from the people 
the free boon of responsible Government. Since 
Confederation we have had this glorious gift so 
much expatiated upon by cheap orators. But alas 
for human consistency and the much-be -praised 
democracy! Has it improved matters? Have we not 
now even more than formerly of party strife and 
mutual abuse? Does not the Press of each party 
continually educate us into the idea that the party 
in power is robbing and ruining the rest of the 
country? Have we not had enough land-grabbing 
and fraud on the part of public officers ventilated 
in our present-day Press during the last twenty 

The Governors- General 

years to totally eclipse all the charges brought 
against any Government official since that arch- 
grafter, Benjamin Franklin, first inaugurated such 
nefarious practices upon this unfortunate continent? 
Then, when we think of the present day and the 
much-abused family compact of the 1837 period, 
it is much to be feared that if Lyon McKenzie 
were living to-day he would feel that the inter- 
married ruling class of his day sank almost into 
insignificance before its counterpart of the present 

It is for the Scottish Canadian to correct this 
grave evil, and to explain this strange failure in 
the infallibility of this democracy, which he has 
so long regarded as the sole panacea for all social 
and political ills. It is now becoming realised 
that the early British Governors in this country 
had a good deal of right on their side, and had 
often only acted for the best. Lord Elgin's ex- 
perience of Canada was, however, not a pleasant 
one ; and he was glad to leave the country, where 
he had striven to do his duty. He was in no way 
to blame for the stormy period, as both Provinces 
had, at the Union, one responsible Government ; 
and Elgin had full instructions to consult his 
Ministers. The whole difficulty was in the people 
themselves. His distinguished father-in-law, Lord 
Durham, who had so much to do with the granting 
of responsible Government, had an equally dis- 
agreeable experience as Governor. 

Lord Elgin was male representative of the 
famous family of Bruce, renowned in Scottish; 


The Scotsman in Canada 

history, because one of its greatest kings, Robert 
Bruce, whose daughter married a Stuart, and 
through lack of male heirs of Robert Bruce carried 
the royal line of Scotland into that family. Lord 
Elgin's ancestor was a cousin of the illustrious 
monarch whose name is immortal in Scottish 

The next Canadian viceregal representative of 
Scottish extraction was Lord Lisgar, 1868-72. 

This statesman and nobleman was in the male 
line the descendant and representative of the 
Scottish family of Young of Auldbar, who re- 
moved into Ulster at the settlement of that 
province. He was also descended of the Houses 
of Douglas and of Knox of Ranfurly, kinsman of 
John Knox. Lord Lisgar thus was strongly 
Scottish in his descent, and whatever good he did 
for Canada was owing to his Scottish blood. He 
was the first Governor -General under the Canadian 
Confederation, and proved himself a dignified and 
competent representative of the Queen in the new 
Dominion of the West. 

He was succeeded by one of the most popular 
of all our Governors, and one who was, like him- 
self, of the Ulster-Scottish stock, Lord Dufferin. 
In previous accounts these Ulster Governors have 
been classed as Irishmen. But, as in this chapter 
I have taken the trouble to show for the first 
time, this is neither correct nor fair to the Scottish 
race as a race. Therefore, as this work has for 
its object to deal with the Scottish peoples in 
connection with Canada, it is necessary to point 

The Governors-General 

out very definitely the true facts in the cases 

Lord Dufferin, though exceedingly proud of his 
Hamilton descent, was paternally of the Scottish 
family of Black wood, of whom the famous Edin- 
burgh publishers of that name are a noted branch. 
The Blackwoods were originally a Fifeshire family, 
and Lord Dufferin's ancestors came into Ulster at 
the Settlement. 

On the maternal side the distinguished Governor 
was representative and senior heir-general of the 
Hamiltons, Earls of Clanbrassil. The first of the 
family to leave Scotland for Ulster was James 
Hamilton, son of the Rev. Hans Hamilton, Vicar 
of Dunlop, in Ayrshire, who became the first 
Viscount Clanbrassil. While Lord Dufferin's titles 
were Irish, he was very much of a Scotsman in 
blood and tradition, and it is interesting to 
Canadians of Scottish stock to remember that he 
was Governor at a period of our country's history 
when the two pre-eminent leaders of Canadian 
party politics were also of Scottish stock Sir 
John A. Macdonald and the Honourable Alexander 
Mackenzie. It is not necessary in this chapter to 
go into the whole career of this noted statesman 
and diplomat, as it is well known to all Canadians. 

Other members of the noted clan or family of 
Hamilton have been associated with Canadian 
history. One family of merchants of the 
name were prominent in our history and were 
associated with Quebec and Hamilton in Upper 
Canada. The Honourable Robert Hamilton, 

VOL. I. R 257 

The Scotsman in Canada 

Member of the Upper Canada Legislative Council, 
was a leading member of this Canadian family, 
and the present venerable Anglican Archbishop 
of Ottawa is of the Quebec branch of this Scottish- 
Canadian family. 

Lord Dufferin had for his successor another dis- 
tinguished Viceroy, and the heir of one of the 
few Scottish princely houses. The Marquis of 
Lome, now Duke of Argyll, is of royal extrac- 
tion not only by descent from 1 Robert Bruce and 
the royal house of Stuart through many female 
ancestors, but it is not generally known that he 
is the male representative of the old princely line 
of O'Duin, Kings of Ulster and Argyll in an 
ancient period of Scotland's history. Even down 
to the days of Mary Queen of Scots the Earls of 
Argyll lived in regality within their own borders, 
and were regarded by the Scottish monarchs 
rather as powerful allies than as subjects. In 
the time of Queen Mary, the Earl of Argyll was 
living as a prince in Argyll, with barons or lords 
under him, of whom the three mentioned in history 
were Lord Glenorchy, ancestor of the Marquess 
of Breadalbane ; Lord Auchinbreck, head of that 
noted house of soldiers and baronets ; and Lord 
Ardkinglas ; the heads of the three great cadet 
houses of the family, and all Baronets of Nova 

The present writer has seen an original letter 

written by King Charles the First to the great 

Marquess of Argyll, in which he treated him 

rather as an important ally and influential 


The Governors- General 

Scottish leader than as a subject ; and ap- 
pealed . to him to give his aid and influence 
the Royal cause in the trouble with the 
Roundheads. Down to that period the chiefs 
of Argyll had held the hereditary justiciary- 
ship of all Scotland, which placed them in an 
almost regal position. This, the eight Earl 
and Marquess resigned into the hands of the King, 
retaining, however, to himself and his heirs the 
jurisdiction of the Western Isles and Argyll, and 
wherever else he had lands in Scotland, which was 
ratified by an Act of Parliament in 1633. It was, 
therefore, quite meet that the heir of such a great 
historic house should marry a princess of the 
reigning Royal House. But it was especially in- 
teresting to Canadians that they should be sent 
to represent the monarch in the young Dominion 
The Marquis of Lome and the Princess Louise 
did much in Canada to forward the intellectual 
and material interests of the country. He had 
much to do with the opening up of the Far West 
which he traversed to the shores of the Western 
Ocean at a time when it was a most difficult under- 
taking ; and he has keenly appreciated the great 
if e work, in this connection, of his close and dis- 
tinguished friend and fellow Empire-builder Lord 

The Duke of Argyll, like his distinguished father, 

s a statesman and a scholar, and is one of the 

ablest and greatest Imperialists in the British 

Empjre He has, ever since his viceregal term 

Canada, been deeply interested in the welfare 


The Scotsman in Canada 

of this country. In his Many speeches, when here, 
and since on Imperial occasions, he has ever ex- 
pressed a firm belief in the great possibilities of this 
country as a nation in the Empire. In addition to 
his other notable qualities he possesses the poetical 
gift in no small degree, a gift that seems here- 
ditary in the blood of the great family of which 
he is the head. Some of his finest verses were 
written about Canada, and during his stay in this 
country. Notable examples are his poem, the 
finest ever written on the subject, " Quebec," and 
his " Hymn for Confederation." He and the 
Princess were the founders of the Royal Canadian 
Academy of Arts and the Royal Society of Canada. 

The Duke's ancestors and the cadet houses of 
his family contain a long list of noted statesmen, 
patriots, soldiers, scholars, and divines who have 
been closely associated with the history of Scot- 
land and the Empire. Many of his name, (and 
some of his blood, have borne a prominent part 
in the history of Canada ; and thousands of good 
Canadian citizens bear his name and are worthy 
members of the famous clan. 

The Earl of Aberdeen, who was Governor - 
General from 1893 to 1898, was also the head of 
another distinguished Scottish house, and the male 
representative of the great clan Gordon. This 
name, like that of Campbell, has for centuries been 
connected with the history of Scotland, as repre- 
sented in the noble houses of the Dukes of Gordon, 
the Earls of Huntly, Sutherland, Aberdeen, and 
Kenmure. To merely mention those houses is to 

The Governors-General 

suggest to the reader of Scottish and British history 
a whole host of associations with all that is noble, 
chivalrous, tragic, and moving in the past centuries 
of Britain. 

A few personalities stand out prominently on 
the frescoes of memory, such as George Gordon, 
fourth Earl of Huntly, the famous " Cock of the 
North," who virtually held Northern Scotland in 
his grasp, and was, for all his sad end, considered 
to have been the wealthiest, wisest, and most 
powerful subject in Scotland in his day. His 
famous ancestor, Sir Adam Gordon, who in 1305 
sat at Westminster as one of the representatives 
of Scotland ; Sir George Gordon, first Earl pf 
Aberdeen, Lord High Chancellor of Scotland ; the 
famous poet, Lord Byron, whose mother was a 
Gordon of Gight ; the great Earl of Aberdeen, 
grandfather of the present Earl, Premier of 
England ; and last, but not least, the famous 
General Gordon of Khartoum, one of the greatest 
saints and heroes in British history. Lord Aber- 
deen has had a distinguished career as a vice- 
regal representative twice in Ireland and once in 
Canada. He is also Lord -Lieutenant of Aberdeen- 
shire. He and his noted Countess were among 
the most intimate friends and followers of the 
famous Liberal leader, the late Right Hon. 
William Ewart Gladstone, whose son has become 
the first Governor of United South Africa. (It 
might be not out of place here to mention that 
Gladstone was of Scottish descent. His father's 
family were Gledstanes, of Southern Scotland, and 


The Scotsman in Canada 

his mother was a Robertson of Stornoway, Isle of 
Lewis. Her maternal grandfather was Colin 
McKenzie, Bailie of Dingwall, of the Coul family 
of McKenzie. There are members of this family 
living in Canada.) Lady Aberdeen, who is known 
throughout the world as an active leader in many 
organisations to raise and alleviate humanity, 
comes also of a noted Scottish stock. Her father 
was Sir Dudley Coutts Majoribanks, first Lord 
Tweedmouth, and representative of the old family 
of Majoribanks of Holly and Leuchie and that 
Ilk ; and through her mother she is of the Ulster- 
Scottish branch of the Hoggs and Swintons of 

Lord Aberdeen's military secretary in Canada 
was another noted Scotsman and a scion of an 
ancient Caithness family, Captain John Sinclair, 
since then Member of Parliament for Forfarshire, 
and now Secretary of State for Scotland, lately 
raised to the peerage as Lord Pentland. He is 
married to Lady Marjorie Gordon, only daughter 
of Lord Aberdeen. Lord Pentland has had a 
successful career as a statesman, and is a fine 
scholar. He is of the Dunbeath branch of the 
family of the Earls of Caithness. His father was 
the late Capt. George Sinclair. Lord Pentland 
was also Member of Parliament for Dunbarton 
County and Assistant Private Secretary to the 
Secretary of State for War and a Captain of the 
5th Lancers, and also a member of the London 
County Council. 

It is very significant of Scotland's part in the 

The Governors- General 

building and destiny of Canada to turn front the 
historic families of Gordon and Sinclair to that 
of Elliot. 

The Earl of Minto, who succeeded the Earl of 
Aberdeen as Governor -General, represents this 
old historic Scottish house. Like Lord Aberdeen, 
he is also a Baronet of Nova Scotia. His ancestor 
was Gilbert Elliot, of Stobs, who was also ancestor 
of the famous Lord Heathfield, the defender pf 
Gibraltar. Lord Minto's ancestors were dis- 
tinguished jurists, governors, naval and military 
officers, and ambassadors. Prominent in his 
family were Sir Gilbert Elliot, Lord Justice 
Minto ; the Honourable Andrew Elliot ; Admiral 
George Elliot ; the Right Honourable Hugh Elliot, 
Governor of Madras ; the first Earl of Minto, 
successively Viceroy of Correa, Ambassador at 
Vienna, Governor of Bengal, and President of the 
Board of Control. The present Earl has been 
one of the most successful Viceroys both in Canada 
and India. His first connection with our country 
was as military Secretary to the Marquess of Lands - 
downe, from 1883 to 1886. Lord Minto is 
Viscount Melgund of Melgund, County Forfar, and 
Baron Minto of Minto, County Roxburgh, and Earl 
of Minto. Lady Minto is a sister of Lord Grey, 
the present Governor -General of Canada ; and is 
through her mother of the old Scottish family of 
Farquhar of that Ilk. 

The present distinguished Governor-General of 
Canada, Earl Grey, has accomplished a great deal 
for the welfare of the Empire in Africa, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

England and Canada. He is, to-day, one of the 
most noted personalities in the Empire. As 
Governor of Canada, he has not only wisely and 
firmly represented his Sovereign, but he has also 
from the first held before the Canadian people 
a high ideal of citizenship and responsibility to 
the Empire and the Canadian community. Lord 
Grey, while, as is well known, the representative 
of a great historical house of Northern England, 
noted for its statesmen, soldiers, and sailors, is 
also, on the maternal side, of Scottish extraction, 
his mother being a daughter of Sir Thomas Harvie 
Farquhar, Baronet, representative of the ancient 
family of Gilmanscroft in North Britain. When 
one visits the beautiful county of Northumber- 
land, on the borders of Scotland, the ancient home 
of Lord Grey's paternal ancestors, and his present 
family seat, and sees the wonderful heather-clad 
hills extending down over the border, well into 
Ihe middle of the northern county, it is hard to 
realise that one is not in Scotland. And when we 
remember that the name of " Grey " has been a 
great one in Scotland front the earliest days, and 
that original Scottish origin is claimed for this 
noted family, it is not difficult for our Scottish 
historian to lay some claim to our distinguished 
Governor as a representative of the great mother 
of peoples scattered throughout t:he world. Lord 
Grey has also added to his many achievements 
in a unique way by his memorable journey over- 
land to and through the famous Hudson Bay and 
Straits, being the first Governor-General of Canada 

The Governors-General 

to essay or accomplish this difficult journey. The 
result of this trip has been, however, to show to 
the outside world that Canada has a great ocean 
gateway in the north that may some day rival the 
St. Lawrence, and become a great shipping port 
for the grains and other products of the ever- 
growing West. Lady Grey, who has so endeared 
herself to the Canadian people, is also through 
her mother of the blood of the great historic House 
of Lindsay of Balcarres, one of Scotland's most 
noted families. 

Our next Governor is to be of the Royal Stuart 
blood, in the person of his Royal Highness the 
Duke of Connaught, uncle of the King. This will 
add but a more illustrious example to the long 
list of Viceroys of Scottish blood who have repre- 
sented their Sovereign in this the Scotland of the 
New World. 




Though guiding plough 'neath heather dune, 

Or tiller of the herring sea, 

Or jingling gold in Glesca' toon, 

Or lad wV herd or parson's crook 

Or canty clerk in far countrie, 

Or proudsome laird o' Linnisdeer ; 

By corry, loch, or ingle nuik, 

The Scotsman's nose, where'er ye speir, 

Is no' far frae his specs' and buke. 


IT has been truly said that perhaps the strongest 
instinct of the Scottish people is that well-known 
intense craving which they have ever had for know- 
ledge and learning. This instinct is not limited 
to the scholarly class alone, but is widely shared 
"by the whole people to a greater extent than is 
found in any other nation throughout the world. 
It is especially strong in the natures of the great 
financial adventurers in the Old World and jthe 
Colonies. This accounts for the fact that so many 
of them, like Andrew Carnegie, Lord Strathcona, 
and Sir William Macdonald, have endowed learn- 
ing and literature so largely. It was no uncommon 

The Scotsman and Education 

thing to find among the necessarily limited personal 
effects of an early pioneer Scottish merchant of 
Quebec, Hudson Bay, or Virginia, of the eighteenth 
century], a number of well-chosen and well -thumbed 
volumes of the classics. Even such a writer as 
Horace was not excluded. Many of these men led 
lives of hard, exacting, material, counting-house 
toil. They were men in whom, from all appearances, 
literary inclinations were the last thing to be ex- 
pected. They were pain, hard-faced, often sordid 
or commonplace appearing dealers in the virgin 
markets of the material world ; and yet underneath 
that outer husk of exacting mercantile ambition 
there lay hidden the kernel of the intellect and 
imagination, that strangely associated character- 
istic which has so often rendered the successful 
Scotsman such a mystery to his fellow-beings who 
could not see below the surface of the everyday 
man. It has been said that somewhere in every 
real personality there lurks hidden the soul of a 
poet. Certainly this is largely true of many Scots- 
men famous in the successful out ways of the 
material world. This larger wisdom, this under- 
dream, this deep sympathy with the finer things 
of life, which so many of these men have carried 
with them into the dreary northern wilds, or other 
remote places of rude and almost savage pioneer 
life, explains why so many of them have proved 
to be Nature's true gentlemen, with such fine 
instincts for culture, on their return to the purlieus 
of civilisation. This abtly ingrained or heredi- 
tary love of schohi Co and refinement will also 


The Scotsman in Canada 

explain why so many of our Canadian Universities 
and other seats of learning have been founded 
by Scottish merchants and financiers, from whom, 
as a class, in no other nationality would such an 
intellect -worshipping impulse be expected, or even 
regarded as possible. 

It is this remarkable use or trusteeship of his 
wealth, here and in the Old 'World, that sets the 
Scottish millionaire or merchant prince apart from 
all others of his class. B> reason of his innate 
knowledge or desire, from the very first, how to use 
his wealth when it has been acquired, he reveals 
himself as a scion of the old Scottish aristocracy. 
The desire to go back, to own the land, to be 
a lord or laird, to found or aid a college or 
university, is more than the mere material (am- 
bition of success. It shows a deeper spirit. It 
is often the spirit of a Highland mother acting 
through her son of a Lowland name. It is often 
the longing or harking back of a strain of gentle, 
lordly, religious, military, or scholarly blood, still 
working in and influencing the otherwise plain, 
dour, practical business man of the present. This 
may explain why the chief builder of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway and a leading spirit in the 
Hudson's Bay fur trade sent a regiment to help 
his Queen and the Empire in South Africa. But 
this (spirit in the Scotsman goes back even farther 
in the blood than we suspect. Can we wonder at 
this -refined impulse and instinct in the race when 
we know that before the pays of Charlemagne a 
great wave of the intell* nt out from the 

The Scotsman and Education 

ancient kingdom of Caledonia, whose capital was 
at Inverlochy in tae Scottish Highlands, and 
influenced the civilisation of Europe. From 
those remote days down to the period of James 
the .Fifth and the great John Knox have Scotsmen 
had high ideals of scholarship and the intellect. 

Since then nowhere; outside of Scotland have the 
children of the ancient mother shown this remark- 
able characteristic more than in- Canada. In all 
grades of our educational development, from the 
University to the common school, the personality 
and influence^ of the Scotsman have been promi- 
nent. It is a significant fact in our intellectual 
history, and one remarkable in the history of any 
young country, that all of our leading Universities, 
with scarcely one exception, and our other higher 
institutions pf learning c have been from the first 
established .and control s ed by Scotsmen. This fact, 
more than any other, s JDWS to how great an extent 
Canada has been a New Scotland in character and 
ideal, and certainly justifies the publication of a 
work of this nature. 

It can easily be understood that the colleges 
in connection with the Presbyterian Church had 
a Scottish origin. But when it is known that not 
only the Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, and 
Methodist Colleges, but also the two great inde- 
pendent Universities, have had a similar origin, 
the importance of this becomes extremely 

Without doubt the most^ prominent Scotsman 
in connection with Cinadian higher education 


The Scotsman in Canada 

was the Honourable and Right Rev. John Strachan, 
who, in addition to his work as a divine and states- 
man, was Canada's greatest educationalist of the 
first half of the nineteenth century. 

(When the narrow mists of religious and party 
prejudice have cleared away, it will be acknow- 
ledged that the omitting of a biography of this 
remarkable man from a series of works entitled 
" Makers of Canada " was not merely a rank in- 
justice to the memory of a great man, but was 
robbing our people of a knowledge of one of the 
most important personalities in the history of their 

It has not heretofore been pointed out that this 
strong and militant scholar was the founder of 
two of our leading Universities Toronto and 
Trinity ; that he was intended by the founder, 
another Scotsman, to be tfi.e first Principal of a 
third McGill ; that he waji also the founder and 
teacher of the first collegiate school in Upper 
Canada, was also the founder of Upper Canada 
College ; and, by his influence, established the 
first group of grammar schools in Upper Canada. 

(When this is realised by the great mass of 
Canadians, they will wonder that so unique a fact 
has been so long unchronicled and that his name 
has remained unhonoured. Dr. Strachan, an 
Aberdeen and St. Andrews' man, came out to 
Canada for the especial purpose of taking charge 
of the new college, which was one of the chief 
dreams of that wise and earnest Governor, John 
Graves Simcoe. This project, however, did not 


The Scotsman and Education 

mature ; and this, among other disappointments, 
caused Simcoe to resign and leave the country 
before the arrival of Strachan. But the latter 
did not despair, though it was not until many years 
after, when he had become a distinguished educa- 
tionalist and divine, that he was able to carry out 
his original educational ideal. 

In the year 1827 he procured a charter and 
acquired 500,000 acres for the endowment of what 
was then called King's College, now the University 
of Toronto. 

Not only was this college the result of his un- 
tiring exertions, but he became its first President 
from 1827 to 1848, when he was succeeded by 
another learned Scotsman, the Rev. Dr. McCaul, 
who had been, from the opening of the college, 
a leading professor, holding the chairs of Classic 
Literature, Belles Lettres, Rhetoric, and Logic. In 
the list of the first students fully one -half bore 
Scottish names. 

Many noted Scotsmen have since been identified 
with Toronto University, among them Sir Daniel 
Wilson, who succeeded Dr. McCaul as President ; 
Professor Young, the greatest Canadian metaphy- 
sician ; Presidents Loudon and Falconer, the latter 
the present distinguished Head. All the Presidents 
of Toronto University have been Scotsmen or men 
of Scottish ancestry. 

The Canadian Almanack for 1877 gives the fol- 
lowing list of Scottish members of the University 
Senate : Visitor : Hon. D. A. Macdonald, Lieut. - 
Governor. Senate : Hon. Thos. Moss, Rev. John 


The Scotsman in Canada 

McCaul, G. R. R. Cockburn, W. T. Aikin, M.D., 
John Fulton, A. McMurchy, Hon. J. C. Morrison, 
Hon. A. Crooks, G. P. Young, R. Ramsay Wright, 
John Boyd, J. McGibbon, J. H. Richardson, M.D., 
Jas. Bethune, Q.C., Jas. Loudon, M.A., J. Thor- 
burn, M.D., T. Kirkland, M.A., James Fisher, 
A. F. Campbell, T. W. Taylor, Laughlin McFar- 
lane, Rev. Neill McNish, Hon. ,Wm. McMaster, 
John McDonald, M.P., Daniel Wilson, LL.D., 
Rev. Daniel McDonald, Hon. C. S. Patterson. 

To-day the University has greatly increased in 
size and importance. But the list of Scottish 
names associated with the senate and faculty has 
also increased accordingly. Such distinguished 
names as Falconer, Ramsay Wright, Macallum, 
and McLennan are among those of a host of noted 
scholars who to-day stand high in the world of 

Toronto University, then King's College, was 
the one educational institution for the whole 
province, and was started under favourable 
auspices. As the years went on, however, con- 
troversies arose, chiefly because the college, under 
its original charter and the influence of Dr. 
Strachan, was distinctly a Church of England 
institution, the Anglican being then the State 
Church of Upper Canada, as the Roman Catholic 
was and still remains that of Lower Canada. This 
condition of affairs naturally caused a good deal 
of ill-will and discontent, and the other Churches 
demanded, and finally accomplished, the complete 
separation of King's College from the Anglican 

The Scotsman and Education 

Dr. Strachan, who had put so much of his life- 
work into the founding of the college, might, if 
he had been a man of less determined character, 
have acquiesced in the fate of his college and 
have allowed the idea of a purely secular college 
to dominate the life of the province. But he was 
made of sterner stuff, and was too true to the 
principles of his Church, as he and others then 
yiewed them, to stand idly by and see no Church of 
England college for the training of the youth of 
that communion. He went to work once more, 
and, after some more years of strenuous effort, 
saw Trinity University rise up under his hands as 
the representative of the ideals and culture of the 
Church he loved in the province. 

The complete revolutionisation of King's 
College by the University Act of 1849, in spite of 
his earnest protestations, would have broken the 
heart of a feebler and less persistent man. He 
was of those and there are many in this country 
of his mind who believe that religion and the 
University life should not be divorced. He was 
then in his old age, in his seventy-second year, 
when he proceeded to England to raise funds for 
the new Church of England University ; and he 
succeeded, though in the face of many obstacles. 

The third President of the University of Toronto 
was Sir Daniel Wilson, the noted ethnologist, 
whose " Prehistoric Man " ranks high in the 
world's literature of anthropology. He was one of 
a note'd Scottish family of scholars and scientists, 
and his name will long be remembered in the 

VOL. i. s 273 

The Scotsman in Canada 

history of the University as one of its most dis- 
tinguished heads. 

Professor Young, another noted teacher of Scot- 
tish extraction, was a man of remarkable intellect, 
and, had he only devoted his time to writing works 
of philosophy, would have ranked among the 
greatest metaphysicians on this continent. He had 
in his nature all the best elements of the thinking 
Scotsman, and in his time wielded a great influence 
in leading the students to think seriously and 
elementally regarding the problems of existence, 
and to regard their studies as a part of the develop- 
ment of their own character and their outlook on 
life. * 

Professor Ramsay Wright is distinguished in 
scientific research. 

Professor A. B. Macallum is regarded to-day 
as our greatest biologist, and has received recog- 
nition throughout the European scientific world. 
A Canadian of Scottish parentage, he has all of 
the elements of the pure Scotsman in his strenuous 

Professor John Cunningham McLennan, Direc- 
tor of the Physical Laboratory and Professor of 
Physics, is another noted Canadian scientist of 
pure Scottish extraction who is pre-eminent in his 
own field. 

Professor Lash -Miller, a noted chemist, makes a 
fourth Scotsman in the gifted group of scientists. 

President Falcone::, like Dawson and Grant, is 
a distinguished Nova Scotian, or New Scotland 
man, who has become a scholar and educationalist. 

The Scotsman and Education 

Like Grant, he had the great advantage of educa- 
tion in the Motherland. He studied when a lad 
at the well-known grammar school in Edinburgh, 
under the famous Professor Masson, the teacher 
of Robert Louis Stevenson, Dr. Drtimmond, Barrie, 
and a host of other notables, and who was later 
Professor of Literature at Edinburgh University. 
Masson's Life of Milton is the one great work 
on the immortal poet, and his knowledge of Sir 
Walter Scott and Edinburgh was the result of a 
labour of love extending over a lifetime. I had 
the good fortune to know him in his latter days, 
and he seemed like a more genial and saner 
Carlyle. I will never forget his summing up of 
his pupil Stevenson in the following words : " He 
strove to accomplish with hard labour what Scott 
and Thackeray achieved with ease." 

It must have been a great boon to Dr. Falconer 
to be educated under such a man and in such a 
company and atmosphere at this formative period 
of his life. Thus we have, after a century of 
colonial development, in Falconer and Peterson 
the distinguished heads of our two great Canadian 
Universities, two noted products of Scottish Educa- 
tion both of the youth and the mature man. 

McGill University, like Toronto, had Scots* 
men for its founders ; and, like Toronto, con- 
tinues to-day to have a Scotsman as its head, 
and to have Scotsmen in Canada its principal 
benefactors . 

Like Toronto, it is a great secular University, 
bearing the same relationship to English-speaking 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Quebec that Toronto does to Ontario, save that 
McGill is not a provincial University. 

In the year 1813 the Honourable James McGill, 
a prominent and wealthy merchant of Montreal, 
died, and left by his will to four trustees a parcel 
of land as a site for a university or college 
" With a competent number of professors and 
teachers to render such establishment effectual and 
beneficial for the purpose intended." 

He left, on the same conditions, the sum of 
10,000 dollars to be expended in founding and 
maintaining the college. He made but one pro- 
viso, that his name should be given to the college, 
showing the natural ambition of the Scotsman to 
be identified with learning. The names of the 
four trustees were those of prominent Scotsmen. 
They were John Richardson, James Reid, James 
Dunlop, of Montreal, and the Rev. John Strachan, 
who was then the Rector of Cornwall in Upper 

The original idea of McGill was that the Rev. 
John Strachan should be Principal of the Institute, 
as the one man qualified to carry out his ideas. 
This included the stipulation that the college should 
be a Church of England University. 

Sir William Dawson, in his sketch of McGill 
and the University, says, with regard to this 
matter : " Mr. McGill's resolution to dispose of 
his property in this way was not a hasty death- 
bed resolve, but a mature and deliberate decision." 
Sir Williarn. gives as the two principal reasons for 
his action, first, " The long agitation on the part 

The Scotsman and Education 

of some of the more enlightened English colonists 
in behalf of the establishment of a University 
and a system of schools " ; and of the influence of 
Dr. (afterwards Bishop) Strachan, Sir William 
adds : " It seems at least highly probable that 
Strachan had a large share in giving to Mr. 
McGill's wishes the form which they afterwards 
assumed." It will be seen also that Strachan was 
the only scholar on the board of trustees, the other 
three being Montreal merchants. 

James McGill, the founder of the University, was 
a native of Glasgow, Scotland, where he was born 
on October 6, 1744. He came to Canada before 
the American Revolution, and was early engaged 
in the North-West fur trade. With his brother 
Andrew he became one of the leading merchants 
of Montreal. He was Colonel of the City Militia, 
and in 1812 was made a Brigadier-General of 
the Reserve. He was also a member of the Legis- 
lative and Executive Councils. He died in 1813. 

The after-history of McGill University showed 
the constant supervision, care, and benevolence of 
Scotsmen. The delay in the foundation of the 
University, caused by litigation, prevented Dr. 
Strachan becoming its head ; and another noted 
Scotsman, and an Anglican divine, the Rev. John 
Bethune, became its first Principal. He was a 
son of the Rev. John Bethune, the Presbyterian 
pastor of Williamstown, and had been a pupil of 
Dr. Strachan ; hence his conversion to the 
Anglican Church. 

Senator Ferrier was President of the college 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Council in 1852, and in 1855 there was a revival 
of its fortunes, and Dr. (afterwards Sir William) 
Dawson, the noted scientist and educationalist, be- 
came its head. Dr. Dawson was a native of Pictou 
and a pupil at the famous academy there. He 
became as noted in the field of geology as Sir 
Daniel Wilson was in anthropology. Under his 
able management the University developed during 
the middle and latter years of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, without any State assistance, into one of the 
greatest Universities in the Empire. On its senate 
and among its professors were many Scotsmen 
famous in finance and learning. 

