(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Scots peerage : founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom"

THE SCOTS PEERAGE 



Edinburgh : Priuted by T. aud A. CONSTABLE 

FOR 
DAVID DOUGLAS 

LONDON . . . SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, 
KENT AND CO., LIMITED 

CAMBRIDGE . . MACMILLAN AND BOWES 
GLASGOW . . JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS 



THE 



SCOTS PEERAGE 

FOUNDED ON WOOD'S EDITION 
OF SIR ROBERT DOUGLAS'S 

of >cotlan& 



CONTAINING 

AN HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL ACCOUNT 
OF THE NOBILITY OF THAT KINGDOM 

EDITED BY 

SIR JAMES BALFOUR PAUL 

LORD LYON KING OF ARMS 



WITH ARMORIAL ILLUSTRATIONS 




VOLUME III 

EDINBURGH : DAVID DOUGLAS 
1906 




All rights reserved 



OS 



P35 
I/. 3 



CONTENTS 

AND LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

CRAWFORD, LINDSAY, EARL OF, . . . . . . 1 

With full-page Illustration. 

CRICHTON, CRICHTON, LORD, . . . . . . 52 

CROMARTIE, MACKENZIE, EARL OF, . , , - 69 

DALHOUSIE, RAMSAY, EARL OF, . ;) ,,. .,. Vi . 7 .. ? . ( ' ,. ri> 87 
With full-page Illustration. 

DELORAINE, SCOTT, EARL OF, .... f f^ . Ill 

DING WALL, KEITH, LORD, .^ ;f ;V) V nv > v 115 

DINGWALL, PRESTON, LORD,. ',^viM <v >ux4\> ... 117 
DIRLETON, MAXWELL, EARL OF, ; T !O'i>l ', . '{'Hi. . .126 

DOUGLAS, DOUGLAS, EARL OF, 132 

DOUNE, STEWART, LORD, 186 

DUFFUS, SUTHERLAND, LORD 191 

DUMBARTON, DOUGLAS, EARL OF 216 

DUMFRIES, CRICHTON, EARL OF, 219 

DUNBAR, DUNBAR, EARL OF, 239 

DUNBAR, HOME, EARL OF, 280 

DUNBAR, CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT, 290 

DUNBLANE, OSBORNE, VISCOUNT, 301 

DUNDEE, SCRYMGEOUR, EARL OF, 303 

DUNDEE, GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF, 316 

DUNDONALD, COCHRANE, EARL OF, 334 

With full-page Illustration. 



vi CONTENTS 

PAGE 

DUNFERMLINE, SETON, EARL OF, . . " . ., . . 369 

DUNKELD, GALLOWAY, LORD, . . . . . ... 376 

DUNMORE, MURRAY, EARL OF, . , . . * . 383 

DYS ART, MURRAY, EARL OF, . . . . . . 397 

EGLINTON, MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF, . . .. . . 421 

With full-page Illustration. 

ELGIN AND AILESBURY, BRUCE, EARL OF, . , f , . . 466 

ELGIN AND KINCARDINE, BRUCE, EARL OF, . , . 484 
With full-page Illustration. 

ELIBANK, MURRAY, LORD, . ,. . f . . . 498 
With full-page Illustration. 

ELPHINSTONE, ELPHINSTONE, LORD, . . . T 525 
With full-page Illustration. 

ERROLL, HAY, EARL OF, . <: V . -.'."' ^ f . 555 

With full-page Illustration. 

EYTHIN, KING, LORD, . . !' ! ;A. ^, U^ ,-i/J >' 58g 

FAIRFAX OF CAMERON, FAIRFAX, LORD, . . ' . '.' 595 
With full-page Illustration. 

FALKLAND, GARY, VISCOUNT, ,;;.;* a; ;/ i , ; v :t ; 607 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO VOL. III. 

J. A., . . . REV. JOHN ANDERSON, Assistant Curator His- 
torical Department, H.M. General Register 
House. 

W. B. A., . . MAJOR WILLIAM BRUCE ARMSTRONG. 
R. E. B., . . , . COLONEL THE HON. ROBERT BOYLE. 

W. K. D., . . WILLIAM K. DICKSON, Keeper of the Advocates' 
Library. 

F. J. G., . . . FRANCIS J. GRANT, Rothesay Herald. 

H. W. F. H., . . H. W. FORSYTH HARWOOD, Editor of The 
Genealogist. 

W. A. L. . . . WILLIAM A. LINDSAY, K.C., Windsor Herald. 

J. R. N. M., . . J. R. N. MACPHAIL, Advocate. 

K. W. M., . . KEITH W. MURRAY. 

K. P., . . . KATHERINE PARKER. 

J. B. P., . . . SIR JAMES BALFOUR PAUL, Lyon King of Arms. 

G. S., . . . GEORGE SETON. 

A. F. S., . . .A. FRANCIS STEUART. 

C. S. T., , . . CHARLES SANFORD TERRY, Burnett-Fletcher 
Professor of History in the University of 
Aberdeen. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 




HE Scottish House of Lind- 
say, 1 of which the Earl of 
Crawford is chief, was 
founded early in the 
twelfth century by Sir 
Walter de Lindesay who 
accompanied David, 
brother of the King of 
Scotland (afterwards 
David i.), tenant (jure 
uxoris) of the great fief 
or earldom of Hunting- 
don, when he took pos- 
session of the Principality 
of Cumbria. 

It is not certain whence 
the surname of Lindesay, 
Lindesaia or Lindissie (there have been nearly two hundred 
variations of the spelling) was derived, but there were 
several persons bearing the name in England at the close 
of the eleventh century. In particular, Baldric, tenant of 
manors under the Earl of Chester in 1086, 2 granted tithes 
thereof to the Monastery of St. Evreux in Normandy before 
1100, being described in the chartulary 3 of that house as 
Baldric de Lindesay. 

SIR WALTER DE LINDSAY was one of the Council of Prince 
David, who saw and heard the local magnates give evidence 
at the Inquisition of the property of the See of Glasgow, 

1 For the argument that the name Lindsay is a variant of Limesay, 
and that the Lindsays were cadets of the great house of Tony, see 
Lives of the Lindsays, edit. 1858. 2 Domesday Book, 3496. 3 Cal. of Docs. 
(France), 223. 

VOL. III. A 



2 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

circa 1120, 1 and was previously proprietor of Fordington 
in Lindsey, where he granted 2 lands to Alured the Deacon. 
This manor of Fordington is traced to several of his suc- 
cessors in Scotland. He witnessed several charters of 
Prince David, and was succeeded by his son (or brother), 

WILLIAM DE LINDSAY, who witnessed a charter to the 
Abbey of Ramsey in 1134. 3 He also appears as witness to 
a charter granted in the Parliament of Scotland of 1147, 4 
and as witness to many charters of King David i. He 
granted lands at Ercildun or Earlston, and at Oaddyslea to 
the Abbey of Dryburgh. 5 His son and heir, 

WALTER BE LINDSAY, who apparently held Fordington, 6 
confirmed his father's grant to Dryburgh, and also gave 
the church of Earlston to the Abbey of Kelso 7 for the soul 
of his uncle Walter concedente Willelmo filio meo. He was 
a witness to the charters of King Malcolm iv. 8 and a 
Justiciar 9 of Scotland, 1164. He also witnessed a conven- 
tion at Ramsey, 10 and in 1138 was remitted ten shillings 
in the accounts of the Sheriff of Huntingdon. 11 His son and 
heir, 

WILLIAM DE LINDSAY, gave the lands of Fauope to the 
Abbey of Melrose 12 before 1179, among the witnesses to 
his charter being Swan, the son of Thor, and Arosinus 
de Lindsay. Both Earlston, where he gave other lands 
before 1170, and Crawford, which he possessed at the 
close of the century, were first held under Swan, the 
son of Thor, a south-country magnate whose family 
acquired lands in Perthshire, and took the name of Ruth- 
ven. William de Lindsay was one of the hostages for 
King William in 1174, described by Wyntoun as 'the 

1 Reg. Epis. Glasguen., 7. 2 Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 829 (Fortintone 
was in the Earl of Chester's demesne, 1086). 3 Chart, of Ramsey (Rec. 
Com.), i. 156. 4 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 359. 6 Reg. of Dryburgh, 79, 83. 
6 Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 821. 7 The Charters in Earlston of Walter 
and William are printed in Raine's North Durham, App. x. 69, the 
original deeds being at Durham, with perfect equestrian seals. 8 Chart, 
of Soltre, 7. 9 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 364, etc. 10 Chart, of Ramsey, i. 253. 
11 Cal. Doc. Scot., i. 58. 12 Chart, of Melrose, i. 11. This charter is 
placed in the Chartulary temp. Male, iv., apparently in error. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 3 

greatest that of our land were seen. 1 1 His marriage 
to a great English heiress can be approximately fixed at 
that date, for their son and heir was a Justiciar in 1208, 
and his son a minor in 1214. In 1180 William sat in Parlia- 
ment as Baron of Luffenac 2 (Luffness), and he witnessed 
many royal charters down to near 1200. After 1187, if 
not before, he is found acting as Justiciar. He confirmed 
to the Church of Binning a donation of Durandus his 
'antecessor' (which Durandus was Sheriff contemporary 
with the first Lindsay), 3 and granted lands at Binning 
to Cambuskenneth, 4 and in Crawford to Newbattle, 5 to 
which last abbey a succession of grants was made by 
his issue. In 1188 he was certified by the Sheriff of 
Northumberland as having right in lands which had be- 
longed to Randolph de Lindsay, 6 who had obtained a great 
estate by marriage with Etheldreda, a granddaughter 
of Oospatrick, fir si Earl of Dunbar, 7 which Randolph was a 
benefactor of the Priory of St. Bees. William probably 
married two wives, by the first of whom he had : 

1. WALTER, of whom below, who succeeded to his English 

manors. 

By his marriage with Alienora, daughter and eldest 8 co- 
heir of Gerard de Limesi (great-grandson of Randolph 9 dc 
Limesi, tenant in chief of forty lordships in 1086, and founder 
of the Priory of Hertford) by Amicia de Bidun, he had : 

2. DAVID, described as his heir in Crawford, 10 and presum- 
ably 

3. WILLIAM, whose issue succeeded to Crawford, and who 

was the ancestor of the Earls. (See post.) 
The Justiciar died about 1200. His eldest son, 

WALTER DE LINDSAY, was Lord of Lamberton before circa 
1200, when he had licence from the Prior of Coldingham to 
have a private chapel in his castle there. 11 He was Sheriff 

1 Palgrave, Doc. Scot., 63 ; Wyntoun, bk. vii. chap. viii. fol. 172b. 
2 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 388; Chart, of Melrose, i. 103. 3 Sir Archibald 
Laurie's early charters; cf. Priory of St. Andrews Chart., 180-181. 
4 Chart, of Cambuskenneth, 44. 5 Chart, of Newbattle, 102. 6 Lives 
of the Lindsays, i. 20 ; Pipe Roll, 1 Ric. i. ; Cal. of Docs., 28. " Dug- 
dale's Monasticon, iii. 584. 8 Testa, de Nevill., 285. 9 Dugdale's 
Baronage, i. 413 ; Index to Domesday Book. 10 Chart, of Newbattle, 102. 
11 Raine's North Durham, App. No. 649. 



4 LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 

of Berwickshire, Constable of Berwick, 1 and one of the 
Justiciars of Scotland. He held the manors of Fordington 
and Ulseby, co. Lincoln ; and Molesworth, in the earldom 
of Huntingdon. 2 He granted the churches of Fordington 
and Ulseby 3 to the Abbey of Croyland, and lands to the 
Knight Templars. He was an ambassador to England 1215 
to ask restitution of the earldom of Huntingdon, 4 he 
witnessed many charters of Kings William and Alexander 
ii., and died about 1221. His wife's name is unknown, but 
after his death she was married against her will, about 
1222, to P. de Valence, when a dispensation was obtained 
for consanguinity. 5 

SIR WILLIAM DE LINDSAY, Lord of Lamberton, Sheriff of 
Berwickshire, 6 witnessed a charter of King Alexander as 
William, son of Walter de Lindsay. He also held Moles- 
worth and Caldecote of the earldom of Huntingdon. 7 He 
was ambassador to England 1237, and party, as a baron, to 
the treaty between Alexander n. 8 and Henry in. in 1244. 9 
He married, about 1220, Alicia, daughter of William de 
Lancaster, Lord of Kendal, by Agnes de Brus, co-heiress 
with Helewise, wife of Peter de Brus, 10 of her brother 
William de Lancaster, 11 and died about 1247. 

WALTER DE LINDSAY, 12 Lord of Lamberton, Molesworth, 13 
etc., Sheriff of Berwickshire, and Justiciar of Lothian, 14 
inherited a vast property in Lancashire and Westmoreland 
(including most of what is known as the Lake District), in 
right of his mother, and paid a fine of two marks of gold 
to be respited from taking knighthood against his will, and 
he further delayed it to make a pilgrimage to the shrine of 
St. James. 15 He was sixteen years old, 31 Henry in. He 
granted a charter of liberties to the burgh of Warton in 
Lancashire, 16 had licence to make a pilgrimage to Spain 

1 Raine's North Durham, App. , p. 28 ; Chart, of Soltre, 16-17. 2 Abbrev. 
Plact., 32; Rot. Litt. Glaus, i. 250. 3 Cal. Doc. Scot., i. 313. 4 Rymer's 
Feeder a, i. 203; Cal. of Docs., i. 629. 6 Chron. de Melros, 139. 6 Raine, 
App. 59-73. 7 Croyland Chart. MSS. 8 Cal. of Docs., i. 1329. 9 Ibid., 
1654. 10 Compare notes in Wetherall Chart. (Prescott). Cal. of Docs., 
1796-1968. 12 Excerpta a Eot. Fin., ii. 7. 13 Cal. of Docs., i. 1968. 14 Chart, 
of Newbattle, 151. 16 Cal. of Docs., 2073-2212. 16 Charter printed in Baine's 
Lancashire, iv. 571. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 5 

1260, and was ambassador to England 1265. 1 His wife's 
name was Christian, who was married, secondly, in Scot- 
land, to Walter de Percy of Kildale, 2 as attested by King 
Alexander in. 23 September 1274. 3 

This great baron died on All Souls' Day 1271, 4 leaving 
issue : 

1. WILLIAM, his heir, and perhaps two others. 

2. Gilbert 6 thought to be identical with Gilbert de 

Molesworth, 6 and 

3. Walter of Parva Lamberton. 7 Probable ancestor of 

the Lindsays of Thurston. 8 

4. Margaret, wife of Sir David de Lindsay. 

5. Alicia, wife of John Comyn of Badenoch and Tynedale. 9 

WILLIAM DE LINDSAY, Lord of Lamberton, and of half the 
Honour of Kendal, was born 24 June 1250, and married 
before his father's death. 10 He did homage for all his Eng- 
lish lands 28 January 1271-72, 11 and was bailiff for the King 
of Scotland in Cumberland 1278. 12 He was summoned on 
military service against Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, 1276- 
82, 13 and was killed in battle there 6 November 1283. 14 He 
married, at Whitsunday 1266, when aged 16, Ada, 15 daughter 
of Sir John de Baliol and Devorgilla, daughter of David, 
Earl of Huntingdon, which Ada was sister of John 
Baliol, afterwards King. They had issue one daughter and 
heiress : 

1. Christian, 16 sixteen years old at her father's death, 1282 ; 
married to Ingelram de Guignes (or Ghesnes), son 
of Arnold in., Count of Guignes, by Alice, daughter 
of Ingelram, Sire de Coucy, and afterwards, in right 
of his mother, Sire de Coucy. 17 Ingelram did homage 
for his wife's English lands 28 May 1283, and his 
right to the Berwickshire lands was asserted by 

1 Col. of Docs., 2381. 2 Ibid., ii. 52. * Ibid., ii. 23, 52; Abbrev. Rot. 
Orig. , i. 23. 4 Cal. Doc. Scot. , 2626. 6 Ibid. , iii. 151. 6 Rot. Hundred, ii. 618. 
7 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 428. 8 Cal. of Docs., ii. 508. 9 These daughters are 
inferred from the facts that Alicia and her husband were in possession of 
Ulseby, and her son John Comyn was guardian of Sir Alexander, son of 
David and Margaret de Lyndsay; Cal. of Docs., ii. p. 54. 10 Cal. of 
Docs., i. 2626. " Ibid., i. 2635. 12 Ibid., ii. p. 38. 13 Rymer's Fcedera, 
ii. 73, 190. 14 Lives of the Lindsays, i. 31 n, quoting Knyghton. 16 Cal. 
Doc. Scot., i. 2626. 16 Cal. Gen., 6 Ed. i. Cal. of Docs., ii. 239. 



6 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

King Edward. He was repeatedly summoned to the 
Parliaments of England. 1 Their issue, Sires de Ooucy 
in France, Earls of Bedford in England, are now re- 
presented by the Duke of Parma 2 as heir to the late 
Henry v., Oomte de Ohambord. 3 Christian died 1335. 
The next branch of the family was descended from 

SIR DAVID DE LINDSAY, Lord of Luffness and owner of 
Crawford, eldest son of William de Lindsay by Alienora de 
Limesi. He was Justiciar before 6 November 1208. 4 He 
confirmed his father's grant in Crawford to Newbattle 
and gave additional lands. 5 He was a constant witness to 
the charters of Kings William and Alexander n., and he 
witnessed the foundation charter of Lindores by Earl David. 6 
He died about 1214, 7 and in 1220 his son was found co-heir to 
Limesi. 8 This David confirmed a charter of Sleparsfield or 
Slipperfield to the Abbey of Holyrood granted by Richard 
de Cumyn and his wife Hextilda. 9 Sir David married 
Marjory, 10 a member of the reigning house of Scotland, 
alleged by Jier great-grandson Sir Robert de Pinkeney, 11 
named below, to have been sister of Kings Malcolm and 
William. This being chronologically impossible, she was 
perhaps a daughter of one of the two Henrys, natural sons 
of Earl David. She was (with her son) foundress of the 
Monastery of Elcho. 12 They had issue : 

1. DAVID, who succeeded. 

2. GERARD, heir to his brother. 

3. Walter, said to have married Christian Huse, and to 

have issue. 13 

4. William" died s. p., supposed to be identical with the 

Chancellor of Scotland of that name. 15 

5. ALICIA, heiress of her brothers. 

1 Palgrave's Write. 2 See Lives of the Lindsays, i. 413 (App.), edit. 1858. 
3 Cal. of Docs., iii. 1159. 4 Cart, of Lindores, 168 ; Acta Part. Scot., 
i. 68*. 5 Cart, of Newbattle, 103, etc. 6 Cart, of Lindores, 5. 7 Hot. 
Litt. Claus., 63. 8 Testa de Nevill., 285. 9 Haigh Hall Charters. Both 
charter and confirmation are now in possession of the Earl of Crawford, 
and that of David has a fine seal, exhibiting an eagle rising. 10 Cal. of 
Docs., i. 1614. n Rymer, ii. 576. 12 Cart, of Dunfermline, 107. 13 Cart, 
of Paisley, 233. 14 Cart, of Newbattle, 105. These Lindsays were 
sometimes named Limese in English Records. 15 See Crawfurd's Lives 
of Officers of State. 



LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 7 

SIR DAVID DE LINDSAY, a Justiciar of Scotland, 1 Lord of 
Luffness and Crawford, was found by inquisition heir to 
half the Limesi fee in England. The ward and marriage of 
himself and his brothers and sisters having been granted by 
the King of England 2 to William de Cantelupe, it was 
claimed by, and allowed on payment of 200 to, King Alex- 
ander ii. Sir David made further grants to Newbattle and 
Dunfermline, 3 and assisted his mother to found Elcho. He 
sat in Parliament at Scone 1227, was abroad beyond seas 
in 1230, 4 and died in 1241. His widow Christina 5 married 
Sir Robert de Pinkeney. 6 

SIR GERARD DE LINDSAY, Lord of Luffness, Crawford, and 
the half of Limesi, was found heir to his brother by in- 
quisition, and did homage in England 14 May 1241 . 7 He 
made further grants to Newbattle, 8 and died in 1249. 

ALICIA DE LINDSAY was found heiress of her brothers by 
inquisition in England, 9 and was wife of Sir Henry de Pin- 
keney, Lord of Wedon-Pinkeney, a great English baron, 
who did homage for his wife's lands 34 Henry in. paying 
50. Their son Henry was father of Sir Robert de Pin- 
keney, a claimant of the Crown of Scotland. 10 Sir Robert 
had litigation with the Prior of Coventry, his plea proving 
the identity of the Lords of Crawford and Limesi. 11 He died 
s. p., and his brother Sir Henry, who served in Scotland 
under Kings Edward i. and 11., left Wedon-Pinkeney to the 
King of England. 12 Owing to the war of independence, it is 
doubtful whether the Pinkeneys ever actually obtained 
possession of the Scottish lands, and on the death of Sir 
Henry, Sir Alexander de Lindsay, undoubted chief of the 
Scottish Lindsays, was admitted to be Lord of Crawford. 

WILLIAM DE LINDSAY (the younger son of William de 
Lindsay and Alienora de Limesi) was seneschal to the 
Steward of Scotland (and a constant witness to Paisley 

1 Cart. Com.-Lennox, 30 ; Cal. of Docs., i. 832. 2 Rot. Litt. Claus, 496. 
3 Cart, of Dunfermline, 107; Cart, of Newbattle, 104. 4 Cal. of Docs., 
i. 1089; Ibid., 1530, etc. 6 Excerpta a Rot. Fin, 30. 6 Cal. of Docs., 
1530-1531. 7 Ibid., 1532. 8 Cart, of Newbattle, 108. Cal. of Docs., i. 1753. 
10 Rymer's Fcedera, ii. 576. n Placita, 13 Edw. i. M. 16d. (Record Office). 
12 Dugdale Baronage. 



8 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

charters), a circumstance which may account for the fess 
chequy borne in the coat armour of his descendants, for the 
first line of Crawford carried an eagle, and the line of Lam- 
berton bore an orle like the Baliols. He was father of 

1. SIR DAVID, and (presumably) of 

2. William, ancestor of Craigie. 

SIR DAVID DE LINDSAY, Lord of Breneville, in Ayrshire, 
and of the Byres, in the constabulary of Haddington. He 
had a charter of Garmilton from Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke, 
1233. ' He or his son had also a charter of Chirden in Tyne- 
dale, 2 from Margaret, Countess of Pembroke, sister of King 
Alexander n., confirmed by King Henry in. 1255. He 
witnessed a charter of King Alexander to Scone, 3 as * David 
de Lindsay patre, filio Wilhelmi,' 5 February 1241. He was 
Justiciar of the Lothians 1243-49, 4 and a party to the treaty 
with England 1244. 5 Sir David founded a mass at Bal- 
merino for the soul of Queen Ermengarde, 'domina mea,' 
confirmed by the King 28 March 1233. 6 His wife is un- 
known. Sir David had issue : 

1. SIR DAVID, his heir. 

2. Sir John de Lindsay, Chamberlain of Scotland, 7 who 

by his wife Dyonisia, daughter of Alexander Bene, 
in Northumberland, had issue : 

(1) Sir Simon de Lindesay. B 

(2) Sir Philip de Lindesay, both Knights Bannerets of Lincoln- 

shire, ancestors of the Lindsays of Wauchopdale and 
Barcloy, etc. 9 

SIR DAVID DE LINDSAY, who acted as one of the Regents 
of Scotland in 1255, 10 was High Chamberlain in 1256. He 
witnessed a confirmation charter of King Alexander in. to 
Balmerino as ' David de Lindesay, juniore.' n He joined 
the Crusade of St. Louis in 1268, and died in Egypt. 12 By 

1 This writ, which is registered in Acts and Decreets, vol. xiii., is now 
in the possession of the Earl of Haddington, and is printed in Fraser's 
Earls of Haddington, ii. 225. 2 Cal. of Docs., i. 1981. 3 Cart, of Scone, 46. 
4 Macfarlane's Codex Diplomatica, MSS., i. 193. 5 Rymer, Fcedera, ed. 1816, 
i. 257; Cal. of Docs., i. 1654. 6 Cart, of Balmerino, 17-18. 7 Pipe Rolls, 
1267. 8 Parl. Writs, i. 333 ; Ibid., 419. 9 Rymer, Fcedera, ed. 1816, i. 995. 
10 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 77 ; Pat. Roll, 29 Hen. in. Cart, of Balmerino, 21. 
12 Dugdale, Monast. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 9 

his wife, Margaret de Lindesay, probably daughter of 
Walter de Lindsay, Lord of Lamberton (see above, p. 5) he 
had issue : 

1. SIR ALEXANDER. 

2. Sir William, Lord of Symington, who (circa 1310) 

founded masses at Deer for his two wives Alicia, and 
M[argaret] Oomyn, Countess of Buchan, and at New- 
battle for his father and mother. 1 Sir James de 
Lindesay, Lord of Crawford, succeeded to Symington, 2 
and claimed to be Lord of Buchan. 

3. Sir Duncan, brother of Sir William, named c. 1310. 

SIR ALEXANDER DE LINDSAY was found by inquisition heir 
to David in Tynedale 1279, and his ward was granted to 
John Corny n of Badenoch and Tynedale, whose mother 
Alicia was apparently a Lindsay. 3 In 1289 he was present 
as a baron in the Parliament of Brigham. 4 He was knighted 
by King Edward i., but espoused the cause of Robert 
Bruce, and was a companion of Sir William Wallace. 
Nevertheless he had done homage to King Edward 28 
August 1296, 5 who summoned him on military service in 
Flanders September 1297. 6 He must have refused to obey, 
for he was ordered by Edward i. to be banished from Scot- 
land for six months, 7 and all his lands were forfeited by 
King Edward n. 8 According to Boece he was killed at the 
battle of Stirling, but he was present in Parliament 1308. 
He previously as surmised from a charter of his son's 9 
acquired possession of Crawford. There is reason to 
believe that his wife was a sister of James, Steward of 
Scotland. 10 - He left issue : 

1. SIR DAVID. 

2. Alexander, 11 who was imprisoned at Carlisle, 1308-1314, 

became a knight banneret, and was ancestor, as 
alleged, of the Lindsays of Ormiston, afterwards 
represented by Cockburn of Langton. 

3. Reginald, prisoner at Carlisle with his brother. 12 

1 Cart. ofNewbattle, 137 ; Antiq. Aberdeen and Banff, iv. 4. 2 Crawford 
MS. in Adv. Lib. 5. 3 Cat. of Docs. , ii. 54. 4 A eta Parl. Scot. , i. 85 ; Palgrave 
Docs., 284. 6 Cal. of Docs., ii. 823. 6 Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs, 
i. 284. 7 ibid., i. 162. 8 Cal. of Docs., iii. 258, etc. 9 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 99. 
10 See dispensation of 1346 below. Cal of Docs. , iii, 85, 290, 402. 12 Ibid. 



10 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

4. William, Rector of Ayr, 1 and Chamberlain of Scotland 

in 1317, whose close connection with the house of 
Crawford 2 suggests this affiliation . He died before 
5 Kal. January 1339. 

5. Beatrix, married, first, to Sir Archibald Douglas, and 

was mother of the first Earl of Douglas ; 3 secondly, 
to Sir Robert Erskine of Erskine, Great Chamberlain 
of Scotland. 4 

SIR DAVID DE LINDSAY, Lord of Crawford, Lord of the 
Byres, 5 and of a number of fiefs granted to him by King 
Robert, 6 including ' le Ootis ' held by his father under Sir 
Henry de Pinkeney, first appears in history as a prisoner of 
King Edward in Devizes Castle, 1307-1314. 7 He was witness 
to a royal charter 12 July 1318, 8 and was one of the barons 
who sealed the letter to Pope John xxn. in Parliament, 6 
April 1320, asserting the independence of Scotland. 9 He 
was a guarantor of the truce with England, 1323, 10 Custodian 
of Berwick 1329, 11 Constable of Edinburgh Castle 1346, 12 and 
an ambassador to England 1349 and 1351. 13 

He confirmed the charter to Newbattle of Sir Gerard de 
Lindsay in September 1327, 14 and granted lands for the souls 
of himself and his wife. 15 He founded a mass at Lindores 
for his wife before 19 November 1355, 16 she being then buried 
there. He married Maria Abernethy, widow of Andrew de 
Leschelyn (Leslie) and daughter (co-heiress with her sister 
Margaret, Countess of Angus) of Sir Alexander de Aber- 
nethy, the dispensation for which marriage was granted on 
28 November 1324, 17 on the narrative that she and her pre- 
vious husband were both related in the fourth degree to 
David de Lindsay of the diocese of Glasgow. Sir David 
granted an annuity of 20 shillings for the maintenance of 
Alicia de Lindsay, a nun at North Berwick. 18 Sir David had 

1 Robertson's Index, 12 ; Eeg. Mag. Sig., 15 Nov. 1600. 2 Papal Letters, 
ii. 546-560. 3 Fraser's Douglas Book, i. 213. 4 Papal Letters, iii. 564. 6 Cal. 
of Docs., iii. 33, 402, etc. 6 Robertson's Index, 6, etc. 7 Rymer's Fcedera, 
ed. 1816, ii. 257. 8 Cart, of Balmerino, 44. 9 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 114. 
10 Rymer's Fcedera, 1816, ii. 522. n Exch. Rolls, i. 213. 12 Extracta a 
Cron. Scot., 181. 13 Hot. Scot., i. 727-741. 14 Cart, of Newbattle, 114. 15 Sir 
David placed his shield of the fess chequy on an eagle in apparent allusion 
to his representation of the Limesays. The seal is affixed to an original 
charter at Haigh dated Jan. 1345. 16 Cart, of Lindores, 45 ; Reg. Mag. 
Sig., folio vol. 36, 94.. 17 Papal Letters, ii. 241. 18 Exch. Rolls, i. 613-614. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 11 

a pension from Dundee traceable for many generations in 
the Exchequer Rolls. He died before 13 October 1357, 
leaving issue : 

1. David, killed at the battle of Neville's Cross. 1 

2. SIR JAMES, his heir. 

3. Sir Alexander (father of the first Earl), who inherited 

his mother's property. 

4. Sir William, ancestor of the Lords Lindsay of the 

Byres. (See title Lindsay.) 

5. - , a daughter, who was mother to Sir Alexander de 

Ramsay. 

SIR JAMES DE LINDSAY, Lord of Crawford and Kirkmichael. 2 
He had been a hostage for King David n. in 1351, and 
appears first in Parliament 1357. 3 He was appointed an 
ambassador to England as Dominus de Crawford 1357, 4 but 
died before 11 November 1358. He married Egidia, daughter 
of Walter, Steward of Scotland, and half-sister of King 
Robert n. A papal dispensation for this marriage was 
granted at Avignon 3 Ides of April 1346, 5 which describes 
the spouses as within the third and fourth degree on 
the father's side, and in the fourth degree on the 
mother's. A strong inference thus arises that Sir James's 
grandmother, wife of Sir Alexander, was daughter to the 
Steward. Lady Egidia de Lindsay, as she was always 
afterwards styled, was married secondly, 6 after October 
1357, to Sir Hugh of Eglinton (see title Eglinton), and 
thirdly (contract October 1378), to Sir James Douglas of 
Dalkeith. (See title Morton.) 8 

Sir James and Egidia had issue : 

1. SIR JAMES, only son and heir. 

2. Isabel, 9 married before 13 July 1369, to Sir John de 

Maxwell, 10 who survived her. 

3. Elizabeth, married to Sir Henry de Prestoun. 11 

1 Fordun a Goodall, ii. 343. 2 Rot. Scot., i. 744. 3 Acta Part. Scot, 
i. 156. 4 Rymer's Fcedera, 1816, iii. 1, 370 ; Exch. Rolls, i. 613, 558. 5 Papal 
Letters, iii. 225 ; Andrew Stuart's Hist, of the Stewarts. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 
folio vol., 91 ; Had do House Charters ; Fifth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 612. 
7 Fraser's Memorials of the Montgomeries, i. 17. 8 Exch. Rolls, iii. 666 ; 
Reg. Hon. de Morton, ii. 139-140; Haigh Hall Charters. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig., 
folio vol. p. 19. 10 Robertson's Index, 115-144. n Fraser's Maxwells of 
Pollok, i. 13. 



12 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

SIR JAMES DE LINDSAY, Knight Banneret, 1 Lord of 
Crawford, Kirkmichael, 2 Wigton, 3 Symontoun, 4 and of 
many other baronies, claiming also to be Lord of 
Buchan, was a constant witness to royal charters as 
4 nepos Regis.' He sat in Parliament 1371 , 5 and was one 
of those who sealed the Act of Settlement of the Crown on 
Robert in. He had many safe - conducts from King 
Richard n., 1374-1395, being styled Lord de Lindesay in the 
safe-conduct of 15 December 1381, 6 and in 1394 was an 
ambassador with Sir David and others to England. 7 He 
and his cousin Sir David of Glenesk obtained mutual 
charters of entail. 8 Sir James was Justiciar north of the 
Forth in 1373, also Sheriff of Lanark. 9 He was present 
at Otterburn, and was taken prisoner by the Bishop of 
Durham, after having taken Sir Ma the w Redman, all of 
which is described by Froissart. He was one of those who 
promoted the famous fight between the Clan Chattan and 
Clan Kay on the Inch of Perth, as a means of settling their 
feuds. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir William 
Keith, Marshal of Scotland (by Margaret Fraser) who is 
mentioned by Wyntoun 10 as defending Fyvie Castle when 
besieged by her nephew in 1395. She survived her husband, 11 
Sir James, died 1397, leaving issue two daughters : 

1. Margaret, married to Sir Thomas Colville, 12 (son and 

heir of Sir Robert Colville of Oxenham), who died 
1411. 13 

2. Eufemia, married to Sir John Herries of Terregles. 

These ladies inherited their father's lands, which he 
had not entailed, and the Ayrshire estate of Brene- 
ville thus left the Lindsays. On 12 June 1397 they 
sold their interest in Formartyn to Sir Henry de 
Prestoun, who built or added to the Castle of Fyvie. 

SIR ALEXANDER DE LINDSAY, Lord of Glenesk, Knight 
Banneret, second surviving son of David, Lord of Crawford, 

1 Rot. Scot, ii. 126; Reg. Mag. Sig., folio vol. per Index. 2 Ibid., 133. 
3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 120. 4 Crawford Coll., Adv. Lib. ; Spalding Club; Aberd. 
Collections, i. 500. 5 ActaParl. Scot., i. 545. 6 Rot. Scot., ii. 40. 7 Rymer's 
Fader a, vii. 788, 1708 edit. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig., i. 172. 9 Exch. Rolls, ii. 
428, 435, 622. 10 Chronicle, bk. ix. chap. xvi. Exch. Rolls, iii. 415. 
12 Aberdeen and Banff Collections, i. 501-502. 13 Ibid. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 13 

began life as squire 1 to Thomas Stewart, Earl of Angus, 
his cousin. He inherited his mother's lands in Angus, 2 and 
also acquired some of the baronies allotted to his aunt 
Margaret Abernethy, Countess of Angus. 3 He further 
acquired Glenesk by marriage with the daughter of Sir 
John Stirling of Edzell. The union of these three great 
estates constituted the bulk of what was afterwards styled 
the earldom of Crawford, and extending, as they did, over 
about two-thirds of the whole county of Forfar, caused 
the district to be styled by a recent writer the land of the 
Lindsays. Sir Alexander was party to a truce with 
England as 4 chevalier et baron,' 1369. 4 He sealed with 
his nephew the settlements of the Crown, 1371-73, 5 and was 
Justiciar 1378. 6 He had many safe-conducts from Kings 
Edward in. and Richard n., and on 4 December 1381 7 he 
obtained a passport entitling him to pass through England 
to the Holy Lajid, on which pilgrimage he died. Sir Alex- 
ander had hereditary pensions or annuities granted to him 
from the customs or burgh rents of Aberdeen, Crail, and 
Forfar. 8 Having been granted the barony of the Byres by 
his elder brother, he transferred it to his youngest brother, 
Sir William. 9 He witnessed many royal charters, and was 
conspicuous in the political life of his day. He married, 10 
first, Katherine, daughter and co-heir of Sir John Stirling 
of Glenesk, Knight, the marriage-contract being confirmed 
by King David in 1358. She died before 1378, having had 
issue : 

1. DAVID, Earl of Crawford. 

2. Sir Alexander, of Baltrody, who fought in a tourna- 

ment with Ralph de Nevill 1391, a warrant to this 
effect being granted by King Richard n. 20 June. 11 
He had a pension from Crail, the entries in the 
Exchequer Rolls proving that he died between June 

1 See a curious release by Sir Alexander to the heirs of Thomas Stewart, 
Earl of Angus, of the obligation to give him forty merks of land on becom- 
ing a knight (Douglas Book, iii. 28.). 2 The quartering of Abernethy by 
Sir Alexander's issue relates to this succession ; Sir James of Crawford 
and Sir William of the Byres did not quarter Abernethy. 3 Reg. Mag. 
Sig., 108. 4 Rymer's Fcedera, ed. 1816, iii. pt. ii. 877. 6 Acta Parl. Scot, 
i. 182. 6 Exch. Rolls, ii. 620. 7 Rot. Scot., ii. 40. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig., folio 
vol. pp. 110, 111; original charter at Haigh. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig., fol. 
vol. 51, 152. 10 Robertson's Index, pt. i. ; Haigh Charter-Chest. " Cal. of 
Docs., iv. 425. 



14 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

1397 and May 1398. He was a substitute in the 
entails of Sir James and Sir David, but no mention 
of his issue subsequently occurs, so he presumably 
died without male issue. 

3. , a daughter, married to David Stewart, Earl Pala- 
tine of Strathern, eldest son of the second marriage 
of King Robert n., and mother of Eufemia, Countess 
Palatine of Strathern. This marriage is inferred 
from a charter at Blair granted on 5 March 1389-90 
by Countess Eufemia, with consent of her uncles and 
tutors-at-law, the Earl of Atholl and David Lindsay 
of Glenesk. 1 

Sir Alexander married, 2 secondly, before 19 October 1378, 
Marjory, daughter of Sir John Stewart of Ralstoun, niece 
of King Robert n. She afterwards married Sir Henry de 
Douglas of Langnewtoun 3 before 19 May 1384, 4 by whom she 
had issue, and was again a widow in 1393. 5 She assigned 
her terce of the Crail annuity to the Friars Minors of 
Dundee. By her, who was dead in 1442, Sir Alexander had 
issue : 

4. Sir William, of Rossie, 6 known as one of those re- 

sponsible for the death of David, Duke of Rothesay. 
He was tutor to David, younger son of the Earl of 
Crawford 1407, executor 7 to the Earl, had charter of 
lands in Ballenbreich from Earl Alexander 1423, 8 and 
died between 1435 and 1438. His wife, Matilda 
Stewart, is mentioned in the Exchequer Rolls 1438, 
and lived apparently to 1485. 9 The Lindsays of Dow- 
hill claim descent from this marriage. 

5. Sir Walter, 10 of Kynneff, who was killed at the battle 

of Verneuil, 1424. His wife was named Katherine, 
and she was afterwards married to Walter Dempster. 
Sir Walter had a son Walter witness to a charter 
of Alexander, Earl of Crawford, in 1438, but after- 
wards Kynneff reverted to the Earl for want of heirs- 

1 Liber Insulce Missarum, xlviii. ; Seventh Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 
Atholl, 705, 706. 2 Transcript of original charter of Rossy at Haigh. 
3 Lugton, v. vol. i. p. 14, and cf. Douglas Book, i. 103. 4 Reg. Hon. de 
Morton, xxxv. 5 Exch. Rolls, iii. 321 ; v. 122 and Reg. Hon. de Morton, 
xli. 6 Charter of the two Rossys at Haigh. 7 Exch. Rolls, iv. 35. 
8 Haigh Charter-Chest. 9 Exch. Rolls, v. 15. 10 Ibid., iv. 199; see 
Lives of the Lindsays, 57, for authorities. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 15 

male, 1 and was by him granted to David Ogilvie of 
Balrnowto. 

6. Euphemia, who had charters 2 from her brother Sir 
William, her nephew Earl Alexander, and her cousin 
Eufemia, wife of Patrick Graham, 3 Earl and Countess 
of Menteith. She was affianced to David, Duke of 
Rothesay, but the marriage did not take place. 
Sir Alexander died at Candia in Crete, October ' 1381, 4 and 
was succeeded by his eldest son. 

Sir Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk had a natural son John, 
who was a remainder man in the charter of Rossie, and 
living 19 October 1378. 5 He also had a son James, Rector 
of St. Brioc, Canon and Treasurer of Aberdeen. 6 He had 
dispensation for illegitimacy on taking Holy Orders, but as 
Sir Alexander and his second wife must have been cousins, 
James may have been their son. 

I. SIR DAVID LINDSAY of Glenesk, Knight Banneret, 7 suc- 
ceeded his father in 1381, having probably been born in 
1359 8 (his parents' marriage being 1358), and appears 
thereafter as a witness to royal charters, and as receiv- 
ing safe-conducts from King Richard n. He married, 
about 1385, 9 a lady variously named Jean, Kathrina and 
Elizabeth, daughter of King Robert n., and was styled 
4 films ' and ' frater regis.' 10 Strathnairn Castle was probably 
the dowry of this marriage. Sir David having a great 
reputation for knightly prowess accepted a challenge 
offered by Lord Welles to all Scotsmen, and King 
Richard granted a safe-conduct for the express purpose, 11 
of a duel or 'passage of arms' which was fought on 
London Bridge before the King and Queen of England, 12 
the day appointed being the Feast of St. George 1390. On 
this occasion Sir David vanquished Lord Welles, and ex- 
hibited two remarkable feats of strength as narrated by 
the chroniclers. He leaped to the ground and back to the 
saddle in armour, to refute an allegation that his immobility 

1 Haigh Charters. 2 Beg. Mag. Sig., folio vol. p. 251. 3 Ibid., 250. 
4 Extracta e var. Cronicis Scotie, Abbotsf ord Club, 194. 5 Haigh Charters. 
6 Papal Petitions, i. 630. 7 Rot. Scot., ii. 126. 8 Lives of the Lindsays, i. 
87, 151 n. 9 Beg. Mag. Sig., folio vol. 172, 12 ; Aberdeen Collections, 499. 
Robertson, 133, 14. " Rot. Scot., ii. 103; Cal. of Docs., iv. 404. 
12 Wyntoun, bk. ix. ch. 11. 



16 LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 

when Lord Welles struck him was artificial, and he closed 
the dagger contest after Lord Welles was unhorsed, by 
lifting his opponent on the point of the dagger, and hurling 
him to the ground ; after which he raised him, and leading 
him gently by the hand presented him to the Queen. After 
the duel King Richard presented Sir David with a silver 
cup, 1 and he was entertained for some time in England with 
Sir Ralph Dalzell and others who had come in his retinue. 
In gratitude for this victory Sir David founded a chantry 
of five priests in the church of St. Mary, Dundee. 2 He 
also endowed a chaplainry there by charter 10 December 
1406. 

In 1392 3 Sir David was severely wounded by a Highlander 
at Gasclune, the result of a conflict between his men 
with those of the Sheriff of Forfar on one side and some 
.Highland caterans on the other. Upon the death, in 1397, 
of his cousin James, he succeeded to the lordship of Lind- 
say and barony of Crawford/ and at the Parliament of 
Perth, 21 April 2 May 1398, 5 he was created EARL OF 
CRAWFORD, his barony of Crawford being in the same 
year made a regality, 6 and a herald called Lindsay created. 
Upon the third of January 1401-2 7 the Earl entered into an 
engagement to serve the Duke of Orleans, and was after- 
wards with a French fleet at Corunna. 8 He was appointed 
Admiral of Scotland before October 1403, on which date a 
number of requests were granted contained in a Roll 
addressed by him as Earl and Admiral to the Pope. 9 On 2 
January 1405 he addressed a letter to King Henry iv. as 
his cousin. 10 He was ambassador to England in December 
1406. 11 He held the office of Sheriff of Banff, which he 
alienated to the Earl of Moray. 12 

This remarkable career ended before 12 August 1407, 
when his son narrated a nuncupative will on his deathbed. 13 
A MS. genealogy at Haigh states that he died in February 
at Finhaven, and was buried in the Grey Friars Church at 

1 Cal. of Docs. , i v. 411. 2 Bellenden's Boece ; Reg. Mag. Sig. , f ol. vol. 219, etc. 
3 Wyntoun, bk. ix. ch. xiv. 4 Robertson's Index, 139, No. 6. 6 Crawford 
Minutes of Evidence, 13 ; Wyntoun, bk. ix. ch. xiv. 6 Cal. of Docs., iv. 602; 
Robertson's Index, 141, No. 64. 7 National writs of France ; copy at Haigh. 
8 See Lives, i. 99 n. 9 Papal Petitions, i. 630. 10 Original in British 
Museum ; Lives, i. 106. n Rot. Scot., ii. 181. 12 Robertson, 142, No. 88. 
13 Reg. de Panmure, ii. 186. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 17 

Dundee. 1 Of his wife, the King's daughter, there is little 
known. They had issue three sons : 

1. ALEXANDER, second Earl. 

2. David, Baron of Newdosk, who became a priest. 

3. Gerard, who must have died before the entail of 1421, 

mentioned below. 
Earl David is said to have had daughters : 

4. Marjory, married to Sir William Douglas of Lochleven. 

5. Elizabeth, said to have been married to Sir Robert 

Keith, Marischal of Scotland, but probably to 
Robert (Erskine), Earl of Mar. 2 

II. ALEXANDER, second Earl of Crawford, was a minor at 
his father's death. He was a hostage for the Earl of 
Douglas 1406-7, 3 but witnessed a royal charter as 4 nepos 
regis,' 6 January 1407-8/ He had a safe-conduct from King 
Henry iv. as 4 dilec^us consanguineus,' 20 November 1407, to 
pass through England to Amiens and back. He presented 
petitions, 1412-17, 5 to the Pope for kinsmen illegitimate by 
ecclesiastical law, and in particular for Ingram de Lindsay 
(son of a ' Knight Baron '), vicar of Monkton, to have the 
Church of Rathow, diocese of St. Andrews. This Ingram 
is undoubtedly Ingelram, afterwards acolyte to the Pope 
and Bishop of Aberdeen. 6 Earl Alexander was knighted 
at the coronation of King James 21 May 1424, 7 and was 
a hostage for the King, being detained at the Tower of 
London, York, and Pontefract 1424-27. He took the oath 
of a hostage 25 March 1424. 8 He had previously been one 
of the principal nobles who met King James on his release 
at Durham in February, and was then attended by eight 
Knights. 9 He was liberated in November 1427, was present 
in Parliament March 1429-30, and ambassador to England 
January 1430-31. 10 On 28 December 1421 " he had obtained 
a confirmation charter entailing his comitatus, perhaps the 
earliest Scottish entail containing a ' name and arms,' with 

1 Lives of the Lindsays, i. 104, 2 Ibid., i. 105, and a pedigree printed in 
the Mar Peerage Minutes, 515. The pedigree given in the Reg. of Pan- 
mure states she married, as his first wife, Sir Thomas Maule, who divorced 
her, i. pp. xxv, ccxi. 3 Rymer's Feeder a, viii. 429. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig., 252 ; 
Rot. Scot., ii. 185. 5 Papal Petitions, i. 598-599, 600-601, 604-606. 6 Col. of 
Docs., iv. 1073. 7 Extracta e Cron. Scot., 227. 8 Cal. of Docs., iv. 953. 
9 Rymer's Fcedera, x. 309, 327, 333, 335, 336, 381. I0 Ibid., 446. Fother- 
ingham Charters ; Crawford Minutes, 18. 

VOL. III. B 



18 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

forfeiture, clause. In 1438 he granted Kynneff to his cousin 
David de Ogilvy of Balmowto. 1 He was a Commissioner 
of truce 31 March 1438, and died before 8 September 1439. 2 
His wife's name was Marjory, whom he married before 
1410, but her parentage is unknown. She is mentioned in 
a charter of the Earl founding a chaplainry at Dundee 23 
April 1429, 3 endowed from the lands of Westerbrichty. 
They had issue : 
1. DAVID, third Earl. 

III. DAVID, third Earl of Crawford, is mentioned as a 
Knight, apparently of age, 17 November 1425. 4 He witnessed 
a royal charter as Earl on 1 February 1439-40, 5 and was 
present in Parliament July 1442-45. 6 He had an unfortunate 
dispute with James Kennedy, Bishop of St. Andrews, who 
excommunicated him for attacking the lands of the Church. 
He was wounded by mistake on 23 January 1445-46 at 
Arbroath, while endeavouring to prevent a conflict between 
his clan and the Ogilvys, and died four days later. 7 It is 
stated that until Bishop Kennedy removed the excom- 
munication no man would bury him. Earl David was 
hereditary Sheriff of Aberdeenshire. 8 He married Marjory, 9 
daughter of Alexander Ogilvy of Auchterhouse, who 
founded a mass for her husband with the Friars Minors 
at Dundee, 10 and Bishop Ingelram Lindsay of Aberdeen also 
founded an obit. 11 Earl David and Marjory (who was living 
1476) had issue : 

1. ALEXANDER, fourth Earl. 

2. Walter of the Arde and Beaufort, 12 Inverness-shire, 

Edzell, and Kynblethmont, co. Forfar, who was 
tutor to his nephew, the fifth Earl, 13 and acted as 
deputy-sheriff of Aberdeenshire and Forfar. He sat 
as Sheriff of the burgh of Aberdeen 2 May 1459. 14 He 
apparently acquired Beaufort from David Lindsay of 
Lethnot, who married a co-heiress of the Fenton 
family, and, as Walter de Lindsay ' consanguineus 

1 Haigh Charters. 2 Exch. Rolls, v. 69, 71. 3 Brechin Chartulary, ii. 20. 
4 Reg. of Panmure, 190. 6 Ibid. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 59. 7 Extracta 
e Cron. Scot, 241 ; Scottish Kings, 197. 8 Crawford Minutes, 515 (Castle 
Forbes Charter). 9 Haigh Charters. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig., 17 November 1478, 
in note to charter of 17 April 1536. n Aberdeen Chart., v. 264. 12 Crawford 
Minutes, 240-249 (Edzell). 13 Ibid., 246. 14 Fifth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 
App. 630. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 19 

regis,' had a royal charter thereof 7 November 1458. 1 
He died in 1475, 2 having married Isabel Levington (of 
Saltcoats), 3 who was afterwards wife of William, 
Lord Ruthven. 4 By her he had issue : 

(1) Sir David of Beaufort and Edzell, 5 who was retoured heir 
30 October 1475, and who had a charter of the barony of 
Ferne from the Earl of Crawford 1 September 1475. He 
was present in Parliament as Baron and a Knight 11 January 
1487. 6 He had a signature for a royal charter of all Glenesk 
19 August 1512. r He married, first, Katherine, daughter 
of Thomas Fotheringham of Powrie, 8 by whom he had at 
least four sons : 9 
i. Walter. 
ii. George. 
iii. David. 
iv. Mr. James. 

Walter was killed at Flodden, having married (it is 
said) an Erskine of Dun, 10 by whom he had issue : 
(i) DAVID, ninth Earl of Crawford, of whom 

. presently. 

(ii) Alexander, in Haltoun, 11 who married a Barclay 
of Mathers, and had issue, with a daughter 
Isabel : 

a. Rev. David Lindsay, designed in December 
1576, 12 'of Pittorlie,' minister of Leith 
and Bishop of Boss, who married King 
James vi. to Anne of Denmark, and 
baptized Prince Henry. The bishop 
was a prominent member of the Privy 
Council. 13 He married, first, Jonet, a 
daughter of George Ramsay of Clattie, 14 
and secondly, Helen Hariesoun, who 
survived him. 15 Had issue : 

(a) Sir Jerome Lindsay of Annat- 

land, created, on 17 June 1621, 16 
Lyon King of Arms (in succes- 
sion to Sir David Lindsay of 
Rathillet, whose daughter he 
married as his second wife.) 

(b) Rev. David Lindsay, sometime a 

clergyman in Southwark. 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Crawford Minutes, 251-252; Haigh Charters. 
3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 12 July 1480. 4 Ibid. 5 Crawford Minutes, 250; and 
Edzell Precept of Clare Constat, 30 October 1475. 6 Haigh Charters. 
7 Acta Part. Scot., ii. 181. 8 Haigh Charters. 9 Ibid. ; Genealogy at 
Haigh. 10 Ibid. All the brothers mentioned in the series of heirs in 
charter of 16 October 1541 ; Reg. Mag. Sig. n Memoirs of Earl James of 
Balcarres. 12 Ibid. 13 Edin. Tests., 18 February 1577-78. 14 Testament 
of George Ramsay, Edin. Tests. 15 Gen. Reg. Inhibitions, 3 October 1615. 
16 P. C. Reg., xii. 499. Sir Jerome had a numerous issue, and from him 
the Lindsays of Virginia claim descent. 



20 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

(c) Rachel, married to Archbishop 

Spottiswoode. 
(iii) John, in Clochy, 1 who married Catherine 

Strachan. 

(iv) Robert, of Kirkton in Feme, who by his wife 
Matilda Luvell had issue. 

Sir David appears to have been contracted in marriage 
with an Agnes Ogilvy in 1514, which was set aside on 
account of propinquity in blood, 2 after which he married, 
as his second wife, Elizabeth Spens, daughter of the Laird of 
Bodum (afterwards wife of John Anstruther of Anstruther, 
and dead in 1532). 3 By her he had Alexander Lindsay of 
Vane, whose family is traceable for several generations, 4 
and Janet, wife of Ramsay of Balnabreich. Sir David was 
dead in 1529. 

(2) John, to whom William, Lord Ruthven, granted lands on 

condition of taking the name and arms of Ruthven, con- 
firmed 1 August 1507. 5 

(3) Walter. 

(4) Ingelram. 

(5) Thomas. 

The five sons of Walter are all remainder men in a charter 
granted by David, Earl of Crawford, to his said uncle at 
Dundee 4 June 1471, in the Evelick Charter- Chest. 

(6) Agnes (probably), for whom Lord Ruthven was surety, 6 6 

November 1513. 

3. William of Lekoquhy 7 (purchased by the Countess of 

Crawford from Alex. Ogilvie of Auchterhous 1457), 
died in 1468-69, 8 leaving issue four sons, all men- 
tioned in letters of legitimation 16 July 1476 : 

(1) David of Montago, ancestor of the Lindsays of Evelic, 

Baronets, etc. 

(2) Patrick of Lekoquhy. 

(3) Alexander. 

(4) Walter, who was of Skryne, and executor to his grand- 

mother, Countess Marjory. 9 

4. Sir John, killed at the battle of Brechin, 1 May 1450, 

said to be ancestor of the Lindsays of Pittairlie. 

5. James, who went with the Princess Eleanor Stewart 

to Germany, and married an heiress near Augsburg. 10 

6. Janet, married, before 1440, to William, sixth Earl 

of Douglas, third Duke of Touraine, without issue. 
She is described as 'Dame Jehan, Countess of 
Douglas, daughter to Sir David, Earl of Craufurd,' 

1 Haigh Charters. 2 Divorce Papers, Haigh. 3 Haigh Genealogies. 
4 Haigh Charters. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 Parl. Records, 533. 7 Evelick 
Charters. 8 Retour in Haigh Charters. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig., 4 November 
1516. 10 Lives of the Lindsays, i. 133, and authorities there quoted. 



LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 21 

in an agreement between her and William, eighth 
Earl of Douglas, dated about 1445. 1 She had rents 
granted to her in Brechin up to 1472, and may have 
been alive in 1482. 2 

7. Elizabeth, married to Thomas Maule of Panmure, 
who died 1498. 3 

IV. ALEXANDER, fourth Earl of Crawford, was knighted 
in his father's lifetime/ Succeeding in 1446, he sat in 
Parliament 1449, 5 sat as Sheriff in Aberdeen, 6 October 
1450, was Commissioner of truce and ambassador 1451, 
and guardian of the Marches 1453. 6 Earl Alexander having 
entered into a league with the Earl of Douglas, rose in 
rebellion, but was defeated by the King's army under the 
Earl of Huntly at Brechin on Ascension Day, 18 May 1452. 
Being under attainder, he, according to Lindsay of Pit- 
scottie, addressed the King in a long speech, asking for 
mercy for his relations and vassals. He was pardoned, 
but that a vow made by the King might be literally kept, 
the Sovereign went with him to Finhaven Castle, and 
mounting the keep threw the highest stone of the building 
to the ground. This Earl was named Earl Beardie, or the 
Tiger Earl, from the length of his beard and stern appear- 
ance. He died in 1453, 7 and was buried at the Grey Friar's 
Church, Dundee, with his predecessors. Earl Alexander 
married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Sir David 
Dunbar of Cockburn, co. Berwick, and Auchtermonzie, 
co. Fife, 8 which last barony was granted for the heroic 
defence of King James I. when he was assassinated in 
1437. She was afterwards married to Sir William Wallace 
of Craigie, and in frequent litigation 1474-96. 9 The Earl 
had issue by her : 

1. DAVID, fifth Earl, Duke of Montrose. 

2. ALEXANDER, who inherited his mother's estates, and 

was styled of Auchtermonzie till 1513, when he 
succeeded his nephew as seventh Earl. 

1 Original writ in Gen. Reg. Ho., No. 321. 2 Exch. Rolls, vii. p. Ixiv.- 
Ixviii. 3 R e g t j e Panmure, 239. 4 Exch. Rolls, v. 180. 6 Acta Parl. 
Scot., ii. 68-71. 6 Slains Charters ; Rot. Scot., ii. 344-367. 7 Exch. Rolls, 
v. 628, pref. c n. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig., 31 January 1496-97. 9 Acta Dom. 
Audit., 75. 



22 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

3. Elizabeth, a daughter, is said to have been married to 
John, first Lord Drummond. 1 

Earl Alexander had also a natural son, Alexander, 2 who 
was admitted to holy orders, and became rector of Bal- 
helvie and canon of Aberdeen. 3 He died September 
1493. According to the Auchinleck Chronicle, buried at 
Dundee. 



V. DAVID, fifth Earl of Crawford, succeeded. The gift 
of the casualty of his marriage was made to James, 
Lord Hamilton, 4 his uncle Walter being tutor-at-law and 
deputy-sheriff of Aberdeenshire. 5 He sat in Parliament 
11 October 1464, 6 and became thereafter one of the most 
prominent nobles attached to the Court of James m. 
He was sent on embassies to England 1465, 1466, 1472, 
1474, and 1484. 7 On 26 October 1474 he acted as proxy 
for James, Prince of Scotland, 8 to betroth him to Cecilia, 
daughter of King Edward iv. During his minority his 
right to pensions from the Aberdeen and Banff customs 
was challenged and maintained, and the Exchequer Rolls 
continue to record many payments. His dignities were 
further illustrated by payments to a pursuivant or herald 
called Endure or Lindsay. 9 The Earl alienated the barony 
of Crawford Lindsay to Archibald, Earl of Angus. 10 He 
was granted the lordship of Brechin 1473, made custodian 
of Berwick the same year, Master of the Household, and 
Great Chamberlain, 11 Justiciar north of the Forth, and on 
18 May 1488 he was created by King James m. DUKE OF 
MONTROSE, with the Castle of Montrose, the rents of the 
burgh and the customs of the port, in full regality. 12 The 
Duke attended his Sovereign at the fatal battle of Sauchie- 
burn, fought by the Prince against the King, and on 17 
October 1488 a Recissory Act was passed 13 which was 
recently held by the House of Lords to have destroyed 



1 Malcolm's House of Drummond, 74. 2 Miscellany, Spalding Club, 
iv. 4. 3 Reg. Epis. Aberd., 331 ; ii. 91. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig., 27 February 
1458-59. 5 Lives, i. 143. 6 Ada Parl. Scot., ii. 84. 7 Rot. Scot., ii. 418, 420, 
429, 432, 441, 444, 445, 461. 8 Bymer's Fcedera, xi. 821. 9 Exch. Rolls, vi. 
42 ; vii. 31. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig., 25 January 1495-96. " Vide Index to Reg. 
Mag. Sig., vol. 1424-1573; Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 147-182. 12 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
13 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 211. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 23 

this dukedom. 1 He was compelled to resign under pro- 
test the sheriffship of Forfar 2 to Andrew, Lord Gray. The 
Duke retained his dignities and rights for life, but after his 
death in 1496 no claim to the higher rank was made by his 
son. The Duke died at Finhaven on Christmas 1495, and 
was buried at the Grey Friars, Dundee. He was twice 
married, first, doubtless in his minority, to Elizabeth 
Hamilton, only child of James, first Lord Hamilton, by 
his first wife, Eufemia, Lady of Bothwell and Dowager 
Countess of Douglas, daughter of Patrick, Earl of Strathern. 3 
This marriage was probably dissolved on account of pro- 
pinquity, for the Countess seems to have been in litigation 
before the Lords Auditors, after the Duke's second mar- 
riage to Margaret Carmichael of Meadowflat, who was 
known as Duchess of Montr ose. The latter was infeft 
in Cockburn as wife 27 May 1484, and had a confirmation 
of a grant from the Duke of his pensions from Aberdeen 
20 October 1488. 4 She also held those from Dundee and 
Montrose, and having founded a mass for her husband at 
Brechin Cathedral in 1505, 5 survived till the latter part 
of 1534, dying some time after 11 November. 6 By his first 
wife Duke David had issue : 

1. Alexander, Master of Crawford, Lord Lindsay, had a 
charter of Glenesk and other lands as fiar 6 Decem- 
ber 1474, 7 and sat in Parliament 1481. 8 He died, 
without issue, before 4 February 1491-92, 9 having 
married Janet Gordon, daughter of the Earl of 
Huntly, 10 who before 20 June 1494, as his widow, 
was married to Patrick, then Master of Gray. 11 She 
is referred to as his wife several times down to 
March 1500-1, but the marriage was apparently 

1 After the Recissory Act of 1488, another charter creating Earl David 
Duke of Montrose for life, without mention of heirs, was granted on 19 
September 1489. Those interested in understanding the questions before 
the House of Lords in what was known as the Montrose Peerage case, 
and the manner in which they were considered, will find information in 
the Cases for James, Earl of Crawford, claiming to be Duke of Montrose, 
and Minutes of Evidence on the said claim . . . also ' Report of the Mon- 
trose Claim,' by Alexander, Lord Lindsay. 2 Lives of the Lindsays, i. 456. 
3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 6 December 1474, 10 May 1491. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid., 23 August 
1505. 6 Exch. Rolls, xvi. 373. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig., 6 December 1474. 8 Acta 
Parl. Scot., ii. 137. 9 Acta Dom. Cone., 227; in 1489, according to the 
Lives, i. 169. 10 Gordon Castle Charters. n Acta Dom. Cone., 332. 



24 LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 

annulled, as before March 1508-9 she was married, 
thirdly (1507-8), to Patrick Butter of Gormock, 1 and 
fourthly, before November 1535, to James Halkerston 
of Southwood. 2 She was dead in February 1559. 

2. JOHN, sixth Earl of Crawford. 

3. Margaret, married to John Blair of Balmy le, with issue. 

4. Elizabeth, married to David Lyon of Baky, second son 

of John, third Lord Glamis, and from them descended 
the Lyons of Cossins and Wester Ogil. 3 The claims 
of these ladies and their issue were a source of great 
trouble to the subsequent Earls. 

VI. JOHN, sixth Earl of Crawford, who had succeeded 
his brother as fiar of the earldom, sat in Parliament as 
Earl on 6 October 1495, and witnessed a royal charter 
23 June 1496. 4 Little is recorded of him for some years 
afterwards, and it is said that he was suspected of com- 
passing the death of his elder brother in concert with 
Lady Janet Gordon. 5 He was in Parliament 1503, 6 and 
on 29 April 1506 he had permission 7 to make a pilgrimage 
to St. John of Amiens, and he had previously on the 15th 
founded a mass with the Friars Minors of Dundee for his 
father and brother. 8 In 1509 he mortgaged the sheriffship 
of Aberdeen to William, Earl of Erroll. 9 He was killed 
at Flodden 9 September 1513. He married, in 1493, Mariota, 
daughter of Alexander, Lord Home, but without issue. 10 
Earl John had a natural son John Lindsay in Downy (the 
name of whose mother was ' Maukyne Deuchar ') who was 
in litigation with the subsequent Earls, and alive till about 
1563. Upon the death of Earl John, the dignity passed to 
his uncle, 

VII. ALEXANDER, seventh Earl of Crawford, styled of 
Auchtermonzie, who had charters of the lands of Cockburn 
from his mother, 8 January 1496, 11 and the baronies of 
Inverarity and Feme from his brother, 6 March 1489-90. 1 * 

1 Act a Dom. Cone. , xix. 320. 2 Haigh Charters. 3 The Lyons of Cossins, 
etc., A. Ross, 1901, 24, etc. 4 Cambuskenneth Charters, 175. 6 Com. 
Letters, 24 April 1512; Haigh Charter-Chest. 6 Acta Part. Scot., ii. 239. 
7 Reg. Sec. Sig. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig. 9 Slains Charter-Chest. 10 Haigh 
Charters. " Reg. Mag. Sig., 31 January 1496-97. 12 Ibid., 1 March 
1489-90. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 25 

He was Sheriff-depute of Forfarshire 1483. 1 He was superior 
of the lands of Lekoquhy in Ferae, 2 held by his cousin David 
Lindsay, and obtained, 4 March 1509, a Crown lease of 
Rathillet in Fife. 3 He sat in Parliament as Earl 19 Septem- 
ber 1513, 4 and died in July 1517 at Finhaven and was buried 
at Dundee. 5 He had married, before 18 March 1470, Isobel 
Campbell of Ardkinglas, by whom he had issue : 6 

1. DAVID, eighth Earl. 

2. Alexander, who was in remainder to Rathillet, 4 
March 1509, with further remainder to the second 
son of his brother David. 7 

3. Isobel, married to James, Lord Ogilvie of Airlie. 8 Her 

marriage and contract are recited in law papers of 
May 1543. 

4. A daughter, wife of Gardyn. 9 

VIII. DAVID, eighth Earl of Crawford, was retoured heir 
to his father 18 Jifly 1517, 10 and sat in Parliament 1524. 11 
He was a Knight in 1512 and married before 1502. 12 He 
was mulcted in large sums for non-entries since the death 
of Earl John, and was compelled to mortgage many of his 
lands to meet the claim of the Crown. 13 He also sold to 
the Earl of Huntly his right to redeem the sheriflship of 
Aberdeen from the Earl of Erroll. 14 He regained the 
Montrose pension on the death of Duchess Margaret in 

1535. 15 He obtained a new charter of entail 2 September 

1527. 16 calling to the succession after his sons the Lindsays 
of Edzell, Montago (Lekoquhy), and Dowhill. 17 His son, 
Alexander, thus made fiar, having been indicted 16 Feb- 
ruary 1530 and found guilty of a number of crimes, and so 
being disqualified from succession, renounced all his rights 
on 20 March 1537, 18 whereupon the Earl obtained a new 
charter, dated 16 October 1541, 19 propelling the earldom to 
David, son of his second cousin, Walter Lindsay, younger 
of Edzell, deceased (see above under the third Earl), with 

1 Seventh Rep. Hist. MSS. Com. App. 720. 2 Haigh Charters. 
3 Exch. Rolls, xiii. 624. 4 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 281. 5 Crawford Peerage 
Case, 64 ; Lives, i. 189. 6 Haigh Charters. 7 Exch. Rolls, xiii. 624. 
8 Haigh Charters. 9 Old Genealogy. 10 Haigh Charters. n Acta Parl. 
Scot., ii. 288. 12 Slains Charters. 13 Reg. Mag. Sig., 24 December 1532; 
Haigh Charters, etc. 14 Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 March 1540-41. Exch. 
Rolls, xvi. 593. w Reg. Mag. Sig. " Haigh Charters. 18 Ibid. Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 



26 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

the same ultimate remainders as in 1527. 1 He also assigned 
to Edzell all his letters of reversion for lands mortgaged. 
Earl David married three times, first, before 1502, 2 Lady 
Elizabeth Hay, daughter of William, Earl of Erroll, by 
whom he had issue : 

1. Alexander, Master of Crawford, who did not succeed 

his father, had sasine of the comitatus on his father's 
resignation, 2 September 1527, 3 but had already, in 
the previous year, rendered it necessary for the 
Earl to have him bound over to keep the peace 
under a penalty of 1000. On 16 February 1530, at 
the High Court of Justiciary held at Dundee, he 
pleaded guilty to many crimes against his father, 
but continued to have considerable rights of pro- 
perty. Finally he was excluded from succession, and 
is described as 'umquhile' in letters of Queen 
Mary, dated 4 October 1543, 4 commanding his son 
David to desist from besieging Finhaven Castle. 
David being then a boy of five, the real delinquent 
was Lord Ogilvy, to whom the letters are addressed. 
The 'Wicked Master ' is said to have met an ignominious 
fate at the hands of a cobbler, but a variation of the 
story says it was his son David who was ' stickit by 
a souter in Dundee for taking a stoup of drink from 
him.' 5 This David may have been a natural son. 
The Master certainly died before 5 July 1542. 6 He 
married Janet, daughter of Lord Sinclair, 7 who, after 
the restoration of her son, was described as Countess 
of Crawford in family papers 1546-58. She had a 
pension from the ninth Earl on renouncing lands to 
assist in her son's restoration. She was dead in 1562. 8 
They had issue : 

(1) DAVID, eldest son, who became tenth Earl. 

(2) married to Douglas of Kilspindie, probably the second 

Laird and Provost of Edinburgh. 9 
(3) Isabel, married to John Crichton of Ruthven. 10 

2. James. 

3. Patrick. 11 

1 Haigh Charters. 2 Slains Charters. 3 Haigh Charters. 4 Ibid. 5 Lives 
of the Lindsays, i. 197. 6 Acts and Decreets, i. 430. 7 Ms. in Adv. Lib. 
8 Haigh Charters. 9 Ms. in Adv. Lib. 10 Ibid. ; Reg. Mag. Sig., 19 June 
1555. Reg. Sec. .Sig. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 27 

4. David, parson of Lethnot in 1531. l 

5. Elizabeth, who was contracted to John Erskine of 

Dun, 20 December 1522, 2 he being under fourteen, and 
she was his wife when she died on 29 July 1538. 3 
They had issue. 

6. Eufemia, married to John Charteris of Kinfauns. 4 
Earl David married, 5 secondly, Katherine Stirling, and 

had issue : 

7. William, who was in remainder to Rathillet. 

And, thirdly, 6 Isobel Lundy, who was infeft for life in 
the barony of Inverarity 28 September 1541, and in the 
4 Great House ' in Dundee. She was afterwards married to 
George, Earl of Rothes. 7 She had issue by Earl David : 

8. John, of Earlscairnie, who was in remainder to Rathil- 

let 4 January 1529-30. 8 

9. Isobel, married, first, to John, Lord Borthwick, who 

died in March 1566, by whom she had issue ; and, 
secondly, to George Preston of Cameron, 9 brother- 
german of Sir Simon Preston of that Ilk. She died 
15 November 1577. Her testament, dated 10 Novem- 
ber 1577, was confirmed 27 April 1580. 10 
Earl David died on 27 or 28 November 1542 at Cairnie 
Castle, 11 and was succeeded by his cousin. 

IX. DAVID, ninth Earl of Crawford, retoured heir to his 
grandfather, Sir David Lindsay of Edzell, 9 December 1532. 12 
He was made fiar of the earldom by the royal charter of 
16 October 1541 , 13 and having succeeded his cousin in 1542, 
sat in Parliament as Earl 13 March 1542-43. 14 He was a 
member of the Privy Council 5 October 1546. 15 The negotia- 
tions for his succession to the earldom, in consequence of 
the forfeiture of the 'Wicked Master,' required the ap- 
proval of the Crown, and he signed a bond on 28 September 
1541 16 to resign the earldom when called upon into the 

1 Haigh Charters and Com. Court of Brechin. 2 Fifth Rep. Hist. MSS. 
Com., 639. 3 Spalding Club Miscellany, iv. pref. Ixxvii. She, or another 
daughter of the same name, was contracted to Thomas, son of Robert 
Maule of Panmure, on 8 January 1526-27. Reg. de Panmure, ii. 302. 
4 Ms. in Adv. Lib. ; Reg. Mag. Sig., 17 March 1524-25. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig., 
30 Nov. 1528. Ibid. 7 Acta Dom. Cone., 1546. 8 Ibid., 1528; Reg. Mag. 
Sig. a Com. Court of Edinburgh, 18 December 1570. 10 Edin. Tests. 
1 Writ, 6 December 1554, Haigh Charters ; Lives, i. 197. 12 Retours. 
13 Haigh Charters. 14 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 410. 15 P. C. Reg., i. 44. 
16 Notarial Copy at Haigh. 



28 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

hands of the King 4 ad perpetuam remanentiam.' It was 
presumably the intention of all the parties concerned, in- 
cluding himself, that he should be life-tenant of the 
earldom, and stand in loco parentis to the natural heir. 
Accordingly David, son of the Wicked Master, having been 
adopted by Earl David, was by a new royal charter, dated 
2 May 1546, 1 made fiar of the earldom, with remainder, 
failing issue of the said David, to the substitutes mentioned 
in the charter of 16 October 1541. The new Master thereupon 
executed a bond accepting the conditions, and binding him- 
self on failure to again resign the earldom for himself and his 
heirs for ever. The documents are printed in the Crawford 
Case 1845-48. The tenure of the ninth Earl was greatly 
to the advantage of the estate, for he and his second wife 
redeemed several mortgages. 2 The Earl married, first, 
Jonet, daughter of Lord Gray and widow of Thomas, Lord 
Fraser of Lovat, 3 who had died 21 October 1524. She had 
conjunct fee of the barony of Feme, as wife of David 
Lindsay of Edzell, 12 June 1525. Her will is dated at 
Edzell 5 February 1549-50. 4 She had no issue by Earl David. 
The Earl married, secondly, Catherine, daughter of Sir 
John Campbell of Calder (by Muriella, daughter and co-heir 
of John, eldest son of the Thane of Cawdor), and widow of 
James, Master of Ogilvie. She was infeft in the barony of 
Feme as wife of Earl David 12 November 1550. 5 

Countess Catherine was a woman of great talent, and 
her dealings with land and money are recorded in a large 
collection of writs in the possession of the Earl of Craw- 
ford. She died at Brechin Castle 1 October 1578, 6 having 
made her testament on 10 June and 10 August previously, 
in which she mentions her children, Ogilvies and Lindsays, 
with much detail. 7 

Earl David died 20 September 1558, 8 at Invermark, 
having made a deathbed will, confirmed 1 October, con- 
stituting his widow executrix and guardian, and desiring 
to be buried at Edzell. 

Earl David and his second wife had issue five sons and 
two daughters, namely : 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Haigh Charters. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
6 Lives of the Lindsays, i. 337. The year 1574 is erroneously given in vol. 
i. 118. 7 Confirmed 2 June 1579, Edin. Tests. 8 Haigh Charters. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 29 

1. Sir David Lindsay of Edzell. 

2. John, rector of Lethnot, Secretary of State, Lord 
Menmuir, ancestor of the present Earl of Crawford. 1 (See 
title Balcarres.) 

3. Sir Walter Lindsay of Balgavies. 

4. James, parson of Fettercairn. 

5. Robert Lindsay, of Balhall. 2 

6. Elizabeth, who was married to Patrick, third Lord 

Drummond. 

7. Margaret, married to John, Lord Innermeath, after- 

wards Earl of Atholl. 3 Contract dated 27 October 

1580. 4 

Earl David had also a natural daughter Janet, married 
to William Marshall, 5 son and heir of George Marshall of 
Auchnacrie (contract dated 13 March 1562). 6 She was 
married, secondly, before 22 August 1594, to George 
Jamesone. 

X. DAVID,' tenth Earl of Crawford, was twenty-four 
years old 14 April 1551, 8 and therefore in existence before 
the charter to Edzell. He was retoured heir to his grand- 
father 23 May 1554, and having been restored to the fee of 
the earldom by the royal charter of 1546 succeeded thereto 
on the death of the ninth Earl, 20 September 1558, sitting 
in Parliament on 29 November following. He was elected 
a member of the Privy Council, 9 and took the oath and his 
seat 29 October 1565. He was a faithful supporter of 
Queen Mary, in whose army he held a command. 10 He 
obtained new charters of entail 3 July 1559, 24 December 
1563, and 4 March 1564, 11 his youngest son not being therein 
mentioned. On 10 April 1546 12 he was betrothed to his wife, 
Margaret Beaton, daughter of Cardinal Beaton, Archbishop 
of St. Andrews and Papal Legate, who was party to the 
contract. She survived her husband, having had issue : 

1. DAVID, eleventh Earl. 

2. HENRY, thirteenth Earl. 

3. Sir John Lindsay, of Ballinscho and Woodwray, who 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 22 December 1573. 2 Ibid., 24 March 1574-75. 3 See 
vol. i. p. 448. 4 Haigh Charters. 6 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 Acts and Decreets, i. 
877, 430. 8 Haigh Charters. P. C. Reg., i. 386. 10 Ibid., 379. Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 12 Haigh Charters ; Acts and Decreets, xiii. 220. 



30 LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 

died 6 January 1609. l Testament dated previous day 
and confirmed 19 December following. He married, 
first, Margaret Keith, widow of John Erskine of 
Dun, by whom she had a daughter Margaret and a 
son. She died in January 1602 2 without issue to Sir 
John, who married, secondly (contract dated at 
Edzell 17 September 1602), 3 Katherine, daughter of 
John Lindsay of Balcarres, ' Lord Menmuir,' Secre- 
tary of State. She survived him, and was married, 
secondly, to John Brown of Fordell 1615. Sir John 
had issue by his second wife : 

(1) Lieutenant-Colonel John Lindsay, of Woodwray, who was 

aged fourteen and upwards 10 April 1618, 4 and retoured 
heir to his father 28 March 1628. He joined the army of 
Gustavus Adolphus, and was killed at New Brandenburg. 

(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Lindsay, *> aged fourteen in 

1620, who also served under Gustavus Adolphus, and was 
killed in Bavaria. 

(3) Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Lindsay, aged fourteen in 1620, 6 

who also served under the King of Sweden and died in 1639, 
having made his testament at Hamburg, 22 February of 
that year. Ludovic, sixteenth Earl of Crawford, was re- 
toured his heir of conquest 28 August 1639. 7 

(4) Margaret, mentioned in the wills of her father 1609, and her 

brother Henry 1639. 

4. Alexander, Chamberlain to King James vi., created in 

1590 Lord Spynie. (See that title.) His grandson, 
George, Lord Spynie, became chief and de jure Lord 
Lindsay on the death of Earl Ludovic. 

5. Sir James, 8 sometime of Pitroddie, born after the 

entail of 1564, and mentioned as brother-german of 
the Earl of Crawford in several charters, and Acts 
and Decreets of the Court of Session. He was beyond 
seas 1597. 

6. Helen, 9 only daughter, married (contract dated March 

1570) to Sir David Lindsay of Edzell. She died in 
December 1579, leaving issue. (See title Balcarres.) 
David, tenth Earl, died in February 1572-73, 10 and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, 

XI. DAVID, eleventh Earl of Crawford, who was a pro- 

1 Crawford Minutes, 211. 2 Edin. Test. 3 Haigh Charters. 4 Crawford 
Minutes, 216. 5 Haigh Charters. 6 Ibid. 7 Inquis. Gen., 2445. 8 Fourth 
Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 527. 9 Acts and Decreets, xlii. 21. 10 Retour of 
6 March 1611. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 31 

minent adherent of the Roman Catholic party in Scotland, 
and in correspondence with Philip n. of Spain, with the 
view of avenging the murder of Queen Mary. 1 He was a 
member of the Privy Council in October 1575, 2 and in July 
of the same year granted letters of remission to John 
Leslie of Parkhill, 3 one of those guilty of the murder of 
Cardinal Beaton. 

He had a new charter of entail 16 August 1587/ He 
was in Parliament 30 October 1581, 5 and previously had 
licence to be abroad for three years, being accused of 
killing Lord Glamis. He married, first, Lilias, daughter 
of Lord Drummond and Lilias Ruthven 6 (contract dated 11 
February 1572), respecting whom there is a well-known 
ballad which relates the unhappy separation of the couple 
through a misunderstanding, and their death on the same 
day. 7 Whatever foundation of fact there may be in the 
ballad the latter, part is untrue, as the Earl married, 
secondly, 8 Grizel Stewart, daughter of John, Earl of 
Atholl and Margaret Fleming (contract in 1581, registered 
18 January 1583). The Earl died 22 November at Oupar- 
Fife, aged fifty-five, and was buried at Dundee 1607, 9 hav- 
ing had issue : 

1. DAVID, twelfth Earl. 

2. James. 3. Claud. Both died s. p. 

4. Mary. She was ' ravischeit and away took ' 10 from 
Fynnevin in November 1610 by Alexander Rynd, a 
servant (probably a page, and one of the family of 
Rynd of Carse), and taken by him to Forfar. The 
main incidents in her career may be gathered from 
the Minutes of the Privy Council in 1611 and 1617. 11 

XII. DAVID, twelfth Earl of Crawford, was retoured heir 
of his father 28 June 1608, 12 and to his grandfather 6 March 
1611. He sat in Parliament 1608-9, 13 was nominated a 
member of the Privy Council, and took the oath of alle- 
giance 10 March 1608. u He was in constant financial 

1 P. C. Reg., iv. xxxiv. 332n. 2 P. C. Reg., ii. 467. -Fourth Rep. Hist. 
MSS. Com., 504. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig. b Ada Parl. Scot., iii. 195. 6 Acts and 
Decreets, 1. 271. 7 Buchan's Ancient Ballads of the North of Scotland, 
i. 61. 8 Haigh Charters. 9 P. C. Reg., vii. 440. 10 Lives, i. 387. " P. C. Reg. , 
ix. 300 ; xi. 2. Retours. ^ Acta Parl. Scot., iv. 403-405. u P. C. Reg., 
viii. 59. 



32 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

trouble and alienated most of the property, being de- 
scribed as the 4 Prodigal Earl/ On 8 October 1608 l he 
mortgaged the barony of Finhaven to John, Lord Lindsay 
of the Byres, the first step in the arrangement described 
below, by which the Lords of the Byres supplanted the 
heirs of Crawford. The Earl died a debtor in Edinburgh 
Castle in June 1620, and was buried in the Canongate 
Church. 2 He married, before 16 April 1610, 3 Jean Ker, 
widow of Robert, Master of Boyd, and daughter of Mark, 
Earl of Lothian, by Margaret Maxwell. She was married, 
thirdly, before 16 February 1618, to Mr. Thomas Hamilton 
of Robertoun, so that the marriage with the Earl of 
Crawford must have been dissolved. 4 She died before 
1633. The Earl had issue a daughter : 
1. Jean. By the improvidence of her father she was 
reduced to the lowest depths of poverty and degrada- 
tion, till on 4 June 1663 she had a grant from King 
Charles n. of an annuity of 100 in consideration of 
her eminent birth and necessitous condition. 5 

XIII. HENRY, thirteenth Earl of Crawford, succeeded his 
nephew. He had been adopted in his youth by John Chart- 
eris 6 of Kinfauns, and assumed the surname and arms of 
Charteris, the arrangement being ratified by Act of Parlia- 
ment 27 September 1584. The charter of John Charteris is 
dated 29 November of that year. 7 Sir Henry was, however, 
usually designated as of Caraldston, to which lands the 
office of Dempster was attached. He sold Kinfauns 29 
December 1612. 8 Sir Henry was a Gentleman-in-waiting 
on Queen Anne, 9 of whose household his second wife was 
also a member. He succeeded to the earldom in 1620, and 
died before 16 January 1623, having married, first, before 
26 July 1586, 10 Helen, daughter of Sir James Chisholm of 
Crombie, who was doubtless a near relation of Janet 
Chisholm, the wife of John Charteris of Kinfauns. By her 
he had issue : 

1. Sir John, K.B., who was made fiar of Kinfauns and 

1 Haigh Charters. 2 Canongate Register. 3 Reg. of Deeds, vol. 185, 
31 May 1611. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig., 19 February 1618. 5 Crawford Minutes 
65, and Haig Charters. 6 Crawford Minutes, 66. 7 Confirmed 18 Nov- 
ember 1598, Reg. Mag. Sig. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig., 31 December 1612. 9 Haigh 
Charters. 10 Crawford Minutes, 69 ; MS. in Adv. Lib. 



LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 33 

Pitsindie by royal charter of novodamus to him and 
his affianced wife 25 February 1608. 1 He consented 
to the sale of 29 December 1612. Sir John was 
created a Knight of the Order of the Bath 2 at the 
accession of Bang James to the Grown of England in 
1603. He died v. p. in December 1615, and was 
buried at Kinfauns. His wife was Jean Abernethy, 
daughter of Lord Abernethy of Saltoun, by Margaret 
Stewart 3 (contract dated 8 December 1607). 4 She 
was married, secondly, to George Gordon of Gight 
before 18 May 1617. 5 Sir John Lindsay had issue 
two daughters and co-heirs : 

(1) Margaret, wife of Thomas Murray. 6 

(2) Jean, wife of Captain James Leslie 7 of a regiment of Irish 

infantry in the Spanish service. Both ladies were retoured 
heirs to Colonel Henry Lindsay 2 October 1641, 8 and Jean 
was retoured heir-general to her father 4 May 1661. 9 

2. GEORGE, fourteenth Earl of Crawford. 

3. Margaret married to Andrew Gray of Hayston 

(contract dated January 1620). 

Henry, Earl of Crawford, married, secondly, Margaret, 
sister of Sir James Shaw of Sauchie. The proclama- 
tion of marriage, in which she is described as of the 
Court of the Queen's Majesty, 11 was made at Clack- 
mannan 2 December 1599. She was living, a widow, 2 
October 1644. They had issue : 

4. ALEXANDER, fifteenth Earl of Crawford. 

5. Henry, who died s. p. before 2 October 1641. 12 

6. LUDOVIC, sixteenth Earl of Crawford. 

7 and 8. Helen and Catherine, who both died before 2 

October 1641. 13 
9. Elisabeth, who had charter of lands of Ravelgreen 

from her brother Alexander, recited 23 July 1631. 14 

XIV. GEORGE, fourteenth Earl of Crawford, was served 
heir to his brother 1 August 1615, 15 was fiar of the earldom 
4 January 1616, and in 1623 on succession ratified various 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. * Ms. in Adv. Lib., Haigh Charters. 3 Reg. Mag. 
Sig., 25 January 1615. 4 Ibid., 14 January 1613. 5 Ibid., 30 July 1618. Reg. 
of Kirk Session of Rothietnay quoted in The Frasers of Saltoun, ii. 63. 
6 Crawford Minutes, 77, 78, 79. 7 Haigh Charters. 8 Retours. 9 Haigh 
Charters. 10 Reg. Sec. Sig., 1623. Clackmannan Register. 12 Crawford 
Minutes, 85. 13 Ibid. H Haigh Charters. 15 Retours ; Haigh Charters. 

VOL. III. C 



34 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

contracts of his predecessors with David Lindsay of Edzell. 1 
In 1630 he sold and resigned Finhaven in favour of Alex- 
ander, second Lord Spynie. 2 He served in the army of 
Gustavus Adolphus, and was killed by a lieutenant of his 
own regiment in 1633. 3 

Earl George married Elizabeth, daughter of George 
Sinclair, Earl of Caithness (contract dated 21 May 1621). 4 
They had an only daughter, 

Margaret, who was retoured heir to both her parents 24 
May 1653, 5 and by her will, dated 24 May 1655, left 
her property to her cousin George, Earl of Caithness. 6 

XV. ALEXANDER, fifteenth Earl of Crawford, 7 who, as 
Master of Crawford, granted a charter to his sister, Lady 
Elizabeth, 23 July 1631. He succeeded his brother as Earl 
in 1633, but became a lunatic. He died before 29 August 
1639. 

XVI. LUDOVIC, sixteenth Earl of Crawford, styled * The 
Loyal Earl,' succeeded his brother, and sat in Parliament 28 
August 1639. 8 He was retoured heir to his uncle the 
eleventh Earl and to Colonel Henry Lindsay 24 August 
1639. Having joined the royal army in 1641 , 9 he was im- 
prisoned at Edinburgh for a short time, because of the 
4 Incident,' and after the battle of Lansdowne he was de- 
clared an enemy of religion by the Committee of Estates, 
12 January 1644, and forfeited 26 July. 10 He joined the 
Spanish army, and was at Badajos 23 June 1649. 11 He is 
stated in the diary of Sir Edward Nicholas to have died at 
the Hague November 1652. 12 He married before 5 October 
1643 Margaret Graham, 13 daughter of William, Earl of 
Airth and Menteith, 14 and widow of Alexander Stewart, 
Lord Garlies. 15 

1 Henry Gray,' alleging himself a son of this marriage, 
was dismissed from Douay for illegitimacy, as mentioned 

1 Retours, Haigh Charters. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig. , 22 January 1631. 3 Ms, Adv. 
Lib. 4 Haigh Charters. 5 Ibid. G Crawford Case, 90. 7 Crawford Minutes, 
83 ; Haigh Charters. 8 Ada Parl. Scot., v. 248. 9 Fourth Rep. Hist. MSS. 
Com., 102, 163. 10 Ada Parl. Scot., vi. 81, 215. n Haigh Charters. 
12 Correspondence, i. 319 (Camden Society). n -Reg. of Deeds, Dlii. f. 18. 
See also vol. i. 138, where the reference is inadvertently given as lii. f. 18. 
14 Fifth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 654 (Douay Reg.). r Ada Parl. Scot., 
vi. 166. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 35 

in the article on Airth. He did not bear the name Lindsay, 
but Gray or Graeme, and having regard to his age and the 
date of the Earl's marriage, if he had been a son of the 
marriage it is not obvious why he was illegitimate. 

In 1641-42 Earl Ludovic agreed to resign his earldom in 
favour of his heirs-male of the body with remainder to John 
Earl of Lindsay, Lord Lindsay of the Byres, and the heirs- 
male of his body, with ultimate remainder to his own right 
heirs-male. Letters patent to this effect passed the Great 
Seal 15 January 1642. 1 Lord Lindsay was but a distant 
connection of the Earl of Crawford, their common ancestor 
being that Sir David Lindsay of Crawford who died in 1357. 
By this proceeding the condition on which the dignity had 
been regranted to the son of the ' Wicked Master ' in 
1546 was broken, and the right heirs to the dignity were 
excluded until the death of the last male descendant of 
John, Earl of Lindsay, in 1808. It is said that Earl John 
obtained this concession from his chief, when in prison, as 
the price of his liberty. It is, however, to be observed 
that the estates were all gone, nothing but the title 
remained, and the Earl of Lindsay was by far the most 
powerful member of the clan. The dignity of Lord Lindsay 
was not resigned, and passed de jure with the chiefship of 
the race to George, Lord Spynie, thereafter to John 
Lindsay of Edzell, whose son claimed the earldom (vide 
Balcarres), and finally, to James, Earl of Balcarres, great- 
great-grandfather to the present Earl of Crawford and 
Lord Lindsay. 

XVII. JOHN, seventeenth Earl of Crawford 2 (for whose 
ancestry see the title Lindsay), who assumed the dignity 
after the forfeiture of Earl Ludovic, was retoured heir to 
his father Robert, Lord Lindsay of the Byres, 1 October 
1616, 3 and by letters patent dated 8 May 1613, 4 he 
was created EARL OF LINDSAY and LORD PAR- 
BROATH, 5 to him and his heirs-male bearing the name 
and arms of the Lords Lindsay. He was a member of the 
Privy Council in November 1641 , 6 and Steward and Admiral 

1 Crawford Minutes, 117 ; Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Contemporary MS. Account 
of the Byres Family at Haigh. 3 Lindsay Peerage, Minutes of Evidence, 
55. * Reg, Mag. Sig. 6 Crawford Minutes, 370, 371. 6 P. C. Reg. 



36 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

of the regality of St. Andrews, in succession to his father. 1 
He was also created in 1641 an Extraordinary Lord of 
Session and a Commissioner of the Treasury. After the 
forfeiture of Earl Ludovic by Parliament 26 July 1644, 2 he 
received the earldom of Crawford in the manner specified 
in previous memoir, and under that style he was created 
Lord High Treasurer 23 July 1644, and President of Par- 
liament 20 June 1645. He protested against the surrender 
of the King 16 January 1647, and having entered into the 
Engagement to raise an army for his Majesty's rescue in 
1648, he was removed from all his offices 13 February 1649. 
He was taken prisoner by the English at Alyth 28 August 
1651, and imprisoned in Windsor Castle by Oliver Cromwell 
until 12 April 1654. At the Restoration he was reinstated 
as High Treasurer. 3 He resigned his offices in 1663-64 4 
rather than accept the revival of Episcopacy. He is often 
mentioned in the Parish Register of Ceres, of which parish 
he was an elder. A strong Presbyterian, he was neverthe- 
less a consistent supporter of the Monarchy. Earl John 
obtained from the Crown Commissioners, 1 March 1648, 5 
a new charter entailing the earldom on his daughters on 
failure of sons. The King then not being a free agent, 
and his Majesty's signature being necessary to alter the 
tenure of a dignity, the charter was inoperative in respect 
of the earldom. He died in 1678 at Tynninghame, and 
was succeeded by his fourth but eldest surviving son. He 
married Margaret, daughter of James, second Marquess 
of Hamilton, by whom he had issue : 

1. James , eldest son, baptized at Ceres 21 March 1636, 

and there buried. 6 

2. James, second son, baptized as Master of Lindsay at 

Ceres 1 June 1637, and there buried. 

3. John, baptized at Ceres 3 December 1639, and there 

buried. 

4. WILLIAM, eighteenth Earl. 

5. Patrick, born in September 1646, who assumed the 

surname and arms of Crawford of Kilbirnie, for whom 
and his successors see title Garnock. 

1 Ada Parl. Scot., v. 60, 388-389, 436. 2 Ibid., vi. 214. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 
19 January 1661. * Acta Parl. Scot., vii. 3a. 5 Crawford Minutes, 142, 
6 Ceres Register. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 37 

6. Anna, married to John, Earl, and afterwards Duke, of 

Rothes, 1 contract dated at Holyrood, 2 1 January 
and 4 February 1648. 

7. Christian, married to John, Earl of Haddington, con- 

tract dated 1 January 1648. 3 The Countess was alive 
in 1691. 4 

8. Margaret, baptized at Ceres 18 June 1635, and there 

buried. 

9. Helen, married to Sir Robert Sinclair of Stevenston, 

Baronet, at Holyroodliouse 10 September 1663. 
10. Elizabeth, married to David, Earl of Northesk. 5 
Marriage contract dated at Struthers 9 September 
1669. She died in January 1688. 

XVIII. WILLIAM, eighteenth Earl of Crawford, second 
Earl of Lindsay, and eleventh Lord Lindsay of the Byres, 8 
who was born in April 1644. He was infeft in the 
Stewardship of the regality of St. Andrews before 27 
April 1671. 7 After the Revolution he was appointed a 
Commissioner of the Treasury, and in 1689 President of 
Parliament. 8 He was a strong supporter of the Presby- 
terian interest, and of King William's Government. He 
married, first, 8 March 1670, at Leith, Mary Johnstone, 
daughter of James, Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, who 
died circa 1681, by whom he had issue : 

1. JOHN, nineteenth Earl. 

2. Colonel James, killed at the battle of Almanza 1707, 

His nephew was retoured his heir-general 4 Sep- 
tember 1723. 

3. Patrick, baptized at Ceres 29 August 1678. 9 

4. Henrietta, baptized at Ceres January 1671, married, 

16 October 1691, 10 to William Baillie of Lamington, 
with issue. 

5. Margaret, baptized at Ceres 10 July 1677. 

Earl William married, secondly, after 1681, Henrietta 
Seton, daughter of Charles, Earl of Dunfermline, widow 
of William, Earl of Wigtoun. They had issue : 

1 Crawford Minutes, 143-146. 2 Fourth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 510. 
3 Eraser's Memorials of the Earls of Haddington, i. 211. * Ibid., ii. 200. 
5 Fraser's Hist, of Carnegies, ii. 365. 6 Ms. at Haigh. 7 Haigh Charters. 
8 Acta Parl. Scot., ix. 95, etc. 9 Ceres Register. 10 Lives of the Baillies, 
44, and her father's Test. 



38 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

6. Thomas, who was retoured heir to his sister Anne, 

4 September 1723. 

7. Anne, died s. p. 

8. Christian. 

9. Margaret. 

10. Helen. 

11. Susanna, baptized in the North Kirk at Edinburgh 19 

July 1691. 

12. Catherine, baptized at Ceres 29 November 1692. 

Married, 7 May 1741, as his second wife, to Patrick 
Lindsay, Lord Provost of Edinburgh, M.P. for that 
city, and sometime Governor of the Isle of Man, for 
the Duke of Atholl. His great-grandson, Sir Patrick 
Lindsay of Eaglescairnie, K.C.B., became de jure 
Earl of Lindsay (see that title). Lady Catherine died 
s. p. 20 April 1769. 

Earl William died in March 1698, and his testament- 
dative (mentioning his children) was confirmed at St. 
Andrews 7 September 1698 to a creditor. 

XIX. JOHN, nineteenth Earl of Crawford, sat in Parlia- 
ment 19 July 1698. He was a Privy Councillor 1708, and 
elected a Representative Peer for Scotland 13 February 
1707 and 19 June 1708. He was appointed lieutenant- 
colonel of the Scots troop of Life Guards 1 February 1698, 1 
colonel of the Horse Grenadier Guards 4 May 1704, and 
became major-general 1 January 1707-8, brigadier-general 
29 September 1703, lieutenant-general 1710. 2 He married 
Amelia Stewart, widow of Alexander Fraser of Strichen, 
and daughter of James, Lord Doune, eldest son of Alex- 
ander, Earl of Moray. By her, who was buried at Holy- 
rood 26 February 1711, he had issue : 

1. JOHN, twentieth Earl. 

2. William, baptized at Ceres 3 April 1705, became a 

captain in the Royal Navy, and died s. p. before 1 
May 1755. 

3. Catherine, eldest daughter and co^-heir, 3 married to 

Lieutenant John Wemyss of General Oglethorpe's 
regiment, afterwards Lieutenant-Governor of Edin- 

1 Dalton's Army Lists (1661-1714), iii. 325. 2 L if e of John, Earl of Craw- 
ford (Rolt), bk. ii. s Decreet, 4 March 1755. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 39 

burgh Castle. She died s. p. 28 February 1768 at 
Edinburgh, and he at the same place in January 
1786. 

4. Mary, only surviving co-heir of her brother, 1 baptized 
at Ceres 24 September 1706, married Dugald Camp- 
bell of Glensadell, and was ancestress of Dugald 
Campbell, who claimed the earldom of Annandale 
1838, as heir of Mary Johnstone, Countess of Craw- 
ford. 2 

Earl John died in London, December 1713. 

XX. JOHN, twentieth Earl of Crawford, a very dis- 
tinguished soldier, and surnamed 'the gallant Earl,' 3 was 
born 4 October 1702, and succeeded his father 1713. He 
was appointed a captain in the North British Dragoons 
25 December 1726, and in the first Regiment of Foot 
Guards 1734. He 'then served as a volunteer in the 
Imperial Army under Prince Eugene of Savoy, and was 
present with Prince Waldeck at the victory of Claussen 
against France. In 1738 he, with the royal consent, joined 
the Russian Army, and arriving at St. Petersburg, was 
made a general by the Czarina. He fought in several 
battles against the Turks. At the battle of Krotzka, 
22 July 1739, the Earl was very severely wounded in the 
thigh and hip, which wound never healed, and occasionally 
caused him great pain till the day of his death. On his 
return to England he was made adjutant-general and 
colonel of the 42nd Regiment, called for a short time 
the Crawford Lindsay Highlanders, and thereafter the 
Black Watch. He was colonel of the Horse Grenadiers 
1740, and of the Scots Greys 1747. In 1745 the Earl was 
brigadier-general of the Duke of Cumberland's Army in 
Flanders, and created major-general 30 May. He was 
present at the battles of Fontenoy 1745 and Rocoux 1746. 
He was appointed lieutenant-general 16 September 1747. 
He had been elected a Representative Peer for Scotland 
1732, 1734, 1741, and 1747. On 3 March 1747 he married, at 
Belford, Jean Murray, eldest daughter of James, second 

1 Decreet, 4 March 1775. 2 Rolt, 24. 3 The Life of John, Earl of Craw- 
ford, by Rolt, gives the following particulars. The first book of the work 
gives a very inaccurate account of family pedigree. 



40 LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 

Duke of Atholl, 1 a clandestine marriage, and greatly re- 
sented by her father, notwithstanding that the Earl had 
been concerned in the defence of Blair Oastle during the 
rising of 1745. 2 He was, moreover, much older than Lady 
Jean, and in great financial embarrassment. This romantic 
episode, respecting which there is much correspondence at 
Blair Oastle, ended in the death of the Countess from fever 
at Aix-la-Ohapelle in the following November, and the 
Earl died, aged forty-seven, on 24 December 1749, at 
Struthers, without issue. 3 His body was interred in the 
family vault at Oupar 18 January 1750. He was succeeded 
by his second cousin once removed. 

XXI. GEORGE, twenty-first Earl of Crawford. He held 
the rank of Viscount Garnock (see that title), and was the 
great-great-grandson of that John, Earl of Lindsay, who 
succeeded as seventeenth Earl of Crawford. He was born 
14, and baptized at Kilbirnie 21 March 1729. 4 He was 
retoured heir to his father Patrick, second Viscount Gar- 
nock, 6 June 1741 and 17 July 1744, 5 and to John, the late 
Earl of Crawford, as 4 nepos abpatrui,' 15 January 1757. He 
married, 26 December 1755, Jean, eldest daughter and co- 
heir of Robert Hamilton of Bourtreehill. 6 This marriage 
was an unhappy one. The spouses separated, and the Earl 
had several natural children by Euphan Gourlay, 7 of whom 
the eldest was an officer in H.M.S. Sphinx. 

By his wife Earl George had issue : 

1. GEORGE, twenty-second Earl. 

2. Robert Lindsay Hamilton Crawford, captain 92nd 

Foot, born at Bourtreehill 24 December 1769. 
Baptized at Irvine. Retoured heir to his brother 
Bute 13 June 1786, and died unmarried 3 November 
1801, at Buxton, where there is a monumental tablet 
to him in the church. 

3. Bute Lindsay Crawford, captain 92nd Foot, of 

Over Lochrig, in the parish of Stewarton, Ayrshire. 
He was born at Bourtreehill 25 August 1761, and 
baptized at Irvine. He died s. p. in September 1782. 

1 Blair Charters. 2 Eighth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 314. 3 St. Andrews 
Test. 4 Kilbirnie Register. 5 Crawford Minutes, 179-180, 478-483. 6 Re- 
toured co-heir 8 December 1773. 7 Haigh Charters. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 41 

4. Jean, born at Kilbirnie 6, and baptized 8, November 

1756. She was married, 22 February 1772, by the 
minister of Kilwinning, to Archibald, Earl of Eglin- 
ton, and died s. p. at Eglinton 23 January 1778. 1 

5. Mary Lindsay Crawford, who became sole heir of the 

interpolated Earls of Crawford. She was born at 
Bourtreehill, 16 May 1760, 2 and retoured heir to her 
brother, Earl George, 29 August 1808. By her will, 
dated at Edinburgh 30 January 1832, she left many 
objects of family interest to Alexander, Lord Lindsay 
(twenty-fifth Earl) as representative of the house. 
She died at Crawford Priory, 21 November 1833, and 
on 3 February 1834, David, Earl of Glasgow, was 
retoured her heir. (See Garnock.) 
Earl George died 11 August 1781. 

XXII. GEORGE, twenty-second Earl of Crawford, was 
born at Bourtreehill 31 January 1758. 3 He entered the 
regiment commanded by Archibald, Earl of Eglinton, 11 
April 1776, and rose to be major-general in the army. 4 He 
was appointed lieutenant of Fifeshire 1798, and colonel of 
the Fifeshire Militia. He was deprived of the lieutenancy 
in 1807, but reinstated shortly afterwards. He executed a 
deed of disposition and entail 20 and 21 February 1800. He 
died unmarried 30 January 1808, aged fifty, at his mother's 
house of Rosel, Ayrshire, and was buried in a mausoleum 
erected at Struthers, now called Crawford Priory, in Fife. 

On the death of the twenty-second Earl, all male 
descendants of John, seventeenth Earl of Crawford and 
first Earl of Lindsay, became extinct, and the right to the 
chief dignity reverted under the regrant of 1642 to the 
proper heirs-male of Earl Ludovic in other words, to the 
heir-male of the body of the first Earl represented by 
Alexander Lindsay, Earl of Balcarres, direct heir-male of 
John Lindsay of Balcarres, second son of David, ninth Earl 
of Crawford. The dignities of Lindsay and Garnock devolved 
on the heirs-male of the Lords Lindsay of the Byres (for 
whom see that title). 



1 Haigh Letters. 2 Irvine Reg. of Births. 3 Ibid. 4 Commission at 
Haigh. 



42 LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 

XXIII. ALEXANDER, twenty-third Earl of Crawford and 
Lord Lindsay, de jure, but known as Earl of Balcarres 
(for whose brothers and sisters see that title), was born 
18 January 1752, being baptized the same day, and suc- 
ceeded his father 20 February 1768. 1 He had entered 
the army as ensign in the 53rd Regiment 1767, became 
captain in the 42nd 1771, and major of the 53rd Regiment 
1775. He served in the unfortunate expedition of General 
Burgoyne in North America, and was wounded at Ticon- 
deroga, 7 July 1777. He was appointed colonel in the army 
February 1782, afterwards general and colonel of the 63rd 
Regiment. He was appointed Civil Governor and Com- 
mander-in-chief of the Island of Jersey 1793, and of Jamaica 
1794. In 1795, being confronted with a rebellion of the 
Maroon negroes, who pursued a career of assassination, he 
published a proclamation that he had sent for bloodhounds 
from Cuba. 2 The insurgents instantly surrendered, and the 
Earl was voted the thanks of the colony and a gold sword, 
now in the possession of the Earl of Crawford. 3 

He was elected a Representative Peer for Scotland in 
1784 and 1790. Resigning his command in Jamaica, he 
returned home in 1801. He became full general in 1803. 
For the purpose of working collieries in Lancashire which 
were the property of his wife, he sold the barony of Bal- 
carres to his brother Robert, an East India official, and 
settled at Haigh Hall near Wigan, in the county palatine 
of Lancaster. 4 The Earl married, 1 June 1780, his maternal 
cousin, Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Charles Dalrymple, 
younger son of Sir Robert Dalrymple of Castleton, by Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heir of John Edwin and of Elizabeth, 
daughter and eventual co-heir of Sir Roger Bradshaigh 
of Haigh Hall, Baronet. They had issue : 

1. JAMES, twenty-fourth Earl. 

2. Charles Robert, born at Balcarres, 20 August 1784, 

and placed on the Bengal Civil Establishment in 1802. 
He became Senior Merchant and Collector of Customs 
at Agra. He married, at St. Mary's Church, Fort St. 
George, on 12 February 1814, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas William Thompson (who died at Boulogne- 

1 Retour, 30 November 1766. 2 Lives of the Lindsays, iii. 3 Ibid., 96. 
4 Haigh Charters. 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 43 

sur-Mer in 1852), and at his death, which occurred at 
Singapore in 1835, 1 left issue : 

(1) Charles, who died an infant. 

(2) Hugh Barlow, born 21 March 1832, at Calcutta, sometime of 

the Bombay Civil Service, and president at Hyderabad, 
now residing in London. He married, 3 October 1863, at 
Banchory, Lady Jane Louisa Octavia, widow of Gamel, 
Lord Muncaster, and daughter of Richard, Marquess of 
Westminster, K.G., and has issue two sons and two 
daughters. 



(5) Alexina, married to Thomas Hugh Sandford of Sandford, 

Shropshire, who died 30 August 1851. 

(6) Mary Anne, died young. 

(7) Catherine Hepburne, born 14 December 1822, at Fort 

William, and died, unmarried, at Villa Palmieri, Florence. 

3. Richard, born at Balcarres 9 March 1786, cornet in 

the 20th Dragoons. Died s. p. 

4. Edwin (twin with Richard), sometime in the military 

service of the Madras Establishment of the East 
India Company. 

5. Elizabeth Keith, born 9 September 1781, at Balcarres, 

married in January 1815 (contract dated 13 December 
1814) to Robert Edensor Heathcote of Longton Hall, 
co. Stafford, and left issue. 

6. Anne, born 19 April 1787, at Balcarres, married, 16 

April 1811, to Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Whitehill, 
Midlothian, and died at Leamington, 14 January 
1846, leaving issue. 

Earl Alexander died 26 March 1825, and his wife pre- 
deceased him on 10 August 1816. They are both buried at 
All Saints' Church, Wigan, where is a memorial tablet in 
the Haigh Chapel of the Church. The Earl's will was 
proved 25 May 1825. 

XXIV. JAMES, twenty-fourth Earl of Crawford, was born 
24 April 1783, baptized 16 June at Kilconquhar, and suc- 
ceeded his father 1825. By letters patent, dated 5 July 
1826, 2 he was created BARON WIGAN OP HAIGH 
HALL, County Palatine of Lancaster to himself and the 
heirs-male of his body. In 1845 he petitioned the King to 

1 Will proved at Bengal, 12 March 1835. 2 Haigh Charters. 



44 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

recognise his right to be Earl of Crawford and Lord 
Lindsay, and after a protracted hearing by the House 
of Lords, it was resolved on 11 August 1848 that the 
claim was established. In 1852 he claimed the original 
dukedom of Montrose, but unsuccessfully. His life was 
principally devoted to the development of his property 
in Lancashire, where he was highly respected, and he 
seldom attended Parliament. He purchased the estate 
of Dunecht in Aberdeenshire, and there built a fine house. 
Upon 21 November 1811 he married at Muncaster, co. 
Cumberland, Margaret Maria Frances Pennington, only 
surviving daughter and heir of John, Lord Muncaster, by 
Penelope, daughter and heir of James Compton, a cadet of 
the Earls of Northampton. By her he had issue : 

1. ALEXANDER, twenty-fifth Earl. 

2. Sir James Lindsay, K.C.M.G., lieutenant-general in 

the army, who commanded the Foot Guards in 
Canada 1863, and after his return was elected M.P. 
for Wigan. He was thereafter Inspector-General 
of Reserve Forces, and was appointed Military 
Secretary to the Field-Marshal Commanding-in-chief 
1 April 1874. He was a Royal Commissioner of 
the Patriotic Fund from 1854, and chairman of 
the United Service Institution. He was born 25 
August 1815, at Muncaster, entered the Grenadier 
Guards in 1832, and died 13 August 1874, being 
buried at Mitcham, co. Surrey. His wife, Sarah 
Savile, daughter of John, Earl of Mexborough, who 
was born 23 September 1813, married at St. George's, 
Hanover Square, 6 November 1845, appointed a 
Woman of the Bedchamber to Queen Victoria 14 
May 1859, and died 16 December 1890. Sir James 
had issue : 



(1) James Greville, (2) Reginald Dalrymple, who both died 
infants. 

(3) Maud Isabella, living unmarried. 

(4) Mabel, married, 13 February 1877, at St. Mary's, Bryanston 

Square, to Lieutenant-Colonel William John Freschville 
Ramsden of Rogerthorpe near Pontefract, sometime 
lieutenant-colonel of the Coldstream Guards. 

(5) Mary Egidia, married, 9 February 1875, to John Coutts 

Antrobus of Eaton Hall, Cheshire, and has issue. 



LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 45 

3. Charles Hugh Lindsay, O.B., born 11 November 1816, 
at Muncaster. Served with the Grenadier Guards in 
the Crimea. Present at the battles of Alma, Bala- 
clava, and Inkerman, and at the siege of Sebastopol. 
In 1858 he was appointed chamberlain to the Earl of 
Eglinton, as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Elected 
M.P. for Abingdon, Berkshire, he was appointed 
Parliamentary Groom-in-waiting to Queen Victoria 
1866-68. He was appointed Groom-in-waiting in 
Ordinary 21 February 1876. He died 25 March 1889 
at Lyons in France, and his remains were interred 
at Hendon, co. Middlesex, beside those of his wife. 
He had married, 24 April 1851, at the Chapel Royal, 
Dublin Castle, Emilia Ann, daughter of the Very 
Reverend the Honourable Henry Montague Browne 
(Kilmaine), Dean of Lismore. She died 15 February 
1873. They Ijad issue : 

(1) Charles Henry Claude, (2) James Robert, who both died 
infants. 

(3) Charles Ludovic, born 25 January 1862, at a villa near Nice, 

became a captain in the Grenadier Guards. Served in the 
Egyptian campaign, and is now on the reserve list of 
officers. 

(4) Henry Edith Arthur, born 9 April 1866, at Nice, a captain 

(retired) in the Gordon Highlanders. Married 27 April 1895 
at St. George's, Hanover Square, Norah Mary Madeline, 
daughter of Major Edward Roden Bourke, sixth son of 
Richard, fifth Earl of Mayo, and has issue : 

i. David Ludovic Peter, born 30 April 1900, at Sutton Cour- 

tenay, and there baptized. 

ii. Nancy Winifred Robina, born 1 July 1896, baptized at 
Quebec Chapel, Marylebone. 

(5) Edith, born in Dublin 12 January 1853. Died 15 February 

1873, at Brighton. 

(6) Marion Margaret Violet, married, 25 November 1882, at St. 

George's, Hanover Square, to Henry John Brinsley Manners, 
now Marquess of Granby, eldest son of the Duke of Rutland, 
K.G., called up to the House of Lords by writ dated 6 June 
1896, in his father's barony of Manners of Haddon. They 
have issue. 

4. Colin, of Deerpark, co. Devon, author of various 
theological works, born 6 December 1819 at Mun- 
caster, and died 28 January 1892 in Kensington. He 
is buried in the churchyard of St. Thomas's (Roman 
Catholic) Church, Fulham. He married, 29 July 
1845, at All Souls', Langham Place, Frances Howard, 



46 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

eldest surviving daughter and co-heiress of William, 
fourth Earl of Wicklow, K.P., and Cecil Frances 
Hamilton (see Abercorn). She died 22 August 1897, 
and was buried beside her husband. They had 
issue : 

(1) William Alexander, of Deerpark, barrister-at-law, created a 

Queen's Counsel 1897, and appointed Windsor Herald 12 
March 1894. He was born 8 June 1846, baptized at Stan- 
more (by the Archbishop of Canterbury) 9 July follow- 
ing, married, 7 May 1870, at St. James's, Westminster, 
Harriet Gordon, daughter of George, fifth Earl of Aberdeen. 
They have issue : 

i. James Howard, born 29 April 1871, barrister-at-law. 

Captain in the London Scottish Rifle Volunteers, 
ii. Michael William Howard, born 7 August 1872 in Edin- 
burgh, became captain in the second battalion Sea- 
forth Highlanders, served in the Boer war, being 
mentioned for ' very gallant and conspicuous conduct ' 
at Magersfontein. He was appointed adjutant of the 
second battalion of the Scottish Horse, and was 
killed at Brakenlaagte, 30 October 1901. 

iii. George Howard, died an infant. 

iv. Francis Howard, born 9 March 1876, now an examiner 
in the Scottish Education Department. A lieutenant 
in the London Scottish Rifle Volunteers. 

v. John, lieutenant R.N., born 27 December 1877, in South 
Kensington. 

vi. David Howard, born 4 June 1882, in South Kensing- 
ton, a gold staff officer at the coronation 1902. 
vii. Mary, born 2 October 1878, at Haddo House, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

viii. Margaret Louisa, born 22 August 1880, at Alva House, 
Clackmannan. 

(2) Walter James, of Elmthorpe, Cowley, Oxfordshire (lieutenant- 

colonel), born 28 September, and baptized at Haigh, Lanca- 
shire, 31 October, 1849. He entered the Rifle Brigade, 
served in Canada, and retired with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. He is a magistrate for Oxfordshire. He married, 
23 April 1883, at Kensington, Henrietta Julia, daughter of 
Fitzmaurice Gustavus Bloomfield of New Park, co. Water- 
ford, and has issue : 

i. Frances Ruby Vera, born 28 October, and baptized in 
Dublin 17 November, 1884. 

(3) Alfred, late of Cheltenham, sometime of Coonoor, Madras, 

born 7 April, baptized at Wigan 18 May, 1853. Died 2 April 
1901, at Cheltenham. He married, 7 November 1882, at 
Feniton, co. Devon, Isabel Katherine, daughter of Rev. 
George, Baron Northcote, rector of Feniton, and had 
issue : 

i. George Humphrey Maurice, born 23 October, baptized 
at Coonoor 7 December 1888. Was page to the 



LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 47 

Deputy Lord High Steward of Scotland (Earl of 

Crawford) at the coronation of King Edward vu. 
ii. Margaret Catherine Frances, born 27 May 1884, 

baptized at Coonoor. 
iii. Violet Harriet Isabel, born 25 June 1886, baptized at 

Coonoor. 

(4) Leonard Cecil Colin, born 23 June at Deerpark, and baptized 

at Buckerell, co. Devon, 12 August 1857, married, 23 January 
1902, at Courtfield, co. Hereford, to Clare, daughter of 
Colonel Francis B. Vaughan, and niece of Cardinal Vaughan, 
who officiated at the marriage. He was private secretary 
to the Earl Marshal of England and Gentleman Usher at the 
coronation of King Edward vu. He is a Private Chamber- 
lain to H.H. Pope Pius x. 

(5) Claud Reginald (Monsignore), in holy orders, born 9 Novem- 

ber 1861, at Deerpark, and there baptized. Is a Chamber- 
lain to H.H. Pope Pius x., and resident at the Church of 
San Silvestro in Capite, Rome. 

(6) Isabella, born 1 April, baptized at Haigh 6 May, 1849. 

Married, 22 October 1878, at St. James's, Westminster, to 
Frederick Butler Montgomerie of Cromwell Place, Ken- 
sington andCrarboldisham, co. Norfolk. They have issue. 

(7) Harriet Maria, born 17 June, baptized at Haigh 21 July 

1850. Now a nun at the convent of the Visitation of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary at Harrow on the Hill ; professed in 
the name of Mary Raphael. 

(8) Eleanor, born and baptized at Haigh Hall, 8 March 1856, and 

died next day. 

(9) Alexina Frances, born, 19 January, at Deerpark, and baptized 

at Buckerell, co. Devon, 24 February, 1859; married, 2 July 
1878, at the Church of the Servites, Fulham, to Edmund 
James Thomas Ross of Bladensburg of Rostrevor, co. 
Antrim, now lieutenant-colonel (retired) of the Royal 
Engineers. She died, 26 September 1897, at Birkenhead, 
and was there buried, leaving issue four daughters. 

5. Maria, only daughter, born 3 August 1818 at Mun- 
caster, and there buried 6 April following. 

Earl James died 15 December 1869 at Dunecht, and the 
Countess on 16 December 1850 at Haigh. Both are buried 
in the Haigh family vault at All Saints' Church, Wigan. 

XXV. ALEXANDER WILLIAM, twenty-fifth Earl of Craw- 
ford, was born at Muncaster Castle, 16 October 1812, and 
there baptized 6 December. He devoted his life to litera- 
ture, and was the author of Letters from the Holy Land, 
Sketches of Christian Art, and many other works. He 
collected information about his ancestors, the account of 
whom in the older Peerage books is very inaccurate, 
and he wrote the Lives of the Lindsays, first pri- 



48 LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 

vately printed and afterwards published. In this work 
may be found full information of the Earls and Barons 
above mentioned. He married, 23 July 1846, at St. 
George's, Hanover Square, his cousin, Margaret, daughter 
of Lieutenant-General James Lindsay of Balcarres, now 
Countess Dowager of Crawford, residing at Villa Palmieri, 
Florence. They had issue : 

1. JAMES LUDOVIC, twenty-sixth Earl, only son. 

2. Alice Frances, married, 17 April 1873, at St. Paul's, 

Knightsbridge, to George Eyre, now Lieutenant- 
Colonel George Archer - Houblon of Hallingbury 
Place, co. Essex. They have issue. 

3. Margaret Elizabeth, married, 8 January 1870, at 

St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, to Lewis AshurstMajendie 
of Castle Hedingham, co. Essex, M.P. for Canter- 
bury, who died 22 October 1885, leaving issue. 

4. Mary Susan Felicia, married, 9 May 1878, at St. 

Paul's, Knightsbridge, to Frederick George Lindley 
Wood, now Meynell, fourth son of Charles, first 
Viscount Halifax. They have issue. 

5. Mabel Marion, born 15 February 1855, at Balcarres. 

Baptized at Elie, Fife, 30 March. Registered at 
Pittenweem. 

6. Anne Catherine, married, 22 November 1883, at St. 

Paul's, Knightsbridge, to Francis Bowes-Lyon of 
Ridley Hall, Durham, second son of Claude, Earl 
of Strathmore. (See that title.) 

7. Jane Evelyn, born 14 May 1862, baptized 17 June 

following at St. George's, Hanover Square, London. 
Earl Alexander died at Villa Palmieri, Florence, 13 
December 1880, and is buried in the Haigh vault at All 
Saints,' Wigan. He was succeeded by his only son, 

XXVI. JAMES LUDOVIC, present and twenty-sixth Earl 
of Crawford, Lord Lindsay, ninth Earl of Balcarres, and 
third Baron Wigan, K.T., LL.D. He was born 28 July 
1847, at St. Germain-en-Laye, and was there baptized in 
the Episcopal chapel. He first served as a lieutenant in 
the Grenadier Guards. Applying himself to the study of 
astronomy, he organised expeditions to Cadiz in 1870 for a 
solar eclipse, and in 1874 to Mauritius for the transit of 



LINDSAY, EARL OF CRAWFORD 49 

Venus. He is a past president of the Royal Astronomical 
Society, a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, an Hon. 
Member of the Royal Academy of Berlin, Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries of London, a member of the Royal 
Commission on Historical Manuscripts, and a Trustee of the 
British Museum. He was member of Parliament for Wigan 
1874-1880. He repurchased the landed barony of Balcarres 
from his maternal uncle Sir Coutts Lindsay, and at the 
same time presented to the nation for the Edinburgh 
Observatory the splendid astronomical equipment of his 
observatory at Dunecht, Aberdeenshire. He was created 
a Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of 
the Thistle, and invested at Windsor Castle 10 December 
1896. His lordship was from 1876-1900 lieutenant-colonel 
commanding the first volunteer battalion of the Manchester 
Regiment, and received the Volunteer Decoration, is a 
Commander of the Legion of Honour, and of the Imperial 
Order of the Rose of Brazil, and a Knight of Grace of St. 
John of Jerusalem. 

At the coronation of King Edward vii. and Queen Alex- 
andra, the Earl of Crawford was appointed deputy to the 
Duke of Rothesay as Lord High Steward of Scotland, and 
officiated accordingly. 

His lordship, then being Master of Lindsay, married, on 
22 July 1869, at St. George's, Hanover Square, Emily 
Florence, daughter of the Honourable Edward Bootle 
Wilbraham, second son of Edward, Baron Skelmersdale. 
By her he has issue : 

1. DAVID ALEXANDER EDWARD, Master of Crawford, 
styled Lord Balcarres, B.A. Oxford. Born 10 October 
1871 at Dunecht House, Aberdeenshire, and there 
baptized. He is M.P. for the Chorley Division of 
Lancashire, and Junior Lord of the Treasury. He 
married, 25 January 1900, at St. Margaret's, West- 
minster, Constance Lilian, second daughter and co- 
heir of Sir Henry Carstairs Pelly, Baronet, by Lady 
Lilian Hamet Charteris, daughter of the Earl of 
Wemyss, and has issue : 

(1) Robert Alexander David, styled Master of Lindsay, born in 
Edinburgh, 20 November 1900. Baptized in St. Mary's 
Cathedral there. 

VOL. III. n 



50 LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 

(2) Margaret Cynthia, born 27 June 1902. Baptized at Lock- 

inge, co. Berks. Registered in Mayfair, co. London. 

(3) Cynthia Anne, born 21 June 1904. Baptized at St. Margaret's 

Church, Westminster. 

2. Walter Patrick, born 13 February 1873, baptized at 

St. George's, Hanover Square, educated at Glasgow 
University, a civil engineer. He married, 26 Novem- 
ber 1902, in Rome, Ruth Henderson, elder daughter 
of Isaac Henderson, resident in the Via Gregoriana, 
Rome, and has issue, a son, Kenneth Andrew, born 
3 November 1903. Baptized 24 at the Oratory, 
Brompton, London. 

3. Robert Hamilton, born 30 March 1874, baptized at 

St. George's, Hanover Square, captain in the 2nd 
Royal Dragoons (Scots Greys). Served in South 
Africa, and invalided home. Medal and five clasps. 
Formerly A.D.O. to Earl Beauchamp, Governor of 
New South Wales, and AJXC. to the Viceroy of 
India. Has a Knight's cross of the order of Philip 
the Magnanimous of Hesse. Married 23 April 1903, 
at Melbourne, May Janet, daughter of Sir William 
T. Olark of Rupertswood, Baronet. And has issue, 

Joyce Emily, born 5 May 1904, baptized at St. George's, Hanover 
Square. 

4. Edward Reginald Lindsay, M. A., curate St. Matthew's, 

Bethnal Green, London, born 15 March 1876, baptized 
at St. George's, Hanover Square. Called to the bar 
at the Inner Temple January 1901, and afterwards 
took holy orders. 

5. Ronald Charles, born 3 May 1877, baptized at St. 

George's Church aforesaid. Entered the Diplomatic 
Service, and is a secretary of Legation at Teheran, 
Persia. 

6. Lionel, born 20 July 1879, baptized at St. George's 

aforesaid. An Engineer. 

7. Evelyn Margaret, born 8 May 1870, baptized at St. 

George's aforesaid, married there 9 February 1895, 
to James Francis Mason of Eynsham Hall, Oxford- 
shire (Count of Pomarao, in the kingdom of Portugal), 
and has issue. 



LINDSAY, EARL OP CRAWFORD 51 

CREATIONS. Barons by tenure from the Record of Acts 
1147; Lord Lindsay before 1398 ; Earl of Crawford 21 April 
1398. 

The arms anciently borne by Lindsays were usually an 
Eagle. The Earls of Crawford have always borne a quar- 
terly shield. 1st and 4th : Gules, a fess chequy, argent and 
azure, for Lindsay ; 2nd and 3rd : Or, a lion rampant gules 
debruised of a bend sable, for Abernethy. 



CREST. Out of an antique ducal coronet a swan's nee 
and wings proper. 

SUPPORTERS. Two lions rampant gules. 




MOTTO. Endure fort. 

[W. A. L.] 











CRICHTON, LORD CRICHTON 




HATEVEB may be the 
meaning of Criehton it 
is beyond doubt that as 
a family name it is de- 
rived from the lands of 
Criehton in Midlothian. 
The older spellings are 
very various in form, 
but one, Kreiton, seems 
to settle how the name 
was pronounced. As in 
other cases, a foreign 
origin has been claimed 
for the Oichtons, appa- 
rently on the curious 
theory that their re- 
spectability would there - 
Olermont, for instance, 



by be enhanced. Martine of 
preserves a story that they originally came from Hungary. 1 
But be this as it may, the first of the name on record is 
Turstan de Crectune, a witness to the great charter of 
Holyrood circa 1140, 2 and even of him it is uncertain 
whether he was actually of the family with which this 
article is concerned, or merely owned the lands which they 
afterwards possessed, and from which like him they derived 
their surname. 

The next Orichton has been assumed 3 to be Sir William 
de Orichton, who is said to have been witness to a charter 
of the lands of Kynerne to Stephen of Blantyre, granted by 
Maldoven, Earl of Lennox, circa 1248. 4 But some doubt is 
thrown upon the existence of this Sir William de Orichton 

1 Macfarlane, ii. 131. 2 Liber Cartarum Sanctce Crucis, Bannatyne 
Club. 3 Douglas. 4 Cartularium de Levenax, Maitland Club, 35-36. 



OBIOHTON, LORD ORICHTON 53 

by the fact that another copy of the same charter printed 
by Sir William Eraser in The Lennox, 1 in addition to other 
discrepancies, substitutes for him among the witnesses 
W[illelmo] de Herth, i.e. Airth. 

Various Orichtons appear during the troubled times with 
which that century closed and the next began. In par- 
ticular, Thomas de Orechtoun, rector of the Church of 
Halis, is witness to a mortification to the Hospital of 
Soltre by Robert de Keth the Marischal of Scotland 
which is not dated, but is placed by Macfarlane circa 1292. 2 
The Ragman Roll contains the names of Thomas de Oreghtone 
del Oounte de Berewyke and Alisaundre de Creightone del 
Counte de Edneburk. 3 On 20 February 1311-12, Nicholas 
de Oreyghton was one of an inquest, appointed by writ of 
Edward n., to determine the value of certain lands in the 
Lothians belonging to adherents of King Robert i. 4 The 
same person also appears to have formed one of the garrison 
of Edinburgh Castle in the same year, 5 and to have been 
possessed of a horse described as badium cum stella.* - . 

Among the witnesses to a grant of the town and lands ' 
of Easter Cranston to the Abbey of Kelso by Hugo Riddell 
dominus de Cranston, undated, but supposed to be circa 
1320, are Magister John de Keth, rector ecclesiae de 
Creithon, and Thomas de Creihton. 7 

From a charter by King Robert i. to Richard Edgar, also 
supposed to be dated circa 1320, of the manor place and 
one-half of the barony of Sanchar, it appears that the other 
half of the barony pertained to William de Crechton and 
Isabella, his wife, as heirs-portioners with Richard Edgar 
of the said barony. 8 This lady is generally said to have 
been one of the two daughters of the last Ros or de Ros of 
Sanquhar, while the family of Edgar claim descent from her 
elder sister. 9 

In the war with Edward Baliol and Edward in. this 
William de Crichton seems to have remained faithful to 
the patriotic cause, for in 1335-36 one-half of the barony of 
Sennewhare is said to have been in the hands of the English 

1 ii. 12-13. 2 Collegiate Churches of Midlothian, Bannatyne Club, 41 ; 
Macfarlane MS., Adv. Bib. 3 Cal. of Docs, relating to Scotland, ii. 206, 
213. 4 Ibid., iii. 50. 5 Ibid., 408. Ibid., 421. ? Liber de Calchou, 198. 
8 Beg. Mag. Sig., folio vol., 7, 27. 9 Nisbet, i. 281. 



54 ORIOHTON, LORD ORIOHTON 

King by reason of the forfeiture of William de Oreghton, 1 
as well as two acres in Creghton 2 for the same reason. This 
latter circumstance suggests that, at all events, at that time 
the lands of Orichton generally did not belong to William de 
Crechton, and the inference is confirmed by other entries 
in the same volume which narrate how along with Ooldene 
and Dalkeith, the lands of Crichton had been forfeited by 
John de Graham, and how his widow Isabella had been 
allowed a dower out of them by Edward. 3 In 1335 Alex- 
ander de Oregton is enumerated among the garrison of 
Edinburgh Castle. 4 In 1336-37 the list of the garrison 
contains the names of Monsire Johan de Crighton and 
Alexander de Crighton, while the latter again appears 
there in 1339-40. 5 

In 1337 William de Creychtoun had temporary possession 
of the lands of Berriedale in Caithness, 6 and also of the 
barony of Kinblethmont. 7 

By charter dated 27 May 1338, William de Kreitton, 
rector of the Church of Kreitton, and son and heir of the 
deceased Thomas de Kreitton, burgess of Berwick, for the 
wellbeing of his own soul, and the souls of his father 
Thomas, his mother Eda, and his step-mother Isabella, and 
also of the souls of Thomas Nicholas and Sir John de 
Kreytton, granted to the Abbey of Newbottle his lands 
in the holding of New Cranston in Lothian, and this grant 
was confirmed the same day by Radulph de Cranston 
dominus de Newcranston, son and heir of the deceased 
Andrew de Cranston, from whom Thomas de Kreitton, 
burgess of Berwick, and father of the said William, had 
originally received the said lands. 8 

About the same time there appear among the wit- 
nesses to an undated charter by the same Radulph, 
dominus de Cranystoun, in favour of the Hospital of Soltre, 
dominus Johannis, dominus de Crechtoun, and dominus 
Willelmus, rector ejusdem. 9 

In 1357 William de Creyhtoun, dominus ejusdem, is wit- 
ness to a grant by Patrick de Ramsay of the church of 
Oockpen to the Abbey of Newbottle. 10 

l Cal. of Docs., iii. 318. 2/^334,380. * Ibid., 382, 383. * Ibid., 215. 
5 Ibid., 362, 241. 6 Exchequer Bolls, i. 453. 7 Ibid., 454. 8 Chartulary 
of Newbottle, 165-167. 9 Collegiate Churches, 43. 10 Chartulary of 
Newbottle, 309. 



