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Full text of "The Scots peerage : founded on Wood's ed. of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that kingdom"

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THE SCOTS PEERAGE 



Edinburgh : Printed by T. and A. CONSTABLE 

FOR 
DAVID DOUGLAS 

LONDON . . . SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, 
KBNT AND CO., LIM1TKD 

CAMBRIDGE . . BOWES AND BOWES 
GLASGOW . . JAMBS MACLEHOSE AND SONS 



THE 

SCOTS PEERAGE 

FOUNDED ON WOOD'S EDITION 
OF SIR ROBERT DOUGLAS'S 

peerage of Scotland 

CONTAINING 

AN HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL ACCOUNT 
OF THE NOBILITY OF THAT KINGDOM 

EDITED BY 

SIR JAMES BALFOUR PAUL, LL.D. 

LORD LYON KING OF ARMS 



WITH ARMORIAL ILLUSTRATIONS 




VOLUME VI 

EDINBURGH : DAVID DOUGLAS 
1909 



All rights reserved 







Cs 



?35 



I 





CONTENTS 

AND LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



MARCHMONT, HUME, EARL OF, . 
MARISCHAL, KEITH, EARL, . 
MELFORT, DRUMMOND, EARL OF, 



MELVILLE, MELVILLE, EARL OF LEVEN AND, 
With full-page Illustration. 

MENTEITH, ANCIENT EARLS OF, . 
MENTEITH, GRAHAM, EARL OF, . 
METHVEN, STEWART, LORD, . 
MIDDLETON, MIDDLETON, EARL OF, 

MONTROSE, GRAHAM, DUKE OF, . . 

With full-page Illustration. 

MONYPENNY, MONYPENNY, LORD, . 
MORAY, ANCD3NT EARLS OF, .... 

MORAY, RANDOLPH, EARL OF 

MORAY, DUNBAR, EARL OF, . 
MORAY, DOUGLAS, EARL OF, 
MORAY, STEWART, EARL OF, 



MORAY, STEWART, EARL OF, 

With full-page Illustration. 

MORDINGTOUN, DOUGLAS, LORD, 



PAGE 
1 

25 
66 
75 

124 
142 
166 
170 
191 

275 
280 



308 
311 
313 

331 



vi CONTENTS 

PAOt 

MORTON, DOUGLAS, EARL OF, 337 

With full-page Illustration, 

MORTON, MAXWELL, EARL OF, 388 

NAIRN, NAIRN, LORD, 390 

NAPIER OF MERCHISTON, NAPIER, LORD, ... 402 
With full-page Illustration. 

NEWARK, LESLIE, LORD, 440 

NEWBURGH, LIVINGSTON, EARL OF, .... 446 

NEWHAVEN, CHEYNE, VISCOUNT OF, .... 461 

NITHSDALE, MAXWELL, EARL OF 469 

NORTHESK, CARNEGIE, EARL OF, 493 

OCHILTREE, STEWART, LORD 809 

OLIPHANT, OLIPHANT, LORD, 521 

ORKNEY, SINCLAIR, EARL OF, 564 

ORKNEY, STEWART, EARL OF, 572 

ORKNEY, HAMILTON, EARL OF 578 

With full-page Illustration. 

ORMOND, DOUGLAS, EARL OF, 585 

OXFUIRD, MAKGILL, VISCOUNT OF, . 587 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO VOL. VI. 

J. A., . . . REV. JOHN ANDERSON, Curator Historical De- 
partment, H.M. General Register House.- 

W. C. B., . . WILLIAM C. BISHOP. 

A. S. C., . . ALLAN S. CARNEGIE. 

W. B. C., . . W. B. COOK. 

A. O. C., . . ALEXANDER O. CURLE. 

H. H. D., . . THE HON. HEW H. DALRYMPLE. 

M. R. R. M'G. G., . Miss M'GILCHRIST GILCHRIST. 

C. T. G., . . CHARLES T. GORDON. 

F. J. G., . . FRANCIS J. GRANT, Rothesay Herald, 

H. W. F. H., . . H. W. FORSYTE HARWOOD, Editor of the 
Genealogist. 

D. C. H., . . DAVID C. HERRIES. 

H. B. M., . . HARDY BERTRAM M'CALL. 

J. B. P., . . . SIR JAMES BALFOUR PAUL, LL.D., Editor. 

A. F. S., . . A. FRANCIS STEUART. 

J, M. T., . . J. MAITLAND THOMSON, LL.D. 



HUME, EAEL OF MARCHMONT 




IR DAVID HUME of Wed- 
derburn, was a brother 
of Alexander Hume of 
that Ilk, and obtained 
the lands of Wedderburn 
in 1413 from Archibald, 
Earl of Douglas and Duke 
of Touraine. He acquired 
other lands from the same 
Earl, and also the lands 
of Wolff ee, co. Roxburgh. 
He was alive on 28 Feb- 
ruary 1452-53, 1 and died 
between that and 1469. 
He married a lady whose 
Christian name was 
Alice. He had issue : 

1. David, who died vita patris before 1450. He married 

Elizabeth Oarmichael, who survived to 1495. 2 He 
had issue : 

(1) George, who succeeded to Wedderburn, and married, in 1470, 

Mariota or Marion, elder daughter of John Sinclair of Herd- 
manston, and had issue. 

(2) PATRICK of Polwarth, of whom below. 

(3) Sibilla, married to Henry Haitly of Mellerstaines after 

1 February 1478. 3 

2. Alexander, called to the succession in a Crown 

charter in favour of David Hume and Alice, his 
spouse, dated 16 May 1450/ 

1 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep., Col. David Milne Home's MSS., pp. 18, 20; 
Reg. Mag. Sig., 28 February 1452-53. 2 Ibid., tit. ut sup. 26, No. 25. 
5 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep., ut sup. 24, No. 18. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig., 16 May 
1450. 

VOL. VI. A 



2 HUME, EARL OP MAROHMONT 

PATRICK, known familiarly as ' Lang Patrick of Pollart, 1 
married, first, Margaret, younger daughter and co-heiress 
with her sister Marion of John Sinclair of Herdmanston, in 
the lands of Polwart and Kimmerghame. He had a charter 
from Archibald, Earl of Angus, to him and his wife in 
conjunct fee and the heirs-male to be procreated between 
them, etc., of half of the lands of Kimmerghame, 15 May 
1470. It is traditionally related that the uncle of Marion 
and Margaret Sinclair, as heir-male of the family and their 
guardian, in order to prevent their marriage, and the con- 
sequent loss of those lands to the Sinclair family, removed 
them from Polwarth to his castle of Herdmanston across 
the Lammermuir Hills. The Humes, however, learned of 
their retreat, summoned their retainers, and riding to 
Herdmanston, forced the uncle, after an investment of his 
castle, to surrender his wards, whom they thereupon carried 
back to Polwarth and married. 2 Upon 6 November 1475 
Margaret was served heir in special to her father in the 
half of Polwarth, and was infeft therein the same month. 3 
Thereafter Patrick Hume was designed ' of Polwart,' as 
also in 1480 was David Hume, son and apparent heir of 
George of Wedderburn, his brother, by virtue of his mother's 
half of the inheritance. 4 Owing largely no doubt to his own 
merits, but also to his kinship to Alexander Hume of that 
Ilk, the Great Chamberlain, Patrick obtained a position of 
considerable importance in the country, and, as well for his 
valour 'in resisting of our auld Jnimies of England' as for 
his sage counsel in affairs of state, was rewarded with 
numerous grants of property. He held also the following 
appointments, viz.: Chamberlain of Stirling and Strathern, 
1489; Comptroller, 1499; Chamberlain of Fife and Kil- 
marnock, 1501 ; Keeper of Stirling Castle, 1494 and 1501. 
He obtained a charter of the lands of Brigamschelis from 
Alexander, Duke of Albany, 2 May 1483, for adhering to 
whose cause a summons of treason had been issued against 
him in 1478, and also a confirmation of that charter on 

1 Acta Dom. Cone., 46, 18 January 1479. 2 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep., 
ut sup. 4. s Original retour and seisin produced in causa Alexander 
H. Hume, Captain R.N., claiming the title of Earl of Marchmont, etc., 
1822. * Fourteenth Hep. Hist. MSS, Com., App. pt. iii. ; Marchmout 
MSS. No. 9, 



HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 3 

28 June 1488. 1 He had further charters of Hetschawe, in the 
bailiary of Lauderdaile, 18 July 1496, 2 and of Rednach, alias 
Inchanach, Argathies, and Lundies, in the lordship of 
Menteith, on 19 June 1497, 3 which he resigned for new in- 
feftment personally when with the army at Upsedlington 
the same year, 4 and which the King on attaining the age of 
twenty-five excepted from his general revocation of gifts 
made while in minority. 5 In 1499 he was granted extra 
pay for collecting fees during the time of plague, 8 and the 
same year, for ' singular favour as well as for augmentation 
of his rental,' he had a charter of half of the lands of Strath- 
bran, of half of Auchinvaid, and of Glenshee, co. Perth. 
On 19 October 1500 he had a charter of Vigorushalch, with 
the fishings on Tweed and Teviot, Bradeyardis, Horse- 
merkat, and a husbandland in Cessfurd, in the county of 
Roxburgh, 7 and the following year he obtained the lands 
of Oastellaw, Estraw, Miltoun, Wodehouseleye, and 
Murehouse, in the county of Edinburgh. 8 He died in 
November 1503. He married, first, as above stated, Mar- 
garet Sinclair; and secondly, previous to 24 March 1490, 9 
Ellen, daughter of Sir James Shaw of Sauchie, 'lady of 
Dirletoun,' widow of Archibald Halyburton, Master of 
Haly burton. She survived him, and was married, thirdly, 
to Sir Patrick Houston of that Ilk, and fourthly, in 1516, 
to Sir Robert Hamilton of Fingalton, 10 and was still alive 
in 1541. 11 He had issue by his first wife, Margaret Sinclair, 
one son : 12 
1. ALEXANDER, who succeeded him. 13 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. * Ibid., 5 August 1497. 6 Ibid., 
20 May 1498. 6 Exch. Rolls, xi. 259. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig. 8 Ibid., 20 August 
1501. 9 Acta Dom. Cone., 193. 10 Ada Dom. And., xxviii., 24 Jan. 1516, 
xxix. f. 14, et passim. n Marchmont Report, No. 19. 12 Fourteenth 
Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. pt. iii. ; Marchmont MSS., No. 12. 13 On 
the sole evidence of a birth brief obtained in 1668 at the instance of 
Alexander Hume, younger brother of Patrick, first Earl of Marchmont, 
who was living abroad, it has been stated in several accounts of the 
family that Patrick, first of Polwart, was succeeded by a son Patrick, 
who married Mary, daughter of John Edmonston of that Ilk, who in his 
turn was father of Alexander. It is, however, definitely stated in a 
retour preserved among the Marchmont papers (Fourteenth Rep. Hist. 
MSS. Com., App. pt. iii. No. 12) that Margaret Sinclair was the mother 
of Alexander Hume, whose heir he was in the half lands of Kymbyr- 
geame, etc., then in the hands of the Earl of Angus, as superior, by the 
death of the said Margaret and of Sir Patrick Hume, Knighti from the 



4 HUME, EARL OF MARCHMONT 

By his second wife he had : 

2. George of Argaty and Lundies, who married Mar- 

garet Erskine, and had issue : 