In 1 88 1 the treasurer was Mr. Hugh Ramsay, 
and the benefactors of that date included Sir 
William Macdonald, Mr. David Greenshields, Mr. 
Andrew Stuart, and Miss Scott. The first Dean 
of the Medical Faculty was the noted Dr. George 
W. Campbell, and a great friend of the University 
was Sir William Logan, the eminent geologist. 

But another great Scotsman was to arise for 
the weal of the college in the well-known Scottish- 
Canadian financier, Peter Redpath. He was born 
in Montreal in 1821. His father, John Redpath, 
was, says Sir William Dawson, " one of those 
strong, earnest, pious, and clear-headed men of 
whom Scotland has supplied so many to build up 
the 'colonies of the Empire.'* Of the son Sir 
William says : " As an educational benefactor, the 
name of Mr. Peter Redpath will ever be remem- 
bered in connection with the Museum, the Library, 
and the University chair which bears his name." 

The Scotsman and Education 

Appointed as Governor of the college in 1864, 
he gave of his means and time to the work ; 
even after his removal to England in 1880 his 
interest in the University never flagged. 

The corner-stone of the Museum was laid by 
Lord Lome, the present Duke of Argyll, in 1888, 
and the Library was opened in 1893 by Lord 
Aberdeen. Mr. Redpath's distinguished career as 
a financier and philanthropist closed in February, 
1894, at his place, the Manor House, Chislehurst, 
England. He died in his seventy-third year, 
widely mourned on both sides of the ocean. The 
Rev. Dr. Me Vicar, the venerable and distinguished 
Principal of the Presbyterian Theological College, 
and one of Canada's greatest Scotsmen, said, in 
his address at the public funeral service held in 
Montreal in Mr. Redpath's honour : " He was a; 
man of good ability, sound judgment, refined and 
elevated taste, and excellent culture ; a lover of 
literature and art, and, what is infinitely better, 
a lover of truth and the God of truth. . . . 
Gentle, amiable, yet where purity and principle 
were concerned he was as firm as a rock." 

Among many other noted Scotsmen connected 
with McGill were the Hon. Alexander Morris, Rev. 
Dr. Cook, Rev. Dr. Me Vicar, and the Rev. Dr. 
Douglas, one of the greatest divines arid the 
leading orator of the Canadian Methodist Church. 

We now come to the latest period in the life 
of McGill, and with it we find associated four 
noted men, three of them distinguished Scottish 
Canadians Lord Strathcona, his noted cousin, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Lord Mountstephen, Sir William Macdonald, and 
Principal Peterson. 

Lord Mountstephen, who has done so much for 
education and the general alleviation and improve- 
ment of life in Montreal, is a distinguished 
financier. He has lived for many years in 

His famous cousin, Sir Donald Alexander Smith, 
Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal, is the greatest 
living Scottish Canadian, and, with Sir John A. 
Macdonald, stands pre-eminent among men of 
Scottish birth who have been builders of the 
Canadian portion of the Empire. 

On October 31, 1889, he, then Sir Donald 
Smith, was inaugurated as Chancellor of McGill 
University. The Governors, at that date, of Scot- 
tish extraction were P. Redpath, H. McLennan, 
E. B. Greenshields, and S. Findlay. The Principal 
was Sir Willaim Dawson. The Fellows were Pro- 
fessor A. Johnson, Rev. Dr. McVicar, J. R. 
Dougall, Rev. Dr. Clark -Murray, Rev. Dr. Hen- 
derson, Dr. G. Ross, Rev. James Barclay, Dr. 
Robt. Craik, and the Rev. Dr. Barbour. 

Sir Donald A. Smith succeeded the Hon. 
Senator Ferrier, who had long been an able and 
earnest chairman of the affairs of the University. 
All these names, it will be seen, are Scottish, and 
significant of the Caledonian nursing of McGill. 

Among other generous benefactors the name of 

one other man stands forth pre-eminent as a great 

friend of education in Lower Canada, namely, Sir 

William Macdonald. This able and generous 


The Scotsman and Education 

Scotsman has been more than princely in his dona- 
tions to McGill and its important adjunct, Mac- 
donald College. He has been an ardent follower 
in the footsteps of McGill, Redpath, Strathcona, 
and Mountstephen . It is remarkable what a keen 
interest all these great and successful Scottish 
financiers have taken in intellectual institutions. 
But in none has it been so strong a personal matter, 
one might almost say an inspiration, as in the case 
of Sir William Macdonald. As Strachan in- 
fluenced James McGill, so there is no doubt that 
McVicar, in the past, inspired Sir William, or at 
least showed him how much could be done in the 
direction his benefactions have taken. 

McGill has had many other friends, such as 
the late Sir George Drummond, who was one of 
Canada's leading merchant princes and financiers, 
Senator Robert Mackay, and others, who have 
aided the cause of education in Montreal. 

Sir William Macdonald has a strong ally and 
friend in his schemes for McGill in the present 
able and learned Principal William Peterson, 
C.M.G. Principal Peterson is a distinguished 
Scottish educationalist, late of Dundee University. 
He was born in Edinburgh in 1856, is a graduate 
of the famous Edinburgh High School and Edin- 
burgh University, and a student of the Universities 
of Gottingen and Oxford. He is a trustee of the 
Carnegie Foundations for Learning, and a Com- 
panion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. 
He has charge of one of the largest Universities 
in the Empire, and is a great administrator and 


The Scotsman in Canada 

possesses the unique power of interesting others 
in his work and gaming the co-operation of 
practical men. 

Under his guidance the influence of McGill is 
spreading abroad over the Dominion, and is closely 
affiliated with the smaller Universities in the Mari- 
time and Western Provinces. 

Another noted University, which is perhaps more 
than any other distinctly Scottish in its origin, is 
Queen's, the great Presbyterian University of 
Canada. Just as Toronto University means largely 
the work of Strachan and Wilson, and McGill 
stands for McGill, Strachan, and Dawson, so the 
history of Queen's means largely the life struggles 
and ideals of another great Scottish Canadian, the 
late Principal Grant. Like Dawson, he was a 
scion of the Pictou stock, and thus the New Scot- 
land or Nova Scotia of Sir William Alexander, 
though not so noted in the world of commerce 
or agriculture, has been a remarkably intellectual 
mother to Quebec and Ontario, giving them, as 
she has in succession, four leading University 
Presidents and distinguished educationalists Sir 
William Dawson, Principal Grant, and, latest of all, 
President Falconer, of Toronto University, and 
Queen's present able Principal, Dr. Gordon. It is 
a remarkable fact concerning Nova Scotia that her 
Scotsmen from Alexander down have not only been 
scholars and men of letters, but also strong indi- 
vidualities, men of the world and battlers for the 
right. They have been splendid administrators 
and organisers, and prominent among Canadians 

The Scotsman and Education 

in this respect was he who was, perhaps, Canada's 
greatest all-round University head, Principal 

It is true that Grant had the faculty of grouping 
other great workers about him. One in particular, 
his great life-long friend and brother Scotsman, 
Sir Sandford Fleming, upheld his arm and did 
great service for Queen's. But she owed most, as 
Sir Sandford himself has testified, to the marvellous 
all-round ability and human personality of George 
Munro Grant. Our University life may have had 
more profound scholars, but as a man who wrought 
for all the best ideals of a Scottish University, 
religious and national, Grant stands alone in our 
national life. 

When one thinks of Grant, beautiful old King- 
ston, the Aberdeen of Canada, with its solid old 
Scottish stone buildings in their beautiful lake- 
side park with its stately elms, is brought to mind. 
It seems like a sort of instinct that Presbyterianism 
should have fixed upon Kingston, the ancient 
capital of Upper Canada, as the seat of its own 
particular University. It may have been the 
vicinity of so much good building stone (for Scots- 
men dearly love a good solid foundation to their 
dwellings as well as to their faith and philosophy) 
which guided them to this place. But at any rate, 
of all Canadian cities Kingston has been, in her 
own peculiar way, a city of Scotsmen and h^s 
been governed by Scotsmen. 

From the days of the Scottish United Empire 
Loyalists this particular breed of men have made 


The Scotsman in Canada 

it their home. So much is this so that the one 
noted family, the Cartwrights, would stand out 
alone as an exception were it not that they are 
closely allied with sturdy Ulster-Scottish stock, 
and were the first friends and allies of the famous 
John Strachan, who here found his sole welcome 
and encouragement on landing from the mother 
country. On viewing these solid, plain, dignified 
University buildings, standing on their great slope 
among the splendid old elm-trees facing the lake, 
one is struck by the whole Scottish atmosphere 
of the place. But the visitor wonders at the mas- 
sive, quaint old stone residence of the Principal, 
and at the strong likeness, inside and out, to an 
old Scottish manor-house, until he is informed that 
it was built by and was the residence for years 
of that other old Scottish Episcopalian divine and 
Churchman, the Venerable Archdeacon Okill 
Stuart, who was one of Kingston's earliest leading 
citizens, and a prominent Churchman and divine 
of old Upper Canada. 

Here in this old city three distinguished Canadians 
were reared, educated, and started their careers, 
namely, Sir John Alexander Macdonald, Sir Oliver 
Mowat, and Sir Alexander Campbell. 

The first of these three remarkable men wag 
one of the founders of Queen's, being present at 
the meeting held in St. Andrew's Church, King- 
ston, on December 18, 1839, for the purpose of 
organising and raising funds for the endowment 
of the college. Sir John's name is also among the 
following twenty-six on the charter granted to 

The Scotsman and Education 

the University, under date October 16, 1841 : 
Revs. Robert McGill, Alexander Gale, John 
McKenzie, Wm. Rintoul, W. T. Leach, Jas. 
George, John Machar, Peter Colin Campbell, John 
Cruikshank, Alex. Matheson, John Cook, the Hon. 
John Hamilton, Jas. Crooks, Wm. Morris, Archd. 
McLean, John McDonald, Peter McGill, Ed. W. 
Thompson ; Thos. McKay, Esq., James Morris, 
Esq., John Ewart, Esq., John Steele, Esq., John 
Mowat, Esq., Alex. Pringle, Esq., John Strange, 

The result of the efforts made was that the 
college was first opened on March 9, 1842, in a 
small frame house on Colbourn Street. The staff 
consisted of two professors, who had charge of 
eleven students. The first Principal was the Rev. 
Dr. Lidell, who was also Professor of Philosophy, 
Natural and Moral Logic, Hebrew, Church History, 
and Theology. Dr. Lidell's only assistant was the 
learned and brilliant Rev. Peter Colin Campbell, 
who afterwards became Principal of Aberdeen Uni- 
versity, and who was Professor of Classics. A 
list of the first students will be interesting. They 
were Thomas Wardrope, Lachlan McPherson, John 
McKinnon, Angus McColl, W. A. Ross, Robert 
Wallace, John B. Mowat, Wm. Bain, John Bonner, 
H. A. Farndon, and Wm. Kerr. During the 
second season Professor Williamson was added 
to the staff, and Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Wardrope 
as Assistant in Classics. The college soon moved 
into a more commodious building on Princess 
Street, opposite St. Andrew's Church, and the 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Preparatory School was formed. The Presby- 
terians of Upper Canada donated generously, and 
soon, with Dr. Sampson as leader, a medical 
faculty was established. In the drawing-room of 
Mr. John A. Macdonald's residence a meeting was 
called, and there was settled the basis of the School 
of Medicine to be affiliated with the University. 
Queen's claims to be the first University opened in 
Ontario or Upper Canada, and its first registered 
student was George (afterwards Dr.) Bell, since 
Registrar of the University. It was the first 
University in the country open to students of all 
creeds. For years Queen's struggled with diffi- 
culties, financial and otherwise ; yet in 1868 it had 
107 students, 14,000 dollars revenue, and 35,000 
dollars in capital. At this time the Rev. Dr. 
Snodgrass was Principal. 

During the next twenty years, under the Prin- 
cipalship of Dr. Grant, the University made her 
most marvellous advance, until in 1889 she had 
425 students, nearly 40,000 dollars revenue, and 
500,000 dollars capital. 

Principal Grant's personal appeal to the Pres- 
byterians of Upper Canada was one of the mo3t 
remarkable efforts for University education ever 
made by a single man in Canada. In 1887-8 he 
raised for the Permanent Endowment Fund the 
sum of 250,000 dollars. 

In December, 1889, this University held its first 

Jubilee celebration, and granted an honorary 

degree to Lord Stanley, the Governor-General. 

Among the leading speakers were His Excellency 


The Scotsman and Education 

the Governor-General ; Sir John A. Macdonald, 
a founder, and Premier of the Dominion ; Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) Sandford Fleming, the able and 
indefatigable Chancellor of the University ; Sir 
Alexander Campbell, Lieut. -Governor of Ontario, 
and the son of one of the founders ; Major- 
General Cameron, Commandant of the Royal 
Military College ; Sir James Grant, of Ottawa ; 
the Hon. G. Wi. Ross, Minister of Education for 
Ontario ; Rev. J. A. McDonald, Hon. Wm. 
McDougall, and the Rev. Principal McVicar, of 
Montreal College. 

The growth of Queen's has kept pace with the 
development of the country, and one at least of 
her professors, Dr. vWatson, has a world-wide 
reputation as a thinker. In Principal Grant the 
University had a head whose herculean labours in 
the college hall, as well as among the many bene- 
factors of the college and in public affairs, ma'de 
him one of the most prominent personalities in 
the Dominion. He and the distinguished Chan- 
cellor developed the institution in a spirit of loyalty 
to the British Crown, and to the Dominion as a 
part of the Empire. 

In 1902 Principal Grant died, mourned by all, 
his death proving a great loss to the intellectual 
life of the whole Dominion. He was succeeded by 
Dr. Gordon, also a Nova Scotian, the present 
scholarly and able Principal, who has done much 
to carry on the work which Dr. Grant made 
possible by his energy, wisdom, and dominant will. 





THE Roman Catholic Church in Upper Canada 
also owes its early foundation and develop- 
ment to a great Scotsman, the Right Rev. 
Alexander Macdonell, its first bishop in the 
province . 

Bishop Macdonell, like Bishop Strachan, was 
from the first an earnest and persistent worker 
in the cause of education. He was a very dis- 
tinguished man, and the Roman Church owes much 
to this great Highlander, who was the pioneer 
apostle of its tenets and ideals in what is now 
the Province of Ontario. 

He was of good birth and old Highland lineage, 
and yet_a man who had a great .love for the wide 
mass of humanity about him ; and the memory 
he left behind him at his death was one that 
showed how universally beloved and respected he 
had been by all classes and creeds of the com- 
munity. Bishop Macdonell was born on July 17, 
1762, in the Glen of Urquhart, Loch Ness, Scot- - 
land. Sent abroad for education with the idea 
of orders, he spent some time at Paris and Valla- 

The Scotsman and Education 

dolid, in Spain, where he was or.dained to the 
priesthood in 1787. The story of his regiment 
and its coming to Canada is told in the account of 
the Glengarry settlements. This gave him the 
name of the Warrior-priest, which he so well 
deserved. He made his '.headquarters at St. 
Raphael's, where he later raised another regiment, 
the Glengarry Fencibles, of which he was chap- 
lain throughout the war of 1812-15. For his 
general patriotic services he received a pension 
from the British Government, which ultimately 
reached the sum of 500 a year, at which amount *' 
it was continued to his successors in office in the 
Bishopric of Kingston. In the year 1819 he was-" 
created Vicar-General and Administrator of Upper " 
Canada, with the title of Bishop of Rhoesina. In. 
1826 he was appointed first Roman Bishop of 
the Upper Province, taking the title of Bishop of* 
Regiopolis, or Kingston. 

Here he founded in 1837 the College of 
Regiopolis, which afterwards, in 1866, was granted 
powers as a University. The Bishop did much 
for this institution, and was in reality its sole 
founder and friend, and in this work was succeeded 
by his nephew, the Rev. Angus Macdonell, who 
became ultimately head of the college. Bishop! 
Macdonell worked hard for Catholic education in 
the province, and succeeded in getting grants front 
the British Government for Catholic school teachers ~ 
throughout the province. There is a vast amount 
of correspondence in the Canadian State Papers 
relating to the Bishop and his work. He stands 
VOL. I. T 289 

The Scotsman in Canada 

out prominently as a man, a statesman, and a 
scholar ; and belongs to that golden age of the 
Empire and Canada when some of the leading 
spirits who guided and controlled the community 
were scholars and divines and were not all 
politicians. In his day he had several compeers ; 
and chief among; them was his fellow-Scotsman, 
fellow-scholar, fellow-divine, and, like himself, a 
Member of the Provincial Government, the Hon. 
and Very Rev. John Strachan. These two men 
had much in common and worked together for the 
common good. 

Another friend of the Bishop was the A.iglican 
Archdeacon Okill Stuart, of Kingston, another 
Scotsman, who wielded a great public influence ; 
and another was the Ulster-born Scotsman, the 
Rev. Thomas Campbell, the first Rector of Belle- 
ville, and a distinguished graduate ol Glasgow 
University. Mr. Campbell was a special friend 
of the Bishop, and they had a mutual regard for 
each other, as men of Highland blood and birth 
usually have, though one was a Macdonell and 
the other a Campbell. They were both, in a way, 
statesmen and men of affairs, and gentlemen of 
^the old school of a fine culture, who regarded 
olfV* W "" their cure of souls to extend to the weal of the 
w^whole community as well as of the mere individual. 
*/ Both had a great influence in the common com- 
i^ munity, and they were on the same side with strong 
political affiliations, and had very positive opinions 
te as to the importance of a good classical educa- 
tion. It was a day, in spite of certain traditions 

The Scotsman and Education 

held to-day concerning it, of a broad religious 
toleration on the part of men of culture, and a: 
time when religion was more respected than it is 
to-day, and when it had a greater influence through 
the whole community. The Roman Church has 
great reason to be proud of this distinguished and 
faithful prelate, whose life should be written as 
a testimony to the work of the man himself and 
his relationship to the important events of his day 
in the old Upper Province. 

We have already shown the Scottish origin of 
many of our Canadian universities ; and we now 
come to another one, connected with the great 
Baptist Church of Canada, McMaster University, 
which, like Dalhousie and McGill, carries its story 
in its Scottish name. 

It will have to be more and more recognised, 
as time goes on, that religion and education have 
ever been, and must still be, closely connected. 

This has been proved in the past by the fact 
that our leading educationalists and founders of 
colleges and universities have been divines. 
Nowhere is this more apparent than in the 
history of the Baptist Church in Canada, and in 
the life and ideals of the Rev. Robert Alexander 
Fyfe, who was to some extent the John Strachan 
of the Baptist Church in this country. Like 
Strachan, he was of Scottish parentage, but, unlike 
him, was born in Canada. His parents had come 
from Scotland in 1809, and' the noted divine 
and educationalist was born near Montreal on 
October 20, 1816. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

His parents were evidently Presbyterians, as he 
joined the Baptist Church in his nineteenth year, 
and then left a mercantile life for the ministry 
of that Church. The necessity he was under of 
having to go to the United States to prepare for 
his life's work must have early impressed him 
with the idea of the need of a college for his 
denomination in Canada. However, after a year 
of study at Madison College, New York State, he 
entered the newly established seminary at Mon- 
treal, where he spent two years. Then, after five 
years in American Baptist colleges, he was 
ordained at Brooklyn, Massachusetts. But his 
strong patriotism, which was ever a marked 
characteristic of the man, drew him back to 
Canada. He at once took an active part in the 
vexed question of King's College and the clergy 
reserves, and soon rose to prominence. After some 
years in pastoral and academic work at the 
Montreal seminary, he in 1859 founded the paper 
the Canadian Baptist. Dr. Fyfe's life-work was 
the founding of Woodstock College. This was a 
residential seminary for young people of both sexes, 
with a theological department for those who de- 
sired to enter the ministry. In 1857 this college 
was founded, and was granted a charter under 
the name of the *' Canadian Literary Institute,'* 
which was afterwards changed to that of 
" Woodstock Academy." 

Dr. Fyfe became its first Principal ; and for 
eight years was its sole teacher of theology. 

The Toronto Baptist College, now McMaster 

The Scotsman and Education 

University, was, as its name shows, the result of 
a Scotsman's liberality and ideal. 

This important institution of learning was 
founded in 1881 as Toronto Baptist College by 
the Honourable William McMaster. This gentle- 
man had been for years a generous contributor 
toward the support of Woodstock College. In 
1887 it was incorporated as McMaster Univer- 
sity, representing the Baptist Church of Canada. 

This University is now well equipped with an 
able staff of scholarly and earnest men. The 
building, a fine structure, stands at the north of 
Queen's Park among the large group of colleges 
that has made the old park so famous as a place 
of education. 

Even Victoria University was influenced, though 
indirectly, by Scottish educationalists. 

The founder of the University was really that 
noted educationalist, Dr. Egerton Ryerson. But 
it is interesting to know that Dr. Ryerson was 
educated as a boy and youth under James (after- 
wards Judge) Mitchell, a noted Grammar School 
master, who came to Canada from Scotland with 
Dr. Strachan. 

Thus we see that this wonderful influence of 
Scottish learning permeated the whole early life 
of all parts of the Dominion, and has continued 
to do so ever since. 

It is also interesting to know that the first 
corner-stone of Victoria, then the Upper Canada 
Academy, was laid on June 7, 1832, by a Scotsman, 
Dr. Gilchrist, of Colborne. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

The Province of Nova Scotia is also well 
equipped with Universities, the principal one 
being Dalhousie, at Halifax. All of these Mari- 
time halls of learning were founded by Scotsmen, 
and carried on largely by men of Scottish extrac- 
tion and education. 

Dalhousie College had the honour of being 
founded by one of Canada's finest Governors, Lord 
Dalhousie, who was then Lieutenant -Governor of 
that province. He is referred to in the chapter on 
the Governors -General. He was a man of broad 
mind and scholarly attainments, and was desirous 
of advancing culture in the New World. Before he 
was appointed Governor -General of Canada he was 
for a year Governor of Nova Scotia (1819-20). 

During the war of 1812-15 with the United 
States the port of Customs in Maine was seized 
and held for some time by the Governor of Nova 
Scotia, Sir John Sherbrooke. The Customs 
revenues, collected during that occupation, were 
set aside by the British Government for expendi- 
ture within the province. Lord Dalhousie, who 
succeeded, was authorised to expend it as he 
pleased on any local improvement. Following the 
bent of his inclination, he saw his opportunity, 
and determined to found a seminary for the higher 
branches of education on the plan and principle 
of the Edinburgh Academy, such an institution 
being then much needed in the province . In 1 8 2 1 
the college was founded and given the name of 
Dalhousie College, after its noble patron and 
founder. It was designed to be non -sectarian, 

The Scotsman and Education 

and " open to all occupations and sects of 

The original Board of Governors, appointed by 
the Crown, consisted of the Governor-General of 
British North America, the Lieutenant -Governor 
of Nova Scotia, the Anglican Bishop, the Chief 
Justice and President of the Council, the Provincial 
Treasurer, and the Speaker of the Assembly. Lord 
Dalhousie's intention was to establish one single 
non-sectarian University for all Nova Scotia. With 
this idea in view, the Board of Governors strove 
unsuccessfully to form' a union with King's College. 

It was not until 1838 that the college was 
organised under a Scottish President, the Rev. Dr. 
McCulloch, who in 1816 had founded Pictou 
Academy. He was one of Canada's great pioneers 
of learning. Dr. Mackay says of him : " He was 
the power in the country from his advent. He 
made Pictou a centre to which colonists came. 
The clergy looked to him' as their natural leader 
and supported his educational propaganda.'! He 
was, in short, much such a man as Strachan was 
in the Anglican Church in Upper Canada. Dr. 
McCulloch was a hard and energetic student and 
a noted naturalist. His death came as a great 
loss to Nova Scotia. 

It must be admitted that though Dalhousie was 
avowedly non-sectarian, that its head and pro- 
fessors were all of the Church of Scotland. Uni- 
versity powers were conferred in 1841. President 
McCulloch died in 1843, and the college was soon 
after temporarily closed. It was not until 1863 


The Scotsman in Canada 

that the present University was re-established, an 
Act being passed carrying out as nearly as possible 
the design of its original founders. In 1868 a 
Faculty of Medicine was organised, and in 1883 a 
Faculty of Law. The Rev. James Ross, another fine 
Scottish scholar, who had studied under Principal 
McCulloch at Pictou and had been head of Truro 
Academy, was made Principal of the college. He 
was Professor of Ethics and Political Economy. 
He was the son of a clergyman from Alyth, in 
Forfarshire, who settled at Pictou in 1795. Dr. 
Ross was born there in 1 8 1 1 . Many professor- 
ships were endowed in the college by successful 
Scotsmen five by Mr. George Munro, a Nova 
Scotian in New York City ; and three by Mr. 
Alexander McLeod, of Halifax. 

The University of King's College, the oldest 
University in Canada, was founded by a dis- 
tinguished Ulster Scotsman, the Right Rev. Charles 
Inglis, the first Anglican bishop of Nova Scotia. 

A sketch of Bishop Inglis's life is given in the 
chapter on Churches. He was a learned divine 
and a great missionary bishop to a poor and 
scattered people of the United Empire Loyalist 
stock, and was, in a sense, the founder of the 
Anglican Church in Canada. The life of such a 
man should be written. It would cover a valuable 
period in our early history, and would be of great 
service in stimulating the hearts and minds of 
coming generations. He was a scion of the great 
Scottish House of Inglis, which has produced some 
noted men. His branch had gone into Ulster at the 
Scottish settlements early in the seventeenth 

The Scotsman and Education 

century. He got a charter for King's College, 
which was granted by George the Third in 1802. 
It was, and still is, distinctly an Anglican Univer- 
sity, and, for this reason, has never been able to 
compete with Dalhousie, which has been largely 

The chief Roman Catholic college of Nova 
Scotia, St. Francis Xavier's College, was also 
founded by a Scotsman, the Right Rev. Dr. 
McKinnon, Bishop of Arichat. It was established 
at Antigonish in 1854, and in 1866 was created 
a University. 

The University of New Brunswick was founded 
largely under the direction and advice of one of 
its commissioners, Mr. J. W. (afterwards Sir 
William) Dawson, the distinguished Scottish- 
Canadian Principal of McGill University. 

Mount Allison Wesleyan College and Univer- 
sity of New Brunswick has owed its existence to 
the benefaction of a noted merchant of Sackville, 
C. F. Allison, of Scottish extraction and a worthy 
member of that noted old South Scotland family. 
; One cannot close this short account of Mari- 
time educational institutions founded by Scottish 
ideals and enterprise without a word for that re- 
markable old seat of pioneer learning, Pictou 
Academy, which was founded by the Rev. Dr. 
McCulloch, and which was, in a sense, the " Eton " 
of many noted Scottish Canadians, such as Dawson 
and Grant. It was in many senses the pioneer school 
of Scottish scholarship in the Maritime settlements, 
and should not be forgotten even in this day of 
vast technical institutes called Universities, where 


The Scotsman in Canada 

the once loved " humanities " are crowded out in 
the interests of monetary considerations. 

Noted professors of Scottish extraction are 
numerous in all our colleges. Dr. Paxton Young 
was a distinguished metaphysician. He has already 
been mentioned. 

The Rev. Michael Willis, D.D., LL.D., was one 
of the Principals of Knox College. He was born 
at Greenock, Scotland, in 1798, and educated at 
Glasgow University. With Dr. Willis were asso- 
ciated at Knox College the Rev. Dr. Burns, Pro- 
fessor Young, and the Rev. Dr. Caven, who 
succeeded him. He retired in 1870. The Rev. 
William Caven was born in Kirkcolm, Wigtown- 
shire, in 1830. He came, on both sides, of 
Covenanter stock. Dr. Caven came to Canada 
in 1847 with his parents, and studied for the 
ministry under the Rev. William Proudfoot and 
the Rev. Alexander McKenzie. William Proud- 
foot was born in Scotland in 1787 and died in 
1851. He was an early missionary in Upper 
Canada and the founder of the Presbyterian Church 
at London, Ontario. Vice -Chancellor Proudfoot 
and the Rev. Dr. Proudfoot were his sons. 

The Rev. John Hugh MacKerras was Profes- 
sor of Classics in Queen's University. He was 
born at Nairn, Scotland, in 1832. His father 
was a schoolmaster. The Rev. D. H. Me Vicar, 
Principal of the Presbyterian College at Montreal, 
was born near Campbeltown in Kintyre, Argyll- 
shire, in 1831. He was one of the most 
distinguished divines of the Presbyterian Church 
in Canada. 

The Scotsman and Education 

Among the most important and interesting of 
Canada's educational institutions was the old 
Toronto Grammar School, now known as the 
Jarvis Street Collegiate Institute. 

This school was founded by a Scotsman, and 
has been conducted for over a century largely 
by Scotsmen. In 1807 an Act was passed estab- 
lishing district Grammar Schools in Upper Canada. 
The Home District School was located in the town 
of York, and the trustees were, with two excep- 
tions, all Scotsmen. These were the Rev. George 
O'Kill Stuart, John Small, Duncan Cameron, 
Samuel Smith, and William Graham. It was 
the first public school in the county of York, and 
was opened on June i, 1807. The first master 
was the Rev. George O'Kill Stuart. He was 
born at Fort Hunter, on the Erie Canal, in 1776. 
His father, the Rev. John Stuart, was a clergy- 
man of the Church of England, the son of a 
Presbyterian family of the Ulster Scotsmen in the 
North of Ireland. His history will be given in 
the chapter on the Scotsmen in the Churches. 

He was succeeded, as master of the school, in 
1812 by the Rev. John Strachan, who was suc- 
ceeded in turn by the Rev. Samuel Armour, born 
in Scotland, who had charge until 1825. Another 
Ulster Scotsman, Marcus C. Crombie, became head- 
master in 1838. He was born in 1800 in Dun- 
given, County Derry, Ulster. His family had 
removed from Scotland. In 1872 Dr. Archibald 
MacMurchy was appointed Rector, and he has 
carried on the best traditions of this famous 


TJie Scotsman in Canada 

Among later trustees were David Buchan, the 
Rev. Dr. Barclay, of old St. Andrew's Church, 
and the Honourable John McMurich. 

The school has a long list of distinguished 
graduates, who fill important positions in all walks 
of life throughout the Dominion. 

It will be of additional interest in surveying the 
field of common school education to discover that 
nearly all the heads of education in the different 
provinces are Scotsmen by descent, as instanced in 
the Superintendents of Education for Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick and the Deputy Minister of 
Education for Ontario. 

Dr. A. H. Mackay, the able and energetic 
Superintendent for Nova Scotia, is a scion of that 
great fighting clan of Northern Scotland, and his 
ancestors lived in Rogart, Sutherlandshire, the 
home of Sir John A. Macdonald's forbears. He 
is an accomplished scientist, as well as an edu- 
cationalist, and has done much for education and 
learning in his province, being also a prominent 
member of many learned societies. He is the 
editor for Nova Scotia of the Educational Review. 

Dr. Hay, Superintendent of Education in New 
Brunswick, is, like Dr. Mackay, another noted 
Scottish educationalist and scholar. Like Dr. 
Mackay, he is a prominent Fellow of one of the 
scientific sections of the Royal Society of Canada. 
He is the editor, for New Brunswick, of one of 
Canada's finest educational journals, the Educa- 
tional Review. 