ORIOHTON, LORD ORICHTON 55 

John de Crichton had a charter from King David n. of 
the keeping of the castle of Lochleven and the sheriffdom of 
Kinross, 1 and the Exchequer Rolls show that he was acting 
as Sheriff in 1359. 2 

Along with a number of other Dumfriesshire magnates, 
William de Oreghtoun, dominus de Dryuesdal, is witness to 
a charter dated at Mousfald (Mouse wald) 13 December 1361, 
by David n. in favour of John de Oarrotheris. 3 

On 13 August 1367 John de Oragy obtained a charter of 
the lands of Merchamston, in the sheriffdom of Edinburgh, 
which John de Oreychtoun had personally resigned/ John 
Crichton had a charter of the baronies of Hownam and 
Or ailing in Roxburghshire, on the resignation of William 
Landal, Bishop of St. Andrews, on 14 August 1367. 5 

On 23 February 1368 King David n. confirmed a charter by 
Alexander de Lyndesay of Ormystoun, to which one of the 
witnesses was William de Oreichton, dominus ejusdem. 6 

On 27 March 1371 John de Oreichton is noted as one of 
those who did homage to King Robert n., enthroned super 
montem de Scone. 7 

On 29 March 1373 King Robert n. confirmed a charter, 
undated, by which David de Penycuke, dominus ejusdem, 
granted to his beloved cousin William de Crechtoun, 
dominus ejusdem, for the good and faithful service and 
counsel rendered by him to the granter, all and whole his land 
de Burnistoun et Welchetoun, with the pertinents, lying 
within his lands and lordship of Penycuke and the sheriffdom 
of Edinburgh, with remainder to Thomas de Orechtoun, 
his son, and the heirs of his body ; whom failing, to Edward 
de Orechtoun, his brother, and his lawful heirs. The reddendo 
is a silver denarius yearly on the feast of the Nativity of 
S. John Baptist, if asked only, in name of blench farm. 8 

The same David de Penycuke also granted a charter, 

undated, of the lands of Bradwode, in his tenement and 

lordship of Penycuke, to William de Orechtoun, dominus 

ejusdem, with the same remainder. 9 

On 10 November 1387 John de Oreichtoune is witness to a 

1 Robertson's Index, 31, 45. 2 i. 578. 3 Sixth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 
710. 4 Sefft Mag Sig ^ folio vol ? 56j 171 5 Macfarlane MS., Adv. Bib., 
34, 3, 25, p, 100. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., folio 59, 184. 7 Acta Part. Scot., i. 545. 
8 Original charter of confirmation at Penicuik House. 9 Ibid., and con- 
firmation Reg. Mag. Sig., folio vol., 139, 67. 



56 CRIOHTON, LORD ORICHTON 

charter by Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith to James Douglas, 
his son and heir. 1 

Prior to 29 May 1393 John de Orichton, dominus ejusdem, 
is witness to another charter by the same to the same. 2 

The foregoing references, while they seem to be incon- 
sistent with the pedigree as given by Mr. Wood, 3 do not 
appear to warrant the construction of another in its place. 
Hidden away in unexpected places there is probably 
material which will some day be available. But in the 
meantime all that can safely be said is this : 

The family dealt with in this article seems to have been 
closely and continuously connected with the place from 
which it took its name, certainly from the thirteenth cen- 
tury. Various members of the family acquired lands in 
other parts of Scotland, notably in the sheriffdom of Dum- 
fries, and appear to have taken different sides in the wars 
of independence. The acquisition of Sanquhar was certainly 
due to a marriage, and it may reasonably be concluded that 
Dryfesdale came into their hands in the same way. For 
the arms, argent, a chief and saltire azure, which Sir 
David Lyndsay figures as those of ' Lord Boyis of Dry vis- 
daill of Auld,' 4 i.e. the family of Boyes, de Bosco or Wood 
appear on a seal of the Chancellor appended to a deed of 
1449, 5 and were also used by his descendants. 

A possible scheme of the later descent of the family 
might perhaps be as follows : 

SIR JOHN DE CRICHTON, dominus ejusdem, flourished circa 
1339, and died prior to 1357, having had a brother William, 
who acquired Sanquhar, and issue 

1. WILLIAM, his heir. 

2. John, Sheriff of Kinross, and Keeper of Lochleven Castle. 

WILLIAM DE CRICHTON, dominus ejusdem, succeeded prior 
to 1357, acquired Dryfesdale prior to 1361, Brunstane and 
Welchton in 1373, and Bradewood in 1375. He was dead 
prior to 1393, having had issue 

1. SIR JOHN, his successor. 

2. Stephen, of the Carnis or Cairns. (See Oichton, Earl 

of Caithness.) 

1 Registrum Honoris de Morton, ii. 189. 2 Ibid., 192. 3 Sub. tit. 
Frendraught. 4 Heraldic MS., 64. 6 Laing Charters, 1212. 



ORIOHTON, LORD ORICHTON 57 

3. Humphrey, who, circa 1416, received from his brother 

Sir John a charter of the lands of Bagthrop, the Byres, 
and others, in the holding of Carruthers in Annandale. 1 

4. Thomas. 5. Edward. 

It seems probable that Thomas and Edward were the 
children of a second marriage, and that their mother was 
the Margaret, spouse of umquhile William Crichton who 
on 20 July 1410 obtained a charter of Gilberton. 2 From 
one of these two brothers was descended the family of 
Brunstane now represented by the Earl of Erne. 

SIR JOHN ORICHTON, dominus ejusdem. He had a charter 
of the Barony of Crichton from King Robert in. 3 From 
the foundation charter of the collegiate church of Orichton, 4 
it appears that his wife's name was Christian, and it seems 
reasonable to conjecture that she is the same person with 
Christian de Gremisl#w de eodem, who, in 1429 ' in mea 
pura et legittima viduitate,' resigned the lands of Gremis- 
law, in the barony of Eckford and sheriifdom of Roxburgh, 
into the hands of her superior, James, King of Scots, 5 with 
the result that in 1436 the same lands, then described as 
held in chief of the barony of Crichton, are granted by Sir 
William de Creightoun de eodem to Walter Scott of Buc- 
cleuch. 6 He must have died prior to 12 December 1423, 
when his son and successor is termed Dominus de Cryton. 7 

WILLIAM CRICHTON de eodem first appears in a safe- 
conduct by Henry in., granted on 12 December 1423, to 
enable a large company of Scots nobles and gentlemen to 
enter England and meet King James i. on his return from 
his long and treacherous captivity. Having obtained the 
favour of his sovereign, he received from him the honour of 
knighthood at his coronation in May 1424, 8 and was made 
one of the Gentlemen of the Bedchamber. On May 8, 
1426, ' Willielmus de Orichton baro de eodem miles cambel- 
lanus noster, Magister Willielmus de Fowlis praepositus 
ecclesise collegiatae de Bothuile elemosinarius noster et 
Thomas de Cranston scutifer noster ' were appointed a 

1 Carlaverock Book, ii. 419. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., vii. 144. 3 Robertson's 
Index, 146, 48. 4 Acts and Decreets, clxix. f. 258. 5 Buccleuch Book, ii. 
18. 6 Ibid., ii. 30. * Bymer's Fc&dera. 8 M*y or, Scottish History Society 
edition, 354-355, Mr. Constable's note. 



58 ORICHTON, LORD ORICHTON 

commission to treat with Eric, King of Norway and Den- 
mark, for a firm and lasting peace between Scotland and 
these two countries. 1 Sir William Orichton having dis- 
charged this negotiation with honour and success, was 
thereafter appointed Governor of Edinburgh Castle, with 
a salary of aSlOO. 2 The accommodation in the Castle does 
not seem to have been satisfactory, for the accounts 
for the year 1434 contain an entry of the cost of 
rebuilding his kitchen. 3 In 1435 he appears also as Sheriff 
of Edinburgh, 4 and prior to 14 April 1435 he had been 
appointed Master of the King's Household. 5 Soon after the 
accession of King James n. Crichton was appointed Chan- 
cellor in succession to John Cameron, Bishop of Glasgow. 
Having acquired from Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith the 
lands of Garvald and others in the barony of Kirkmichael 
and sheriffdom of Dumfries, in which county he already 
owned considerable estates, he obtained a Crown charter 
thereof on 2 March 1439-40. 6 He seems at the same time 
to have entered into an arrangement with his kinsman 
Sir Robert Orichton of Sanquhar (see title Dumfries) 
for the mutual settlement of their estates, for on 27 
April 1440 Sir Robert obtained on his own resignation a 
Crown charter of the barony of Sanquhar in favour of him- 
self and the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, Sir 
William Crichton and the heirs-male of his body, while in 
his turn Sir William obtained on his resignation a charter 
of the barony of Crichton, in the sheriffdom of Edinburgh, 
along with the lands of Vogery and Grymeslaw annexed 
thereto in favour of himself and the heirs-male of his body, 
whom failing, Sir Robert and the heirs-male of his body. 7 

The scanty records of the time are largely occupied with 
the intrigues and feuds of Crichton and Sir Alexander 
Livingstone, who like himself had risen from a modest 
position to great power through the favour of James i., save 
when the two rivals combined for the ruin of the princely 
house of Douglas, and the limits of this article admit only 
of tracing Grichton's career in the most general way. 

Very early in the struggle he decoyed the youthful Earl of 

1 Crawfurd, Officers of State, 26, quoting Torfeeus. 2 Exch. Rolls, iv. 573. 
3 Ibid., 603. * Ibid., 607. 5 Sixth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 691. 6 Beg. 
Mag. Sig. 7 Ibid. 



ORICHTON, LORD CRICHTON 59 

Douglas, and his still more youthful brother David, into Edin- 
burgh Castle, where, after a mock trial in presence of the 
King, a child of ten, they were beheaded on 24 November 1440. 
Hume of Godscroft tells the story in detail in particular 
how at the end of a banquet the serving of a black bull's 
head was the signal for the seizure of the hapless youths 
and expresses his opinion of Crichton's character and 
conduct in language of quaint vituperation. The crime 
took deep hold of the popular imagination, which execrated 
even the scene of the tragedy in the well-known lines 

' Edinburgh Castle, Town, and Tower, 

God grant thou sink for sin, 
And that even for the black Dinner 
Earl Douglas got therein ! ' 

A temporary coalition between the House of Douglas and 
the Livingstones led to the disgrace of Oichton and his 
faction. Their estates were raided, and Sir William 
Orichton and his cousm, Sir George Orichton of Blackness, 
afterwards Earl of Caithness (see that title), were sum- 
moned to appear before a council held at Stirling 4 November 
1444 ; and failing to do so, were outlawed and attainted. 
In the words of the old chronicle, ' in the hender end of the 
quhilk counsall thai blewe out on Schir William of Crichtoun 
and Schir George of Crichtoun and ther advertence.' l Some 
time thereafter Crichton, who had also been dismissed 
from his office of Chancellor, and taken refuge in Edinburgh 
Castle, was besieged in that stronghold by the coalition 
who now had possession of the person of the young King. 
The resistance of the Castle was successful, and after 
holding out for nine weeks, Crichton capitulated on most 
advantageous terms, which included a remission of all past 
oifences, and his restoration to the royal favour. In the 
Exchequer Rolls he is designed 'Willelmus dominus de 
Creichtoun ' in the account for the period from 16 July 1443 
to 21 April 1444, 2 but it may be doubtful whether he had 
been made a Lord of Parliament by that time, for later on, 
in the same volume, 3 he is designed ' Willelmus dominus de 
Creichtoun miles.' His peerage is, however, of a date not 
later than 1447, by which time he had again received the office 
of Chancellor on the death of James Bruce, Bishop of Dunkeld. 4 

1 Auchinleck Chronicle, 36. 2 Exch. Rolls, v. 146. 3 Ibid., p. 180. 
4 Ibid., v. 336 ; Officers of State, 30. 



60 ORIOHTON, LORD ORIOHTON 

In 1448 l he went, along with Bishop Ralston of Dunkeld 
and Nicholas of Otterburn, to Prance, there to ratify the 
ancient league with that country, and seek out a bride for 
the Scots King. The ratification was successfully accom- 
plished, but there was no French princess available, so the 
ambassadors proceeded to Burgundy, where they secured 
the hand of Mary of Gueldres, ' jam nubilem et formosam,' 
who had been brought up at the court of Philip the Good. 
Escorted by the Chancellor and a great retinue, the prin- 
cess landed at Leith on 18 June 1449, and the royal mar- 
riage took place on 3 July. 2 On the Chancellor's return he 
founded the collegiate church of Crichton, for a provost, 
eight prebends, and two boys, appointing divine service to 
be daily offered for behoof of the souls of the King and 
Queen and their predecessors and successors, 'pro salute 
etiam animarum Domini Johannis Crichton patris mei et 
Christianas matris meae nee non pro salute animse meae et 
Agnetis conjugis mese.' 3 

Soon thereafter took place the mysterious disgrace of the 
Livingston family and the visit of the Earl of Douglas to 
Rome, which left the Chancellor undisputed master of the 
field. Depredations seem to have been committed on the 
Douglas lands and vassals by the King's orders, and it has 
even been stated that a plot for the assassination of the 
Earl had been hatched by the Chancellor, Sir George 
Crichton the Admiral, and William Turnbull, Bishop of 
Glasgow. 4 Buchanan has a story that after his return the 
Earl of Douglas fell upon the Chancellor when journeying 
from Edinburgh to Crichton Castle, which he reached 
wounded and with difficulty. But in any view, the rela- 
tions of the two were soon as bad as ever, and though 
Douglas was restored to the royal favour, it was only to 
be treacherously murdered by the King himself in Stirling 
Castle, to which he had been invited, and had gone under 
a safe-conduct. There seems to be no definite evidence 
connecting Crichton with the murder, whether that was the 
outcome of a deliberate plot or due to a sudden burst of fury 
on the King's part, but his known hostility to Douglas, his 

1 Stevenson's Wars of the English in France, i. 222. 2 Exch. Rolls, v. p. 
Ixxiv. 3 Acts and Decreets, clxix, printed in Collegiate Churches of Mid- 
lothian, 305-311. 4 Law's MSS. cited Exch. Rolls, v. p. Ixxxv. 



ORICHTON, LORD ORIOHTON 61 

earlier treachery to the two young brothers in 1440, and 
the general belief that the safe-conduct had passed the 
Great Seal of which he was Keeper, all combined to produce 
a general belief in his guilt. 

It has been suggested, and the suggestion may be well 
founded, that the Queen, who practically owed her throne 
to the Chancellor, gave him throughout her unswerving 
support. But be this as it may, little more is recorded of 
the Chancellor's career, and he seems to have retained his 
office undisturbed till his death, sometime prior to July 
1454. 1 Sir Walter Scott describes him as being ' a consum- 
mate statesman according to the manner of the age,' and 
'as destitute of faith, mercy, and conscience as of fear 
and folly.' 2 

By his wife Agnes he had at least 

1. JAMES, of whom hereafter. 

2. Elizabeth, married, as his third wife, to Alexander, 

first Earl of Huntly, with issue, on whom the earldom 
and estates were settled by charter of tailzie, dated 
2 March 1457. 3 

3. Agnes, married to Alexander, Lord Glamis, prior to 17 

February 1449-50, when she and her husband, designed 
as son and heir of Patrick, Lord Glamis, received a 
confirmation of the lands of Auchtermuny and others, 
which the said Patrick had resigned. 4 
From the fact that James Crichton is frequently designed 
as primogenitus it would seem probable that the Chancellor 
had other male issue whose names have apparently not 
been preserved, or whom it is at all events impossible to 
identify. He was succeeded by his son 

II. JAMES, second Lord Crichton. On the occasion of 
the baptism of the twin sons of King James i. in October 
1430, the honour of knighthood was conferred on him 
4 primogenitum D. Willelmi Creichton Cancellarii,' and on 
several other children, including William, afterwards sixth 
Earl of Douglas, for whose murder the Chancellor was 
subsequently responsible. 5 At an early age, but not prior 

1 Exch. Holts, v. p. cvii. 2 Provincial Antiquities, 167-168. 3 Original 
said by Mr. Riddell, MSS. in Adv. Bib., to be at Gordon Castle. 4 Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 5 Fordun, xvi. 16 ; of course Crichton was not Chancellor at the 
time. 



62 GRIOHTON, LORD ORIOHTON 

to 1442, he married Janet Dunbar, elder daughter of James 
Dunbar, Earl of Moray, and sister of Elizabeth Dunbar, 
the wife of Archibald Douglas, second son of James, Earl 
of Douglas, 1 who although the younger daughter, seems to 
have carried the earldom and a great share of the estates 
to her husband, while the elder had as her portion the 
barony of Frendraught, as well as Brawl and other lands 
in Caithness, with other property in the south of Scotland. 
In her right Sir James Orichton is generally designed Lord 
of Frendraught, and as early as 26 March 1446, under that 
designation, and with the consent of Jonet, his wife, he 
granted to John de Schaw a charter of his lands of Henris- 
toune, in the barony of Renfrew, in excambion for Dryf- 
holme and other lands, in the lordship of Annandale, to 
which deed one of the witnesses was ' carissimo patre meo 
Willelmo domino de Crechtoun,' 2 and next year under the 
same designation he is witness to an instrument following 
on the resignation by Christian de Grymislaw already 
mentioned. 3 

He is said to have been appointed Lord Great Chamberlain 
of Scotland, and Orawfurd gives a notice of him in that char- 
acter. 4 It is possible that the office which became vacant 
by the disgrace of Sir James Livingston in 1449 may have 
been temporarily held by him, especially as a charter dated 
30 March 1451, and confirmed the next day, is witnessed 
by 'Jac de Crechtoun camerarii Scotise dom. de Fren- 
drach,' 5 while another charter, dated 26 April 1452, of the 
lands of Brawl, Dunbeath, and others, in Caithness, in 
favour of Sir George Crichton, the Admiral, states that the 
same had previously pertained 'Jonete sponse Jacobi de 
Creichtoun domini Frendraucht militis camerarii regis.' But 
it is remarkable that no trace of his having ever exercised 
the office appears in the Exchequer Rolls. For some time he 
had the keeping of the Castle of Kildrummy, with a fee of 
100 and certain fermes. 6 For the purpose of expressing 
approval of the murder of Douglas by the King a Parliament 
was held in Edinburgh in June 1452, and various honours 

1 Original precept dated 26 April 1442, in Castle Forbes Charter-chest. 
Partly printed in Antiquities of Aberdeen, etc., iii. 231. 2 The Lennox, 
ii. 70. 3 Buccleuch Book, ii. 18. 4 Officers of State, 311. b Reg. Mag. 
Sig. 6 Exch. Rolls, v. 463. 



CRICHTON, LORD ORIOHTON 63 

were bestowed on the Orichtons and their associates. In 
particular ' thar was maid in the f orsaid parliament three 
erllis viz. Schir James Orechtoun, son and air to Schir 
William of Orechton that spousit the eldest sister of Murray, 
was beltit erll of Murray.' 1 The full significance of this 
incident will be realised when it is remembered that the 
earldom was held at the time by Archibald Douglas, the 
brother of the murdered Earl of Douglas. It is doubtful 
how long the earldom was retained by Orichton, and how 
his tenure came to an end, whether by resignation, voluntary 
or enforced, into the hands of the Crown, or in some other 
way. The references in the authorities are rather per- 
plexing. On 18 July 1452, under the style of James, Earl 
of Moray, he is witness to a resignation by Alexander 
Cunningham of Kilmaurs. 2 In the Exchequer Rolls for 
1454 there is mention in one place of the payment of a 
pension granted by ttie King 4 Jacobo Comiti Mora vise et 
domino Creichtoun, 3 while in the same volume there is 
another entry of money due by 'domino Jacobo nunc 
domino Creichtone.' 4 Still later in 1456 there are references 
to his accounts as Sheriff of Edinburgh an office at one 
time held by his father in one of which he is described as 
4 quondam domini Jacobi Crechtoun comitis Moravie. 5 

The Douglases and the King were temporarily reconciled 
in August 1452, and the restoration of the earldom of 
Moray to that family possibly followed. But still it is 
curious to find Jonet Dunbar as late as 1458 in a charter 
of her half-brother Alexander Dunbar of Westfield, con- 
firmed 15 October 1470, designed Domina Jonete Comitissa 
Mora vise et domina Prendracht. 6 

James, Lord Crichton, did not long survive his father, for 
it is recorded in the Auchinleck Chronicle that in the 
month of August 1454 ' Schir James, Lord of Crichton, 
decessit at Dunbar, and it was haldin fra the King a little 
quhile and syne given till him.' 7 

By his wife Jonet Dunbar, who was dead before 19 January 
1505-6, when her grandson obtained a charter of Kirk- 
patrick-Irnegray, 8 but survived him at all events until 18 

1 Auchinleck Chronicle, 49. 2 Laing Charters, 1134. 3 Ibid., v. 645. 
4 Ibid., 653. 5 Ibid., vi. 142. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. * P. 53. 8 Reg. Mag. 
Sig. 



64 ORIOHTON, LORD ORICHTON 

March 1494, when under the style of Joneta Dunbar domina 
de Frendrach, she was served heir to her sister Elizabeth 
in the lands of Dunbeath and Brawl in Caithness, a fact 
which proves the extinction of the issue of Archibald 
Douglas, Earl of Moray, 1 he had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, his successor. 

2. Gavin. He married Margaret Oockburn 2 prior to 

24 January 1477, when he obtained from his brother 
William, Lord Orichton, a charter of the lands 
of Molyne, Raehills, and others, in the barony of 
Kirkmychel and sheriffdom of Dumfries, in favour 
of himself and Margaret, his wife, and the heirs- 
male of their marriage, confirmed 11 February 
1479-80. 3 Along with other members of the family 
he was forfeited in Parliament for his share in the 
Duke of Albany's rebellion in February 1483, 4 and 
these lands were granted to Alexander Kirkpatrick 
on 20 October 1484. 5 He died prior to 22 November 
1493, survived by his wife, who was married secondly 
to John of Wardlaw, 6 and having had issue James and 
William, both nominated in the Frendraught entail 
of 22 November 1493. 7 

3. George, a witness to various deeds, including the 

charter of Molyne of 24 January 1477-78. He too 
was forfeited in February 1483. 8 

III. WILLIAM, third Lord Crichton. He married, prior to 
the year 1478, Marion Livingston, daughter of James, Lord 
Livingston, 9 an alliance probably intended to finally end the 
long-continued rivalry of the two families. He is said to 
have been greatly attached to her, and so incensed by the 
discovery that she had been seduced by King James in. 
that he retaliated by deliberately debauching Margaret, 
the King's youngest sister, a Princess of great beauty, but 
of a reputation that was more than loose. 10 Whatever may 
have been the cause, it is, however, plain that he was one 
of the moving spirits in the strange series of plots and 

1 Original retour in Riddell Collection, Adv. Bib. 2 Acta Dom. Cone., 
211. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. 4 Acta Part. Scot. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 Acta Dom. 
Cone., 1502. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig. 8 Acta Part. Scot. 9 Acta Dom. Cone., 15 ; 
Acta Dom. Audit., 69. 10 ' Forma egregia et consuetudine fratris infa- 
mem,' Buchanan, xii. 51. 



ORICHTON, LORD ORIOHTON 65 

intrigues of which the Duke of Albany was the nominal 
head. When Albany made his peace with the King by the 
extraordinary indenture of 19 March 1482-83, 1 one of the 
terms of the bargain was that Orichton and others of 
Albany's associates should on the one hand be discharged 
by him of certain obligations into which they had entered 
with him, while Orichton, along with the Earls of Angus 
and Buchan, Lord Gray and Sir James Liddale of Haulker- 
ston, were in like manner to renounce certain unlawful 
bonds which they had given to the King of England. So 
little, moreover, did the King appear to trust Orichton, that 
another condition was that he with the Earl of Buchan 
and Sir James Liddale should be banished for three years. 
Whether this compact was seriously regarded as more than 
a means of gaining time may well be doubted. But any- 
how no attempt seems to have been made to implement its 
provisions. Albany proceeded to fortify himself at Dunbar 
with the assistance of Orichton and some of the other 
conspirators, while Liddale was despatched to England 
to obtain, if possible, assistance from Edward iv. By this 
time the King's party were thoroughly roused. Albany 
found it desirable to take refuge in England, and was 
attainted by Parliament on 8 July 1483. 2 Orichton's turn 
came next, and a solemn process of forfeiture against him 
and various of his kinsfolk and other persons was instituted 
before Parliament, the charges including traitorous corre- 
spondence with Albany in England after his forfeiture and 
the fortifying of Orichton Oastle against the King. Orichton, 
who had fled to the sanctuary of St. Duthac at Tain, where 
he lived in the vicar's house within the garth, failed to 
appear, and was forfeited and outlawed in absence on 24 
February 1483-84. 3 

A story is told, apparently on the authority of Buchanan, 
to the effect that Lady Crichton having died during these 
troubles, the King proposed to remove the forfeiture in 
the hope that Orichton would marry the Princess Margaret, 
and, as far as might be, restore her reputation, and that not 
long before they both died they had a meeting at Inverness, 

1 Acta Parl. Scot., xii. 33 ; Original in Register House State Papers, 
No. 19. 2 Exch. Rolls, ix. xlix, et seq. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 158, et seq. ; 
see also Treasurer's Accounts, i. cclxxxvii. 

VOL. III. E 



66 ORIOHTON, LORD CRICHTON 

where Crichton's tomb might still be seen. And Mr. Riddell 
even goes the length of observing that the last statement 
4 may lead in such a singular chain of events to the worst 
suspicions.' * But whatever may have been the King's inten- 
tions or Lord Orichton's fate, there is no evidence that his 
forfeiture was ever rescinded or that he married the Prin- 
cess Margaret. He was certainly dead before 23 October 
1493. 2 

By his wife, Marion Livingstone, Lord Crichton had 

James, apparently an only son. 

The date of his birth is unknown, but he must have been 
of age before 23 October 1493, when an action was pursued 
by James Giffert 4 as assignee to James Oreichtoun, the son 
and are of umquhile William, sumtyme Lord Oreichtoun. 7 3 

On 22 November 1493 4 his grandmother, Joneta Dunbar 
domina de Frendracht, under reservation of her own life- 
rent, personally resigned the lands and barony of Frendracht 
in the sheriffdom of Aberdeen, and the lands and barony of 
Inverkethny in the County of Banff, and a Grown charter 
thereof was granted in favour of James Crichton, son and 
heir of the deceased William, Lord Crichton, and the heirs- 
male of his body ' quibus deficientibus, Jacobo Crichton 
filio quondam Gawini Crichton et heredibus ejus de cor- 
pore legitime procreatis, quibus deficientibus, Willelmo 
Orichton filio ejusdem Gawini et heredibus de ejus corpore 
legitime procreatis, quibus deficientibus, legitimis et pro- 
pinquioribus heredibus dicti Jacobi filii Willelmi domini 
Crichton quibuscunque.' In this way Frendraught came to 
be the principal holding of the main stock of the family of 
Crichton, whose subsequent history will be found under 
that title. 

William, Lord Crichton, had also, by the Princess Mar- 
garet, a natural daughter, Margaret Crichton, whose 
chequered career is one of the most curious in the history 
of her time. She must have been brought up in the royal 
household, for in the Treasurer's Accounts for the year 
1495-96 there are entries of dress purchased for 'Lady 
Margretis dochtir.' 5 She was married, first, to William Tod- 
rik, burgess of Edinburgh. This marriage must have been 

1 Remarks, 194. 2 Acta Dom. Cone., 311. 3 Ibid. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
s Vol. i. 265. 



CRICHTON, LORD OBIOHTON 67 

prior to 8 February 1505, when Todrik received from the King 
under the Great Seal a grant of certain exemptions from 
customs in respect of his marriage ' cum consanguinea nostra 
Margreta Oreichtoun.' l Todrik must have died before 27 July 
1507. 2 She was married, secondly, to George Halkerstoun 
also a burgess of Edinburgh. This marriage must have taken 
place prior to 4 July 1510, when she and her husband ob- 
tained a similar grant, to them and to the survivor, of exemp- 
tion from customs to the amount of 100 merks yearly import 
and export. This grant also proceeds on a narrative of the 
King's tender love and affection 4 quos gerimus erga dilectam 
consanguineam nostram Margaretam Oreichtoun.' 3 Hal- 
kerstoun, who became one of the custumars of Edinburgh, 
seems to have been killed at Flodden, and his widow suc- 
ceeded him in that office. 4 By George Halkerston she had 
at all events a son James, who was conjoined with her in 
a lawsuit in 1538. 5 Margaret Orichton's third husband was 
George, Earl of Rothes. This marriage must have taken 
place prior to 1 April 1517 when a new charter of the 
Rothes estates passed the Great Seal in favour of ' Georgio 
Lesley Oomiti de Rothes dom. Lesly et Margarete Oreich- 
toun ejus sponse affidate per verba de futuro cum carnali 
copula inde secuta.' This marriage was dissolved on one 
of the pretexts usual at the time on 27 December 1520, and 
Lord Rothes married successively Elizabeth Gray, the 
widowed Oountess of Huntly and Agnes Somerville, relict of 
John, Lord Fleming. Margaret Orichton does not seem to 
have acquiesced in the judgment, and may have ultimately 
been successful in getting it set aside, and in reasserting 
her position as Oountess of Rothes, prior to 31 May 1542, 
when as Margaret Oreychtoun Comitissa de Rothes she 
obtained a charter of the lands of Drumcroce. 6 She seems 
to have died prior to 1546, when Lord Rothes appears as the 
husband of 4 dame Margret (properly Isabel) Lundy, relict of 
umquhile David, Erie of Oraufurde.' 7 By Lord Rothes Mar- 
garet Orichton had issue at least one child, Norman Leslie 
the well-known Master of Rothes. (See title Rothes.) 

ARMS. Various branches of the family of Orichton bear, 

1 Exch. Rolls, xii. 465. 2 Ibid., 594. 3 Ibid., xiii. 367. * Treasurer's 
Accounts, i. 241. 5 Riddell's Remarks, 195. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 1 Ada 
Dom. Cone, et Sessionis, xx. f . 174. 



68 ORIOHTON, LORD ORIOHTON 

with different modifications, argent, a lion rampant azure, 
which may accordingly be regarded as the original arms of 
the main stock. These also appear to be the arms actu- 
ally used by the Chancellor at one time. For in The Scotts 
of Buccleuch 1 is reproduced his seal, appended to a deed of 
1439, showing a shield couche, charged with a lion rampant, 
as well as a female figure on the dexter, apparently acting 
as supporter, and a helmet with a goat's head for crest. 

Laing 2 gives another seal of the Chancellor appended to 
a deed of 1449, and bearing, 1st and 4th, a lion rampant, 
2nd and 3rd, a saltire and chief. Sir David Lyndsay 3 gives 
as the arms of Crichton, Lord Crichton, 1st and 4th, argent, 
a lion rampant azure, 2nd and 3rd, argent, a saltire and 
chief azure over all an escutcheon of the arms of Moray, 
which earldom the second Lord Crichton held for a short 
time. 

The suggestion that these new quarterings are for Boyes, 
and denote a marriage with the heiress of that family, 
derives support from the facts that Sir David Lyndsay 
gives as the arms of 'Lord Boyis of Dryvisdaill of Auld,' 
argent, a saltire and chief azure, 4 and that Dryfesdale had 
come into the possession of the Crichtons by 1361. 

[j. R. N. M.] 
1 ii. 32. 2 i. 1212. 3 Heraldic MS., 54. 4 Ibid., 64. 



MACKENZIE, EARL OF CROMARTIE 



IR RODERICK or Rorie 
Mackenzie, from whom 
the family of the Earls of 
Oromartie is descended, 
was the second son of 
Colin Mackenzie of Kin- 
tail, and immediate 
younger brother of Ken- 
neth, first Lord Mackenzie 
of Kintail. His mother 
was Barbara Grant, 
daughter of John Grant 
of that Ilk, and of Freuchie. 
He was born in or about 
1579. 1 In 1585 he got from 
his father the lands of 
Culteleod, now Castle 
Leod, in the parish of Podderty. 2 In 1605 he married 
Margaret Macleod, daughter and heiress of Torquil Macleod 
of the Lewis. 3 In the same year his brother Kenneth, who 
in 1609 became Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, bought from 
Torquil all his lands, and on 17 November 1608 granted to 
Rorie and his wife the lands of Coigeach and others. 4 Rorie 
thereafter used the territorial designation of Coigeach. 
Lord Mackenzie died in March 1611, leaving a family and 
an embarrassed estate, and Rorie undertook the office of 
tutor to his nephew, Colin, second Lord Mackenzie, and is 

1 His grandson, the first Lord Cromartie, states that he died in 1626 in 
the forty-eighth year of his age ; Genealogie of the Mackenzies by a Person 
of Qualitie. Privately printed, Edinburgh 1829. 2 Charter 7 October 
1585, Cromarty Writs, Tarbat House. 3 Original marriage-contract 6 May 
1605, at Tarbat House. * Reg. Mag. Sig., 8 April 1609. 




70 MACKENZIE, EARL OF OROMARTIE 

usually designed ' Tutor of Kintail.' He nursed the estate 
well, and handed it over on his nephew's majority in a 
flourishing condition. The Island of Lewis, which formed 
part of the lands acquired from Torquil Macleod, was at 
this time in a state of civil war owing to the feuds of the 
Macleods. On 11 June 1611 the Tutor of Kintail, with 
certain other gentlemen of the name of Mackenzie, received 
from the Privy Council a Commission of Justiciary over the 
island, 1 which is described as inhabited 'be a nomber of 
thevis, murthouraris, and . ane infamous byke of lawles 
lymmaris, undir the chair ge and commandiement of the 
traytour Neill McOloyd, who hes usurpit upoun him the 
authoritie and possessioun of the Lewis.' Rorie and his 
colleagues were intrusted with full powers of fire and 
sword ' for reducing of the saidis lymmaris to his Majesteis 
obedience,' which was most effectively done. Neil Macleod 
was caught, brought to Glasgow, and executed ; the more 
lawless spirits of the island were banished, and the re- 
mainder settled as peaceable tenants of Lord Mackenzie. 
On 11 April 1617 Rorie Mackenzie had a charter from the 
King of the lands of Torresay and others, which formerly 
belonged to Hector Maclean of Dowart, and which were 
erected into the barony of Dowart. 2 At the same time 
he was intrusted with the task of reducing to order the 
inhabitants of Mull, Morven, and Tiree, 3 a task which 
he accomplished in two years. He left a name of terror 
among the lawless Highlanders : to this day there is a 
Gaelic proverb: 'There are two things worse than the 
Tutor of Kintail: frost in spring, and mist in the dog-days.' 
He was knighted previous to 4 March 1619, on which date 
he had a Crown charter to himself and his wife in liferent 
and his son John in fee, of the lands of Inscheroreis and 
others in Inverness-shire. 4 On 16 May 1621 he had a 
charter of the island of Barray, 5 and in 1623 he bought the 
lands of Easter Aird, Easter Tarbat, Downielarne and 
Meikle Tarrell, from George Monro of Tarbat for 110,000 
merks. 6 These lands were on 31 July 1623 erected into a 
barony. 7 He was a Justice of the Peace for Inverness and 

1 P. C. Reg. The commission was renewed 28 May 1612. 2 Reg. Mag. 
Sig. 3 Commission dated 3 April 1617 ; P. C. Reg. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
6 Ibid. 6 Fraser's Earls of Cromartie, i. p. xlvii. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



MACKENZIE, EARL OF OROMARTIE 71 

Oromarty, and in 1611 was appointed a Commissioner in 
Inverness-shire for the trial of persons accused of resetting 
the Clan Gregor. 1 On 30 July 1613 he was himself found 
guilty of the same offence and fined 4000 Scots. 2 Castle 
Leod, near Strathpeffer, was built by him in 1616. 3 He died 
there in September 1626. 

By his wife, Margaret Macleod, who survived him and 
married, secondly, Thomas Fraser of Strichen (contract 17 
February 1629) , 4 he had issue six sons and one daughter: 5 

1. JOHN. 

2. Kenneth, of Scatwell, who married, first, a daughter 

of Sir Robert Munro of Fowlis, and, secondly, Janet, 
daughter of Walter Ross of Invercarron, by both of 
whom he had issue. Died 3 March 1662. 

3. Colin, of Tarvey, married the eldest daughter of Alex- 

ander Mackenzie of Gairloch, widow of John Mac- 
kenzie of Lochslin, and had issue. He had a grant 
of the barony of Culloden 22 March 1634. 6 

4. Alexander, of Ballone, married a daughter of Hugh 

Fraser of Culbockie, widow of Kenneth Mackenzie of 
Inverlawl, and had issue. Died at Munlochy 1645. 

5. Charles, died s. p. at Ohanonry 1629. 

6. James, died s. p. at Inchrorie 1647. 

7. Margaret, married to Sir James Macdonald of Slate. 7 
Also a natural son, John Mackenzie, Archdeacon of Ross. 

SIR JOHN MACKENZIE of Tarbat, the eldest son, was 
under age when he succeeded to his father in 1626, as he 
had tutors in August 1628. 8 He was created a Knight- 
Baronet of Nova Scotia on 21 May 1628. The patent is not 
on record, but is recited in the patent of baronetcy to his 
grandson Kenneth of 29 April 1704. 9 He also received a 
grant of lands in the colony, extending to 16,000 acres, to 
be called the barony of Tarbat. 10 He sat in Parliament for 
Inverness-shire 1628-33 and 1639-40. He was an active 
Covenanter ; in the General Assembly of 1638 he sat as one 

1 P. C. Reg., ix. 286. 2 Ibid., x. 122. 3 SeeMacGibbon and Ross's 
Castellated and Domestic Architecture of Scotland, iii. 625. 4 Reg. Mag. 
Sig. 6 Earls of Cromartie, i. p. xlix. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 1 Earls of 
Cromartie, i. p. li. 8 Ibid., p. liv. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig. 10 Sasine, taken 
at Edinburgh Castle 13 February 1630, at Tarbat House ; recorded Gen. 
Reg. Sas. 15 March 1630. 



72 MACKENZIE, EARL OF OROMARTIE 

of the ruling elders for the Presbytery of Tain ; he was a 
member of the committee which prepared the libels against 
the bishops ; and was himself one of the principal witnesses 
against Lindsay, Bishop of Edinburgh, and Maxwell, Bishop 
of Ross. In 1643 he was appointed one of the commissioners 
for loans for Inverness, and a colonel of Foot for the same 
county, and in 1646-47 he was on the Committee of War for 
the county. In 1647-48 he became one of the ' Engagers ' 
to put the Scottish forces at the disposal of Charles I., and 
proceedings seem to have been taken against him in the 
General Assembly on this account. 1 He suffered imprison- 
ment under Cromwell. 2 He died 10 September 1654. 

He married, in 1629, Margaret Erskine, 3 younger daughter 
and co-heiress of Sir George Erskine of Innerteil. She 
survived him and married, secondly, in 1661, Sir James 
Foulis of Oolinton. She was alive in June 1693. By her 
he had issue : 

1. GEORGE, afterwards first Earl of Cromartie. 

2. John, died s. p. 1662. 

3. Roderick, of Prestonhall. Advocate 6 February 

1666 ; Clerk of Session 1678 ; M.P. for the county of 
Oromarty 1700 ; Lord Justice-Clerk 1 December 1702 ; 
an ordinary Lord of Session as Lord Prestonhall 12 
January 1703; superseded as Justice-Clerk October 
1704 ; resigned his judgeship in favour of his nephew, 
Sir James Mackenzie of Royston, June 1710; ap- 
pointed Sheriff of Ross-shire September 1710; died 
4 January 1712. Married, first, 28 April 1674, 4 Mary, 
daughter of Alexander Burnet, Archbishop of St. 
Andrews (she died before 4 January 1700), and had 
issue : 

(1) Alexander, married, in 1702, Amelia, eldest daughter of Hugh, 

tenth Lord Lovat, and took the name of Fraser. Died at 
Leith 3 June 1755. His son Hugh assumed the title of 
Lord Lovat. He died 9 November 1770. 

(2) Elizabeth, baptized 9 August 1675. 

(3) John, baptized 27 July 1678. 

(4) George, baptized 25 January 1681. 

Lord Prestonhall married, secondly, Margaret 

1 Commission Records, Scot. Hist. Soc., ii. 281. 2 Scotland under the 
Commonwealth, Scot. Hist. Soc., 153, 160. 3 Marriage-contract 25 July 
1629. 4 Edinburgh Register. 



MACKENZIE, EARL OF OROMARTIE 73 

Halyburton, daughter of the Laird of Pitcur, and 
widow of Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, Lord 
Advocate under Charles n. and James n. She died 
in January 1713. 1 By her he had no issue. 

4. Alexander, of Ardloch and Kinellan, whose male line 

inherited the baronetcy. 

5. Kenneth, married Isobel Auchinleek, and had issue : 

(1) Kenneth, baptized 22 December 1674, 2 died s. p. 

6. James, received the degree of M.D. at Rheims ; died 

s. p. 

7. Margaret, married, first, to Roderick Macleod of that 

Ilk without issue ; secondly, to Sir James Campbell 
of Lawers. 

8. Anne, married, July 1659, to Hugh, ninth Lord 

Lovat. 

9. Isabel, married to Kenneth, third Earl of Seaforth, and 

had issue. 

10. Barbara, married 3 to Alexander Mackenzie of Gair- 

loch, and had issue. 

11. Catherine, married 4 to Sir Colin Campbell of Aberuchill, 

a Lord of Session, and had issue. 

I. SIR GEORGE MACKENZIE, of Tarbat, Baronet, was born 
at Innerteil in 1630, and was educated at the University of 
St. Andrews and at King's College, Aberdeen, where he 
graduated in 1646. 5 On 24 January 1655 he was served heir 
to his father in his estates in the counties of Inverness, 
Ross, and Elgin, and in the barony of Innerteill in Fife; 
and on 22 January 1662 to his grandfather in the barony of 
Dowart, etc., in Argyllshire. He took part in Glencairn's 
expedition on behalf of Charles n., but after Middleton's 
defeat at Lochgair on 26 July 1654 he escaped to the Con- 
tinent, and remained abroad till the Restoration. 

At the Restoration Middleton, now an Earl, became the 
King's Commissioner in Scotland, and he made Mackenzie 
his chief confidant and adviser. On the reconstruction of 
the Court of Session he was appointed a Lord of Session 1 
June 1661, with the judicial title of Lord Tarbat. In the 

1 Edin. Tests., 15 June 1713. 2 Edinburgh Register. 3 Contract 
4 March 1670; Tarbat Writs. * Contract 19 August 1667. 5 Fasti Aber- 
don., Spalding Club, 1854, 468. 



74 MACKENZIE, EARL OP OROMARTIE 

same year he was elected a member of the Estates for 
Ross-shire. He took an active part in politics; his kins- 
man, Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, says that he 
was the chief originator of the Act Rescissory of 1661 ; and 
he actively supported Middleton in his intrigues against 
Lauderdale. He was concerned in devising the 'Act of 
Billeting,' which proposed by a secret vote of the Estates 
to declare certain persons incapable of holding any office of 
public trust. This proposal, designed for the overthrow 
of Lauderdale, recoiled on the heads of its contrivers and 
led to Middleton's dismissal from office. Tarbat shared his 
fall, and on 16 February 1664 was deprived of his seat on 
the bench. He was excluded from office for many years, 
but continued to take a prominent part in the business of 
Parliament. In 1678, through the good offices of Arch- 
bishop Sharpe with the Duke and Duchess of Lauderdale, he 
was restored to public employment, and on 16 October in 
that year was appointed Lord Justice-General, receiving at 
the same time a pension of 200 and a letter of pardon 
from Charles n. On 11 November he was admitted a 
member of the Scots Privy Council. In 1680 Lauderdale 
was superseded as Secretary by Alexander, fourth Earl of 
Moray, and from that time till the Revolution Tarbat had 
the chief management of Scots affairs. On 16 October 1681 
he was appointed Lord Clerk Register, and on 1 November 
following was admitted one of the ordinary Lords of 
Session. On 26 February 1685 he received from James vn. 
a grant of a further pension of 400, and on 15 April 
following was raised to the Peerage as VISCOUNT 
OF TARBAT, LORD MACLEOD AND CASTLEHAVEN, 
the patent being to himself and the heirs-male of his 
body. 

At the Revolution he took measures to secure his position 
with the new rulers, and by advising in council the dis- 
banding of the militia he greatly facilitated the establish- 
ment of King William's Government. He was not at first 
officially employed, being omitted from the new commission 
of Lords of Session ; he was relieved of his office of Lord 
Clerk Register, 1 but after Killiecrankie he was employed in 
negotiations with the Highland chiefs, and on 5 March 

1 Exoneration and discharge, 25 April 1689, Leven and Melville Papers. 



MACKENZIE, EARL OF OROMARTIE 75 

1692 he was reinstated as Lord Clerk Register. He held 
the office till 1696, when he retired with a further pension 
of 400 a year. 

On the accession of Queen Anne he became Secretary of 
State for Scotland, 1 and on 1 January 1703 he was advanced 
to the dignity of EARL OF CROMARTIE, VISCOUNT 
OF TARBAT, LORD MACLEOD AND CASTLEHAVEN, 
the new dignities being granted to himself and his heirs- 
male and of taillie. 2 

On 17 May 1703 he became Captain-General of the Royal 
Company of Archers, and in the same year obtained from 
Queen Anne the charter 3 which was till recently the 
regulating charter of the company. 

He resigned the Secretaryship in 1704, and on 26 June 
1705 became again Lord Justice-General, which office he 
held till 1710. He ably and strenuously supported the 
Union. His last yea*s were spent in retirement in Ross- 
shire ; Swift writes of him that ' after four score he went 
to his country house in Scotland with a resolution to stay 
six years, and lived thriftily in order to save up money that 
he might spend it in London/ He died at New Tarbat on 
27 August 1714. 

He was one of the original Fellows of the Royal Society, 
and contributed several papers to its early Transactions.* 
In addition to these he was the author of many publica- 
tions on political, historical, and ecclesiastical subjects. 

A portrait of Lord Cromartie, after Sir J. Baptist Medina, 
is in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. 

The Earl married, first, in 1654, Anna, daughter of Sir 
James Sinclair of Moy, Baronet (she died in 1699), and had 
issue : 

1. Roderick, who died young. 5 

2. JOHN, second Earl of Cromartie. 

3. Kenneth, of Grandvale and Cromartie, born circa 1658. 

Created a Baronet 8 February 1704 with his father's 

1 Patent dated 21 November 1702 at Tarbat House. 2 Patent at Tarbat 
House, printed in Ada Parl. Scot., xi. 118, and in Earls of Cromartie, 
ii. 351. 3 Signature dated 31 December 1703. Printed in Balfour Paul's 
History of the Royal Company of Archers, 41. 4 Transactions, x. 305, 
307, 396 ; xxvii. 296. 5 Resignation at Tarbat House, of date 9 June 1665, 
in which he is styled eldest son. 



76 MACKENZIE, EARL OF OROMARTIE 

precedency, sat in Scots Parliament for Oromarty 
1693-1701, supported the Union, was nominated by 
Scots Parliament to sit in Parliament of Great 
Britain 13 February 1707, elected M.P. for Oromarty 
1710-13, and again in 1727 ; l died 13 September 1728. 
Married, before 1701, Anne Oampbell, and had issue 

(1) GEORGE, who succeeded to the baronetcy. Married, about 

1747, Elizabeth, sister of Captain John Reid of Greenwich, 
without issue. Died 20 May 1748. She died 24 August 1807, 
aged eighty-four. 2 

(2) Colin, baptized 6 January 1703. 

(3) James, born 20 February 1709. 

(4) Campbell, born 8 November 1710. 

(5) Gerard, born 27 September 1712. 

(6) KENNETH, who succeeded his brother George in the baronetcy 

in 1748. Died, unmarried, at Bath 13 September 1763. 

(7) Catherine, married to Dr. Adam Murray, Stirling, and died 

17 June 1755. 

(8) Margaret, died unmarried before 12 August 1742. 



4. James, of Royston, born 1671. Advocate 19 November 

1698, created a Baronet 8 February 1704, Lord of 
Session (Lord Royston) 7 June, and Lord of Justiciary 
22 July 1710 ; died 9 November 1744. Married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir George Mackenzie of Rose- 
haugh, sometime Lord Advocate, widow of Sir Archi- 
bald Oockburn of Laugton (she died in July 1717), 3 
and had issue : 

(1) George, of Farnese, born 18 October 1708 ; married, 20 January 

1743, Isabella, daughter of Archibald Stewart, W.S., without 
issue; died 15 May 1744. 

(2) Anne, married to Sir William Dick of Prestonfield, Bart. 

(3) Elizabeth, married, as his first wife, in 13 January 1725, 

to Colonel John Stewart, afterwards Sir John Stewart of 
Grandtully, and had issue. 

5. Margaret, married to David Bruce of Clackmannan, 

without issue. 

6. Elizabeth, married, before 1692, 4 to Sir George Brown 

of Ooalstoun, and had issue. 

7. Jean, born 11 July 1661, married to Sir Thomas Stewart 

of Balcaskie, Baronet, a Lord of Session, and had 
issue. 

8. Anne, married to the Hon. John Sinclair of Murkle, a 

1 Historical Register. 2 Scots Mag. 3 Edin. Tests., 10 November 1718. 
4 Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. Ixii. 182. 



MACKENZIE, EARL OF OROMARTIE 77 

Lord of Session, brother of Alexander, ninth Earl of 

Caithness, died s. p. 21 October 1740. 
The Earl of Oromartie married, secondly, 11 April 1700, 
Margaret, Countess of Wemyss in her own right, widow of 
James, Lord Burntisland, but by her, who died 11 March 
1705, had no issue. 1 

II. JOHN, second Earl of Cromartie, was born circa 1656. 
On his father's creation as Viscount of Tarbat in 1685 he 
took the designation of Master of Tarbat. He was at this 
time member of Parliament for the county of Ross. The 
Parliament resolved that by reason his father was nobilitate 
he could not continue to represent the shire as one of their 
commissioners, and a warrant was therefore issued for a 
new election. 2 In May 1689 he was arrested as suspect of 
hostility to William and Mary, but was released on parole 
in the following December by order of the Privy Council. 3 
In August 1691 he was tried for the murder of Elias Poiret, 
Sieur de la Roche, a French Protestant refugee and Gentle- 
man of the King's Guard, killed in a scuffle in a vintner's 
in the Kirkgate of Leith, and was acquitted. 4 When his 
father became Earl of Cromartie he took the courtesy title 
of Lord Macleod. He succeeded to the earldom in 1714. 
His pecuniary affairs became much embarrassed ; the estate 
of Cromartie was sequestrated in 1724. He died at Castle 
Leod on 20 February 1731. 

He married, first, 5 Lady Elizabeth Gordon, only daughter 
of Charles, first Earl of Aboyne. She was divorced 28 July 
1698. 6 During her marriage this lady contracted large 
debts for ' meat, drink, cloaths, abulziments, rings, brace- 
lets, and jewals of great value,' and in 1696 her husband 
raised letters of inhibition against her to protect his estate. 7 
By her the Earl had no issue. He married, secondly, 25 
April 1701, the Hon. Mary Murray, eldest daughter of 
Patrick, third Lord Elibank (she died before 1717). By her 
he had issue : 

1 Article by Mr. T. F. Henderson in the Dictionary of National 
Biography, and authorities there cited ; Earls of Cromartie, i. pp. Ixvii- 
cxciv. 2 Salton on Peerages, 77. 3 Earls of Cromartie, i. pp. cxcvi, cxcvii, 
62. 4 Arnot's Criminal Trials, 156. 5 Contract 2 and 10 January 1685. 
6 Commissariot of Edinburgh, Consistorial Decreets, i. 305. 7 Letters of 
Inhibition, 16 April 1696, at Tarbat House ; cf. Earls of Cromartie^ i. 
p. ccvi. 



78 MACKENZIE, EARL OF OROMARTIE 

1. GEORGE, third Earl of Oomartie. 

2. Roderick. Present at siege of Gibraltar 1726, lieut- 

enant Royal Dragoons 1740, captain of Foot 1745, 
served in Flanders. Said to have been twice married, 
and was succeeded by his son : 

(1) KENNETH, who on the death of Lord Macleod in 1789 suc- 
ceeded to the Cromartie estates. See p. 83. 

3. William. Captain in the Scots Brigade in Holland, 

entered East India Company's service 1737, lost in 
a storm in the expedition against Angria. 

4. Patrick, became a merchant, died s. p. 

5. Gideon, died 1714. 

6. Mary, died unmarried May 1726. 

7. Anna, died unmarried 25 December 1777. 

8. Helen, living in 1714. 

The Earl of Cromartie married, thirdly, 1 the Hon. Anne 
Fraser, second daughter of Hugh, tenth Lord Fraser of 
Lovat, widow of Patrick Fothringham, younger of Powrie, 
and of Norman Macleod of Macleod. By her he had 
issue : 

9. James, who died young. 

10. Norman, an officer in the Scots Dutch Brigade, 

drowned when crossing from Scotland to Holland 
with recruits. 

11. Hugh, also an officer in the Scots Dutch, raised a 

company in the 78th, Montgomerie's Highlanders, 
in 1757, and became a captain in the regiment, with 
which he served in America. 

12. Amelia, married, 22 September 1740, to Archibald 

Lamont of that Ilk ; died at Ardlamont 19 January 
1801, leaving issue. 

III. GEORGE, third Earl of Cromartie, was born circa 
1702. During the lifetime of his grandfather, the first 
Earl, he had the courtesy title of Master of Macleod, as 
the eldest son of Lord Macleod. After his father became 
Earl of Oromartie in 1714 he took the title of Lord Tarbat, 
and in 1731 he himself succeeded to the earldom. He was 
the intimate friend and correspondent of his cousin Simon 
Fraser, Lord Lovat, and many interesting and characteristic 
letters from the latter are preserved at Tarbat House. 2 

1 Contract 23 October 1717. 2 Printed in Earls of Cromartie, ii. 284-314. 



MACKENZIE, EARL OF CROMARTIE 79 

When Prince Charles Edward landed in 1745 he addressed 
to Lord Cromartie a letter dated at Boradel, 8 August 1745, 
intimating his resolution to restore the King, his father, and 
to set up the Royal Standard at Glenfinnan on Monday 
19 August, where he expected the Earl would join him. 

The Earl was then in correspondence with Duncan 
Forbes of Culloden, 1 and professed loyalty to the house 
of Hanover, but he and his eldest son, Lord Macleod, after 
a little delay, joined the second army which assembled at 
Perth, after Prince Charles had marched into England. 
He was employed in collecting money for the Prince in 
Fife ; he superintended the transportation of the French 
artillery across the Forth from the siege of Stirling ; and he 
and Lord Macleod were present at the battle of Falkirk on 

17 January 1746. When the Jacobite forces retired north- 
wards Oromartie accompanied Lord George Murray's force. 
He afterwards took over the command of the Earl of Kil- 
marnock's troops. This command was afterwards trans- 
ferred to James Drummond, titular Duke of Perth, but 
after his departure Cromartie remained in command in 
Sutherland. On 15 April 1746 he was surprised and defeated 
at Dunrobin by the Earl of Sutherland's militia, and shortly 
afterwards was captured at Dunrobin Castle. He was sent 
to London and committed to the Tower, and on 28 July was 
brought to trial before the House of Lords. He pleaded guilty, 
and on 1 August he was sentenced to death, and his honours 
and estates were forfeited. After his condemnation it was 
stated on his behalf that after Prestonpans application was 
made to the Lord President for a company for Lord Macleod, 
Cromartie's eldest son ; that subalterns were appointed to 
levy the men, and levies were made, but that it became 
known that the subalterns were to be appointed by Lord 
Fortrose ; that Cromartie, while smarting under the slight, 
was beset by designing men who used all their arts and 
cunning to seduce him from his duty, but that no reason 
could have had this effect if he had not been taken unawares 
after some merriment, and that on coming to himself he 
reflected with horror on what he had done. Through the 
exertions of his wife he was respited on 9 August, and on 

18 February 1748 was permitted to leave the Tower, and to 

1 Culloden Papers, 411, 415, 232, 235. 



80 MACKENZIE, EARL OF OROMARTIE 

lodge at the house of a messenger. In August following he 
received permission to reside at Layhill in Devonshire. He 
had a pardon under the Privy Seal 4 October 1749, with the 
condition that he should remain in such place as should be 
directed by the King. He afterwards resided at Northcote, 
near Honiton. During his later years he was in sore straits 
for money. In 1759 he writes : 4 We were never more put to 
it than at present. Every year grows worse and worse for 
us, as every year increases the load of our debts ' ; and 
again : * We feel daily the miserable situation we are in. 
I am afraid we shall be put to the utmost extremity soon, 
perhaps not to have a house to go into or a bed to lie on, 
and no hopes of any amendment in this our very distressed 
situation for some time.' 1 He died in Poland Street, West- 
minster, on 28 September 1766. 

Lord Oromartie married, on 23 September 1724 (marriage- 
contract 27 June 1724, at Tarbat House), Isabella Gordon 
called ' Bonnie Bell Gordon ' eldest daughter of Sir 
William Gordon, Baronet, of Invergordon, Roes-shire. She 
received a pension of 200, afterwards increased to 400, 
out of the rents of the forfeited estates in Scotland (Royal 
Warrant, 26 February 1749. It was very irregularly paid). 
She died at Edinburgh 23 April 1769, in the sixty-fourth 
year of her age, and was buried in the Ganongate Church- 
yard. By her he had issue : 

1. John, Lord Macleod. 

2. William, died in December 1736, aged seven. 

3. George, lieutenant-colonel of the 71st Regiment, 

died unmarried at Madras, 4 June 1787, aged forty- 
six. 2 

4. Isabella, who in 1796 succeeded to the Cromartie 

estates. Infra, p. 83. 

1 Letters at Tarbat House. 2 He was buried at Fort St. George, Madras, 
where the officers of the regiment erected a monument with the follow- 
ing inscription : ' Sacred to the remains of the Honourable George 
Mackenzie, second son to the late Earl of Cromarty, Lieutenant-Colonel 
of his Majesty's 71st Regiment, Colonel of his Majesty's Army, Commander 
of the Forces on the Wallajabad Station, who departed this life the 4th 
of June 1787, aged 46 years. In tribute to his much esteemed memory 
and great worth the officers of the 71st Regiment (lamenting their gallant 
Commander) and his nephew and name son, George Mackenzie of the 
75th Regiment, who has fought and bled by his side, have caused this 
monument to be erected/ 



MACKENZIE, EARL OF CROMARTIE 81 

5. Mary, married, first, at London, 23 June 1750, to 

Captain Clark, and had issue : 
(1) Jabez, a captain in the service of the East India Company. 

Secondly, August 1757, to Thomas Drayton, one of 
His Majesty's Council for South Carolina, and had 
issue : 
(1) Thomas. 

Thirdly, at Charlestown, 17 June 1762, to John 
Ainslie ; and, fourthly, to Middleton. 1 

6. Anne, married, first, to the Hon. Edmond Atkin, Super- 

intendent of Indian affairs in the southern district of 
America, and president of the Council of South 
Carolina, who died 8 October 1761 ; secondly, at 
Charlestown, 16 February 1764, to John Murray, 
M.D., 2 died at Oharlestown, 18 January 1768. 3 

7. Caroline, born 6 .May 1746, died at Crailing 3 Oc- 

tober 1791. Married, first, at London, 5 September 
1760, to Captain Drake s. p. ; secondly, to Walter 
Hunter of Polmood and Crailing (who died 15 January 
1796), and had issue : 

(1) Elizabeth, married to James, fourteenth Lord Forbes. 

(2) Caroline, born 31 May 1777, married, 1 September 1799, to 

James Elliot, younger of Woollie, W.S., and died 25 April 
1824. 

8. Jane. 

9. Margaret, died at Glasgow 29 March 1773. Married, 

21 March 1769, to John Glassf ord of Dougalstoun, Dum- 
bartonshire, merchant in Glasgow, and had issue : 

(1) James, advocate 3 December 1793, Sheriff-depute of Dum- 

bartonshire 1805, died 28 July 1845. 

(2) Isabella.* 

(3) Euphemia. 

10. Augusta, 5 married, 6 March 1770, to Sir William 
Murray of Ochtertyre, Baronet, and had issue : 

(1) Sir Patrick Murray, sometime M.P. for Edinburgh. 

1 Douglas, and Fraser in his pedigree, only give three marriages, but 
in the destination clause of the entail of the Cromartie estates executed 

by Lord Macleod 3 May 1786, Lady Mary is designed as 'relict of 

Middleton, Esquire.' The same deed is the authority for the names of her 
children. 2 Scots Mag. 3 Intimation of her death, Earls of Cromartie, 
ii. 256. 4 Cromartie Entail, 3 May 1786. 6 Lady Augusta, whose birth 
took place immediately after her father's forfeiture, was said to have 
been born with the mark of an axe and three drops of blood upon her 
neck. 

VOL. III. F 



82 MACKENZIE, EARL OF OROMARTIE 

JOHN, Lord MACLEOD, was born in 1727. Along with 
his father, the third Earl, he took part in the rising of 1745, 
was taken prisoner, and pleaded guilty to a charge of high 
treason 20 December 1746. He was pardoned 22 January 
1748 on condition that within six months of attaining his 
majority he should convey to the Grown all his rights in 
the estates of the Earls of Cromartie, which he accordingly 
did. He went abroad in 1749 and entered the Swedish 
service. He had an introduction to the Swedish Court 
from Marshal Keith, and the cost of his equipment was paid 
by the Chevalier de St. George, on the recommendation of 
Lord George Murray. In 1757 he went through the first 
campaign of the Seven Years' War as a volunteer with the 
Prussians, and was present at the battle and siege of 
Prague. He rose high in the Swedish service, received 
the Order of the North Star, became a colonel aide-de- 
camp to the King, and was created COUNT CROMARTY 
and Commander of the Order of the Sword in Sweden. 
He returned to England in 1777, and through the good 
offices of his cousin, Henry Dundas, an offer by him 
to raise a Highland regiment was accepted, and he re- 
ceived a commission as colonel, dated 19 December 1777. 
He raised two battalions of Highlanders, which became the 
73rd Foot (afterwards numbered 71st, now 1st Battalion 
Highland Light Infantry). He went to India in command 
of the first battalion in 1779, and took part in the operations 
against Hyder Ali. He came home in 1781, and in 1783 
became a major-general on the British establishment. 
In 1780 he was elected M.P. for Ross-shire. The family 
estates were restored to him by Act of Parliament 18 
August 1784, on payment of 19,000 of debt affecting the 
property. He died at Edinburgh on 2 April 1789. 

Lord Macleod left narratives of his experiences in the 
'45, and in the Bohemian campaign of 1757, both of which 
are printed. 1 

He married, 4 June 1786, Margery, eldest daughter of 
the sixteenth Lord Forbes, without issue. She married, 
secondly, 11 March 1794, John, fourth Duke of Atholl, and 
died in 1842. 

On 3 May 1786 Lord Macleod executed an entail of the 

1 Earls of Cromartie, ii. 379411. 



MACKENZIE, EARL OP CROMARTIE 83 

Cromartie-Mackenzie estates, in virtue of which entail he 
was succeeded by his cousin, 

KENNETH MACKENZIE of Oromartie. He was the only 
son of Captain Roderick Mackenzie, brother of George, 
third Earl of Cromartie. 1 He died in Orchard Street, Mid- 
dlesex, 4 November 1796. He married, probably as Ms 
second wife, 30 April 1792, Jane, youngest daughter of 
Charles Petley of Riverhead in Kent, without male issue ; 
his daughter, Mary Ann, was served heir to him 6 June 
1597. His widow married, secondly, 22 December 1801, 
Donald Macleod of Geanies, advocate. Kenneth was suc- 
ceeded under the entail by his cousin, 

Lady ISABELLA MACKENZIE, Dowager Lady Elibank, 
eldest daughter of the third Earl, and sister of Lord Mac- 
leod. She was born 30 March 1725, and died 28 December 
1801. She married, a Ballincrieff, in January 1760, George, 
sixth Lord Elibank, and had issue : 

1. MARIA, who succeeded her. 

2. Isabella. 

The Hon. MARIA MURRAY HAY-MACKENZIE, the elder 
daughter, married, 3 May 1790, Edward Hay of Newhall, 
brother of George, seventh Marquess of Tweeddale. In 
terms of Lord Macleod's entail Mr. Hay assumed the addi- 
tional surname of Mackenzie. He died 5 December 1814. 
Mrs. Hay-Mackenzie died at No. 10 Royal Circus, Edin- 
burgh, 8 October 1858, having had issue : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded her. 

2. Dorothea, died 22 May 1820. Married, 2 July 1813, 

Sir David Hunter Blair, and had issue. 

3. Isabella, married, 1 November 1817, John Buckle of 

Wharton House, Edinburgh, and had issue. 

4. Georgina, married, 4 August 1821, James, Earl of Glas- 

gow, without issue, and died 11 March 1869. 

JOHN HAY-MACKENZIE, the eldest son, had the fee of 
the Cromartie estates conveyed to him by his mother in 
1822 and 1828. He married, 23 April 1828, Anne, third 

1 G. E. C. Complete Peerage, ii. 428 n. 



Si MACKENZIE, EARL OP OROMARTIE 

daughter of Sir James Gibson-Craig of Riccarton, Baronet. 
He died at Cliefden 9 July 1849, being survived by his wife, 
who died at Castle Leod 8 September 1869. He was suc- 
ceeded by his only child, 

I. ANNE HAY-MACKENZIE, who was born 21 April 1829. 
She married, 27 June 1849, George Granville William, 
Marquess of Stafford, who on 28 February 1861 succeeded 
his father as third Duke of Sutherland, and who died 22 
September 1892. On 21 October 1861 she was created 
BARONESS MACLEOD OF CASTLE LEOD, co. Oro- 
martie, BARONESS CASTLEHAVEN OF CASTLE- 
HAVEN, co. Cromartie, VISCOUNTESS TARBAT OF 
TARBAT, co. Cromartie, and COUNTESS OF CRO- 
MARTIE, for her life, with remainder of the said dignities 
to Francis Sutherland Leveson-Gower, her second sur- 
viving son and the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, to 
each other of her younger sons in like manner, in priority 
of birth, whom failing, to the said Francis and the heirs of 
his body, whom failing, to each other her younger sons in 
like manner, in priority of birth, whom failing, to her 
daughter, Florence Sutherland Leveson-Gower and the 
heirs of her body, whom failing, to each other of her 
daughters, in priority of birth ; ' provided that if the said 
Francis Sutherland Leveson-Gower or any other person 
taking under the said letters-patent shall succeed to the 
earldom of Sutherland, and there shall upon or at any time 
after the occurrence of such event be any other younger 
son or any other daughter of the said Anne, Duchess of 
Sutherland, or any heir of the body of such other son or 
daughter, then and so often as the same may happen, the 
succession to the honours and dignities thereby created 
shall devolve on the son or daughter of the said Anne, or 
their heirs, who would be next entitled to succeed to the 
said honours if the person so succeeding to the earldom of 
Sutherland were dead without issue.' 

The Duchess was Mistress of the Robes 1870-74, and 
V.A. third class. She died at Sutherland Tower, Torquay, 
25 November 1888, leaving issue (see title Sutherland) : 

1. George Granville, Earl Gower, born 27 July 1850 ; died 
SJuly 1858. 4 ? 



MACKENZIE, EARL OP CROMARTIE 85 

2. Cromartie, born 20 July 1851, in 1892 succeeded his 

father as fourth Duke of Sutherland ; married, 20 
October 1884, Millicent Fanny St. Glair Erskine, 
daughter of the fourth Earl of Rosslyn, and has 
issue. (See title SUTHERLAND.) 

3. FRANCIS, who succeeded to the earldom of Cromartie. 

4. Florence, born 17 April 1855, married, 15 November 

1876, Henry Chaplin, M.P., died 10 October 1881, 
leaving issue. 

5. Alexandra, born 13 April 1866, died unmarried 16 April 

1891. 



II. FRANCIS, second Earl of Cromartie, the second sur- 
viving son, succeeded under the special remainder in his 
mother's patent. He was born at Tarbat House 3 August 
1852; was vice-lieutenant for Ross and Cromartie and 
D.L. for Sutherland; major second Volunteer Battalion 
Seaforth Highlanders; died 24 November 1893. He mar- 
ried, 2 August 1876, Lilian Janet, daughter of the fourth 
Lord Macdonald (she was born 21 January 1856, and married, 
secondly, 7 October 1895, Reginald F. Cazenove, formerly 
of the 6th Dragoon Guards), and had issue : 

1. SIBELL LILIAN, the present Countess. 

2. Constance, born 1882. Married, 19 April 1904, Sir 

Edward Austin Stewart-Richardson, Bart., of Pit- 
four, and has issue a son, Ian Roy Hay. 

III. The Hon. SIBELL LILIAN MACKENZIE was born on 
14 August 1878. The abeyance of her father's peerage was 
terminated in her favour by letters-patent 25 February 
1895, when she became suo jure Countess of Cromartie, 
Viscountess Tarbat, Baroness Macleod of Castle Leod, and 
Baroness Castlehaven. She married, 16 December 1899, 
Major Edward Walter Blunt, R.A., sometime A.D.O. to 
H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught (born 19 May 1860, eldest 
son of Major-General Charles Harris Blunt, C.B., of Adder- 
bury Manor, Oxfordshire, assumed the surname of Mac- 
kenzie 6 January 1905), and has had issue : 

1. Roderick Grant, Viscount Tarbat, born 24 October 
1904. 



86 MACKENZIE, EARL OF CROMARTIE 

2. Janet Frances Isabel, born 24 November, died 19 
December 1900. 

CREATION. 21 October 1861. 

ARMS. Recorded in Lyon Register. Quarterly: 1st, a 
mountain azure in flames proper, for MacLeod of Leivis ; 
2nd, azure, a buck's head cabossed or, for Mackenzie ; 3rd, 
gules, three legs of a man armed proper, conjoined in the 
centre at the upper part of the thigh, flexed in triangle, 
garnished and spurred or, for the Isle of Man ; 4th, argent, 
on a pale sable an imperial crown proper within a double 
tressure flory counterflory gules, for Erskine of Innertiell. 

CREST. The sun in his splendour. 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, a wild man wreathed about the 
loins with oak, holding a club resting on the exterior 
shoulder proper; sinister, a greyhound argent, collared 
gules. 

MOTTO. Luceo non uro. 

[W. K. D.] 



RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 




F southern origin, the first 
of the name of Ramsay 
who appears on record 
in Scotland is Simon de 
Ramsay, who witnesses 
a charter of Turstan, the 
son of Levingus, granting 
to the monks of Holy- 
rood l the church of Liv- 
ingston, dated before 
1178, and he also wit- 
nessed a charter where- 
by William de Moreville, 
Constable of Scotland, 
between 1189 and 1196, 
confirmed the lands of 
Gillemmorestun, co. 

Peebles, to Edulph, the son of Uthred (from whom they 

took the name of Eddleston). 2 

WILLIAM DE RAMSAY witnessed, in 1196, a charter by 
William the Lion to the Church of Coldingham ; 3 and 
another by that King of a carucate of lands in Kinnaird, 
co. Stirling, to the Abbey of Holyrood House/ As Hugh, 
the Chancellor, is one of the witnesses, the charter must 
have been granted between 1189 and 1199. 

SIR NESSUS DE RAMSAY appended his seal to a charter 
by King Alexander n. to the Abbey of Dunfermline on 10 
September 1217, 5 and he is frequently met with as a witness, 
appearing as such to a judgment in a case between the 

1 Chart. Holyrood, 16. 2 Reg. Glasguense, i. 40; Orig. Parochiales, i. 
212. 3 North Durham, Appendix No. 52. 4 Chart. Holyrood, 34. 6 Reg. 
de Dunfermline, 42. 



88 RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 

Abbeys of Culross and Dunfermline, referred to the Bishop 
of Dunblane and others at Easter 1227. l He also witnessed a 
charter of Duncan, son of Gilbert of Lauder, of the Church 
of Kirkbrie to the monks of North Berwick between 1204 
and 1228. 2 In this charter are mentioned as witnesses two 
sons of Nessus : 

1. Mr. Peter or Patrick de Ramsay, whose name is 

found as a witness to the charter of 1217 already 
cited, and to another deed also relating to Dunferm- 
line in the time of William the Abbot, who died 1238, 3 
and to which his father also appended his seal. He 
ultimately was appointed Bishop of Aberdeen in 
1247, a dispensation being granted on the ground 
of his illegitimacy, he being 4 the son of a clerk.' 4 He 
died 1256. 

2. William, afterwards Prior of St. Serf's, 25 August 

1232. 5 

NICHOLAS DE RAMSAY, perhaps a brother of Nessus, is 
a witness to a charter by John de Kocbrun to the monks 
of Lindores circa 1250-1270. 6 

WILLIAM DE RAMSAY, perhaps a brother of Nessus and 
Nicholas, is the first to appear under the designation * de 
Dalwolsy.' He witnessed a charter of David de Lysurs to 
the Abbey of Newbattle during the incumbency of Abbot 
Oonstantine 1233-36. 7 He was one of the Council of the 
Magnates of the realm 20 September 1255. 8 

WILLIAM RAMSAY DE DALWOLSY, probably the son of the 
foregoing, signed the Ragman Roll 28 August 1296 at Ber- 
wick, and on 24 May 1297 King Edward I. writes to him 
that his commands will be intimated to him by Cressingham 
the Treasurer. 8 He joined the party of Bruce, was one 
of his most devoted adherents, and among the Barons who 
signed the letter asserting the independence of Scotland, 
which Bruce sent to the Pope in 1320. 

SIR EDMOND DE RAMSAY, either brother or son of the 

1 Reg. de Dunfermline, 126. 2 Cart. Mon. de Northberwic, 31. 3 Ibid., 
140 ; Chron. de Mailros. 4 Col. of Papal Registers, Letters, i. 232. 
6 Chron. de Mailros. 6 Chart, of Lindores, 186. \JRcg. de Newbotle, 28. 
8 Cal. of Docs., i. 2015. 9 Ibid., ii. 884. 



RAMSAY, EARL OP DALHOUSIE 89 

foregoing, was also one of Bruce's knights: he joined his 
leader in 1309-10, and an inquisition as to the value of his 
forfeited lands of Cockpen was held 20 February 1311-12. 
They were given in the following March to Robert Hasting, 1 
but were recovered by the Ramsays after the War of Inde- 
pendence, to be again forfeited by Edward in., in the 
person of Malcolm Ramsay. 2 

ALEXANDER DE RAMSAY of Dalwolsy was one of the most 
distinguished knights in the reign of David II., and his 
exploits have formed the subject of song and story. He 
was at the battle of Borough Muir, where Guy, Comte de 
Namur, in the English service, was defeated by Randolph, 
Earl of Moray. He and 4 William the Ramsay,' perhaps a 
brother, were both at a tournament at Berwick in 1338. 3 
In the same year he successfully compelled the English to 
raise the siege of Dunbar, which had lasted for many weeks. 
He is said to have inhabited the caves at Hawthornden 
with a large following, and to have been an active partici- 
pant in raiding the English territories. In 1338 he captured 
the Castle of Roxburgh, and for this brilliant exploit the 
King conferred on him the office of Sheriff of Teviotdale, 
besides a gift of the castle itself. 4 But this led to the 
downfall of the popular and favourite knight. Sir William 
Douglas, * the Knight of Liddesdale,' had previously held 
the sheriffship, of which he had been deprived in order that 
it might be bestowed on Ramsay. He forcibly seized, in 
1342, the latter while holding a Court at Hawick, and 
unsuspicious of his hostile intentions: Ramsay was shut 
up in a dungeon in Hermitage Castle, where it is said he 
perished of hunger. He certainly died there, but it is not 
known by what means his death was compassed. Wyntoun 
says nothing about his being starved ; he only remarks, 4 of 
his dede wes gret pete. To tell you thare-off the manere, 
it is bot sorow for to tell here.' 5 

SIR PATRICK RAMSAY of Dalhousie, nephew of the fore- 
going, made a donation to the Abbey of Newbattle for the 
welfare of his own soul and that of Margaret, his wife, 

1 Cal. of Docs., iii. 245-258. 2 Ibid., 334. 3 Wyntoun, Bk. viii. c. 35. 
4 Ibid., c. 39. 6 Ibid. 



90 RAMSAY, EARL OP DALHOUSIE 

before 1353, when William Douglas, Knight of Liddesdale. 
one of the witnesses, died. He was put in possession of 
the lands of Dalhousie, Keringtoun, and others by his 
father, 1 in whose lifetime he resigned them in favour of 
his own son, Alexander, and the heirs of his body, whom 
failing, to James, his second son, and the heirs of his 
body, upon which resignation Alexander obtained a charter 
from David n., 15 June 1357. At Martinmas 1357, Sir 
Patrick granted to the Abbey of Newbattle the patronage 
of the Church of Oockpen for the souls of the King, his 
own father, mother, his wife Margaret, and his uncle 
Alexander. 2 Sir Patrick is said to have held part of the 
lands of Easter Spot, granted by the Earl of March to 
Alexander de Ryklynton, by a charter confirmed 18 April 
1364. 3 There is another confirmation of a charter by Sir 
Patrick, designed of Keryntoun, of the lands of Mamyl- 
croft, to John, the son of Matthew, 20 August 1369. 4 He 
is said to have died in 1377, leaving : 

1. ALEXANDER. 

2. James, mentioned in his father's resignation. 

ALEXANDER, the eldest son, is designed of Carnock in the 
above resignation. He died vita patris, leaving at least 
one son, 

ALEXANDER. Under the description of 4 dominus de Dal- 
housy,' he granted to the Abbey of Newbattle in 1366-67, 
when his grandfather was apparently alive, but had 
denuded himself of the estate, the Blindhalch on the 
north of the Southesk, for his soul, and that of his wife 
Catherine, and that of his father Alexander, 'whose body 
is buried in Newbattle Church.' The grant is witnessed, 
inter olios, by 'Ricardus Brun, my brother.' 5 He took 
part in that invasion of England which ended in the battle 
of Otterburn 1388; and was slain at Homildon Hill, 14 
September 1402, when he had attained the rank of knight- 
hood. 6 He was apparently succeeded by 

1 Dalhousie Charters. 2 Newbattle Charters. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., foL 
vol. 35 (91). * Ibid., 64 (207). 5 Reg. de Newbotle, 234. 6 Tenth Rep. 
Hist. MSS. Com., App. vi. 77. Sir William Ramsay of Dalwolsy had an 
annuity of 40 in 1364 (Exch. Rolls, ii. 120), and he had a royal charter to 
himself and his wife Agnes of the lands of Nether Liberton, 24 October 
1369 (Reg. Mag. Big., fol. vol. 70). 



RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIB 91 

ROBERT DE RAMSAY, Lord of Dalhousie, so designed as a 
witness to charters by the Earl of Douglas in 1414, 1416, 
and 1417. 1 

SIR ALEXANDER RAMSAY of Dalhousie witnessed a charter 
by Archibald, fourth Earl of Douglas, on 12 March 1420-21. 
He obtained a safe - conduct, on 3 February 1423-24, to 
extend to the last day of April, to come to meet James i. 
at Durham, on his return from captivity. 2 He was one of 
the leaders at the battle of Piperdean, 1435 ; had a pension 
from the Customs of Edinbugh, 1444-49, 3 and was an Auditor 
of Exchequer in 1450. 4 He gave a charter, 17 July 1446, of 
the lands of Orookston, to John Borthwick, to which Alex- 
ander, his eldest son, was witness, on the resignation of 
Robert Ramsay of Inverleith. 5 On 2 April 1456, he had a 
charter of the lands of Dalwolsy and Keringtoun, co. Edin- 
burgh, and Foulden, cp. Berwick, to himself and Alexander, 
his grandson, and the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, 
to Robert Ramsay, his second son, whom failing, to George, 
his third son, whom failing, to William, his fourth son, 
whom failing, to his own heirs-male of the body, whom 
failing, to his heirs whatsoever, reserving the terce to his 
wife, Margaret. 6 This charter was confirmed by James HI., 
20 March 1473-74. 7 He died between 6 August 1459 and 
19 March 1464-65. 8 He appears to have had two wives, 
Christian, named in a writ of 1513, cited below, who was 
probably alive in 1446, and Margaret, referred to above. 
He had issue : 

1. ALEXANDER. 

2. Robert of Swynisdene, ancestor of the Ramsays of 

Whitehill. 9 

3. Mr. David, Parson of Foulden. 10 

4. George, who had a charter from David de Valance, to 

himself and Christina, daughter of the said David, of 
the lands of Halhouse and Likbernard, co. Edinburgh, 
6 August 1459, confirmed 10 January 1459-60. 11 

5. William. 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 January 1426-27, 24 May 1429, 8 December 1440. 2 Cal. 
of Docs. t iv. 942. 3 Exch. Rolls, v. 147 et seq. 4 J7>id.,369. 6 Reg. May. Sig. 
6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. ; in the Record MS. he is styled quondam, but that does 
not appear in the printed register. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig. 9 Cf. Ibid., 24 March 
1494-95, 28 March 1503, and 22 April 1545. 10 Ibid. , 24 March 1494-95 n Ibid. 



92 RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 

ALEXANDER, the eldest son, died vita patris. An account 
of his as Sheriff of Edinburgh was rendered in 1456, by 
which time he was dead. 1 He had issue 

ALEXANDER of Dalhousie, who succeeded his grandfather 
before 19 March 1464-65, when Isabella, widow of George, 
fourth Earl of Angus, had a grant of his marriage for the pur- 
pose of marrying him to one of three of her daughters, whom 
failing, any of her other daughters. 2 He had a confirmation 
of the grants of the lands of Dalwolsy and Foulden, in 
1473, and another on 20 March 1473-74. He sat in Parlia- 
ment, 1471, 1478, 1479, 1480, 3 under the style of Dominus 
de Dalwolsy. He granted a charter, on 18 May 1481, to 
his cousin Robert Ramsay of Edmerisden, of the lands of 
Oockpen, on the resignation of the said Robert. 4 He died 
before 16 March 1482-83, as in an indenture between James 
in. and the Earl of Angus the latter is ordered to give up 
the ward and marriage of the heir of Dalhousie, pertaining 
to the King, by the death of the late Sir Alexander Ramsay 
of Dalhousie. 5 He married Elizabeth Douglas, daughter of 
George, fourth Earl of Angus, 6 and had issue : 

1. ALEXANDER. 

2. Elizabeth. 1 

ALEXANDER RAMSAY of Dalhousie, who succeeded before 16 
March 1482-83. He witnessed a charter of Elizabeth Men- 
teith, domina de Rusky, 28 June (confirmed 30 June) 1494. 8 
On 6 August 1505 he sold the East Mains of Dalhousie to 
David Melville, burgess of Edinburgh, and Elizabeth Ward- 
law, his wife (confirmed 29 August 1505). 9 He married 
Nicolas, daughter and heir of George Ker of Samuelston, 
and relict of Alexander, second Lord Home, 10 probably in 
1508 or 1509, as he grants her the lands of Kerington in 
liferent by a charter of 12 February 1508-9 (confirmed 15 
February 1508-9). 11 On 1 August 1513 he granted a charter 
of novodamus to William Borthwick of Crookston, of the 
lands of Crookston (confirmed 2 August 1513). 12 On the 

1 Exch. Rolls, vi. 142. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 102, 
121, 124, 134. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig., 21 March 1494-95. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., 
xii. 31-33. 6 Acta Dom. And., *149. 7 Protocol Book of James 
Young, Edin. City Chambers, 29 June 1494. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig. 9 Ibid. 
10 Douglas gives her as the second wife of the last Alexander. n Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 12 Ibid. 



RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 93 

same day he sold to William Borthwick the right of rever- 
sion of these lands, granted by the late John of Leyis of 
Bothans, Margaret, his wife, and John Borthwick, to the 
late Sir Alexander Ramsay, lord of Dalwolsy, and Christian, 
his spouse. 1 This was among the last public acts of this 
laird, who fell at Flodden 9 September 1513. By his wife 
he had issue : 

1. NICOLAS. 

2. George, said to have been killed by his brother. 

3. Margaret. 

NICOLAS DE RAMSAY had sasine of the lands of Dalwolsy, 
14 January 1513-14, of the greater half of the lands of Car- 
nock, co. Fife, 27 February 1513-14, 2 of the lands of Foulden 
6 May 1517. 3 He is found on an assize 27 July 1534 (charter 
of 31 July 1534), 4 and 7 March 1546-47 (charter of 18 March 
1546-47). 5 He had a commission of Justiciary in Dalwolsy, 
Keringtoun, and Foulden, 2 May 1542, 6 and died before 
9 May 1555, when his son was laird. 7 He married, first, 
Isabella, second daughter of Robert Livingston of Drumry, 
and widow of John Ramsay, Lord Bothwell. 8 He married, 
secondly, on or about 5 November 1552, Christian, daughter 
of Ninian, Lord Ross of Hawkhead, some time wife to 
John Mure of Caldwell. Ramsay bound himself to invest 
1000 on land for her behoof. 9 He had issue : 

1. GEORGE. 

2. James, who got a charter, 26 January 1550-51 (con- 

firmed 8 November 1551), 10 from David Edington of 
the lands of Clary bald, in the lordship of Hutoun, co. 
Berwick. 

3. William, who, as son of Nicholas Ramsay of Dalhousie, 

made a complaint, on 17 January 1552-53, to the Abbot 
of Glenluce, as visitor of the Cistercian Order, on 
behalf of his father and other gentlemen of the 
Lothians against John Harvy, a monk of Newbattle, 

1 Protocol Book, James Young, at date. 2 Exch. Rolls, xiv. 534, 538. 
3 Ibid., 592. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig. 5 Ibid. 6 Douglas. 7 Exch. Rolls, xviii. 
584. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 May 1528; Macfarlane's Gen. Coll., i. 26; vol. 
ii. of this work, 134. 9 Protocol Book of Thomas Stevin, Haddington, 
Proceedings Soc. Antiquaries, ii. 411, 412, 415, 420: Christian Ross is 
variously styled 'filia naturalis,' 'douchter carnalie,' and 'filia legitima.' 
10 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



94 RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 

that the latter had at Pinkie Oleuch, on 10 September 
1547, slain two brothers of the complainer. 1 

4. Cuthbert, admitted burgess of Edinburgh, 15 November 

1560. As ' brother-german of umquhill George Ramsay 
of Dalhusie,' he was, on 24 October 1581, admitted to 
the benefits of the Pacification of Perth. 2 He married, 
first, before 13 December 1549, Agnes Stewart, 
natural daughter of James, Earl of Buchan (see 
vol. ii. pp. 157, 267), secondly, Janet Fleming, relict 
of William Oraik. 3 He had a son Richard.* 

5. Alexander in Oarrington. 5 

6. Henry , who is named with his brothers George, James, 

and William in an action as to alleged spoliation of 
the lands of Clarybald, above referred to. 6 He died 
young, or was killed at Pinkie, as stated above. 

7. 8. Two sons, names unknown (unless one of them was 

Henry), who were killed at Pinkie. 
9, 10. Two daughters, married to William Borthwick and 

John Gibson, as stated below. 

Margaret, a natural daughter, was legitimated 23 
February 1583-84. She was the wife of John Nasmyth 
in Prestonpans. 7 

GEORGE RAMSAY had a charter, as son and heir of Nicolas 
Ramsay of Dalwolsy, of the lands and barony of Dalhousie, 
Kerintoun, and Foulden, 20 May 1528, 8 another of the 
dominical lands of Dalhousie to himself and his wife, 8 May 
1536, 9 another to them of two husband lands in Foulden, 14 
March 1533-34, 10 and a charter of novodamus of Dalhousie, 
6 October 1564. 11 He succeeded his father before 9 May 
1555, when he had a commission of Justiciary over his own 
lands. 12 On 24 March 1577 and 12 March 1578-79 he 
was charged before the Privy Council along with his son 
William, and William Borthwick of Collilaw, and John 
Gibson, both sisters' sons, with having committed serious 
outrages on the lands of Richard Abercromby of Polton, 
one of the bailies of Edinburgh. They had killed six horses, 
had deforced the messenger sent to summon them, killed 

1 Proceedings Soc. of Antiquaries, ii. 415, 420. 2 Ada Parl. Scot., iii. 
286. 3 Edin. Inhibitions, iv. 319. 4 Eec. Sec. Sig., xlix. f. 151. 6 Acts 
and Decreets, xv. f. 88. 6 Ibid., xx. f. 380. 7 Eec. Sec. Sig., 1. f. 77. 
8 Eeg. Mag. Sig. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. n Ibid. 12 Exch. Eolls, xviii. 584. 



RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 95 

one of the witnesses, and generally behaved most out- 
rageously. George Ramsay and his two sons William and 
James 4 appear and of Olatty ' had to find caution for their 
good behaviour, a very lenient sentence in the circum- 
stances. The other parties concerned did not appear, and 
were accordingly put to the horn. 1 In 1567 he joined the 
association to stand by King James vi., but on the escape 
of Queen Mary from Lochleven he attached himself to her 
party, and entered into the bond to support her cause at 
Hamilton, 8 May 1568. He died 2 December 1580 (testa- 
ment confirmed 26 June 1581). 2 He married Elizabeth 
Hepburn, a daughter of the Laird of Waughton. She died 
December 1571 (testament confirmed 25 May 1576). 3 By 
her he had : 

1. JOHN. 

2. James, who had, on 24 December 1569, a charter from 

George Ramsay, the Vicar of Cockpen, of the church 
lands of Cockpen (confirmed 26 May 1580). 4 This is 
also granted by Mark Ker, Abbot of Newbattle, and 
was apparently intended as solatium for the killing 
of the two brothers Ramsay at Pinkie, as stated 
above. He died November 1580, having married, 
contract 5 April 1570, Elizabeth, eldest daughter and 
heir of David Ramsay of Clatto. 5 By her he had : 

(1) GEORGE, who succeeded to Dalhousie. 

(2) David, mentioned in his father's will. 

(3) John, named as one of an assize, in a charter of 29 September 

1608. He was not, as most authorities state, the John 
Ramsay, Viscount Haddington, mentioned below. 

(4) Elizabeth. It is probably she who was married, contract 

30 November 1591, to Thomas Edingtoun of that Ilk, co. 
Berwick. 6 

(5) Helen. 

3. Alexander, who got from his father the lands of 

Edglaw, in the barony of Kerintoun, 1560. 7 

4. William, designed * filius domini de Dalwolsy ' in a 

gift of the escheat of John of Carkettill 1570. 8 He 
was a burgess of Edinburgh, married Janet Wycht, 
and had a son William. 9 

1 P. C. Reg., iii. 109-112. 2 Edin. Tests. 3 Ibid. 4 Reg. Mag. 
Siy. 5 Ibid., 13 June 1592. 6 Ibid., 23 March 1603. 7 Dalhousie 
Charters. 8 Ibid. 9 Reg. of Deeds, xiv. f. 419 ; li., 26 November 1595. 
A John Ramsay, who became the ancestor of the Ramsays of Sweden, 



96 RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 

5. Margaret, married to Sir John Cranstoun of Crans- 

toun. 

6. Agnes, married to Andrew Riddell of Riddell. 1 

7. Elizabeth, married to Patrick Broun of Colstoun, 

contract dated 10 May 1574 ; 2 tocher 3000 merks. 

8. Helen, married to James Ramsay of Oockpen. She 

survived him, and died before 5 May 1598. 3 

9. Marion, married, first, to James Weir, younger of 

Blackwood; secondly, before 1598, to William Ban- 
natyne of Oorehouse. She was, along with her 
brother George, a party to the marriage-contract of 
her son George with Margaret, daughter of William 
Weir of Stonebyres, 13 January 1594-95. 4 
10. Jean, married to John Kincaid of Warriston, contract 
28 January 1571-72 ; tocher 1600 merks. She is not 
named in her father's testament, but she is referred 
to as a sister-german of John Ramsay. 5 

JOHN RAMSAY of Dalhousie was served heir to his father 
15 March 1580-81. 6 He had a charter of novodamus of 
the baronies of Dalhousie, Kerintoun, and Foulden 22 
October 1589. 7 He died between 30 November 1591, when 
he was a party to a contract with Thomas Edington of 
that Ilk respecting the marriage of the latter with his niece 
Elizabeth, 8 and 12 April 1592, when his widow complained 
to the Council of her cows being carried off by Borthwick 
of Oollilaw and others. 9 He married, contract dated 5 
October 1574, 10 Marion, eldest surviving daughter of Sir 
John Bellenden of Auchnoull, Lord Justice-Clerk, who 
survived him and married Patrick Murray of Falahill, 11 

Finland, and Russia, and who died in 1657 in his hundredth year, is 
claimed as the son of George Ramsay. Sir James Ramsay, the famous 
' Black Ramsay,' who defended Hanau, is said to have been his son, but 
erroneously so, as Sir James was almost certainly of the Wyliecleuch 
family, and a kinsman of John Ramsay, Earl of Holdernesse. There is 
no evidence that George Ramsay had a second son John, and it is not 
improbable that John Ramsay of Sweden was of the Wyliecleuch 
Ramsays, unless he was a son of Nicholas by his second wife. But the 
year of his birth is variously stated. l Reg. of Deeds, xx. (1) f. 164. 
2 Ibid., xiii. 253. 3 Ibid., Ixiv., 6 July 1598. 4 Ibid. ; Beg. Mag. Sig., 
10 June 1595. 6 Reg. of Deeds, Ixiv., 6 July 1598. 8 Edin. Retours, 8. 
7 Reg. Mag. Sig. 8 Ibid., 13 June 1592. P. C. Reg., iv. 69. 10 Reg. of 
Deeds, vii. 121. ll Calendar of Scottish Papers, ii. 88 ; Reg. of Deeds, 
Ixiv., 6 July 1598. 






RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIB 97 

but by her he had no issue. He was succeeded by his 
nephew, 

I. GEORGE RAMSAY, eldest son of his younger brother 
James. George Ramsay chose curators on 30 July 1591, when 
his nearest of kin were John Ramsay of Dalhousie, James 
Ramsay of Whitehill, James Ramsay of Cockpen, David 
Ramsay of Olatto, William Ramsay his brother, and Andrew 
Auchmoutie, burgess of Edinburgh. 1 He was, on 19 August 
1601, served heir to his great-great-grandfather Sir Alex- 
ander in the greater half of the lands of Oarnock, co. Fife. 2 
On 23 February 1593-94 he had a charter from Thomas 
Edington of the lands of Edington and others, co. Berwick, 
confirmed 2 March 1593-94. 3 On 22 September 1593 he 
granted the liferent of the dominical lands of Kerintoun 
and others to Margaret Douglas, only daughter of Sir George 
Douglas of Helenhill, a brother of the Earl of Morton, and 
his wife Janet Lindsay, in implement of a contract of mar- 
riage, and on 2 June 1595 he granted her the liferent of the 
north half of the lands of Olatto (confirmed 30 July 1612). 4 
He resigned his lands of Oarnock in favour of John, 
Lord Lindsay of the Byres, 16 March 1602. 5 He had 
a charter of the lands of Edington on his own resigna- 
tion, of Olatto on the resignation of his maternal grand- 
father David Ramsay, and of the kirklands of Kerin- 
toun on the resignation of Mark, Lord of Newbattle, 23 
March 1603. 6 He afterwards resigned Olatto in favour of 
Sir Alexander Gibson of Durie 12 December 1628. 7 On 
15 November 1614 he had a charter of the barony of 
Edington from Lady Anna Home, heir-portioner of George, 
Earl of Dunbar, the Treasurer of Scotland. 8 In July 1615 
he acquired the barony of Balledmonth for his second son 
John, 9 but afterwards resigned it in favour of Mr. John 
Young, Dean of Winchester. 10 

On 25 August 1618 Sir George, who had been knighted 
previous to 1603, had a royal charter of the barony of Dal- 
housie on his own resignation, and also of the barony of 
Melrose on the resignation of John, Viscount of Haddington, 11 

1 Acts and Decreets, cxxxii. 61. 2 Fife Eetours, 103. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
4 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 1 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid., 12 September 1615. 
10 Ibid., 16 June 1627. n This John Ramsay was not, as is generally 
stated, the brother of Sir George, but was a son of Robert Ramsay of 

VOL. III. G 



98 RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 

together with the dignity of a Lord of Parliament under the 
style of LORD RAMSAY OP MELROSE. He did not hold 
either the barony of Melrose or the title long ; the former 
he resigned only a few weeks later in favour of Thomas 
Hamilton, Lord Binning, afterwards the first Earl of 
Haddington, reserving to himself the dominium of Melrose, 
and the barony of Dalhousie, which had been incorporated 
with the other. As to the title Sir George was dissatisfied 
with it apparently on the ground that it had no family 
associations for him, so on 5 January 1619 he had another 
charter by which the title was altered to the more appro- 
priate one of LORD RAMSAY OF DALHOUSIE. On 21 
January 1616 he had a charter from John, Archbishop of 
St. Andrews of the lands of Scotscraig and others, which 
he resigned in favour of John Buchanan and Margaret 
Hartsyde his wife, by charter dated 15 May and confirmed 
25 July 1622. 1 He died before 22 July 1629 ; testament con- 
firmed 22 December 1629. 2 By his wife Margaret Douglas, 
above mentioned, he had : - 

1. WILLIAM. 

2. John. As before stated the lands of Balledmonth had 

been acquired on his behalf, but the original intention 
had apparently been departed from, as they were sold 
in 1627, 3 and on 19 February 1628 he had a charter 
from his father of the lands of Edington in implement 
of the marriage-contract between him and Egidia 
Kellie, daughter of William Kellie, W.S., and Jean 
Balloun (confirmed 10 December 1631). 4 Her testa- 
ment as Geills Kello or Ramsay, Lady Idingtown, 
was confirmed 1 October 1692. 5 

3. James. 

4. David, named 27 July 1622. 6 

5. Janet, born 8 November 1608.' 

6. Margaret, married, on 16 December 1626, 8 to William 

Livingston of Kilsyth; she is styled quondam in 

Wyliecleuch. He was created, 11 June 1606, Viscount of Haddington ; on 
25 August 1615 he was created Lord Ramsay of Melrose, with remainder 
to his heirs-male and assigns ; this was the Peerage he now assigned to 
Sir George. He was ultimately created Baron Kingston-upon-Thames 
and Earl of Holdernesse in the Peerage of England. See title Hadding- 
ton. Fountainhall's Journal, Scot. Hist. Soc., 206. l Reg. Mag. Sig. 
2 Edin. Tests. 3 Laing Charters, 1997. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig. 5 Edin. Tests. 
6 Edin. Commissariot Decreets. 7 Edin. Reg. 8 Canongate Reg. 



RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 99 

the marriage settlement of her daughter 30 July 
1647. 1 

II. WILLIAM, second Lord Ramsay, had a Crown charter of 
the barony of Dalhousie on the resignation of his father 21 
July 1612, and one of the lands of Orawfordmure 2 Feb- 
ruary 1629. 2 On 27 June 1633 he was created EARL OF 
DALHOUSIE, LORD RAMSAY and OARRINGTON, with 
remainder to his heirs-male. 3 He and his son George had a 
charter of the West Mill of Kirkcaldy 9 May 1645, 4 and he 
had a grant of the sheriffship of Edinburgh 24 October 
1646, 5 of which he had a ratification in Parliament in 1661. 6 

In 1645 James Graham, the son of the great Marquess, 
who afterwards succeeded his father in the title, being 
imprisoned in the Castle of Edinburgh, petitioned Parlia- 
ment to be delivered therefrom on account of the 'pesti- 
lence* then raging; He was on that account transferred 
to the custody of the Earl of Dalhousie to be educated. 
Dalhousie was closely connected with the family a sister 
of his wife having married the Marquess. 7 While not 
appearing prominently in the annals of his time, he was 
a steady supporter of the Crown, and was fined 1500 by 
Cromwell, a sum afterwards reduced to 400. 8 He died 
November 1672 * a very old man/ 9 

He married, first, contract dated3 October 1617, Margaret, 
daughter of David, first Earl of Southesk, with a tocher of 
20,000 merks. She died in April 1661, 10 leaving issue as 
under. He married, secondly, Jocosa, a daughter of Sir 
Alan Apsley, Lieutenant of the Tower of London, widow of 
Lyster Blount, son of Sir Richard Blount of Mapledurham. 
She died 28 April 1663, and was buried in the Savoy. She 
had no issue by the Earl of Dalhousie. 11 

By his first wife the Earl had : 

1. GEORGE, second Earl. 

2. John. 

3. James. 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. Douglas gives a second wife to Lord Ramsay, called 
Margaret Ker, but she was the wife of George Ramsay of Wyliecleuch. 
2 Reg. Mag. Sig. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., vii. 347. 
7 Ibid., vii. pt. i. 465. 8 Ibid., vi. pt. ii. 846. 9 Fountainhall's Session 
Occurrents, Scot. Hist. Soc., 221. 10 Hist, of the Ca.rnegics, Earls of 
Southesk, i. 122. n Pennant's London, 127. 



100 RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 

4. Captain William, styled second son in 1679. 1 He had 

issue a son, Cornet William Ramsay. 2 

5. Anne, married, first (post-nuptial contract dated 

4 November 1644), to John Scrimgeour, Earl of 
Dundee ; he died without issue 23 June 1668, and 
she was married, secondly, to Sir Henry Bruce of 
Clackmannan. 3 

6. Marjory, married to James Erskine, Earl of Buchan]; 

secondly, to James Campbell, minister of Auchter- 
house, afterwards of Lundie, 4 at one time her 
chaplain. 

7. Magdalen, died unmarried. 

III. GEORGE, second Earl of Dalhousie. He was of age|in 
1643, as he concurs with his father in an assignation of that 
date. 5 He had a charter along with his father of the West 
Mill of Kirkcaldy 9 May 1645. 6 On 16 August 1647 he had 
a charter of part of the lands of Abbotshall, co. Fife, to 
himself and his wife, and of the barony of Dalhousie and 
other lands to himself, 7 and on 13 October 1664 a charter 
of the lands of Oarrington. 8 He died before 8 May 1674, 
when his son was served heir to him. 

He married, contract dated 10 December 1644, Anne, 
second daughter of John, second Earl of Wigtoun, and 
widow of Robert, seventh Lord Boyd, who had died 1640 ; 
by her, who died 20 April 1661 9 he had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, third Earl of Dalhousie. 

2. John, a captain in the Scots Dutch 1694. 10 He married 

a lady whose name is said to have been Sinclair, and 
had by her at least one son. 
WILLIAM, afterwards sixth Earl of Dalhousie. 

3. George Ramsay of Carriden. He also took service 

with the Dutch, like so many other young Scotsmen 
of the time. He joined the service in 1676, became 
sergeant-major 13 April 1685, lieutenant-colonel 10 
September 1689, and commanded Colonel Wauchop's 
regiment of Foot when it took part in the Scottish 

1 Eeg. Privy Seal, iii. 261. 2 P. C. E. Acta, 27 May 1690. 3 Lamont's 
Diary. 4 Gen. Reg. Inhibitions, 5 July 1666 ; Privy Council Deer eta, 3 
January 1684. 5 Eeg. Mag. Sig., 1 March 1643. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 
9 Lamont's Diary. 10 Scots Brigade in Holland, i. 512 ; ii. 19. 



RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 101 

campaign of 1689. He was present at the battle of 
Killiecrankie. He was a brigadier 1 January 1690, 
left the Dutch service and came over to England, 
where he was made colonel of the Scots Guards 
1 September. 1 In 1702 he was raised by Queen Anne 
to the rank of lieutenant-general, and made Com- 
mander-in-chief in Scotland. He is described as * a 
gentleman of a great deal of fire and very brave ; of 
a sanguine complexion, well shaped, a thorough 
soldier, and toward fifty years old.' He was buried 
in Cockpen Church 12 September 1705, having had 
by his wife, a Dutch lady of the name of Buckson, 
a daughter, 

Jean, who died shortly after her father. 2 

4. Robert, testament confirmed 23 January 1678. 3 

5. Jean, married first to George, tenth Lord Ross, who 

died 1682 ; and secondly, to Robert, second Viscount 
of Oxenfurd. 

6. Anne, married to James, fifth Earl of Home, without 

issue. 

7. Euphame, married, 11 September 1679, to John 

Hay, Esquire. 

IV. WILLIAM, third Earl, succeeded his father 1674 ; he 
was appointed captain of the militia of the county of 
Edinburgh 1678, a Privy Councillor 28 February 1682, and 
Sheriff of Edinburgh the same year, shortly after receiving 
which appointment he died. He married Mary Moore, 
second daughter of Henry, first Earl of Drogheda : after 
his death she was married, secondly, before 10 April 1683, 4 
to John, second Lord Bellenden, and thirdly, to Samuel 
Collins, M.D., and survived till 17 March 1725. By her 
he had issue : 

1. GEORGE, fourth Earl of Dalhousie. 

2. WILLIAM, fifth Earl. 

3. James, a colonel in the army, killed at the battle of 

Almanza in Spain. 

4. Elizabeth, born about 1679, married, 5 3 February 

1 Dalton's Army Lists, iii. 3. 2 Test, confirmed 24 July 1708, Edin. 
Tests. ; Services of Heirs. 3 Edin. Tests. 4 Fifteenth Rep. Hist. MSS. 
Com., App. viii. 5 Licence Fac. Off. 



102 RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 

1696-97, to Francis, second Lord Hawley, and died 
February 1712. 

V. GEORGE, fourth Earl, was under age at his father's 
death. The Earl of Perth, then Chancellor, exerted him- 
self, it is said, to get the lad sent to the Roman Catholic 
College at Douai, but without success. 1 The Earl is stated 
to have been killed by a Mr. Hamilton in Holland in 
1696, unmarried. 

VI. WILLIAM, fifth Earl, succeeded his brother. He took 
his seat in Parliament 24 October 1700. 2 Appointed Sheriff- 
Principal of Edinburgh 24 February 1703. He was a steady 
supporter of the Crown: he was colonel of the Scots 
Guards in the forces sent to the assistance of the Archduke 
Charles in his competition for the Crown of Spain, had the 
rank of a brigadier-general 1 January 1710, and died, un- 
married, in Spain in the following October. He left a will 
disposing of his honours and his estates to his sister, Baroness 
Hawley, but this was proved invalid, and she only got his 
personal property. On his death the succession opened to 
his first cousin once removed, 

VII. WILLIAM, sixth Earl of Dalhousie, son of Captain 
John Ramsay. Captain Ramsay was the second son of the 
second Earl. William, who now succeeded, was a colonel 
in the Army, and was served heir to his predecessor 9 
February 1711. He died at Dalkeith 8 December 1739 in 
the seventy-ninth year of his age, and was buried at Cock- 
pen. He married, first, Jean, daughter of George, Lord 
Ross, and Jean Ramsay, and, secondly, Janet Martin. 

By his first wife he had issue : 

1. GEORGE, Lord Ramsay. 

2. Charles Frederick, died at Birr, in Ireland, January 

1790, 3 4 at an advanced age,' s.p. 

3. Malcolm, died s.p. 

4. Anne, died, unmarried, at Edinburgh, 20 November 

1739. 

5. Jean, died, unmarried, at Dalhousie, 26 December 1769. 4 

1 Fountainhall's Memoirs. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., x. 196. 3 Scots Mag. 
4 Ibid. 






RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 103 

VIII. GEORGE, Lord Ramsay, died vita patris at Dal- 
housie 25 May 1739. 1 He married (contract 9 November 
and 16 November 1726) 2 Jean, second daughter of the Hon. 
Harry Maule of Kelly, brother of the fourth Earl of Pan- 
mure. She married, secondly, John Strother Kerr of Little- 
dean, and died at Fowberry, Northumberland, 27 April 
1769. 3 By her first husband she had, besides four other 
sons who died young : 

1. CHARLES, seventh Earl of Dalhousie. 

2. GEORGE, eighth Earl of Dalhousie. 

3. Malcolm, an officer in the Royal Scots Fusiliers from 

1761 to 1777, when he got a majority in the 83rd Foot. 
He became a lieutenant-colonel, and had the office of 
Deputy Adjutant-General in Scotland. He died un- 
married at Edinburgh 18 July 1783. 4 

IX. CHARLES, seveath Earl of Dalhousie, succeeded his 
grandfather 1739, was appointed captain in the 3rd Regi- 
ment of Foot Guards, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 
the Army, 22 December 1753, and died, unmarried, at Edin- 
burgh, 24 January 1764. 5 

X. GEORGE, eighth Earl of Dalhousie, became a member 
of the Faculty of Advocates 1757, and succeeded his brother 
in 1764. He was appointed, 25 February 1775, one of the 
Lords of Police, which he held till the suppression of that 
Board in 1782. He was Lord High Commissioner to the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland from 1777 to 
1782, and was elected a Representative Scottish Peer in 
1774, 1780, and 1784. On the death of his uncle William, 
Earl of Panmure, in 1782, the large estates of that family 
devolved on him, by will, in liferent, with remainder to his 
second son. He died at Abbeville, in France, 4 November 
1787. He married, at Edinburgh, 30 July 1767, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Andrew Glen of Longcroft, co. Linlithgow, 6 and 
by her, who died in St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh, 17 Feb- 
ruary 1807, aged sixty-eight, and was buried at Cockpen, 
had issue : 

1. GEORGE, ninth Earl of Dalhousie. 

1 Scots Mag. 2 Eeg. de Panmure, ii. 354. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 6 Burke 
says June ; test, confirmed 18 Feb. 1767 ; Edin. Com. Edin. Com. 



104 RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 

2. William, born 27 October 1771 ; succeeded to the Pan- 

mure property on his father's death; changed his 
name and arms to those of Maule ; was created Baron 
Panmure by patent of 10 September 1831 ; his eldest 
son Fox ultimately became eleventh Earl of Dal- 
housie. 

3. James, born 4 October 1772 ; was lieutenant 71st 

Foot 1789, captain 2nd Foot 1793, and a major 
in the same regiment 1797. He served in the West 
Indies, Ireland, Holland, and Egypt ; became a 
lieutenant-colonel in 1802, and commanded his regi- 
ment in Spain under Sir John Moore in 1808. He 
died, unmarried, 15 November 1837. 

4. John, born 21 April 1775 ; was a lieutenant in 

the 57th Foot in 1743; a captain, and afterwards 
major, in the Marquess of Huntly's Regiment ; 
accompanied the expedition to Holland in 1799, and 
was wounded there. He was also wounded in the 
Egyptian campaign of 1807. He went on half-pay in 
1804, and became Assistant Quartermaster-general 
in Scotland; and ultimately became a lieutenant- 
general, and second on the Indian Staff. He died 28 
June 1842, having married, 19 April 1800, Mary, 
daughter of Philip Delisle of Calcutta; she died 28 
October 1843, having had issue by her husband : 

(1) William Maule, born 20 May 1804, a major-general Bengal 

army ; died 13 December 1871. 

(2) GEORGE, twelfth Earl of Dalhousie. 

(3) James, born 3 October 1808 ; a major-general Bengal army ; 

married, 3 February 1840, Hariet Charlotte, daughter of 
W. H. Burl ton Bennet, B.C.S., and died 26 December 1868, 
leaving issue. 

'4) Andrew, born 7 September 1809. 

5) John, born 24 January 1811 ; a lieutenant-colonel H.E.I.C.S. ; 
married, 28 December 1852, Kate Sinclair, daughter of David 
Laing of Thurso, and died s.p. 23 August 1856 ; his widow 
died 18 April 1880. 

(6) David, born 14 July 1812. 

(7) Sir Henry, K.C.S.L, C.B., born 25 August 1816; general in 

the Bengal army ; married, 11 November 1850, Laura, 
daughter of Sir Henry Lushington, Bart., and died 16 
December 1893, leaving issue. 

(8) Robert Anderson, born 5 February 1820 ; a lieutenant-colonel 

in the Army ; died unmarried 5 November 1897. 

(9) Georyina, born 28 February 1803. 
(10) Elizabeth, born 11 September 1806. 



RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 105 

(11) Mary, born 13 January 1814. 

(12) Anne Finlay Anderson, born 9 February 1815 ; married, 15 

June 1848, Colonel David Ewart, Bengal Artillery. He died 
1880, and she died 13 May 1891. 

(13) Christian Dalhousie. 

(14) Maud, born 16 February 1824. 

5. Andrew, born 6 May 1776 ; married, 20 January 1800, 

Rachel, daughter of James Cook l of Rampore, 
Benares. He died 2 April 1848, leaving issue by his 
wife, who died 14 June 1856. 

6. Henry, in the naval service of the East India Com- 

pany. He died from the effects of an operation fol- 
lowing on a wound received in the hand in a duel 
with a brother officer, 24 July 1808. He was un- 
married. 

7. David, born 27 December 1782. A captain in the 

1st Foot; died of yellow fever in the East Indies, 
unmarried, 5 September 1801. 

8. Jane, born 20 May 1768, died at Dalhousie 11 Septem- 

ber following. 

9. Elizabeth, born 6 September 1769 ; married, 13 April 

1786, to Sir Thomas Moncrieffe, Bart., and died 13 June 
1848, leaving issue. 

10. Lueinda, died 15 June 1812. 

11. Georgina, born 1 February 1779 ; died 17 May 1794. 2 

12. Mary, born 21 June 1780 ; married, 29 April 1801, to 

James Hay of Drum, co. Edinburgh. He died 12 
October 1822 ; she died 1 April 1866. 

XI. GEORGE, ninth Earl of Dalhousie, born 23 October 
1770 ; entered the 3rd Dragoon Guards 1788 ; captain in the 
Royals 1791 ; major in the 2nd Foot 1792, and lieutenant- 
colonel 1794. He commanded this regiment in the West 
Indies 1795, in Ireland 1798, in Holland 1799, and in the 
Egyptian campaign of 1801. He attained the rank of 
major-general in 1809, and general in 1830. He com- 
manded the Seventh Division of the British Army in the 
Peninsular War, and was present at the battle of Waterloo. 
He was colonel of the 25th Regiment 1813; a Repre- 
sentative Peer of Scotland from 1796 to 1815. In the 
latter year he was raised from being a Knight of the Bath, 

1 Burke says Cock. 2 Scots Mag. 



106 RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 

which honour he had held from 1813, to a Grand Cross of 
the Order on the institution of that rank. In 1816 he was 
appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia ; and from 
1819 to 1828 he was Governor of Canada, Nova Scotia, and 
adjacent colonies. From 1829 to 1832 he was Commander- 
in-chief in India. In 1830 he was elected Captain-General 
of the Royal Company of Archers, the King's Bodyguard 
for Scotland, an office which he held till his death. He 
presented to the Company during his tenure of office a 
handsome Indian sword, the scabbard and hilt being richly 
studded with jewels. This is still competed for annually 
as a prize. 1 On 11 August 1815 he was created BARON 
DALHOUSIE OF DALHOUSIE CASTLE in the Peerage 
of the United Kingdom. He died 21 March 1838. 2 He 
married, 14 May 1805, Christian, daughter and heiress of 
Charles Broun of Coalstoun, and by her, who was born 28 
February 1786, and died 22 January 1839, he had issue : 

1. George, Lord Ramsay, born 3 August 1806 at Dal- 

housie ; was captain 76th Foot ; and died vita 
patris, unmarried, 25 October 1832. 

2. Charles, born 20 October 1807, died 8 July 1817. 

3. JAMES ANDREW, tenth Earl. 

XII. JAMES ANDREW, tenth Earl of Dalhousie, was born 
22 April 1812; educated at Harrow and Christ Church, 
Oxford. He unsuccessfully contested Edinburgh at the 
Parliamentary election ol 1835, but was elected for Had- 
dington in 1837. He did not retain his seat long, being 
removed to the Upper House on the death of his father in 
the following year. He was appointed Vice-President of 
the Board of Trade and a Privy Councillor 10 June 1843 ; 
President of the Board of Trade 5 February 1845 to 6 July 
1846. He also got the post of Captain of Deal Castle in 
March 1845, and that of Lord Clerk Register of Scot- 
land 12 December 1845. In 1847 he was offered the 
Governor-Generalship of India, and was sworn in to that 
office 12 January 1848, being then thirty-four years of age, 
the youngest man who ever held the appointment. His 
brilliant career as Governor-General cannot be entered on 
in detail. It was chiefly characterised by the annexation 

1 History of the Royal Company of Archers, 197. 2 See Scott's Journal^ 
ii. 93, for a fine tribute to his memory as an old schoolfellow. 



RAMSAY, EARL OP DALHOUSIE 107 

of the large territories of the Punjab, Lower Burmah, and 
Oudh, by the development of state-aided railways, the 
introduction of telegraphs, the reform of the postal system, 
and many other useful measures. The Earl was created a 
Knight of the Thistle 12 May 1848 ; and on 29 August 1849, 
he having received the thanks of Parliament, was created 
MARQUESS OP DALHOUSIE, of Dalhousie Castle and of 
the Punjab. He was made Constable of Dover Castle and 
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports 13 January 1853. He 
held the office of President of the Council of the Royal 
Company of Archers from 1848 to a few months before 
his death, and attained the rank of lieutenant-general in 
that body, of which he was a very popular and esteemed 
member. He returned home from India in May 1856, much 
broken in health by his long and continuous labours in the 
service of the State, and was immediately voted a pension 
of 5000 a year by the East India Company. The mutiny 
of the following year, for which, in some quarters, his 
administration was unjustly blamed, tended still further to 
aggravate his bad health, as he was unable to do what he 
might otherwise have done in helping the Government in 
their serious difficulty. He did not long survive, dying at 
Dalhousie 19 October 1860, when his honours of the United 
Kingdom became extinct. He married, 21 January 1836, 
Lady Susan Hay, eldest daughter of the eighth Marquess 
of Tweeddale. She died 4 May 1850, and had issue : 

1. Susan Georgiana, born 9 January 1837; married, 21 

November 1863, Hon. Robert Bourke, afterwards 
Lord Connemara, from whom she obtained a divorce, 
27 November 1890. She married, secondly, 10 
October 1894, Surgeon Lieutenant-Colonel William 
Hamilton Briggs, who afterwards assumed the name 
of Broun, and died 22 January 1898. 

2. Edith Christian, born 6 October 1839; married, 9 

August 1859, Sir James Fergusson of Kilkerran, Bart., 
and died 28 October 1871. 
He was succeeded by 

XIII. Fox MAULE, eleventh Earl of Dalhousie, and second 
Baron Panmure. He was the eldest son of William Ramsay, 
the immediate younger brother of George, ninth Earl, and 
who, as above mentioned, had been created Baron Pan- 



108 RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 

mure. He was born 22 April 1801 ; was educated at 
Charterhouse, and entered the Army, serving for twelve 
years in the 79th Highlanders. He sat in Parliament 
for the county of Perth 1835-37; for the Elgin Burghs 
1838-41 ; and for the county of Perth again 1841-47. He 
was Under-Secretary for the Home Department 1835-41 ; 
Vice-President of the Board of Trade June to September 
1841 ; Secretary of State for War 1846-52. After being 
President of the Board of Control for a few weeks in Feb- 
ruary 1852, he was again Secretary for War 1855-58. He 
was appointed a Privy Councillor in 1841 ; was elected 
Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow 1842; became 
Lord-Lieutenant of Forfarshire 1849; and Keeper of the 
Privy Seal of Scotland 1853. He was made a K.T. in 1853, 
and received the Grand Cross of the Bath (Civil Division) 
in 1855. He assumed the name of Ramsay after that of 
Maule in 1861. He married, 4 April 1831, Montagu, eldest 
daughter of George, second Lord Abercromby, who was 
born 25 May 1807, and died 11 November 1853. He died 
s.p. 6 July 1874, when the barony of Panmure became 
extinct, but his other titles devolved on 

XIV. GEORGE, twelfth Earl of Dalhousie, who was second 
but eldest surviving son of John Ramsay, fourth son of the 
eighth Earl. He was born 26 April 1805, and entered the 
Navy. He saw active service in the Baltic in 1855, was 
superintendent of Pembroke dockyard 1857-62, Commander- 
in-chief on the South American station 1866-69. In the 
last-mentioned year he became vice-admiral, and in 1875 
admiral. He was made O.B. in 1856, and on 12 June 1875 
was created BARON RAMSAY OF GLENMARK, in the 
county of Forfar, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. 
He died 10 July 1880, having married, 12 August 1845, 
Sarah Frances, only daughter of William Robertson of 
Logan House, and by her (who died 1 May 1904) had issue : 

1. JOHN WILLIAM, thirteenth Earl. 

2. George Spottiswood, lieutenant R.A., born 29 October 

1848, died 1873. 

3. Arthur Dalhousie, born 6 July 1854, died 5 December 

1857. 

4. Charles Maule, born 29 January 1859 ; was a lieutenant 



RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 109 

in the R.A., and sat in Parliament for the county of 
Forfar 1894-95, married, 28 May 1885, Martha Estelle, 
who died 18 July 1904, daughter of William R. 
Garrison of New York. 

XV. JOHN WILLIAM, thirteenth Earl of Dalhousie, and 
second Baron Ramsay of Glenmark, was born 29 January 
1847, entered the Navy, in which he served till 1879, attain- 
ing the rank of commander. Sat in Parliament for Liverpool 
from March to July 1880, when he succeeded to his father's 
title. He was a Lord-in-waiting 1880-85, and Secretary for 
Scotland March to August 1886. He died at Havre, on his 
return from a tour in the United States, 28 November 1887, 
having been predeceased the previous day by his wife 
(married 6 December 1877), Ida Louisa, second daughter of 
Charles, sixth Earl of Tankerville. By her he had issue : 

1. ARTHUR GEORE MAULE, fourteenth Earl. 

2. Patrick William Maule, born 20 September 1879 ; an 

attache in H.M. Diplomatic Service. 

3. Alexander Robert Maule, born 29 May 1881 ; a lieutenant 

in the Royal Navy. 

4. Ronald Edward Maule, lieutenant Scots Guards, and 

5. Charles Fox Maule, twins, born 5 March 1885. 

XVI. ARTHUR GEORGE MAULE, fourteenth Earl of Dal- 
housie, and third Baron Ramsay of Glenmark, was born 4 
September 1878. Educated at Eton and University College, 
Oxford. He served as a lieutenant in the Scots Guards 
in the South African War 1901-2. Married, 14 July 1903, 
Mary Adelaide Heathcote Drummond Willoughby, youngest 
daughter of Gilbert, first Earl of Ancaster, and has issue : 

1. John Gilbert, Lord Ramsay, born 25 July 1904. 

CREATIONS. Lord Ramsay of Melrose 25 August 1618, 
altered to Lord Ramsay of Dalhousie, 5 January 1619 ; 
Earl of Dalhousie and Lord Ramsay of Keringtoun 27 June 
1633 ; all in the Peerage of Scotland. Baron Dalhousie of 
Dalhousie Castle 11 August 1815; Marquess of Dalhousie 
of Dalhousie Castle and of the Punjab 12 May 1848; 
Baron Ramsay of Glenmark, in the county of Forfar, 12 
June 1875 ; all in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. 



110 RAMSAY, EARL OF DALHOUSIE 

ARMS. Argent, an eagle displayed sable, beaked and 
membered gules. 

CREST. A unicorn's head couped at the neck argent, 
armed, maned, and tufted or. 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, a griffin argent, sinister, a grey- 
hound argent, collared gules, charged with three escallops 
of the first. 

MOTTO. Ora et labora. 

[J. B. P.] 



DELORAINE 




BNBY SCOTT, second sur- 
viving son of James, 
Duke of Monmouth and 
Buccleuch, and Anna, 
Duchess of Buccleuch 
(see that title) and Mon- 
mouth, was born 1676. 
He was created by Queen 
Anne, by patent dated 29 
March 1706 to himself, 
and his heirs-male to be 
born, EARL OF DELO- 
RAINE, VISCOUNT OP 
HERMITAGE, and 
LORD GOLDILANDS. 1 
This patent was read in 
Parliament 3 Oct. 1706, 
and ordered to be recorded, whereupon he took the oaths 
and his seat, and steadily supported the Union, which was 
concluded that Session. His mother provided 20,000 for 
his estates, for which cause, and as he seems to have been 
of an extravagant nature, she left him but five pounds 
by her will. Dr. Young, the author of Night Thoughts, 
describing a fop, says 

' He only thinks himself, so far from vain ! 
Stanhope in wit, in breeding Deloraine.' 

He had the command 2 of a regiment of Foot conferred on 
aim 1707, which was disbanded at the Peace, 1712; was 
appointed colonel of the second troop of Horse, Grenadier 

1 Scotts of Buccleuch, ii. 324-326. 2 The following dates and facts and 
others not otherwise vouched for are from Wood's Douglas, where there 
is a good account, evidently from very reliable sources, as will be seen by 
comparing it with the references given in this article. 



112 DELORAINE 

Guards, 1 June 1715; colonel of the 3rd Regiment of 
Horse 9 July 1730; and had the rank of major-general in 
the Army. He was chosen one of the sixteen Represen- 
tatives of the Scottish Peerage at the general election 
1715 ; re-chosen 1722, and 1727 ; he was also Gentleman of 
the Bedchamber to King George i. ; and was made K.B. in 
1725. 

He died in his fifty-fifth year, 25 December 1730, and was 
buried at Leadwell, in Oxfordshire. 1 

He married, first, Anne, daughter and heiress of William 
Duncombe of Battlesden, Bedford, one of the Lords Justices 
of Ireland. She died 22 October 1720. 2 Secondly, 14 March 
1726, Mary, daughter of Charles Howard, grandson of 
Thomas, first Earl of Berkshire, 3 who was married, secondly, 
April 1734, to William Wyndham of Ersham, Norfolk. She, 
who was well-known as one of the favourites of King 
George n., and was governess to two of his daughters, 4 died 
in London 12 November 1744, 5 and was buried at Windsor. 
Her will is signed ' Mary de Loraine,' dated 6, and proved 
19 November 1744. 6 He had issue by both marriages. By 
the first : 

1. FRANCIS, his successor. 

2. Henry, third Lord Deloraine. 

3. Anne, died an infant. 
By his second : 

4. Georgina Caroline, born February 1727 ; married, 19 

August 1747, to Sir James Peachey of Westdean, 
Sussex, Bart., Master of the Robes to the King. 
Created Baron Selsey 13 August 1794. He died, aged 
eighty-five, 25 January 1808. 7 She died in Berkeley 
Square, London, 13 October 1809, leaving issue. 

5. Henrietta, born 1728 ; married to Nicholas Boyce, 

Esq. 

II. FRANCIS, second Earl of Deloraine, succeeded his 
father ; born 5 October 1710 ; was a cornet of Horse, and 
resigned his commission in 1731 ; died without issue at 
Bath 11 April 1739 ; 8 married, first, 29 October 1732, Mary, 

1 Scotts of Buccleuch, pedigree, v. 1. 2 Hist. Register Chronicle, 46. 
3 Complete Peerage. 4 Vide Horace Walpole's Letters. 5 Gentleman's 
Mag., 619. 6 Complete Peerage. 7 Scots Mag. 8 Wood's Douglas. 



DELORAINE 



113 



daughter of Matthew Lister of Burwell, co. Lincoln, widow 
of Thomas Heardson of Claythorpe. 1 She died 16 June 
1737, in her twenty -third year, 2 and was buried in the 
Cathedral of Lincoln. He married, secondly, July 1737, 
Mary, daughter of Gervase Scrope of Oockerington, co. 
Lincoln, who died at Lincoln, 11 March 1767, having 
married, secondly, Thomas Vivian. 

III. HENRY, third Earl of Deloraine, succeeded his 
brother ; born 11 February 1712 ; captain Royal Navy, com- 
manded the Seaford man-of-war in the Mediterranean. 
On his succession he returned home, but died in his coach 
at Acton, before he reached London, 31 January 1740. 3 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of John Fenwick, and by 
her, who survived him more than fifty-four years, and 
died in Upper Brook Street, London, 5 June 1794, 4 had 
issue : 

1. HENRY, who succeeded. 

2. John Scott, born 6 October 1738 ; admitted of Benet 

College, Cambridge 1744; was a Councillor-at-Law 
and Commissioner of Bankrupts. He died in Gray's 
Inn, London, 31 December 1788, 5 having married in 
1757 Isabella Young. She died in Kennington Lane, 
Vauxhall, London, 17 August 1791, 6 having had a 
son, 

John Scott, who died in America in 1779. 7 

IV. HENRY, fourth Earl of Deloraine, succeeded his 
father. He was born 8 February 1737. He was in the 
early part of his life 4 extremely conspicuous in the circles 
of fashion, where, having dissipated a fine estate, he, in 
middle age, secured from the wreck of his fortune an 
annuity of 1000 per annum, on which he lived afterwards 
very privately.' 8 He had a pension from the Crown of 
300 a year. 9 He married, at St. Anne's, Soho, 10 London, 
16 November 1763, 11 Frances, daughter of Thomas Heath of 
Stanstead, Essex, widow of Henry Knight, eldest son of 
Robert, Lord Luxborough, but had no issue. But the 

1 Lincolnshire Pedigrees, Harl. Soc., 597. 2 Ibid. 3 Gentleman's Mag. ; 
Scots Mag. 4 Scots Mag., 6 June. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 Wood's Douglas. 
8 Ibid. 9 Scots Mag., liv. 605. 10 Complete Peerage. n Scots Mag. 

VOL. III. H 



114 DELORAINE 

marriage was not a happy one. 1 She separated from him, 
and withdrew to a convent in France, where she died in 
1782. He died in Charlotte Street, Portland Place, London, 
10 September 1807, 2 when his titles became extinct. 

CREATION. 29 March 1706, Earl of Deloraine, Viscount 
of Hermitage and Lord Goldilands. 

ARMS. There is no official record of Lord Deloraine 's 
arms, but in a volume published in 1720 3 they are given as : 
Or, a bend azure charged with a star between two crescents 
of the field ; a crescent for difference. 

[A. F. s.] 

1 Vide Journals of Lady Mary Coke, i. 32. 2 Scots Mag. 3 Rudiments 
of Honour ; London, 1720. 



KEITH, LORD DINGWALL 




OBERT KEITH, imme- 
diate younger brother of 
William, fourth Earl 
Marischal (see that title), 
became Commendator of 
the Abbey of Deer. He 
died in Paris 12 June 
1551, and was buried 
before the altar of St. 
Ninian, in the Church of 
the Carmelites, in the 
Place Maubert. 1 He left 
an illegitimate son, 

SIR ANDREW KEITH 
of Forsa, who was for 
eighteen years in the 
service of the King of Sweden. James vi. at last wrote that 
monarch asking him to allow Keith to return home. 2 He 
was on 18 March 1583-84 created LORD DINGWALL, with 
remainder to the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, to his 
nearest and lawful heirs-male whatsoever. The patent itself 
is not in existence, but it is recited in a ratification by 
Parliament of 22 May 1584. 3 On 3 August 1587 he had a 
charter of novodamus of the Castle of Dingwall, together 
with other lands, formerly erected into a free lordship and 
barony, and confirming him anew in the title of a Lord of 
Parliament: the remainder, however, was altered to his 
heirs-male and assigns. 4 He was appointed one of the 
ambassadors for arranging the marriage of King James vi., 

1 Dempster, Hist. Eccl. Gent. Scot., lib. x. 423. 2 See Letter in 
Eraser's Earls of Haddington, ii. 52. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., in. 324. * Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 



116 KEITH, LORD DINGWALL 

and in this capacity he made six voyages between Scot- 
land and Denmark. For his services he got a charter of 
confirmation of his lordship, on his own resignation, 24 Nov- 
ember 1591, with remainder to his heirs-male and assigns, 1 
a charter which was ratified by Parliament on 5 June 
1592, together with a pension of 1000 per annum, for life, 
originally conferred on him under the Privy Seal 6 March 
1588-89, and confirmed by another letter under the Privy 
Seal of 8 January 1591-92. He sat on the assize for the 
trial and forfeiture of the Earl of Bothwell in 1589. Lord 
Dingwall being, so far as is known, unmarried, resigned the 
lands, lordship, and barony of Dingwall in favour of Sir 
William Keith of Delny, Master of the King's Wardrobe, 
who had a charter of these lands 22 January 1592-93, re- 
serving Lord Dingwall's liferent. 2 The title, however, does 
not appear to have gone with the lands, as Sir William, 
who died between 1594 and 4 April 1603, 3 is never styled 
Lord Dingwall. The Dingwall property was acquired in 
1608 from John Keith of Ravenscraig by Lord Balmerino." 
The date of Lord Dingwall's death is not known, but the 
title was extinct before 1606, as it does not appear in the 
Decreet of Ranking of the Peers in that year ; and Sir 
Richard Preston was created Lord Dingwall in 1609. (See 
following article.) 

ARMS. The following arms are given for Lord Dingwall 
in the Seton Armorial : 5 Quarterly : 1st and 4th, Argent, 
a chief paly of six gules and or ; 2nd and 3rd, Gules, a lion 
rampant argent. 

CREST. A deer's head couped (proper) attired azure. 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, a stag proper; sinister, a wolf 
proper. 

MOTTO. Memento Creatorem. 

[J. B. P.] 

1 Eeg. Mag. Sig. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid., 24 September 1608. 6 Now 
in possession of Mrs. Harnilton-Ogilvy of Beil : see Heraldry in Relation 
to Scottish Art, by Sir James Balfour Paul, p. 200. 