(1) Alexander, who succeeded after July 1562, and died about 

1574, leaving issue, whose descendants continued the family 
to George, the last male of this line, who, dying without 
issue in 1751, was succeeded by a sister Margaret, served 
heir to him on 11 September of that year. 1 

(2) Patrick, afterwards Sir Patrick of Correquhormbie, who died 

without issue in 1572. 2 

(3) David, convicted of treasonable intercommuning with the 

Earl of Mar and other traitors, and condemned to death on 
8 December 1584. 3 

3. Mr. Patrick of Law, who married Margaret Wemyss, 

and had a son Patrick. 4 

4. Alison, married to Sir James Shaw of Sauchie. 5 

5. Janet, married, before 6 November 1501, to Sir Andrew 

Ker of Ferniehirst. 8 

6. Marion, married to Sir William Baillie of Lamington. 

7. Margaret, daughter of Sir Patrick Hume of Polwarth, 

had a grant of the marriage of Sir John Stirling of 
Keir, to whom she had been contracted on 30 March 
1501, and in January 1507-8 raised an action to have 
him decerned to marry her. 7 

ALEXANDER HUME, who succeeded, was on 18 May 1530 
warded within the Castle of Dumbarton at the same 
time as similar restrictions were placed on the liberty 
of other Borderers, 8 and on 6 May 1532 he was fined 
for not appearing on an assize. 9 His death occurred 
shortly afterwards, for on 28 November 1532 the inven- 
tory of his estate was given up by his executors. 10 
This consisted of his stock on the lands of Redbraes, 

date of death of the latter six months previously (date of inquest 7 May 
1504). l Case for Sir H. Hume Campbell, 42. 2 Additional Case for 
Francis Home, 26. 3 Records of Court of Justiciary quoted in Case for 
Sir H. Hume Campbell, 44. * Fourteenth Hep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 
pt. iii. ; Marchmont MSS., Nos. 19-21. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig., 4 December 1506. 
8 Cf. vol. v. 59. 7 Stirlings of Keir, 34, 272 ; Acta Dorn. Cone., xix. 98. 
8 Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, pt. i. 147. 9 Ibid., 159. 10 Fourteenth Rep, 
Hist. MSS. Com., App. pt. iii. ; Marchmont MSS. No. 37. 



HUME, EARL OF MARCHMONT 5 

Kimmerghame, Trottenshaw, North Berwick, Byrecleuch, 
and Ohannaybank. His goods, within the diocese of 
St. Andrews were valued at 878, 17s. Scots. He 
married, first, previous to 3 May 1503, 1 Margaret, said to 
have been a daughter of Lord Orichtoun of Sanquhar, 
who was alive in 1518. 2 Secondly, Margaret, * Lady of 
Wauchtone,' daughter of Sir Robert Lauder of the Bass. 
As she, however, was within the third degree of con- 
sanguinity, a dispensation was obtained for the marriage 
on 23 January 1520-21. 3 She survived her husband, and 
was one of his executors. 4 He also married, probably 
at an early date, Elizabeth Wardlaw, but the marriage 
was annulled by a decree of divorce extracted 8 October 
1526, though it may have been pronounced many years 
previous. In the decree he is designed 'son and 
apparent heir' of Patrick Hume of Polwarth, and the 
marriage is declared *ab initio fuisse et esse nulla et 
invalida.' 
By his first wife he had issue : 

1. PATRICK, who succeeded him. 

2. Alexander, who obtained from Isabella Hume, prioress 

of the nunnery of North Berwick, and Dame Mar- 
garet Hume, postulate or prioress-elect, and the 
convent thereof, for the great sums of money spent 
in repair of the nunnery, confirmation of a charter of 
the two milns of North Berwick on 21 January 1546- 
47, and on 28 September 1549 a confirmation from 
Margaret Hume, 5 then prioress, of a charter of the 
dominical lands of Heuch for the sum of 2000 spent 
in the repair of the abbey and for payment of the 
taxation due by her. 6 He died on 22 August 1563, 
leaving a natural son Robert, to whom he gave 
Heuch, and on whose behalf the Privy Council inter- 
fered to protect him from the molestation of Patrick 
Hume, younger of Polwarth, who had occupied his 
lands. 7 This Robert Hume's will, dated 26 May 1568, 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 May 1503. 2 Fourteenth Sep. Hist. MSS. 
Com., ut supra, No. 13. 3 Ibid., No. 14. * Ibid., No. 37. She was 
'kenned' to her terce on 15 August 1533 (Protocol Book of T. Kene). 

6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 21 January 1546-47. 6 Ibid., 28 September 1549. 

7 P. C. Reg., i. 245; Acts and Decreets, xxviii. 63. 



6 HUME, EARL OF MARCHMONT 

preserved among the Marchmont Mss., 1 contains 
mention of his wife Marion Hepburn and his son 
Robert, who succeeded him, and died before 27 June 
1642.' 

3. Gavin,* who had a natural son Andrew, who in his 

turn had a natural son Thomas. For the legiti- 
mation of both a precept was granted 22 April 
1569. 4 

4. George, 5 for whom a provision for board * pro mensa et 

cotagio ' is contained in his father's will. 6 
By his second wife he had : 

5. Isabella, married to Adam Hepburn of Craig. 7 

6. Katherine, married to Robert Hoppringle. 8 

7. Margaret, Prioress of North Berwick. 9 

PATRICK HUME had a charter of half of the lands of 
Kimmerghame 20 October 1532, 10 and on September 
1536 n a charter of confirmation to himself and his wife 
of the lands of Birgameschelis, Haitschaw, and Belschele, 
in the county of Berwick. He died between December 
1577 and March 1579." By his wife, Elizabeth Hepburn, 
a daughter of Sir Patrick Hepburn of Waughton, he had 
issue : 

1. PATRICK, who succeeded him. 

2. Alexander of North Berwick, who succeeded to the 

dominical lands of Heuch^ 13 and on 28 January 1568-69 
had other charters 14 of subjects in North Berwick 
feued by his aunt, the Prioress Margaret. On 20 
March 1587-88 he had a charter of the lands of the 
monastery of that place. 15 He was chosen Provost of 
Edinburgh in 1593, and sent as Ambassador to Eng- 
land by King James vi. He died without surviving 
issue previous to 1608. 16 

1 Fourteenth Rep. Hist. MSS. Cam., ut supra, No. 23. 2 Reg. Mag. 
Sig., 27 June 1642. 3 It is possible that he was a son of Margaret Lauder. 
* P. C. Reg., 22 April 1569. 6 Fourteenth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., ut supra, 
No. 37. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 8 Protocol Book of Robert Lawder, 8 March 
1555 (Bannatyne Club). 9 Douglas calls Isabella abbess, and Mar- 
garet wife of Hepburn. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 October 1532. Ibid., 
I September 1536. 1J Ibid., 4 April 1565. 13 Acts and Decreets, Ixxv. 190. 
14 Confirmed 2 January 1569-70, Reg. Mag. Sig. 16 Ibid., 20 March 1587-88. 
16 Ibid., 1 June 1609; Acts and Decreets, Ixxvi. f. 329. 



HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 7 

3. Adam, Parson of Polwart, is said to have died in 1596. 

He married Christian Dewar, 1 and left issue : 

(1) Alexander, who was served heir to Alexander Hume of 

North Berwick, his uncle, on 23 June 1608, and possessed 
heritable property in North Berwick. He died without 
issue in November 1637, 2 having married Elizabeth Cock- 
burn in 1623. 

(2) Patrick, who died without issue before 1643. He married 

Margaret, sister of William Wauchope of Gleghornie. 3 

(3) Margaret, married, first (contract 11 July 1586) to Patrick, 

eldest son of William Hepburn of Eastcraig ; 4 secondly, to 
Richard Addinstoun of that Ilk. 5 

(4) Helen. 

4. Margaret, married to John Baillie of Johnskirk. 

5. Anne, married to Robert French of Thorny dikes. 

PATRICK HUME obtained a Crown charter of confirmation 
of the lands of Polwart therein incorporated into the free 
barony of ' Reidbrayes ' on 18 March 1593-94." He was a 
great promoter of the Reformation, and one of those who 
entered into an association to protect the preachers of the 
gospel in 1560. He was on the King's side, and is said to 
have been dangerously wounded in a skirmish with the 
Queen's party at Oairny on 2 June 1571. 7 He died 20 
May 1599. 8 He married Agnes, daughter of Alexander 
Hume of Manderston, by whom he had issue : 

1. PATRICK, who succeeded. 

2. Mr. Alexander, minister of Logic from 1597 to 1609. 

He was a man of considerable literary ability, and 
author of various works in prose and verse, among 
others a volume entitled 'Hymes or Sacred Songs 
wherein the right use of Poesie may be espied,' 
Edinburgh 1599, 9 and * The Day Estival.' 10 His library 
and his musical instruments are mentioned in his 
will, dated 8 August 1609, wherein he ordered with 
singular forethought that, of his books, * nane of them 
be lent furth upon quhatsumevir promeis,' as they to 

1 Reg. of Deeds, xxxix. 188. 2 Additional Case for Francis Home, April 
1842, p. 16. 3 Gen. Beg. of Inhib. , 10 July 1620. 4 Reg. of Deeds, xxxix, 188. 
6 Reg. Mag. Sig., viii. 933. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 7 In Crawfurd's Peerage, 313, 
it is stated that he was killed on this occasion. In the first edition of the 
same work, however, he is said to have died in 1592. 8 Edin. Tests. 
9 Reprinted for the Bannatyne Club in 1832. 10 Reprinted in Leyden's 
Scottish Descriptive Poems. 



8 

whose custody he leaves them ' shall answer to God.' l 
He died in December 1609. 2 By his wife Marion, 
daughter of Mr. John Duncanson, Dean of the Ohapel 
Royal of Stirling, he had issue a son, Caleb, and 
two daughters, 3 Dina and IVoomf, all mentioned in 
their father's will. He had another daughter, older, 
described in his will as the ' Goodwife of Chesters.' 
3. Gavin of Johnscleuch, who acquired the lands of Johns- 
cleuch from his uncle Alexander Hume of North 
Berwick in March 1596-97. 4 He died before March 
1610. He married Helen, daughter of Alexander 
Acheson of Gosford and Helen Reid his wife, 5 and 
left issue : 

(1) Alexander of Johnscleuch. 

(2) Archibald, served tutor to his elder brother on his becoming 

insane in March 1627. 6 

(3) John. 7 

(4) Anne, married, 28 December 1641, to Thomas Aikenhead, one 

of the Commissaries of Edinburgh. 

(5) Helen, married, 30 December 1641,to John Acheson, 8 Writer, 

Edinburgh. 

4. John, called as a substitute in a charter of the lands 
of North Berwick in favour of Alexander Hume his 
uncle, 20 March 1587-88, 9 to whom he succeeded in 
1597. As Sir John Hume, Knight, on 7 June 1609, 10 
he obtained a charter of confirmation of these 
lands which formerly belonged to the abbey, and 
were excepted from the aet of annexation. He and 
his sons sold North Berwick in 1633 to William Dick. 
He acquired lands in the county of Fermanagh in 
Ireland, called Tully Castle, 11 and died in September 
1639. He married Margaret , who died in Sep- 
tember 1612, and had issue : 

(1) Alexander, alive in 1615, when he was witness to a discharge 

by his father. 12 

(2) Sir George, said to have been created a Baronet about 1638. 