Dr. Colquhoun, Deputy Minister of Education 
for Ontario, is a man of high ability as a writer, 

TJie Scotsman and Education 

scholar and librarian. He was intimately con- 
nected with Canada's grand old librarian, another 
noted Scotsman, Dr. James Bain, late head of the 
Toronto City Library, and the founder of Canada's 
finest Reference Library. Dr. Colquhoun has 
taken a deep interest in all questions connected 
with the intellectual development of the province 
which he so ably serves. 

In closing this necessarily imperfect account of 

the Scotsman in Canadian education one could 

^ive, were there room, an immense list of pro- 

'essors and teachers and institutions like the 

amous Gait High School largely founded and 

erved by Scotsmen. There is great need of a 

ood history of education in this country, and 

hen it is written it will be found that in this 

iportant field the Scotsman has largely predomi- 


Reference must also be made to a new and 

portant development in our country in the direc- 

i of technical education, as so far evinced in 

Macdonald College, and in this connection the 

;t significant movement is that m'ade by the 

i. W. L. McKenzie King in establishing the 

imission on Technical Education, which is now- 

,ged in studying thoroughly the whole ques- 

in Canada and in outside countries. 

hat is most remarkable about this Commis- 

is the fact that not only is the founder a 

"nent Scottish-Canadian statesman, scholar, 

fublic servant, and the virtual founder of our 

ir Department, but nearly the whole Cora- 

i is made up of noted Scottish Canadians, 

The Scotsman in Canada 

such as Professor Robertson, Professor Bryce, and 
the Honourable John Armstrong, assisted by three 
other able Scotsmen, Gilbert Murray, David 
Forsyth, and James Simpson. It is expected that 
this Commission will do much to aid the cause 
of technical education in Canada. That its 
members should happen to be Scotsmen is addi- 
tional witness of what Scotsmen are doing for 

Professor Robertson is widely known as a noted 
educationalist and an authority on nature -study 
and agriculture. He was the originator of Mac- 
donald College, the first school of its class in 
Canada. Dr. Bryce, who is the author of the 
second volume in this history, that dealing witl 
Western Canada, is the best living authority amon 
Canadian writers on Western Canada. He has hac 
a long and successful career as an educationalis 
and scholar and writer on historical and othe 
subjects. He belongs to a noted Scottish-Canadis 
family, one of his brothers being Dr. P. H. Bryc 
the accomplished head of the Dominion Hea 7 
Department at Ottawa. Professor Bryce was c 
of the founders of the University of Manitoba, . 
has for years been identified with education 
that province. He is a Past-President of 
Royal Society of Canada and is a membei 
the British Association. The other members of 
Commission are also men who have made a < 
study of the question of education. Thus w> 
that from its earliest history to the presen. 
Scotsmen have been prominent in the educa, 
development of our country. 



Where is that land, o'er what lone sea, 

Where never broodeth Piety ? 

Where ceaseth not the week-day din 

Of toil ; nor Sabbath bells begin 

To chime their solemn sancturied hour, 

When reverence wakes, and love hath power ? 

Reveal that land ; and thou wilt see 

A place of no great race to be. 

IN dealing with the Scotsman in Canadian 
religious life, we must necessarily commence 
with the great Presbyterian Church, which, nohap 
how the larger portion of its members may 
gird strongly against the union of Church and 
State, yet has been for centuries virtually the State 
Church, and for centuries will remain the National 
Church, of Scotland. To think of Scotland (as 
apart from Presbyterianism is, as it were, to con- 
template a man apart from his soul. The greater 
history of the rugged Old Land is that of Knox 
and Chalmers, Drummond and Carlyle, and a host 
of other spiritually-minded souls who have guided 
Scotland, or set her by the ears in all the rancour 
of theological and metaphysical strife. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

In spite of many weaknesses one strong one 
of to-day being that she has ceased to act as a 
community Canada has good reason to admire 
the great Church of Scotland within her borders. 
No religious organisation to-day shows such a 
splendid group of strong, individual, intellectual 
personalities as does the Presbyterian Church 
among her clergy, and this is especially notable 
in a Church famous for the active part taken by 
her laymen in Church work. 

In dealing with this and other Churches we are 
confronted with the fact that as many of the lead- 
ing representatives of the Bar and Bench will be 
treated under the subject of Politics, so some of 
our very greatest divines are elsewhere referred to 
in the chapter on Education and the Universities. 
Such men as Bishop Strachan, Grant, Fyfe, and 
Bishop Macdonell are examples of this, whose 
notable careers are dealt with elsewhere. 

Owing to the great host of good earnest and 
faithful representatives of Scottish Christianity in 
the history of the Dominion, it will be impossible 
to more than mention certain prominent men, and 
perhaps groups of men, in the different Churches 
in the several provinces. Then, several groups 
of the clergy, as in the case of those of Prince 
Edward Island, have already been referred to in 
the histories of the settlements. 
{ It goes without saying that the clergy were 
among the earliest active influences in the national 
development. We will find them from the chap- 
lains of the fighting and disbanded regiments to 

The Scotsman in the Churches 

the early devout missionaries among the savages 
and the pioneers ; and, as was usual in other 
vocations, the Scotsman bore his own part in this 
spiritual work. The early annals of the privations 
of the rude settlements are jewelled with accounts 
of venerable men of God, who went side by side 
with the fighter and the winner of the soil ; the 
pioneer, teacher, and the lawgiver. Among the 
earliest buildings in the sparsely cleared settle- 
ments were the church and the log school-house, 
those two grand witnesses to the soul and mind of 
Scotland's advance guard in the New World. 
When the shadow of the forest yet darkened the 
Young Land, in many a rude place of pioneer 
worship rang out the soul-stirring strains of the 
Hundredth Psalm. 

There is a petition to the King's Most Excel- 
lent Majesty in 1822, from " His Majesty's most 
faithful and loyal Ministers and Elders in con- 
nection with the Established Church of Scotland 
in Upper and Lower Canada," presenting the great 
disadvantages under which they laboured in con- 
sequence of there being no legal provision made 
by public authority for the Church's support. 

The petition is signed for Quebec City by James 
Harkness, D.D., Minister of St. Andrew's Church ; 
and Jos. Thompson, James Ross, John Munro, Wm. 
Morris, Daniel Wilkie, David Ross, Alexander 
Badenoch, James Thorn, J. Ross, Probationer ; 
Jos. Morris, M.D., John Anderson, Joshua 
Whitney, and Andrew Paterson, Elders. 

For Cornwall, by Harry Leith, Minister, who 

VOL. I. U 305 

The Scotsman in Canada 

has just arrived, and no Elders ordained. De- 
cember 26, 1822. 

For Williamstown, by John McKenzie, Minister ; 
and Neil McLean, D. Cameron, Allan McMillan, 
John McLennan, and Hugh McDonell, Elders. 
December 27, 1822. 

For Kingston, by John Barclay, Minister of St. 
Andrew's Church ; John McLean, Sheriff Mid- 
land District ; Lieut. -Col. Donald McPherson, late 
4th R. O. Bn. ; Anthony Marshall, J.P., H. Mac- 
donald (father of Sir John A. Macdonald), Samuel 
Shaw, and John Mowat (father of Sir Oliver 
Mowat), Elders. December 18, 1822. 

For Lochiel, by John McLaurin, Minister ; and 
Alex. McLeod, John McPhee, Roderick McLeod, 
John Campbell, and Donald McGillivray, Elders. 
December 26, 1822. 

For Montreal, by J. Somerville, H. Esson, and 
Hugh Urquhart, Ministers ; and George Gordon, 
Thos. Porteus, Philip Ross, J. Leslie, Robt. 
Armour, James Carswell, H. McKenzie, and Thos. 
Blackwood, Elders. December 12, 1822. 

During the same period the clergy of the Inde- 
pendent Presbyterian Church were : Rev. Jos. 
Johnston, educated at Glasgow University, ordained 
in Ulster, stationed at Cornwall and Osnabruck. 
Rev. Wm. Smart, Missionary at Brockville ; 
Rev. Wm. Bell, educated in Scotland, settled at 
Perth ; Rev. Robt. McDonell, ordained in the 
United States, settled at Bay of Quinte ; Rev. 
Jas. Harris, educated at Glasgow, Licentiate of 
Ulster, settled at York. 

The Scotsman in the Churches 

The Rev. Dr. William Reid, who came to 
Canada from Scotland in 1839, mentions the lead* 
ing Scottish clergy of the Church of Scotland who 
were in active service in Upper and Lower Canada 
when he arrived in the country. They were Dr. 
Cook, of Quebec, afterwards of Morrin College, 
who aided in the foundation of Queen's ; Rev. 
Dr. Mathieson, a stalwart champion of the Scottish 
Church ; Rev. H. Esson, also of Montreal, after- 
wards of Knox College, Toronto ; Rev. Dr. 
Urquhart, of Cornwall, then Moderator of the 
Synod ; Rev. Peter Colin Campbell, of Brockville, 
an accomplished classical scholar, first Professor 
of Classics in Queen's, and afterwards Principal 
of King's College, Aberdeen ; the Rev. James 
Cruikshank, of Bytown (now Ottawa) ; Rev. W. 
Bell and Rev. T. C. Wilson, of Perth; Rev. G. 
Romanes, Smith's Falls, afterwards of Queen's 
College ; Rev. Dr. Machar, of St. Andrew's 
Church, Kingston, and Rev. H. Gordon, of 
Gananoque ; the Apostolic Rev. Robert McDowall, 
one of the earliest pioneers of the Church ; Rev. 
Thomas Alexander, of Coburg ; Rev. Dr. R. 
McGill, Niagara ; Rev. Dr. Bayne, of Gait ; Rev. 
D. McKenzie, of Zorra ; Rev. James George, of 
Scarborough, afterwards of Queen's ; Rev. M. G. 
Stark, of Dundas, an accomplished scholar ; Rev. 
Wm. Rintoul, of Streetsville, afterwards died as 
a missionary in Quebec ; Rev. Dr. Neil Seymour. 
Among other Presbyterians, not of the Church of 
Scotland, were Rev. Dr. Taylor, of Montreal, and 
Rev. Mr. Boyd, of Prescott. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Many of the most noted Scottish clergy of the 
Presbyterian Church have been referred to under 
the chapter on Education, and it will suffice to speak 
generally of the origins of the various principal 
congregations or great Church centres, giving some 
lists and sketches of early missionaries. 

Among the earliest of these was the founder 
of the first Presbyterian Church in Old Canada, 
the Rev. George Henry, who was a retired chap- 
lain of a Scottish regiment. He organised the 
first congregation in Quebec City in 1765, and 
the first place where services were held was a 
room in the old Jesuit barracks. 

Mr. Henry's successor was the Rev. Dr. Sparks, 
who was, for years, the leading Presbyterian divine 
of that city. He received his education at the 
Montreal Grammar School and at Aberdeen 

He came to Canada in 1788, and was ordained 
by the Presbytery of Elders in Scotland before 
his departure. He came out as tutor in the family 
of Col. Caldwell, and succeeded the Rev. Mr. 
Henry at the Scottish Church. In 1804 he re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Divinity at Aber- 
deen University. In 1810 the first Scottish church 
at Quebec was opened. Sir James H. Craig gave 
the ground, and the building was called St. 
Andrew's. Dr. Sparks delivered many stirring 
sermons during his long and eventful pastorate. 
He died on March 17, 1819, greatly regretted. 

In the latter part of the eighteenth, and the 
early years of the nineteenth, century there were 

The Scotsman in the Churches 

but few ordained ministers of the gospel in the 
colonies. But those few had a tremendous work 
to perform. 

i Among these was another noted divine of Prince 
^Edward Island, who merits special mention the 
Rev. Donald McDonald, who died as late as 1867. 
He was born on January i, 1783, in Perthshire, 
Scotland ; was educated at St. Andrew's Univer- 
sity, and ordained in 1816. In 1824 he came 
out to Cape Breton, and in 1826 arrived at the 
island, the scene of his life's labours. He soon 
became noted, not only as an earnest clergyman, 
but as an eloquent and convincing preacher. 
Probably no man ever accomplished so much 
for the Scottish Church in that part of Canada 
as this earnest missionary. He always took a 
deep interest in the public affairs of the day, and 
never forgot to deal with them in his discourses, 
which were considered to be quite on a level, in 
their effect, with those of Whitefield and Irving. 
He was also a deep thinker and a writer of stirring 
hymns. His parish extended from one end of the 
island to the other, and he was universally 
beloved. He died, greatly regretted, in his eighty- 
fifth year, and was buried at Uigg -Murray Harbour 
Road Churchyard. 

The first Presbyterian Church in Montreal was 
founded on March 12, 1786. It was inaugurated 
by the retired Army officers, members of the 
North-West Company, and other merchants of the 
city, who were all Scotsmen. They were, many 
of them, veterans of the Fraser and Murray High- 


The Scotsman in Canada 

landers, who had so much to do with the conquest 
of the country. 

The leading spirit in the movement was a re- 
markable man and the first of a very noted 
Scottish-Canadian family, whose members have 
been prominent in the Church and other life of 
the Dominion. This leader was the Rev. John 
Bethune, who was the father of Presbyterianism 
in Old Upper Canada and in the city of Montreal. 
He was a fine type of Scottish United Empire 
Loyalist, and one who had suffered much for his 
loyalty. He was born in the Isle of Skye, in 
Western Scotland, in 1751, and was educated at 
King's College, Aberdeen. Emigrating with his 
family to South Carolina, he became, at the outbreak 
of the revolution, chaplain to the Royal Militia 
of that colony, which was settled by Scotsmen. 
Taken prisoner, after many hardships he regained 
his liberty, and arrived in Nova Scotia. In Halifax 
he became one of the leading organisers of the 
noted Highland Emigrant Regiment, which was 
made up largely of Gaelic -speaking Highlanders 
from the 78th and 42nd Regiments. On the regf- 
ment being mustered in 1775 Mr. Bethune was 
made chaplain, and became a Christian warrior. 
His career was almost identical with that of his 
future friend and fellow-missionary, Bishop Mac- 
donell, of the Glengarry Highlanders. 

The Highland Emigrant Regiment became the 
mainstay of the defence of Quebec in 1775 against 
Montgomery. In 1782 the regiment was dis- 
banded, and Mr. Bethune, with many of the 

The Scotsman in the Churches 

officers, settled in Montreal, where he became one 
of the leading Loyalists of the city. A man of 
fine presence and much culture, he rallied around 
him the best men ; and among his first efforts 
was the foundation of St. Gabriel's Presbyterian 

He ministered here from March, 1786, until 
May, 1787, when he removed to Williamstown, 
in Upper Canada, and founded there the first 
Protestant Church in that province. 

The British Government had granted large tracts 
of land to the Loyalists and the members of the dis- 
banded Scottish regiments. The 84th was, when 
disbanded, settled on the banks of the St. Lawrence, 
in Upper Canada ; and Mr. Bethune, as chaplain, 
and as the father of many children, received a 
large tract of land in Cornwall, Charlottenburg, 
and Lancaster, and settled at Williamstown, so 
called after Sir William Johnston. Though a large 
landed proprietor, Mr. Bethune at once resumed 
his ministerial work, and organised the numerous 
and prosperous congregations at Williamstown, 
Martinstown, Cornwall, and Lancaster. He proved 
a faithful and zealous missionary ; and it is said 
he baptized 2,379 persons during his ministry in 
what afterwards become the county of Glengarry. 
He married Veronica Wadden, a Swiss lady, and 
they had six sons and three daughters, two of 
the former of whom were destined to play a leading 
part in the English Church in Canada. 

Dr. Bethune was a co-worker in the cause of 
Christianity and loyalty with Bishop Macdonell, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

in the district of Glengarry. He made loyalty a 
part of religion as one of its chief attributes. This 
accounted largely for the great spirit of loyalty 
evinced in times of danger by the inhabitants of 
this great Scottish community. On the Loyal 
Address by the inhabitants of Glengarry to Sir 
Gordon Drummond of December 21, 1814, at the 
close of the 1812-14 war, Mr. Bethune's name 
is second, Bishop Macdonell's being first. As an 
illustration of the happier times of those days, in 
a misunderstanding between Mr. Bethune and his 
parishioners, Bishop Macdonell was called in as 
a mutually chosen arbitrator ; and he proved suc- 
cessful in convincing the people that their pastor 
was right. On September 7, 1800, his son, 
Alexander Neil, afterwards Anglican Bishop of 
Toronto, was baptized by the Rev. John Young, 
of St. Gabriel's Church, Montreal. Mr. Bethune 
died on September 23, 1815, greatly regretted 
by the whole community. A monument was later 
erected to his memory by his six sons. On one 
side is the inscription : " Sacred to the memory 
of the Rev. Jno. Bethune, Pastor of the congrega- 
tion of the Kirk of Scotland in Glengarry. He 
departed this life at Williamstown on the 23rd 
September, 1815, in the 66th year of his age and 
on the 44th of his ministry." 

On another side is : " This monument is erected 
as a work of filial affection to his memory by 
his six sons, Angus, Norman, John, James, 
Alexander, and Donald.'* 

Like that of other strong pioneers in Canada, 

The Scotsman in the Churches 

Mr. Bethune's influence upon the country did not 
cease at his death, but his memory lived after, 
and he still lives in his sons and grandsons. 

His eldest son, Angus, born in 1783, entered 
the North-West Company. Norman, the first of 
the sons born in Glengarry, became a member of 
the Church at Williamstown. He and his brother 
James became partners in business with Alexander 

Mr. Bethune's daughter, Christie, married in 
1817 Robert Henry, a merchant in Montreal, and 
his youngest daughter, Anne, married in 1815 
Henry McKenzie. The careers of his two noted 
sons will be given in the account of the Anglican 

During all the years since the commencement 
of British occupancy the growth of Presbyterianism 
has kept pace with the growth of the city of Mon- 
treal. Yet, up to 1786, the Scottish Presbyterians 
attended the Established Church of England. 

The next missionary who followed Mr. Bethune 
was the Rev. John Young. He was born at Leith, 
in Scotland, and was educated there. Licensed to 
preach the gospel as a probationer by the Presby- 
tery of Irvine in 1785, he emigrated to the State 
of New York in 1787, and ministered there. In 
1791 he came to Montreal and assumed the duties 
of a pastor. He it was who urged the Protestant 
citizens of Montreal to erect St. Gabriel's Church 
for the worship of the Church of Scotland. Six 
years before, in 1786, the Honourable James Cath- 
cart, of Castle Hill, Inverness, Scotland, and 


TJie Scotsman in Canada 

Seignior, of Berthier, built the first building dedi- 
cated to Protestant worship since the British con- 
quest in Lower Canada. It was called St. 
Andrew's, and for two years services of the Church 
of Scotland were conducted by a Scottish clergy- 
man, a tutor in Mr. Cuthbert's family. 

St. Gabriel's Church in Montreal, founded in 
1792, was the first opened for general worship. 
Since then seventeen parishes have arisen. The 
names of the original founders on the deed of 
purchase of the site were Adam Scott, William 
Stewart, Duncan Fisher, Alexander Hanna, 
Alexander Fisher, William England, William 
Hunter, and John Russell. That they were all 
Scotsmen is significant in connection with the 
beginnings of Presbyterianism in Canada. The 
building was truly Scottish and well built. It 
was of solid stone, and in keeping with the 
well -deserved reputation of the Scottish people as 
the most reliable and finest stonemasons in the 
world. Indeed, this, the first Scottish church in 
Canada, is yet a perfect picture of the old Scottish 
churches of the Reformation period ; and is a 
worthy ecclesiastical monument to the strong, firm, 
solid character of the Scotsmen at home and 
abroad, the master-builders of the modern world. 

Adam Scott, whose name is first on the deed, 
was a prominent merchant. He died in 1818. 
William Stewart, whose name appears second, was 
a native of Glasgow, and also a prominent 
merchant. He died in 1797, aged forty-four years. 
Duncan Fisher, whose name is third, was a native 

The Scotsman in the Churches 

of Dunkeld, Perthshire, Scotland. He was the 
leading spirit of the congregation, and the whole 
community owed much to his zeal for the public 
welfare. He and his brothers, Alexander, John, 
and James, and a cousin, Finlay Fisher, came 
to Montreal at the close of the Revolution. He 
died in 1820, aged sixty-seven years. His wife 
was Catherine Embury, daughter of the Rev. 
Philip Embury, the noted pioneer of Methodism in 
America, and a woman of unusual character. Mr. 
Fisher has left many descendants prominent in 
Canadian life, among them being his grandson, 
the Honourable Sydney Fisher, who has been for 
the last fourteen years Minister of Agriculture for 

William England was a native of Scotland. 
He came to Montreal in 1789. He had a large 
trade as a cooper. He died in 1822, aged eighty- 
four years. Alexander Hanna was a merchant. 
He was a native of Galloway, Scotland. He was 
also a United Empire Loyalist. 

William Hunter came with his brother to 
Montreal from Kilmarnock, Scotland. They were 
merchants. John Russell and his wife, Grizell 
McKenzie, came from Tain, in Ross-shire. On 
her husband's death his widow returned to Suther- 
land, in Scotland, and married the Rev. Mr. 
McKenzie, minister of Tongue. 

The history of the Presbyterian Church in 
Montreal has since included many noted names 
of clergy and laymen. Among the former, those of 
the Rev. Henry Esson, Rev. Dr. Urquhart, Rev. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

E. F. Tor ranee, Rev. Dr. Wilkes, Rev. Wm. 
Rintoul, Rev. David Inglis, Rev. Wm. Somerville, 
Rev. Edward Black, Rev. John Crombie, Rev. 
Alexander Kemp, Rev. Dr. Mathieson, Rev. Robert 
Campbell, Rev. Dr. McVicar, Rev. Alexander 
Campbell, Rev. John Burn, Rev. James Fleck, Rev. 
Professor John Campbell, Rev. Robt. Irvine, Prin- 
cipal Story, of Glasgow University, Rev. Gavin 
Lang, Rev. James Edgar Hill, Rev. John McLeod, 
Rev. Dr. McGill, Rev. Dr. Snodgrass, Rev. Dr. 
James Barclay, Rev. Dr. Taylor, Rev. John M. 
Gibson, Rev. James S. Black, Rev. Donald Fraser, 
Rev. P. D. Muir, Rev. W. M. Black, and Rev. 
Dr. Baxter. 

Many of the above clergy have been dis- 
tinguished in clerical and collegiate life, and are 
known throughout the Dominion as strong ex- 
ponents of the principles and ideals of the Scottish 
Church in Canada. 





The Churches are the dry bones of the earth, 
Till God doth blow His spirit's breath upon them, 
And touches them with fire. 

THE history of Old and New St. Andrew's 
in Toronto is likewise the chronicle of 
another great centre of Presbyterianism with a 
long list of names noted in Canadian history. 
Many of the clergy are referred to in the chapter 
on Education. 

In 1821 there was a Presbyterian congregation 
in York holding services in a house on Richmond 
Street. The Honourable Wm. Morris, of Perth, 
called a meeting of Presbyterians on March 3, 
1830, to consider the building of a church. John 
Ewart was in the chair, and the noted Dr. Dun- 
lop, of the Canada Company, moved the resolu- 
tion. The foundation-stone of St. Andrew's 
Church was laid by Thomas Carfrae, jun., on 
June 24, 1830. The first trustees were James F. 
Smith, Thos. Carfrae, John Ewart, Hugh Carfrae, 
Walter Rose, Alexander Murray, and Jacob 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Latham. The first minister was the Rev. Wm. 
Rintoul. He was succeeded in turn by Rev. W. T. 
Leach, Rev. John Barclay, Rev. D. J. Macdonell, 
Rev. W. J. McLaughlan, Rev. Armstrong Black 

In the year 1848 the lists of the different 
branches of the Presbyterian Church were as 
follows : 

In connection with the CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 
Rev. Walter Roach, Moderator, and Rev. Andrew 
Bell, Synod Clerk. 

Montreal Presbytery Montreal, St. Andrew's, 
Rev. Alex. Mathieson, D.D. ; Quebec, St. 
Andrew's, John Cook, D.D. Other places, Duncan 
Moody, Wm. Main, Jas. Anderson, Jas. C. Muir, 
Wm. Simpson, John Marlin, John Davidson, James 
Thorn, Alex. Wallace, Robt. McGill (Montreal, St. 

Glengarry Presbytery Revs. John McKenzie, 
Hugh Urquhart, John Maclaurin, John Dickey, T. 
McPherson, Colin Grigor, ^Eneas McLean. 

Hamilton Presbytery Revs. Wm. King, George 
McClatchey, A. Bell, John Cruikshank, A.M., John 
Bryning, Alex McKid. 

Bathurst Presbytery Revs. John Smith, Geo. 
Romanes, Wm 1 . Bell, Joseph Anderson, Alex. Mann, 
Thos. Fraser, G. Bell, Wrri. Bell, John McMorine, 
John Robb. 

Kingston Presbytery Revs. Peter Ferguson, 
Peter Macnaughton, Thos. Johnston, John Tawse, 
Alexander Lewis, John McMurchy, J. Barclay, 
Alexander Ross, Samuel Porter, Wm. Brown, Wm. 

The Scotsman in the Churches 


There were many vacancies in all the Presby- 
teries, including the Pastorate of Bytown. 


Hamilton Presbytery Revs. Andrew Ferrier, 
D.D., George Cheyne, Mark Y. Stark, John Bayne, 
Geo. Smellie, Wm. Meldrum, Wm. Graham, Alex. 
McLean, McGregor, Ralph Robb, Robt. Lind- 
say, D. McKenzie, A. Mclntosh, D. Allan, Robt. 
Peden, John McKinnon, Wm. McAllister. 

Toronto Presbytery -Robt. Burns, D.D., D. 
McMillan, Jas. Boyd, Wm. Rintoul, Peter Gray, 
Jas. Harris, Henry Esson. 

Coburg Presbytery Jas. Douglass, W. Reid, 
Robt. Wallace, Alex. M. Steele. 

Kingston Presbytery Henry Gordon, W. 
Hamilton, Greig, Robt. Reid, Robt. F. Burns. 

Perth Presbytery W,. G. Johnston, Wm. Lock- 
head, Andrew Melville, Blair, Jas. Finlay, Thos. 
Wardrope (Bytown), John Corbett. 

Brockville Presbytery Witi. Smart, Jas. Geggie, 
Robt. Boyd, W. J. McDowell, Alex. Luke. 

Montreal Presbytery John Clagston, David 
Black, Simon D. Frazer, John Frazer, Daniel 
Clarke, Thos. Henry, .Wm. Leishman. 

Montreal Presbytery Revs. Wm. Taylor, 
Andrew Kennedy, Alexander Lowder, Wm. Aiken, 
John Morrison. 

Toronto Presbytery Revs. John Cassie, Robt. 
Thornton, Wm. Fraser, Jas. Dick, David Coutts, 
Walter Scott. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Hamilton Presbytery Thos. Christie, James 
Roy, Alex. Ritchie, Wm. Barrie, Robt. Torrence, 
Alex. Drummond, Geo. Fisher, David Caws, 
Jas. R. Dalrymple. 

London Presbytery W. Proudfoot, Jas. Skinner, 
George Murray, Alex. McKenzie, John McLellan. 

Missionaries : A. Henderson, Jas. Pringle, John 
Porteous, John Proudfoot. 

The Presbyterian Church of to-day in Eastern 
Canada is a very large body, and has many noted 
divines within its communion, many of them of 
Scottish extraction. 

The officers for 1909-10 were : Moderator, Rev. 
Samuel Lyle, D.D., of Hamilton; Clerks, Rev. 
Robt. Campbell, D.D., Montreal, and Rev. John 
Somerville, D.D., Toronto. 

Among so many able men, where there is no 
outward mark of distinction given, any selection 
would be invidious. However, all Canadians are 
familiar with the names of the following : The 
Revs. Dr. Barclay, Montreal ; Dr. Armstrong, 
Ladies' College, Ottawa ; Dr. Ramsay, Ottawa ; 
Dr. Ballantyne, Toronto ; Dr. Robert Campbell, 
Montreal ; Dr. Currie, Halifax ; Dr. Eakin, 
Toronto ; Dr. Fleck, Montreal ; Dr. Forest, 
Halifax ; Dr. Fowler, Kingston ; Prof. Fraser, 
Montreal ; Dr. Gandier, Toronto ; Prof. Gordon, 
Montreal ; Dr. Jordan, Kingston ; Dr. Lyle, 
Hamilton ; Dr. Maclaren, Toronto ; Dr. McLean, 
Goderich ; Dr. McMillan, Halifax ; Dr. McMullen, 
Woodstock ; Dr. McCrae, St. John's, New 
Brunswick ; Dr. Milligan, Toronto ; Dr. Wm. 

The Scotsman in the Churches 

Moore, Ottawa ; Rev. J. Gibson Inkster, London. 
The latter is a gifted son of the Orkneys, 
and is an authority on the ancient history of 
Scotland, especially that of the far north. Dr. 
Murray, Toronto ; Dr. Mackay, Toronto ; Rev. 
Norman McLeod, Brockville ; Rev. Robert Had- 
dow, M.A., Editor of the Westminster, Toronto ; 
Dr. J. A. Macdonald, Editor of the Globe, 
Toronto ; Dr. Gordon (" Ralph Connor "), Winni- 
peg ; Dr. Scrimgeour, Montreal ; Dr. Shearer, 
Toronto ; Dr. Somerville, Toronto ; Dr. Stewart, 
Halifax ; Dr. Torrance, Kingston ; Dr. Ward- 
robe, Guelph ; Prof. Welsh, Montreal. 

The Churches in Halifax were represented by 
some noted divines of Scottish extraction. Among 
them were the following : Rev. Thos. Russell, 
Minister of St. Mathew's Church, 1784-86. Rev. 
Andrew Brown, D.D., Minister of St. Mathew's, 
1 7^ 7-95 ; wrote a history of Nova Scotia the 
manuscript is now in the British Museum. He 
was the first chaplain of the North British 
Society, in 1791 Scottish Garrison chaplain, and 
afterwards Professor of Rhetoric at Edinburgh 
University. The Rev. Archibald Gray, D.D., of 
St. Mathew's Church, 1799-1822. He was second 
chaplain of the North British Society. Rev. Mathew 
Dripps, of St. Mathew's (assistant 1802) ; and 
Rev. Donald Fraser. Rev. John Scott, M.A., for 
thirty-seven years pastor of St. Mathew's, from 
1827 to 1864. He was joint chaplain of the 
North British Society, 1844-1863. Rev. James 
Mclntosh, about 1837. Rev. John Martin, pastor 

VOL, I. x 321 

The Scotsman in Canada 

of St. Andrew's Church, 1822-65, a joint chap- 
lain North British Society, 1844-65. Rev. 
Alexander Forrester, D.D., pastor of St. John's 
Free Church, Halifax, 1848, Principal of Pro- 
vincial Naval School, and the leader in the cause 
of education; died in 1869. John Mclntosh, a 
layman, who was the leader in the Free Church 
movement in Nova Scotia in 1843. Rev. George 
Munro Grant, of St. Mathew's, 1865, afterwards 
Principal of Queen's University, joint chaplain of 
the North British Society. Rev. W. Maxwell, 
pastor of Chalmer's Church, 1865. Rev. Charles 
Macdonald, Professor of Mathematics, Dalhousie 
College, 1863-1901. The Rev. Charles M. Grant, 
pastor of St. Andrew's Church, 1865-70, chap- 
lain North British Society, 1869. Rev. John 
Campbell, pastor of St. Andrew's Church, 1869- 
1875, chaplain North British Society, 1870-75. 
Rev. Allan Pollock, D.D., pastor of St. Andrew's, 
New Glasgow, 1853, Professor of History, Presby- 
terian College, Halifax, 1876, Principal, 1894. 
Rev. Thos. Duncan. Rev. A. Simpson. Rev. 
R. Laing. Rev. John Forrest, D.D., appointed 
Principal Dalhousie University, 1885, in charge 
of St. John's Church for several years, one of 
the most noted Canadian educationalists. Rev. 
D. M. Gordon, pastor of St. Andrew's Church, 
Piofessor at Pine Hill Theological College, now 
Principal of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, 
an eloquent divine, and a noted educationalist and 
scholar . Rev . James S . Black, pastor St . Andrew's 
Church, Vice-President North British Society, 1902. 