PRESTON, LORD DINGWALL 




RESTON is a surname 
found widely distributed 
both in England and 
Scotland. In the latter 
country it occurs so far 
back as circa 1240-50, 
when Lyulph, son of 
Lyulph de Preston, had 
a charter from John 
Albus of a piece of land 
in Linlithgow, which he 
made over to the Abbey 
of Newbattle. 1 In 1296 
Henry, Nicol, and William 
Preston, all of Edinburgh, 
did homage to Edward i. 2 
Nicolis stated by Nisbet 3 



to have been the ancestor of the Craigmillar family, but 
the first authentic ancestor who can be traced is 

SIR JOHN DE PRESTON, Knight. He was taken prisoner at 
the battle of Durham 17 October 1346, and was imprisoned 
for a long time in the Tower of London. 4 In 1348 he is said 
to be in possession of the rents of the lands of Balhelvy 
Bonevyle. 5 He witnessed a charter of Patrick Ramsay 
of Dalwolsy in 1357 8 and other deeds later. He had from 
King David n. charters of the lands of Gorton, co. Edin- 
burgh, and others ; he was an ambassador for a treaty with 
England in 1360, and again in 1361, 7 and in the latter year 

1 Chart. ofNewbotle, 149-150; cf. Fraser's Melmlles, i. 13. 2 Cal. of Docs., 
ii. pp. 201, 210. 3 Heraldry, ii. App., Ragman Roll, 34. 4 Dalrymple's 
Annals, iii. ; Rymer's Fcedera, v. 534. 5 Exch. Rolls, i. 543. 6 Chart, of 
Newbotle, 309. 7 Fcedera, vi. 207, 308; Exch. Rolls, ii. 77. 



118 PRESTON, LORD DINGWALL 

he was paid 20 for the construction of a well and other 
operations in the Castle of Edinburgh. 1 His son, 

SIMON DE PRESTON, styled 'filius et haeres apparens 
Domini Johannis,' witnessed a charter of donation to the 
Monastery of Newbattle I860. 2 As burgess of Edinburgh 
he witnessed a charter of the lands of Oraigcrook in 1362, 
and as Sheriff of Edinburgh and Sheriff of Lothian he wit- 
nessed two charters 13 January 1365-66 and 13 February 
1367-68. 3 On 22 February 1373-74 he had a charter from 
King Robert n. of the lands of Oraigmillar on the resigna- 
tion of William de Oapella, and on 7 March 1374-75 he 
resigned his lands of Eroly (Airlie) in favour of the latter. 4 
He is said to have had, with other children : 

1. Simon, who witnessed a donation of the Abbey of 

Dunfermline, wherein he is designed filius Simonis, 
in the reign of Robert in. 5 

2. Sir George, who carried on the line of Oraigmillar. 

His son John Preston died before 1421, leaving a 
son, 

William, who was placed under the tutory of Archibald Preston, 
his cousin and nearest heir, who was then above twenty- 
five years of age. 6 

3. Andrew, 1 said to have been the ancestor of the 

Prestons of Whitehall, but the earliest progenitor 
of that family who can with certainty be traced was 

THOMAS PRESTON , 8 who on 18 May 1480 had a charter of 
feu-farm from James Preston, chaplain and minister of the 
Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene, of the lands of Magdalen 

1 Exch. Rolls, ii. 83. 2 Chart, of Newbotle, 359. 3 Eeg. Mag. Sig., folio 
vol. 59, 137. 4 Ibid., 100, 139. 5 Chart. Dunfermline, 337. 6 Reg. Mag. 
Sig., MS. lib. iii. No. 77. 7 Wood's Douglas's Peerage, i. 414. 8 Thomas 
may have been the son of the Archibald referred to in 1421 as cousin and 
next heir of William Preston of Craigmillar, and that Archibald was 
perhaps the son of Andrew, certainly the nephew or cousin (most probably 
the latter) of William's father John. The relationship of cousin to John 
and grandson of Simon would agree with the relationship stated in the 
retour of 1640 afterwards cited. An Archibald Preston, who may be the 
same, appears as a King's esquire in the Exchequer Rolls between 1434 
and 1460. A Thomas Preston, a bailie of Edinburgh, is also named, who 
maybe identical with the Thomas who in 1480 had a charter of Whitehill, 
evidently towards the close of his life. 



PRESTON, LORD DINGWALL 119 

and Whitehill (now New Hailes). 1 He died before 11 
October 1483, leaving a widow Alison. 2 He had a son, 

ARCHIBALD, who is mentioned in connection with the 
brieves of inquest for serving him heir of Thomas, his 
father, on certain lands (not specified) in Perthshire, 
1 March 1491-92 3 and 16 May 1492. 4 As Whitehill is 
close to Musselburgh, it is probable that he was the 
Archibald Preston who was elected Clerk of that parish 

8 September 1491. 5 He was in litigation about the lands 
of Cousland, over which he and his sister claimed some 
right. 6 As Archibald Preston of Whitehill he appears as 
a witness 1 March 1504-5. 7 He had sasine of subjects in 
Edinburgh 5 June and 13 August 1511 and 27 January 
1511-12. 8 He had a wadset of some lands from George, 
Earl of Rothes, in 1509. 9 He left at least one son, 

THOMAS, who was infeft as heir of his father Archibald 
in the above-mentioned subjects in Edinburgh 6 October 
1523, and Christian Seton, his wife, had sasine of part of 
them on the same day. 10 He had a charter similar to that 
granted to his grandfather from the above - mentioned 
James Preston, with consent of the Archbishop of St. 
Andrews and Abbot of Dunfermline, of the lands of Mag- 
dalen and Whitehill, 16 January 1527-28. 11 He had two 
sons : 

1. RICHARD. 12 

2. Archibald, his brother, named in 1550. 13 

RICHARD, his son and heir, got a precept of clare constat 
from Henry Preston of the said lands of Whitehill, 25 
April 1532. 14 His name occurs on 28 January 1547-48. 15 
He witnessed a charter of Simon Preston of that Ilk, 8 
February 1549-50. 16 He married Helen, daughter of Alan 
Coutts of Bowhill, who survived him, and died October 

1 Whitehill Writs. 2 Acta Auditorum, 115. 3 Acta Dom. Cone., 
217-218. 4 Protocol Book of J. Young, Canongate. 6 Ibid. 6 Acta 
Dom. Cone., 405. 7 Protocol Book of J. Fowler, Edinburgh. 8 Ibid. 

9 Hist. Records of the Family of Leslie, ii. 40. 10 Protocol Book of 
Vincent Strathauchin, Edinburgh. n Whitehill Writs. 12 Mem. Earls 
of Haddington, ii. 262. 13 Ibid. u Whitehill Writs. 15 Protocol Book 
of J. Stevenson, Edinburgh. 16 Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 March 1549-50. 



120 PRESTON, LORD DINGWALL 

1575. 1 Richard Preston died October 1571, leaving three 
sons : 

1. JOHN, 

2. James, both mentioned in their father's will. 2 

3. RICHARD, of whom after. 

4. Elizabeth, referred to in 1601. (See next page.) 

JOHN PRESTON of Whitehill had a precept of dare 
constat from Mr. Alexander Orichton, Preceptor of the 
Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene, as heir to his father 
Richard in the lands of Whitehill, 12 September 1572, and 
got sasine therein 6 March following. 3 He married Jane, 
daughter of John Crichton of Brunstane. He died 14 and 
she 16 June 1587. They left a son and a daughter : 

1. DAVID. 

2. Marion.* 

DAVID PRESTON of Whitehill had a precept of clare 
constat from Robert Crichton, chaplain of the Hospital 
of St. Mary Magdalene, lawful son of Mr. John Orichton 
of Brunstane, in the foresaid lands of Whitehill, 5 5 Nov- 
ember 1587. He must then have been very young, as he 
chose curators 29 July 1598, his nearest of kin on his 
father's side being Richard Preston, tutor of Whitehill, 
Alan Ooutts of Rossyth, and Mr. John Preston of Fenton- 
barns; on the mother's side John Crichton of Brunston, 
James Crichton apparent of Brunston, and John Crichton, 
his brother. 6 David Preston of Whitehill, prior to the 
death of his uncle, Richard, Lord Dingwall, Earl of Des- 
mond, was surety for him, and in 1634 applied to the Crown 
for relief. 7 On 8 April 1640 he was served heir-male and 
of entail to Robert Preston of that Ilk and Craigmillar, 8 
4 pronepotis trinepotis tritavi.' He married, first, in 1608, 
Margaret, elder daughter of George Ker of Fawdonside ; 9 
secondly, in 1620, Susanna, daughter of Alexander Colville, 
Oommendator of Culross, and relict of John Monypenny, 
fiar of Pitmillie. 10 He left issue : 

1. GEORGE. 

1 Edin. Tests. 2 Ibid. 3 Whitehill Writs. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Edin. 
Com. Decreets. 7 Reg. of Royal Letters, by Rogers, ii. 777. 8 Edin. 
Retours, Nos. 852, 853. 9 Edin. Sas. ; Rec. Sec. Sig., x. 21. 10 Edin. Sas., 
iii. 305; Protocol Book of James Primrose, H.M. Reg. House, 67-173. 



PRESTON, LORD DINGWALL 



121 



2. Mr. John. 

3. Agnes, styled eldest daughter, married (contract 

5 October 1630) to Francis, second son of Mr. Patrick 
Hepburn of Smeaton. 1 

GEORGE PRESTON, who succeeded through his father to 
the lands of Preston and Craigmillar, and Mr. John, his 
brother, sold Craigmillar to Sir Andrew Gilmour in 1660, 2 
and Preston and Whitehill to Robert Preston of the Valley- 
field family in 1662. 3 George, married (contract 15 June 
1640) Jean, daughter of Sir Alexander Gibson of Durie. 4 

I. RICHARD PRESTON, third son of Richard Preston 
of Whitehill, was attached to the royal household, and 
in 1591 is styled 'page.' 5 On 27 October 1598, as 
4 domesticus servitor regis, formerly tutor of Whitehill,' 
lie had a charter 6f the lands of Haltree, and on 14 
March 1598-99 he had a grant of the lands of Reswallie, 
in the barony of Rescobie, co. Forfar. 6 On 26 May 
1599 he was appointed captain over all the officers in 
the King's Household. 7 He had a sister Elizabeth, to 
whom in 1601 he granted an annualrent out of the lands 
of Ooittis, in the barony of Penicuik, 8 which he discharged 
in 1617. 9 He was knighted by James vi., and went to 
England with that sovereign when he succeeded to the 
Crown. He was created a Knight of the Bath at the 
Coronation, 25 July 1603 ; had the Constabulary of Ding- 
wall bestowed on him 1607, 10 and having purchased that 
lordship and barony, was on 8 June 1609 u created LORD 
DINGWALL, with remainder to his heirs and assigns 
whatsoever. He married, through the influence of the 
King, in 1614, Elizabeth Butler, widow of Theobald, 
Viscount Butler of Tulleophelim, and daughter and only 
surviving child of Thomas, tenth Earl of Ormonde and 
Ossory. Her father, however, who died the same year, 
settled almost all his estates on his heir-male Walter 
Butler, and as he refused to give them up to Lord Ding- 

1 Edin. Sas., xvi. 337. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., Ix. 18. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., Is.. 169. 
4 Reg. of Deeds, Durie, 16 June 1669. 6 Exch. Rolls, xxii. 161. 6 Reg. Mag. 
Sig. ^ Reg. Sec. Sig., Ixx. 261. 8 Edin. Sas. ; Reg. Sec. Sig., i. 237. 9 Reg. 
of Deeds, 275, 12 August 1618. 10 Robertson's Proceedings, 67. n Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 



122 PRESTON, LORD DINGWALL 

wall he was kept a prisoner in the Fleet till the King's 
death in 1625. By the influence of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, Lord Dingwall was, on 19 July 1619, created BARON 
DUMORE, co. Kilkenny, and EARL OP DESMOND, in the 
Peerage of Ireland. The earldom was subsequently on 
7 November 1622 granted in reversion to George Fielding, 
then eight years of age, who was also created Baron 
Fielding of Lecagh, co. Tipperary, and Viscount Oallan, 
co. Kilkenny. Fielding was the second son of William, 
Earl of Denbigh, and nephew of George Villiers, Duke of 
Buckingham. It was intended that he should marry Lord 
DingwalPs only daughter and heiress, but the marriage 
never took place, though he succeeded to the earldom on 
Lord DingwalPs death. 

Lord Dingwairs wife, Elizabeth Butler, died in Wales 10 
October 1628, and he was drowned on the passage between 
Dublin and Holyhead eighteen days later, 28 October same 
year. He left issue one daughter, 

II. ELIZABETH PRESTON, suo jure Baroness Dingwall. 
She was born 25 July 1615, and was committed on her 
father's death to the guardianship of the Earl of Holland. 
In consideration of the sum of 15,000 he consented to her 
marriage with James, Lord Thurles, grandson and heir of 
Walter, Earl of Ormonde. The marriage took place in 
September 1629 (contract dated 26 August 1629) ; he suc- 
ceeded his grandfather 24 February 1632-33 ; was created 
MARQUESS OF ORMONDE 30 August 1642; BARON 
BUTLER OF LANTHONY, co. Monmouth, and EARL OF 
BRECKNOCK, in the Peerage of England, 20 July 1660 ; 
DUKE OF ORMONDE, in the Peerage of Ireland, 30 March 
1661, and was made an English Peer under the same title 9 
November 1682. The Duchess died 21 July 1684, and the 
Duke on 21 July 1688. They left, with other children, a son, 

THOMAS, Earl of Ossory, who died v.p. 30 July 1680, 
having married, 17 November 1659, in Holland, Amelia, 
eldest daughter of Henry de Beverwest, or de Nassau, 
Lord of Auverquerque (natural son of Maurice, Prince of 
Orange). His widow was buried in Westminster Abbey 
12 December 1688. Their eldest son, 



PRESTON, LORD DINGWALL 123 

III. JAMES, Duke of Ormonde, after a distinguished 
military career, was attainted by the British Parliament 
20 August 1715 for complicity in the Jacobite plots. This 
forfeiture affected, however, only his English and Scottish 
honours and estates, the attainder by the Irish Parliament 
affecting the estates only. The Duke of Ormonde died 
November 1745 without surviving issue, and the title of 
Dingwall would, but for the attainder, have gone to his 
brother, 

IV. CHARLES, de jure Duke of Ormonde, who also died 
without issue 17 December 1758. The barony of Dingwall 
would then, but for the attainder, have gone to 

V. FRANCES D'AUVERQUERQUE, niece and heir of line, 
eldest daughter and co-heir of Henry, Earl of Grantham, 
by his wife Henrietta Butler, sister of the above-mentioned 
James and Charles, Dukes of Ormonde. She married, June 
1737, Lieutenant-Colonel Elliot, and died 5 April 1772. The 
title would, but for the attainder, have then gone to 

VI. GEORGE NASSAU, third Earl Cowper, her nephew, 
being son and heir of her younger sister Henrietta, who 
had married, 29 June 1732, as his first wife, William, second 
Earl Oowper. She died 23 September 1747. Her son, 
Oeorge Nassau, third Earl Oowper, de jure Lord Dingwall, 
was born 26 August 1738, and died 22 December 1789. 
Married, 2 June 1775, Hannah Anne, daughter and co-heir 
of Charles Gore of Hookestowe, co. Lincoln. She died 
5 September 1826, having had issue 

VII. GEORGE AUGUSTUS, fourth Earl Cowper, de jure 
Lord Dingwall, born 9 August 1776, died unmarried 12 Feb- 
ruary 1799. He was succeeded by his brother, 

VIII. PETER LEOPOLD Louis FRANCIS NASSAU, fifth Earl 
Cowper, and de jure Lord Dingwall. Born 6 May 1778, 
died 21 July 1837; married, 20 July 1805, Emily Mary, 
daughter of Peniston (Lambe), first Viscount Melbourne. 
She (who afterwards became the wife of Lord Palmerston, 
the celebrated Prime Minister) died 11 September 1869, 
having had by her first husband a son, 



124 PRESTON, LORD DINGWALL 

IX. GEORGE AUGUSTUS FREDERICK, sixth Earl Cowper, 
de jure Lord Ding wall. Born 26 January 1806, died 15 
April 1856 ; married, 7 October 1833, Anne Florence (after- 
wards suo jure Baroness Lucas), eldest daughter of Thomas 
Philip, Earl de Gray. By her, who died 23 July 1880, he 
had issue : 

1. FRANCIS THOMAS DE GRAY, of whom afterwards. 

2. Henry Frederick, born 18 April 1846, died 10 Nov- 

ember 1887. 

3. Henrietta Emily Mary, born 26 March 1838, and died 

unmarried, 28 June 1853. 

4. Florence Amabel, born 4 December 1840 ; married, 9 

August 1871, to Auberon Edward William Molyneux 
Herbert, D.O.L., third son of Henry John George, 
third Earl of Carnarvon. She died 26 April 1886, 
having had issue : 

(1) Rolf, born 23 July 1872, died April 1882. 

(2) AUBERON THOMAS, of whom after. 

5. Adine Eliza Anne, born 17 March 1843 ; married, 29- 

September 1866, to Julien Henry Charles Fane, fourth 
son of John, Earl of Westmorland, and died 20 
October 1868, leaving issue. 

6. Amabel, born 24 March 1846, married 18 November 

1873, Lord Walter Talbot Kerr, R.N., K.C.B., fourth 
son of John William Robert, Marquess of Lothian, 
with issue. 

X. FRANCIS THOMAS DE GRAY, seventh Earl Cowper, K.G. r 
born 11 June 1834. On 31 July 1871 the attainder affect- 
ing the title of Lord Ding wall was reversed by the House 
of Lords, and on 15 August of that year Earl Cowper was 
found entitled to it as heir-general. At the same time and 
in the same way he became Lord Butler of Moore Park r 
co. Hertford, in the Peerage of England ; and on the death 
of his mother, 23 July 1880, he succeeded to the title of 
Lord Lucas of Crudwell, in the same Peerage. He died 19 
July 1905. He married, 25 October 1870, Katrine Cecilia, 
eldest daughter of William, Marquess of Northampton, but 
by her had no issue, and the title of Earl Cowper became 
extinct. 



PRESTON, LORD DINGWALL 125 

XI. AUBERON THOMAS HERBERT, only surviving son of 
Auberon Edward William Molyneux by his wife Florence 
Amabel, sister of the last Earl Cowper, succeeded his uncle 
in the baronies of Dingwall and Lucas of Orudwell. He 
was born 25 May 1876. 

CREATION. 8 June 1609, Lord Dingwall. 

ARMS. (As Lord Dingwall, not recorded in Lyon Regis- 
ter, but given in Sir Robert Forman's MS.) Argent, three 
unicorns' heads couped sable. 

CREST. A unicorn's head issuing out of a coronet. 
SUPPORTERS. Two lions rampant gules. 
MOTTO. Pour bien fort. 

[J. B. P.] 



MAXWELL, EARL OF DIRLETON 




AMES MAXWELL, the 
third son of John Max- 
well, Master of Maxwell, 
who was killed at the 
battle of . Lochmaben, 
1484 (see title Nithsdale), 
is said to have been the 
ancestor of the Maxwells 
of Oavens. 1 Who his im- 
mediate successors were 
has not been ascertained, 
but the next possessor of 
the estate on record is 

HERBERT MAXWELL, of 
Cavens, who died 24 
March 1572-73, 2 leaving 



two sons : 

1. WILLIAM. 

2. John, who, with his son Joke, is named in Herbert's 

will. 

WILLIAM Maxwell, the elder son, married (contract dated 
24 May 1549) Margaret, daughter (probably natural) of Sir 
James Douglas of Drumlanrig. 3 In 1569 he is styled ' son 
and apparent heir ' of Herbert, 4 but he seems to have died 
before his father. He had issue, mentioned in Herbert's 
will as his * oyes ' : 

1. Herbert of Cavens ; he is named as one of an assize, 
15 July 1579, 5 and was alive in 1609. 6 He had issue : 

(1) Herbert, younger of Cavens, slain 1603. 7 

1 Book of Carlaverock, i. 155. 2 Edin. Tests. 3 Acts and Decreets, iii. 
188. 4 Ibid., xli, 422. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 13 May 1580. 6 P. C. Reg., viii. 
705 (see Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, ii. 450-492). 7 Ibid., ix. 220. 



MAXWELL, EARL OF DIRLETON 127 

(2) Mr. William, who succeeded to Cavens, and married 

Katherine Weir, who survived him, and was married, 
secondly, to Sir James Murray of Kilbaberton, Master of 
Works to King James vi. 1 He left a son, 
William, served heir to him 15 April 1617. 2 

(3) Robert, who had a charter of the Kirklands of Kirkbean 

(which appear to have been the Kirkhouse estate) 8 January 
1644 3 to himself in liferent, and his son William in fee. 
This William was, on 17 May 1653, served heir-male and of 
tailzie to James, Earl of Dirleton, his gudesire's brother's 
son, 4 which is the evidence that the Earl's father was 
brother of Herbert of Cavens. 

(4) Probably John, minister of Mortlach 1615, of Edinburgh 1622, 

Bishop of Ross 1633 ; he is said to have been one of the 
Cavens family. 5 

(5) Probably David, described as the bishop's brother. 6 

(6) Mary, married (contract dated 16 February 1603) to Robert, 

son of Alexander Maxwell of Logan. 7 

2. ROBERT, of Kirkhouse. (See below.) 

3. Richard, servitor to the eighth Lord Maxwell, styled 

Earl of Morton, 22 March 1584-85. 8 

4. Bessie, whom her grandfather in his will leaves to the 

care of her brother Herbert. 

5. Margaret, left in the same will to the Laird of Drum- 

lanrig. (These are not expressly said to have been 
William's children, but the last bequest makes it 
probable that they were so. If not William's, they 
must have been children of another son of the first 
Herbert.) 

ROBERT, of Kirkhouse, also styled of Crustanes ; slain in 
1583; for which crime Archibald Maxwell of Oowhill and 
William his son were tried and acquitted in 1605. 9 His 
testament 10 shows that his wife (who survived him) was 
Nicolas, daughter of Charles Murray of Oockpule, and it 
names his eldest son William, his second son Charles, and 
a daughter Jane. It is probable, however, that the follow- 
ing five prosecutors of Maxwell of Cowhill for the slaughter 
of Robert were all his sons, and that his issue were : 

1. William of Kirkhouse, who died s.p. in 1643. 11 His 

1 Gen. Reg. Inhibitions, 8 September 1618 ; will of Sir James Murray of 
Kilbaberton, Edin. Tests., 27 February 1636. 2 Kirkcudbright Retours, 
131. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. * Kirkcudbright Retours, 259. 5 Scott's Fasti Eccl. 
Scot., v. 209. 6 Gen. Reg. Sasines, xviii. 199. 7 Gen. Reg. Inhibitions, 
viii. 394. 8 Instrument in H.M. Reg. Ho. 9 Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, 
ii. 488 ff. 10 Edin. Tests. , 16 October 1584, Ibid. 



128 MAXWELL, EARL OF DIRLETON 

brother James was served heir to him 10 August 
1643. 1 

2. Charles, who was concerned in the slaughter of Sir 

James Johnstone of Dunskellie by Lord Maxwell. 2 

3. JAMES, Earl of Dirleton. 

4. Robert. 

5. David, who, along with his brother Charles, slew 

William Maxwell of Cowhill in April 1608. 3 

6. A daughter, married to James Crichton of Crawford- 

ston. 

7. A daughter, married to Thomas Brown of Glen/ 

I. JAMES MAXWELL, the third son, first appears in the 
records as witnessing a charter of James Murray of Cock- 
pule 11 May 1606. 5 He must have entered the King's 
household as a young man, for on 5 October in the same 
year he got, as ' sanctions cubiculi regis admissionalis 
palatinus,' together with Robert Douglas 4 hippocomus ' to 
the King's eldest son, a grant of the lands of Tarres and 
others which were erected into a barony ; 6 on 15 January 
1609 he had a charter of the lands of Newbellie and others 
in the county of Dumfries ; 7 another, on 24 August 1616, 
along with Sir Robert Douglas, of the lands and barony of 
Mortonwoods in Annandale, 8 which they subsequently re- 
signed ; 9 on 29 June 1621 he had a charter of the lands of 
Culcreuch and others ; 10 on 11 August 1622 he purchased 
from William, Lord Crichton of Sanquhar, half the lands of 
Ballegerno, Abernyte, and others, co. Perth, with remainder 
to the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, to the heirs of 
the late Robert Maxwell of Kirkhouse, his father ; u on 30 
January 1623 he had a charter from the King to himself 
and his wife of the teinds of the parish of Innerwick, and 
another on the same day from the Prince of the lands and 
barony of Innerwick on the resignation of Sir Alexander 
Hamilton ; 12 on 20 February 1623 he had a grant of the 
town and lands of Lochmaben and others, with the custody 
of the Castle of Lochmaben ; 13 on 22 May 1630 he had a con- 
firmation of the lands of Innerwick, erecting the town of 

1 Kirkcudbright Retours, 224. 2 Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, iii. 35 ff. 
3 Gen. Reg. Inhibitions, xxxii. 9. 4 Test, of William of Kirkhouse. 
3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 10 July 1606. * Reg. Mag. Sig. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid., 
22 February 1620. 10 Ibid. n Ibid., 3 December 1622. 12 Ibid. 13 Ibid. 



MAXWELL, EARL OP DIRLETON 129 

Skaitraw into a burgh of barony ; he had also a charter 
on 4 June 1631 of the lands and barony of Fenton, Dirleton, 
and others, including the lands of Kingston and Elbotle, 
and had Dirleton itself erected into a burgh of barony ; 
on 13 October 1634 he had a charter to himself and 
others, granting them the privilege of trading on the 
west coast of Africa; 1 on 27 June 1635 another of 
certain lands of Dirleton; on 10 January 1636 he, with 
other co-adventurers, obtained a lease of all the minerals 
in Scotland for a period of twenty-one years ; 2 on 22 April 
in the same year he and others had a charter authoris- 
ing them to erect a lighthouse on the Isle of May, with the 
right of exacting a duty of ten shillings a ton on Scottish, 
and four shillings a ton on English ships ; 3 on 13 September 
1641 he and his wife had another confirmation of Inner- 
wick. 4 Her arms. are on the Dirleton pew in Dirleton 
church viz. a large cross moline between four smaller. 
The Earl's arms, both on that pew and on the exterior of 
Dirleton church, are the Maxwell saltire charged with 
thistles. 5 He resigned the Kirkhouse estate to his kinsman 
William 18 December 1643. 6 On 27 March 1646, as James 
Maxwell of Dirleton, he made a tailzie of certain lands, 
failing heirs-male of his own body, on the second, third, 
fourth, and eldest sons successively of his eldest daughter 
Elizabeth by her husband William, Duke of Hamilton, 
whom failing, on James Maxwell, alias Cecil, second son of 
Viscount Cranbourne, husband of Diana, the granter's 
second daughter, he taking the surname and arms of Max- 
well. In 1674-75 this James was Earl of Salisbury. 7 Some 
time after the date of this deed, but before the end of 1646, 
Maxwell was created EARL OP DIRLETON, LORD 
KINGSTON AND ELBOTLE. It is singular that he chose 
his titles from comparatively newer possessions rather than 
from his principal estate of Innerwick. It is said 8 that the 
remainder in the patent was to heirs-male of the body of 
the grantee, but although the engrossment in the Register 
of the Great Seal is not very legible, the words et Polmond 
secretarium . . . et casu decessus dicti comitis . . . comi- 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. * Ibid. 6 Southesk Book, i. 155. 
6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 8 January 1644. 7 Reg. of Deeds, Mackenzie, 23 March 
1675. 8 Macfarlane's Gen. Coll., ii. 386. 

VOL. III. 1 



130 MAXWELL, EARL OF DIRLETON 

tisse de Lanark cum quovis alto, which can be read, 
indicate that there was a remainder to issue (presumably 
male issue) of the Earl's eldest daughter by William, Earl 
of Lanark, whom failing, by any other husband. 1 

From the above charters it will be seen that Lord Dirleton 
was an active and enterprising man. He was also a staunch 
loyalist, and lent large sums of money to the King. In 
1640 the Scottish Parliament found that there were 84,866 
Scots due to him by the public, and granted him warrants 
for the repayment of the debt. 2 He did not long survive 
his royal master, dying about 1650, when his honours ap- 
parently became extinct, as even supposing the remainder 
in his patent was to the male issue of his eldest daughter, 
no such male issue survived. His testament was confirmed 
28 July 1652 and 21 November 1674. 

He married, previous to 1628, Elizabeth or Bessie Besyne 
or Bowssie or Busson de Podolsko, 3 and had by her (who 
was buried at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields 20 April 1659) 4 two 
daughters : 

1. Elizabeth, married, first, 26 May 1638, at the age of 

eighteen, to William, second Duke of Hamilton, who 
was mortally wounded at the battle of Worcester, 
and died 12 September 1651, aged thirty-four ; 
secondly, 19 June 1655, to Thomas Dalmahoy of the 
Priory, near Guildford, who had been Gentleman of 
the Horse to her former husband. He was third son 
of Sir John Dalmahoy of that Ilk, was member of 
Parliament for Guildford, and Master of the Buck- 
hounds to Charles n. s He is described by Pepys as 
' Mr. Dormer Hay, a Scotch gentleman ... a very 
fine man.' 6 Bishop Burnett calls him ' a genteel 
generous man.' His wife was buried in St. Martin's- 
in-the-Fields 2 September 1659. 7 Her second husband 
died 24 May 1682. 8 

2. Diana, married, 2 April 1639, to Charles Cecil, Viscount 

Cranbourne, second, but eldest surviving, son of 
William, Earl of Salisbury. He died v. p. December 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 1634-1651, No. 1734. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. pt. i. 538, 
643-753. 3 Southesk Book, i. 155. 4 Complete Peerage. 5 Douglas, 
Baronage. 6 Diary, 11 May 1660. 7 Herald and Genealogist, v. 380. 
8 Complete Peerage. 



MAXWELL, EARL OF DIRLETON 131 

1660. She died about 1675, leaving a son James, who 
had become in 1668 Earl of Salisbury on the death of 
his grandfather. 

CREATION. 1646, Earl of Dirleton, Lord Kingston and 
Elbotle. 

ARMS. No record of Lord Dirleton's arms has been found. 

[j. B. P.] 



[DIRLETON, LORD HALIBURTON OF, see HALIBURTON, LORD 
HALIBURTON OF DIRLETON.] 



DOUGLAS, EAKL OF DOUGLAS 



\ 




T is not possible in a work 
like this to enter on a 
discussion of the various 
theories as to the origin 
of the family of Douglas. 
They have been described 
as of Flemish, Moray- 
shire, Northumbrian, and 
native Celtic descent, but 
as to any real knowledge 
of their origin, even with 
all the light which 
modern research has 
brought to bear, we are 
very little further ad- 
vanced than when Hume 
of Godscrof t wrote. The 
whole question is discussed by Sir William Fraser in The 
Douglas Boofc, vol. i., whence most of this article is drawn, 
and the student may there see the theories and the autho- 
rities for each. 

According to Hume of Godscroft, the first Douglas was 
a * certain nobleman ' who in the days of ' Solvathius,' King 
of Scotland, attacked and routed the army of Donald Bane, a 
pretender to the throne, in a battle which took place in 767. 
This, of course, is a mythical statement, but it is a sug- 
gestive fact that Donald Bane, who is an historical personage, 
appears as a contemporary with the earliest Douglas who 
is known to authentic history, of whom we now treat. 

WILLIAM of Douglas, 4 de Dufglas,' is the first of the 
Douglas family who is found on the page of history, and it 
is of some significance that he appears for the first time 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 133 

about the date when Donald Bane, who claimed descent 
from King Malcolm Ceannmor, raised a standard of revolt 
against King William the Lion, and caused considerable dis- 
turbance in Ross and Moray, where the Celtic population 
flocked to join him. Between 1177 and 1187 he held the 
northern counties in terror, but in the last-named year 
King William marched against him with a strong force, 
including about three thousand men under the special 
leadership of Roland, Lord of Galloway. Accounts differ 
somewhat as to details, but it would appear that Roland's 
men, or a large detachment of them, while out foraging, 
came suddenly upon Donald Bane and his troops. The 
rebel chief, thinking the royalist force smaller than his 
own, gave battle, but Roland and his followers were com- 
pletely victorious, and Donald Bane was killed, the battle 
being fought on 31 July 1187. 1 Now as Godscroft's tradi- 
tion connects the 'first Douglas with the insurrection of 
Donald Bane, it is important to note that Galloway at that 
time comprehended the upper part of Strathclyde, for we 
find that in King William the Lion's time the judges of 
Galloway held courts at Lanark, close by Douglasdale, and 
Roland of Galloway appeared as one of the local barons. 2 It 
is not improbable, therefore, that William of Douglas may 
have been one of those who marched northward with Roland. 
The territory of Douglas from which he derived his name, 
and which his family then or shortly after possessed, was 
recognised as a separate territory before 1177, as we learn 
from a charter to the monks of Melrose by Walter Fitzalan, 
the High Steward, who died in that year. Douglasdale 
was not held by any religious house, 3 nor is there any trace 
of ownership except by the Douglases themselves, and it is 
quite possible that Godscrof t may be right in presuming the 
family were lairds native to the soil. But even this is not 
to be hastily assumed, though there are certain corrobora- 
tions of his theory. 

It is certainly in the south of Scotland that William of 
Douglas makes his first recorded appearance, as a witness 

1 Fordun, ed. 1871, i. 268. 2 Acta Part. Scot., i. p. 378. 3 George 
Chalmers's statement that Theobald the Fleming received the first granfc 
of Douglasdale from the Abbot of Kelso is so far erroneous, that the land 
given to Theobald was not in Douglasdale, but in the parish of Lesniaha- 
gow, which belonged to the abbey (Douglas Book, i. 37). 



134 DOUGLAS, EARL OP DOUGLAS 

to a charter by Joceline, who was Bishop of Glasgow from 
1174 to 1199. He was, therefore, at that time probably 
Laird of Douglas, as his youngest son was parson of the 
church there about 1202, and whether he took an active 
part in suppressing Donald Bane's revolt or not, he cer- 
tainly after 1187 comes into notice. It may be added that 
though his family certainly appear as prominent in Moray- 
sliire, no evidence has been discovered of this William 
Douglas's presence there, if we omit his traditional share 
in putting down Donald Bane. It is not known when he 
died, but he does not appear on record after 1214. His 
wife is not known, unless she was a sister of Freskin of 
Kerdal, referred to below. He had issue : 

1. ARCHIBALD, who succeeded him. 

2. Brice, described as brother of Archibald. 1 He entered 

holy orders, and is said to have been prior of Les- 
mahagow, a cell of the great Abbey of Kelso, 2 and 
he may also have been Dean of Moray, though this is 
not certain. In 1203 he was made Bishop of Moray, 
a diocese which then extended to Rhynie on the east 
and to Abertarfl on the west, including Elgin and 
Porres, with Nairn and a considerable portion of 
Inverness, Banff, and Aberdeen, and it was he who 
finally fixed the site of the Cathedral of the diocese 
at Elgin. Among the benefactors of the bishop's 
first cathedral of Spynie was Freskin of Kerdal, 
whom Brice styles 4 avunculus ' or uncle, which 
suggests that his mother may have been Freskin's 
sister. 3 Nothing is known of Freskin's ancestry, but 
he may have been of the family of De Moravia, and 
as he appears to have held considerable property in 
Strathnairn, his influence may have led to Brice 's 
election as bishop. 4 For a time the bishop appears 
to have incurred the displeasure of the Papal See 
and was excommunicated, but was absolved on 5 
November 1218. A few weeks later he was the 
subject of severe charges against his life and morals, 
but though the indictment against him is very grave, 
nothing further is recorded regarding it, and he was 

1 Registrum Moraviense, 81. 2 Chron. de Mailros, 105. 3 Reg. Morav. y 
61. 4 Douglas Book, i. 11-15, and authorities cited. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OP DOUGLAS 135 

still bishop at his death in 1222. 1 He was canonised, 
his saint's day being the 13th of November. 2 

3. Alexander, mentioned frequently in charters as the 

brother of Bishop Brice. He was a canon of Spynie 
and vicar of Elgin, holding also the office of Superior 
of the Maisondieu or Hospital of Elgin. He was 
alive in 1237, but no further notice of him appears. 3 

4. Henry, canon of Spynie. He acted as one of his 

brother's clerks, and was also clerk to Bishop 
Andrew so late as 1239. 4 

5. Hugh, also a canon of Spynie. After 1222 he was 

archdeacon of Moray until about 1238. 5 

6. Freskin, who for a time was parson of Douglas, 6 and 

was promoted by his brother Brice to be Dean of 
Moray, an office he continued to hold under the 
bishop's successor. He co-operated with the bishop 
in the changes instituted in the See, and went to 
Lincoln in person to learn the custom of that place 
for guidance in the diocese of Moray. He appears 
to have died before September 1232. 7 

7. Margaret, said by Nisbet to have been married to 

Hervey Keith, ancestor of the Keiths, Marischals 
of Scotland. No evidence of her has been found, 
and in any case Hervey Keith is probably a mistake 
for Hervey le Marescal, a person who appears in 
charters after 1200. 

ARCHIBALD of Douglas is described as son of William 
Douglas in a charter dated not later than 1198, by which 
he resigned the lands of Hailes in Midlothian, held by him 
from the Abbey of Dunfermline, in favour of Thomas, son 
of Edward of Restalrig. 8 Between 1214 and 1226 he 
received from Malcolm, Earl of Fife, the lands of Living- 
ston and Herdmanston or Hermiston. Later he appears as 
Sir Archibald of Douglas, 9 and is a witness to several 
charters by the King and others. He seems to have re- 
sided at intervals in Moray shire, as appears from charters 
by his brother the bishop, and even after the bishop's 

1 Theiner's Vetera Monumenta, 6, 9; Reg. Morav., 359. 2 Forbes's 
Kalendars of Scottish Saints, 208. 3 Douglas Book, i. 4042. 4 Ibid., 42. 
6 Ibid. 6 Liber de Calchou, ii. 297. 7 Douglas Book, i. 42, 43. 8 Reg. de 
Dtmfermelyn, 190. 9 Liber de Metros, i. 214 ; cf. 37. 



136 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

death lie is found in that district. 1 In July 1238 he was 
at Selkirk with King Alexander n., when the latter 
granted the earldom of Lennox to Maldouen, son of 
Alwyn, Earl of Lennox. 2 Archibald Douglas disappears 
from record after the year 1239, and probably died not 
long after that date. He is said to have married Margaret, 
elder daughter of Sir John Crawford of Crawfordjohn. He 
had issue, so far as known, two sons : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded him. 

2. Sir Andreiu, who received the lands of Hermiston 

from his father, which he afterwards bestowed on 
his own son William. 3 He appears in various writs 
in company with his brother, and in 1259 he was 
present in Edinburgh Castle at the contract between 
his nephew Hugh of Douglas and Marjory of Aber- 
nethy. 4 Prom him the Douglases of Dalkeith trace 
their descent. (See title MORTON.) 

WILLIAM, or SIR WILLIAM, of Douglas, succeeded, who was 
styled 'Longleg,' according to Godscroft, because he was 
'of tall and goodly stature.' No direct proof has been 
found that he was the son of Archibald, but as he possessed 
the lands of Douglas, the relationship no doubt existed. 
He was born about 1200, as in a writ of 1267 he describes 
himself as over sixty. The first notice of him seems to be 
in March 1239 as witness to a charter by the Earl of 
Lennox, and two years later he witnessed a grant by 
King Alexander n. to the Priory of Lesmahagow. 5 In the 
same year, or in 1241, he appears as a landholder in North- 
umberland, where he had, with other lands, a manor named 
Pawdon, in Ingram parish. This fact has led to a sugges- 
tion that the Douglases were of Northumbrian origin, but 
part at least of the lands were acquired by purchase so late 
as 1264, and their possession has no bearing on the question 
of origin. The fact that he held these lands in England 
probably led him, with other Scottish barons in the same 
position, to favour the English party in the disputes which 
took place after the death of King Alexander n., and he 

1 Reg. Morav., 17, 81, 274. 2 Cartularium de Levinax, 1 ; see also Eeg. 
cle Passelet, 209, and Eeg. de Newbottle, 105, for other charters to which 
Archibald Douglas is a witness. 3 Eeg. Honoris de Morton, ii. 8. 
4 Douglas Book, iii. 2. 5 Cart, de Levinax, 31 ; Liber de Calchou, 151. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 137 

was present at the meeting of King Henry in. and the 
young King of Scotland at Roxburgh on 20 September 
1255. 1 

Sir William, however, is chiefly mentioned in private 
transactions rather than public affairs as regards Scotland. 
In one case he is found visiting Morayshire, and in another 
he is one of the sureties for Sir Walter Moray in a question 
between him and the Bishop of Glasgow about lands in 
Lanarkshire. 2 In 1267 he had a dispute with the overlord 
of his English manor, Gilbert Umfraville, Earl of Angus, 
and Lord of Redesdale, and at the latter's instigation the 
house of Fawdon was attacked, set on fire, and Douglas 
and his family ejected. He himself was imprisoned for 
some days at Harbottle, and goods were carried off to the 
value of 100, a large sum in those days, consisting of 
money, silver spoons, cups, mazers, clothes, arms, and 
jewels, such as gold rings and fermails. 3 If this account be 
not exaggerated, he must have been of considerable wealth. 
His second son William was nearly killed in defending the 
house. In 1270 Sir William Douglas was in Scotland, but 
he died a few years later, before 16 October 1274, perhaps 
at Fawdon. 4 His seal, at one time attached to his son's 
marriage-contract of 1259, bore, if Godscroft be correct, 
the same arms as those of his son Sir William Douglas ' le 
Hardi.' (See below.) 

It is not clear whether Sir William was twice married. 
Godscroft assigns to him a daughter of Alexander, Earl of 
Oarrick, but this last personage is unknown to record. His 
wife, so far as is known, was Custancia or Constance, 
probably, though not certainly, of the family of Batail, 
from a member of which Sir William purchased a part of 
Fawdon in 1264. 5 She survived him. He had issue two 
sons and a daughter : 

1. Hugh, of whom nothing is known or recorded except 
the circumstances of his marriage//and a traditional 
anecdote related by Godscroft. His contract of 
marriage with Marjory Abernethy, sister of Sir 
Hugh Abernethy, has been preserved. It was 

1 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 419. 2 See Douglas Book, i. 63-66, for these and 
other similar transactions. 3 Ibid., 60 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., i. 485-487. 4 Ibid., 
ii. Nos. 29, 30. 6 See Douglas Book, i. 61, 62, for authorities. 



138 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

entered into in Edinburgh Castle on Palm Sunday, 
6 April 1259, in presence of friends of both parties. 
The bridegroom was under age, and probably the 
bride also, and various provisions were made for 
their maintenance for four years, probably till Hugh 
Douglas attained majority. 1 Godscroft narrates 
another document, now lost, by which Sir William 
granted lands in Douglasdale to his son Hugh in 
fulfilment of the contract. Nothing further is on 
record of Hugh Douglas, and he completely dis- 
appears from the page of history. It is uncertain 
whether he succeeded to the estates of Douglas, but 
in any case he deceased before 1289, as in January of 
that year his brother William was in possession. 

2. SIR WILLIAM. (See below.) 

3. Willelma, married to William of Galbrathe, son of Sir 

William Galbrathe by a daughter of Sir John Oomyn 
of Badenoch. (See that article.) They had issue 
four daughters, of whom the eldest, Joanna, married 

de Oathe (Kethe or Keith) and had issue a son, 

Bernard de Cathe. Joanna was the heiress of 
Dalserf, but died in 1301, before her mother, who 
died about Christmas 1302. 2 

SIR WILLIAM DOUGLAS, known as 4 le Hardi,' Lord of 
Douglas, as he described himself, being the first of his 
family to assume the full baronial style, is first mentioned 
in 1256, when his father declared before a court that he 
had provided him lands in Warndon, Northumberland, with 
two guardians, as he was under age. 3 He next appears in 
1267, when he was severely wounded in defence of his 
father's house. He had married and was a widower, but 
little else is known of him before 12 January 1289, when as 
Lord of Douglas he wrote to the Abbot of Kelso to deliver 
up to him the family charters which had been in the 
custody of the abbey. He must have been in possession of 
the estates for some time, 4 though when he succeeded is 

1 See Douglas Book, iii. 2, 3. 2 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 1420. Inquest as 
to Willelma's succession, at Lanark, 30 December 1303. A Sir Bernard 
de Kethe appears in 1307 attached to the English interest. 3 Ibid., i. 394. 
4 According to Fordun, ed. 1871, i. 320, in his narration of the death of 
Duncan, Earl of Fife, William Douglas must have been in possession 
before April 1288. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 139 

not certain, and a short time before the above date he had 
made a bold stroke for a wife by carrying off from the 
manor of Tranent Eleanor de Lovain, widow of William de 
Ferrers, Lord of Groby, and marrying her. She had come 
to Scotland to secure her dowry from her late husband's 
lands, which were extensive. 

After he thus came prominently into notice, Sir William 
Douglas took an active part in the troubles which beset 
Scotland at this time. 

On 5 July 1291, Sir William Douglas, with other magnates, 
did homage to King Edward, who was now acknowledged 
as Lord Paramount of Scotland. 

Douglas appears to have held aloof from Edward's 
nominee to the throne. He apparently did not attend the 
coronation of Baliol, nor was he present at his first Parlia- 
ment, and he was specially summoned as a defaulter. He 
appeared in the second Parliament, but as a defendant 
rather than a member, and was placed in ward as guilty 
of offences against the King and his officers, 1 but his im- 
prisonment was not of long duration. In October 1295, 
Sir William was made Commander of the Castle of Berwick, 
and when this town, which had defied the English King, 
was captured, Douglas was exempted from favourable 
conditions and kept in close ward. He was, however, 
liberated before 10 June 1296, when he swore a special oath of 
fealty to Edward at Edinburgh, and at Berwick in August 
he joined in the general homage of Scotland. His posses- 
sions had been forfeited, but were now restored, not indeed 
his English estates, but his Scottish property, which was 
located in Fife, Dumfries, Wigtown, Berwick, Ayr, and 
Edinburgh, as well as Lanark, was given back. The 
counties named suggest that he had acquired the dowry 
lands of his wife Eleanor, as they lay in these districts. 

In May of the following year, 1297, Sir William seems to 
have joined the party of Wallace, who began at this time 
his patriotic career, and if Blind Harry is to be believed 
he took the Castle of Sanquhar from the English by a ruse. 
He certainly did incur the suspicion of Edward, and Robert 
Bruce, afterwards King, harried Douglasdale, and carried 
off Sir William's wife and children. Immediately after- 

1 Acta Parl. Scot, i. 448. 






140 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

wards Bruce joined the popular party, but he, with Douglas 
and other leaders, to their disgrace, deserted Wallace, and 
made submission at Irvine on 9 July 1297. Douglas was 
afterwards blamed for retarding the cessation of hostilities, 
and on this pretext was imprisoned in Berwick, in a 4 very 
savage and very abusive ' state of mind. 1 Edward i. was 
pleased at his captivity, and so important was he deemed, 
that when the English, after the battle of Stirling, left 
Scotland, they took Douglas with them, and he was com- 
mitted to the Tower on 12 October 1297, where he died 
some time in the following year, as in January 1299 his 
widow received the restoration of her dower lands. 2 His 
lands and castle of Douglas were conferred on Sir Robert 
Clifford, one of Edward's favourites. 

Sir William Douglas married, first, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Alexander, High Steward of Scotland. 3 She died some 
time before 1289, and he married, secondly, as above de- 
scribed, Eleanor de Lovain, or Ferrers, who survived him. 
In October 1303 King Edward i. granted her permission to 
marry John de Wysham, a * vallet ' of the King's, but she 
was apparently still a widow in June 1305. 4 His seal in 
1296 shows a shield bearing on a chief three stars. On 
either side of the shield are lizards (for ornament, not as 
supporters), and the legend is ' s. DNI wi . . . MI DE DVGLAS.' 5 
He had issue, so far as known, three sons : 

1. JAMES, the only son of first marriage, who succeeded 

him. 

2. Hugh, eldest son of second marriage, of -^wbom-a notice 



3. Sir Archibald, a son of the second marriage, aeeording 
to Godscroft, was probably the youngest brother of 
Sir James, as if he had been older than Hugh his 
son William would have succeeded (though under 
age) in preference to his uncle. He was probably 
born about 1297, but his name does not occur on 

1 Letters from the Captain of Berwick. Stevenson's Hist. Doc., ii. 205. 
2 Douglas Book, i. 102. See Memoir. The facts of his imprisonment 
and death in the Tower refute the story that Douglas was present at 
Carluke, the Forest Kirk, in 1298, when Wallace was appointed Governor 
of Scotland. 3 Barbour's Bruce, Spalding Club, 261 ; Andrew Stuart's 
History of the Stewarts, 14, 54. 4 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. Nos. 1399, 1400, 1671. 
5 Engraved Douglas Book, i. 17 ; ii. 549. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 141 

record until about or after 1320, when he received 
from King Robert Bruce the lands of Morebattle in 
Roxburghshire and Kirkandrews in Dumfriesshire. 1 
In 1324 he was granted the lands of Rattray Crimond 
(not Ormond, as in Wood), 2 Carnglass and others in 
Buchan. 3 He also, when he died, owned Liddesdale, 
the baronies of Cavers, Drumlanrig, Terregles, and 
Westcalder, and part of Oonveth in Aberdeenshire. 4 
He is called Lord of Galloway by Godscroft, a 
mistake followed by other writers ; but Galloway was 
granted only in 1369, not to this Archibald, but to 
his nephew of the same name, with whom he is some- 
times confounded. He appears to have annexed 
Liddesdale at a late period of his career, his right 
to it being afterwards disputed, and when he re- 
ceived the otker lands is uncertain, as there appears 
to be no record of the fact, but they may have been 
granted to him on account of his relationship to the 
'Good Sir James' as his own public career is not 
known to have deserved so great rewards. 

He was, however, forced prominently into public 
life by the troubles which followed the death, on 19 
July 1332, of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, 
Regent of Scotland after the death of King Robert 
Bruce. He acted in vigorous opposition to the 
claims of Edward Baliol to the Scottish Crown, and 
after the capture of Sir Andrew Moray in April 
1333 he was appointed to the vacant office of Regent. 
A few months after this he fell at the battle of 
Halidon Hill, 19 July 1333. Sir Archibald Douglas is 
said by Godscroft and others to have married a lady 
named Dornagilla Comyn, but so far as can be 
ascertained she is a mythical person. His only 
recorded wife was Beatrice Lindsay, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Lindsay of Crawford, 5 who survived him, 
and married, secondly, Sir Robert Erskine of Erskine. 6 
Two years after the Regent's death she was residing 

1 Robertson's Index, 11, 12, 20. 2 Ormond was not acquired until many 
years later. 3 Ant. Aberdeen and Banff, ii. 394. 4 These are enumerated 
in a charter to his son in 1354 as belonging to Sir Archibald. Douglas 
Book, iii. 360, 361. 6 Wyntoun, bk. viii. c. 41 ; Lives of the Lindsays, 
i. 54. 6 Mar Peerage, Evidence, 515. 



142 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

in the strong fortress of Cumbernauld, when it was 
besieged by the English, and owing to an outbreak 
of fire the defenders, including Beatrice Douglas and 
other noble ladies, were compelled to surrender, but 
apparently they were not prisoners for very long. 
Sir Archibald by her had issue : 

(1) John, to whom, with his mother Dame Beatrice of Douglas, 

Duncan, Earl of Fife, granted, between 1335 and 1338, the 
lands of Westcalder. 1 He appears to have accompanied 
King David n. to Normandy, and in 1340 formed one of his 
household at Chateau Gaillard. 2 Wyntoun states that he 
died abroad, and this is corroborated by the fact that he is 
not named in the entail of 1342 to be afterwards referred 
to. He no doubt died before 1341, when King David returned 
to Scotland. 

(2) WILLIAM, who succeeded to the Douglas estates and became 

first Earl of Douglas. 

(3) Eleanor, married first, probably when very young, to 

Alexander Bruce, Earl of Carrick, son of Edward Bruce, 
brother of King Robert. He was killed at Halidon Hill. 
She married, secondly, about 1349, Sir James Sandilands of 
Sandilands, 3 with issue, the present Lord Torphichen being 
her direct representative. Sir James died before 1358, and 
there is reason to believe his widow married, thirdly, 
before 1364, Sir William Towers of Dairy. 4 Before 1368 she 
married, fourthly, Sir Duncan Wallace of Sundrum, 6 and 
in 1376 she had a dispensation to marry her fifth husband, Sir 
Patrick Hepburn of Hailes. 6 

SIR JAMES DOUGLAS, Lord of Douglas, fondly known to 
his countrymen as the ' good Sir James/ is one of the three 
heroes of Scottish Independence, the other two being 
Wallace and Bruce. Indeed in Barbour 's Brus epic 
Sir James has a place scarcely second to the King himself, 
while his history is so interwoven with that of his country 
that it is difficult to separate the two, the rather as we 
know almost nothing of his personal life. The little know- 
ledge we have is chiefly from Barbour, who tells us he 
was a youth, 'bot ane litill page,' when his father was 
imprisoned. Barbour has also preserved a word-portrait of 
his hero. He was, it is said, of commanding stature, well 
formed, large-boned, and with broad shoulders ; his counten- 
ance was somewhat dark or swarthy, but frank and open, 

1 Spalding Club Miscellany, v. 243. 2 Exch. Rolls, i. 466. 3 Charter 
to them of the barony of Westcalder. Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 9. 4 Exch. 
Soils, ii. 165. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig., folio vol., 75, 105 ; Reg. Epis. Glasguensis, 
i. 279. 6 Andrew Stuart's Genealogy, 440. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 143 

set off by locks of sable hue. Courteous in manner, wise 
in speech, though he spoke with a slight lisp, gentle in all 
his actions. Terrible in battle, and at all times an enemy 
to everything treacherous, dishonourable, or false. James 
Douglas was in France when his father died, and after a 
time he returned to Scotland, going first to William Lam- 
berton, Bishop of St. Andrews, who received him kindly, 
and he remained in the prelate's household for some time. 
After Edward had disdainfully refused to restore his lands 
to him, Douglas joined Bruce and became one of his most 
trusted allies, and from that time the two men were seldom 
apart. 

Douglas was present at the King's coronation, and he 
was one of the small band who attached themselves to 
Bruce after his defeat at Methven, and joined him in his 
wanderings. 

King Edward I. died on 7 July 1307, and Bruce soon after 
set out on his campaign in the north of Scotland, while 
Douglas devoted himself to driving the English garrisons 
out of the border districts of Selkirk and Jedburgh, and he 
also made a third successful attack on his own castle, 
which he now razed to the ground. 

By the exertions of Douglas and others Scotland became 
so far freed from English control that Bruce was able, in 
March 1308-9, to hold his first Parliament, where Douglas 
was present. In February 1313 he captured the castle of 
Roxburgh by a somewhat grotesque stratagem. The battle 
of Bannockburn on 24 June 1314 settled the independence 
of Scotland, but even after that decisive conflict an inter- 
mittent warfare took place for many years. Sir James 
Douglas played his part in clearing and guarding the 
marches of the country with activity, prowess, and daring, 
and the dread of him was so great that English mothers 
used the name of the ' Black Douglas ' to frighten their chil- 
dren with. Raids into England alternated with the more 
peaceful duties of attending Parliaments. 

When King Robert went to Ireland in 1316 Douglas was 
appointed one of the Wardens of the kingdom ; and during 
the King's absence, owing to the increased activity of the 
English, some of his most stirring exploits were performed. 
In December 1318 the trust which not only the King but 



144 DOUGLAS, EARL OP DOUGLAS 

the country had in Sir James Douglas was shown by his 
being appointed by Parliament tutor, failing Randolph, 
Earl of Moray, to any minor heir succeeding to the 
throne. 

In August 1319 King Edward n., having resolved to strike 
in person a blow at Scotland, laid siege to Berwick with a 
large force. Douglas and Randolph marched into England, 
and while there met and defeated an English force at 
Mitton, in Yorkshire, the conflict being known as the 
4 Chapter of Mitton * from the number of ecclesiastics who 
fell there. This and two severe devastations of the north 
of England caused Edward to retire from Berwick, and one 
result was a truce for two years. An episode of this time 
of peace was the famous letter by the barons of Scotland, 
including Douglas, addressed to the Pope, then John xxn., 
affirming the independence of Scotland, and rejecting the 
pretensions of England. At this period also Douglas 
received various rewards for his long and varied services. 
In 1318 he had received a grant of the lands of Polbuthy, or 
Polmoody, in Moffatdale. He now received the lands, 
castle, and forest of Jedburgh with Bonjedward, and the 
barony of Stabilgorton in Eskdale. His estate of Douglas 
was defined by a bounding charter to include the two 
parishes of Douglas and Oarmichael, and he further re- 
ceived the extensive barony of Westerkirk in Eskdale. 1 
About this time also he had grants of Ettrick Forest, of 
Lauderdale, and the barony of Bedrule in Teviotdale. 2 

The expiry of the two years' truce was followed by war, 
and Douglas resumed his attacks on England. The English 
King retaliated by invading Scotland, but was forced to 
retire for want of supplies. He was followed to England 
by the Scottish army, and a battle took place near Biland 
Abbey in Yorkshire, in which the English were defeated, 
and their King made an ignominious flight to York. The 
result of this combat, so far as Douglas was concerned, 
was the famous grant known as the Emerald Charter. As 
a recompense for forgoing the ransoms of certain French 
Knights who were his prisoners, and whose ransoms were 
estimated at 4400 merks sterling, King Robert bestowed on 

1 The Douglas Book, iii. 9, 10, 354-356. 2 Robertson's Index, 10 Nos. 
21,24. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 145 

him the criminal jurisdiction over his extensive baronies, 
and over all his lands within the kingdom, with the excep- 
tion of articles relating to manslaughter and the Crown, 
which were reserved. He further freed Douglas, his heirs 
and servants, from all feudal services, suits of court, etc., 
except the common aid due for defence of the realm. The 
grant was made absolute, and is not accompanied with any 
terms of reddendo. The mode of investiture was unique, 
as it was given by the King taking an emerald ring from 
his own finger and placing it on the finger of Douglas, as an 
enduring memorial in name of sasine that the grant should 
be secure to him and his heirs for ever. 1 A few months 
later the lands of Buittle in Galloway, comprising the 
parish of that name with certain exceptions, were added 
to his already extensive possessions. 2 

In the beginning ot 1327 King Edward u. was deposed, 
and his son, a boy, became king, an event which broke the 
truce recently renewed with Scotland. In the hostilities 
which followed the continued successes of the Scots ulti- 
mately led to the treaty of Northampton in March and 
May 1328, by which Bruce was recognised as King of Scot- 
land, and it was arranged that his son Prince David should 
marry Joanna of England. In the following year the estate 
of Fawdon, in Northumberland, and other lands in England 
belonging to his father, were restored to Sir James 
Douglas. 3 

Sir James was present on behalf of his royal master at 
the marriage of Prince David at Berwick on 17 July 1328, 
and within twelve months thereafter he attended the last 
hours of King Robert, when, as Froissart tells us, he gave 
his promise to carry the King's heart to the Holy Land. 
As is well known, Douglas, after settling his affairs, set 
out on what was to be his last mission. He took ship from 
Montrose, and sailed to Sluys, in Flanders, where he enter- 
tained visitors for twelve days with great magnificence, 
though he remained on board his vessel, and never landed 
all that time. He then resolved to go to Spain, where 
Alphonso, King of Leon and Castile, was at war with the 
Saracen King of Grenada. Douglas offered his services to 

1 The Douglas Book, iii. 11, 12, 8 November 1324. 2 Ibid., 12, 13. 
iv. 4, 5. 

VOL. III. K 



146 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

Alphonso, by whom he was honourably received and enter- 
tained; but at the battle of Theba, on 25 August 1330, 
while fighting with his usual bravery, he was so surrounded 
by the enemy that, as Froissart has it, ' fynally he coulde 
nat endure,' and he and his comrades were slain. There 
are various stories of the way in which he met his death, 
but some of these are of late origin, and need not be 
repeated here. His body was recovered and brought home, 
where Barbour tells us it was buried in the church of 
Douglas. A monument was afterwards erected to his 
memory by his son Archibald, probably about 1390, when he 
succeeded to the estates and earldom of Douglas, and it 
still exists. 

The name of his wife has not been ascertained, but there 
can be no doubt that Sir James Douglas was married, and 
had a son and heir, 

WILLIAM, of-whefa^elo^r: 

He had also a natural son ARCHIBALD, who became, 
under an entail Fefe*4^4e~4i*ter, the possessor of the 
estates, and THIRD EARL OF DOUGLAS. 

WILLIAM DOUGLAS, son of the 'good Sir James,' has 
no doubt, because of his brief career, been overlooked by 
all historians of the family until the Douglas Book appeared. 
Even Godscroft does not mention him, but there is little 
doubt that he was the legitimate son of Sir James, as he 
succeeded at once upon the latter's death to the lordship 
of Douglas. This is proved by the fact that in the Ex- 
chequer Rolls of 1331 he is referred to as William, Lord of 
Douglas. This evidence is supplemented by a complaint 
by the monks of Ooldingham to King David 11., who accuse 
William, Lord of Douglas, and Archibald Douglas, his uncle 
(some time Regent), of depriving them of their town of 
Swinton, which they had for a time granted to the late Sir 
James. 1 As Archibald Douglas was the brother of Sir 
James, this proves that William was son of the latter. 
The fact is that the career of this young Lord of Douglas 
was so brief that it is no wonder he escaped notice. He 
was one of those who were slain at the battle of Halidon 
Hill on 19 July 1333, and his death there is noticed by two 

1 Priory of Coldingham, Surtees Society, 21. 22. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 147 

English chroniclers, whose contemporary and independent 
testimony leave no room for doubt that he was William 
Lord of Douglas, son of Sir James Douglas, who died in 
Spain. 1 None of the above statements absolutely prove 
his legitimacy, but a strong presumption of that is supplied 
by his immediate succession to his father's estates, whereas 
his illegitimate half-brother Archibald succeeded only by 
virtue of an entail afterwards to be referred to. William, 
Lord of Douglas, was apparently unmarried, and it is not 
clear whether he entirely completed his title to the estates. 
We now return to 

HUGH DOUGLAS, Lord of Douglas, called ; the Dull, 1 second 
brother of the 'good Sir James,' who for a time held the 
family estates, although he was a Churchman. He was the 
elder of the two sons of William Douglas, ' le Hardi,' by 
his second wife Eleanor Ferrers, and was born in 1294. 2 He 
appears to have made up titles and entered into possession 
of the estates, as he is referred to as Lord of Douglas, and 
he made grants of various parts of his wide domains to his 
kinsman William Douglas of Lothian, including the lordship 
of Liddesdale, 3 which had belonged to his brother Archi- 
bald. This proves that Hugh Douglas had succeeded to 
the lordship of all the lands of both his brothers, apparently 
to the exclusion, for a time at least, of the son of Archi- 
bald, who was the true heir of his father. But on 26 May 
1342, at Aberdeen, he formally resigned in the hands of 
King David the Second, the lands of Douglas and Oar- 
michael, Forest of Selkirk, Lauderdale, Bedrule, Eskdale, 
Stablegorton, Buittle in Galloway, Romanno, and the Farm 
of Rutherglen. Three days later these were regranted, at 
Dundee, to a series of heirs, first to the nearest lawful 
heir-male William Douglas, son and heir of the late Sir 
Archibald Douglas, the youngest brother of Sir James ; 
second, by a special royal grant to Sir William Douglas of 
Lothian, now of Liddesdale ; and failing them and their 
heirs-male, to Archibald Douglas, son of Sir James, and his 
heirs-male. 4 This was the entail which Lord Hailes con- 

1 Knyghton apud Twysden, 2564; Scalacronica, 163. 2 Stevenson's 
Historical Documents, ii. 43, 44. 3 Reg. Honoris de Morton, ii. 47, 48, 
89-93. 4 Acta Parl. Scot, i. 557, 558; The Douglas Book, in. 357, 359. 



148 DOUGLAS, EARL OP DOUGLAS 

jectured to settle the Douglas estates, but its terms were 
unknown to Mm. 

After this, little or nothing is known of Hugh Douglas, 
and he may have died in 1347, when his prebend of Old 
Roxburgh, of which he was the incumbent, is said to be 
vacant. 1 ;^ 

I. WILLIAM DOUGLAS, who succeeded to the estates of 
Douglas under his uncle's entail of 1342, was, as already 
stated, the second son of Sir Archibald Douglas, the 
Regent, and only lawful heir-male of the ' good Sir James.' 
The date of his birth is not certain, but he was a minor in 
1342, and a ward of his godfather Sir William Douglas, the 
Knight of Liddesdale. 2 The earliest notices of him state 
that he was educated in France, and bred to arms in that 
country, and there seems no doubt that his earlier years 
were spent there. He returned to Scotland in or about 
1348, probably at his majority, as he threw himself at once 
into the tide of events, gathering together a band of fol- 
lowers from Ettrick or Jedburgh Forest, where he was 
gladly welcomed by the people. 

William Douglas first appears in political life in 1351, as 
a commissioner to arrange the temporary release of King 
David ii. from his captivity in England ; which mission was 
successful, and he accompanied the King to Scotland. 
Lord Hailes, mistaking his share in the negotiations, has 
attributed to him the treacherous league with England, 
which was really made by his namesake, the Knight of 
Liddesdale. 3 But the Lord of Douglas, although he did 
visit England early in 1353, had nothing to do with such 
unpatriotic schemes. On the other hand he, in the same 
year, devoted himself to reducing the Anglicised Scots to 
their true allegiance, and made a descent on Galloway, 
overawing the chiefs, and compelling or treating w;ith 
them to take oaths of fealty to their proper sovereign. In 
this policy Douglas was imitated by others, and thus Niths- 
dale and Annandale also were wrested from the English. 
August of the same year, 1353, saw the tragical death of 
the * Knight of Liddesdale ' by the hand of his godson. 

1 Eotuli Scotice, i. 709, 749. 2 Reg. Honoris de Morton, ii. 46, 47. 
3 Fcedera, iii. 246. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 149 

Ballad lore ascribes this event to jealousy, and relates how 
the 4 Countesse of Douglas ' wept for her slain lover, but in 
1353 Douglas was not Earl, and he was not then married, 
notwithstanding Godscroft's statements on the point. It 
has also been stated that discovery of the Knight of Liddes- 
dale 's treason was the cause of his death, but it does not 
appear that his treason was known. Douglas has further 
been credited with a desire to revenge the deaths of Sir 
Alexander Ramsay and Sir David Barclay. This is doubtful, 
and the true reason of the Knight's death was probably, 
as Sir William Fraser suggests, a quarrel between the two 
Douglases on the score of property. This is the view taken 
by Fordun, a contemporary historian, and is borne out by 
charter and other evidence. 1 Liddesdale had belonged to 
Sir Archibald Douglas, but after his death his claim was 
set aside. The Knight of Liddesdale, however, secured the 
territory for himself in 1342. The younger Douglas probably 
resented this. In any case, on 12 February 1353, or 12 
February 1354, 2 he received a charter from King David n., 
granting to him, first, all or most of the lands which had 
belonged to the late Sir James, his uncle, and also all the 
lands which had belonged to his own father, the late Sir 
Archibald, the lands of Liddesdale being specially named. 1 
If, therefore, this charter preceded the Knight's death, the 
quarrel is easily explained ; and if it followed that event, 
Douglas's eagerness to take possession equally justifies 
For dun's opinion. 

In 1356 Douglas succeeded in harassing a large army 
with which Edward in. had been devastating Scotland with 
.more than usual fury, to such an extent that the English 
were compelled to retire, and Douglas, on his own account, 
concluded with the English Warden a six months' truce 
from April 1356, of which he took advantage to visit the 
captive Scottish King, and then to go to France. There he 
was well received by King John, who conferred on him the 
rank of knighthood, and he fought at the battle of Poitiers, 
so bravely that he would probably have been made prisoner 
had he not been dragged out of the fray by his own atten- 

1 The Douglas Book, i. 222-228, where the subject is discussed at length. 
2 The uncertainty of date is owing to the miscounting of the regnal 
years of King David's reign. 3 The Douglas Book, iii. 360, 361 ; cf . Seventh 
Hist. MSS. Rep., App. 527. 



150 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

dants. 1 This battle, fought on 19 September 1356, tended 
to aid the proposals for truce, and the peace comprehended 
England, Scotland, Ireland, and a part of France. Douglas 
was one of the Wardens appointed to keep the truce, 
though it was nearly endangered by his seizing the castle 
of Hermitage, in revenge, apparently, for an English raid 
on Eskdale. 

Sir William Douglas was present at the Parliament of 
Scotland in September 1357, when a truce was arranged, 
and the liberation of David n. decided upon. In the follow- 
ing January, probably on the 26th, he was created EARL 
OF DOUGLAS. The date has been stated to be 4 February 
1358, but there is evidence that it was earlier, and that 
the dignity was conferred during the sitting of the General 
Council, held at Edinburgh from 20 to 28 January 1357-58. 2 
He was one of the hostages for King David, and passed 
frequently to and from England, accompanied apparently 
at intervals by his Countess, to whom he was married 
in 1357. During the next few years the chief record of the 
Earl's doings is found in charters witnessed or granted by 
him, but these need not be particularised, except to note 
that one extensive gift of land to the monks of Melrose, 
part of which was for the soul of the ' Knight of Liddes- 
dale,' comprehended several farms now included in the 
ground recently acquired near Hawick for a military camp. 3 
About 1360 he acted as a Justiciar, and was also made 
Sheriff of Lanark. 

In 1363 there was a rupture between King David and 
his three principal nobles, the High Steward, the Earls of 
March and of Douglas, who complained, not without reason, 
that the money raised by the country to pay the King's 
ransom was squandered in an improper manner. King 
David had previously, in 1359, given ground for offence in 
another way by bestowing the Scottish earldom of Moray 
on an alien, Henry, Duke of Lancaster, although curiously 
enough Douglas and the Steward were both witnesses to 
the transaction, which took place at Dundee 5 April 1359. 4 

1 Fordun, ed. 1871, 376. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 522, 523; Stirlings of 
Keir, 199. 3 Cf . Liber de Metros, ii. 428-433 ; The Douglas Book, i. 236. 
4 Bain, Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 9. Mr. Bain gives date in his text as 5 April 
1358, but in his index as 1359, which is correct, and agrees with a general 
council held on that date at Dundee. Cf. Acta Parl. Scot, i. 524, 525. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 151 

But the above reason was a matter which touched Douglas 
more closely, as he was one of the sureties to the English 
Government for payment of the yearly instalments of the 
ransom. He was the first to take up arms to put matters 
right, but, perhaps because he was unsupported, his re- 
bellion suddenly collapsed, and he appears to have suddenly 
turned round and consented to a policy which, had it been 
successful, would have made Scotland a mere appanage of 
England. 1 The terms of the policy were embodied in a 
proposed treaty, which may be read in the records of the 
Scottish Parliament of March 1364, by whom it was rejected. 
One provision related to Douglas, namely, that he should 
be restored to the estates in England to which his father 
and uncle had right, or receive an equivalent. There can 
be little doubt, though the evidence was unknown to Sir 
William Fraser, who questions the fact, that Douglas was 
in attendance on King David n. in London in November 
1363, when the treaty was drawn up, as a few days later, 
he received the present of a gift cup from the English 
King. 2 This treaty was rejected, but a second was drawn 
up and submitted to the Scottish Parliament, and although 
it settled part of Galloway on a younger son of Edward in. 
and restored the disinherited lords, it was accepted for the 
sake of peace, on condition of a complete remission of the 
ransom money. Douglas affixed his seal to the Act and 
swore to observe it. 3 He was not named in the second 
treaty, but it is unfortunate that in the first he appears as 
if bribed to throw over the High Steward, who had been 
his friend. It has been suggested that he acted as he did 
from a far-seeing belief that the actual union of the two 
kingdoms was the only way to a lasting peace, 4 but his true 
motives must remain obscure, as materials are wanting to 
a right judgment. 

In 1369 a peace was arranged with England for fourteen 
years, and Douglas with others swore to keep the truce 
inviolate. In the following year the Earl by a formal writ 
renounced all rights and all lands he had by any right in 
the barony of Dalkeith, in favour of Mary Douglas, the now 
deceased heiress of the late Knight of Liddesdale. The 

1 Bain, Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 91 ; Acta Parl. Scot., i. 492-495. 2 Cal. 
Doc. Scot., iv. No. 93. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 495, 496, 526, 527. 4 The 
House of Douglas, by Sir Herbert Maxwell, i. 86. 



152 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

reason of this resignation is obscure, but it was probably 
intended to secure the rights of the lady's cousin and the 
Knight's heir-male of entail, Sir James Douglas, who there- 
after became Lord of Dalkeith. 1 The writ in question, 
implying that the Earl had right over the barony of Dal- 
keith, throws light on Froissart's statement that during 
his travels in Scotland he spent fifteen days with William, 
Earl of Douglas, at a castle called * Alquest ' or Dalkeith, 
where he saw his two children James and Isobel. Though 
the castle was not the Earl's own property, he may have 
been residing there, as tutor to the heiress. 2 

The death of King David in February 1371 brought a 
change of dynasty and placed the Earl's former ally the 
High Steward on the throne. The Earl was present at 
the new King's coronation, joined in the vote which secured 
the succession of the King's son, and was one of the Privy 
Council which arranged for the royal household. 

In 1374 Douglas is found styling himself Earl of Douglas 
and Mar, as he had obtained the latter title after the death 
of his brother-in-law Thomas, thirteenth Earl of Mar. The 
latter's sister, Margaret of Mar, Countess of Douglas, be- 
came in 1374 Countess of Mar in her own right, and the 
Earl of Douglas entered into possession of her estates, and 
also of the title of Mar. There is no doubt he held and 
used the double title to the end of his life, but by what tenure 
he held the title is doubtful, some stating that it was by the 
courtesy of Scotland, and others that he was created Earl 
of Mar. There are arguments on both sides, but they need 
not be discussed here, as they have already been stated 
and decided upon in the House of Lords. All that need be 
noted here is that Thomas, thirteenth Earl of Mar, died 
sometime between 22 October 1373, when he had a safe- 
conduct to go to England, and 21 June 1374, when the 
Earl of Douglas, in writing to the monks of Melrose, styles 
himself also Earl of Mar. 3 A later date has been assigned 
to Mar's death, but these dates seem to fix it about 1374. 

Scarcely had a three years' truce, which had been ar- 
ranged with England, come to an end in February 1584, 
before the Earl of Douglas had joined in a siege of Loch- 

1 Cf. The Douglas Book, i. 253, 254. 2 Ibid., 255. 3 The Douglas Boole, 
i. 371 ; Rotuli Scotice, i. 960 ; Liber de Metros, ii. 478-480. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 153 

maben Castle, which had been in English hands since 1346, 
and it surrendered on 4 February, two days after the truce 
expired. The Duke of Lancaster led a large army as far 
as Edinburgh, but retired without doing much harm ; and 
when he withdrew, the Earl of Douglas with a strong force 
entered Teviotdale, which had also been under English 
sway since 1346, and partly by force and partly by diplo- 
macy so wrought that ' nowthir fure na f ute of land ' was 
left under English rule, except the Castles of Roxburgh 
and Jedburgh. This was done by the Earl under a special 
commission, which empowered him to receive the Teviotdale 
men to allegiance. It was the last public act of the Earl, 
who, while returning to his Castle of Douglas was seized with 
fever, and died at Douglas after a brief illness, in or about 
May 1384. His body was borne to Melrose and interred 
there. 1 Hume of. Godscroft and others have assigned 
three wives to this Earl of Douglas: first, Margaret, or 
Agnes, Dunbar, 2 who is said to be the mother of James, 
second Earl of Douglas, and of Archibald Douglas, Lord of 
Galloway ; second, Margaret of Mar ; and third, Margaret 
Stewart, Countess of Mar and Angus. But his only wife 
was Margaret of Mar, daughter of Donald, and sister of 
Thomas, Earl of Mar. Douglas and she were married, so 
far as can be ascertained, in 1357, 3 and she survived him, 
marrying, as her second husband, before July 1388, Sir- 
John Swinton of Swinton, and dying in 1390. By her the 
Earl had issue only one son : 4 

1. JAMES, who succeeded as second Earl of Douglas and 

Mar ; and a daughter, 

2. Isabella, who, after the death of her brother Earl 

James in 1388, and of her mother in 1390, inherited 
the estates or earldom of Mar, and her father's un- 

1 Three fine seals of this Earl, as ' William, Lord of Douglas,' 
* William, Earl of Douglas,' and ' William, Earl of Douglas and Marre,' 
.are engraved in The Douglas Book, i. 291 ; ii. 550, where there is also a 
small signet used by him. 2 This is probably a case of mistaken identity, 
as Agnes Dunbar, sister of George, Earl of Dunbar, married in 1372 Sir 
James Douglas of Dalkeith. 3 This year is fixed on, as there is no earlier 
mention of his marriage, but it may have taken place somewhat before 
that date, as the chief evidence is a charter of confirmation of 13 November 
1-57 (cf. The Douglas Book, i. 287), which might be after the event. 4 Sir 
Archibald Douglas, Lord of Galloway, was not a son but a cousin of the 
first Earl. 



154 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

entailed estates of Cavers, Jedburgh Forest, Liddes- 
dale, the town of Selkirk, the superiority of Buittle 
and Drumlanrig, with others, the Douglas territory 
proper being entailed on Sir Archibald Douglas, Lord 
of Galloway. Isabella Douglas, some time before 
1388, married Sir Malcolm Drummond, brother of 
Annabella Drummond, Queen of King Robert m. 
In 1400 she and her husband bestowed Liddesdale 
on her half-brother George, Earl of Angus. (Vol. i. 
p. 173.) Sir Malcolm was killed in 1402, and Isabella 
Douglas married in 1404 Alexander Stewart, eldest 
natural son of Alexander, Earl of Buchan. As 
Countess of Mar and Garioch, on 12 August of that 
year, she granted to him the earldom of Mar in 
terms of a contract betwixt them ; l and on 9 De- 
cember she renewed the grant, and in a solemn 
ceremonial declared that she accepted him as her 
husband, and bestowed on him the earldom, to be 
held to him and their joint heirs, whom failing, to 
her own heirs, reserving a liferent to the spouses. 2 
The Countess survived her second marriage little 
more than three years, as she died between May and 
October 1408. 3 She appears to have been abroad sa 
late as 28 July 1408, when she is said to have sold 
her lands of St. Saens in Normandy, inherited from 
her father. She had resided there before, and on 
leaving France placed a statuette or image of her- 
self in the choir of the church of the Priory of St. 
Saens as a souvenir. The figure has since been lost. 4 
Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, survived her until 
1435, when, as he died without surviving issue, the 
Mar title and estates reverted to the Crown. A 
seal of Isabella, Countess of ' Marre and Garviach/ 
much broken, is engraved in the Douglas Book. 5 

William, Earl of Douglas, had a natural son George 
by his sister-in-law Margaret, Countess of Mar and 
Angus. He succeeded to his mother's estates, and 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 16 April 1476. 2 Copy charter and instrument in Mar 
Charter-chest. 3 Orig. writ referring to her as dead, dated 26 October 1408,. 
Gen. Reg. Ho., No. 220 ; while Exch. Rolls, iv. 86, show she drew her terce 
money for the Whitsunday term. 4 Les Ecossais en France, par Michel T 
i. 64. 5 i. 290 ; ii. 550. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 155 

he became EARL OF ANGUS (see that title, where 
the proceedings are narrated). 

The Earl had also a natural daughter, Margaret, 
who married Thomas Johnson, and on 10 November 
1404 received from her half-sister Isabella, Countess 
of Mar, the Mains of Bonjedward and other lands. 1 

II. JAMES, second Earl of Douglas, succeeded his father in 
that title, and also in that of Mar. The date of his birth 
is uncertain, as there is some doubt when his parents were 
married. Froissart, who saw him at a date not later than 
1369, speaks of him as ' a fayre yong divide,' 2 and he may 
then have been about eleven years old, or even a little older. 
He was made a Knight in 1371, probably at the coronation 
of King Robert n., as he is described in that year as Sir 
James Douglas, son of the Earl of Douglas. 3 He appears 
to have been present at the Parliament of 1373, though his 
name is not mentioned, as attached to the writ fixing the 
succession to the throne is a seal which can be no other 
than his, though the legend is unfortunately imperfect. 4 A 
year later he was a witness to a charter by his father, and 
in 1375 he travelled into England, from which country also 
he was permitted to export grain. 5 Some time between 
that and 1380 his father conferred on him the lordship of 
Liddesdale, as he is designed Sir James Douglas of Liddes- 
dale in a royal grant of that year of 200 from the customs 
of Haddington. 6 

During his father's lifetime little is recorded of Sir James 
Douglas, but after his father's death he takes a prominent 
place in history. Earl William had scarcely been buried 
when, accompanied by a band of thirty French knights, 
who had come to Scotland in search of adventures, Earl 
James raided England with a force of 15,000 men. 

Later, in May 1385, he again invaded England at the head 
of an army said to consist of 30,000 men, including 2000 
French troops which had been sent to Scotland under Sir 
John de Vienne. The relations between the Scots and the 
strangers were not, however, cordial, and in a few months 
the country was relieved of their presence. 

1 Antiquities of Aberdeen and Banff, iv. 731. 2 Lord Berners' trans- 
lation, ii. 396. 3 Exch. Rolls, ii. 364. 4 Acta Part. Scot., i. 549. See fac- 
simile of seals. 6 Rotuli Scotice, i. 968. Exch. Rolls, iii. 293. 



156 DOUGLAS, EARL OP DOUGLAS 

The next three years were comparatively peaceful, and 
the chroniclers are silent, while the Earl's movements are 
to be learned chiefly from charters witnessed or granted 
by him, but these need not be noted here. The latest of 
his own grants is dated on 27 July 1388, only a few days 
before the date fixed for an invasion of England on a large 
scale. This invasion had been resolved on at a meeting of 
nobles held at Aberdeen, and was intended to revenge the 
devastation caused by King Richard's army in 1385. It 
resulted in the battle of Otterburn, the many graphic 
accounts of which need not be repeated here. Suffice it to 
say that in the dim light of an August evening Sir Henry 
Percy, * Hotspur,' having marched rapidly from Newcastle, 
attacked the camp. The Scots were not unprepared, but 
still the onset was sudden, and it is said part of Douglas's 
armour was left unfastened in the hurry of putting it on. 
This may account for the tragedy of his death. For when 
the English by their weight and greater numbers made the 
Scots give way, the Earl with a heavy battle-axe or mace 
rushed into the thick of the fight and smote so strongly 
that none dare approach him, while he was well supported 
by his followers, who succeeded in driving back the enemy. 
But at last he was wounded to the death. He was able to 
speak a few words of encouragement and advice to his 
nearest followers ; and as they, in obedience to his last 
wish, raised his banner, concealing his death, he expired. 1 
The Scots renewed the combat with increased energy, the 
English were defeated, and Hotspur and other English noble- 
men were taken prisoner. The date of the battle of Otter- 
burn is uncertain, as authorities differ widely on the point, 
but the Earl's body was borne to Melrose and buried there, 
about four days after the battle, and the Scottish leaders, 
after celebrating his obsequies, were able to be present at a 
general council held at Linlithgow on Tuesday 18 August 
1388. On the Earl's death his unentailed territories and 

1 The briefest and most probable account of the Earl's death and last 
words is to be found in Lord Berners' edition of Froissart. The later 
editions amplify the speech, and Godscroft adds the reference to the 
prophecy of a dead man winning a field, which seems a traditional 
afterthought. Wyntoun, a contemporary, says the Earl's death was 
wholly unknown to the Scots until after the battle was over, when 
they found his dead body. But Froissart claims to have his account 
from actors in the conflict. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OP DOUGLAS 157 

the earldom of Mar passed to his sister, while the title and 
lands of Douglas went to the heir of entail. 

The Earl's wife was Isabel Stewart, daughter of King 
Robert n. The dispensation for their union is dated 24 
September 1371, but it is not certain whether the marriage 
took place at that time or two years later, when 500 
was paid on account of the marriage-contract. 1 She sur- 
vived the Earl, and married, secondly, before 1390, Sir John 
Edmonstone, ancestor of the Edmonstones of Duntreath. 
She died about 1410. 2 By her the Earl had, according to 
Godscroft, one son, but he died in infancy, and his name 
has not been recorded. 

The Earl had also two natural sons and a daughter : 

1. William, who had a grant from his father of the lands 

of Drumlanrig, 3 and who became the ancestor of the 
Douglases ot Drumlanrig, Dukes and Marquesses of 
Queensberry. 

2. Archibald, who received the lands of Cavers from 

his aunt Isabel, Oountess of Mar, some time before 
1405. In 1412 King James I. confirmed the grant, 
and Archibald's descendants still possess the lands. 4 

3. Eleanor, who married Sir William Fraser, second of 

Philorth. They received from her aunt Isabel, 
Oountess of Mar, on 8 December 1404, certain lands 
in the shire of Banff. 5 From them the Frasers, Lords 
Saltoun, descend. 

No engraving of the Earl's seal is known. His seal as 
Sir James Douglas is attached to the Act of Succession in 
1373, showing a shield bearing on a chief three stars, sur- 
mounted by a label of three points, with a heart in base ; 
supporters, two lions. 6 Descriptions of other seals used by 
him as Earl are found, showing his father's cognisance of 
Douglas quartered with the arms of Mar. 7 

III. ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, styled 4 the Grim,' who succeeded 
to the estates and title of Douglas, was, as already stated, 

1 Exch. Rolls, ii. 433. 2 Ibid., iv. 120. 3 Original Charter at Drumlanrig, 
Fifteenth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. viii. 8. * Original Charter at 
Cavers, Seventh Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App., 727. 6 The Frasers of 
Philorth, i. 122, where see reasons for assigning Eleanor as daughter of 
Earl James. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 549. Facsimile. 7 Haddington 
Book, ii. 225, 226 ; The Douglas Book, iii. 71. 



158 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

a natural son of the ' good Sir James.' His parentage has 
been much discussed, and even Lord Hailes was puzzled, and 
assigns a * capricious entail ' as the reason for his accession. 
He did succeed under the entail of 1342, already described 
(p. 147 ante), which was unknown to Lord Hailes, but 
there he is distinctly named as son of the late Sir James 
Douglas. There is further proof of the fact in a charter by 
himself to the monastery of Holywood, where he speaks of 
his father the late Sir James Douglas, and other evidence 
might be quoted. 1 He must have been very young at his 
father's death in 1330, as he is not named in record for 
nearly thirty years afterwards, and he survived his father 
for seventy years. His first appearance in history was at 
the battle of Poitiers on 19 September 1356, whither he 
had gone with Sir William Douglas and other Scottish 
nobles. He was taken prisoner, but escaped captivity by 
a ruse practised by Sir William Ramsay of Colluthie, who 
treated him as a camp-follower, and, boxing his ears, dis- 
missed him, after paying forty shillings for his ransom, with 
apparent contempt. 2 

But although Archibald Douglas escaped being made 
prisoner at Poitiers, he did fall into English hands a few 
months later ; but the details are not known, and he was 
soon released, as he was made a captive in time of truce. 
On his release he received a safe-conduct, dated 16 Nov- 
ember 1357, in which he is described as a Knight, but when 
or how he received the honour is not known. Between 1361 
and 1364 he held the office of Constable of the Castle of 
Edinburgh, at a yearly fee of 200 merks. During that 
period the insurrection of his kinsman the Earl of Douglas, 
and the High Steward, took place, but Sir Archibald ad- 
hered to the King's party, and witnessed the submission 
of the Steward and his sons. 

In August 1364 Sir Archibald is found acting as Warden 
of the West Marches, an office which he held during his 
life. His first recorded act as Warden was an agreement 
as to Lochmaben Castle, which was then in the hands 
of the English Earl of Hereford. He also appears in the 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., fol. vol., p. 106, No. 56; cf. Liber Pluscardensis, ed. 
1877, i. 300. 2 See the story in Fordun a Goodall, ii. 358 ; Liber Pluscar- 
densis, loc. cit. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 159 

various parliaments of the time. In 1369 he entered upon 
that possession which earned him the distinctive appella- 
tion of Lord of Galloway. The chiefs of that district had 
always been troublesome to the Scottish Grown, with a 
tendency to revert to English rule when they could. In 
1353, however, William, afterwards first Earl of Douglas, 
had compelled them to return to their allegiance to the 
Scottish King, and they had since remained faithful. As 
Sir Archibald had probably shown energy in assisting his 
kinsman, and had manifested that he was eminently fitted 
to control the restless Galwegians, King David 11. bestowed 
upon him all Galloway betwixt the Nith and the Oree, by 
a charter dated 18 September 1369, 1 which refers to his 
diligent labour and grateful service, and Sir Richard 
Maitland says he received that territory ' becaus he tuke 
grit trawell to purge the cuntrey of Englis blude.' A few 
years later Thomas Fleming, Earl of Wigtown, who held 
the other portion of the district called Galloway, sold his 
earldom to Sir Archibald, the main reason being that he 
could not govern his territory properly, and serious discords 
and deadly feuds had arisen between him and the minor 
chiefs of the earldom. 2 Sir Archibald's grip of the terri- 
tory was strong and just, and from his time that district 
gave no further trouble. 

In 1369 and 1371 Sir Archibald was sent on embassies to 
France, 3 but while in Scotland he was chiefly occupied in 
his duties as Warden of the Marches. 

Sir Archibald Douglas was one of the leaders of the larger 
division of the Scottish army which invaded the West 
March of England in 1388. They did much damage, but 
their success was marred by the news of the death of the 
Earl of Douglas at Otterburn. By his decease the estates 
of Douglas fell to Sir Archibald, as next surviving heir 
named in the entail of 1342, though he did not at once 
assume the title of Earl, but took steps to complete his 
title to the lands. His succession was interfered with by 
Sir Malcolm Drummond, husband of Isabel Douglas, sister 
of Earl James, and now Countess of Mar, who had pro- 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., i. 69, No. 233. 2 So stated in his grant to Douglas, 8 
February 1372, confirmed by Robert n. 7 October same year ; Eeg. Mag. 
Sig., i. 114, No. 5. 3 Exch. Rolls, iii. xcvii.-civ. 



160 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

cured a brief from Chancery for infefting himself in the 
lands of Selkirk Forest. But these were included in the 
entail, and the brieve was declared null, while the Chan- 
cellor was censured for issuing it to Sir Malcolm. This was 
in the Parliament of April 1389, and a few days later Sir 
Archibald produced on his own behalf a charter by the 
King declaring it to be evident that Douglasdale and other 
lands named in the writ of 1342 fell to Sir Archibald by 
entail, upon which he was declared to be legally infeft in 
the lands. Other claimants were directed to proceed by 
ordinary course of law, but all sasines given in violation of 
that charter were pronounced by Parliament to be utterly 
ineffectual against Sir Archibald. 1 Soon afterwards the 
latter took the title of, or was created, Earl of Douglas, 
retaining in addition his former designation of Lord of 
Galloway. 2 

In 1389 a truce was made with England, which in 1391 
was settled on a more enduring basis in terms of the treaty 
with France, which had been arranged by Douglas in 1371, 
and as the peace lasted to the close of the Earl's life, he 
figures on the page of history only at intervals. His later 
years are marked by considerable benefactions to the 
Church, although he had always been accounted a good 
friend to the clergy. Indeed, shortly after he became 
Lord of Galloway, in 1369, he granted the lands of Cross- 
michael and Troqueer to the monastery of Holywood for 
the support of a hospital for poor and infirm persons. 
This charity was for the weal of the souls of King Robert 
Bruce, Edward his brother, David n., and of the granter's 
own father Sir James, Lord of Douglas. 3 The Earl also, at 
a later but uncertain date, turned his attention to Lin- 
cluden, another religious house in his territory. It had 
been a nunnery, but the Earl removed the nuns, and erected 
the building into a collegiate establishment, consisting of 
a provost, eight prebendaries, twenty-four beadsmen, and 
a chaplain. 4 The building was finished in a magnificent 
style of architecture, and it is said the place, which is 
beautifully situated, was a favourite residence of the Earls 

1 Acta ParL Scot., i. 557, 558. 2 He is so designed on 12 August 1389 ; 
Ant. Aberdeen and Banff, ii. 31; cf. iii. 269. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., i. 106, 
where the conditions of the grant are laid down. 4 Cf. Lands and their 
Owners in Galloway, v. 140. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OP DOUGLAS 161 

of Douglas. 1 The Earl also apparently restored the Abbey 
of Sweetheart or Newabbey, originally founded on 10 April 
1273 by Devorgilla of Baliol, 2 but which had suffered much 
from fire and pillage. The Earl is described in a writ of 
1381 as founder and reformer of the monastery, and his 
benefactions to it were probably liberal; and only three 
years before his death he made a grant to the Abbey for 
his own soul and that of Joanna, his spouse, Archibald and 
James, their sons, and for his own father and mother, but 
he does not name the latter. 3 His last great architectural 
work was the founding and building the collegiate church 
of Bothwell, begun on 10 October 1398. It became a very 
stately structure, not large, but containing Gothic work of 
a very fine character. The Earl's arms and those of his 
wife are still to be seen cut in stone. 4 

These donations procured for the Earl the good word of 
the historians of his day, who were all Churchmen, and 
they praise him highly, not altogether without warrant, 
for liberality, but also for justice and faithfulness to his 
promises, though other and later writers have not been so 
lenient to his memory. One of the last acts of his life led, at 
a later date, to unhappy consequences. He was the means 
of breaking off the betrothal of David, Duke of Rothesay, 
to Elizabeth Dunbar, daughter of George, Earl of March, 
and he married the Duke to his own daughter Mary. The 
Earl of March was greatly offended, and stirred up the 
English King to invade Scotland. The exact date of the 
Earl's death is a little uncertain, but it must have taken 
place before 9 February 1400-1, and it is probable, though 
the statement is made by a late writer, that he died on 
Christmas Eve 1400. 5 

His wife was Joanna Moray, widow of Sir Thomas Moray 
of Bothwell. On 23 July 1362 a dispensation was granted 
for their marriage, in which she is described as a widow, 
and the relict of Sir Thomas Moray. 6 This statement has 
been ignored by all historians of the Douglases, including 
Sir William Fraser, who maintains that * it conflicts with 
all evidence on the subject of Sir Thomas Moray's descent, 

1 Cf. Douglas Book, i. 349, and illustrations between 398 and 399. 
2 Laing Charters, No. 48. 3 Douglas Book, i. 349, 350, and notes. 4 Ibid., 
350, 351, and note. 5 Gray's MS. Chronicle, quoted in Mr. Riddell's 
Stewartiana, 97. 6 Theiner's Vetera Monumenta, No. DCXLVII. 

VOL. III. L 



162 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

and with the fact that Joanna of Moray calls herself, and 
is styled, Lady of Bothwell.' He therefore holds with 
others that Joanna was the daughter and heiress of Sir 
'Thomas. But Sir William was not aware of evidence 
proving that the dispensation is right, and that Joanna was 
a widow when Sir Archibald Douglas married her. In or 
about 1362, while still a widow, Joanna, styling herself 
Lady of Drumsargard, granted to her uncle, Walter Moray, 
certain lands in her barony of Oortachie, co. Forfar, and 
this grant was confirmed by her mother, Joanna of Men- 
teith, as chief lady of the barony. 1 The barony had been 
granted to Joanna of Menteith herself by her first husband, 
Malise, Earl of Strathearn, 2 while Joanna Moray was her 
daughter by her third husband Maurice Moray of Drum- 
sargard, who was created Earl of Strathearn by King 
David ii. Joanna was thus Lady of Drumsargard as heir 
of her father, and she was Lady of Bothwell as conjunct 
fiar with her husband, Sir Thomas Moray of Bothwell, who 
died in 1361. The extraordinary feature of the case is that 
Sir Archibald Douglas not only married Joanna, but became 
possessor of all the lands of which she was liferentrix. It 
has been supposed that an intention to dispute possession 
of Bothwell was indicated by Alexander Moray, brother of 
Maurice, whom Queen Euphemia, by an agreement in 1375, 
bound herself to support in regaining his heritage, 3 but his 
right to Bothwell is not clear, and nothing came of the 
proposal. It was probably as a safeguard against similar 
claims that Sir Archibald Douglas, when about to leave for 
France in 1371, obtained from King Robert n. a grant of 
all the casualties due to the Crown from the lands and 
offices of his wife. If she died without issue, the King 
renounced all claim to her heritable estate, and declared 
that Sir Archibald Douglas and his heirs should hold the 
same as freely as did the predecessors of Joanna of Moray. 4 
This, considering that Joanna was only, so far as is known, 
a liferentrix, is a remarkable arrangement, and shows the 
influence of Sir Archibald. It may be noted that where 
Sir Archibald Douglas granted lands which belonged pro- 

1 Laing Charters, No. 379. 2 Robertson's Index. 3 Crawford's Peerage, 
under Bothweli, where the agreement is given at length. 4 Peg. Mag. 
Sig., i. 87, No. 305. 






DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 163 

perly to the Morays of Bothwell, it was made a condition 
that the lands should be held of their heirs, or the heirs of 
Joanna Moray. 1 She survived the Earl, and after his 
death granted portions of the heritage of Bothwell in her 
own name. 2 She was alive in January 1403, and probably 
died before August 1409, but the date of her death has 
not been precisely ascertained. By her the third Earl of 
Douglas had issue : 

1. ARCHIBALD, who succeeded as fourth Earl. (See below.) 

2. JAMES, who about 1440 became seventh Earl. (See 

below.) 

3. Mary or Marjory, married in February 1399-1400 to 

David, Duke of Rothesay, Prince of Scotland, without 
issue. He died in 1402, and about 1403 she married, 
secondly, Sir Walter Haliburton, younger of Dirleton, 
after wards. Treasurer of Scotland. She died about 
1420. 3 

Archibald, third Earl of Douglas, had also a natural 
son William, known as Lord of Nithsdale, who seems 
to have largely inherited the characteristics of his 
grandfather Sir James, and whose career, as told by 
the historians of the time, reads like a romance. It 
is probably he who as William Douglas of Scotland 
is mentioned in the English records in 1372 as having 
a dispute about the marches with Henry Lord Percy," 
though he is not named in Scottish record before 1384. 
In 1385, when the Scoto-French army beset Carlisle, 
he is said to have performed prodigies of valour. 
In 1388 he made a descent on Ireland in retaliation 
for raids made by the Irish on Galloway. On his 
return he ravaged the Isle of Man, and landed in 
Scotland again in time to join his father and the 
other leaders who invaded Cumberland. In the same 
year he received from his father a charter of the 
lands of Harbertshire, co. Stirling. He is said by 
Bower to have gone in 1389 to Dantzic, in Prussia, 
with a number of other Scottish knights, and there 

1 The Douglas Book, i. 333 and notes. 2 Ibid., 353. 3 Exch. Rolls, Hi. 
and iv. per Indices. Eleanor, another daughter assigned to this Earl, 
has more correctly been placed under Earl James. Cf. p. 157, supra. 
4 Gal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 203. He is designed 'of Scotland' in 1390 (see 
infra), when it was certainly William of Nithsdale that is meant. 



164 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

to have been assassinated at the instance of an 
Englishman, Lord Clifford, with whom he had a 
quarrel. But the story of his alleged murder is a 
doubtful one, especially as the only 'Lord Clifford' 
known, Sir Thomas Clifford, died between July and 
November 1391, l while Sir William Douglas was alive, 
if not actually in Scotland, at Martinmas 1390, and 
seems to have drawn his share of the burgh rents 
of Dumfries for a good part of 1392. 2 He therefore 
probably died in that year, thus surviving his alleged 
assassin. 

Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale married about 
1387 Egidia Stewart, a daughter of King Robert n., 
and said to have been one of the most beautiful 
women of her time. No record of her appears after 
1388, and it is not known when she died. Sir 
William had issue : 

(1) Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale, who appears by that 

designation so early as 1402, when he appears in the list of 
prisoners taken at Homildon. Later he is named as a party 
to writs affecting, or a witness to charters by, his uncle 
Archibald, fourth Earl of Douglas. 3 But his career was 
short, as he was taken prisoner in some skirmish on the 
west marches, sent to Westminster, and committed to the 
Tower of London on 26 August 141 9. 4 He probably died 
there, as he appears no more on record, and his sister became 
his heir. 

(2) Egidia, a daughter of Egidia Stewart, who married about 

1407 Henry St. Clair, Earl of Orkney, and had issue, William, 
Earl of Orkney, who in 1456 is described as the grandson of 
Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale. 6 On 29 April 1418 a Papal 
dispensation was granted for the marriage of Egidia Douglas, 
relict of Sir Henry Sinclair, with Alexander Stewart, 6 per- 
haps the third son of Murdach, afterwards second Duke 
of Albany. He was executed with his father in 1425, ap- 
parently without issue. In 1438, Egidia Douglas had suc- 
ceeded to her brother in the territory of Nithsdale. 7 

1 Patent Rolls, Richard n., iv. 473, 499 n. It may be noted that Sir 
William had a safe-conduct to England in June 1390 to tilt with Clifford 
(Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 414). 2 Exch. Rolls, iii. 281, 332. 3 Hist. MSS. 
Rep., x. App. vi. 77; Douglas Book, i. 358, 359, for references. He was 
certainly a son of Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale, and a nephew of the 
fourth Earl of Douglas, but he may not have been a son of Egidia Stewart. 
* Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. Nos. 892, 893. 5 Douglas Book, iii. 82. 6 Andrew 
Stuart's Genealogy of the Stewarts, 449. The degrees of relationship 
given in the dispensation certainly apply to the parties here named, but 
otherwise the evidence for that Alexander Stewart is uncertain. 7 The 
Douglas Book, iii. 81, 82, 404, 422. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 165 

Three seals of Sir Archibald, third Earl of Douglas and 
Lord of Galloway, are engraved in the Douglas Book. 1 A 
fine seal with a double shield showing the Douglas arms on 
one side, and the arms of Joanna Moray, three stars two 
and one (without any tressure), on the other, is attached to 
a charter by her dated at Bothwell 9 February 1400-1. 2 

IV. ARCHIBALD, fourth Earl of Douglas, succeeded to his 
father about December 1400, certainly before February 

1401. He was probably born about or after 1372, and during 
his father's lifetime was styled Master of Douglas. On 
4 June 1400 he was appointed Keeper of the Castle of 
Edinburgh for life. Previous to this the Master had been 
active in punishing the Earl of March, who, taking offence 
at the slight upon his daughter, had passed into England, 
soon after which* Douglas seized his castle of Dunbar. In 
retaliation March allied himself with the English Wardens 
in raiding Scotland, but in 1400 was defeated by Douglas, 
who held for a time the territories of the banished Earl, 
and added to his other titles that of Lord of Dunbar. In 
October 1401 he was residing at Dunbar and dealing with 
the lands of the earldom of March as his own. 3 

In the spring of 1402 Douglas in concert with Albany 
arranged a series of incursions into England, which led to 
serious hostilities, ending in the Scots being defeated at 
Nesbit Muir 22 June, and at Homildon Hill 14 September, 

1402. At the last battle Douglas was severely wounded and 
lost an eye. On 21 July 1403 he fought side by side with his 
former opponent Henry Percy at the battle of Shrewsbury 
against King Henry iv. Percy was killed, and his army as 
a consequence defeated, while Douglas was again taken 
prisoner. He seems to have been kept in close custody for 
some time, but later procured some enlargement, and from 
1405 onwards we find him frequently in Scotland on safe- 
conducts, hostages being given for his due return. He also 
entered into various agreements with the English King. 
On 20 June 1408 he had a safe-conduct to Scotland on 
conditions of return, but he remained in Scotland, notwith- 

1 i. 354 ; ii. 551. 2 Swinton Charter, No. 15, at present in H.M. Gen. 
Reg. Ho. 3 Cf. The Swintons of that Ilk, xiv.-xvii. 32 ; Orig. Charter in 
Gen. Reg. Ho., Swinton Writs, No. 16. 



166 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

standing all remonstrances from King Henry, though he 
seems to have paid up his ransom, and apparently he was 
set finally free after the death of Henry iv. in 1413. 1 

In 1415 and 1416 he took an active part in negotiations 
for the release of King James I., then a captive in England. 
In October 1423 he accepted an invitation from the Dauphin 
of France to visit that country and aid him. He left Scot- 
land in February 1424, and after a stormy voyage landed 
at Rochelle, with ten thousand knights and soldiers. At 
Bourges on 19 April he swore fealty to King Charles vii. of 
France, who appointed him Lieutenant-General of his Forces, 
and bestowed upon him the duchy of Touraine, giving him 
the rank of a Duke of France. 2 There was some objection 
made by the French Exchequer, or Ohambre des Oomptes, 
to passing the royal charter of the duchy, but the Bang 
compelled them to consent, and soon afterwards it was 
completed in the French Parliament. 

The Duke, however, did not long enjoy his new dignity. 
He and his fellow-commander, the Earl of Buchan, were 
ordered to raise the siege of the Castle of Ivry, but reached 
that place too late, and fell back on the town of Verneuil, 
which was then in the hands of the English, but which the 
Duke's Scottish troops won from them by a stratagem. To 
this town the English general, John, Duke of Bedford, 
pursued the Scoto-French army, and on 17 August 1424 
inflicted a decisive defeat on the allies. The Duke of 
Touraine and his second son James were among those 
who fell, and their bodies were ransomed from the English, 
borne to Tours, and on 24 August 1424 were buried, without 
pomp, in the same grave in the middle of the choir of the 
Cathedral. 3 

The fourth Earl of Douglas married, during his father's 
lifetime and some time before 1390, Margaret Stewart, 
the eldest daughter of John, Earl of Carrick, afterwards 
King Robert in. She survived her husband, and was styled 
after his death Duchess of Touraine, as well as Countess 
of Douglas and Lady of Galloway, although the duchy 
which gave the title was, not long after the death of 

1 Cf. Douglas Book, i. 371-378. 2 See the oath, in A. Stuart's Genealogy 
of the Stewarts, 137-139 ; extract from Anselme's History, Douglas Book, 
iii. 374, 375. s Ibid., i. 393, 394, and authorities cited. 



DOUGLAS, EAKL OF DOUGLAS 167 

Douglas, bestowed by King Charles vii. on Louis of Anjou. 
The Countess in or about 1448 made an attempt to claim 
her terce out of the duchy of Touraine, and its rents and 
revenues. She sent her petition by William, Lord Crichton, 
Chancellor of King James n., who was her nephew, and 
her request was accompanied by a similar claim from 
William, eighth Earl of Douglas. Both claims were re- 
fused. 1 The Countess survived until January 1449-50, and 
how long afterwards is not certain, but she was dead in 
September 1456. 2 She is said to have been very gentle in 
her sway of Galloway, where she resided at the Castle of 
Thrieve. She is believed to have died there, and her tomb 
may be seen in the chancel of the ruined church of Lin- 
cluden, inscribed to her memory, ornamented with beautiful 
carving and adorned with armorial shields. 3 
The fourth EarLand his Countess had issue : 

1. ARCHIBALD, fifth Earl of Douglas. 

2. Sir James, who frequently acted as hostage for his 

father, and who is named in the agreement with the 
Duke of Albany, already noted. He was himself a 
captive in England in 1418 and 1419, but was ran- 
somed in 1419. He went with his father to France, 
was knighted before the battle of Verneuil, where 
he was killed. So far as has been ascertained, he 
was unmarried. 

3. Elizabeth, married, first, in 1413, to John Stewart, Earl 

of Buchan (see that title), who was killed at Verneuil, 
issue one daughter (see title Winton) ; secondly, with- 
out issue, to Sir Thomas Stewart, natural son of Alex- 
ander Stewart, Earl of Mar, and was again a widow 
before 1435; thirdly, to William Sinclair, Earl of 
Orkney and Caithness (see these titles), who survived 
her. She is said to have founded the crypt at the 
east end of Roslin Chapel. Over the door of the 
crypt is, or was, the inscription 'Forte est vinum, 
fortior est Rex, fortiores sunt mulieres, super 

1 The grounds of refusal are stated from the original French in Douglas 
Book, iii. 375-379 ; see Ibid., i. 396 n., 397, for the probably correct date of 
the Countess's letter, and a summary of the French King's reply. 2 Ada 
Parl. Scot., ii. 64 ; Exch. Rolls, vi. 196. 3 See plates in Douglas Book, i. 
398, 399 ; also p. 400 ; and Ibid., ii. 551, 552, for engravings of armorial seals 
of the Earl and his Countess. 



168 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

omnia vincit veritas.' l The Countess died about 
1451. 2 

V. ARCHIBALD, fifth Earl of Douglas, who assumed also 
the titular rank of Duke of Touraine, was probably born in 
or about the year 1390. He was one of the hostages for his 
father in 1405 and later years, and apparently spent a good 
part of his youth in England. In 1414, he appears as one 
of his father's squires, 3 and in August 1418 he, as Master 
of Douglas, confirmed a grant made by his father/ Not 
long after this he was selected by Parliament as one of the 
leaders of a large body of Scots who were sent to France 
to aid the Dauphin against the English. In connection 
with this expedition he is invariably styled EARL OF 
WIGTOWN, and though no evidence of a formal creation 
has been found, the new title was probably conferred by 
the Regent Albany to give dignity to the Master of 
Douglas in his new capacity. He retained the title during 
his father's lifetime and bore it on his seal. 6 The new Earl 
landed with his forces at Rochelle in 1419, but they did 
little more than frontier duty till 21 March 1421, when the 
allied Scots and French completely defeated the English at 
Bauge. As a reward for this success the Earl received 
the lands of Dun-la-Roy in Berry, and also the earldom of 
Longueville in Normandy, but the latter was apparently 
only a title. Other engagements, with varying success, 
took place between the allies and the English, until at 
Orevant, in July 1422, the Scots were severely routed. 
One result of this defeat was that the Earls of Wigtown 
and Buchan went to Scotland to solicit the aid of the Earl 
of Douglas, with the result already narrated in the previous 
memoir. 

The Earl of Wigtown did not accompany his father to 
France, partly, it is said, on account of sickness, but no 
doubt also because he was now the only representative of 
his family in Scotland. He met the lately released King 
James I. on his return to Scotland, was present at his 
coronation, and there knighted, on 21 May 1424. 6 In 

1 Quoted in Keith's Bishops, 471. 2 Exch. Rolls, v. 516 ; vi. 267, 268 ; 
see also Douglas Book, i. 398 n., as to probable natural children of the 
Earl. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 January 1426. 4 Liber Insule Missarum, Hi. 
6 See engraving Douglas Book, i. 422. 6 Liber Pluscardensis, i. 370. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OP DOUGLAS 169 

August of that year the Earl by the death of his father 
became fifth Earl of Douglas and second Duke of Touraine. 
The fact of his accession to the dukedom was signalised by 
an order by the magistrates of Tours for payment of 1000 
to him, in view of his future assumption of the dignity. 
But on a false report of his death King Charles vii. 
bestowed the Duchy on Louis d'Anjou, King of Sicily, and 
it does not appear that the Earl of Douglas took any steps 
to reclaim his rights. 1 He styled himself Duke of Touraine 
in his charters, though the title was not officially given to 
him in Scotland. The Earl was present at the celebration 
at St. Andrews in January 1425-26 of the King's birthday, 
but little else is recorded of him until April 1429, when he 
attended the Parliament at Perth, and was named on a 
commission to negotiate a truce with England. He, how- 
ever, went north wth the King on his expedition against 
the rebellious Lord of the Isles, who was defeated at 
Lochaber in June 1429. He returned with King James to 
Perth, but nothing of great interest is noted regarding 
him until 1431, when, without any cause now discoverable, 
he and another nephew of the King, Sir John Kennedy of 
Oassillis, were arrested, and the Earl was imprisoned in 
Lochleven Oastle. But by the influence of the Queen, 
nobles, and bishops the Earl was released in the end of 
September same year. 2 

The Earl's name from this date to the death of King 
James i. is connected chiefly with the granting of charters. 
One of these suggests that he was the first builder of the 
Oastle of Newark, so picturesquely situated in 4 Yarrow's 
birchen bower, 1 as he is the first to mention it in a charter 
dated 2 March 1423-24. 3 A gift of two rnerks Scots yearly to 
the Canons of St. Andrews reveals the fact that on or near 
the high altar in the cathedral there stood, and had stood 
for a long time, an image commonly called the Douglas 
Lady. 4 On the murder of the King at Perth, 20 February 
1437, Douglas was appointed Lieutenant-General of the 

1 Cf. as to the Earl's accession in Les Ecossais en France, by Michel, 
i. 149, 150, notes, but Michel is incorrect in his statement that the Earl, 
with his mother and his wife, claimed the Duchy. The claim was 
made in 1448, by the eighth Earl of Douglas. 2 Fordun a, Goodall, ii. 
490. 3 Cf. Reg. Mag, Sig., 28 August 1426. Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 
406,407. 



170 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

Kingdom/ and held the office till his death, taking an 
active part in affairs. But whatever benefits might have 
accrued to the country by the Earl's government were 
checked by his death, which took place at Bestalrig, of 
fever, on 26 June 1439. His body was conveyed to the 
Church of St. Bride's of Douglas, and interred there, where 
a magnificent monument to his memory was erected, and 
is still preserved. 

The fifth Earl of Douglas married, in 1424, or early in 
1425, Euphemia, elder daughter of Sir Patrick Graham of 
Kincardine, by his wife Euphemia Stewart, Countess Pala- 
tine of Strathearn. A Papal dispensation on account of 
their consanguinity was obtained on 26 June 1425, but 
they are then described as married persons. She survived 
the Earl and married, secondly, James Hamilton, Lord of 
Cadzow, afterwards first Lord Hamilton (see that title) 
with issue. She died in 1468 or 1469. By her the fifth 
Earl had three children, two sons and a daughter : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded as sixth Earl of Douglas. 

2. David, who was killed, with his brother, in Edinburgh 

Castle, on 24 November 1440, without issue. 

3. Margaret, known as the 'Pair Maid of Galloway/ 

She married successively the eighth and ninth Earls 
of Douglas, and further reference to her will be 
found in their memoirs. 

VI. WILLIAM, sixth Earl of Douglas, and third titular 
Duke of Touraine, which title he also assumed, was born 
about 1425, as he is said to have been fourteen when he 
succeeded to his father. One authority implies he was 
born in 1422, but this seems inconsistent with the probable 
date of his parents' marriage. When a child of five years 
old, he was present at the baptism, in October 1430, of the 
twin sons of King James i., and then received the rank of 
knighthood, with the two young princes, and others, all of 
* tender age.' The Earl's career was very brief, as not 
only was he young when he succeeded, but he was Earl 
for barely eighteen months. Yet he has been charged by 
Boece, who has been followed by others, with unbounded 

1 Acta Part. Scot. , ii. 31 ; Exch. Eolls v. ; Laing Charters, No. 117, of 
date 2 July 1438. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 171 

pride and arrogance, and the entertaining of schemes of 
policy and ambition worthy of the most experienced states- 
man. But Boece wrote in the reign of King James v., and his 
history has therefore a strong animus against the Douglases. 
Godscrof t, on the other hand, was the apologist of the family, 
and what he tells us of the young Earl points to nothing 
more than an extravagant style of living and a youthful 
tendency to show and unnecessary magnificence an ex- 
aggeration of the traditions of his rank. 

We have in genuine record absolutely no facts on which 
to found reasons for the tragedy which befell this Earl 
of Douglas. Boece says that one of his first acts was to 
send to France and do homage for the Duchy of Touraine. 
But no evidence has been found of this, and Boece has 
apparently confounded this William with his successor and 
namesake the eighth Earl. The only recorded appearance 
of the Earl in public affairs was his attendance at the 
General Council which sat at Stirling in September 1439. 
It was probably on account of the jealousy of the potential 
influence of the young Earl entertained by Chancellor 
Orichton and Sir Alexander Livingston that he and his 
brother were invited to Edinburgh Castle, there arrested, 
and after a mere form of trial in the presence of the boy- 
King, condemned, and shortly afterwards beheaded in the 
castleyard on 24 November 1440, 1 while their attendant Sir 
Malcolm Fleming shared the same fate a few days later. 
Of this tragedy John Major, who is comparatively un- 
prejudiced, simply says, 'I have read in the annals that 
these men were not guilty of death, but that this crime 
was perpetrated by the advice or stratagem of William 
Crichton, Chancellor of Scotland.' 2 

It is certain that by the Earl's death the great terri- 
tories of the family were divided, at least for a time. 
Douglasdale and other entailed estates passed, under the 
entail of 1342, to James, Earl of Avondale, second son of 
Archibald, ' the Grim,' third Earl of Douglas, while Gallo- 
way, east and west, with all the lands acquired through 
Joanna Moray, the Lady of Bothwell, devolved on Margaret 
Douglas, the only sister of Earl William. The great district 

1 Sir W. Fraser in his Douglas Book, i. 427, inadvertently gives the 
year 1439, but 1440 is correct ; cf. Ibid., 500. 2 Majoris Historia. 



172 DOUGLAS, EARL OP DOUGLAS 

of Annandale passed into the hands of the Crown, and was 
thenceforth administered by the royal officers. 1 

Earl William married, but in what year is uncertain, 
Jean or Janet Lindsay, the daughter, not of David, the 
first Earl of Crawford, nor of Alexander, the second Earl, 
as variously stated, but of David, third Earl of Crawford. 
Boece, who calls her Matilda, and the daughter of the first 
Earl, says she was the first wife of the fifth Earl of Douglas, 
and that the marriage was celebrated at Dundee with great 
pomp and magnificence. The last statement is probable, 
but she is styled ' Dame Jehan Lindsay,' daughter of David, 
Earl of Crawford, in a writ by herself, dated, at the Friars 
Church of Dundee, 29 October 1445, by which she renounced 
to the then Earl of Douglas all rights she had through the 
decease of the late William, Duke of Touraine and Earl of 
Douglas, her spouse, except her terce of Annandale, if 
recovered from the Crown, and she gave 40 of her terce 
lands in Ettrick in exchange for 40 in Balvany. 2 She also 
promised, if the Earl provided her a husband, she would 
give up the 40, but she was apparently still a widow in 
1473, 3 and died apparently between 1482 and 1484. 

The seal of Earl William, as William, Duke of Touraine, 
Earl of Douglas and Longavile, etc., is engraved in the 
Douglas Book. 4 As he died without issue, he was succeeded 
by his granduncle, 

VII. JAMES, the second son of Archibald, 'the Grim,' 
third Earl of Douglas, as the heir-male under the entail 
of 1342. In his earlier years, when he was known as 
James Douglas of Balvany, an estate in Banffshire given 
him by his brother the fourth Earl, 5 he was of a violent 
and impetuous temperament, as his treatment of the 
Customs officers testifies.' Another exploit of his might 
be patriotic, but it was cruel, the burning of the town of 
Berwick in 1405, a fact which he defended with much 
spirit in a letter to King Henry iv. 7 A more private act 
of violence was committed by him a few months later, an 

1 Exch. Rolls, v. vi., etc. 2 Instrument narrating her grant, 14 January 
1449-50, in H.M. Gen. Reg. Ho., No. 321. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 13 October 1472, 
22 January 1472-73; Exch. Rolls, vii. pref. Ixiv-lxvi, and authorities 
cited. M. 430; ii. 553. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 18 April and 11 May 1426. 
6 Exch. Rolls, iii. iv. * Douglas Book, iv. 67. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 173 

attack upon and the murder of Sir David Fleming of 
Biggar, while riding over Lang Hermandston Moor near 
Haddington, in or about February 1406. In 1409 Douglas 
was Warden of the Marches, and as such superintended 
the demolition of the old Castle of Jedburgh. 

Besides Balvany, James Douglas held from his brother 
the lands and baronies of Avoch, Edderdor, Strathern, 
and Brachly in Inverness-shire ; Boharm and others in 
Banffshire; with the baronies of Aberdour and Rattray 
in Buchan, and parts of Petty, Duffus, and others in 
Morayshire. 1 He had also in 1408 the strong Castle of 
Abercorn, in co. Linlithgow, and apparently possessed the 
above also at the same date. He was one of those who 
met King James i. at Durham, and accompanied him to 
Scotland in April 1424, and the following year he was one 
of the jurors who^ sat on the trial of Murdoch, Duke of 
Albany and the Earl of Lennox. In 1437, probably about 
the time when his nephew the fifth Earl of Douglas was 
made Lieutenant-General, James Douglas was appointed 
Justice-General of Scotland, and he was also created EARL 
OF AVONDALE AND LORD BALVANY. 2 He appears 
both as Earl and as Justice-General in a decision dated at 
Jedburgh on 28 November 1437, as to the ownership of the 
East Mains of Hawick. 3 The Earl was also employed in 
other services, but he does not appear largely in public affairs 
after 1438, one reason no doubt being increasing corpulence, 
which in his case is said to have been excessive. In 1440, 
as already stated, he succeeded his grandnephew as seventh 
Earl of Douglas, and the latest public reference to him is 
his presence at a great General Council in April 1441. 4 He 
died, so far as a comparison of authorities can be relied 
upon, on 25 March 1443, 5 apparently at Abercorn, and his 
body was carried to Douglas and buried there. The monu- 
ment erected to him and his Countess still stands, and his 
effigy bears out the statement made by contemporary 
chroniclers as to his extreme obesity. 6 There is no seal of 
this James of Douglas known to be engraved, nor recorded 
anywhere, but his seal as Justiciar of the Kingdom of Scot- 
land is reproduced in the Douglas Book. 1 

1 Douglas Book, i. 437, and authorities cited. 2 Ibid., 439, and note 2. 
3 Ibid. 4 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 56, 57. 5 Douglas Book, i. 442, 443, note 1. 
6 Auchinleck Chron., pp. 4, 35. 1 Douglas Book, i. 446 ; ii. 553. 



174 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

He appears to have been twice married. His only re- 
corded wife is Beatrice Sinclair noted below, but lie is 
three times within a year styled ' brother ' by Murdach, 
Duke of Albany, which suggests either that he married 
an unknown or a widowed daughter of Robert, Duke of 
Albany, or that he married a sister-in-law of Duke Mur- 
dach. But no evidence on the point has been discovered, 
and she must have deceased before 1424, without issue. 
The only wife whose name appears on his monument is 
Beatrix Sinclair, described as daughter of Henry, Earl of 
Orkney. 1 They were married before 7 March 1425-26, 
when King James I. granted to them certain lands in con- 
junct fee, and it is the earliest date at which they are 
named as husband and wife ; but she is frequently men- 
tioned in later writs. Countess Beatrix survived her 
husband many years, and in 1455 was forfeited for aiding 
her sons in their rebellion against King James n. She 
seems to have escaped to England, and died before 8 
February 1463. 2 

This Earl and Countess Beatrix had issue, all named as 
their children on their monument : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded as eighth Earl of Douglas. 

2. JAMES, who became ninth and last Earl of Douglas. 

3. Archibald, Earl of Moray. (See that title.) 

4. Hugh, Earl of Ormond. (See that title.) 

5. John of Balvany, 3 who is first named in 1451, in 

charters of entail granted by his brother William, 
eighth Earl of Douglas. Holland, in his Buke of the 
Howlat, implies that in 1453 he was but a youth. 
In 1453 and 1454 he is named in safe-conducts to 
England. He joined with his brothers, the Earls of 
Moray and Ormond, in their rising in Eskdale, and 
was present at their defeat at Arkinholm on 1 May 
1455, but escaped from the battle. He was forfeited 
with the rest of his family and joined his mother 
and brother James in England. He was ultimately 
beheaded for sedition at some date in the end of 
1463 or beginning of 1464. A price of 1200 merks 
had been placed on his head, and on 18 March 

1 Cf . inscription, Douglas Book, ii. 623. 2 Charters of St. Giles, 109. 3 He 
is sometimes called Lord of Balvany, but in charters and Acts of Parlia- 
ment he is styled 'John Douglas of Balvany.' 



DOUGLAS, EARL OP DOUGLAS 175 

1463-64 500 merks of that sum was paid to a certain 
John Scot and eight others, after his execution. 1 So 
far as has been discovered, he died unmarried and 
without issue. 

6. Henry, of whom nothing is known except his name on 

the tomb, but who may be identical with the George 
alleged by Godscroft to be the youngest brother, and 
who is said to have accompanied his brother, the 
eighth Earl, to Rome in 1450. He was being edu- 
cated at Paris for the Church, but died on the 
journey to Rome, at the early age of fifteen. 2 No 
George is commemorated on the monument, and 
Godscroft may have given the wrong name. 

7. Margaret, described on the monument as wife of the 

Lord of Dalkeith, and usually stated to be wife of 
James, Lord of Dalkeith, father of the first Earl of 
Morton. She was, however, the wife of his brother, 
Henry Douglas of Borg, who, during his brother's 
insanity, probably acquired some right over Dalkeith. 
They had issue. She survived her husband, and was 
still alive in 1469. 3 

8. Beatrix, who married Sir William Hay, afterwards 

first Earl of Erroll, and Constable of Scotland, with 
issue. (See that title.) He died on or about 29 Sep- 
tember 1462, and she married before 12 October 1463 
Arthur Forbes, 4 and was still alive in 1490. 5 

9. Janet, who is described as wife of the Lord of Biggar 

and Cumbernauld, and is said to have married Robert, 
first Lord Fleming, with issue. 

10. Elizabeth, described simply as fourth daughter. She 
is said to have married Sir John Wallace of Craigie. 

VIII. WILLIAM, eighth Earl of Douglas, who succeeded, 
was apparently not of full age when he became Earl, as he 
was probably born about 1425. In 1430 he is described as 
of tender years, when he was knighted at the baptism of 
the two young princes. Nothing is recorded of him until 
1443, after his accession, when, Boece tells us, he appeared 
suddenly before the young King James n. at Stirling, and 

1 Douglas Book, i. 453-454, and authorities cited. 2 Ibid., 444, 445. 
3 Ibid. , i. 445 and notes. 4 Ibid. , 445 and note ; Slains Charters. 6 Spalding 
Club Misc., ii. 327. 



176 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

made such a favourable impression that he was appointed 
Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom. 1 The only corrobora- 
tion of this last statement is found in a somewhat more 
trustworthy chronicle, which narrates that, when conduct- 
ing hostilities against Chancellor Orichton in August 1443, 
the Earl displayed the royal banner. 2 He thus gained pos- 
session of Crichton's castle of Barnton, and levelled it to 
the ground, an act for which the Chancellor retaliated by 
burning the granges of Abercorn and Strabrock, and harry- 
ing the lands of Douglas. 3 In 1444 the Earl obtained a 
large accession of territory by his marriage with his kins- 
woman Margaret, sister of the sixth Earl of Douglas, who 
brought as her dowry Galloway and other lands. But 
except the feud between the Earl and the Chancellor, which 
terminated after the latter 's surrender of Edinburgh Castle, 4 
little is recorded of him but matters relating to his family 
affairs, one important act being the settlement, in 1447, of 
the succession to the Douglas estates, and the determina- 
tion as to which of his two next brothers, who were twins, 
was the elder. 5 This will be noted in the next Earl's 
memoir. 

In 1448, as already noted, the Earl made a claim upon 
the French King for the lands of the duchy of Touraine, in 
addition to the claim by his aunt Margaret, widow of the 
first Duke, for her terce. 6 King Charles vii. replied that 
neither the Duchess of Touraine, her nephew, nor his wife, 
had any claim. The duchy was granted only to the first 
Duke, and to the heirs-male of his body, which the Earl 
was not, and he had therefore no right ; while as to his 
wife, though she was a daughter of the second Duke of 
Touraine, the King states that there is nothing in France 
belonging to her grandfather to which she could lay claim. 7 
Thus the articles, which were presented on behalf of 
Douglas by Chancellor Crichton, then ambassador to 
France, were rejected, and all connection between the 
house of Douglas and the duchy of Touraine ceased. 

After some mutual raiding on the part of the English and 

1 Boece, ed. 1574, f. 364. 2 AucUnleck Chron., 5, 36. 3 Ibid., 6, 37. 
4 The Earl and Crichton witnessed a royal charter together at Edinburgh 
on 3 July 1445, Douglas Book, iii. 427. 6 Cf. Reg. Mag. Sig., 9 January 
1449-50. 6 Cf . p. 167 supra. 7 See the French King's reply in full from a 
MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, Douglas Book, iii. 375-379. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 177 

Scots in 1449, various efforts were made to complete a 
truce between the two countries, without success for a 
time ; but in the battle of Sark, on 23 October 1449, 1 the 
English were completely defeated, and a peace was after- 
wards arranged. The Earl, however, was not present at 
that conflict, his men, numbering about 4000, being com- 
manded by his brother, the Earl of Ormond. 

The Earl was frequently at Court during the year 1450, 
and in attendance on the King, along with Bishop Kennedy 
and Chancellor Crichton, at least if his name as a witness 
to royal charters is to be relied on. After August 1450, 
however, he disappears from public life in Scotland for a 
time, as he was preparing for a journey to Rome, whither 
visitors were hastening from all parts to celebrate the 
Papal Jubilee. He set out with a brilliant retinue, and 
received a flattering reception. His stay was short, how- 
ever, and he was back in Scotland in April 1451. If, as is 
stated by one chronicler, 2 his return was due to information 
he had received of plots being hatched against him at home, 
the machinations of his enemies came to nothing. He soon 
regained the royal favour, and established his own influence 
more strongly than before. This is evident from the numer- 
ous charters granted to him when he resigned his immense 
estates, and received them again entailed to himself and a 
series of heirs-male, thus apparently securing the estates 
and family of Douglas for many generations. 3 

The Earl's favour with the King, however, was brief. 
On 26 October 1451 he was probably, though not certainly, 
present at the Parliament then meeting at Stirling. He 
appears as a witness to royal charters at Stirling in 
November, and at Edinburgh in December 1451 and January 
1452. 4 He then appears to have gone to his own castle of 
Douglas, whence he was summoned by a special message 
from the King, under a safe-conduct. Setting aside as 
doubtful various stories told in the later, but not the 
earliest MSS. of Pitscottie, and not narrated by Boece, the 
main facts seem to be, that the King believed the Earl to 
be in league with Alexander, Earl of Crawford, then 

1 Paper by Geo. Neilson, LL.D., Transactions of Antiquarian Society, 
Dumfriesshire, 1896-97, 122-131. 2 Law's MS. Chron., c. 1521, in Edinburgh 
University. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 67-73, and Reg. Mag. Sig. * Acta 
Parl. Scot., ii. 39; Reg. Mag. Sig. ; Reg. de Passclet, 257, 258. 
VOL. III. M 



178 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

apparently in rebellion against the Government, and desired 
by a personal interview to dissuade Douglas from assisting 
Crawford. Douglas duly arrived at Stirling Castle, was 
graciously received, and was invited to dine and sup next 
day, the 20th February 1452. After supper the King pri- 
vately urged the Earl to break off dealings with Crawford, 
but he refused ; the dispute grew warm, and the King, in a 
moment of passion, drew his dagger and stabbed Douglas 
twice, in the neck and body. These wounds, probably un- 
premeditated, might not have been fatal, but the courtiers 
rushed in, and ere the Earl could recover himself he was 
struck on the head by an axe, and was stabbed in various 
places, his body having no fewer than twenty-six wounds. 1 
His remains are said to have been buried quietly in the 
place of the Friars Preachers or Dominicans at Stirling. 2 

The eighth Earl of Douglas married, as already indicated, 
the daughter of his cousin, the second Duke of Touraine, 
Margaret Douglas, traditionally called the 'Fair Maid of 
Galloway,' the Papal dispensation for this union being 
dated 24 July 1444. 3 She was probably very young at the 
date of the marriage, and as the Earl had no issue by her, 
he was succeeded by his brother. 

IX. JAMES, ninth Earl of Douglas, was a twin with his 
brother Archibald, and the latter appears to have been for 
a time treated as the elder ; but in 1447 Beatrix, Countess 
of Douglas, made a formal attestation, declaring James to 
be the elder, 4 and from that time he was styled Master of 
Douglas. He was one of the three champions who fought 
on the Scottish side with three Burgundian visitors in 
February 1449. Herve Meriadec, a Breton squire, described 
as 'Larde of Longawell,' was the Master's opponent, and 
was the victor in the encounter. 5 The Master conceived 
the bold idea of building a fortalice on the Isle of Fidra, in 
the Firth of Forth, nearly opposite Dirleton, with a view 
to securing the command of the Firth, but this project he 
was compelled to abandon, as the isle was besieged. 6 

After accompanying his brother to Rome and being 

1 Auchinleck Chron., 9, 46. 2 Extracta ex Cronicis Scocice, 242. 3 Andrew 
Stuart's Genealogy of the Stewarts, 467. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig., 9 January 
1449-50. 5 Douglas Book, i. 479, and authorities cited. 6 Exch. Bolls, v. 347. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 179 

employed in a mission to England, he returned to Scotland 
before the end of January 1452, 1 and is said, but apparently 
without foundation, to have accompanied Earl William on 
his fatal visit to Stirling on 20 February. It was not until 
17 March, nearly a month later, that the Master, now Earl 
of Douglas, and his relatives made any demonstration, when 
they came to Stirling at the head of six hundred men and 
proclaimed the King and council as dishonoured covenant- 
breakers. The violated safe-conduct was dragged at the 
tail of a horse through the town, which the marauders then 
spoiled and burned. 2 The Earl also made overtures to the 
English King, which he transmitted by Garter King-of-arms. 
He made somewhat puerile displays of his contempt for 
Parliament, and it cannot be said that he acted either with 
dignity or energy after his brother's death. The King, how- 
ever, was not so inactive, and gathered a large force, number- 
ing it is said thirty thousand men, with which he marched 
southward to Selkirk, Peebles, Dumfries, and elsewhere, 
though the chronicler remarks he did no good, only destroy- 
ing the country and harrying his own adherents. 3 This 
warlike demonstration, however, apparently served its chief 
purpose, as Douglas was so far overawed that on 28 August 
1452 he signed at Douglas Castle a formal submission, the 
most important clauses of which were a promise by the 
Earl, for himself, his brothers, and Lord Hamilton, to for- 
give all those who had taken part in the death of his brother 
Earl William, and also that he would revoke all leagues 
and bonds, if any, made by him contrary to the King, and 
would make no such league in future. In January 1452-53 
he entered into another agreement with the King, by which 
he bound himself to render full manrent and service to 
King James, because the latter had consented to aid the 
Earl in marrying his brother's widow, and so regaining 
possession of Galloway, and had also promised to re-enter 
the Earl to the earldom of Wigtown and lands of Stewarton. 