He was served heir to his father in 1642, and principally 

1 Fourteenth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., ut supra, No. 86. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 
* Instrument of sasine quoted in Case for Sir Hugh Hume Campbell, 
15 note b. 6 Proc. of Resig. ibid., note c. 6 Bond recorded in Reg. of 
Deeds, ibid., note c. 7 Ibid. 8 Marginal note copy of Minutes of 
Evidence, in Signet Library. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig. 10 Ibid. u Obligations 
recorded in Reg. of Deeds, 21 January 1620. 12 Case for H. Hume 
Campbell, 28 note b. 



HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 9 

resided at Tully Castle. He died about 1657, having had by 
his wife Mary, daughter of Sir William Maynard of Curri- 
glasse, two sons : 

i. Sir John, who married Sidney, daughter and co-heir 
of James Hamilton, of Manor Hamilton, co. Leitrim, 
and had issue four sons and six daughters, of whom 
Elizabeth was married in 1697 to Patrick, Lord 
Polwarth, eldest son of the first Earl of Marchmont. 
Sir John died July 1695. 

The last of the sons, Sir Gustavus, died 25 Octo- 
ber 1731, predeceased by his own male issue, and by 
his three brothers, who died without issue. 1 
ii. George, Rector of Inis M 'Saint, Ireland, died in Feb- 
ruary 1698-99, leaving issue a son, Charles, who suc- 
ceeded to the Baronetcy. 2 

(3) Patrick of Hutton Bell, who married, first, about 1628, 

Elizabeth, daughter of William Hume of Hutton Bell, and 
secondly, previous to May 1644, Anne Cockburn. He had 
by his first marriage four sons and two daughters, and by 
his second four sons and a daughter. 3 

(4) Anna, styled eldest daughter, married (contract 19 September 

1625) to Sir John Seton of Barns.* 

5. James, mentioned in the charter of the lands of North 

Berwick of 1587, and presumed to have died before 
1609. 

6. David of Rollandstoun, mentioned in 1602 as being 

then affianced to Elizabeth, second daughter of David 
Hume, portioner of Blacadder. 5 He died previous 
to August 1604, when George, his brother, was ap- 
pointed tutor to his son Alexander. 6 

(1) Alexander, who was married twice, and by his second wife 
Lilias, daughter of Sir James Dundas of Arniston, 7 had 
issue. 

7. George of Drumchose, who, in 1623, obtained a grant 

of lands in the county of Fermanagh in Ireland, which 
he 'planted with trew honest Scottish men.' 8 He 
was alive on 5 August 1634, when he signed a bond 
as witness to the signature of Sir Patrick Home of 
Polwarth. 9 

8. Elisabeth or Isabel, married, first, to Thomas Cranston 

1 Case for Sir H. Hume Campbell, 29. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid., 36 et seq. * Beg. 
of Deeds, cccxc. 249. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 14 February^ 1602. 6 Inquis. 
de Tutela, No. 60, iv. 156. 7 Gen. Reg. Sas., xlviii. 40. 8 Certificate from 
the Archbishop of Cashel, quoted in Case for Sir H. Hume Campbell, 
18 note. 9 Reg. of Deeds, recorded 25 October 1637. For presumption as 
to his descendants, see Case for Sir H. Hume Campbell, 20. 



10 HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 

younger of Oorsbie (contract 3 March 1576-77 *); 
secondly, to Mr. James Home, brother of Sir George 
Home of Wedderburn, who inhibited her in 1599." 
He died April 1601. 3 
9. Jean or Janet, married to Patrick Home of Law. 

10. Alison, married to David Edmonstone of Woolmet 

(contract 22 April 1586). 4 

11. Margaret, Prioress of Northberwick. 5 She was ap- 

pointed Prioress by James vi., 7 August 1568. 8 

SIR PATRICK HUME was served heir to his father on 24 
October 1599. Previous to his father's death he had become 
a man of note in the King's service, and had been rewarded 
with several grants of land. On 3 March 1585-86 he had a 
charter of Carculanrig, alias Kingisrig, in the bailiary of 
Lauder, 7 and on 29 July of the following year he was 
granted four husband lands of the Eister Lawis of Whitsum 
in the county of Berwick at the King's gift by the forfeiture 
of James, formerly Earl of Bothwell. 8 In 1587 he was 
one of the King's carvers. 9 On 24 October 1591, as 
servitor to the King, he received a charter of the lands 
of Northfield of Coldinghame conjunctly with Patrick 
Murray, designed ' dapifer regis,' and in December of the 
same year as Gentleman of the Bedchamber he was re- 
warded with the lands of Fishwick in the sheriffdom of 
Berwick, and Reddane, in the regality of Kelso, part of the 
forfeited estate of Francis, Earl of Bothwell. 10 Besides 
other emoluments, he enjoyed a yearly pension of 20 chalders 
from the superplus of the thirds of the Priory of St. Andrews 
ratified to him in 1592. 11 In 1591 he was appointed Master 
of the Household, and also held the posts of Gentleman 
of the Bedchamber and Warden of the Marches. 12 Previous 
to 15 February 1592 he had been appointed keeper of the 
castle of Tantalloun, his commission setting forth the 
servants he was to have and their allowances. 13 This 

1 Reg. of Deeds, xvi. 92. 2 Edin. Inhib., xi. 162. 3 Edin. Tests. * Reg. 
of Deeds, Ixvi. 358. 5 Acts and Decreets, xlvi. 226, where Dr. Adam 
Home and Alexander Home, formerly Chamberlain of Northberwick, are 
said to be her father's brothers. fl Reg. Mag. Sig. 7 Ibid., 3 March 
1585-86. 8 Ibid., 29 July 1587. 9 Reg. Sec. Sig., Iv. 174. 10 Reg. Mag. 
Sig., 9 December 1591. Ada Parl. Scot., iii. 1592. 12 Crawford's 
Peerage. 13 Fourteenth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., ut supra, No. 104. 



HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 11 

post he held until 1595, when he was exonerated for his 
services on rendering up his charge. 1 For his long, true, 
and faithful service, on 17 June 1608 he was admitted a 
member of the Privy Council. This honour he did not long 
enjoy, and died 10 June 1609. He married, previous to 18 
December 1598, 2 Julian, daughter of Sir Thomas Ker of 
Ferniehirst, who, surviving him, was married, secondly, 
between 18 and 26 September 1613, to Sir Thomas Hamilton, 
afterwards Earl of Haddington (see that title), and lived 
till March 1637. 3 Sir Patrick left issue : 

1. SIR PATRICK. 

2. Thomas of Coldstream, baptized in January 1605.* 

Died before 1628. 6 

3. John, fought in the Scottish army against the English 

in 1644 ; married. 6 

4. James, alive in 1671 . 7 

5. George, who owned Bedshiel in 1637, and acquired 

the lands of Kimmerghame. 8 He died in 1659, leav- 
ing by his wife Isabel Hume three sons. 9 

Robert, the eldest son, died before 1684, leaving by his wife 
Katherine Hume two sons and a daughter. 

George, the eldest son, died 26 September 1705 ; married, 
26 May 1691, Margaret, daughter and heiress of Sir 
James Primrose of Barnbougle, and had a son, 
Robert, to whom on his death without issue, in 
1710, Patrick, first Earl of Marchmont, was 
served heir. 

6. Robert of Hawkslaw, who died without issue before 

12 April 1623, when his brother George obtained a 
precept of clare constat as his heir. 10 

7. Elisabeth, married first to Sir James Oarmichael of 

that Ilk; secondly, to John Maxwell of Knock and 
Garrarie. 11 

8. Jean, married to Christopher Oockburn of Choicelee. 

9. Sophia, married to Joseph Johnston of Hilton. 

SIR PATRICK HUME was served heir to his father on 

1 P. C. Reg., v. 243. 2 Fourteenth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., ut supra, 
No. 69. 3 Haddington Book, i. 184. * Certificate quoted in Case for 
Sir H. Hume Campbell, 22. 6 Deeds, ccccii. 284. 6 Case for Sir H. 
Hume Campbell, 22. 7 Ibid. 8 Charter September 1637 quoted ibid. 
25. 9 Retour quoted in the Additional Case, 15. 10 Additional Case, 
14. Edin. Sas., xxiv. 120; Gen. Reg. Sas., xlvi. 411. 



12 HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 

1 February 1611. On 31 July 1623 he obtained confirmation 
under the Great Seal of a charter of half of the lands of 
Polwart, etc., 1 purchased from Sir David Hume of Wedder- 
burn for 40,000 merks, this being the half of Polwart which 
Marion Sinclair brought to the laird of Wedderburn on her 
marriage in 1475. 2 On 20 August 1623 he was created a 
Justice of Peace for the county of Berwick, 3 and was on 
the Committee of War 1643, 1646, 1647. 4 He was created 
a Baronet by King Charles I. 28 December 1625, and died 
in April 1648. He married, between 4 June and 19 August 
1636, Christian, youngest daughter of Sir Alexander Hamil- 
ton of Innerwick and Ballencrieff, Knight, 5 granting a life- 
rent charter to her as his future wife, 4 June 1636.' She 
married, secondly, Robert, second Lord Jedburgh, and died 
at Ferniehirst in 1688, 7 leaving issue by her first husband : 

1. SIR PATRICK. 

2. Alexander, born in 1644, became a colonel in the 

Russian service, and died unmarried at Moscow in 
1675. 8 

3. Julian, married (contract 13 August 1668) to Richard 

Newton of that Ilk. 9 

4. Anne, married to Alexander, son of John Home of 

Manderston. 

I. SIR PATRICK HUME, born at Redbraes on 13 January 
1641, was brought up under the guardianship of his mother. 
In the year 1665 he entered on his political career, being 
returned to the Scottish Parliament as representative for 
the county of Berwick. Here he strenuously opposed the 
schemes of the Duke of Lauderdale over a long period, and in 
1674 accompanied the Duke of Hamilton and others to 
London to complain in person to the King of the grievances 
under which the nation was suffering at the hands of his 
favourite minister. For remonstrating against the summary 
proceedings of the Privy Council in placing garrisons in the 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 31 July 1623. 2 It was, perhaps, in connection with 
this purchase that Sir Patrick had himself served heir to the grand- 
father of the mother of his great-great-grandfather John Sinclair of 
Herdmanston in June 1630. 3 P. C. Reg., xiii. 342. 4 Acta Parl. Scot., 
vi. 1. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 17 March 1645. 6 Gen. Reg. Sas., xliv. 333. 
7 Marchmont and the Humes ofPolwarth, 25 ; cf . ante, vol. v. 78. 8 Four- 
teenth Rep. Hist. AfSS. Com., ut supra, No. 127. 9 Edin. Sas., xiv. 127. 



HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 13 

houses of several gentlemen, particularly in his native 
county, and for refusing contributions for that end, he 
was summoned before the Council in 1675, and, with the 
approval of the King, declared to be 'a factious person, 
having done what may usher in confusion, and therefore 
incapable of all public trust.' He was imprisoned in the 
castle of Edinburgh l where he remained for some months, 
being thence removed in succession to Dumbarton and 
Stirling. On 29 February 1676, however, the Council, by 
command of the King, issued an order for his release. 
Realising how insecure was the peaceful enjoyment of his 
property owing to his active Presbyterian sympathies under 
a Government whose scarcely veiled religious motives were 
daily becoming more apparent, he entered into a scheme, 
along with sundry other Scottish noblemen and gentry 
whose position was becoming equally precarious, to emi- 
grate to North America. The original plan under con- 
sideration was the purchase of New York in conjunction 
with an English Presbyterian for 15,000 sterling. This, 
however, was abandoned in favour of a settlement in 
Carolina. 2 The details of the scheme were well advanced, 
and the King's approval obtained, when in 1683 the dis- 
covery of the mysterious conspiracy known as the 'Rye- 
house Plot ' was sprung upon the country, and several of 
the promoters of the projected emigration, including Sir 
Patrick Hume, being declared participant, the scheme was 
at once stopped. Sir Patrick remained in concealment in 
the vault of Polwarth Church for a month, while his wife 
by the hands of his heroic daughter Grisell, then a girl of 
eighteen, supported him nightly with the necessaries of 
life from his mansion of Redbraes. From this gruesome 
retreat he ventured at length to move to more congenial 
quarters in his own house, having a hole prepared for his 
concealment under the floor, but the rise of water there 
forced him to take to the open country. After various ad- 
ventures he succeeded in reaching London and escaping to 
Holland. Here, under the protection of the Prince of 
Orange, he established himself and his family at Utrecht, 
where were many other Scottish refugees waiting the turn 
of the tide. In 1685 he associated himself with the ill- 
1 Fourteenth Sep. Hist. MSS. Com., ut supra, No. 123. 2 Ibid., 129, 



14 HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 

conceived and badly manoeuvred rebellion under the leader- 
ship of the Earl of Argyll intended to assist the rising on 
behalf of the Duke of Monmouth in the south. On the 
final ruin of the expedition Sir Patrick was concealed in 
the house of his friend Mr. Montgomery of Lainshaw, 
whence he found means to escape to Bordeaux, and even- 
tually rejoin his wife and family at Utrecht. His narrative 
of this melancholy exploit is well known. 1 A decree of 
forfeiture was passed against him, his estates confiscated, 
and, under burden of a small jointure to Lady Hume, 
granted on 22 May 1685 to Lord Seaforth. At the revolu- 
tion Sir Patrick, along with his eldest son, accompanied 
the Prince of Orange to England, when his confiscated 
estates were speedily restored to him, the forfeiture being 
rescinded by Act of Parliament 22 July 1690. The same 
year he was made a member of the Privy Council, a com- 
missioner for the then projected union, and by patent dated 
at Kensington 26 December 1690 was created a peer of 
Scotland with the title of LORD POLWARTH, to him and 
the heirs-male of his body, and to the heirs of those 
heirs, and received from the King a yearly pension of 
;400. 2 As a particular mark of the royal favour to his 
house, the King granted as an addition to his arms an 
orange proper, ensigned with an imperial crown. In 
1692 he was appointed Sheriff of Berwick, and the follow- 
ing year one of the Extraordinary Lords of Session; in 
1694 bailiff of Lauderdale, and on 2 May 1696 Chancellor of 
Scotland. By patent dated 23 April 1697 he was raised to 
the rank of Earl, with the titles of EARL OP MAROH- 
MONT, VISCOUNT BLASONBERRIE, LORD POL- 
WARTH OF POLWARTH, REDBRAES, and GREIN- 
LAW to him and his heirs-male whatsoever, and in the 
same year was appointed one of the Commissioners of the 
Treasury and Admiralty. 3 In 1698 he filled the important 
post of Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland, and 

1 Marchmont Papers, iii. 2 The letter, a very characteristic epistle, 
conveying the news of his elevation to his wife, and giving directions 
as to her bearing in her new position, is to be found in the Hist. MSS. 
Rep., Marchmont, 120, No. 147. 3 A letter from the Earl to Secretary 
Ogilvy shows that he would have preferred the title of March, but that 
he refrained from asking it, thinking it had been reserved by the King 
as a royal title (Marchmont Papers, iii.). 



HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 15 

for his services received very ample approbation under the 
Great Seal 19 April 1700. In 1702 he was appointed Lord 
High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church 
of Scotland. Under Queen Anne he was confirmed in the 
office of Chancellor, but from this post he was soon re- 
moved by the intrigues of the Jacobite party on his intro- 
ducing a bill to secure the succession to the throne in the 
Protestant line. He was likewise deprived of his sheriff- 
ship. Though removed from office he continued to press 
forward the treaty of union, the passing of which, he was 
firmly persuaded, would alone ensure the Protestant suc- 
cession, and on its ultimate adoption he was personally 
thanked by Queen Anne in a holograph letter for his labour 
in the matter. 1 From the date of the Act of Union his 
political influence declined. Though he offered himself as 
a candidate at the election of Representative Peers in 
1707 and 1708 he did not secure election. In 1710 he was 
deprived of the office of Sheriff of the county of Berwick, 
which was thereupon conferred on Lord Home, only, how- 
ever, to be restored to its former holder on the accession 
of George i. On 1 August 1724 he died of a fever in his 
house at Berwick, whence he had removed from Redbraes 
Castle some years previously, and was buried in the Canon- 
gate Churchyard in Edinburgh. 2 He was thus described 
by a contemporary : ' He hath been a fine gentleman of 
clear parts, but always a lover of set long speeches, zealous 
for the Presbyterian Government and its divine right. 
Business and years have now almost wore him out. He 
hath been handsome and lovely, and was so since King 
William's accession to the throne ; towards seventy years 
old.' 3 Lord Marchmont married, on 29 January 1660, 
Grisell, daughter of Sir Thomas Ker of Cavers and Grizell 
Halket his wife. Having shared with him the vicissitudes 
of fortune for forty-three years, she died at Edinburgh, 
whither she had been removed for treatment on 11 October 
1703. In her Bible, which Lord Marchmont gave to his 
daughter Grisell, he thus described her : * . . . She had been 
happy of a religious and virtuous education by the care of 
virtuous and religious parents. She was of a middle stature, 

1 Letter printed in Marchmont and the Humes of Polwarth, 58. 
* Anecdotes of the family of Marchmont, Ibid. 3 Macky's Memoirs. 



16 HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 

of a plump, full body, a clear ruddy complexion, a grave 
majestic countenance, a composed steady and mild 
spirit, of a most firm and equal mind, never elevated by 
prosperity nor debased nor daunted by adversity, etc.' 1 
The issue of the marriage was seventeen children, of 
whom many died young. The following alone grew 
up: 

1. Patrick, afterwards Lord Polwarth, born 11 Novem- 
ber 1664. He entered the Army, doing his first 
service in the Prince of Orange's Guard while his 
father's family was residing in Holland, and accom- 
panied that Prince as William in. on his coming to 
England. He subsequently attained the rank of 
colonel in the Queen's Dragoons on 28 April 1707, 
which command he disposed of shortly before his 
death. It is supposed that he was infected with 
consumption from his first wife, from the date of 
whose death he gradually declined in health, and 
died at Kelso on 25 November 1709. He married, 
first, 2 December 1697, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
John Hume of Castle Hume in Ireland, who died 
four years after her marriage, in December 1701, of 
consumption said to have been contracted from the 
effects of an immersion in the sea, when overtaken 
by the tide while sitting on a rock near Dunglas. 
He married, secondly, in April 1703, Jean, eldest 
daughter of Charles, sixth Earl of Home, commonly 
known as ' Bonnie Jean o' the Hirsel,' and apparently 
commemorated in a ballad, some verses of which 
were recovered by Lady John Scott. 1 He left no 
issue by either marriage. 

2. Robert, born 10 July 1669, died unmarried 24 June 

1692. 

3. ALEXANDER, subsequently Earl of Marchmont. 

4. Andrew, born 19 July 1676, advocate 29 July 1696, 

appointed a Lord of Session as Lord Kimmerghame, 
25 November 1714, and died 16 March 1730. He 
married, in 1700, Elizabeth, daughter of John Douglas 
of Newcastle. 

1 Quoted in Marchmont and the Humes of Polwarth. 2 Ibid., 62. 



HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 17 

widow of Sir William Douglas of Cavers, and had 
issue : 

(1) John, born in 1711. He was killed in an affray at Rosecrea in 

Ireland on 28 September 1738, l and left no issue, having 
married, in 1734, Margaret, daughter of William Drummond 
of Grange, who obtained a decree of separation and aliment 
against him on 9 November 1736. She was married, secondly, 
to Alexander Hepburn in 1741, and died at Bath on 17 
August 1781. 

(2) Patrick died before 1732. 

(3) Elizabeth, married to G. St. Clair, and had issue. 

(4) Helen, married, 1734, to Andrew Wauchope of Niddrie, and 

had issue. 

5. Grisell, born 24 December 1665, married in 1690 to 

George Baillie of Jerviswoode, who had also been an 
exile in Holland, and whose father had been brought 
to the scaffold for alleged complicity in the Ryehouse 
Plot. She was the authoress of several Scottish songs, 
of which only two appear to have been perpetuated 
in print, viz. ' Werena my heart licht I wad dee, 1 
and ' O, the ewe buchtin's bonnie.' Her Memoirs 
were written by her daughter, Lady Murray of Stan- 
hope. She died in 1746, leaving issue. 

6. Christian, born 7 May 1668, died unmarried in Holland 

1688. 

7. Julian, born 16 August 1673, married, in 1698, to 

Charles Bellingham, a man of neither fortune nor 
position, with whom she eloped. 

8. Anne, born 4 November 1677, married, in 1698, to Sir 

James Hall of Dunglass, Bart., and died in 1699. 

9. Jean, born 22 March 1683, married, in 1703, to James, 

seventh Lord Torphichen, and died at Edinburgh 10 
December 1751, 2 leaving issue. 

II. ALEXANDER, second Earl of Marchmont, was born on 
1 January 1675. During his father's exile in Holland, he 
spent between two and three years at the University of 
Utrecht, studying law for the profession he was designed 
to follow, a study which he continued in Edinburgh after 
his family's return to Scotland. He was admitted as advo- 
cate 28 July 1696, and in the same year he was knighted by 

1 Caledonian Mercury, 20 October 1738. 2 Scots Mag. 
VOL. VI. B 



18 HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 

the Duke of Queensberry, the King's Commissioner in Scot- 
land. On 7 November 1704 he was elevated to the Scottish 
Bench as Lord Cessnock, a title previously borne by Sir 
George Campbell. He actively interested himself in politics, 
and sat in the Scottish Parliament before the Union, first for 
Kirkwall, 1698-1702, afterwards for Berwickshire, 1706-7. 
With his father he zealously promoted the Union, and 
took an active part in the work of the sub-committee to 
which the Articles of Union were referred. His elevation 
to the bench was followed by the appointments of Privy 
Councillor and Lord of Exchequer. By the death of his 
elder brother in 1709 he succeeded to the courtesy title 
of Lord Polwarth. On the occasion of a visit to Spa 
in 1712 for the purpose of drinking the waters, he made his 
way to Hanover, and cultivated relations with the Electoral 
Court, with which he subsequently carried on a correspond- 
ence. For his zealous support of the Hanoverian interests 
he was, in 1715, rewarded with the post of Lord-Lieutenant 
of Berwickshire, in which capacity he raised two troops of 
horse and two battalions of foot to aid in the suppression 
of Lord Mar's rebellion. In 1714 he resigned his judgeship 
in the Court of Session, and was succeeded by his brother 
Sir Andrew. In 1715 he was appointed Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary and Envoy Extraordinary to the Court of Prussia, 
but at the last moment was sent as Ambassador to the 
Court of Denmark. Though serving in a different sphere, 
his connection with the legal circles which he had quitted 
was maintained by his appointment as Lord Clerk Register 
in December 1716. He remained at Copenhagen till the 
spring of 1721, and in 1722 was nominated to the important 
post of First Ambassador for England at the Congress to be 
held at Cambray. Here he remained till the Congress was 
dissolved in 1725, when he returned home. In 1724 he had 
succeeded to the title, in 1725 he was made a Knight of 
the Thistle, and in 1726 a Privy Councillor. Henceforth 
interesting himself in politics, he strenuously opposed 
Sir Robert Walpole, especially in his treatment of Scot- 
land, and in 1733 was deprived of all his offices. 1 He 
justly repudiated the theory that the sixteen Representa- 
tive Peers of Scotland should be the nominees of the 

1 Marchmont and the Humes of Polwarth. 



HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 19 

minister instead of being freely elected, and to expose the 
corruption and intimidation employed in the Peers' elec- 
tion of 1734, he joined the Dukes of Hamilton, Queensberry, 
and Montrose, and many others of the Scottish nobility, in 
a petition to the Crown. He likewise disapproved strongly 
of the way in which the minister fanned the quarrels 
between George n. and Frederick, Prince of Wales, and 
in 1737 drew up a memorandum in relation thereto. 1 

He died at Redbraes on 27 February 1740, having married, 
29 July 1697, Margaret, second daughter of Sir George 
Campbell of Cessnock, Lord Justice-Clerk, through whom, 
on the death of her father in 1704, he succeeded to consider- 
able estates in Ayrshire, and whose name his children 
took in addition to their own. By his wife, who predeceased 
him in March 1722, he had the following issue : 

1. George, Lord Polwarth, born 17 January 1704, died 

unmarried at Montpelier on 13 October 1724. 