The Scotsman in the Churches 

The following interesting letter, dated Octo- 
ber 10, 1836, and written to a clergyman in 
Scotland, will give an idea of Scottish Presby- 
terian life and conditions in Old Upper Canada 
during the first half of the nineteenth century. 
It is quoted in full and is now printed for the 
first time. 

The writer (though the copy I have is not 
signed) was Kenneth McPherson, an old-time 
Scotsman of the good old school, who was for 
nearly thirty years postmaster and general 
merchant at Lancaster, in Glengarry County. 
He had been fourteen years in Canada at the 
date of the writing of the letter, having come 
out with others as a follower of a Mr. Duncan 
Cameron, of Thora, who had brought out quite 
a Scottish colony at that date, which had settled 
in that locality. Mr. McPherson's father was John 
McPherson, from Badenoch, who took up land 
claimed afterwards by his son, Kenneth McPherson, 
married a daughter of Alexander Rose, a United 
Empire Loyalist and had a large family, one of 
which was the late Lieut. -Col. John McPherson, 
keeper of Militia stores for Canada. Mr. 
McPherson was evidently a prominent person in 
the Church as well as in other matters in his 
locality. The letter, which is endorsed in his own 
handwriting as a copy, is as follows :- 

loth October, 1836. 

REV. and DEAR FRIEND. Your communication of the 22nd 
June I duly received, and would have replied to it on receipt 


The Scotsman in Canada 

were it not that I was waiting in the expectation of having some- 
thing of importance to relate to you. It now appears to me that 
the Lord has opened a door for you in a neighbouring parish 
called Martintown, about twelve miles from here, vacant, 
occasioned by the death of its pastor, the Rev. Arch. Conell, a 
native of Isla in Scotland. He was a man much devoted to the 
service of Christ, and was enabled by the aid of the Spirit to 
bring out of his treasure things new and old ; and was one of the 
brightest ornaments of the Church in this Province. I trust that 
he has been instrumental in sowing the good seed in the lives of 
his hearers. A few years ago he was on a tour to the south of 
Scotland, where he raised by contributions from the Churches 
^400 or ^500, which, with the aid of the congregation, they have 
been enabled to build one of the most magnificent churches of 
the kind in the Province. It is not yet quite finished, but alas ! 
the deceased never had the satisfaction of preaching within its 
walls, but divine service is performed in it occasionally by the 
clergymen of neighbouring parishes ; the original place of 
worship was a temporary wooden building and was in a decayed 
state. There was part of his congregation that lived in a section 
of the county called the Indian Reservation, about twelve miles 
distant from the parish church, to whom he preached once a 
month ; but from the delicate state of his health of late and the 
distance he had to ride through bad roads in the spring and fall 
gave up officiating to this part of the congregation ; and I am 
given to understand that about a month previous to his decease 
that they had applied to the Rev. John McDonald of Urquhart 
to select them a pastor, and as far as I could learn, promised him 
;8o, Canadian currency, per year together with a house and 
some land. There is a church built on the spot. Doubts are 
entertained by some whether a clergyman will come out on the 
strength of the inducement held forth. They are in general a 
well-disposed people, steady farmers ; but I am doubtful if they 
can obtain any part of the Government allowances exclusively, as 
whoever will become successor to the deceased will obtain it ; and 
on these grounds it is supposed by some that they will have to con- 
tinue dependent on the services of such successor for some time. 
The Government allowance is from 60 to 64 a year payable half- 
yearly, which, with the amount subscribed by the people, includ- 

TJie Scotsman in the Churches 

ing the part of the parish referred to, made up a salary of about 
^200 per annum. Whether they will continue to pay the same 
to another I cannot be certain ; but I should think they would 
not vary much either way. They are in general good farmers. 
There is a fine stone house built near the church. I am of 
opinion had you been here when Mr. Conell died that they would 
have taken you by the hand. The names of the neighbouring 
clergymen are as follows : The Rev. John McKenzie, Williams- 
town, a native of some part near yourself ; the Rev. Hugh 
Urquhart, from near Inverness ; The Rev. Alex. McNaughton 
from Perthshire ; and the Revd. Mr. Mclsac. The latter's place 
of nativity I cannot tell. These constitute the members of the 
Presbytery of Glengarry. I have the promise of one of their 
number that he will endeavour to write you as soon as the people 
make application. Whether or not I shall, if anything soon 
transpires, communicate with you ; but I hope I shall have your 
etter before they make the application stating whether we may 
expect you should [you ?] have a call. They may probably apply 
to the Colonial Society or the Rev. Mr. John McDonald of 
Urquhart to choose a pastor for them. To these sources you can 
apply if there is not a call sent direct to yourself. At all events 
venture to. I can say upon the authority of some of the members 
of the Presbytery that they will guarantee you a better living 
than you have there, should you come. I informed members of 
the congregation referred to that I was going to write you 
immediately, which will perhaps be the means of causing them 
to delay writing home till I hear from you. You will therefore 
please to write me without delay. 

The history of the Anglican Church in Canada 
is also largely one of Scotsmen and Ulster 
Scotsmen. But it is more than this. It shows that 
the Anglican Church in early Canada owed much 
to the old Church of Scotland ; for, strange to 
say, many of the leading clergy of the Church 
in Canada and the Maritime Provinces were 


The Scotsman in Canada 

originally Presbyterians, or the sons of Presby- 
terians . 

The first bishop of the Anglican Church in 
Canada was an Ulster Scotsman, the Right Rev. 
Charles Inglis, of a noted Scottish family in Rox- 
burgh and Perthshire, a branch of which had 
settled in Ulster. Bishop Inglis was the third 
son of the Rev. Archibald Inglis, Rector of Glen 
and Kilcarr, Donegal. The Bishop was born in 
1734 in Donegal. He emigrated to America, and 
conducted a free school at Lancaster, Pennsyl- 
vania, where many Ulster Scotsmen had settled 
early in the eighteenth century. Studying for 
Orders, he was ordained by the Bishop of London, 
and returning to America he became a missionary 
at Denver, in Delaware. In 1765 he was made 
assistant of Holy Trinity Church, New York City. 
He was a strong Loyalist, and, removing to 
Nova Scotia at the Revolution, he was appointed 
the first Bishop of that, the original Diocese of 
British North America. His career is depicted 
in the chapter on Universities. His son was after- 
wards third Bishop of Nova Scotia. 

The second Bishop of Quebec (or of both Upper 
and Lower Canada) was also a Scotsman and the 
member of a great Scottish House. The Hon. 
and Right Rev. Charles James Stewart, who suc- 
ceeded the first Bishop Mountain, was a younger 
son of the Earl of Galloway. He was a man 
of a singular piety and a determination to spend 
his life for the furtherance of the cause of Chris- 
tianity. He came to Canada as a young mis- 


The Scotsman in the Churches 

sionary, and subjected himself to the greatest 
privations in order to carry out his ideals. He 
became noted for his self-denying character and 
zeal as a missionary. When he succeeded to the 
Bishopric in 1826, on the death of the aged Bishop 
Mountain his diocese extended from Gaspe to the 
shores of Lake Huron. But he never spared him- 
self, going from one extreme of this vast territory 
to the other, performing his work and encouraging 
the few thinly scattered clergy until his never hardy 
frame broke down under the terrible strain, and 
in 1837 he went home to die. 

The Right Rev. John Strachan, first Bishop of 
Upper Canada, and the Right Rev. Alexander Neil 
Bethune, second Bishop of Toronto, with his 
brother, Archdeacon Bethune, of Montreal, were 
other prominent Scottish Canadians in the Anglican 
Church. The two latter were sons of the Rev. 
John Bethune, the venerable pioneer of Presby- 
terianism in Upper Canada. Another noted 
Scottish family were the Stuarts, father and 
son. The Rev. John O'Kill Stuart was a United 
Empire Loyalist, who came to Canada at the 
revolution from the American colony of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was chaplain to the forces, and the 
first head of the Old Toronto Grammar School. 
His son, the Rev. George O'Kill Stuart, was after- 
wards Rector of Kingston and Archdeacon of 

In the year 1827 an ecclesiastical chart was 
made, showing the number of Protestant clergy 
in Upper Canada. Of the Established Church 


The Scotsman in Canada 

there were thirty, eleven of whom were of Scottish 
extraction, and nearly all of these had been 
originally Presbyterians. They were Archdeacon 
Strachan, York ; Archdeacon Stuart, Kingston ; 
Rev. Thomas Campbell, Belleville ; Rev. Mr. 
Burns, Richmond ; Rev. John Grier, Carrying 
Place ; Rev. Wm. Macauley, Coburg ; Rev. 
Samuel Armour, Peterborough ; Rev. J. Thomp- 
son, Cavan ; Rev. Alexander Bethune, Grimsby ; 
Rev. Mr. Green, Queenston ; Rev. Mr. Mclntosh, 
Kettle Creek. Of these, Archdeacon Strachan was 
educated at St. Andrew's, and the Revs. Thomas 
Campbell, John Grier, and Samuel Armour at 
Glasgow University. Many of these were Ulster 
Scotsmen that is, those whose families had come 
from Scotland and had lived in Ulster before 
emigrating again to Canada. The Rev. Thomas 
Campbell was doubly of that clan, his mother 
being also a Campbell of the same family as his 
father. The family were a cadet branch of the 
House of Argyll, and came originally from In- 
veraray. The Rev. Mr. Campbell was the second 
son of James Campbell, Esq., of Kilrea, and his 
wife and cousin Elizabeth Campbell. The year 
he died he had been appointed to a prominent 
Rectory in Londonderry. 

The Rev. Samuel Armour came originally from 
Ayrshire, and the Rev. John Grier was of an 
Antrim family that emigrated from the Scottish 
borders. They were all, as was Strachan, the 
Stuarts, and the Bethunes, of Presbyterian families. 

History shows that the Anglican Church in 
328 ' 

The Scotsman in the Churches 

Upper Canada owes much to Presbyterianism and 
Scottish education and ideals ; and, as has been 
shown, most of the leading clergy in the early days 
of the nineteenth century came of that stock and 
belief either in Scotland or Scottish Ulster. There 
is not a clan name in Scotland that is not now, 
or has not been, represented in the Anglican 
Church in Canada, among them being such dis- 
tinguished prelates as Strachan, Inglis, Hamilton, 
and Mackray. All of these men had a great influ- 
ence throughout the country, and some of them 
were prominent in spiritual, political, and educa- 
tional affairs ; and, as has been shown elsewhere 
in this volume, makers of laws and founders and 
controllers of universities, as well as preachers of 
the gospel and ecclesiastical dignitaries. 

This was true not only of the prelates, but 
also of some of the clergy, who had parishes, 
or groups of parishes, under their charge almost 
equal in extent to small dioceses of the present 
day ; and in some cases the clergy held a great 
power socially and politically. They were on the 
road committees, often chairmen of the educa- 
tional boards, and, in a few cases, were the leaders 
on all matters in their local counties. They were, 
in some instances, applied to by the Lieutenant- 
Governor for an opinion when important local 
positions were to be allotted. Those were the 
days when a clergyman was a force in the land, 
and could exert an influence for good, before the 
party lay-politicians drove the Protestant Churches 
out of public affairs. Since then those Churches, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

while earnest and active with regard to the weal 
of the individual, have failed to exert themselves 
as great religious communities in the national life. 

In Hugh Scobie's Almanack for 1848 there is 
a list of the clergy of the United Church of 
England and Ireland in Canada, and in it are 
the following Scottish names : 

Diocese of Quebec. Rev. George Mackie, D.D., 
Bishop's Commissary. Montreal, Dr. John Bethune, 
Revs. W. A. Adamson, J. Ramsay, M.A., D. 
Robertson, G. F. Simpson, M.A. Other places, 
T. Johnston, J. J. Johnston, J. Scott, C. Reid, 
G. M. Ross, J. Reid, M. A. W. McMaster, J. 
Nichols, G. Milne, C. B. Fleming, J. Torrance, 
E. G. Ross, Wm. Anderson, R. Anderson, A. 

Diocese of Toronto. Bishop Strachan ; Arch- 
deacon G. O'Kill Stuart ; Archdeacon Bethune ; 
Revs. John McCaul, J. G. D. McKenzie, Robt J. 
McGeorge, John Gibson, John Pentland, John 
Mclntyre, J. L. Alexander, Wm. McMurray, J. 
Campbell Usher, Alex. Pyne, George Graham, 
Adam Elliot, Donald Fraser, John Anderson, G. M. 
Armstrong, James Stewart, R. F. Campbell, Wm. 
Ritchie, Fredk. Mack, F. Geo. Elliot, Andrew 
Jamieson, John Gunne, Dr. A. N. Bethune, Samuel 
Armour, T. S. Kennedy, John Grier, Wm. 
Macauley, W. Grieg, J. Antisell Allen, Harvey 
Me Alpine, Mathew Ker, Henry Patton. 

There are, to-day, many able and earnest clergy 
of Scottish and Ulster-Scottish extraction in the 
Anglican Church in Canada. Among the many 

The Scotsman in the Churcfies 

names are : Bishops Hamilton, Dunn, Mills, 
Richardson, and Anderson. Archdeacons Cody, 
McKenzie, Ker, Davidson, Balfour, Richardson, 
Young, McMorine, Crawford, Houston, Smith, 
Forsyth, Clark, and Gilmour. Canons and Rural 
Deans Carmichael, Scott, Maclean, MacNab, 
Mackay, Craig, Downie, Sage, Gunne, Sutherland, 
Henderson, Davidson, Simpson, Cowie, Young, and 
Machin. Professor Clark and Professor George 
McKinnon Wrong. 

Methodism has also, though not as much as 
the other two Churches, her quota of Scotsmen 
and Ulster-Scotsmen. Indeed, the two able editors 
of the Christian Guardian, Rev. Dr. Creighton and 
the Rev. Wm. McMullen, are of the good Ulster 
stock, and were of Presbyterian families. 

The finest orator, and one of the greatest divines 
of the Methodist Church in Canada, was a Scots- 
man, the noted Dr. Douglas, whose noble utter- 
ances and apostolic appeals stirred the hearts of 
all Protestant Canada. A survey of the list of 
the clergy of the different Conferences will show 
a large percentage of Scotsmen taking their part 
in the active propaganda of this energetic and 
earnest branch of Protestant Christianity in 

In the list of the Wesleyan clergy in 1848 the 
following of Scottish extraction are to be found : 
Rev. Mathew Richey, George Kennedy, Wm. Scott, 
Thos. Ratray, Samuel Rose, Kennedy Creighton, 
Geo. Ferguson, John Law, Lachlin Taylor, George 
Carr, Peter Kerr, Alexander Campbell, Wm. 

The Scotsman in Canada 

Graham, Jonathan Scott, Alex. MacNab, Hamilton 
Biggar, John Beatty, T. Hannah, Wm. McCul- 
lough, Wm. McFadden, Daniel McMullen, John 
Gourley, John Black, David Hardie, Cyrus C. 
Allison, Jas. Armstrong, Robt. Lockhead, Michael 
Baxter, Jos. W. McCallum, Wm. McGill, James 
Elliot, Wm. Pattyson, D. McDowell, John 

Next to the Presbyterian, the Baptist Church 
is undoubtedly the most Scottish in its origin of 
all the Canadian Churches. In the early days 
Presbyterianism and Anglicanism, by reason of 
the paucity of their missionary clergy, lost 
thousands of their adherents in the newly settled 
districts, the former to the Methodists and the 
latter to the Baptists. No Church in Canada to- 
day has a more sturdy growth and a higher ideal 
of Christian work and influence than the Baptist 
Church has. Strong in her ideals, she holds her 
own, and she includes many of our finest scholars 
and divines among her preachers and teachers. 
In 1848 the following Scotsmen were among the 
Baptist clergy in Canada : Revs. Wm. Frazer, 
Hugh Reid, R. Boyd, Wm. Dick, Robert Dick, 
J. Campbell, J. King, John Edwards, S. 
McEachron, A. Cleghorn, A. Gillis, John Clark, 
E. Mitchell, P. McDonald, W. McDermid, Isaac 
Elliot, Jas. Dick, A. Stevens, Jas. Inglis, P. L. 
Davidson, D. McPhail, J. Gilmour, A. McLean, 
J. Baird, D. Curry, W. Gorrie, W. Drummond, T. 
Bailey, T. Mills, W. Hewson, J. Anderson, R. A. 
Fyfe, C. Stewart, J. Mitchell, C. McDermand. 

The Scotsman in the Churches 

The Congregational Church, which is essentially 
English Presbyterianism, has had also a number 
of Scotsmen among its clergy. The late Rev. 
Dr. Mclntosh, of the first Congregational Church 
in Ottawa, and commonly called Bishop of the 
Congregational Church, was a Highlander of the 
Highlanders, and one of the noblest of men. His 
death was a great loss to the St. Andrew's Society 
of Ottawa, of which he had been one of the most 
honoured chaplains. He has been succeeded by 
the Rev. G. Watt -Smith, late of Glasgow. 

The Church of the Disciples of Christ, which is 
a branch of the Baptist Church, has also many 
adherents in Canada. It was founded by a learned 
divine of the clan Campbell, who went from Scot- 
land to the United States, and its original adherents 
were called " Campbellites." 

The subject of the Scotsman in the Canadian 
Churches is one worthy of being dealt with in 
a large volume. Meanwhile I hope that the very 
inadequate treatment of this side of Scottish life 
in Canada in the two preceding, but necessarily 
brief, chapters may at least introduce the subject 
to the attention of the thoughtful Canadian reader 
and cause him to realise the very important part 
played by Scotland and Scottish ideals in the 
religious life of the Dominion. 




On my attempt though Providence did frown, 
His oppressed people God at length shall own ; 
Another Tiand, with more successful speed, 
Shall raise the remnant, bruise the serpent's head. 
Though my head fall, that is no tragic story, 
Since, going hence, I enter endless glory. 

THE above lines constituted an epitaph written 
by the ill-fated Earl of Argyll on the evening 
before his execution. 

It is a pathetic prophecy that the cause he died 
for would not fail, though he and others were 
to suffer seemingly in vain. This distinguished 
nobleman, who lost his life in the cause of the 
British Revolution of 1688, was the son of an 
equally ill-fated father, the great Marquess of 
Argyll, who also died for the same cause some 
years earlier in the same century. They were 
great Scotsmen, who, while of ancient lineage and 
power next to that of Royalty, were in sympathy 
and ideal and in close touch with the faith and 
ideals of the great body of the Scottish people, 

Mackenzie and Straehan 

who had organised themselves for the triumph of 
their principles under the bonds of the " Solemn 
League and Covenant." Strange to say, Argyll's 
distinguished grandson, the famous Duke, lived 
to see all of the ideals of constitutional reform, for 
which the grandfather suffered, carried out. 

Scotland has many martyrs of this nature, men 
who sacrificed all for the cause of the stern prin- 
ciples of right and freedom as seen and felt by 
the Scottish soul and mind. It seems to be a 
necessary development of a portion of her history 
that Scotland should produce a certain number 
of men who were doomed to suffer, by a sort 
of vicarious quality of spirit, for the failure of 
the great mass of the community to live up to 
its best ideals. 

Of a similar nature to those illustrious martyrs 
of the seventeenth century, though keyed in spirit, 
by necessity and environment, to the ideals and 
requirements of a later date, was the personality 
of that most noted and most resolute, with one 
single exception, of Scottish Canadians of his 
period, William Lyon Mackenzie. 

While he stood alone in his intense, almost fierce, 
antagonism to all that was not on the side of 
his ideals as a reformer, Mackenzie did not stand 
alone in the community. There were other men 
of commanding personality, and chief of these, 
and his leading rivals, if they might be so called, 
were two other strong Scotsmen, Archdeacon 
Straehan and Col. (afterwards Sir Allan) MacNab. 

It is but additional evidence of the general 


The Scotsman in Canada 

dominance of the Scotsman in all periods of 
Canadian history that the three leading spirits on 
both sides of the struggle that largely occupied 
the period of the first forty years of the nineteenth 
century in Upper Canada were Scotsmen. 

The third of this trio, MacNab, is dealt with 
in another place in this work. He was a strong 
and practical character, but without the peculiar 
ideals which controlled, though in a different way, 
the other two men. For this reason he was their 
inferior. But in spite of this he was a man to 
be reckoned with, and performed work for the 
young colony that could have been achieved by 
no other man. I have no patience with those 
mere party, or sectional, writers who see no good 
in the ideals and deeds of their party opponents. 
The one grave weakness of the Scottish and 
English peoples has ever been the curse of 
extreme party bigotry. Under this defect in our 
social conditions, where men are remembered only 
as leaders of rival factions, history becomes dis- 
torted and lacking in that frank, generous sincerity 
which it should have in the best interests of the 
highest good of the community. Because of this 
Sir Allan MacNab stands merely for the old pre- 
Confederation Toryism of the province, as repre- 
sented by the much exaggerated ills of the family 
compact in the pages of many writers. The whole 
history of that period has yet to be properly 
written. The large amount of bitter party 
journalism upon the subject is neither history 
nor even healthy fiction. When we do produce 

Mackenzie and Strachan 

an unbiassed account of that period all of these 
men, on both sides, will stand higher in the 
opinions of honest readers and students of our 
history. There were then, as now, no angels on 
either side. There were then, as there are, perhaps, 
a few now, men beating the wind of an indifferent 
public opinion for the redress of certain widely 
acknowledged grievances. There were then, as 
there are to an even greater extent to-day, people 
in high places who were intermarried and formed a 
network of official power as office-holders and con- 
trollers of wealth in the community. Strange to 
say, the persons who have in the last decade pro- 
fessed the greatest public adhesion to the struggle 
and principles of Mackenzie have been among the 
worst sinners in this family compact institution 
as we have it to-day. 

There is no doubt, as John Morley (now Lord 
Morley) had to admit lately, that often what seems 
a broad and shining roadway may end in a mere 
cul-de-sac. He used this expression in voicing 
his disappointment at the failure of his fond ideal, 
the American Republic. But it might be put in 
other language in suggesting that it is easier to 
hurl imprecations and preach platitudes regarding 
equality and purity in opposition than it is to 
practise all these virtues when a party gets into 
power. It is a strange reflection on our modern 
so-called representative government and now ex- 
ceedingly doubtful democracy, that the Reformers 
always seem to be the office-seekers and the 
wicked Tories and tyrants the office-holders. This, 

VOL. I. Y 337 

The Scotsman in Canada 

in Canada, applies equally to both parties, and 
the finest place to breed political cynics is the 
Gallery of the House of Commons, where the 
fervent reformers of to-day or yesterday, and the 
smug, smiling defenders of graft on the Treasury 
benches, seem to exchange their characters by 
merely crossing the House after an election. 
There is no doubt that the thinking people of the 
British race are more than sick of the really 
dangerous insincerity of the average political party, 
which is to-day quite ready to even smash all 
existing stability of government for the sake of 
achieving the reins of power in any country. 

In spite of this very patent truth, even to-day 
there are fine men on both sides of the House, 
though the period does not seem to be kindly 
to the development of true statesmen. Even on 
the Treasury benches there are, and always have 
been, strong and able men, doing, as heads of 
departments, faithful and good work for the 
country. Also on the Opposition side there are, 
and always have been, clean, earnest men striving 
to better our conditions. But on both sides it 
is the man who is clean, and not the party. In 
fact, it is more. It is the decent man in spite 
of his party. If there is corruption on the Treasury 
benches, it is because of party. If there is 
hypocrisy and false clamour on the part of the 
Opposition, it is because the exigencies of the 
party success have supplanted the true weal of 
the whole community. 

Likewise was it in the days of Mackenzie, 


Mackenzie and Strachan 

Strachan, and MacNab. There was no such thing 
as a perfect phalanx for good or evil on either 
side. There was much to be deplored on the 
side of the Tories. But it was the system, as it 
is to-day, that was largely to blame. On the 
whole, bad as matters were, there was then in 
existence a class of men who did stand firmly 
for certain principles (would that we had such 
men to-day !), even though they may have some- 
times exaggerated their importance. Strachan was 
a stern, uncompromising' Churchman. He believed 
in the State Church as the necessary complement 
to the truly moral, truly stable government. He 
regarded it as necessary that the Church should 
have its place in the national life, and that the 
clergyman, as the representative of the Church, 
had his duty to perform in public life as well 
as the lawyer. He believed that the University 
and all education should be in close touch with 
the National Church. He realised that the Church 
of England was the National State Church of 
England, and that as such she should control the 
spirit of the University and college. He further 
held that the Church, to keep up her dignity, 
must be supported by the State, as it is in England. 
Believing all this, he, as the chief representative 
of the Church in Upper Canada, made a strong 
fight to maintain for her those rights and that 
status that she held under the Constitution. 

That he believed and firmly held all this was 
certainly no crime on his part. On the other 
hand, it was, after all, but his common duty to 


The Scotsman in Canada 

his Church and his office. He should not be con- 
demned for holding those views, any more than 
Bishop Macdonell should be condemned for having 
fought for and secured Catholic privileges along 
the same lines. He should be judged, rather, by 
his adherence or lack of adherence to his ideals 
and his methods of securing them. On the other 
hand, Lyon Mackenzie should not be condemned 
for being what he was, a fierce and uncom- 
promising reformer. Strachan was accused of 
being over " canny " and shrewd, and of being 
iwell aware of the value of this world's goods 
and power. But with this went a strong sense 
of proper authority and sound rule, a reverence 
for loyalty to the Sovereign and Church, which 
had a great effect for good upon many people 
who absorbed this ideal and needed it to render 
them good citizens ; and it would be better if 
we had some of this influence in Canada at the 
present hour. The good Bishop was a firm 
administrator and a man of sound common sense, 
a safe man to control society and keep it in a 
good conservative reverence and respect for law 
and order. Then, he also could be fiery on occa- 
sion, and brave and militant and forgetful of self, 
as was shown in his daring treatment of the 
victorious American generals when they captured 
and sacked York in April, 1813. It was almost 
heroic, the uncompromising attitude of this stern 
little Scotch divine, when he rebuked Chauncey, 
the American leader, and his officers for their 
ill-treatment of the people of Toronto, and de- 

Mackenzie and Strachan 

manded, and secured it too, proper terms for the 

His noted opponent, Mackenzie, has been 
accused of weaknesses the very opposite to 
those ascribed to Strachan. He, on the other 
hand, has been accused of being both imprac- 
tical and impossible as a politician and states- 
man, because he was always ready to uphold 
principles, whether they were popular or not. It 
was said that he would not wait for the proper 
time to demand a reform ; but so soon as he 
realised a wrong he made it his own at once. 
It can readily be understood that from the stand- 
point of the keen, practical party politician, who 
weighed all the chances of success or defeat for 
his faction, that such a man with such a tempera- 
ment would be regarded as dangerous, if not 

This kind of man, 

This vague, high dreamer with his skyward gaze ; 
He runs too wide, not broken to the traces, 
Where ploughs the furrow of this practical world. 
He mocks your hopes, your schemes ; you cannot use him 
In short, not biddable to the common mind, 
He smacks of lunacy. 

Such, indeed, is the summing up of such a 
character by the modern cynic type of man. But 
for those who 

Believe in God and His eternal laws, 
Founded on justice, truth and liberty, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

who believe that 

God made the dome-walls of this splendid world, 
Carpet it as you may, 

there is a larger, truer appreciation of Mac- 
kenzie's personality. To such persons, reading, 
without party or other bias, the tragedy of this 
man's whole history (for it was a tragedy), William 
Lyon Mackenzie's life rises above the mere personal 
struggle of one man for place or existence. It 
becomes rather the long-drawn out protest of a 
sincere soul against the whole miserable, second- 
best and cynic compromise of our age and con- 
ditions. Whether in the Commons in fierce de- 
clamation, or deserted and alone as he fled from 
the pitiable battle of Montgomery's Farm, or in 
the prison-cell at Albany, Mackenzie was always 
separated by an insuperable wall from his fellow- 
men ; and for the one simple reason that he was 
a fierce, burning consciousness far in advance of 
his own time. He was always to the end the same 
personality, a lonely voice crying 1 in the wilder- 
ness of an unheeding and material world. 

I do not justify the Rebellion. No sane man 
does, or could. Mackenzie himself did not. There 
is no doubt that, as he himself said afterwards, 
no one more bitterly regretted it than he did. It 
is only ignorance, class jealousy, and fierce faction 
hatred, bent on destruction at any cost, that would 
pretend to glorify any uprising against law and 
order. It is always a calamity even for the 
gravest reasons. Mackenzie did not make the 
Rebellion. It was only a pitiable episode in 

Mackenzie and Strachan 

the whole miserable condition of his day and time, 
in which he was mixed up. It is true he had 
his weakness, as all men have ; and his was 
that he allowed himself, through his bitterness of 
spirit, which at times verged on madness, to be 
made use of by vile cowardly plotters who had 
neither the soul nor the sincerity to openly avow 
what they secretly desired. 

But when all is considered, this part of his 
career has been made too much of in Mackenzie's 
life. Those who would immortalise him as the 
head of a poor abortive rebellion, which never 
at any time had the slightest chance of success, 
are his worst enemies. And while they pretend 
to represent him are really alien from the man's 
own true spirit and ideals at his best. It will 
not be until the world forgets his part in the 
Rebellion that it will be able to see the true 
Mackenzie at his highest and finest. When this 
cloak of mere party mist is withdrawn, and the 
clamour of party invective is quelled, it will be 
found that he was in many respects a great man, 
a great Highlander, a seer, a holder of remark- 
able ideals, and a true benefactor of his kind. It 
was to a great extent because of this that he was 
considered to be a failure in his own day. He 
was, in a sense, always in the clouds ; alone, 
withdrawn. Then, added to an exceedingly wide 
and clear vision as to how things should be, there 
was in his nature, as a natural result, a continual 
irritation at the imperfection of the life and con- 
ditions about him. He saw it continually in others 
and himself. This eternal weakness and the 


The Scotsman in Canada 

inability to cure or check it, immediately, bred in 
his sensitive nature a whole life's unhappiness. He 
had a certain kinship to Carlyle, the true poet's 
irritability at the eternal compromise with evil and 
imperfection and what is called the " mammon 
of unrighteousness." When this is fully realised 
by the student of his life, Mackenzie will be recog- 
nised as more than the mere idol of a few narrow 
present-day Upper Canadian zealots of a cause 
that they do not even pretend to live up to. He 
will then be found to be one with the whole Scottish 
race, as a representative of one of its most charac- 
teristic types, the martyr reformer. It is remark- 
able to see here the similarity to the case of the 
Earl of Argyll and his grandson, where the tragic 
personality of Mackenzie is justified and comple- 
mented in the personality of his already dis- 
tinguished grandson, the Hon. W. Lyon Mackenzie 
King, whose career of conciliation is dealt with 
in another part of this volume. 