1 Exch. Rolls, v. 582. 2 Auchinleck Chron., 10, 47. 3 Ibid., 11, 49. The 
date of the King's march has never been clearly ascertained. According 
to the Register of the Great Seal, he was absent from Edinburgh between 
9 July and 5 August 1452, and it is believed he was then engaged on his 
demonstration against Douglas. Corroborative evidence is found in a 
writ which states that on 18 July 1452 the King was at Corhead, in 
Annandale, where he held court in his tent, with Chancellor Crichtoii 
und other nobles in his train. Laing Charters, No. 134. 



180 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

The Earl bound himself to declare his service openly in the 
next Parliament after the fulfilment of the King's letters 
to him. 1 

Boece and Godscroft both assert, in different terms, that 
King James n. did not keep his promises, but there is clear 
evidence that he did, both as to the Papal dispensation 
necessary for the proposed marriage and also as to the 
earldom of Wigtown. In April 1453 Douglas was appointed 
one of a Commission to arrange a truce with England, to 
which he affixed his seal as Commissioner at Westminster 
on 23 May 1453. 2 Except two charters, the first at Douglas, 
28 March 1454, and the second at Peebles on 9 February 
1454-55, there is nothing clearly known of the Earl's doings 
between May 1453 and the events in March and April 1455, 
which led to his exile from Scotland. According to some 
authorities he paid a visit to the Earl of Ross at Knapdale, 
and was also the investigator of the raid made by Donald 
Balloch of the Isles upon Inverkip, Arran and Bute. But 
it is doubtful if the visit to Ross was made at this time, 
and the raid was certainly earlier than 1453, the year 
assigned to it. 3 There is no proof that Douglas had any- 
thing to do with Donald Balloch's raid, which seems to 
have taken place in 1452, and if the alleged date, 20 July, 
be correct, coincides with the King's expedition to the 
south, already referred to, which no doubt gave the 
marauder an opportunity he took full advantage of. 

The events of the spring of 1455 are well known. As the 
result either of proved treason on the part of Douglas or 
of advice given by his Council, King James II. resolved to 
try the conclusion of war. Both parties appear to have 
prepared and mustered their forces, but the King acted 
with most vigour and great activity. He seized in March 
1455 the small fortress of Inveravon near Linlithgow, be- 
longing to Douglas, then marched to Glasgow, where he 
was joined by west-country men and Highlanders. From 
Glasgow he went to Lanark, where an encounter took place 
between the royal army and the Earl's force, after which 
it is said the King ravaged Douglasdale and Avondaie, and 
in the first week of April he laid siege to the strong castle 

1 Bond dated at Lanark 16 January 1452-53. See Douglas Book, i. 484 
and note. 2 Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 1257. 3 Douglas Book, i. 486 and note ; 
Exch. Rolls, v. pp. cvii, 570, 578; Auchinleck Chron., 13, 54. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 181 

of Abercorn. The Earl, who seems to some extent to have 
been taken by surprise, now with a strong muster of vassals 
and friends marched to Abercorn to raise the siege. His 
friends, especially Lord Hamilton, advised an immediate 
attack, but the Earl's resolution was weak, and alienated 
his friends, who left him, and submitted to the King. 
Douglas, finding himself thus bereft, fled to England, where 
he was well received by King Henry vi. Shortly after- 
wards, on 1 May 1455, his brothers, who had raised a force 
in the south, were defeated at Arkinholm, the two elder 
being slain or taken prisoner, while the youngest escaped 
and joined the Earl in England. In June an act of for- 
feiture passed by the Scottish Parliament annexed large 
tracts of the Douglas territory to the Grown, including the 
districts of Ettrick Forest and Galloway, and a wide extent 
of land on the scores of the Moray Firth ; l besides which 
many great baronies were granted away by the King. All 
communication or assistance given to the exiled Earl or 
his family was declared to be treasonable. The Earl there- 
fore remained in England, and his later career is to be 
learned from English rather than Scottish record. 

The Earl had a gift or pension of 500 yearly from the 
English King, and he received other sums at various times 
for services rendered. But between 1455 and 1460 there 
was comparative peace between England and Scotland, and 
the Earl remained in retirement. After the death of King 
James n. and the accession of King Edward iv. to the 
English throne, the latter endeavoured to use the Earl as 
a means of stirring up strife, and he with his brother 
Balvany was despatched on a mission to the Earl of Ross 
and Donald Balloch with presents and money. This was 
about June 1461, and the effects were shown in an insur- 
rection by Ross in 1463, which was unsuccessful, as Douglas 
failed to give assistance, probably because of the capture 
of his brother John. The Earl remained peacefully in 
England during the next twenty years, occasionally em- 
ployed in military service, having been made by King 
Edward a Knight of the Garter, in 1461, or before 21 March 
1462. 2 In 1482 he joined, though to what extent is un- 

1 Acta ParL Scot., ii. 42, 43. 2 History of Orders of British Knight- 
hood, Sir Harris Nicolas, ii. App. p. Ivii. 



182 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

certain, with. Alexander, Duke of Albany, brother of James 
in., and King Edward iv. in their enterprise against Scot- 
land. Two years later the Earl again set foot in Scotland, 
never again to leave it. King Edward iv., who had 
favoured Albany's ambitious attempts at the Scottish 
Crown, was dead, and his successor, Richard in., looked 
coldly on his schemes. Albany, however, induced the Earl 
of Douglas to accompany him to Scotland in the hope that 
his vassals would rally round him, although there was a 
great reward set upon his capture. The two nobles rode 
first to Lochmaben, but instead of being welcomed, the 
smallness of their force, five hundred horsemen, was noted, 
and they were attacked and their troop dispersed. Albany 
escaped but Douglas was taken prisoner, and it is said was 
sentenced to retirement in the monastery of Lindores, where 
he died. 

Such was the end of the last Earl of the great house of 
Douglas. Godscrof t lingers sadly over his fate, and tells two 
pathetic stories of his capture and later days, which seem 
to bear the stamp of truth. At the fight near Lochmaben, 
he tells us, the Earl was struck from his horse, and finding 
himself on foot and unrecognised by those who had been 
his followers, called to one of his old retainers, Alexander 
Kirkpatrick, and placed himself in his hands. Kirkpatrick 
wept for sorrow to see his old master so changed and aged, 1 
and offered to flee into England with him. But the Earl 
refused, and only stipulated that his life should be secured 
at the King's hands. In the end, Kirkpatrick had the 
reward 2 and the Earl's life was spared, after a personal 
interview with the King. The other story told by Godscrof t 
is that in the midst of his troubles with his rebellious nobles 
King James in. visited Douglas in his retirement and offered 
to restore him to all his titles and possessions if he would 
aid him against the nobles. The reply was sad and sarcastic : 
* Sir, you have kept me and your black coffer in Stirling too 
long ; neither of us can do you any good.' This is merely 
perhaps a dramatic version of Ferrerius, who simply states 

1 The Earl could not have been aged in years, as he certainly was not 
more than fifty-eight, but no doubt his misfortunes had affected him. 
8 On 2 October 1484 Kirkpatrick received the lands of Kirkmichael for his 
service in taking the Earl of Douglas, thus corroborating Godscroft's 
main statement. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 183 

that the King sent a messenger to Douglas, who said that 
it was not possible for him to do the King's will as he had 
now no friends, besides being aged and worn with much 
care. 1 The date of the Earl's decease has been assigned to 
15 April 1488, but Godscroft has it that he survived the 
death of King James in. on 11 June 1488, and this is 
proved by the fact that as James Douglas, Knight, he had 
in Scotland a pension of 200 yearly from King James iv., 
which was paid at least until Whitsunday 1491, and soon 
after that date the Earl died. 2 

The ninth Earl of Douglas had two wives, but had issue 
by neither. He married, first, his kinswoman, Margaret 
Douglas, daughter of the fifth Earl of Douglas, and also 
widow of his brother the eighth Earl. A dispensation was 
issued from Rome on 26 February 1452-53, 3 and though 
doubt has been cast on the reality of the marriage, she is 
described as his Countess in various charters and other 
writs. She had with her mother-in-law, and John Douglas of 
Balvany, a safe-conduct to England 26 June 1454 or 1455. 4 
After her husband's forfeiture she appears to have been 
with him in England until 1459, when they separated, pro- 
bably in terms of a divorce, and she came to Scotland 
with letters to King James n., which obtained for her a 
favourable reception. In 1460 she married the King's 
half-brother, John Stewart, Earl of Atholl (see that title), 
and was dead or divorced before 1476. 

The Earl married, secondly, Anne, daughter of John 
Holland, Duke of Exeter, relict to two John Nevills, nephew 
and uncle, and mother of Ralph Nevill, third Earl of West- 
morland. Her second husband died in 1461, but when she 
married Douglas is uncertain. She predeceased him, dying 
on 26 December 1486. 

CREATION. Earl of Douglas. 

ARMS. The arms of the Earls of Douglas went through 
several developments, and their seals form a very interest- 
ing series. 5 The seal of Sir William Douglas, ' le Hardi,' 
1296, bore simply Argent, on a chief azure three mullets of 

1 Boece, addition by Ferrerius, ed. 1574, 400. 2 Exch. Rolls, x. pp. Ixvii, 
253. 3 Andrew Stuart's Genealogy of the Stewarts, 444, 445. 4 Rymer's 
Fcedera, xi. 349; cf. Rotuli Scotice, ii. 374. 6 The Douglas Book, ii. 549-554. 



184 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 

the field. The heart first appears on the seal of William, 
Lord of Douglas, about 1332, but in none of the seals of 
the Earls is it ever crowned. The crowned heart does 
not appear on Douglas arms much before 1600. 1 William, 
Earl of Douglas and Mar, quartered the Douglas arms with 
those of Mar, Azure, a bend between six cross-crosslets or. 

Archibald, third Earl, bore: Quarterly: 1st and 4th, 
Douglas; 2nd and 3rd, Azure, a lion rampant argent 
crowned or, for Galloway, and on an escutcheon surtout 
azure three mullets or, for Moray of Bothwell. 

Archibald, fourth Earl, bore : 1st, Douglas ; 2nd, Gallo- 
way ; 3rd, Moray ; 4th, Argent, a saltire and chief gules, 
for Annandale. 

Archibald, fifth Earl, bore : 1st, Azure, three fleurs-de- 
lys or ; these are the plain arms of France, but were intended 
to indicate his possession of the French Duchy of Touraine ; 
2nd, Douglas ; 3rd, Annandale ; 4th, Galloway. 

William, eighth Earl, bore: 1st, Douglas; 2nd, Gallo- 
way; 3rd, Moray; 4th, Azure fretty or, for the lordship 
of Lauderdale. 

James, ninth Earl, bore : 1st, Douglas ; 2nd, Lauder- 
dale; 3rd, Moray of Bothwell; 4th, Or, six piles gules. 2 

CREST. The crest varied from time to time. The first, 
second, fourth, and fifth Earls bore a plume of feathers ; on 
one seal of the third Earl the crest is a peacock's head 
issuing out of a tower and holding in its beak an escrol 
inscribed with the words ' What tyde.' The crest of the 
ninth Earl was a boar sejant. 

SUPPORTERS. The great majority of the Douglas seals 
have either one or two savages supporting the shield, and 
with few exceptions these have clubs in their hands. The 
first Earl, however, had the singular supporter of a lion 
sejant, the forequarters of which are concealed by the 
shield and the head being inserted in the helmet which 
bears the crest. The second Earl also used a lion sup- 

1 Heraldry in Relation to Scottish History and Art, 70. 2 Some 
authorities hold that this quarter is for Brechin, while Sir William 
Fraser suggests that it is for the lordship of Ettrick Forest. The whole 
question is discussed by Dr. Burnett, Lyon, in Woodward and Burnett's 
Heraldry, first edition, ii. 517 (it is omitted in the second edition). 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DOUGLAS 185 

porter. 1 The third Earl had several seals, two of which 
have lions, and two savages. One of the seals of the fifth 
Earl has two eagles draped, wings expanded, for sup- 
porters; the other has one savage holding in his right 
hand a club and the shield of arms, and in the other the 
helmet and crest. 

MOTTO. On none of the seals of the Earls of Douglas 
does any motto appear except what has been mentioned 
as issuing out of the bill of the peacock crest. The first 
appearance of the ordinary Douglas motto, Jamais Arriere, 
is on the seal of the eighth Earl of Angus (1557-1588). The 
' Douglas, Douglas tender and true,' mentioned by a poet 
in connection with the family arms, 2 can hardly be con>- 
sidered a heraldic motto. 

[J. A.] 
1 Macdonald's Scottish Armorial Seals, No. 659. 2 Book of the Howlat. 



STEWART, LORD DOUNE 




IB JAMES STEWART 
of Beath, younger son of 
Andrew, second Lord 
Avandale, obtained on the 
14th of July 1528 a grant 
of the captaincy of the 
Castle of Doune 1 from 
King James v., then in 
minority, whose Gentle- 
man of the Bedchamber 
he was. 2 Three days 
later his brother Henry 
Stewart, who had married 
the Queen-mother, was 
created Lord Methven. 
He had a charter 14 July 
1529 of Traquair, sold to 
him by Queen Margaret. In 1538 he witnessed a charter 
as 'Senescallus de Menteith,' 3 and on 1 June 1543 had a 
charter of confirmation of a grant of 27 April of that year 
of the lands of Beath by Richard, Abbot of St. Oolm, 
'Insule de Ymonia,' which proceeded 'pro ingentibus pe- 
cuniarum summis sibi persolutis ad reparationem monasterii 
sui per veteres suos Anglie inimicos nuper combusti,' 4 in 
favour of himself and his wife. He was killed at Dunblane 
on Whit Sunday 1547 by Edmonstone of Duntreath and his 
brothers, to whose family the office of Steward of Menteith 
had formerly belonged. 5 He married Margaret Lindsay, 
daughter of John, third Lord Lindsay of the Byres, and 
widow of Richard, third Lord Innermeath, 6 with issue : 
1. JAMES, his heir. 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Wood's Douglas, ii. 257. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. 4 Ibid. 
6 Wood's Douglas, ii. 257. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 






STEWART, LORD DOUNE 187 

2. Archibald Stewart, burgess of Edinburgh, brother to 

Lord Doune, married Helen Aichisoune. 1 Duncan 
Stewart 2 and Nisbet 3 say that he acquired Burray 
in Orkney, and that he died without issue. In 1578 
Archibald Stewart, Provost of Edinburgh, was put 
under bond of 2000 to depart to the Castle of Doune, 
and remain there in ward. 4 

3. Henry Stewart received as broth er-german to James, 

Oommendator of St. Oolm, a charter of the glebe 
of Dalgatie 13 January 1575-76. 5 Duncan Stewart 6 
and Nisbet 7 call him of Buchlivie. He married 
(contract 27 January 1566-67 8 ) Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Robertson, portioner of Aberdour, and was 
father of 

(1) James Stewart of Burray in Orkney, married Janet, 

daughter, of Torquil MacLeod of Lewis and Margaret 
Stewart his wife (see Ochiltree), and had a daughter Barbara 
Stewart, married to William Stewart of Mains and Burray, 
second son of Sir Alexander Stewart of Garlies, with issue. 9 

(2) William, styled brother of James in a writ of May 1619. 10 

(3) Bernard, brother's son of James, Lord Doune. 11 

4. Marjory, married, first, James Ross of Oraigton ; 

second, John Lindsay of Dowhill. 12 

5. Margaret, married (contract 6 February 1553-54) 13 Mr. 

James Ogilvie of Balfour. On her death, intestate, 
her brother-in-law, Mr. Robert Orichton, got 500 
merks in satisfaction of his wife's right to her jewels 
27 April 1563. 14 

6. Elizabeth, married, before 22 May 1558, Mr. Robert 

Orichton of Eliock and Oluny, Senator of the College 
of Justice, 15 and was mother of James Orichton, called 
4 the Admirable.' 

II. SIR JAMES STEWART of Doune, Oommendator of 
St. Oolm, born about 1529, 16 was retoured heir to his 

1 Will of Robert Crichton of Eliock ; Tytler's Life of the Admirable 
Crichton, 331 et seq. 2 History of the Stewarts, 123. 3 Heraldry, App. 161. 
4 P. C. Reg., iii. 19. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 History of the Stewarts, 123. 
7 Heraldry, App. 162. 8 Reg. of Deeds, xxi. 412. 9 D. Stewart, History 
of the Family of Stewart, 123; Inquisitiones Generales, No. 8598. 
10 Reg. Mag. Sig., 29 June 1619. " Beg. Sec. Sig., liii. 173. 12 Acts 
and Decreets, iii. 212 ; xxxii. 89. 13 Ibid., x. 182. 14 Tytler's Life of 
the Admirable Crichton, Note C, 276-277. 15 Acts and Decreets, 6. 
16 Estimate of the Scottish Nobility, 58. 



188 STEWART, LORD DOUNE 

father 8 July 1560, 1 and joined the Lords of the Congre- 
gation in that year. He received a charter 2 6 March 
1563-64 of the custody of the Castle of Doune and other 
lands with various remainders, some to his heirs-male, 
whom failing, to the senior heir-female, without division, 
some to 'heirs' and some to heirs-male. On 25 May 
1565 he received another charter of more of the lands 
of Doune, 3 with remainder to the heirs-male of his body, 
whom failing, to his heirs-male whomsoever. He was 
knighted by Darnley on the occasion of the latter being 
created a Peer 15 May 1565/ On 17 January 1665-66, as 
Chamberlain of Menteith, he was called upon to appear 
before the Privy Council for inquiry ; 5 on 19 March was 
indicted for the murder of Riccio, and on 24 March 1568 
was ordered to deliver up Doune Castle. 6 He was appointed 
a Privy Councillor 1571, and by King James vi., as ' of our 
blood,' was on 24 November 1581 7 created LORD DOUNE by 
charter under the Great Seal, confirmed by Parliament on 
29 November. This charter professes to be a confirmation 
of the charter of 6 March 1563-64, but does not repeat the 
remainders to all the lands quite accurately, and the lord- 
ship is limited to the ' heirs, etc.,' which in the MS. Register 
are said to be the heirs specified in the foresaid infeft- 
ments. It is difficult, therefore, to say what the remainder 
was, but the second Lord Doune obtained on 5 June 1592 
a ratification under Act of Parliament of the lordship, now 
made a male fief, and the lands, some of which are destined 
to the heirs-male whatsoever, failing the heirs-male of the 
marriage of the first lord, and others to the heirs-male of 
the body of Sir James Stewart, whom failing, to his heirs- 
male whatsoever. 8 In 1582 he was made a Commissioner 
of Justiciary, 9 and in 1584 was Collector-General of the 
Revenues. 10 He died 20 July 1590, 11 having married, 11 
January 1563-64, 12 Margaret Campbell, eldest daughter of 
Archibald, fourth Earl of Argyll, who survived him, and is 
styled his relict in 1591. 13 They had issue : 
1. JAMES, his heir. 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Fraser's Lennox, ii. 435. 6 P. C. 
Reg., i. 419. 6 Ibid., 437 and 625. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig. ; Acta Part. Scot., 
iii. 234, 235. 8 Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 629-636. 9 P. C. Reg., iii. 500. w Reg. 
Mag. Sig. u Wood's Douglas, ii. 258. 12 Vol. i. 340. 13 P. C. Reg., iv. 
606. 



STEWART, LORD DOUNE 189 

2. Henry, second son, created Lord St Colme. (See that 

title.) 

3. Archibald, mentioned in the charter 24 November 1579 

of lands of Mochastell to James Stewart of Doune 
and Margaret Campbell, his spouse, and to Henry 
their second son, whom failing, to Archibald his 
brother. 1 

4. John, son of James, Lord Doune, and brother-german 

to Harie, Lord St. Colme, was in 1609 tried for ' hame- 
sucken and murder under trust,' committed in 1608 
on John Gibb in Over Lassodie. He confessed, and 
was sentenced to be beheaded. The Privy Council 
referred his sentence in December 1609 for the con- 
sideration of King James vi., but no reprieve was 
given. 2 

5. Alexander. 3 

6. Mary, married (contract dated August 1581) to Sir 

John Wemyss of that Ilk. Her tocher was 8000 
merks, and Archibald Stewart, burgess of Edinburgh, 
was a security. 4 

7. Margaret, died young. 5 

8. Jean, married at St. Peter's Church, Falkland, 4 April 

1596, as second wife of Simon, Lord Lovat, 8 and died 
at Bunchrive 1 July 1622, 7 leaving issue. 

III. JAMES STEWART, Master of Doune, born before 1568. 
He is described as being l of very tall stature. 1 8 He obtained 
a gift from King James vi. of the ward and marriage of 
the two daughters of the Regent Moray, and having married, 
in 1580, the elder daughter, Elizabeth Stewart, assumed the 
courtesy title of EARL OF MORAY. (See that title.) 
He succeeded his father as Lord Doune in 1590, and was 
killed at Donibristle 7 February 1591-92. 

CREATION. 24 November 1581, Lord Doune. 

ARMS. No record of the arms of the earlier holders of 

1 Beg. Mag. Sig. 2 P. C. Reg.,vin. 386; Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, 
iii. 74-76. 3 Reg. Sec. Sig., xlix. 131. 4 Fraser's Family of Wemyss, i. 191. 
6 Gen. Reg. of Inhibitions, viii. 83. 6 Wardlaw MS., 224. 7 Ibid., 246. 
8 Estimate of the Scottish Nobility, 31 and 54. 



190 STEWART, LORD DOUNE 

the title has come down to us, but Henry, the uncle of the 
first Lord Doune, bore : 1st and 4th, Or, a lion rampant 
within a double tressure flory counterflory gules ; 2nd, Or, 
a fess chequy azure and argent; 3rd, Argent, a saltire 
between four roses gules. 

[A. P. s.] 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 




EOHOLAS SUTHERLAND, 
the first of his family 
who held the lands from 
which his descendants 
took their title, was the 
second son of Kenneth, 
fourth Earl of Suther- 
land, by his wife Mary 
or Marjorie, daughter of 
Donald, tenth Earl of 
Mar. 1 In 1360 his elder 
brother William, Earl of 
Sutherland, granted to 
him sixteen davochs of 
land in the free barony 
called Torboll, as named 
and described, to be held 
in free barony for the service of one Knight yearly. 2 This 
grant was confirmed by King David n. on 17 October 1363. 3 
He acquired part of the ancient barony of Duffus in Moray, 
and also, it would appear, lands in Caithness, by his wife 
Mary, the elder daughter and co-heiress of Reginald le 
Oheyne and Mary, Lady of Duffus, his wife. Towards the 
close of his life he appears as Lord of the Castle of Duffus, 
showing that with his wife's portion of the barony he held 
the chief messuage. They had issue, so far as recorded, 
two sons : 

1. John, who in 1408, as son and heir of Nicholas, Lord of 

1 According to Sir Robert Gordon in his History of the House of Suther- 
land. If Mary and Marjorie are the same, she was the widow of John of 
Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl, who was executed in 1306. (See that title.} 
If they are not the same, then Gratney, Earl of Mar, had three sisters, 
though he is usually said to have had only two. 2 Sutherland Book, iii. 18. 
3 Ibid., 20. 



192 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 

the Castle of Duffus, who was then apparently still 
alive, ratified a resignation of certain lands by his 
father in favour of his younger brother Henry. John 
was one of the hostages for King James I. in 1424, 
and is then described as Lord of Duffus, but he was 
exchanged in 1427 for another hostage. 1 Nothing more 
is known regarding him, and he probably died without 
issue, as in 1433 his nephew was Lord of Duffus. 
2. HENRY. (See beloiv.) 

HENRY SUTHERLAND, who carried on the line of the 
family, received, on or about 30 November 1408, from 
Robert, Earl of Sutherland, the 40 lands of Torboll which 
Nicholas Sutherland had resigned in the Earl's hands in 
favour of his younger son. 2 These lands were evidently 
accounted a younger son's portion, as John, the elder 
brother was afterwards Lord of Duffus. Nothing further 
is recorded of Henry, who does not appear to have been 
Lord of Duffus, and he died some time before 1434. 3 His 
wife was Margaret Mureff or Moray, who apparently 
survived him. On 11 June 1438 an inquest found that 
Margaret of Mureff, spouse of Henry of Sutherland, late 
Lord of Torboll, possessed at her death a halfpenny land 
on the east side of Wick, with houses there, 'abon the 
sande,' held of God and Haly Kirk, and of St. Fergus, patron 
of Wick. 4 They had issue, so far as known, one son, 

ALEXANDER SUTHERLAND, succeeded his father Henry in 
Torboll, and his uncle, apparently, in Duffus, before 13 
March 1433-34, when he granted twenty-one oxgangs of the 
lands of Strabrock or Broxburn in West Lothian, to Robert 
Orichton of Sanquhar. 5 He held also from David Lindsay, 
Earl of Crawford, the lands of Ledbothy in Forfarshire, 
which he sold in or about 1445 to Richard Lovell of Bal- 
lumby. 6 In 1444 he seems to have paid a visit to England 
to Pontefract Castle, where his chief, John, Earl of Suther- 
land was then residing as one of the hostages for the 
ransom money of King James I., and obtained from him a 
confirmation of the lands of Torboll in succession to his 

1 Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 1010. 2 Sutherland Boole, in. 22, 23. 3 Raine's 
North Durham, App. No. 361. 4 Original retour in Chancery. 6 Reg. 
Mag. Sig., 10 March 143940. 6 Ibid., 29 October 1463. 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 193 

father and grandfather, the destination being to Alexander 
himself and to the lawful heirs-male of his body. 1 In a 
Crown writ of 21 July 1541, cited later, he is referred to as 
Sir Alexander Sutherland of Duff us, but no other evidence 
of his knighthood has been found. He was alive in 1469 and 
1478, and was apparently deceased about or before 1484, 2 
though the evidence on the last point is not conclusive. 
He married, before 19 March 1433-34, Muriel, daughter of 
John Chisholm of Ohisholm, with whom he obtained the 
lands of Quarrelwood, Greschip, and others near Elgin. 
At the date named she, with her husband's consent, re- 
signed in the hands of the Prior of Ooldingham the lands 
of Paxton and Aldencraw, in Berwickshire. 3 Alexander 
and Muriel had issue at least two sons and two daughters : 
1. William, who is styled 'of Berydall' in 1451, and 
described then and in 1455 as son and apparent heir 
of Alexander Sutherland and of Muriel, his wife. 
Some time before May 1455 he had joined with them 
in resigning the lands of Diiffus, Quarrelwood, Gres- 
chip, and others into the hands of Archibald Douglas, 
Earl of Moray, and on 1 June 1455 the Master of 
Huntly, when he married the Earl's widow, became 
bound to defend the resiguers in their lands. It 
would appear also from this writ that the Earl of 
Huntly had destroyed or injured the Castle of Duffus, 
as well as that of Spynie. 4 Little more is known of 
him. He was alive in May 1474, but died soon after, 
having had issue two sons and a daughter : 

(1) Alexander, probably the Alexander Sutherland who had 
sasine of the half barony of Strabrock in 1475. 6 He died 
before 8 October 1478, when he is referred to as grandson of 
'Aid Alexander of Sutherland.' 6 It is not clear that he 
was canonically married, but he had issue a daughter : 

Christina, who is in 1494 referred to as daughter of 
Alexander Sutherland of Strabrock, 7 and has, by Sir 
William Fraser and the Peerages been assumed to be 
the daughter of the first Alexander Sutherland of 
Duffus. But in later writs she is named as the daughter 
of Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, and the great- 



1 Sutherland Book, iii. 25, 26. 2 Laing Charters, No. 160 ; Acta Dom. 
Cone., 5, 101*. 3 North Durham, App. No. 361. 4 Spalding Club Misc., 
iv. 128-131 ; cf . Sutherland Book, iii. 27. b Exch. Rolls, ix. 677. 6 Acta Dom. 
Cone., 5. 7 76id.,376. 

VOL. III. N 



194 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 

grand-daughter of Sir Alexander Sutherland of Duffus. 1 
She was apparently still a minor in 1484, when curators 
ad lites were appointed to protect her heritage. 2 She 
succeeded to Duffus and to lands in Caithness which 
had probably also come into the family by the marriage 
of Nicholas Sutherland with Mary le Cheyne, and she 
styled herself Lady of Duffus. 3 But objections were 
made to her heirship by her uncle William on the 
ground of illegitimacy, and the case was debated in the 
consistorial courts. A sentence was pronounced in her 
favour on 29 April 1494, by the Commissioner for the 
Bishop of Aberdeen, 4 but an appeal was made to 
Rome, and matters dragged on apparently until settled 
by a decree arbitral about 1507, when Duffus went to 
the opposing claimant, while the Caithness lands were 
given to Christina. 5 As a result she on 27 Novem- 
ber 1507, in terms of a contract between herself, her 
spouse, her son and heir and his tutor, on one part, 
and William, now of Duffus, on the other part, re- 
nounced her frank tenement of the lands of Duffus.^ 
She married, about 1489, William Oliphant, second son 
of the first Lord Oliphant, and had issue. (See title 
Oliphant.) 

(2) WILLIAM, afterwards of Duffus, of whom hereafter. 

(3) Isabel, married (about 9 May 1474) to Hew Hose, younger of 

Kilravock. 7 

2. Angus, who obtained the lands of Torboll. By his wife 
Christina he had issue three sons : 

(1) Nicholas, to whom in 1472, as son and apparent heir, his 

father resigned the lands of Torboll, Pronsy, and others. 7 
He died s.p., and perhaps v.p. 

(2) Donald, who is only known from a reference to him in a 

precept to his younger brother. He died s.p. 

(3) Hugh, who in 1492 had succeeded to his father, and his two 

brothers Nicholas and Donald, all then deceased. 8 Little is 
recorded of him, but he married Agnes M'Leod, of what 
family is not certain, and died before 1525, without surviv 
ing male issue. 9 His wife and he had apparently three 
daughters, of whom only one is on record : 

Christina, who was named in 1506, in a marriage-con- 
tract between her father and mother, and Andrew 
Kynnard of that Ilk or Skelbo, by which it was 
arranged that John Kynnard, younger of that Ilk, 
should marry her, or one of her two sisters. 10 This 



1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 May 1526; 21 July 1541. 2 Acta Dom. Cone., 101*. 
3 Laing Charters, Nos. 160, 235. 4 Transumpt in Protocol Book (No. 6) of 
James Young, notary, Canongate. 5 Cf . Sutherland Book, i. 513 ; Origines 
Parochiales, ii. 765, 766 ; also Reg. Mag. Sig., 18 June 1507, where Chris- 
tina is said to be illegitimate. 6 Acta Dom. Cone., MS. xix. f. 13. 7 The 
Family of Kilravock, 54, 135-137. 8 Sutherland Book, iii. 33, 34. 9 Ibid., 
37. 10 Ibid., 75. n Contract, etc., 16 January 1505-6, Reg. Ho. Charters, 
Nos. 686, 687. 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 195 

projected marriage apparently miscarried, and 011 
4 February 1509-10 she had a charter from King 
James iv. to herself and John Stewart, her future 
spouse, of the lands of Torboll. 1 But on 18 May 1514 
she was apparently married to David Stewart of the 
Doill, who at that date gave a bond to her father and 
mother not to disturb their possession of Pronsy and 
other lands. 2 On 21 April and 14 May 1562 she and 
Adam Reid, her husband, entered into a contract with 
Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, to make up title to 
her father's lands and resign them in favour of Alex- 
ander. 3 She fulfilled her agreement on 28 October of 
same year, 4 and nothing further is recorded of her. 

3. Isabella, who married Alexander Dunbar of Westfield. 

4. Dorothea, said to be the daughter of Alexander 

Sutherland of Duffus, married to Alexander Ross 
of Balnagown, who was killed at the battle of Allt 
Oharrais on 11 June 1486, leaving issue. She was 
blamed as one of the causes of the conflict. 5 

WILLIAM SUTHERLAND of Quarrelwood, afterwards of 
Duffus, was certainly the next successor to, and holder of, 
the Duffus and Quarrelwood estates. As stated above, it 
has been assumed that he was the second son of the first 
Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, and that Christina of Duffus, 
named above, was his niece. The consistorial sentence of 29 
April 1494, already cited, p. 194, supra, distinctly proves 
that he was the uncle of Christina, and he must therefore 
have been the second son, not of the first Alexander, but 
of William, his eldest son, and at least a younger brother of 
Alexander Sutherland called of Strabrock, the father of 
Christina. The first reference to him on record is in 1484, 
when he procured the usual brieves to serve him heir to the 
barony of Duffus, and curators ad lites were appointed to 
act for Christina, the daughter of Alexander Sutherland. 6 
After her marriage to William Oliphant, apparently between 
1484 and 1489, when she claimed to be served heir to Duffus, 
William Sutherland impeached her legitimacy. Her friends, 
however, were powerful, and the cause was debated in the 
ecclesiastical courts both in Scotland and at Rome for a long 
period, during which George Oliphant, Christina's eldest 
son and heir, was infeft in the lands on his mother's re- 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 2 Original Writ in Gen. Reg. Ho., No. 313. 
3 Reg. of Deeds, v. ff. 156-159. 4 Origines Parochiales, ii. 632. 6 Scot. 
Antiquary, iv. 9, 10. 6 Acta Dom. Cone. 



196 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 

signation. The lands claimed were Duffus in Moray, 
Berridale and Auldwick in Caithness, and Strabrock in 
Linlithgow. The matter was finally settled some time 
in or about 1507, by a decreet arbitral and contract 
between the parties, when it was agreed that George 
Oliphant should resign his fee and his father and mother 
their liferent rights over Duffus in favour of William 
Sutherland. In terms of this he had, on 18 June 1507, a 
Crown charter narrating the above and granting to him 
the lands of Duffus. 1 He is designed ' of Quarrelwood ' in 
that charter, but had previously assumed the designation 
4 of Duffus ' which he uses in a deed by himself of date 14 
June 1507. 2 The transaction was completed by Christina's 
renunciation of Duffus already cited, of 27 November 1507. 
William died before February 1513-14, perhaps at the battle 
of Flodden. 3 His wife may have been the Janet Innes, 
' Lady Greeship,' said to be a daughter of the family of 
Innes, and widow of a Laird of Duffus, who again married, 
some time before 1517, Hugh Rose of Kilravock. 4 He had 
issue, so far as known, one son, 

WILLIAM SUTHERLAND, who succeeded his father in the 
lands of Duffus, and probably Quarrelwood also, in or 
before February 1513-14 ; while he was in February 1519-20 
infeft also in his father's lands of Brichmond or Bricht- 
mony. 5 He had in 1524 a grant from King James v. of the 
lands of Kinstearie. 6 On 26 March 1525, Adam, Earl, and 
Elizabeth, Countess, of Sutherland, the superiors of the 
lands, granted to him the lands of Torboll and Pronsy 
which had belonged to the late Hugh Sutherland of Pronsy, 
and which had come into their hands through his decease 
without heirs-male, as already noted. The reasons given 
for the grant are of some importance. First, lest lands in 
their lordship should pass to strangers or to those having 
no title ; and second, having fully considered the right of 
succession of William Sutherland, Lord of Duffus, to the 

1 Beg. Mag. Sig., at date ; also 12 August 1497. 2 Ibid., 28 June 1507. 

3 Exch. Rolls, xiv. 541. On 12 February 1519-20 his lands of Brichmond 
(Brichtmony) are said to have been in the King's hands for six years 
and one term, which would also count back to Flodden. Ibid., 627. 

4 The Family of Kilravock, 55. 5 Excli. Bolls, xiv. 541, 627. 6 Beg. Mag. 
Sig., 29 November 1524. 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 197 

lands of Pronsy, by reason of tailzie and old infeftment 
granted thereon, they give and grant the lands and lord- 
ship to him in usual form. 1 As any entail, failing the heirs 
of Angus Sutherland, formerly named, was to the first Alex- 
ander Sutherland and the heirs-male of his body, 2 this clause 
seems to corroborate the view that this William and his 
father were direct heirs-male of the body of that Alexander. 
In 1527 William Sutherland resigned his lands of Duffus and 
Quarrelwood, in the shire of Elgin, and Brichtmony, Kin- 
stearie, and the mill of Auldearn in co. Nairn, in favour of 
his eldest son, 3 and he died before 1 June 1529, when his 
widow resigned her lif erent in Quarrelwood and other lands 
also in favour of her first-born. 4 He married Janet Innes, 
daughter of Alexander Innes of Innes, who survived him. 
They had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, who* succeeded. 

2. Alexander, who obtained the rectory of Duffus in 1512, 

was, in 1524, made perpetual chaplain of the chapel 
of the Virgin Mary of the Castle of Duffus, and 
about 12 June 1529 was appointed Dean of Caithness. 5 
On 14 August 1538 he founded two anniversaries 
on behalf of his father and mother, and of his elder 
brother William and others. In 1549 he was curator 
of his grandnephew, Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, 
and he was still alive in 1551. 6 

3. Elizabeth, who was married to John, third Earl of 

Caithness, and had issue. (See that title.) 

WILLIAM SUTHERLAND of Duffus succeeded his father 
between 22 July 1527 and 1 April 1529. On the former 
date his father resigned Duffus to him, and on the latter 
date it was clearly he who entered into a contract with 
John Kynnard of that Ilk to pay the sum of 2300 merks 
Scots by definite instalments, for each instalment receiving 
certain lands, including the lands of Skelbo and others, to 
be held of the Earl of Sutherland as overlord. 7 Kynnard 

1 Sutherland Book, iii. No. 73. 2 Ibid., Nos. 28, 38, 40. 3 Reg. Mag. 
Sig., 22 July 1527. 4 Reg. Morav., 415. He was probably dead before 
1 April 1529, as it was apparently his son who made the contract of that 
date as to Skelbo. See infra. 3 Origines Parochiales, ii. 616 and 
authorities cited. G Ibid., 616, 617, 631 ; Sutherland Book, i. 514. 7 Ibid., 
iii. 86, 87. 



198 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 

also conveyed Aberseors, Invershin, and other lands, and 
the whole sale and transfer of Skelbo took place finally on 
15 September 1529. 1 The new Laird of Skelbo, on entering 
to his fresh acquisition of territory, gave a bond of man- 
rent to his overlord, Alexander, Master of Sutherland, on 
4 September 1529, acknowledging that the Master had 
received him as tenant and vassal in the lands. The 
penalty for breach of the bond of service and manrent was 
1500 Scots, of which 500 was to be paid to the cathedral 
at Dornoch, 500 to the Master, and 500 to the King. 2 
King James v., on 31 March 1530, granted to him, until the 
majority of the rightful heir, the non-entry duties of the 
lands of Gal veil, Armadale, Farr, and others in Strathuaver. 
No owners of the lands are named, but they apparently had 
belonged to Hugh Mackay of Farr. 3 William Sutherland 
was killed some time between the above date and September 
1530, it is said, by the Olan Gunn at Thurso, who, Sir 
Robert Gordon states, were instigated by the Bishop of 
Caithness to commit the murder. 4 He adds that ' the haill 
dyocie of Oatteynes was in a tumult ' in consequence, 
though he does not name the cause of offence. Mr. Thomas 
Stewart, treasurer of Caithness, and several others, appar- 
ently clergymen, gave caution on 3 September 1530, to 
underly the law for Sutherland's murder. 5 The name of 
his wife is not known, and he left issue, so far as recorded, 
one son, 

WILLIAM SUTHERLAND of Duffus, when he succeeded, made 
strenuous efforts to avenge his father's death, and various 
offers of compensation were offered to him, which he 
refused. He summoned the Bishop to appear in Edinburgh 
to answer for the crime, but the Bishop paid no attention. 
The young Laird seized one of the Bishop's servants, and 
he and his uncle, the Dean of Caithness, w r ere cited before 
the Privy Council. On appearing they were thrown into 
ward, and were compelled to come to terms with the 
Bishop, without compensation, before they were set at 
liberty. 6 In April 1534, or a year later, the young Laird 

1 Origines Parochiales, ii. 630. 2 Sutherland Book, iii. 92-94. 3 Keg. 
Sec. Sig., viiu ff. 168, 169; Origines Parochiales, ii. 705, 710, 711. 
4 Genealogy of the Earls of Sutherland, 102. 6 Pitcairn's Criminal 
Trials, i. *149. 6 Sir Robert Gordon's Genealogy, etc., 102, 103. 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 199 

granted a discharge to John Murray of Oambusavie for the 
balance of a sum of 500 merks due to his late father. 1 He 
was, on 25 September 1535, declared to be his father's heir 
in Torboll and other lands. 2 In February 1540 he granted, 
probably on mortgage, the lands of Kinstearie and Bricht- 
mony to John Campbell of Calder, 3 and he granted various 
deeds at Elgin in October 1540 and March and May 1541. 4 
In 1542 he was declared by a jury to be the lawful heir of 
his father, the late William Sutherland of Duffus, in all the 
lands and rents in which his father died infeft within the 
county of Inverness ; 5 and in the same year he and Donald 
M'Ky of Farr submitted to the arbitration of the Earl 
of Moray a dispute betwixt them as to the owner- 
ship of certain lands, and also as to the non-entry duties 
granted to William's father in March 1530. The dispute 
had gone on for some years, and much disturbance and 
bloodshed had been caused, but the Earl's award, which 
practically gave the lands and non-entry duties to Donald 
for a sum of money, seems to have terminated the friction. 8 
In any case, William Sutherland did not long survive the 
settlement, as he died before the end of 1543. 7 His wife 
was Elizabeth Stewart, who survived him, and married, 
secondly, James Murray of Culbardie. She was still alive 
in August 1579. 8 They had issue : 

1. ALEXANDER, who succeeded. 

2. William, of Evelix, who appears as a witness in 1562 

to charters in favour of his elder brother. 9 He took 
part with his brothers in the taking and keeping of 
the castle of Berriedale in 1566. 10 At the burning of 
the church of Dornoch, about 1570, he is said to have 
broken open the coffin of Bishop Gilbert Moray, or 
St. Gilbert, and to have scattered the saint's dust to 
the wind. Sir Robert Gordon adds that, as a conse- 
quence, he died soon afterwards of a loathsome 
disease, 11 which was regarded as a special divine 

1 Origines Parochiales, ii. 630, date uncertain. 2 Ibid. 3 Reg. Mag. 
Sig., 18 February 153940. 4 Ibid., 8 Dec. 1540, 15 April, and 25 July 
1541. 5 Origines Parochiales, ii. 631. 6 Ibid., 711. 7 Reg. Sec. Sig., 
xviii. f. 17; cf. Exch. Rolls, xviii. 583. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig., 6 July 1542 ; 
Reg. of Deeds, viii. f . 457 ; Exch. Rolls, xx. 551. 9 Origines Parochiales, 
ii. 632, 633, notes. 10 P. C. Reg., i. 447-450. Genealogy of Earls of 
Sutherland, 158. 



200 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 

punishment of his sacrilege, but was probably the 
natural result of blood-poisoning. 

3. Nicholas, who also is a witness to charters in 1562, as 
cited. He is named also in charters of 1562 and 1566, 
and was also concerned in the affair of Berriedale. 

Walter Sutherland is named as a brother of Alex- 
ander Sutherland in 1562, 1 but it is possible that 
William is intended. 

ALEXANDER SUTHERLAND of Duffus succeeded his father 
before 29 December 1543, when his ward and marriage 
were gifted to Sir John Campbell of Oalder. 2 He was still 
a minor in December 1554, when he was infeft, under dis- 
pensation from the Earl of Sutherland as overlord, in the 
lands and castle of Skelbo, and in Invershin and other lands 
named. 3 He may, however, have reached majority by 2 
May 1555, when he received sasine of the lands of Duffus 
and others, near Elgin. 4 On 7 November 1562 the lands of 
Skelbo, Invershin, with Pronsy, Torboll, and all his other 
territory in Sutherland, were erected by the Earl of 
Sutherland into a barony, to be called the barony of Skelbo, 
to him and his heirs and assignees, to be held for ward and 
relief and other usual services. 5 In August 1560 he was a 
member of the Parliament which ratified the first Confes- 
sion of Faith. 6 Alexander had also, in June 1563, a grant 
of the lands of Skelbo direct from the Crown, as the Earl 
of Sutherland had been declared forfeited, and for this 
grant the sum of 1000 merks Scots was paid. 7 His exten- 
sive property, not only in Morayshire but in Sutherland, 
drew upon him the attention of George, Earl of Caithness, 
who entered into an alliance with the Laird of Duffus on 
20 July 1559 for a matrimonial union between their families, 
it being agreed that Alexander Sutherland, then about five 
years old, the eldest son of the Laird, or his brothers, in 
succession, should marry Elizabeth Sinclair, eldest daughter 
of the Earl, or her sisters, in succession, until a marriage 
was completed. 8 The Laird seems to have allied himself to 

1 Origines Parochiales, ii. 633 n. 2 Reg. Sec. Sig., xviii. f. 17; 
cf. Exch. Bolls, xviii. 583. 3 Sutherland Book, iii. 114-116. 4 Exch. 
Rolls, xviii. 583. 6 Sutherland Book, iii. 124-129. 6 Ada Parl. Scot., 
ii. 526. 7 Origines Parochiales, ii. 633, 634. 8 Reg. of Deeds, iii. 
264. 






SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 201 

the Earl in political matters also, and was mixed up in his 
disputes with his neighbours. His brothers, no doubt with 
his consent, seized the castle of Berriedale on 23 December 
1565, and held it for a time against Lord Oliphant, the 
rightful owner. He took part with the men of the Earl of 
Caithness in the attack on the town of Dornoch, which was 
made in 1567, and also when the town and the cathedral 
were laid waste in 1570. Sir Robert Gordon, in his account 
of these transactions, speaks of him as the * son-in-law ' of 
Caithness, but this seems a mistake, and a confusion 
between him and his son. Sir Robert states that the Laird 
of Duffus put to death the sureties surrendered to the Earl 
of Caithness by the people of Dornoch, and that he was so 
overcome with remorse that he fell ill, and died soon after. 1 
He was certainly alive on 24 March 1569-70, but did appar- 
ently not long survive that date, as no later reference to 
him has been found, and his lands of Duffus were in non- 
entry from about the middle of 1571. 2 He married, in terms 
of a contract dated 26 January 1552-53, and while still under 
age, Janet, third daughter of James Grant of Freuchie. 3 
The latter undertook to compensate Elizabeth Campbell, 
daughter of Sir John Campbell of Calder, for the loss of the 
value of Alexander's marriage, gifted in 1543, as already 
stated. She survived him, and was married, secondly, to 
James Dempster of Auchterless (contract dated at Elgin 26 
September 1577) / She made her will 19 October 1600, and 
died in that month. She made her son James her only 
executor, and refers to her 'oy,' Mr. Patrick Dunbar. 6 
Alexander and Janet had issue : 

I. Alexander, the eldest son, referred to as younger of 
Duffus in various writs, but there is no evidence as 
to whether he ever succeeded to Duffus. He was 
born in 1554, as in the contract entered into on 9 
July 1563 between his father and the Earl of Caith- 
ness for his marriage with Elizabeth Sinclair, it is 
stipulated the marriage should take place at Lammas 
1568, when he would be fourteen. 6 The marriage did 
take place, but whether he survived his father or not 

1 Genealogy, etc., 150, 157. 2 Reg. of Deeds, xiii. f. 171; Exch. 
Rolls, xx. 551, 552. 3 Chiefs of Grant, in. 107. * Reg. Mag. Sig., 10 
January 1578-79. " Edin. Tests., 21 May 1603. 6 Reg. of Deeds, vi. 
f.424. ' 



202 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 

is uncertain. He had no issue, and his wife survived 
him, marrying, as her second husband, Hugh Mackay 
of Farr. 

2. WILLIAM, of whom below. 

3. James, born in 1561. When about three years old, or 

earlier, he was placed 4 in fostering ' with Angus 
Sutherland * Hectorsone,' to whom, for his benefit, 
his father made over 4 fyve meris with ane Stallone,' 
to which, apparently, his foster-father added 'four 
meris, 7 so that the profit might accrue to his foster- 
son. 1 In 1590 he appears in the Privy Council 
Records as cautioner for his mother Janet Grant. 
He had the lands of Kinstearie in Morayshire, which 
were given to him in 1593 by his brother William, on 
his marriage with Violet, daughter of Thomas Fraser 
of Strichen. He was, as stated above, his mother's 
only executor. He is named as a witness frequently 
until 1623. He had a son John, whose son William 
married Margaret, daughter of William Innes of 
Kinnermonie, issue two sons, David and Hugh. David 
succeeded to Kinstearie, 2 and his great-grandson 
James Sutherland of Kinstearie is, in 1766, described 
as his father's only son. It is not known if he left 
issue. Hugh, the second son, had a son John, who 
acquired by marriage with Christian, daughter and 
heiress of William Sutherland of Rearquhar, the lands 
of Rearquhar. By her he had two sons, John and 
James, and one daughter, Margaret, married to her 
kinsman James Sutherland of Evelix (see below). 
John had a son James, of Rearquhar, and a daughter 
Janet, married to John Clunes of Neilston, who had 
two daughters, Magdalene, married to her kinsman 
Hugh Sutherland of Evelix (see below), and Anne, 
married to Duncan Sutherland at Kinauld, and a son, 
Hugh Clunes, who with Captain John Sutherland of 
Invercharron was the only heir in 1819. Hugh Clunes 
also died without issue. 3 

4. Elizabeth, who was married (contract apparently 

dated 9 November 1590) to Archibald Douglas of 

1 Origines Parochiales, ii. 726. 2 Cf. Services of Heirs, 1720-29, p. 29. 3 Cf. 
Decennial Indexes, 1810-19 ; Services of Heirs, 5, 67, and Supp., 9. 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 203 

Pittendriech, a natural son of the Regent Morton. 
She is described as sister of William Sutherland of 
Duffus. She had issue a daughter, Elizabeth, mar- 
ried to John Innes of Leuchars. 1 

WILLIAM SUTHERLAND of Duffus was in 1579 infeft in the 
lands of Duffus and Greschip, near Elgin, as heir of the 
deceased Alexander Sutherland, his father, the lands having 
been in non-entry for eight years and a half. At the same 
time he received formal possession of Quarrelwood and 
some other lands in same neighbourhood, which had been 
in non-entry since the death of his grandfather William 
Sutherland, who died in 1543. 2 He had previously, however, 
succeeded by right, if not formally, as he is referred to as 
4 now of Duffus ' on 18 June 1574, when he was directed by 
the Lords of Session to fulfil the terms of the marriage- 
contracts entered into by his father and elder brother with 
the Earl of Caithness. 3 A reasonable period after he had 
made up his title to his estates he ratified the bond, already 
cited, granted by his great-grandfather, William Sutherland 
of Duffus, to the Master of Sutherland. 4 That writ related 
to the barony of Skelbo, which he held from the Earls of 
Sutherland, but in 1588 he procured the erection of the 
lands of Duffus, Quarrelwood, Greschip, and others, near 
Elgin, into a barony, to be called the barony of Duffus. 5 
He was, later, appointed one of the council of the Earl of 
Atholl to keep order in the North, although in 1587 he is 
declared to have reset 'broken men,' or outlaws, on his 
lands. 6 In 1606 he entered into an agreement and arbitra- 
tion with the burgh of Dornoch, in terms of which the 
boundaries between the town's land and his lands of Skelbo 
and Pronsy were fixed and amicably settled. 7 He died in 1616. 

His first wife, whom he married about 13 October 1579, 
was Margaret, a younger daughter of George Sinclair, Earl 
of Caithness. When she deceased is not certain, 8 but he 

1 Douglas Book, ii. 321 ; Reg. Mag. Sig., 6 Jan. 1596-97. 2 Exch. Rolls, 
xx. 551, 552. 3 Reg. of Deeds, xiii. f. 168. * 15 March 1580-81 ; Suther- 
land Book, iii. 151 ; cf. ibid., i. 165, for other arrangements between 
the Laird and the Earl of Sutherland. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 August 1588. 
6 Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 466 a. 7 Origines Parochiales, ii. 637. 8 Confirma- 
tion of her executry was granted on 19 October 1607 (Minute Book of 
Ei/i.nburgh Commissariot), but the record for the date is missing, and 
the date of her death cannot be ascertained. 



204 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 

married, secondly, before 1604, as her fourth husband, 
Margaret, daughter of William Mackintosh of Dunachton, 
widow successively of Duncan Grant, younger of Freuchie, 
Alexander Forbes of Pitsligo, and of Alexander Gordon, 
younger of Abergeldie. 1 He had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded. 

2. James Sutherland, called ' of Kinminitie,' which he 

acquired from James Grant of Freuchie. 2 He had 
also Blarich and other lands from John Murray of 
Aberscors in 1624. He acted for a long time as tutor 
to his nephew, the young Laird of Duffus, and was 
styled Tutor of Duffus. He was still alive in October 
1679, but died between that and August 1680. 3 He 
married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Seaton of 
Monylangain, co. Longford, 4 and had issue, a son and 
two daughters : 

(1) Alexander of Kinminitie, who had, on 25 August 1675, from 

George, Lord Strathnaver, a gift of the ward duties of 
Skelbo, married Jean, daughter of Thomas Forbes of Water- 
ton, 5 and had two sons, Alexander and Thomas. The 
latter married in 1686 Violet, daughter of Michael Strachan 
of Auchnagat, afterwards wife of George Gordon, younger, 
of Glastyrim. 6 They had a son James, born about Sep- 
tember 1688. Thomas died 17 April 1692. 7 Alexander, the 
elder son, was apparently twice married, his second wife 
being Marie Ogilvy, 8 daughter of the first Lord Banff. (See 
that title.) He died 11 November 1710, leaving two sons, 
Alexander, and Mr. James, the latter of whom, an advocate, 
had the lands of Crof tcroy, on 30 July 1694, from the town of 
Elgin, 9 and died s.p. The eldest, Alexander, succeeded to 
Kinminitie and other lands in Banffshire, and died in July 
1725. 10 He married Elizabeth Edwards, afterwards, in 1726, 
wife of Sir Kenneth M'Kenzie of Grandvale. 11 He had issue 
with other children a son, Alexander, who succeeded him, 
but died before 1726, and a daughter, Mary, married to Alex- 
ander Sutherland of Clyne. 

(2) Margaret, married in 1763 to James Irvine in Artomford, 

and had issue, who carried on the family of Irvine of 
Drum. 

(3) Jane, married to Sir Alexander Abercromby of Birkenbog. 

3. John Sutherland, called ' of Clyne,' 12 frequently named 

1 The Macintoshes and Clan Chattan, ed. 1903, 140. 2 Laing Charters, 
Nos. 2510, 2522. 3 Records of Synod of Moray ; Laing Charters, No. 2793. 
4 Gen. Reg. Inhibitions, 3 May 1665. 5 Macfarlane's Gen. Coll., ii. 235. 
6 Part. Reg. Sas., Banff, 13 June 1693. 7 Keith Reg. Baptisms. 8 Boharm 
Reg., 1701. 9 Laing Charters, No. 2917, 2918. 10 Services of Heirs, 1720- 
29, p. 29. n Reg. of Deeds (Dal.), 2 October 1728. 12 The generations of 
the family of Clyne as here given, though all vouched for, do not exactly 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 205 

with his brothers in local affairs. He had issue, 
so far as known, a son, 

John, who was his heir on 26 August 1671. 1 He had issue : 
i. Patrick, of Clyne, who apparently died s.p. 
ii. James, who was served heir to his father John Suther- 
land of Clyne, on 30 July 1697 ; 2 and was also infeft 
as such in the lands of Clyne-Kirkton in 1704. and in 
Kilpedder 1705. 3 He had issue : 

(i) Alexander, who, on 4 August 1726, was served 
heir-general to his grandfather John Suther- 
land of Clyne, and in same year, as heir-male 
and of provision-general to his * cousin,' the 
last Alexander Sutherland of Kinminitie. 4 
(See p. 204 supra.} He was killed in 1742 by 
falling over a stair at Fochabers. He married 
Mary Sutherland, daughter of Alexander 
Sutherland of Kinminitie, who survived him. 
They had issue two sons and several daugh- 
ters. 5 The only surviving son was James 
. Murray Sutherland of Clyne and Pulrossie, 
who was in 1756 infeft as heir of his grand- 
father, James Sutherland of Clyne, and also 
had a regrant of his lands in 1761, 6 but died 
s.p. on 9 July 1783, his only surviving sisters 
Henrietta and Elizabeth being appointed his 
executors. They were also served heirs- 
portioners to him and to their father on 14 
April 1784. 7 

(ii) Patrick, in 1745 captain of a company of the 
Sutherland militia, is described as brother 
of the late Kinminitie, 8 probably the above- 
named Alexander, but nothing further has 
been discovered regarding him. 

4. Margaret, married (contract dated 24 November 1610) 9 

to Colonel Robert Monro of Fowlis. She died in 
1616, 4 in the flower of her age,' after giving birth to 
a daughter. 10 

5. Janet, married, as his second wife, to George Ogilvy, 

first Lord Banff. 11 (See that title.) 

WILLIAM SUTHERLAND of Duffus was, on 30 April 1616, 
served heir to his late father, William Sutherland, in the 

tally with the retours in 1726 of Alexander Sutherland of Clyne, one 
generation more being indicated in the retours than has been discovered 
by evidence. Where the discrepancy arises is not clear. x Part. Reg. 
Sas., Inverness, 11 January 1672. 2 Retours, Sutherland, No. 17. 
3 Sutherland Writs. 4 Services of Heirs, 1720-29, p. 29. 5 Keith Reg. 
Baptisms. 6 Sutherland Writs. 7 Inverness Tests., 11 November 1784 ; 
Services of Heirs, 1780-89, p. 45. 8 Sutherland Book, i. 407. 9 Ibid., i. 514. 
10 Sir Robert Gordon's Genealogy, etc., 328. " P. C. Reg., 2nd ser., iii. 263. 



206 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUPFUS 

lands and barony of Skelbo, comprehending a considerable 
extent of territory within the earldom of Sutherland, then 
accounted in the sheriffdom of Inverness. 1 From the date 
of his accession to his estates he was more or less 
embroiled with his neighbours, beginning with differences 
between him and Sir Robert Gordon, then Tutor of 
Sutherland. He also took up an aggressive position in 
regard to the tithes of his lands of Pronsies, and not only 
endeavoured by legal means to obtain right to them instead 
of the patron, the young Earl of Sutherland, but he carried 
off the teind-sheaves to his own barns. These, however, he 
was compelled by the Sheriff of Sutherland to disgorge. 
The matter was taken to the Court of Session, who decided 
against him in the matter of the tithes : but he was willing 
to submit other questions in dispute to arbitration, and the 
affair was finally arranged at Elgin in October 1617. 2 In 
1621, however, he again became involved in a serious 
dispute, this time with John Gordon, younger of Embo. 
The Laird was the first to use violence, and assaulted 
Gordon, wounding him slightly. This led to a feud between 
the families, which, though composed for a time, broke out 
again in 1625. The parties appeared in the law-courts, but 
resisted all attempts at reconciliation, when the compara- 
tively sudden death of the Laird of Duffus, in October 1626, 
removed one of the disputants, and his executors joined in 
a reconciliation between the families. 3 

This Laird married, 1612, Jean, daughter of John Grant 
of Freuchie, 4 contract 19 September, who survived him, 
marrying, secondly, Thomas Mackenzie of Pluscarden. 
They had issue : 

1. ALEXANDER, who succeeded, afterwards first Lord 

Duffus. 

2. William, who is named in the testament, dated in 1674, 

of his brother, Lord Duffus. He had the lands of 
Inverhassie in 1694. His son 

(1) James, along with his father, had in 1694 a bond from James, 
second Lord Duffus, for 3000 merks. 6 He also held the 
lands of Dalnamain. 6 He died before 1722. He had at least 



1 Retours, Sutherland, No. 3. 2 Sutherland Book, ii. 126, 127 ; Sir 
Robert Gordon's Genealogy, etc., 329, 342, 344, 345. 3 Ibid., 364, 365, 397, 
404. 4 Chiefs of Grant, i. 196. 5 Writs in Sutherland Charter-chest. 
6 Ibid. 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 207 

i. James, styled of Evelix. He married, 8 August 1726, 
Margaret, eldest daughter of John Sutherland of 
Bearquhar. (See p. 202 supra.} He was still alive 
and over eighty in 1784. l He had an only son, 

Lieutenant Hugh Sutherland of Evelix, who, in 
1776, was served heir-male general to his grand- 
father, James Sutherland of Evelix, formerly of 
Inverhassie. 2 He married Magdalene, daughter 
of John Clunes of Neilston (see p. 202 supra), 
and was alive in 1819. 

3. John, styled brother of the Laird of Duffus in 1649, 

when named on the Commission of Supply for the 
county of Elgin. 3 He became a lieutenant-colonel. 
He was dead before 23 January 1658, 4 without issue. 
His brother William was by a clare constat declared 
his heir in the lands of Kinminitie and others in co. 
Banff, and was inf ef t in September 1662. 5 He married 
(contract dated 7 and 10 March 1656) Isabella, eldest 
daughter of David Ross of Balnagown, who survived 
him and was married (contract dated 9 May 1659) to 
James Innes of Lichnet, brother of Sir Robert Innes 
of that Ilk. 6 

4. Anna, married to Patrick Grant, brother of James 

Grant of Freuchie. A disposition dated 7 December 
1660 was granted to her and her spouse by her uncle 
James over Oluniemoir, Oluniebeg, and other lands. 
She was still alive in 1663. 7 

I. ALEXANDER SUTHERLAND of Duffus, was only four years 
and ten months old when he succeeded to his father, and he 
was served heir on 11 January 1627, while still an infant, his 
uncle James being served as his tutor on the same day. 8 
In 1641, after the Scots army had invaded England and 
occupied Newcastle and its neighbourhood, the Laird of 
Duffus accompanied the Earl of Sutherland on a visit to the 
camp, and apparently to other places in England, but he 
returned in the Earl's train to attend the meeting of 
Parliament at Edinburgh in July 1641. The laird also was 
in Edinburgh in August to greet King Charles I., who then 

1 Writs in Sutherland Charter-chest. 2 Services of Heirs, 1770-79. 
3 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. pt. 2, 192. * Part. Reg. Sas., Elgin, etc., v. 12. 
6 Gen. Reg. Sas., vii. 186. 6 Part. Reg. Sas., Banff, ix. 109. 7 Gen. Reg. 
Inhibitions, 5th ser., vol. vii., 9 January 1664. This marriage is not 
noticed by Sir William Fraser in his Chiefs of Grant. 8 Retours, Elgin, 
etc., No. 43; Inquisitiones de Tutela, No. 421. 



208 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFPUS 

paid a visit to Scotland. 1 He was knighted on that occasion, 
or perhaps later, as he is, about 1643, styled Sir Alexander, 
and appears on various Parliamentary Committees. He 
was also member or commissioner for Sutherland in 1646. 2 

He was a supporter of the Covenant, and as a consequence 
his estates, probably those in Moray shire, suffered from 
attacks by the Royalists. He therefore, in 1647, petitioned 
Parliament for redress on account of his losses and suffer- 
ings for adherence to the Covenant, and was voted 10,000 
Scots for himself and 2000 Scots for his uncle James, to be 
paid out of the money payable by the English Parliament. 3 
In the following year his wife died, and he was so affected 
that he went abroad, though he was named one of the 
colonels appointed for the defence of the country. He 
travelled in France and Holland, and, ' much bettered by his 
travels,' returned to Scotland with King Charles n. on 24 
June 1650. 4 He attended the Parliament held at Perth in 
1651, and was then styled a Peer by the title of LORD 
DUFFUS. 5 He did not accompany the Scots army on its 
march to England, as he was sent from Stirling to Perth 
to defend it against the attack of Cromwell, but was 
compelled to surrender the town, which he had occupied, 
according to Sir James Balf our, only twelve hours previously 
with 600 men. 6 He also, it is said, sent on 8 August, though 
this seems doubtful, a detachment of his men to aid in the 
defence of Dundee, but without avail, as it was stormed 
and taken 1 September 1651. 7 On account of his loyalty he 
was fined by Cromwell in the sum of 1500, but the amount 
was reduced to 600. 8 

After the restoration of King Charles n. Lord Duffus seems 
to have gone to London, and while staying there received 
some letters from Archibald, Lord Lome, afterwards ninth 
Earl of Argyll. One of these had unfortunate consequences. 
It was anonymous, and animadverted somewhat on the 
conduct of certain members of the Scots Parliament. It 

1 Sir Robert Gordon's History, 507. 2 Ada, Parl. Scot., vi. pt. i. 613. 
3 Ibid., 800. 4 Sir Robert Gordon, 557. & Ibid., 560. Crawfurd in his 
Peerage gives the date of creation as 8 December 1650, perhaps the date 
of the original patent, which is lost. The records of Parliament show 
that he continued to be styled Laird of Duffus up to and including 27 
May 1651, while he is styled Lord Duffus and ranked among the noblemen 
on 3 June 1651 ; Acta Parl. Scot., vi. part ii. 669, 679. 6 Balfour's Annals, 
iv. 313, 314. 7 Sir Robert Gordon, 560. 8 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. part ii. 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 209 

never reached Lord Duffus, as it was in some way inter- 
cepted and fell into the hands of the Earl of Middleton, then 
High Commissioner in Scotland. He laid the letter before the 
Parliament, by whom it was construed as treasonable, and 
Lord Duffus was questioned as to the identity of the writer. 
He admitted the authorship of the letter, and Lord Lome 
himself acknowledged the fact, for which he, after a trial, 
was condemned to death for high treason. 1 Lord Duffus 
died on 31 August 1674. 

The first Lord Duffus was four times married, his first wife 
being Jean, daughter and co-heiress of Colin Mackenzie, first 
Earl of Seaforth, widow of John Sinclair, Master of Berridale. 
She died on 31 March 1648 in childbed, having had, it is 
said, four sons by her second husband. She is described as 
4 a comelie, oblidging, religious, and good lady/ 2 He 
married, secondly, on 13 January 1653, Jean, fifth daughter 
of Sir Robert Innes of Innes, who died 10 March same 
year; 3 thirdly, Margaret, second daughter of James Stewart, 
fifth Earl of Moray, who died in January 1667 ; 4 and 
fourthly, Margaret, eldest daughter of William, eleventh 
Lord Forbes, 5 who survived him and was married, about 
1675, to Robert Gordon, afterwards third Baronet of 
Gordonston, but died on 16 April 1677. 

Lord Duffus had four sons by his first wife, all living on 
31 March 1648, but his only recorded issue are : 

1. JAMES, who succeeded him. 

2. Margaret, named in her father's will. 

3. Henrietta, also named in her father's will ; married to 

George, fourth Earl of Linlithgow, without issue. 6 

II. JAMES, second Lord Duffus, succeeded his father in 
1674. He is found attending the Scots Parliament in 1678, 
1681, 1685, and became a Privy Councillor in 1686. He 
appears to have become considerably embarrassed by debt, 
and is said to have sold or mortgaged his estates to his second 
son. In 1688 he was pressed for payment by one of his 
creditors, William Ross, younger of Kindeace, and while 
walking together between Balnagown and the ferry of 

1 Ada Parl. Scot., vii. 380, App. 89. (See vol. i. 363.) 2 Genealogy of 
the Family of Sutherland, 452. 3 Part. Reg. Sas., Elgin, iv. ; Diary of 
Laird of Brodie, 30. 4 Wardlaw MS., Scot. Hist. Soc., 474. 6 Sutherland 
Book, i. 515 ; Part. Reg. Sas., Elgin, iv. Ibid., 515. 

VOL. III. O 



210 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 

Inverbreakie, Lord Duffus, apparently in a moment of ex- 
asperation, drew his sword and ran his companion through 
the body. After the crime, he fled into England, where he 
remained until his friends procured for him a remission 
from the Grown. On 8 April 1688, referring to the tragedy, 
his mother-in-law Lady Seaf orth wrote to him, ' Many a 
man has fallen in such ane accident worse than your circum- 
stances was, yet has been at peace with God and all the 
world, and lived very happily for all that.' l His remission 
could not have been long delayed, as on 16 March 1689 he 
was one of those who subscribed the act declaring the 
legality of the meeting of the Estates summoned by the 
.Prince of Orange, 2 and later, on 15 April 1690, he took the 
oath of allegiance to the Prince as King William the Third. 3 

In 1695 an Act was passed allowing him the privilege of 
two yearly fairs and a weekly market at Duffus. 4 In 1701 
he voted on behalf of the Darien Company, 5 and he was one 
of those who objected to an increase of the forces. 6 

The second Lord Duffus died 24 September 1705, having 
married (contract dated 5 September 1674) Margaret, eldest 
daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie, third Earl of Seaforth. 7 
She survived, him barely a year, dying in August 1706. 8 
They had issue : 

1. KENNETH, who succeeded as third Lord Duffus. 

2. James, who became an advocate 1 February 1704. He 

is said to have acquired the Duffus estates by bond 
from his father, and to have obtained the purchase- 
money on loan from Mr. Archibald Dunbar of Thun- 
derton, and it is added that as he could not refund 
it, he was obliged to part with the estates to his 
creditor. This view of the matter appears doubtful, 
from the fact that James and Kenneth, the second 
and third Lords Duffus were the parties to the trans- 
action, and Mr. Archibald Dunbar on 20 February 
1712 obtained two decrees of adjudication against 
Kenneth Lord Duffus. 9 He married, after 1704, 
Elizabeth, only surviving child and heiress of Sir 
William Dunbar, Bart., of Hempriggs, and relict of 

1 Scottish Antiquary, iv. 51, 52. 2 ActaParl. Scot., ix. 9. 3 Ibid., 109. 
4 Ibid., 502. 6 Ibid., x. 246. 6 Ibid., 294. 7 Sutherland Book, i. 515. 8 Moray 
Tests. 9 Decreets, Dalrymple, at date. 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 211 

Sir Robert Gordon, third baronet of Gordonston, and, 
assuming the surname of Dunbar, was created a 
Baronet on 10 December 1706. He died before 1739, 
leaving issue by his wife, who survived him until 11 
March 1756, aged seventy-nine, two sons and four 
daughters : 

(1) Sir William Dunbar, Baronet, of Hempriggs, who succeeded. 

He married, first, 6 January 1729, Elizabeth, only daughter 
and heiress of Alexander Dunbar of Westfield. She died 3 
June 1746, with issue. Secondly, 21 March 1747, Jean, 
daughter of David Sinclair of Southdun. She died 9 August 
1749 s.p. And thirdly, 21 October 1749, Henrietta, daughter 
of Hugh Rose of Kilravock. She died September 1795; 
issue two sons and three daughters. He died in 1792, 
leaving issue : 

i. Kenneth, born 14 October 1729. 
ii. James, born 12 November 1730, died young, 
iii. SIR BENJAMIN SUTHERLAND DUNBAR, of whom here- 
after &s sixth Lord Duffus. 
iv. Robert Sutherland Dunbar. 
v. Elizabeth, born 3 April 1732. 
vi. Margaret, born 26 July 1733. 
vii. Grizel, born 1 February 1735. 
viii. Christian, born 18 May 1736. 

ix. Janet, the only surviving child of first marriage, and 
heiress of Westfield ; married, 26 February 1762, to 
Thomas Dunbar of Grangehill, who took the designa- 
tion of Westfield. She died 16 September 1769, aged 
twenty-seven, and had issue. 
x, xi, and xii. Elizabeth, Alexandrina, Williamina. 

(2) James, an officer in the army. He died or was killed 

in Jamaica in 1742 s.p. His brother was served heir to him 
in 1760. 

(3) Janet, married, first, 1 January 1738, to John Sinclair of 

Barrock ; secondly, to Harry Innes of Borlum and Sandside, 
with issue by both. 

(4) Charlotte, married, 23 December 1731, to William Sinclair of 

Keiss, and had issue. 

(5) Elizabeth, married to her cousin Eric, son of the third Lord 

Duffus. (See below.) 

(6) Rachel, married to James Sutherland of Langwell, with 

issue. 

3. William Sutherland of Roscommon, who took part in 

the rising of 1715, after which he went abroad. He 
married (contract dated 20 and 22 October 1702) 
Helen, eldest daughter of William Duff of Dipple, 
and sister of the first Earl Fife. She died July 1740, 
without issue. 

4. John. 

5. Alexander. 



212 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUPFUS 

6. Elizabeth. 

7. Frances. 

8. Henrietta, born 21 February 1684. 

9. Mary, married to James Sinclair of Mey, and had 

issue. (See title Caithness.) 

10. Katharine, married to John Cuthbert, town-clerk of 
Inverness, and had issue. 

III. KENNETH, third Lord Duffus, succeeded in 1705, but 
was in the West Indies on the service of the Grown at his 
father's death, on which account he had an extension of 
the legal period for entering as heir to the estate. He was 
a captain in Queen Anne's Navy, and on 29 June 1711, with 
his own ship alone, a frigate of forty-six guns, he engaged 
eight French privateers, and after a desperate resistance, 
was taken prisoner, having received five bullets in his body. 
He voted for the Union in 1707, but joined the Jacobites in 
1715. In or about October of that year he marched into 
Tain at the head of between four and five hundred men of 
the Mackenzies, Chisholms, and Macdonalds, and pro- 
claimed the Chevalier St. George as King James viii. At 
the same time he endeavoured to induce the Lairds of 
Gulloden and Kilravock to surrender their houses and arms, 
but without success. The rebels then marched towards 
Perth to join the Earl of Mar, but their progress southward 
was delayed. 1 His estates were forfeited, and he himself 
went abroad apparently by way of Caithness to Sweden. 
While there he learned that he was being searched 
for, and prepared to come home and surrender him- 
self, declaring his intention to the British minister 
at Stockholm, who notified the English Secretary of 
State. But on his way to England he was seized by 
order of the British resident at Hamburg, and confined 
there till the time for surrender was past. He was con- 
veyed a prisoner from Hamburg to the Tower of London, 
but was liberated without a trial in 1717. Later he entered 
the Russian naval service. He died before 18 March 1733-34, 2 
having married (contract dated 30 March 1708) Charlotta 
Christina, daughter of Eric Sioblade, governor of Gotten - 
berg, who survived until 1771. 3 He had issue : 

1 Sutherland Book, i. 334, 348, 351 ; ii. 55, 56. 2 House of Lords 
Journals, at date. 3 Edin. Tests., 26 September 1778. 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 213 

1. ERIC, who succeeded. 

2. Charlotta, named in 1778 as one of her mother's 

executors. 

3. Anna, married to Baron and Count Marshal Gustaff 

Adolph Palbitzki of Sweden. She was named in 1778 
as one of her mother's executors. 

IV. ERIC, who succeeded as titular Lord Duffus, was 
baptized 29 August 1710. In 1734, after his father's death, 
he presented a petition to King George n. narrating the 
facts of his father's detention in Hamburg, and disputing 
the ground of his attainder. The House of Lords decided 
against the claim, and declared that he had no right to 
the title. 1 He seems, however, as appears from letters both 
by himself and his wife, to have assumed the title, and it 
was acknowledged by his neighbours. 2 He is said to have 
held an ensigncy in Colonel Disney's regiment in 1731. 
During the insurrection of 1745 he remained loyal, and sent 
intelligence of the rebels to the Earl of Sutherland, though 
he did not take part in any military operations, residing at 
his house of Ackergill during the troubles. His relations 
with the Earl's family were extremely friendly. 3 He died 
on 28 August 1768, at Skibo, it is said, but more probably 
at Skelbo, where he had a house. 4 He married his cousin 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Dunbar of Hempriggs, who 
survived him, dying on 21 July 1800. They had issue : 

1. JAMES, who succeeded. 

2. Axel or Axley Sutherland, who died s.p. 

3. Elizabeth, married, first, to Captain Alexander Sin- 

clair, son of Sir William Sinclair of Keiss issue, one 
son, who died v.p., s.p. ; secondly, to Charles Sinclair 
of Olrig, issue a son, who died s.p., and three 
daughters ; and thirdly, on 5 December 1772, to the 
Rev. James Rudd, B.A., rector of Newton Kyme and 
Full Sutton, Yorkshire, by whom she had issue : 

(1) The Rev. Erick Rudd of Thorne, near Doncaster, who claimed 

the title as heir of line of his uncle James, 1827. 

(2) James Sutherland Rudd. 



1 House of Lords Journals, 18 March 1733-34 and 5 April 1734 
2 Sutherland Book, ii. 258, 269, 270. 3 Ibid., 269, 270. 4 Cf. Ibid., i. 418. 



214 SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 

4. Charlotte, married to Sir John Sinclair of Mey, by 

whom she had issue James, twelfth Earl of Caithness. 
(See that title.) 

5. Anne, married to George Mackay of Skibo, and had 

issue. (See title REAY.) 

V. JAMES, in whose favour the title was restored by Act 
of Parliament 25 May 1826, was born in 1747, and in 1770 
was retoured heir-general to his father. 1 He was an officer 
in the army. He died 30 January 1827, unmarried, in Harley 
Street, Marylebone. He was buried on 7 February in 
Marylebone Church, and was succeeded in his title by his 
cousin, 

VI. BENJAMIN, otherwise Sir Benjamin Sutherland Dunbar 
of Hempriggs, son of Sir William Dunbar of Hempriggs, as 
previously stated, born 28 April 1761, who, as heir-male, 
assumed the title on the death of James, Lord Duffus, in 
1827, though his right to do so was disputed by the Rev. 
Erick Rudd, who claimed as heir of line. He was born 28 
April 1761, and married, 10 December 1784, at Bighouse, 
Janet, eldest daughter of George Mackay of Bighouse. He 
died in May 1843, survived by his wife, who died 15 March 
1857. They had issue : 

1. William, died young. 

2. GEORGE SUTHERLAND DUNBAR, who succeeded. 

3. Captain Robert Sutherland Dunbar of Latheron Wheel, 

born 12 April 1801 ; died unmarried 18 August 1857. 

4. Louisa, married, on 17 September 1805, to Garden Duff 

of Hatton, and died 10 June 1865. Her husband died 
15 March 1858, leaving issue. Her chief male de- 
scendant and inheritor from his great-granduncle, the 
seventh Lord Duffus, of the estates of Hempriggs 
and Ackergill is Sir George Duff Sutherland Dunbar, 
Bart., of Hempriggs, etc., lieutenant in 2nd Battalion 
Cameron Highlanders, born 29 May 1878. 

5. Elizabeth, who died unmarried 21 August 1811, aged 

twenty-one. 

6. Henrietta, married, 20 March 1810, to William Sinclair 

1 Services of Heirs. 



SUTHERLAND, LORD DUFFUS 215 

Wemyss of Southdun. She died on 3 November 1820, 
her husband in 1831, and they had issue. 

VII. GEORGE, seventh Lord Duffus, was born 6 June 1799, 
and succeeded his father in May 1843, but never assumed 
the title. He died on 28 August 1875, unmarried, and he 
was succeeded in his estates by his grandnephew, Garden 
Duff Dunbar, father of the present possessor, but the issue 
male, and presumably the title of the grantee, became 
extinct. 

CREATION. 1651, Lord Duffus. 

ARMS. Not recorded in Lyon Register. The arms borne 
by different members of the family varied considerably. 
The seal of Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, 1434, bore three 
stars in chief, and as many cross-crosslets in base. William 
Sutherland of Duffus, 1540, bore a shield parted per f ess and 
the upper portion per pale ; first, three stars, for Sutherland ; 
second, three cross-crosslets fitchee, for Chein, and in base 
a boar's head erased, for Chisholm. 1 In the Lyon Office MS. 
entitled Peers 7 Arms, circa 1720, the arms are given as, 
Gules, a boar's head erased, surmounted by three stars and 
as many cross-crosslets fitchee alternatively disposed orle- 
wise, or. 

CREST. A stag's head couped proper. 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, a greyhound argent collared gules ; 
sinister, a horse argent. 

MOTTO. Butt sicker. 

[J. A.] 
1 Macdonald's Armorial Seals, Nos. 2747, 2748. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF DUMBARTON 



BORGE DOUGLAS, who 

was the first to bear 
this title, was the second 
son of the second mar- 
riage of William, first 
Marquess of Douglas. 
(See title Angus.) His 
mother was Mary Gordon, 
daughter of George, first 
Marquess of Huntly, and 
he was born probably in 
1636. In 1647, King 
Charles i. gave him per- 
mission to go to France, 
and be abroad for five 
years, doubtless for the 
purposes of study. He 
entered the service of King Louis xiv., and in 1653 was 
made colonel of the Scottish Regiment in France, which 
had been commanded successively by his elder brothers 
Lord James Douglas J and the Earl of Angus. The latter 
resigned the command, with all its pensions and emolu- 
ments, in favour of his brother George, on 7 March 1653. 2 
In 1669 Lord George and his regiment were summoned from 
France, and entered the British service, and on 9 March 
1675 King Charles n., for services in France and the 
recent Dutch war, conferred upon him the title of EARL 
OF DUMBARTON and LORD DOUGLAS OF ETTRICK 
to him and the heirs-male of his body. 3 

1 A predecessor of Lord James Douglas in the colonelcy of the regi- 
ment was the celebrated Sir John Hepburn, who was killed in 1636. 
2 Resignation in Douglas Charter-chest. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., Lib. v 65, 
No, 31. 




DOUGLAS, EARL OF DUMBARTON 217 

This, however, was a mere titular dignity, and the Earl 
had no estates in Scotland until he received in January 
1686, from King James vn., a grant of the escheat of Andrew 
Fletcher of Salton. 1 When King James came to the throne 
in 1685, the Earl of Dumbarton was appointed Commander- 
in-chief of the Forces in Scotland, and conducted the 
campaign against the Earl of Argyll, when the latter en- 
deavoured to raise an insurrection on behalf of the Duke of 
Monmouth. In 1688 he followed his royal master King James 
into exile, and died at St. Germain-en-Laye 20 March 1692. 
He was buried, with his grandfather and others of his family, 
in St. Christopher's aisle in the Abbey of St. Germain 
des Pres, Paris. He married Anne, sister to the Duchess 
of Northumberland, and daughter of Robert Wheatley of 
Bracknell, Berks; she predeceased her husband on 25 
April 1691, and was buried in the same abbey. They had 
issue one son, 

II. GEORGE, second Earl of Dumbarton, who was born in 
or about April 1687. His courtesy title was Lord Ettrick. 2 
In 1704 he had inclinations towards a religious life, but 
Queen Mary of Modena wrote to him on 27 October that 
year, desiring earnestly to see him and advise him before 
he finally assumed the habit of a monk. 3 He became 
lieutenant-colonel in Dubourgay's Foot in the British 
service 1715, and was envoy to the Czar of Muscovy April 
1716. Having been long absent from England, he died at 
Douay in Flanders 7 January 1748-49, when his honours 
became extinct. 4 

CREATION. 9 March 1675, Earl of Dumbarton and Lord 
Douglas of Ettrick. 

ARMS. (Not recorded in Lyon Register, but given by 
Nisbet. 5 ) Quarterly: 1st, azure, a lion rampant argent, 
crowned or ; 2nd, or, a lion rampant gules surmounted of a 
ribbon sable ; 3rd, argent, three piles gules ; 4th, or, a fess 
chequy azure and argent surmounted of a bend gules 
charged with three buckles of the first; over all, on an 

1 A eta Parl. Scot. , viii. 622. 2 Douglas Book, iv. 281. 3 Hist. MSS. , Stuart 
Papers, i. 197. 4 Complete Peerage. 5 Lord Dumbarton's seal is given 
in Fraser's Douglas Book, ii. 432. 



218 DOUGLAS, EARL OF DUMBARTON 

escutcheon argent, a man's heart gules, ensigned with an 
imperial crown proper, on a chief azure three mullets of 
the first ; the whole within a bordure of France and Eng- 
land, quarterly, 1st and 4th, azure, three fleurs-de-lys or, 
2nd and 3rd, gules, three lions passant guardant or. 

OREST. A salamander vert in flames of fire proper. 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, a savage proper holding a baton 
erected, and wreathed about the middle with laurel vert ; 
sinister, a stag proper armed and enguled or, both standing 
on a pile of wood wreathed and impaled for a compartment. 

MOTTO. Jamais arriere. 

[J. A.] 






CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 




ILLIAM CRIOHTON, 
who may have been a 
younger son of Alexander 
Orient on, named in the 
homage roll of 1296 (see 
title Orichton), was the 
first of his family to pos- 
sess the lands of San- 
quhar, from which his 
successors afterwards 
took the title of Lord San- 
quhar, which they held for 
several generations. He 
however only held the 
half of the whole barony, 
which was divided be- 
tween him and Richard 



Edgar, the latter getting also the chief messuage of the 
lands, as the husband of the elder of two heiresses, 
while Orichton married the younger. 1 His half of the 
barony was valued at the then considerable sum of one 
hundred merks yearly, as appears from an Exchequer 
account of King Edward in. in 1335, when it was forfeited 
owing to Orichton adhering to^the patriotic party in Scot- 
land, but the land brought no revenue to the English king, 
as it was then waste. 2 

William Crichton, of whom nothing more is recorded, 
married a lady named Isabella. 3 Her surname is said to 
have been Ross, but her identity has not been certainly 
discovered. The chief direct evidence at present is that 



1 Reg. Mag. Sig., fol. ed. i. 7. 2 Cat. Doc. Scot, iii. 318. ' Reg. 
Mag. Sig., ut cit. 



220 CRIOHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 

the ' water budgets ' of Ross formed part of the armorial 
bearings of the Crichtons of Sanquhar as distinguished from 
the other families of the name. 1 The next possessor on 
record of the lands of Sanquhar is 

EDWARD ORICHTON, described as Lord of Sanquhar in a 
charter to which he is a witness, granted by Sir John Orichton 
Lord of Orichton, in favour of his own brother, Humphrey 
Orichton, of the lands of Bagthrop, the Byres, Sheepcotleys, 
and Winterhope in the holding of Carruthers, Annandale. The 
charter is not dated, but it is confirmed by George, Earl of 
D unbar, in a writ also without date, but some time between 
1368 and 1400, probably not far from the latter date. 2 
Edward Orichton of Sanquhar also appears in a writ of 1412, 
which narrates the marriage of Gilbert Grierson, younger 
of Lag, to Isabella Kirkpatrick, one of the heiresses of 
Torthorwald. 3 He was succeeded by 

SIR ROBERT ORICHTON of Sanquhar, who is first named 
in a charter of 13 March 1433-34, when he received from 
Alexander Sutherland of Duffus twenty-one oxgangs of 
lands in the east part of Strathbrock, co. Linlithgow, and 
he seems to have held the other half of Strathbrock from 
Keith of Inverugy. 4 He had attained the rank of Knight 
before 1440, when he is so styled as a witness to royal 
charters, and when he and Sir William Orichton of that 
Ilk, afterwards Chancellor, granted what may be called 
mutual entails of certain lands. 5 On 31 March 1450 he 
had a charter of some lands near Moffat in Annandale. 6 
He was appointed Sheriff of Dumfries on 6 November 1452, 
and the office became hereditary in his family. 7 He is also 
named as an heir of entail in a charter to the Chancellor of 
the lands of Dryfesdale. 8 He was frequently present in 
Parliament, and on 11 October 1464 witnessed the usual 
revocation by King James in. of grants made in his minority. 9 
The office of Coroner of Nithsdale was bestowed on him in 

1 Cf. Macdonald's Scottish Armorial Seals, Nos. 549-552 ; cf. article on 
Lord Crichton, p. 53, ante. 2 Book of Carlaverock, ii. 420. 3 Writ in 
Gen. Reg. House, No. 232. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig., 10 March 1439-40; Acta 
Dom. Cone., 5. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 27 February 1439-40, 11 and 27 April 
1440. 6 Ibid., at date. 7 Ibid., 23 April 1464. 8 Ibid. 9 Acta Part. Scot., 
ii. 56, 57, 84, 88, 89, 93; xii. 25 ; cf. Reg. Mag. Sig., 11 Oct. 1464. 



CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 221 

January 1468-69. 1 Various other transactions in land are 
recorded, and he appears to have held, besides his original 
barony of Sanquhar, the lands of Longniddry, East Lothian, 
which he exchanged for Eliock in Dumfries and Bar- 
muckity and other lands in Morayshire. 2 He is referred 
to on 17 October 1478, 3 and was then alive, but died not 
long after, as in 1479 his successor had infeftment in the 
lands of Sanquhar. 4 

He married a lady named Elizabeth, but her surname has 
not been ascertained. 5 He had issue : 

1. ROBERT, who succeeded. 

2. Alexander, who is named along with three younger 

brothers in 1463, when their father granted to them 
in succession the lands of Kirkpatrick, co. Dumfries. 6 
According to Orawfurd, he had a charter in 1466 
from his father of the lands of Orawfordstoun, co. 
Dumfries. 7 It was probably his descendant John 
Crichton of Crawfordstoun, who, having no son, 
entailed his estate in 1647 upon his then three 
daughters, whom failing, on John Crichton, son of 
his brother Robert, whom failing, on John, son of 
James Crichton, brother to the Earl of Dumfries. 
In 1656, he entailed the estate successively on his 
five daughters Agnes, Jean, Margaret, Barbara, and 
Elizabeth, and their children and heirs-male as 
named. 8 

3. Laurence, named in the charter of 1463 cited, and 

again in 1467, when his father granted to him and 
his brothers Thomas and Robert successively the 
lands of Barmuckity and others in co. Elgin. 9 In 
1630 his heir by progress was William, ninth Lord 
Crichton, afterwards first Earl of Dumfries. 10 

4. Thomas, named with his elder brothers in 1463 and 1467. 

5. Patrick, named, as above, in 1463 and 1467. 

6. Edward, who had a charter from his father of the 

lands of Kirkpatrick, date not stated, 11 but perhaps 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 8 January 1468-69. 2 Ibid., at date. 3 Acta Dom. 
Cone., 13. 4 Exch. Rolls, ix. 679. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 10 March 1439-40. 
Ibid., 23 August 1463. 7 Crawfurd's Peerage, 123 n. 8 Laing Charters, 
Nos. 2377, 2499. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 July 1467. 10 Ibid., 4 June 1630. 
11 Confirmed, with other charters, to Edward on 10 August 1484 (Reg. 
Mag. Sig.). 



222 ORICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 

about 1466, when his brother Alexander got Oraw- 
fordstoun. He is usually styled of Kirkpatrick. He 
had issue a son, Robert, whose son, also Robert, was 
succeeded before 13 December 1512 by a son, John, 
then a minor. 1 

7. Mr. George, is named in 1463 as son of Sir Robert 

Oichton. He was probably a Churchman. 

8. Elizabeth, married, before 7 June 1482, 2 to William 

Douglas of Drumlanrig, and had issue. 

9. Christian, married, first, before 1451, 3 to Sir Robert 

Colville of Ochiltree, and had issue (see title Oul- 
ross) ; secondly, before October 1466, to Alexander, 
Master of Erskine, 4 and died between November 1477 
and March 1477-78. 5 

10. Margaret, married, before July 1459, to David Her- 
ries of Terregles, 6 and had issue. 

I. ROBERT ORICHTON of Sanquhar, who was styled c of Kin- 
noul ' during his father's lifetime. He was twice married 
before 1457, but first appears in public record in 1463 
as a witness to a charter by his father. 7 In 1478 he had a 
grant of the superiority of the lands of Panbride, co. Forfar, 
with an annualrent of 3, apprised from Walter Ogilvy of 
Owres, for a debt of 200 merks. 8 He succeeded his father 
towards the end of 1478, or in 1479, as he had about that 
time infeftment from the Orown in his lands of Sanquhar 
and others, 9 and he was styled of Sanquhar 17 June 1480. 10 
He aided in making resistance to Alexander, Duke of 
Albany, and James, Earl of Douglas, in their invasion of 
Scotland and attack on Lochmaben on 22 July 1484, a service 
which was recognised a month later by the ratification to 
him of the sheriflship of Dumfries and of his barony of 
Sanquhar. 11 From another writ, about the same date, it 
appears that Sanquhar, then an ancient burgh of barony, 
had lost its charters by war and fire, and in answer to 
Robert Crichton's petition its rights as a free burgh of 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 4 May 1499; Protocol Book of James Young. 
2 Original Charter in Drumlanrig Charter-chest. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 
16 February 1450-51. 4 Acta Auditorum, 3. 6 Ibid., 70. 6 Reg. Mag. 
Sig., 20 July 1459. 7 Ibid., 17 October 1463. 8 Ibid., 31 October 1478. 
9 Exch. Rolls, ix. 679. 10 Acta Dom. Cone., 55. " Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 
August 1484. 



ORIOHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 223 

barony were confirmed with all privileges. 1 He appears 
in the Parliaments of 1481, 1483, and 1487 before the death 
of James in. and after the accession of James iv. in the 
Parliament of 1491, 2 where he is styled Lord Orichton, 
having been made a Lord of Parliament on 29 January 
1487-88 by the title of LORD CRIOHTON OF SANQUHAR. 3 
He died between July 1494 and February 1494-95. 4 He 
married twice, first, Margaret Hay, of what family is not 
stated, and secondly, in or before 1457, Christian Erskine, 
daughter and heiress of Sir John Erskine of Kinnoull. She 
had been contracted on 6 July 1445, after her father's 
death, to James, son and heir of James, first Lord Living- 
ston, 5 but was not married to him. She was then married 
to a John Orichton, and lastly to Robert Orichton. They 
had a papal dispensation after their marriage, dated 3 
December 1457, narrating that they had married knowing 
that Margaret Hay, Robert's former wife, had stood to 
Christian in the fourth and fourth degrees of consanguinity, 
and that John Crichton, Christian's former husband, had 
been related to Robert in the third and third degrees per 
diversas stirpes.* Christian Erskine was still alive in 1478, 
and they had issue, so far as known, one son, 
Robert, of whom very little is on record. He is first 
referred to in 1472, in his contract of marriage, and 
on 17 July 1476 is described as Robert Orichton of 
Riccarton, 7 an estate gifted to him and his wife. 
After his grandfather's death he appears as Robert 
Crichton of Kinnoull. In February 1483-84 an action 
by him for payment of multure to his mill of Bale- 
gerno, in his lordship of Kinnoull, and for damages 
for the destruction of a house belonging to him, was 
decided in his favour. 8 He died before February 
1491-92, when he (then deceased), his father Lord 
Orichton, and his son Sir Robert, are all named as 
parties to an action before the Lords Auditors. 9 He 
thus predeceased his father. His wife was Marion, 
daughter of John Stewart, first Earl of Lennox. The 
marriage-contract is dated 8 May 1472, and his 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 October 1484. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 134, 153, 175, 
229. 3 Ibid., ii. 181. 4 Acta Dom. Cone., 358, and MS. xiii. f. 5. 6 Spalding 
Club Misc., v. 282. 6 Lateran Regesta, Dxxvii. 138. 7 Acta Auditorum, 
52.^8 Ibid., 131*. Ibid., 165, 246. 



224 CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 

father and mother, Robert Orichton and Christian 
Erskine, bind themselves to infeft him and his wife 
in the lands of Richartoun or Riccartoun, co. Lin- 
lithgow. 1 He had issue 

(1) SIR ROBERT, who succeeded as second Lord Crichton. 

(2) a daughter, married to Sir James Dunbar of Black- 

craig. 2 

A Mariota Orichton, married to Malcolm Crawford 
of Kilbirnie, 3 and a Margaret Orichton, married to 
Alexander Home of Polwarth, 4 have been assigned as 
daughters to this Robert Orichton, but the evidence 
is not complete. 

II. SIR ROBERT, second Lord Crichton, is first named as 
a party to a civil action on 14 February 1491-92, when he 
is described as son and heir of the deceased Robert 
Orichton of Kinnoull. 5 He was then a knight. He is also 
styled of Forgandenny shortly before his succession to his 
grandfather, which was some time between July 1494 and 
February 1494-95. 6 Both before and after his grandfather's 
death, he was curator to Herbert, Lord Herries, and because 
of his intromissions with his ward's estate had to pay to 
the King upwards of 400 merks. For this sum he mort- 
gaged his lands of Hilton Malar and Kirkton Malar, which 
he assigned to the King's Comptroller. 7 After this he 
appears to be frequently in debt, or never free from Grown 
casualties, and he sold or mortgaged parts of his lands 
from time to time during the next few years, the last of 
such transactions being 10 November 1512. 8 A year before 
he exchanged lands in Perthshire, the Malars, Forgandenny, 
and others, for the lands of Kirkpatrick Irongray, co. Dum- 
fries, belonging to his kinsman Sir James Orichton of Fren- 
draught. 9 He was alive on 13 July 1513, but died not long 
after that date, perhaps on the field of Flodden, as he may 
be the person indicated by the title ' le conte de Lancar ' in 

1 The Lennox Book, i. 328, 329, where the contract is quoted from an 
old inventory, which does not give the parties correctly, but the main 
statement is as in the text. 2 Acta Dom. Cone,, xxv., f. 44b. 3 Reg. 
Mag. Sig., 9 May 1499. 4 Ibid., 3 May 1503. 6 Acta Auditorum, 165, 246. 
6 Acta Dom. Cone., xiii. ff. 5, 59. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 November 1495, 
and 28 January 1496-97. 8 Ibid., 11 November 1512, and other dates per 
Index. 9 Ibid., 13 December 1511. 



CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 225 

the English Flodden Gazette. 1 He was certainly dead 
before November 1513. He married, about 1491, a lady 
named Marion Maxwell, who survived him, and died before 
10 July 1527. 2 They had issue, so far as known, one son, 
ROBERT, who became third Lord. 

III. ROBERT, third Lord Orichton of Sanquhar, succeeded 
his father before 6 November 1513, when he had sasine of 
the barony of Sanquhar, and he was also infeft in Kinnoull 
on 2 December same year. 3 He appeared in the General 
Council which met on 26 November 1513, to settle the 
question of a Regency/ In 1515 he sold the lands of Balm- 
blare and others to William, Lord Ruthven, and in the 
following year he had a charter to himself and his wife of 
the lands of Kirkpatrick-Irongray. 5 He attended Parlia- 
ment on 4 July 1516, but little more is known of his 
history, and his career was brief, as he died before 16 
October 1520, 6 when a grant was made of the ward of his 
estates and the marriage of his heir. He married Eliza- 
beth Murray, said to be a daughter of Cuthbert Murray 
of Oockpool, who survived him, and was married again 
to Herbert Maxwell before July 1527. 7 They had issue : 

1. ROBERT, fourth Lord Orichton. 

2. WILLIAM, fifth Lord Orichton. 

3. John Crichton of Ryhill was probably one of the three 

brothers of Lord Orichton taken prisoner in a Warden 
raid by Lennox and Wharton on 21 February 1547-48. 8 
He was tutor of law to his nephew Robert, Lord 
Orichton, in 1550, and he is named in a bond of man- 
rent to Lord Maxwell on 22 June same year. 9 He is 
referred to in 1560 as tutor of Sanquhar, and as such 
was present at the Parliament which, on 17 August 
of that year, affirmed the Confession of Faith. 10 He 
died before March 1581. u He married (contract 
dated 19 January 1554-55) Christian, daughter of 
Robert Dalzell of that Ilk (see title Carnwath), who 

1 Acta Dom. Cone., xxv. f. 195 ; Pinkerton's History of Scotland, ii. 457. 
2 Acta Dom. Cone., xxxvii. 149. 3 Exch. Rolls, xiv. 523, 531. * Acta 
Parl. Scot., ii. 281. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig., 27 September 1515; 12 July 1516. 
(i Reg. Sec. Sig., v. f. 151. 7 Acta Dom. Cone., xxxvii. 149. 8 Cal. Scottish 
Papers, i. 82. 9 Book of Carlaverock, ii. 477. 10 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 526. 
11 P. C. Reg., iii. 382. 

VOL. III. P 



226 CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 

survived him. They had issue a son Robert, from 
whom the lands of Ryhill were apprised, and were 
sold on 16 January 1606 to William Orichton of 
Darnhaunch, afterwards Earl of Dumfries. 1 Robert 
Orichton died some little time before 9 April 1612. 2 
He married Katherine Crawford, who survived him, 
by whom he had a son, also named Robert, named in 
a writ of 29 January 1588. 3 

4. Herbert Orichton, taken prisoner with his brothers in 
February 1547-48. He is named also in the bond of 
manrent cited above, and in a contract of 24 June 1550, 
in which he is provided to the lif erent of lands worth 
100 merks, but nothing further is known of him. 4 
The third Lord Orichton had also a natural son, William. 
He was made prisoner with his brothers. On 24 June 1550 
he was provided to a lif erent of 40 Scots yearly. 5 

IV. ROBERT, fourth Lord Orichton of Sanquhar, suc- 
ceeded his father before 16 October 1520, when a grant was 
made to certain persons of the ward of all the lands of the 
late Robert Crichton south of the Forth, and of the marriage 
of his son and heir Robert. 6 Nothing is recorded of his 
career, and he died before 7 January 1535-36 under age, or 
at least before formal entry to his estates. 7 He married 
a lady who must have been much older than himself, 
Elizabeth Campbell, of West Loudoun, widow of William 
Wallace of Craigie, who survived him, and married, thirdly, 
as his second wife, William, Earl of Glencairn. 8 The fourth 
Lord had no issue, and was succeeded by his brother, 

V. WILLIAM, fifth Lord Crichton of Sanquhar, who 
succeeded his brother some little time before 7 January 
1535-36, when Malcolm, Lord Fleming, had a gift of his 

1 Dumfries Writs. 2 Gen. Reg. Inhibitions, 2 ser., iii. 334. 3 Dumfries 
Writs. 4 Acta Dom. Cone, et Sess., xxvi. f. 133. Agnes Crichton, wife of 
Andrew Ker of Cessford, is ascribed as a daughter to this Lord Crichton, 
but she was not of the Sanquhar family. She was a daughter of Sir 
Patrick Crichton of Cranston- Riddell, and widow of George Sinclair, 
eldest son of Oliver Sinclair of Roslin (Acta Dom. Cone., xix. 9, 10, 343 ; 
Reg. Mag. Sig.., 20 Feb. 1508-9, 11 April 1510). 5 Acta Dom. Cone, et Sess., 
ut cit. 6 Reg. Sec. Sig., v. f. 151. 7 Ibid., x. f. 67. 8 Acta Dom. Cone, et 
Sess., v. f. 167 ; Acts and Decreets, iii. f. 32. 



CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 227 

marriage, ' the marriage of now Lord Crichton, heir of 

Lord Crichton deceased. 1 1 He had precepts of sasine for 
entry to his lands of Sanquhar, Crawfurdston, Kirkpatrick, 
and others, as heir to his father, on 7 and 8 March 1538- 
39, 2 and the estates had been in ward since 1520, which 
shows his elder brother had never been infeft. He is 
referred to as granting and receiving various charters 
between 1540 and 1549, and he also attended Parliament 
frequently between the same dates. 3 His career also was 
brief, as he was stabbed to death in a quarrel by Robert, 
Master of Semple, on 11 June 1550, in the house of the 
Governor Arran in Edinburgh. 4 He married, before 24 
March 1540-41, Elizabeth, daughter of Malcolm, Lord 
Fleming, 5 who survived him, and had issue : 

1. John, who, on 26 July 1549, is described as son and 

heir-apparent? of William, Lord Crichton, 6 but pre- 
deceased his father. 

2. ROBERT,' sixth Lord Orichton, of whom after. 

3. EDWARD, seventh Lord Crichton, of whom after. 

4. Andrew, provided on 24 June 1550 to a liferent of 

100 merks yearly. His nephew William Crichton of 
Townhead, afterwards first Earl of Dumfries, was 
served heir to him on 29 July 1612. 8 

5. William, provided in same contract to 100 merks 

yearly. He acted as tutor of his nephew Robert, 
eighth Lord Sanquhar, and is styled tutor of San- 
quhar between 1570 and 1589, during which period 
he took an active part in local affairs. He died before 
31 July 1590. 9 He married Katherine Oarmichael, 
and had issue : 

(1) WILLIAM, ninth Lord Crichton, of whom after. 

(2) James of Abercrombie, styled, in 1598, son of William 

Crichton, tutor of Sanquhar. He was styled of Benchellis 
in 1624, and afterwards of Abercrombie, of which lands and 
barony in Fife he had a charter on 23 February 1635. He 
had also a charter of the lands and barony of Cumnock on 

1 Reg. Sec. Sig., x. f. 67. 2 Exch. Rolls, xvii. 762, 763. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. ; 
Acta Parl. Scot, ii. 410, 425, 443, 468, 594. 4 Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, 
i. 354*. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 6 Ibid., 15 August 1549. 7 Robert and 
the four younger sons are all named and provided for in a contract of 24 
June 1550 (Acta Dom. Cone, et Sess., xxvi. 133). John is not named, and 
must therefore have predeceased. 8 Dumfries Retours, No. 385. 9 P. C. 
Reg., vols. ii. iii. and iv. 517. 



228 CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 

6 December 1643. 1 He died before February 1654. 2 His 
issue were : 

i. James of Castlemains, who married Mary Douglas, 
widow of John Johnston of Wamphray. 3 He was 
alive in 1677. 4 

ii. William, designed in his testament-dative ' sone law- 
full to James Crichtoun of Abercrombie.' He died 
in 1652. 5 

iii. Helen, married to William Crichton, styled Sheriff- 
depute of Ayr, and had issue three daughters, who 
were retoured to her on 26 April 1698. 6 

iv. a daughter, married to David Macbrair, who is 

styled son-in-law of James Crichton of Abercrombie 
in a writ dated 29 March 1643. 7 

(3) Robert, named in 1605 as brother of William Crichton of 
Darnhaunch. In 1637 he is described as Robert Crichton of 
Ryhill, and he died in November 1641. He married (contract 
dated 31 May 1621) Agnes, daughter of Robert Macbrair of 
Almagill, and had issue four sons, Robert, James, William, 
and John, and four daughters, Margaret, Elizabeth, 
Catherine, and Isobel. s The eldest of the sons became Sir 
Robert Crichton or Murray of Glenmure and Castle-Murray 
(see vol. i. 229). He had issue two daughters, the eldest of 
whom, Jean, was married to George Stirling of Auchyll, 9 
and the younger, Anna, was wife of Lord James Murray of 
Dowally. 10 

6. James, younger son of William, fifth Lord Sanquhar, 

was also, on 24 June 1550, provided to a yearly life- 
rent of 100 merks. He died before 15 March 1581-82, 
when his brother William, then * tutor of Sanquhar,' 
desired to be appointed his executor-dative. 11 

7. Elizabeth, the eldest daughter, for whom, on 24 June 

1550, it was provided that the gift of the marriage 
of Alan, Lord Oathcart, should be obtained for her, 
and she was to be married to him on his attaining the 
age of fourteen, 1000 Scots of penalty being imposed 
on him if he refused the marriage, which he did. 12 

8. Margaret, who, under the same deed of provision, was 

to be contracted to Andrew Semple, second son of 
Robert, Master of Semple, as soon as she reached the 
age of twelve. A penalty of 600 merks was to be 
exacted if he refused. 13 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., at dates. 2 Ayrshire Retours, No. 459. 3 Reg. of Privy 
Seal, ii. 103, 104. 4 Dumfries Writs. 6 Edin. Tests., 20 October 1654. 
6 Dumfries Retours, No. 695. 7 Reg. of Deeds (Mack.), 19 June 1671. 
8 Dumfries Tests., 10 June 1642 ; Reg. of Decreets (Mack.), 4 February 
1665. 9 Stirlings of Keir, 171. 10 See Atholl, vol. i. 476. " Edin. 
Commissariot Decreets, at date. 12 Acta Dom. Cone, et Sess., xxvi. 133 ; 
Acts and Decreets, xix. 40. 13 Ibid. 



CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 229 

VI. ROBERT, sixth Lord Crichton of Sanquhar, had 
precept of sasine as heir to his father on 10 March 
1557-58, 1 and at that time had not reached his majority, 
as he was still a minor on 26 November 1558, when he 
chose curators. 2 He is named in 1560, the year of the 
Reformation in Scotland, as among those nobles who 
were still * neuter' or undecided as to joining the 
Reformers. 3 But he died in the following year. He 
married Margaret Cunningham, daughter of John, and 
sister of William, Cunningham of Capringtoun. 4 She was 
widow of Gilbert Kennedy, younger of Blairquhan, to 
whom she had been married in 1537. 5 He died in 1547 
apparently at Pinkie, and when she deceased in July 
1603 she or her relatives had forgotten which of her 
husbands was the first, as their order is reversed. 6 By 
her Lord Crichton* had no issue, and was succeeded by 
his next brother, 

VII. EDWARD, seventh Lord Crichton of Sanquhar, who 
had a precept as heir of his brother Robert on 24 March 
1561-62. 7 He chose curators 21 May 1556. 8 Later, he took 
some part in public affairs, and in September 1565 was one 
of those who signed a bond at Glasgow to support Queen 
Mary and Darnley. He was at that time appointed to 
lead a troop in the van of the royal army against the Earl 
of Moray and other rebel lords. In 1567 he was present at 
the coronation of King James vi., and in 1569 9 he took the 
oath of allegiance to the young King and the Regent 
Moray, but he died soon after, on 23 May of that year, 10 and 
the ward of his lands was gifted to Annabel Stewart, the 
Regent's second daughter, on 31 May. 11 Edward, Lord 
Crichton, married (contract dated 4 June 1561) Margaret, 
daughter of Sir James Douglas of Drumlanrig. 12 She sur- 
vived him, and was married, secondly, about 16 May 1571, 
to William, Earl of Menteith, 13 and thirdly (contract dated 

1 Exch. Rolls, xix. 419. 2 Acts and Decreets, xviii. 281. 3 Hamilton 
Papers, i. 748. 4 Reg. of Deeds, xii. 261. 6 Accounts of High Treasurer, 
vi. 320. 6 Edin. Tests., 27 December 1605 ; Reg. Mag. Sig., 10 January 1541- 
42, 2 December 1558. 7 Exch. Rolls, xix. 488, 490. 8 Acts and Decreets, 
xiii. 368. P. C. Reg., i. 363, 379, 537, and 654. w E din. Tests., 8 March 
1573-74. " Reg. Sec. Sig., xxxviii. 58. 12 Reg. of Deeds, iv. 206. 13 Reg. 
Mag. Sig., 12 December 1571. 



230 CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 

22 May 1593) to Robert Wauchope of Niddrie. 1 Lord 
Crichton had issue a son and a daughter : 

1. ROBERT, eighth Lord Orichton. 

2. Margaret, who had a feu-charter on 4 and 6 August 

1578, of the lands of Blacadye, in the barony of San- 
quhar, co. Dumfries. 2 She died unmarried in February 
1595-96, and her brother was served heir to her in 



the above lands on 17 December 1607. 3 

VIII. ROBERT, eighth Lord Orichton of Sanquhar, was a 
child when he succeeded his father, and remained for some 
years under the tutory of his uncle William. He is named 
as being present in Parliament in 1585 and again in 1587, 4 
but he was retoured heir to his father and inf ef t in his lands 
in April and May 1589. 5 His religious opinions were pro- 
nounced, and he is described in letters of the period as a 
' factious Papist ' and a ' great protested Papist.' 6 In 1596 
he had a commission of justiciary, but as he abused it, it 
was discharged, and he was warded, 7 but he continued to 
hold office as Sheriff of Dumfries. From a letter of 5 
March 1596-97 he seems to have made a claim to the 
title of Lord Orichton, forfeited in 1483-84, but unsuccess- 
fully. 8 He was at that time unpopular, and his supposed 
influence over the King was complained of. 9 In 1599 he 
had been abroad, as he is said to have landed with great 
store of gold, desiring to equip 500 horsemen, for what 
service is not known. 10 He is named as attending Conven- 
tions of Estates, and he also sat in the Privy Oouncil. He 
was employed by King James vi. as a secret political agent 
on the Continent. He met an unfortunate fate after some 
years' attendance upon the English Court. He had acquired 
considerable skill in the science of fencing, and prided him- 
self on the fact. While visiting Lord Norris at his seat in 
Oxfordshire in August 1604, he there met a fencing-master 
named Turner, whom he challenged to a friendly contest, 
professing himself to be a novice, intending to throw 
a slight on Turner's skill. But the latter suspected 

1 Eeg. of Deeds, lii. f. 213b. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., 13 February 1580- 
81. 3 Dumfries Retours, No. 48. 4 Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 374, 427, 429. 
6 Dumfries Writs. 6 Border Papers, ii. 86, 610. * p. c. Reg., v. 338-40. 
8 Border Papers, ii. 274. 9 Calderwood's History, v. 538, 544, 667. 
10 Border Papers, ii. 610. 



CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 231 

Crichton's design, and pressed so hotly upon him that he 
put out one of his eyes. It is said that a question by the 
King of France (Henri iv.) some years later, whether his 
opponent yet lived, caused him to harbour thoughts of 
revenge, but at his trial it was shown he had harboured 
the idea of revenge from the first. This he accomplished 
some years later, in the early part of the year 1612, by the 
hand of one of his servants, who shot Turner with a pistol 
in his own house in London. 1 Most of these statements are 
borne out by a proclamation by the Privy Council of Scot- 
land on 19 May 1612, directing search for and apprehension 
of the actual murderer, Robert Oarlyle, servant to Robert, 
Lord Crichton, with Lord Orichton himself, and William 
Oarlyle, brother of Robert. 2 They were then still at large, 
but soon afterwards Lord Crichton surrendered himself to 
the King's mercy. .This, however, he failed to obtain, as 
there was then extreme antipathy against the Scots 
courtiers, because of their insolence and swaggering 
behaviour, and the London populace were so excited 
because of the murder, that for fear of insurrection the 
King dare not pardon Lord Crichton. He was, therefore, 
hanged before the gates of Westminster Hall on 29 June 
1612. 

Lord Crichton married, at St. Ann's, Blackfriars, on 16 
April 1608, Anne, daughter of Sir George Farmer of Easton, 
co. Northampton, 3 but by her had no issue. She married, 
secondly, on 17 July 1615, Barnaby (O'Brien), sixth Earl of 
Thomond, and was buried 13 April 1675 at Great Billing, 
co. Northampton. He had, however, a natural son, 
William, born in France, and probably the son of a 
French lady. 4 He was legitimated on 8 August 1609, 
he being then at the schools in Paris. 5 A few days 
before, on 29 July, he was called in an entail of his 
father's estates immediately after the lawful heirs- 
male of his father's body. 6 On the strength of certain 

1 Douglas, Peerage. Crawford says the actual assassin was a hired 
bravo, but he is styled servant to Lord Crichton. Calderwood (vii. 165) 
says Lord Crichton hired two men to kill Turner. 2 P. C. Reg., ix. 370, 
371. There is no definite reward stated in the proclamation, but Craw- 
f urd says ' a thousand pounds was offered.' 3 Douglas ; cf. Reg. Mag. 
Sig., 8 August 1609. 4 P. C. Reg., x. 638. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig., 8 August 1609. 
6 Ibid., at date. 



232 ORIOHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 

writs by his father, he assumed the title, and is 
styled William, now Lord Orichtoun of Sanquhar, 
son and heir of tailzie of the late Robert, Lord 
Orichton, in a complaint he made to the Privy Council 
that William Orichton of Ryhill was usurping his title 
and forbidding his tenants to pay rent. 1 That was 
in September 1612, and he still held the title in 
January following, but the rival claimant pressed 
his rights, and on 7 May 1614 King James vi., on a 
special submission by the parties, pronounced a 
decreet-arbitral declaring the writs founded on by 
William to be null, and directing him as son natural 
of his father to denude himself of all his rights and 
claims to the barony of Sanquhar, a certain provision 
being made for him. In this decree the King refers 
to the legitimation of August 1609, and limits it by 
saying it was never his meaning so to rehabilitate 
the grantee, as thereby to make him his father's full 
successor, i.e. as against a lawful heir-male of the 
late Lord Orichton. 2 There was some delay in settling 
affairs, as William always pled he was not of full 
age ; but after a second submission, the King and 
other arbiters in February and May 1618 ratified the 
former decreet, required William to denude himself 
of all lands, and assigned to him, with provision for 
his heirs, the lands of Benchills, parish of Redgorton 
and Rossieochill in Forgandenny, co. Perth. 3 In terms 
of this final decreet William Orichton on 19 November 
1618 formally ratified the King's first decree. 4 On 1 
June 1619 a gift of his marriage and other casualties 
was made to Mr. John Oliphant, 5 but his later 
history has not been ascertained. 

IX. WILLIAM, ninth Lord Orichton of Sanquhar, was, as 
already indicated (p. 227), the cousin of the eighth Lord. 
In 1598 he is described as the son and apparent heir of 
William, tutor of Sanquhar. 6 He was also styled of Darn- 
hunch or Darnhaunch, a place in Ayrshire, and of Town- 

1 P. C. Reg., ix. 458, 459. 2 Reg. of Deeds, ccxxiii., 18 May 1614 ; cf. 
Riddell's Scottish Peerages, i. 138. 3 Ibid., cclxxvi., 31 July 1618. * Ibid., 
cccx., 1 August 1621. 6 Dumfries Writs. 6 P. C. Reg., v. 694. 



CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 233 

head, and after January 1606 he is designed of By hill, 
which property he purchased, a fact which has led to his 
being erroneously stated to be a son of John Orichton of 
Ryhill, referred to on p. 225. In September 1612 he took steps 
to vindicate his claim to his late cousin's estates and title 
by warning the tenants not to pay rent, and he also on 6 
November 1613 was served heir to the late Lord as his 
father's brother's son. 1 A species of feud arose between 
the rival claimants until the question of succession was 
settled, as stated, by the King's decreet-arbitral of 7 May 
1614, after which William Orichton of Ryhill was recognised 
as and styled Lord Orichton of Sanquhar. 2 In July follow- 
ing the decreet he was the subject of certain cartels and 
challenges from William Douglas of Drumlanrig and his 
brother, but the Council interfered to prevent a feud. 3 He 
was one of the judges who, at Glasgow on 28 February 1615, 
sat on the trial of Mr. John Ogilvie, a prominent Jesuit, 
who was condemned to death, and whose execution is 
* believed to be the only distinctly recorded case in Scottish 
history after the Reformation of the actual infliction of the 
punishment of death on a Roman Catholic on account of 
his religion.' 4 He was also a member of the Court of High 
Commission. 5 He had the honour of receiving King 
James vi. as a guest at his castle of Sanquhar on 31 July 
1617, while the King was on his way south from his last 
visit to his ancient kingdom. 6 The friction between him 
and the natural son of the late Lord Crichton had continued 
more or less, aggravated by the frequent refusals of the 
younger William to ratify the King's decreet, but finally on 
19 November 1618 he made formal ratification, and also a full 
resignation of all the lands and estates in favour of Lord 
Orichton. 7 This was followed after an interval by a Crown 
charter on 20 July 1619, granting to him the barony of 
Sanquhar in terms of the above resignation, and the barony 
of Glencairn on his own resignation, erecting the whole 
lands and others into one barony to be called the barony of 
Sanquhar. 8 
He was raised to the rank of Viscount on 2 February 

1 Dumfries Writs. 2 Cf. Acta Parl. Scot., iv. 562. 3 P. C. Reg., x. 252- 
258. 4 Ibid., 304 n- 307 n. 6 Ibid., 437 n. 6 Ibid., xi. 207 n. 7 Reg. 
of Deeds, cccx. 1 August 1621. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 



234 GRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 

1622, being created VISCOUNT OF AIR, to himself and 
the heirs-male of his body, to be called Viscounts of Air 
and Lords of Sanquhar. 1 He took a prominent place in 
affairs under King Charles i. as under his father, and when 
Charles made his visit to Scotland in 1633, the Viscount was 
deputed to meet him at Berwick. The King soon after, on 
12 June 1633, created him EARL OF DRUMFREIS, VIS- 
COUNT OF AIR, LORD CRICHTON OF SANQUHAR 
AND CUMNOCK, to him, and his heirs-male bearing the 
name and arms of Crichton. 2 His lands of Sanquhar be- 
came heavily burdened, and in 1642 and 1643 the barony 
was disposed of to William, first Earl of Queensberry. 
The first Earl of Dumfries appears to have died between 15 
August 1642 and 24 March 1642-43. 3 He married, first, 
Euphemia, daughter of James Seton of Touch, and widow 
of Patrick Hamilton of Peel of Livingston, 4 by whom he had 
issue. He married, secondly, before 16 June 1630, Ursula 
Barnham, 5 daughter of Stephen Barnham, relict of Sir 
Robert Swift of Rotherham. She predeceased her second 
husband, dying, without issue by him, at Doncaster 28 May 
1632, and was buried at Rotherham. His issue were : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded as second Earl. 

2. James-ni St. Leonard's, Sheriff of Dumfries, named 

along with his brother William in various writs. They 
also joined together in conveying the heritable office 
of sheriffship of Dumfries to the Earl of Queensberry 
in 1666 and 1667. He died before 2 December 1669, 6 
leaving issue : 

(1) John, who, as son of James Crichton, brother of the Earl of 

Dumfries, is one of those called in an entail of 9 July 1647, 
by John Crichton of Crawfordtown. 7 He granted a bond 
on 2 December 1669 as the eldest son of his late father, but 
died apparently between 1672 and 1675. 8 

(2) David, named in the writ by his brother John, and who 

describes himself as eldest son in November 1675. 9 

(3) James, named in a writ of 13 November 1672, by his brother 

David. 10 



1 Reg. Mag. Sig. , at date. 2 Ibid. 3 Reg. of Deeds (Mack. ), xxi. , 12 June, 
where he is said to have been alive on 15 August 1642 ; and Reg. of Deeds, 
Dlviii. 88, 89 ; Letters of Admon., 12 February 1658-59. 4 Acts and Decreets, 
ccxxxi. 2. 5 Reg. of Deeds, ccccxxxi., 9 July 1630. 6 Ibid. (Mack.), 1 Feb- 
ruary 1671. 7 Laing Charters, No. 2377. 8 Reg. of Deeds (Durie), 16 
November 1675. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. 



CRIOHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 235 

3. John, a colonel in the German wars. 1 

4. Mary, married, in August 1618, to Edward Barnliam 

Swift, Viscount of Oarlingford, who died 1 January 
1634. She died 24 August 1674, and was buried at 
Sandal in Yorkshire, leaving issue one daughter, 
Mary, married to Sir Robert Fielding. 2 

5. Catherine, married to Sir John Oharteris of Amisfield, 

and had issue. 

X. WILLIAM, second Earl of Dumfries, was a consenting 
party to the sale of Sanquhar and other lands in 1639 and 
1642. His career was not a prominent one, but he appears 
to have been a member of Privy Council, and he was 
frequent in attendance on Parliament. 3 He survived his 
two sons, and in 1690 he resigned his honours into the 
hands of King William, receiving on 3 November 1690 
a new patent to himself for life, and after his death to 
his grandson William, Lord Orichton, whom failing, to 
Penelope, eldest daughter of his deceased son Charles, 
Lord Orichton, whom failing, to her three sisters Mar- 
garet, Mary, and Elizabeth, and their heirs respectively. 4 
The Earl died in 1691, having married on 29 August 1618, 5 
when both parties were under the age of thirteen, Penelope, 
daughter of Sir Robert Swift, Knight, of Rotherham, co. 
York, by Ursula, daughter of Stephen Barnham above 
named. They had issue : 

1. Robert, Lord Crichton, who was baptized at Doncaster 

on 19 December 1641, and died young. 

2. Charles, Lord Orichton, of whom little is recorded. 

On 4 October 1686 he made a disposition settling 
his estates on his son and the heirs-male of 
his body, whom failing, on his four daughters 
successively. 6 He predeceased his father, dying 
before 11 March 1690, when he was buried at 
Dumfries. 7 He married (contract dated 23 October 
and 17 December 1679 8 ) Sarah, third daughter of 

1 Grant's Memoirs of Sir John Hepburn, 257. 2 Burke's Dormant and 
Extinct Peerages, s.v. Carlingford. z Acta Parl. Scot., v. to viii. passim. 
4 Reg. Mag. Sig., Ixxii., No. 122. 6 Chronicle of Perth, 19. 6 Reg. Mag. 
Sig., Ixxii., No. 122; Reg. of Deeds (Dal.), Ixix., 7 July 1688. 7 Register 
of Interments, Greyfriars (1658-1700), 151. 8 Reg. of Deeds (Dal.), Ixix. 
utcit. 



236 CRICHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 

James Dalrymple, first Viscount of Stair, and had 
issue : 

WILLIAM, who succeeded as third Earl. 
PENELOPE, of whom later. 
(3) Margaret. 
Mary. 

Elizabeth, who died unmarried, aged fifty-one, and was 
buried 17 November 1742. 1 



(1) 
(2) 

(3) 
(4) 

(5) 



3. Elizabeth, married in January 1658, as his first wife, 

to Alexander, Earl of Eglinton. 

4. Penelope, who died unmarried. 

5. Mary, baptized at Doncaster 15 February 1644, and 

died unmarried. 

XI. WILLIAM, third Earl of Dumfries, succeeded his 
grandfather, the second Earl, in 1691, but held the title 
only for a short time, as he died on 28 February 1694, un- 
married. 

XII. PENELOPE, Countess of Dumfries, succeeded her 
brother William in his honours, in terms of the patent of 
1690. On 26 February 1698 she married her cousin William 
Dalrymple of Glenmure, second son of John, first Earl of 
Stair. The Countess of Dumfries died at Clackmannan 6 
March 1742, survived by her husband, who died 3 December 
1744. . They had issue six sons and two daughters, of whom 
only the eldest son, William, who became Earl of Dumfries, 
and the eldest daughter need be named here, the other 
children being treated of under the title Stair : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded his mother. 
7. Elizabeth Crichton Dalrymple, married to John Mac- 
dowall of French, and had issue : 

(1) PATRICK MACDOWALL, who became fifth Earl of Dumfries. 

(2) William Macdowall, in H.E.I.C.S. ; died 23 December 1769. 

(3) Stair Macdowall, died young. 

(4) John Macdowall, merchant in Glasgow, who married, on 9 

December 1767, Mary Isabel, daughter of Ebenezer Maccul- 
loch, merchant in Glasgow, and died at Edinburgh 22 
December 1803. 

(5) Crichton Macdowall, died young. 

(6) Penelope Macdowall, married to Ebenezer Maculloch, mer- 

chant in Edinburgh, died in the Isle of Man 28 October 
1774. 

1 Canongate Burial Register. 



ORIOHTON, EARL OF DUMFRIES 237 

(7) Eleanora Macdowall, married to William Macghie of Bal- 
maghie, co. Kirkcudbright ; died at Edinburgh 20 Septem- 
ber 1804. 

XIII. WILLIAM GRICHTON-DALRYMPLE, fourth Earl of Dum- 
fries, succeeded his mother in the honours of the family. 
He held a commission in the army and served in various 
regiments. At the battle of Dettingen, 26 June 1743, he 
acted as aide-de-camp to his uncle John, second Earl of 
Stair. He was made a K.T. in 1752, and in 1760 he suc- 
ceeded his younger brother James as fourth Earl of Stair 
(see that title), being styled Earl of Dumfries and Stair. 
He died at Dumfries House, co. Ayr, 27 July 1768, without 
surviving issue, and was succeeded by his nephew. The 
Earl married, 2 April 1731, first, Anne, eldest daughter (by 
his first wife) of William Gordon, second Earl of Aberdeen. 
She died 15 April 1755- at Edinburgh, being buried at Cum- 
nock, co. Ayr ; and the Earl married, secondly, on 19 June 
1762, Anne, daughter of William Duff of Orombie, Advocate. 
She survived him, and married, 26 July 1769, Alexander 
Gordon, a Lord of Session, styled Lord Rockville, who died 
13 March 1792. She died 21 August 1811, at Brandsbury, 
aged seventy-three. By his first wife the Earl had one son, 

William, Lord Crichton, born 12 December 1734. He 
predeceased his father, dying 9 September 1744, in 
his tenth year, while at school at Marylebone. 

XIV. PATRICK MACDOWALL CRICHTON, fifth Earl of Dum- 
fries, who succeeded, was the nephew of the fourth Earl, 
being the eldest son of the latter's sister, as stated above. 
He was born 15 October 1726; became an officer in the 
army, and had a company inthe 3rd Regiment of Foot 
Guards 1762. In 1768 he succeeded his uncle as Earl of 
Dumfries only. He was elected a Representative Peer of 
Scotland in 1790, and so continued till his death on 7 April 
1803. He married, 12 September 1771, Margaret, daughter 
of Ronald Orauford of Restalrig. By her, who died 5 May 
1799, the Earl had issue one daughter, besides another 
who died in infancy. 

ELIZABETH PENELOPE CRICHTON, born at Dumfries House 
25 November 1772 ; married, on 12 October 1792, to 
John Stuart, Viscount Mountstuart, eldest son of 



238 CRICHTON, EARL OP DUMFRIES 

John, fourth Earl and first Marquess of Bute, and 
had issue, whose names will be found in the article 
on that title, vol. ii. p. 308. 

CREATIONS. Lord Orichton of Sanquhar 29 January 1487- 
88: Viscount of Air 2 February 1622: Earl of Dumfries, 
Viscount of Air, Lord Orichton of Sanquhar and Cum- 
nock, 12 June 1633. 

ARMS. Recorded in Lyon Register. Quarterly : 1st and 
4th, argent, a lion rampant azure, armed and langued gules, 
for Crichton ; 2nd and 3rd, azure, three water budgets or, 
for Vallange. 

OREST. A dragon vert, crowned, and spouting out 
fire or. 

SUPPORTERS. Two lions rampant azure, crowned or, 
armed and langued gules. 

MOTTO. God send grace. 

[J. A.] 



DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 




UNBAR, 'the castle on 
the hill,' in Bast Lothian, 
gave name to this family, 
who are of Celtic origin, 
their earliest known an- 
cestor being ' Orinan the 
Thane, 1 who flourished 
between 975 and 1045. 
His grandson was 4 Gos- 
patrick the Earl,' who 
was Earl of Northumber- 
land from 1067 to 1072, 
in which year he had a 
grant of Dunbar with the 
adjacent lands in Lothian 
from King Malcolm 
Oeannmor. When sur- 
names came into use Earl Gospatrick's descendants took 
their name from Dunbar, the lands and earldom of which 
they held for nearly four hundred years, from 1072 until 
the forfeiture on 11 January 1434-35 of George of Dunbar, 
eleventh Earl of Dunbar and fourth Earl of March. 
The Earls of Dunbar held great territories both in Scot- 
land and in England, and they had the guardianship of 
the East March, a charge which either seems to have 
been sufficient to occupy them, or they were not ambitious, 
as although they were perhaps the most powerful of 
the Scottish nobility they do not appear to have ever 
held any of the high offices about the King. Though 
Gospatrick was the first Earl of Dunbar, it is necessary 
before treating of him to give a short statement of his 
ancestry and immediate parentage. His grandfather, 

ORINAN, known as 'Orinan the Thane,' of the kin of 



240 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

St. Columba, was hereditary lay-abbot of Dunkeld and Senes- 
chal of the Isles. He also held, with other lands, the 
territory called the ' Abthania de Dul,' part of which is 
now the parish of Dull in Atholl. 1 He is believed to have 
been born about 975, and he married about 1005 Bethoc or 
Beatrice, daughter and heir of Malcolm n., King of Scots. 
In attempting to avenge the death of his elder son King 
Duncan i., Orinan was slain in battle t with nine times 
twenty heroes,' as the Celtic chronicler puts it, in the year 
1045. 2 He had issue : 

1. DUNCAN the First, the * gracious Duncan * of Shake- 

speare's great tragedy of Macbeth, who was King of 
the Cumbrians, and succeeded his maternal grand- 
father King Malcolm n., on 25 November 1034. He was 
murdered by Macbeth at Bothnagowan, now called 
Pitgaveny, near Elgin, 14 August 1040. By his wife, 
a kinswoman of Si ward, Earl of Northumberland, he 
was father of Malcolm III. (Ceannmor) and of Donald 
Bane, successively Kings of Scots. 3 

2. Maldred or Malcolm, of whom hereafter. 

3. , a daughter, mother of Moddan, titular Earl of 

Caithness, who was slain at Thurso in 1040. 4 

MALDRED, or Malcolm, the second son of Orinan, is be- 
lieved to have become King of the Cumbrians when his 
elder brother succeeded as King of Scots. There is no 
direct proof of this, and Fordun states that Cumbria was 
in 1034 bestowed on Malcolm, afterwards Malcolm in., 
son of Duncan I. But he was only a child at that date, 
and it is more probable it was his uncle, the older Malcolm, 
who was made ruler of Cumbria. Certainly he is[f ound closely 
linked to that district, which then included Strathclyde as 
well as Cumberland, by marriage relations and other ties. 
A recently discovered writ by his son Gospatric, to be 
referred to later, suggests that he may have possessed in 
his own right the Allerdale district of Cumberland. Little 
is known of Maldred's history, and his career was probably 

1 His parentage is not certainly known, but his grandfather was pro- 
bably Duncan, lay-abbot of Dunkeld, who was killed in 965, and his mother 
or grandmother may have been a daughter of one of the last Kings of the 
Isles. 2 Annals of Tighernac, 78. 3 Dunbar's Scottish Kings, 12-14. 
* Ibid., 6. 