2. Patrick, born 1706, died unmarried in 1724. 

3. HUGH, third Earl, of whom hereafter. 

4. Alexander Hume Campbell, born 15 February 1708. 

He was admitted an advocate 7 January 1729, and 
was M.P. for Berwickshire from 1734 till his death. 
He was appointed, 1741, Solicitor to the Prince of 
Wales, and, 27 January 1756, Lord Clerk Register for 
life. He married, 16 July 1737, Elizabeth Pettis, of 
London, and died, without issue, 19 July 1760. She 
died 6 September 1770. 2 

5. Anne, born in 1698, married to Sir William Purves of 

Purveshall, Bart., and died on 2 April 1784, leaving 
issue : 

Sir Alexander, married, 23 August 1766, Catherine Le Blanc, 
who died 12 February 1772, and had issue, 

Sir William, who under the settlement of Hugh, third 
Earl of Marchmont, succeeded to that nobleman's 
estates. 

6. Grisell, born 9 March 1701 ; died, unmarried, 1724. 

7. Jean, born 1710 ; married to James Nimmo, Receiver- 

General of Excise in Scotland, and died, without 
issue, on 10 October 1770. 

8. Margaret, born 29 May 1711 ; 3 died, unmarried, in 1724. 

1 Marchmont Papers. s Musgrave's Obits. 3 Canongate Reg. 



20 HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 

III. HUGH, third Earl of Marchmont, was born on 15 Feb- 
ruary 1708, being twin brother to Alexander. He entered 
Parliament in 1734 as representative of Berwick-upon- 
Tweed, and forthwith, along with his brother, set himself 
to avenge on Walpole the indignity offered to his father, 
whom that minister had thrust out of public life. He early 
won a splendid reputation, and it was said of him that * he 
was distinguished for learning, for brilliancy of genius, and 
for parliamentary experience.' He was an intimate friend 
of Alexander Pope, who appointed him one of his executors, 
a post he likewise filled to Sarah, Duchess of Maryborough, 
who had been a warm and consistent friend of his father, 
and who left him a legacy of 2500. His removal from the 
House of Commons on his succession to the title was 
esteemed a great blow to the Tory party, into whose ranks 
he had been driven by his inherited animosity to Walpole, 
and caused Pope to write concerning him, ' If God had not 
given this nation to perdition he would not have removed 
from its services the men whose capacity and integrity 
alone could have saved it.' 1 On the abolition of heritable 
jurisdictions he was allowed 300 for the regality of March- 
mont. 2 In 1747 he was appointed First Lord of Police, 
and in 1750 elected one of the sixteen Representative 
Peers, and from that date till 1784 he sat continuously in 
the Upper House. In 1764 he was made Lord Keeper of 
the Great Seal of Scotland. 

On the birth of his heir in 1750 he commenced the erec- 
tion of the present house of Marchmont, which took ten 
years to complete. He considerably increased the extent 
of his property by the purchase of Home Castle and its 
surrounding lands, and also of various farms lying nearer 
the Tweed. This he was enabled to do by the sale of his 
mother's estates of Cessnock. 3 

He died at Hemel Hempstead, where he spent the closing 
years of his life, in January 1794. To Mr. George Rose, 
afterwards a Secretary of State, he bequeathed, as his sole 
executor, all his personality, comprising his family papers 
and his magnificent library at Hemel Hempstead. A selec- 
tion from these papers was published in 1831 by Sir George 

1 Marchmont Papers. 2 Treasury Money Book, Public Record Office. 
3 Marchmont and the Humes of Polwarth. 



21 

Henry Rose, Mr. Rose's son, who in his Preface thus 
describes Lord Marchmont in his later years : * He was an 
accomplished and scientific horseman and a theoretical and 
practical husbandman and gardener. He pursued his rides 
and his visits to the farm and garden as long as his strength 
would suffice for the exertion, and some hours of the fore- 
noon, and frequently of the evening, were devoted to his 
books. . . . His vigorous intellects possessed their strength 
and acuteness undiminished by years ; and the high and 
honourable feelings, which were so warmly eulogised by 
his distinguished friends in his youth, retained all their 
keenness to the last.' By the final settlement of his estates, 
executed 5 November 1790, he called to the succession, 
failing heirs-male of his own body, first, the heirs, male or 
female, of the body of Lady Diana Scott, his daughter, 
except those procreated between her and her then husband, 
whom failing, any other daughters of his body, and the 
heirs-male of their bodies ; second, the heirs-male of the 
body of Sir Alexander Purves, Bart., the son of his sister 
Lady Anne; third, Charles, Lord Sinclair, and Matthew 
St. Clair his brother, grandsons of Elizabeth Hume, 
daughter of Lord Kimmerghame, and the heirs-male of their 
bodies; fourth, Andrew, William, and John Wauchope, 
children of Helen Hume, also daughter of Lord Kimmer- 
ghame, and the heirs-male of their bodies ; fifth, Thomas, 
seventh Earl of Haddington, and his brothers, grand- 
children of Lady Grisell Hume, daughter of Patrick, first 
Earl of Marchmont, and the heirs-male of their bodies; 
whom failing, a series of heirs descended from the other 
daughters of the first Earl. 

He married, first, in May 1731, Anne, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Western, who died at Redbraes in 1747. By her 
he had issue : 

1. Patrick, Lord Polwarth, died in childhood. 

2. Anne, married, at Marchmont, 23 October 1755, to Sir 

John Paterson of Eccles, and died 27 July 1790, leaving 
issue. 

3. Margaret, married, on 20 September 1763, to Major- 

General James Stuart, third son of Archibald Stuart 
of Torrence, and died s.p., at Edinburgh, 7 January 
1765. 



22 HUME, EARL OF MAROHMONT 

4. Diana, born in 1733 ; married, 18 April 1754, to Walter 
Scott of Harden ; and died on 23 July 1827, leaving a 
son Hugh, born 10 September 1758. The political 
views of Mr. Scott were opposed to those of Lord 
Marchmont, and by allowing his son Hugh, who had 
just come of age, to be nominated as a candidate for 
the county of Berwick in 1780, in opposition to Sir 
John Paterson, Lord Marchmont's other son-in-law 
and special nominee, he gave serious offence, never 
forgotten or forgiven. Mr. Scott was successful, but 
bought his victory dearly, for though, on the death of 
Lord Polwarth in 1781 he would naturally have been 
the heir of his grandfather, Lord Marchmont refused 
ever to see him or have anything to do with Lady 
Diana, cutting them both completely out of his 
inheritance. Mr. Hugh Scott successfully estab- 
lished his claim to the title of Baron Polwarth in 
1835, and died in 1841. (See title Polwarth.) 
Lord Marchmont married, secondly, 30 January 1748, 
within a year of his first wife's death, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Windmill Orompton, a linendraper in Oheapside, a woman 
of great beauty, to whom he proposed the day after seeing 
her for the first time in a box at the theatre. 1 By her, 
who died in 1797, he had issue one son : 
Alexander, Lord Polwarth, born 30 July 1750. In 1776 
he was created a peer of Great Britain by the title 
of BARON HUME of Berwick. He died without 
issue at Wrest, in Bedfordshire, on 9 March 1781. 

1 David Hume, writing to Mr. Oswald of Dunnikier, London, 29 January 
1748, says : ' Lord Marchmont has had the most extraordinary adven- 
ture in the world. About three weeks ago he was at the play, where he 
espied in one of the boxes a fair virgin, whose looks, airs, and manners 
had such a powerful and undisguised effect on him, as was visible by 
every bystander. His raptures were so undisguised, his looks so expres- 
sive of passion, his inquiries so earnest, that every person took notice of 
it. He soon was told that her name was Crompton, a linendraper's 
daughter, that had been bankrupt last year, and had not been able to pay 
above five shillings in the pound. The fair nymph herself was about 
sixteen or seventeen, and being supported by some relations, appeared in 
every public place, and had fatigued every eye but that of his Lordship, 
which being entirely employed in the severer studies, had never till that 
fatal moment opened upon her charms. . . . He wrote next morning to 
her father, desiring to visit his daughter on honourable terms ; and in a 
few days she will be the Countess of Marchmont. All this is certainly 
true,' etc. Oswald's Correspondence. 



HUME, EARL OP MAROHMONT 23 

He married, 16 July 1772, Lady Annabella Yorke, 
born 22 February 1751, eldest daughter of Philip, 
second Earl of Hardwicke, by Jemima, Marchioness de 
Grey, and Baroness Lucas of Orudwell, granddaughter 
of Henry, Duke of Kent. His widow never married 
again, but, as Countess de Grey, which she was 
created in 1816, survived her husband forty-nine 
years. 

On the death of Hugh, third and last Earl of Marchmont, 
the male descendants of the first Earl became extinct, and 
a right to the earldom was thereupon asserted by Alex- 
ander Home, a lieutenant in the Royal Navy, as nearest 
collateral heir-male to the grantee descended from George 
Hume of Wedderburn, brother of Patrick, first of Polwarth, 
and thus claiming to be male representative of the eldest 
branch of the Humes of Wedderburn. After the death of 
the original claimant in 1823 the case was taken up by his 
eldest son Francis Douglas, a captain in the Army. Pro- 
ceedings continued intermittently until 1842, when the 
fifth and last case was presented for the claimant, where- 
upon Sir Hugh Hume Campbell, Bart., proprietor of the 
Marchmont estates by virtue of an entail made by the last 
Earl of Marchmont, also lodged a case by reason that the 
claimants had asserted their right to certain of the entailed 
estates as collateral heirs-male of the said Earl. No in- 
considerable amount of evidence was produced to show that 
the claimants had failed to account for numerous male 
issue of the family of Polwarth, whose descendants, if 
alive, would have prior right to the dignities, and also to 
demonstrate that descendants of an older branch of the 
House of Wedderburn were not proved to be extinguished. 
The case of the claimant was in consequence not sus- 
tained. 

CREATIONS. 26 December 1690, Lord Polwarth ; 23 April 
1697, Earl of Marchmont, Viscount Blasonberrie, Lord 
Polwarth of Polwarth, Redbraes and Greinlaw. 