But the world needs different types of men to 
sustain it, or else civilisation would go to pieces. 
When Darwin was studying marine biology on 
board ship, and on one occasion so forgetful of 
mundane affairs that he was not aware for some 
time that he had been standing in a tub of water, 
he was engaged in a great work for mankind. 
But meanwhile some one was necessarily in com- 
mand of the ship and watchful that all was safe 
while the great scientist carried on his researches. 

And so it was in Upper Canada ; while Mac- 
kenzie was voicing ideals of government, and 
suggesting reforms which have all been secured 

Mackenzie and Strachan 

since (and which, sad to say, are, many of them, 
now obsolete), men like Strachan and MacNab 
were needed at the helm of State. For, imperfect 
as things may be, the world must be carried on 
from day to day. And, seer as he was, Mackenzie 
could not voice and improve all things. There 
was a side to life, and a very necessary side, to 
which he was, by reason of his very intense 
temperament, perfectly oblivious, but to which John 
Strachan was very much alive, and to which he 
ministered in no small degree. 

To Strachan Canada owes a debt, as regards 
her culture and education, that she can never 
repay. He also stood for a much-needed con- 
servatism, which was the strong anchor of British 
connection, and a very necessary one in a small 
fringe of provinces bordering upon a large, aggres- 
sive, and alien republic. He was, like Mackenzie, 
small in stature ; but, like him, possessed a 
strong, dominant, and fiery spirit. Strachan was 
also somewhat of a poet. He wrote some very 
good verses and was a fine classical scholar. But 
his strong characteristic was his plain, common - 
sense, conservative power of controlling a com- 
munity, and his patience and determination in 
carrying his point. 

In some things those two remarkable little Scots- 
men were much alike. In an ideal state of society 
they might have worked together, and probably 
in the end did respect each other's character, while 
by temperament antagonistic to what each con- 
sidered the other's ideals. After all, they had 
much in common, and might in time have dis- 


The Scotsman in Canada 

covered that their objects were identical. But they 
might each be said to represent two strong 
essentials to the success of civilisation, namely, 
individualism and the community ideal. Mackenzie 
was in all ways a fervent apostle of the rights 
of the individual ; while Strachan stood rather 
for what he understood to be the good of the 
whole community. Both are in the end 
synonymous terms when taken rightly, as one 
depends on the other. But, herein, we have not 
done enough justice to men of the type of Strachan. 
He, like Mackenzie, though in a calmer tempera- 
ment, was equally uncompromising. In this 
respect also there was something in common 
between the two men. Strachan had virtually 
founded King's College, now Toronto University ; 
and then he lived to see it gradually lost to the 
Church and all his greatest life-work seemingly 
in vain. In his old age he had to start out anew 
after a hopeless struggle, and found another 
Church college, that of Trinity. He also lived 
to see many of his cherished ideals shattered and 
destroyed. He has been wrongfully regarded by 
many as narrow, hard, and domineering. But he 
spent his whole life in the work of his Church, 
and was a great missionary of the Anglican Com- 
munion in Upper Canada. Strachan's finest work 
for Canada, however, was in the direction of educa- 
tion ; and when our true history is written, he will 
be remembered as our greatest pioneer in this 
branch of our civilisation. 

Mackenzie also did much for the community. 
He was, in his ideas and ideals, far in advance 

Mackenzie and Strachan 

of his time. He also was deeply interested in 
culture and education. He had many practical 
ideas regarding the progress of the country. In 
1828 he suggested a scheme for the confedera- 
tion of British North America, which was very 
much what was carried out afterwards. He, too, 
appreciated many conservative principles. He was 
a firm believer in the British Constitution. He 
had really in his nature and heredity many of the 
Old World ideals of good stable government and 
authority. It would surprise some of his super- 
ficial admirers, who have read more about him 
than is true, to find in his writings such strong, 
sane, conservative, old-fashioned British concep- 
tions of many political and other matters. Finally, 
to close this comparison of the characters of 
Mackenzie and Strachan, it might be said thait, 
as regards the community, Mackenzie was most 
deeply interested in its improvement, and Strachan 
in its stability. In this both were right, though 
both were perhaps partial in their several ideals. 
Realising this, we find that both were needed ; 
that each performed a great work in his stead- 
fast, earnest, lifelong devotion to an ideal as each 
saw it. What more can any man do than this? 

To both of these men Canada owes much ; and 
all Canadians of Scottish extraction should feeil 
a glow of pride that the two most outstanding 
personalities of Old Upper Canada, the two men 
who really acted for the good of the community, 
were Scotsmen of such fine fibre and high ideals 
of citizenship as are represented in William Lyon 
Mackenzie and John Strachan. 




Who are these all marching past 

In vast procession ? 
They are those of many minds 

Who, good or ill, 
In various kinds 

Made one strong will 
To build the nation. 

IN the Parliaments of the United Provinces of 
Upper and Lower Canada from 1840 to 1867 
there were many Scotsmen. 

In the Parliament opened at Kingston on 
June 14, 1841, one half of the Legislative Council 
or Upper House were of Scottish extraction. Their 
names were : James Crooks, Adam Ferrie, Adam 
Ferguson, Alexander Fraser, John Fraser, John 
Hamilton, Robert S. Jamieson, John Macaulay, 
John Macdonald, Peter McGill, Thomas McKay, 
and William Morris. In the Lower House were 
the following Scottish Canadians : Upper Canada 
sent Sir Allan McNab, John Sandfield Mac 
donald, J. McGill Strachan, Malcolm Cameron, 

Scotsmen in Public Life 

James Morris, David Thornburn, E.G. Campbell, 
John Gilchrist, Donald McDonald, Alex. McLean, 
and Isaac Buchanan. Lower Canada sent John 
Hamilton, Colin Robertson, Robert Christie, Henry 
Black, David Burnett, John Neilson, and Michael 
McCulloch. A Scotsman, the Hon. Malcolm 
Cameron, moved the Address from the Throne, 
and another Scotsman, the Hon. John Neilson, 
answered for the French Canadians in their pro- 
test against the Union. The prominent men /of 
this period deserve some slight reference. John 
Sandfield Macdonald is referred to elsewhere. The 
Hon. Malcolm Cameron was Member for Lanark. 
His father, Angus Cameron, was a sergeant in 
the Army, who settled at Perth, Upper Canada, 
and kept an inn. The son started life as clerk 
in the distillery of the Hon. A. Graham. He was 
elected to Parliament for Lanark in 1836. He 
was made Inspector of Revenue, then Assistant 
Commissioner of Public Works, President of the 
Council, Postmaster-General, and was the first 
Minister of Agriculture. He sat during twenty- 
six years for several constituencies Lanark, Kent, 
Lambton, and Huron. 

Sir Allan McNab's career belongs partly to 
the Lyon Mackenzie and Strachan period. In 
1829 he was arrested for contempt of the House 
and sent to gaol ; but was in 1830 elected for 
Wentworth. In 1841 he was elected for Hamilton, 
which he represented until he retired in 1857. 
During the Rebellion he was Speaker of the 
Commons. In 1842 he led the Conservative 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Opposition. In 1841 he was again Speaker ; in 
1848 he again led the Opposition against the 
Rebellion Losses Bill. In 1854 he became 
Premier. In 1856 he retired, being succeeded in 
the Upper Canadian Leadership by his brilliant 
young Scottish colleague, John Alexander Mac- 
donald. He returned to England in 1856. He 
was created a Baronet ; returned to Canada, and 
was elected to the Upper House, and was Speaker 
in 1862. He died that year at his residence, 
Dundurn Castle, near Hamilton. He was a man 
of faults, but also of great abilities and fine 
qualities. He was a leading and noted personality 
in the history of the first half of the nineteenth 
century in Upper Canada. With Mackenzie and 
Strachan he makes the third in a strong group 
of Scottish leaders in the young colony. He was 
a man who was headstrong and blunt, but he 
was loyal and with a single purpose, and had the 
generous heart of the Highlander. He repre- 
sented, with Strachan, the best type of what was 
called the old-fashioned Tory in Upper Canada. 

The Hon. William Morris entered Parliament 
in 1820. He became a champion of the Church 
of Scotland in the Clergy Reserves question. 
Elected for Lanark in 1836, he was appointed the 
same year to the Legislative Council. In 1837 
he reorganised the Militia. As Receiver-General, 
under Lord Metcalfe from 1844 to 1846, he did 
good service for the country. He then became 
President of the Council, and died in 1848. He 
was noted for his honesty. He was born at Paisley, 

Scotsmen in Public Life 

in Scotland, in 1786. His father came to Canada, 
but failing in business, became a farmer. The 
Hon. Wm. Morris had a son, the Hon. Alex. 
Morris, Lieutenant -Governor of Manitoba. 

The Hon. James Morris, nephew of the above, 
was also born in Paisley, Scotland, in 1798, entered 
Parliament in 1837, and was appointed to the 
Legislative Council in 1844. He was Postmaster- 
General in 1858. He did much to reform the 
postal service. In 1853-54 he was Speaker of the 
Council. He died at Brockville in 1865. 

The Hon. Adam Ferguson was a pioneer in 
Upper Canada in scientific agriculture. He was 
born in Edinburgh in 1783, being the son of 
Neil Ferguson, Esq., of Woodhill, of a noted 
Perthshire family. He founded the village of 
Fergus, in Wellington County. His country resi- 
dence, near Hamilton, he called Woodhill, and 
he was a fine type of a class all too scarce in 
Canada, the gentleman farmer. His son, Adam 
Johnston Ferguson, was also prominent in 
Canadian public life, and represented in turn 
Waterloo and South Wellington. He was 
I Receiver-General and Provincial Secretary in 
I 1862. He inherited his mother's family estates, 
I and added the name Blair to that of Ferguson. 
I At Confederation Ferguson Blair was made a 
I Senator and President of the Council in the 
I Cabinet. 

The Hon. John Hamilton was a son of the 
I Hon. Robert Hamilton, of Queenston, who was 
i born in Scotland. The Senator was born in 1801. 

The Scotsman in Canada 

He was made a Senator at Confederation, and 
was President of the Commercial Bank. He re- 
sided at Kingston, and was called the father of 
the Canadian Senate. 

The Hon. James Leslie, who was born at Nairn, 
in Kincardineshire, in 1786, was another Scots- 
man, being a son of Capt. James Leslie, of the 
1 5th Foot, who was Assistant Quartermaster- 
General at the taking of Quebec under Wolfe. 
He was a prominent representative of Lower 

In 1841 the election in Toronto had three out 
of four candidates Scotsmen. They were George 
Munro, Hon. J. H. Dunn, and Isaac Buchanan. 
Munro was a leading citizen of Toronto. The 
Hon. Isaac Buchanan was born at Glasgow in 
1810. He became a prominent Canadian 
merchant and a leading Reformer of the moderate 
type, and was a member of several Governments. 

The Hon. Joseph Curran Morrison was born 
in Ireland, but was the son of Hugh Morrison, 
of Sutherlandshire, Scotland. Called to the Bar 
in 1839, he became the partner of the Hon. W. H. 
Blake. He was elected to West York in the 
Reform interest in 1847. He became Solicitor- 
General in 1854 and again in 1860. In 1862 
he was raised to the Bench in the Court of Common 

Chief Justice Sir Adam Wilson was a leading 

lawyer. He was born in Edinburgh, and came 

to Canada in 1830. He was the first Mayor of 

Toronto elected by the people. He represented 


Scotsmen in Public Life 

North York, and from 1862 to 1864 was Solicitor- 

Sir John Rose, Baronet, G.C.M.G., was a native 
of Aberdeen. Born in 1821 and educated at 
King's College, he came to Canada and became a 
member of the Montreal Bar in 1842. He entered 
Parliament in 1851, and the same year became 
Solicitor-General, and Commissioner of Public 
Works in 1859. He served as an Imperial Com- 
missioner, and in 1867 became Finance Minister. 
He retired in 1869. 

The Hon. James Patton was born at Prescott, 
Upper Canada, in 1824. His father was Major 
Andrew Patton, of St. Andrews, Fifeshire, and 
the 45th Regiment. His brother was Rector of 
Cornwall. He removed to Barrie, where he prac- 
tised law, and became a prominent Conservative. 
In 1856 he was elected to the Upper House for 
the Saugeen Division. He afterwards became 
Collector of Customs for Toronto. 

The Hon. John Young was a native of Ayr, in 
Scotland, where he was born in 1 8 1 1 . He came 
to Canada, and became active in raising a regiment 
to put down the 1837 Rebellion. He became a 
prominent merchant and citizen of Montreal. 
Representing Montreal, he became Commissioner 
of Public Works in 1 85 i . He was Harbour Com- 
imissioner of the port of Montreal, where he died 
in 1878. 

The Hon. James Ferrier, a noted merchant of 
Montreal, was born in Fifeshire in 1800. A 
Conservative and a Methodist, he was noted for 
VOL. i. z 353 

The Scotsman in Canada 

his energy and single-minded effort for good. He 
was appointed to the Upper House in 1867. 

Hon. David Christie was born in Edinburgh in 
1818. He entered Parliament in 1851 for Went- 
worth, Upper Canada. Elected to the Legislative 
Council in 1858, he became a Senator in 1867. He 
was Secretary of State in the Mackenzie Cabinet 
in 1873, then Speaker of the Senate. He accom- 
plished much for Upper Canadian agriculture. 

A list of some of the leading Scottish Senators 
since Confederation will include some notable 
personalities in the Upper Chamber. 

One of the earliest was Lieut. -Col. the Hon. 
Walter Hamilton Dickson, representing Niagara. 
His father, a Scotsman, sat in the Upper Canadian 
Legislative Council. Col. Dickson was born in 
1805, and was one of the first Dominion Senators. 

The Hon. George William Allan, who became 
Speaker, was also a son of a former member of 
the Legislative Council of Upper Canada, the Hon. 
William Allan. Mr. Allan was born in 1822 in 
Toronto. He held many distinguished positions 
and was made one of the first Dominion Senators. 
There is a portrait of him in the Senate Gallery 
at Ottawa. 

The Hon. David Lewis McPherson, a noted 
Canadian Highlander, was born in Inverness in 
1 8 1 8 . He was a successful business man, railroad 
financier, and bank director. He was made 
Speaker of the Senate in 1880. His portrait is 
in the Senate Gallery. 

The Hon. John McMurich was a member of the 
old Canadian Legislative Council. He was a 

Scotsmen in Public Life 

prominent citizen of Toronto, though not a member 
of the Dominion Senate. His son, William Barclay 
McMurich, was twice Mayor of Toronto. 

The Hon. Roderick Matheson, descended of that 
old Highland family of Ross-shire and Suther- 
land, was born in Ross -shire, and was a lieutenant 
in the Glengarry Light Infantry in 1812. He 
was called to the Senate in 1867. He died in 

The Hon. John Simpson was born at Rothes, 
near Elgin. His parents were among the Scottish 
settlers at Perth, Upper Canada. He was a banker 
and founded the Ontario Bank. He was one 
of the original Dominion Senators in 1867. Of 
the first two Senators for Manitoba one was a 
Scotsman, the Hon. John Sutherland, of Kildonan. 
His father, Alexander Sutherland, was a Scottish 
soldier, who was of the Kildonan settlement in 

A distinguished Senator representing British 
Columbia is the Hon. William John Macdonald, 
whose father was Major Alexander Macdonald, of 
Skye. Senator Macdonald is of a noted family 
in Western Scotland. He was born in Inverness - 
shire in 1832, and emigrated to British Columbia 
in 1851 as an employee of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany. He became a prominent citizen of Victoria, 
and was called to the Senate in 1871. 

Another Senator for British Columbia was the 
late Governor of that province, the Hon. T. R. 
Mclnnes. His parents were from Inverness and 
Paisley, but he was born at Lake Ainslie, Nova 
Scotia, in 1.840. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

The Hon. Adam Hope was born in East Lothian, 
Scotland, in 1813. He settled at St. Thomas in 
1837, removing thence to London and thence to 
Hamilton, where he built up a prosperous business. 
He entered the Senate in 1877. 

The Hon. George Alexander was born in 
Banffshire in 1814, and educated at Aberdeen 
University. He was a noted provincial agricul- 
turist. He was called to the Senate in 1873. 

The Hon. Alexander Morris was born in Perth, 
Upper Canada, in 1826. He was the son of the 
Hon. William Morris. His father came from 
Paisley. Mr. Morris was educated at Glasgow 
and McGill Universities, and studied law. He 
was a distinguished writer on public questions. 
He entered Parliament in 1861 and the Govern- 
ment in 1869 as Minister of Inland Revenue. He 
was, in succession, Chief Justice of Manitoba and 
Lieutenant -Governor of that province. 

The following were some prominent Commoners 
of this period : Thomas Bain, Member for North 
Went worth. He was born in Stirlingshire in 1834. 
He became Speaker of the Commons. David 
Blair, LL.D., born near Ayr in 1832, of an old 
family, taught school and studied law, elected 
Member for West York in 1872. 

Lieut. -Col. James Brown, of Belleville, Member 
for West Hastings, was born in Scotland in 

Daniel B. Chisholm was a Member 
Hamilton in 1872 and in 1874- He was a son 
of Col. George Chisholm and grandson of Mr. 
Chisholm, who came, from Inverness. 

Scotsmen in Public Life 

Robert Cunningham, elected in 1872 Member 
for Marquette, was born in Ayrshire. 

The Hon. Peter White, P.C., born in Edin- 
burgh, and son of Peter White, Esq., of Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, represented North Renfrew for 
many years in the Commons. Chosen Speaker 
of the Commons under the later Conservative 
regime, he was one of the ablest Speakers Canada 
ever had. He was highly respected by men of 
all parties. His son has since represented the 
same constituency. 

Sir James David Edgar, son of James Edgar, 
who emigrated from Keithock, Scotland, in 1840, 
was born in 1841 in the Eastern Townships, Lower 
Canada. He was Member for South Ontario, and 
elected Speaker of the Commons in 1896 and was 
knighted the same year. 

Sir James Alexander Grant, K.C.M.G., Member 
for Russell County, was born in Inverness -shire in 
1829. Was a son of Dr. Grant. He became a 
noted Canadian physician. He has had a long and 
active life, and has received many honours. He 
has just lately received the freedom of his own 
old city of Inverness. He has been president of 
many scientific and learned societies. 

William Macdougall was born in Scotland in 
1831 ; represented Three Rivers, Quebec, in 
Parliament . 

Angus Morrison, son of Hugh Morrison, and 
brother of the Hon. Justice Morrison of the Ontario 
Bench, represented North Simcoe from 1858 to 
1863 and Niagara in 1867. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Thomas Oliver, born in Scotland, represented 
North Oxford from 1866 to 1888. 

The Hon. William Patterson, Minister of 
Customs for the Dominion, has represented 
South Brant since 1872. He was born in 
1839. His father came from Aberdeen. He has 
long been one of the Liberal leaders for Ontario. 

James Young represented North Brant in the 
Ontario Legislature. He was born at Gait in 1835, 
elected to Commons for South Walerton in 1867, 
and again in 1872 and 1874. 

James Findlay was Member for North Renfrew. 
He succeeded a Mr. Rankin, another Scotsman. 
He defeated the Hon. Peter White, who after- 
wards represented the Riding and became Speaker 
of the Commons and a Privy Councillor. 

We have since had many noted Senators of 
Scottish origin, among them the late Hon. Sir 
George Drummond, Hon. David McKeen, of Nova 
Scotia ; Sir George Ross, late Premier of Ontario ; 
the late Senator Lauderkin, Ontario ; Hon. Robert 
Mackay, Montreal ; Hon. Robert B. Angus, Mon- 
treal ; Sir Richard Scott, Ottawa ; Hon. Archi- 
bald Campbell, Ontario ; Hon. R. Meighan, 
Montreal ; the late Hon. David McLaren, of 
Perth; Hon. J. C. Edwards, Ottawa; Hon. 
Robert Jaffray, Toronto ; Senator McMullen, 
Ontario ; and the Hon. J. K. Kerr, K.C., of 
Toronto, the present able Speaker of the Senate. 

Among the Members of Parliament Scotsmen 

have been represented in the different counties 

by some noted Commoners, many of whom have 

since gone to the Upper Chamber, to the Cabinet, 


Scotsmen in Public Life 

or other positions, and have been mentioned in 
other chapters of this volume. Among the most 
noted of the later Commoners was the Hon. 
Justice Sutherland of the High Court of Ontario, 
who was one of the most accomplished and able 
Speakers of the House of Commons. He is a 
fine scholar, a brilliant lecturer, and an enthu- 
siastic Scotsman. Justice Sutherland is one of 
the most distinguished members of the Canadian 
Bench. In the present Dominion Cabinet are four 
men of Scottish extraction Hon. Sydney Fisher, 
Hon. William Patterson, Hon. George P. Graham, 
of Ulster-Scottish descent, and Hon. W. L. 
Mackenzie King. Another prominent Commoner 
is Mr. Guthrie, an able lawyer and speaker, who 
is likely to enter the Cabinet. His father was 
a well-known Scottish-Canadian Commoner in the 
Ontario Legislature. 

In New Brunswick the late Hon. Andrew G. 
Blair, Minister of Railways and Canals for Canada, 
was a noted example. He had been for years 
Premier of New Brunswick, and was one of the 
ablest Canadian administrators. In Nova Scotia 
the Hon. W. A. Murray, who has been for many 
years Premier of that province, is another instance 
of able Maritime Scotsmen. 

In Ontario the Hon. John Strathearn Hendrie, 
the Hons. J. M. Gibson (the present Lieutenant- 
Governor), Samuel Nelson Monteith, Arthur James 
Matheson, William John Hanna, and J. G. 
Mackay (leader of the Ontario Opposition), repre- 
sent a host of men of Scottish or Ulster-Scottish 
origin who are active in Provincial public life. 




Out-worn without assoil, 

From a great life's lengthened toil, 
Laurelled with half a century's fame ; 

From the care and adulation 

To the heart-throb of the nation 
He hath passed to be a memory and a name. 

Him of the wider vision, 

Who had one hope, Elysian, 
To mould a mighty Empire toward the West ; 

Who through the hostile years, 

'Mid the wrangling words, like spears, 
Still bore this Titan vision in his breast. 

"The Dead Leader." 

IN treating of Canadian political life of the 
period before and during the quarter-century 
following Confederation, one figure stands out pre- 
eminently as the dominating personality namely, 
that of the great Scottish-born statesman, the 
Right Hon. Sir John Alexander Macdonald. 
Though many distinguished and remarkable 
leaders throng the period, among them all with 
common consent, irrespective of party or other 

Sir John Alexander Macdonald 

considerations, he stands out and makes the time 
particularly his own. So much is this so, that, 
as in the case of Lincoln, the great American, 
the history of the forty or fifty years of Canadian 
struggle and development of the last half of the 
nineteenth century might reasonably be called 
" The History of Sir John A. Macdonald and his 
Times." Few men in the annals of the Empire 
have so dominated a whole period, and made it 
so much their own, as is represented in the career 
of this remarkable man. 

The only other parallel cases are those of 
Disraeli and Gladstone in Britain. But even in 
those cases each had a rival in the other, whereas 
Macdonald had none to challenge his long political 
sway over the hearts, minds, and imaginations of 
a whole people. It is not denied that he had 
many contemporaries, such as Howe, Mackenzie, 
Brown, Blake, and Tupper, who might have 
challenged his supremacy in some respects, and 
others who were his superiors as orators, jurists, 
and scholars ; but in some subtle way, by jthe 
very genius of an innate personality, he stood out 
and was acknowledged as the great political leader, 
who was so strong in the people's hearts and so 
held their imaginations that they allowed him to 
accomplish much, and forgave him more than they 
have ever any other public man before or since. 
It would be absurd to say that Maddonald had 
no faults. Indeed, he was a man, like Burns, all 
compounded of faults. But, as in Burns's case, 
they were the large, human faults of genius. So 


The Scotsman in Canada 

that even in his weaknesses he was brought nearer 
to the sympathy of his fellow-men. But this was 
not all. Men of the highest ideals and the 
straightest, narrowest life respected and honoured 
John Alexander Macdonald, because they felt that 
at core he was a man with the instincts of a 
true man and a gentleman, who respected and 
realised the best ideals of the British heredity and 
the British community. They felt that he was, in 
spite of all, a true British statesman and a loyal 
servant of the Crown and the Empire. Then, he 
had in himself by birth and environment, and he 
appreciated it in others, that innate refinement and 
love of culture which dominated his life and helped 
him in influencing the community of his day. 

He never claimed the power of an orator with 
the wizard locks and the flashing eye, who welded 
Jove's lightnings into his words. On the other 
hand, he generally spoke quietly and simply what 
he had to say. But when he had need to say 
anything important, there was a strange power 
of persuasion in his words and personality that 
carried weight where often his more rhetorical 
lieutenants and opponents failed. It was said of 
him that he picked other men's brains. This in 
a sense might be true. There is no doubt he knew 
how to gather about him able followers, and that 
he organised and developed their gifts for the 
comtaon good. But this is a sign of the highest 
genius in a leader or ruler ; and few men had this 
gift more finely developed than Macdonald. To 
write at length of him is a work of supereroga- 

Sir John Alexander Macdonald 

tion ; his whole distinguished career is so well 
known. But, in short, he was the greatest political 
leader that Canada has ever known, and one of 
the few great political personalities in the history 
of the Empire. He will live for ever in Canadian 
history as the supreme father of Confederation. 
Without being a student in any particular line of 
thought, he was a man of general reading jand 
culture, and never appeared at a loss for a word 
or a phrase. He had a wide fund of anecdotes, 
and possessed the remarkable power of keeping 
silent until the moment for necessary speech arose. 
He was greatly admired in Britain, where he was 
considered to resemble Lord Beaconsfield. The 
real lasting greatness of Sir John A. Macdonald 
will be found to have its base in the fact that 
he was a great Imperialist and Empire-builder. 
In all of his work he never seemed to lose sight of 
this idea. His was a commanding, complete, and 
well-balanced greatness, which combined many 
subtly blended gifts of insight, resource, and tact 
with a commensurate knowledge of character. But 
two even greater qualities made the man what 
he was. These were a supreme intellectuality 
which, without intruding itself, permeated and con- 
trolled his life ; and the other was a great human 
sympathy which only one other Canadian, Joseph 
Howe, possessed in so great a degree. 

Macdonald's Scottish origin is significant. Like 
many another noted Canadian, he hailed from the 
far north Highlands. His early friend, Oliver 
Mowat, came of Caithness stock. Macdonald's 


The Scotsman in Canada 

immediate ancestors came from Sutherlandshire . 
To my mind, there is no more beautiful part of 
the world than this historical old Scottish shire, 
which stretches across Scotland in the far north, 
from Assint to the Dornoch Firth. 

In the east of this shire lies the quaint old town 
or Royal Burgh of Dornoch, with its ruined 
Bishop's Palace and ancient cathedral. Near here 
lies Skibo Castle, another ancient place, now the 
old-world home of that famous Scotsman, Andrew 
Carnegie. North of Dornoch is Dunrobin Castle, 
the chief seat in the north ,of the Duke of Suther- 
land ; and south of Golspie, the station at Dun- 
robin, is a grim old glen or valley stretching 
down the hills to the sea dalled Rogart. Here, 
in the old days of the eighteenth century, v^as 
the first home in the north of this particular family 
of Macdonialds, who had moved north from 
Western Ross and the Isles, the great home of 
the Macdonald clan. Sir John had his book-plate 
in all his books, with the Macdonald arms and 
crest, the cross crosslet, and the galley, and the 
famous motto, " Per mare per terras." But it 
is not known from what special branch of the 
clan his people descended. Sutherland, with 
Strathnaver, was the great country of the Mackays, 
who were, with the Sutherlands, the Macleods of 
Assint on the west and the Sinclairs on the north- 
east, the prevailing people. But into this great 
region of the clans of the cat and the muzzled 
bears several septs of western clans and southern 
families intruded. During the Breadalbane in- 

Sir John Alexander Macdonald 

vasion of Caithness came some Campbells and 
Macdonalds . There was in this Reay country 
during the eighteenth century a famous Presby- 
terian divine, the Rev. Murdoch Macdonald, called 
the Apostle of the North, from whom some 
Macdonalds of Pictou, Nova Scotia, are descended. 

It must have been of this stock that Sir John's 
forbears in the Mackay and Sutherland county 
came or to which it had affiliation. In the thirty- 
sixth year of the eighteenth century John Mac- 
donald, grandfather of the great Canadian Premier, 
was born. He was reared at Rogart, and early 
in his youth he was put to a business in the 
neighbouring town of Dornoch. He rose by 
prudence and patience to a high place in the town, 
ultimately becoming its Provost. He was married in 
1778 to Miss Jean Macdonald, of Rogart, who was, 
no doubt, his own cousin. He had a large family, 
and died in 1822. His second son, Hugh Mac- 
donald, was born in Rogart in 1782. He removed 
to Glasgow, and acquired a more extensive busi- 
ness. He married Helen Shaw, daughter of James 
Shaw and his wife, Margaret Grant. 

They had five children, three sons and two 
daughters, all born in Glasgow ; and one of them 
was the future Canadian Prime Minister. In 1820 
Mr. Hugh Macdonald, finding his business affairs 
unsatisfactory, emigrated to Canada and settled 
in Kingston. John Alexander, the second son, 
was born on January u, 1815, and was five years 
old when he arrived in Canada. Though his father 
was in a material sense a failure, the son was 


The Scotsman in Canada 

early equipped for his future life. Hugh Mac- 
donald tried several places of residence, living for 
some years on the shores of the picturesque Bay 
of Quinte, in the county of Prince Edward, near 
Belleville. The biography of his distinguished son 
is well known to all ; his life as a student at 
Kingston, his legal studies, local practice, and 
subsequent political career are all recorded. 

This short account of his connection with the 
north of Scotland is all that is necessary for the 
purpose of this volume. Sir John Alexander Mac- 
donald, like his great kinsman Sir William 
Alexander, was one of the few most remarkable 
and outstanding personalities of a breed of men 
unusually great in the history of Scotland and 
the world. In his passing we know that 

A mighty heart is still, 

And a great unconquered will 

Has passed to meet the Conqueror all must meet. 




" Then none were for the party t 
And all were for the State " ; 
That was the larger national hour 
When all were truly great; 
All petty warfare vanished quite 
In the weal of the people's fate. 

THE public life of Sir John A. Macdonald was 
associated with the careers of many other 
noted men, some of them his lieutenants and others 
his opponents, in Canadian political life. It is* 
not hard to understand, after all that has been 
shown so far in this volume, that many of these 
were Scotsmen or at least men of Scottish extrac- 
tion. In the list of the Canadian Fathers of 
Confederation it will be found that the great 
majority were of Scottish extraction. 

At the Charlottetown Conference of 1864, among 
the representatives from what was then Canada, 
aside from the two French-Canadians, Cartier and 
Langevin, all the delegates were of Scottish birth 


The Scotsman in Canada 

or extraction. They were Macdonald, Brown, Gait* 
Macdougall, Campbell, and McGee. These six 
men were among the most noted statesmen of 
their time in Canada. The Nova Scotia con- 
tingent sent to London to oppose the Union was 
composed of three delegates Joseph Howe and 
two Scottish Canadians, the Hon. William Annand 
and Hugh Macdonald, both distinguished men. 
Nova Scotia, like Old Scotia in its union with 
England, stood out for better terms ; and she got 
them in a million dollars more toward the Pro- 
vincial debt, with other advantages. While Howe 
and Tupper were the chief political leaders, the 
greater portion of the others were of Scottish 
origin. Among these were Annand, Macdonald, 
McLellan, Stewart, Campbell, Sir William Young, 
and his brilliant brothers, George and Charles 

The Quebec Conference of 1864 was composed 
of thirty-three members- from the different pro- 
vinces and Newfoundland. Canada sent twelve, 
and of these eight were of Scottish extraction. 
Nova Scotia sent five, and four were of Scottish 
extraction. New Brunswick sent seven, and five 
of these were of Scottish origin ; and Prince 
Edward Island out of her seven delegates sent 
three Scotsmen. 