DUNBAB, EARL OP DUNBAB 241 

cut short in the same battle as that in which his father 
was slain, in 1045. He married Ealdgith or Algitha, 
daughter of Uchtred, Earl of Northumberland, by his wife 
Mlgifa or Elgiva, daughter of JCthelred n., King of Eng- 
land. They had issue : 

1. GOSPATRIC, Earl of Northumberland and first Earl of 

Dunbar, of whom hereafter. 

2. Maldredj who is claimed as the ancestor of Robert 

Fitz Maldred, Lord of Baby in Durham, and through 
him of the Nevills, Earls of Westmorland and War- 
wick, and other families of that name. He had 
apparently two sons, Robert and Uchtred. 1 
An Ulkil, son of Maldred, appears as a witness to charters 
by Oospatric, brother of Dolfin, before 1138. 2 They may 
have been cousins. 

The first of the family who possessed Dunbar, from which 
his descendants took their surname, was 

I. GOSPATRIC ('Gwas Patric, servant of Patric'), who 
probably was named after his mother's half-brother, the 
son of Earl Uchtred of Northumberland by another wife. 
He was allied to noble lineage on both sides of the house, 
uniting the Celtic descent of his father with the royal stock 
of Wessex, from which his mother came. He was born 
probably about 1040, and is said to have accompanied Earl 
Tosti, Harold's brother, to Borne, in 1061, where he tried 
to save the Earl's life, though the story may be told of the 
elder Gospatric, his uncle. 3 Towards the end of the year 
1067 he was made Earl of Northumberland by King William 
the Conqueror. He had a certain though not direct claim to 
the dignity through his mother, but he paid a large sum 
of money for the honour. In the following year, however, 
he took part in the conspiracy against the Conqueror on 
behalf of Edgar the Etheling, which at first rose to formid- 
able proportions in the north, but, by the treachery of 
Edwin and Morker, it came to naught. Gospatric fled to 
Scotland with the Etheling, his mother and sisters and 
others, and appears to have been, temporarily at least, 

1 Priory of Hexham, Surtees Society, i. 95 and note ; cf. Liber Vitce 
Dunelm., 146. 2 Raine's North Durham, App. No. cxi. ; Liber de Calchou, 
i. 234. 3 Lives of Edward the Confessor, Rolls series, 411. 

VOL. III. Q 



242 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

deprived of the earldom, to which Robert Oomyn was 
appointed. But in 1069 he was again at the head of the men 
of Northumbria, assisting at an invasion of the Danes, with 
whom Edgar the Etheling was in league. King William, 
however, suppressed the rebellion with terrible severity, 1 
and Gospatric made his peace with William by proxy, 2 and 
remained faithful and in the King's favour for a time. 

Stories are also told of his robbing the church of Durham 
and ravaging Cumberland, 3 though a recently discovered 
document, which is of the utmost importance for the early 
history of that shire, reveals the fact that Gospatric him- 
self was a large landowner there, holding, not improbably 
by inheritance from his father Maldred, the district of 
Allerdale. This renders his invasion of Cumberland the 
more remarkable, but Allerdale may have been spared. It 
has been asserted, with full belief hitherto, that his son 
Waldeve was the first holder of Allerdale. But the writ 
in question shows that Gospatric was exercising full rights 
there before the time of King Henry i., who no doubt 
confirmed Waldeve's rights. 4 

King William used the influence Gospatric had among 
the Northumbrians to introduce a foreign bishop, Walcher, 
to the see of Durham, but a year later, or in 1072, perhaps 
because he found himself strong enough to do so, owing to 
the submission of King Malcolm in., King William de- 
prived Gospatric of his earldom. The pretexts for depriva- 
tion were his alliance with the Danes and his alleged 
complicity in the death of Robert Comyn, but these had 
been condoned, and the real crime was probably the per- 
sonal hold he had on the affections of the people, which, 
added to his great possessions, made him in William's eyes 
a dangerous subject at the extremity of the kingdom. The 
Earl fled to the Court of his cousin, the King of Scots, and 
thence he sailed to Flanders. On his return King Malcolm 
gave to him Dunbar, with adjoining lands in Lothian, that 
from these, until happier times should return, he might 
support himself and his family. 6 

1 Chronica Eogeri de Hoveden, Rolls series, i. 59, 117-119. 2 Ordericus 
Vitalis, ed. Migne, 1855, col. 320. 3 Symeon of Durham, Rolls series, 
i. 102-104 ; Hoveden, i. 121, 122. 4 The writ is too long and important to 
be commented on here, but is printed at length in The Scottish Historical 
Review, i. 62-69; cf. also ii. 340, 341. 6 Hoveden, i. 59. 



DUNBAR, EARL OP DUNBAR 243 

According to the chronicler from whom we learn so much 
about this Earl, he did not long survive his residence in 
Scotland, and died at Ubbanford, which is Norham, and was 
buried in the porch of the church there. 1 The chronicler 
is entitled to much respect, as he certainly compiled his 
narrative at no great distance from the event, and was 
himself probably a native of the district. But his narrative 
contradicts a long-standing tradition that this Earl was he 
who became a monk at Durham, and was buried there$ his 
name being commemorated in their obituaries as l comes et 
monachus,' while a tombstone, believed to be his, bearing 
the inscription ' Gospatricus comes,' was discovered in the 
monks' burial-ground there, in 1821, and is now preserved in 
the crypt of the cathedral at Durham. 2 Yet the circum- 
stantial account of his death and burial at Norham makes 
the tradition doubtful*, and there is no certain evidence to 
clear up the point. 

The name of the Earl's wife is unknown, and her parent- 
age has not been discovered, though she had a brother, 
Edmund or Eadmund, to whose lands her son Gospatric 
obtained a right from King Henry i. 3 They had issue : 

1. Dolfin, who is believed to be identical with Dolfin, the 

ruler of Cumbria under King Malcolm in. of Scotland. 
He was, however, expelled from his jurisdiction in 
1092 by King William Rufus, 4 and nothing further is 
known of him. 

2. Waldeve, apparently referred to in his father's writ as 

'Waltheof,' is usually said to have received from King 
Henry I., the barony of Allerdale, in Cumberland, 5 but 
it is now clear that it must have descended to him 
from his father, being only confirmed by Henry. It 
is said that his being a Scotsman gained him the 
favour of Ranulf Meschin, the new Norman lord of 
Carlisle. This seems to imply not only Scottish sym- 
pathies, but ownership in Scotland, and he may have 

1 Hoveden, i. 59. This part of the MS. Chronicle, which passes under 
the name of Hoveden, was written before 1161, and part of it may be 
nearly contemporary with earlier dates. 2 Liber Vitce, Surtees Soc., 
147 ; Scottish Kings, 5, note 27. 3 It has been suggested that this Edmund 
was identical with Eadmund, son of King Harold n., but of this there is 
no proof. 4 Saxon Chron., ii. 195. 6 Testa de Nevill, Record ser., 379b ; 
Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 64. 



244 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

possessed the lands there, held later by his grandson 
of the same name. He granted some land in Aller- 
dale, and a house for herring-fishery, to the Priory 
of Hexham. He, with his wife and his two sons, also 
granted to the church of Brydekirk, in Allerdale, the 
villa of Appleton and its surroundings. 1 He is named 
in the Inquisition by Earl David, afterwards King, as 
to the possessions of the see of Glasgow, made be- 
tween 1120 and 1124. He was present with King 
David i. of Scotland at Dunfermline, about 1126 or 
later, 2 and this appears to be the latest notice of 
him. It has been asserted that he became Abbot of 
Oroyland in 1124 and was deposed in 1138, but there 
is good reason for believing that the Abbot must 
have been another Waldeve. 3 His wife's name was 
Sigrid or Sigarith, who survived him and married 
Roger, son of Gilbert. 4 He had two sons and two 
daughters : 

(1) Alan, who is principally known from the large dowries he 

gave to his sisters, and his grants to his brother and to the 
priory of Carlisle. He and his brother Gospatric appear as 
witnesses to a charter of King David i. on 16 August 1139. 5 
He had a son Waldeve, who predeceased him, and his male 
line ceased. 6 

(2) Gospatric, who is said to have been a bastard, though this is 

doubtful. 7 He received from his brother Alan, the lands of 
Bolton, Bassenthwaite, and others in Derwent water. 8 He 
is styled Gospatric, son of Waldeve, when he appears as a 
witness in two charters by King David i., about 1130, and 
he and his brother are witnesses on 16 August 1139. Gos- 
patric survived till after 1154, as he is a witness to a charter 
by King Malcolm iv., between that year and 1158, to the 
monks of Dunfermline. About the same date the King 
addressed a letter to him and to the Abbot of Dunfermline, 
ferryers of the seaports, i.e. lords of the ferries, directing 
them to pass Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, and his men, 
free of charge. 9 This writ suggests that he was then the 
owner of Dundas, commanding the south side of the Queen's 
ferry. It is therefore probable he was the father of 

i. Waldeve, son of Gospatric, who held the lands in Scot- 

1 Guisbro 1 CJiartuJary, Surtees Soc., ii. 318, 319. 2 Early Scottish 
Charters, by Sir Archibald C. Lawrie, 56, 57. 3 Paper by Rev. James 
Wilson in Scottish Historical Review, ii. 331-334. 4 Guisbro, Chartulary, 
ut cit. ; Scottish Historical Review, ut cit. 6 Raine's North Durham, 
App. Nos. xix. xx. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 64. 7 Ibid. In the charter of 
Brydekirk, above referred to, Gospatric is named first of Waldeve' s sons. 
8 Ibid. 9 Reg. de Dunfermelyne, 22 ; Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 185, 191, 202. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 245 

land of Inverkeithing and Dalmeny, and who granted 
to the monks of Jedburgh the church of Bassen- 
thwaite in Cumberland. He granted the lands of 
Dundas to Helias Fitz Huctred, probably a kinsman, 
in a charter, dated certainly before 1200, 1 but the 
witnesses of which suggest a date about 1180 or a 
little earlier. He was dead before 1200, and had issue 
apparently only two daughters, Christiana and 
Galiena. 2 Christiana married Duncan Lascelles, 
and had right not only to Bassenthwaite and Bolton, 
but had heritage in Scotland. 3 Galiena married 
Philip Moubray, and they confirmed or added to 
the grant made by Waldeve, son of Gospatric, of the 
church of Inverkeithing to the Abbey of Dunfermline. 4 
His grandson, Roger Moubray, also confirmed, after 
1233, a grant by his grandfather Waldeve, of the 
church of Dalmeny, to the monks of Jedburgh. 5 This 
Waldeve, son of Gospatric, is not to be confounded 
with his namesake Waldeve the Earl, son of Gospatric 
the Earl, who died in 1182, and whom he apparently 
survived. 

(3) Gunnild, who was married to Uchtred, son of Fergus, Lord 

of Galloway, with issue. 6 

(4) Hectreda or Octreda, married, first, to Randulf de Lindesay, 

and secondly, to William de Esseville or de Esseby. 7 

3. GosPATRic, 8 who became Earl or Lord of Dunbar, of 

whom hereafter. 

4. Octreda or Ethreda, who married Waldeve, son of 

Gillemin. 9 

5. Gunnilda, married to Orm, son of Ketel. 

6. Matilda, married to Dolfin, son of Aylward. 

7. Mthelreda, who was married, about 1094, to Duncan 

II., King of Scots, and became the mother of William 
Fitz Duncan, Earl of Moray, who lived until 1151 or 
later, as in that year King David I. restored to him 
his honour of Skipton and others. 10 His male line 
ended in the 'Boy of Egremont,' whose heiresses 
were his three sisters. 11 There was another son named 
Gospatric, 12 but of his history nothing is known. 

1 Copies in Gen. Reg. Ho. of original writ. 2 In his grant of the church 
of Inverkeithing he speaks only of his daughters, as if he had no sons. 
3 Col. Doc. Scot., i. Nos. 308, 429. 4 Reg. de Dunfermelyne, 94, 95. 
6 Original charter by Mubray in Gen. Reg. House, No. 34. 6 Reg. of the 
Priory of Wetherhal, 386. 7 Ibid. ; Reg. of St. Bees, Harl. MSS. 434, i 22, 
ii. 1. 8 The arrangement here made of the sons of Gospatric i. is that 
followed by Symeon of Durham and the earliest authorities. 9 This 
daughter of Gospatric i. and her sisters are all named in the Wetherhal 
Register, 386. 10 Priory of Hexham, i. 163. n Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 64. 
12 Raine's North Durham, App. No. cxi. 



246 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

II. GOSPATRIC, who in one place calls himself Earl, and 
certainly held the rank and place of Earl or ruler of Lothian, 
does not appear on record until after 1100, the year of the 
accession of King Henry I. of England, and his earliest 
mention in Scottish writs is in 1119. Another peculiarity 
about his designation is that during his lifetime he is never 
but once, by himself, in a charter to the monks of Oolding- 
ham, 1 styled Earl in Scottish charters. He is referred to, 
whether as a witness to charters, or a granter or recipient 
of charters, in nearly every case as Gospatric, brother of 
Dolfin. 2 In 1119 he is a witness to the charter to the monks 
of Selkirk, and to the Inquisition of the see of Glasgow, as 
well as, later, to the foundation charter of Scone. 3 He has 
also the same designation in the first grant to Holyrood. 4 
These are the chief references to him during his life in 
Scottish records, and while he evidently held a high 
position, he is never styled Earl until after his death. 

King Henry i., also in a charter of unknown date, but 
certainly some time after 1100, conferred upon him, as 
Gospatric, brother of Dolfin, a large tract of land lying 
between Wooler and Morpeth, in Northumberland. This 
extensive grant, which was confirmed at York about 1136, 5 
was held, not by knight's service or other service usual 
from a barony, though it is sometimes described as the 
barony of Beanley. It was held in grand serjeanty, the 
Earl and his descendants being bound to be t inborwe ' and 
' utborwe ' between England and Scotland ; 6 that is, they 
were to be security for persons passing to and fro between 
the two countries, who would not be allowed to travel north 
or south without permission of the lords of Beanley, a fact 
which practically gave to the Earls of Dunbar the im- 
portant position of Wardens on both sides of the East 
March. 

From another important English writ it appears that 
Gospatric, besides the lands named, held the adjoining 

1 Raine's North Durham, App. No. cxi. 2 A writ, drawn up apparently 
by the monks of Holmcultram, in 1275, asserts that Dolfin and Gospatric 
were bastards, and that Waldeve was legitimate. But that state- 
ment is doubtful, the writ being intended for land-grabbing purposes. 
Bain, Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 64. 3 Liber de Calchou, i. 4; Liber de Scon, 
1 ; Reg. Episcopatus Glasg., i. 5, 11. 4 Liber Cart. Sanctce Crucis, 6. 
6 Priory of Hexham, Surtees Soc., i. Illustrative Documents, No. ix. 
6 Cal. Doc. Scot., i. No. 552. 



DUNBAR, EARL OP DUNBAR 247 

territories of Bewick and Eglingham, of which he received 
a grant in feufarm from the abbot of St. Albans, by a 
special contract, dated between 1097 and 1119, 1 and which 
were afterwards held by Edgar, a son of Gospatric. 

Earl Gospatric granted, probably towards the close of 
his life, the lands of Ederham, or Edrom, and Nisbet, to 
the monks of Coldingham, imprecating spiritual penalties 
on any who should interfere with the grant. 2 He also 
gave the church of Edlingham in alms to the Abbey of 
St. Albans. 3 He endowed the church of St. Nicholas of 
Home, in Berwickshire, his wife and family consenting to 
the gift. 4 He joined his kinsman King David I. in the 
latter 's invasion of England in 1138, and commanded the 
men of Lothian at the battle of Cowton Moor, near North- 
allerton, otherwise called the battle of the Standard, fought 
on 23 August 1138. At least no other person could be 
described as the ' summus Dux Lodonensium ' who led them 
to the field. 5 The Scots were defeated, and the leader of 
the Lothian men was slain or severely wounded by an 
arrow. Whether this were Earl Gospatric or not, he was 
certainly dead before 16 August 1139, when King David I. 
confirmed the grant of Edrom to the monastery of Oolding- 
ham. 6 The seal attached to his charter of Coldingham is 
round, one inch in diameter ; an equestrian figure holding a 
sword slanting over his shoulder in his right hand. The 
legend is broken and defaced, but enough remains to show 
that it must have read, 'SIGILLUM GOSPATRICI FRATRIS 
DOLFINI.' 

The name of the Earl's wife has not been ascertained. 7 
They had issue, four sons and a daughter : 

1. GOSPATRIC, who succeeded to the earldom of Dunbar. 

2. Adam, at first called Waldeve, but who for some 

reason, perhaps a religious one, changed his name. 
He was a party and also a witness to the contract 
with the abbot of St. Albans already noted. Between 
1151 and 1166 he acknowledged that the church of 

1 Original contract at Durham : autotype penes Sir Archibald Hamilton 
Dunbar, Bart. 2 Raine, North Durham, App. No. cxi. 3 Charter at 
Durham : autotype ut supra. 4 Liber de Calchou, i. 234. 6 Hoveden, 
i. 195. 6 North Durham, App. No. xx. 7 It has been stated, on the 
authority of the Liber Vitce Dunelm., 102, that her name was Sibilla, 
but there is evidence that Sibilla was the wife of the Earl's son Edward. 



248 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

Edlingham, named in that contract, belonged to the 
Abbey of St. Albans, and undertook to pay a mark of 
silver, in name of said church, to the Cell at Tyne- 
mouth. 1 He also was a witness to a charter by his 
brother Gospatric, to Ooldingham, most of the others 
named being Churchmen. 2 His name appears in 
several deeds, and he may have been a Churchman, 
but nothing further is known of him. 

3. Edward, 3 who held the lands of Edlingham, Hedgley, 

Harehope, and others, in Northumberland, 4 and also 
lands in Scotland, not named, but apparently near 
Dunbar, which the monks of Melrose held from him 
in feufarm. 5 He granted to the monks of May, for 
himself and his children, and for the soul of his wife 
Sibilla, a chalder of meal from his mill of Beletun, or 
Belton, near Dunbar, each year at the Feast of 
St. Cuthbert. 6 Some time before 1176 he and his son 
Waldeve had a dispute with his brother Edgar as to 
the right to certain lands, but Edgar's claim was 
disallowed. 7 Edward had issue by Sibilla his wife a 
son, Waldeve,* who consented to the charter to the 
monks of May. He apparently had a son, named 
John, son of Waldeve, who died not long before 1247, 9 
and Edward's descendants held Edlingham and other 
lands for some generations. 

4. Edgar, styled son of Gospatric in a charter granted by 

him to the monks of St. Albans, sometime between 
1139 and 1146. 10 He had also the flattering sobriquet 
of 'Unnithing,' Edgar Unnithing, or Edgar the 
Dauntless. 11 He is first named in 1138, when Richard 
of Hexham, who styles him, probably with more 

1 Original writ at Durham. 2 North Durham, App. No. cxiii. 3 There 
is no clear evidence as to the order of Earl Gospatric's sons, but in the 
charter to the church of Home Edward is named before his brother 
Edgar. 4 See Cal. Doc. Scot., i. No. 1712, for names of the lands he had 
from his father in Northumbria. 5 Cf. Liber de Metros, 9. 6 Chartulary 
of Reading Abbey, MS., penes the Earl of Fingall. 7 Pipe Holts, 22, 23, 
24, 25, Henry u. 8 Sibilla has been assumed to be the wife of Earl 
Gospatric u., but it is clear from the charter to the monks of May that 
she was the wife of Edward his son (cf. Liber Vitce Dunelm., 102), where 
she is said to be the mother of Waldeve, son of Edward. 9 Cat. Doc. 
Scot., i. No. 1712; Chartulary of Newminster, Surtees Society, 200, 268. 
10 Original at Durham : autotype penes Sir Archibald Hamilton Dunbar, 
Bart. n Cal. Doc. Scot., i. No. 133. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 249 

anger than truth, a bastard, 'nothus,' tells of his 
wicked plundering and destroying of lands belonging 
to the Abbey. 1 He held Bewick and Eglingham from 
the monks of St. Albans in feu, but these were for- 
feited in 1174. He held also other lands in the same 
neighbourhood. The date of his death has not been 
ascertained. He married Aliz, daughter of Ivo, son 
of Forne, and with her obtained ten manors, five of 
which were in Northumberland, in Ooquetdale, and 
the others situated in Yorkshire, Westmoreland, and 
Cumberland. 2 He had two sons : 

Alexander, who died without issue. 

Patrick, who succeeded his father Edgar in the lands of 
Caistron. He or his descendants took the name of Caistron 
or Kestern, the last owner of the lands, John of Kestern, 
parting with them to the Abbey of Newminster about 1247, 
or a little lafer. 3 

5. Juliana, who was given in marriage by King Henry i. 
to Ralph or Ranulf de Merlay, Lord of Morpeth, by 
a writ, in which she is described as daughter of Earl 
Gospatric. 4 Her dowry consisted of Witton, Wynd- 
gates, Horsley, Stanton, Ritton, and Lever Ohilde. 5 
She and her husband founded the Cistercian monas- 
tery of Newminster in 1138, and were buried there, 
in the north part of the chapter-house. 6 They had 
issue. 

III. GOSPATRIC, son of Gospatric, succeeded his father in 
the Scottish territories and in the serjeanty of Beanley, in 
Northumberland, comprehending the lands there, already 
enumerated. In 1160-61 he paid to the English Exchequer 
12 marks for six knights' fees, for which apparently he had 
commuted the service due from Beanley. 7 But his chief 
interests lay in Scotland, especially as the manor of Edling- 
ham passed to his brother Edward. Accordingly we find 
his chief grants to religious houses to be in Scotland, and 
on his seal, noted below, he styles himself of Lothian, or 

1 Priory of Hexham, i. 95. 2 Newminater Chartulary, as above, 117. 
3 Ibid., 118-147, passim. 4 Original writ at Scarborough : autotype penes 
Sir Archibald Hamilton Dunbar, Bart. ; cf. Priory of Hexham, i., illus- 
trative documents, No. 6. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot., i. No. 1712. 6 Newminster 
Chartulary, 269, 270. 7 Cal. Doc. Scot., i. Nos. 74, 1712. 



250 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

Earl of Lothian. He granted to the monks of Melrose, 
Hartside, and Spot, near Dunbar, and to Kelso the churches 
of Home and Fogo, 1 and also confirmed the grants of Edrom 
and Nisbet, made by his father to the monks of Colding- 
ham, and his name occurs in various charters relating 
thereto. 2 The chief event commemorative of this Earl 
Gospatric was his founding, apparently towards the close 
of his life, a nunnery at Ooldstream, at a place where 
apparently there was already a small religious house. 3 He 
granted to the ' sisters of Witehou ' certain lands in Lennel 
and Birgham, while his Countess Derdere and other pro- 
prietors, with the Earl's consent, also gave land, with 
which endowments the nunnery began, its site being at the 
junction of the water of Leet with the river Tweed. This 
Earl is also said to have founded a nunnery at Eccles, but 
though such a house was instituted there in 1156, 4 there is 
no certain evidence as to the founder. 

Earl Gospatric died in 1166, leaving a memory of good 
works, 5 and was succeeded by his eldest son. 6 His seal 
bears an equestrian figure, wearing a conical helmet, 
carrying a kite-shaped shield, and with a sword held over 
the shoulder in his right hand ; legend, ' + SIG. L. . . GOS- 
PATRICI . . LONEE.' 7 On the reverse is a seer e turn. 

The Christian name of the Earl's wife was Derdere, but 
her surname and parentage have not been ascertained. 
She may have been the proprietrix of the lands of Hirsel, 
of which she gave a portion to the nuns of Coldstream. 
They had issue : 

1. WALDEVE, who succeeded as Earl. 

2. Patrick, who appears to have inherited his mother's 

property of the Hirsel, 8 and he also held, either 
through her or from his father, the lands of Green- 
law, as he was patron of the church there, and also 
of the churches of Lamden and Haliburton. 9 He 
refers to his wife in a charter to the monks of Kelso, 

1 Liber de Metros, i. 8, 9, 44 ; Liber de Calchou, i. 233. 2 Raine's North 
Durham, App. No. civ. ; ibid., No. xxi. 3 Chartulary of Coldstream, 
Grampian Club, 6, 8 ; cf . original charter in H.M. Gen. Reg. House, No. 6. 
4 Chron. de Mailros, 75 ; cf. Caledonia, iii. 343, note 1. 5 Reginald of 
Durham, Surtees Society, 226. 6 Chron. de Mailros, 80. 7 Seal attached 
to charter at Durham ; Raine, App. cxiii. 8 Chart, of Coldstream, 11, 
13, 24. 9 Liber de Calchou, i. 55, 57. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 251 

but her name has not been definitely ascertained, 
though the Liber Vitce seems to imply she was 
Cecilia Fraser. 1 He had at least one son, 

William, usually designed son of Patrick, who inherited 
Greenlaw. 2 He married a lady, styled M. the Countess, 
but her identity has not been discovered. 3 He is also said 
to have married his second cousin, Ada, daughter of his 
cousin Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, though the marriage could 
not have taken place before 1225, and to have received with 
her the lands of Home, but the evidence is not wholly con- 
clusive. 4 

A Patrick the clerk appears as ' son of the Earl ' in a 
writ to the Abbey of Kelso, 5 in which Gospatric is the only 
Earl named, but no other reference to him has been found. 

IV. WALDEVE, son of Earl Gospatric and Countess Der- 
dere, succeeded as .fourth Earl of Dunbar 6 or Lothian, 
though he himself uses neither title, calling himself Waldeve 
the Earl. It is probably he who, as ' son of Gospatric the 
Earl,' is named first as one of five hostages given to King 
Stephen, after the battle of the Standard, in 1138. 7 After 
his succession he confirmed the grants made by his prede- 
cessors, the first charter granted by him as Earl being 
sealed in 1166, to the monks of Durham, 8 Kelso and Melrose, 
and the nuns of Coldstream. He was frequently with 
King William the Lion in his progresses through the king- 
dom, but seems generally to have kept aloof from political 
matters, except in one case, where he strove, but without 
success, to dissuade King William from going to war with 
England to enforce his claim to the earldom of Northum- 
berland, 9 and he was one of those who, in 1175, became 
sureties for that King that he would observe the treaty of 
Falaise. 10 He died in 1182. 11 His seal, attached to a writ 
at Durham, shows an equestrian figure wearing a conical 
lielmet, carrying a shield and with a sword, pointing up- 

1 Liber Vitce, f. 63, Surtees ed., 99. 2 Liber de Calchou, i. 56. 3 Ibid., 
58. 4 Ibid., 101, 235. Ada was twice married, and her second husband 
died in 1225 (Bain, i. 919). If she married her cousin he must have been 
her third husband, and it does not appear that the William Home in 1268 
was her son, as he speaks of her as if she were not his mother. 5 Liber 
de Calchou, i. 222. 6 Cf. Chron. de Mailros, 89, 92. 7 Priory of Hexham, 
i. 106. 8 Raine's North Durham, App. No. cxiv. 9 Jordan Fantosme, 
Surtees Society, 18, 20. 10 Rymer's Faedera, ii. 562. Chron. de Mail- 
ros, 92. 



252 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR, 

wards over the shoulder, in his right hand. Legend : 
SIGILLTJM WALGSEVI GOMiTis. 1 His wife was named Aelina, or 
Aline, but nothing is known of her, except a reference to 
her in the Earl's 'charters, and the date of her death, 20 
August 1179. 2 They had issue : 

1. PATRICK, who succeeded as Earl. 

2. Constantine, who is named in his father's charter of 

1166 before cited, but who seems to have died young. 

3. A daughter, Alice or Helen, is said to have married 

Philip Seton, but no satisfactory evidence is given. 3 

V. PATRICK, fifth Earl of Dunbar, but the first who 
describes himself by that title, though Fordun styles him 
Earl of Lothian, 'Comes Lodensis,' when relating his 
marriage, 4 was born in 1152. He appears in charters by 
his father, and also as a granter before his father's death. 
His estates in England occupied a good deal of his atten- 
tion, and he is named in 1187 as having deforced a vassal 
from his lands of Derecester, or Darnchester, in Berwick- 
shire. 5 The Earl attended King William to Lincoln when 
he met King John there, and paid the usual homage for his 
lands in England. 6 

Earl Patrick appears to have been somewhat litigious, 
or at least fond of 'a gude-gaun plea,' as he kept the 
monks of Melrose in trouble for a good while over a dispute 
between them and him as to a point of trespass on some 
pasturage alleged to belong to the monks. The Pope 
ultimately referred the matter to the arbitration of Bruce 
Douglas, Bishop of Moray, and after much delay it was 
finally settled to the satisfaction of both parties. 7 

The Earl is said to have founded a collegiate church at 
Dunbar in 1218. In 1221 the Earl accompanied King Alexan- 
der ii. to York, and was present at his marriage there to the 
Princess Johanna, sister of King Henry in. 8 In 1222 Earl 
Patrick is said to have taken part in an attempt to settle 
the direction of a portion of the March between England and 
Scotland, which had come into dispute through a question 

1 Raine's North Durham, App. No. cxv. 2 Chron. de Mailros, 89. 
s The Family of Seton, i. 69. 4 Fordun a Goodall, i. 484. 6 Cat. Doc, Scot., i. 
No. 188. 6 Hoveden, 141, 142. 7 See whole transaction narrated in Liber 
de Melros, i. 87-95 ; Acta Part. Scot., i. 390-392. 8 Cal. Doc. Scot., No. 
898, 19 June 1221. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 253 

as to boundary between the Canons of Carham and Bernard 
de Hawden, a neighbouring landowner. But though his 
name apparently figures in a document dealing with the 
subject, which has been ascribed to 13 October 1222, 1 there 
is strong reason, from internal evidence, for assigning it to 
the same date in 1245, and it therefore belongs to the 
history of his son the sixth Earl. 

Earl Patrick held the earldom for fifty years, and died 
in 1232. The monks of Melrose, forgetting the annoyance 
he had caused them, give a touching picture of his closing 
days. He gathered his family together, with kinsmen and 
neighbours, to celebrate the joyful Christ mastide. Four 
days later he was seized with grievous illness, and sending 
for his friend and relative, Adam de Harkarres, Abbot of 
Melrose, received from him the last rites, extreme unction, 
and the monastic Ijabit. He bade farewell to all, and died 
on the last day of the year. 2 He was buried in the church 
of St. Mary of Eccles, where his grandfather is said to 
have founded a nunnery. 

This Earl had two seals. The first, round, 2f inches in 
diameter, showing a mounted Knight in chain mail, riding 
to sinister, holding a sword with an ornamented blade 
raised in his right hand. He wears a flat-topped helmet, and 
carries suspended round his neck a heater-shaped shield 
charged with a lion rampant. The saddle-cloth has a 
fringe of six tags at the bottom. Legend * SIGILL. COMI 
. . . PATRIC . . . VMBAR.' The second seal is round, show- 
ing an equestrian figure similar to the above, the saddle- 
cloth having eight pointed tags on the fringe. Legend 
'SIGILL. COMITIS PATRICII DE D VMBAR. ' 3 

Earl Patrick was twice married ; first, in 1184, to Ada, 
a natural daughter of King William the Lion. She was the 
foundress of a nunnery at St. Bothans, now Abbey St. 
Bathans ; and died in 1200. 4 

The Earl married, secondly, between 1215 and 1218, 
Christina, widow of William de Brus of Annandale. 5 

He had issue : 

1. PATRICK, who succeeded, and of whom hereafter. 

1 Cal. Doc. Scot., i. No. 832. Cf. No. 1676. 2 Chron. de Mailros, 143. 
3 Scottish Armorial Seals, by W. Rae Macdonald, Nos. 778, 779. 4 Chron. 
de Mailros, 92 ; Fordun a Goodall, i. 515 ; Caledonia, iii. 241. 6 Bain, Cal. 
Doc. Scot., i. No. 700. 



254 DUNBAR, EARL OP DUNBAR 

2. William, who is described as son of Patrick, Earl of 

Dunbar, in various charters to the Abbey of Kelso. 
He married Christiana, daughter of Walter Corbet 
of Mackerston, and had issue three sons, Nicholas, 
Patrick, and Walter Corbet. She died in 1241, and 
William in 1253. 1 Nicholas Corbet had the lands of 
Makerstoun, and he had also Langton and other 
lands in Northumberland. He died apparently with- 
out issue, as his brother Patrick, who had Fogo, is 
described as his heir. 2 The seal of this William is 
engraved, but does not show heraldic bearings. 3 

3. Sir Robert, who on 29 August 1247 is named by the 

sixth Earl as his brother. He was then acting as 
Seneschal or Steward. He also appears in a charter, 
ascribed to his brother, but apparently by his father, 
confirmed on 10 February 1366-67. 4 He is further 
described by Patrick, seventh Earl, as his uncle, in 
a charter dated about 1258. 5 Nothing more is known 
of his history. 

4. Ada, who was married, first, to William de Curtenay, 

without issue. He died before 11 September 1217, 
and between 1218 and 1220 she was married, 
secondly, to Theobald de Lascelles, who left her 
again a childless widow before October 1225. 6 
She is further said to have married her father's 
cousin William, son of Patrick of Greenlaw, and 
through him to have been the ancestress of the 
family of Home. She certainly was styled Lady of 
Home, and had part of the territory of that name, 
but the marriage is nowhere proved, and the terms 
of a charter by William of Home in 1268 suggest 
that she was not his mother. 7 

Earl Patrick had apparently other children, perhaps 
daughters, 8 but their names are unknown. Fergus, son 

1 Chron. de Mailros, 153, 179. The Chronicle of Melrose has a curious 
story of how, in 1241, William Dunbar obtained a tooth of Abbot Waldeve 
of Melrose, buried in 1156, which wrought cures, ibid., 151. 2 Liber de 
Calchou, 244-246; Laing Charters, Nos. 9-11. 3 Laing's Scottish Seals, ii. 
Nos. 312, 313. * Reg. Mag. Sig., i. 51, No. 155. 6 Raine's North Durham, 
App. Nos. 139, 140 ; cf . also Chart, of Coldstream, No. 57. 6 Cal. Doc. 
Scot.,\. Nos. 677, 694, 753, 919, 921. 7 Liber de Calchou, i. 99-101. Cf. 
Liber de Metros, i. 39. 



DUNBAR,, EARL OF DUNBAR 255 

of the Earl, appears in a charter by Earl Patrick to the 
convent of Goldstream, 1 but he occurs nowhere else, and 
it is doubtful if he were a son of an Earl of Dunbar. 

VI. PATRICK, sixth Earl of Dunbar, succeeded his father 
on 31 December 1232, but had taken an active part in deal- 
ing with the estate some time before that date. A month 
or so after his accession, he did homage to King Henry in. 
for his English estates, and from the various inquisitions 
on the subject we learn the extent of his lands in North- 
umberland. On 22 February 1233 the King ordered sasine 
to be given, but in 1247, another inquiry was made enumer- 
ating not only the lands but the holders of them under the 
Earl. 2 

In 1235 the Earl took an active part in suppressing the 
rebellion in Galloway. 3 In 1237, when King Alexander of 
Scotland resigned his rights to the three northern counties 
of England, Earl Patrick was the first of the Scottish 
magnates who became sureties for the fulfilment of the 
treaty. It was this Earl, and not his father as has been 
stated, who in 1245 took part in an attempt to settle a 
dispute as to marches between the Canons of Oarham and 
Bernard de Hawden, a neighbouring landowner on the 
Scottish side, which involved a settlement of the boundaries 
between the two countries. 4 

In 1247, owing, it is said, to remorse for injury done by 
him to the monastic house of Tynemouth, a cell of St. 
Albans, 5 in his irritation at the long dispute between the 
lords of Beanley and the monks as to the churches of 
Bewick and Eglingham, Earl Patrick made up his mind 
to join the crusade to the Holy Land, projected by King 
Louis ix. of France. To defray expenses he sold or trans- 
ferred his stud of horses in Lauderdale to the Abbot and 
Convent of Melrose. The sale took place on 29 August 
1247, and was confirmed by King Alexander 11. on 28 

1 The Chartulary of Coldstream, No. 17. 2 Testa de Nevill, 385b, 392a ; 
Newminster Chartulary, 268 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., i. No. 1712. 3 Chron. de 
Mailros, 145, 146. 4 Mr. Bain in his Calendar, i. No. 832, assigns the 
transaction to 13 October 1222, but the date of the affair is fixed by the 
fact that David de Lindesay was not Justiciar of Lothian in 1222, but 
became such in 1243 ; Ibid., No. 1699, 1 December 1246. 6 Matthew Paris, 
Record series, v. 41. 



256 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

November same year. 1 A few months later the Earl had 
started on his journey. His last transaction in Scotland 
appears to have been a confirmation on 14 April 1248, 2 of 
a grant by Mr. William of Greenlaw, to the monks of 
Melrose, which the Earl made in the presence of King 
Alexander at Berwick, and before 28 June he had left the 
country. 3 But he never reached Palestine, as his death 
at Marseilles is recorded by the chronicler of Lanercost. 4 
The same writer tells also two stories which give us a 
very favourable view of the Earl's character. One is that 
the Earl had issued invitations to a feast, but many more 
guests arrived than preparation had been made for. When 
his steward informed him of the lack of provision thus 
caused, the Earl ordered the kitchen to be set on fire, 
risking rather the loss of his house than the tarnishing of 
his reputation for hospitality. The other story, for which 
the narrator vouches, concerns his forgiving and lenient 
conduct to a robber whom he had rescued from the gallows 
and placed in a position of trust, but who tried to murder 
his master. The Earl, however, made light of it, and gave 
the rascal money to escape. 5 

This Earl had two great seals, and two privy seals. The 
first great seal, used during his father's lifetime, round, 
shows an equestrian figure riding to sinister, with a sword 
raised in his right hand. He wears a square-topped helmet 
and carries a heater-shaped shield without any device. 
Legend, 'SIGILL. PATRICK FILII COMITIS PATRICII.' His seal 
as Earl is also round, showing an equestrian figure riding 
to dexter, wearing a flat-topped helmet, having a sword in 
right hand, and carrying on left arm a heater-shaped shield 
charged with a lion rampant. Legend, ' SIGILLVM PATRICII 
COMITIS DE DVNBAR.' One of his privy seals shows a lion 
rampant, with legend, ' SECRETVM p. COMIT.' 6 

He married Euphemia, daughter of Walter, the third 
High Steward of Scotland, with whom he received the 
estate of Birkynside, in Lauderdale, which he burdened 
with a merk of silver to be paid yearly for the benefit of 
the church of Dryburgh. 7 The Countess survived her 

1 Liber de Metros, i. 204, 205. 2 Ibid., i. 210-214. 3 Cal. Doc. Scot, i. No. 1737. 
4 Chron. de Lanercost, 54 ; cf . Chron. de Mailros, 177. 6 Ibid. 6 Scottish 
Armorial Seals, Nos. 780, 781, 781a. 7 Registrum de Dryburgh, 84, 85. 






DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 257 

husband, dying perhaps in or about 1267. From the 
chronicler of Lanercost, who tells a somewhat decorated 
anecdote of the strained relations between her and her 
eldest son, we learn she resided, in her later years, at 
Whittinghame, in East Lothian. The same writer also 
states that he was present when mother and son were 
reconciled at her deathbed, he asking her forgiveness. 1 
The sixth Earl had issue : 

1. PATRICK, who succeeded as Earl, of whom hereafter. 

2. Waldeve, the clerk, rector of Dunbar, is named as 

son of Earl Patrick in an indult to him by Pope 
Innocent iv. to hold an additional benefice, dated at 
Lyons 3 February 1245. He also appears in a charter 
granted by Sir Alexander Seton of Seton, dated about 
1271. 2 

According to the JLanercost chronicler Earl Patrick and 
his wife had several children, and a William and a Robert 
appear in the writ of 14 April 1248, as if they were sons of 
the Earl. But by comparison of writs it would rather 
appear that they were his brothers. (See under the fifth 
Earl.) 

VII. PATRICK, seventh Earl of Dunbar, succeeded at the 
age of thirty-five, and is said by the Lanercost chronicler 
to have been very dissimilar in character to his father. 
Nothing is known of him before his accession, but after 
that event he took an active part in politics, especially 
during the earlier years of the young King Alexander in. 
He was a steadfast adherent of the English party, and in 
1255 he and others procured the dismissal of the Oomyns 
and their faction from power. Earl Patrick's name stands 
fourth in the list of the new Council who had the support 
of King Henry in., the young King's father-in-law. 3 In 
1258, however, the Comyns again prevailed, and Earl 
Patrick was excluded from the Government, though in 
1260 he was one of the Scottish nobles to whose keeping 
King Henry in. promised to intrust the expected infant 

1 Chron. de Lanercost, 32. There was a Whittingham in Northumber- 
land, but apparently the chronicler refers to the one in East Lothian, 
which belonged to the Earls of Dunbar. 2 Papal Registers, Papal 
Letters, i. 214 ; Liber de Melros, i. 200. 3 Lit. Patent, 39 Hen. m. m. 2, 8 ; 
Rymer's Fcedera, i. 558, 559, 565, etc. 

VOL. III. R 



258 DUNBAR, EARL OF D UNBAR 

child of the Queen of Scotland, then at the English Court. 1 
He commanded a division of the Scottish army at the 
battle of Largs in 1263, and he was present at the signing 
of the treaty between King Alexander in. and the King of 
Norway, on 6 July 1266. After this, little is recorded 
regarding the Earl, except some charters 2 and some per- 
sonal matters, such as legal proceedings, chiefly affecting 
his Northumbrian property. He was, however, one of the 
witnesses to the marriage-contract between the Princess 
Margaret of Scotland and Eric, King of Norway, at Rox- 
burgh, 25 July 1281 ; and in February 1284, after the death 
of Prince Alexander, the Earl, though advanced in years, 
attended the Parliament at Scone which declared the 
Princess Margaret of Norway to be heir to the Scottish 
Crown. 3 He was also one of those who obliged themselves 
to carry out that Act of Parliament. He and his three sons 
joined with the Bruces, the principals of the Stewart 
family, and Macdonalds, in a bond or compact for mutual 
defence and assistance, dated at Turnberry, Bruce's strong- 
hold in Carrick, on 20 September 1286 ; 4 but he did not long 
survive, as he died 24 August 1289, at Whittinghame in 
East Lothian, aged seventy-six, and was buried in the 
north aisle of the church of Dunbar. 5 

This Earl had two great and two privy seals. The first, 
which has a secretum at the back, shows an equestrian 
figure carrying a raised sword in his right hand, and 
suspended from the neck a shield charged with a lion 
rampant contourne. The square-topped helmet has on it 
a crescent. Some state that the crescent encloses a 
cross, but the cross a-ppears to be only that usually pre- 
ceding the legend, which is 'SIGILLVM PATRICII COMITIS 
DB DVNBAR.' The secretum shows a shield bearing a 
lion rampant contourne. Legend, 'SIGILL. AMORIS.' The 
second seal shows an equestrian figure similar to the 
above, but the horse housings have a chequered pattern : 
'SIGILLVM PATRICII COMITIS BE DVNBAR.' 8 The earliest 
privy seal, about 1261, shows on a shield a lion rampant 

1 Gal. Doc. Scot., i. No. 2229. 2 Cf. Chart, of Coldstream, Grampian 
Club, Nos. 2, 9, 16. [It is doubtful if No. 19 is by this Earl as stated by 
editor.] 3 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 423, 424. 4 Stevenson's Historical Docu- 
ments, i. 22, 23. 5 Chron. de Lanercost, 129. 6 Scottish Armorial Seals, 
Nos. 782-785. 



: 



DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 259 

within an orle of eight roses. 1 Legend, 's. PATRICII 

COMITIS D' DVBAR.' 

According to Douglas this Earl married a lady named 
Christian Bruce, said to be a daughter of Robert Bruce 
the Competitor, but no proof of this has been found, and 
it is probable it is a mistaken reference to the second wife 
of the fifth Earl. 2 

The Earl's only recorded wife and the mother of his sons 
was a lady named in a charter by her eldest son, ' Cecilia 
filia Johannis.' 3 No other designation of her has been 
found. It has been suggested that she was a Fraser, but 
there is no satisfactory evidence of this. 

They had issue : 

1. SIR PATRICK/ who succeeded as eighth Earl. 

2. Sir John, named with his father and brothers in the 

compact at Turnberry in 1286, already cited, and he 
also appears as a witness to charters by his father and 
brothers. 5 Nothing more is known with certainty 
regarding him, unless he be the Sir John Dunbar, 
late of Birkenside, who is named in a charter by his 
son John Dunbar, to the monks of Dryburgh, the date 
of which is not given. 6 But if this be so, his male 
issue must have failed before 1368, as his grand- 
nephew George succeeded to the earldom. 

3. Sir Alexander, who is named as the third of the 

brothers in the compact of 1286 and elsewhere. He 
had a fee or grant of 20 merks sterling bestowed on 
him by King Alexander in., which continued to be 
paid after the King's death, up to September 1289. 7 
There are other unimportant references to him, 8 and 
he was alive on 26 June 1331, when his son Sir 
Patrick quit-claimed his rights in Swinwood to the 
monks of Coldingham. It is not known when he 
died. His seal, still attached to one of the receipts 
for his fee, shows a lion rampant within a double 

1 This is the first appearance of roses in the bordure. 2 See supra, 
p. 253. 3 Liber de Calchou, i. 57, 60. 4 Sir Patrick and his two brothers 
are all described as Knights in a charter by their father, of uncertain 
date, but probably between 1286 and 1289. Original charter in Gen. Reg. 
Ho., No. 60. 5 Chartulary of Coldstream, Nos. 1, 14, 16. 6 Reg. de Dry- 
burgh, 259. 7 Stevenson's Historical Documents, i. 56-58, 65, 94, 104. 
8 Rotuli Scotice, i. 16b ; Chartulary of Coldstream, Nos. 1, 14, 16 ; Beg. 
de Dryburgh, 233. 



260 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

tressure. Legend, * s. ALEXANDRI PILII COMITIS DE 
DVNB.' 1 The name of his wife is nowhere stated. 
Sir Alexander had issue, so far as is known, one 
son: 

(1) Sir Patrick, who, in 1331, as son of Sir Alexander, son of the 
Earl, quit-claimed his rights in Swinwood to the monks of 
Coldingham. 2 He was present at the battle of Durham in 
1346, and also at Poictiers in 1356 ; but died and was buried 
at Candia, on his way to the Holy Land in 1356-57. 3 He 
married, perhaps as his second wife, Isabella, younger 
daughter of Thomas Randolph, first Earl of Moray. 4 
Isabella Randolph survived her husband, and on 20 July 
1361, as Isabella Ranulph, heiress of John Ranulph, Earl of 
Moray, etc. (her brother), she confirmed a charter by 
Andrew del Garvyauch, of date 8 August 1357. 5 

Sir Patrick's seal, attached to the writ of 1352, shows a lion 
rampant within a double tressure. Legend, 'SIGILLVM 
PATRICII DE DVNBAB.' His wife's seal shows a shield with 
impaled arms, the first of husband and wife known in Scot- 
land. Dexter, a lion rampant, within a royal tressure ; 
sinister, three cushions in a royal tressure for Randolph. 
Legend, ' SIGILL ISABEL DE DUNBAR. 6 Sir Patrick Dunbar 
and Isabella Randolph had issue : 

i. GEORGE, who became tenth Earl of Dunbar, of whom 

hereafter, 
ii. JOHN, who was, in 1372, created Earl of Moray. (See 

that title.) 

iii. Sir Patrick Dunbar of ' Bele ' or Biel, who appears as 
brother of George, Earl of March, in 1387-88. T In or 
before 1390 he received from his brother Earl George 
40 merks of land in the territory of Mersington, 
including a considerable portion of the parish of 
Eccles. 8 He was made prisoner at Homildon, 14 
September 1402. He occurs in charters of 1423 and 
1425, as ' uncle ' of George, eleventh Earl of March. 9 
He was one of the envoys to arrange for the ransom 
of King James i., and he appears as a commissioner 
for the Marches down to 12 July 1429. His wife, in 
1434, was Euphemia Stewart, daughter of David, 
Earl of Strathearn, and widow of Patrick Graham of 
Dundaff. He was alive in 1438. 10 He had issue at 
least two sons, Patrick and George, and is supposed 
to have been the ancestor of "William Dunbar the 
poet. 

1 Original receipt in British Museum; Stevenson ut supra, i. 94. 
2 Raine's North Durham, App. No. 432. 3 Bain's Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. 
xxiv ; Fordun, ed. Skene, 377, note 3. 4 Scottish Kings, 152. ' Original 
charter in Gen. Reg. Ho., No. 134; Antiquities of Aberdeen and Banff, ii. 
37. 6 Scottish Armorial Seals, Nos. 796, 2258 ; Scottish Kings, 152 note 
37. 7 Charter in Gen. Reg. Ho., No. 192. 8 Laing Charters, No. 81. 
9 Charters in Gen. Reg. Ho., Nos. 260, 263, 265. 10 Exch. Rolls, iv. pp. 
clix, 592 ; Reg. Mag. Sig., 16 November 1439. 






DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 261 

iv. Agnes, whom George, Earl of Dunbar, styles his very 
dear sister, when in 1372 he granted to her the lands 
of Mordington and Whittinghame, 1 on her marriage 
with Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith, ancestor of the 
Earls of Morton. (See that title.) 

David. In 1375, George, tenth Earl of March, resigned 
in favour of David Dunbar the very extensive terri- 
tories of Cumnock, Blantyre, and other lands. 2 Ac- 
cording to Sir Robert Douglas, in his Baronage, 
David was a son of a George Dunbar, an alleged son 
of the eighth Earl, but of this no evidence has been 
found. In the charter of 1375 no relationship is 
stated, and no direct proof has been discovered, but 
from the very large grant thus made the barony of 
Cumnock alone embracing 50,000 acres of land there 
is a presumption that David was a brother of Earl 
George. He appears further in three writs of un- 
certain date, but confirmed by Robert, Duke of 
Albany, in 1411, as Sir David Dunbar of Cumnock, 
knight, and had then a son and heir, Sir Patrick of 
Du/ibar, also a knight, who was the real granter of 
certain lands and wadsets to Gilbert Grierson of 
Arde. 3 

(i) Sir Patrick, succeeded his father before 1424, 
when he was Lord of Cumnock, and was one of 
the hostages for King James i. He apparently 
deceased before 1437, when his son Sir John 
was lord of Cumnock and Mochrum. Sir John 
had two sons, Patrick and Cuthbert. Patrick 
of Cumnock had three daughters : 

a. Euphemia, married, before 21 June 1474, 

to Sir James Dunbar, eldest son of Sir 
Alexander Dunbar, first of Westfield. 
(See title Moray.) 

b. Margaret, married before same date to 

Sir John Dunbar, second son of Sir Alex- 
ander, and from her the present Sir 
William Cospatrick Dunbar of Mochrum- 
park is descended in the female line. 

c. Jonet, married to Patrick Dunbar of Kil- 

conquhar. (See infra, under George, 
eleventh Earl of March.) 4 Sir John's 
second son Cuthbert, who had Blantyre, 
is now represented in the female line by 
Captain Nugent Dunbar of Machermore, 
co. Kirkcudbright. 

Agnes. Sir Patrick Dunbar had another daughter, who 
married John Maitland of Thirlstane. She is, by 
Mr. Wood, called Elizabeth, but in several charters 
in 1369 she is styled Agnes, and must have been 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., ed. 1814, 117, Nos. 19, 20, 125, No. 31. 2 Ibid., 137, 158. 
3 Original confirmation, 17 March 1410-11, Gen. Reg. Ho., No. 228. 4 Reg. 
Mag. Siq., 1424-1513, Nos. 1064, 1175, 1372, 1423. 



262 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

married some time before that year, when Earl 
George styles her his ' sister,' and bestowed upon her 
husband and her son Robert the lands of Tibbers, co. 
Dumfries. 1 

VIII. SIR PATRICK, * with the blak berd,' 2 eighth Earl of 
Dunbar, appears first as son of Earl Patrick, confirming 
grants by his father and his mother whom he styles ' Cecilia 
filia Johannis.' In 1281 he was one of the witnesses to the 
marriage-contract of the Princess Margaret, already cited, 
and in 1286 he appears with his father and two younger 
brothers in the compact with Bruce at Turnberry. He 
was forty-seven years of age when he succeeded his father, 
and was the first who openly assumed the title of EARL OF 
MARCH, though in his claim to the Crown he styles himself 
the third Earl. He attended the Parliament at Brigham 
on 14 March 1289-90, but after the death of the 4 Maid of 
Norway ' he, with others, laid claim to the Crown of Scot- 
land, on the ground that his great-grandfather Patrick, the 
fifth Earl, had married Ada, an illegitimate daughter of 
King William the Lion. But he soon withdrew from the 
competitorship. 

The usual inquest was held before he received possession 
of his English lands, but in 1293 Beanley and other estates 
were placed under arrest for his contumacy in delaying to 
answer a summons to show his right. They were, however, 
soon restored. In 1294 he was called, with other Scottish 
magnates, to join King Edward i. in his expedition against 
France. In 1295 his English lands were again taken into 
the King's hands, but only for a short period, and he 
remained faithful to Edward i. when King John Baliol 
renounced his fealty. The Earl's wife held his castle of 
Dunbar against an English force in April 1297, but was 
obliged to surrender it with all the Scottish nobles who 
had taken refuge there after their defeat at Dunbar. Earl 
Patrick was then, or soon after, at the English court. In 
May 1298 he was appointed by Edward i. captain of his 
garrison at Berwick, and in November he was made chief 
commander of the English forces south of the Forth, his 
jurisdiction extending as far as over Ayrshire. The Earl 

1 Acta Parl. Scot.,vii. 159, 160a; Fourteenth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com. 
App. viii. 32. 2 Scalacronica, Leland, i. 540. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 263 

was still in the English interest in 1300, when King Edward 
made his march against Oarlaverock Castle, and he and 
his ensigns armorial are duly recorded in the famous 
metrical account of the siege. 1 In 1305 he was elected 
one of the Scottish commissioners to the English Parlia- 
ment, but failed to attend, and Sir John Menteith was, by 
the King's order, chosen in his stead. 2 In July 1307 
Edward i. died, but the Earl continued to adhere to his 
successor, though he did not long survive, as he died on 
10 October 1308, aged sixty-six. 

This Earl's seal shows on a shield suspended by a guige, 
a lion rampant within a bordure charged with eight roses. 
Legend, ' s. DNI PATRICII DE DVNBAR COM MARC. 3 

The wife of this Earl is uncertain, as no record or 
reference to his Countess has been discovered. Sir Robert 
Douglas, in his Peerage, 1764, states, without giving proof, 
that the Earl married Marian, daughter of Duncan, tenth 
Earl of Fife, by whom he had two sons, Patrick and George, 
the latter being the alleged ancestor of the Dunbars of 
Cumnock. But this has not been substantiated. Accord- 
ing to the later edition of Douglas, this Earl married 
Marjorie Corny n, daughter of Alexander Corny n, Earl of 
Buchan, a statement founded on a letter, 4 in 1400, by George, 
tenth Earl of March, to King Henry iv. of England, when 
the Earl claims that a Marjorie Corny n was his ' graunde 
dame ' or great-grandmother, and also states that she was 
' full sister ' of Alice Comyn, who, about 1306, married Sir 
Henry Beaumont and became great-grandmother of King 
Henry iv. Wyntoun, in his metrical Cronykil? states 
that ' the eldest ' daughter, whom he does not name, of 
Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan (vol. ii. of this work, p. 
256), married a Patrick, Earl of Dunbar; but if she were 
Marjorie, she must have been the aunt and not the sister 
of Alice Comyn or Beaumont, and Earl George is so far 
wrong in his assertion. The eighth Earl is the only Earl 
Patrick whose date suits with a daughter of Alexander, 
Earl of Buchan, as they must have been contemporaries ; 

1 Siege of Carlaverock by Sir Harris Nicolas, 34. 2 Further facts may 
be gathered from Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. Nos. 396-1942, passim ; Stevenson's 
Historical Documents, i. ii. 3 Scottish Armorial Seals, No. 786. 4 Pinker- 
ton, i. App. 442 ; Douglas Book, iv. 59, 60. Facsimile, Nat. MSS. of Scot- 
land, ii. No. liii. 5 Laing's ed., ii. 310. 



264 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

but if Marjorie Corny n were the wife of the eighth Earl, 
it seems impossible that she could have been the great- 
grandmother on the father's side of George, tenth Earl of 
March. It may be assumed, however, that Wyntoun is 
right, that this Earl Patrick did marry a Comyn, but that 
Earl George made a mistake as to his relationship to her. 
He had a son, 

IX. PATRICK, ninth Earl of Dunbar and second or fourth 
of March, born, according to the inquest held after his 
succession, in 1282, and aged twenty-four at his father's 
death. 1 He had already taken part in public life, as he was 
present with his father at the siege of Oarlaverock, when 
he was only sixteen. In 1307 he as well as his father were 
required by Edward n. to obey the Earl of Richmond, the 
English King's lieutenant, and to preserve the peace in 
Scotland. After his succession as Earl, he retained the 
goodwill of King Edward n., and towards the close of 1313 
the Earl and Sir Adam of Gordon were conjoined as envoys 
from the ' people of Scotland ' adhering to the English 
interest, to lay before King Edward their sufferings under 
the constant raids made by King Robert Bruce and his 
officers, who were gradually gaining the upper hand in the 
country. Earl Patrick's lands and tenants were specially 
exposed, not only to the forays of their own countrymen, 
but to attacks by the English garrisons of Berwick and 
Roxburgh, the commanders of which refused redress. 2 The 
King gave an encouraging reply, and also made a formal 
promise that he would lead an army to their assistance 
about midsummer of the following year, a promise which 
he fulfilled, resulting in the battle of Bannockburn. Earl 
Patrick received the English King, a fugitive, and sheltered 
him in his castle of Dunbar till he could make his way by 
sea to Berwick. The Earl after this became an adherent 
of King Robert Bruce, and in the beginning of 1318 he 
took an active part in obtaining the surrender of the town 
of Berwick, then besieged by Bruce, who, by the Earl's 
aid, gained possession of the town on 28 March 1318, though 
the castle held out till 20 July. 

The Earl's seal is attached to the letter by the Scottish 

1 Col. Doc. Scot., iii. No. 77. 2 Ibid., Nos. 77-337, passim. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 265 

nobles to Pope John xxn., on 6 April 1320, 1 and he con- 
tinued faithful to his own country, not only during the 
reign of King Robert, but through the troublous times 
which marked the minority of David n. When the battle 
of Dupplin was fought and the Regent Mar slain, on 12 
August 1332, Earl Patrick was in command of a large body 
of troops encamped near Auchterarder. Hearing of the 
defeat of the Regent, the Earl marched towards Perth, 
whither Baliol had gone, and invested that town. But a 
fleet of ships upon which he depended for support having 
been broken up, he raised the siege. Later in the year, he 
and Archibald Douglas, now Regent, endeavoured to arrange 
a peace, but it was not held binding. 

The Earl was in command of the castle of Berwick-on- 
Tweed in July 1333, when the defeat of the Scots at Halidon 
Hill forced him to surrender the place to the English King. 
He received a grant of 100 of land to himself and Agnes, 
his wife, and for this, or because he believed the Scottish 
cause hopeless, he again joined the English party, and was 
one of the obsequious Parliament in February 1334 who 
virtually gave up their country to the usurper. Other 
favours were bestowed on the Earl, and he received con- 
siderable sums of money. On one occasion he was, ap- 
parently when returning from a visit to Edward at York, 
attacked by t ille people ' and ' sore hurt ' for desire of the 
money he carried. In the following year, however, he 
again threw off his allegiance to England, and this time 
wholly, being probably inclined to this step by the invasion 
of Scotland at the close of 1334, when a force led by 
Edward in. himself harried Lothian, and laid it waste, not 
sparing the Earl's lands. 2 King Edward immediately 
declared the Earl's estates forfeited, and distributed those 
in Northumberland to various persons, while he also assumed 
the Berwickshire lands into his own hands. 3 The Earl 
having taken his stand, entered into active hostilities and 
fought the English partisans wherever possible. The Earl's 
lands in East Lothian, Whittinghame and others, were all 
at this time in the hands of the English King, as appears 

1 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 474, facsimile. 2 Full evidence of the devastation of 
Berwick and the Lothians maybe gathered from the account of the sheriffs. 
See Gal. Doc. Scot., iii. 317-347, 368-393. 3 Ibid., Nos. 1145, 1146, 1181. 



266 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

from the accounts, but he held to his Scottish allegiance, 
and took part in the operations of the patriotic army. He 
was ably seconded by his wife, Agnes Randolph, elder 
daughter of the famous Regent, who showed all the 
best abilities of her family in successfully defending her 
husband's castle of Dunbar against an English force. The 
siege began on 28 January and the castle was not relieved 
until about 10 June, when the English retired. 1 He com- 
manded the left wing of the Scottish army at the battle 
of Durham on 17 October 1346. On 4 September 1351 
his son and heir was one of the hostages for the return 
of King David n. to England, he being then on parole in 
Scotland. The Earl's son was also named as a hostage in 
1354, but not in the later list of 1357, in which year King 
David was finally released, the Earl himself being a party 
to the treaty of release. The truce made in 1354 was soon 
broken, Earl Patrick taking part in various attacks upon 
the English. In 1358 a casual reference is made in the 
Exchequer Rolls 2 to the taking or capture of the Earl of 
March by Sir James Lindsay, but no further evidence of 
the incident has been found. 

In 1363 Earl Patrick joined the High Stewart and the 
Earl of Douglas in their outbreak of dissatisfaction with 
the extravagance of King David n. The Earl of March 
perhaps had other causes of grievance. The death, at the 
battle of Durham, of his brother-in-law, John Randolph, 
Earl of Moray, seems to have added a considerable acces- 
sion of territory to his heiresses, who were his two sisters, 
Agnes, wife of Earl Patrick, and Isabella, wife of the Earl's 
cousin, Sir Patrick Dunbar. The earldom of Moray was a 
male fief, and so fell into the hands of the Grown, as also 
apparently did Annandale, though it was then in English 
hands, but extensive lands in Dumfriesshire, Ayrshire,, 
Aberdeenshire, and Fifeshire remained, and were divided 
between the two sisters. Some time after 1346 the Earl 
assumed the title of Moray, in addition to that of March, 
and he appears as Earl of March and Moray in Parliament, 
on 31 August 1358. 3 Notwithstanding this, King David n. 

1 Chron. de Lanercost, 296, 297, where there is an interesting story 
about the Countess and her brother John ; see also Tales of a Grandfather, 
by Sir Walter Scott, for a popular account and other anecdotes of the siege 
and defence. 2 i. 558. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 523. 



DUNBAB, EARL OP DUNBAR 267 

granted the northern earldom in favour of the English 
Duke of Lancaster on 5 April 1358, 1 but Earl Patrick con- 
tinued to hold the double title, and in 1367 the rents of the 
earldom were stated by Parliament to be still in his hands. 2 
It may, however, have been some resentment against the 
King which led the Earl to take part in the rising of 1363, 
though he did not take a very active part, and it was 
quickly suppressed, the rebellious lords making separate 
submissions. 3 

The Earl held the earldom of Dunbar for nearly sixty 
years, and though an aged man at his death, seems to have 
been vigorous to the end. He assisted at a treaty with 
England, begun at Moreno uselaw on 1, and ended at 
Roxburgh 4, September 1367, 4 and he appears to have per- 
sonally taken order with the affairs of a vassal who died 
8 February 1367-68. 5 He was present at a Parliament at 
Stirling on 4 July 1368, but died apparently before the 25th 
of same month, 6 or at least resigned his earldom about that 
date, and probably died not long after, aged eighty-six or 
more. 

This Earl had several seals. First, about 1320, his seal 
shows a lion rampant within a bordure charged with 
twelve roses. Legend, 4 s. PATRICII DE DVNBAR COMITIS 
MAR.' 7 The next, in 1334, shows a lion rampant within a 
bordure charged with thirteen roses. Crest, On a barred 
helmet front face, a tower masoned and embattled, from 
which issues the half-length nude figure of a woman with 
flowing hair, holding in each hand a coronet. At each side 
of the tower is the head and fore part of a lion, one paw 
resting on the helmet. Supporters, Two hairy savages. 
Beneath the shield is a wyvern. Legend, ' SIGILLVM PAT- 
RICH COMITIS DE MARCHIA. 8 

The third seal, in 1357, shows a lion rampant within 
a bordure charged with eleven roses. Crest, On a cylin- 
drical helmet with capeline and coronet, a horse's head 

1 Cal Doc. Scot., iv. No. 9, pref. x, xi. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 528, 529. 
Moray was a male fief, but Earl Patrick may have had the rents as 
solatium for the loss of Annandale, which King David, in 1366, granted 
to John of Logy, though the latter's possession could only have been 
nominal ; Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 128. 3 Fordun a Goodall, ii. 369. 4 Acta 
Parl. Scot., xii. 14, 15. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 140. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., 
i. 532; Reg. Mag. Sig., i. 62, Nos. 195, 196. 7 Scottish Armorial Seals, No. 
788. 8 Ibid., No. 789. 



268 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

bridled. Supporters, Two men in doublets, each with a 
pointed cap and tall feather in front. Within an orna- 
mented quatrefoil panel. Legend, ' s. PATRICII DE DVNB[AR] 
COMITIS [MARCHIE].' 1 

The fourth, about 1367, shows an equestrian figure riding 
to sinister, with sword in right hand and shield on left arm 
bearing arms, which are repeated on his surcoat and the 
caparisons of his horse, a lion rampant within a bordure 
charged with eleven roses. Crest, On his helmet, a horse 
head bridled. Legend, ' + SIGILLVM : PATBICII DE DVNBAR : 
COMITIS : MARCHIE.' The counterseal is a shield, within a 
circle ornamented with six decorated cusps, bearing arms, 
a lion rampant within a bordure charged with eleven 
roses. Legend, ' + SIGILLVM : : PATRICII : DE : DVNBAR : 

COMITIS : MARCHIE.' 2 

Another seal is similar to the last, but the shield bears a 
lion rampant within a bordure charged with eight roses. 
Fan plume on the helmet and also on the horse's head. 
Legend, ' s. PATRICII DE DVMBAR COMITIS MARCHIE.' 3 

A fifth seal shows a lion rampant within a bordure 
charged with eight roses. The seal of his wife Agnes 
Randolph shows four shields in a circle, point to point, 
with a three-pointed coronet between each two shields. 
One of the shields bears a lion rampant within a double 
tressure, two bear the arms of her husband, and the fourth 
bears the three cushions of Randolph, in a double tressure. 
Legend, 4 s. AGNETIS COMITISSE DE DUNBAR ET MORA VIE.' 4 

This Earl married, first, a certain Lady Ermigarda, who, 
in 1303, and also on 26 June 1304, being then pregnant, 
received a cask of new wine as a present from King 
Edward i. 5 The Earl apparently had children by her. 

His second wife, so far as is known, was Agnes, eldest 
daughter of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, sometime 
Regent of Scotland. They had a dispensation to marry, 
dated 18 August 1320, which states they were related in 
the fourth degree ; but on 16 January 1323-24 they received 
a second dispensation narrating that they were really 
within the third and fourth degrees of consanguinity. 

1 Scottish Armorial Seals, No. 790. 2 Ibid., Nos. 791, 792. 3 Ibid., No. 
793. * Ibid., Nos. 794, 2257. 5 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. p. 403 ; iv. p. 457. Who 
the lady was has not been ascertained. 



DUNBAR, EARL OP DUNBAR 269 

Meanwhile they had married, but they were permitted to 
remain in marriage, and their past and future children 
were declared legitimate. 1 The Countess corresponded 
with her brother John, Earl of Moray, when he was a 
prisoner in England in 1337. 2 After his death she and her 
sister shared his possessions betwixt them. Evidence of 
this is to be found in two charters, the first granted by 
Earl Patrick and Agnes, his wife, at Dunbar, on 2 January 
1351-52, and the second by Sir Patrick Dunbar and Isabella, 
his wife, at Wester Spott, near Dunbar, on the same day, 
both writs confirming the same deed, a grant by their 
vassal Richard Anstruther, of the lands of West Pitcorthy, 
in Fife, to his sister Cecilia and John Strang, her husband. 3 
Other evidence will be noted in next memoir. Countess 
Agnes was still alive on 24 May 1367, but that appears to 
be the latest mention of her, and she may have predeceased 
her husband. 

According to Boece, who seems to have known some- 
thing of the family history, Earl Patrick and Black Agnes 
had no children, 4 although, as stated, children are referred 
to in the Papal dispensation, probably as a matter of form. 
But, probably by his first wife, the Earl had issue, 
Sir John, who is named in the list of hostages for King 
David ii. in 1351, and there is described as son and 
heir of the Earl of March. He is also referred to, 
but not by name, in the list of 1354, but he is not 
referred to in the final list of 1357. 5 He also appears 
in charters of uncertain date, but before 1346, as Sir 
John, son of the Earl of March, and he had then 
received the rank of knighthood. 6 Nothing further 
has been ascertained regarding him, and he must 
have predeceased his father without issue, as his 
cousin George succeeded. 

1 Col. Papal Registers, Letters, ii. 201, 235. 2 Col. Doc. Scot., in. 
No. 1233. 3 Charter by Anstruther, and confirmation by Earl Patrick, 
both in H.M. Gen. Reg. House, Nos. 119A, 119s; original deed by Sir 
Patrick Dunbar, at Duffus House, Elgin, in possession of Sir Archibald 
Hamilton Dunbar, Bart., who was the first to discover the new evidence 
as to Black Agnes and her sister. 4 Boece, ed. 1574, 367b ; Pitscottie, 
in his version of Boece, omits the statement that Black Agnes had no 
issue (Scot. Text Society edition, i. 63). 6 Rymer's Fcedera, v. 724, 793 ; 
cf. Rotuli Scotice, i. 768, 814. 6 Liber de Melros, ii. 331 ; Liber de Dry- 
burgh, 232. 



270 DUNBAR, EARL OP DUNBAR 

X. GEORGE, tenth Earl of Dunbar and third or fifth Earl 
of March, usually known as George, tenth Earl of March, 
Lord of Man and Annandale, was one of the most prominent 
members of his family. He was probably born about 1340, 
and, strange to say, his exact parentage was forgotten or 
overlooked until a few years ago. It was assumed by the 
older writers that he was the son of the ninth Earl by 
Agnes Randolph, notwithstanding that Boece, followed by 
Lindsay of Pitscottie, casts a doubt on that relationship, 
plainly hinting that George was the son of a sister of Agnes. 1 
Boece indeed expressly says that Agnes Randolph had no 
issue, a statement not repeated by Pitscottie. In an early 
MS. of Fordun's Annales also it is stated that Sir Patrick of 
Dunbar, who fought at Poictiers, and afterwards went 
towards the Holy Land, was the father of George, after- 
wards Earl of March. 2 Sir Patrick's wife was Isabel 
Randolph, and as she was sister, and one of the two 
heiresses of John Randolph, third Earl of Moray, it is easy 
to explain how Earl George came to possess the Randolph 
estates as well as the earldom of March or Dunbar. His 
first appearance on record is in 1363, when, on 28 June, 
King David II. confirmed to him a grant of one-half of the 
baronies of Tibbers and Morton, in Dumfriesshire, which 
Patrick, Earl of March, and Agnes, his wife, had resigned 
in his favour. 3 These were Randolph estates, and the 
Earl and Countess therefore only resigned one-half, while 
the other no doubt was inherited from his mother. In May 
1367 he was a witness to a charter by Earl Patrick and his 
wife to the monks of Durham, where he is described as 
their 'cousin.' 4 On 25 July 1368 he received from King 
David n. two charters, the first of the baronies of Oum- 
nock, Blantyre, Glenken, and Mochrum, in the counties of 
Ayr and Lanark, and ' sheriffdom of Dumfries,' resigned by 
Patrick of Dunbar, Knight, last Earl of March, and the 
second of the earldom of March, also resigned by the last 
Earl. 5 The terms used seem to imply that Earl Patrick was 
still alive, but no longer Earl, and the references to the Earl 
of March after the above date appear to relate to George. 

1 Boece, ed. 1574, 367b ; Pitscottie, Scot. Text Society edition, i. 03. 
2 Fordun, ed. Skene, i. 377, note 3. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., i. 29, No. 53. 
4 Raine's North Durham, App. No. cxlii., 24 May 1367. 3 Reg. Mag. Siy., 
i. 62, Nos. 195, 196. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 271 

tie was certainly Earl in June 1369, 1 and he appears in 
Parliament in March 1369 and February and October 1370." 
After the accession of King Robert 11. the Earl was present 
in Parliament when the Act of Succession was passed, 27 
March 1371, and his seal is still affixed to it and to the Act 
of Confirmation on 4 April 1373. 3 He seems to have 
resented greatly the presence of the English in his family 
estate of Annandale, and grievous complaints were made 
to Edward in. in 1376, by the English Chamberlain of Loch- 
maben Castle, that the rents suffered from the Earl's de- 
predations, which had evidently been made in 1375. 4 In 
1377 the Earl of Northumberland complained to the King 
of Scots as to violence done by the Earl of March at 
Roxburgh. 5 

In April 1378 the Earl of Northumberland complained 
that the Earls of March, Douglas, and others were harassing 
the English borders, and from a list of lands in 1380, taken 
from the English, it appears that these nobles, and particu- 
larly March, had recovered considerable portions of their 
estates. 6 

A later exploit of the Earl's was the capture of the 
Baron of Greystock, who was appointed keeper of Roxburgh 
Castle, an event which has been assigned to the year 1384, 
but must have taken place before November 1382. 7 The 
Earl was one of the leaders under the Earl of Douglas, in 
the famous raid into England which ended in the battle of 
Otterburn on 5 August 1388. After the death of Douglas, 
March pressed forward with his division, and fought 'right 
valiantly,' as Froissart has it, so pressing upon the English 
forces that they gave way. 8 

In the first part of the year 1400 the Earl's friendly 
relations to King Robert in. underwent a change, owing 
to the bad faith shown to his daughter by the Duke of 
Rothesay. In February 1400 the Earl wrote the English 
King telling him of the insult to his daughter, and desiring 
a safe-conduct that he might have a personal interview. 
He also claimed kinship with the King, through their 

1 Col. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 154. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 506, 508, 534, 537. 
3 Ibid., i. 546-547, 549. 4 Col. Doc. Scot., iv. Nos. 223, 231. 6 Cf. Ibid., 
Nos. 242, 252, p. 402, No. 308; Fordun a Goodall, ii. 384-385. 6 Cat. of 
Docs., iv. Nos. 260, 295. 7 Fordun a Goodall, ii. 377-378; Col. Doc. Scot., 
iv. Nos. 315, 318. 8 Froissart, Globe ed., 370, 374, 375. 



272 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

mutual Corny n descent. 1 Henry iv., in the following June, 
gave the necessary permission for an interview, which 
probably took place at York, towards which the King was 
proceeding. Henry was too astute not to encourage a 
valuable ally, and the result was the transference of the 
Earl with his whole family to England. One reason of 
this was that his castle of Dunbar was seized for the 
Scottish King by the Earl of Douglas, and the lordships of 
Dunbar and Annandale were forfeited. He became high in 
Henry's favour, and various manors,|Somerton, Olipston, 
and others, besides considerable sums of money, were 
bestowed on him. 2 He took service on the Marches, at 
Martinmas 1401, and in the following year was the chief 
means of a severe check given to the Scots on Nisbet 
Moor, 22 June 1402. 3 It was his military genius also, added 
to his knowledge of the Scottish mode of warfare, which 
gained for the English the battle of Homildon Hill, on 
14 September 1402, and at the battle of Shrewsbury, 21 July 
1403, he gave advice which tended to save both King 
Henry's life and his kingdom. For these great services he 
received considerable rewards in manors and money, and 
he was allowed to style his own pursuivant ' Shrewsbury 
Herald/ 4 

He was still in England in June 1407, but about that date 
his name drops from the English records, and he and his 
Countess appear to have bent their steps northward, if a 
letter, undated, written by her to King Henry iv. is to be 
attributed to this year, as seems probable. 5 Whether as a 
result of this letter or not, a sum of 90 was, in June 1407, 
given by King Henry to the Earl and his wife, 6 and in the 
following year the Earl was reconciled to the Regent 
Albany and restored to his earldom, but in 1409 he was 
compelled to resign his lordship of Annandale, which for a 
time became the property of the Earls of Douglas, though 
he still retained his lordship of Man. After that date he 
does not appear so frequently, once or twice witnessing 

1 Letter, 18 February (1400), printed by Pinkerton, i. App. 442 ; Douglas 
Book, iv. 59, 60. 2 Col. Doc. Scot., iv. Nos. 579, 589, 598, 602, 603, 605. 3 Fordun 
a Goodall, ii. 433. 4 Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. Nos. 623-666, passim. 5 Nat. MSS. 
of Scotland, ii. No. Hi. ; The Douglas Book, iv. 65, 66. The reference to 
the plague seems to fix the year, as it was very severe in the summer of 
1407 ; Walsingham, Rolls series, 422, 423. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 740. 



DUNBAR, EARL OP DUNBAR 273 

charters by the Regent Albany, and on one occasion being 
called into consultation as to measures of resistance against 
the Lord of the Isles ; 1 while in 1411 he was one of eight 
Scottish commissioners appointed to negotiate for a truce. 2 

The chronicler Bower records this Earl's death as taking 
place in, or a little before, the year 1420. 3 This date, how- 
ever, is uncertain. It is true that a pension from Exchequer 
ceases between June 1417 and June 1418, but on the other 
hand he appears to have been still alive in July 1420, 4 and 
Nisbet gives a copy of a charter to George Inglis of 
Lochend, of date 8 September 1422, in which the Earl of 
March, the granter, describes one of the witnesses as 
' Christiana my spouse,' suggesting the tenth Earl. 5 

The Earl had two seals. First : a lion rampant within 
an orle of sixteen roses. Crest, On a helmet with capelme 
and coronet, a horses head bridled. Supporters, Two lions 
sejant guardant cone, with a tree beside each. Legend^ 

'S. GEQRGII DE DUNBAR COMITIS MARCHIE.' 

The second seal is similar, but the shield shows a lion 
rampant within a bordure charged with eight roses, and 
the legend is 'SIGILLTJM GEORGII DE DUNBAR COMITIS 
MARCHIE. ' 6 

The Earl married a lady named Christiana, who is said 
to have been the daughter of Sir Alexander Seton of Seton.. 
They had issue : 

1. SIR GEORGE, who succeeded as Earl of March. 

2. Sir Gavin (or Wawan), named next after George in 

a royal grant of 1390, to be noted later, and in the 
safe-conduct to England on 2 August 1402. He was 
taken into the personal service of Henry iv. for life 
at 40 a year. On 14 August 1403 he had a grant of 
the 4 vil ' of Newburn for life, on account of good 
service, perhaps at Shrewsbury. On his father's 
return to Scotland Sir Gavin seems to have deserted 
the English alliance, as in 1411 he was one of the 
leaders of a party who broke down the bridge of 
Roxburgh and burned the town. 7 Probably it was 
for this exploit he received a grant of 40 about that 

1 Exch. Rolls, iv. pp. Ivii, 132. 2 Col. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 805. 3 Fordun 
a Goodall, ii. 460. * Exch. Rolls, iv. 315. 6 Ibid., iv. 293; Nisbet, 
General Collection, Adv. Lib. MS., 34.3.5. 6 Scottish Armorial Seals* 
Nos. 797, 798. * Fordun a Goodall, ii. 447. 

VOL. III. S 



274 DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 

date for his work on the March. He had other 
payments made to him from Exchequer, and grants 
from customs duties paid up to or beyond June 1417, 
and he deceased before June 1418. 1 

3. Colin or Columba, born about 1380, perhaps earlier. 

styled Colin in a writ of 1390, named as third son 
there, and in the safe-conduct of 1402-3. He was 
educated at Oxford. He is referred to as receiving 
money for his father and mother, and in February 
1402-3 he was presented to the deanery of St. Mary 
Magdalene, Bridgnorth. 2 In 1411 he is named as 
Dean of Dunbar, the benefice being 40 yearly; 3 
and in 1413 he received in addition the Hospital of 
Ruthven, valued at 30 yearly. 4 He was provided 
to the Bishopric of Moray on 3 April 1422, and it 
was apparently he who received payments for going 
to Rome and undertaking a special mission there in 
1429 or later. 5 He died at Spynie, it is said, about 
1435, and was buried in the north transept of his 
cathedral at Elgin, where his effigy may be seen on 
his tomb. He is named Sir Oolumba, Bishop of 
Moray, in a writ by his sister, of 24 April 1438, 
but was probably then deceased. 

4. Patrick, named fourth in writ of 1390 and in the safe- 

conduct. In June 1407 he received a sum of money 
for his father and mother. In 1410 he, ' not less skil- 
fully than manfully,' took the fortaliceof Fastcastle, 
then held by Thomas Holden, an Englishman, who, 
while he abode there, committed many evils in 
Lothian, both by sea and land. 6 Douglas styles him 
Sir Patrick Dunbar of Bele, but the latter was his 
uncle. 

5. John, named fifth in the writ of 1390, and then appa- 

rently the youngest. He is also named fifth in the 
safe-conduct, but his later career has not been ascer- 
tained. Perhaps he died young. 

1 Exch. Rolls, iv. 143, 147, 163, 178, 197, 251, 278, 293. 2 Col. Doc. Scot., iv. 
No. 628. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 31 March 1432. 4 Papal Registers, Petitions, 
i. 601, 602, 614. 5 Exch. Rolls, iv. pp. cxii, 677, 682. He had a safe-conduct 
in December 1433 to go to the Roman Court, and on 10 May following to 
attend the General Council at Basle ; Rotuli Scotice, ii. 284, 286. M. Brady, 
Episcopal Succession, i. 135. 6 Fordun, ii. 444. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 275 

6. Sir David, not named in writ of 1390, but named 

sixth in the safe-conduct of 1402. Some time before 
his father's death he had a grant of the lands of 
Cockburn and Brigham, in Berwickshire, the latter 
for life only. 1 It was probably he who, in May 1421, 
was sent a prisoner to the Tower. On 20 February 
1437, when King James i. was attacked by his 
murderers, Sir David rushed to the King's assist- 
ance, but was wounded and disabled. He was still 
alive in 1443. 2 He had issue, and Margaret Dunbar, 
his heiress (either his daughter or granddaughter) 
carried the lands of Cockburn and Brigham to her 
husband Alexander, fourth Earl of Crawford. 

7. Elizabeth, 3 betrothed in 1395 to David, Earl of Carrick, 

who, before 1396, married, and afterwards repudiated 
her about the year 1400 as stated. 4 At a later date 
she held the lands of Mordington, in Berwickshire. 
On 23 November 1411, Robert Clerkson, master of the 
Hospital of St. Leonard near Perth, renounced it and all 
his rights in favour of Dame Elizabeth Dunbar, that 
she may be governor of the hospital, which in time 
past had been governed by women. 5 It is said the 
hospital was suppressed by King James i., but it was 
not until a year after his death that, on 24 April 1438, 
Dame Elizabeth resigned all her right to the hospital 
into the hands of Henry Wardlaw, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, in favour of the Prior and brethren of the 
Charterhouse of the Vale of Virtue beside Perth. 
She also delivered up to them all charters and 
evidents, the prior and convent receiving as brothers 
and sisters, to their prayers for ever, the bodies and 
souls, both quick and dead, of, among others, Sir 
George, Earl of March, Christian, his spouse, Eliza- 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 7 February 1425-26. 2 Laing Charters, No. 122. For 
seal, see Scottish A rmorial Seals, No. 799. 3 Another daughter, Janet, who 
is not named either in the safe-conduct or in the above writ, is said to 
have married Sir John Seton. It was not he but his son William who 
married a Janet, though the evidence for her being a Dunbar is not con- 
clusive. A discharge, 3 March 1413-14, by George Dunbar, son and heir 
of the Earl, to Sir John Seton, for 300 Scots, tocher of his sister Jonet, 
is referred to in the Family of Seton, ii. ; Exch. Rolls, iv. 602. The form 
of the discharge suggests that a Dunbar was marrying a Seton. 4 See 
note, p. 279 infra. 5 General Button's Collections, vii. 41. 



276 DUNBAB, EARL OF DUNBAR 

beth Dunbar, their daughter (the granter), Sir 
George of Dunbar, Earl of March, their son, Sir 
Oolumba of Dunbar, Bishop of Moray, Sir Gavin 
of Dunbar, Patrick of Dunbar, John of Dunbar, Sir 
* Davy ' of Dunbar, brothers. 1 

The Earl had also a natural son, Nicholas, for 
whom in 1394, the Pope was petitioned for a dis- 
pensation that he might be ordained, but apparently 
he did not adopt the clerical office, as in 1421 he 
was a prisoner in the Tower with his brother Sir 
David, and is then described as ' Esquire. 1 2 

XI. GEORGE, eleventh and last of the Earls of Dunbar, 
is first named in 1385, when he was in command of the 
garrison of Cockburnspath, and was permitted to buy 
victual in England. On 27 March 1390, King Robert n. 
granted to him all wards and reliefs, and his own marriage 
when it should happen, due from the earldom of March and 
the lordship of Annandale. Failing the ward, etc., of 
George himself, the King granted the same to his other 
brothers living, as the order of their age required, to Wawan 
(or Gavin), Colin, Patrick, or John. 3 In March 1399, he had a 
safe-conduct to go ' beyond seas,' but he is included with 
the other members of his family in August 1400, when they 
left Scotland. Passing by some minor notices of him, it is 
not clear when he succeeded his father, but he was cer- 
tainly Earl 31 March 1423, and later, when he is named as 
such in several charters relating to the barony of Tibbers 
and other lands. 4 It is probably he who, after a long inter- 
val of silence, is named in the English records, on 17 
February 1423, as a commissioner to treat of the libera- 
tion of King James I., and he continues to be named in 
connection with the King's release. His eldest son was 
also for some time a hostage. 5 He was one of those who, 

1 Original dated at St. Andrews ; from autotype in possession of Sir 
Archibald Hamilton Dunbar, Bart. In addition to the granter's own 
family, prayers are to be made for Henry of Wardlaw (perhaps the 
bishop), Henry of Wardlaw of Spot, William of Wardlaw, his brother, 
Margaret and Jonet, his sisters, also for Jonet of Wardlaw, daughter of 
the late Henry Wardlaw of Spot. 2 Papal Registers, Petitions, i. 614 ; 
Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 906. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., folio vol. 180, No. 9. 4 Fif- 
teenth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. viii. 33; Reg. House Charters, Nos. 
260, 263-266. 5 Rotuli Scotice, ii. 234-245, passim. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF DUNBAR 277 

under the King's presidency, tried and condemned the 
Regent Murdac, Duke of Albany, and his family to death. 
He himself seems to have lived peacefully and loyally, and 
taken little part in public life; but in 1433, according to 
Bower, in pursuance of the King's policy of enriching the 
Crown at the expense of the greater nobles, he was warded 
in Edinburgh Castle, and his castle of Dunbar was seized. 
In the following year Parliament declared his earldom and 
estates to be forfeited to the Crown, but the reasons for 
this are not given in any extant record, though Bower, 
who gives the date of the Parliament as 7 August 1434, 
says it was on account of his father's misdeeds. 1 The Ear] 
submitted quietly to his deprivation, and henceforth resided 
on his estate of Kilconquhar, in Fife, which being held of 
the Bishop of St. Andrews, was not affected by the for- 
feiture. He is henceforth referred to as Sir George Dunbar 
of Kilconquhar, and survived until 4 August 1455, 2 when he 
was residing at Kilconquhar, but probably died not long 
after that date. 

His seal, which he used even after his forfeiture, shows 
a shield bearing a lion rampant within a bordure charged 
with eight roses. 3 Crest, On a tilting helmet with capeline 
and coronet, a horse's head bridled. Supporters, Two lions 
sejant guardant with a tree behind each. Legend, ' SIGIL- 

LTJM GEORGII DE DUNBAR, COMITIS MARCHIE.' 

He married a lady named Beatrix, otherwise unknown, 
who died before 1421, when he had a dispensation to marry 
Alicia, daughter of Sir William Hay of Yester, though it is 
doubtful if this marriage took place. 4 His issue were : 
1. Patrick, who was a hostage for King James i., but re- 
turned to Scotland in 1427. He married a lady named 
Elizabeth Sinclair, and predeceased his father between 
Martinmas 1453 and July 1454. 5 His widow survived 
for some years. He appears to have left a son, 

Patrick (2), who married Christian Home, and had issue, 

1 Fordun a Goodall, ii. 500; cf. Ada Part. Scot., ii. 23, 11 January 1434- 
35. He is, however, styled Earl of March in safe-conducts of 30 October 
and 18 December 1435, Rotuli Scotice, ii. 293. Bower states he was belted 
Earl of Buchan, and had a pension from his own earldom, but no corrobo- 
rative evidence has been found. 2 Original Charter to Thomas Chalmers, 
penes Fraser Trustees. 3 Scottish Armorial Seals, No. 798. 4 Andrew 
Stuart's Genealogical Hist, of Stewarts, 452. 6 Exch. Rolls, v. 644. 



278 DUNBAR, EARL OP DUNBAR 

Patrick (3), who married, first, before 21 June 1474, Janet 
Dunbar, daughter of Patrick Dunbar of Cumnock and 
Mochrum, 1 and, secondly, before 1498, Isabella Dishington, 
widow of Alexander Abercromby of that Ilk and Murthly. 2 
He had two sons, the eldest being Patrick (4), 3 who married, 
about 1501, Christian M'Dowell of Garthland, 4 and feU at 
Flodden in 1513, 5 predeceasing his father, who died before 
1516, and was succeeded by a grandson Patrick (5). The 
latter, who is referred to as sixth of Kilconquhar, married 
Margaret Gordon, who survived him. 6 He died about 1549, 
leaving a son Andrew, who succeeded in or before 1550, 
and four daughters. Andrew Dunbar married Eupheme 
Wemyss, probably daughter of Sir John Wemyss of that 
Ilk, and afterwards, in 1568, wife of David Carnegie of Col- 
luthie. 7 

Andrew Dunbar died without issue in 1564, or before 
February 1564-65, 8 and his four sisters, Janet, Elizabeth, 
Margaret, and Alison were his heiresses. Janet married 
William Mundale, and in his lifetime she married William 
Adair in Altoun ; issue, a daughter Christian. Elizabeth 
died unmarried. Both she and Janet died before September 
1566. 9 Margaret, married William Macdowal of Freugh, 
and John Macdowal of Freugh is, in February 1581-82, de- 
scribed as her son and heir. 10 Her other husbands were 
John Vaus, John Wemyss, son of David Wemyss of Clary- 
law, 11 from whom she was divorced, marrying, lastly, John 
Giffart in Gorme. About 1574 Margaret disposed of Kilcon- 
quhar to Sir John Bellenden of Auchnoull. 12 She died before 
1581-82. The fourth daughter, Alison, married David McCul- 
loch of Drouchtag, and was alive in 1576, when she agreed 
with Sir John Dunbar of Mochrumpark for a sale of her 
half of Mochrum loch and Kilconquhar. 13 

2. George, who is named as a witness in one of his 

father's charters, with his two brothers, on 1 Nov- 
ember 1423. u He styles himself second son of George, 
Earl of March, in writs by himself for infefting his 
kinsman Hugh de Spensa, or Spens, in the lands of 
Ohirnside, co. Berwick, on 8 April and 15 November 
1431. 15 

3. Archibald, named in above charter of 1423, along with 

his brothers. He had a charter from his father on 
8 March 1425-26 of the lands of Wester Spot near 
Dunbar. 16 He may be the Archibald of Dunbar who 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 2 Acta Dom. Cone., vii. 212 ; viii. 14. 3 The 
second son was David, who was tutor to his nephew (Patrick, 5) in 1516. 
4 Acta Dom. Cone., x. 73 ; xx. 27. * Ibid., xxvi. 20. 6 Acts and Decreets, 
vii. 216. 7 Fraser's Wemyss Book, i. 184 and note. 8 Reg. of Deeds, viii. 
30. 9 Ibid., ix. 404. 10 Ibid., xx (1) f. 588. u Ibid., viii. 241. 12 Ibid., xiii. 
236, 237. 13 Ibid. , xv. 169. 14 Reg. Ho. Charters, No. 260. 15 Twelfth Rep. 
Hist. MSS. Com., App. ix. 114. 16 Book of Carlaverock, ii. 428. 



DUNBAB, EARL OP DUNBAR 279 

seized, in 1448, the castle of Hailes, and surrendered 
it to James, Master of Douglas, in revenge, it is 
said, because Dunbar Castle was then in the keeping 
of the younger Hepburn, whom Archibald bound and 
placed in a dungeon, thereafter taking possession of 
Hailes. 1 An Archibald Dunbar, probably the same, 
held the lands of Little Spot from the Crown from 
1452-67. 2 He had also the lands of Balbuthie in Fife. 

4. Marjorie, who married John, afterwards Sir John 

Swinton of that Ilk, about February 1423-24. They 
had issue one son. Sir John was killed at Verneuil, 
17 August 1424. Marjorie is said to have died 
shortly after the marriage, but she was alive in 
April 1433, before which date she had become wife 
of Lucas Stirling of Keir. 3 

5. Euphemia, who received a pension from King James 

ii., continued by James in. from about 1453 till 1474, 
when it ceased at her death. She appears to have 
been the wife of a George Graham. 4 

ARMS. These have been specified in detail above. 

[J. A.] 

1 Douglas Book, i. 478, note 3. 2 Exch. Rolls, v. vi. vii. Indices. 
3 Swinton Charters in Gen. Reg. Ho., Nos. 20, 32. This marriage of Luke 
Stirling is not recorded in Eraser's Stirlings of Keir. 4 Exch. Rolls, v. 
vi. vii. viii. Indices. 



NOTE, page 275. On 28 August 1395 Pope Benedict xm. (Antipope) 
ordered a dispensation to be granted to David, Earl of Carrick (afterwards 
Duke of Rothesay), firstborn of Robert, King of Scotland, and Elizabeth, 
daughter of George, Earl of March, who, knowing themselves to be in the 
third degree of consanguinity had contracted espousals per verba de 
futuro, the King's consent being first obtained (Regesta Avinionensia, 
280, f. 3236). On 11 March 1396-97 a commission was issued by the same 
Pope to grant dispensation to the same persons, who had married without 
banns, copula subsecuta (Ibid., 303, f. 4896). This seems to show that the 
prince and Elizabeth Dunbar were married, and not only betrothed. The 
insult to the Earl of March and his family by the Prince's repudiation of 
Elizabeth was thus much greater than has hitherto been stated. 



HOME, EARL OF DUNBAR 




AVID HOME, younger 
of Wedderburn, son of a 
Sir David, died vita pat- 
ris before 1450. (See title 
Marchmont.) By his wife 
Elizabeth Oarmichael he 
had, with other issue, a 
son, 

GEORGE HOME, men- 
tioned in the remainder 
to the lands of Wedder- 
burn in a charter to his 
grandfather Sir David 
Home and his wife Alicia 
16 May 1450. 1 He was 
served heir to his grand- 
father in these lands 12 May 1469, 2 and died in 1497, 3 being, 
it is said, slain by the English 18 May of that year/ He 
married Mariota, daughter and co-heir of Sir John St. 
Olair of Herdmanston; she had sasine of the lands of 
Kimmerghame 10 November 1475, her other sister Mar- 
garet, who married George Home's brother Patrick, getting 
the lands of Polwarth. Mariota St. Olair survived her 
husband, and was married, secondly, to George Ker of 
Samuelston. 5 George Home had by his wife two sons and 
two daughters : 

1. DAVID. 

2. John. 

3. Isabella, married to Patrick Cockburn of East Borth- 

wick, tutor of Langton. 

l Reg.Mag.Sig. 2 Marchmont Peerage Case, 69. 3 Ibid., 72. 4 Douglas. 
5 Acta Dom. Cone., ix. 95. 



HOME, EARL OF DUNBAR 281 

4. Katherine, married to James Edmondstoun of Ednam. 1 
The Lady Wedderburn is called his ' gudmother.' 2 

DAVID HOME had a charter as son and heir-apparent of 
his father of the lands of Wedderburn 7 November 1474,* 
rand was served heir to him in the lands of Kimmerghame 
;8 June 1499. 4 As Sir David he witnessed a charter 3 
March 1502-3 ; he had a charter of the third part of Brig- 
hamschelis and others 12 February 1505-6 ; 5 another to 
himself and his wife of the lands of Polwarth 1 December 
1506 ; 6 and another of the lands of Jardinefleld in Berwick- 
shire 23 December 1510. 7 Sir David was killed at Flodden 

9 September 1513. He married Isobel, daughter of David 
Hoppringil of Smailholm, and had by her seven sons, known 
;as ' the seven spears of Wedderburn,' besides another son 
(a Churchman) and three daughters : 

1. George, fell at Flodden. 

2. David, who succeeded to Wedderburn. 

3. ALEXANDER of Manderston, of whom presently. 

4. John, who married, in 1518, Beatrix, eldest daughter 

and co-heir of Robert Blackader of that Ilk, and 
through her obtained the lands of Easter Blackader. 

5. Robert, who married Margaret Blackader, the other 

sister, and got the remainder of the Blackader 
lands. 

6. Mr. Andrew. He had a charter from James Stewart, 

Abbot of Dryburgh, of the Kirklands of Lauder 8 
May 1536, 8 and was styled parson and pensioner of 
Lauder. 9 

7. Bartholomew of Simprin. 

8. Patrick, mentioned in the remainder of the last-men- 

tioned charter. 

9. Margaret, married, 1523, to John Swinton of that 

Ilk. 

10. Isobel, contracted to John Swinton of that Ilk, who 
afterwards married her sister. 10 She was married to 
William Cockburn of that Ilk before 30 December 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig.^ 25 November 1496. 2 Acta JDom. Cone., xxiv. 43. 
3 Reg. Mag. Sig. 4 Marchmont Peerage Case. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 Ibid. 
7 Ibid. 8 Confirmed 15 April 1541, Beg. Mag. Sig. 9 Acts and Decreets, 
xxvi. 139. 10 Protocol Book of James Young, Edinburgh City Chambers, 

10 June 1506. 



282 HOME, EARL OF DUNBAR 

1530, when she renounced her conjunct fee of part of 
the Swinton estate. 1 
11. Mariota, married to James Towers of Inverleith. 

ALEXANDER HOME, the third son of Sir David, got a 
charter to himself and his wife of the lands of Hielaws 
and others from John Stewart, Oommendator of Colding- 
ham, 8 April 1547, confirmed to their son Alexander 12 
June 1591. 2 The lands of Manderston had, on the forfeiture 
of Alexander, Lord Home, been divided, one-half being 
granted to Philip Nisbet of that Ilk, and the other to 
Sir David Home of Wedderburn. 3 These were acquired by 
his son Alexander, probably as a gift from his father. Alex- 
ander Home was dead before May 1565 ; his wife's name 
was Barbara, and he had by her issue : 

1. ALEXANDER. 

2. Patrick, who ultimately acquired the lands of Renton 

through his marriage in 1558 with Janet, daughter and 
heiress of David Ellem of Renton. His son and 
heir was : 

(1) Alexander Home of Renton. He married, in 1601, Margaret 
Cockburn. 4 She was after his death, and before 11 May 1624, 
married to Sir William Graham of Braco. 5 Alexander 
Home left a son, 

i. Sir John of Renton, a Lord of Session and Lord Justice- 
Clerk. He married,first (contract 15 February 1621-22), 6 
Janet, daughter of Sir George Home of Manderston ; 
secondly, Margaret, daughter of the Hon. John 
Stewart, Commendator of Coldingham, and died in 
July 1671. He had three sons : 

(i) Sir Alexander Home of Renton, created a 
Baronet between 1672 and 1678 ; married (con- 
tract 27 April 1678) 7 Margaret, daughter of Sir 
William Scott of Clerkington. His male 
issue became extinct in 1788. 

(ii) Sir Patrick Home of Lumsden, created a 
Baronet 31 December 1697; married Jean, 
daughter of Sir William Dalmahoy of Ravel- 
rig. His male issue became extinct in the 
person of his grandson in 1783. 

(iii) Mr. Charles, designed third lawful son of the late 
Sir John Home of Renton in an action about 
his share of his father's estate. 8 

1 Swinton Charters. 2 Reg.Mag.Sig. 3 Ibid., 2 May 1517. 4 Ibid., 11 
July 1601. 5 Laing Charters, 1958. 6 Reg. of Deeds, cccliv. 236. 7 Reg. 
May. Sig., Ixxv. 37. 8 Gen. Reg. Inhib., 28 Nov. 1674. 



HOME, EARL OF DUNBAR 283 

Sir John had also a natural son, 

Mr. Henry Home, appointed Commissary of 
Lauder 23 May 1661. l He acquired the lands 
of Kames as below, and died June 1690. He 
married (contract 29 August 1671) Christian 
Fletcher, eldest daughter of David, Bishop 
of Argyll, and left issue. 2 

ii. George Home of Kames, designed in 1646 brother- 
german of John Home of Renton, and afterwards 
described as of Kames. 3 He married Margaret 
Home, 4 and died between 1676 and 1679 without 
issue, his nephew Sir Alexander being his heir, 
from whom the lands of Kames and others were 
adjudicated in 1680 to Mr. Henry Home, designed 
official of Lauder. 5 

3. John, * the King's Master Hunter.' 6 On 4 June 1593 he 

acquired from Alexander, Lord Home, the lands of 
Tynness, co. Selkirk, 7 which he sold to James Pringle, 
apparent qf Buckholm, 20 July 1600. 8 His testament 
was confirmed 26 July 1605. 9 

4. George, witnessed a charter of the lands of Slegden to 

his brother Alexander, 14 February 1555-56. 10 

5. Agnes, married to Patrick Home of Polwarth. 11 

ALEXANDER HOME of Manderston had a charter of the 
lauds of Whitsum 3 February 1568-69, and another from the 
Bishop of Brechin of the lands of Stracathro, co. Forfar, 

29 November 1569. 12 On 8 February 1573-74 he had a charter 
of the lands of Manderston, on the forfeiture of the Earl 
of Home (probably the portion which did not previously 
belong to him). This was the same day on which his son 
was made Oommendator of Ooldingham. On 28 February 
1578-79 he had a charter from Elizabeth Hoppringil, Prioress 
of Ooldingham, of the lands of Snuke to himself in liferent, 
and his son Alexander in fee. 13 On 16 December 1581 he 
and his wife got a charter of Easter Spott, on the forfeiture 
of James Douglas, Commendator of Pluscarden, a natural 
sou of the Regent Morton, who married Anna, only 
daughter of George Home, fiar of Spott. 14 He married (con- 

1 Reg. of Privy Seal, i. 53, where he is formally designed sone naturall 
of John Home of Rentoun.' 2 Lauder Tests., 28 Nov. 1693. 3 Laing 
Charters, 2371, 2722. 4 Gen. Reg. Sas., 3rd ser., xxxvii., cf. 197. 6 Reg. 
Mag. Sig., P.R. x. No. 215. 6 P. C. Reg.,iv. 613. * Reg. Mag. Sig., 27 July 
1594. 8 Ibid., 26 September 1605. 9 Edin. Tests. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig., 

30 April 1556. Douglas. 12 Confirmed 29 April 1574, Reg. Mag. Sig. 
13 Confirmed 28 October 1582, ibid. 14 Ibid., 24 February 1577-78. 



284 HOME, EARL OF DUNBAB, 

tract 6 June 1552) Jean, daughter of George Home of 
Spott. 1 Both Alexander and his wife were dead before 25 
December 1593. They had issue : 

1. Alexander. He was appointed Oommendator of Col- 
dingharn 8 February 1573-74, 2 and was, until he suc- 
ceeded to Manderston, known as Sir Alexander Home 
of Snuke, of which lands he had the fee under the 
charter of 1578 above mentioned. He married (con- 
tract 12 December 1579) 3 Christian, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Erskine of Gogar. Sir Alexander was 
alive May 1608, and died before 3 August 1610. 4 His 
wife survived him, and her testament was recorded 
16 December 1614. 5 They had issue : 

(1) George, who married, first, Isobel or Elizabeth Home ; she 

was alive May 1608, and died before 3 August 1610. 6 He 

married, secondly, in the Kirk of Holyrood, 4 September 

1610, 7 Helen, daughter of Sir John Arnot of Berswick, 

Provost of Edinburgh. On 6 August 1634 the Lord Advocate 

certified to the King that the dignity of Earl of Dunbar 

'lawfully descended' to him (apparently after failure of 

heirs-male of his uncle John) as collateral male heir of his 

uncle George (of whom later), and that on his decease it 

would devolve upon Sir Alexander Home, his son. 8 He was 

still alive in 1637. By his first wife George Home had : 

i. Sir Alexander, styled 'eldest son and heir-apparent' 

of Sir George, 27 March 1616, when he was about to 

be married. He was a Gentleman of the King's Privy 

Chamber. 9 On 6 May 1651 King Charles n. confirmed 

to him, then Master of the Household to the Princess 

of Orange, the earldom of Dunbar. 10 He married, 

about December 1616, Margaret, daughter of Isaac 

Morieson, merchant, Edinburgh. 11 He died s. p. m. 

1675, and his brother's son, Alexander, was his 

executor. 12 

ii. George, who had a charter of certain lands erected into 
the barony of Hyndlawhill 15 September 1635. 13 He 
married, and to his issue their uncle Alexander was 
served tutor, as nearest agnate, 10 September 1663. 14 
His testament-dative was granted to his son Alex- 
ander on 12 January 1702. 15 He had issue : 

(i) Alexander, served heir to his father 24 Septem- 

1 Confirmed 25 December 1593. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig. 3 Acts and Decreets, 
Ixxvi. 406. * Reg. of Deeds, cxlvii. 258, clxxvii. 291. 6 Edin. Tests. 6 Reg. 
of Deeds, cxlvii. 258, clxxvii. 291. 7 Canongate Register, where he is by 
mistake called Sir Alexander. 8 Warrant Book, Scotland, Public Record 
Office, xiv. 189. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 July 1628. 10 Warrant Book, Scot- 
land, xiv. 189. 11 Reg. Mag. Sig., 29 March 1621. 12 Warrant Book, ut 
sup. ; Edin. Tests., 22 January 1702. 13 Reg. Mag. Sig. u Inquis. de 
Tutela, 893. 16 Edin. Tests. 



HOME, EARL OP DUNBAR 285 

ber 1663 ; entered the service of the States of 
Holland, and was captain of Foot there. He 
had a sasine to Captain Alexander Home, son 
and heir of the deceased Sir George Home, 
second lawful son of the deceased Sir George 
Home of Manderston, of an annualrent of 
240 from the lands of Buchtrig and others on 
24 August 1678. l By royal warrant of 14 
October 1689, 2 William and Mary, in terms of 
the certificate of 1634, and a grant of 6 August 
1651, admitted his right to the title of Dunbar, 
as nephew and heir-male of Sir Alexander 
Home, 
(ii) George, mentioned in retour of 10 September 

1663. 3 
(iii) Albert. (iv) Machtilla. (v) Marcia. All 

named in same retour. 

iii. Janet, married to John Home of Renton in 1622. 
By his second marriage with Helen Arnot Sir George had : 
iv. John, described as ' eldest son ' (of that marriage) in a 
Charter of 14 July 1614, 4 by which he got from his 
grandfather, Sir John Arnot, the lands of Crumstane, 
with a liferent to his parents. He was a Knight by 
1647, when he was on the Committee of War for 
Berwickshire. 5 As Sir John Home of Crumstane he 
was served heir of his mother, Dame Helen Arnot, 
in a tenement of land in Eyemouth 20 October 1654. 6 
v. David. 

vi. William, who engaged in the King's service in the 
Civil Wars under the Earl of Newcastle, for which 
he was forfeited in 1645, but restored in 1647. 7 
vii. Anna. 8 

2. David of Cranshaws, also styled of Forest of Dye and 
of St. Leonard's. On 3 February 1568-69 he had a 
charter of certain lands in Lauder, with remainder to 
his brother Alexander, 9 and on 9 December 1581 he 
had a charter of the lands of Dye. 10 He was killed 
in a quarrel 1584. 11 He married Katherine, eldest 
daughter of Robert Lauder of Bass, and relict of John 
Swinton of that Ilk ; she survived him, and was mar- 
ried, thirdly, to George Home of Broxmouth, and 
died 1604. 12 He had a son : 

(1) John, to whom John Home, his uncle, was served tutor 6 
April 1585. 13 

1 Gen. Beg. Sas., 3rd ser., xli. f. 170. * Warrant Book, Scotland, xiv. 
189. 3 Inquis. de Tutela, 893. 4 Confirmed 20 May 1615, Reg. Mag. Sig. 
6 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. pt. ii. 813. e Retours, Berwick, 294. 7 Acta Parl. 
Scot., vi. pt. i., 313-317, 798. 8 Hist. MSS. Com., Milne Home Rep., 246. 
9 Reg. Mag. Sig. 10 Ibid. n Ibid., 19 May 1585. 12 Acts and Deoreets, 
clxxxvi. 289 ; Edin. Tests. 13 Reg. Ho. Cal., No. 2785. 



286 HOME, EARL OF DUNBAR 

3. John of Slegden, served tutor to his nephew, as stated 

above, 6 April 1585. He was infeft as heir to his 
brother the Earl of Dunbar in 1611. 1 It is probable 
that though George the Earl is sometimes mentioned 
before him in lists of the family, Douglas is right in 
making John elder brother and heir of conquest. The 
warrant of 1689, narrating a grant of 1651, states that 
the title lawfully descended to John, but that the 
Earl having devised his whole estate to his heirs- 
female, John, conceiving his fortune too mean, for- 
bore to assume the dignity, and died without issue. 2 
He was alive 23 August 1628, and had a daughter 
Nicolas, married to Robert Dickson of Stanefauld. 3 

4. GEORGE, of whom presently, as Earl of Dunbar. 

5. James 4 of Steill. He died before 1622, leaving a 

son, 

John, who on 12 September 1622 assigned a tack to which 
he had right as heir-male general retoured to George, Earl 
of Dunbar, his father having been the Earl's immediate 
younger brother ; the Court of Session upheld this in 1625. 5 

6. William,' styled of Quhytlaw. 7 He married Mary 

Quhytlaw, youngest of the three co-heirs of Quhyt- 
law, was knighted, and died in or before 1616, leav- 
ing an only daughter Jean, married to William 
Hamilton of Samuelston. 8 

1. Janet, married (contract 28 July 1574) 9 to John Oock- 
burn of Ormiston, afterwards Lord Justice-Clerk. 10 

8. Alison, married, contract 26 and 29 August 1590, to 
Alexander Hamilton of Innerwick, without issue. 
She died February 1591-92. 11 

GEORGE HOME, third son of Sir Alexander, is first met 
with under the designation ' of Primroknow.' Having been 
early brought to Court, he soon acquired considerable in- 
fluence there. In 1589 he accompanied King James vi. to 
Denmark to bring home the royal bride. He was knighted 
4 November 1590. 12 On 30 January 1590-91 he had a charter 

1 Douglas. 2 Warrant Book, Scotland, xiv. 189, i.e. without male 
issue. 3 Reg. of Deeds, ccccix. 144. 4 P. C. Reg., iv. 613. 6 Acts and 
Decreets, ccclxxxviii. 300. 6 Ibid., Reg. of Deeds, xxxvii. 246. 7 Reg. 
of Deeds, lii. 30 June 1596. 8 Retours, Haddington. 9 Reg. of Deeds, 
xiii. 254. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 July 1585. Reg. of Deeds, xlvi. 73 ; 
Edin. Tests. 12 Moysie's Memoirs, 85. 



HOME, EARL OF DUNBAR 287 

of the lands of Horsley, co. Berwick, and on 11 June 1592 
another of the lands of Easter Spott and others, and he 
thenceforward was known for some time as * of Spott.' l 
Many other possessions were granted to him from time to 
time. Meanwhile he continued his successful career at 
Court ; he appears as Sheriff of Berwick in 1599 ; 2 as Master 
of the King's Wardrobe in 1601, 3 from which office we are 
told he ' did quietly shoot out William Keith.' 4 He was also 
one of the componitors in the Treasury, 5 and Provost of 
Dunbar 6 the same year, and on 1 October was appointed 
Treasurer on the resignation of the Master of Elphinston. 
In 1603 he accompanied the King to England, was ap- 
pointed one of the English Privy Council, and received on 
1 June 1603 a grant as Keeper of the Great Wardrobe for 
life. 7 On 27 September in the same year he had a charter 
of the Castle of Norham, and on 12 December another of 
the custody and captaincy of the Castle of St. Andrews. 8 
He had besides charters of other lands. On 7 July 1604 he 
was created BARON HOME OF BERWICK, with re- 
mainder to his heirs for ever, and with the addition of a 
clause enabling him to nominate any kinsman or relation 
4 to have and hold the same dignity to him and his heirs.' 
This power, however, he never exercised. On 3 July 1605 
he was created EARL OF DUNBAR with remainder to 
his heirs-male. On 1 July in the following year, under the 
designation of * primarius thesaurarius Scotie et in Anglia 
scaccarii cancellarius,' he got a confirmation of all his lands, 
which were at the same time incorporated into a free 
earldom, lordship of Parliament, and barony of Dunbar. 9 
In 1606, while acting as sole commissioner for the Borders, 
he hanged over a hundred and forty of the nimblest and 
most powerful thieves in all the Borders. 10 On 20 May 
1608 he was made a Knight of the Garter, 11 and on 21 
December following had a charter of the lands of Brox- 
mouth, co. Haddington. 12 He was a member of the re- 
constituted Privy Council of Scotland in 1609, and on 15 
January 1610 he had a charter of the lands of Smailholme, 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 P. C. Reg., vi. 57. 3 Ibid., 276. 4 Sir James 
Melville's Memoirs, 363. 6 P. C. Reg., vi. 276. 6 Ibid., 282. 7 Cat. State 
Papers, Dom., 1603-10, p. 13. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig. 9 Ibid. 10 Balfour's 
Annals, i. 17. n Ibid., ii. 25. 12 Confirmed 11 June 1609, Req. Maq 
Sig. 



288 HOME, EARL OF DUNBAR 

co. Dumfries, and other lands, with the hereditary keeper- 
ship of the Oastle of Lochmaben, and the office of Steward 
of Annandale, all which were incorporated into the free 
barony of Lochmaben. 1 A few days after he got the 
keepership of the Palace of Holyrood House. He was the 
King's commissioner to the General Assembly in Glasgow 
in 1610, which, largely through the influence of his bribes, 
re-established Episcopacy in Scotland. From there he re- 
turned to London and died, somewhat suddenly, at White- 
hall, not, it has been said, but probably mistakenly, 
without suspicion of poison, 20 January 1611. 

On Lord Dunbar's political career it is not necessary to 
enter. He was a loyal if unscrupulous servant of the 
Grown. He chiefly resided in London, and was indeed the 
principal Scottish minister at the English Court, and was 
consulted by the King in all Scottish measures. He was 
one of the most prominent agents in carrying out James's 
ecclesiastical policy, and made his influence most strongly 
felt in all the affairs of his country. ' A man of deep wit, 
few words, and in His Majesty's service no less faithful 
than fortunate : the most difficult affairs he compassed 
without any noise, and never returned when he was em- 
ployed without the work performed that he was sent to 
do.' 2 His death produced profound emotion in Scotland. 
'It was as if a great tree had suddenly fallen, and men 
stood gazing at the wide rupture that had been left by 
its roots.' 3 The Earl of Dunbar married Elizabeth, only 
child of George Gordon of Gight, by his wife Agnes, a 
natural daughter of Cardinal Beaton. They had two 
daughters : 

1. Anne, married to Sir James Home of Coldingknowes, 

from whom descends the present Earl of Home. (See 
that title.) 

2. Elizabeth, married, March 1612, to Theophilus Howard, 

second Earl of Suffolk and Lord Howard de Walden. 
She died 19 August, and was buried 25 September 
1633, at Walden. 

The dignity was acknowledged by the Crown to have 
descended in the manner previously narrated, but none of 

1 Confirmed, 11 June 1609, Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Spottiswood. 3 P. C. Reg., 
ix. pref. x. 



HOME, EARL OF DUNBAR 289 

the persons said to be in right of it ever appear to have 
assumed the title. 

CREATION. Baron Home of Berwick 7 July 1604, Earl of 
Dunbar 3 July 1605. 

ARMS. 1 (On Garter stall plate in St. George's, Windsor, 
and above tomb in Dunbar Parish Church.) Quarterly : 1st 
and 4th, Vert, a lion rampant argent, for Home ; 2nd, Argent, 
three papingoes vert, beaked and membered gules, for 
Pepdie; 3rd, Argent, three escutcheons vert, for Home 
of Broxmouth; on an escutcheon surtout, Gules, a lion 
rampant argent within a bordure of the second charged 
with eight roses of the first. 2 

CREST. A lion rampant argent ducally gorged or, 

SUPPORTERS. Two lions argent, that on the sinister 
ducally gorged or. 

MOTTO. Rex Divat Deus beat. 

[j. B. P.] 

1 From Certificate at College of Arms. 2 In the blazon of the Garter 
plate in the College of Arms the bordure is not charged with roses. 
Nisbet, however, gives it as* in the text, and it is the more probable 
blazon. 



VOL. III. 



CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT DUNBAR 




IR JOHN CONSTABLE 1 
of Burton Constable, co. 
York, Knight, eldest son 
and heir of Ralph Con- 
stable of Burton Con- 
stable, and of Halsham in 
the same county, Esquire, 
by his first wife, Anne, 
daughter and co-heir of 
Robert Eure, was aged 
eighteen years, seven 
months and upwards on 
21 May 1498, 2 and must in 
consequence have been 
born about October 1479. 
As Sir John Constable of 
Holderness, he was among 
the knights of the sword dubbed at the creation of Prince 
Henry (Henry vin.) 18 February 1503-4. 3 Sheriff of York- 
shire 1511-12, 1524-25, 1528-29, and 1533-34. He died in 
1537. Married, first, Agnes, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Metham of Metham, co. York, by Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Robert Constable of Flamborough, by whom he had 
issue : 

1. SIR JOHN CONSTABLE, his son and heir. 

2. Ralph, who received from King Edward vi. a grant of 

the site of the dissolved hospital of St. Sepulchre's 

1 The writer has to acknowledge his obligations to Mr. J. W. Clay's 
pedigree of this family in 'Dugdale's Visitation of Yorkshire, with 
Additions,' Genealogist, New Series, xx. 175-181 ; he has also to thank 
Mr. Clay for the loan of transcripts of several wills proved at York. 
2 I. P. M. to his father Ralph Constable, C. vol. 12, No. 87, and E. file 
216, No. 10. 3 Metcalfe's Book of Knights. 






CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT DUNBAR 291 

in Newton juxta Hedon, 1 and was also of Woodhouse 
Grange in Swine, and the Charterhouse in Preston, 
all in co. York. Died 4 April 1568. I. P. M. taken at 
Drypool in the same county, 27 May 1569. 2 Married, 
first, Eleanor, daughter and heir of Ezekias Clifton, 
by whom he had two daughters : 

1) Eleanor, married to Thomas Alured of Charterhouse. 
Jane, married to Thomas Thornton of Hull. 

He married, secondly, Anne, daughter of Sir Walter 
Strickland, Knight (she was married, secondly, to 
Edward Holme or Holmes), by whom he had issue : 

(3) Michael of St. Sepulchre's, aged nineteen years and upwards 
at death of his father 4 April 1568, and so born about 1549. 
Signed the pedigree of his family in the visitation of York- 
shire 1584. Died 29 November 1612, buried at Preston, co. 
York. Will dated 18 August 1600, proved at York 1 May 
1613. 3 Married, first, Sybil, daughter of William Hilton, 
who was buried at Preston, and by whom he had issue : 

i. Henry of St. Sepulchre's, aged nine at the visitation of 
Yorkshire 1584, and so born about 1575. Died 13 
April 1614. Admon. at York 10 May following. 
I. P.M. taken at Hedon, co. York, 26 August 1614. 4 

Married Mary, daughter of Tyrwhit, and 

had issue : 

(i) Michael of St.Sepulchre's, aged eight years, seven 
months, and eight days at death of his father 
13 April 1614, and so born 5 September 1605. 
Died before 28 February 1653-54. Married 
Jane, daughter of Sir George Throckmorton, 
of London, Knight, and widow of Richard 
Etherington of Newton Garth, in Holderness. 
She was living 28 February 1653-54. By her 
he had (with daughters 5 ) two sons : 

a. Michael of Newton Garth, who died un- 
married, and was buried at Preston, 
co. York, 11 February 1653-54. Admon. 
of his goods granted P. C. C., to his 
mother, 28 February following. 

6. George. 6 

(ii) Mary, married to Leonard Robinson of New- 
ton Garth. 

1 I. P. M. to his grandson Henry Constable, C. vol. 344, No. 40. 2 C. vol. 
151, No. 42. 3 Reg. Test., xxxii. 390. 4 C. vol. 344, No. 40. These 
daughters received small legacies under the will of John, second Viscount 
Dunbar, 15 December 1667. 6 He is said in Poulson's History of Holder- 
ness to have died s. p. 1653, but has probably been confused with his 
brother Michael. 



292 CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT DUNBAR, 

ii. Anne, died 10 July 1619. 

Michael Constable the elder married, secondly, Marjory, 
daughter of John Dakins of Brandsburton, by whom (who 
was living 26 August 1614 l ) he had issue : 

iii. Katherine, died v. p. unmarried. 

(4) Gabriel, of Keyingham, co. York, living 18 August 1600. He 
had issue : 

i. Ralph, mentioned in the will of his uncle, Michael 
Constable, 18 August 1600. 

3. William, died s. p. 

4. Robert of Easington, Kilnsea, and Bentley, co. York, 

named in the will of his brother, Sir John Constable, 
2 May 1542; married Jane, daughter of Edmond 
Frothingham, and had issue : 

(1) William of Kilnsea, living at the visitation of Yorkshire 

1584; married Elizabeth, daughter of William Walleis of 
co. Lincoln, and had issue : 

i. Sir Ralph, of Bentley, aged fifteen at the visitation of 
Yorkshire in 1584, and so born in or about 1569; 
knighted at Dublin Castle 1603 ; 2 slain at the Isle of 
Rhe 29 October 1627. Married Jane, daughter of Sir 
John Radcliffe, of Ordsall, co. Lancaster (licence to 
marry at Blackburn granted 1605), by whom he had 
a son, 

Robert, baptized at South Kilvington, co. York, 
10 February 1610-11. 3 

ii. Catherine, married to Henry Stevenson. 
iii. Anne, married, as his third wife, to Matthew Parker, 
iv. Elizabeth, married to Foster. 

(2) Anne, married to John Lounde of Naburn. 

5. Francis, named in the will of his brother, Sir John, 2 

May 1542, died s. p. 

6. Brian, died s. p., said to have been slain. 

7. Margery, married to Brian Stapleton of Wighill (dis- 

pensation granted 9 December 1528). 

8. Katherine, married to Sir Ralph Ellerker of Risby, 

but had no issue. 

9. Jane, unmarried at the date of the will of her brother, 

Sir John, 2 May 1542. 

1 See the I. P. M. to her stepson Henry Constable. 2 Metcalfe's Book 
of Knights. 3 Grainge's Vale of Mowbray, 272, where, however, Sir 
Ralph is confused with another branch of the family. 



CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT DUNBAB 293 

Sir John Constable married, secondly, Elizabeth, daughter 

of Headlam, and widow of Sir John Hotham, Knight ; 

she died 20 June 1529. I. P. M. taken at Malton, co. 
York, 8 November 1530. 1 By her he had issue : 

10. Anne, married, after 2 May 1542, to Brian Palmes of 

Naburn. 

11. Elizabeth, married, after 2 May 1542, to Christopher 

Frothingham. 

Sir John married, thirdly, Eleanor, or Margaret, daughter 
of Lord Clifford, and widow of Sir Ninian Markenfield, but 
had no further issue. Admon. of her goods granted at 
York 16 November 1540. 

SIR JOHN CONSTABLE of Burton Constable and Halsham, 
co. York, was probably the Sir John Constable who was 
knighted with the 'sword at the coronation of Anne Boleyn 
in 1533. 2 He died 4 May 1542. By his will, dated two 
days previously, and proved at York 20 October following, 
he desired to be buried at Halsham. 3 I. P. M. taken at 
Beverley, co. York, 15 July 1542. 4 Married Joan, second 
daughter and co-heir of Ralph Neville, of Thornton Bridge ; 
she was born 1500, died after 1551, 5 and was buried at 
Halsham. 6 By her Sir John had issue : 

1. SIR JOHN CONSTABLE, his son and heir. 

2. Ralph, of North Park in Burstwick, co. York. Will 

dated 10 November 1568, proved at York 7 October 
1577. 7 Married Frances, daughter of Sir William 
Skipwith, Knight (she was married, secondly, to 
Ralph Ellerker), by whom he had issue : 

(1) Elizabeth, co-heir of her father, married, after 13 May 1579, 

to Robert Dalton of Myton. 

(2) Frances, co-heir of her father, died unmarried. 

(3) Joan, co-heir to her father, married, after 13 May 1579, to 

John Eastoft, ward of her uncle, Sir John Constable. 

(4) Margaret, died v. p. unmarried. 

3. Frances, married to Sir Christopher Hildyard of Wine- 

stead, co. York. 

1 C. vol. 51, No. 82. 2 Metcalfe's Book of Knights. 3 Reg. Test., xi. 
611. This will has been printed in vol. cvi. of the Surtees Society publi- 
cations. * C. vol. 65, No. 61, and E. file 240, No. 12. 6 Foster's Yorkshire 
Pedigrees. 6 Will of her son, Sir John Constable. 7 Reg. Test., xxi. 63. 



294 CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT DUNBAB 

SIR JOHN CONSTABLE of Kirkby Knowle, co. York, aged 
fifteen years, six months, and five days, 15 July 1542, 1 and so 
born 10 January 1526-27. Knighted by the Earl of Hertford, 
1544. 2 Died 25 May 1579, and was buried at Halsham. Will 
dated 13 May 1579, proved at York 9 September 1587. 3 I. P. 
M. taken at the Castle of York 16 October 1579. 4 Married, 
first, Margaret, daughter of John, Lord Scrope of Bolton, 
by whom, who was buried at Halsham, he had issue : 

1. SIB HENRY CONSTABLE, his son and heir. 

2. Joseph of Upsall, co. York ; who under his father's will 

had a lease of the Rectory of Wawne, lands called 
Ridgmonde in Holderness, and also the office of Chief 
Steward of the lordship of Holderness. Married 
Mary, daughter of Thomas Crathorne of Crathorne, 
co. York, by Evirilda, daughter of Sir Robert Constable 
of Everingham, Knight, by whom he had issue : 

(1) John, of Newbuilding in Kirkby Knowle, aged six months 

at the visitation of Yorkshire in 1584. About February 
1644-45, as a Royalist in arms, his estate was sequestrated 
by the Parliament. 5 He died at Kirkby Knowle before 2 
March 1652-53. Married Elizabeth, or Margaret, daughter 
of Ralph Cresswell of Nunkeeling, co. York, by whom he 
left three daughters and co-heirs : 

i. Katherine, married to Francis Hunt. 

ii. Elizabeth, married to Gabriel Dayles. 

iii. Anne, married to Robert Apprice. 

(2) Joseph, said to have been an officer in the royal army, and 

to have been slain at Newbury or at Copready Bridge. 

(3) Anevilla or Averilla, baptized at South Kilvington 1 January 

1589-90 ; 6 married, 1610, to Thomas Smith of Egton Bridge, 
M.P. 

(4) Mary, married to William Tocketts of Tocketts. 

3. Jbfttt, died v. p. unmarried. 

4. Ralph, died v. p. unmarried. 

1 See the I. P. M. to his father. 2 Metcalfe's Book of Knights. 3 Reg. 
Test., xxiii. 539. 4 C. vol. 185, No. 40. 5 State Papers, Domestic, Pro- 
ceedings of the Committee for compounding, G. vol. 244, 621-643. On p. 
639 is the deposition of his servant John Harrison, which shows that his 
share in the struggle between Crown and Parliament was confined to 
retirement for the safety of his person to the royal garrison at Helmsley. 
In Grainge's Vale of Mowbray he is said to have fought atMarston Moor, 
and to have died in Holland of a broken heart, but the above-mentioned 
deposition proves that he died at Kirkby Knowle. His three daughters 
as sole heirs of their father, compounded for his estate in 1653 (G. vol. 92, 
314, and vol. 224, 621-643), and soon after sold it. Grainge states that he 
also had a son Joseph and a daughter Everild, but, if so, they must have 
died s. p. before 1653. 6 Grainge's Vale of Mowbray. 



CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT DUNBAR 295 

Sir John Constable married, secondly, before August 1563, 
Katherine, daughter of Henry (Nevill), fifth Earl of West- 
morland, K.G. She died at the Savoy 1591, and was buried 

27 March of that year in Shoreditch Church, co. Middlesex. 
Her will, dated 4 August 1590, commission to administer 
granted in London 25 June 1591, to her sister Lady Adeline 
Nevill. 1 By her Sir John had a son : 

5. John, died young, v. p. 

SIR HENRY CONSTABLE of Burton Constable, co. York, 
and Clerkenwell, co. Middlesex ; aged twenty-two years 
and upwards at the death of his father 25 May 1579, 2 and 
so born about 1557. Knighted 1586. 3 Sheriff of co. York 
1586-87. Sandys, Archbishop of York, in his report to Lord 
Burghley concerning the Justices of the Peace of Yorkshire 
and Notts, under date 27 September 1587, says of him. ' He 
is Sheriff of Yorkshire this year; but was in commission 
before, and looketh to be in again. His wife is a most obsti- 
nate recusant, and will not be reformed by any persuasion, or 
yet by coertion. Her example is very hurtful.' 4 He died in 
London, probably at Clerkenwell, 15 December 1607, and was 
buried at Halsham. Admon. at York 8 April 1609. I. P. M. 
taken at the Castle of York 7 April 1609. 5 Married after 

28 February 1574-75, 6 Margaret, daughter of Sir William 
Dormer of Eythorpe, co. Bucks, by his second wife, 
Dorothy Catesby. On 30 November 1597 a true bill was 
found against her at the Middlesex Sessions, as * the Lady 
Margaret, wife of Sir Henry Constable of Clarkenwell, co. 
Middlesex, Knight,' for not going to church, chapel, or any 
usual place of common prayer. 7 She died between 2 
January and 26 April 1637, and by her will, dated 2 January 
1636-37, and proved at York 26 April 1637, 8 desired to be 
buried at Halsham. By her Sir Henry had issue : 

1 P. C. C., 47, Sainberbe. This will appears to have been also proved at 
York 28 July 1591 (Reg. Test., xxiv. 649). There is mention in it of a 
certain ' George Cunstable of the mynories, gentleman.' 2 See the I. P. M. 
to his father. 3 Metcalfe's Book of Knights. 4 Strype's Annals of 
the Reformation, iii. pt. ii. 465. 5 C. vol. 310, No. 79. He is in this I. P. M. 
said to have died 15 Dec. 5 James i., which would be 1607, but 1608 is 
generally given as the date of his death, and there may be an error in the 
inquisition. 6 The date of her father's will, when she was unmarried 
(P. C. C., 41, Pyckering). 7 Middlesex County Records, i. 242. 8 Un- 
registered will, April 1637. 



296 CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT DUNBAR 

1. SIR HENRY CONSTABLE, created Viscount Dunbar. 

2. Catherine., aged five at the visitation of Yorkshire in 

1584, and so born in or about 1579 ; died in or before 
1626 ; l married (licence granted 1594) to Sir Thomas 
Fairfax of Walton and Gilling, co. York, Knight, 
afterwards created Viscount Fairfax of Blmley, in 
the Peerage of Ireland. 

3. Dorothy, died at St. Anthony's, near Newcastle, 1632 ; 

married to Roger, son and heir of Sir Ralph Lawson, 
of Burgh, co. York, who died in London v. p. before 
6 September 1623, and by whom she had issue. 

4. Margaret, married to Sir Edward Stanhope of Edlington 

and Grimston, co. York, Knight. She was buried at 
Kirkby Wharfe, 27 February 1662-63. 

5. Mary, married, about 1613, to Sir Thomas Blakiston of 

Blakiston, co. Durham, Knight, who was created a 
Baronet 27 May 1615, and by whom she had issue two 
daughters. He died 1630 ; she was living at the date 
of her mother's will 2 January 1636-37. 