ARMS (recorded in Lyon Register). Quarterly : 1st and 
4th grand quarters counterquartered, 1st and 4th, vert, a 
lion rampant argent, for Home 2nd and 3rd, argent, three 



24 HUME, EARL OP MARCHMONT 

papingoes vert, for Pepdie : 2nd grand quarter counter- 
quartered, 1st and 4th, argent, three piles engrailed gules 
issuing from the chief, for Polivarth ; 2nd and 3rd gyronny 
of eight or and sable, for Campbell of Cessnock : 3rd grand 
quarter counterquartered, 1st and 4th, argent, a cross en- 
grailed sable, for Sinclair; 2nd and 3rd, gyronny of eight 
ermine and gules, for Campbell of London. Over all in the 
centre an escutcheon argent, charged with an orange 
proper stalked and slipped vert, ensigned with an imperial 
crown as a coat of augmentation. 

OREST. A hand issuing out of a heart holding a scimitar 
proper. 

SUPPORTERS. Two lions reguardant argent, armed and 
langued gules. 

MOTTO. Fides probata coronat. 

[A. o. c.] 



KEITH, EARL MARISCHAL 




S a surname Keith is evi- 
dently derived from the 
lands of that name in Bast 
Lothian, which were early 
acquired by the family who 
afterwards took the name ; 
with whom also the office 
of marischal, or farrier, 
to the Kings of Scotland 
became hereditary. 1 The 
first clearly authenticated 
ancestor of the family 
is : 

HERVEUS or HERVEY, 
called also Herbert, who 
is said to have obtained 
from David i. a grant of the north-west portion of the 
lands of Keith, in the parish of Humbie, in East Lothian. 2 
From its owner it was called first Keith-Hervey, and after- 

1 As in the case of some other Scottish families, a mythical account of 
the ancestry of the Keiths has been given in more or less detail by several 
of the older Scottish historians, and is reproduced in the family histories. 
But as it is of altogether legendary character, and unsupported by historical 
evidence of any description, it need not be introduced here. It may be 
added that one of the earliest notices of the name of Keith in Scotland 
appears to be in connection with an artificial island in Loch Lomond, 
called Elan-na-Foin, said to have been constructed by Keth MacFadoill, 
Keith, son of Dollius, who lived in the fifth century. And upon a point 
of land near the island are the ruins of an ancient building called Castle- 
na-fean, or the Giant's Castle, reputed to have been built by the con- 
structor of the island (The Lennox, i. 70). But nothing further seems to 
be known of this Keith, and he cannot be connected, except by name, 
with the Keith family here treated of. 2 Hervey Keith, however, is not 
found as a witness to any charter of King David i. The ' Hervi, son of 
Warin," who witnesses the Annandale charter of 1124 (Nat. MSS. of Scot- 
land, i. No. xix.) is not certainly the same. 



26 KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 

wards Keitk-Marischal. 1 About the same time as the 
acquisition by Hervey of this part of the lands of Keith, the 
south-east portion of the same manor came into the pos- 
session of Simon Fraser, was from him named Keith-Simon, 
and was afterwards known as Keith-Hundeby. About the 
year 1160 Simon Fraser granted the church of Keith to 
the monks of Kelso, 2 and the grant was confirmed by 
Malcolm iv. between 1160 and 1165, 3 and by William the 
Lion between 1165 and 1214/ As this church stood within 
the limits of Keith-Simon, Hervey seems to have erected 
a chapel on his manor of Keith-Hervey, and to have settled 
a yearly tribute from his lands on the mother church of 
Kelso. It was probably this Hervey who held the office of 
King's Marischal under Malcolm iv. and William the Lion, 
and who had a long controversy with the monks of Kelso 
about the amount of the tribute for his chapel of Keith- 
Hervey. The contest was settled by Joceline, Bishop of 
Glasgow, and Osbert, Prior of Paisley, acting as the Pope's 
delegates, who, in a decreet of about the year 1176, de- 
cided that the monks should receive twenty shillings 
annually from the chapel and manor of Keith-Hervey. 5 In 
the writ recording this decision Hervey is described as 
Marischal of the King of Scotland. He witnessed several 
charters of William the Lion between 1178 and 1199, 6 and is 
said to have died before 1196. T He is said to have married 
Margaret, daughter of William of Douglas, 8 but this seems 
very doubtful. 9 He had a son, 

MALCOLM, who, in 1178 witnessed a grant to the monks 
of Arbroath, 10 where he is designed the ' son of Herveus,' 
and as * Malcolmus de Keth ' he witnessed in 1185 a charter 
to the monks of Kelso, 11 several others about 1190, 12 another 
between 1190 and 1203, 13 and another about 1220. 14 In none 
of them, however, is he designed 'Marischal.' He left 
two sons : 

1. PHILIP, who succeeded as heir to his grandfather 
Hervey, and 

1 Chalmers's Caledonia, ii. 532. 2 Liber de Calchou, i. 62, 72. s Ibid., i. 
68. Ibid. 5 Ibid., 70, 71. 8 Cart, de Aberbrothoc, i. 1, 17, 19, 23, 24, 26. 
7 Caledonia, i. 518. 8 Nisbet's Heraldry, App. 3. 9 Cf. vol. iii. of this 
work, p. 135. 10 Cart, de Aberbrothoc, i. 9. u Liber de Calchou, i. 114. 
12 Ibid. , i. 122, 123, 125, 128, 146, 207, 213, 217. 13 Ibid., i. 206. " Ibid., ii. 292. 



KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 27 

2. David, who held the office of Marischal conjointly with 
his brother Philip and his nephew Hervey. 1 He is 
likewise mentioned as joint Marischal with his 
nephew, 2 the latter also appearing alone in that 
capacity as witness to a charter of Alexander n. in 
1225. s They were associated together in the same 
office at York on 15 June 1220, at the marriage of Alex- 
ander ii. to Princess Joan of England, 4 and about the 
year 1226 they together witnessed in this capacity 
a charter of Alexander n. to the monks of Melrose, 5 
and another some ten years later to the monastery 
of Paisley. 6 As * Marischal ' David witnessed many 
grants by William the Lion, 7 in one of which 8 he is 
styled 'King's Marischal,' and by Alexander n., 9 
and he, with a David ' marischal ' and a Gilbert 
'marischal,' was present when the treaty of peace 
was signed at York in 1237. 10 He left a son, 

David, whose name does not appear among the 'Magnates 
Scotise ' who engaged in 1284 to maintain the right of the 
Princess Margaret to the Crown, 11 but as David ' le Marescal ' 
he was at Brigham in 1289, and with other magnates wrote 
to the King of England assenting to the marriage of the 
young Queen of Scotland with Prince Edward of England, 12 
and he was one of the barons in the Parliament held there 
in March 1290. 13 In 1296 David the Marischal presented 
a petition to Edward I. in Parliament, stating that as the 
King had given him all his heritage in Scotland, he also 
claims his right to this office from his ancestors by descent, 
and praying that no person might be preferred to him 
without the judgment of his peers. 14 The petition was re- 
ferred by King Edward to his Lieutenant in Scotland to 
inquire whether the marischalship belonged to David in 
heritage. 16 Chalmers states that the allusion of the petition 
was plainly to Robert de Keth, who had been recognised by 
John Baliol in 1294 as his Marischal, and considers it pro- 
bable that David's claim was allowed. 16 The date of his 
death is not known. He had a son, 

Richard, who was taken prisoner fighting against the 
English in 1296, and carried captive into England. 17 

1 Ada Parl. Scot., i. 389; Dal. Coll., Pref. 77, and 393; Caledonia, i. 
518 note; Cart. Glasgow, i. 79. * Acta Parl. Scot., i. 88; Cart, de Aber- 
brothoc, i. 74. 3 Cart. Glasgow, i. 116. 4 Rymer's Fosdera, i. i. 81. 5 Liber 
de Melros, i. 161, 228. 6 Reg. de Passelet (anno 1236), 428. 7 Liber de 
Melros. 8 Ibid., 16. 9 Ibid, and Reg. Epis. Glasguensis. 10 Fcedera, 
i. i. 131 ; and cf . Caledonia, i. 520 note. " Fcedera, i. ii. 228. 1Z Acta Parl. 
Scot., i. 441; Nat. MSS. of Scotland, iii. No. 1. 13 Fcedera, i. iii. 66. 
14 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 864. " Ibid. 16 Caledonia, i. 521, note infra. 
17 Foedera, I. iii. 164. 



28 KEITH, EARL MABISOHAL 

After his release he presented a petition to Edward I. 
as ' Richard le Marischal,' praying that the King would 
confirm a gift of forty pounds of land from his father 
David, the Marischal, which was granted. 1 His wife 
Agnes made a similar petition in September 1296. 2 
This family, having taken part against Bruce, was 
apparently involved in forfeiture and ruin during the 
War of Independence. 3 

PHILIP DE KETH succeeded as heir to his grandfather 
Hervey, and as ' Marischal ' witnessed a charter of William 
the Lion to the monks of Arbroath between 1189 and 1199, 4 
and a number of other charters by that King up to the last 
year of his reign. 5 He is said to have married Eda, daughter 
and heiress of Hugh Lorens, who had inherited through her 
mother Eda, daughter and heiress of Symon Fraser, the 
south-east portion of the lands of Keith, called Keith-Symon 
or Keith Hundeby. 8 The whole manor of Keith thus be- 
came united in her husband's family. He is said to have 
died before the year 1225, 7 and was succeeded by his son, 

HERVEY DE KETH, with whom was associated in the 
office of Marischal his uncle David, as mentioned above. 8 
About the year 1230 he confirmed to the monks of Kelso 
the church of Keith with its pertinents, as granted by 
Symon Fraser, 9 and this he renewed in similar terms about 
1236, 10 when the two deeds were ratified by Alexander n. 11 
He witnessed a donation to the monastery of Coldingham 
in 1222, 12 and between 1214 and 1218 he witnessed another to 
the monastery of Arbroath. 13 

The name of his wife has not been ascertained. He died 
before the year 1250, and was succeeded by his son, 

SIR JOHN DE KEITH, who, about the date mentioned was 

1 Cat. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 1890. 2 Stevenson's Hist. Doc., ii. 93. 8 Prynne, 
iii. 654 ; Robertson's Index, 13 and 59. Chalmers states that upwards of 
twenty persons of the name of Marischal swore fealty to Edward i. in 
1296, and only one named Keth, viz. Alexander de Keth, parson of Hod- 
dom in Dumfriesshire (Caledonia, i. 521). 4 Cart, de Aberbrothoc, i. 58. 

6 Reg. de Dunfermlyn, 31 ; Cart, of Cambuskenneth, 93. In the latter, 
dated circd 1200, he is designed by the King ' Marescallus meus.' 6 Liber 
de Calchou, i. 62, 63, 64, 66 ; Caledonia, i. 518 ; Frasers of Philorth, i. 12. 

7 Family Papers penes Sir Patrick Keith-Murray, Bart., afterwards re- 
ferred to as ' Sir P. K.-M. Papers.' 8 Supra, p. 27. 9 Liber de Calchou, 
i. 67. 10 Ibid. " Ibid., i. 69. l2 Cart, of Coldingham, 29. 13 Cart, de 
Aberbrothoc, i. 74. 



KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 29 

in possession of both the lands and office. 1 Between the 
years 1198 and 1234 his name appears as witness to a grant 
to the Hospital of Soltre. 2 He confirmed to the monks of 
Kelso the grants of his predecessors, with the addition of 
some lands within the manor of Keith, 3 and about the year 
1250 he confirmed to the Hospital of Soltre some lands in 
the district of Johnston, near Keith. 4 

He died before the year 1270. He is said to have married 
Margaret Oumyn, who may have been daughter of William, 
Earl of Buchan, and had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded. 