The names will .be interesting in this connec- 
tion : Canada Hon. J. A. Macdonald, Attorney- 
General of Canada West ; Hon. George Brown, 
President of Executive Council for Canada ; Hon. 
Alexander T. Gait, Finance Minister ; Hon. Alex- 

Scotsmen of the Confederation Period 

ander Campbell, Commissioner of Crown Lands ; 
Hon. Thomas D. McGee, Minister of Agriculture ; 
Hon. William Macdougall, Provincial Secretary ; 
Hon. James Cockburn, Solicitor-General. Canada 
West Hon. Oliver Mowat, Postmaster-General. 
Nova Scotia Hon. William A. Henry, Attorney- 
General ; Hon. Robt. B. Dickie, Hon. Adams G. 
Archibald, Hon. Jonathan McCully. New Bruns- 
wick Hon. Peter Mitchell, Provincial Secretary 
and Premier ; Hon. John M. Johnson, Attorney- 
General ; Hon. W. H. Steeves ; Chas. Fisher ; 
Hon. J. H. Gray. Prince Edward Island Hon. 
John Hamilton Gray, Premier ; Hon. Andrew 
Archibald Macdonald, Hon. Thomas Heath 

As these men will be famous in our national 
history as the fathers, or representative makers, 
of Confederation, it is interesting and very signi- 
cant to realise that the greater majority of these 
leaders were of Scottish origin. For this reason 
it will be well to give a short account of their 
careers and of their connection with Scotland. 
Associated with them were other noted men of 
this period who should also be added to this list, 
such as the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, Sir John 
Macdonald's noted opponent and leader of the 
Liberal Party, and the Hon. John Sandfield Mac- 
donald, the leading political genius of Old Upper 
Canada of the Middle period. 

The Hon. George Brown, like Sir John A. 
Macdonald, was a Scotsman born, and, like his 
great rival, brought the elements of Scottish life 

VOL. I. AA 369 

The Scotsman in Canada 

and tradition into Canadian politics. He also is 
so well known a personality in Canadian public 
life that, unless something new be added, it is 
superfluous to say anything. 

Aside from all his other qualities as a public 
man and his great contribution to the cause of 
Confederation, George Brown will ever stand in 
Canadian history as the very heart and soul of 
the great old Liberal Party of Upper Canada. 
When there was such a party in the golden age 
of Canadian Liberalism, without doubt one man 
alone stood as its acknowledged leader, and his 
paper, the Globe, was its organ, and that man 
was George Brown. He had in himself all ,the 
true qualities, ideals, and prejudices of that strong 
and important element in our people. In his day, 
party did not mean merely the " ins " and the 
"outs." It was a day of no compromise with 
the " scarlet woman " of Opposition. There was 
a strong element of the " no compromise " of 
William Lyon Mackenzie abroad. And of the 
staid, pious, sturdy, G/o& -reading, Presbyterian 
Scottish Reformer George Brown was the one 
accepted and ideal leader. 

I am not saying that this was the only good 
element in the community far from it or that 
there was no good in the other party. But if 
there was a weakness in the Conservative element, 
which might have proved dangerous to the public, 
it was a tendenc]^ to opportunism, which met a 
stern foe in the old-time Upper Canadian Re- 
formers. They were, no doubt, narrow, and what 

Scotsmen of the Confederation Period 

is termed " hide-bound/* in some respects, lack- 
ing that suave spirit of easy toleration, or apparent 
toleration, which may often be spelled " indiffer- 
ence," which sits so gracefully on the shoulders 
of some present-day politicians of both parties. 
But it was a part of the Scottish angularity and 
steady maintenance of Protestantism in Religion 
and State that stood out for its principles. The 
old-time free school and free education (free 
from the Church influence), the stern keeping of 
the Sabbath, the equality of man, the purity of 
public life, the right of the people to rule them- 
selves, already voiced in a more extreme manner 
and finely accentuated by that great forerunner of 
Reform principle, Lyon Mackenzie, became estab- 
lished and crystallised in the Upper Canadian 
Reform Party under the influence and aegis of 
George Brown and his great organ the Globe. 
It was said of Brown that he was too narrow an 
Upper Canadian to be a true representative of 
the whole Dominion. But the same might be 
said of Howe, who was all for Nova Scotia. It 
can be said for Brown that he was just as much 
the crystallisation of the thought, ideal, and con- 
ditions of the great Scottish element of Upper 
Canada as was Howe of the New England element 
in Nova Scotia. He was a true Upper Canadian 
leader when there was a great Scottish Reform 
Party to lead. Cartier was no broader than Brown 
in that he stood solely and alone for Quebec and 
her rights and ideals in the Dominion. It must 
also be remembered that all these men belonged 


The Scotsman in Canada 

to a day when British North America was only 
a bundle of provinces, anci when the idea of the 
Dominion was no more than a confederation of 
compromise. It is true that as a whole the Con- 
federation was a good thing for all Canada. But 
it must not be forgotten that in some respects, 
with the exception of Quebec, every Provincial 
community has suffered as the result of the Con- 
federation. In the history of that period such 
men as Brown, who had strong sectional and local 
affiliations and prejudices, must necessarily suffer 
in contrast with others who only cared for the 
large general result. But Brown has never been 
done justice to, and this is largely due to the 
fact that he would not give up his strong principles 
for the sake of passing popularity. 

He was born in Edinburgh in 1 82 1 . His father 

was Mr. Peter Brown, formerly a merchant and 

bailie of that city, but ended his days in Toronto. 

They were a family evidently of journalistic 

ambitions. Peter Brown founded the British 

Chronicle in New York City in 1842; but his 

criticism of American institutions was not well 

received. He was a strong champion of Britain, 

and his " The Fame and Glory of England," an 

answer to Lester's " Shame and Glory pf England," 

shows his staunch loyalty to British institutions. 

George Brown removed to Toronto in 1843 ; and 

on March 5th of the following year the first number 

of the greatest Canadian weekly appeared. This 

organ of the Reform Party has ever since con- 

tinued to be the leading mouthpiece of Britisl 


Scotsmen of the Confederation Period 

Liberalism in Canada. His death at the hand 
of an assassin cast a gloom over the country, and 
the influence of a dominant spirit in Canadian 
public life was brought to a sudden termination 
on May 9, 1880. On the accession to power in 
1873 of his friend the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, 
Brown had been called to the Senate. The next 
year he was sent to Washington in connection 
with the Reciprocity Treaty. For the rest of his 
life his chief energies, outside of the Senate, were 
exerted through his paper the Globe. 

He had certain qualities, those of fixed devotion 
to stern principles that made him impossible as 
a leader of a party in a mixed community like 
that of Canada after Confederation. But without 
doubt he was the real successor of Lyon Mackenzie, 
just as Alexander Mackenzie succeeded him. It 
is a remarkable fact, and one well worth realising, 
that these three noted Scottish Canadians, all born 
in the Motherland, who were the natural leaders 
of the Scottish Reformers of Canada, had much in 
common. They were all, to a certain extent, 
hampered in their success as popular leaders by 
their stern idealism and hatred of compromise. 
This characteristic in many ways constituted the 
real power and virtue of the old Canadian 
Liberalism. But it also prevented the party from 
being widely accepted as the ruling force in the 
founding of the Confederation and its early de- 
velopment ; and this in spite of the fact that 
Lyon Mackenzie and George Brown were the 
earliest and most enthusiastic Conf ederationists . 


The Scotsman in Canada 

A noted Scotsman, who has been since George 
Brown's day the real mainstay of the Globe, is 
Senator Jaffray. He is a man of the finest ideals 
and great ability and tenacity of character. 
Canada owes much to Senator Jaffray for his 
steady determination through many years to keep 
the Globe as a high-class Canadian journal and 
to maintain the best Reform principles in its 
columns . 

The Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, who succeeded 
George Brown as actual leader of the Reform 
Party, was one of the most notable personalities 
in Canadian political history. He was the only 
real rival to Sir John A. Macdonald, whom 
as leader of the Opposition he succeeded in power 
from 1873 to 1878. He was born on January 28, 
1822, at Logierait, in Perthshire, Scotland ; so 
that he was a true Highlander. He was educated 
as a builder and contractor, and studied at Perth 
and Dunkeld. Being the third of seven sons, all 
of whom came to Canada, he had to shift for him- 
self. In 1842 he and his elder brother, Hope 
Mackenzie, afterwards Member for Lambton, came 
to this country. He worked for some time as 
a journeyman builder at Kingston, before finally 
settling in Sarnia. In 1852 he started the 
Lambton Shield, which he edited; and in 1861 
succeeded his brother, entering public life as 
Member for Lambton. A Whig in Scotland, he 
supported Sandfield Macdonald, and strongly 
favoured Confederation, but was opposed to any 
coalition of party for that purpose. On the defeat 

Scotsmen of the Confederation Period 

of Brown in 1867, Mackenzie succeeded to the 
leadership. In Ontario, 1871-72, he was 
Treasurer in Blake's Administration of the 
Local Government; and in 1873 he became 
Premier of the Dominion, which position he held 
for five years. 

Mackenzie's name stands forth in our political 
annals for sterling honesty and a desire to serve 
the people faithfully. He has been ever since 
spoken of as the watch-dog of the Treasury ; and 
by some his ultimate defeat has been ascribed to 
his too faithful guardianship of the public trust. 

A noted Father of the Canadian Confederation, 
who was of Scottish extraction, was the Hon. 
William Macdougall. He and his father were both 
born in Canada. His grandfather was a Scottish 
soldier, who served in the Commissioned Depart- 
ment of the British Army, and settled at Shel- 
burne, Nova Scotia, after the Revolution, and 
subsequently removed to Upper Canada on the 
founding of the province. William Macdougall 
was born on January 25, 1822, and lived to an 
extreme old age. Educated at Victoria College, 
he studied law, becoming an attorney in 1847. 
But he also entered journalism, and edited the 
Canadian Farmer, subsequently the Canadian Agri- 
culturist. In 1 8 50 he founded the North American, 
in opposition to the Globe, and proposed many 
radical changes in elective and municipal bodies, 
with other bold reforms. In 1857 his paper was 
merged in the Globe, and in 1858 he entered 
Parliament. In 1862 he entered the Macdonald- 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Sicotte Government. He took part in the Union 
Conferences in 1866-67. He early evinced an 
interest in the North-West, and had somewhat to 
do with the bringing of that part of Canada into 
the Dominion, and, as was fitting, became its first 
Lieutenant-Governor. His unfortunate experiences 
with the half-breeds is a part of our history. Of 
a cool temperament and logical mind, he was a 
noted debater, but was too much of a free-lance 
by nature to ever stay long in party trammels, 
and paid the penalty as a public man. 

Sir Alexander Tilloch Gait was a distinguished 
Scotsman in our politics. He and his able brother, 
the Hon. Justice Gait, were noted sons of a noted 
father, the famous Scottish novelist and coloniser 
of Upper Canada, John Gait, founder of Goderich 
and Guelph, and for whom the city of Gait was 
named. Alexander Tilloch Gait was born at 
Chelsea, in England, in 1817, and showed at an 
early age literary proclivities, at the age of four- 
teen contributing to Frasefs Magazine. At the 
age of sixteen he entered the British and American 
Land Company, operating in the Eastern Town- 
ships of Lower Canada, and by his energy 
improved its condition. 

In 1839 he was elected Member for Sherbrook 
as a Liberal, but opposed the Rebellion Losses 
Bill, and was one of the signers of the notorious 
annexation manifesto of the same year. From that 
time he showed a strongly loyal spirit toward the 
Empire and British connection. He later became 
a Liberal -Conservative. He early showed his ability 


Scotsmen of the Confederation Period 

in finance. In 1858 Sir Edmund Head called 
on him to form a Government, but he refused. 
In the same year he became Inspector-General 
in the Cartier-Macdonald Government. In 1864 
he was again made Finance Minister. From this 
on he was an active worker for Confederation, 
being a member of all the Conferences. In 1865 
he went to Washington in connection with a reci- 
procity treaty. In 1867 he was made Finance 
Minister, but the same autumn retired through 
differences with the Government over financial 
conditions. In 1878 he was knighted by the 
Queen. He was on many international commis- 
sions, and was one of the suggesters of the national 
policy of Protection. He was afterwards High 
Commissioner for Canada in England. He was 
one of Canada's ablest financiers and debaters. 
With a consummate tact he always commanded 
the respect and attention of Parliament and the 

Two noted Scottish Canadians among the 
Fathers of Confederation, who were closely con- 
nected with Sir John A. Macdonald, were Sir 
Oliver Mowat and Sir Alexander Campbell. Their 
names are also coupled here with his, because, 
like Macdonald, they were educated and started 
their legal careers in what I have dared to 
designate as the Aberdeen of Canada, quaint and 
historical old Kingston. It is more than interesting 
that there in that classic old lakeside military and 
University town, called the Limestone city, three 
great Scottish Canadians made their first essay 


The Scotsman in Canada 

toward public and professional success ; and that 
they were associated with a fourth noted Canadian, 
the Right Hon. Sir Richard Cartwright, the present 
Minister of Trade and Commerce for the Dominion, 
who, through his mother, is of Ulster-Scottish 

Sir Oliver Mowat, who was for years one of 
the chief public leaders of Canada, being Premier 
of Ontario and afterwards Minister of Justice in 
the first Laurier Cabinet, was born in Kingston, 
Upper Canada, in 1820, his father, a native of 
Canisbay, Caithness-shire, Scotland, being a promi- 
nent citizen of that place. Sir Oliver was proud 
of the fact that he was a descendant of the Mowats 
of Bucholie Castle, in the extreme north of the 
northern shire of Caithness, in Scotland. Caith- 
ness is, with Orkney, the famed Norse country 
of Scotland, the land of the Sinclairs, Gunns, 
Swansons, and other peoples of almost pure 
Norse descent. This young Norse Scotsman 
was, from the first, a student, and had 
ambitions for a public career. Like Macdonald 
and Campbell, he chose the legal profession. He 
was also a Presbyterian, his father being one of 
the founders of Queen's University and a pro- 
minent member of St. Andrew's Church. Young 
Mowat studied for a time in John Alexander Mac- 
donald's law office. The two men had much in 
common, and posesssed many similar qualities 
of mind which made them both such astute 
politicians. Here the similarity ended. Macdonald 
was tall, and had a striking personal appearance. 

Scotsmen of the Confederation Period 

Mowat was small and of no great oratorical pr 
other powers to attract the superficial observer. 
But, in spite of this, there was something 1 about 
this little, shrewd, kindly Scotsman that made men 
accept him as a leader of his fellows. He was 
" canny " and a man of few words, but had great 
political insight ; and as a leader of Ontario 
Liberals soon made his great fellow-townsman 
respect him. While a Liberal in politics, Mowat 
was by instinct and ideals a good deal of a Con- 
servative ; and there was a great sympathy of 
ideas between him and Sir John. Mowat served 
his province and the Dominion well, and was 
always a staunch upholder of the Union of the 
Empire. In recognition of this, and for his long 
political service, he received from the late Queen 
the honour of knighthood, an honour but lately 
granted to his able lieutenant and successor, that 
eloquent and fervid Scotsman and astute states- 
man, Sir George William Ross, who is, without 
doubt, one of Canada's strongest and most gifted 
public men now living. 

Sir Alexander Campbell, the third in the noted 
political Scottish trio, was also a Kingstonian, 
though he happened to be born in England, in the 
year 1821. His father was Dr. James Campbell, of 
the great Argyll clan, who had removed into York- 
shire, whence he emigrated to Canada when his son 
was only two years old. Sir Alexander's early educa- 
tion was at the hands of a Presbyterian minister 
at Lachine, Quebec, where his father first settled 
and practised medicine. On the latter's removal 


The Scotsman in Canada 

to Kingston the future Minister and Lieut enant- 
Governor attended the Royal Grammar School at 
that place, which was taught by Mr. George 
Baxter, a fine classical scholar and the father- 
in-law of William Lyon Mackenzie. Campbell 
studied law, and in 1839 became a pupil of his 
great leader, with whom he remained as a student 
until 1842, when he became his partner. A dis- 
tinguished and successful lawyer, he entered 
politics as a Conservative, becoming Member in 
the Legislative Council for the Cataraqui Division. 
In 1863 he became Speaker of the Council. In 
1864 the Governor-General asked him to form a 
Government, Sir John A. Macdonald resigning in 
his favour. But he declined the honour, though 
accepting office in the new Government. This 
position he held in all the Coalition Governments 
until Confederation, in which he took an active 
part. He was the leading advocate of the move- 
ment in the Upper House. He was one of the 
first of those called to the Dominion Senate by 
her Majesty's Proclamation in May, 1867, and 
became the Conservative leader in that Chamber. 
He was the first Dominion Postmaster-General, 
and, six years later, the first Minister of the 
Interior. He was sent to England in 1870 on 
diplomatic business, which resulted in the 
Washington Treaty. In 1878 he was Receiver- 
General in Sir John's second Government ; but 
soon after became once more Postmaster-General, 
and on May 24, 1879, was created by Her Majesty 
Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George. 

Scotsmen of the Confederation Period 

He later became Lieutenant -Governor of Ontario. 
Sir Alexander Campbell, during his whole life, 
possessed the confidence of his great leader and 
friend, to whom he proved a valued and safe 
lieutenant in the Upper House. He was noted 
for a courteous urbanity to political opponents, 
and was very careful not to speak unless he had 
something special to say. He used his power with 
moderation and never was offensive to the minority. 

It may be that had he entered the Commons, 
he might have made a greater name as a 
strong personality. But, on the other hand, he 
was a power in the Upper House, and aided, 
by his refinement, practical sense, and wide parlia- 
mentary knowledge, in justifying the existence of 
that Chamber. He was a successful financier and 
also prominent in law, being Dean of the Faculty 
of Law in Queen's University. 

A unique personality among the Fathers of Con- 
federation was that of the Hon. Thomas D'Arcy 
McGee. It may be a great surprise to many that 
I have dared to include this noted Celtic orator, 
politician, and poet among my Canadian Scotsmen. 
This volume is, however, written with but one 
purpose in view namely, to chronicle, in so far 
as I can, the history of the Scottish settlements 
and the lives of men of Scottish birth or extrac- 
tion who have been connected with Canada ; in 
short, to celebrate Scotland's connection with the 
history of Canada. It has already been shown 
that the number of Scottish names connected in 
some way with our young country is almost count - 

The Scotsman in Canada 

less ; so that there is no reason to go out of the 
way or to strive by straining at all sorts of argu- 
ments to include men as being of Scottish origin 
who are not so. But while this is so, there is 
another side to this matter. This is a history 
of plain fact ; and it would not be right, or doing 
justice to this subject, if any one of importance 
connected with Canada of Scottish extraction 
were ignored or left out. It is true that thousands 
of Canadians have been led to consider McGee 
an Irishman pure and simple ; and it is equally 
true that McGee himself always prided himself 
in being Irish. 

It is a fact that McGee was born in Ireland, 
and so were his parents and grandparents. But 
the fact that Lord Roberts was born in India 
did not make him an East Indian. In this whole 
matter we have to face the strict fact of a man's 
stock or race. It is this fact that so many over- 
look. McGee was an Irish patriot, but Lord Byron 
was a Greek patriot, and the Marquess of La 
Fayette fought for the American cause. In spite 
of all I may say, the Irish will still claim McGee, 
and perhaps with some reason ; but the fact 
remains that all of his stock which is known was 
Scottish and Welsh. His mother's name was 
Morgan, which is certainly Welsh ; and the story 
of the McGee family is soon told. There were 
certain septs of the great Macdonald clan in the 
Western Isles, and among these were the de- 
scendants of Aodh or Hugh Macdonald, now 
bearing the names of Macgee, Mackay, MacHugh, 

Scotsmen of the Confederation Period 

and Mackie. There is abundant proof of these 
peoples having a common ancestry. 

Many Scottish histories and State documents 
could be quoted to prove this, but the following 
facts are authentic. In the island of Isla the 
great Macdonald chief had a council of lesser 
chieftains under him. Among these was McGee 
of the Rhinns of Isla, whose family and small 
clan occupied the lands in the south-western part 
of that island. Hill, in his famous " History of 
the Macdonnells of Antrim," relates the manner 
of their coming into Ulster. He says : ' The 
McGees came originally from the Rhinns of Isla, 
settled first in Island Magee, which has their name, 
and at the time of Coll Macdonnell's marriage 
their principal family was in possession of the 
lands of Ballyuchan, adjoining Murloch Bay." 
Hill further states that the first McGee was 
Alexander, and that he married Jane Stewart, 
whose father and mother were both Stewarts of 
Ballintog. Now, Thomas D'Arcy, McGee's father, 
though of Wexford, was from Island McGee and 
of that stock ; so that this is conclusive proof 
that this great Celtic scholar, poet, orator, and 
patriot, who was one of the Fathers of the Canadian 
Confederation, was largely a Scottish Macdonald 
and Stewart in his origin. No one will deny that 
he was a great Irish patriot. It would be folly 
to do so. He was a son of Ireland by birth and 
by education, and by religious and other affilia- 
tions. He was a poet of .her griefs and her wrongs. 
He wrote, perhaps, the best modern History of 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Ireland ever written. But it would be equally 
false and foolish to deny the Scottish origin of 
this great man. He was in truth but another 
of the famous Ulster Scots who have done so much 
for the Empire and humanity at large. This bit 
of biography may startle some of my readers 
and surprise others ; but it is the duty of a 
chronicle of this sort to tell the truth and correct 
any history which has been misleading. 

While we are upon the subject it might be no 
harm to point out certain matters in connection 
with another noted Canadian family who have been 
generally acknowledged as being a pride to Ireland 
in Canada, that of the Blakes. The Hon. Hume 
Blake, the first Chancellor of Upper Canada, and 
his noted sons, Hon. Edward Hume Blake and 
the Hon. Samuel Hume Blake, have made the 
name noted in our history. Of this family the Hon. 
Dominick Edward Hume Blake stands in the fore- 
front of Canadian statesmen, jurists, and orators, 
and was for a period of our history leader of the 
Liberal Party in the Dominion. It is not in- 
tended here to claim for this branch of the noted 
Western Irish family of the Blakes of Gal way 
that they are anything else than Irish since the 
centuries ago when their ancestor Ap-Lake went 
from Wales to that country. But it is only right 
to point out that they have a connection with 
Scotland through their ancestors, the Humes or 
Homes, one of the great Scottish families. The 
Blakes themselves, while justly proud of their 
Irish origin, are equally proud of their descent 

Scotsmen of the Confederation Period 

from this noted Scottish stock. I am sure that 
my readers in Canada and outside will not accuse 
me of striving to make the most of my subject, 
but only doing strict justice to it in pointing out 
these interesting facts with regard to the real 
origin of some of our Canadian families. 

One of the very ablest of Scotsmen in Upper 
Canada at the Confederation period was the Hon. 
[ohn Sandfield Macdonald, who has been con- 
sidered by many to have been the best Premier 
Ontario has ever had. He was of the Macdonald 

ittlement in Glengarry, and was brought up in 
that famous community of Western Highlanders. 

[e had from his early youth to struggle and pro- 
r ide for himself, and he set his hand to several 
employments when a mere lad until he deter- 
mined to study law. At the age of twenty Jie 
entered the Cornwall Grammar School, and in 
1835 ne passed his first law examinations. He 
then entered the office of Mr. McLean, afterwards 
Chief Justice. As a young student and practitioner 
he soon attracted attention, and in a few years was 
a leading authority in the province. He was born 
at St. Raphael, Glengarry County, on Septem- 
ber 12, 1812, the memorable year when his fellow- 
clansmen of that county were doing so much to 
withstand the invader from the south. His grand- 
father had come to the county in 1786 among 
the earliest settlers. In 1840 Sandfield Macdonald 
was called to the Bar, and was immediately elected 
to represent his native county in Parliament. Like 
his great fellow-clansman, Sir John A. Macdonald, 

VOL. I. BB 385 

The Scotsman in Canada 

Sandfield Macdonald's career is well known to 
all Canadians. At first a Conservative, he after- 
wards became a Reformer through conviction, and 
carried his county with him. He appealed to his 
Highland people in their beloved Gaelic and also 
in English, and they followed him into the ranks 
of Reform. In 1849 he became Solicitor-General- 
West in the Baldwin -Lafontaine Government. In 
1852 he was elected Speaker. But for a time 
he was alienated from his party, of which George 
Brown had become the head. In 1862 Lord 
Monck called upon him to form a Government, 
which was succeeded by a coalition Ministry in 
1864. In 1867 he became the first Premier of 
the Province of Ontario at the head of a coalition 
Government. In 1871 he resigned, and died the 
next year at Cornwall. He was for years in poor 
health, yet through it all persevered in his career. 
He was one of Canada's ablest administrators, but 
was blunt and outspoken as became his Highland 
blood. His brother, the Hon. Donald Alexander 
Macdonald, entered Parliament in 1857 and sat 
for the Dominion in 1867 and 1872, and became 
Postmaster-General in the Mackenzie Government 
and afterwards was Lieutenant -Governor of 
Ontario . 

Another group of noted legal politicians in 
Upper Canada during and since the Confederation 
period included two members of another noted 
Scottish clan in Sir Mathew Crooks Cameron and 
the Hon. John Hilliard Cameron, both noted 
lawyers, and the former a distinguished jurist as 

Scotsmen of the Confederation Period 

well as a financial critic in the Legislative 

Sir Mathew Crooks Cameron, who was always 
a strong Conservative, was the son of Mr. 
John M. A. Cameron, of the Canada Company, 
of which John Gait was the leading spirit. He 
was born in 1823 at Dundas, Upper Canada, and 
received his education at Upper Canada College. 
Called to the Bar in 1849, he achieved a high 
reputation as a criminal lawyer. He entered 
Parliament in 1861 as a supporter of the Cartier- 
Macdonald Government. He was Provincial Secre- 
tary in the first Ontario Government. In 1878 he 
was made a Justice of the Court of Queen's Bench 
and was knighted by the Queen. He possessed 
a logical and large mind, and was one of the 
ablest of our Canadian Judges. This brief 
mention of his career must close this rough sketch 
of the leading spirits of this most important period 
of Canadian history, that of the Confederation. 





Others there were who, 'chance in lesser guise, 
Served well their day and passed from off the stage. 
These, too, the chronicler, who is truly wise, 
Will give their allotted page. 

N writing a sketch of Scotsmen prominent in 
_ different epochs of Canadian history, the early 
period from about 1775 to 1820 is an interesting 
one. During this time many men of Scottish birth 
and extraction took an active part in the great 
struggle for the permanency of the British Empire 
on this continent. The greater number of these 
have been mentioned in the long* series of chapters 
on the early settlements. There were others, how- 
ever, of a later date, who were active adventurers 
in the New World of the Canadian provinces who 
should be at least noticed in a work of this nature. 
This included a class of men, such as early Lieu- 
tenants-Governor, Members of Provincial Govern- 
ments, and other men prominent in the life of 
the colonies in the early days of the nineteenth 

Jwists, Administrators, Physicians 

century. Among such men were the following : 
Peter Grant, one of the early administrators of 
Upper Canada ; Sir Gordon Drumtnond, head of 
the Forces and also an administrator in the same 
province during the later days of the war of 1812- 
1815; Alexander Henry, the discoverer and fur 
trader ; Chief Justice Hay, in Lower Canada, who 
advised Carleton regarding the civil foundation 
of the province ; Col. John Macdonell, of Glen- 
garry, the first Speaker of the Upper Canada 
House of Assembly ; Lord Selkirk, who in 
addition to his settlement on the Red River 
made settlements in Prince Edward Island, and 
was associated with enterprises in Upper Canada ; 
Commander Barclay, of the British fleet on Lake 
Erie in 1812-15 ; Robert Gourlay, a Scotsman, 
who was the first Canadian agitator ; Samuel 
Cunard, of Nova Scotia, founder of the famous 
ocean line of steamships of that name ; Sir Hugh 
Allan, who was later the founder of the famous 
Allan Line of steamships, and founder of the great 
Scottish -Canadian family who were the pioneers 
of steamship traffic on the St. Lawrence. There 
is another interesting group of Scotsmen connected 
with Canadian shipping. It has been for years 
fully established that the first steamship to cross 
the Atlantic propelled entirely by steam was the 
Royal William, which was built at Quebec. It 
is also a fact that her commander was a Scots- 
man named John McDougal, who was born in 
Oban. George Black, John Saxton Campbell, 
James Goudie, and Joseph William Hervey, her 


The Scotsman in Canada 

builders, were all Scotsmen. Afterwards when this 
historic vessel was fitted out as a man-of-war, 
her first work was to save a Scottish Highland 
regiment in the action in the Bay of San Sebastian 
on May 5, 1836. James Goudie, builder of the 
Royal William, was the son of Mr. Goudie, the 
ship architect, who constructed the British- 
Canadian Navy on Lake Erie in the war of 1812. 

Another class of early Canadian -Scottish 
pioneers were her Judges and other professional 
men. Among these were Sir William Campbell, 
an early Chief Justice of Upper Canada, who was 
knighted by William the Fourth. He was born 
in Caithness and belonged to what was called the 
Guoy Crook branch of the clan, who settled in 
Caithness when the first Earl of Breadalbane in- 
vaded that shire, having purchased the lands and 
earldom. Campbell was at first a soldier, then 
studied law in Halifax. He died in Toronto. 
Another was the Hon. Thomas Scott, also a Chief 
Justice of Upper Canada. Chief Justice Stuart 
was a noted Judge of Quebec, and Chief Justice 
Haliburton was a member of that distinguished 
Nova Scotian family. Since then, in Upper 
Canada, we have had Chief Justices Cameron, 
Harrison, Macaulay, and Wilson. 

The Hons. Thomas Gait, William Proudfoot, 
and Kenneth Mackenzie were all noted Justices in 
Ontario. Among county Judges, Robert Dennis- 
town, of Peterborough ; Archibald Macdonald, of 
Wellington ; Roland Macdonald, of Welland ; 
Herbert Stone Macdonald, of Leeds and Grenville ; 

Jurists, Administrators, Physicians 

David S. McQueen, of Oxford County; Henry 
McPherson, of Grey County ; Alexander Forsyth 
Scott, of Peel ; William A. Ross, of Carleton 
County ; Jacob Ferrand Pringle, of Stormont ; 
Daniel Home Lizars, of Perth County ; and James 
Shaw Sinclair, of Wentworth, have upheld Scottish 
ability upon the Ontario Bench. To-day we have 
such men as the Hon. Justice Mabee and McLean 
on the High Court of the Railway Commissioners ; 
the Hon. Mr. Justice Duff on the Supreme 
Court ; and Judge McTavish and Judge Gunn 
represent Carleton County. 

In Quebec the Hon. Alexander Cross, Robert 
Mackay, Thomas Kennedy Ramsay, and Frederick 
William Torrance have been prominent members 
of the Bench. 

In New Brunswick the Hon. Charles Duff was 
a prominent Judge, as was the late Judge James 
Grey Stevens, of Charlotte County. Judge Stevens 
was through his mother a descendant of a cadet 
branch of the Campbells of Auchinbreck. 