SIR HENRY CONSTABLE of Burton Constable ; aged nineteen 
years and six months at the death of his father 15 De- 
cember 1607, and so born in or about June 1588 ; matri- 
culated at Trinity College, Oxford, 9 April 1597 ; 2 knighted 
when in his sixteenth year, in the lifetime of his father, at 
the Tower of London, 14 March 1603-4. 3 He was created a 
Peer of Scotland as VISCOUNT DUNBAR and LORD 
CONSTABLE, by patent dated at Newmarket 14 November 
1620, to him and his heirs-male bearing the name and arms 
of Constable. From a letter preserved in the State Papers 
it appears that he was addicted to the vice of gambling, 
so prevalent in his day/ His conviction as a recusant was 
deferred by order of the King 17 April 1629. 5 He is said 
to have died of wounds received at the siege of Scar- 
borough in 1645, 6 and his estate was sequestrated by the 

1 The Complete Peerage, under Fairfax of Elmley. 2 Foster's Alumni 
Oxonienses. z Metcalfe's Book of Knights, and see the I. P. M. to his 
father, in which it is clearly stated that he was made a knight by King 
James in the lifetime of his father. 4 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 
1635-36, 462. Letter from George Garrard to Edward, Viscount Conway 
and Killultagh, under date 30 May 1636, in which it is stated that Lord 
Dunbar lost 3000 at one sitting. 5 Ibid., 1628-29, 522. 6 ' The Loyalists' 
Bloody Roll,' printed in the Complete Peerage, i. 194, under Aubigny.' 



CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT DUNBAR 297 

Parliament as having been a Papist in arms 23 April 1648. 1 
He married, about 1614, Mary, sister of Nicholas, first 
Earl of Thanet, and daughter of Sir John Tufton, Bart., 
of Hothfield, co. Kent, by his second wife, Christian, 
daughter and co-heir of Sir Humphrey Brown, Justice 
of the Common Pleas. On 17 and 18 January 1654 she 
prayed to be allowed to contract for two-thirds of her 
sequestrated estate, 'being in a Very low and sad condi- 
tion.' 2 She died between 8 April and 24 June 1659. By 
her will, dated 7 November 1653, with codicil of 8 April 
1659, and proved in London 24 June 1659, 3 she desired 
to be buried in the parish church of Halsham. By her 
Lord Dunbar had issue : 

1. JOHN, second Viscount Dunbar. 

2. Mattlieiv, of Benningholme Grange, co. York. On 10 

May 1653 he petitioned the Parliament to be allowed 
to compound for his estate, and on 10 July following, 
on payment of a fine, his lands in Swine, Sutton, Stone 
Ferry, and Burstwick, co. York, were discharged and 
sold by the Treason Trustees. 4 He died 14 August 
1667. 5 

3. Henri/, living 15 December 1667, the date of the will 

of his brother John, second Viscount Dunbar. He is 
said to have died s. p. 

4. Mary, married, as his first wife, to Robert, Lord Brude- 

nell, afterwards second Earl of Cardigan, by whom 
she had issue a daughter Mary, wife of William Hay, 
third Earl of Kinnoull. (See that title.) 

5. Catherine, living at the date of her mother's will, 7 

November 1653 ; married to William Middleton of 
Stockheld, co. York, who died 22 December 1658, 
and by whom she had issue. 

6. Margaret, living and unmarried 24 June 1659. 

JOHN, second Viscount Dunbar, aged fifty at the visita- 
tion of Yorkshire 5 September 1665, and so born in or about 

1 Calendar of the Proceedings of the Committee for Compounding, 
pt. i. 113. 2 Proceedings of the Committee for Compounding, G. vol. 20, 
1177, and vol. 82, 44-46. 3 P. C. C., 369, Pell. 4 Proceedings of the Com- 
mittee for Compounding, G. vol. 18, 855 ; vol. 75, 622, and vol. 225, 575, 577. 
5 Poulson's History of Holder ness, ii. 233. 



298 CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT DUNBAB 

1615. Two-thirds of his estate were sequestrated by the 
Parliament 9 July 1650. 1 By his will, dated 15 December 
1667, and registered at York, he desired to be buried with 
his ancestors at Halsham. 2 Married, probably before 2 
January 1636-37, 3 and certainly before 1649, Mary, daughter 
of Thomas, Lord Brudenell (who in 1661 was created Earl 
of Cardigan), by Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Tresham, 
Knight. She was living at the date of her husband's will. 
By her he had issue : 

1. John, aged sixteen years at the visitation of York- 

shire 5 September 1665, and so born in or about 1649 ; 
died unmarried v. p., but was living at the date of 
his father's will, 15 December 1667. 

2. ROBERT, succeeded his father as third Viscount 

Dunbar. 

3. WILLIAM, succeeded his brother Robert as fourth and 

last Viscount Dunbar. 

4. Mary, living 5 September 1665, died unmarried. 

5. Cicely, married, before 5 September 1665, to Francis 

Tunstall of Scargill and Wycliffe, co. York, who was 
aged twenty-eight 21 August 1665, 4 by whom she 
had, with other issue, a third son, Cuthbert Tunstall, 
who, on succession to the estate of Burton Constable 
under the will of his maternal uncle William, fourth 
Viscount Dunbar, assumed the name and arms of 
Constable. 

6. Catherine, married, after 5 September 1665, to John 

More of Kirklington, co. Notts, by whom she had a 
son John and a daughter Winifred, both mentioned in 
the will of their maternal uncle William, fourth 
Viscount Dunbar. 

ROBERT, third Viscount Dunbar, aged fourteen years 
at the visitation of Yorkshire 5 September 1665, and so 
born in or about 1651. On 26 February 1670-71 he was 
indicted at the Middlesex Sessions for having murdered one 
Peter Varnall, by giving him a rapier wound on the right 

1 Proceedings of the Committee for Compounding. 2 Reg. Test., xlix. 
2M. 3 See the will of his grandmother Margaret, Lady Constable, of this 
date, which contains mention of my grandchild, Mr. John Constable, 
and my daughter (sic) his wife.' 4 Visitation of Yorkshire, 1665. 



CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT DUNBAR 299 

side of his head, and on 3 May following he appeared at the 
Old Bailey and confessed the indictment, 1 having on 11 
April previous obtained the King's pardon for the offence. 2 
He died 23 November 1714, in his sixty-fourth year, and was 
buried 2 December following in Westminster Abbey, in 
the middle aisle near the choir door. 3 Will dated 2 January 
1711-12, proved in London 4 December 1714. 4 He married, 
first, Mary, daughter of John, Lord Belasyse of Worlaby, 
by his first wife Jane, daughter and heir of Sir Robert 
Boteler, 5 by whom he had one daughter : 

1. Anne, married, as his first wife, to Simon Scrope of 
Danby, co. York, but died s. p., and was buried at 
Spennithorne in the same county, 15 February 1694-95. 

He married, secondly, soon after 30 March 1700, 6 Dorothy, 
widow of Charles Fane, third Earl of Westmorland (who 
died September 1691), and daughter of Robert Brudenell, 
second Earl of Cardigan, by Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Savage, first Earl Rivers. She died, aged ninety-three, 
26 January, and was buried with her second husband in 
Westminster Abbey 6 February, 1739-40. Will dated 28 
December 1734, proved in London 8 February 1739-40. 7 

WILLIAM, fourth Viscount Dunbar, aged eleven years 
at the visitation of Yorkshire 5 September 1665, and so 
born in or about 1654; succeeded his brother Robert as 
Viscount Dunbar and Lord Constable 23 November 1714, 
which titles became dormant at his death, without legiti- 
mate issue, 8 at Burton Constable 15 August 1718. Will 
dated 30 August 1717, registered at York. 9 Married Eliza- 
beth, eldest daughter of Hugh (Clifford), second Baron 
Clifford of Chudleigh, by Anne, daughter and co-heir of Sir 
Thomas Preston, Bart. She married, secondly, 17 November 



1 Middlesex Session Rolls, iv. 24, 25. 2 Calendar of State Papers, 
Domestic, 1671, 183. 3 The inscription on his monument is printed in 
Neale's Westminster Abbey. 4 P. C. C., 239, Aston. 5 The Complete 
Peerage. 6 See his will, in which deeds of lease and release dated 29 and 
30 March 1700, which appear to have been executed in pursuance of 
marriage articles, are cited. 7 P. C. C. 58, Browne. 8 He had two 
natural sons, one known as Mr. Henry Musgrave, and the other (by a Mrs. 
Devaux) as Mr. Charles Lee, alias Fitzwilliams. The latter was dead 
at the date of Lord Dunbar's will, leaving a son. 9 Reg. Test., 73, 108. 
This will was enrolled on the Close Bolls, 5 George I., pt. 20, No. 13. 



300 CONSTABLE, VISCOUNT DUNBAR 

1720 Charles Gregory Fairfax of Gilling, eo. York (after- 
wards tenth Viscount Fairfax of Elmley, in the Peerage of 
Ireland) ; she died at Bath 25, and was buried in the Abbey 
church there 27, April 1721. Admon. of her goods granted 
to her second husband P. O. O. 15 May following. 

CREATION. 14 November 1620, Viscount Dunbar and 
Lord Constable. 

ARMS. Barry of six, or and azure. 

CREST. A dragon's head argent, charged with three bars 
gules, on each as many lozenges or. 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, a bull sable ; sinister, a lion ram- 
pant gules. 

MOTTO. Sans Mai Desir. 

[H. w. F. H.] 



OSBORNE, VISCOUNT DUNBLANE 




T is unnecessary to give 
in detail, in a work like 
the present, the pedigree 
of a family who were 
not only of purely Eng- 
lish descent, as indeed 
some other holders of 
Scottish peerages were, 
but who only held the 
Scottish honour for a 
very short time as their 
principal designation. 
None of the family were 
indeed known under it 
at the time of their 
death: not only so, but 
the title has descended 
as a subsidiary one in the same family ever since its first 
creation, and the pedigree will be found in more than one 
modern book of reference. It is sufficient therefore to say 
that 

I. SIR THOMAS OSBORNE, Baronet, of Kiveton, co. York, 
was born in 1631, being the second son (and after 1638 the 
eldest surviving son) of Sir Edward Osborne, Baronet, by 
his second wife, Anne Walmesley. Entering into public 
life he became Treasurer of the Navy, and while holding 
that appointment he was, on 2 February 1672-73, created 
VISCOUNT OSEBURNE OF DUNBLANE in the Peerage 
of Scotland. This was the first of five Peerages which he 
received during his life. He was Lord Treasurer from 1673 
to 1679: on 15 August 1673 he was created BARON 
OSBORNE OF KIVETON and VISCOUNT LATIMER OF 



302 OSBORNE, VISOOUNT DUNBLANE 

DANBY, and on 27 June 1674 EARL OP DANBY. He was 
created a Knight of the Garter in 1677, and was Lord 
President of the Council 1689-95. On 9 April 1689 he was 
raised to the rank of MARQUESS OF CARMARTHEN, 
and on 4 May 1694 he was made DUKE OF LEEDS. He 
died, 26 July 1712, at Easton Neston, co. Northampton. 
He married, before 1655, Bridget Bertie, second daughter 
of Montagu, second Earl of Lindsey. She, who was born 
1629, died 7 January 1704, leaving by her husband, among 
other children, 

II. PERIGRINE OSBORNE. He was the third son, but in con- 
sequence of the death of both his elder brothers vita patris 
without issue, he ultimately succeeded to the dukedom, 
He served in the Navy, and attained the rank of Admiral 
of the Red in 1703. His father, on getting the first of his 
English peerages in August 1673, surrendered his Scottish 
title in favour of his son, who was, on 5 December 1674, 
confirmed in it as VISCOUNT DUNBLANE. He died 25 
June 1729, having married, 25 April 1682, Bridget, only 
daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Hyde, Baronet, of 
Allruy, Herts, with issue. Their descendants still hold the 
title. 

CREATIONS. 2 February 1672-73, Viscount Oseburne of 
Dunblane ; 5 December 1674, Viscount Dunblane* 

ARMS. Quarterly, ermine and azure, a cross or. 
CREST. A tiger passant argent. 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, a griffin or ; sinister, a tiger argent, 
each gorged with a ducal collar gules. 

MOTTO. Pax in bello. 

[J. B. P.] 



SCRYMGEOUR, EARL OF DUNDEE 




T has been generally stated 
by the old chroniclers 1 
that the family of Scrym- 
geour had its origin from 
a Knight of the name of 
Alexander Carron who, 
when King Alexander i. 
was attacked in his 
residence by some of 
the men of Mearns and 
Moray, assisted that mon- 
arch to escape through 
one of the drains of the 
latrine. Subsequently, on 
an expedition being made 
to punish the rebels, they 
were seen on the other 
side of the river Spey, and the King giving his standard to 
Carron, that Knight crossed the river, planted the standard, 
and the royal army following and supporting him, the rebels 
were defeated. It is added that as a reward of his service 
the King constituted Carron and his heirs hereditary 
standard-bearers of Scotland, gave him a grant of lands, and 
changed his name to Scrymgeour. 2 The name has been said 
to connote sharp or hardy fighter, or in modern language 
4 skirmisher.' It has also been said to be derived from the 
Gaelic Ghabh greim geur, 'took a sharp or fast grip/ 
alluding to the carrying of the standard by Carron. 3 What- 
ever the real truth of this story may be, it has a better 
foundation than most of the tales found in the old annals, 

1 Boece, Scot. Hist.; Fordun, Scotichronicon ; Buchan's Hist. 
2 Scrimager or Skirmisher. 3 Polichronicon sen Policrata Temporum, 
37, Scot. Hist. Soc. 



304 SORYMGEOUR, EARL OF DUNDEE 

though the incidents alleged are probably placed at too 
early a date by the historians. The first person of the 
name of Scrymgeour on actual record appears in a tack 
by Thomas of Kylmaron, leasing to Alexander, called 
Schyrmeschur, described as son of Colyn, son of Oarun 
[of Cupar], the land of Torr for nine years from Martinmas 
1293 ; the witnesses to this deed are Sir John, called Albe, 
then rural dean of Fife and Fothrif, Hugh of Lochore, then 
Sheriff of Fife, Oonstantine of Lochore, John, called Gulbuy, 
and Michael, called Redhode, burgesses of Cupar. 1 Here 
are three generations, and the descent from a person of the 
name of Oarun is established. It is not stated that either 
Carun or his son Oolin were called Scrymgeour, but there 
is no doubt that an Alexander Scrymgeour was in existence 
in 1293. A few years later he again comes into notice. 
On 29 March 1298 Sir William Wallace granted to Alex- 
ander, called ' Skirmeschur,' certain lands near Dundee, 
together with the office of Constable of the Castle of 
Dundee, ' pro homagio predicto domino Regi [John Baliol] 
et heredibus suis vel suis successoribus faciendo et pro 
fideli servicio et succursu suo predicto regno impenso 
portando vexillum regium in exercitu Scotie tempore 
confectionis presentium.' 2 He had also charters of the 
constabulary, and of the office of Standard Bearer from 
Baliol. 3 

NICHOLAS SCRYMGEOUR, probably the son of the last 
mentioned, had a charter from King Robert the Bruce 
dated at Arbroath 10 February 1317-18 of the office of 
Constable of Dundee, rendering therefor ' pro manu portando 
vexillum nostrum in exercitu nostro pro omni servitio, etc.' 4 
He also, as ' Nicholas Skirmesur,' had another grant from 
the same King of the hill on which the Castle of Dundee 
stood, to be held in free burgage, the reddendo being a pair 
of thick gloves for hawks, payable at Forfar. The charter 
is dated at Arbroath 22 January 1317-18. 5 He had also a 
charter on 12 March 1323-24 of the office of standard-bearer, 

1 Memo in Gen. Reg. Ho. of old charter. 2 Nat. MSS. of Scotland, 
Introduction, 14; Anderson's Diplomata, pi. xliii; Acta Parl. Scot., i. 
453. 3 Fifth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., p. 612. 4 Charter quoted in a charter 
'to Charles Maitland of Haltoun 4 May 1676, Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. 63, fol. 67. 
6 Original in Gen. Reg. Ho., No. 85. 



SCRYMGEOUR, EARL OF DUNDEE 305 

and the lands of Hilfield, South Bordland, and Marisfield, 
forfeited by Robert Moubray, the reddendo being a pair of 
gilt spurs. 1 
His successor, probably his son, was 

ALEXANDER SCRYMGEOUR, who had a charter of several 
lands near Dundee 1357. 2 On 3 May 1374 King Robert n. 
granted the lands and castle of Glascester, or Glassary, 
co. Argyll, and certain lands in the sheriffdoms of Porfar 
and Perth, on his own resignation, to Gilbert of Glascester 
and the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, to Alexander 
de Skyrmechur and Agnes his wife and their heirs. 3 On 
24 May 1374 an indenture was entered into between Alex- 
ander Skyrmyshur, Constable of Dundee, and Herman of 
Logy whereby the latter granted to the former in feu-farm 
the mill of Banvy, as held from Gilbert of Glassyster, 
lord superior; and Alexander Skyrmysher granted to 
Herman the office of vassal of the Constable of Dundee, 
with all the privileges thereto belonging. 4 On 30 May 
1378 Patrick de Inverpeflr had a royal charter of part of 
the lands of Cragy in the barony of Dundee, the superiority 
of which Alexander Skrymchur, Constable of Dundee, ' our 
cousin,' had resigned. 5 He married Agnes, daughter of 
Gilbert of Glascester, and had two sons : 

1. JAMES. 

2. Alexander, who witnessed along with his brother a 

charter of Alexander Murray of Culbin, 11 March 
1390-91. 6 

JAMES SKERMECHOUR, described as vexillator regis, was 
one of the parties to an indenture between the town of 
Dundee and himself 13 August 1384, 7 had, together with 
Egidia his wife, ' our cousin,' a charter from King 
Robert n. of the lands of Inverkeithing 6 October 1384 ; 8 
and on 7 March 1390-91 King Robert in. granted to the 
altar of St. Salvator in the parish church of Dundee the 
lands of Milton of Cragy in the barony of Dundee on the 
resignation of James Skermechour, Constable. 9 James 

1 Robertson's Index, 20, 22. 2 Ch. penes George Constable, quoted by 
Douglas, ii. 463. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., fol. vol. 101. 4 Gray Writs, Kinfauns 
Charter-chest. 5 Beg. Mag. Sig., fol. vol. 155. 6 Ibid., 201. 7 Confirmed 
2 September 1458, ibid. 8 Ibid., fol. vol., 173. 9 Ibid., fol. vol., 199. 

VOL. III. U 



306 SCRYMGEOUR, EARL OF DUNDEE 

Skrymsour, ' chivaler ' of Scotland, had a safe-conduct to 
go abroad with eighteen horsemen 12 March 1396-97. 1 He 
accompanied Alexander, Earl of Mar, to Flanders in the 
service of the Duke of Burgundy in 1408, 2 and after his 
return to Scotland fell at the battle of Harlaw 24 June 
1411. He married Egidia Maxwell. 3 

1. JOHN. 

2. Egidia, said to have been married to James Maitland, 

son of Sir Robert Maitland of Lethington. They had 
a charter of the lands of Auchinbreck and others, co. 
Dumfries, 3 January 1450-51. 4 

JOHN SCBYMEZOUR, with other captives, was released 
from the Tower of London 12 April 1413. 5 As Constable of 
Dundee he was knighted on the occasion of the coronation 
of King James i., 21 April 1424. 6 On 10 October 1444 he had 
a charter from Alexander, Earl of Ross, of the lands of 
Bordland and others, co. Kincardine. 7 On 11 March 1458 he 
resigned his lands of Banvy and Balrudry in the hands of 
Sir Thomas Maule the superior, with reservation of life- 
rent, in favour of his son and heir James. 8 He died 
between January 1459-60 and August 1463. He married, 
first, Katherine Ogilvy, and secondly, Isobel Oliphant, 8 
said to be daughter of Sir William Oliphant of Aberdalgie ; 
thirdly, Marion, widow of Sir Robert Maitland of Leth- 
ington, 10 and left issue : 

1. JAMES, who succeeded. 

2. Alexander, rector of Glassary. 

3. David of Fardill. 

JAMES SCRIMGEOUR, son and heir-apparent of Sir John 
Scrimgeour, had a royal charter of the lands of Glastre, 
or Glassary, co. Argyll, and Inverkeithing, co. Fife, 27 
January 1459-60. 11 He had succeeded his father before 13 

1 Cal. of Docs., iv. 487. 2 Wyntoun, bk. ix. ch. 27. 3 Memo, in Gen. Reg. 
Ho. of charter by James i. 7 April 1428, confirming charter by Sir John 
Scrymgeour, Knight, dated 31 December 1427, whereby he granted an 
annualrent to a chaplain in Dundee parish church for the souls of Sir 
James, his father, Egidia Maxwell, his mother, Katherine of Ogilby 
and Ysabella Oliphant, his wives. 4 Confirmed 10 June 1451, Beg. Mag. 
Sig. 6 Cal. of Docs., iv. 839. 6 Extracta e variis Cronicis Scocie, 227. 
7 Confirmed 3 November 1444, Beg. Mag. Sig. 8 Gray Writs. 9 Charter 
of 31 December 1427, ut supra. 10 Acta Parl. Scot, vii. 160. " Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 



SORYMGEOUR, EARL OP DUNDEE 307 

August 1463, when he appended his seal as Constable of 
Dundee to a charter of William Maxwell of Teling. On 9 
December 1471 he had a charter from George, Lord Hali- 
burton, of the lands of Ballagernoch, co. Perth, 1 He died 
before 31 December 1478, when Thomas Maule of Panmure 
granted a precept of sasine for infefting his son James in 
the lands of Benvy and Balrudry. 2 He married, first, Jonet 
Lyon, and secondly, Margaret Maitland, who survived him, 
and married secondly, David Hering of Lethendy. 3 

1. JAMES. 

2. Mr. John of Glassary, of whom afterwards. 

3. Matilda, married, as his second wife, to Robert Graham 

of Fintry, and had issue. From them descended the 
Grahams of Olaverhouse (see Dundee, Viscount of)/ 

4. Elizabeth, married to John Sandilands, grandson of 

Sir John Sandilands of Oalder: they had a charter 
from her father of certain lands of Dudhope 15 October 
1481. 5 

5. Mariota, married (contract 10 September 1475) 6 to 

Robert Arbuthnott of that Ilk. 

JAMES SCRIMGEOUR had a charter on 2 May 1479 from 
Sir Thomas Maule of Panmure of the lands of Benvy and 
Balrudry and others on his own resignation, to himself and 
the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, to Mr. John 
Scrimgeour, his brother, David Scrimgeour of Fardyll, his 
paternal uncle, John Scrimgeour, called 4 Jak,' burgess of 
Dundee, Robert Scrimgeour, son of the late David Scrim- 
geour of Sonyhard, David Scrimgeour, brother of the said 
Robert, Patrick Scrimgeour, brother of the said Robert 
and David, Alexander Scrimgeour of Henristoun, John 
his brother, Nicholas Scrimgeour of Lillok, John Scrim- 
geour, macer, and the heirs-male of their bodies, whom 
failing, the nearest heirs-male of the grantee, etc. 7 The 
charter was confirmed by James in. 22 September 1483, 
but is not recorded. He appears as a witness to a charter 
of 10 June 1493 by Sir Alexander Scrimgeour, chaplain, to 
James Scrimgeour, eldest son of David Scrimgeour, the 

1 Confirmed 30 January 1475-76, Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Gray Writs. 3 Ada, 
Dom. Cone., 7 February 1488-89. 4 Douglas Book, iii. 118. 6 Confirmed 
13 January 1490-91, Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 See vol. i. 282. - Gray Writs. 



308 SCRYMGEOUR, EARL OF DUNDEE 

grantor's brother, of the lands of Sonaharde, co. Aber- 
deen. 1 He had a charter on 27 April 1495 from Andrew, 
Lord Gray, of the third part of the lands of Dudhope, co. 
Porfar, to himself and the heirs-male of his 4 apparent 
spouse ' Isobel Gray, 2 and on 27 April the same year another 
grant of the customs of ' colt and coltsilver ' levied at the 
' first faire ' of Dundee. 3 He died about 1503. He married 
Isobel, daughter of Andrew, Lord Gray ; she survived him, 
married, secondly, Sir Adam Orichton of Ruthven, 4 and 
thirdly, Sir John Campbell of Lundy. 5 By her he had : 

1. JAMES. 

2. Margaret, married to John Stewart, Earl of Buchan. 8 

3. Janet, married to James, third Lord Oarlyle. 7 

, a daughter, married to Thomas Spalding. 

JAMES SCRIMGEOUR had service of Benvy and others as 
his father's heir, 19 April 1504, 8 and a charter as son and 
heir of the late Sir James Scrimgeour, Constable of Dundee, 
of the lands of Soneharde 9 March 1507-8. 9 On 2 July 1527 
he had a charter on his own resignation, of the lands of 
Dudhope and others to himself and the heirs-male of his 
body, whom failing, to John Scrimgeour of Glastre or 
Glassary, 10 Mr. James, his brother, Walter, his brother, 
David Scrimgeour of Fardill, John Scrimgeour, macer, and 
the heirs-male of their bodies, whom failing, to the nearest 
heirs-male of himself and then to heirs-female. 11 On 4 
December 1528 he had a charter of the lands of Kirkton 
of Erlistrathichty, co. Forfar, on the forfeiture of the Earl 
of Angus. On 2 March 1541-42 he had a charter of the 
lands and barony of Dudhope and others, and the office of 
Constable of Dundee, which lands were incorporated into 
the barony of Dudhope, to be held by himself in liferent, 
and ' the King's familiar and daily servitor ' John Scrim- 
geour of Glastre, and the heirs-male of his body in fee, 
whom failing, John Scrimgeour, grandson of the said James, 
and son of his daughter Elizabeth and James Scrimgeour 
of Kirkton, or any other of their heirs-male, whom failing, 
James Scrimgeour, fiar of Fardel, James Scrimgeour of 
Fordey, James Scrimgeour of Gone, Mr. John Scrimgeour 

1 Confirmed 15 June 1493, Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Ibid., 30 June 1495. 3 Ibid. 
4 Cf. Ibid., 24 August 1510. 5 Acts and Decreets, iv. 120. 6 Vol. ii. 268. 
7 Ibid.,38S. 8 Gray Writs. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig. 10 See p. 310. " Reg. Mag. Sig. 



SCRYMGEOUR, EARL OP DUNDEE 309 

of Myres, and the heirs-male of their bodies, whom failing, 
to his own nearest heirs-male of the blood and name of 
Scrimgeour, whom failing, to his nearest heirs whatsoever. 1 
He died before 17 December 1551. 2 He married, first, 
Mariot Stewart, from whom it is said he was divorced 
before 1524. 3 Agnes Scrimgeour had a precept of clare 
constat for infefting her in one-half of the lands of Bal- 
rudry as one of the lawful heirs of the late Mariot Stewart 
25 April 1583, so she must have been dead by that year/ 
James Scrimgeour married, secondly, before 23 August 1534, 
Mariota Wardlaw, 5 daughter of John Wardlaw of Torrie. 6 
She survived him, and married, secondly, Alexander 
Hepburne of Whitsome. 7 By his first wife he had two 
daughters : 

1. Elizabeth, married, as shown by the above charter, to 

James Scrungeour of Ballegarno, and thereafter of 
Kirkton, styled also of Ballegarnocht, which he 
possessed before Kirkton. They were both dead 
before 28 March 1555, when their son and heir John 
entered into a contract with the then Laird of Dud- 
hope. 8 Their descendant, John Scrymgeour of Kirk- 
ton, was served heir to John Scrymgeour, Constable 
of Dundee, patris abavi, 15 December 1610. 9 His 
representative in the male line, Mr. Henry Scrym- 
geour Wedderburn, acted as Hereditary Standard 
Bearer at the Coronation of Edward vn., but as the 
steps of his pedigree have not been proved and are 
in dispute, they have not been here inserted. 

2. Agnes, married to Peter Bruce of Earlshall. 10 Her 

descendant William Bruce of Earlshall was, on 15 
December 1610, cited above, served heir of the Con- 
stable of Dundee, patris abavi ex parte matris. 
The succession then opened to the descendants of 

MR. JOHN SCRIMGEOUR of Glassary, the second son of 
James Scrimgeour. He had a charter from his elder 
brother James on 12 December 1490 of the lands of Glastre, 
to himself and his wife, and the heirs-male of their bodies, 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Acts and Decreets, vi. 91. 3 Douglas, Peerage, i. 
464. * Reg. dePanmure, ii. 307. 6 Ibid. Protocol Book of T. Dalrymple, 
29 Oct. 1556, MS. in Reg. Ho. 7 Vol. ii. p. 145. 8 Reg. of Deeds, i. 104. 
Inquis. Gen., 515. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



310 SORYMOKOUR, EARL OP DUNDEE 

whom i'ailing, to David Scrimgeour of Fordell, Alexander 
Scrimgeour of Henristoune, James Scrimgeour, brother of 
Alexander, Nicholas Scrimgeour of Lillok, James Scrim- 
geour, son and heir of the late David Scrimgeour, burgess 
of Dundee, John Scrimgeour, macer, and the heirs-male of 
their bodies, whom failing, to the nearest heirs-male what- 
soever of Mr. John bearing the name of Scrimgeour. 1 He 
purchased the lands of Lumlethen and Orago, co. Forfar, 
from Walter Strang of Pitcorthy in 1504, 2 the lands of 
Gokelmure and Hallhill, co. Perth, from Andrew Kinnaird 
of that Ilk in 1508, 3 the lands of Ardormy, co. Perth, from 
Andrew Murray in 1509 ; 4 Wester Glenquharite and Bal- 
lantor from the same in 1510 ; 5 Panbride, co. Forfar, from 
Robert, Lord Orichton in 1511 ; 6 and Balmullo, co. Fife, 
from George, Earl of Rothes, in 1512. 7 He died 1513, 
probably killed at Flodden (see below). 
He married Janet Ogilvy, and left three sons : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded ; named in entail of 1527. 

2. Mr. James, rector of Glastre and canon of Lismore, 

who witnesses the charters of Balmullo and the 
charter of Wester Glenquharite in 1510. He is named 
in the entail of 1527, and was alive 13 August 1531. 8 

3. Walter, of Glaswell, named in entail of July 1527; he 

married, before 1 March 1529-30, Katherine Murray, 
and had with her a charter of Glaswell and Torbirnis 
1 March 1529-30, and had issue. 

JOHN SCRIMGEOUR of Glastre, son of the preceding, had 
precept of sasine as his father's heir 7 November 1514, the 
lauds having been a year in non-entry. 9 He succeeded 
his cousin James Scrimgeour of Dudhope in 1546, and was 
served heir to him and to his own uncle James 18 May 1547. 10 
He is styled Constable of Dundee on 20 February 1549- 
50, when he granted a charter of the lands of Kingudy in the 
barony of Dudhope to Patrick Gray of Ballegarno, and his 
wife Margaret Scrimgeour, and to which his son and heir- 
apparent, John, was witness. 11 He died in December 1562, 1 * 

1 Confirmed 12 July 1491, Reg. Mag. Sig. * Ibid., 11 February 1503 4. 
3 Ibid., 8 March 1508-9. 4 Ibid., 24 April 1510. * Ibid., 26 March 1511. 
6 Ibid., 26 October 1511. ? Ibid., 1 March 1512-13. Reg. Mag. Sig. 
9 Exch. Rolls, xiv. 568. 10 Gray Writs. Confirmed 18 April 1550, Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 12 Reg. Sec. Sig., xxxi. 68. 



SCRYMGEOUR, EARL OF DUNDEE 311 

having married Isobel Cuninghame, who was his widow in 
1563, 1 with issue : 

1. JOHN. 

2. James of Henderstoun, who is styled brother-german 

to John Scrymgeour of Dudhope 20 March 1563-64. 2 

3. Robert, married Margaret, daughter of John Campbell 

of Lundy and Janet Hering, with issue. 3 

4. Elizabeth, married, first (contract 27 May 1559), to 

Andrew Wintoun of Stradichty-Martin, who granted 
a charter in implement of his contract of marriage 
28 May 1559 ; 4 secondly, to John Ogilvie of Pitpointie. 
She died September 1595. 5 

JOHN SCRYMGEOUR, his successor, witnessed the charter 
by his father of 20 February 1549-50, already cited, and 
also one 15 April 1552, 6 as son and heir-apparent of John 
Scrymgeour of Dudhope. He succeeded his father in De- 
cember 1562, and on 3 February 1562-63, as son and heir of 
the late John Scrymgeour of Glastre, he received from 
Queen Mary a gift of the non-entry duties and others due 
from the lands and barony of Dudhope, the lands of Castle- 
hill, and office of Constable of Dundee, and his other lands, 
including Glastre. 7 He died November 1568, 8 when Sir 
Thomas Maule granted a precept of clare constat for in- 
fefting James Scrimgeour of Dudhope as heir of his father 
John Scrimgeour, Constable of Dundee, in the lands of 

Benvy and Balrudry. He married , daughter of Campbell 

of Auchenbreck, and had issue : 

1. JAMES. 

2. Donald, mentioned in the charter of 1565 after men- 

tioned, but who must have died s. p. before 1587, ai 
he does not appear in the charter of that year* 

JAMES SCRIMGEOUR had a Crown charter on 30 June 1565 
as son and heir of John Scrimgeour, Constable of Dundee, 
of the barony of Dudhope and other lands to himself, 
Margaret Carnegie his future spouse, and the heirs-male 
of their bodies, whom failing, to the other heirs-male of 
his body; whom failing, to Donald his brother, James 

1 Acts and Decreets, xxvii. 385. 2 Laing Charters, No. 770. 3 Ibid., 
No. 1172. * Beg. of Deeds, Hi. f. 427; Reg. Episc. Brechin, ii. 204. 5 Edin. 
Tests., 17 January 1596-97. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 7 May 1565. 7 Reg. Sec. Sig., 
xxxi. 68. 8 Edin. Tests. 



312 SORYMGEOUR, EARL OF DUNDEE 

Scrimgeour of Glaswell, John Scrimgeour of Ballegarno, 
James Scrimgeour of Fardell, David Scrimgeour of Fordy, 
James Scrimgeour of Rydgond, Alexander Scrimgeour, 
burgess of Dundee, Mr. John Scrimgeour of Myres, and 
the heirs-male of their bodies ; l on 15 November 1587 he 
had another Grown charter as Constable and Provost of 
Dundee of the lands and barony of Dundee, co. Forfar ; 
Hillfield and others, co. Fife ; Bello and others, co. Perth ; 
Sonahard, co. Aberdeen, and Glaster, co. Argyll to himself 
and the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, to James 
Scrimgeour, son of the late Robert 2 Scrimgeour, his uncle 
John Scrimgeour of Kirkton, Gilbert Scrimgeour, his 
brother, John Scrimgeour of Glaswell, Mr. Alexander 
Scrimgeour, his brother, James Scrimgeour of Fardell, 
David Scrimgeour of Fordy, Jarnes Scrimgeour of Myres, 
Alexander Scrimgeour, bailie of Dundee, and the heirs- 
male of their bodies, whom failing, to his own nearest 
heir-male. 3 On 5 March 1603 he had a charter of the lands 
of Strickmertane, Baldovan, and others, in the barony of 
Roscobie, co. Forfar. 4 He was served heir to John Scrim- 
geour, his great great-grandfather and to John Scrimgeour 
his father 15 December 1610. 

Sir James Scrimgeour appears to have taken an active 
part in the public business of his time. On 8 October 1594 
an Act of Council was passed at Dundee during the march 
of the King northwards against the Catholic Lords, finding 
that Sir James and his heirs had the undoubted right to 
the place of 4 beiring his Hienes banner and standart befoir 
his majesties persone and his successouris at tymes of 
oistis, weiris, raidis, armeis, and batallis.' 5 Along with the 
Earl Marischal, Lord Dingwall, and others he was an am- 
bassador to arrange the King's marriage with the Princess 
Anna, and sailed from Leith to Denmark on 18 June 1589. 6 
On 6 March 1589-90 he was appointed a commissioner for 
executing the laws against the Jesuits ; 7 and his name 
appears on the sederunt of the Privy Council 14 May 1597, 
though no other notice of him occurs as a councillor till 
1604-5, when he is called a new councillor. 8 He died 13 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Mistakenly called James in Reg. Mag. Sig. See 
Acta Parl. Scot., iv. 90. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. * Ibid. 6 P. C. Reg., v. 179. 
6 Ibid., iv. 396 n. 7 Ibid., 463. 8 Ibid., vii. 25 n. 



SCRYMGEOUR, EARL OP DUNDEE 313 

July 1612. 1 He married, first (contract 13 June 1565), 
Margaret, youngest daughter of Sir Robert Carnegie of 
Kinnaird, with a tocher of 2120 inerks ; she died 9 January 
1575-76. 2 Secondly, before 11 September 1581, Magdalene, 
daughter of Alexander, fifth Lord Livingston, and relict of 
Sir Arthur Erskine, brother of John, Earl of Mar. They 
had a charter of Benvy at that date. 3 He left issue : 

1. JOHN. 

2. Margaret. In December 1586 George Haliburton of 

Pitcur granted a charter of the lands of Thorngreen 
and others to his son James and Margaret Scrim- 
geour, his future wife, daughter of James Scrimgeour 
of Dudhope, Constable and Provost of Dundee. 4 

3. Catherine, married to William Ochterlony, younger, of 

that Ilk. 5 

I. JOHN SCRIMGEOUR witnessed a charter as son and heir- 
apparent of his father 8 June 1587, 6 and under the same 
designation he had a charter of the Mill of Kelly 2 June 
1609 ; 7 on 9 July 1601 he had a licence from the King to 
travel in England, France, Flanders, etc. 8 He had a charter 
of the lands and barony of Dundee 11 December 1617, of 
Canons, co. Perth, 20 January 1618, 9 and of the fishings of 
Keith Rattray on the Ericht 4 January 1620. 10 He refused 
to sign the Covenant at Forfar 1 February 1639. 11 On 13 
March 1641 he was created VISCOUNT DUDHOPE and 
LORD SCRIMGEOUR, with remainder to his heirs-male 
whatsoever. He died 7 March 1643. He married Margaret, 
daughter of George Seton of Parbroath, and had issue : 

1. JAMES. 

2. Jo/w, who on 7 December 1644, as c uncle of the granter,' 

witnessed a charter of John, third Viscount of Dud- 
hope. 12 He also got a charter of the Kirklands of 
Inschyra 10 November 1654. 13 

3. David, who married Jean Cockburne, and died before 

1 June 1647. 14 On 9 December 1654 his relict raised 

1 David Wedderburn's Compt Book (Scot. Hist. Soc.), 91. 2 Edin. Tests. 
3 Gray Writs. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig. , 1 November 1587. 5 Eeg. of Deeds, xlviii. 
353. 6 Confirmed 15 July 1600, Reg. Mag. Sig. 7 Ibid., 22 June 1609. 
8 Hist, of Camegies, i. 71. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig. 10 Confirmed 5 February 1622, 
Ibid. Hist, of Camegies, i. 104. 12 Laing Charters, No. 2352. 13 Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 14 Edin. Tests. 



314 SCRYMGEOUR, EARL OF DUNDEE 

an action on behalf of herself and her two daughters 
Clara and Margaret against the Viscount for certain 
moneys secured to them from the lands of Banvy 
and Balmany. 1 On 11 February 1631 he witnessed 
a charter by Thomas Thomson of Duddingston, in 
which he is wrongly described as son of 4 the late ' 
Sir John. At this date there could have been no son 
alive of a deceased Sir John. 

4. Andrew, had sasine of Pitnepie 13 March 1621 . 2 

5. Alexander, a witness in 1640. 3 

6. Magdalene, married to Alexander Irvine, apparent of 

Drum. 4 

7. Mary, married (contract 25 July 1623) to Peter Hay 

of Megginch. 5 

8. Margaret, married (contract 17 September 1627) to 

Sir Thomas Thomson of Duddingston. She had a 
charter from him of certain lands in implement of 
the marriage-contract 13 December 1653. 6 

9. Jane, married (contract 27 December 1632) to Sir John 

Carnegie of Pitarrow, son of the first Earl of South- 
esk ; her tocher was 12,000 merks. 7 

II. JAMES, second Viscount of Dudhope, had a charter 
from his father to himself and his wife Isabella Kerr of the 
lands of Hillfield, Inverkeithing and others, 25 November 
1618. 8 He was served heir to his father 25 April 1643. 9 
He had a command in the Scottish forces, sent next year 
to the assistance of the Parliament of England against 
Charles i., and died 23 July 1644 from the effects of a 
wound received at the battle of Marston Moor. He 
married Isabella Kerr, third daughter of Robert, first Earl 
of Roxburghe, and had issue : 

1. JOHN. 

2. Alexander, a captain in the army, was killed in a duel 

by Lord Cranstoun in August 1661. 10 

1 Gray Writs. 2 Protocol Book of T. Wichtane, 31, MS. Gen. Reg. Ho. 
3 Forfar Sasines, i. 367. 4 Eeg. Mag. Sig., 13 March 1622. 5 Protocol 
Book of T. Wichtane, 100. 6 Laing Charters, No. 2449. 7 Hist. ofCarnegies, 
i. 120; Macfarlane calls her fourth daughter, Gen. Coll. ii. 176. 8 Con. 
firmed 20 April 1619, Beg. Mag. Sig. 9 Re tours. 10 Lament's Diary; 
Brechin Tests., where it is stated that he died in November. 



SCRYMGEOUR, EARL OP DUNDEE 315 

3. Robert, mentioned as a witness at the baptism of his 

sister Jean's children, 1660, 1662, and 1664. 1 

4. Jean, married in 1647 2 to John Graham of Pintry. 3 

5. Mary, baptized 30 December 1619, 4 both she and her 

sister were served heirs to their grandfather, Sir 
John, 4 February I486. 5 She got a pension of 50 
yearly on 15 March 1686-87. 6 

III. JOHN, third Viscount of Dudhope, served heir to 
his father 4 November 1644, was a colonel of horse in the 
4 Engagement ' to attempt the rescue of King Charles i. 
under the Duke of Hamilton 1648 ; accompanied King 
Charles n. to the battle of Worcester 1650, escaped from 
that battle, was taken prisoner in the braes of Angus by 
the English in November 1654. At the Restoration he 
was made a Privy Councillor and created EARL OP 
DUNDEE, VISCOtJNT OP DUDHOPE, LORD SCRIM- 
GEOUR AND INVERKEITHING, but the limitation of 
these dignities is not known. He died 23 June 1668. He 
married in 1644 Anna, second daughter of William, first 
Earl of Dalhousie, who survived him, and married, secondly, 
13 October 1670, Sir Henry Bruce of Clackmannan. By 
her he had no issue, and his honours became extinct or 
dormant. 7 

CREATION. 15 November 1641, Viscount of Dudhope and 
Lord Scrimgeour ; 1661, Earl of Dundee, Viscount of Dud- 
hope, Lord Scrimgeour and Inverkeithing. 

ARMS. Nisbet gives these as: Gules, a lion rampant 
or, armed and langued gules, holding in his dexter paw a 
crooked sword or scymetar argent. 

CREST. A lion's paw holding a scymetar proper. 
SUPPORTERS. Two greyhounds proper collared gules. 

MOTTO. Dissipate. 

[j. B. P.] 

1 Reg. of Baptisms, Dundee. 2 Forfar Sasines, ii. 482. 3 Reg. Sec. Sig. 
* Laing Charters, 2468. 5 Canongate Reg. 6 Inquis. Gen., 6708. 7 In 
1669 Alexander Scrimgeour, son of the deceased John Scrimgeour of 
Fordell, and John Scrimgeour of Kirktoun are cited as the Earl's heirs 
of tailzie ; Gen. Reg. of Inhibitions, 22 February 1669. 



GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 




OBERT GRAHAM, the 
first of Strathcarron and 
Fintry, eldest son of 
William, Lord of Graham 
(see title Montrose), and 
Mary Stewart, daughter 
of King Robert in., 
married, first, Janet, 
daughter of Sir Richard 
Lovel of Ballumbie. By 
her he had issue : 
1. Robert Graham of 
Fintry, married, 
under an indenture 
7 August 1476, 
Elizabeth, third 
daughter of, 
George Douglas, 
The Grahams of Fintry, 



fourth Earl of Angus. 1 

Forfar, descend from this marriage. 
Robert Graham of Strathcarron and Fintry married, 
secondly, Matilda Scrymgeour, daughter of Sir James 
Scrymgeour of Dudhope. 2 By her he had issue : 

1. JOHN, from whom descend the Grahams of Olaverhouse. 

2. David. 3 

JOHN GRAHAM, of Ballargus, son of Robert Graham, 
of Strathcarron and Fintry, by Matilda Scrymgeour/ ob- 
tained a charter 9 March 1480-81 (confirmed under the 
Great Seal, 18 February 1482-83) of the lands of Ballargus in 

1 Fraser, Douglas Book, iii. 106. This marriage is wrongly described 
in Ibid., ii. 64, as transmitting Douglas blood to the Grahams of 
Claverhouse. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., 1424-1513, p. 327; Douglas Book, iii. 118. 
3 Douglas Book, iii. 107. 4 Ibid., 118. 



GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 317 

the regality of Kirriemuir. 1 He was a minor at the time 
of his father's death, 2 but had attained full age by 14 
November 1503, on which date he granted to Sir James 
Scrymgeour of Dudhope, his 4 erne,' tutor testamentar, and 
curator, a discharge of his intromissions with ' all and 
haile my landis of Ballargus, Bawlone, Drumgeith, Myrtoun, 
and of all and haile my landis and annuell rent Hand within 
the burgh of Dunde and utwith.' 3 Subsequent to 14 Nov- 
ember 1503 he acquired the lands of Olaverhouse. 4 Upon 
his death, which apparently took place before 31 July 1511, 
he was succeeded by his son and heir, 5 

JOHN GRAHAM, who is said to have received a precept on 
31 July 1511 for infefting him as his father's heir in Bal- 
largus and Claverhouse. 6 He is the first who is distinctly 
styled 4 of Claverhouse.' Upon the forfeiture of Archibald, 
sixth Earl of Angus, their superior, he received a charter 
14 March 1529-30 of ten merks annualrerit from the lands of 
Kirkton of Strathdichty. 7 On 11 November 1532, as heir to 
his father deceased, he received a charter of Claverhouse 
and Ballargus, to be held of the Crown, the Earl of Angus 
being forfeited. 8 He died between July 1547 and April 
1548. 9 John Graham married Margaret, fourth daughter 
of John Beton of Balfour, Fife, a sister of the Cardinal. 10 

By her " he had issue : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded upon his father's resignation. 

2. WILLIAM, who also succeeded. 

3. A daughter. 12 

4. Alison, married Gilbert Primrose, chirurgeon, burgess 

of Edinburgh. 13 By him she had a daughter, who 
married, first, Gourlay, burgess of Edinburgh 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. Cf. Douglas Book, iii. 119. 2 Robert Graham of 
Strathcarron and Fintry was alive in 1487 (Douglas Book, iii. 119). 3 Acta 
Dom. Cone., xvii. 36. 4 A precept of dare constat 31 July 1511 is quoted 
in Warden, Forfarshire, iv. 287, for infefting his son as his heir in the 
lands of Claverhouse, Ballargus, etc. The document has eluded every 
endeavour to trace it. The charter of 11 November 1532 (see below) is, 
however, confirmation of his acquisition of Claverhouse. 5 Acta Dom. 
Cone., xxiv. 36. Warden, Forfarshire, iv. 287. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig. 8 Acta 
Dom. Cone., xxiv. 36. The charter was reduced at the Earl's instance 
in 1548, his forfeiture having been withdrawn. 9 Ibid., xxiii. 157; xxiv. 
36. 10 Macfarlane, Genealogical Collections, i. 11 ; Reg. Mag. Sig., 1513-46, 
p. 119. She was alive in 1546 (Acta Dom. Cone., xxi. 80). l2 Macfarlane, 
i. 11. 13 Reg. of Deeds, ix. 275. 



318 GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 

(and had issue Gilbert, Robert, and David Gourlay), 
and secondly, Alexander Clerk, Provost of Edin- 
burgh. 1 

JOHN GRAHAM, elder son of John Graham and Margaret 
Beton. Upon his father's resignation he received, 13 July 
1541, a Crown charter erecting Claverhouse and Ballargus 
and their pertinents into the free tenandry of Claverhouse. 2 
He died before July 1547 s. p. 3 

WILLIAM GRAHAM, younger son of John Graham and 
Margaret Beton, brother of the preceding. He was a 
minor at the time of his father's death, 4 but had presum- 
ably attained his majority by 20 June 1552, on which date 
he had a precept of clare constat from Archibald, sixth 
Earl of Angus, for infefting him as heir to his father. 6 He 
died before 7 November 1572. 6 William Graham married, 
5 November 1556, Egidia (Geillis) Gaw, 7 a member of the 
family of Gaw of Maw, Fife. 8 She survived her husband, 
and contracted herself, 20 January 1574-75, in marriage to 
Robert Graham of Knockdolian, who alienated to her and 
his children by her, the sunny half of the lands and barony 
of Dod or Muirlathrinewood, Forfar, of which she took 
sasine 5 October 1575, 9 though the contract of marriage 
was not implemented. 10 On 8 November 1583 she took 
sasine of a part of the lands of Drumkilbo, purchased by 
her from David Tyrie of Drumkilbo. 11 She appears in the 
4 Chairge of the Ren tall of the Master of the Hospital of 
Dundee ' in 1588. 12 She died in August 1594, her testament 
being dated at the * Barnes of Claverhous,' 16 August of 
that year. 13 

1 Macfarlane, i. 11. 2 Eeg. Mag. Sig. This charter, with that of 1532, 
was reduced at the instance of the Earl of Angus in 1548. 3 Acta 
Dom. Cone., xxiii. 157. 4 Ibid., xxiv. 36. 5 Scrymgeour-Wedderburn 
Charter-chest, box vii., bundle i., No. 1. 6 Ibid., No. 2. 7 Protocol Book 
of T. Dalrymple, 43, in Gen. Reg. Ho. 8 Ibid. Her husband, William 
Graham, is found acting as arbiter in a family dispute between the 
Gaws of Maw in 1570 (Eeg. of Deeds, xii. 85). 9 Robert Wedderburn's 
Protocol Book, 30 March 1575-16 November 1576, Dundee Charter-room, 
ccxliii. 34. 10 On 5 March 1587-88, Elizabeth Sempill, relict of Robert 
Graham of Knockdolian was living (Reg. Mag. Sig., 1580-93, p. 507). 
11 Robert Wedderburn's Protocol Book. 12 Thomson, History of Dundee, 
ed. Maclaren, 1874, App. xxiii. No. 113, who inaccurately gives 1565 for 
1588. 13 Edin. Tests., 22 July 1595. 



GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OP DUNDEE 319 

By Egidia Gaw William Graham had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded; called eldest son in his 

mother's testament. 

2. Alexander, appointed executor of his mother's testa- 

ment. 

3. John, called youngest son in his mother's testament, 

and a creditor on her estate for four hundred merks. 
On 29 April 1592 he had letters of remission for 
having been concerned in the accidental death of 
Isobel Chalmers, daughter of James Chalmers, mer- 
chant-burgess of Edinburgh. 1 He was surviving on 
10 September 1594. 2 

4. Margaret, married, first, Alexander Ogilvie of Labothie 

(contract 3 July 1581), 3 and secondly, after 3 June 
1592, John Inglis of Ardit. 4 

SIR WILLIAM GRAHAM, eldest son of William Graham 
and Egidia Gaw, took sasine as heir to his father 7 
November 1572. 5 On 22 March 1600 he was placed under 
caution to refrain from taking part in the feud between 
Alexander, Lord Spynie, and James, Master of Ogilvie. 6 He 
was admitted burgess of Dundee on 25 July 1603 ' for 
his many services to the commonweal,' 7 and received 
knighthood at the time of James vi.'s accession to the 
English throne. 8 He appears upon a jury of assize on 2 
April 1608, 9 and on 20 May 1608 was appointed to regulate 
twice yearly the price of boots and shoes in Dundee. 10 On 
6 November 1610 he was appointed Justice of the Peace for 
Forfarshire. 11 On 22 June 1613 he received license to leave 
Scotland and to remain abroad for five years. 12 He had 
returned, however, by 7 December 1616, on which date he 
was again placed upon the Commission of the Peace for 
the county. 13 When James vi. visited Scotland, Sir William 
was directed, 3 May 1617, to arrange for the transport of 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 29 April 1592. 2 P. C. Reg.,v. 636. 3 Robert Wedder- 
burivs Protocol Book, July 1580, April 1585, Dundee Charter-room, ccxlvii. 
33. 4 Reg. of Deeds, Ixvi. 11 July 1598; Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 June 1592. See 
ibid., 20 January 1618. 6 Scrymgeour-Wedderburn Charter-chest, box 
vii., bundle i., No. 2. 6 P. C. Reg., vi. 94. William Graham, tutor of 
Fintry, acted as his surety (ibid., vi. 642). 7 A. H. Millar, Eminent 
Burgesses of Dundee, 96. 8 He was knighted between 25 July 1603 and 16 
May 1604 (P. C. Reg., vii. 551). 9 Reg. Mag. Sig. l P. C. Reg., viii. 93. 
11 Ibid., ix. 78. 12 jwa., x. 87. 13 Ibid., 668. 



320 GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 

the King's baggage between Dundee and Kinnaird. 1 On 
20 January 1618 he had a Crown charter of confirmation 
of the lands of Balmullo, Fife, 2 which, however, he resigned, 
with the assent of his sons George and Walter (resignation 
confirmed under the Great Seal 16 June 1632), to Andrew 
Aytoun of Logie. 3 From Sir Colin Campbell of Lundie Sir 
William had a charter (instrument of sasine 30 June 1623) 
of a fourth part of Balkello. 4 On 20 August 1623 his 
commission as Justice of the Peace for Forfarshire was 
renewed. 5 He had from Sir William Graham of Claypotts, 
and his son and heir David, charters of the lands of 
Gotterstone (12 October 1619) and of the lands of Claypotts 
(10 August 1620) in the neighbourhood of Claverhouse, 6 and 
on 8 June 1625 he received a confirmation charter of them. 7 
Sir William's name appears in July 1625 among the Justices 
who had acted as Sheriffs, 8 and he signs a report, 1 August 
1626, on the price of stock in Forfarshire. 9 On 20 December 
1627 he was threatened with horning for neglecting to 
report on the fencible men in the parishes of Liff and Inver- 
gowrie. 10 On 28 February 1628 Sir William was appointed 
to take submissions regarding the teinds in Forfarshire. 11 
On 22 April 1628 he and his colleague, Sir Harry Wood, were 
admonished by Council to procure more submissions, and 
made answer that ' they knew nane quho wald refuise to 
subscry ve.' 12 On 7 June 1628 Sir William had a charter 
from Robert Clay hills of Baldovie, merchant-burgess of 
Dundee, of the lands of Hilltoun of Craigie,' 13 and on 22 
September 1628 took sasine, proceeding on a charter by the 
same, of the lands of Mylnetoun of Craigie, lying at the 
north side of Dundee. 14 On 12 May 1630 sasine w^as given, 
proceeding on a charter of vendition of 3 and 7 May 1630 
by Sir Colin Campbell of Lundie to Sir William, of the 
barony of Lundie, and in special warrandice, the lands of 
Balkello, Balkemback, Balcalk, Tealing, Balgray, Shielhill, 
etc., in the parish of Tealing, For far, 15 of which Sir William 

1 P. C. Reg., xi. 118. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 January 1618. 3 Ibid., 16 
June 1632. 4 Scrymgeour-Wedderburn Charter-chest, box iv., bundle iii., 
No. 2. 5 P. C. Reg., xiii. 347. 6 Scrymgeour-Wedderburn Charter-chest, 
box iv., bundle iii., No. 3. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig. 8 P. C. Reg., 2nd series, i. 660. 
9 Ibid., 671. 10 Ibid., ii. 170. " Ibid., 248. 12 Ibid., 310. 13 Scrymgeour- 
Wedderburn Charter-chest, box iv., bundle iii., No. 4. 14 Ibid., box vii., 
bundle i., No. 3. 15 Ibid., Nos. 4, 5, 6. 



GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 321 

received a Crown charter of confirmation 10 July 1630. 1 In 
the Parliament of 1633 Sir William represented Forfarshire. 2 
From Thomas Ogilvie of Ogilvie, with the consent of his 
wife, Margaret Heriot, and others, Sir William received a 
charter, 16 July 1640, of the lands and barony of Glen of 
Ogilvie, in the parish of Glamis. 3 From Thomas Ogilvie Sir 
William also acquired (charter 17 November 1621), a fourth 
part of the lands of Balkello. 4 Sasine was taken by Sir 
William's son George on 3 February 1645. A charter of 
confirmation, 14 July 1662, affirmed the validity of the con- 
firmation notwithstanding that sasine had been taken 
before it, and that all the parties were dead. 5 Sir William 
acted as one of the curators of his kinsman James, first 
Marquess of Montrose. 6 He died between 29 October 1641 
and 18 February 1642. 7 

Sir William married, first, Agnes, daughter of Robert 
Lundie of Balgonie, Fife, 8 who died in November 1613 ; 9 and, 
secondly, circa 1616-17, 10 Margaret Murray, relict of George 
Young, Archdeacon of St. Andrews, 11 from whom Sir 
William separated ' many yeiris ' before March 1634. 12 

By his first wife only, Agnes Lundie, Sir William had 
issue : 

1. William, had licence 13 September 1615 to remain 

abroad for three years. 13 He died before 13 August 
1619. 14 

2. GEORGE, who succeeded, called second son 5 January 

1615. 15 

3. Walter. 16 He received from James, Viscount of Dud- 

hope, a tack, 12 January 1644, and heritable disposi- 

1 Eeg. Mag. Sig. 2 A eta Parl. Scot., v. 9. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., Ix. 134. 
4 Scrymgeour-Wedderburn Charter-chest, box iv., bundle iii., No. 1. 

6 Reg. Mag. Sig., Ix. 134; Scrymgeour-Wedderburn Charter-chest, box 
vii., bundle i., Nos. 19, 20. 6 Eraser, Hist, of the Carnegies, i. 131. 

7 Forfar Inhibitions, 8 March 1642. 8 Fife Inhibitions, 27 March 1596. 
9 St. Andrews Tests., 26 March 1614. 10 Archdeacon Young died 27 
December 1615 (Edin. Tests., 6 January 1617). n Reg. Mag. Sig., 9 Feb- 
ruary 1601. 12 A decreet arbitral by the Lord Chancellor, the Archbishops 
of St. Andrews and Glasgow, and the Earl of Lauderdale, dated 14 and 
15 March 1634, bears that Sir William and Margaret Murray had separated 
'upon certane just and necessar causis knawin to themselffis thair 
freindis and the haill cuntrey.' Sir William had bestowed upon her an 
annual aliment of six hundred merks Scots, which by this decreet 
was increased to one thousand merks Scots (Reg. of Deeds, cccclxxiii., 22 
March 1634). 13 P. C. Reg., x. 393. 14 Reg. Mag. Sig., 8 June 1625. 
15 Fife Inhibitions, 5 January 1615. 16 Reg. Mag. Sig., ut sup. 

VOL. III. X 



322 GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 

tion, 20 January 1644, of the teinds, parsonage and 
vicarage, of the lands of Duntrune, and mill lands 
of the same. 1 He was admitted burgess of Dundee 
on 20 February 1650. 2 He married (contract 27 April 
1630) Elizabeth, daughter of David Guthrie of that 
Ilk, sister of Alexander Guthrie of Kincaldrum. 3 
From him descend the Grahams of Duntrune. 

4. Margaret, married, first (contract 28 June and 21 July 

1606), to George Symmer, fiar of Balzeordie; 4 and 
secondly, in 1616, to Robert Arbuthnot, son of David 
Arbuthnot of Findowrie. 5 

5. Mariot, married (contract October 1615) to Alexander 

Guthrie of Kincaldrum. 6 

6. Helen, married (contract 22 November 1616) to George 

Lundie of Wester Denhead. 7 

GEORGE GRAHAM, second son of Sir William Graham and 
Anne Lundie. He was on the Commission of the Peace 
for Forfarshire in November 1616. 8 On 21 January 1618 
the Council issued an injunction for his compearance to 
answer a charge of brawling at Perth on 1 December 
1617. 9 On 30 March 1620 he was admitted burgess and 
guild brother of Dundee. 10 In the Burgess Roll he is styled 
'Magister,' which implies his graduation at some univer- 
sity, probably St. Andrews. 11 On 28 May 1631 George 
Graham had from John Gray, portioner of Mylnetoun, 
a charter of a third part of Mylnetoun of Craigie, and 
took sasine 12 September 1631. 12 On 21 May 1643 he had 
a charter from James, second Viscount of Dudhope, of the 
lands and mill of Balluny, and received sasine 5 July 1643. 13 
From James, Viscount of Dudhope, he also obtained a tack, 

8 January 1644, and a charter, 17 January 1644, of the 

1 Duntrune MSS. 2 Millar, Eminent Burgesses, 161. 3 Protocol Book of 
Thomas Wichtane, Gen. Keg. Ho., 246. 4 Forfar Inhibitions, 3 August 
1613. 6 Jervise, Land of the Lindsays (ed. 1882), 432; Reg. Mag. Sig., 
1620-33, p. 660 ; Forfar Sasines, i. 175. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 31 July 1633. 
7 Forfar Inhibitions, 3 August 1642. 8 Analecta Scotica, ii. 329. 

9 P. C. Reg., xi. 620. 10 Millar, Eminent Burgesses, 113. n In the Matri- 
culation Roll of St. Andrews the name 'George Graham' appears in 
1605, 1608, 1630. As George Graham of Claverhouse was of age in 1616, 
he may possibly have been the George Graham who matriculated in 1605. 

12 Scrymgeour-Wedderburn Charter-chest, box vii., bundle i., Nos. 8, 10. 

13 Ibid., Nos. 14, 15. 



GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 323 

teind-sheaves of his lands of Mylnetoun of Oraigie, Balluny, 
etc. (instrument of sasine 27 February 1644). 1 From Sir 
William Graham of Claypotts, and David Graham his son 
and heir, George Graham also acquired a third part of the 
lands of Wariston, in the shire of Forfar. 2 On 29 July 
1644 he received acknowledgment of 4000 Scots advanced 
by him to the Committee of Estates. 3 On 28 January 1645 
he is named as one of the cautioners of James, Marquess of 
Montrose. 4 He died in or about April 1645. 5 

George Graham married (contract 8 July 1620), Mariot 
Fotheringham of Powrie, 6 and by her had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded. 

2. Thomas, married Jean, daughter of Sir Alexander Blair 

of Balthayock, and received with her, by a charter 
confirmed under the Great Seal, 26 January 1663, the 
lands of Potejito, in the barony of Meigle, co. Perth. 7 

3. Margaret, married (contract 4 July 1644 8 ) to Alex- 

ander Strachan, younger of Glenkindie. 9 

4. Jean, married in 1648 to Walter Graham, younger of 

Boquhapple. 10 

5. Elizabeth, married (contract 11 July 1661) to John, 

eldest son of Sir John Gordon of Park. 11 

WILLIAM GRAHAM, 12 elder son of George Graham and 
Mariot Fotheringham. He was appointed upon the Com- 
mittee of War for Forfarshire on 2 February 1646, 26 
March 1647, and 18 April 1648. 13 On 9 March 1649 he was 
ordered to make an advance upon the public credit, among 
others who had not ' lent any money to the publict in the 
tyme of the Troubles,' and were 'for the late engage- 
ment.' l< In the previous year the Estates, by disposition 
21 February 1648, granted to William Graham as ' his just 
proportion ' of the confiscated estates of the first Marquess 

1 Scrymgeour-Wedderburn Charter-chest, box vii., bundle L, Nos. 16, 
17, 18. 2 Ibid., No. 23. 3 Duntrune MSS. 4 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. pt. i. 300. 
6 Register of Retours, xxxv. 35. He was surviving on 3 February 1645 
(Scrymgeour-Wedderburn Charter-chest, box vii., bundle i., No. 19). 
6 Forfar Sasines, i. 157; see ibid., i. 158. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig., Ix. 246; see 
ibid., Ixx. 315. 8 Duntrune MSS. 9 Alexander Strachan had a charter to 
him and the heirs to be begotten between him and Margaret Graham his 
future spouse, 5 August 1644. Sasine was not taken till 1656 (Aberdeen 
Sasines, xix. 8). 10 Stirling Sasines, viii. 316. Reg. Mag. Sig., Ixi. 93. 
12 He is generally but inaccurately styled ' Sir.' 13 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. pt. 
i. 560, 814 ; vi. pt. ii. 36. 14 Ibid., 709. 



324 GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 

of Montrose, the lands of Foswell, Clunie, Ooull, Balzeaman 
alias Dunmure, and half the lands of Pothill, all in the 
barony of Aberuthven, in the parish of Auchterarder, 
Perth. 1 The foregoing lands were disponed by William 
Graham's widow to his son and heir John, in a deed of 
2 April 1653. 2 On 17 July 1657, the Protector, inter alia, 
confirmed Lady Graham's deed of 2 April 1653. 3 After the 
Restoration the forfeited lands reverted to the Marquess 
of Montrose and are specified in a discharge and re- 
nunciation by John Graham of Balgownie, 3 March 1668. 4 
William Graham died before 3 February 1653. 

William Graham married (contract 7, 15, and 24 February 
1645) Magdalene, fifth daughter of John Carnegie, after- 
wards first Earl of Northesk, 5 and received with her a 
tocher of 20,000 merks. 6 She survived him, and died before 

5 October 1675. 7 They had issue : 

1. JOHN, first Viscount of Dundee and Lord Graham of 

Olaverhouse, who succeeded. 

2. DAVID, third Viscount of Dundee and Lord Graham of 

Claverhouse. 

3. Magdalene, married (contract 1665) to Sir Robert 

Graham of Morphie. 8 She was his second wife, 9 and 
died in November 1719. 10 By Sir Robert she had a 
son, Francis. 11 

4. Anne, married (liferent charter to her 24 November 

1666) to Robert Young of Auldbar. 12 By him she had 
issue Anna, married (contract 6 February 1707) to 
James Barclay of Balmakewan. 13 William, eldest 
son of Anna and James Barclay of Balmakewan, 
had the entail, 10 May 1743, of Morphie from Captain 
Francis Graham, son of Magdalene Graham and Sir 
Robert Graham of Morphie, on which followed a 
Crown charter of confirmation 13 February 1744. 14 

I. JOHN GRAHAM, first Viscount of Dundee and Lord 

1 Gen. Reg. Sas., xviii. 413. 2 Duntrune MSS. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. 4 Gen. 
Reg. Sas., xviii. 413. 6 Fraser, History of Carnegies, ii. 357. 6 Reg. of 
Deeds, 8 November 1646. 7 Fraser, History of Carnegies, ii. 358. 8 Reg. 
of Deeds, Mack., xxxv. 28 September 1674 ; Gen. Reg. Inhib., 8 December 
1673. 9 Reg. of Deeds, Mack., xxxv., 28 September 1674. 10 St. Andrews 
Tests. n Ibid. 12 Gen. Reg. Sas., xvi. 43, 64. 13 Ibid., xciv. 29. 14 Reg. 
Mag. Sig., xcviii. 68. The entail was recorded in the Register of Tailzies, 

6 January 1744 (x. 224), Captain Francis Graham being then deceased. 



GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OP DUNDEE 325 

Graham of Claverhouse, elder son, but probably not the 
eldest child, of William Graham and Magdalene Carnegie, 
was born between 24 June and 5 August 1648, 1 probably 
in July 1648. 2 He was served heir-general to his father 
3 February 1653. 3 On 22 September 1660 he was admitted 
burgess of Dundee. 4 He had probably since 1658 been a 
student at the University of St. Andrews, and was admitted, 
29 February 1660, to the third year philosophy class in 
St. Salvator's College. On 27 July 1661 he graduated 
Master of Arts. 5 Coincident with the attainment of his 
fourteenth year the ward of Claverhouse and his marriage 
were granted, 14 July 1662, to David, Lord Lour, afterwards 
second Earl of Northesk. 6 On 11 February 1669 he was 
appointed a Commissioner of Excise and Justice of the 
Peace for Forfarshire. 7 His commission was withdrawn 
on 24 June 1669, ha being still a minor. 8 On 2 September 
1669 it was restored, 9 indicating the attainment of his 
majority in the interval. On 5 August 1669 he had a 
precept from James, second Marquess of Douglas and Earl 
of Angus, for infefting him as his father's heir in the two 
halves of Easter Brigton and a half of a third part of 
Monifieth, and had sasine 22 February 1670. 10 On 11 
December 1669 he received a precept from the same for 
infefting him as heir to his grandfather in the lands of 
Ballargus and Claverhouse, followed by sasine 22 February 
1670. 11 He was still exercising his commission as Justice 
of the Peace on 6 April 1671, 12 and his earliest military 
service abroad cannot have occurred earlier than that 

1 On 24 June 1669 he was removed from the Commission of the Peace 
for Forfarshire as being still a minor (Privy Council Acta, November 
1667-June 1673, fol. 227). On 5 August 1669 he had precept of clare 
constat as his father's heir in the lands of Easter Brigton (Scrymgeour- 
Wedderburn Charter-chest, box vii., bundle i., No. 25). 2 The ward of 
Claverhouse was on 14 July 1662 granted to David, Lord Lour. Thz 
date indicates the termination of Claverhouse's pupilage (Privy Seal, 
English Register, i. 111). 3 General Retours, xxi. 77. 4 Millar, Eminent 
Burgesses, 166. 5 Matriculation Roll and Faculty Quaestor's Book, St. 
Andrews. A John Graham matriculated 13 February 1665, and Napier 
(i. 18, 179) adopted him for Claverhouse, but that is improbable 
upon the ground of age. The only other John Graham recorded at 
St. Andrews between 1656 and 1665 is the one whose career is here 
followed. See Terry, John Graham of Claverhouse, 8. 6 Privy 
Seal, English Register, i. Ill, ? p t c. Acta, November 1667-June 
1673, fol. 187, 8 Ibid., 227, 9 Ibid., 261. 10 Scrymgeour-Wedderburn 
Charter-chest, box vii., bundle i., Nos. 25, 27. " Ibid., Nos. 26, 28. 
12 P. C. Acta, November 1667-June 1673, 478. 



326 GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 

date. That he was first in French service is stated by the 
earliest authorities, 1 and is probable. In 1672 recruiting 
was taking place in Scotland for regiments in French 
service, and conjeeturally Claverhouse may be identified 
with John Graham, commissioned junior lieutenant in Sir 
William Lockhart's regiment on 25 July 1672. 2 In France 
Claverhouse was under the general command of James, 
Duke of Monmouth. 3 Upon the withdrawal of England 
from active alliance with France in February 1674, Mon- 
mouth returned to England. Many of his officers took 
service under William of Orange, Claverhouse among them. 
In July 1674 he was admitted into William's Company 
of Guards. 4 He was present at the battle of Seneife 11 
August 1674, but his asserted rescue of William on that 
occasion is improbable. 5 After taking part in the rest of 
the campaign of 1674 and all or part of that of 1675, Claver- 
house visited Scotland. His mother's death was probably 
the cause of his return. On 30 March 1676 he sailed on his 
return to Holland, 6 was probably present at the siege of 
Maastricht, July- August 1676, 7 and on 24 November 1676 
received a commission as Ritmeester in Major Cabeljauw's 
regiment. 8 He resigned it before 9 December 1677, 9 and 
returned to Scotland. 

William of Orange, upon his visit to England in November 
1677, had undoubtedly introduced Claverhouse to the notice 
of James, Duke of York. On 19 February 1678 James, 
third Marquess of Montrose, upon James's recommendation, 
offered him the lieutenancy of his troop in the Duke's 
Regiment of Horse, then being raised. 10 Claverhouse did 
not accept Montrose 's offer, and on 27 February 1678 he 
obtained licence to leave Scotland. 11 He had returned, 
presumably, by 18 June 1678, when he had special service 
as heir to his grandfather and great-grandfather in Gotter- 

1 Memoirs of Locheil, 273 ; Memoirs of Dundee, 1714, ed. Jenner, 3 ; 
Grameid, ed. Murdoch, 41. On the other hand Burnet and Morer, Short 
Account of Scotland, are silent regarding Claverhouse's French service. 
2 Dalton, English Army Lists, i. 121. 3 Monmouth's commission to 
command the English subjects in France is dated 29 January 1673. On 
20 May 1673 he was appointed ' lieutenant-general des armes du roi ' 
(Fieffe, Histoire des Troupes tftrangeres, 175). 4 Carleton, Memoirs, 12, 
13. 5 See Terry, John Graham of Claverhouse, 20. 6 Fraser, Eed Book 
of Grandtully, i..p. cxl. 7 Cf. Carr, Particular Account of the Siege of 
Maastricht ; Bernardi, Life. 8 State Archives. The Hague. 9 Ibid. 
10 Duntrune MSS. n P. C. Acta. 



GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 327 

stone, etc., and Ogilvie. 1 On 10 July 1678 he was appointed 
a Commissioner of Supply, 2 and on 23 September 1678 he 
was commissioned Captain of one of three troops of horse 
raised for service in Scotland. 3 On 27 February 1679 he 
was appointed Sheriff-depute of Dumfries, Annandale, 
Wigtown, and Kirkcudbright, 4 in which districts he had been 
enforcing the laws against conventicles since December of 
the previous year. 5 He was defeated at Drumclog, 1 June 
1679, but behaved with distinction at the battle of Bothwell 
Bridge, 22 June 1679. 6 On 25 July 1679 he went up to 
London, 7 and established himself in the Duke of York's friend- 
ship and interest. He possibly returned to Scotland with the 
Duke upon the latter's departure from London on 27 
October 1679, 8 and on 6 January 1680 he received instruc- 
tions to hunt out rebels in his shrievalty. 9 On 21 April 
1680 he was granted the escheat of Patrick Macdougall of 
Freuch, 10 and on 11 May 1680 he received royal letters con- 
verting his holding of the barony of Ogilvie from simple to 
taxed ward. 11 By 3 July 1680 Claverhouse was in London, 
prosecuting his suit to Helen Graham, cousin of William, 
eighth Earl of Menteith. At the same time he was endea- 
vouring to procure his own succession to the earldom. 12 
On 6 September 1681 he received from the Estates a ratifi- 
cation of the escheat of Freuch and of the royal letter of 
11 May 1680, regarding the barony of Ogilvie. 13 His stay in 
London was probably prolonged. There is no evidence of 
his being in Scotland until 7 October 1681, on which date he 
received the freedom of Stirling. 14 On 26 November 1681 
he narrowly escaped drowning during his passage from 
Burntisland to Leith. 15 He was upon the jury at the trial 
of Archibald, ninth Earl of Argyll, on 12 and 13 December 
1681, 16 and on 19 January 1682 he was commissioned Sheriff 
of Wigtown in the room of Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, 

1 Services of Heirs, Forfar, Nos. 475, 476 ; Scrymgeour-Wedderburn 
Charter-chest, box iv., bundle iii., Nos. 6, 7. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., viii. 
228. 3 Warrant Book, Scotland, iv. 421. 4 Wodrow, iii. 20. 5 Smythe, 
Letters, 1. 6 A further and more particular Account of the total Defeat 
of the Rebels in Scotland. Brit. Museum. T. 3* (66). 7 Wodrow, iii. 172. 
8 London Gazette, No. 1455. 9 Wodrow, iii. 182. 10 Privy Seal, English 
Register, iii. 341. n Warrant Book, Scotland, vi. 23. 12 Fraser, Red Book 
of Menteith, ii. 183. 13 Acta Parl. Scot., viii. 314-315. 14 Records of the 
Royal Burgh of Stirling, 33. 15 Alexander Tyler, The Tempest. 
10 Wodrow, iii. 337. 



328 GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 

who had refused the Test, and Bailie of the Regality of 
Tongland in room of Viscount Kenmure. 1 For the next 
four months he was engaged in Galloway, and on 15 May 
1682 he received the thanks of the Council for his 
services. 2 On 25 December 1682 he was commissioned 
Colonel of His Majesty's Regiment of Horse, formed out of 
the three independent troops with which he had been 
associated since 1678, with the addition of a fourth. 3 On 

12 February 1683 he obtained a verdict in his favour in a 
dispute with Sir John Dalrymple arising out of the exercise 
of his Sheriff's commission in the previous August. 4 Early 
in March 1683 he proceeded to London, 5 and by the middle 
of May 1683 returned to Scotland, 6 having secured his 
promotion to the Privy Council (royal letter 11 May 1683) , 7 
and a gift of 200 (14 May 1683). 8 On 23 April 1684 
Claverhouse received a Crown charter erecting into the 
barony of New Dundee, upon the resignation of Charles, 
Earl of Lauderdale, and Lord Richard Maitland, the lands 
and castle of Dudhope, the office of Constable of Dundee, 
with the right to be first magistrate and officer under the 
King within the town of Dundee and its territories. 9 On 
15 July 1684 Claverhouse was placed upon the Sub- 
Committee of Council for Public Affairs, 10 and on 1 August 
1684 the Council approved his appointment to the joint- 
command of the troops in Ayr and Clydesdale. 11 He was 
placed upon the Commission of Justiciary for the south- 
western districts on 6 September 1684. 12 Upon the death 
of Charles n. (6 February 1685) Claverhouse was among 
the members of Privy Council who signed the proclama- 
tion of James vn.'s accession at Edinburgh, 10 February 
1685. 13 But his marriage to a Whig Cochrane (10 June 
1684) furnished opportunity to his enemies to question the 
soundness of his principles, and his request to be allowed 
to come to London to meet a charge of discourtesy to 
Queensberry was not granted (28 February 1685). 14 His 

1 Paper Register, x. 258 ; Warrant Book, Scotland, vi. 594. Both 
commissions were ' during the King's pleasure/ 2 Wodrow, iii. 371. 
3 Duntrune MSS., where the original commission is preserved. 4 Fountain- 
hall, Decisions, i. 217. 6 Fifteenth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. pt. viii. 
275. 6 Ibid., 189. ? Warrant Book, Scotland, viii. 59. 8 Ibid., 70. Q Reg. 
Mag. Sig., Ixix. 155. 10 Wodrow, iv. 31. " Ibid., 33. 13 Ibid., 113. 

13 Ibid., 202. " Buccleuch and Queensberry MSS., Hist. MSS. Com., ii. 219. 



GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 329 

commission as colonel was renewed on 30 March 1685, 1 
but his continued refusal to pacify Queensberry, now High 
Commissioner, caused Claverhouse's exclusion from the 
Privy Council (3 March 1685). 2 A peremptory letter of 
the King (16 April 1685), ordering him to apologise to 
Queensberry, 3 was seemingly obeyed. The summary exe- 
cution of John Brown of Priesthill on 1 May 1685 by 
Claverhouse sufficiently negatived the suspicion which had 
contributed to his temporary disgrace. 4 On 11 May 1685 
an order for his readmission to the Privy Council was 
signed. 5 On 18 May 1685 he was commissioned Brigadier 
of Horse and Foot in Scotland, 6 in the crisis caused 
by Argyll's rebellion. On 16 July 1685 he took the 
oath as a Privy Councillor, 7 and early the next month 
again desired leave to come up to London. 8 It is pos- 
sible that he obtained it; 9 but he had returned to 
Scotland by 15 October 1685, when he was present in 
Council. 10 In December 1685 he was again in London, and 
returned to Scotland, 24 December, 11 with the grant (21 
December 1685) of the title ' His Majesty's Own Regiment 
of Horse' for his regiment. 12 For the next nine months 
there is little record of Claverhouse's actions. On 20 Sep- 
tember 1686 he was promoted Major-General in Scotland, 13 
and on the same date received a warrant for a pension, 
during pleasure, of 200 sterling. 14 On 27 June 1687 he 
again proceeded to London, 15 but returned to Scotland by 8 
February 1688. 16 In obedience to a royal letter, Claver- 
house was installed, 27 March 1688, Provost of Dundee. 17 
On 4 May 1688 he was appointed upon the Commission of 
the Treasury, 18 and on 26 May 1688 he was placed by 
Council upon a Committee of Trade. 19 Upon the news of 
William of Orange's projected invasion the Scottish forces 

1 Warrant Book, Scotland, ix. 361. 2 Warrant Book, Gen. Reg. Ho. 
3 Buccleuch and Queensberry MSS., ii. 220. 4 For an examination of 
Claverhouse's conduct in the ' Killing Time,' see The Despot's Champion, 
and Terry, John Graham of Claverhouse. 6 Warrant Book, Scotland, 
ix. 499. 6 Ibid., 525. 7 P. C. Acta, Feb. -Dec. 1685, fol. 105. 8 Buccleuch 
and Queensberry MSS., ii. 92. 9 He is not mentioned on the sederunt of 
Council between 20 July and 15 October 1685. 10 P. C. Acta. n Fountain- 
hall, Chronological Notices, 154. 12 Warrant Book, Scotland, x. 285. 
13 Duntrune MSS. 14 Warrant Book, Scotland, xi. 341. 15 Fountainhall, 
Chronological Notices, 217. 16 Wodrow, iv. 449. 17 Ms. Minute-Book of the 
Town Council of Dundee. 18 Warrant Book, Scotland, xiii. 3. 19 Ibid., 104. 



330 GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 

were ordered (27 September 1688) to march into England. 1 
Claverhouse accompanied them, and took part in the brief 
campaign. On 12 November 1688 he was created VIS- 
COUNT OP DUNDEE and LORD GRAHAM OF CLAVER- 
HOUSE. 2 The patent was granted with remainder to the 
heirs-male of his body, whom failing, to his other heirs- 
male. After James's flight from London (18 December 
1688) he returned to Scotland. He presided over the 
Dundee Council on 24 February 1689, 3 and probably con- 
tinued in residence at Dudhope until the meeting of the 
Convention at Edinburgh on 14 March 1689. Dundee 
signed the roll of Parliament on that day, 4 but, protesting 
that his life was in danger, returned to Dudhope 18 March, 5 
and on 30 March was proclaimed a 'fugitive and rebel.' 8 
About the middle of April Dundee set out from Dudhope 
with a few horse. 7 On 1 May he appeared before Inver- 
ness ; 8 surprised Perth on 11 May ; 9 and made an unsuc- 
cessful attempt upon Dundee on 13 May. 10 From Dundee 
he withdrew to GJenroy, whence, on 26 May, he advanced 
towards Speyside. 11 After being in close touch with 
General Mackay, he returned to Lochaber towards the 
middle of June. 12 A month later Mackay 's advance from 
Edinburgh upon Blair Castle drew Dundee to its defence. 
On 27 July he won the battle of Killiecrankie, but was 
shot through the head early in the engagement, and was 
carried to Blair, where, in the church of St. Bride, he was 
buried. 13 

John Graham married (contract 9 June 1684) Jean, 
daughter of William, Lord Cochrane, and grand-daughter 
of William, first Earl of Dundonald. 14 She married, secondly, 
William, third Viscount Kilsyth, and, with her son by him, 
was accidentally killed at Utrecht, 16 October 1695. 15 Her 
body was brought to Scotland for burial 5 March 1696. 18 

1 Warrant Book of Scotland, xiii. 284. 2 Duntrune MSS. ; Reg. Mag. 
Sig., Ixxi. 89; Warrant Book, Scotland, xiii. 345. 3 Minute Book of the 
Town Council of Dundee. 4 Acta Parl. Scot., ix. 4. 5 Minutes of the 
Convention of Estates, Advocates' Library, MS., 33, 7, 8. 6 Ibid. 7 Gram- 
eid, 49. 8 Memoirs of Dundee, ed. Jenner, 17. 9 Twelfth Rep. Hist. 
MSS. Com., pt. viii. 37. 10 Account of the Proceedings of the Meeting of 
the Estates, No. 23, p. 64. Grameid, 164, 167. 12 Acta Parl. Scot., ix., 
App. 55. 13 See Terry, John Graham of Claverhouse, 344, 350. 14 Smythe, 
Letters of Dundee, 88. 15 Twelfth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. pt. viii. 
49. 16 Account Book of Sir John Foulis, 190. 



GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 331 

By her John Graham had issue, his only child and 
successor, 

II. JAMES GRAHAM, second Viscount of Dundee and Lord 
Graham of Claverhouse. He was baptized 9 April 1689, 1 
and died before 3 December 1689. 2 He was succeeded by 
his uncle, 

III. DAVID GRAHAM, third Viscount of Dundee and Lord 
Graham of Claverhouse, second son 3 of William Graham 
and Magdalene Carnegie, and brother of the first Viscount. 
On 22 September 1660 he was admitted burgess of Dun- 
dee. 4 He probably matriculated at St. Andrews University 
on 13 February 1665, and, if so, graduated Master of Arts 
on 25 July 1668. 5 On 7 October 1681 he received the 
freedom of Stirling, 6 and on 25 December 1682 he was 
commissioned quartermaster in his brother Captain John 
Graham's troop of horse. 7 On 12 May 1683 he was 
appointed ' during pleasure ' conjunct-Sheriff (with his 
brother) of Wigtown. 8 On 21 February 1684 he was pro- 
moted cornet in his brother's regiment of horse, and his 
commission was renewed on 30 March 1685. 9 He joined 
his brother in the campaign of 1689. On 12 May 1689 he 
was cited to appear before the Committee of Estates. 10 He 
continued in arms after the battle of Killiecrankie, and 
late in August or early in September 1689 he was made 
prisoner while defending Robertson of Struan's house. 11 He 
was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle, and was released in 
exchange for Captain Ferguson shortly before 3 December 
1689. 12 A decree of forfeiture was passed against him 14 
July 1690. 13 He is mentioned among the Scottish officers 
in France who were preparing to embark at Dunkirk in 
May 1692. 14 In June 1692 he appears in a list of officers 

1 Register of Births, Mains Parish. 2 An Account of the Proceedings 
of the Meeting of Estates, No. 77, p. 172. 3 The tradition that he and his 
brother were twins does not harmonise with the ascertained facts of his 
career. 4 Millar, Eminent Burgesses, 166. 5 Matriculation Roll and 
Faculty Quaestor's Book, St. Andrews. 6 Records of the Royal Burgh 
of Stirling, 33. 7 Warrant Book, Scotland, vii. 484. 8 Ibid., viii. 73. 
9 Ibid., 278; ix. 363. 10 An Account of the Proceedings of the Meeting 
of Estates, No. 23, p. 63. Ibid,, No. 54, p. 176. Ibid., No. 77, p. 171. 
13 Ada Parl. Scot., ix. App. 61. 14 Queensberry and Buccleuch MSS., 
ii. pt. i. 293. 



332 GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OF DUNDEE 

'subsisted after La Hogue.' 1 Upon his death 2 the titular 
Viscounty devolved upon the Grahams of Duntrune. 

DAVID GRAHAM, fourth titular Viscount, was the son of 
Walter Graham of Duntrune and Elizabeth Guthrie (see 
page 322). He took sasine as his father's heir 27 October 
1680 on a precept dated 23 February 1680. 3 He died in 
January 1706. 4 

WILLIAM GRAHAM, fifth titular Viscount, was served 
heir-male special to his father, David Graham, 1 November 
1706. 5 He raised the standard at Dundee 1715 6 and was 
attainted. Following on a precept of 13 November 1716 
the Magistrates and Council of Dundee infefted themselves 
in the mid-superiority of the lands of Duntrune 15 Novem- 
ber 1716. 7 At the instance of the creditors of William 
Graham's estate an action of reduction and improbation 
was pursued before the Lords of Council and Session, and 
decreet of ranking was made 25 July and 22 November 
1727. 8 William Graham married Christian Graham, daugh- 
ter of James Graham, merchant in Dundee. 9 She deceased 
before 26 December 1729. 10 The testament of William 
Graham was confirmed 10 April 1724. 11 

JAMES GRAHAM, 'writer in Edinburgh,' sixth titular 
Viscount, son and heir of the above William Graham, pur- 
chased the lands of Duntrune (decreet of sale 29 February 
1728) at public roup, as ' only offerer,' and took sasine 27 
July 1730 upon a charter (4 July 1730) from the Magis- 
trates and Council of Dundee as superiors. By a deed 
of disposition and assignation dated 26 November 1735 
he sold the property to his uncle Alexander Graham, 
merchant in Dundee. 12 James Graham took part in the 
rising of 1745, was attainted, and afterwards had a com- 
pany in French service under Lord Ogilvie. He died 

1 Calendar of the Stuart Papers at Windsor, i. 74. 2 The year 1700 is 
generally given as that of his death. 3 Forfar Sasines, vii. 267. 4 Services 
of Heirs, William Graham of Duntrune, 1 November 1706. 6 Ibid. 
6 Peter Rae, History of the Late Rebellion. 7 Scrymgeour-Wedderburn 
Charter-chest, box vii., bundle i., Nos. 29, 30. 8 Duntrune MSS. 9 Services 
of Heirs, Christian Graham, 6 February 1718. 10 Comm. Record ofBrechin, 
52. n Ibid., 53. 12 Duntrune MSS. See G. E. C. Complete Peerage, iii. 209. 






GRAHAM, VISCOUNT OP DUNDEE 333 

at Dunkirk in November or December 1759. 1 Since his 
death the title has never been assumed. 

ARMS. (Not recorded in Lyon Register.) John Graham 
of Olaverhouse bore on his seal a chief indented charged 
with three escallop shells, a double tressure flory counter - 
flory. 2 

CREST. A phoenix rising out of flames. 

[C. S. T.] 
1 Scots Magazine, xxi. 663. 2 Red Book of Menteith, ii. 460. 



COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 




HIS family is first found 
under the designation of 
Ooveran or Oochrane, on 
the five-mark lands of 
that name near Paisley, 
in Renfrewshire. The 
first known of the name 
is Waldeve de Oochrane, 
a witness to a charter of 
date Wednesday, 20 days 
after St. Hilary's feast, 
1262, granted by Dugal, 
son of Syfyn or Mac- 
Swein, to Walter Stewart , 
fifth Earl of Menteith, of 
the lands of Skipnish, 
Kedeslat, and others in 
Oantire. 1 The next of 



the name found on record is 



WILLIAM OF OOCHRANE, who is more easy to locate, as he 
is named among others of the neighbourhood of Paisley 
who signed their submission to Edward I. in the Bagman 
Roll, 1296. 2 

JOHN OF OOCHRANE, the next on record, appears as a 
witness to a notarial copy made in the year 1346, of an 
ancient bull of Pope Honorius in. in 1219, dealing with the 
creation of an Abbot of Paisley. 3 

GLOSMUS, GOSCELINUS, or OosMUS 4 DE OOCHRANE is the 

1 Red Book of Menteith. In 1710 this writ, if not in the Argyll Charter- 
chest, was recorded in the Inventory (Hamilton's Hist, of Renfrew, Mait- 
land Club, 82). 2 C.al. Doc. Scot., ii. 3 Reg. de Passelet, 8-10. 4 He is 
thus variously styled in different writs. 




Bunfconafo 



COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 335 

next who appears. He is first named as a witness to a 
grant made by Robert n. (when Earl of Strathearn) to the 
Monastery of Paisley in 1367. 1 He is styled Oosmus de 
Cowran in a charter by Robert, Stewart of Scotland, to 
John Logan, some time before 1371. 2 He was succeeded by 
his son 

WILLIAM COCHRANE, who, on 28 July 1360, as son of 
Goslin of Cochrane, had a grant of ten-merk lands in Lang- 
newton, co. Roxburgh, from John Lindsay, Lord of Dunrod, 
with maintenance for himself and a certain number of 
attendants and men-at-arms and horses in time of war and 
peace. 3 It was probably he who received a ratification of 
the barony of Cochrane from Robert n. on 22 September 
1389. 4 He died before 1392, in which year Mary his widow 
was married to Sir William Dalzell (see title Carnwath), 
and renounced her right to terce from her late husband's 
lands of Langnewton. 5 They had issue at least one son, 

ROBBET GocHRANE, 6 who describes himself as son and 
heir of William Cochrane when granting his part of the 
lands of Langnewton to Sir Henry Douglas of Lugton on 

1 Reg. de Passelet, 29. 2 Andrew Stuart's Genealogical Hist, of Stewarts, 
80 n. 3 Original writ, dated at Kilbride 28 July 1360, in Gen. Reg. Ho., No. 
132. 4 Charter dated at Kil winning, quoted in Hamilton's Hist, of Renfrew. 
5 Macfarlane's Coll., Adv. Lib., 34, 3, 25, 39, 40. The arms described on her 
seal are wrongly cut, but she may have been a Maxwell. 6 Contemporary 
with Robert was a William Cochrane, who, in return for services rendered 
to Robert in. was granted the sum of 40s. sterling, to be paid him annually 
out of the King's rents in Rutherglen (Reg. Mag. Sig., fol. vol., 207, No. 
34). In 1394 he received through the Earl of Menteith 13, 6s. 8d. in pay- 
ment of a debt from the King (Exch. Rolls, iii. 341), and he was witness 
to a charter by Robert, Duke of Albany, Governor of Scotland, to William 
Hay of Errol, Constable of Scotland, of the lands of Cowie, dated at Falk- 
land, 14 May 1415 (Frasers of Philorth, ii.). Contemporary with William 
there lived a John de Cochran, who in 1370 was granted a fiat of protec- 
tion during two years' service abroad for Edward in. (Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. 
39-40). Other members of the family at this time were Alice Cochrane, 
who was superior of the lands of Overlee and Netherlee in Renfrewshire 
(Memorials of the Montgomeries, ii. 25) ; David, who held the lands of 
Lee under Alice and her heirs, for payment of thirty pennies Scots yearly, 
and was Lord of Ascog in Bute. David had a son Edward, who succeeded 
him as Lord of Lee and Ascog, and received a precept of infeftment in 
his lands of Lee on 24 August 1425 (Memorials, ii. 26). Edward was suc- 
ceeded by his son Ninian, who, about 1503, sold half of his lands in Bute 
to Lord Montgomery (Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 March 1503-4). Ninian had two 
sons, John and Charles, who successively owned the lands, and in them 
(Eglinton Inventories) the line of Cochrane of Lee and Ascog appears to 
have ceased. 



336 COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNJDONALD 

1 May 1392, and Mary Dalzell speaks of him as her son by 
"William Cochrane. Robert's seal is said to show 4 a chevron 
engrailed betwixt three estoiles.' * His successor, so far as 
recorded, was 

JOHN OF COCHRANE, who was successor, and perhaps son, 
of Robert. On 16 October 1421 he witnessed a retour of 
the service of Herbert of Maxwell as heir to his father 
Herbert of Maxwell, Lord of Oarlaverock, in the lands of 
Mekill Drippis. 2 In the Paisley Rental Book of 1460 there 
are various entries of the assessment of John Oochrane, 
then living at Lincliff (whence William Cochrane of that 
Ilk dated his will in 1603). Lincliff would appear to have 
been their residence before the building of Cochrane Place ; 
it was assessed in 1460 for an annual payment of 4 chalders 
of oats, and 12 days' shearing, with customary service. 
John Cochrane had issue, so far as recorded, 

ALLAN OF COCHRANE, who succeeded his father. He is 
first mentioned on 25 September 1452, when he witnessed 
both precept and charter of a mortification made by Robert, 
Lord Lyle, to the Abbot of Paisley ; in these writs he is 
described as Allan Cochrane, Armiger. 3 He raised an action 
before the Lords Auditors against Thomas Gudland and 
others, about two horses, at Edinburgh, 6 July 1476, 4 and 
must have succeeded his father by 1480, as on 8 May of 
that year he is described as Allan of Cochrane, a witness 
to a contract of marriage between James Auchinlek and 
Gelis Ross. 5 He left issue, two sons : 6 

1. JAMES. 

2. ROBERT. 

JAMES COCHRANE of that Ilk, succeeded his father, Allan, 

1 Macfarlane's Coll., 34, 3, 25, Adv. Lib. 2 Carlaverock Book, ii. 423. 
3 Reg. de Passelet, 250, 252. 4 Acta Auditorum, 43. 5 Douglas Book, iii. 
112. 6 About this time a Michael Cochrane is superior of the upper part 
of Easter Cochrane, and of the lands of Lonbank and Quarrelton in Nether 
Cochrane. He married Eupheme Erskine, and had issue, a son, Peter, 
who, in 1488, is named in a case before the Lords Auditors anent the 
wrong service of a brief of inquest, causing Thomas Cochrane (son of 
James Cochrane of that Ilk) to be seised in the lands of Easter Cochrane, 
the superiority of which lawfully belonged to Peter (Acta Auditorum, 
Jan. 2, 1488). Probably Peter had no issue, as by 1509 all these lands were 
held under the superiority of John Cochrane of Cochrane. 



COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 337 

in 1484, when lie is named in a charter by James in. to 

Robert Lyle, of the lands of Middlepennyland and others, 

dated at Edinburgh, 26 Jan. 1484. 1 He is also named as 

James Ooehrane of that Ilk, in an instrument of sasine in 

favour of John, Lord Maxwell, of the superiority of Nether 

Pollok, 10 May I486. 2 He had issue a son, 

Thomas, who also appears in the case between himself 

and Peter Cochrane, already referred to, about the 

wrong service of the lands of Easter Ooehrane, etc. 

There is nothing to prove that Thomas succeeded his 

father in the barony of Ooehrane, and he must have 

died s.p., as in 1493 Robert Ooehrane is in possession. 

ROBERT COCHRANE of that Ilk must have succeeded 
before 1493, when he was engaged in an action before the 
Lords of Council. 3 Robert Ooehrane was still living in 1504, 
when he witnessed a charter by John, Lord Semple, to the 
Collegiate Kirk of Lochwinnoch, dated at Glasgow, 21 April 
1504, 4 but his son John had been seised in the lands of 
Cochrane and Corsefoord in 1498. He had issue : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded. 

2. William, and 

3. David, who are described as brothers-german of John 

in a mortgage of part of the lands of Cochrane made 
by John Ooehrane in 1536. 5 

JOHN OOCHRANE of that Ilk was seised in the lands of 
Cochrane and Corsefoord in 1498, 6 and in 1509 he obtained 
a licence under the Privy Seal to sell or mortgage all his 
lands of Nether Cochrane in the sheriffdom of Renfrew, and 
all his lands of Pitfour in the sheriffdom of Perth. 7 In 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Maxwells of Pollok, i. 191. 3 Ada Dom. Cone., 26 
Oct. 1493. 4 Hamilton's Renfrew and Lanark, 292. 6 Laing Charters, No. 
409. 6 Red Book of Menteith, 15. 7 Reg. Sec. Sig., 1508, vol. 4. The barony 
of Pitfour referred to above now appears for the first time. It was acquired 
by John Cochrane (probably a kinsman), who was thereafter styled * of 
Pitfour,' and held the lands under superiority of the Earl of Crawford, by 
whom he was infeft, May 2, 1510. He was succeeded by his son Peter, 
who is named in a charter under the Great Seal to George Rollok of Dun- 
crub, in 1572, and who was followed by his son David ; he died in 1598, 
leaving nine children, and his will was proved in Edinburgh, 23 Jan. 1598-99. 
His successor, Francis Cochrane of Pitfour, is named in a case that came 
before the Privy Council, 1605. He was seised in the lands of Pitfour 
4 Sept. 1607, and is the last of that designation. 

VOL. III. Y 



338 OOOHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

1519 he sold the barony of Easter Oochrane (which included 
Nether Oochrane) to James Beaton, Archbishop of Glasgow. 
Orawfurd mentions this deed as being among the Dundonald 
charters in 1710, and that it carried the seal of John 
Oochrane, which showed three boars' heads erased, and was 
circumscribed ' Sigillum Johannis de Oochrane.' In 1530 he 
was fined for not entering on an assize held at the Justice- 
ayre of Dumbarton on the slaughter of Alexander Hamilton. 1 
He appears in an assize held at Edinburgh 2 December 1529, 2 
and is mentioned again in an action against William, Lord 
Ruthven, Sheriff of Perth, as being among others distrained 
for money which he had already paid. 3 He married, before 
1510, Margaret Morton, who was still living and joint- 
tenant with him in the lands of Lyncliff in 1522, 4 and by 
her he had issue a son, 

JOHN COCHRANE, who is stated by Orawfurd to have 
served heir to his father 12 May 1539. In 1546 he 
witnessed a charter to Archibald Beaton of Oapildra, 5 and 
in 1556 he witnessed a retour of John Maxwell as heir to 
his father, George Maxwell of Oowglen. 6 The date of his 
death is uncertain. 

He appears to have married twice, first Mary, daughter of 
Lindsay of Dunrod, in the county of Renfrew ; and secondly, 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Semple of Fulwood, who is 
mentioned in the will of Elizabeth Montgomerie, his son's 
wife, referred to below. He had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, only son by his first marriage, who succeeded. 

2. Janet, a daughter by the second marriage, named in 

the will of Elizabeth Montgomerie, her sister-in-law. 
She may have been the daughter who was married to 
Maxwell, and had a son William, mentioned in 
the will of William Oochrane of that Ilk. 

WILLIAM COCHRANE obtained at Edinburgh, 30 November 
1556, a charter 7 confirming to him as son of John Oochrane 
the five-mark lands of Oochrane in the barony and county of 
Renfrew which his father John Oochrane had resigned under 

1 Acta Dom. Cone. 2 Beg. Mag. Sig., 20 July 1532. 3 Acta Dom. 
Cone. 4 Paisley Rental Booh. " Reg. Mag. Sig., 31 July 1546. Max- 
wells of Pollok, i. 295. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



COCHRANE, EARL OP DUNDONALD 339 

a reservation of liferent. To this AVilliam Oochrane is 
attributed the building of the ' freestone tower/ which was 
added to the manor-house of Cochrane, which, since 1460, 
appears to have been known as ' The Lincliff ' or 4 Place of 
Oochrane,' but which, after the building of the tower, be- 
came ' Oochrane Castle.' It was to this c old Tower house ' 
of his ancestors that Sir John Oochrane made his escape 
after the Argyll insurrection in 1685. 1 According to Oraw- 
furd, William Cochrane also made extensive plantations 
there. 

William Cochrane married, before 1579^ Elizabeth, 
daughter of Robert Montgomerie of Skelmorlie. 2 She pre- 
deceased her husband, dying at the Place of Cochrane 15 
August 1594 (testament confirmed 1 August 1595 3 ), leaving 
1604, divided equally among her daughters. He died 14 
July 1603 (testament confirmed 2 February 1604 4 ), having 
had issue by his wife three daughters only, all mentioned 
in their mother's will : 

1. Dorothy. 

2. Margaret. 

3. ELIZABETH, married to Alexander Blair (see below). 

ELIZABETH COCHRANE was the youngest of three daughters, 
but her sisters Dorothy and Margaret must have prede- 
ceased her before 1601, and the house of Cochrane depended 
for its continuance on her issue as sole heiress. Her father 
had in 1593 made a settlement of his lands on heirs-female, 
and this was followed in 1600 by a contract of marriage 
entered into at the Church of Kilbarchan 24 July, between 
Elizabeth Cochrane and Alexander Blair, third son of 
Alexander Blair of that Ilk, by his wife Grizel, daughter of 
Robert, Lord Semple, who by the terms of the contract was 
to assume the name and arms of Cochrane, and the estates 
were to be conveyed to him by charter. Failing the heirs- 
male of this marriage the estate was entailed to Robert 
Blair of Auldinure, Alexander's immediate elder brother 
and his heirs, whom failing, to Brice Blair of Lochwood, 
their immediate elder brother-german and his heirs, whom 
failing, to Hugh Blair, Alexander's immediate younger 

1 Fountainhall's Historical Observes. 2 Skelmorlie Writs. * Edin. 
Tests. * Ibid. 



340 COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

brother and his heirs, whom failing, to Gavin Blair his 
youngest brother and his heirs, whom failing, to the second 
son of the then Laird of Fulwood, who was to take the 
name of Oochrane, whom failing, to the then Laird of Bar- 
bachlaw bearing the name of Oochrane. 1 If Alexander and 

1 The kinship of the line of Barbachlaw to the line of Cochrane is pre- 
sumed, though not clearly proved, by the entail already cited made by 
William Cochrane of that Ilk in 1593, and also by an entail of the lands 
of Barbachlaw by James Cochrane of Barbachlaw in 1614 to his son James 
and his heirs-male, whom failing to William Cochrane of Cochrane and 
his heirs-male (15 July 1614, Reg. Mag. Sig.\ The first known of this family 
was John Cochrane of Barbachlaw, who was witness to a retour of the 
service of William Stirling of Cadder in the lands of Cragbrey in Lin- 
lithgow, 9 May 1506 (Stirlings of Keir, 282), and the next of the name is 
George Cochrane of Barbachlaw, who, in 1558 resigned his lands to his son 
Michael. Michael had issue a son Gilbert and a daughter Helen. Gilbert 
does not appear to have been included in the entail, though he was living 
in 1557 and occurs in the wills of James and Alexander his uncles. 
Michael was succeeded by his brother Alexander, who, on 25 November 
1564, had a charter to himself and his heirs- male, whom failing, to James 
his brother-german, whom failing, to his own natural son John, whom 
failing, to James elder and James younger, both natural sons of James his 
brother (Laing Charters, 779). Alexander died 2 October 1566, and his will 
was proved in Edinburgh. He was succeeded by his brother James, who 
died 17 January 1577, and his will, dated at Calder, was proved in Edin- 
burgh. He married Margaret Cunynghame (who after his death became 
the wife of James Murehead of Lauchope). He was succeeded by his 
eldest son natural James, who was legitimated under the Great Seal 8 
June 1556. He died 24 January 1596, and was followed by his eldest son 
James, who married, before 1614, Margaret Hamilton (who is named in 
the infeftment of her son James). This James entailed Barbachlaw to 
his son and heir James, younger, whom failing, to revert to himself, 
whom failing, to William Cochrane of that Ilk. He was a Commissioner 
to Parliament for Linlithgow 1643-44, and died circa 1646, and was suc- 
ceeded by his grandson Alexander, who was infeft under the Privy Seal 
in 1646 in the 40s. lands of Barbachlaw, and had a Crown charter in 1647, 
and died before 1666. (Laing Charters, Nos. 312, 689-2503 passim, from 
which most of this statement is derived.) He was succeeded by his son 
Alexander, then a minor, who married, 2 January 1666, Helen, only 
daughter of James Bruce of Powfowls ; secondly, Margaret, daughter of 
Henry Maule of Balmakellie, second son of Patrick, Earl of Panmure. 
(Reg. de Panmure, ii. 376.) He was a Commissioner of Supply to Parlia- 
ment 1678-95, and died before 1697, when his son Alexander served heir 
to him. He was a Commissioner of Supply for Linlithgow in 1704, and 
died 1710, and was succeeded by his son Alexander, who was retoured 
heir to him in 1712. He was succeeded by his broth er Henry, who served 
heir to him in 1733. There is no proof of descendants to Henry Cochrane 
of Barbachlaw, but a Thomas Cochrane, bailie in Musselburgh, died 1774, 
leaving two sons, John and Archibald, who are described as of Cabbage 
Hall. The name ' Cabbage Hall ' has since become Linkfield, and included 
the farm of Barbachlaw. The Cochranes of Cabbage Hall or Linkfield are 
now represented by Charles Home Cochran of Ashkirk, Hawick, N.B., 
Captain, K.N. 



COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 341 

his heirs should decline to take the name of Cochrane, the 
heritable right was to pass to the next heir, and the lands 
and annualrents were not to be alienated in prejudice 
of that name. The contract was embodied in a charter 
under the Great Seal 7 February 1601. l The lands were to 
be held of the Crown in free blench. Alexander Oochrane 
of that Ilk succeeded his father-in-law in due course. He 
was a ' virtuous and frugal man,' and both conserved the 
property and greatly added to it. In 1616 he acquired the 
lands of Auchincreugh in Ayrshire, which were confirmed 
to him 30 July 1618. 2 A further acquisition was made in 
1623 by the purchase from James Spreull of the barony of 
Oowdown, in the parish of Neilstone, Renfrewshire. Alex- 
ander Oochrane 's charter of the barony is dated 23 April 
1623, 3 and in 1634 he resigned it, with the advice and 
consent of Elizabeth his spouse, to his second son William, 
afterwards first Earl of Dundonald. Alexander Cochrane 
was appointed Sheriff Depute of Renfrewshire in 1623. 4 
The last notice of him and his wife Elizabeth is on 12 
March 1640, when they ' f eued out ane seven shilling land ' 
of Hallshill to Richard Robeson. Alexander signs with 
his own hand, but James Gray, notary, signs for Elizabeth, 
she being unable to write. 5 

Alexander must have died before July of the following 
year, when his eldest son John is designated in witnessing 
a baptism as Colonel John Cochrane of that Ilk. Alexander 
had issue by his wife : 

1. John, born about 1604. 

2. WILLIAM, born about 1605, of whom afterwards. 

3. Alexander of Auchincreugh, colonel in the royal army, 

Commissioner of Militia for the shires of Ayr and 
Renfrew in 1668. 6 He married Agnes Richieson, 7 who 
died before 1668, and, dying about 1673, he left 
issue : 

(1) James, who was seised in Auchincreugh November 1673. 8 He 
married, first, March 1683, Marion, daughter and heiress 
of Hugh Peebles of Mainshill, and had issue by her a 
daughter Eupheme, baptized at Paisley 1684. He assumed 



1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Ib id. 3 Ibid. 4 P. C. Beg., xiii. 346. 6 Paterson's 
Ayrshire, ii. 507. Memoirs of the Montgomeries, ii. 330. 7 Paterson's 
Ayrshire, ii. 508. 8 Reg. of Sasines. 



342 OOOHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

the name and arms of Peebles of Mainshill in the parish of 
Beith, Ayrshire. He married, secondly, Ursula, daughter 
of William Hamilton of Brownmuir, in the parish of Beith, 
and had issue by her : 

i. James, whose will was proved in Glasgow 14 January 

1725. 

ii. Agnes, baptized at Paisley 31 March 1697. 
iii. Margaret, baptized at Paisley 21 January 1698. Will 

proved in Glasgow 14 January 1725. 
iv. Elizabeth, baptized at Paisley 2 October 1699. 
v. Susanna, baptized 19 February 1701 at Paisley. Will 
proved in Glasgow 14 January 1725. 

(2) William, who served heir to his mother 30 May 1668. l 

4. Hugh, of Ferguslie, colonel in the army, with which he 

served under Charles i. in Ireland, where he married 
Joan, eldest daughter of Henry Savage of Ardken, 
co. Down. 2 He was a Commissioner of Supply for 
Renfrewshire 1689-90, and acquired the estate of 
Ferguslie near Paisley, and left issue two sons and 
three daughters. 

5. Sir Bryce Cochrane, colonel. Born at Cochran Place 

about 1620. The date of his death is uncertain. His 
brother Gavin was his executor in 1673. 3 He married 
Elizabeth Napier, relict of ... Scot of Harlawood, 
Dumfriesshire, who survived her husband, but left no 
issue by him. 4 

6. Vchtred, educated at Glasgow, where his name is 

entered in 1640. 5 Captain in the Royal Navy. 

7. Gavin of Craigmure. Educated at Glasgow, where his 

name occurs 1641 ; 6 Commissioner of Supply for Ren- 
frewshire 1656-90. Died 1701. He married Margaret, 
daughter of James Cleland of Faskin, in Lanarkshire, 
with issue. She served heir to her brother William 
Oeland in the barony of Faskin 1700. 

8. Elizabeth, married to Captain John Lennox of Wood- 

head in Stirlingshire, who was killed at the battle of 
Auldearn. She survived him, and in 1647 made 
supplication to Parliament that she might be ex- 
empted from levies on her liferent lands as they had 
been laid waste ; which was granted. 7 

1 Paterson's Ayrshire, ii. 508. 2 Savages of Ards, by G. F. Armstrong, 
190. 3 Edin. Tests., 14 October 1673. 4 Ibid., 24 August 1677. 5 Mun. Univ. 
Glasg., iii. 94. 6 Ibid., iii. 96. 7 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. pt. i. 782. 



OOCHRANE, BAEL OF DUNDONALD 343 

9. Grizel, married to Thomas Dunlop of Househill. Born 
about 1615 at the Place of Cochran. 

Sir John Cochrane of that Ilk, Knight, was born about 
1604, and educated at Glasgow, where he took an M.A. 
degree in 1623. 

He entered the army and saw service in Ireland, where 
he acquired some land through his marriage. 1 On his return 
to Scotland he became an active Covenanter, and in 1639-40 
was engaged at the sieges of Oarlaverock and Threave. 2 
At this time he is mentioned as Colonel Cochrane of that 
Ilk. In 1641 he took an active share in the organisation of 
the plot known as the Incident, on the failure of which the 
officers of Colonel Cochrane were dismissed, and he himself 
was summoned to appear before Parliament. 3 But the 
matter ended in his being released without bail on the 
petition of Hamilton and Argyll the very men against 
whom the plot was directed. 

The following year (1642) Colonel Cochrane resigned his 
Scottish estates to his next brother William, 4 and King 
Charles sent him to Holland to solicit help in men and 
money for the royal cause. After his visit there he pro- 
ceeded with the English Ambassador to Denmark, where 
they were both 4 evill entreated and put in prison.' On 
being set at liberty he resumed his military duties, and 
was placed by Prince Rupert in command of Towcester. 5 
He next appears at the Royalist headquarters (Oxford), 
where he signed the 4 Solemn League and Covenant ' in 
company with Montrose, Crawford, Traquair, and many 
others. After another visit to Holland, Colonel, now Sir 
John Cochrane, proceeded as British Envoy to the King 
of Denmark. 6 Sir John Cochrane was most successful in 
raising money for the Court, and it was a noteworthy 

1 Letters from Ormond to Hyde, Clarendon State Papers, iii. 168, and 
The Ormond Papers, Hist. MSS., xvi. 324. 2 Baillie's Letters, i. 360. 
3 See Sir John Cochrane's deposition in the House of Lords MSS. ; 
Historical MSS. Report. A contemporary copy is among the MSS. at 
Traquair House. 4 In a charter under the Great Seal, dated at Edin- 
burgh, 19 December 1642 : 'The 5-merk lands of Cochrane, with the lands 
of Auchincreuch and Wester Craigenfeoch.' 5 Warburton's Memoirs of 
Prince Rupert, ii. 325. 6 Papers in connection with this are preserved 
among the Clarendon State Papers, and throw an interesting light on 
the shifts of the royal party. 



344 COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

achievement that when the news of the execution of 
Charles i. spread like wildfire through Europe and the 
Czar of Russia chased the British Envoy from his Court, 
and the Ambassador to France was compelled to leave the 
country, Sir John Cochrane, then British Minister to the 
Hamburg Senate, remained, and secured acknowledgment 
of the sovereignty of Charles 11. and a public audience for 
himself as his envoy. 1 

In 1650 Sir John Cochrane was prohibited by the Scottish 
Parliament from returning to his own country. In 1652 
Lady Cochrane was in prison in England (probably for 
assistance given by her to some of her husband's under- 
takings). She was discharged 26 February with an allow- 
ance for prison charges and ' 5 for present relief,' 2 with a 
pass for Sir John Cochrane to return to England, which he 
did in the following year. Until 1657 his name constantly 
occurs in various political negotiations. He was living in 
1657, but it is uncertain whether he witnessed that culmi- 
nation for which he worked so hard the Restoration of 
1660. The probability is that he did not do so. He 
married in Ireland Grace Butler, said to have been a 
cousin of the Duke of Ormonde, but is not known to 
have left issue. 

I. WILLIAM COCHRANE, second son of Alexander and 
Elizabeth Cochrane, was born 1605, and educated first 
at Paisley Grammar School, and afterwards at Glasgow 
University, where he was laureated in 1626. In later 
years he became closely associated with the government 
of the University, where he founded the Dundonald bur- 
saries. In 1632 he became Sheriff-Depute of Renfrewshire, 
and from that time onwards he was closely associated with 
the public life of the times. He visited Edinburgh in 1633 
on the occasion of King Charles i.'s public entry, and next 
year, 1634, he had, together with his wife, a charter of the 
lands of Cowdown, Woplaws, and Knockglass. 3 He acquired 

1 A copy of Sir John Cochrane's Memoir of his services was printed in 
Edinburgh in 1832, under the title of ' Sir John Cochrane's Relation of 
the particulars that have occurred in his negociations since his coming 
to Hamburgh, 1649': a MS., said to be the original of it, is among the 
Wodrow MSS. in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 2 Domestic State 
Papers, 1652. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 21 June 1634. 



COOHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 345 

the lands of Dundonald in 1638, which, by a novodamus of 
1641, was erected into a burgh or barony, an advantage 
never made use of. 1 He was granted in 1641 the ward and 
non-entries of the lands and baronies of Blair, with the 
gift of the marriage of John Blair, and he gained a further 
advantage by becoming about this time chamberlain to the 
Duke of Lennox. 

At the opening of Parliament in 1641 he was knighted by 
Charles i., and from this time onward Sir William Cochrane, 
who sat for Ayrshire, is found on all Parliamentary Com- 
mittees of importance. In 1645 he was made carrier of 
letters and instructions to the army in Ireland, 2 and on 
26 December 1647 was rewarded for his loyal services by 
being created LORD COCHRANE OF DUNDONALD, 3 
with remainder to the heirs -male of his body. He was 
active in raising jtroops for the royal cause, and became 
colonel of one of the two regiments raised in Ayr for the 
purposes of the ' Engagement,' a last endeavour on the 
part of Scotland to re-establish King Charles. The history 
of the movement was one of disaster, and in 1649 the 
Presbytery of Ayr refused to allow him to renew the 
solemn League and Covenant in consequence of his partici- 
pation in the Engagement. 

After the death of Charles on the scaffold it became 
impossible for loyalists to take any great share in public 
business, and it was not until Charles n. had entered his 
Scottish kingdom, and had been crowned at Scone, that 
Lord Cochrane's name again comes to the front. In the 
Parliament that opened at Perth in 1651, he was busy 
with the affairs of the army and the coinage, and later 
in the year was occupied in Ayrshire and Renfrewshire 
raising men for the army that was to be led by the King 
himself, a letter from whom to Lord Cochrane 4 shows how 
far from sanguine was the latter as to the possibilities of 
success. The battle of Worcester confirmed his worst fears. 
No Scottish Parliament met until the year 1656, and during 
this interval Lord Cochrane devoted himself to his private 
affairs. In 1653 he bought the lordship of Paisley from 
Archibald, Earl of Angus, for 160,000 Scots, and there 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 5 March 1638. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., 1645. 3 Re,g. Mag. 
Sig. * Autobiography of a Seaman, xxviii, Introduction. 



346 COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

he fixed his residence, and lived in great splendour. Lord 
Cochrane's share of the public penalty exacted by Cromwell 
under the name of an Ordinance of Pardon and Grace to the 
People of Scotland, was stated at 6000 sterling, but this 
sum was finally reduced to 1666, 13s. Id., 1 which makes 
rather an amusing comparison with the sum of 20,900, 
Lord Oochrane's contribution to General Monck for the 
purpose of the restoration of the King. 2 

After the restoration Lord Cochrane was appointed a 
privy councillor and Commissioner of Treasury and Excise 
in Scotland. On 12 May 1669 the King raised him to the 
dignity of an Earl, and conferred upon him the title 
of EARL OF DUNDONALD, LORD COOHRANE OF 
PAISLEY AND OOHILTREE, to himself and his heirs- 
male, whom failing, to the eldest heirs-female born of his 
body, without division, and the lawful heirs-male of the 
body of said eldest heirs-female (they bearing the name and 
arms of Cochrane, which they shall be held to assume), 
whom failing, his nearest heirs whomsoever. 3 

The Earl of Dundonald was predeceased by his eldest 
son, but he lived to see in his grandson an able exponent 
of his own views. He died 1685, aged eighty, and was 
buried at Dundonald. He married, before 1634, Euphame, 
daughter of Sir William Scott of Ardross and Elie, 
Director of Chancery, who survived him. They had 
issue : 

1. WILLIAM, Lord Oochrane. 

2. SIR JOHN COCHRANE of Ochiltree, Knight, founder of 

the line of Ochiltree (now Dundonald), was educated 
at Glasgow University, where his name occurs in 
1653. The estate of Ochiltree in Ayrshire had been 
acquired by the Earl of Dundonald in 1647 from 
Archibald Stewart of Blackball. 4 and was by him 
provided to his second son. In 1669, after he had 
received the honour of knighthood, Sir John entered 
Parliament to represent Ayrshire. His political and 
religious views were entirely at one with those 
of the shire, and he was throughout life in full 

1 State Papers, Domestic Series, 1655 ; Acta Parl. Scot., viii. 846. 
2 Autobiography of a Seaman (Introduction). 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. 62, 
No. 87. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig., 31 March 1647. 



COOHRANB, EARL OF DUNDONALD 347 

sympathy with those covenanting principles which 
distinguished the West of Scotland. In 1678-79 Sir 
John and his parish were fined 3000 merks for non- 
conformity, and had paid 5211, 7s. 8d. Scots for the 
quartering on them of the 4 Highland Host,' and he 
himself was put to the horn. After the battle of 
Bothwell Bridge, at which Sir John Oochrane escaped 
being made a prisoner, he proceeded south with the 
Duke of Hamilton and others in the hope that a 
personal interview with the King would win some 
leniency to his Scottish covenanting subjects, but 
the interview was without result. 

After spending some time in Holland, to which 
country he had been obliged to fly owing to his 
alleged complicity in the Rye House plot, he returned 
to Scotland and took part in the abortive rising of 
1685 headed by the Earl of Argyll. Sir John made 
an independent attack on Greenock, but was worsted 
in an encounter with the militia. He took refuge 
with his uncle's wife at Cochrane Castle, but she 
betrayed him to the dragoons. He and his son John 
were imprisoned under a process of treason, and 
though recent research goes to prove that his sen- 
tence did not exceed that of forfeiture, there is no 
doubt but that his family were under great anxiety 
lest a warrant of execution should be issued. A 
contemporary w r riter l gives the following : 

4 July 9th. The English Packet coming to Edin- 
burgh was twice stopped and robbed about Alnwick. 
Some conjectured it was Pol warts doing ; others that 
it was by Sir John Oochrane's friends, lest there 
should have been any warrant from the King by 
these packets to have executed him.' 

No warrant appears to have come to Edinburgh, and 
Sir John Oochrane and his son proceeded to London in 
the King's yacht. The Earl of Dundonald's influence 
was brought to bear in his son's interest, and by 
purchasing the forfeited estate of Waterside back 
from Lord Middleton (who had control of it) for a 
sum of 6000 (the estate being said to be worth 
1 Fountainhall's Decisions, p. 366. 



348 OOOHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

2000) lie secured freedom for Sir John Oochrane and 
his son, Waterside, yet they were detained in London 
some time, and Sir John did not return to Scotland 
till 1687, when he travelled north as a member of a 
royal commission to negotiate a basis of religious 
freedom for the kingdom. In 1690 he was restored to 
his estates, and in 1693 became a farmer of the Poll 
Tax. 

Sir John Oochrane was living on 23 June 1707, 
when his son William occurs as younger of Ochiltree, 1 
but he probably died this year, when his son served 
heir to him. He married at St. Paul's, Oovent 
Garden, Margaret, daughter of Sir William Strick- 
land of Boynton, co. York, Baronet (one of Crom- 
well's Lords of Parliament), the banns being published 
in March 1656. He had issue : 

(1) WILLIAM, who succeeded him. He married, 19 April 1681, 
Mary, eldest daughter of Alexander, second Earl of Kin- 
cardine, 2 upon whom at his marriage he settled the house 
and park of Carstoun and Steill with an annuity of 6000 
merks. Lady Mary served herself heir to her brother 
Alexander, third Earl of Kincardine, and also laid claim to 
the title, in which she was unsuccessful. She died after 
1739. William Cochrane was commissioned an officer of 
militia raised in the bailiary of Kyle on the accession of 
William of Orange, and was nominated a Commissioner of 
Supply for Ayrshire in 1686, 1689, 1690, 1704, and in the latter 
year for Renfrewshire. He was one of the guardians of 
John, fourth Earl of Dundonald. William Cochrane of 
Ochiltree died after 1716, when he made a disposition of his 
lands in favour of his second son Charles. He had issue : 
i. William, younger of Ochiltree, baptized at Ochiltree 
25 January 1682. 3 Educated at Glasgow University. 
Acted as procurator to his father and mother in their 
lawsuit versus Sir Alexander Bruce. He must have 
died between 1707 and 1716, when his brother Charles 
served heir to him. 

ii. Charles, of Ochiltree and Culross. Born 25 January 
1683 at Ochiltree. 4 He became a member of the 
Faculty of Advocates in 1708, and was seised in the 
barony of Ochiltree (which then included Trabeoch, 
Carbolls, Achill, and Clauchentown) 15 July 1717, on a 
disposition by his father to him dated 24 December 
1716. 5 He afterwards succeeded his mother in the 
estate of Culross, and died there unmarried 19 
September 1752. 



1 Ayrshire Sasines, vol. vii. pt. 1, f. 180. 2 Ibid., vol. v. ff. 41, 143. 
9 Par. Reg. * Ibid. 5 Ayrshire Sasines, vol. vii. pt. 2. 



COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 349 

iii. John, born at Ochiltree 20 August 1684. 1 He entered 
the Royal Navy and became lieutenant of the Eagle 
man-of-war, 2 and was lost with Sir Cloudesley Shovel 
on the coast of Scilly 21 October 1707. Died s. p. 

iv. Alexander, \>QYI\ at Ochiltree 20 August 1686. 3 Commis- 
sioned cornet in Lord Stair's regiment of Dragoons, 
and drowned at sea while carrying recruits from 
Holland. 4 Died 1708 or 1709 s. p. 

v. George, born at Ochiltree 5 June 1689. Entered the 
army, in which he became captain, and was killed in 
Spain 1709. Died s. p. 

vi. James, of Ochiltree and Culross, born at Ochiltree 
13 May 1690. 5 Commissioned captain the 20th 
Infantry, and rose to be lieutenant-colonel 15th 
Foot, and afterwards (26 April 1741) lieutenant- 
colonel oth Marines. 6 He succeeded to the estates 
of Ochiltree and Culross on the death of his brother 
Charles 1752, who in 1749 had executed a settlement 
of his estate in favour of him and his heirs-male, 
whom failing, to his respective younger brothers and 
their heirs-male, whom failing, to the heirs-female of 
J^mes. 7 He married Margaret Hawkison, 8 and died 
at Hampstead 29 June 1758, having missed his succes- 
sion to the Dundonald Peerage only by ten days. 
He left issue two daughters. 

vii. THOMAS, eighth Earl of Dundonald. 
viii. Robert, born at Ochiltree 20 November 1692, 9 and died 
unmarried 1721. 10 

ix. Basil. He entered the army, and when captain in 
the 44th Regiment of Foot (known as Lee's 
Regiment) he was taken prisoner at Preston. 11 He 
afterwards became Deputy-Governor of the Isle of 
Man. On 15 July 1761 he was appointed Commis- 
sioner of Excise, and in May 1764 a Commissioner of 
Customs in Scotland. He died unmarried at Dairy 
2 October 1788, and his will was proved in Edinburgh 
24 October of that year. 
x. Henriette, born October 1687. 

xi. Euphemia, married to Colonel John Erskine (said to 
have been the Colonel J. Erskine who was Deputy- 
Governor of Stirling Castle), and had issue. 12 

xii. Mary, born at Ochiltree 20 December 1694. Died 
unmarried. 

xiii. Elizabeth, living in 1759. Died unmarried. 

xiv. Anne, married, 1725, to Sir George Preston of Valley- 
field, Perthshire, Bart., and had issue. She died at 
ValJeyfield 7 November 1779. 13 



1 Par. Reg. 2 State Papers, cxix. 155. 3 Par. Reg. 4 State Papers, 
cxix. 155. 6 Par. Reg. c Millan's Succession, published 1745. 7 Douglas, 
Peerage. 8 Paterson's Ayrshire, i. 400. 9 Par. Reg. 10 Douglas, Peerage. 
11 Gentleman's Mag., 1745. 12 A daughter Mary, baptized in Edinburgh 
1715, who married Alexander Webster, D.D., and a daughter Elizabeth, 
baptized at Edinburgh 1717. 13 Ms. Pedigree, Valleyfield. 



350 COOHRANB, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

(2) John of Waterside, in the parish of Beith. He was baptized 

at Ochiltree 30 January 1602. He was forfeited 9 April 
1684 for having been with his father at the battle of Both- 
well Bridge. He was in Holland with his father when 
Charles n. died, took part in the Argyll invasion and shared 
the pardon granted to his father, when his lands were 
restored by a disposition, dated at Whitehall 1 March 
1688. 1 He married, contract 14 September 1687, Hannah de 
Werth, and had issue : 

i. John of Waterside, served heir-general to his father 
7 January 1729 : drowned crossing the Cumnock 
23 November 1752 ; 2 married, contract 11 August 
1733, Elizabeth, grand-daughter of James Cairns of 
Minniebuie, who died 4 January 1777. 3 
ii. James, Advocate 29 December 1724; Judge-Advocate 
25 March 1748, which office he eventually resigned in 
favour of his son William ; died at Grange House, 
Fife, 29 August 1762 ; * married, January 1731, Cecilia, 
daughter of Mr. George Oliphant, preacher, Edin- 
burgh. 

(i) William, Advocate 1759, succeeded his father 
as Judge-Advocate. Died at Marseilles, 20 
January 1766. 

iii. Charles, and other sons, and 
iv. Euphemia, and other daughters. 

(3) Grizel, married to John Ker of Morieston, co. Berwick. 



3. Grizeli married to George, Lord Ross. (See that title.) 

WILLIAM, Lord Cochrane, was educated at Glasgow 
University, where his name appears in 1648. 5 In 1660 he 
was Commissioner of Excise for Ayr and Renfrewshire. 
In 1663 he was made a Justice of the Peace, and in 1668 
captain of a troop of gentlemen horse raised as county 
militia. He was one of the commissioners to the estates 
of the Duke and Duchess of Monmouth and Buccleuch on 
3 April 1672, and before 1675 he had been made a member 
of Privy Council. Lord Cochrane was spokesman of a com- 
mittee of landowners who formed ' the party ' to make pro- 
test against the quartering of the Highland Host on the 
West of Scotland, and he took a prominent part in their 
unavailing efforts to establish an understanding between 
the Edinburgh Council and the Government in London. 
He died at Paisley 25 August, and was buried at Dundonald 
15 September, 1679. 6 

In 1653 he married Katherine Kennedy, second daughter 

1 Ayrshire Sasines, fourth ser., v. 219, 220; Reg. Mag. Sig., 16 March 
1688; Reg. of Deeds (Dab?.), 13 July 1688. 2 Scots Mag. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 
-' Reg. of Deeds, 30 October 1734. 6 Funeral entry in Lyon Office. 



COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 351 

of John, sixth Earl of Cassillis, by his wife Jean Hamilton, 
a daughter of the Earl of Haddington a family totally 
opposed in its religious views to those of the Earl of 
Dundonald. By the marriage-contract, dated 1653, Lord 
Oochrane disponed to the Master of Oochrane and the 
heirs-male of the marriage the lauds of Dundonald, Ochil- 
tree, and Oochraue, in which he was duly seised. Three 
years later the lands of Ochiltree were redisponed to 
Lord Oochrane, and the Master of Cochrane received in 
exchange the lordship of Paisley and lands of Glen. 1 
Lord Oochrane had issue : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded his grandfather as second Earl. 

2. William, of Kilmaronock, who was a Commissioner to 

Parliament for Renfrew 1689-1695, and for Dumbarton 
1703-1706, Wigtown 1708-1711. He was a Jacobite, 
and voted against the Act of Union. He was made 
Joint-Keeper of the Signet 1711. He married Grizel, 
third daughter of James, second Marquess of Mont- 
rose, and died August 1717, and his testament was 
confirmed in Glasgow 20 November of that year. 2 
He had issue : 

(1) William, born at Dumbarton and baptized April 1688. Ap- 

parently died young. 

(2) THOMAS, who became sixth Earl of Dundonald. 

(3) Catherine, born at Bonhill, September 1691. 3 Married to David 

Smith of Methven in Perthshire, and died 19 March 1772, 
leaving issue a daughter Catherine, who became heiress and 
sole executor to her aunt Christian Cochrane. 4 

(4) Isabella, married, as his third wife, to John Ogilvy of 

Balbegno, and had issue three daughters, Grizel, Catherine, 
and Anne. She died 21 December 1770 at Edinburgh. 5 

(5) Anne, died unmarried at Balbegno 6 May 1756. 

(6) Christian, who died unmarried 6 January 1778, and her will 

was proved in Edinburgh 15 September 1779. 

(7) Grizel, married to John Cochrane of Ferguslie. Her will was 

proved in Edinburgh 9 January 1754. She died 12 September 
1753. 

3. Thomas, of Polkellie, Commissioner of Supply for Ayr- 

shire, 1689. He is said to have married Diana, 
daughter and heiress of Sir David Ouninghame of 
Robertland. 7 Thomas Oochrane alienated the greater 
part of his estates and went to Flanders, where he 

1 Decisions of the Court of Session, Home, 197. 2 Glasgow Tests. 3 Par. 
Keg., Bonhill. * Edin. Tests., 15 September 1779. 5 Scots Mag. 6 Douglas, 
Peerage. 1 Ibid. 



352 COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

died in 1691, and his testament-dative was proved 
in Edinburgh 4 October 1694. 1 

4. Alexander, of Bollinshaw, Commissioner of Supply for 

Ayrshire 1704. He married Emilia, daughter of 
James Murray of Polton (parish of Lasswade), con- 
tract dated 15 September 1698, 2 and by her had, 

(1) Alexander, who succeeded his father in 1706, and died circa 
1709, when John, fourth Earl of Dundonald, succeeded to 
the estate of Bollinshaw. 