2. Adam, mentioned, between 1296 and 1324, as rector of 

the church of Keith-Marischal. 5 

3. Another son (Robert ?), ancestor of the Keiths of 

Galston in Ayrshire. He had a son, Sir William 
Keith of Galston, 6 who repulsed the English at Ber- 
wick in 1318. He accompanied Sir James Douglas in 
his expedition to Palestine in 1330 with the heart of 
King Robert the Bruce, which he (Sir William) 
brought back to Scotland from Spain, and which was 
buried at Melrose in 1331. 7 He commanded at Ber- 
wick in 1333. He was ambassador to England in 1335, 
and was killed at the siege of Stirling in 1336. He 
left an only daughter, Janet, who was married, first, 
to David Hamilton of Oadzow, who died before 1392, 
and secondly, to Sir Alexander Stewart of Darnley. 8 
It may have been another son of Sir John de Keth who 
married Joanna, eldest daughter of William of Galbrathe 
(son of Sir William Galbrathe by a daughter of Sir John 
Oumyn of Badenoch). She was heiress of Dalserf, and died 
in 1301. They had issue Bernard de Cathe or Keth (a Sir 
Bernard de Keth appears in 1307, attached to the English 
interest). 9 

SIR WILLIAM DE KEITH witnessed in 1270 a charter of con- 
firmation of a donation to the monastery of Paisley. 10 He 

1 Liber de Calchou, i. 66. 2 Cart, of Soltre, 11. 3 Liber de Catchou, i. 66. 
4 Cart, of Soltre, 31 ; Caledonia, i. 519 note. 5 Cart, of Soltre, 41. 
6 Antiq. of Aberdeen, iv. 713. 7 Dunbar's Scottish Kings, 147. 8 Cf. vol. 
iv. 345; Reg. Mag. Sig., folio vol. 237. 9 Cf. vol. iii. 138 and note ; Cal. 
Doc. Scot., ii. Pref. Ivi, and No. 1420; Douglas Book, i. 67. 10 Cart, 
of Levenax, 33. 



30 KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 

is here designed simply * dom. Willielmus Keth, miles,' and 
it seems doubtful whether he ever held the office of 
Marischal. The author of Caledonia states that William 
succeeded as heir to his father John, but that the former 
* appears not in history and little in the charters.' * He 
died before 1293. 

He is said to have married Barbara, a daughter of Adam 
de Seton, ancestor of the Earls of Winton, 2 called also 
daughter of Adam, Lord of Seton. 3 By her 4 he left 
issue : 

1. SIR ROBERT, who succeeded. 

2. Sir Richard, who died s.p* 

3. Sir Edward, who succeeded his elder brother Robert 

as Marischal of Scotland. 8 

4. Philip, rector of Biggar, in Lanarkshire. 7 

5. a daughter, said to have been married to William 

Douglas, ' le Hardi,' but of this there seems to be no 
proof. 8 

SIR ROBERT DE KEITH, the eldest son, succeeded his father 
in the lands and office of Marischal of Scotland, and in the 
year 1294 he obtained from John Baliol a charter of con- 
firmation of the lands of Keith and others in East Lothian, 
in which he is designed ' our Marischal.' ' He, as * mares- 
callus Scotise,' confirmed the lands of Johnston and others 
to the monastery of Soltre by' a charter to which Sir 
Richard de Keth, Sir Philip de Keth, rector of the church 
of Biggar, his brother, Sir Adam de Keth, rector of Keith- 
Marischal, his uncle, and John de Keth, his son and heir, 
are witnesses, about the year 1290. 10 Between that date 
and the year 1300 he granted to the monks of Kelso the 
right to build a mill on his lands of Keith-Hundeby. 11 In 
August 1299 he was appointed Warden of the Forest of 
Selkirk, which post he held until the year 1300, when he was 

1 Caledonia, i. 519. 2 Ibid. 3 Sir P. K.-M. Papers. * Prynne, Hi. 657. 
6 Douglas's Peerage. 6 Ada Parl. Scot., i. 122. 7 Cart, of Soltre, 41. 
8 Douglas Book, i. 102, 103. Between 1295 and 1325 an Alexander Keith 
appears as a beloved and faithful servant of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick 
and King of Scotland, who granted to him the lands of Longforgund. 
There is no indication of his parentage. He had a daughter Agnes 
married to William Avenel(Fourteenth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. iii. pp. 
174, 177-179). 9 Dal. Coll., Pref. Ixxxvi ; Mylne's MS. Coll. 10 Cart, of Soltre, 
41. Liber de Calchou, i. 73. 



KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 31 

captured by the English and cast into prison at Carlisle, 1 
whence he was transferred to Nottingham and Bristol. 2 
On February 1303-4 he received notification of peace by 
royal messenger. 3 He was liberated the same year, and 
dined with the Prince of Wales at Perth in February 1304/ 
In 1304 he held the office of Sheriff of Aberdeen. 5 In 1305 
he was chosen one of the ten Scotsmen to represent Scot- 
land in the English Parliament, 6 and in that year he 
attended the Parliament held by Edward i. at Westminster. 7 
On 26 October 1305 he was appointed by King Edward one 
of the four Deputy Wardens of Scotland, 8 and in the same 
year he obtained the office of Justiciar of the country 
between the Forth and the Mounth, at a salary of 40 merks 
yearly. 9 In July 1307 he was still in the service of the 
King of England. 10 In September of that year he was 
ordered to aid against Bruce, 11 but at Christmas 1308 he 
joined the cause of King Robert, 12 and remained faithful 
to him during the remainder of his life. 

He did not therefore join Bruce until after the success of 
the King's arms at the battle of Inverurie, in May 1308, 13 
but in the year 1309 he received from him a grant of the 
forest of Kintore in the Garioch and the lands of Alnedan 
(now Aden) and Auchtidonald in Buchan. 14 In the same 
year he was appointed Justiciar from the Forth to the 
Orkneys. 15 His forfeited barony of Keith had been given 
by the King of England to Robert Hastang in 1311. 16 He 
had command of the Scottish cavalry at the battle of 
Bannockburn, and by attacking the English bowmen in 
flank he caused the panic in the English army which re- 
sulted in its total defeat. 17 In recognition of this and other 
services King Robert, at the Parliament held at Perth in 
1320, bestowed upon him a large portion of the forfeited 
lands of the Oomyns, Earls of Buchan, and thereafter the 
home of the Marischals, and the bulk of their estates, lay 
in the north and north-east of Scotland. 



1 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 1147. 2 Ibid., 1147, 1148. 3 IM&., iv. 480. * Ibid., 
1516. 6 Reg. Epis. Aber. t i. 40. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 1691. 7 Acta Parl. 
Scot., i. 19. 8 Fosdera, i. iv. 42. 9 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 120; Cal. of Docs., 
ii. 1706. 10 Cal. of Docs., ii. 1955. Ibid., iii. 15. 12 Ibid., 245. 1S Ibid., 
iii. Pref. xii note; Scottish Kings, 132; Frasers of Philorth, ii. 183-194. 
14 Robertson's Index, 2. 15 See brieve of Robert the Bruce, 1312, in Lord 
Lindsay's Charter-chest. 16 Cal. of Docs., iii. 258. n Barbour, c, ciii, 
civ, 259 ; Dal. Ann., ii. 54. 



32 KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 

He was one of the ' magnates Scotiae ' l who signed the 
Letter of Independence of Scotland to the Pope on 6 April 
1320. 2 In 1323 he was appointed one of the commissioners 
to treat with England, 3 and on the conclusion of a truce 
was chosen one of the guarantors. In the year 1324 King 
Robert granted him a charter confirming to him and his 
heirs-male, whom failing, to his brother Edward and his 
heirs-male, both of the body, and failing said heirs, then to 
Robert's nearest heirs-male, his possession of the lands of 
Keith-Marischal, together with the office of Marschal of 
the Kingdom 'appertaining to the same lands,' also the 
lands of Keith-Symon, Calbanestoun, Alnedan, with the new 
forest of Innerpeffin, four davachs of land in Strathbogie and 
the forest of Kintore. 4 In 1326 he was appointed one of 
the royal procurators for concluding an alliance with King 
Charles of France. 5 He is said by Boece to have been 
killed at the battle of Dupplin in 1332, 6 but the contemporary 
historians, while they mention others of less note, are silent 
as to Sir Robert's death at Dupplin ; and in recounting 
the taking of Perth, which occurred later, his grandson 
is neither styled ' knight ' nor ' marischal.' 7 The balance 
of evidence rather supports the view that he survived 
the slaughter at Dupplin, and that it was he, and not 
his grandson of the same name, who aided the young 
King of Scotland to escape to France, and accompanied 
him there, in May 1334, and was in attendance at the 
Court held by the exiled King at the Chateau Gaillard 
in Normandy. 8 Taking the evidence above adduced as 
sufficient to establish his subsequent identity, he returned 
to Scotland with the King in June 1341, and on 21 February 
1341-42 he witnessed a royal charter to the town of Aber- 
deen. 9 His name appears frequently as Sheriff of Aberdeen 
between the years 1335 and 1342, 10 but in the Chamberlain 
Rolls (i. 287) it is stated that * the heirs of Robert de Keth ' 
usurped the office of Sheriff of Aberdeen for several years 
prior to 1345-46, this Robert being presumably Sir Robert's 
grandson above referred to. 

1 Nat. MSS. of Scotland. 2 Ada Parl. Scot., i. 474. 3 Fccdera, Record 
ed., ii. (i) 522. * Acta Parl. Scot., i. 122. 6 Ibid., Supp., 5a ; Robertson's 
Index, 106. Ed. 1858, iii. 296. 7 Wyntoun, ed. 1872, ii. 394; Diet. Nat. 
Biog., xxx. 326. 8 Exch. Rolls, i. 449, 450, 466. 9 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 514. 
10 Reg. Epis. Aberdeen, i. 64, 69 ; Exch. Rolls, i. 542, 544. 



KEITH, EARL MARISCHAL 33 

Sir Robert was killed at the battle of Durham 17 October 
1346. 1 He is said to have married Barbara Douglas, 2 whose 
parentage has not been ascertained, and by her left 
issue : 

1. John, 3 who predeceased him in 1324, 4 having married 

the sister and co-heir of William de Soulis, 5 by whom 
he had issue : 

(1) Robert, mentioned by Wyntoun as having been present at the 

taking of Perth in 1332. 6 He must have been then quite 
a youth, for he seems to have been under age in 1335-36, 
when Ralph de Neville possessed his half of the Soulis 
lands in Liddesdale in ward. 7 He seems to have been dead 
some years prior to 1345-46. 8 He is said to have married 
Margaret, daughter of Sir Gilbert Hay of Erroll, first 
Constable of Scotland, 9 but to have died without issue. 10 

(2) Sir Edward, and 

(3) Edmund, who were both killed at the battle of Durham, 

17 October 1346." 
(4) , a daughter, married to Sir Robert Maitland. 12 

2. Sir William, mentioned as one of those who opposed 

the peace between England and Scotland in August 
1335. 13 

SIR EDWARD DE KEITH succeeded his brother Sir Robert 
upon the latter's death at the battle of Durham in October 
1346. 14 In the year 1328 he held the office of Sheriff of Sel- 
kirk. 16 In an inquisition, held at Aberdeen, dated 1341, 
before Robert de Keth, Great Marischal of Scotland, his 
name appears as one of the jurors. 18 He died before 1351." 
He married, first, before July 1305, Isabella Sinton, heiress 
of Sinton, with whom he acquired the lands of Sinton, 18 
and secondly, Christian, eldest daughter of Sir John Men- 
teith, Lord of Arran, and Ellen of Mar. 19 By his first wife 
he had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded. 