In Nova Scotia there have been many prominent 
Judges of Scottish extraction, who have already 
been mentioned in other portions of this work, 
among them the late Lieutenant -Governor Fraser, 
who has just died. 

There is another class of men in every com- 
munity who are as a class too often ignored, but 
who deserve more honour and respect than any 
other namely, the members of the medical pro- 

This important profession in Canada has, and 

The Scotsman in Canada 

has had, in its ranks a large percentage of Scots- 
men ; many of whom are, and were, among its 
ablest representatives. One only has to read the 
list of medical professors on any University board 
to note the great number of Scotsmen, or men of 
Scottish extraction, who stand high in the ranks 
of medicine in Canada. In the earlier days many 
physicians were surgeons in the different regiments, 
and a good proportion of these were Scotsmen. 
We have such men as Dr. Small and Dr. Walker 
of the Loyalist regiments ; later were Dr. James 
Campbell, father of Sir Alexander Campbell, and 
Dr. Morrison and Dr. Neilson, both of the latter 
having participated in the " '37 " Rebellion in 
Upper and Lower Canada. 

Among noted Scottish medical men in Canada 
the following names of old-time practitioners in 
Upper Canada may be of interest : Dr. Joseph 
Adamson, born in Dundee, 1786, practised near 
Toronto, was brother of Col. the Hon. Seton 
Adamson, a Member of the Legislative Council 
of Upper Canada and a noted officer in the Penin- 
sular War. Dr. Wm. Allison, of Glasgow, settled 
at Bowansville. Dr. Charles James Stewart Askins 
practised at Chatham. Dr. John Beatty, of 
Coburg, was a Professor at Victoria. Dr. Norman 
Bethune was born at Moose Factory, Hudson 
Bay, 1822 ; was grandson of the Rev. John 
Bethune, first of that noted family. He practised 
at Toronto. Dr. Edward W. Armstrong prac- 
tised at Tordnto. Dr. Charles Williams Buchanan, 
Ulster Scotsman, settled at Brockville. Dr. David 

Jurists, Administrators, Physicians 

Burn, Toronto. Dr. James Campbell, father of 
Sir Alexander Campbell, settled at Kingston. Dr. 
Duncan Campbell, born in Argyllshire, 1811, 
settled at Hamilton, then Toronto ; he had a son, 
Dr. Lorn Colin Campbell, who died at Port 
Arthur in 1885. Dr. G. W. Campbell was born 
at Roseneath, Dumbartonshire, in 1 8 1 o, and settled 
in Montreal. Dr. James Cathcart practised at 
York. Dr. Stuart Chisholm, surgeon in the Royal 
Artillery, Kingston. Dr. Robert Whichelo Clark 
was born at Leith in 1 8 1 1 and practised at Whitley 
and Ottawa. Dr. James Cobban, born at Aber- 
deen, 1802, settled at London. Dr. George 
Cooper, born at Strathaven, Lanarkshire, 1794, 
settled in Belleville ; his daughter married Dr. 
James Lister. Dr. Wm. Craigie, born in Aber- 
deenshire, 1790, died at Hamilton. Dr. George 
Gillespie Crawford, of Toronto. Dr. John 
Crumble, born in Scotland, 1794, settled in Peel 
County. Dr. Wm. Dougall settled at Halliwell 
in 1799. Dr. William Dunlop, son of the Laird 
of Kippoch, was born at Greenock about 1795, 
was founder of Goderich. Dr. Wm. Durie, born 
in Fifeshire, practised at Thornhill. Dr. Wm. 
Ford, born near Montreal, 1807, of Lambton Mills. 
Dr. John Fraser, of Argyllshire, settled at Font- 
hill. Dr. Geddes, of Kingston ; Dr. John Gil- 
christ, of Coburg ; Dr. Samuel Gilchrist, of Port 
Hope ; Dr. James Graham, of Woodhouse ; Sir 
James Grant, of Ottawa ; Dr. John Grant, of 
Williamsburg ; Dr. Robt. Gunn, of Whitby ; Dr. 
Robt. Douglas Hamilton, of Scarborough ; Dr. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

J. Hamilton, of Niagara ; Dr. T. Hay, of Peter- 
borough ; Dr. R. Kerr ; Dr. Lithgow ; Dr. Wm. 
McGill ; Dr. D. E. Mclntyre ; Dr. A. McKenzie ; 
Dr. R. McLean ; Dr. J. McCaulay ; Dr. Thos. 
Gibson, of Ottawa, who is a gifted musician as 
well as a noted physician. 

Of later members of the medical profession many 
are mentioned in other chapters of this work, as 
many of our doctors, like our lawyers, have entered 
what is called public life, and others are connected 
with the Universities. 

Some noted medical men who have won dis- 
tinction outside of medicine are Sir James Grant, 
Dr. Tait McKenzie, Dr. Andrew McPhail, and Dr. 
W. H. Drummond, the Habitant poet. Dr. Frank 
Ferguson, late of Nova Scotia, is now a leading 
Professor in Belleyue College, New York City. 

To enumerate cases of Scotsmen who have been 
successful manufacturers would be equally unneces- 
sary. Sufficient is it to mention the names of 
Messrs. Goldie, of Gait and Hamilton ; Capt. 
McCulloch, of Hamilton, the founder of the 
Canadian Clubs ; and the Poisons, of the Poison 
Ironworks, in Toronto, as examples of thousands 
of Scottish firms throughout Canada. Among our 
leading merchants Scotsmen are the greater 
majority. Such merchant princes and financiers 
as Sir George Drummond, Senator Mackay, and 
John Macdonald and Senator Jaffray, of Toronto, 
are a few remarkable names in a long roll. 

Among railway men, Mackenzie and Mann and 
Strathcona and Mountstephen are prominent 

Jurists, Administrators, Physicians 

examples. Of our many noted engineers, Sir 
Sandford Fleming is a distinguished representa- 
tive as surveyor of the Intercolonial and the 
Canadian Pacific Railways. 

It would be impossible to even catalogue the 
roll of Scotsmen among our agriculturists. The 
Hon. George Brown, Senator Gibson, and the Hon. 
Sydney Fisher are noted leaders in this important 
branch of our Canadian industries so far as Eastern 
Canada is concerned. 

In the Civil Service of the Dominion and Pro- 
vinces Scotsmen have more than held their place. 
The two Dominion Auditors-General have been 
Scotsmen ; the first the well known honourable, 
able, and faithful guardian of the country's 
revenues, the late John Lorn McDougall, C.M.G. ; 
the present able holder of the position is a member 
of the great clan Fraser, which has given able and 
famous men to the service of the Dominion. Both 
of our Dominion Analysts have been Scotsmen 
born. Dr. McFarlane was a well-known chemist 
and an able writer on a wide range of subjects. 
His successor is a native of Scotland, Dr. Anthony 

Among heads of Departments we have to-day 
John Fraser, I.S.O., Auditor-General ; John 
McDougald, Deputy Minister of Customs ; Robert 
Miller - Coulter, C.M.G., Deputy Postmaster - 
General ; James B. Hunter, Deputy Minister 
of Public Works ; E. R. Cameron, K.C., Regis- 
trar of the Supreme Court ; Adam Short, M.A., 
F.R.S.C., Civil Service Commissioner ; Dr. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Rutherford, C.M.G., Veterinary Director-General ; 
Brigadier-Gen. Macdonald ; Archibald Blue, Chief 
Census Officer; A. W. Campbell, C.E., Deputy 
Minister of Railways and Canals ; and Dr. King, 
Dominion Astronomer, are some of the prominent 
Scotsmen in the Canadian service. 

In the world of finance are Sir Edward Clouston, 
Baronet, General Manager of the Bank of Mon- 
treal ; Mr. George Burn, the able General 
Manager of the Bank of Ottawa ; and Mr. 
D. L. Finnic, the Assistant Manager ; W. H. 
Beattie, a Director of the Bank of Toronto ; James 
Ryrie, a Director of the Metropolitan Bank ; J. K. 
Macdonald, Secretary of the Confederation Life 
Association. This is a class of men who should 
more and more receive public recognition in the 
country. Few realise the great responsibility to 
the public borne on the shoulders of these faith- 
ful and hard-working servants of Canadian finance. 
Far too much prominence is often awarded to 
politicians who have far less real responsibility. 

As has already been pointed out, the number 
of men of Scottish extraction in Canada who have 
done work in all walks of life is so great that 
it would be impossible to pretend to include even 
a small portion of them in a work of this kind. 

Indeed, this is a volume dealing with communi- 
ties rather than individuals. The community is, 
after all, of far greater importance than the mere 
individual. If the reader, by perusing the whole 
or even a portion of this work, may get some 
idea of many of the great pioneer Scottish com- 

Jurists ', Administrators, Physicians 

munities in Canada, he may then, perhaps, take 
the trouble to study, more than he has done in 
Canada in the past, the individual in his relation- 
ship to the community and the family or parent 
stock. If individuals have been dealt with in the 
later chapters of this work, it has been largely 
in connection with their importance to the com- 
munity. All really important men are only so 
in their value to the comrnunity and the age ; 
and their biography is that of the people whom 
they have served. 

In closing this chapter it would be wrong to 
omit the names of a few Scotsmen and men of 
Scottish descent of to-day in Canada who are, 
by reason of remarkable personality, unusual men 
even in a community of Scottish breed. 

One of these men is Sir Sandford Fleming, 
Canada's most distinguished engineer, and a great 
and noted Scotsman the world over. Few men 
have so well spent their lives as has this wise 
and faithful son of Fifeshire in the best interests 
of the vast Empire which he has so well served. 
Among Scotsmen over the world to-day, Sir Sand- 
ford Fleming is admittedly a great man. He is 
also a great Imperialist and Empire -builder. His 
long and arduous work for the accomplishment of 
an Empire cable and the All -Red Line would alone 
constitute a lifework for one man. If we add 
to this his agitation for cheaper postal and cable 
rates, and for a uniform time, we must not also 
forget that this great Empire -welder is also a path- 
finder of Empire, and that he was the man who 


The Scotsman in Canada 

surveyed the Intercolonial and the Canadian Pacific 
Railways. In this work there is but room to recog- 
nise his great work for Canada and the Empire 
and to point him out as a great Imperial Scotsman. 

In Sir William Macdonald Canada has another 
great Scotsman, a soul of a marvellous tenacity 
for doing good and finding a great pleasure in 
so doing. The several colleges he has founded 
are an enduring monument to his deep interest 
in technical education in Canada, and his splendid 
benefactions to McGill University reveal a man 
who realises, as few men have done, his duty to 
his fellow-citizens in enabling them to make the 
best of life. 

Lord Strathcona, a very great Scotsman, who 
has already been mentioned, is worthy of the 
respect of every Canadian. But his career will 
be dealt with more fully by Dr. Bryce in the 
second volume of this work. He with Andrew 
Carnegie, Sir Sandford Fleming, and Sir William 
Macdonald make a distinguished quartette of noted 
men that any race would be proud to own. 

The late Sir George Drummond was also a rare 
character, a man who, in a quiet, unobtrusive 
way, did a great deal of good. He was a splendid 
influence in the country, and carried all through 
his business career a firm integrity. He was a 
man of a fine intellect, with a love for literature 
and the arts ; and his magnificent private collec- 
tion of paintings is the finest in Canada. 

Mr. Ross Robertson, of Toronto, is a Scottish 
Canadian who was born in Stornoway, Isle of Lewis. 

Jurists, Administrators, Physicians 

He is a man of artistic and literary tastes who 
has some fine collections of historical manuscripts, 
especially his Simcoe Papers, which are very im- 
portant in connection with the history of early 
Upper Canada. His " Landmarks of Toronto " is 
a series of volumes of great value, and the result of 
much labour and research. But it is also as a philan- 
thropist in a quiet way that Mr. Robertson merits 
recognition by Canadians. His Hospital and Home 
for Incurable Children is in itself an enduring 
monument to any man. 

There is a young Scottish Canadian whose 
career, so far, has been very remarkable ; so re- 
markable, indeed, that it calls for special notice 
in a work of this nature that of the Hon. W. Lyon 
Mackenzie King, the present Minister of Labour 
for Canada. If Scottish ancestry is an aid to a 
man, he certainly has it on both sides of the 
house. His father is Mr. John King, K.C., a well- 
known barrister, and Professor at Osgoode Hall, 
who is a profound and industrious writer on legal 
questions ; and his paternal grandfather was an 
officer in the British Army of a regiment, strange 
to say, sent out to quell the Rebellion of 1837. 
Mr. King's mother is the youngest daughter of 
William Lyon Mackenzie. With such an ancestry, 
it is no wonder that he has inherited that 
remarkable force of character, intuitive, original 
mind, and administrative ability, which in them- 
selves are a surety of success. But he has in- 
herited, what is even more important in a great 
servant of the State, an unusual sympathy with 


The Scotsman in Canada 

all classes of the community, especially the vast 
artny of toilers. He has, therefore, made the 
Labour problem a life study and has already done 
much for technical education in Canada. 

A thoroughly trained scholar with a brilliant 
University career at Toronto, Harvard, London, 
England, and Berlin, in Germany, he has an un- 
usual intellectual foundation for the career of a 
Canadian statesman. 

It might be said that, in the history of Canadian 
politics, no man, save in the cases of Sir John A. 
Macdonald and Sir Wilfrid Laurier, has so early 
shown such original talent and such splendid 
promise. His very manner of entrance into public 
life has been unusual. He beg'an his career in 
building up a new and untried department and 
made it a needed institution throughout the 
country, and one that is being copied in other 
countries. He is the real inspirer and author of 
the famous Lemieux Bill, the one great bit of 
Labour legislation to-day in the world. He was 
also sent on important missions to China, England, 
the United States, and British Columbia ; and 
this all before he was made a member of the 
Cabinet or had even entered the House of 
Commons. Little more need be said, save that 
he is, young as he yet is, one of the most remark- 
able men of Scottish blood whom Canada has 

The end of this work, so far as my part of it 
is concerned, is now in sight. With the chapters 
on literature and art and Scottish societies it will 

Jurists , Administrators, Physicians 

close. Now that it is finished, I see its many 
defects ; but I now fully realise that the work 
undertaken is one even greater in extent than I 
had imagined. If what I have set down will be 
of some value in awakening, among those of 
Scottish descent and other students of history, an 
interest in the great Scottish colony in Canada, 
I will feel that my work has not been all in vain. 

VOL. I. CC 401 



ITie mountains, glens, the sea and air, 
Have lent a spirit, high and rare, 
Unto a singing people. 

WHAT is called Canadian literature contains 
many names of persons of Scottish or 
Ulster-Scottish origin. Among those which repre- 
sent our verse-writing are such Scottish names as 
John Reade, W. H. Drumtnond, George Frederick 
Cameron, Wilfred Campbell, Isabella J. Crawford, 
Miss Machar, Charles Mair, Alexander McLachlan, 
William McLellan, George Martin, F. G. Scott, 
D. C. Scott, Philips Stewart, and T. C. Marquis. 
Certainly these sound Scottish enough. Others 
of our Canadian poets and writers, like W. D. 
Lighthall, are also maternally of Scottish descent. 
Among our most gifted women writers Miss 
Dougal, Miss Duncan, Miss Jean Graham, Miss 
McMurchy, Miss McMannus, and Mrs. Brown bear 
names that are suggestive of the land of the 
heather. As has been shown elsewhere in this 
vplume, D'Arcy McGee was also of Scottish ex- 

Literature, Journalism, and Art 

traction, and, like Reade, Drumrnond, and other 
Canadian poets, of Ulster-Scottish blood. Other 
poets of Scottish blood who have written of Canada 
in Canada and out of it are the Duke of Argyll, 
Evan McColl, and Alexander McLachlan. Two 
other brilliant Scottish and Ulster writers have 
settled in the Canadian North-West. One of 
these, Robert Service, a clever young bank clerk 
from Glasgow, in Scotland, has gone out to the 
Canadian Yukon and made it popular in his 
" Songs of a Sourdough " ; and Moira O'Neill, 
of the " Songs of the Glens of Antrim," is now 
living, or was lately living, in Manitoba. 

Some of our very early verse -writers were 
Scottish. James Mackay, a young man from 
Sutherland, son of Mackay of Kirtomy, a cadet 
of the noble House of Reay, came out to Canada 
early in the nineteenth century, and wrote a poem 
on Quebec. A copy of this poem is now in the 
Canadian Archives. Among others who essayed 
the Muse was Bishop Strachan. The late Chief 
Justice Haggarty's " Death of Napoleon " is a 
splendid piece of work. The Rev. Dr. McGeorge 
was a leading literary divine who held a charge 
at Newmarket, and wrote much in verse and prose. 
Evan McColl, like Heavysege, the English poet, 
can hardly be called Canadian. These two men 
came to Canada in the full maturity of their 
powers, but their names are associated with Canada 
because of their residence here. The Duke of 
Argyll, who has written the finest poem upon the 
subject of Quebec, might even more than these 
be regarded as a Canadian poet. Hunter Duvar, 


The Scotsman in Canada 

of Prince Edward Island, and A. J. Lockhart, 
Arthur Weir, and George Murray were all writers 
of Canadian verse bearing Scottish names. 

Among our prose writers Haliburton was one 
of our greatest and most famous. He was the 
founder of American humour. Sir Daniel Wilson, 
a noted Scottish archaeologist, was long connected 
with Canada as President of Toronto University. 

Of our novelists, Norman Duncan, Miss Doug'all, 
Dr. Gordon ("Ralph Connor"), W. A. Fraser, 
William McLellan, Miss Mcllwraith, Mrs. Brown, 
and Robert Barr are among many whose names 
are sufficient to indicate their Scottish stock. 

The Royal Society of Canada, founded by the 
Duke of Argyll, has included from its inception 
a host of noted Canadian writers of Scottish origin, 
many of whom are mentioned elsewhere. Among 
others such names as those of Professor Clark 
and Principal Loudon are significant. The 
Scottish names of Patterson, Bayne, Brymner, 
Honeyman, Murray, and Williamson are those of 
deceased members of the society. Prominent 
members to-day are : Sir Sandford Fleming, Sir 
George Ross, Sir James Grant, Professor Bryce, 
Professors McCallum, Watson, McLellan, Ramsay, 
Wright, Dr. J. H. Coyne, editor of the Talbot 
Papers and translator and editor of Galinee's 
narrative, W. D. Lighthall, K.C., Col. Cruikshank, 
and Professor Wrong. 

Other writers of prominence are : William 
Houston, whose " Constitutional Documents," deal- 
ing with education in Canada, are of great value ; 
the late James Bayne, Librarian of Toronto, a 

Literature, Journalism, and Art 

great book -lover and a fine scholar ; and Mr. 
Justice McLean, of the Railway Commission. 

Among Canadian historians are James Hannay, 
of New Brunswick ; Duncan Campbell, of Nova 
Scotia ; George Stewart, David Thompson, Judge 
Haliburton, McPherson, LeMoine, McGregor, 
Alexander, Patterson, Munro, Stuart, Rattray, 
Lindsay, Christie, Principal Grant, Dr. Bryce, and 
Col. Cruikshank all of Scottish origin. For many 
years the Archivist of the Dominion was Dr. 
Douglas Brymner, an able Scottish writer, 
collector, and journalist . 

In journalism the Scotsman from the first has 
been prominent. Lyon Mackenzie was a leading 
Upper Canadian journalist. Another very noted 
founder of Upper Canadian journalism was Hugh 
Scobie, founder and publisher of the first Reform 
newspaper and of Scobie's Almanack. He was 
a son of Capt. Kenneth Scobie, of Ardvar, in 
Assynt, Sutherland. Capt. Scobie, a Scottish 
officer, was about to emigrate to Canada, where 
his rank in the Army entitled him to a large grant 
of land, when he was accidentally drowned. 
But his children came out and received his allow- 
ance of land in their own names, and Hugh Scobie 
was one of them. 

George Brown was another noted journalist and 
founder of the Globe. Since then Sir Hugh 
Graham, of the Star ; Senator Jaffray, publisher, 
and Dr. J. A. Macdonald, editor, of the 
Globe; Dr. J. S. Willison, F.R.S.C., of the News; 
Ross-Robertson, of the Telegram; John Dougall, 
of the Witness; Hugh Seller, of the Htintington 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Gleaner; P. D. Ross, of the Ottawa Journal; Col. 
Morrison, of the Citizen; David Creighton, late 
of the Mail Empire; W. F. McLean, of the \World; 
Newton McTavish, of the Canadian Magazine; 
Wm. Houston, of the Globe; McPhail, of the 
University Magazine, are but a few representa- 
tives of a very long 1 roll of names of Scotsmen, 
publishers and editors of prominent Canadian 
journals and periodicals. 

In the world of art in Canada Scotsmen have 
their place. Some very early artists connected 
with Canada were Scotsmen. Heriot, the first 
Deputy Postmaster-General of Old Canada, was 
a fine artist ; and his water-colour sketches of 
the Canadian scenery are very exquisite. Sproule, 
another artist who was an Ulster Scotsman, has 
left some very fine sketches of Montreal and the 
Upper St. Lawrence. There is a fine original 
oil painting of Niagara Falls in the Archives at 
Ottawa, the work of Sir James Erskine. Among 
Canada's most noted recent artists are many Scots- 
men. We have Forbes, Bell -Smith, Forster, Wiley, 
Grier, Reid, Smith, McGillvray, all leading 
painters. Tait McKenzie has a wide fame as a 
.sculptor ; and in music Dr. Harriss is a genius 
who, by his beautiful compositions as a composer 
and his tremendous energy as a director, is 
becoming famous throughout the Empire. Through 
his mother, Dr. Harriss is a Duff of the old clan 
of the Thanes of Fife. 

Much more might be said of the intellectual 
side of Canadian life, but sufficient has been 
pointed out to show the great Scottish influence 
in our Literature, Art, History, and Journalism. 



Should auld acquaintance be forgot 
And never brought to mind I 

ONE of the most important and interesting sides 
of Scottish life in Canada is that of the 
many societies and associations which have their 
origin and object in the fostering and commemo- 
rating of Scottish patriotism and the memory of 
the Old Land. 

There are many of these associations scattered 
throughout Canada, such as St. Andrew's Society, 
the Sons of Scotland, Caledonian Societies, Clans 
of Scotland, and numerous clan associations, such 
as the Fraser Clan Society and the Caithness 
Association of Toronto. There is also the oldest 
and most solid Scottish association in Canada, the 
North British Society, in Halifax, which has had 
a long and honourable existence, and contains on 
its roll of members nearly all of the most noted 
Scotsmen in Nova Scotia. 

Of all the Scottish societies in Canada the oldest, 
with the one exception noted, and the most important 
are the many St. Andrew's Societies, which, though 


The Scotsman in Canada 

not federated as one organisation, are prominent 
in the life of all our leading cities and towns. 
Nearly every Scottish community has one, though 
they are not a development of the rural districts, 
being rather the organisation of leading Scots- 
men in the chief cities and larger towns. The 
stronger St. Andrew's Societies of Eastern Canada 
are those of Quebec, Toronto, Ottawa, Kingston, 
Hamilton, London, Brantford, Guelph, Gait, 
Brockville, Cornwall, St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, and Montreal. Those in Quebec and 
Montreal were the pioneer societies and were 
founded in 1835. 

An old society is that of Kingston, which was 
founded on November 16, 1840. Article I. of 
the constitution then formed read, in part, as 
follows : " The name of the Society shall be the 
St. Andrew's Society of the town of Kingston 
and Midland District of Canada." Article II. says, 
in part : " Scotchmen and the children and grand- 
children and great-grandchildren of natives of 
Scotland shall be admitted as resident members." 
The list of officers published in 1841 included 
some leading Canadians. They were : President, 
the Hon. John Hamilton ; First Vice-President, 
J. A. Macdonald, Esq. (afterwards the Right Hon. 
Sir John A. Macdonald) ; Second Vice-President, 
F. A. Harper, Esq. ; Treasurer, R. McRose, Esq. ; 
Secretary, Wm. Gunn, Esq. ; Assistant Secretary, 
Mr. Donald Urquhart ; Physicians, John Mclntosh, 
R.A., Thomas Stratton, R.N. ; Committee of 
Management, Jas. MacFarlane, Esq. ; Francis 

Scottish Societies in Canada 

Henderson, Hugh Fraser, Roderick Ross, Wm. 
Mclntosh, Henry Sharp, Jas. Graham, Robt. 
Mathews, Hugh Calder, John Roy, Thos. Drum- 
mond, D. Christie, R. H. Rae. 

The Glengarry Society was also an old one, 
being older than that of Kingston. The following 
document gives a list of some of the members 
in 1844 : 

LANCASTER, yth Oct., 1844. We the undersigned hereby agree 
and promise to pay to Colonel Alex. Fraser, President of 
the Glengarry St. Andrew's Society, or order, the sums set 
opposite our respective names, being a voluntary contribution 
for the purpose of paying a tribute of respect to our late President, 
the late Colonel Lewis Carmichael, who died at Forres in Scotland 
on the 8th day of August, last past. 

The subscribers are : Alex. Fraser, Hugh 

McGillis, John McV , John S. Macdoriald 

(Hon. John Sandfield Macdonald), A. Cattanach, 
Murdoch McPherson, K. McPherson, Murdoch 
Ross, Wm. McEdward, Jas. McDonald Glen, John 
Urquhart, Arch. Stewart, David Summers, John 
McLellan, Esq., R. S. Macdonald, Ronald 
McDonell, John Pettigall, J. E. Mclntyre, ,Wm. 
McDonald, Donald McPherson, J.P., Jas. Ding- 
wall, Benjamin Stewart, Duncan Mclntyre. The 
amount subscribed was 25 175. 

The St. Andrew's Society of Ottawa is also an 
old institution. Early in the thirties of the nine- 
teenth century the Scotsmen of Bytown used to 
meet annually on St. Andrew's Day and celebrate 
the occasion. On June 18, 1846, a meeting was 


The Scotsman in Canada 

called at the British Hotel and presided over by 
Sheriff Simon Fraser. Its object was to organise 
a St. Andrew's Society. The first President elected 
was Wm. Stewart, Esq., and the Vice-President 
Sheriff Simon Fraser. The Secretary was Robert 
Harvey, jun., and the Chaplain the Rev. John 
Duff. The list of officers is not given. In 1848 
the officers elected were : President, Hon. Thos. 
Mackay ; First Vice-President, Wm. Stewart, 
Esq. Second, Robt. Harvey, jun. ; Secretary, 
Peter Robertson ; Treasurer, Andrew Drummond, 
Esq. ; Standing Committee, Messrs. Wm. Morris, 
S. C. Kerr, J. L. Campbell, John McKinnon, and 
others. In 1859 the society was reorganised, with 
Sheriff Fraser as President. The sermon that year 
was preached by Rev. Mr. Spence, of St. Andrew's 

This society has had the honour of welcoming 
many noted Governors of Scottish extraction. Its 
roll of presidents, chaplains, &c., include the names 
of some prominent Canadians. Among its first 
members in 1846 were, with the officers, Edward 
Mallock, Hon. Thomas Mackay, Dr. Christie, Jas. 
Mclntosh, Danl. McLachlan, Jas. Fraser, Jas. 
Peacock, Wm. Sutherland, Edward McGillivray, 
Geo. R. Blyth, John Leslie, Robt. Lees, Andrew 
Drummond, S. C. Kerr, Jas. Robertson, John 
Fotheringham, Robt. Kenley, Donald McArthur, 
Peter Robertson, J. L. Campbell, Wm. Morris, 
Andrew Cuddie, Alex. Gray, John Porter, Alex. 
Mclntosh, Alex. Calder, Jas. Robertson, Alex. 
Scott, Francis Thompson, Donald Grant. The 

Scottish Societies in Canada 

Reception Comtnittee at the grand ball given under 
the auspices of the society in honour of the arrival 
of the Marquess of Lome and the Princess Louise 
in 1878 comprised Mr. McLeod Stewart (Presi- 
dent), Sir John A. Macdonald, Sir Alexander 
Campbell, Hon. Jas. Me. Donald, Messrs. Thos. 
Reynolds, Dr. Grant, Sandford Fleming, Allan 
Gilmour, John Thoburn, Judge Ross, Wm. Smith, 
Robt. Cassels, jun., and Col. Thos. Ross. 

Other noted persons connected with the society 
were : Rev. D. M. Gordon (now President of 
Queen's University), Douglas Brymner, R. Cassels, 
Col. Allan Gilmour, Lieut. -Col. John McPherson, 
McLeod Stewart, Sir Sandford Fleming, W. D. 
Hogg, K.C., J. J. McCraken, P. D. Ross, Dr. 
Baptie, David McLaren, Esq., Rev. Wm. Mclntosh, 
Rev. Norman McLeod, Rev. Dr. Wm. Moore, Dr. 
Rutherford, C.M.G., J. W. Turniff, M.P., Alex. 
Fraser, Esq. Some distinguished honorary 
members were the late Duke of Sutherland 
and Lord Dundonald. 

For years this society has had a faithful Corre- 
sponding Secretary in Mr. H. H. Ro watt, the late 
President. The present Secretary is Mr. J. W. 

The first Burns banquet was held in January, 
1910, by the society, and able addresses were 
given by Sir George Ross, Dr. J. G. Rutherford, 
C.M.G., the Premier, and others. 

Few of the societies have compiled histories of 
their work. The few are those of Halifax, Ottawa, 
and St. John, New Brunswick. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

These histories are not only a valuable account 
of the life of the individual society, but, as in 
the case of the Halifax North British Society and 
the St. John St. Andrew's Society, they are a 
splendid chronicle of the chief Scotsmen of the 
special community for fully a century. 

The St. Andrew's Society of St. John, New 
Brunswick, was founded at a meeting held in that 
city on March 8, 1798, 113 years ago. The 
officers elected were : President, William Pagan ; 
Vice-President, William Campbell ; Treasurer, 
Francis Gilbert ; Secretary, John Black. The 
President was a native of Glasgow. He and his 
two brothers, Robert and Thomas, were Scottish 
Loyalists, and all settled in New Brunswick. 
William was a member of the first Legislative 
Assembly for St. John's County. He was a 
prosperous merchant and one of the founders of 
St. Andrew's Kirk at St. John. His brother Robert 
was active in the settlement of St. Andrews and 
Charlotte Counties, and also represented the latter 
for years in the Assembly. John Paul, one of the 
original members, was a native of Lanark, Scot- 
land. He held a commission in the Royal 
Artillery, and fired the first gun on the Royalist 
side in the war of the Revolution. He was one 
of the first Elders of St. Andrew's Kirk. William 
Campbell was born in Argyllshire in 1742. He 
also fought as a Loyalist in the Revolutionary 
War. He was Mayor of St. John from 1795 to 
1816, and one of the founders of St. Andrew's 
Kirk. He was also Postmaster of the city and a 

Scottish Societies in Canada 

Commissioner in the Supreme Court. He died 
in 1823. Francis Gilbert was born at Corstor- 
phine, near Edinburgh. He fought in the British 
Navy, and was Naval Officer for New Brunswick. 
John Black was born in Aberdeen. He was one 
of three brothers. The eldest, Andrew, was of 
Forest Hill, in Aberdeenshire ; the other, William, 
joined his brother John in business in St. John. 
Dr. Robert Boyd was another early member. He, 
according to a tradition, was connected with the 
old noble family of that name. The Rev. George 
Burns, D.D., first minister of the old Kirk of 
St. Andrew's, was a member of the society. The 
second President was a Colin Campbell, but which, 
of several persons of that name, is doubtful. There 
were four Colin Campbells resident in New Bruns- 
wick. One of these came from Scotland in 
November, 1784, with his wife and two sons, 
Alexander and Colin. He returned to Scotland 
in 1808. He owned property at St. Stephen. His 
first wife was a sister of Sir Howard Douglas, 
Governor of New Brunswick. His sons all had 
high positions in the Army and Navy. Another 
Colin came to St. John in 1783 with the Loyalists. 
He was Registrar of the Court of Admiralty. A 
third Colin Campbell was lieutenant of the 74th 
Regiment. A fourth was collector of Customs at 
St. Andrews in 1824. 