5. Margaret, married to Alexander, ninth Earl of 

Eglinton, contract dated December 1676. (See title 
Eglinton.) 

6. Helen, married to John, fifteenth Earl of Sutherland. 

(See that title.) 

7. Jean, born about 1662. Married, first, to John Graham 

of Olaverhouse, first Viscount of Dundee (see that 
title), contract dated at Paisley 9 June 1684, by 
whom she had issue a son, James, who died in 
infancy ; 3 secondly, to William Livingstone, third 
Viscount of Kilsyth, by whom she had a son. Vis- 
countess Kilsyth and her infant son were killed by 
the fall of a house in Utrecht, where she was living 
at the time, 1695, and her testament-dative was 
confirmed in Edinburgh 4 March 1700. 

II. JOHN, second Earl of Dundonald, was, like his father 
and grandfather, educated at Glasgow, where his name 
appears in December 1676/ Three years later his father 
died, and John, now Lord Oochrane, removed to Auchans, 
the manor-house of Oochrane, where he lived with his 
mother, Lady Katherine Kennedy. 

In 1680 he received from the Crown a confirmation under 
the Great Seal of the lordship and barony of Paisley. In 
1685 Lord Cochrane was made a Commissioner of Supply 
for Ayrshire and Renfrewshire, and during that year, while 
acting as captain of a troop of militia on the occasion of 
the Argyll invasion, he captured the fugitive Earl, and 
after taking him to the Place of Paisley, he sent him on to 
Edinburgh in his father's coach. 5 

1 Edinburgh Tests. 2 Ayrshire Sasines, fourth ser., vi. 303. 3 Born 
1689. 4 Mun. Univ. Glasg., iii. 132. 6 Twelfth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 
App. viii. 22, 1891. 



COOHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 353 

By the death of his grandfather in November of that year 
(1685), Lord Cochrane became Earl of Dundonald, but his 
name does not appear on the Rolls of Parliament till some 
years later. He was among the number of Scottish noble- 
men who went south to confer with William of Orange on 
the occasion of his entry into England, and his hotel bill at 
Berwick still remains a memorial of that journey. 1 In 
March 1689 a Convention of Estates opened at Edinburgh, 
and Lord Cochrane 's name appears subscribing a letter 
of congratulation to His Majesty King William m. The 
Estates next took measures to put the country in a posture 
of defence, and the Earl of Dundonald was appointed 
captain of a troop of Horse in the district known as the 
Bailiary of Kyle, in Ayrshire, Lord Montgomerie, his 
brother-in-law, acting as his lieutenant. On 29 April the 
Estates adjourned % leaving the executive in the hands of 
a committee, to which the Earl was also appointed. June 
saw the assemblage of the first Parliament of William 
and Mary, from which the Earl was excused on account 
of illness. He lived for nearly a year after this date, 
but as his name is entirely absent from the records of 
public business, it is probable that illness detained him at 
home. 

John, second Earl of Dundonald, died 17 May 1690, leaving 
three children, the eldest of whom was only five years old. 
His testament was confirmed in Glasgow 27 September 1732. 
He married (contract November 1684) Susannah Hamilton, 2 ' 
daughter of William and Anne, Duke and Duchess of 
Hamilton. She was married, secondly, to Charles, third 
Marquess of Tweeddale, whom she survived, and died 
7 February 1737. By her first husband she had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded as third Earl. 

2. JOHN, who became fourth Earl. 

3. Anne, born at Paisley in 1685, and baptized there 

September 4. She probably died young. 

III. WILLIAM, third Earl of Dundonald, was only four 
years old at the time of his father's death, and was brought 
up under tutors and trustees, amongst whom were James, 

1 See Laing MSS. in the University at Edinburgh. 2 Reg. of Deeds 
(Dowie), 18 Oct. 1722. 

VOL. III. Z 



354 OOOHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

Duke of Hamilton, his uncle ; John, Earl of Tullibardine, 
the Earl of Montgomerie, William Blair of that Ilk, and 
others. He was served heir to his father 28 October 1690, 
in his lands in the shires of Ayr, Renfrew, Dumbarton, and 
in annualrents over the lordships, lands, barony, and 
regality of Alloa, in the county of Clackmannan, the lands 
of St. Germains, Ohesterhall, and Grundykes, in the shire 
of Haddington, and also over the baronies of Douglas and 
Monklandwester, in Lanarkshire. 1 He did not, however, 
enjoy his possessions long, as he died at Paisley in 1705, 
aged nineteen years. His testament-dative was given up 
in Glasgow 19 February 1728. 

IV. JOHN, fourth Earl of Dundonald, succeeded his brother 
William in 1705, having been up to that date known as 
Cochrane of Southenan his estate in the parish of Kil- 
bryde, which eventually was sold to Alexander, ninth Earl 
of Eglinton. He was born at Paisley 4 July 1689, and 
at twelve years of age entered Glasgow University. 2 In 
1694 he appears as Commissioner of Supply for Renfrew- 
shire, an office which he held until the following year, when 
Scottish taxation was placed upon an Imperial basis. At 
the first election of Scots Representative Peers after the 
Union of Scotland with England, the Earl voted, but his vote 
was subsequently disallowed on account of his being under 
age. Being therefore unable to take any share in politics, 
he devoted himself to the affairs of his immediate neighbour- 
hood, and reconstructed, enlarged, and beautified the Place 
of Paisley. At the general election of 1713 the Earl was 
chosen a Representative Peer. In 1716 he succeeded John, 
Duke of Argyll, as colonel of the 4th Scottish Horse Guards. 3 
In 1717-18 the Earl was at Hampton Court as Lord-in- 
waiting, probably in the household of the Prince of Wales. 

In June 1720 the fourth Earl of Dundonald died suddenly, 
leaving behind him a reputation of philanthropic piety, and 
many evidences of happy domestic life. He married, first, 

4 April 1706, when only seventeen, Anne, second daughter 
of Charles Murray, first Earl of Dunmore, 5 said to have 

1 Special Retours. 2 Mun. Univ. Glasg., iii. 173. 3 Precedency of Cols., 
pub. 1742. 4 V. Leeds Correspondence, Brit. Mus., add. MSS. 28050, fol. 148. 

5 Par. Reg. Cramond. 



OOOHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 355 

been famous for her beauty and ' very devote and charit- 
able.' She died of smallpox at Paisley, 30 November 1710. 1 
The Earl married, secondly, 15 October 1715, Mary Osborne, 
second daughter of Peregrine, second Duke of Leeds, and 
widow of Henry, second Duke of Beaufort, who had died 
24 May 1714. By the Duchess, who died 4 February 1722, 
Lord Dundonald had no issue : by his first wife he had one 
son and three daughters, the latter remarkable for their 
beauty, which was celebrated by William Hamilton of 
Bangour, in a poem written to their honour. 2 They and 
the Duchess, their stepmother, are spoken as Beautez du 
premier rang, by the author of L'eloge d'Ecosse et des 
Dames ficossaises. 3 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded him as fifth Earl. 

2. Anne, born in the parish of Oanongate, Edinburgh, 

22 February. 1707. She was married, 14 February 
1723, to her first cousin, James, fifth Duke of Hamilton, 
and second Duke of Brandon (see title Hamilton), 
and had issue. She died 14 August 1724, aged 
eighteen. The Earl of Dundonald had made a dis- 
position of his honours and estates in favour of her 
heirs-male, failing those of his own body. 

3. Susan, who received a bond of provision from her 

father, registered 13 August 1720, of the sum of 
30,000 Scots. She was married, first, to Charles, 
sixth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorn, by banns 
proclaimed in the parish of Edinburgh 25 July 1725. 
This Earl died 11 May 1728, leaving no issue, and she 
was married, secondly, to Mr. George Forbes, her 
factor, Master of the Horse to the Chevalier St. 
George (King James vin.), the marriage taking place 
2 April 1745. By her second husband she had issue 
one daughter, Susan Janet Emilia, born in Holland, 
17 May 1746. Lady Susan died a Roman Catholic at 
Paris 24 July 1754, and her will was proved at Edin- 
burgh 15 February 1766, by Mr. George Forbes on 
behalf of their daughter. 

4. Catherine, who received from the Earl of Dundonald 

1 Letters of Lord Pollock, 1835, privately printed, p. 21. 2 Poems and 
Songs of William Hamilton of Bangour, ed. pub. 1850, 72. 3 Mr. James 
Freebairn. 



356 OOOHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

a bond of provision like that of her sister Susan. She 
married, as his second wife, by proclamation at 
Edinburgh, 5 January 1729, Alexander, Lord Garlies, 
afterwards sixth Earl of Galloway. (See that title.) 
She died at Bath, 15 March 1786, having survived 
Lord Galloway thirteen years. 

V. WILLIAM, fifth Earl of Dundonald, was born in 1708, 
and appears to have been weakly throughout his life. In 
consequence of this, his father executed a deed in 1716 by 
which, failing the heirs-male of his own body, the honours 
should be represented by the heirs-male of his eldest 
daughter Anne, whom failing, by the heirs-male of his 
other daughters in succession. 

A few years after his succession the young Earl, acting 
under the advice of his curators, made a deathbed settle- 
ment in favour of his cousin Thomas Oochrane of Kilmaro- 
nock, dated 25 January 1725, by which he constituted him 
heir of entail and sole executor. This, however, led to the 
litigation that followed on his death, which took place two 
days after the execution of the deed, at the age of seven- 
teen years. His testament was given up by Thomas, sixth 
Earl of Dundonald, executor decerned to him by the Com- 
missary Court of Glasgow, and proved 3 June 1725. 

VI. THOMAS, sixth Earl of Dundonald, who now assumed 
the title, was born in 1702, and was known up to the time 
of his succession to the family honours as Thomas Cochrane 
of Kilmaronock, son of William Cochrane of Kilmaronock, 
grandson of the first Earl (see p. 351). 

On the death of his cousin, the fifth Earl of Dundonald, 
he became, by virtue of a clause in the original entail, 
heir-male to the title and entailed estates of Dundonald, 
and was further strengthened in his right by the death- 
bed deed of his cousin entailing the honours and property 
to him. The fourth Earl of Dundonald had, however, 
executed a gratuitous deed of entail in favour of the heirs- 
male of his daughter Anne (who had married the fifth Duke 
of Hamilton), whose son, the Marquess of Clydesdale, now 
disputed the succession. After a lawsuit the decision of 
the Court of Session placed Thomas Cochrane of Kilmaro- 



! 






COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 357 

nock in possession of the title and entailed estate, and left 
the Marquess of Clydesdale heir of provision to the unen- 
tailed property. The sixth Earl was granted, February 
1727, a charter under the Great Seal of his lands in the 
shires of Peebles, Lanark, Renfrew, Ayr, and Dumbarton. 
In 1729 the estate of Kilmaronock was sold to the Duke of 
Mont rose. 

The Earl died at Paisley 28 May 1737, 1 and his will, dated 
at Paisley, was proved by his widow at Glasgow 12 August 
in that year. He married, October 1727, Katherine, second 
daughter of Lord Basil Hamilton of Baldoon, sixth son of 
William and Anne, Duke and Duchess of Hamilton, who 
survived her husband forty-two years, and died at Bath 
13 April 1779. They had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, seventh Earl of Dundonald. 

2. Basil, who entered the Royal Navy, and died un- 

married at Portsmouth 6 September 1748. 

3. Mary, died unmarried in Durweston Street, London, 

16 March 1805. 2 

4. Katherine, married to William Wood of Nether Gallow- 

hill, died 4 October 1776, and had issue. 

5. Charlotte, buried at Holyrood 10 May 1790. 3 

VII. WILLIAM, seventh Earl of Dundonald, born at Paisley 
in October 1729, was eight years old at his father's death. 

There are several contemporary accounts of a spirited 
adventure that he undertook when sixteen years of age on 
the occasion of the invasion of 1745. On hearing that 
Prince Charles Edward had established himself at Edin- 
burgh, the young Earl of Dundonald escaped from his 
curators, and hiring horses, set out one Sunday morning from 
Glasgow for the capital. 4 He reached the city by nightfall, 
and thinking it would make his entrance more practicable if 
he joined another party, he overtook a coach and six that 
contained Lochiel's wife and children. On reaching West 
Port they found the gate closed, and Lord Dundonald's 
man called out to the Highland Guard to open the gates to 
some of the Prince's people. His loud voice reached the 

1 Gentleman's Mag. 2 Ibid., Ixxv. 293. 3 Holyrood Burial Reg. : she 
is merely described as * daughter to the Earl of Dundonald.' 4 Caledonian 
Mercury, Monday, 28 October 1745, 



358 COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

Castle, which General Preston was defending for the 
Government. Three guns were promptly loaded with grape- 
shot, depressed, and fired on the cavalcade, with the result 
that the man who had called out was killed, and Lord 
Dundonald's horse was shot under him. Lord Dundonald 
stayed in Edinburgh two days, but did not join the Prince's 
army, in spite of the example of his cousin and trustee, 
William Oochrane of Ferguslie. 

In 1750 the Earl went to Holland and obtained, 8 March, a 
commission as captain in the regiment of Scots Hollanders 
then commanded by Major-General Stuart. 1 He appears to 
have returned to Scotland in 1753, when we find him taking 
an active part in the improvement of the town of Paisley. 

Lord Dundonald finally joined the 17th Foot, then 
under the command of General Forbes. With this regi- 
ment he embarked for America in 1757, their ultimate 
destination being Louisberg, a fortress on Cape Breton 
Island, which, however, was not reached until 1758. Dur- 
ing the siege of the fortress Lord Dundonald was killed, 
9 July 1758. He was twenty-nine years old, and, dying 
unmarried, he was succeeded in his title by his cousin, 
Major Thomas Oochrane of Gulross and Ochiltree. 

VIII. THOMAS, eighth Earl of Dundonald, who succeeded 
his cousin, was the grandson of Sir John Oochrane of Ochil- 
tree. (See p. 349 supra.) He entered the army as cornet 
in the Royal Dragoons, and became Fort Major of Fort 
St. Philip in Minorca, which he left in 1715, and returned 
to Great Britain. 2 He then became captain of a company 
in Major-General Thomas Whetham's regiment, the 27th 
Foot (commission dated St. James's 21 January 1716). 3 He 
became M.P. for Renfrewshire in 1722. In 1730 he was 
made a Oommissioner of Excise for Scotland, on which 
board he sat for many years. 

At the time of the Jacobite Rising of 1745, Major Ooch- 
rane and his second wife were living in Edinburgh, and 
after the evacuation of the city Major Oochrane took part 
in the proceedings which were instituted against Archibald 
Stewart, the Provost, in whose hands the defence of the 

1 London Gazette, 1749. 2 Robertson's Appeal Cases, 1707-27, p. 558. 
3 Home Office Military Entry Book, vol. ii. 



COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 359 

city had been left. His deposition on this occasion is to 
be found in the State Trials 1747, and shows that he 
pleaded for the defence of the city, or failing the possi- 
bility of its defence, the destruction or storage of the 
King's arms, so as to avoid their falling into the hands of 
the rebels. 

The Earl of Dundonald acquired the estate of Grange of 
Romanno, 1 afterwards known as La Mancha, in the parish 
of Newlands, Peeblesshire. He lived there many years, and 
greatly improved the property. The Earl died at La Mancha 
27 June 1778. 

Thomas, eighth Earl of Dundonald, married, first, about 
1721, his first cousin, Elizabeth, daughter of James Ker of 
Moriestoun and Grizel Oochrane (daughter of Sir John 
Oochrane of Ochiltree), who died in 1743. He married, 
secondly, 6 September 1744, 2 Jean, daughter of Archibald 
Stuart of Torrance, co. Lanark. She has been the subject 
of eulogy by many writers. She survived her husband by 
many years, living alternately at La Mancha and Belleville, 
Edinburgh, but finally, at the age of eighty-six, she travelled 
to London, and died in the house of her son Basil, in Port- 
man Square, 21 March 1808. 3 The Earl of Dundonald had 
issue : 

1. William, born circa 1722, who died in the eighth year 

of his age, 1730. 

2. Argyll, born 1746, and died young. 

3. ARCHIBALD, ninth Earl of Dundonald. 

4. Charles, born 12 January 1749, and baptized 13 January 

in Edinburgh. 4 Entered the army. A.D.O. to Lord 
Cornwallis, and killed at New York 18 October 1781. 5 
He married Catherine, daughter of Major Pitcairn 
(Royal Marines), and by her had issue a son and 
daughter, who both died young. She married, 
secondly, Charles Owen Cambridge, and died 24 
October 1835. 

5. John, born 3 July 1750. Deputy Commissary to the 

forces in North Britain 1793. Married at St. Mary- 
lebone, London, 7 May 1800 . . . daughter of . . . 

1 Chambers's History of Peeblesshire, 780. 2 Scots Mag. 3 Edinburgh 
Evening Courant, 2 April 1808. 4 Edin. Par. Reg. 6 Caldwell Papers, 
vol. iii. p. 345. 



360 COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

Birch of Pinner, who died with her infant son 1801. 
He died in Harley Street, London, 21 November 1801. 1 

6. James Atholl, born 23 October 1751. Vicar of Mans- 

field, married Mary Smithson, and died 1823. She 
died 15 March 1867, aged eighty-nine. 

7. Basil, born in the Palace of Holyrood 22 April 1753. 

In the Madras Civil Service. Married, 13 August 
1812, at Whitton Place, Caroline, sister of George 
Gosling, relict of Rev. S. Lawry. He died 14 August 
1826. She died 2 October 1837. 

8. Thomas, died young. 

9. George, died young. 

10. Alexander Forrester Inglis, Admiral, G.C.B., born 

22 April 1758. He married, at New York, April 
1788, Maria, daughter of David Shaw, and widow of 
Captain Sir Jacob Wlieate, Bart., R.N. She died 
18 March 1856, and he died 29 June 1832, after a 
distinguished naval career, leaving issue, from whom 
is descended Charles Wallace Alexander Napier Ross 
Cochrane-Baillie, second Baron Lamington. 

11. George Augustus Frederick, born 26 November 1762, 

lieut.-colonel. M.P. for Grampound. Died unmarried. 

12. Andrew James Cochrane Johnstone, born at Belle- 

ville, near Edinburgh, 24 May 1767. He married, first, 

20 November 1793, 2 Georgiana, daughter of James, 
third Earl of Hopetoun, when he assumed the name 
of Johnstone ; she died 17 September 1797. Secondly, 

21 March 1803, Amelia Constance Gertrude Etienette, 
widow of Monsieur Godet of Martinique, and only 
child and heiress of Baron de Clugny, Governor of 
Guadaloupe. By his first wife he had a daughter, 

Elizabeth, born 26 December 1794, married, 28 March 1816, to 
William John, ninth Lord Napier, and died 6 June 1883. 

13. Grizel, born July 1727, who died unmarried. 

14. Elizabeth, baptized in the parish of Edinburgh, 16 

August 1745. She was married, 14 November 1775, to 
Patrick Heron of Heron, and died 19 February 1811. 

IX. ARCHIBALD, ninth Earl of Dundonald, second, but 

1 Gent's Mag., Ixxi. 1059. 2 Ibid., vol. Ixiii. 1051. 



COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 361 

eldest surviving son, was born 1 January 1748. He entered 
the Army as cornet in the 3rd Dragoons in 1764, but preferring 
the Navy, he became a midshipman under Captain Stair 
Douglas. 1 He was afterwards promoted to be acting lieu- 
tenant of a vessel employed on the coast of Guinea, where 
he first displayed his talents of scientific observation. 
On returning to Scotland he lived at Oulross Abbey, and 
devoted himself to the development of the surrounding 
coalfields, and made important discoveries in relation to 
coal products ; and in 1785 he obtained an Act of Parlia- 
ment vesting in him and his assigns for twenty years the 
sole use of such products throughout his Majesty's 
dominions. Among them was the application of coal tar 
as a covering for ships' bottoms, which at that time were 
unprotected from the ravages of worms. He discovered the 
illuminating power pf gas, and demonstrated it by means of 
a pipe improvised from a gun barrel, on applying fire to the 
end of which a vivid light illuminated the banks and waters 
of the Forth, but of this discovery he never made any use. 
The chemistry of manufacture absorbed much of his atten- 
tion, and he was actively engaged in processes for the 
production of carbonate of soda, alumina, sal ammoniac, 
and other chemicals used in manufactures, and wrote 
numerous pamphlets explaining his patents. 

He was among the first who drew attention to the inti- 
mate connection between agriculture and chemistry, on 
which subject he published a treatise. He also demon- 
strated the value of malted grain as a food for cattle, and 
published a treatise on the use of salt refuse as a manure ; 
but neither these nor his patents of manufacture, many of 
which have been proved to be of universal utility, ever 
recouped him for the money spent on their development, 
and at the end of a long and busy life the Earl of Dun- 
donald found himself in great poverty. In 1823 he was 
granted a pension by the Literary Fund Society. 

The Earl died at Paris 1 July 1831. 

He married, first, at Annsfield, 17 October 1774, Anne, 2 
second daughter of Captain Gilchrist of Annsfield, R.N., 
and had issue by her, who died 13 November 1784. 

1 Public Characters, vol. 1809-10, p. 277. 2 Par. Reg., Hamilton, 
Lanarkshire. 



362 OOOHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

He married, secondly, in London, 12 April 1788, Isabella, 
widow of John Mayne of Teffont Evias, co. Wilts, and 
daughter of Samuel Raymond of Belchamp Hall, co. Essex. 1 
She died December 1808, without issue. 

He married, thirdly, in April 1819, Anna Maria, eldest 
daughter of Francis Plowden, Esq., LL.D., an Irish his- 
torian. 2 She died 18 September 1822. 3 

The ninth Earl of Dundonald had issue 

1. THOMAS, tenth Earl of Dundonald. 

2. James Gilchrist, died young. 

3. Basil, lieutenant-colonel 36th Foot. Died 14 May 1816. 4 

4. William Erskine, major 15th Regiment Dragoons, 

married Mary Ann, daughter of Alexander Manson, 
and died 16 March 1871. She died 22 October 1860. 
They had issue. 

5. Archibald, captain Royal Navy. Died 6 August 1829. 

Married, 11 January 1812, Hannah Jane, daughter of 
Arthur Mowbray of Sherburn Hall, co. Durham, who 
died 8 October 1864, with issue. 

6. Charles, died young. 

7. Anne, born 10 March 1777. 5 

8. Dorothy, only child by the third marriage, born 

March 1820, died 3 October 1830. 

The Earl had also an illegitimate daughter, Janet, who 
was married, first, to Major Thomas Woodhall, 12th Regi- 
ment, and secondly, 8 June 1807, to Sir George Tuite, Bart. 
She died 21 February 1845. 

X. THOMAS, tenth Earl of Dundonald, was born at Anns- 
field in Lanarkshire 14 December 1775, and became well- 
known throughout the world as an admiral of the first 
rank. In 1793 he joined his first ship, the Hind, then 
under the command of his uncle, Captain Alexander For- 
rester Cochrane, and two years later became acting 
lieutenant of the Thetis, then on the American station. 
On his return to England he was appointed to the Fou- 
droyant, and proceeded to the Mediterranean, where he 
served under Lord Keith. He first distinguished himself 
when in command of the Speedy, a brig of 158 tons, and 

1 Gentleman's Mag. 2 Annual Register, vol. Ixi. p. 110. 3 Gent.' & 
Mag., ci. p. 172. * Ibid., Ixxxvi. p. 637. 5 Hamilton Par. Reg. 



COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 363 

during his thirteen months' command of her he succeeded 
in capturing upwards of 50 vessels, 122 guns, and 534 
prisoners; and in 1801 he was advanced to post rank. 
After an interval he was appointed to the Pallas, a 32-ton 
frigate, with which he made remarkable captures of prizes 
off the Azores; and later, in the Bay of Biscay, with 
this small ship and only forty men on board, he chased 
and drove ashore three French corvettes, each of them 
being in size and numbers more than a match for the 
Pallas. 

At the General Election of 1806 he became member for 
Honiton, and in 1807 for Westminster, being returned for 
that city at the head of the poll. In Parliament his main 
object was to draw attention to naval abuses ; and this, 
like many other of his actions, giving offence to the Admir- 
alty, he was ordered out to the Mediterranean. 

In 1809, after his brilliant defence of Rosas, Lord Coch- 
rane was commissioned to destroy the French squadron, 
then assembled in the Basque Roads. The attack^ by 
means of fire-ships, was successful on 1 April, and resulted 
in the stranding of all but two of the French fleet. On 
arriving in England he was honoured with a K.B., but 
by his opposition to the Parliamentary vote of thanks 
to Lord Gambier in the House of Commons, secured a 
court-martial on his senior officer, who, being tried by a 
friendly court, was honourably acquitted, while Lord 
Cochrane, having by his constant devotion to the reform 
of naval abuses irritated both the Admiralty and many 
members of the Government, was placed on half-pay. 

In 1814 he was the victim of a Stock Exchange plot to 
raise the prices of stocks by spreading rumours of the 
death of Napoleon. The trial which ensued, and which is 
well known, resulted in his imprisonment and a fine of 1000. 
His name was struck off the Navy List, he was expelled 
from the House of Commons, and from the number of the 
Knights of the Bath, but within a few days was unani- 
mously returned member for the City of Westminster, with 
a resolution that he was perfectly innocent of the Stock 
Exchange fraud. He, however, underwent his term of 
imprisonment, and was finally induced to pay his fine of 
1000. Later on he was reimprisoned on a charge of 



364 COCHRANE, EARL OP DUNDONALD 

having previously escaped from the King's Bench, his 
defence being that he had been illegally imprisoned. His 
fine on this occasion was 100, which was paid by subscrip- 
tions spontaneously collected by his constituents. 

In 1817 he accepted an offer from the Chilian Govern- 
ment, and proceeded to Valparaiso, where he commanded 
the Chilian Navy against Spain, and by his brilliant services 
secured the freedom of that country and of Peru, being 
for his services created Knight of the Order of Merit of 
Chili. 

In 1823 he entered the service of the Emperor of Brazil, 
and became that country's ' First Admiral ' and the Father 
of the Brazilian Navy, which owed its creation to his 
administrative abilities. On his resignation of this com- 
mission he was created Marquis of Maranham and Grand 
Cross of the Cruzero of Brazil by the Emperor. In 1825 he 
accepted the command of the Greek Navy, then embarking 
on the War of Independence, an office which he held till 
the end of the war in October 1827. He was then created 
Knight of the Saviour of Greece. Returning to England, 
Lord Cochrane succeeded his father in 1831, and in 1832, 
under William iv., he received, in answer to his petition 
for a re-investigation of his trial, a ' free pardon.' This, 
though not giving him the re-investigation he hoped for, 
was followed eventually by his being restored to his rank 
in the navy. He was reinstated in the Order of the Bath 
and created G.O.B. 25 May 1847, and gazetted as a rear- 
admiral 23 October 1854. The Earl then devoted himself 
to the mechanical inventions for which he had inherited 
his father's genius. He constantly urged upon Govern- 
ment the necessity of adopting steam power, and himself 
disbursed enormous sums in trying to solve the problems 
of steamship building, while, though he never succeeded in 
constructing a really successful steamer, he demonstrated 
in his Janus the lines on which future improvements were 
to be effected, many of which were subsequently adopted. 
In 1848 Dundonald was appointed Commander-in-chief on 
the West Indian and North American station, where he 
served for three years. At the outbreak of war with 
Russia he urged the adoption of his 'Secret War Plans.' 
These had been prepared by him in 1811, but though they 



GOCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 365 

were admittedly considered to be an infallible method for 
the complete destruction of the enemy, yet owing to their 
very magnitude they have never been put in force. 

The last few years of the EarPs long and brilliant career 
were lightened by his re-admission to those honours of 
which he had been so ruthlessly deprived in 1814, and by 
the recognition of and enthusiasm for the great personal 
qualities which had endeared him to so many nations 
through more than half a century. He died in London 
31 October 1860, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, 
where his grave, even now, is an object of pilgrimage to 
the grateful Brazilians, whose representatives yearly place 
a wreath on the spot. 

He married first, secretly, at Annan, 8 August 1812, and 
then openly, 22 June 1818 (both being styled unmarried 
persons), at Speldhurst, co. Kent, Katherine Frances Cor- 
bett, daughter of Thomas Barnes of Romford, co. Essex, 
who survived him, and died, 25 January 1865, at Boulogne. 
By her he had issue : 

1. THOMAS BARNES, eleventh Earl of Dundonald. 

2. Horatio Barnardo William, born 8 March 1818. Served 

in 92nd Gordon Highlanders. Married, 29 October 
1844, Frances Jacobina, only daughter of Alexander 
Nicholson, and widow of George James Carnegie. 
She died 25 July 1881. He died s. p. 6 February 
1900. 

3. Sir Arthur Auckland Leopold Pedro, K.O.B., born 

24 September 1824. Admiral R.N., distinguished 
himself at the siege of Acre, commanded H.M.S. 
Niger, and was wounded at the destruction of the 
Chinese fleet June 1857. Died 20 August 1905. 

4. Ernest Grey Lambton, captain R.N., born 4 June 

1834. Married, first, at Free Town, 15 September 
1864, Adelaide, daughter of Major Samuel W. Black- 
wall, Governor of Sierra Leone. She was born 1841, 
and died 8 October 1864. He married, secondly, 16 
October 1866, Elizabeth Frances Maria Catherine, 
only child of Richard Doherty of Red Castle, co. 
Donegal, and has issue. 

5. Elizabeth Josephine, born 6 March 1820, died 21 March 

1821. 



366 COCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 

6. Katherine Elizabeth, born 9 December 1821, married 
27 February 1840, to John Willis Fleming of Stoneham 
Park, Hants, and died at Florence 25 August 1868. 

XI. THOMAS BARNES, eleventh Earl of Dundonald, was 
born 18 April 1814. He entered the 66th Foot, and served 
with that regiment through the Canadian Rebellion of 
1837-38. In 1841 he joined the China Expedition, and 
was present at the investment of Nankin, and in 1846 
was appointed Quartermaster - General to the Forces in 
China. 

He patented improvements in the production of hydro- 
carbons and oils from bituminous substances. He was a 
Representative Peer of Scotland : he died at Hyde Park 
Place 15 January 1885. 

He married, 1 December 1847, Louisa Harriet, daughter 
of William Mackinnon of Mackinnon, who died 24 February 
1902, leaving issue : 

1. Thomas Alexander, born 10 April, died 25 July, 1851. 

2. DOUGLAS MACKINNON BAILLIE - HAMILTON, who suc- 

ceeded. 

3. Thomas Horatio Arthur Ernest, born 2 April 1857. 

Educated at Eton, was formerly in the 93rd High- 
landers, and served in the Scots Guards and the 
4th Battalion of the Argyll and Sutherland High- 
landers. Served in South Africa as Assistant Provost- 
Marshal 1900. J.P., co. Fife, and member for North 
Ayrshire since 1892. Deputy-Lieutenant for Ren- 
frewshire. Under-Secretary of State for the Home 
Department from 1902. Married, 2 December 1880, 
Gertrude, eldest daughter of George Frederick, 
Earl of Glasgow, and has issue four sons and four 
daughters. 

4. Louisa Catherine Emma, born 1 September 1848, mar- 

ried, 30 June 1873, to Edward, second Baron O'Neill 
of Shanes Castle, co. Antrim, and has issue. 

5. Alice Laura Sophia, born 8 September 1849. Married, 

27 July 1878, to George Onslow Newton, who died 
7 December 1900, leaving issue. 

6. Elizabeth Mary Harriet, born 22 June 1854. 

7. Esther Rose Georgina, born 15 February 1856. 



OOCHRANE, EARL OF DUNDONALD 367 

XII. DOUGLAS MACKINNON BAILLIE - HAMILTON, O.V.O., 
C.B., the twelfth Earl, was born in Scotland 29 October 
1852. He was educated at Eton, and entered the army July 
1870. In 1884 he went to the Soudan in command of a detach- 
ment of the Camel Corps in the expedition for the relief of 
Khartoum. For his distinguished services in this campaign 
he was mentioned in dispatches and received the medal 
with two clasps, and the Khedive's bronze star, with the 
brevet of lieutenant-colonel. In 1889 he reached the rank 
of full colonel in the army, and in 1895 commanded the 
2nd Life Guards. On the outbreak of the South African 
War in October 1899 he went to Natal as a volunteer, and 
Sir Redvers Buller gave him the command of the mounted 
troops in Natal on 22 November. In command of this 
brigade, consisting mainly of colonial irregulars, he took 
a prominent and successful part in all the fighting of the 
Natal army. For "these services he was mentioned six 
times in despatches, received the medal with six clasps, 
and was promoted to the rank of major-general for dis- 
tinguished service in the field. 

In January 1885 he succeeded his father in the title, and 
the same year was elected one of the sixteen Representa- 
tive Peers for Scotland. He is the author of numerous 
inventions of considerable value. 

On 20 July 1902 he was gazetted to the command of the 
Canadian Militia, which he held until 1904. He is the 
author of a scheme for the reorganisation of the Canadian 
Militia on entirely new lines, which has been adopted, and 
he wrote a new drill and training-book, suitable both for 
cavalry and infantry, which is likely to have a very wide 
application. He also reorganised the cadet corps system, 
and created various other organisations for the improve- 
ment of the militia. Married, 18 September 1878, Winifred, 
daughter of R. Bamford-Hesketh, Esq., of Gwrych Castle, 
Abergele, and has issue : 

1. THOMAS HESKETH DOUGLAS BLAIR, LORD COCHRANE, 

born 21 February 1886. 

2. Douglas Robert Hesketh Roger, born 24 June 1893. 

3. Grizel Winifred Louise, born 14 May 1880. Married, 

1 March 1904, at Westminster Abbey, to Ralph 
Gerard Alexander Hamilton, Master of Belhaven, 



368 COOHRANE, EARL OP DUNDONALD 

only son of Alexander Charles, Lord Belhaven and 
Stenton. 

4. Jean Alice Elaine, born 27 November 1887. 

5. Marjorie Gwendolen Elsie, born 18 December 1889. 

CREATIONS. 27 March 1647, Lord Cochrane of Dundonald ; 
12 May 1669, Earl of Dundonald, Lord Cochrane of Paisley 
and Ochiltree. 

ARMS. Argent, a chevron gules, between three boars* 
heads, erased, azure. 

CREST. A horse passant argent. 

SUPPORTERS. Two greyhounds, argent, collared and lined 
or. 

MOTTO. Virtute et Lahore. 

[K. P.] 



SETON, EARL OF DUNFERMLINE 




LEXANDER SETON, 

fourth son of George, 
Lord Seton, by Isabel, 
daughter of William 
Hamilton of Sorn and 
Sanquhar, High Trea- 
surer of Scotland, was 
born in 1555. From his 
godmother, Queen Mary, 
he received as 4 ane 
god - bairne gift ' the 
lands of Pluscarden in 
Moray, with which he 
was otherwise afterward 
identified. 'Finding of 
him of a great spirit ' his 
father sent him to Rome 
at an early age, with the 
view of his entering the Church, and he studied for some 
time in the Jesuits' College. According to Spottiswoode, 
Seton took holy orders abroad, and the assertion appears to 
be confirmed by Scotstarvit, who mentions that ' his chalice 
wherewith he said Mass ' at his home-coming was sold in 
Edinburgh. The establishment of the Reformed Religion in 
Scotland is supposed to have induced young Seton to abandon 
his ecclesiastical pursuits and to betake himself to the study 
of the Civil and the Canon Law. After a residence of seven 
years in France he returned to Scotland to prosecute his 
legal studies, and ultimately was called to the Bar about 
1577, when he was twenty-two years of age. In 1583 he 
accompanied his father, Lord Seton, in an embassy to Henry 
in. of France, and on 27 January 1586 he was admitted as an 
extraordinary Lord of Session. In 1587 the lands of Urquhart 

VOL. III. 2 A 



370 SETON, EARL OP DUNFERMLINE 

and Pluscarden were erected into a barony and granted to 
him, and on 16 February 1588 he was promoted to the posi- 
tion of an ordinary lord under the title of Lord Urquhart, 
but the suspicion of his still being a Roman Catholic 
appears to have excited the jealousy of the court. 1 It has 
been generally supposed that his elevation to the peerage 
did not take place till 1597, when he was created LORD 
FYVIE, with remainder, failing heirs-male of his body, to 
his next elder brother, Sir John Seton of Barns, in like 
manner, 2 but there seems to be good reason for holding 
that 4 Urquhart ' was something more than a judicial title, 
and that he was ennobled under that designation several 
years earlier than has hitherto been believed. Crawfurd ex- 
pressly states that he was l advanced to the dignity of a 
Lord of this Realm ' on 3 August 1591. 3 Five years after 
his appointment as an ordinary judge he was elected to 
the President's chair, at the comparatively early age of 
thirty-eight, and continues to be styled 'Urquhart.' His 
last appearance under that designation is on 8 December 
1597, after which he is entered as ' Fy vie, preses,' though 
his formal creation as a Lord of Parliament was not until 
4 March 1597-98. 4 His last appearance as President is 
10 March 1604-5. 5 He was one of the ' Octavians,' or 
persons named for the management of the Exchequer, and 
popularly so styled. It has been stated 6 that he was in- 
trusted with the tuition of Prince Henry till he went to 
England in 1603; this is doubtful, but he certainly had 
the charge of Henry's younger brother, afterwards King 
Charles I. Early in 1604 Seton was appointed Vice- 
Ohancellor and also a Commissioner for the incorporate 
Union of England and Scotland. In order that this 
favourite measure of King James might secure the full 
benefit of Seton's legal knowledge and political sagacity, 
the Earl of Montrose was persuaded to resign the office 
of Chancellor, which was bestowed upon Seton in 1604. 

On 4 March 1604-5 Seton was created EARL OF DUN- 
FERMLINE, with the remainder to himself and his heirs- 

1 Books of Sederunt. 2 Wood's Douglas's Peerage gives 4 March 1598 
as the date of the creation, but he appears as ' Fyvie, preses ' in the 
Sederunt of 20 December 1597. 3 Peerage, p. Ill ; see also State Paper 
Office MSB., vol. xlviii. No. 62. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 Ibid. 6 Douglas's 
Peerage. 



SETON, EARL OF DUNFERMLINE 371 

male. The Earl was one of the Commissioners who 
pronounced the ' Decreet of Ranking ' of 1606 regulating 
the precedence of the Peers of Scotland. In 1608 he 
resigned the provostship of Edinburgh, an office which he 
had held for ten years, and in the following year was made 
a Privy Councillor of England, and was appointed joint- 
commissioner with the Earl of Dunbar to represent His 
Majesty in the Convention of Estates. 1 The Chancellor, 
like his father, was a patron of the turf, and he presented 
a * sylver race bell double overgilt ' to be run for at Dun- 
fermline. 2 On 6 April 1611 he got a charter of novodamus 
of the lands and baronies of Urquhart and Py vie, the lands of 
Dalgetty and Danduff, which were all incorporated into the 
earldom of Dunf ermline and lordships of Fy vie and Urquhart. 
He was also on the same day appointed Keeper of the Palace 
of Holyroodhouse, an, office which had become vacant through 
the death of the Earl of Dunbar. Lord Dunfermline was 
appointed Commissioner to the Parliament of 1612. 

In 1621 the now venerable Chancellor addressed a curious 
letter to Sir Robert Kerr of Ancrum. Although written a 
little more than a year before his death and containing a 
touching allusion to his advancing years, it indicates the 
possession of no inconsiderable amount of vigour as well as 
of a calm and contented mind. He quaintly writes : ' I hope 
shortlie to discover my port. . . . Ego jam post terga reliqui 
sexaginta annos and f y ve maa ; bot I think tyme now [to] 
be mair circumspect, noch sa reddie to tak meikill in hand 
for monye respects. ... I have been twayis or thrise this 
spring ellis at Archerie, and the same bowis that served me 
40 yiers sence fittis me als weill now as eiver and ar als far 
at my command.' The port to which the Chancellor referred 
was nearer than he imagined. After a very brief illness he 
ended his career at Pinkie on 16 June 1622, in the sixty- 
seventh year of his age. In a circumstantial description of 
his funeral 3 the body is said to have been embalmed and 
removed to Dalgetty three days after his death, at which 
place he was buried on 9 July. Besides distinguishing 
himself highly both in the fields of law and politics, the 
Chancellor was no less eminent in other departments. His 

1 Crawfurd's Lives, 156. 2 Records of the burgh of Dunfermline, 19 A pril 
1610. 3 Lyon Office MS. 



372 SETON, EARL OF DUNFERMLINE 

skill in architecture is testified in the ornamental additions 
which he made to his house at Pinkie, and still more in the 
stately and beautiful castle of Fyvie which he built, while 
his fondness for heraldry is shown in the numerous coats of 
arms displayed in that mansion. It has been truly said of 
him that he 4 may certainly be regarded as having been 
versatile and many-sided in no ordinary degree. . . . Up to 
the beginning of the seventeenth century he was unques- 
tionably the greatest lawyer that had been privileged to 
preside in the Oourt of Session; and in the successful 
discharge of the duties of the higher office of Chancellor, 
which he filled for the long period of eighteen years, he 
was probably not surpassed by any of the other distin- 
guished men who held the same important position.' 

The Earl of Dunfermline married, first, before 1 July 1592, 
Lilias, second daughter of Patrick, third Lord Drummond, 
and sister of James, first Earl of Perth. She died in Dalgetty 
8 May 1601. He married, secondly (contract 27 October 
1601), Grizel Leslie, fourth daughter of James, Master of 
Rothes, and sister of John, sixth Earl of Rothes. She died 
6 September 1606. He married, thirdly, in 1607, Margaret 
Hay, daughter of James, seventh Lord Hay of Tester. She 
was married, secondly, in 1633, to James, Lord Almond, after- 
wards first Earl of Oallander, and was buried, 20 January 
1659, with her first husband at Dalgetty. 

By his first wife he had. 

1. Anne, married before June 1610 to Alexander Erskine, 

Viscount Fentoun, only son of Thomas, first Earl 
of Kellie (who predeceased his father), and had 
issue. 

2. Isabel, born 1 August 1594, married, before 18 June 1610, 

to John Maitland, afterwards first Earl of Lauder- 
dale, by whom she had fifteen children, and died 
2 November 1638, and was buried at Haddington. 

3. Margaret, born 15 June 1596. 

4. Margaret (secunda), born 8 August 1599, married to 

Colin Mackenzie, first Earl of Seaforth, died 20 
February, and was buried 8 March 1630 at Dalgetty. 1 

5. Sophia, married, at Dunfermline, 16 February 1611-12, 

to David, first Lord Lindsay of Balcarres. 

1 Funeral entry, Lyon Office. 



SETON, EARL OP DUNFERMLINE 373 

By his second wife he had : 

6. Charles, died young. 

7. Lilias, died unmarried. 

8. Jean ( 4 ane very comely wenche '), married in 1621 to 

John Hay, afterwards first Earl of Tweeddale. 
By his third wife he had : 

9. CHARLES, second Earl of Dunfermline. 

10. Grizel, born 26 December 1609, 1 4 a brave lady, who 

lived to a good age, but would never marrie though 
she had nobile suitors.' 

11. Mary, died young. 

12. Another child was probably born toward the end of 

November 1615. 

II. CHARLES, second Earl of Dunfermline, was born in 
1608, and succeeded his father at the age of fourteen. His 
tutor was the Chancellor's nephew George, third Earl of 
Winton, who 'keepit.him and his sister Grizel and their 
servantts in his house, free gratis, all the years of his 
tutary.' He appears to have done well by his cousin, as at 
the expiry of his office he left him the estate free of all 
debt. Notwithstanding a statement of doubtful accuracy 
that he had largely wasted his means by gaming and other 
extravagance a few years after his majority, 2 Lord Dun- 
fermline seems to have lived by no means a useless life. 
He was frequently at the English Court with King 
Charles I., to whom he acted as Gentleman of the Bed- 
chamber. On more than one occasion he commanded a 
regiment in the Scots army. On 24 April 1607 he had a 
charter of novodamus of the bailiary and justiciary of 
Dunfermline, which was ratified by the Scottish Parliament 
in 1641. King Charles i. gave him a three nineteen years' 
tack ' of the lands pertaining to the abbacy of Dunfermline,' 
stated to have been of the value of 20,000 per annum. 
The Earl acted as Commissioner to the General Assembly 
of the Church which met at St. Andrews in 1642. After 
the execution of King Charles I. in 1649, Lord Dunfermline 
went to Holland to attend upon Charles n., with whom he 
returned to Scotland the following year. At the Restora- 
tion in 1660 he was made a member of the Privy Council ; 
1 Dunfermline Register. 2 Staggering State, 17. 



374 SETON, EARL OF DUNFERMLINE 

and 2 November 1669 he was appointed an extraordinary 
Lord of Session, holding also the office of Lord Privy Seal. 
He died, in 1672, on or about 11 May, at Seton House, 1 and 
was buried at Dalgetty, having taken a considerable part 
in the public business of his time, it being expressly stated 
by Parliament that 4 he hath deserved weel of the publick 
as a loyall subject to the King, a faithful servant to the 
Estates of Parliament, and a true patriot to his countrie.' 
Although the Earl appears to have entered warmly into the 
earlier movements of the Covenanters, he is said to have 
gradually veered round to the side of the Royalists. He 
married Mary Douglas, third daughter of William, Earl of 
Morton, who died at Fyvie in 1659, and left issue : 

1. Charles, Lord Fyvie, born 1640, and died v. p., being 

killed in one of the King's ships of war in a sea fight 
against the States of Holland in 1672. 

2. ALEXANDER, third Earl of Dunfermline. 

3. JAMES, fourth Earl of Dunfermline. 

4. Henrietta, married, first, in September 1670, to 

William Fleming, fifth Earl of Wigtown ; and, 
secondly, as his second wife, to William, eighteenth 
Earl of Crawford. She died 8 April 1681. 
And other daughters, who died young or unmarried. 

III. ALEXANDER, third Earl of Dunfermline, succeeded 
his father in 1672, but died, unmarried, in 1675, at Edin- 
burgh, and was buried at Dalgetty. 

IV. JAMES, fourth Earl of Dunfermline, was left by his 
father and brother in considerable debt, ' but by his virtuous 
wise carriage he has extricat himselfe of the greatest part 
of that trouble, and by his good and wise manadgment, not 
only preserves but improves his estate to his great com- 
mendation and honour.' In his younger days he served 
in various expeditions with the Prince of Orange. On his 
succession to the title he returned to Scotland, and had 
a charter of the lordship of Urquhart 25 April 1684. He 
attached himself to the cause of King James vii., and com- 

1 He executed a writ of assignation in favour of his son, Lord Fyvie, 
on 11 May, at Seton House, and was then too weak to sign the docu- 
ment. He probably died that day, or shortly after it. (Reg. of Deeds, 
Mack., xxxi., 11 May 1672.) 



SETON, EARL OF DUNFERMLINE 375 

manded a troop of horse under Viscount Dundee at the 
battle of Killiecrankie in 1689. Lord Dunfermline's social 
position and military reputation were such that after the 
death of Dundee he would have received the command but 
for the unwelcome commission produced by Colonel Cannon, 
who was ultimately confirmed in the command of the 
Jacobite army by the King. The Earl was outlawed 
and forfeited by Parliament in 1690. He followed King 
James vii. to St. Germains, and had the Order of the 
Thistle conferred upon him. He died at St. Germains 26 
December 1694. He married Jean Gordon, third daughter 
of George, fourth Marquess of Huntly, but by her, who sur- 
vived him, and was living 4 March 1695, he had no issue. 1 

CREATIONS. 4 March 1597-98, Lord Fyvie; 4 March 
1605, Earl of Dunfermline. 

ARMS. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Or, three crescents 
within a double tressure flory counterflory gules, for Seton ; 
2nd and 3rd, Argent, on a fess gules three cinquefoils of the 
first, for Hamilton of Sanquhar. 

CREST. A crescent gules. 
SUPPORTERS. Two crescents gules. 
MOTTO. Semper. 

[G. S.] 

1 A claim has been made to this Peerage by James Seton, Esq., styling 
himself Baron Seton of Andria. He alleges that the fourth Earl left a 
daughter, Grizel, from whom he is descended, and that the destination 
of the Peerage was altered from heirs-male to heirs-general by a Royal 
Letter of 1620. 



GALLOWAY, LORD DUNKELD 




B. PATRICK GALLO- 
WAY, son of Thomas 
Galloway, baxter, burgess 
of Dundee, 1 and Christian 
Nicoll, was minister of 
Easter Fowlis in 1576. 2 
Translated to Perth, he 
was admitted to that 
charge 25 April 1581. 3 
He seems to have been 
suspected by King James 
vi. of attachment to the 
Gowrie interest, and 
found it necessary to 
seek refuge in England 
in May 1584. 4 He was 
summoned before the 
Council, and failing to appear, was outlawed 6 June 1584, 5 
but returned to duty at Perth in November of the following 
year. 6 On 11 February 1589-90 he left Perth to assume 
charge as Minister of the King's House. 7 In the year 
1600 he was one of the most prominent of His Majesty's 
supporters against the Gowrie family, 8 but he was never- 
theless removed from court at the Queen's instance in June 
1601. 9 He sat in Parliament 12 June 1590, and served on 
commissions connected with Church affairs in 1592, 1596, 
and 1606 ; 10 was elected Moderator of the General Assembly 

1 Protocol Book of Alexander Wedderburn the elder, f. 2, 14 Novem- 
ber 1577, Dundee Council Chambers 4a. 2 Scott's Fasti, pt. vi. 
vol. iii. 719. 3 Chron. of Perth, Maitland Club, 1831, p. 4. 4 Calderwood's 
Hist, of the Kirk, iv. 38 ; Scott's Fasti, pt. iv. vol. ii. 610. 5 P. C. Reg., 
iii. 670. 6 Bannatyne Misc., i. 110. 7 Chron. of Perth, loc. cit. 8 Calder- 
wood. vi. 77, 78. ' Ibid., vi. 135. 10 Ada Parl. Scot. 



GALLOWAY, LORD DUNKELD 377 

4 August 1590, and again 10 November 1602 ; and became 
one of the ministers of Edinburgh in June 1607. 1 He died 
between 1 January 2 and 10 February 1626. 3 

He married, first, in May 1583, 4 Matillo Guthrie (probably 
a daughter of Alexander Guthrie, Common Clerk of Edin- 
burgh), 5 who died in the month of June 1592. By her 6 he 
had issue : 

1. William, who died v. p. 1 

2. JAMES, of whom after. 

3. Dorothy, who was married, as his first wife, shortly 

after 8 December 1604, 8 to Mr. William Adamson 
of Craigcrook. 9 

4. Christian. 10 

Mr. Patrick married secondly, before 14 June 1598, 
Katherine Lawson, 11 widow of Gilbert Dick, merchant, 
burgess of Edinburgh. 12 She is said to have been daughter 
of Mr. James Lawson, one of the ministers of Edinburgh, 13 
and a very eminent man ; but it seems more probable 
that William Lawson, a merchant in Edinburgh, was her 
father. 14 

I. Mr. JAMES GALLOWAY (afterwards first Lord Dunkeld), 
only surviving son, 15 was appointed Master of Requests 3 
March 1627, having previously officiated in that capacity. 16 
On 23 June 1628 he and one Nathaniel Udwart had a grant 
of the monopoly of casting iron ordnance in Scotland for 
twenty-one years. 17 He was knighted before 22 February 
1631, on which date he and Udwart had a grant for thirty- 
one years of another monopoly for producing salt by a new 
process of evaporation discovered by the latter. 18 He was 
admitted Privy Councillor 5 August 1630, on a royal war- 
rant dated 5 May 1628, 19 and his name appears again in the 

1 Scott's Fasti, pt. i. vol. i. 151. 2 Edin. Tests., 18 May 1626. 3 Edinburgh 
Burgess Rolls of date. 4 Kirk Session Reg. of Perth, 21 April 1583, cited in 
Wilson's Presbytery of Perth, 169 ; Scott's Fasti, pt. i. vol. i. 8. 5 Ms. Note 
by the late Mr. Alexander Sinclair. 6 Edin. Tests., 27 November 1594. 
7 Ibid., 18 May 1626. 8 Protocol Book of Mr. Alexander Guthrie, Edin. 
City Chambers, xv. 34. 9 Reg. of Deeds, Dxxxii., 23 November 1641; 
Ibid., DxL, 27 July 1642. 10 Edin. Tests., loc. cit. " Reg. of Deeds, 
Ixxii. 266. 12 Reg. of Inhibitions, Edin., x. 191. 13 Crawfurd's Peerage, 
122. u Reg. of Deeds, loc. cit. ; Edin. Burgess Rolls ; Edin. Tests., 24 
August 1588 and 7 March 1599. 15 Edin. Tests., 18 May 1626. 16 Reg. Sec. 
ig., xcix. 213. 17 Reg. Mag. Sig. ; P. C. Reg., 2nd series, ii. 296. 18 Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 10 P. C. Reg., 2nd series, iv. 2, 3. 



378 GALLOWAY, LORD DUNKELD 

commission constituting a new Council, dated 27 March 
1631. l He was nominated member of a commission for the 
valuation of teinds 28 June 1633. 2 On 10 October 1634 he 
was served heir-general to his father. 3 He was one of the 
Commissioners of Exchequer, and served on the commission 
for prosecuting persons accused of harbouring Jesuits. 4 On 
26 March 1640 he was appointed Auricularius (secretary 
or amanuensis) 5 to the King in Scotland, 6 and in a charter 
dated 20 June 1641, appointing him Master of Minerals in 
Scotland, he is styled Secretarius. 1 On 22 July 1642 
William, Earl of Lanark (afterwards second Duke of 
Hamilton), having petitioned Parliament, and proved that 
the office of Secretary of State for Scotland had been con- 
ferred on him in the previous year, Sir James was pro- 
hibited from assuming the title, or performing the functions, 
of that office. 8 On 21 October 1641 he had a grant of the 
right of nominating clerks, procurators-fiscal, and other 
ministerial officers of the Commissary Courts, patronage 
which had devolved on the Crown in consequence of the 
suppression of the Episcopate. 9 He was appointed Master 
of Bequests in vitam aut culpam 16 November 1641. 10 He 
approved himself a most faithful servant to King Charles i. 
in the times of his greatest exigency, 11 and was raised 
to the Peerage by the title of LORD DUNKELD, with 
remainder to the heirs-male of his body, 15 May 1645. 12 He 
died at Westminster 13 in the month of November 1660, u 
and was buried at St. Margaret's Church 2 December. 15 

He is said to have married a daughter of Sir Robert 
Norter, Knight, and to have had by her 1$ a son, 

II. THOMAS, second Lord Dunkeld. On 14 December 
1660 he took out letters of administration to his father's 
estate, 17 for which he was also decerned executor-dative in 
the Scottish form, 18 and he was served heir-general to his 
father 3 May 1662. 19 He had a charter of the barony of 

' P. C. Reg., 2nd series, iv. 188. 2 Ada Parl. Scot., v. 37a. 3 Retours, 
Inq. Gen., No. 2075. * Reg. Mag. Sig., 14 and 21 October 1634. 5 Ducange, 
i. 866. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 7 Ibid. 8 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. 182. 9 Reg. Mag. 
Sig. 10 Acta Parl. Scot., v. 407b. n Crawfurd's Peerage, 122. 12 Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 13 Admon. Book, 1660, Somerset House. 14 Edin. Tests., 2 
August 1661. 15 Complete Peerage, in. 217. 1G Crawfurd's Peerage, 122. 
17 Admon. Book, supra cit. He is therein designate filius naturalis et 
legitimus. 18 Edin. Tests., 2 August 1661. 19 Retours, Inq. Gen., No. 4569. 



GALLOWAY, LORD DUNKELD 379 

Carnbee, co. Fife, 13 January 1671. * He died before 3 
August 1684. 2 

He married, 29 July 1662 (the contract being dated 25 
July), 3 Margaret Thomson, daughter of Sir Thomas Thom- 
son of Duddingston, first Baronet. 4 She was baptized 25 
May 1643. 5 On 6 June 1707 she had a disposition of the 
forfeiture of James, (third) Lord Dunkeld, her son, from 
David Bethune of Balfour, the Grown grantee ; who nar- 
rated in the deed that his charter of the lands had been 
procured for him gratis by the family, and that his name 
had only been made use of in trust. 6 Sasine followed on 19 
December 1709. 7 Lady Dunkeld was alive 31 December 
1725. 8 By her Thomas, Lord Dunkeld, had issue : 

1. JAMES, who succeeded ; of him after. 

2. Mr. William, baptized 28 November 1669. 9 Dead be- 

fore 7 March.1701. 10 

3. Mr. Thomas. 11 Dead before 7 March 1701. 12 

4. John, born between 7 March and 4 August 1680. 13 

He married, postnuptial contract (in which he is 
designate second, i.e. second surviving son) dated 
7 March 1701, Elizabeth Hay, second daughter of 
Sir George Hay of Pitcullen, and relict of James 
Rattray of Oraighall Rattray. 14 On 16 February 
1705 he had a charter, with his spouse, of the barony 
of Baldovie, co. Fort'ar, 15 of which she had been 
served heir - portioner along with her sister, 30 
October 1696. 16 He died s. p. 17 28, and was buried at 
Grey friars 30, August 1731. 18 

5. Andrew, 19 who died s. p. 20 

6. Margaret, baptized 4 June 1663, buried 9 March 

1669. 

7. Catherine, baptized 26 June 1665. 21 She was married, 

1 Beg. Mag. Sig., Ixii. No. 311. 2 Kirk Session Reg. of Carnbee. 3 Reg. 
of Deeds, Dal., 1 January 1666. 4 Reg. of Mar., Duddingston. 6 Reg. of 
Bapt., ibid. 6 Reg. of Deeds, Mack., 31 January 1724. r Gen. Reg. of 
Sasines, xcvii. 274, 4 January 1710. 8 Decreet of date, Mack., cclxvi. 
pt. ii. 9 Canongate Reg. 10 Reg. of Deeds, Mack., 29 August 1701. 
11 Bond of provision dated 15 April 1679, narrated in Reg. of Deeds, 
Durie, xcii., 1 November, booked 30 November 1699. 12 Reg. of Deeds, 
Mack., 29 August 1701. 13 Contract of marriage, infra cit., and ratifica- 
tion of the same. u Reg. of Deeds, Mack., 29 August 1701. 15 Reg. Mag. 
Sig. , Ixxxi. 81. 1G Retours, Inq. Spec. , No. 544. 17 Decreets, Durie, ccccxx. , 
22 January 1745. 18 Reg. of Greyfriars. 19 Gen. Reg. Sas., xcvii. 274, 4 
January 1710. 20 Decreet of 1745, supra tit. 21 Canongate Reg. 



380 GALLOWAY, LORD DUNKELD 

as his second wife, 1 to Thomas Forbes of Waterton, 
co. Aberdeen (banns given in 25 March 1698), 2 and 
was alive 31 December 1725. 3 

8. Jean, baptized 4 April 1667. 4 Alive and unmarried 

31 December 1725. 5 

9. Anne, baptized 29 December 1668 ; she seems to have 

been buried 22 December 1669. 

10. Elizabeth, baptized 6 February 1671. 6 She was mar- 

ried to Mr. John Falconer, minister of Oarnbee 7 
(afterwards consecrated Bishop of Dundee and placed 
in charge of the district of Brechin, and D.D.), 
and had issue. 8 She died in the month of March 
1691. 9 Her husband died at Inglismaldie 6 July 
1723. 10 

11. Mary, baptized 7 May 1673. 11 She seems to have 

died young. 

12. Margaret, born 1678. 12 She was married, 31 July 

1701, 13 to Thomas Rattray of Oraighall Rattray, 
co. Perth 14 (who afterwards took orders, and be- 
came Bishop of Dunkeld and Primus), 15 and had issue. 
She died 26 September 1737. 16 

13. Grisell, born after 15 April 1679. 17 She was mar- 

ried to Patrick Orichton of Orunan, 18 who, on 
14 July 1732, was served heir of line and provi- 
sion general to Thomas Orichton of Ruthvens, his 
brother. 19 Patrick Orichton is elsewhere styled 
1 Ohirurgeon in Dundee.' 20 

III. JAMES, third Lord Dunkeld, was baptized 2 July 
1664. 21 He succeeded his father before 3 August 1684, 22 
and took his seat in Parliament 29 April 1686. 23 He is said 

1 Memoranda relating to the family of Forbes of Waterton, Aberdeen, 
1857, pp. 11, 12, and pedigree ii. ; Macfarlane's Genealogical Collections, 
Soot. Hist. Soc. 34, ii. 235. 2 Carnbee Par. Reg. 3 Decreet of 1745, supra 
cit. 4 Edin. Reg. 5 Decreet of 1725, supra cit. 6 Canongate Reg. 7 De- 
creet of 1725, supra cit. 8 Fasti, part iv. vol. ii. 413. 9 St. Andrews 
Tests., 13 September 1699. 10 Fasti, loc. cit. n Carnbee Reg. 12 Acts and 
Decreets, Mack., cxxxvii., 15 January 1702. 13 Fam. Reg., printed in 
Notes and Queries, 7th series, i. 493. 14 Par. Eeg. of Sas., Perth, xvi. 
159. u Diet, of Nat. Biog., xlvii. 312. 16 Fam. Reg., supra cit. 17 Eeg. 
of Deeds, Durie, xcii., 1 November, booked 30 November 1699. 18 Decreet 
of 1725, supra cit. 19 Decennial Index of Services. m Family Papers of 
the Forbeses of Waterton. 21 Canongate Reg. 22 Vide supra. 23 Act a 
Parl. Scot., viii. 579a. 



GALLOWAY, LORD DUNKELD 381 

to have seen his first military service in Hungary. 1 At 
the revolution he adhered to the cause of King James vn., 
joined Viscount Dundee, and was present at Killiecrankie, 
17 June 1689 ; which fact being proved before Parliament, 
he was forfeited, attainted, and condemned to death as a 
traitor 14 July 1690. 2 He fled to France, where he took 
service in the army, and obtained the post of lieutenant- 
colonel in Dillon's Regiment (Infanterie Irlandaise), with 
the rank of colonel reformed He was killed at the battle 
of Oassano, 16 August 1705. 

He married Eleanor Sale, 4 who was alive 28 April 1718. 5 
By her he had : 

1. JAMES,* only son ; of him after. 

2. Mart/, who became a nun in the Convent of Val de 
Grace at Paris, and died there in 1785. 7 

JAMES GALLOWAY,*WIIO but for the attainder would have 
succeeded his father as fourth Lord Dunkeld, was born at 
St. Germain-en-Laye, 12 November 1704. He entered the 
Gardes du Corps du Roi on 1 January 1722, and the Garde 
de la Manche in 1724. He seems to have been known in 
the service as the Comte de Dunkeld, 8 and his seal bore a 
1 couronne de Comte ' ; 9 but his commissions were addressed 
to Le Sieur Dunkeld, or de Dunkeld. 10 He was appointed 
captain reforme in Clare's Regiment (Infanterie Irlan- 
daise), 14 June 1731, and to the command of a company, 
with the rank of colonel, 2 April 1736. He obtained the 
cross of Chevalier de St. Louis, 11 April 1743, and the rank 
of brigadier of infantry, 1 May 1745. On 27 July 1747 he 
was granted a pension of 3000 livres for distinguished 
conduct at the head of the Irish Brigade at the battle of 
Laeffelt (or Val), on the 2nd of the same month. He was 
appointed Marechal de Camp, 10 May 1748. On 1 August 
1749 he was permitted to vacate his company in Clare's 
Regiment, and he did not serve again in the field. He had 

1 Grameid, Scot. Hist. Soc. 3, 157. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., ix. App. 64b. 
3 The position of an officier reforme resembled that of an officer on 
half -pay in the English service. 4 Archives du Minister e de la Guerre, 
Paris. 5 Family Papers, etc., ut supra. 6 Archives, etc., ut supra. 

7 Memoranda, etc., ut supra, letter from her signed ' Mary Galloway of 
Dunkeld,' dated 20 March 1739, printed at p. 47 ; p. 15 n., and pedigree iv. 

8 Archives, etc. 9 Family Papers, etc. 10 Original Commissions among 
the family papers. 



382 GALLOWAY, LORD DUNKELD 

been present in the campaigns of 1733-34-35 and 1743 on 
the Rhine, and those of 1744-45-46-47-48 in Flanders. 1 He 
is said to have had a brevet letter to act as lieutenant- 
general, but to have applied for and obtained leave to retire 
in consequence of some disappointment ; and apartments 
were assigned to him in the Chateau de Vincennes. 2 He 
died 18 February 1780, 3 and was buried in the church at 
Vincennes. 4 

He married Marie Marguerite Angelique Le Rat, 5 with- 
out surviving issue. Some years before his death he married, 
without surviving issue, the widow of a M. D'Ancelin. 6 

CREATION. 15 May 1645, Lord Dunkeld. 

ARMS, recorded in Lyon Register. Argent, a lion 
rampant azure, armed and laugued gules. 

CREST. A mound bespread with the rays of the sun 
proper, embraced betwixt two corn ears saltireways, and 
ensigned with a [cross-] crosslet or. 



SUPPORTERS. Two eagles volant proper. 
MOTTO. Higher. 



[R. E. B.] 



1 Archives du Minister e de la Guerre. 2 Memoranda, etc., 15 n. ; 
ibid., pedigree iv. 3 Archives, etc. 4 Memoranda, etc., loc. tit. 
5 Archives, etc. 6 Memoranda, etc., loc. cit. #;&. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 



ORD CHARLES MUR- 
RAY, second son of John, 
first Marquess of Atholl, 
by Amelia Anne Sophia, 
his wife, daughter of 
James, seventh Earl of 
Derby, was born 28 Feb- 
ruary 1661 at Lord Derby's 
seat, Knowsley. In 1609 
several grants were made 
by the States General of 
the United Provinces to 
the children of the Prince 
of Orange, one of whom, 
Charlotte of Nassau, 
Princess of Orange, mar- 
ried the Duke de la 
Trimouille. Her son 
conveyed his share to his sister Charlotte, Countess of 
Derby, who gave it to her daughter, the above-men- 
tioned Marchioness of Atholl, and she in 1682 to her son 
Lord Charles. 1 In 1678 he raised a troop of dragoons, 
to which, in 1681, two other troops were added, the three 
being incorporated into a regiment called the Royal Scots 
Dragoons, now Scots Greys. Of this regiment he was given 
the active command, under the sign-manual of the King, 
25 November 1681, and the Commander-in-chief in Scot- 
land, General Dalzell, was made its Colonel-in-chief. 2 On 
28 July 1683 he was appointed Master of the Horse to the 
Princess Anne of Denmark, afterwards Queen Anne, and 
in the following year Master of the Horse to the Duchess 

1 Family Papers. 2 Family Papers and Dalton's English Army Lists 
and Commission Register. 







384 MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 

of York ; in 1685 full colonel of the Scots Greys and Master 
of the Horse to the Queen (Mary of Modena). He was 
raised to the peerage of Scotland by diploma dated at 
Windsor 16 August 1686, and created EARL OF DUNMORE, 
VISCOUNT OF FINOASTLE, and LORD MURRAY OF 
BLAIR, MOULIN AND TILLIMET (Tullimet). In 1689 
he was deprived of his command of the Scots Greys, 
having been arrested in June of that year, together with 
his brother Lord Edward Murray and his brother-in-law 
Lord Lovat on suspicion of disaffection to the Govern- 
ment. He was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle, and not 
until 16 January following does it appear that he was set 
at liberty, and then upon bail. 1 Two years later he was 
charged with high treason, and committed to the Tower 
16 May 1692, 2 but admitted to bail in 13,000. 3 He was 
once more arrested in Lancashire 1696, on a similar 
charge, and imprisoned at Liverpool. On the accession 
of Queen Anne he was pardoned and sworn a Privy 
Councillor 4 February 1703, and in Parliament, 21 May that 
year, his patent was read, and he took the oaths and his 
seat. He was one of the committee for examining the 
public accounts 1704, and in September 1705 obtained a 
gratuity for auditing and examining these accounts. He 
steadfastly supported the treaty of Union in Parliament. 
In a letter written by his sister-in-law to her husband Lord 
Edward Murray 26 November 1706 she remarks, ' Dunmore 
and his family [are] violent for the Union.' 4 In 1707 he 
was appointed Governor of Blackness Castle, and 9 
December 1709 was allotted rooms in Holyrood, where he 
died 19 April 1710, 5 being buried 24 of same month in the 
Abbey of Holyrood, 6 testament confirmed 1 March 1717. 7 
He married, 8 December 1682, at St. Edmund the King and 
Mastyr, London, Katherine, daughter and heir of Richard 
Watts of Great Munden, co. Herts, by Catherine his wife, 
daughter of Major-General Robert Werden of Cholmeaton, 
co. Chester, Treasurer to Queen Mary, and Controller of the 

1 Leven and Melville Papers, 372. 2 Ceil. State Papers, Reg. Ho., Edin- 
burgh; State Papers, Dom., William and Mary, 4, No. 39. 3 Ibid., No. 
78. 4 Murray Papers, Reg. Ho., Edinburgh. 5 Holyrood Burial Reg. 
(Scot. Rec. Soc.) says 12 May for his burial, and in Scottish Monuments 
by Rogers, i. 115, the same date is given for his death, viz. 12 May. 
6 Family Papers. 7 Edin. Tests. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 385 

Duke of York's household, 1 and sister of Sir John Werden, 
Baronet, 2 by whom (whose will was proved 22 June 1713, 
letters of administration granted 22 January 1711 being 
revoked), 3 he had issue : 

1. James, styled Lord Blair to 1702, and Viscount Fin- 

castle from that year until his death. Born at 
St. James's Palace 7, and baptized 17, December 
1683 at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, co. Middlesex ; 
matriculated at Gloucester Hall, Oxford, 24 Nov- 
ember 1698 ; captain in Colonel George Macartney's 
regiment of Scots Foot 29 January 1704 ; 4 died s. p. 
29 September 1704 in the military camp at Breda, in 
Flanders, 5 having married, 29 April 1702, at Living- 
stone, 6 Janet, daughter of Patrick Murray of Living- 
stone, who survived him. 

2. JOHN, styled Viscount Fincastle after his elder brother's 

death until 1710, when he succeeded his father as 
second Earl of Dunmore. 

3. Robert, of the parish of St. George, Hanover Square, 

co. Middlesex ; born 7 January 1689 at Whitehall, 7 
received a commission in the army 1705; gazetted 
colonel of the 37th Regiment of Foot 4 August 1722, 
and the same year elected M.P. for Wootton Bassett 
and for Great Bedwin 1734 ; gazetted colonel of the 
38th Regiment 13 May 1735, and brigadier-general 
1737. Died unmarried 9 March 1738; buried at 
Stanwell, Middlesex, 29 of same month; will dated 
2 November 1731. 8 

4. Charles, fourth son, born at St. James's Palace 18 

March 1694 ; died unmarried 15, buried 18, February 
1745, at Stanwell, co. Middlesex. 9 

5. WILLIAM, of Taymount, Perthshire, succeeded his 

brother John, as third Earl of Dunmore. 

6. Richard (twin with Thomas), born June 1698. 10 

7. Thomas (twin with Richard), of Dorney House, near 

Weybridge, Surrey, and of Princes Street, Cavendish 
Square, London. Page-of-honour to Queen Anne 

1 General Werden's Will, proved 4 August 1690 (P. C. C.). 2 His will 
proved 9 November 1716 (P. C. C.). 3 P. C. C. 4 Atholl Chronicles, ii. 
23 n. 6 Family Papers. 6 Livingstone Parish Register. 7 Family 
Papers. 8 P. C. C. 9 Stanwell Parish Register. 10 Family Papers. 
VOL. III. 2 B 



386 MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 

1713 ; entered the army in 1718 ; gazetted colonel of 
the 46th Regiment of Foot 23 June 1743, 1 which 
command he held till his death; fought at Preston- 
pans; major-general April 1754, and lieutenant- 
general 19 January 1758. He died 21 November 1764 ; 
will dated 14 May 1754, 2 having married Elizabeth, 
sister of Lieutenant -General Robert Armiger, by 
whom, who predeceased him, he had issue a daughter 
and heir, Frances Maria. 

8. Henrietta Maria, born at St. James's Palace 28 Nov- 

ember 1684 ; 3 married, 1702, to Patrick, Lord Kin- 
naird, and died s. p. of fever at Brummie 27 October 
same year. 

9. Anne, born at Whitehall 31 October 1687 ; married, 4 

April 1706, at Cramond, 4 to John, fourth Earl of 
Dundonald, and died at Paisley 30 November 1710, 
leaving issue. 

10. Katherine, born at Godalming 10 January 1692 ; 5 
married to her cousin-german, John, Master of Nairne, 
(marriage-contract dated 3 November 1712), 6 and 
died at Versailles 9 May 1754, leaving issue. 

II. JOHN, second Earl of Dunmore, born 31 October 1685, 
at Whitehall, 7 was served heir of his elder brother, Lord 
Fincastle, 24 January 1707, and succeeded his father in 1710. 
He entered the army in 1704, gazetted 10 March of that 
year to the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards, fought at 
Blenheim, and on 10 October 1713 was appointed colonel 
of the same regiment, being but twenty-eight years of age, 
which command he retained till his death. He served under 
Lord Oobham as a brigadier-general at the capture of Vigo 
1719 ; purchased the manor of Stanwell in Middlesex from 
Lord Falkland 1720 ; 8 appointed a Lord of the Bedchamber 
July 1731 ; was in Flanders 1732, and three years later was 
promoted major-general, and 1739 lieutenant-general. He 
commanded the second line at the battle of Dettingen 1743, 
serving under the Earl of Stair, and on 22 June 1745 was 
made Governor of Plymouth and St. Nicholas Island, being 

1 Eighth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. pt. ii. HOa. 2 P. C. C. 3 Family 
Papers. 4 Cramond Parish Register. 5 Family Papers. 6 Perth Sasines, 
16, 366. 7 Family Papers. 8 In 1754 it was sold to John Gibbons, after- 
wards Sir John Gibbons, Bart. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 387 

also promoted general of Foot and made Commander-in-chief 
of the allied armies in the Austrian Netherlands the same 
year. 1 He was elected one of the Representative Peers of 
Scotland to sit in the Parliaments to meet 12 November 
1713, 28 November 1727, 13 June 1734, 25 June 1741, 13 
August 1747. 2 Lord Dunmore died unmarried in London 
18 April 1752, and was buried at Stanwell 24 of the same 
month ; will proved 4 June 1752. 3 He was succeeded by his 
brother, 

III. WILLIAM, third Earl of Dunmore, born at St. James's 
Palace 2 March 1696, entered the Royal Navy 1711. In 
September 1745 he with his son John (afterwards fourth 
Earl) joined Prince Charles Edward at Perth and was with 
the Prince throughout the campaign, being present at 
the battles of Presjonpans, Falkirk, and Culloden. He is 
said to have surrendered to a justice of the peace of Angus 
towards the end of April 1746, and was sent to London and 
committed to the Tower. A true bill was found against 
him for high treason at St. Margaret's Hill, Southwark, 
23 August following, and on 20th December he pleaded 
guilty, but received a special pardon in January 1747 for 
all treasons committed before 22 December 1746 by which 
his life was spared, but was kept a prisoner for life first at 
Beverley in Yorkshire, and afterwards at Lincoln. In 1752 
he was allowed to succeed to the title and estates. He 
died at Lincoln and was buried in the Lady Chapel of the 
Cathedral 1 December 1756, having married, 1728, his 
cousin-german Catherine, third daughter of his uncle 
William, Lord Nairne, 4 by whom he had issue : 

1. JOHN, styled Viscount Fincastle until he succeeded his 

father as fourth Earl of Dunmore. 

2. Charles, second son, born 1732, mentioned as such in 

the will of his uncle John, second Earl of Dunmore, 
1751. 

3. William, youngest son, born 1734. Entered Royal Navy 

1748, appointed post-captain 1761. He died at 
Kensington 25 December 1786, aged forty-six, and was 

1 Family Papers. 2 Lords Journals. 3 P. C. C. 4 On his marriage 
he purchased from his father-in-law, Lord Nairne, the estate of Tay- 
mount in Perthshire (Family Papers). 



388 MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 

buried in the church there l 2 January following, will 
proved 10 January 1787, 2 having married at Kensing- 
ton, 11 August 1783, Sarah Mease. She, who was 
author of several topographical works, was married, 
secondly, 1 November 1802, to George Aust of Chelsea, 
and died at Noel House, Kensington, 5 November 
1811, aged sixty-seven, and was buried with her 
first husband. 

4. Margaret, born 1736. 

5. Catherine, born 1739 ; married at Perth, 8 January 

1761, to John Drummond of Logie Almond, who died 
1781. She died at Logie Almond, May 1791, leaving 
issue. 

6. Jean, born 1741, died unmarried at Taymount, adminis- 

tration of her effects granted to her mother 28 May 
1771. 3 

7. Elisabeth, born 1743; married, 24 July 1763, at 

Mochany, to her cousin the Reverend John Murray, 
Dean of Killaloe, son of Lord Edward Murray, and 
grandson of the first Duke of Atholl, by whom she 
had issue. 4 

IV. JOHN, fourth Earl of Dunmore, born 1730. Page-of- 
honour to Prince Charles Edward at Holyrood 1745. 
Entered the army as ensign in the 3rd Regiment of Foot 
Guards 1750, was promoted lieutenant 1755, and retired 
from that regiment 1758. 5 In this year he changed the 
name of an estate in Stirlingshire, which had been pur- 
chased from Lord Elphinstone, to Dunmore, it having 
previously been called Elphinstone Tower. 6 He was 
elected a Representative Peer of Scotland to sit in the 
Parliaments to meet 19 May 1761 and 10 May 1768, and 
again on the death of Thomas, Earl of Cassillis, certificate 
read 31 January 1776, 7 also for the Parliaments to meet 31 
October 1780 and 18 May 1784. 8 Purchased the estate of 
Glenfinart, Argyllshire, 1768. He was appointed Governor 
of New York in December 1769, and subsequently Governor 
of Virginia, where he remained during the hostilities of 

1 Faulkner's History and Antiquities of Kensington. 2 P. C. C. 
3 Ibid. 4 See vol. i. of this work, 487. 5 Family Papers. 6 Ibid. 7 Lords 
Journals, in which he is called William. 8 Ibid. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 389 

1774 and 1775, and returned home the following year. An 
account of his career during this period is to be found 
elsewhere. 1 From 1787 to 1796 he was Governor of the 
Bahama Islands. He died at Ramsgate 25 February 1809, 
aged seventy-eight, and was buried at St. Lawrence, 
Thanet, administration of his effects granted 1 February 
1810, which was revoked and another granted with will 
annexed 1812, 2 having married at Edinburgh, 21 February 
1759, Charlotte, daughter of Alexander Stewart, Earl of 
Galloway, by his second wife Catharine, by whom, who 
died 11 November 1818, buried at St. Lawrence, Thanet, 
will proved 17 December 1818, 3 he had issue : 

1. GEORGE, styled Viscount Fincastle until he succeeded 

his father as fifth Earl of Dunmore. 

2. William, born at Dunmore 22 August 1763 ; died in 

London 27 Ma,y 1773. 

3. Alexander, of Frimley, Surrey, born 12 October 1764 at 

Edinburgh ; lieutenant-colonel in the army, died July 
1842, having married, 18!May 1811, Deborah, daughter of 
Robert Hunt, Oommissioner-in-chief of the Bahamas, 
by whom, who died 28 January 1870 at Brading, Isle 
of Wight, aged seventy-five, he had issue : 

(1) JACK CHARLES, born 17 August 1813. 

(2) Augustus Charles, born 16 December 1815. Commander Royal 

Navy. Married, 14 August 1851, Abbie, daughter of David 
Lee of New York, U.S.A. 

(3) Virginius, born 20 September 1817. Captain 94th Regiment, 

Commissioner of Goldfields and Police Magistrate, Victoria. 
Died at St. Kilda's, Australia, 25 December 1861, having 
married, 23 October 1844, Elizabeth Alicia, only daughter of 
Colonel Charles Poitiers of the 61st Regiment, Collector of 
Customs at the Bahama Islands, by whom, who died 27 
December 1877, he left issue : 4 

i. Reginald Augustus Frederick, born 18 February 1846 ; 
married, 2 January 1869, Louisa, daughter of James 
Ford of Melbourne, Australia. 
ii. Kenneth, born 1847, died 1851. 
iii. Ronald, born 6 June 1849, died 1888. 
iv. George Earn, born 11 November 1850. 
v. Arthur Charles, born 10 September 1852. 

1 See The Winning of the West, by President Roosevelt, U.S.A., 
chapters 8 and 9, Lord Dunmore's War,' etc. 2 P. C. C. 3 Ibid. 4 Fail- 
ing issue male of Lord Fincastle and of Charles Wadsworth Murray 
(son of Charles James, only surviving son of the Hon. Charles Augustus, 
second son of George, fifth Earl of Dunmore), the Scottish titles revert 
to this branch. 



390 MURRAY, EARL OP DUNMORE 

vi. Henry Alexander, born 6 June 1857 ; married, 8 May 
1889, Fannie Morris, daughter of Samuel D. Babcock 
of New York, and has issue Virginia, born 6 
September 1890. 

(4) Alexander Henry, born 8 October 1829. Colonel Royal 

Artillery, brigadier-general; served in the Crimea 1855; 
China 1863 ; Abyssinia 1867, at Magdala ; D. A.G. of artillery 
in India 1877-82 ; Brigadier-General at Agra 1882. Died 4 
April 1885 at Jubbulpore, India, having married, 2 
October 1856, Martha Frances Vincent, daughter of Thomas 
E. Davenport of Ballynacourty House, co. Limerick, by 
whom he had issue. 

(5) Augusta, born 15 January 1812 ; married, 12 August 1834, to 

Louis Stanislas Kostka, Prince de la Trimouille, who died 20 
July 1837. She died 22 January 1877 at Naples, leaving issue. 

(6) Virginia, a canoness, born 20 March 1819. Died 4 December 

1887 at Viroflay, Seine-et-Oise, France. 

(7) Alexandrina Amelia, born 8 October 1829 (twin with Alex- 

ander Henry). Died 17 December 1877 at Brading, Isle of 
Wight. 

(8) Susan Emma, born 15 May 1835 ; married, 4 June 1863, at the 

Consulate, Cologne, to the Reverend John Glover, M.A., 
Vicar of Brading, Isle of Wight. 

4. John, born at Glenflnart 1765, captain in the Royal 

Navy. Died 1 July 1805 while in command of 
H.M.S. Franchise frigate, at Curacoa, which place 
he was keeping in a state of blockade ; will proved 
29 July 1811, and administration granted 14 December 
1824. 1 

5. Leveson Granville Keith, of Dunmore House, Brad- 

ninch, Devon ; born 16 December 1770 ; entered the 
Madras Civil Service in 1792 ; married, first, Wemyss, 
daughter of Sir William Dalrymple of Oousland, 
Baronet, by whom, who died December 1804 at Viza- 
gapatam, he had issue : 

(1) ? Alexander, died 25 February 1823. 

(2) Wemyss Jane, born 14 October 1804 ; married, first, October 

1824, to Charles Hay Campbell, major Bengal Artillery, who 
died in 1832. She was married, secondly, 17 May 1836, to 
Christopher Simpson Maling, lieutenant-colonel Bengal 
Native Infantry. 

He married, secondly, 24 January 1807, at Fort St. 
George, Madras, 2 Anne, widow of John Thursby, of the 
Madras Civil Service, by whom he had issue : 

(3) Jack Henry, born 26 July 1810. Rear-admiral Royal Navy ; 

died 1881, having married, 23 January 1845, Catherine, 

1 P.C.C. 2 Genealogist, New Series, xxi. p. 273. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 391 

eldest daughter of Sir Neil Menzies of Castle Menzies, Bart., 
by his first wife, Emelia, daughter of Francis Balfour 
of Fernie, Fife, by whom, who died 1899, he had issue. 

(4) Samuel Hood, born 27 December 1814, sometime captain 67th 

Regiment, lieutenant-colonel in the army ; died 17 December 
1867 at Moness House, Aberfeldy, having married, October 
1840, Susan, second daughter of H. C. Sempill of Belltrees, 
Hunter River, New South Wales, by whom, who died 18 
January 1888, at Bayswater, Middlesex, he had issue. 

(5) Augusta, born 24 June 1808 ; married, 24 September 1824, to 

John Gunn Collins of Belmont, King's County, captain 13th 
Light Dragoons ; and died 1833, leaving issue. 

The Honourable Leveson Murray married, thirdly, 
10 May 1834, Louisa Mitty, only daughter of Thomas 
Abraham, of Chapel House, Surrey, and died 4 
January 1835, will proved 3 March following. 1 His 
widow was married, secondly, 2 January 1836, to the 
Reverend S. Jprdan Lott ; and, thirdly, 15 May 1851, 
to George Wilson Grove. 

6. Catherine, born 1765 ; married at St. George's, 

Hanover Square, Middlesex, 24 May 1782, to Edward 
Bouverie, son of William, first Earl of Radnor, by his 
second wife Rebecca, daughter of John Alleyne, of 
Barbadoes; and died at Brighton, Sussex, 7 July 
1783, leaving issue. 

7. Susan, bora 1768 ; married, first, 7 July 1788, at 

St. George's, Hanover Square, Middlesex, Joseph 
Tharp, of Ohippenham Park, Cambridgeshire, by 
whom she had issue ; secondly, to John Drew ; and, 
thirdly, 23 August 1809, to the Reverend Archibald 
Edward Douglas of Carnalloway and Outragh, rector 
of Drumgoon, Ireland, and died April 1826, having 
also had issue by her third husband. 

8. Augusta, born in New England 1772. Married at 

Rome 4 April 1793, and again at St. George's, 
Hanover Square, Middlesex, 5 December following, 
to H.R.H. Prince Augustus Frederick, afterwards 
Duke of Sussex, but this marriage was declared null 
and void under Statute 12 Geo. in., c. 11, and dis- 
solved August 1794. Lady Augusta was authorised 
in 1806, by royal licence, to take the surname of 
de Ameland in lieu of that of Murray. She died 

1 P. C. C. 



392 MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 

4 March 1830 at Ramsgate, and was buried at 
St. Lawrence, in the Isle of Thanet, having had 
issue by the Duke : 

(1) Sir Augustus Frederick D'Este, born 13 January 1794 ; colonel 

in the army, K.G.H. ; died, unmarried, 18 December 1848; 
buried at St. Lawrence, Isle of Thanet. 

(2) Augusta Emma, Mademoiselle D'Este, born 11 August 1801 

in Grosvenor Street ; married, as second wife, 13 August 1845, 
to Sir Thomas Wilde, created Baron Truro of Bowes, and 
died s. p. 21 May 1866 in Eaton Square, London ; buried at 
St. Lawrence, Isle of Thanet, having survived her husband, 
who died 11 November 1855, also buried at St. Lawrence. 

9. Virginia, born 1773, in Virginia, and named after that 
colony at the request of the Council and Assembly of 
the Province. Died unmarried. 
10. Anne. 



V. GEORGE, fifth Earl of Dunmore, born 30 April 1762 at 
Glenfinart. M.P. for Liskeard 1800 to 1802 ; succeeded his 
father 1809 ; and on 10 September 1831 was created BARON 
DUNMORE, of Dunmore, in the forest of Athole, in the 
county of Perth, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, 
with limitation to the heirs-male of his body, and took the 
oaths and his seat 26 of the same month. 1 In the follow- 
ing year he voted for the second reading of the Reform 
Bill. Previous to this he acquired the estate of North and 
South Harris (Inverness-shire), with an extent of 150,000 
acres, having sold Glenfinart in 1830. He died 11 November 
1836, and was buried at Dunmore, Stirlingshire, in the 
family vault ; his will proved May 1837. He married, at 
St. George's, Hanover Square, Middlesex, 4 August 1803, 
his cousin-german Susan, third daughter of Archibald, Duke 
of Hamilton and Brandon, and by her, who died 24 May 
1846 at Richmond, Surrey, and was buried in the family 
vault at Dunmore (will proved in London 8 July following), 
had issue : 

1. ALEXANDER EDWARD, succeeded as sixth Earl of Dun- 

more. 

2. Charles Augustus? born 22 November 1806. Fellow of 

All Souls, Oxford. In the year 1832 he stood as a 

1 Lords Journals. 2 See Sir Herbert Maxwell's Life of the Hon. Sir C. 
Murray, and Diet. Nat. Biog., Supp. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 393 

Tory for Palkirk, and in 1837 for Lanarkshire as a 
Whig, but at neither election was he successful ; was 
appointed Groom-in-waiting to the late Queen 1838, 
and the same year Master of the Household, which 
office he vacated in 1844 on entering the diplomatic 
service as Secretary of Legation at Naples. He was 
Consul-General in Egypt from 1846 till 1853, when he 
was appointed to Berne as minister to the Swiss 
Confederation, and the following year was sent as 
envoy and minister plenipotentiary to the court of 
Persia. After the declaration of war in 1856 by 
Great Britain against Persia, Murray was unjustly 
attacked in Parliament, but in the Upper House by 
Lord Clarendon, and in the Commons by Lord Pal- 
merston he was vigorously defended, and returned to 
the Persian Court on the conclusion of peace. In 
1859 he was appointed minister at the Court of Saxony, 
and in 1866 minister at Copenhagen, but for domestic 
reasons applied for the British Legation at Lisbon, 
which he obtained and kept till 1874, when he retired 
from the diplomatic service. He was made C.B. 
1848 ; K.C.B. 1866, and sworn of the Privy Council 
13 May 1875. Sir Charles was the author of Travels 
in North America and several other works. He died 
in Paris 3 June 1895, having married, first, 12 
December 1850, Elise, daughter of James Wadsworth 
of Geneseo, New York, and by her, who died 8 
December 1851, had issue : 

(1) Charles James, of Loch Carron, Boss, D.L., born 29 November 
1851, entered the diplomatic service 1872 ; attache at Rome 
1873 ; St. Petersburg 1875 ; third secretary 1875, and retired 
1876 ; M.P. for Hastings 1880-83, and Coventry 1895 ; married, 
9 August 1875, Anne Francesca Wilhelmina, only daughter 
of Heneage Finch, sixth Earl of Aylesford, and has issue : l 
i. Alastair Heneage, lieutenant Grenadier Guards, born 
24 April 1878, died of wounds received near Senekal, 
South Africa, 3 June 1900. 
ii. Charles Wadsworth, born 15 July 1894. 
iii. Sybil Louisa, born 23 June 1876, married, 24 October 1904, 
to Lieutenant-Colonel the Hon. Claud Henry Comar- 
aich Willoughbyj 9th Lancers, son of Henry, eighth 
Baron Middleton. 



Failing issue male of Lord Fincastle, the titles revert to this branch. 



394 MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 

Sir Charles Murray married, secondly, 1 November 
1862, Edith Susan Esther, daughter of John Wilson 
Fitzpatrick, first Lord Castletown, by whom he had 
issue : 

(2) Cecil Henry Alexander, born at Dresden 4 April 1866, died at 
sea 3 June 1896. 

3. Henry Anthony, born 10 January 1810. Rear-admiral 
Royal Navy, Knight Grand Cross of the Bavarian 
order of St. Michael of Merit. Died at the Albany 
17 February 1865. 

VI. ALEXANDER EDWARD, sixth Earl of Dunmore, born 1 
June 1804. Captain 9th Lancers, 10th Light Dragoons, 
and 60th Rifles; was A.D.C. to H.R.H. Prince Adolphus, 
Duke of Cambridge, from 1832 until his death. He took 
the oaths and sat in the House of Lords 24 April 1837. 1 In 
1840 he sold Taymount to Lord Mansfield. Lord Dunmore 
died 15 July 1845 from the effects of a fall from his horse 
at Streatham, co. Durham, and was buried at Dunmore, 
having married, 27 September 1836, at Frankfort-on-Main, 
Catherine, daughter of George Augustus Herbert, eleventh 
Earl of Pembroke, by whom, who was born in Arlington 
Street, St. James's, London, 31 October 1814, was sometime 
Lady-in-waiting to Queen Victoria, and died 12 February 
1886 at Carberry Tower, Musselburgh, and was buried at 
Dunmore, he had issue : 

1. CHARLES ADOLPHUS, present Earl of Dunmore. 

2. Susan Catherine Mary, born 7 July 1837, married, as 

second wife, 29 November 1860, at Dunmore, to James 
Carnegie, ninth Earl of Southesk, K.T., who died 
21 February 1905 at Kinnaird Castle, Brechin, and 
has issue. 

3. Constance Euphemia Woronzotv, born 28 December 

1838, married, 16 June 1864, at Dunmore, to William 
Buller Fullerton Elphinstone, fifteenth Lord Elphin- 
stone, who died 18 January 1893, and has issue. 

4. Alexandrina Victoria (posthumous), born 19 July 1845, 

to whom Queen Victoria stood sponsor ; married, 
as his second wife, 20 April 1887, to the Reverend 
Henry Cunliffe, Vicar of Shifnal, co. Salop, who 

1 Lords Journals. 



MURRAY, EARL OP DUNMORE 395 

died 1 August 1894, son of General Sir Robert- 
Henry Ounliffe, Bart., O.B. 

VII. CHARLES ADOLPHUS, seventh and present Earl of 
Dunmore, born 24 March 1841 in London ; educated at 
Eton ; lieutenant Scots Fusilier Guards May 1860 ; took his 
seat in the House of Lords 30 April 1863 ; Lord-in-waiting 
1874-80, formerly Lord-Lieutenant for Stirlingshire ; D.L. 
co. Inverness, and Lord Superior of the Isle of St. Kilda ; 
lieutenant-colonel fourth Volunteer battalion Queen's Own 
Cameron Highlanders. Author of several works on travel, 
etc. He married, 5 April 1866, at Holkham, Gertrude, 
daughter of Thomas Coke, second Earl of Leicester of 
Holkham, by his first wife Juliana, daughter of Samuel 
Charles Whitbread of Southill, and by her, who was born 
5 July 1847, has issue : 

1. Alexander Edward, styled Viscount Fincastle (to 

whom the King stood sponsor), born 22 April 1871, 
major 16th Lancers, V.C., was appointed lieutenant 
16th Lancers May 1891 ; A.D.C. to Viceroy of India 
from 1895 to 1897 ; attached to Egyptian cavalry for 
service in the Soudan 1896 (two medals) ; was attached 
to the 4 Guides ' cavalry in the Indian Frontier Cam- 
paign 1897, and had his horse shot under him in the 
charge of the ' Guides ' at Landikai (V.O., and medal 
and clasp, twice mentioned in despatches). Served 
as A.D.O. to General Sir Bindon Blood in the Buner 
expedition ; also with the Inniskilling Dragoons, and 
16th Lancers in the South African War 1899 to 1902. 
Later on in that war he was appointed to the com- 
mand of a regiment of Imperial Yeomanry called 
Fincastle's Horse, with temporary rank of lieutenant- 
colonel (medal with four clasps and mentioned in 
despatches). Married at St. Paul's, Knight sbridge, 
London, 5 January 1904, Lucinda Dorothea, eldest 
daughter of Horace William Kemble, of Knock, Isle 
of Skye, and has issue, 

Marjory, born 1 November 1904. 

2. Evelyn, married, 23 April 1891, to John Dupuis Oobbold, 

of Holy Wells, Ipswich, D.L., J.P., co. Suffolk, and 
has issue. 






396 MURRAY, EARL OF DUNMORE 

3. Muriel, married, 16 July 1890, to Colonel Harold Gore- 

Browne, King's Royal Rifle Corps, son of Colonel 
Sir Thomas Gore-Browne, K.C.M.G., C.B. 

4. Grace, married, 25 January 1896, to William James 

Barry of Witchingliam Hall, Norwich, fourth son of 
Sir Francis Tress Barry, Bart., and has issue. 

5. Victoria Alexandrine, to whom Queen Victoria stood 

sponsor. 

6. Mildred, married, 30 June 1904, at St. Mark's Church, 

North Audley Street, London, to Gilbert Follett, 
Coldstream Guards, only son of John Skirrow Follett. 

CREATIONS. Earl of Dunmore, Viscount of Fincastle, and 
Lord Murray of Blair, Moulin and Tullimet 16 August 1686 
[Scotland], Baron Dunmore of Dunmore in the Forest of 
Athole in the County of Perth, 10 September 1831 [United 
Kingdom]. 

ARMS, given in Peers' Arms MS. Quarterly: 1st and 4th, 
azure, three mullets argent within a double tressure flory 
counterflory or, for Murray ; 2nd and 3rd counterquartered, 
1st and 4th, paly of six or and sable, for Stratlibogie ; 3rd 
and 4th, or, a fess chequy azure and argent, for Stewart, a 
crescent gules in honour point. 

CREST. A demi-savage wreathed about the head and 
loins with oak, and charged in the breast with a crescent 
gules, holding in the dexter hand a sword erect, proper, 
pommelled and hilted or, and in the sinister a key of the 
last. 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, a lion gules charged in the shoulder 
with a crescent argent. Sinister, a savage wreathed about 
the head and loins with oak, charged in the breast with a 
crescent gules, the hands and feet in irons proper. 

MOTTO. Furth Fortune and fill the fetters. 

[K. w. M.] 



MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 




IR DAVID MURRAY of 
Tullibardine l had, with 
other issue : 

PATRICK MURRAY, 2 who 
appears with his brothers 
in an entail of Tullibar- 
dine 10 March 1457. 3 He 
had a charter of Easter 
and Wester Dollerie in 
Strathearn 19 June 1467; 4 
was Sheriff - depute of 
Perthshire 1465, 5 and died 
1476, having married 
Katherine, 6 daughter of 
Michael Balf our of Mont- 
quhanie, who survived 



him. He had issue : 



DAVID, who had Crown tacks with his mother of Carro- 
glen 7 and Ochtertyre in Strathearn. 8 He died before 4 
February 1509-10, 9 having married Margaret, daughter of 
Henry Pitcairn of Forthar and that Ilk, who survived him, 
and had issue, with Patrick, who had charters of the same 
lands 4 February 1509-10, 10 having been seised of Easter 
and Wester Dollerie 1508, 11 and was ancestor of the Murrays 
of Ochtertyre, Baronets, another son, 

Anthony, of Dollerie and Raith, 12 who married Christian 
Maxton, and had issue : 

(1) David, of Dollerie, who succeeded his father. 

1 See vol. i. p. 455 of this work. 2 Ibid., 457. 3 Duke of Atholl's writs. 
4 Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 Nisbet, ii. App. 487. 6 Exch. Rolls, ix. 572, etc. 
7 Ibid., ix. 572, 630 ; xii. 628. 8 Ibid., ix. 630 ; xi. 421, 423 ; xii. 626. 9 Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 10 Ibid. Exch. Rolls, xiii. 659. 12 An account of the 
Murrays of Dollerie is to be found in the Genealogist, O. S., vii. 15, which, 
though occasionally quoted, is not to be relied on, inasmuch as no 
authorities are there given. 



398 MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 

(2) PATRICK, of whom further. 

(3) Alexander, 1 a dean of the Church in 1557, married Elizabeth 

Oliphant. 2 

PATRICK, son of Anthony Murray of Dollerie, 3 had a 
charter of Newraw, in the parish of Madderty, Perthshire, 
confirmed to him 23 June 1565, 4 and was designed of New- 
raw for some years after that date. He acquired Woodend, 
also in Madderty, 5 an estate which was held by his family 
for some generations. In his will, dated 22 August 1590, he 
desires to be buried in Madderty Kirk, and leaves his 
daughter Christina to be tochered by 4 my Chief, the Laird 
of Tullibardine.' He died two days later, his testament 
being confirmed 10 March 1597, 6 having married Elizabeth, 
daughter of David Murray of Carsehead, 7 who survived 
him. He had issue : 

1. Alexander, of Woodend, who succeeded his father, and 

died before October 1630. He is said to have married 
a daughter of Murray of Arbenie, Agnes, daughter 
of Nairn of Strathord, and Marion Alexander. 8 He 
certainly married the last named, who died January 
1595, her testament confirmed 10 March 1597, 9 and 
was mother of the three last-named children. He 
had issue : 

(1) Patrick, of Woodend, who married, about 28 February 1614, 

Giles, daughter of John Murray of Tibbermore, 10 and died 
s. p. m. before 10 October 1662. 

(2) Mr. Thomas, who succeeded his brother Patrick in Wood- 

end, being served heir 10 October 1662. n He married 
and had issue, inter alios, Anthony, served heir to his 
father in 1667, 12 and Thomas of Glendoick, created a Baronet 
1676. 

(3) John. 

(4) William. 

(5) Agnes. 

2. WILLIAM, minister and parson of Dysart, Fife, M.A., 

who took his degree at St. Andrews 1582. 13 Died 
October 1616, testament confirmed 18 March 1617," 
having married Margaret, daughter of David Murray 

1 Laing Charters, No. 930. 2 Genealogist, vii. 15. 3 Liber Insule Mis- 
sarum, 122, 126. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig. ' Liber Insule Missarum, 128. 
6 Edin. Tests. 7 Genealogist, vii. 15. 8 Ibid., 17. 9 Edin. Tests. 10 Liber 
Insule Missarum, 131. n Retours, Perth. 12 Ibid. 13 Scott's Fasti 
Eccl. Scot., 2, 534. 14 St. Andrews Tests. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 399 

of Lochmiln, 1 by whom he had issue, with two 
daughters, Margaret and Jean, an only son, 
WILLIAM, created Earl of Dysart, of whom hereafter. 

3. Thomas, of Berkhampstead, co. Herts, who had a grant 
of a pension of 200 merks on 26 June 1605, and in 
1606 was presented to the Mastership of Christ's 
Hospital, Sherburn. He was tutor to the Duke of 
York, afterwards his Secretary when Prince of Wales, 
and was promoted to the Provostship of Eton, 
although not in holy orders, 22 February 1621, but 
did not long survive the appointment, dying on the 
9 April 1623, in the fifty-ninth year of his age, and 
was buried in the chapel of Eton College (will proved 
27 June same year). 2 He was author of some Latin 
poems. By his wife Jane, daughter of George 
Drummond of. Blair 3 (her will proved 23 September 
1647), 4 he had issue : 

(1) Henry, a Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles i. Will 

dated 5 April 1669, then of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, co. 

Middlesex, and proved 24 September 1672. 5 He married, 26 

November 1635, at St. Mildred's, Poultry, London, Anne, 

second daughter of Paul, first Viscount Bayning of Sudbury. 

She, who after her husband's death was created, 17 March 

1673-74, VISCOUNTESS BAYNING of Foxley, for life, was 

married, secondly, by licence dated 1 August 1674, 6 to Sir 

John Baber of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, who died 3 April 

1704, and was buried there. She predeceased him, dying in 

October 1678, having had issue 7 by her first husband : 

i. Charles, baptized at Berkhampstead 14 February 1636, 

died young ; administration of his effects granted 22 

December 1647. 8 

ii. Henry, died young, buried at Berkhampstead 26 May 

1641. 
iii. Thomas, baptized at St. Giles-in-the-Fields 29 May 

1647, died s. p. 
iv. Robert, baptized at St. Giles-in-the-Fields 9 September 

1649, died s. p. 

v. Elizabeth, married first, as second wife, to Major- 
General Randolph Egerton of Betley, co. Stafford, who 
died 20 October 1681, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey ; 9 and secondly, at St. Giles'-in-the-Fields, 
Middlesex, 30 April 1691, to Charles Egerton of New- 
borough, co. Stafford (born 12 March 1654-55, died 11 

1 Genealogist, vii. 16. 2 P . C. C., 64, Swan. 3 Genealogist, vii. 17. 
4 P. C. C., 195, Fines. 5 Ibid., 112, Eure. 6 Faculty Office. 7 The order 
in which the issue is given below is conjectural. 8 P. C. C. 9 Harl. Soc. 
Pub., x. 203. 



400 MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 

December 1717), fourth son of John. Earl of Bridg- 
water. She, who died 30 January, and was buried 
13 February, 1712-13, in Westminster Abbey, 1 had 
issue by her first husband. 

vi. Jane, died young, buried at Berkhampstead 9 October 
1639, administration granted 22 December 1647. 2 

vii. Anne, baptized at Berkhampstead 21 October 1641, 
died 22, buried 28, August 1716 at Holme Pierrepoint, 
co. Notts, having been married to Robert Pierrepoint 
of Nottingham (contract 27 March 1661), 3 by whom, 
who was also buried at Holme Pierrepoint 22 Sep- 
tember 1681, she had issue. 

viii. Jane (secunda), baptized at St. Giles- in- the-Fields 13 
December 1642, married (licence dated 10 July 1672) 4 
to Sir John Bowyer of Knipersley, co. Stafford, 
Baronet, 5 who died 1691. She died 19 October 1727 ; 
both buried at Biddulph. They had issue. 

ix. Mary, born 7, and baptized 20, March 1653-54 at 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, co. Middlesex; married 
(licence dated 7 April 1673) 6 to Sir Roger Bradshaigh 
of Haigh, Baronet, then of Wigan, co. Lancaster, 
aged twenty-two, by whom, who died 17 June 1687, 7 
she had issue. She died 1 December 1713. 8 

(2) Charles, living at the date of his mother's will. 

(3) John, died before 1643 s. p. 

(4) James, died before 1643 s. p. 

(5) William, baptized at Berkhampstead 17 July 1617 mentioned 

in his mother's will. 

(6) Elizabeth, married to Sir Henry Newton of the Priory, near 

Warwick, and of Charlton, Baronet, who assumed the sur- 
name of Puckering. He died s. p. s. 9 22 January 1700, aged 
eighty-three, buried at St. Mary's, Warwick, leaving his 
estates to his niece-in-law Dame Jane Bowyer for life. 10 
Administration of his effects granted 19 May 1701. 11 

(7) Anne, living at the date of her mother's will. 

4. Patrick, Oommendator of Inchaffray, and Cupbearer 
to the King, died September 1632, buried 24 same 
month at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields (will proved the 
day following), 12 having married, first, 20 June 1615, 
at St. Giles'-in-the-Fields, Helen M'Math, relict of 
John Naesmyth, chirurgeon to the King, by whom, 
who died in London January 1619, testament con- 
firmed 14 March 1623, 13 he had issue : 
(1) John, died young. 

1 Harl. Soc. Pub., x. 275. 2 P. C. C. 3 Notts Marr. Bonds. 4 Vicar 
General. 6 Vide Complete Baronetage, iii. 121. 6 Faculty. 7 Complete 
Baronetage, iv. 110. 8 Ibid. 9 He had issue by his wife Elizabeth 
Murray a son Henry, mentioned in the will of Jane Murray (P. C. C. , 
195, Fines). 10 Complete Baronetage, i. 141. " P. C. C. 12 Ibid., 92, 
Audley. 13 Edin. Tests. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 401 

He married, secondly, Magdalene Murray, by 
whom, who survived him (she was living 1667), he 
had issue : 

(2) Francis, retoured heir of his father 8 March 1633, * and died 

before 27 February 1635, s.p. 

(3) Patrick, retoured heir of his father 27 February 1635, 2 and 

died before June 1647, s.p. 

(4) Elizabeth or Elspeth, retoured heir of her father and brothers 

Francis and Patrick 2 June 1647. 3 Married, first, to Thomas 
Menzies of Tiggermark, 4 who died before December 1662 ; 
and, secondly, at Edinburgh, 17 March 1664, to Colonel 
James Murray, 5 major in H.M. Foot Guards, Governor of 
Edinburgh Castle, a brother of John Murray of Philiphaugh, 
by whom, who died about 1703 ; 6 she had a son, Colonel 
John Murray of Pilmuir, and a daughter, Anna. 

(5) Jean, died young. 

5. Mr. Robert, M.A., minister at Strathmiglo 1610, and 

of Methven^l615 to 1648 ; 7 married, 24 May 1616 t 
Elizabeth Melville in Kirkcaldy, and had issue : 

(1) John, minister at Methven 1648, died 10 November 1661, 

having married Elizabeth Scrymgeour. 8 

(2) Margaret, married to 'that singular ornament of our 

Church,' Mr. George Gillespie, a minister of Edinburgh. 9 

(3) Anna, married to Mr. Alexander Moncreiffe, sometime minis* 

ter at Sconie. 10 

(4) Mary, married to James Bonar of Grigstoun. 11 

6. Mr. David, mentioned in the testament of his father. 

7. Christina, unmarried 1590. 

I. WILLIAM MURRAY, only son of Mr. William, parson of 
Dysart, supra, was one of the Gentlemen of the Bed- 
chamber, and a favourite of King Charles I. He is said by 
Bishop Burnet 12 to have filled the post of page and whip- 
ping boy to that monarch, who, when Duke of York, was 
educated by Murray's uncle, the Provost of Eton. Burnet's 
opinion of his character is not flattering. He accuses him 
of being ' very false,' also that he obtained his warrant of 
an earldom at Newcastle, persuading the King, however, 
to antedate it as if signed at Oxford, in order ' to get pre- 
cedence of some whom he hated.' It was no doubt owing 

1 Retours General. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Lord Kinnoull's writs, ex inf. 
W. A. Lindsay, Esq., K.C. 5 Ibid. 6 Testament confirmed 16 April 1703, 
Edin. Tests. 7 Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scot. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid, w Perth 
Sasines, New Reg., v. 243. n Ibid. 12 History of His Own Time, 1828 
ed., 164. 

VOL. III. 2 C 



402 MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 

to his early friendship with King Charles that William 
Murray's career at Court was so successful, but it is 
alleged by others than Burnet that he abused the confidence 
of his royal master. 1 Whether these allegations were true 
or not, it appears that he retained the confidence of the 
King, and, the year following the tragedy at Whitehall, was 
one of the Commissioners sent to Breda to treat with 
Charles n. In 1626 he was Member of Parliament for 
Fowey, and, 1628-29, for East Looe. 2 Sir Robert Aytoun, 
poet and courtier, calls him in his will his best friend, 
leaving him his hatband set with diamonds. 3 On the 3rd 
August 1643 he was created, by letters patent dated at 
Oxford, EARL OF DYSART AND LORD OF HUNTING- 
TOUR. 4 During the usurpation he was at the Hague with 
Charles u., and appears to have been also in Antwerp, 
where his kinsman, Mungo Murray, was buried. 5 The 
date of his death is uncertain, but he probably died about 
1651, 6 having married Katherine, daughter of Colonel 
Norman Bruce, son of Sir Robert Bruce of Clackmannan, 7 
and had surviving issue : 

1. ELIZABETH, succeeded her father in the title. 

2. Margaret, married, as second wife, to William, second 

Lord Maynard of Estaines ad Turrim, 8 and died 4 
June 1682. He died 3 February 1698-99, and was 
buried by his wife at Little Easton, co. Essex. 9 

3. Catherine, of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, co. Middle- 

sex, died 10, buried 12, February 1669-70, in the family 
vault in the chancel of Petersham Church, Surrey. 
Administration of her effects granted 4 July 1679. 10 

4. Anne, buried, 16 April 1679, in the family vault at 

Petersham, with her mother and sister Catherine. 

1 Guthrie's Memoirs, History of Scots Affairs, by Gordon, etc. 2 Com- 
plete Peerage, viii. 385. 3 Memoir of Sir Robert Aytoun, by Rogers, in 
Aytouris Poems, 28. 4 The patent is not extant, but is recited in the 
patent of nobility in favour of his daughter Elizabeth. 5 Wood's A thence. 

From Manning and Bray's Surrey, i., he appears to have died before 
22 May 1651, though in the Complete Peerage, viii. 385, he is said to have 
died after 11 September 1653, but no authority is quoted. Administra- 
tions were granted of the effects of a William Murray of St. Mary le 
Savoy, co. Middlesex, to creditors, 5 April and 14 May 1651 (P.C.C.). 
7 Genealogist, vii. 16. 8 Complete Peerage. 9 Clutterbuck's Herts., iii. 
497. If she was buried at Easton. then there may have been another 
sister of Lady Dysart, as she, in her will (as Duchess of Lauderdale), 
mentions three sisters as buried at Petersham. 10 P. C. C. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 403 

Administration, with will annexed, granted 4 July 
same year. 1 

II. ELIZABETH, 2 the eldest daughter, on the death of her 
father, took the title of Countess of Dysart, in accordance 
probably with the limitation contained in his patent, which 
did not, apparently, pass the Great Seal, and is not extant. 
On the 5 December 1670 she was granted a new patent of 
nobility, by which the patent of 3 August 1643 was con- 
firmed, and she, on the resignation of her title, was created 
COUNTESS OF DYSART AND LADY OF HUNTING- 
TOUR, her issue to succeed as Earls or Countesses of 
Dysart and Lords or Ladies of Huntingtour (with power to 
her to nominate in writing her successor) with remainder 
to the heirs of the body of her said issue (the eldest suc- 
ceeding, if females), and failing such heirs, then to the heirs 
whatsoever of the said Countess. 3 

She is said by historians to have been extremely ambitious 
and extravagant, a very beautiful and learned woman, a 
violent friend, 'but a much more violent enemy.' 4 Her 
father, Burnet says, intended her as wife to Sir Robert 
Moray, founder and first President of the Royal Society, 
who, however, married Sophia, a sister of Lord Balcarres, 
while she was married, about 1647, to Sir Lionel Tollemache 5 
of Helmingham, Suffolk, Baronet. Sir Lionel, who was son 
of Sir Lionel Tollemache of the same place, Baronet, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of John, Lord Stanhope of Harrington, 
was baptized at Great Fakenham, Suffolk, 25 April 1624, 6 and 
dying in France, was buried, 25 March 1669, at Helming- 
ham. 7 She was married, secondly, at Petersham, 17 Feb- 
ruary 1671-72, 8 the ceremony being performed 'publiquely 

1 P. C. <7., 88 King. 2 See Diet. Nat. Biog. for more detailed 
accounts of her and her father. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. 4 Burnet's History of 
His Own Time. 5 Throughout this article this name is spelt as above, 
although even to recent times it occurs frequently as Talmash, etc. 
6 Davy's Suffolk Coll., iii., Brit. Mus. Addl. MS., 19,079. * Helmingham 
and Petersham Parish Registers. His will, dated 21 April 1667, was 
proved 13 May 1669 (P.C.C., 47, Coke). On 5 July 1670 sentence for the 
validity of the will was pronounced after a suit between the executrix, 
the Countess of Dysart, his relict, and their surviving children, the 
testator being declared compos mentis (Ibid., 107, Penn). 8 The licence 
for the marriage was granted 9 February 1671-72, the Earl's age being 
given as about fifty-seven, and the Countess's about forty-four (Vicar- 
General). 



404 MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 

in the time of reading the Common Prayer,' to the celebrated 
John, Duke of Laud er dale (then Earl of Lauderdale), over 
whom, it is supposed, she had great influence, of a kind 
' which encouraged him in his greatest errors.' The Duke 
died at Tunbridge Wells, 24 August 1682, without issue of 
this marriage. Her Grace died 4, 1 and was buried 16, June 
1698, at Petersham, having made her will 3 November 1696, 
in which she desired to be buried in the vault where her 
mother the Countess of Dysart, three of her sisters, and 
three of her children were buried. Her will was proved by 
her son, the Earl of Dysart, 28 October 1698. 2 By her first 
husband she had issue eleven children, of whom were the 
following : 

1. LIONEL, who succeeded his mother as Earl of Dysart. 

2. Thomas, born about 1651. A soldier, reckoned by 

Macaulay as second only to Marlborough among the 
English military commanders of his age. On 16 
January 1678 he was appointed captain of a company 
in the Coldstream Guards, which regiment had then 
been newly raised, and of which he was afterwards 
colonel. On the breaking out of the Revolution he 
became an active supporter of the Prince of Orange, 
with whose forces he was present on their landing at 
Torbay in November 1688. King William made 
him Governor of Portsmouth December 1688, and of 
the Isle of Wight in 1693. He was elected M.P. for 
Malmesbury 30 January 1689, and for Chippenham 
14 December 1691. He was appointed colonel of the 
Coldstream Guards 1 May 1689, promoted to be 
major-general 20 December 1690, and lieut.-general 
23 January 1692. With the Coldstream Guards he 
fought under Marlborough at the skirmish at Wai- 
court in August 1689, and two years later under 
Ginkell in Ireland, where he took part in the capture 
of Athlone and the victory of Aghrim. In 1693 he 
was at Landen, serving under King William, and 
in June of the next year was in command of the 
unfortunate expedition against Brest, where, on June 
8, he was wounded in the thigh by a cannon ball. 

1 Chancery Proceedings, before 1714 ; Reynardson, 158, No. 32, Tallmach. 
v. Brograve. 2 P. C. C., 217, Lort. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 



405 



From the effects of this wound he died, 1 unmarried, 
a few days after being landed at Plymouth, and was 
buried, 30 June 1694, at Helmingham, where a marble 
monument was erected to his memory. His will, 
dated at Portsmouth 23 May, was proved 30 July, 
I694. 2 

Dr. Nicholas Brady, in a funeral sermon preached 
on the occasion of his death, said of him : ' His con- 
versation was familiar and engaging, his wit lively 
and piercing, his judgment solid and discerning, and 
all these set off by a graceful person, a cheerful 
aspect and an inviting air.' A portrait of General 
Tollemache by Kneller is preserved at Ham House, 
and has been engraved by Houbraken. 

3. William, baptized at Great Fakenham, co. Suffolk, 

February 1Q62. 3 In 1681, at Paris, he killed the Hon. 
William Carnegie, second son of the Earl of Southesk, 
in a duel. He subsequently served in the Royal 
Navy, and died in the West Indies 25 May 1691, un- 
married, being then captain of the Jersey. Admon. 
of his goods was granted, P. O. O. 17 February 1692- 
93, to his mother, the Duchess of Lauderdale. 

4. Elizabeth, died young, buried at Helmingham 4 

February 1657-58. 4 

5. Catherine, died young, buried at Helmingham 1 

October 1658. 5 

6. Elizabeth (secunda), baptized at Great Fakenham 

26 July 1659, died at Oampbeltown 16 May 1735, 
having been married to Archibald, Lord Lome, 
afterwards Earl and first Duke of Argyll, by whom 
she had issue. He died 28 September 1703 . 6 

7. Catherine, baptized at Great Fakenham 1661, 7 died 

before February 1708 ; 8 married, first, on Wednesday 

1 In the Tollemache pedigree contained in Davy's Suffolk Collections 
(Brit. Mus.), Addl. MS. 19,151, he is said to have died on 20 June 1694; in 
Wood's Douglas, 13 June, and in the account of him in the Dictionary of 
National Biography, 12 June. 2 P. C. C., 162, Box. By this will he made 
provision for ' L* Coll. Wilkins Ensigne, commonly called Mr. Thomas 
Tolmach,' who was evidently his illegitimate son. 3 Davy's Suffolk Col- 
lections, iii. (Blackbourn Hundred), Addl. MS. 19,079. 4 Ibid., ix. (Bosmere 
and Claydon Hundred). 6 Ibid. 6 See the first volume of this work, 370. 
7 Davy's Suffolk Collections, iii. 8 The Complete Peerage under ' Suther- 
land.' 



406 MURRAY, EARL OP DYSART 

before 1 January 1677-78, 1 to James, Lord Doune (who 
died 1685), eldest son and heir-apparent of Alexander, 
Earl of Moray (see that title), by whom she had two 
daughters ; and secondly, as his second wife, to John, 
fifteenth Earl of Sutherland (see that title), K.T., 
but had no further issue. 

III. LIONEL, Earl of Dysart, born 30 January 1648-49 ; 
succeeded his father as fourth Baronet 1669, and his mother 
as Earl of Dysart and Lord Huntingtower 4 June 1698. 
Admitted at Queens' College, Cambridge, 28 March 1665.* 
M.P. for Suffolk 1673-78, for Orf ord 1678-87, and again elected 
for Suffolk 1698, 1700, 1701, 1702, and 1705, for which county 
he continued to sit until 1707, when by the Act of Union he 
could no longer remain a member of the House of Commons. 
He was Lord-Lieutenant, Gustos Rotulorum, and Vice- 
Admiral of Suffolk, and also High Steward of Ipswich. He 
died 3, and was buried at Helmingham 15 February 1726-27. 1 
Will dated 13 March 1723-24, proved with two codicils 8 
February 1726-27. 4 He married (antenuptial settlement 6 
dated 4 May, 32 Charles n.) in 1680, Grace, daughter and 
co-heir of Sir Thomas Wilbraham, third Baronet of Wood- 
hey, co. Chester, by Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Edward 
Mitton of Weston-under-Lyziard, co. Stafford. She, who 

married, secondly, in December 1735 6 Warren of co. 

Chester, Esquire, died 26 April 1740, and was buried at Hel- 
mingham 2 May following. 7 Her will, dated 25 May 1732, 
was proved 13 May 1740. 8 By her Lord Dysart had issue : 

1. LIONEL, styled Lord Huntingtower. 

2. Elizabeth, married to Sir Robert Salusbury Cotton, 

Baronet, M.P. for Cheshire, but died without issue. 
His will was proved January 1749. 9 

3. Catherine, married, 1 September 1724,to John, Marquess 

of Carnarvon, eldest son of James, Duke of Chandos, by 

1 Duke of Portland's MSS. n., 44. It appears from Atholl Chronicles 
that in 1677 the Marquess of Atholl had arranged a marriage between his 
eldest son and Lady Catherine, but she married as above. 2 Baker's 
MSS. in Public Library at Cambridge, quoted in Davy's Suffolk Collections. 
3 Davy's Suffolk Collections, Addl. MS. 19,151. 4 P. C. C., 34, Farrant. 
5 Chancery Proceedings before 1714; Reynardson, bundle 347, No. 1, 
Tolmach v . Lord Dysart. 6 Gentleman's Magazine, v. 739. There is, 
however, no mention of this second husband in her will. 7 Davy's 
Suffolk Collections. 8 P. C. C., 137, Browne. 9 Ibid., 5, Lisle. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 407 

whom she had two daughters. He died in his father's 
lifetime, and was buried at Stanmore Parva, otherwise 
Whitchurch, co. Middlesex, 19 April 1727. She died 17, 
and was buried at the same place 31, January 1754. 1 

4. Mary, died unmarried 2 December 1715, buried in the 

chancel of Helmingham church. 2 

5. Grace, died unmarried 27 May 1719. 3 

LIONEL, styled Lord Huntingtower, born 6, baptized 20, 
June 1682, at Helmingham ; 4 died v. p. 25 or 26 July 1712, 
and was buried 1 August following at Helmingham. 5 Will 
dated 13 July 1712, proved 30 March 1713. 6 He married, 6 
December 1706, 7 at St. James's, Olerkenwell, Henrietta 
Cavendish, alias Heneage, said to have been illegitimate 
daughter of William Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire. 8 
She died 11 January 1717-18 ; her will, dated 13 December 
1717, was proved 17 January 1717-18. 9 By her Lord Hunt- 
ingtower had issue : 

1. LIONEL, who succeeded his grandfather as Earl of 

Dysart. 

2. Henrietta, married, 4 May 1731, to Thomas Clutterbuck 

of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, co. Middlesex, a Lord 
of the Admiralty and Treasurer of the Navy, by 
whom she had three daughters. He died 23 
November 1742. Admon. of his goods granted 
P. C. C. 18 December 1742, 15 August 1743, and 
August 1760. She died 8 December 1772. 

IV. LIONEL, Earl of Dysart, born 1 May 1708, 10 succeeded 

1 Lysons' Environs of London, iii. 2 Extracts from the Registers of 
Helmingham in Davy's Suffolk Collections, ix. 3 Pedigree of Tollemache 
in Davy's Suffolk Collections, Addl. MS. 19,151, 19. 4 Extracts from the 
Registers of Helmingham in Davy's Suffolk Collections, ix. 5 Ibid. 
P. C. C. , 254, Leeds. 7 See a letter, dated 10 December 1706, from Addison 
to George Stepney, British Minister at Vienna, printed in the Life of 
Joseph Addison, by Lucy Aikin, i. 193, which contains the following : * L d 
Huntingtowr has married Mrs. Heneage Candish without ye consent, or 
knowlege of his Father the Earle of Disert.' 8 Complete Peerage by 
G. E. C. 9 P. C. C., 18, Tenison. In this will she states that her husband 
Lord Huntingtower died on or about 25 July 1712. She desired that her 
brother and executor Philip Cavendish, Esquire, should have the care of 
both her children. 10 The date of birth is given as June 1707 in Wood's 
edition of Douglas's Peerage, and even in the statement presented on 
behalf of the present Earl of Dysart in the Dysart Peerage claim 1880-81, 
but there is a distinct statement in Lord Dysart's will that he attained 
the age of twenty -four years 1 May 1732. 



408 MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 

his grandfather as Earl of Dysart and Lord Himtingtower 
3 February 1726-27 ; voted at several elections of Repre- 
sentative Peers for Scotland, held respectively 19 February 
1731, 28 January 1732 (by signed lists), and 4 June 1734 
(by proxy granted to the Duke of Roxburghe). He was 
appointed High Steward of Ipswich 1729, and made K.T. 
1743. He died in London 10, and was buried in the family 
vault at Helmingham 27, March 1770. 1 Will dated 28 July 
1769, proved 5 April 1770. 2 He married, at St. George's, 
Hanover Square, 22 July 1729, Grace, eldest daughter of 
John, Lord Carteret, afterwards first Earl Granville. She, 
who was born 8 July 1713, died 23 July 1755, and was buried 
at Helmingham 10 August following. 3 
They had issue : 

1. A son, born 21 May 1730, and died the same day. 4 

2. Lionel, born 15 March 1730-31, died next day ; buried 

at Helmingham 19 March. 5 

3. LIONEL, who succeeded his father as Earl of Dysart. 

4. A son, born 24 June 1737 ; died young. 

5. WILBRAHAM, who succeeded his brother Lionel as 

Earl of Dysart. 

6. A son, born 7 October 1740 ; died young. 

7. George, born 14 March 1744, entered the Royal Navy, 

drowned 13 November 1760, 6 having fallen from the 
masthead of the Modeste man-of-war, while on a 
voyage to Lisbon. 

8. John, born 30 March 1750, killed in a duel at New 

York by Lieut.-Oolonel Pennington of the Foot 
Guards, 25 September 1777. Admon. of his goods 
granted, P.O.O. 26 February 1779, to Lady Bridget 
Tollemache, widow, the relict, he being described as 
4 late of the parish of St. Marylebone, co. Middlesex, 
Captain of H.M.S. Zebra, at New York, deceased.' 
He married, 3 December 1773, Bridget Henley, 
daughter of Robert, first Earl of Northington, Lord 

1 Davy's Suffolk Collections, ix. 2 P. C. C., 139, Jenner. 3 Pedigree of 
Tollemache in Davy's Suffolk Collections. 4 Davy's Suffolk Collections, 
Brit. Mus., Addl. MS. 19,151. The dates of birth of the rest of the children 
of this marriage have been taken from the Gentleman's Mag. 6 Ibid. 
6 Log Book kept on board H.M.S. Modeste between 5 August 1760 and 
27 February 1761, preserved at the Public Record Office, London, and 
produced in evidence in the Dysart Peerage claim, 1880-81. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 409 

High Chancellor, and widow of Robert Fox-Lane, 
only son of George, Lord Bingley. She, who was ' a 
woman of great brilliancy of wit and delicacy of 
imagination,' 1 died at Great Cumberland Street, 
London, 13 March 1796. Will, dated at Eastbourne, 
co. Sussex, 28 January 1794, proved 9 August 1796. 2 
In this will she desired to be buried in Northington 
parish church. They had issue an only son, 

Lionel Robert, born 10 November 1774, and baptized at St. 
Marylebone, co. Middlesex. He was appointed ensign in 
the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards, 28 January 1791, 
and served with this regiment in Flanders, showing great 
promise of future distinction, but he was unfortunately 
killed before Valenciennes, 14 July 1793, by the bursting of 
a bomb thrown by the garrison. He was interred, 13 
August following, in the family vault at Helmingham, 
where a beautiful monument by Nollekens, with his bust in 
a medallion, and an inscription, was erected to his memory. 
He died urfmarried. 

D. William, born 22 February 1751, entered the Royal 
Navy, and became lieutenant of H.M.S. Repulse, in 
which vessel he was lost in a hurricane in the 
Atlantic Ocean. Admon. of his goods granted P.C.C. 
10 July 1780, he being described as a bachelor. 

10. Grace, born 9 April 1732, died at Ham House, co. 

Surrey, 10, and buried at Helmingham 15, May 
1736. 

11. Harriet, died 2, buried at Helmingham 8, August 1733. 

12. Mary, born 12 March 1736, died 14, buried at Hel- 

mingham 18, August 1744. 

13. Frances, born about 1738. On 3 December 1804 she 

joined with her brother Wilbraham, Earl of Dysart, 
in barring the entail of the family estates, and in a 
re-settlement of the same. 3 She died unmarried at 
her cottage in the Isle of Wight, 18, and was buried 
at Helmingham 31, December 1807. 

14. Catherine, born 1741, died 24 May, and buried at 

Helmingham 1 June, 1751. 

15. LOUISA, who succeeded her brother Wilbraham as 

Countess of Dysart. 

1 Gentleman's Mag., vol. 66, 352. 2 P. C. C., 432, Harris. 3 The deed 
by which this transaction was effected was produced in the Dysart 
Peerage claim, 1880-81. 



410 MURRAY, EARL OP DYSART 

16. Jane, married, first, 23 October 1771, to John Delap 
Halliday of the Leasowes, in the parish of Hales 
Owen, co. Salop, and of Castlemains, in the stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright, major in the army, who was born 
29 September, and baptized at St. John's, Antigua, 
in the West Indies, 23 November 1749. 1 He died 
at the Leasowes 24 June 1794, and was buried at 
Hales Owen, where there is an inscription to his 
memory. His will, dated 27 January 1780, with 
codicil of 1 January 1792, was proved 9 September 
1794. 2 Lady Jane was married, secondly, at St. 
Marylebone, co. Middlesex, 4 March 1802, to David 
George Ferry of Bath, co. Somerset, apothecary. 
She died at Southampton, 28 August 1802, 3 leaving by 
her first husband, with other issue, an eldest son : 

(1) John Richard Delap Halliday, of Helmingham, co. Suffolk, 
born 1772, Vice- Admiral of the Red, who was authorised 
by royal licence, dated 4 July 1821, to take the surname 
and arms of Tollemache only, as co-heir with his aunt 
Louisa, Countess of Dysart, to the estates of that family. 
He died in Piccadilly Terrace, London, 16 July 1837, having 
had by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of John Stratford, after- 
wards Earl of Aldborough (to whom he was married at 
the house of her father in Piccadilly, in the parish of 
St. George's, Hanover Square, 28 February 1797), 4 with 
other issue, an eldest son, John Tollemache of Helming- 
ham, co. Suffolk, and Peckforton Castle, co. Chester, who 
on 17 January 1876 was raised to the Peerage of the United 
Kingdom as Baron Tollemache of Helmingham. 

V. LIONEL, born August 1734, 5 succeeded his father as 
Earl of Dysart and Lord Huntingtower 10 March 1770, 
and voted at elections for Representative Peers for Scot- 
land 8 May 1784 (by signed list), and 28 March 1787 (by 
proxy granted to the Earl of Selkirk). He died at Ham 
House, co. Surrey, 20 February 1799 , 6 in his sixty-fifth 
year, s. p., and was buried at Helmingham with great 
funeral pomp 11 March following. Will dated 5 May 1777. 
Admon., with the will annexed, granted 25 May 1799 to 

1 See the pedigree of Halliday in The History of Antigua, by Vere 
Langford Oliver, ii. 43-48. 2 P. C. C., 460, Holman. 3 Her portrait by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds is now at Waddesdon Manor, co. Bucks. 4 Parish 
Register of St. George's, Hanover Square, printed by the Harleian 
Society. 6 Gentleman's Mag., iv. 451. 6 Extracts from the Registers 
Of Helmingham in Davy's Suffolk Collections ; Gentleman's Mag., Ixix. 
174. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 411 

Magdalene, Countess of Dysart, the relict. 1 He married, 
first, at St. James's, Piccadilly, without the consent or 
knowledge of his father, 2 2 October 1760, Charlotte, third 
and youngest illegitimate daughter of the Hon. Sir Edward 
Walpole, K.B., by Dorothy Clements (and sister of Maria 
Walpole, afterwards wife of H.R.H. the Duke of 
Gloucester, brother of King George in.). She, who was 
born 9 December 1738, and baptized at St. James's, Picca- 
dilly, 3 January 1738-39, 3 died s. p. at Ham House 5, and 
was buried at Helmingham 17, September 1789. Lord 
Dysart married, secondly, at the house of his brother, the 
Hon. Wilbraham Tollemache, in Piccadilly, 19 April 1791, 4 
Magdalene, daughter of David Lewis, of Malvern Hall, co. 
Warwick, by Mary, daughter, and eventually heir, of the 
Rev. Marshall Greswolde, of Solihull, in the same county. 
She died s. p., at her house in Piccadilly, 2 February 1823, 
and was buried 19th at Helmingham. Her will, dated 24 
May 1816, was proved in London 25 September 1823. 

VI. WILBRAHAM, born 21 October 1739; succeeded his 
brother Lionel as Earl of Dysart and Lord Huntingtower 
20 February 1799 ; and voted at elections for Represen- 
tative Peers for Scotland 10 August 1802, and 4 December 
1806 (by signed lists). He was originally in the Royal 
Navy, but afterwards served in the Army, from which he 
retired in 1775, being then major of the 6th Regiment of 
Foot. He was M.P. for Northampton 1771-80, and for 
Liskeard 1780-84. In 1785 he served the office of High 
Sheriff of Cheshire, and was afterwards High Steward of 
Ipswich. He died s. p. at Ham House 9 March 1821, and was 
buried 29th at Helmingham with great state. His will was 
proved in London the same year. Being the last male heir 
of his ancient family, the baronetcy of Tollemache, created 
at the first institution of that dignity, 22 May 1611, became 
extinct, but the earldom of Dysart and barony of Hunting- 

1 P. C. C. t 348, Howe. 2 See a letter written by Horace Walpole two 
hours after the ceremony had taken place, printed in the Walpole 
Letters, iv. 92, and in the Memoirs of Horace Walpole, edited by Eliot 
Warburton, ii. 70. In this letter Walpole mentions that the bridegroom 
was then twenty-six years of age. 3 Parish Reg. of St. James's ex inform. 
G. E. Cokayne, Clarenceux. 4 Registers of St. George's, Hanover Square, 
printed by the Harleian Society. Their marriage-settlement was dated 
11 and 12 March 1791. 



412 MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 

tower devolved, according to the limitations contained in 
the patent of 5 December 1670, upon his sister, Lady Louisa 
Manners. He married, at St. George's, Hanover Square, 
4 February 1773, Anna Maria, daughter of the above- 
mentioned David Lewis, by Mary Greswolde, his wife. She 
died s. p. at Ham House, 14 September 1804, aged fifty -nine, 
and was buried at Helmingham 27 September following. 

VII. LOUISA, Countess of Dysart, born 2 July 1745 ; suc- 
ceeded her brother Wilbraham in the earldom of Dysart 
and barony of Huntingtower 9 March 1821, and on 13 
March 1821 she, together with her only unmarried daughter, 
Laura, was authorised by royal licence to take and bear 
the surname and arms of Tollemache instead of Manners. 
She died at Ham House, co. Surrey, 22 September 1840, 
aged ninety -five, 1 and was buried at Helmingham 8 October 
following ; will proved February 1841. She married, 4 Sep- 
tember 1765, 2 at Old Oambus, Haddington, John Manners 
of the Grange, near Grantham, co. Lincoln, eldest of the 
illegitimate sons of Lord William Manners (second son of 
the second Duke of Rutland), by Oorbetta, daughter of 
William Smyth, of Shrewsbury, apothecary. 3 He, who was 
born 27 September 1730, and was M.P. for Newark-on-Trent 
1754-74, died 23 September 1792, and was buried at Bottes- 
ford, co. Leicester, 5 October following. His will, dated 13 
September 1791, was proved 31 January 1793. 4 They had 
issue : 

1. WILLIAM, styled Lord Huntingtower. 

2. Jo/iw, of Portman Square, co. Middlesex, was autho- 

rised by royal licence, dated 6 April 1821, to take 
the surname of Tollemache instead of Manners, and 
bear the arms of Tollemache. He died s. p. at York 

1 A portrait of her by Sir Joshua Reynolds was engraved by V. 
Green, and another by Hoppner, as a peasant, has also been engraved, 
and was, on 27 June 1901, sold at Messrs. Robinson and Fisher's rooms for 
14,050 guineas. This portrait originally belonged to her daughter, Lady 
Laura Tollemache, from whom it passed to Maria, Marchioness of Ailes- 
bury, and finally came into the possession of the latter's daughter-in-law, 
the late Lady Charles Bruce, by whose executors it was sold (see the 
Connoisseur for September 1901). 2 Scottish Antiquary, iii. 69, where, 
by an evident printer's error, the year is given as 1764. A bond executed 
in contemplation of marriage, dated 28 August 1765, is referred to in the 
will of the husband. 3 See the will of Lord William Manners, dated 8 July 
1771, proved P.C.C., 27 May 1772 (186, Taverner). 4 P. C. C. t 573, Fountain. 



I 



MURRAY, EARL OP DYSART 413 

House, Twickenham, co. Middlesex, 13 February 
1837. Married, 19 August 1806, Mary, daughter of 
Captain Benjamin Bechinoe, R.N., and widow of 
William, fourth Duke of Roxburghe. She died in 
April 1838. 

3. Charles, of Market Over ton, co. Rutland, and Har- 
rington, co. Northampton ; born 2 January 1775 ; was 
authorised by royal licence, dated 6 April 1821, to 
take the surname of Tollemache instead of Manners, 
and bear the arms of Tollemache. He died in Eaton 
Place, London, 26 July 1850, having married, first, 
at St. George's, Hanover Square, 4 August 1797, 
Frances, only daughter of William Hay, of Newhall, 
and niece of George, seventh Marquess of Tweeddale ; 
she, who was born 1775, died 29 March 1801, and 
was buried at Helmingham 10 April. They had 
issue : 

) Arthur Hugh, born 23 April 1799 ; died 11 December 1870. 

) Wilbraham Francis, born 26 April 1800; commander R.N. ; 
died 6 January 1864; married, 5 October 1841, Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of Alexander Munro, and by her, who died 
13 October 1883, had issue. 

(3) Louisa Grace, died young. 

He married, secondly, at St. George's, Hanover 
Square, 8 August 1803, Gertrude Florinda, daughter 
of General William Gardiner (brother of Luke, 
Viscount Mount joy), and widow of Charles John 
Clarke; she died 27 September 1864. They had 
issue : 

(4) Charles William. 

(5) George. 

(6) Lionel, born 1806 ; captain 76th Foot ; died at Fort George,. 

Inverness, 6 February 1838. 

(7) William, born 7 November 1810; died 17 March 1886; mar- 

ried, first, at Leamington Spa, 13 September 1838, Anna 
Maria Jane, third daughter of Edward Adolphus, eleventh 
Duke of Somerset, K.G., by whom he had issue ; she died 
23 September 1873. He married, secondly, 11 May 1875, 
Emma, daughter of James Sidney of Richmond Hill, co. 
Surrey, and widow of Major-General Sir Herbert Benjamin 
Edwardes, K.C.B., K.C.S.I. 

(8) Henry Bertie, served in the Scots Fusilier Guards ; died 28 

October 1886 ; married, at St. George's, Hanover Square, 12 
August 1837, his cousin Emilia Magdalen Louisa, eldest 
daughter of Sir George Sinclair, Baronet, by Catherine 
Camilla Manners, and by her had issue. This marriage 



414 MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 

was dissolved by the Court of Session in Scotland 3 July 
1841, and afterwards, 9 July 1859, by the English Courts. 
She married, secondly, 5 July 1841, Major John Power, 29th 
Regiment, and died 19 January 1864. 

(9) Frances Louisa, born 23 September 1804. died 15 April 1893, 
and was buried in the churchyard of Petersham, co. Surrey ; 
married, first, 1 June 1850, to Lieutenant George Richard 
Halliday,R.N.,of Bridgefield, who died 11 November 1855; 
she was married, secondly, 28 November 1857, to her cousin the 
Hon. Algernon Grey Tollemache, who died 16 January 1892. 
(10) Maria Eliza, born 27 October 1809, died 7 May 1893 ; married, 
in the private chapel of Ham House, 20 August 1833, as his 
second wife, to Charles, first Marquess of Ailesbury, K.T., 
who died 4 January 1856, and by whom she had issue. 

4. George, died an infant. 

5. Elizabeth Louisa, died an infant. 

6. Sophia, died an infant. 

7. Catherine Sophia, born 1769 ; died in Grosvenor Square 

28 May 1825; married at St. George's, Hanover 
Square, 16 August 1793, to Sir Gilbert Heathcote, 
fourth Baronet, M.P. for co. Rutland, who died 
26 March 1851, and by whom she had issue. 

8. Maria Caroline, born 1775 ; died at Edinburgh 20 

December 1805, and was buried at Helmingham 4 
January 1806; married, 9 September 1799, at St. 
James's, Westminster, to James, Viscount Macduff, 
afterwards fourth Earl Fife, in the Peerage of Ire- 
land, K.T., but had no issue. 

9. Louisa Grace, born 1777 ; died 19 February 1816, and 

was buried at Hanworth ; married, at St. George's, 
Hanover Square, 15 August 1802, as his second wife, 
to Aubrey, sixth Duke of St. Albans, by whom she 
had an only son, Aubrey, seventh Duke. 
10. Laura, born 1780 ; died at Ham House 11 July 1834 ; 
married, 3 June 1808, to John William Henry Dal- 
rymple, afterwards seventh Earl of Stair (see that 
title), which marriage was dissolved 16 July 1811 
owing to a prior contract, 28 May 1804, between Mr. 
Dalrymple and Johanna, daughter of Charles Gordon 
of Oluny, but this contract was annulled in June 1820 
by the Lords of Session in Edinburgh. By royal 
licence dated 13 March 1821 she was authorised to 
take and bear the surname and arms of Tollemache 
instead of those of Manners, and was then described 
as unmarried. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 



415 



WILLIAM, styled Lord Huntingtower, born 1766 ; 
created a Baronet of Great Britain, as of Hanby Hall, 
co. Lincoln, 12 January 1793 ; M.P. for Ilchester 1803-7 ; 
Sheriff of co. Leicester 1809; was authorised by royal 
licence, dated 6 April 1821, to take and bear the surname 
and arms of Talmash only for himself and his issue ; died 
in his mother's lifetime at Buckminster Park, co. 
Leicester, 11, and was buried in Buckminster church 28, 
March 1833. Will dated 18 August 1827, proved P. O. O. 
25 April 1833. He married at Walcot, near Bath, co. 
Somerset, 12 January 1790, Catherine Rebecca, third 
and youngest daughter of Francis Grey, of Lehena, co. 
Cork. She, who was the authoress of a volume of poems, 
died at Leamington Spa, co. Warwick, 21 March 1852, aged 
eighty-five, and was buried 28th at Buckminster. Will 
proved June following. They had issue : 

1. LIONEL WILLIAM JOHN, who succeeded as Earl of 

Dysart. 

2. Felix Thomas, 1 born 16 February 1796; M.P. for Il- 

chester ; died at Kew Green, co. Surrey, 5 October 
1843 ; married, first, 1 October 1825, his first cousin 
Sarah, only child of his maternal uncle, James Grey of 
Ballincor, King's County, Ireland ; she died 1831. 
He married, secondly, 27 April 1833, Frances Julia, 
youngest daughter of Henry Peters of Betchworth 
Castle, co. Surrey, by whom (who married, secondly, 
8 May 1845, Admiral John Pakenham, R.N., and died 
26 July 1894) he had no issue. By his first wife he 
had : 

(1) William James Felix, born 12 January 1827, died 3 Novem- 

ber 1859 s. p., and was buried in the churchyard of Peters- 
ham, co. Surrey. 

(2) Caroline, died 6 June 1867; married, 15 February 1853, to 

her cousin, the Rev. Ralph William Lyonel Tollemache. 

3. Arthur Ccesar, born September 1797; lieutenant 6th 

Dragoon Guards (half pay), 1840; died at Dinan in 
France 1 April 1848. He married, 17 August 1820, 

1 He and the other surviving younger children of William, Lord Hun- 
tingtower, obtained a warrant of precedence to rank as the children of an 
Earl 6 November 1840, wherein their surname is spelt Tollemache, and 
they are called the younger children of Sir William Talmash, heretofore 
Manners, etc. 



416 MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 

Catherine, daughter of Alberic Joseph Scheppers, 
who died July 1868, and by whom he had issue : 

(1) Arthur Lionel, born 29 August 1825 ; married, 14 May 1857, 

Emily, daughter of Major-General Sir Jeremiah Bryant, 
C.B. He died 3 January 1874, having had, with two 
daughters, a son, 

Arthur Frederick Churchill, of Ballincor, King's 
County, Ireland, heir-presumptive to the baronetcy 
created in 1793 ; born 1 August 1860 ; High Sheriff of 
King's County 1888; married, 1888, Susan Eleanor, 
daughter of Captain James Carter Campbell, of Ard 
Patrick, co. Argyll, R.N., and has issue. 

(2) Albert , born 17 December 1832 ; served in the Bengal Artil- 

lery ; died in India 28 April 1854. 

(3) Edward Granville, died young. 

(4) Catharine Eliza. 

(5) Melanie Sophia, married, 29 June 1849, to Monsieur Raymond 

Louis Abrial, of Montauban, France. 

(6) Adele. 

(7) Laura, married, 7 November 1859, to Albert, Comte de Lastic 

St. Jal of Montauban. 

(8) Louisa, died 3 July 1857. 

4. Rev. Hugh Francis, born 19 September, and baptized 
26 October 1802 at Petersham, co. Surrey, rector of 
Harrington, co. Northampton, died 2 March 1890, 
married at Paddington, co. Middlesex, 22 June 1824, 
Matilda, fifth daughter of Joseph Hume of Notting 
Hill, London. By her, who died 29 November 1873, 
he had issue : 

(1) Rev. Ralph William Lyonel, born 19 October 1826, and 

baptized at "Walcot near Bath ; rector of South Witham, 
Lincolnshire. Assumed by royal licence, 19 January 1876, 
the additional surname of Tollemache. Died 5 October 
1895. He married, first, 15 February 1853, his cousin 
Caroline, daughter of the Hon. Felix Thomas Tollemache, 
and by her, who died 6 June 1867, had issue. He married, 
secondly, 22 February 1869, Dora Cleopatra Maria Lorenza, 
youngest daughter of Colonel Ignacio de Loyala de Padua 
de Orellana y Revest, of the Spanish Army, and by her, 
who was born 15 November 1846, he had further issue. 

(2) Rev. Clement Reginald, born 11 March 1835. M.A. of Braze- 

nose College, Oxford, 1868. Government Chaplain at Ran- 
goon. Died 12 November 1895, having married, 19 January 
1869, Frances Josephine, third daughter of Henry Simpson, 
of Selville, Portobello, by whom he had issue. 

(3) Rev. Ernest Celestine, born 7 January 1838. B.A. of Pem- 

broke College, Oxford, 1861. Vicar of Well, Yorkshire^ 
1876, until his death in 1880. He married, 8 November 1870, 
Henrietta Maria, younger daughter of Lieut. -Colonel Dixon y 
late 81st Regiment, and had issue. 



MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 417 

(4) Rev. Augustus Francis, born 6 September 1839. M.A. of 

Exeter College, Oxford, 1864. Vicar of Whitwick, co. 
Leicester, 1874-94. Is unmarried. 

(5) Anastasius Eugene, born 22 July 1842 ; late captain and 

instructor of musketry 22nd Foot ; married, 1 March 1870, 
Alice Elizabeth, only surviving child of the Rev. Curzon 
Cursham, of Hartwell, co. Northampton, and has issue. 

(6) Matilda Anne Frances, born at Bath, 23 March 1825 ; married, 

30 March 1869, as his second wife, to the Rev. George 
Edmond Maunsell, of Thorpe Malsor, co. Northampton, 
who died 29 October 1875. 

(7) Louisa Harrington, born 3 February 1833 ; married, 11 Nov- 

ember 1862, to the Rt. Hon. Thomas Edward Taylor, of Ard- 
gillan Castle, co. Dublin, M.P. for that county, and by him, 
who died, 3 February 1883, had issue. 

(8) Cornelia Katharine, born 12 September 1836. 

(9) Cecilia Eleanor, born 19 December 1840. 

5. Frederick James, born at Petersham Park, co. Surrey, 

16 April, and baptized at Petersham 10 May 1804. 
M.P. for Grautham 1826-31, 1857-65, and 1868-74. 
Died at Ham House 2 July 1888, and was buried in 
the churchyard of Petersham. He married, first, 
26 August 1831, Sarah Maria, daughter of Robert 
Bomford of Rahinstown, co. Meath, and by her, who 
died 3 January 1835, had issue : 

(1) Louisa Maria, born 27 August 1832; died 7 May 1863 un- 

married, and was buried in the churchyard of Petersham. 

He married, secondly, 4 September 1847, at Ham, 
co. Surrey, Isabella Anne, eldest daughter of Gordon 
Forbes, Esq., of Ham Common; she, who was born 
21 October 1817, died at Ham House 30 August 1850, 
and was buried in the Dysart vault in the chancel of 
Petersham Church. They had issue : 

(2) Ada Maria Catherine, born 21 June 1848 ; married, 9 May 1868, 

at Ham House, to Charles Douglas Richard (Hanbury-Tracy), 
present Lord Sudeley, and has issue. 

6. Algernon Grey, born at Petersham Park 24 September, 

and baptized at Petersham 19 October 1805. M.P. 
for Grantham 1832-37; died at Richmond, co. 
Surrey, 16 January 1892, and was buried in the church- 
yard of Petersham. He married, 28 September 1857, 
his cousin, Frances Louisa, eldest daughter of the 
Hon. Charles Tollemache, and widow of Lieu- 
tenant George Richard Halliday, R.N. (See above.) 
She died 15 April 1893. 

VOL. III. 2 D 



418 MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 

7. Louisa Grace, born 1791, married, 9 August 1816, 

to Joseph Burke, afterwards Sir Joseph Burke, of 
Glinsk Castle, co. Galway, who died at Nice 30 
October 1865 ; she died 18 April 1830, leaving issue, 
of whom the youngest daughter married her cousin 
Lord Huntingtower. (See below.) 

8. Catherine Camilla, born 5 November 1792; married, 

1 May 1816, to Sir George Sinclair of Thurso, co. 
Caithness, Baronet, knight of the shire of that 
county, who died 9 October 1868 ; she died 17 March 
1863, leaving issue. 

9. Frances Emily, born 28 October 1793 ; died unmarried 

14 August 1864, and was buried in the churchyard of 
Petersham. 

10. Caroline Magdalene, born 3, and baptized 22, April 

1799 at Petersham ; died unmarried 18 March 1825, 
at Wansford, co. Northampton, while on her road 
from Buckminster to London. 

11. Catherine Octavia, born 28 September 1800; died 

unmarried 9 January 1878. 

12. Laura Maria, born 22 February, and baptized at 

Petersham 25 March 1807 ; died 12 July 1888, having 
been married, 7 August 1847, to the Rt. Hon. James 
Grattan, of Tinnehinch, co. Wicklow, who died 24 
October 1854. 

VIII. LIONEL WILLIAM JOHN MANNERS, born 18 November 
1794, succeeded his father as second Baronet 11 March 
1833, and his grandmother as Earl of Dysart and Lord 
Huntingtower 22 September 1840. M.P. for Ilchester 
1827-30. Died at 34 Norfolk Street, Strand, London, 
23 September 1878, and was buried at Buckminster 
4 October following. Will dated 26 June 1873, proved 
in London 6 December 1878. He married, at St. Mary- 
lebone, co. Middlesex, 23 September 1819, his first cousin 
Maria Elizabeth (called Eliza), eldest daughter of Sweeney 

Toone, of Keston Lodge, co. Kent, by , daughter of 

Francis Grey, of Lehena, co. Cork ; she died in Grosvenor 
Square, London, 15 February 1869, aged seventy-nine. 
They had issue an only son, 

WILLIAM LIONEL FELIX, styled Lord Huntingtower, born 



MURRAY, EARL OP DYSART 419 

4 July, and baptized at St. Marylebone, co. Middlesex, 
1 August 1820. He died in the lifetime of his father, at 
Alexandra House, Alexandra Road, South Hampstead, 
London, 21, and was buried at Keston, co. Kent, 28, 
December 1872. Will dated 11 December 1872, with two 
codicils, proved in London 16 January 1873. He married^ 
at the Roman Catholic chapel, Shepton Mallet, co. Somer- 
set, and afterwards at St. John the Evangelist's church, 
East Horrington, in the parish of St. Cuthbert's Wells, in 
the same county, 26 September 1851, his first cousin 
Katherine Elizabeth Camilla, youngest daughter of Sir 
Joseph Burke, Baronet, of Glinsk Castle, co. Galway, by 
Louisa Manners, his wife ; she died at Buckminster 21 
November 1896. They had issue : 

1. WILLIAM JOHN MANNERS, present Earl of Dysart. 

2. Mary Louisa Napoleona Manners, 1 born 21 December 

1852, and baptized the same day privately at Can- 
nington, co. Somerset ; died at Ham, 20, and buried 
27, June 1859, in St. Mary Magdalene's Cemetery, 
Mortlake, co. Surrey. 

3. Agnes Mary Manners, heiress - presumptive to the 

earldom of Dysart ; born 27, and baptized 29, June 
1855, at St. Elizabeth's Roman Catholic church, 
Richmond, co. Surrey; received a patent of pre- 
cedence to rank as the daughter of an Earl, 21 March 
1881. She was married, 4 February 1882, to Charles 
Norman Lindsay Scott, now of Bosworth Park, co. 
Leicester, eldest son of the late John Lindsay Scott, 
late of Mollance, co. Kirkcudbright, by whom she 
has an only child : 

(1) Winifrede Agatha Tollemache Scott, born 13 November 



4. Agatha Manners, born 16, and baptized 22, January 
1857, at St. Elizabeth's Roman Catholic church, Rich- 
mond, co. Surrey ; received a patent of precedence 
to rank as the daughter of an Earl 21 March 1881. 
She was married, 24 July 1882, to Richard Luttrell 

1 In the entry of her baptism, the Register of the Roman Catholic 
mission at Cannington being in Latin, she is called * Gulielmetta Joanetta 
Maria Ludovica,' but her identity with the child buried at Mortlake 27 
June 1859 was established before the House of Lords in the Dysart 
Peerage claim 1880-81. 



420 MURRAY, EARL OF DYSART 

Pilkington (Betliell), third and present Lord West- 
bury, by whom she has an only son, the Hon. Richard 
Bethell, born 1883. 

IX. WILLIAM JOHN MANNERS, Earl of Dysart and Lord 
Huntingtower, born 3, and baptized 8, March 1859, at St. 
Elizabeth's Roman Catholic church, Richmond, co. Surrey. 
Is Lord Lieutenant of co. Rutland. In 1880 he petitioned 
the House of Lords to be acknowledged as Earl of Dysart 
and Lord Huntingtower, and on 7 March 1881 the House 
resolved that he had made out his claim. 1 He married, 19 
November 1885, Cecilia Florence, second and only surviving 
daughter of George Onslow Newton, of Croxton Park, co. 
Cambridge, and Pickhill Hall, co. Denbigh. 

CREATION. 3 August 1643, Earl of Dysart and Lord 
Huntingtower. 

ARMS. The arms authorised by the royal licence of 1821 
are those of Tollemache only : Argent, a fret sable. 

CREST. A horse's head erased argent, with wings ex- 
panded, pelletee. 

SUPPORTERS. Two antelopes proper attired and unguled 
or. 

MOTTO. Confido, conquiesco. 

[H. w. F. H.] 

[K. w. M.] 

1 Another claimant to these titles appeared in the person of Eliza- 
beth Acford, daughter of Henry Acford, a timber merchant of Bide- 
ford, co. Devon, acting on behalf of her infant son Albert Edwin, 
who was born at 13 Shaftesbury Terrace, Warwick Road, London, 15 
February 1863, and whom she asserted to be the only surviving legitimate 
son of the late Lord Huntingtower. The petitioner's story was that 
in July 1844 she was lawfully married to Lord Huntingtower at Grecian 
Cottage, Trinity, near Edinburgh, by interchange of mutual consent per 
verba deprcesenti. In the course of the evidence given in support of her 
petition, dated 3 August 1880, it appeared that not only were several of 
her children registered as the lawful offspring of Lord Huntingtower, 
but that in answer to an action which she brought against him in March 
1865 at Maidstone, co. Kent, to recover the arrears of an annuity which 
he had settled upon her, he pleaded that she was his lawful wife, and on 
this ground obtained judgment from the Lord Chief Baron, who tried the 
case. The House of Lords, after a careful hearing, refused to allow the 
petition. 







glinton 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF 
EGLINTON 



ONTGOMERIE is an 
ancient Norman surname 
derived from a fief of 
that name in Normandy. 1 
The first possessor of 
the name as a personal 
appellation who appears 
in authentic record was 
Roger ' quern dicunt de 
Montgomerie,' 2 who 
flourished in Normandy 
about and before 1050. 
Roger the first had five 
sons, Roger, Hugh, 
Robert, William, and 
Gilbert, who all died 
before 1064 except 
Roger. The eldest son Roger was one of the companions 
of King William the Conqueror, and was appointed Governor 
of Normandy in 1066. He afterwards, in 1068, came with 
the King to England, and received with other great fiefs 
the earldom of Shrewsbury. He later attempted the con- 
quest of Wales, and gained a portion of that country, 
including the district called Montgomery from its conqueror, 
a name it still retains. Roger, the Earl, had five sons, 
Robert, Hugh, Roger, Philip, and Arnulf. 3 Of these five, 
it is claimed that the Arnulf, who was Castellan of Pem- 
broke Castle, 4 was the father of the first Montgomerie who 

1 Calendar of Documents, France, 101. 2 Ordericus Vitalis, Bohn's 
ed., i. 451. 3 Ordericus makes Arnulf the fourth son, but he is named 
last of the five in a writ by their father between 1079 and 1182. Cal. of 
Docs., France, 165. 4 Ordericus describes him as Earl of Pembroke, but 
he does not appear to have had that dignity. 




422 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

appears in Scotland, and this view is given effect to by the 
late Sir William Fraser in hisMemorialsoftheMontgomeries, 
Earls of Eglinton. But the reasons advanced by him are 
very unsubstantial and without the sanction of any valid 
evidence, while on the other hand, though the wife of 
Arnulf is known, there is no proof that he had any family, 1 
and all that can be said is that 

ROBERT MONTGOMERIE or ' de Mundegumri,' the first of 
his name who settled in Scotland, was probably of good 
birth, and may have been a cadet of the family whose name 
he bore, though his relationship to them is not clearly 
proved. If, however, he was a son of Arnulf Montgomerie 
as suggested, he must have been a man aged upwards of 
fifty years 2 when he is first named in Scottish writs, none 
of those in which he appears being dated before 1164. It 
is more probable that he was of a younger generation, but 
on this point history is silent, and the family writs which 
might have cleared up the matter were destroyed by a fire 
which consumed Eglinton Castle about the year 1528. 3 
From the fact that Robert Montgomerie appears as a 
witness in some of the earliest grants made by Walter 
FitzAlan, the first High Steward of Scotland, to his newly 
founded Abbey of Paisley, it has been concluded, and 
perhaps with truth, that he was one of those Normans who 
came north with, or soon after, the High Steward, and 
received from him grants of lands in Scotland. 

It is to be noted that while Walter FitzAlan came to Scot- 
land in the reign of King David i., and was High Steward 
and in possession of large territories before that monarch's 
death in 1153, it is not until after the date of the charter 
by King Malcolm iv., on 24 June 1161 or 1162, 4 confirming 
his grandfather's grant to the Steward, and adding to it, 
that we have evidence of Montgomerie's presence in Scot- 

1 Ordericus is silent on this point, and the statement as to descendants 
is conjectural. 2 According to Ordericus, Arnulf was married about 1101, 
and was deprived of his wife a few years afterwards, iii. 338, 351. 
3 Memorials of the Montgomeries, i. 31. 4 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 92, 93. 
The charter of King Malcolm is usually said to be dated 24 June 1157, 
but Ernald, Bishop of St. Andrews, the first witness, was only con- 
secrated in November 1160, and died September 1162, while William, 
Abbot of Melrose, another witness, became abbot on 29 November 1159 
(Chron. de Mailros, 76, 77, 78). 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 423 

laud. He does not appear in the foundation charter of 
Paisley, which was granted about July 1163, at Fothering- 
hay, one of King Malcolm's manors in England, 1 but his 
name occurs in the charter endowing the monastery, which 
was dated some time later, not before 1165, as King 
William was then on the throne. 2 He appears also as a 
witness to other charters to the Abbey of Paisley, and to 
the Abbeys of Kelso and Melrose about the same period, 
between 1165 and 1177. 3 He also witnessed two charters 
by the first High Steward to St. Peter's at York, after 
1165. 4 According to Sir William Fraser, he had from the 
first High Steward a grant of the lands of Eaglesham in 
Renfrewshire, but this is conjectural, though the lands 
were in possession of his family at a later date. It has 
been stated that he married a daughter of the High Steward, 
but no evidence on the point has been discovered. 5 Sir 
William Fraser places the date of Robert Montgomerie's 
death about 1178, but there is reason to believe he lived 
longer, as he was certainly alive in August 1179, and 
perhaps some time later. 6 
He is said to have been the father of 

1. ALAN, who succeeded. 

2. William de Mundegumbri, apparently a cleric, who is 

a witness to a grant of the church of Dunsyre, made 
by Helias, brother of Jocelyn, Bishop of Glasgow, to 
the monks of Kelso, dated after 1175, is also stated 
to be a son. 7 

ALAN MONTGOMERIE is, according to Sir William Fraser, 
the next in succession, and he is certainly the next on 
record as the dates go. But he does not appear before 
1177, and the references to him are later than the dates 
assigned to him by Sir William, charters of the second 
Walter FitzAlan being confused with those of his grand- 
father, pardonably enough, as writs of that period are, for 
the most part, undated. He certainly witnessed several 

1 This charter has been assigned to the year 1160, but the editor of 
the Register of Paisley, Preface, i, note a, gives good reason for the date 
in the text. 2 Reg. de Passelet, 5. 3 Ibid., 1, 49, 74, 112, 116; Reg. de 
Calchou, i. 138 ; Liber de Metros, i. 37, 56. 4 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 1606. 
* Memorials of the Montgomeries,i. 7, 8. 6 Cf . Liber de Melros, i. 37. A writ 
which must be dated after 19 August 1179, when Hugh became Abbot of 
Newbotle. 7 Memorials, i. 9. 



424 MONTGOMERIB, EARL OF EGLINTON 

charters in the time of Alan FitzWalter, the second High 
Steward (1177-1204), and though the dates of some cannot 
be determined, yet where the dates can be ascertained, the 
references are usually late. Thus, he is a witness to a 
charter by Alan FitzWalter to the Abbey of Paisley, dated 
not earlier than 1202 or 1203, and from that date he appears 
in various writs down to 1221, before which he received the 
honour of knighthood. 1 In that year he entered into an 
agreement with Herbert, Abbot of Kelso, as to the tithes 
of Innerwick, which had been in dispute betwixt them. 2 He 
had issue, apparently three sons : 

1. ROBERT. 

2. John, who is mentioned as John, son of Alan Mont- 

gomery, in a charter relating to the lands of Inner- 
wick, which Sir William Fraser dates about 1170, but 
which must be much later. 3 He was then, through 
his wife, in possession of part of Innerwick. He is 
named in other writs, sometimes by himself and 
sometimes with his brother Robert, who is usually 
placed first. 4 He married Helen, one of the daughters 
and heiresses of Robert Kent of Innerwick, and 
apparently held a third part of the barony. Besides 
the charter of Innerwick above referred to, he, with 
Helen, his wife, and the other portioners, joined in 
another grant of the same lands to the monks of 
Kelso, which was dated in or after 1239, 5 as Philip, 
Abbot of Jedburgh, who became Abbot in that year, 
is a witness. 6 

3. Henry, who is named once, along with his brother 

Robert, in a charter by Walter, son of Alan the 
Steward, dated apparently between 1204 and 1214. T 
No other mention of Henry has been found. 

1 Reg. de Passelet, 12, 14, 18, 49, 71, 99, 101 ; Liber de Metros, i. 38, 52, 54. 
2 Eeg. de Calchou, i. 216. 3 Liber de Melros, 50 ; Memorials of Mont- 
gomeries, ii. 1. This is a case of mistaking one Walter FitzAlan for 
another. The writ cannot be earlier than 1204, and one at least of the 
witnesses flourished in 1207 and later, while another is found so late as 
1218, and there is a possibility that the writ is later still. 4 Eeg. de 
Passelet, 21-24, 86. 5 Sir William Fraser, Memorials, etc., dates it about 
1190, apparently because a writ in its vicinity is so dated, but the event 
noted in the text seems to give a more correct dating. 6 Liber de 
Calchou, i. 209. 7 Eeg. de Balmerinoch, 19. Robert, the King's chaplain, 
named as a witness, became Bishop of Ross in 1214. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 425 

4. Alan Montgomerie appears as a witness to the writ of 
1239 already cited, and to other writs between 1211 
and 1226, 1 and as he appears to be a different person 
from the elder Alan, he was probably his son. 

ROBERT MONTGOMERIE is the next who succeeded, accord- 
ing to the Memorials. He is named before his brother 
John in writs where they appear together, and was there- 
fore probably the elder. Very little is known of him, but 
he appears as a witness to various charters by Walter the 
High Steward between 1230 and 1241, and in one of the 
later of these he is styled Sir Robert. 2 As Sir Robert he 
also witnesses two charters granted by Patrick, seventh 
Earl of Dunbar, which may be dated about 1258. 3 No 
evidence as to his marriage has been found, but it seems 
more probable that the John Montgomerie who apparently 
succeeded was his son rather than his brother, as stated in 
the Memorials. He seems to have died before 1260, when 

SIR JOHN MONTGOMERIE, who is styled 4 of Eastwood ' by 
his descendant, Sir William Mure of Rowallan, 4 was appar- 
ently in possession, as at that date he is a witness to a 
charter to the Abbey of Paisley. 5 Nothing further is 
known of him, unless, as is probable, he was the Sir John 
who did homage in 1296, and whose lands in the barony of 
Renfrew were granted by King Edward I. between 1298 
and 1300 to Sir John Swinburne. 6 His wife is not certainly 
known, 7 but he had issue, at least one son, 

1. JOHN, who succeeded, and a daughter, 

2. Margaret, married to Sir Archibald Mure of Row- 

allan. 8 

Sir William Eraser assigns to him other three sons : 
Murthauch, Alan, and Thomas, 9 but of these there is 

no evidence that Murthauch and Thomas, both named 

in the Homage Roll, were sons, while Alan was more 

probably a grandson. 

1 Liber de Calchou, 210 ; Liber de Melros, i. 63, 66. 2 Reg. de Passelet, 21 , 
86, 220; Reg. de Calchou, i. 204. 3 Raine's North Durham, App., Nos. 
cxxxix, cxl. 4 Works of Mure of Rowallan, Scot. Text Soc., ii. 224. 
5 Reg. de Passelet, 58. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 200, No. 1183. * i n fche 
Memorials she is stated, but without any authority, to have been a 
daughter of William Moray of Bothwell. 8 Mure's Works, ut cit. 
9 Memorials, i. 12. 



426 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OP EGLINTON 

JOHN MONTGOMERIE is the next on record, and appears 
to have been the son of the preceding. He is first named 
in a roll of uncertain date, but probably about 1305-6, when 
his lands and those of two neighbouring proprietors were 
requested from Edward i. by Sir Geoffrey Segrave. 1 It is 
probably he who acted as Constable of Ayr from April 1303 
to January 1303-4, 2 and perhaps longer. Nothing further 
is known of this member of the Montgomerie family, but 
he appears to have held the lands of Stair, which were 
given to his son Alan, and he was dead before 1328, when 
Alan had a charter of the lands. 3 According to Fraser, 
his wife was Janet, daughter of Sir John Erskine of 
Erskine, but no authority is given. 4 He probably had 
issue : 

1. ALEXANDER, who succeeded. 

2. Alan, who, as the son of the late John Montgomerie, 

had a charter in 1328 from King Robert Bruce of the 
lands of Stair. According to Sir William Fraser, 
Alan had two sons, Sir Neil and John. It is added 
that Neil was the owner of Oassillis and the father of 
Christian Montgomerie, named in the charter of 
Cassillis to John Kennedy of Dunure. 5 But the only 
evidence for Sir Neil is a doubtful statement that Sir 
Neil Montgomerie, said to be the Laird of Cassillis, 
was at the Barns of Ayr. 6 This apparently refers to 
the legendary burning of the Barns of Ayr in 1297, 
which renders the existence of Sir Neil very doubtful. 
Alan, however, may have been the father of the John 
Montgomerie who died before 1363, father of Mar- 
jorie, described as daughter of the late John Mont- 
gomerie. In or before 1381, she granted her lands of 
Stair and Kilmore, in Carrick, to Malcolm, son of 
Henry, son of Fergus of Carrick. 7 From writs now 
or formerly in the Stair charter-chest it appears that 
Malcolm was Marjorie's husband. They had a son 
John, who was living in 1412. He had a daughter 
Marie or Mariota, styled in 1427 daughter of the late 
John, son of Henry (son of Malcolm), Lord of Stair. 

1 Palgrave's Documents, 314. 2 Col. Doc. Scot., iv. 472. 3 Memorials, 
i. 12. 4 Ibid., i. 13. 6 Ibid., ii. 2. 6 Historie of the Kennedys, 77. 
7 Memorials, ii. 3, 16. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OP EGLINTON 427 

She was twice married. Her first husband, who is 
unknown, died apparently without issue. Her second 
husband was a Reginald de Schankis, and on 6 May 
1427 she, in her widowhood, conveyed to him and to 
the sons and daughters to be born of him and her the 
lands of Stair, and ' immediately he betrothed or 
gave faith to ( 4 affidavit ') the said Mariota, and took 
her at the hand of a priest as his lawful and perpetual 
spouse.' 1 Of this marriage it is said there 'was bot 

on daughter, who was married to Kennedie.' 2 

3. Marjory, apparently the elder of the two Marjories 

who joined in the sale of the lands of Cassillis to John *'$***' 

Kennedy of Dunure, between 1358 and 1363, con- 
firmed by King David n. on 27 August 1363. 3 |,;f/ 

ALEXANDER MONT^OMERIE is the next on record, and may 
have been the son of John, but of him little is known, as 
the only notice of him is in two safe-conducts, dated on 20 ^ 
May and 24 October 1358, permitting him to pass througli 
England on his way to visit holy places. 4 

According to the Memorials he married * a daughter of 
William, first Earl of Douglas, and his wife Margaret, 
daughter of the Earl of Dunbar and March,' but as William, 
Earl of Douglas (see that title), had no such wife nor 
daughter, the name of Alexander Montgomerie's wife 
remains unknown. He apparently had issue : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded. 

JOHN MONTGOMERIE of Eaglesham is the first member 
of the family whose position can be ascertained with 
certainty, and from whom the descent is clear. 6 Frois- 
sart records his prowess at the battle of Otterburn in 

1 Father Hay's MS., Adv. Lib., 35, 4, 16, ii. 203, where the writ is given 
in full. 2 These facts are obtained from an inventory of ' old evidents of 
the Stair,' kindly communicated by the Hon. Hew Hamilton Dalrymple. 
The writ following that of 1427 is a dispensation of date 13 February 
1452 by Pope Nicolas iv. (also given in full by Father Hay) for the 
marriage of Agnes Kennedy, ' heretrix of Stair,' and William Dalrymple. 
3 Memorials, ii. 2, 3. 4 Rot. Scoticc, i. 824, 830. 6 According to Sir William 
Fraser he was the ninth Lord of Eaglesham, but though the order observed 
in the Memorials has been, perforce, followed in this article, it has been 
with hesitation, as the proofs of relationship and descent are very slender, 
and in some cases wholly wanting. 



428 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

August 1388, and tells how he fought 'hande to hande 
right valyauntly ' with Sir Henry Percy, known as ' Hot- 
spur,' and took him prisoner. 1 It is said that, in lieu of 
ransom, Sir Henry was required to build a new residence 
for his captor. This was the castle of Polnoon, near 
Eagleshame. 

On 9 December 1389 Sir James Lindsay granted to his 
' cosyng ' John Montgomerie of Bagleshame an obligation 
not to deprive him of the lands of Dunbulg and Oarny. 2 He 
styles himself John of Montgomerie, Lord of Eaglesham, in 
a charter of the lands of Little Benan, dated at Eagleshame 
on 8 October 1392. 3 He is said to have died between that 
date and 1398, but is found receiving payment of a pension 
for attendance on the King and Duke of Rothesay for the 
year May 1399 to May 1400. 4 He, however, deceased before 
July 1401. 

He married Elizabeth, only daughter and heiress of Sir 
Hugh Eglinton of Eglinton, 5 through whom he is said to 
have acquired the baronies of Eglinton and Ardrossan. 6 
They had issue : 

1. SIR JOHN, who succeeded. 

2. Alexander, of Bonnington or Bondyngton, who in a 

grant to Alan Lauder of an annualrent of 4 merks 
sterling from his lands of Platt, Westhall, and North- 
raw in Ratho, speaks of Sir Hugh Eglintoun as his 
grandfather. 7 The annualrent was in repayment of 
a loan to release his lands from Sir James Douglas of 
Dalkeith, and his wife Egidia Stewart, widow of Sir 
Hugh. 8 Elizabeth of Eglinton, in a charter of the 
same lands to Alan Lauder, not dated, refers to John 
of Montgomerie her son and heir, and Alexander 
Montgomerie her son. 9 

1 Froissart, ed. 1812, ii. 399. 2 Memorials, etc., ii. 17. 3 Ibid. 4 Exch. 
Rolls, iii. 488. 5 She has been stated (cf. Exch. Rolls, iv. cxciv) to be Sir 
Hugh's daughter by Egidia Stewart, but the dates will not admit of this, 
as Sir Hugh and Egidia were not married till after 1357, and Alexander, 
second son of Elizabeth, was old enough to grant writs about 1379. She 
must have been a child of his earlier marriage with Agnes More, which took 
place before 1348 (cf. charter in Reg. Ho., No. 166 ; Exch. Rolls, iii. p. Ixxiii 
n.), though the Agnes Mores referred to by Mr. Burnett are most pro- 
bably two distinct persons. 6 Memorials, etc., i. 15. 17. 7 Original 
in Gen. Reg. Ho., No. 197. 8 Cf. writs in Fifth Rep. Hist. MSS. 
App. 612. 9 Ms. in Advocates' Library, No. 35, 4, 16, p. 139. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 429 

Another son, Hugh, is said to have been killed at Otter- 
burn, but no mention of him is found except in the 
ballad, and Sir William Fraser doubts his existence. 1 

SIR JOHN MONTGOMERIE, who styles himself Lord of 
Ardrossan in his charters. He succeeded between May 
1400 and 4 July 1401, when he received a charter from 
Archibald, fourth Earl of Douglas, of the lands of Dunlop in 
Ayrshire. 2 He was present at the battle of Homildon on 14 
September 1402, and was one of those taken captive. 3 He 
was sent a prisoner to the Tower, and at Christmastide of 
1402 was transferred to Windsor, whence, in September 
1403, he was returned to the Tower/ He is said, but not 
on good authority, to have been released in the following 
year, 1404, and according to Wyntoun was the means of 
introducing the falsa Richard n. to the notice of the Scottish 
Court, but such introduction, if made, must have taken place 
not long before the death of King Robert in. in April 1406. 5 
He certainly was in Scotland before August 1405, when he 
received a permit for a ship of his to trade in foreign parts 
for a year. A month later he went to England as one of 
the hostages exacted for the temporary release of the Earl 
of Douglas, who had been taken at Shrewsbury, and he was 
a hostage at intervals until June 1408, when he appears to 
have been finally liberated. 6 He had a ship La Wynyne, 
larger than the former, trading with England, 7 in December 
1407, at a date when he was residing at his own house of 
Polnoon. 8 He granted on 24 November 1413 a precept for 
infefting Stephen Ker, Laird of Trearne in the lands of 
Overtown of Giffen, in the lordship of Giffen. 9 The granter 
styles himself Lord of Ardrossan and of Giffen, but whether 
the latter was a recent acquisition does not appear. A 
little later he gave the whole lordship of Giffen to his 
second son Robert, with other lands. 10 Sir John also held 
the office of Bailie of the barony of Kilbride. 11 In 1424, he 
was one of those who had a safe-conduct to meet King 

1 Memorials, etc., i. 15. ~ Dovglas Book, iii. 401. 3 Cal. Doc. Scot., 
iv. 403. 4 Ibid., Nos. 625, 640. 5 Wyntoun's Cronykil, Laing's ed., iii. 76 ; 
Ty tier's Hist, of Scotland, 3d ed., ii. 401 ; Exch. Rolls, iv. pp. Ixv.-lxvii. 
6 Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. Nos. 707, 729, 736, 752, 757, 762. * Ibid ^ No< 743 
8 Charter granted there, 1 December 1407, Memorials, ii. 20. 9 Ibid., 21. 
10 See below. Memorials, ii. 22, 23. 



430 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OP EGLINTON 

James i. at Durham, on his way to Scotland. 1 He was on 
the jury who condemned Murdac, Duke of Albany, to death 
in May 1425, 2 and two months later he had a safe-conduct 
to England as a surety for the King in exchange for a 
hostage returning to Scotland. 3 He remained in England, 
apparently without relief, and was still there in February 
1426-27, when he was sent or transferred to Pontefract 
Castle. 4 It is not improbable he died in England, as his 
son succeeded him before 22 November 1429. 

Sir John was twice married, first, to a lady named Agnes 
of the Isles, who died before March 1413-14 ; secondly (dis- 
pensation dated 4 May 1414), to Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Herbert Maxwell of Carlaverock. 5 

By his first wife he had issue : 

1. SIR ALEXANDER, who succeeded. 

2. Robert, to whom his father conveyed the barony of 

Giffen in Kyle Stewart, the lands of Lochhouse, co. 
Linlithgow, with other lands in Ayrshire, and in the 
burgh of Linlithgow, all which were confirmed by 
the Regent, Robert, Duke of Albany, on 9 March 
1413-14. 6 Sir William Fraser gives no further history 
of this Robert, but, with some hesitation, gives in 
the next generation a John Montgomerie of Giffen, 
whom he states or assumes to be the ancestor of the 
Comtes de Montgomery in France, represented as 
heir-general by the Marquis de Thiboutat. 7 But if, 
as Sir "William seems to imply, the Comtes de Mont- 
gomery were descended from the family of Giffen, it 
is more probable they came from this Robert, whose 
direct descendants can be traced for some genera- 
tions. Robert was succeeded by Sir William, who 
married Janet Houston, and was succeeded by his 
son Robert, who married Margaret Blair, and had 
four sons, Alexander, John, Constantine, and Thomas. 
Alexander married Jonet Dunlop, and was succeeded 
by Patrick, who was followed by his son Robert, 
who was a minor in 1515. In 1572, Hugh Mont- 

1 Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 942. 2 Fordun a Goodall, ii. 483, 484. 3 CaL 
Doc. Scot., iv. No. 983. 4 Ibid., iv. No. 1004. 5 Papal Petitions, i. 602; 
cf. Book of Caerlaverock, i. 582 ; Memorials, i. 22 ; ii. 21, 23. In the 
Memorials Sir Herbert is, probably by inadvertence, styled ' Robert/ 
Ibid., ii. 21, 22. 7 Ibid., i. 24, 25. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 431 

gomerie, perhaps the son of Robert, was Laird of 
Giffen, and he made an entail in favour of his eldest 
son Rugh, and second son John, both dead s. p. in 
1590, and also in favour of two other heirs of entail, 
called Daniel and Ezekiel Montgomerie, and the 
former of these made a disposition of the lordship of 
Giffen to Robert, called Master of Eglinton, second 
son of the third Earl of Eglinton, and the lands 
reverted through him to the main line. 1 
3. Agnes, married (contract dated 16 June 1425) to Sir 
Robert Cunningham of Kilmaurs. The terms of the 
contract show that Sir John then expected to go to 
England as a hostage, but that it was not quite 
decided. In February 1432 Sir Robert discharged 
Sir Alexander Montgomerie, his wife's brother, of 
the sum of %40 of tocher. 2 

Two other daughters are assigned to Sir John in 
the Memorials, Joanna, said to be married to Sir 
Thomas Boyd of Kilmarnock, and Isabella, said to be 
married to Archibald Muir of Rowallan, 3 but the 
evidence for their relationship is not wholly con- 
clusive. 

I. ALEXANDER MONTGOMERIE is referred to as son and 
heir of his father in the charter of the lands of Giffen on 9 
March 1413, already cited. He succeeded some time be- 
tween February 1427 and November 1429, 4 and he and his 
brother-in-law Robert Cunningham of Kilmaurs were ap- 
pointed joint keepers of Kintyre and Knapdale, with the 
custody of Castle ' Soon ' or Castle Swein, on 10 August 
1430. 5 On 30 November 1437 he was included in a com- 
mission for concluding a truce with England, and in the 
following March, on the signing of a truce for nine years, 
he received a silver-gilt covered cup from King Henry vi., 
in addition to his expenses paid by the Scottish Exchequer. 6 
In 1443-44 he was again a commissioner for prolonging 
the truce, and he was created a Lord of Parliament as 
LORD MONTGOMERIE in the following year, or before 

1 Memorials, i. 46 ; ii. 231, and Index. 2 Ibid., i. 22, 23 ; ii. 8, 9. 
3 Ibid., i. 23. * Ibid. 5 Ibid., ii. 27. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. Nos. 1103, 
1109, 1111 ; Exch. Rolls, v. 15, 52. 



432 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

3 July 1445. 1 Between 1442 and 1444 he was keeper of 

Brodick Castle, and he also acted as Bailie of the barony 

of Kilbride. 2 He was frequently commissioned as envoy to 

England or conservator of truces between 1449 and 1460, 3 

and he received various grants of lands from the Crown. 

He granted a charter of the lands of Sannox in Arran to his 

second son George on 7 October 1469, 4 and died apparently in 

the following year. He married Margaret, second daughter 

of Sir Thomas Boyd of Kilmarnock, 5 and had issue : 

1. ALEXANDER, Master of Montgomerie, who is referred 

to in 1438 as Alexander, son and heir of the Lord of 

Ardrossan. 6 On 31 January 1448 he had a grant of 

the office of Bailie of the barony of Cunyngham, 

which had been hereditary in the family since it was 

bestowed on his grandfather's grandfather, Sir Hugh 

Eglinton. 7 The Master died in 1452, during his 

father's lifetime, 8 having married Elizabeth Hepburn, 

daughter of Sir Adam Hepburn of Hailes, 9 by whom 

he had 

(1) Alexander, styled second Lord Montgomerie, but who ap- 
parently never held the title. He was probably born about 
1445, as he is said to be of lawful age in June 1466, when 
served heir to his father in the bailiary of Cunningham. 10 
Little is known of his history, and it is doubtful if he sur- 
vived his grandfather. It is certain he was never infeft in 
the great lordships of Ardrossan and Eglinton, with the 
smaller estates, which are enumerated in the retour of his 
son Hugh as heir to his great-grandfather, the first Lord 
Montgomerie. Nor does he appear to have exercised the 
office of bailiary of Cunningham, to which he was served 
heir. 11 He married, before 1459, Catherine, daughter of 
Gilbert, Lord Kennedy, 12 and had issue : 

i. HUGH, who succeeded to his great-grandfather. 

ii. John, styled of Bowhouse. He and his next brother 
James are named together as brothers of the Earl of 
Eglinton in 1501, while John appears as Bailie-depute 

of Cunningham in 1509. He married , daughter 

of Ramsay of Montfod, but had no issue. 13 

1 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 59. 2 Eocch. Rolls, v. 163, 414. 3 Cat. Doc. Scot., 
Nos. 1218-1276 passim ; Rymer's Feeder a, xi. 434. 4 Inventory of Skel- 
morlie Writs. 6 Memorials, i. 24. She was still alive on 16 September 
1453, ii. 33. 6 Ibid., ii. 31. * ibid., ii. 7, 8. 8 Ibid., ii. 37. 9 Ibid., i. 25. 
10 Ibid., ii. 36. " Ibid., ii. 45, 46, where it is stated that Alexander, first 
Lord Montgomerie, was the last person infeft in Ardrossan and other 
lands, and that they had been in ward since 1470 ; cf. also p. 54. 12 Ibid., i. 
26 ; ii. 158 ; vol. ii. of this work, 456. 13 Memorials, i. 26 ; ii. 61, 70. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 433 

iii. James, named in 1498 as brother of the Lord Mont- 

gomerie, also with his brothers in 1501, and again as 

the Earl's brother in 1517. l 
iv. Helen, said to have been married to Sir James Bruce 

of Airth. 2 
v. Marjory, said to have been married to William, Master 

of Somerville, on 13 June 1476. 3 

(2) Robert, who had a charter in 1452, from his grandfather, of 

the lands of Braidstane. He was the ancestor of Sir Hugh 
Montgomerie, created, in 1622, Viscount Montgomerie of 
the Great Ards in Ireland, whose descendant, Hugh, third 
Viscount Montgomerie, was, in 1661, created Earl of Mount 
Alexander, a title which became extinct in 1757 by the failure 
of the Earl's male descendants. 4 

(3) Hugh of Hesilheid, whose line ended in an heiress, married 

to Macaulay of Ardincaple. 6 

(4) Margaret, married, as his second wife, to Alexander, first 

Lord Home. 6 

2. George, ancestor of the family of Skelmorlie, of which 

a detailed history and genealogy is given by Sir 
William Fraser. The seventh Laird of Skelmorlie 
was, on 1 January 1628, created a Baronet as Sir 
Robert Montgomerie. The direct male line of the 
family ended in 1735, and the eldest daughter and 
heiress of the fifth baronet, Lilias Montgomerie, 
carried the estates to her husband, Alexander Mont- 
gomerie of Ooilsfield. Her eldest son became twelfth 
Earl of Eglinton, and is represented by the present 
Earl. 7 

3. Thomas, parson of Eaglesham, who was elected rector 

of the University of Glasgow, and held that office 
for several years. 8 

4. Margaret, married (contract dated 15 May 1438) 9 to 

John Stewart, son of Alan Stewart of Darnley. He 
was afterwards created Lord Darnley and Earl of 
Lennox. (See that title.) 

5. Elizabeth, married, before 25 March 1460, as his first 

wife, to John, second Lord Kennedy. 10 (See title 
Oassillis.) 

6. Agnes, said to have been married, about 1470, to 

William Cunningham of Glengarnock. 11 

1 Memorials, i. 26, 27; ii. 53. 2 Ibid., i. 27. 3 Complete Peerage, vii. 186. 
4 Memorials, i. 25 ; Burke's Extinct Peerages. 6 Memorials, i. 25. 
6 Ibid. 7 Ibid., i. 154-168. 8 Ibid., i. 25. 9 Ibid., i. 25; ii. 28. 10 Ibid., 
i. 25. " Ibid. 

VOL. III. 2E 



434 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

II. HUGH, second Lord Montgomerie, 1 was born about 
1460. The date of his succession is not certain, but he 
appears first on record in August 1483, when as Hugh, 
Lord Montgomerie, he granted a charter to Alexander 
Montgomerie, younger of Giffen. 2 Yet in a later writ on 
5 June 1484, an instrument of sasine to his extensive lands, 
as heir to his great-grandfather, he is described in the 
preamble as Hugh Montgomerie, Knight, and having re- 
ceived sasine he is styled Hugh, Lord Montgomerie, 3 and 
so in future writs. In this sasine the lands are said to have 
been in the hands of the Crown since 1470, which leaves 
his father's succession doubtful, and he himself may have, 
as a minor, succeeded directly to his great-grandfather. 
In 1488 he joined the standard of Prince James, and aided 
in his victory at Sauchieburn. This appears from the terms 
of a remission granted to him for, among other matters, 
the destruction of the 4 place or house ' of Turnelaw, which 
Sir William Fraser, though on very insufficient grounds, 
assumes to be the Castle of Kerrielaw, a stronghold belong- 
ing to the Cunninghams of Glencairn, between whom and 
the Montgomeries there was feud. 4 Lord Montgomerie sat 
in the Parliament of October 1488, and received commission 
to suppress crime in the districts of Carrick, Kyle, Ayr, 
and Cunningham. He was made a member of the Privy 
Council in 1489. He had grants of a number of lands and 
others at various dates, and was created EARL OF 
EGLINTOUN between the 3 and 20 January 1506-7. 5 He 
continued to take part in affairs after the battle of Flodden, 
and played a prominent part during the minority of King 
James v. Feuds with the Cunninghams harassed much of 
his life, the cause of contention being the office of Bailie 
of Cunningham, which, although secured in many ways to 
the Earl's family, was greatly coveted by their rivals, 
while the exercise of the office caused jealousies and 
bitterness. An attempt was made by John, Duke of 

1 In the Memorials he is styled third Lord, but, for reasons already 
given, he seems to rank more correctly as second Lord. 2 Ibid., ii. 44. 
3 Ibid., 45, 46. 4 Ibid., i. 27 ; ii. 48. The description given in the remis- 
sion of the place attacked scarcely applies to Kerrielaw, which was a 
place of great strength, while it suits the smaller place or house of 
Turnlaw, which is in the parish of Cambuslang, and may have belonged 
to the Hamiltons in 1488, as it did later. 5 Memorials i. 28 ; cf . ii. 65. 



i 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 435 

Albany, and other friends, to make a settlement between 
the parties on 13 March 1523-24, 1 but it does not appear to 
have been of much avail. One result of the enmity was 
the burning of Eglinton Castle, at a date not clearly ascer- 
tained, but apparently in the year 1528, and probably in 
revenge, not for the supposed spoiling of Kerrielaw, but 
for the death of Edward Cunningham of Auchinhervy, with 
which Lord Eglintoun was charged, though unjustly. 2 In 
1526 the Earl was appointed Justice-General for the north 
of Scotland, until the King reached the age of twenty-five. 
He was also, in 1533, made Admiral-depute within the 
bounds of Cunningham, and in 1536 he was appointed one 
of the Vice-Regents of Scotland during the absence of the 
King in France. 3 

The Earl, having made his will at Eglinton, on 23 Sep- 
tember 1545, died there between that date and 3 October 
same year, aged about eighty-five. 4 He married, on 21 April 
1478, at the church of Dollar, Helen, third daughter of Colin 
Campbell, first Earl of Argyll, 5 and had issue : 
1. JOHN, Master of Eglintoun, who is first mentioned as 
a witness in a writ by his father on 29 August 1483, 
when he must have been very young, and was then 
son and heir. 6 On 1 June 1498 he was contracted to 
Elizabeth Edmonstoun, daughter of Sir Archibald 
Edmonstoun of Duntreath, whom he married before 
13 November 1500. 7 His history is chiefly marked by 
the active part he took in the feud with the Cunning- 
hams, and he was himself a victim to a faction fight, 
the famous conflict between the Douglases and 
Hamiltons, in Edinburgh on 30 April 1520, known as 
4 Cleanse the Causey.' 8 By his wife the Master of 
Eglintoun had issue : 

(1) Archibald, Master of Eglintoun, who is referred to as such in 
the decreet arbitral of 13 March 1523-24, already cited, and 
in a charter dated 8 September 1524, following thereon. 9 He 
fought on the King's side against the Douglases at Melrose 

1 Memorials, ii. 94-100. 2 Ibid., i. 31 ; cf. ii. 108, 109. * JM&., ii. 104, 
120, 123. 4 Ibid., i. 32, where the Earl is said to die in June 1545 ; but see 
ii. 132, 133, 137. 5 Scot. Antiquary, vi. 122 ; Memorials, i. 32 ; ii. 158. 
6 Ibid., ii. 45. The Complete Peerage inserts an Alexander as an elder- 
brother of John, but no evidence has been found of him, and he seems 
inadmissible. 7 Memorials, i. 35 ; ii. 52. 8 Ibid., i. 36. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



436 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

in July 1526, and later on in the same year at Linlithgow, 
and appears to have died not long afterwards. He was 
unmarried. 1 

(2) HUGH, second Earl of Eglintoun. 

(3) , a son, whose name has not been ascertained, but who 

left issue a son John.' 1 

(4) Christian, for whom a contract of marriage was made on 
16 February 1519-20, with Matthew Stewart, son of John, 
Earl of Lennox, and 2000 merks were paid as her * tocher,' 
but the marriage apparently did not take place. She is 
said to have married, before 1540, Sir James Douglas of 
Drumlanrig. 3 

2. Mr. William of Grenefield, who, in terms of a contract 

dated 20 January 1507-8, married Elizabeth Francis, 
elder daughter of Robert Francis, Laird of Stane, 
and they had a charter of the lands of Stane on 
22 January 1508-9. In 1522 William Montgomerie 
was infeft by his father in the lands of Dreghorn/ 
They had issue Arthur, who succeeded, and Hugh, 
who, as Hugh Montgomerie of Auchinhude, in a writ, 
styles himself son of Elizabeth Francis, Lady of Stane, 
who was then still alive on 21 March 1554-55. 5 

3. Sir Neil of Langshaw or Lainshaw. He married 

Margaret Mure, heiress of Quintin Mure of Skeldon. 
They had a dispensation on 21 July 1525 on account 
of their consanguinity, which states that she was 
only eleven when married, and was in ignorance of 
their close relationship. 6 Sir Neil was slain by the 
Boyds in a feud at Irvine in June 1547. His wife 
survived him, married, secondly, John Kennedy of 
Skeldon, and was alive in February 1560-61. 7 They 
had issue two sons and three daughters : 

(1) John, who married Margaret, only daughter of Robert, third 

Lord Boyd. He died before 10 February 1560-61, without 
issue. 8 

(2) Neil, of Langshaw, who married Jean, heiress of John, 

fourth Lord Lyle. The main line of the Montgomeries of 
Langshaw or Lainshaw is supposed to have become extinct 
at the death, in July 1726, of James Montgomerie of Lang- 
shaw, without issue. The inventory of his effects was given 
by his sister Jean, relict of the late Mr. Alexander Lang, 
minister of Donaghadee, Ireland. 9 He assumed the title 
of Lord Lyle as a descendant of Jean Lyle, and presented 

1 Memorials, i. 37. 2 Ibid., 36. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid., 32, 33. 5 Protocol 
Book of James Harlaw, 96b. 6 Memorials, ii. 101, 102. 7 Ibid., 156^ 
vol. ii. of this work, 463. 8 Memorials, ii. 156. Ibid., i. 33; Glasgow 
Tests., 3 July 1729. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OP EGLINTON 437 

himself to vote as a Peer in 1721 and 1722, but was refused. 1 
He married (con tract dated 21 March 1698) Barbara, daughter 
of John Kennedy of Craig, and of Barbara Rule his wife. 
She was infeft in her husband's lands in January 1728. 2 

(3) Christian, named with her sisters in a contract with the 

Boyds on 10 February 1561. 3 She is said by Douglas to have 
been married to Colquhoun of Luss, but of this there is no 
evidence. 

(4) Elizabeth, named as above. Douglas, followed by Fraser, 

marries her to Patrick (more correctly Cuthbert) Home of 
Fast Castle, and makes her the mother of the two heiresses 
of Fast Castle, but dates forbid this, as Cuthbert died at 
Flodden, probably before his alleged wife's birth. She was 
apparently unmarried in February 1560-61. 

(5) Helen, also named as above. She was alive in 1564. 4 

4. Hetv, named in the contract of 20 January 1507-8 with 

Robert Francis of Stane, as a possible husband for 
Elizabeth Francis, failing his brother William. 5 
Nothing further has been ascertained regarding him, 
but it is said ne was killed at Pinkie. 6 

5. Robert, who was first Rector of Kirkmichael parish ; 

afterwards Bishop of Argyll. He left three natural 
sons, Michael, Robert, and Hetv, legitimated on 9 
July 1543. 7 

6. Margaret, the eldest daughter, married, it is said, as 

his first wife, to William, second Lord Sempill. She 
died before 12 February 1522-23, when his wife was 
Elizabeth Arnot. 8 

7. Matilda, said to have been the wife of Colin Campbell 

of Ardkinglas. 

8. Isobel, who had a grant from her father of the ward 

and marriage of Robert, son of the late Patrick 
Montgomerie of Giffen. 9 She was married to John 
Mure of Caldwell, and had issue. 

1 Robertson's Peerage Proceedings. In 1784 also a claim was made to 
the title by Sir Walter Montgomery-Campbell, Bart, (see title Glencairn), 
through his mother, Elizabeth, wife of Alexander Cunningham, and 
daughter of David Montgomerie of Lainshaw (cf. Complete Peerage, s. v. 
Lyle), v. 182. David Montgomerie was the son of Jean Montgomerie and 
Mr. Alexander Lang, and assumed his mother's name. 2 Part. Reg. Sas., 
Ayr, 3rd ser., viii. 155. In the Edinburgh Marriage Register he is 
erroneously called John. As the marriage took place on 21 January, the 
contract appears to have been post-nuptial. 3 Memorials, ii. 156. 4 Ibid., 
i. 34. 5 Ibid., ii. 68, 69. 6 Ibid., i. 34. 7 Memorials, i. 34; ii. 128. 8 Reg. 
Mag. Sig., 2 May 1523. Fraser calls her Mariota and Marion, and makes 
her survive till after 1569, but he confuses between Lord Sempill's first 
and his third wife, who was Marion Montgomerie of Hessilhead. 9 Me- 
morials, i. 35 ; ii. 82. 



438 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

9. Helen, married before 15 November 1500 to John 
Blair of that Ilk. 1 

10. Jonet, apparently married to George Campbell of 

Oessnock, who was killed at Flodden, as on 7 November 
1513 Hew, Earl of Eglintoun, was surety for his 
daughter Jonet, Lady of Oessnock, that the goods 
and gear of her husband should be forthcoming to her 
son and other heirs. 2 

11. Agnes, married to John Ker of Kersland. She died 

26 October 1596, 3 leaving issue. 

12. Catherine, married to George Montgomerie of Skel- 

morlie, whose father, Cuthbert Montgomerie, was 
killed at Flodden, and whose ward and marriage was 
provided to her by her father. 4 

The Earl had also an illegitimate daughter Jonet, 
provided by her father to the ward and marriage of 
the heir of Kelly, in Renfrew. 5 

III. HUGH, second Earl of Eglintoun, was, as already 
indicated, the second son of John, Master of Eglintoun, and 
succeeded his grandfather, the first Earl, in September or 
October 1545. 6 Before his accession he took part in public 
affairs, and was, under the style of Lord Montgomerie, 
summoned, along with his grandfather, to meet the King at 
Stirling after his escape from Falkland in June 1528. 7 The 
following year, or rather in January and February 1529-30, 
he was acting as Justiciar at the Justice ayres of Forfar, 
Perth, and Ooupar. 8 A commission was issued on 3 October 
1545 for serving him heir to his grandfather, directed to the 
Bailie of Carrick, the Sheriffs of Renfrew and Ayr, the Bailie 
of Kyle, and the Sheriff of Linlithgow, and it was ordered 
that the brieves should all be served in the town of Irvine, 
as the plague was raging in several of the shires where the 
estates lay, but in that town people might live without 
dread of the pest. 9 Later, in December 1545, he was served 
heir to the heritable office of Bailie of the regality of Kil- 
winning. 10 He received, on 20 February 1545-46, a bond of 

1 Memorials, i. 35. 2 Robertson's Records of Parliament, 432. 3 Me- 
morials, cf. ii. 82 ; Edin. Tests., 12 Oct. 1597. 4 Memorials, ii. 82. - r > Ibid., 
i. 35 ; ii. 82. 6 Ibid., ii. 132, 133. 7 Ibid., i. 30. 8 Accounts of Lord High 
Treasurer, v. 331. 9 Memorials, ii. 133. 10 Ibid., 136. 



MONTGOMEBIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 439 

manrent service from Charles Mowat of Knokintebyr for 
certain lands given him by the Earl, and on 12 April same 
year the Earl himself entered into a compact of mutual 
support and defence with Archibald, sixth Earl of Angus, 
and his brother Sir George Douglas. 1 But the Earl of 
Eglintoun only survived this agreement a few months, as 
he died within a year after his succession, at Monk- 
redding, near Kilwinning, on 3 September 1546. 2 He made 
his will there on 18 August, adding a clause on the 31st, 
and appointed as executors his wife, his eldest son Hugh, 
and James Houstoun, subdean of Glasgow, various substi- 
tutes being named for the last in the event of his death. 
He also appointed Hugh Montgomerie, his 'gudschiris 
bruther sonne,' as tutor to his heir, but Sir Neil Mont- 
gomerie of Langshaw, the Earl's uncle, usurped the manage- 
ment of the estates, which was at first resented, but after- 
wards settled by agreement, though Sir Neil's death a few 
months afterwards terminated the arrangement. 3 

The second Earl married, apparently between 30 January 
and 8 February 1530-31, certainly before the latter date, 
Marion Seton, sister of George, Lord Seton, and formerly 
wife of Thomas, Master of Borthwick. 4 She survived the 
Earl, and married, as her third husband, Alexander Graham 
of Wallastoun, who is named as her spouse in a writ of date 
24 March 1552-53. 5 She died between 1558 and 30 Septem- 
ber 1561. 6 By Marion Seton the Earl had issue : 

1. HUGH, third Earl of Eglintoun. 

2. William, a student with his brother at St. Andrews, 

entering St. Mary's College there in 1552. He 
appears as a witness to various writs by his brother 
the Earl. In March 1565-66 he was included with 
Archibald, Earl of Argyll, and others in a remission 
granted by Henry Darnley, King of Scots. He died 

1 Memorials, ii. 138-141. 2 Monkredding belonged to a Thomas Niven, 
named in the Earl's will. Perhaps the Earl had been seized with his last 
illness while on a visit. 3 Memorials, i. 38. 4 Ibid., 37; ii. 113-115. 
Marion Seton is usually described as the widow of the Master of Borth- 
wick, but there is evidence that he was alive on 15 December 1530 (Acta 
Dom. Cone, et Sess., iii. f. 152), only two months before her marriage 
to Montgomerie, which corroborates the statement (Complete Peerage, i. 
378) that her union with Borthwick was annulled by the Pope. 5 Acts 
and Decreets, vii. 36. 6 Memorials, ii. 160. 



440 MONTGOMEBIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

before 20 March 1593, leaving only a natural son 
William, who married Marion Cunyngham. 1 

3. Agnes, married (contract dated at Edinburgh 12 

January 1555-56) to Thomas Kennedy, then younger 
of Bargany. 2 

4. Margaret, married to Hugh Montgomerie of Stane. 3 

5. Jean or Jehan, married before 10 April 1562 to Matthew, 

son of James Stewart of Cardonald. 4 

IV. HUGH, third Earl of Eglintoun, succeeded his father 
in September 1546, while still under sixteen years of age. 5 
He entered St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, as a student 
in 1552, and was still under curatory at the date of his 
marriage-contract in 1554, perhaps also later. 6 He had 
various charters of bailiary and justiciary over the lands 
belonging to the monastery of Kilwinning, and a grant of 
feu-duties, with a grant also from the bishopric of Galloway. 7 
He was one of those nobles who in 1561 passed over to 
Prance to escort Queen Mary to her own country, 8 and on 
the return journey the vessel on which the Earl was a 
passenger was taken by an English cruiser, but he and the 
others were shortly afterwards released, as the Queen, the 
principal quarry, had escaped. After his arrival in Scot- 
land he made, on 30 September 1561, the usual revocation 
of deeds granted during his minority. 5 He continued one 
of Queen Mary's most devoted adherents during her troub- 
lous reign, but was dexterous enough to avoid signing the 
bond known as 'Ainslie's band,' by which a number of 
prelates and nobles were led to consent to Mary's marriage 
with Bothwell. He arrayed himself on the side of the 
infant prince against Bothwell's power, and joined in a 
coalition which led to Mary 's deposition. But, on her escape 
from Lochleven Castle in May 1568, he was one of the first 
to join her standard, and after the battle of Langside he 
was among the last to go over to the King's party. 10 

He was compelled to join by being thrown into ward in 
Doune Castle in April 1571, and on 12 August he and the 

1 Memorials, i. 39, and authorities cited. 2 Ibid., ii. 153. 3 Ibid., i. 39. 
4 Ibid., but cf. ii. 160. 6 Agreement cited, Memorials, i. 38. 6 Ibid., ii. 
149; cf. 151. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig., 1 Dec. 1552; Memorials, i. 40. 8 On 29 
January 1560-61, Diurnal of Occurrents, 64. 9 Memorials, ii. 160-162. 
10 Ibid., i. 42, 43, 177. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 441 

Earls of Argyll and Oassillis, with Lord Boyd, bound them- 
selves to serve the King and Regent. He was present in 
the Parliament held by the Regent Lennox at Stirling in 
August 1571, which was attacked by an armed force, and 
the Regent murdered. Eglintoun was one of those taken 
prisoners and released by a rally of the townsmen of Stirling. 
He at a later period was one of the party opposed to the 
ascendancy of the Duke of Lennox and James Stewart, Earl 
of Arran, and joined in the change of government known as 
the ' Raid of Ruthven ' in 1582. But he did not long sur- 
vive this event, dying on 3 June 1585. 

He married, first (contract dated 13 February 1554), Jane, 
second daughter of James Hamilton, Earl of Arran and 
Duke of Ohatelherault, 1 but by her had apparently no issue. 
The Earl raised in 1562 an action of divorce on the ground 
of consanguinity, and this was followed by an action on her 
part for other reasons. The marriage was dissolved under 
the laws of the Church of Rome on 30 May 1562, and a 
second divorce was pronounced by John Knox and his elders 
on 25 June 1562. 2 Between these two dates, on 31 May, 7 
and 14 June, the banns of marriage between the Earl and 
his second wife were proclaimed in the church of Eagle- 
sham, and on 11 June at Innerpeffray and Monzie. His 
second wife was Agnes, daughter (by Margaret Stewart, 
illegitimate daughter of King James iv.) of Sir John 
Drummond of Innerpeffray, and widow of Sir Hugh 
Campbell of Loudoun; their contract of marriage was 
signed at Innerpeffray 8 June 1562, and they were married 
before 10 August 1562, when they received a dispensation 
for the fact from Archbishop Hamilton. 3 The date of the 
marriage is not stated, but they may have been married 
before the date of the divorce by Knox, a curious conflict 
between the old and new ecclesiastical authorities. By 
his second wife, who survived him, and was married (con- 
tract 15 November 1585), as her third husband, to Patrick, 
Lord Drummond, dying on 21 January 1589-90, 4 the Earl 
had issue : 

1. HUGH, who succeeded as fourth Earl. 

1 Memorials, ii. 148-151. 2 Ibid., 163-181, where the proceedings in 
the Glasgow consistory are narrated, and 183-186. 3 Ibid., 185-190. 
4 Ibid., 225; Edin. Tests., 13 March 1593-94. 



442 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

2. Robert of Giffen, known for some time as the Master 

of Eglintoun. He and his wife had charters of the 
lands of Ardrossan, Dreghorn, Eastwood, Eagles- 
ham, Scotstoun, and others, at various dates. He 
died in August 1596. He married (contract dated 
April 1589) his cousin-german Jean, eldest daughter 
of Sir Matthew Campbell of Loudoun, by Isabel, 
daughter of Sir John Drummond of Innerpeffray, 
and by her, who afterwards married, as his second 
wife, Ludovic, second Duke of Lennox, had issue 
three daughters, Margaret, Agnes, and Isabel, the 
two younger of whom died, apparently unmarried, in 
1612 and 1613 respectively. The eldest, Margaret, 
born about 1590, was married, first, about 1604, 
to her cousin Hugh, fifth Earl of Eglintoun, and, 
secondly, after his death, to Robert, Lord Boyd. 
She died without issue to either husband in 1615 or 
1616. 1 

3. Margaret, married (contract dated 10 April 1582) to 

Robert, son of George, Lord Seton, who succeeded 
his father, and was created first Earl of Wintoun. 
(See that title.) Their third son, Alexander Seton, 
was provided to the earldom of Eglintoun by his 
uncle Hugh, the fifth Earl, and ultimately succeeded 
as sixth Earl, of whom hereafter. He was the 
ancestor of the present holder of the title. The 
Countess of Wintoun died 9 April 1624. 2 

4. Agnes, married (contract dated 11 September 1583), as 

his first wife, to Robert, Lord Sempill, with issue. 3 

V. HUGH, fourth Earl of Eglintoun, born in 1563. 4 In 
1573, he, with consent of his father, granted special favours 
to Sir John Mure of Caldwell, in consideration of the 
attachment of his family to that of Eglintoun. 5 He suc- 
ceeded his father on 3 June 1585, but fell a victim to the 
determined vengeance of the Cunninghams on 18 April 
1586. The long-continued feud between the families has 
already been referred to, and about March 1586 the Earl 

1 Memorials, i. 46, 47, 55-58. 2 Ibid., 48. 3 Ibid. 4 He is named by his 
father in a testament made up by him in or about March 1563-64. 
Memorials, ii. 96. 5 Ibid., 211. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 443 

of Glencairn and his friends resolved to revenge their 
' injuries ' by the murder of the young Earl, which they 
effected by taking him unawares and ill-attended. 1 

He was twice married, first (contract dated 13, 16 and 
20 May 1576) to Egidia or Giles, daughter of Robert, Lord 
Boyd. They were both under age, and provision was made 
for the management of their household and income until 
the Master attained the age of seventeeo, in 1580. 2 When 
his first wife died is not certain, but he married, secondly, 
Helen, daughter of Thomas Kennedy of Bargany. She had 
been contracted to John Graham, younger of Knokdoliane, 
and arrangements were made for their settlement before 
26 April 1583, but these must have been set aside when 
she married the Master. After the Earl's death she was, 
at Bargany on 8 May 1590, again contracted to John 
Graham, who ratified the terms of the former contract, 
and they were completed. 3 She was married, thirdly, 
perhaps in or before 1604, certainly before November 1605, 
to Alexander, son of Hugh Kennedy in Oraigneill. 4 

The Earl had issue, by his first wife, one son, 

VI. HUGH, fifth Earl of Eglintoun, who was an infant at 
his father's death. It has been stated that he was the son 
of his father's second wife, but this is disproved by the fact 
that Robert Boyd of Badinhaith was his uncle. 5 His first 
recorded public appearance was at the trial in September 
1596 of John Campbell of Ardkinglas for the murder of Sir 
John Campbell of Calder. The young Earl was related to the 
accused, but so many nobles were interested in the trial, 
and attended with their armed retainers, that the citizens 
of Edinburgh remained in arms by day and night for some 
time, and the Lords of Session were protected by a special 
bodyguard. 

The Earl's estate was apparently well cared for during 
his minority, as in 1603, while still under age, he was 
enabled to acquire by purchase the barony of Kilwinning 
from the Oommendator, William Melville, and in 1606 he 
describes himself as Earl of Eglintoun, Lord Montgomerie 

1 See Memot-ials, i. 48-51 ; ii. 238. 2 Ibid., i. 56; cf. ii. 252. 3 Reg. Sec. 
Sig., xlix. 112 ; Reg. of Deeds, Ixxv., 13 June 1600. 4 Gen. Reg. Inhib., xv. 
201, 202. 5 Memorials, i. 52 n. ; ii. 278. 



444 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

and Kilwinning. 1 About the same time the Privy Council, 
in accordance with the King's wish, 2 did much to com- 
pose feuds between families, and gave attention to 'the 
auldest fead hes bene of thame all,' that between the 
families of Montgomerie and Cunningham. In January 
1607 the principal parties were induced to agree to an 
arbitration, which was completed after some delays, and on 
16 March 1609 they appeared before the Council to hear 
what the King had himself decreed for their reconciliation. 
Before revealing the decree, however, the Council required 
the parties to forgive each other, which they agreed to do, 
and shook hands accordingly. The King was greatly pleased 
at this result, and thanked the Council heartily for their 
services, rejoicing that this, the last prolonged feud in his 
kingdom, is now ' taken up by the roote.' 3 The Earl died 
without issue on 4 September 1612, having obtained, before 
his death, a Crown charter of resignation and regrant of 
the lands of Kilwinning and earldom of Eglintoun to him- 
self, whom failing, to Sir Alexander Seton of Foulstruther, 
Knight, his cousin, third son of Margaret Montgomerie, 
Countess of Wintoun, who succeeded him as sixth Earl of 
Eglintoun. 4 

The fifth Earl married, in August 1604 (contract dated 3, 
5, and 9 May 1604), his cousin-german, Margaret, eldest 
daughter of Robert Montgomerie of Giffen, Master of 
Eglintoun. He had already in 1598, been contracted to 
Gabriela Stewart, sister of Ludovic, second Duke of 
Lennox, but she preferred to become a nun. 5 About two 
years after his marriage the Earl granted to his wife, as 
his nearest heir, the earldpm of Eglintoun and other lands. 
The union turned out unhappily, and the parties having 
separated in June 1608, the Earl revoked his grants. The 
marriage was annulled by the Commissaries of Edinburgh, 
11 March 1612, on a petition by the Countess. 8 She sur- 
vived the Earl, and before 24 March 1615 became the first 
wife of Robert, Lord Boyd, 7 by whom also she had no issue. 
(See title Kilmarnock.) 

1 Memorials, i. 56 ; cf . ii. 252. 2 There had been a special outbreak of the 
feud at Perth on 1 July 1606, which drew the King's attention to the 
matter. P. C. Reg., vii. 223, 498. 3 Ibid., viii. 262-263, 569. 4 Memorials, 
i. 58, 59. 6 Ibid., 52, 55. 6 Commissariot of Edin. Decreets, at date. 
7 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 445 

VII. ALEXANDER, sixth Earl of Eglintoun, styled 4 Grey- 
steel ' by his contemporaries, who succeeded, was, as already 
stated, the cousin-german of his predecessor. He was 
the third son of Robert Seton, first Earl of Wintoun, and 
of Margaret Montgomerie his Countess (see page 442 supra) 
was born in 1588, and was before his accession styled Sir 
Alexander Seton of Foulstruther. 1 On 20 October 1612 he 
was retoured heir to his cousin in the earldom of Eglintoun, 
assuming the surname of Montgomerie, and after the usual 
infeftment on 30 October 1612, he took the style and title 
of Earl of Eglintoun, Lord Montgomerie, etc. 2 A week 
before this, however, Parliament interfered with his pos- 
session of Kilwinning. That abbacy and barony had never 
been legally dissolved from the Grown, and the Estates now 
declared it to be in the King's hands, and dissolved it from 
the property of the Grown that it might be conferred on 
Michael, Lord Balfour. (See that title.) Two years later 
Bal/our received a Grown charter of the lands, but an 
arrangement was come to between him and the Earl, who 
paid a sum of 8000 merks, and received a charter on 26 April 
1615. The Earl's assumption of the title of Eglintoun was 
also objected to by the King, who opposed the transfer of 
titles by infeftments of entail, but after much trouble and 
correspondence for about two years, and a formal surrender 
of the honours, he obtained the royal recognition of his 
dignity, with a charter confirming the former grant of 28 
November 1611, and of new erecting all his lands, etc., into 
the earldom of Eglintoun, of date 24 March 1615. 3 

After this the Earl became a favourite with the King, 
whom he entertained in his house at Glasgow in 1617, 
while the King was in Scotland. He attended the King's 
funeral, and became one of the Privy Councillors of King 
Charles i. The Earl carried * the spurs ' at that monarch's 
coronation, but in the dispute which arose between the King 
and his subjects he took the popular side and became a pro- 
minent adherent of the Covenant. In 1639 he led a con- 
siderable force to join Sir Alexander Leslie near Kelso, and 

1 Memorials, 59. Foulstruther was in the parish of Pencaitland. 
He also had the lands of St. Germains in the parish of Tranent. 
2 Memorials, i. 59, and authorities cited. 3 Ibid., 55, 59-62 ; Reg. Mag. 
Sig., at date. 



446 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

in the following year at Newburn, when the Scots army 
invaded England. He is said to have been in Ireland on 
duty during the rebellion there in 1641, and he was in 
England with the Scots army at York, and in the conflict 
of Marston Moor. The Earl opposed the * Engagement ' 
on behalf of King Charles i. in 1648, but he was one of the 
first Scottish nobles to welcome King Charles n. to Scot- 
land in 1650. He and many other royalists were expelled 
from office and military service under the Act of Classes ; 
but in 1651 the Earl was again in the King's service in 
Dumbartonshire, and was there seized by a party of Crom- 
well's horse, being carried first to Hull then to Berwick, 
where he was imprisoned until the Restoration. He wrote 
various letters for mitigation of his imprisonment, but 
without result. He was released only in 1660, and died on 
14 January 1661. The sixth Earl of Eglintoun married, 
first, on 22 June 1612, Anna, eldest daughter of Alexander 
Livingstone, first Earl of Linlithgow, by whom, who died 
on 12 November 1632, he had issue five sons and two 
daughters; secondly, between November 1642 and March 
1644, Margaret, daughter of Walter, first Lord Scott of 
Buccleuch, and widow of James, Lord Ross, without issue. 
She died at Hull 5 October 1651. 1 
The Earl's issue were : 

1. HUGH, who became seventh Earl of Eglintoun. 

2. Sir Henry, of Giffen, born 26 June, and baptized on 21 

August 1614, Queen Anne being his godmother. He 
was a student in Glasgow University in February 
1628, and travelled abroad in 1632, returning to Scot- 
land in 1634. On 31 July 1636 he had a charter of 
the lands of Giffen, and on 21 September 1640 (con- 
tract dated 25 and 29 January) he married Jean, 
daughter of Archibald, seventh Earl of Argyll, widow 
of the first Viscount of Kenmure, but died without 
issue on 3 May 1644. 2 

3. Alexander, born 8 November 1615. He was educated 

with his elder brothers at Glasgow and in France, 
staying abroad until near the close of 1635, when he 
returned to Scotland and served with the army. He 

1 Memorials, i. 65-75, 83. 2 Ibid., i. 76, 77. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 447 

rose to the rank of colonel, and was made a knight, as 
he is styled ' Sir Alexander the Golonell.' He served 
in the Scots army against the rebels, and died un- 
married in July 1642, leaving issue a natural daughter 
Katherine. 1 

4. James, who was enrolled as a student in Glasgow 
University on 1 March 1637. He took military ser- 
vice and became a colonel. He acquired the estate 
of Ooilsfield from Patrick Houston of that Ilk in the 
year 1662. He died in March 1674, and was buried 
in the New Kirk of Edinburgh on the 18th of that 
month. He married (contract dated 1 and 6 June 
1659) Margaret, daughter of John Macdonald in 
Kintyre and Elizabeth Stewart his spouse, 2 and by 
her, who survived him, had issue : 

(1) Alexander, who succeeded his father in Coilsfield in 1674, 

but died unmarried on 3 March 1679. 3 

(2) Hugh, who succeeded his brother, and of whom hereafter. 

(3) Margaret, married (contract dated 4 and 5 October 1681) to 

John Chalmers of Gadgirth, Ayrshire. She was living on 4 
December 1717. 4 

(4) Mary, married to David Kennedy of Kirkmichael. He 

granted a discharge for her provision on 6 February 1697. 5 

(5) Elizabeth, said to be married to Dunbar of Machir- 

more. 6 

(6) Anna, baptized 20 July 1662, who appears to have died young, 

as she is not named with her sisters Mary and Elizabeth as 
her father's executor on 17 October 1674. 7 

Hugh, third of Coilsfield, second son of Colonel James, 
succeeded his elder brother Alexander 3 March 1679, and 
was infeft in Coilsfield as heir to his father 27 September 
1680. He was appointed a captain lieutenant in 
the Scots Regiment of Dragoons 27 December 1690. 8 He 
executed an entail of his estates on 25 April 1734, and 
died in March of the following year. 9 He married, first, 
on 29 April 1693, Jean, second daughter of Sir James 
Primrose of Carrington, sister of James, first Viscount 
Primrose ; secondly (contract 10 September 1708), Katherine 
Arbuckle, daughter of James Arbuckle, merchant burgess 
of Edinburgh, 10 a lady of great beauty, the widow of John 
Hamilton of Letham, but also described in her husband's 
testament as * widow of John Hamilton of Bardanoch, 
keeper of the Palace of Holyrood House.' She survived 

1 Memorials, i. 77, 78. * Ibid., 142, 143. Elizabeth Stewart was daughter 
of Sir William Stewart, Knight, and Elizabeth Hamilton. 3 Memorials, 
i. 143. *Ibid., 142, 143. 5 Ibid., i. 143. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. Q Gen. 
Reg. Sas., 3rd series, cl. 19; Glasgow Tests., 24 March 1736. 10 Edin. 
Baptismal Register, 23 January 1670. 



448 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

her second husband, and executed a disposition in favour 
of her daughters and others on 14 July 1742. 1 
By his two wives Hugh Montgomerie had issue : 
i. ALEXANDER, by second marriage, who succeeded him. 
ii. Mary, by first marriage, described in her father's entail 
as eldest daughter, married, before 19 June 1723, to 
William Hamilton of Letham, eldest son of John 
Hamilton of Bardanoch, who deceased between 27 
July 1734 and 29 August 1735, and whom she survived, 
dying at Edinburgh 10 August 1763. 2 

iii. Helenor described as second daughter, married, 28 
December 1725, to Thomas Garvine of Camcescan, 
provost of Ayr, whom she survived, dying at Ayr 
30 October 1782, without issue. 3 

iv. Jean, described as third daughter, married, first 
(contract dated 22 May 1728), to Mr. John Burnet, 
minister at Stair, and had issue ; secondly (contract 
dated 20 December 1736), to Mr. John M'Dermeit, 
minister at Ayr, whom she survived, dying 30 
October 1768. 4 

v. Margaret, by second marriage, described in her father's 
entail of 23 April 1734 as fourth daughter ; married, 
before March 1739, to Mr. John Hamilton, merchant 
in Jamaica, brother of Robert Hamilton, merchant, 
also of Jamaica, who afterwards bought Bourtreehill 
in 1742. 5 They had issue. She survived her husband, 
dying in London 6 July 1759. She had a legacy from 
her mother Katherine Arbuckle of 500 merks on 14 
July 1742.6 

vi. Katherine, described in her father's entail as the 
youngest daughter, while Margaret and she are also 
referred to as the two youngest daughters. She had 
a legacy from her mother Katherine Arbuckle of 
1000 merks, a watch, and other articles. She was 
alive in February 1789, and is said to have died 
unmarried. 7 

ALEXANDER, fourth of Coilsfield, succeeded his father in 
March 1735. By his mother's disposition on 14 July 1742 
he was appointed her sole executor. He died 28 December 
1783. He married, 11 June 1735, Lilias, eldest daughter 
and heiress of Sir Robert Montgomerie, tenth Baronet of 
Skelmorlie, and heiress of entail of her grand-uncle, Sir 
Hugh, the last Baronet, and she thus brought the territory 

1 Memorials, i. 145; Glasgow Tests., ut tit. 2 Memorials, i. 144; 
Glasgow Tests., ut tit. 3 Memorials, i. 144. 4 Ibid., i. 144. 5 Cf. Part. 
Reg. Sas., Ayr, ix. 455 ; x. 244. 6 Memorials, i. 145. 7 Ibid. Fraser 
inserts between Jean and Margaret two other daughters 'Barbara, 
Lady Lyle,' and * Christian,' widow of James Pringle. Neither of these 
are mentioned in the entail of 1734, and while no further evidence has 
been found as to Christian,' ' Barbara, Lady Lyle,' was Barbara Kennedy, 
the wife of James Montgomerie of Lainshaw, styled Lord Lyle, referred 
to on p. 437 supra. As Barbara, therefore, was not a daughter of 
Hugh Montgomerie, it is also probable that Christian was not. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 449 

of Skelmorlie into the family. She died 18 November 
1783. ! They had issue : 

(i) HUGH, of whom hereafter, as twelfth Earl of 
Eglinton. 

(ii) Robert, who was baptized 8 February 1741, and 

died before 22 August 1752. 

(iii) Alexander, born 26 May 1744. He was for some 
time in the Royal Navy, but later entered the 
service of the H. E. I. Co., and acquired dis- 
tinction as an able officer. He had the property 
of Annick Lodge. He died at Great Malvern 
8 July, and was buried at the Priory Church 
12 July, 1802. 2 He married, at Chandernagore, 
near Calcutta, 20 October 1784, 3 Elizabeth, 
daughter of Dr. John Taylor of the H. E. I. C. 
Service, and of Townhead, Lancashire, and 
Abbotshall, Kendal, who survived him, dying 
at Annick Lodge 13 February 1839. 4 They had 
issue. 

(iv) Thomas, baptized 2 March 1746. He went to 
Virginia before 1786, and died at Dumfries 
there 13 August 1792, unmarried, having 
appointed his brother Alexander his sole 
executor. 5 

(v) Archibald, born 3, baptized 6, June 1751. He 
entered the civil service of the H. E. I. Co. 

He married Maria, daughter of Chantry, 

and had four sons, all of whom died without 
issue. 6 

(vi) James, born on 26, baptized 27, February 1755. 
He entered the army, and rose to the rank of 
lieutenant-general. He died 13 April 1829, and 
was buried at Great Malvern beside his brother 
Alexander, having married, in 1810, Harriet 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Jackson of 
Westbury, co. Gloucester, without issue. 7 
(vii) Frances, born 18, baptized 20, September 1736 ; 
married, in 1758, 8 to James Ritchie of Busbie, 
with issue, and died at Craigton, near Glasgow, 
30 July 1763. 9 

(viii) Katherine, born 30 July 1737. She was named 
in the disposition of her grandmother, 
Katherine Arbuckle, in 1742, but nothing 
further is known of her. 10 

(ix) Lilias, born 12 February 1743 ; married to John 
Hamilton of Sundrum, with issue. 11 

(x) Margaret, baptized 10 December 1748 ; married 



1 Memorials, i. 146, 148, 168. 2 Reg. of Burials, Great Malvern Priory 
Church. 3 Calcutta Gazette, 28 October 1784, where the Christian name 
of the bridegroom is erroneously given as Hugh, instead of Alexander. 
4 Tombstone in Dreghorn Churchyard. 5 Memorials, i. 146. 6 Ibid., 
146, 147. 7 Ibid., 147. 8 Paterson's Ayrshire, iii. 4(52. 9 Scots Mag., xxv. 
415. 10 Memorials, 148. n Ibid. 

VOL. III. 2 F 



450 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

(contract dated 4 July 1769) to John Hamilton 
of Bargany, but died without issue. 1 
(xi) Anne, born 6, baptized 9, February 1761. 2 

5. Robert, fifth son of sixth Earl, was enrolled as a student 

at the University of Glasgow on 1 March 1637. He 
entered the army, distinguished himself in the Civil 
Wars, and became a major-general. He commanded 
a brigade at Worcester in 1651, and was forced to 
retreat. He was confined in Edinburgh Castle, from 
which he escaped in 1658, and retired to Holland, 
whence he returned with the King. After the 
Restoration he was appointed one of the Gentlemen 
of His Majesty's Bedchamber. He died in December 
1684. He married (contract dated 4 September 1662) 
Elizabeth, daughter of James Livingstone, Viscount 
of Kilsyth, who survived him and married, before 24 
January 1688, Captain George Douglas, brother of 
Sir James Douglas of Kelhead. They had issue two 
sons, Alexander and James, and a daughter, who all 
died without issue. 3 

6. Margaret, born 20 February 1617 ; married, first, in 

1642, to John, first Earl of Tweeddale, as his second 
wife (see that title), secondly, to William, Earl of 
Glencairn (see that title). She died at Edinburgh 27 
January 1665. 4 

7. Helenor, born 26 July 1618, but died young. 5 

8. Anna, referred to in 1633, 1642, and 1649. Died un- 

married. 6 

VIII. HUGH, seventh Earl of Eglintoun, was born 30 
March 1613, and passed much of his childhood at Seton 
with his grandmother, Margaret, Countess - Dowager of 
Winton. He is said to have been 'ane good scoller,' and 
he and his two next brothers were enrolled as students of 
Glasgow College on 29 February 1628, and in 1633 he went 
to Paris to pursue further study, especially of military 
matters. He also in the following year went to various 
places where the French army lay, to gain practical know- 
ledge of fortifications, defence, and sieges. In 1639 the Earl, 

1 Memorials. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid., 79-81. 4 Ibid., i. 82, 83. 5 Ibid., 83. 
6 Ibid. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OP EGLINTON 451 

then Lord Montgomerie, joined with his father in fighting 
for the Covenant, though he was undecided as to signing it, 
and in 1643 he went over to the King's party, with whom 
he took part at Marston Moor and in the ' Engagement,' for 
which he and others were discharged from the public service. 
In May 1650 he was restored, and aided in taking measures 
for defence of the Kingdom. He was with King Charles n. 
at Worcester and left the field with the King, but was 
taken prisoner, and was, like his father, long kept in con- 
finement, during which his health suffered. He succeeded 
his father on 14 January 1661, and seems to have lived 
quietly on his estates. In 1665 the Government issued a 
disarming act, which the Earl was required to carry out 
in his own district, but he did so very reluctantly. He died 
at Eglinton towards the end of February 1669. 1 

The seventh Ea/1 married, first, Anne, eldest daughter of 
James, second Marquess of Hamilton. Their contract of 
marriage is dated 7 and 13 April 1631, the bridegroom being 
then only eighteen years of age. The young wife, however, 
died little more than a year after the marriage, at the 
Struthers in Fife, on 16 October 1632, and was buried at 
Kilwinning 15 November following. Lord Montgomerie, as 
he still was, married, secondly (contract dated 17 and 24 
December 1635), Mary, eldest daughter of John Leslie, sixth 
Earl of Rothes, her tocher being 25,000 merks Scots. 2 

By his two wives the Earl had issue : 

1. ALEXANDER, who succeeded as eighth Earl. 

2. Francis, who received from his father in 1669 the 

estate of Giffen. He was member for Ayrshire in the 
Scots Parliament 1690-1707, and after the Union of 
1707-8 was elected a member of the British Parlia- 
ment. He died before January 1729. 3 He married, 
first (contract dated 10 October 1673) , 4 Margaret 
Leslie, Countess of Leven, who died soon after her 
marriage, 6 November 1674, without issue ; secondly, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Robert Sinclair of Long- 
formacus, Baronet, and widow of Sir James Primrose 
of Barnbougle, Knight. By her, who was born 17 
June 1650, he had issue : 

1 Memorials, i. 83-93, 96. 2 Ibid., 93, 94. 3 Ibid., 95, 102. 4 Eraser's 
Earls of Melville, etc., i. 442. 



452 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OP EGLINTON 

(1) John Montgomerie, M.P. for Ayrshire 1710 to 1727. He was 

a lieutenant-colonel in the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards. 
In January 1729, his father being then deceased, he was 
called in the entail of the Eglinton estates after the ninth 
Earl's own sons. He became Governor of New York, and 
died there in 1760. He married Mary, second daughter of 
John Carmichael, first Earl of Hyndford, and had issue one 
child, a daughter, who died unmarried. 

(2) Alexander, also a colonel, who died of his wounds at the 

battle of Almanza in Spain in 1711. 

(3) Elizabeth, married to Colonel the Hon. Patrick Ogilvy of 

Lonmay and Inchmartin, second son of James, third Earl 
of Findlater, and had issue. (See that title.) She died 29 
June 1753. 

(4) Mary, born 7 February 1690. ! 

3. Anne, only child of first marriage, married, first, to 

Robert Seton (who died in 1655), eldest son of Sir 
George Seton of Hailes, and secondly, about 1658, 
as his first wife, to James, third Earl of Findlater. 2 

4. Mary, married on 4 September 1662, as his first wife, 

to George, fourth Earl of Winton, and died in 1677, 
without surviving issue. 3 

5. Margaret, married, about 1666, to James, third Earl 

of Loudoun, and had issue. 4 

6. Christian, married, 16 February 1672, as his first wife, 

to John, fourth Lord Balmerino. (See that title.) 
They had issue. 5 

7. Helenor, married, before 1679, to David Dunbar, 

younger of Baldoon, and had issue. She died at 
Kilwinning in September 1687. 6 

8. Anne, married, as his second wife (contract dated 30 

December 1675 7 ), to Sir Andrew Ramsay of Waughton, 
Baronet, who died in 1680 (eldest son of Sir Andrew 
Ramsay, Knight, of Abbotshall, who died in 1688). 
Sir Andrew had issue an only son, Sir Andrew, second 
Baronet, who died unmarried. 8 

L. ALEXANDER, eighth Earl of Eglintoun, succeeded 
while still a young man, but owing to his residing much 
in England after 1676, he took little part in Scots affairs. 

1 Memorials, 95. 2 Ibid. ; Edin. Tests. , 18 March 1678. 3 Diary of Laird 
of Brodie, 134; Memorials, i. 93. 4 Memorials, i. 96. 5 Ibid., 96. 
Ibid. ; Notes and Queries, 7th series, x. 485. 7 Inventory of Waughton 
Writs in Gen. Reg. Ho. (Inventories, ii. 1). 8 Gen. Beg. Sasines, May 
1677, xxxviii., f. 4; Fife Retours, No. 1187; Gen. Retours, No. 7715. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 453 

He, however, voted against the Court party in 1685. In 
1689 he made application to the Earl of Melville, Secretary 
of State for Scotland, to be appointed to the command of 
the first regiment. He seems to have taken part in the 
campaign against Viscount Dundee, as commander of the 
Horse, but was not appointed to the regiment he asked 
for, and apparently again retired into private life. He 
had in 1676 made over the Eglinton estates to his son, and 
after the usual resignation received a Crown charter on 
9 February 1677, entailing them on Alexander, Lord 
Montgomerie, and his heirs-male by Margaret Cochrane, 
whom failing, on his heirs-male by any other marriage, 
whom failing, on the heirs-male of the body of the Earl 
himself, whom failing, on Mr, Francis Montgomerie his 
brother-german and his sons, whom failing, on the deceased 
Colonel James Monf gomerie of Coilsfield and his sons, whom 
failing, on Major-General Robert Montgomerie and his sons, 
whom failing, on the Earl's own heirs-male whomsoever, 
reserving to the Earl an annuity of 6000 merks. This 
explains why he did not reside much in Scotland, as his 
second and third wives were both English. 1 He died in 
London in the end of the year 1701, and his body was 
brought to Kilwinning, and interred in the family vault 
there. 

The Earl was thrice married. His first wife was Eliza- 
beth Crichton, daughter of William, second Earl of Dum- 
fries, a union which is referred to by contemporaries as 
an ' unhappy accident ' and l an unexpected prank.' The 
parties seem to have eloped, and were married in January 
1658. She died, according to the Memorials, before 23 
October 1673, a statement made on apparently good 
grounds, but she wrote a letter to Lady Coilsfield on 
8 January 1674. 2 She must have died between that date 
and September 1678, when the Earl was anxiously ne- 
gotiating for his second marriage with Grace, daughter of 
Francis Popeley of Woolley Moorehouse, Yorks, widow of 
Sir Thomas Went worth of Bretton, Baronet, whom he 
married 2 February 1678-79. Grace, Countess of Eglintoun, 
died without issue, having made her will on 18 April 

1 Memorials, i. 97. 2 Ibid., 99, 100, 322. 



454 MONTGOMERIB, EARL OF EGLINTON 

1698. 1 The Earl married, thirdly, at St. Bride's Church, 
London, 8 December 1698, Catherine, Lady Kaye, daughter 
of Sir William St. Quintin of Harpham, co. York, who had 
already been three times married, first, to Michael, eldest 
son of Sir George Wentworth of Woolley, who predeceased 
his father in 1658 ; secondly, on 12 February 1660, to Sir John 
Kaye of Woodsome, Baronet, who died in 1662 ; and thirdly, 
to Henry Sandys of Doune Court, co. Kent. She died 6 
August 1700. 2 The Earl had issue by his first wife only : 

1. ALEXANDER, who succeeded as ninth Earl. 

2. Hugh, who was on 24 June 1675 provided by his father 

to a sum of 18,000 merks Scots. He became a major 
in the army, and died without issue before 1725. 3 

3. John, who, besides other notices of him, is referred to 

by General Patrick Gordon in his Diary, under date 
14 June 1686, when the Earl proposed that the 
general should take him to Russia, but it does not 
appear that he went there. He became a major in 
the army, and died, without issue, before 5 July 
1693. He married Jean Gibson, who as his widow 
was confirmed executrix on 12 March 1694. 4 

4. Mary, married (contract dated 4 October 1683) to Sir 

James Agnew of Lochnaw, Baronet, and had issue. 5 

5. Margaret, who granted a discharge to her brother 

Lord Montgomery for the annualrent of her patri- 
mony on 7 January 1682. She died without issue 
before 15 June 1687. 6 

X. ALEXANDER, ninth Earl of Eglintoun, born about 
1660, was, while young, placed under the charge of Mr. 
Matthew Fleming, minister at Culross, with whom he 
remained from February 1669 to Lammas 1673. He 
then entered St. Andrews University, and remained 
there till Lammas 1676. In December of that year lie 
married, and his father made over to him the Eglinton 
estates, which, it is said, he managed with much success. 
He held many important offices of state before his 
accession to the title, and was a Privy Councillor both to 

1 Fraser states that the Countess died within a year after her marriage, 
but he himself supplies evidence to show she was alive in 1685 and 1689. 
2 Ibid., 99, 100. 3 Ibid., 98. 4 Ibid., 98, 99. 5 Ibid., 99. 6 Ibid. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 455 

King William and Queen Anne. He was elected a Repre- 
sentative Peer of Scotland in 1710, and again in 1713. He 
strongly supported the Government during the Jacobite 
rising of 1715, and he and his loyal neighbours mustered 
on the moor of Irvine an effective force of 6000 men well 
armed and in good order. He cleared his estates of their 
encumbrances and purchased additions, known as the Dun- 
clonald, Kilmaurs, Glassford, and Southennan estates, of 
which, on 2 June 1725, he made an entail in favour of 
Alexander, Lord Montgomerie, then his only surviving 
son, after whom and his heirs were called the children 
male and female of the Earl himself, whom failing, the 
children male and female of James, Earl of Galloway, and 
of Catherine Montgomerie, his Countess, eldest daughter 
of the Earl, whom failing, the Earl's own nearest heirs 
and assignees. He also on 30 January 1729 made an entail 
of the Eglinton estates, secured to him and certain heirs 
by Crown charter of 9 February 1677, already cited. The 
new entail was in favour of the Earl himself in lifer ent, 
and of Alexander, Lord Montgomerie, his eldest son, whom 
failing, of Mr. Archibald Montgomerie, his second son, and 
the heirs-male of their bodies, whom failing, of any other 
sons born to the Earl, whom failing, of Colonel John 
Montgomerie, only son then living of the deceased Mr. 
Francis Montgomerie of Giffen, whom failing, of the male 
descendants of the late Colonel James Montgomerie of 
Coilsfield, whom failing, of the Earl's own heirs and 
assignees. 1 This entail was one of the Earl's last acts, 
as a short while after, on 18 February 1729, he died very 
suddenly at his Place of Eglinton, and was buried on 20 
March, the funeral being accompanied by between 900 and 
1000 beggars, including many from Ireland, who had 50 
distributed among them. 2 

The Earl was three times married. First (contract dated 
7 and 16 December 1676), to Margaret, eldest daughter 
of William, Lord Cochrane, and grand-daughter of the 
first Earl of Dundonald. There is a story of how Lord 
Dundonald and all his attendants, on their way to the 
marriage, were arrested by witch power at a certain spot, 

1 Both entails recited in Memorials, i. 102. 2 Ibid., and Caledonian 
Mercury quoted. 



456 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

from which the horses would not move, and the whole 
cavalcade was obliged to go home again. He married, 
secondly, Anne, eldest daughter of George Gordon, first 
Earl of Aberdeen, who had a daughter, and was buried 
16 December 1708. The Earl married, thirdly, in June 
1709, Susanna, daughter of Sir Archibald Kennedy of Cul- 
zean, who survived him, and died his widow at Auchans 
House 18 March 1780, in the ninety-first year of her age, 
and fifty-first of her widowhood. Countess Susanna is said 
to have been the most beautiful woman of her time, of 
unusually tall stature, yet perfect both as to figure and 
carriage, and with a face of exquisite beauty. To the 
charms of her personal appearance were added the more 
powerful attractions of genius and great accomplishments. 
She was a great patroness of literary men ; Allan Ramsay, 
William Hamilton of Bangour, and others celebrated her 
charms and her virtues in their works. Many of her 
letters have been preserved, and show her a wise and 
tender mother, and she carefully managed her children 
and their affairs after her husband's death. She lived 
chiefly at Auchans House, and there she received Dr. 
Johnson, who was delighted with her, as their principles 
in Church and State were entirely similar. She was then 
in her eighty-fifth year, but Boswell describes her figure as 
majestic, her manner high bred, her reading extensive, and 
her conversation elegant. 
The Earl had issue, by his three wives, twenty children. 

1. Hugh, Master of Montgomerie, baptized 29 December 

1680, died at the University of Glasgow in 1696, 
unmarried. 

2. Alexander, died young. 

3. John, born 6, baptized 9, March 1688. He died young. 

4. James, Lord Montgomerie (by third marriage), born 
. 19 April, and baptized 22 May 1718, died 26 August 

1724. 

5. ALEXANDER, who became tenth Earl. 

6. ARCHIBALD, who became eleventh Earl. 

7. Catherine (by first marriage), married, about 1694, to 

James, fifth Earl of Galloway, and had issue. She 
died in December 1757. 

8. Elizabeth, born 21, and baptized 24, January 1684. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 457 

She apparently died young, as another daughter was 
baptized by the same name in 1710. 

9. Jean, born 1, baptized 3, December 1689. According 
to Sir William Fraser she died young, but he furnishes 
evidence that she was identical with the Jean (whom 
he makes a younger daughter) married, on 29 Decem- 
ber 1711, to Sir Alexander Maxwell of Monreith, 
Baronet. She died 28 May 1726, in her thirty- 
seventh year, leaving issue. 1 

10. Euphemia, married (contract dated 13 April 1697) to 

George Lockhart of Oarnwath. He died 17 December 
1735, and was survived by his wife, who died 1 
December 1738, leaving issue. 2 

11. Grace, married (contract and marriage 19 January 

1710) to Robert, sixth Earl of Carnwath. 3 (See that 
title.) 

12. Mary, only child of second marriage, born 20 Novem- 

ber 1704. She is celebrated as a beauty by the poet 
Hamilton of Bangour. She married, between 11 and 
26 May 1731, notwithstanding the disapprobation of 
her family, Captain, afterward Sir David, Cunning- 
ham of Milncraig and Livingstone. They had 
issue. 4 

13. Elizabeth, of third marriage, born 4 July 1710 ; mar- 

ried in 1749 to Sir John Cunningham of Caprington, 
who died 30 November 1777 in his eighty-second year. 
She died at Edinburgh 19 February 1800, in her 
ninetieth year. They had issue. 5 

14. Helen or Eleonora, born 16 January 1712 ; married 4 

January 1745 to Francis Stuart of Pittendreich, third 
son of James, Earl of Moray, and died at Edinburgh 
14 January 1747, leaving an only son, who died un- 
married. 6 

15. Susanna, married to John Renton of Lambertoun 

before 1 August 1739. She died at Blackadder 27 
July 1754, leaving issue. 7 

16. Margaret, married, in April 1739, to Sir Alexander 

Macdonald of Macdonald. In 1746 she was privy to 
the escape of Prince Charles Edward after Culloden, 

1 Memorials, i. 103, 104. 2 Ibid., 103. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid., 104. 5 Ibid., 
105. 6 Ibid., 106. 7 Ibid. 



458 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

when he was assisted by Flora Macdonald. She died 
30 March 1799, leaving issue. 1 

17. Frances, who was alive 26 January 1755, but died 

apparently not long afterwards, unmarried. 2 

18. Christian, married, about 16 February 1737, to James 

Moray of Abercairney. They had issue. She died 
at Abercairney 19 July 1748. 3 

19. Grace, married, 12 March 1751, to Charles Byne, a 

cornet in Eland's Dragoons, but died at Edinburgh 
15 June same year/ 

20. Charlotte, who died of fever at Hamilton, 7 October 

1732, unmarried. 5 

XI. ALEXANDER, tenth Earl of Eglintoun, who succeeded 
his father when only six years old, was born 10 February 
1723, and baptized on the 28th. He and his younger brother 
Archibald were educated together, first at the Grammar 
School at Irvine, then at Haddington, until October 1738, 
when the young Earl went to Winchester, and his brother 
to Eton. The Earl was at Winchester until August 1740, 
when he expressed a wish to go to a University. It is not 
clear whether he did so, but in November 1742 he visited 
Paris, where, under the charge of his tutor, Mr. Michael 
Ramsay, he profited largely by the accomplishments then 
taught there by the first masters in Europe. Mr. Ramsay's 
letters dwell somewhat on the young Earl's extravagance, 
which is proved also by others, but he had noble qualities, 
which enabled him to rise above such faults of youth. He 
was appointed Governor of Dumbarton Castle in 1759, and 
was, in 1760, appointed a Lord of the Bedchamber to the 
young King, George in. He took part, and showed much 
sagacity, in public affairs, a fact which led him to try and 
dispeer himself that he might sit in the House of Commons, 
where he believed his talents would be more useful. But 
he was advised by eminent counsel against this project, 
and abandoned it, making the best use of his opportunities 
in the House of Lords, when elected as a Scots Representa- 
tive Peer in 1761 and again in 1768. Under the Act of 1748 
for abolishing heritable jurisdictions he received for his 

1 Memorials. * Ibid., 107. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 459 

sheriff ships of Renfrewshire 5000, for the regality of 
Ouningham 2000, and for the bailiary of Kilwinning 800, 
or 7800 in all, in full of his demand for 12,000. He did 
much to improve his own estates, and incidentally agricul- 
ture in general throughout Ayrshire. He superintended 
all management and improvement in person, and introduced 
the best methods of farming, with men able to carry them 
out, and to instruct others. He even instituted an agricul- 
tural society, which was the means of much benefit, not 
only to Ayrshire, but to the country at large. Unfortunately 
this useful career was violently cut short, as he was shot 
by an exciseman named Mungo Campbell, whom he had 
challenged for using a gun in poaching upon his grounds of 
Ardrossan. 1 The Earl expired soon after receiving the 
wound, 24 October 1769. He was unmarried, and was 
succeeded by his brother, 

XII. ARCHIBALD, who thus became eleventh Earl of 
Eglintoun. He was born 18, and baptized 24, May 1726. As 
already stated, he and his brother were educated together 
until 1738, when the younger went to Eton, where he 
remained three years, afterwards joining his brother at 
Winchester for a short time. After studying for some time 
abroad, he chose the military profession, and received a 
commission as cornet in the Scots Greys on 15 March 1744. 
On 31 October same year he obtained by purchase a captain's 
commission in Colonel Fleming's regiment. He raised the 
78th Regiment of Highlanders, and was appointed their 
lieutenant-colonel by commission dated 4 January 1757. 
He recruited his men very rapidly, and accompanied his 
regiment to America, where he served with distinction under 
General Amherst, especially against the Cherokee Indians. 
In 1761 he became M.P. for Ayrshire and Wigtown Burghs, 
but elected to sit for the former, which he did until 1768, 
and both before and after his accession filled various posts 
in the Royal Household and elsewhere. He was Governor 
of Dumbarton Castle, 1764 ; Deputy-Ranger, Hyde Park and 
St. James's Park, 1766 ; Governor, Edinburgh Castle, 1782. 
He attained the rank of general in the army on 25 October 
1793. He was also a Scots Representative Peer from 1776 

1 Memorials, etc., 114-127. 



460 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

till his death. As a landowner he carried out the plans of 
his late brother for the management of his estates, and did 
all he could to improve the condition of his tenants. He 
purchased the estate of Giffen and others, and on 18 January 
1791 he entailed them on his own children, whom failing, 
on his cousin, Hugh Montgomerie of Ooilsfield, and his heirs- 
male, and failing them, on the heirs-male and of entail suc- 
ceeding to the honours and estate of Eglinton. He died at 
Eglinton Castle 30 October 1796, aged seventy-three, 1 and 
as he had no male issue was succeeded in his title, and also 
apparently under the entail of 1729, by his kinsman, Hugh 
Montgomerie of Skelmorlie and Coilsfield. The Earl mar- 
ried, first, on 30 March 1772, Jean Lindsay, eldest daughter 
of George, Earl of Crawford, but she died without issue at 
Eglinton Castle 22 January 1778. He married, secondly, 9 
August 1783, Frances, only daughter of Sir "William Twisden 
of Raydon Hall, Kent, whom he divorced in 1788. She was 
married, secondly, 29 November 1734, to Francis, brother 
to General Sir John Moore. He had issue, by his second 
wife, two daughters : 

1. Mary, born 5 March 1787; married in Duke Street 

Chapel, Westminster, 28 March 1803, to Archibald, 
Lord Montgomerie, eldest son of Hugh, twelfth IDarl 
of Eglintoun. 

2. Susanna, born at London 26 May, baptized 28 July, 

1788. She died in her eighteenth year, very suddenly, 
at Colchester, Essex, 16 November 1805. 2 

XIII. HUGH, twelfth Earl of Eglintoun, was (as shown on 
pp. 448, 449 supra) the eldest son of Alexander Montgomerie, 
fourth of Coilsfield, who was great-grandson of Alexander, 
sixth Earl of Eglintoun. He was born and baptized 29 
November 1739, entered the army in 1756, and saw con- 
siderable service in America, as captain, first in the 78th 
Foot, and afterwards in the 1st Royals. In 1780 he was 
elected M.P. for Ayrshire, also in 1784, and again in 1796. 
In 1789 he was appointed Inspector of Military Roads in 
Scotland, and displayed so much energy and skill that he 
effected a great improvement, and also a considerable saving 
of public money. In 1793 he was appointed Lieut. -Colonel 

1 Memorials, i. 128-130. 2 Ibid., 131. 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OP EGLINTON 461 

of the Argyleshire Fencible Regiment. About the same 
time he raised the regiment of the West Lowland Fencibles, 
of which he was colonel. He afterwards raised the Glasgow 
Regiment of Fencibles, which, however, was reduced in 
1795. He succeeded his cousin as Earl on 30 October 1796, 
and in 1798 was elected a Representative Peer, and again 
in 1802, but was created a Peer of the United Kingdom by 
patent of 15 February 1806, under the title of BARON 
ARDROSSAN OF ARDROSSAN, and on 22 May 1812 
received the Order of the Thistle. 

Soon after he became Earl he rebuilt the Castle of 
Eglinton, and greatly enlarged and improved the grounds. 
He was the promoter of, and took an active interest in, a 
scheme for the construction of Ardrossan Harbour, and also 
a canal to Paisley. The last project was not fully com- 
pleted, but the harbour has been of much benefit to the 
town of Ardrossan, which has become a favourite resort of 
that coast. The Earl died 15 December 1819, aged eighty, 
and was succeeded by his grandson. He married (contract 
dated 3 June 1772) his cousin Eleonora, fourth and youngest 
daughter of Robert Hamilton of Bourtreehill. She died 17 
January 1817, at Eglinton Gastle, aged seventy-four. They 
had issue : 

1. ARCHIBALD, Lord Montgomerie, born at Bourtreehill 
30 July 1773. He entered the Army as an ensign in 
the 42nd Regiment, and later became lieut.-colonel 
of the Glasgow Regiment, disbanded in 1795, and 
colonel of the Ayrshire Militia, but resigned in 1807. 
He became major-general in 1809, and was on active 
service, in 1812 and 1813, in Sicily, where he at one 
time was the British Representative at the Court of 
Palermo. He died, of consumption, at Alicante, 4 
January 1814, and was buried in the convent chapel 
of Gibraltar. He married, in Duke Street Chapel, 
Westminster, 28 March 1803, Mary, eldest, and after- 
wards the only surviving, daughter of Archibald, 
eleventh Earl of Eglintoun, a union which united the 
male and female lines of the family, and also con- 
joined their extensive estates. Lady Montgomerie 
survived her first husband, and married, secondly, 
in 1815, as his first wife, Sir Charles Montolieu Lamb 



462 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

of Beauport, Baronet, by whom she had issue. She 
died 12 June 1848. Lord Montgomerie had issue 
four sons, of whom 

(1) and (2) died shortly after birth. 

(3) Hugh, Lord Montgomerie, born at Coilsfield 24 January 1811, 

but died on 13 July 1817 at Eglinton Castle. 

(4) ARCHIBALD WILLIAM, who succeeded his grandfather as 

thirteenth Earl of Eglintoun. 

2. Roger, who became a lieutenant in the Royal Navy, 

and died of fever at Port Royal in Jamaica in 
January 1799, unmarried. 

3. Alexander, who died young and unmarried. 

4. Jane, married, in 1828, to Archibald Hamilton of 

Carcluie. 

5. Lilias, married, first, at Coilsfield, 1 February 1796, to 

Robert Dundas Macqueen of Braxfield, co. Lanark, 
who died s. p. in 1816 ; secondly, at Eglinton Castle 
21 August 1817, Richard Alexander Oswald of Auch- 
incruive, also without issue. She died at Vevey 10 
September 1845, and was buried there beside her 
second husband. 

6. Mary, who died young and unmarried. 

XIV. ARCHIBALD WILLIAM, thirteenth Earl of Eglintoun, 
was born at Palermo, Sicily, on 29 September 1812, but 
after his father's death became the peculiar charge of his 
grandfather. He was educated at Eton. In 1839 he pro- 
jected and carried out at immense cost the famous ' Eglin- 
ton Tournament ' in imitation of such displays in the age 
of chivalry, and Lady Seymour, afterwards Duchess of 
Somerset, appeared as the Queen of Beauty, though the 
proceedings were sadly marred by bad weather. In 1852, 
and again in 1858, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland, an office he held with much success and accept- 
ance. On 22 December 1840 the Earl procured himself 
served nearest and lawful heir-male general, also nearest 
and lawful heir-male of provision, to George, fourth Earl of 
Winton, the elder brother of his own direct ancestor the 
sixth Earl of Eglintoun (see p. 442), but did not establish 
his right to the peerage dignities of Winton. He was, 
however, on 17 June 1859 created EARL OF WINTON 



MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 463 

in the United Kingdom. He died suddenly 4 October 
1861 at Mount Melville, near St. Andrews. The Earl 
married, first, 17 February 1841 at Lambeth Palace, Surrey, 
Theresa, daughter of Charles Newcomen, Clonahard, co. 
Longford, and widow of Richard Howe Cocker ell, captain 
Royal Navy. She died 16 December 1853 at Eglinton 
Castle. The Earl married, secondly, at the Vice-Regal 
Lodge, Dublin, on 4 November 1858, Adela Caroline 
Hariet Capel, daughter of Arthur, sixth Earl of Essex. 
She died without male issue 31 December 1860, in Edin- 
burgh. 
The Earl had issue : 

1. ARCHIBALD WILLIAM, who became fourteenth Earl. 

2. Seton Montolieu, late lieutenant Scots Fusilier 

Guards, born 15 May 1846 ; married, 11 June 
1870, Nina JTanet, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Peers Williams, M.P., of Temple House, Berks. 
He died 26 November 1883, having had issue three 
daughters. 

3. GEORGE ARNULF, present Earl. 

4. Egidia, born, 17 December 1843, married, 4 July 1861, 

to Frederick William Brook, fifth Lord Rendlesham ; 
died 13 January 1880, leaving issue. 

5. Sybil Amelia Adela (by second marriage), born 24 

August 1859. 

6. Hilda Rose (by second marriage), born 7 December 

1860, married, 23 February 1881, to Tonman Mosley 
of Bangors Park, Iver, Bucks, second son of Sir 
Tonman Mosley, third Baronet, and has issue. 

XV. ARCHIBALD WILLIAM, fourteenth Earl of Eglintoun, 
was born at York 3 December 1841 ; educated at Eton ; 
was some time in the Royal Navy. 

He died 30 August 1892, having married, 6 December 

1862, Sophia Adelaide Theodosia, daughter of Charles 

Anderson Worsley, second Earl of Yarborough, and by her, 

who died 21 September 1886, had issue : 

1. Sophie Constance, born 28 November 1863. She 

succeeded to the estates of Southennan and others 

under the entail of 1725 ; married, 15 January 1885, to 

Captain Samuel Hynman Allanby, of Garnsgate Hall, 



464 MONTGOMERIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 

who. in 1894, assumed the additional surname of 
Montgomerie, and has issue : 

(1) Sophia Egidia Gwendolen. 

(2) Eleanor Theresa. 

(3) Adelaide Margaret Constance. 

2. Theresa, born 17 July 1866; married, 15 July 1886, 

John Cross of Bank, co. Renfrew, and has issue. 

3. Gertrude, born 26 July 1867; married, 7 February 

1893, Ernest Bruce Acland Lawford of Winton, 
Oxted, Surrey, and has issue, 

4. Diana, born 19 March 1870 ; married, first, 14 December 

1889, to Sir Claud Alexander, second Baronet, to 
whom she had issue, but the marriage was dissolved 
in 1894, and she married, 30 August 1894, Harold 
Kenneth Allison, son of Colonel Allison, Undercliffe, 
co. Durham. 

As the fourteenth Earl left no male heirs he was suc- 
ceeded by his surviving brother, 

XVI. GEORGE ARNULF, fifteenth and present Earl of 
Eglintoun ; born 23 February 1848. Educated at Eton ; 
served as a lieutenant in the Grenadier Guards; is Lord 
Lieutenant of Ayrshire ; married, 13 November 1873, Janet 
Lucretia, daughter of Boyd Alexander Cuninghame, fourth 
son of John Cuninghame of Craigends, and has issue : 

1. ARCHIBALD SETON, Lord Montgomerie, lieutenant, 

2nd Life Guards, born 23 June 1880. 

2. William Alexander, lieutenant 2nd Dragoons, born 

29 October 1881, died unmarried 9 May 1903. 

3. Francis Cuninghame, born 25 January 1887. 

4. Georgina Theresa, born 8 May 1876, married 25 April 

1895, to William Mure, Esquire of Caldwell, with 
issue. 

5. Edith Mary, born 21 July 1877, married 22 July 1901 

to Captain Algernon R. Trotter, M.V.O., D.S.O., 
2nd Life Guards, with issue. 

CREATIONS. Circa 1445, Lord Montgomerie ; January 
1506-7, Earl of Eglintoun ; 25 March 1615, a new creation 
of the same, all in the Peerage of Scotland. 15 February 



MONTGOMBRIE, EARL OF EGLINTON 465 

1806 Baron Ardrossan of Ardrossan ; 23 June 1859, Earl of 
Winton, both in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. 

ARMS. Recorded in Lyon Register. Quarterly, 1st and 
4th grand quarters counterquartered, 1st and 4th, azure, 
three fleurs-de-lys or, for Montgomerie ; 2nd and 3rd, gules, 
three annulets or, stoned azure, for Eglintonj all within a 
bordure or charged with a double tressure flory eounter- 
flory gules : 2nd and 3rd grand quarters counterquartered, 
1st and 4th, or, three crescents within a double tressure 
flory counterflory gules, for Seton ; 2nd and 3rd, azure, three 
garbs or, for Buehan ; over all an escutcheon parted per 
pale, gules and azure, the dexter charged with a sword in 
pale proper, pommelled and hilted or, supporting an imperial 
crown, the sinister charged with a star of twelve points 
argent, all within a double tressure flory counterflory gold. 

CRESTS. A lady dressed in ancient apparel, azure, holding 
in her dexter hand an anchor, and in her sinister the head 
of a savage couped suspended by the hair all proper. 

A ducal coronet or, issuing therefrom a wyvern vomiting 
fire, his wings elevated proper. 

SUPPORTERS. Two wyverns vert vomiting fire proper. 
MOTTOES. Garde bien. Hazard yet forward. 

[J. A.] 



VOL. HI. 2 O 



BRUCE, EARLS OF ELGIN AND 
AILESBURY 




F the origin of the Bruces 
of Clackmannan and the 
exact nature of their con- 
nection with the Royal 
House of Bruce, so far 
no certain evidence has 
been discovered. Several 
theories have been put 
forward on this subject, 
of which the oldest, and 
the one which has been 
the tradition of the 
family from early times, 
is that the House of 
Clackmannan was de- 
scended from John, 
younger son of Robert 
de Brus, fifth Lord of Annandale, 'the Competitor.' It 
appears from Dugdale and other English sources that 
Robert de Brus had a fourth son John. In English records 
little was known or recorded of those members of a family 
which settled in Scotland; the history of John de Brus, 
therefore, was not followed up by Dugdale, and so there 
is nothing but ancient tradition to connect the House of 
Clackmannan with this scion of the Bruces of Annandale. 

Another account, which is given by Drummond, 1 that the 
Bruces of Clackmannan were descended from a natural son of 
King Robert i., who was by him created Earl of Ross for life, 
is not only unfounded but can be positively disproved. It 
has also been supposed by some 2 that Thomas de Bruys, from 

1 Noble British Families, pt. iii. p. 15. 2 Complete Peerage by G. E. C., 
ii. 164. 



BRUCE, EARLS OF ELC4IN AND AILESBURY 467 

whom the Clackmannan family is undoubtedly descended, 
was identical with an alleged natural son of Edward Brus ; 
the late Mr. Burnett, Lyon King of Arms, 1 favoured this 
view, but there is no evidence to support it. 



THOMAS DE BRDYS is the first of this family that can be 
distinctly proved to have been in possession of Clack- 
mannan. He died 2 before 1348, in which year the lands 
of Clackmannan were in possession of Marjorie Charteris, 
his widow, she having a third, the remainder being in 
the possession of his son and heir Robert de Bruys, during 
whose minority Sir Robert Erskine and John Menteith 
had a grant of his ward. The exchequer account audited 
March 1359-60, but extending over the whole period from 
Easter 1348, shows that in 1359-60 Thomas had been dead 
at least eleven years, that his widow was then alive, and 
his son and heir Robert was under age. It seems probable 
that Thomas de Bruys, one of the associates of Robert the 
Steward, Guardian of the realm, whom he joined with the 
gentry of Kyle, and whose important services in organising 
an armed resistance to the English in 1334, are adverted to 
by Fordun 3 and others, was identical with this Thomas of 
Clackmannan. Such services as his could hardly have 
failed of recognition by the Crown, and the accounts 
already referred to show that he had at one time, not 
defined, been in possession of a large portion of the Crown 
lands in the county of Clackmannan. By Marjorie Charteris 
he had issue a son and heir, 

SIR ROBERT DE BRUYS, who succeeded him. He must 
have been born 4 ante 1348, and was still a minor under the 
guardianship of Sir Robert Erskine and John of Menteith 
in 1359-60. In pursuance of the revocation 5 of all grants 
of Crown lands resolved on by Parliament in 1357, the 
Sheriff reported that he had assumed possession of these 
lands on behalf of the King, but a large proportion of the 
lands in question, Clackmannan included, were regranted 
by King David n. to Robert de Bruys, who had on 9 Decem- 

1 Exch. Rolls, vol. i. preface, cxxxiii. 2 Ibid., 572, 574. 3 Fordun a 
Goodall, Ixiii. c. 32. 4 Exch. Rolls, i. 572, 574. 5 Ibid., preface, cxxxiii. 



468 BRUCE, EARLS OF ELGIN AND AILESBURY 

ber 1,359 l a Grown charter, dated at Perth, of the lands and 
barony of Clackmannan and others, in which he is styled 
4 dilectus consanguineus noster.' 2 He had also a Crown 
charter 3 of the lands of Kennet 20 October 1365, and on 17 
January 1369-70 he had a Crown charter 4 of the lands of 
Rait in Perthshire ; in these charters also he is termed ' con- 
sanguineus/ He died before or about 1389, as his son had 
then succeeded to Clackmannan, having married Isabel, 
daughter of Sir Robert Stewart of Durisdeer and Inner- 
meath [some say of Rosyth], 5 and sister of Sir Robert 
Stewart, who fell at Shrewsbury, and by her had issue two 
sons, viz. : 

1. SIR ROBERT, who succeeded. 

2. James, 6 was rector of Kilmany in Fife, and conse- 

crated Bishop of Dunkeld in the Abbey of Dunferm- 
line, 4 February 1441-42. On 30 March 1444, as one 
of the mandatories of the Pope, he confirmed an 
agreement between the Abbot of Dunfermline and 
the burgh of Perth. In this year he was made 
Chancellor 7 of the Kingdom, and was styled 4 con- 
sanguineus' by King James n. in a royal charter 
1444. On the death of Bishop Cameron of Glasgow 
he was translated 8 to that see, but died in 1447 
before his consecration. 

SIR ROBERT DE BRUS, 9 the elder son, succeeded his father 
ante 1389, as in that year he gave a charter 10 to his natural 
son Thomas of the lands of Wester Kennet, which charter 
was confirmed by Robert in. in 1399. Sir Robert had upon 
his own resignation a charter " from Robert in. of the lands 
of Rait in Perthshire to himself, in liferent, and to David, 
his eldest lawful son, and the heirs-male of his body in fee, 
whom failing, to his own nearest heirs whatsoever, dated 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., folio vol. 38, 61. 2 This indicates relationship to the 
royal family, though how it arises has not been ascertained. 3 Reg. 
Mag. Sig., folio vol. No. 61, p. 38. 4 Ibid, 5 Ibid. ; MS. History of the 
Braces, A.D. 1691. Harleian MSS. 3074, British Museum. 6 Additional 
Catalogue of the Scottish Bishops, by the Right Rev. Robert Keith, ed. 
1824, 87. 7 Crawfurd's Officers of State, 33, 34. 8 Fordun. 9 He is called 
Sir Robert by Douglas, and in the birthbrief in the possession of the 
Comte de Brus. 10 Collections for a History of Clackmannanshire, by 
W. Downing Bruce. n Clackmannan Writs. 



BRUCE, EARLS OP ELGIN AND AILESBURY 469 

at Linlithgow 12 August 1393. He had also a charter 1 
from the same King of the lands of Clackmannan, etc., to 
himself, in liferent, and to David his lawful son, and the 
heirs-male of his body, in fee, whom failing, to his son 
Thomas, and his heirs-male, whom failing, to return to 
the King, dated 24 October 1394. In both these charters 
he is styled 4 consanguineus,' and his son David is so 
termed in the last. Sir Robert died before 1406. His 
wife is said to have be