In 1804 Andrew Crookshank was President of 
the society. He was one of the first of a noted 
family of Loyalists who have filled many important 
positions in the city. 


The Scotsman in Canada 

Hugh Johnston, from Morayshire, was President 
in 1813. He was a merchant and bank director, 
and became Port Warden and a member of the 
Legislature. The Hon. Wm. Black was President 
from 1816 to 1823, with the exception of the 
year 1820. He was President of the Legislative 
Council of New Brunswick. He was a native of 
Aberdeen and a graduate of Marishal College. 
He was for a short time Administrator of the 
Government of New Brunswick. He had several 
sons, all noted in the province. Andrew S. 
Ritchie, who was President in 1820, was of a 
noted Canadian family. He represented St. John 
in the Assembly. His brother was a Nova Scotia 
Judge, and had three sons, who were all Supreme 
Court Judges. One of these, Sir William J. 
Ritchie, was Chief Justice of Canada, and for fifty- 
five years was a member of St. Andrews Society. 
He died in 1892 at Ottawa. In 1828 Dr. John 
Boyd was Vice-President. Major-Gen. Sir Howard 
Douglas was then Governor of the province. 
In 1830 Dr. John Boyd was again President. His 
father was Dr. John Boyd, of the Royal Medical 
Staff. Dr. John, the younger, was the oldest 
practitioner in St. John and was surgeon to the 

Duke of Kent. 

The Hon. John Robertson, President from 1837 
to 1841, was born in Perthshire. He was a 
successful lumber merchant and a member of the 
Legislative Council. He removed to England, 
where he died in 1876. 

The President in 1844 was John Wilmot, ol 


Scottish Societies in Canada 

Montrose, Scotland. He came to St. John in 1818 
with a good character from his minister. Here 
he became a shipbuilder and an Elder of the St. 
Andrew's Kirk. He was a member of the society 
for sixty years, 1821-81. 

In 1847 the President was John Duncan, who 
hailed from Meldrum, Aberdeenshire, where he was 
born in 1797. He was a well-known shipbuilder 
and President of the Commercial Bank as well 
as of a lot of companies. Adam Jack was made 
President in 1848, 1849. He was a native of 
Inverkip, near Greenock, Scotland. He was a 
leading business man. One of his daughters was 
the wife of Mr. John McMillan, the St. John pub- 
lisher. Robert Jardine, Esq., was President in 
1850-51. He was born at Girvan, Ayrshire, Scot- 
land, in 1812. He was a prominent grocer and 
a cattle farmer. In 1853 John M. Walker was 
President. He was a son of Dr. Thomas Walker, 
of Perth, Scotland, an Army surgeon. He was 
a prominent druggist. 

In 1856 the President was Alexander Jardine. 
He was born at Girvan in Ayrshire, and was grand- 
son of Sir Wm. Jardine, fifth Baronet of Apple- 
girth. Mr. Jardine was a prominent merchant. 
In 1858 James McFarlane was President. They 
entertained that year Viscount Bury. In 1859 
Vice-Admiral Sir Houston Stewart came to St 
John, and the society presented him with an 
address. Mr. McFarlane also presided this year 
He was a native of Kilmarnock. He also was 
President in 1860, when they received the Prince 


The Scotsman in Canada 

of Wales. Laughlan Donaldson was President in 
1862. He claimed to be a grandson of one of 
the survivors of Glencoe, who changed his name 
to Donaldson and settled in Morayshire . He was a 
successful merchant. Robert Keltic, Esq., a wealthy 
retired merchant at Sussex, entertained the society 
and its friends that year at his place, " Hillside," 
when about 2,500 persons went from St. John. 
Mr. Keltie was born in Scotland. In 1867 Henry 
Jack was President. His father, David W. Jack, 
came from Cupar in Fifeshire. This year the 
society entertained David Kennedy, the Scottish 
singer, and Sir William Fairfax was present. 
George Stewart was President in 1869. He was 
a native of Wick in Caithness -shire, and was 
father of Dr. George Stewart, F.R.S.C. The 
President for 1870-71-72 was William Thompson, 
a native of Dumfries. His father, John Thompson, 
was a shipowner in St. John. William was for 
several years Vice -Consul for Norway and Sweden. 
His place was Nithbank, out of the city. The 
chaplain during this period was the Rev. Dr. Neil 
Mackay. He was born at Earltown in Nova Scotia, 
and was educated at Pictou Academy. He was 
Moderator of the Maritime Province Synod in 
1889. In 1871 the society celebrated the marriage 
of the Marquess of Lome. Flags were flown in 
many parts of the city, and the society sent /a 
wire to the Marquess wishing him and his bride 
happiness, and a ball was also held. This year 
Mr. Laughlan Donaldson bequeathed one-eighth 
of his estate, $5,032, to the society. The Vice- 

Scottish Societies in Canada 

Presidents were Messrs. Stewart and Lindsay. In 
1872 Luke Stewart was President, and the Rev. 
George J. Carr Chaplain. In 1873, on May loth, 
the steamer Castalia, of the Anchor Line, arrived 
at St. John with 565 emigrants from the east 
of Scotland. They were to be settled on the upper 
waters of the river St. John, and were known 
as the Kincardineshire Colony. The society gave 
these immigrants a warm welcome and a good 
send-off up the river to Fredericton. 

Luke Stewart was born in Rothsay, Isle of Bute, 
and was a leading West India merchant in St. 
John, where his elder brother, David Stewart, was 
also established. In 1875 tne Hon. John Robert- 
son was made an honorary memjber. James 
Milligan was President this year. He was born at 
Thornhill in Dumfriesshire and was the son of 
Robert Milligan. In 1877 occurred the terrible 
fire ; and Hugh H. McLean, the Secretary, saved 
the minute-books of the society. The President 
was John White, a native of Largo in Fifeshire. 
In 1878 the Hon. Robert Marshall was presiding. 
He was born in Pictou County, Nova Scotia. His 
great-grandfather, Robert Marshall, came from 
Dumfries to Pictou in 1773. Dr. Patrick Robert- 
son Tucker was President in 1880. His father 
was James Tucker, of Dunkeld, Scotland, who came 
to St. John in 1832. Alexander Campbell Jardine 
was President in 1881, and was the eldest son 
of Alexander Jardine, who was President in 1856. 
In 1883 James Knox was President. He was 
a native of Rothsay, Isle of Bute. He was a ship 
VOL. I. DD 417 

The Scotsman in Canada 

rhandler in St. John. James Stratton was presiding 
in TsS He was bom in Edinburgh His father 
Charles Stratton, was a solicitor in Glasgow. He 

brother of Tames, who was President m 187 5- 

n 1899 a committee was formed to 
a work the records of the associate, winch e- 
suited in the admirable history by 

C the New Brunswick branch 

(The society was, however, . 
'The North British Society, of Halifax was 


Scottish Societies in Canada 

McLellan, Robt. Killo, James Clark, John Eraser, 
Walter Harkness, Donald Morrison, James Thomp- 
son, John McCrea, AVm. Luke, and Thos. 

The articles of the association were very strict. 
The members were fined for using profane 
language, for absence from meetings, and for any 
other breach of the rules of the association, which 
was charitable as well as social and convivial. 

The history of this society, published in 1903, 
contains no portraits and biographical notes of 
Scotsmen connected with it since its foundation. 
These included Lord Dalhousie, Sir Colin Camp- 
bell, Sir Brenton Haliburton, Gen. Sir Patrick 
McDougall, and many other noted North Britons. 

A very numerous and strong organisation in 
Canada is the Sons of Scotland Society. Its 
ramifications extend from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific. The association is especially strong ,in 
Ontario, where there are many " Camps," as the 
different lodges are called. Each Camp has a 
distinctive name. Those in Ottawa are Camps 
Argyll and Strathcona. The Sons of Scotland 
Society has three special purposes those of race 
patriotism, and fraternity. Like all the other 
national societies, it is a mutual benefit insurance 
company. The admission is limited to Scotsmen 
or descendants of Scotsmen who desire to become 
members. Such an association might be of great 
benefit in many ways were its original ideals never 
lost sight of; but the great danger is that 
generally these associations fail to do their duty 


The Scotsman in Canada 

in the inculcation of race-patriotism, and de- 
generate into ordinary, cheap insurance benefit 
associations. If such an organisation has any 
reason for existence at all, it is as a Scottish 
institution and a Scottish influence in the com- 
munity. It should, first of all, educate its members 
never to forget their Scottish origin ; and should 
make the greatness of Scottish ideals and Scottish 
history the continual object of its education in 
the Camps. It should never lose sight of religion, 
and should not fail to inculcate loyalty to, and 
reverence for, the form of Christianity developed 
in Scotland. It should go further. It should 
champion that religion, and not only in its public 
celebrations give that religion a prominent part, 
but it should stand as an association in the country 
for the maintenance of Scottish Protestantism in 
the same way that the Ancient Order of Hibernians 
and the Knights of Colum'bus stand for what is 
commonly called the national religion of Ireland. 
It should do more than this, and should make 
itself the champion of all Scottish ideals in the 
Old Country and the New, and should show a 
strong example of loyalty and patriotism for the 
Empire and the Motherland. It should interest 
itself in Scottish immigration to Canada, and 
should see that incomers have a welcome which 
would be worthy alike of the land they have left 
and the land they are coming to. The Sons of Scot- 
land have made themselves, by the name and 
character of their organisation, trustees as regards 
all these objects ; and it is to be hoped that they 

Scottish Societies in Canada 

will awake, ere it be too late, to a proper sense 
of their duty and the high destiny that awaits 
the organisation if this duty be carried out. Many 
have thought that there should be a federation 
of some sort of all Scottish societies in the interests 
of Scottish matters in Canada. If this were 
feasible, the Sons of Scotland would furnish the 
framework of an organisation to cement the whole. 

An attempt was made a few years ago to form 
a central committee to organise the Scottish bodies, 
and bring them into closer touch with the Old 
Land, and also to endeavour to preserve in some 
form the history of the Scottish immigration into 
Canada. Among the ideas then mooted, the 
thought of producing such a book as this became 
a fixed idea in the mind of the author, and, sad 
to say, it is the only idea then suggested that 
has been in any manner carried into effect. 

In connection with the institution of a central 
committee it was also suggested that a great central 
building, devoted to Scottish ideals, should be 
erected at Ottawa, to be a sort of headquarters 
for Scotsmen in Canada and those hailing from 
the Old Land. There was also a scheme to collect 
a library and found a museum of relics connected 
with Scotland and the early history of Scotsmen 
in this country. It is a pity that this scheme 
was not carried out, as it would have been a 
valuable influence in preserving the finest ideals 
of a large and important portion of the Canadian 
community. The scheme failed for the time being, 
as such attempts often do, for several reasons ; 


The Scotsman in Canada 

perchance, am'ong them, that the time was not 
altogether ripe for such a movement. Many pro- 
minent Scotch Canadians, among 1 them Lord 
Strathcona and Sir Sandford Fleming, were 
interested in the idea ; and Lord Dundonald 
had it deeply at heart, while his Excellency 
Lord Minto gave it his approval. Among others 
who favoured the movement was Alexander Fraser, 
the founder, and for many years the leading spirit, 
of the Sons of Scotland in Canada, who is now 
Archivist for the Province of Ontario. 

Lord Dundonald, one of the Empire's greatest 
soldiers and an earnest patriot, did much for the 
reawakening of the Scottish spirit in Canada. His 
receptions at Alexandria and Renfrew, where the 
whole Scottish population turned out to do him 
honour, are red-letter days in the history of Scot- 
land in those parts of Canada. It is to be hoped 
that the schemes of Confederation and of a central 
building devoted to the Scottish-Canadian interests 
may yet be accomplished. 

With all of their active life, for the greater 
part of a century, the Scottish societies in Canada 
have not realised the possibilities of the Scottish 
community as the other national associations have. 

Even St. George's Society and the Sons of 
England have become a stronger influence as a 
great unit than have the Scottish societies, not- 
withstanding all their philanthropic efforts. The 
great weakness of the Scottish people in Canada, 
and the world over, has been in this direction. They 
seem ever afraid to act as a community, and as 

Scottish Societies in Canada 

a community uphold their most sacred ideals, for 
fear of offending some other national influence ; 
a lamentable weakness in an otherwise great 

Let us never forget the old heredity, the old 
traditions, and the beautiful old land of our 
forefathers : 

We are your children, Mother, 

We at your breasts have fed ; 
We will not leave you, life of our life ! 

Dead of our olden dead ! 




LORD (Governor 



Aboukir, Scottish regiments at, 15 
Acadia, capture of, by Capt. Argall 


Addington, Lord, 167-68 

Agriculturists, Scottish, in Canada 

Aldborough, list of persons settled 
in, by Col. Talbot, 211-13 

Alexander, Sir William, 69 et sea ; 
2 35. 249-50 

Alexander,;Sir William, the youneer 

Allen, Sir Montague, 151 

Anglican Church in Canada, Scots- 
men in, 325-29 

Angus, Hon. A. B., 151 

"Annals of Guelph," Burrows', 204 
Annapolis, 80 

Argyll, Duke of, seat of, at In- 
veraray, 48 ; Governor of Canada, 
258; -Quebec "and "Hymn for 
Confederation," by, 260 ; corner- 
stone of museum of McGill Uni- 
versity laid by, 279; Royal 
Society of Canada founded by, 
Arisaig, first settled by Highland 

Catholics, in 
Artists, Scottish, in Canada, 406 

Balderson, Lieut.-Col., 180 
Bannockburn, 48, 248 
Baptist Church in Canada, Scottish 

clergy in, 332 
Baronets of Nova Scotia, roll of, 


Bayne, James, 404 
Bell, Rev. William, 178-79 
Bethune, Rev. John, 161, 310-11 
Blue, Archibald, 396 

Boyd-Carpenter, Bishop of Ripon, 

Brandywine, Queen's Rangers at 

battle of, 126 
Breton, Cape, 71 

"British America," McGregor's, 


Brown, Hon. George, 369-73 
Browning, Robert, 61 
Bruce Highland chiefs who fought 

under, at Bannockburn, 48 
Bruce Settlements, 231 et seq.; 

noted Scottish residents of, 243- 


Bryce, Dr., 169, 302, 404, 405 
Burns, Robert, 22, 23, 34, 38 

Cameron, E. R., 395 
Cameron, Sir Mathew Crookes, 387 


Campbell, A. W., C.E., 396 
Campbell, Sir Alexander, 379-81 
Campbell, Archibald, plan of, for 
organising Fencible Regiments, 

Campbell, Sir Colin, 114 
Campbell, James Ernest, J.P., 245 
Campbell, Thomas Francis, 246 
Campbell, Rev. Dr. Robert, 179 
Canada Company founded by John 
Gait, 202 ; conspiracy against, 

Carglll, Henry, M.P., 244 
Cathcart, Lord (Governor), 253-54 
Chateauguay, 150 

Chatham, Lord, on Scottish regi- 
ments, 152 

Church of Disciples of Christ, 333 
Civil Service, Scotsmen in, 395-96 
Clan communities, remote origin 

of, 47, 48 

Clans, force of, and number of re- 
tainers in 1745, 49-53 
Clouston, Sir Edward, 396 
Cobbett on Prince Edward Island, 


Colquhoun, Dr., 300 
Commission on Technical Educa- 
tion, noted Scottish Canadians on, 
Congregational Church, Scottish 

clergy of, 332 
Connaught, Duke of, 265 
Cornwall, Upper Canada, 161 
Coyne, Dr., historian of Talbot 
settlement, 207 ; on Col. Talbot, 
299 ; translator of Galinee's narra- 
tive, 404 
Craigie of Gairsay, last Baronet of 

Nova Scotia, 78 
Creighton, David, 406 

Creighton, Dr., 331 
Cruikshank, Col., 404 
Cummings, Trooper Gordon, 01 
Bruce, killed in Boer War, 243 

Dalhousie, Lord, 114, 148; Gover 

nor-General, 252 
Dawson, Sir William, 160 
Derry, Siege of, Scotsmen at, 60 
" Discoverers, The," 90 
Disraeli, 361 
Don de Dieu piloted by Abraham 

Martin, 134 
Dorchester, Lord, United Empire 

List of, 159 
Dougall, John, 405 
Douglas, Dr., 331 
Douglas, Sir Howard, educational 

work of, in New Brunswick, 125 
Drummond, Sir George, 394 
Dufferin, Lord (Governor), 256-58 
Dunlop, Dr., 237 
Dun wich, list of persons settled in, 

by Col. Talbot, 211-13 

EAST WILLIAMS, early Scotch 

settlers in, 219-20 
Education, Scotsman and, 266 et seq. 
Ekfrid, settlement of, 216-17 
Elgin, Lord, 238; Governor of 

Canada, 254-56 
Elizabeth, Queen, 56 
Empire Lists, 159 
"Encouragement to Colonies," by 

Sir William Alexander, 73, 89 
English River, 150 

FALCONER, DR., President of 
Toronto University, 122, 274-75 
Ferguson, Dr. F., 394 


Fiction, Kail Yard School of, 24 
Finance in Canada, Scotsmen and, 


Fisher, Hon. Sydney, 359 
Fleming, Sir Sandfield, 283, 395, 

"Formosa Mackay," missionary, 

Fort Frederick, St. John Harbour, 


Fort Wallace settlement, 1 1 1 
Franklin, Benjamin, 94, 191, 255 
Franklin, Sir John, 239 
Fraser Highlanders, no; list of 

officers of, in 1759, 139-41 
Fraser, Hon. D. C., 114 

Fraser, J.,I.S.O., 395 

Fraser, Col. Malcolm, extracts from 
manuscript journal of, 141-45 

Fraser, Mr., Chronicler of Macnab 
settlement, 192 

Fyfe, Rev. R. A., founder of Wood- 
stock College, 291-92 

GALT, H. T., 376-77 

Gait, John, Scottish novelist, 201 ; 
Canada Company established by, 
202 ; description of Huron Coast 
by, 237 

Genius of the Scotsman for business, 


George III., memorial to, lor site for 
Presbyterian Church in Quebec, 

Gibson, Hon. J. M., 359 

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, Newfound- 
land taken possession of by, 67 

Gladstone, W. E., 261, 361 

Glengarry Fencible Regiment, list 
of officers of, in 1798, 166-67 

Glengarry settlements, 152 et seq. 

Globe, Toronto, 371, 373, 374 
Goderich, founded by John Gait, 
205; named after Lord Goderich, 


Gody, Archdeacon, 228 
Gordon, Rev. C. W. ("Ralph 

Connor "), 228, 404 
Gordon, General, 261 
Gordon, Sir Robert, Premier 

Baronet of Nova Scotia, 78, 229 
Gosford, Lord (Governor-General), 

Governors- Generals of Canada, 

Scottish, 245-65 
Graham, historian of siege of 

Deny, 60 

Graham, Hon. Geo. P., 359 
Graham, Sir Hugh, 151, 405 
Grant, Sir James, 404 
Grant, Principal, 160 ; and Queen's 

University, 283-86; death of, 

Greenock, Port of, the Hector sails 

from, 100, 1 02 
Grey, Lord (Governor-General), 

Guelph, settlement by John Gait, 

20 1 ; early Scottish settlers of, 

203, 204 

HAGGART, HON. J. G., 180 
Halifax North British Association, 


Hanna, W.J.,359 

Hannay, James, 405 

Harris, John, his connection with 

Pictou settlement, 95-96 
Harrison's "Scot in Ulster," 

quotation from, 58-59 
Harriss, Dr., 406 
Hay, Dr., 300 



Hebrews, similarity of the Scottish 

people to, 31-32 
Hector t sailing of, from Greenock 

for Pictou, 100; suffering of 

emigrants on, 103 ; arrival of, 

at Pictou, 104 ; list of passengers 

on, 106-109 

Hendrie, Hon. J. S., 359 
Highland chiefs who fought under 

Bruce at Bannockburn, 48 
Highland Emigrant Regiment, 

defence of Quebec by, 145-46 
Highland Society, New Brunswick 

branch of, 418 
Historians in Canada of Scottish 

origin, 405 

" History of Pictou," 106 
Hope, the, first colony brought to 

Pictou by, 96-97 
Houston, W. , 404, 406 
Hudson's Bay Company, officials 

of, settled in Glengarry, 171 
Hunter, J. B. , 395 
Huron and Bruce settlements, 231 

et seq. 
"Hymn for Confederation," by 

Duke of Argyll, 260 

INGLIS, BISHOP, University of 
King's College founded by, 296 

Inveraray, Castle of, seat of Duke 
of Argyll, 48 

Ireland, North, Ulster first Scottish 
settlement in, 56 

James I., 34 

James VI., 34, 58, 67, 249 
Jarvis Street Collegiate School, 299 
Journalists, Scottish, in Canada, 



Kerr, Hon.J. K., K.C.,358 
King, Dr., Dominion Astronomer, 

King, Hon. W. Lyon Mackenzie, 

3 OI > 359, 399-400 
King's Royal Regiment of New 

York, Scottish officers in, 157 
Kingston, a city of Scotsmen, 283 
Kipling, Rudyard, 61 
Kirk, David, defeat 01 French 

squadron by, 79 

Kirke, Sir David (Governor), 250 
Knox, 34, 38 


Lanark (Scotland), emigrating 
societies formed in, 81-82 ; list of, 
183-84 ; Representatives of, 188- 

Lash-Miller, Prof., 274 

Lemoine, Sir James McPherson, on 
Abraham Martin and General 
Murray, 136 

Lighthall, W. D., K.C., 404 

Lisgar, Lord, first Governor- 
General under Canadian Con- 
federation, 256 

Literature, Scotsmen in, 402-404 

Lobo settlement, 217-18 

Lome, Marquess of, 210 

Lyon, Rev. James, 98 

Lyon's Brook, 98 

Macdonald, Father A., parish of 

St. Raphael's founded by, 162 
Macdonald, Brigadier- General, 396 
Macdonald, John, of Glenaladale, 

116, 117 


Macdonald, Sir John A., 68, 154, 
1 60, 280, 284 ; a dominating 
personality in Canadian political 
life, 360; his sway over the 
political mind and imagination 
of the people, 361 ; respected 
and honoured by men of highest 
ideals, 362; an Imperialist and 
Empire-builder, 363; his Scot- 
tish origin, 363-66 

Macdonald, Dr. J. A., 405 

Macdonald, Sir William, 122, 151, 
154, 281, 398 

Macdonell, Bishop, 159, 160, 165, 

Macdougal, Hon. W., 375-76 

Mackay, Dr. A. H., 300 

Mackay, J. G., 359 

Mackay, General Hugh of Scouri, 

Mackay, Hon. Robert, 150 

Mackay, Rev. W. A., " Pioneer Life 
in Zorra " by, 228 

Mackenzie, Hon. Alexander, 374-75 

Maclaren, Ian, 25 

Macnab, Sir Allan, 336, 349-50 

Macnab, John M., 245 

Macnab Settlement, the, 190 et 

Magee, Archbishop, 6 1 

Manufacturers, Scottish, 394 

Martin, Abraham, 134, 135 ; Sir J. 
M. Lemoine on, 136 

Marvell, Poet, quoted, 122 

Master of Lovat, 138-39 

Matheson, A. J., 359 

McClean, Justice, 405 

McClean, W. F., 406 

McDougald, J., 395 

McGee, Hon. Thomas D'Arcy, 381- 

McGill, Dr. Anthony, 395 
McGill, James, founder of McGill 

University, 276-77 
McGill University, 275-82 
McGillivray, Scottish township 

officers in, 218 
McGregor, Rev. John, historian of 

Prince Edward Island, 117 
McKenzie, W. Lyon, 160, 334 

et seq. 
McLean, Col., defence of Quebec, 

by, 145-46 

McLennan, Prof. J. C., 274 
McMaster University, 292-93 
McMaster, Hon. W., 293 
McMullen, Rev. W., 331 
McNeil, Alexander, M.P., 244 
McNeill, John, 119 
McNider, founder of Metis, 146 
McTavish, Newton, 406 
Medical profession in Canada, 

Scotsmen in, 392-94 
Meighen, Hon. James, 151 
Michel, Francisque, on the connec- 
tion between Scotland and France, 

Middlesex Scottish settlements, 214 

et seq. 

Miller-Coulter, R., C.M.G., 395 
Minto, Lord (Governor-General), 


Monteith, S. N., 359 
Mora, Scottish settlers in, 219 
Morley, Lord, 337 
Morris, Hon. James, 354 
Morris, Hon. W., 350 
Mount Allison Wesleyan College 

University, 297 
Mountstephen, Lord, 280 
Mo watt, Oliver, 160, 284 
Murray, Hon. W. H., 114 



NEW BRUNSWICK, Scotsmen in, 


Newfoundland, possession of, taken 
by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, 67 

New Scotland, territory acquired by 
Sir William Alexander, 71 ; colo- 
nising of, 173 

North British Society of Halifax, 

North- West Trading Company, 151 

Novelists, Scottish, in Canada, 

O'Neill, Moira, 403 
Orr, John, first mate of the 
Hector, 102 

PATTERSON, REV. G., " History of 
Pictou " by, 105, 106 

Patterson, Hon. W., 359 

Pentland, Lord, 262 

Perth, Sir Walter Scott on, 172 

Perth (Ontario), arrival of Scottish 
emigrants at, 174; families of, 

Peterson, W., C.M.G., Principal 
McGill University, 281-82 

Pictou Academy, 297 

Picture Settlements : the sailing of 
the Hope, 93-99 ; arrival of the 
.Hector, 99-109 

Poetry, Scottish writers of, in 
Canada, 403 

Presbyterian Church, strength of, 
in North of Ireland, 59 ; memorial 
to George III. for site for, in 
Quebec, 147 ; first in Upper 
Canada, 161 ; in Canada, Scots- 
men in, 303 et seq. 


Prince Edward Island, colonised by 
John Madonald of Glenaladale, 
116; and by Lord Selkirk, 
117; Cobbett on, 118; Sir 
William Macdonald a native of, 


QUEBEC, defence of, by Highland 
Emigrant Regiment, 145 ; Liter- 
ary and Historical Society, 
Scottish charter members of, 
148-49 ; Confederation Confer- 
ence of, 368-69 

Queen's Rangers, Scotsmen in, 126 ; 
Scotsmen on muster roll of 1781, 
127-29; Queensbury named after, 
129; officers of, 129-31 

Queen's University, 282-87 


Renfrew, emigration societies 
formed in, 181-82 

Regiopolis College founded by 
Bishop Macdonnell, 289 

Restigouche, 125 

Richmond, Duke of (Governor- 
General), 251 

Rideau, 173 

Riel Rebellion, Scotsmen from 
Bruce in, 242 

Ripon, Bishop of, 61 

Roberts, Lord, Ulster descent of, 

Robertson, Professor, 302 

Roosevelt, ex-Prssident, 62 

Ross, P. D. , 406 

Ross, Sir G., 404 

Ross- Robertson, " Landmarks of 
Toronto " by, 399 


Royal family, Guelph named after, 

Royal Society of Canada, literary 

members of Scottish origin, 404 
Rutherford, Dr., C.M.G., 396 
Ryerson, Dr. E., 293 

ston, 408-409 ; Glengarry, 409 ; 

Ottawa, 409-11 ; St. John, 412- 

St. Francis Xarier's College, Nova 

Scotia, 297 
St. John, soldiers of Black Watch 

settled on, 131 
St. Raphael's, parish jof, founded by 

Rev. A. Macdonald, 162 
St. Thomas, visited by Marquess of 

Lome, 210 
"Scot in France," by Francisque 

Michel, 137 
" Scot in New France," by Sir J. M. 

Lemoine, 136 

" Scot in Ulster," by Harrison, 58 
"Scotland," 17-20 
Scotland and France, Francisque 

Michel on connection between, 


Scotsman, affinity of, to the Greek, 

Scott, Sir Walter, 22, 23, 34, 38, 


Scottish Pale, the, 56 
Selkirk, Lord, 117, 168 
Service, Robert, "Songs of a 

Sourdough " by, 403 
Shaw, Alexander, K.C., 243 
Sinclair, Donald, 243 
Short, Adam, M.A., F.R.S.C., 395 
Societies, Scottish, 407 
Sons of Scotland Society, 419 

Spear, John, Master of the Hector, 
1 02 

Sproat, Lt. -Col., 243 

Steenkirk, General Hugh Mackay 
at, 229 

Stirling, Earl of, 164 

Stormont settled by United Empire 
Loyalists, 170 

Strachan, Bishop, 160, 161 ; 
educational work of, 270-71 ; 
founder of Trinity University, 
273; McGill University and, 
276-77 ; first Bishop of Upper 
Canada, 327 ; his belief in a 
State Church, 339 ; Chauncey 
rebuked by, 340; character of, 
contrasted with Lyon Mac- 
kenzie, 345-47 

Stuart of Mount Stuart, John, 119 

Stuart, Archdeacon Okill, 290 

Sutherland, Justice, 359 

TALBOT, COL., 190, 207 ; friendship 
of, with the Duke of Wellington, 
208 ; Dr. Coyne on, 209 ; his 
scheme of settlement, 210 

Talbot Settlement, 207-13 

Tolmie, John, M.P., 245 

Toronto University, founded by 
Dr. Strachan, 270; members of 
Senate of, in 1877, 271-72; 
separation of, from Anglican 
Church, 272 

Torrens, Sir Henry, Ulster descent 
of, 61 

" Tragedy of Darius," by Sir William 
Alexander, 70 

Truro, Nova Scotia, first settled by 
Ulster Scotsmen, 62 ; list of 
names of original grants of land 
in, 63 



ULSTER, first Scottish settlement in 
North of Ireland, 56 

United Empire List, Lord Dor- 
chester's, 159 

United Empire Loyalists, no; 
Glengarry settled by, 154; Stor- 
mont settled by, 170 

University of New Brunswick, 297 

Upper Canada, Presbyterian life 
and conditions in, 323-25 


Wellington, Duke of, 208 
Welsh-British pedigree, 44, 45 
Wemyss, Major, Queen's Rangers 
under command of, at battle of 
Brandy wine, 126 

Wesleyan clergy of Scottish ex- 
traction, 331 
White, Hon. P., 357 

William and Mary, addressed to, 

signed by Scotsmen in Derry, 

60-6 1 
William III. on General Hugh 

Mackay, 229-30 
William IV., charter granted by, 

to Quebec Literary and Historical 

Society, 148 

Willison, Dr. J. S., F.R.S.C., 405 
Wilson, Sir Daniel, 273 
Wolfe, 115, 134, 137, 248 
Women writers, Scottish, 402 
Woodstock College, 292 
Wright, Prof. Ramsay, 274 
Wrong, Prof., 404 


ZORRA, pioneer work of Angus and 
William Mackay in, 223; mis- 
sionary and literary influence of 
community of, 227 ; clan Mackay 
in, 229