2. John who married (dispensation dated 12 March 

1 Dal., Ann., iii. 108 ; Fordun, ed. 1871, Gesta Ann., cap. clxv. 2 Nisbet's 
Heraldry, App. 4. 3 Cart, of Soltre, 41. * Hadd. Coll., ii. 846. 6 Cal. of 
Docs., iii. App. 320. Ed. 1872, ii. 394. 7 Cal. of Docs., iii. App. 320. 
8 Exch. Rolls, i. 287. 9 Wood's Douglas's Peerage, ii. 187. 10 Ibid. " Dal., 
Ann., iii. 108; Knyghton, bk. iv. sub an. 1346. 12 Robertson's Index, 58. 
13 Chron. Lanercost, 283. 14 Robertson's Index, 61 ; Erasers of Philorth, 
i.79. 16 Exch. Rolls, i. 105. 16 Reg. Epis. Aberdeen, i. 69. ir Spalding 
Club Misc., v. 248. 18 Complete Peerage, v. 224 ; Cal. of Docs., ii. 1681. 
19 Antiq. of Aberdeen, iv. 198. 20 Cart, of Arbroath, ii. 26. 

VOL. VI. C 



34 KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 

1368-69) Mariota (or Mary) de Oheyne, daughter, 
and co-heiress with her sister Jean, wife of Nicholas 
de Sutherland of Duffus, 1 of Reginald de Oheyne 
of Inverugie, 2 by his wife Mary, eldest daughter 
and co-heiress of Freskin de Moravia of Duffus, 3 and 
widow of John de Douglas of Strabrock in Linlith- 
gow, 4 with whom he acquired the estates of Inver- 
ugie and Strabrock, and the third part of the barony 
of Duffus. 5 They had issue, and their great-great- 
grandson and successor, 

Sir William Keith, was knighted by King James iv. On 31 
March 1476 he had a Great Seal charter to him and his wife 
of the lands of Galvail and Hythe in Banffshire. 6 On 6 
October 1508 he got a Great Seal charter incorporating the 
lands of Stralochin Banffshirewith the barony of Inverugie. 7 
He died between 24 May 1521, when he assigned certain 
reversions to his then eldest lawful son Andrew Keith, and 
Martinmas of same year. 8 He married in his father's life- 
time Janet, daughter of Sir James Dunbar of Westfield, 
hereditary Sheriff of Moray, 9 by whom he had, with other 
issue : 

i. Sir Alexander, who died between 1512 and 1518, without 

issue. 10 

ii. William, who in 1517-18 is described as son and heir of 
Sir William Keith. 11 He also predeceased his father, 
having married Janet, fourth daughter of Andrew, 
second Lord Gray, widow respectively of John 
Charteris of Cuthilgurdy, and after 1508 of Sir David 
Wemyss of that Ilk, who fell at Flodden. 12 William 
had issue two daughters, his co-heiresses, who are 
always mentioned as heirs of their grandfather Sir 
William : 

(i) Margaret, married, before 30 June 1538, 13 to 
William, fourth Earl Marischal. 14 

(ii) Elizabeth, married, on 19 December 1538, to 
William, seventh Lord Forbes. (See that 
title.) ' Janet Gray, Lady Wemys,' mother of 
Elizabeth, was present at her daughter's 



marriage 



15 



iii. John Keith of Ravenscraig, a younger brother of 

1 R. Riddell's MS. Baronetage, Adv. Lib., iii. 195 ; Cal Papal Letters, iv. 
78. 8 Reg. Epis. Aberdeen, i. 176; Cal. Papal Reg., iv. 78. 3 Ibid. 
4 Antig. of Aberdeen, iv. 613. 5 R. Riddell's MS. Baronetage, iii. 195. 
6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 7 Ibid. 8 Assignation, penes Messrs. Dalgleish & Bell, 
W.S. ; Exch. Rolls, xv. 598, 599. e Reg. Mag. Sig., ut supra. 10 A ntiq. of 
Aberdeen, ii. 403, 404 ; R. Riddell's MS. Baronetage, iii. 197. Lord High 
Treasurer's Accounts, v. 144. 1Z See dates and authorities in Wemyss 
Book, i. 105. 13 Reg. Mag. Sig. 14 See infra. 16 Protocol Book of Robert 
Lawson, f. 64 ; R. Riddell's MS, Baronetage, Adv. Lib. 



KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 35 

Alexander, was ancestor of the family of Keith 
of Ludquharn. 1 

3. Catherine, married to Alexander Barclay, ancestor of 

Ury. 2 
By his second wife Sir Edward had an only child, 

4. Joneta or Janet, married to Sir Thomas Erskine of 

Erskine, whose son claimed the earldom of Mar 
through her. 3 (See title Mar.) 

Sir Edward died before 1351, 4 and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, 

SIR WILLIAM, who, in the year 1354 is designed ' Mares- 
callus Scotise,' 5 and in 1378-80 is described as lord of the 
barony of Alden (now Aden), diocese of Aberdeen. 6 In a 
charter by Donald, Earl of Lennox, to Walter Buchanan of that 
Ilk, of date 1342-62, the lands of Drumfade and Kirkmichael 
in Dumbartonshire are described as having been resigned by 
4 dominus Willelmus de Keth.' 7 He was one of the com- 
missioners to treat for the redemption of King David n. in 
1357, 8 and was sent to England in 1358 on the King's affairs, 
when he had a safe-conduct for himself and sixty horsemen 
in his retinue. 9 In 1358 he witnessed a charter of David ii. 10 
In September 1364, as ' William de Keth, the King's mar- 
shall,' he witnessed the confirmation by David u. of a grant 
of the lands of Galchull in Banff to the Bishop of Aberdeen. 11 
By a charter of date 1366-1407, he made an excambion of 
his lands of Kinmundy (now Nether Kinmundy), in the 
barony of Aden, for those of Pittendreich in Stirlingshire 
belonging to Thomas Fraser of Oornton, ancestor of the 
Lords Fraser. 12 He was present at the coronation of 
Robert n. at Scone in 1371, 13 and in 1373 he was one of 
the signatories to the second Act of Settlement by that 
King. 14 On 5 August 1378, he conveyed, in favour of Sir 
William Lindsay of the Byres and Lady Christian, his spouse, 
the lands of Touchfraser in Stirlingshire. 15 In the reign of 

1 R. Riddell's MS. Notes, ut tit., where, and in Douglas's Baronage, a 
fuller pedigree will be found. 2 Acta Dom. Cone., xviii. pt. ii. 196. 
3 Antiq. of Aberdeen, iv. 198. * Spalding Club Misc., v. 248. 6 Cart, de 
Aberbrothoc, ii. 26. 6 Cal. Papal Reg., iv. 240; Reg. Epis. Aberdeen, i. 
124. 7 The Lennox, ii. 26. 8 Rot. Scotice, i. 370, 376. 9 Antiq. of Aber- 
deen, iv. 713 ; Fcedera, Record ed., iii. (i.) 409. 10 Hadd. Coll., ii. " Cal. 
Papal Reg., iv. 90. 12 Antiq. of Aberdeen, i. 404. 13 Acta Parl. Scot., 
i. 546. 14 Ibid. 15 Precept of Sasine, Lindsay Charter-chest, 



36 KEITH, EARL MABISOHAL 

Robert in., on 8 March 1392, he, and Margaret Fraser, his 
wife, made an excambion of the lands of Pittendreich 
above-mentioned and those of Uchterutherstruther (now 
Crawford Priory) and Wester Markinch in Fife for the 
barony and castle of Dunottar in Kincardineshire, then 
belonging to Sir William Lindsay of the Byres, the latter 
reserving an annual payment of 8 from Dunottar. 1 The 
Marischal must have acquired the castle and lands of 
Dunottar, thenceforward the principal family seat, at or 
shortly before the date of his marriage. It formerly be- 
longed to William, fifth Earl of Sutherland, who, on 30 
March 1346, had a charter from King David n. of the 
Orag of Dunottar. 2 On 14 June 1395, a papal bull was 
issued by Pope Benedict xm. removing the excommunica- 
tion passed by the Bishop of St. Andrews against Sir 
William Keith, Great Marischal of Scotland, for encroach- 
ing on consecrated ground by building a tower upon the 
Rock of Dunottar, which had been previously occupied by 
the parish church. 3 In 1401 he got from Robert in. a 
charter of tailzie of the office of Marischal, barony of 
Keith, barony of Aden, forest of Kintore, and other 
lands. Sir William was still alive on 2 May 1407, when 
he granted a charter of the lands of Aboyne. 4 He 
died not long after, or before 1410, having married Mar- 
garet, only child and heiress of John Fraser (and grand- 
daughter of Sir Alexander Fraser, High Chamberlain of 
Scotland), and Mary, sister of King Robert I. 5 With this 
lady he obtained large estates, including the forest of 
Cowie, which was in the Marischal's possession in 1359, 
Strachan and Fetteresso, and the lands of Aboyne 6 and 
Strathekin. 7 By her he left issue : 

1. John, who married Jean, youngest daughter of King 
Robert n., by Elizabeth Mure. 8 On 17 January 1373-74, 
he had a charter from King Robert n., on the resigna- 
tion of William de Keth, Knight, Marischal of Scot- 
land, and Margaret, his wife, 'dilecto filio nostro,' 

1 Robertson's Index, 144 ; Lord Lindsay's Charter-chest contains copy 
of this charter of excambion. 2 Sutherland Book ; cf . vol. v. 392. 3 Papal 
Keg. ; Bull preserved among the Family MSS. penes Sir P. K.-M. * Antiq. 
of Aberdeen, ii. 35. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., i. No. 213; Spalding Club Misc., v. 
248; Erasers of Philorth, i. 81. Frasers of Philorth, i. 81. 7 Antiq. 
of Aberdeen, ii. 72. 8 Dunbar, Scottish Kings, 168. 



KEITH, EARL MARISCHAL 37 

of all lands and offices belonging to his father. 1 He 
died, v.p., before 27 December 1375, 2 leaving a son, 

Robert, who is said to have been at the battle of Otterburn, and to 
have there taken prisoner with his own hand Ralph Percy, 
brother of Henry Hotspur, Earl of Northumberland. 3 It was 
probably he who in 1395 besieged his aunt, Lady Lindsay, 
in her castle of Fyvie, when she bravely held the castle 
until her husband's arrival. He was betrothed to Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir William Graham, but died before marriage, 
at a date previous to 1 August 1404, when she had a dispen- 
sation to marry Walter [Stewart], Earl of Caithness.* 

2. SIR ROBERT, who succeeded. 

3. Sir Alexander, who had a charter from King 

Robert m. of the lands of Grandown (now Grand- 
holm), Oraibstone and others. 5 On 3 November 1402, 
he also had a charter from Isabel, Countess of Mar 
and Garioch, of the lands of Glendowachy and Doun, 8 
confirmed by King Robert in. by charter dated 
8 February 1403. 7 , He is said to have been com- 
mander of the Scottish Horse at the battle of Harlaw 
(1411). On 2 June 1413, he witnessed a charter of 
his brother the Marischal, where he is designed 
'miles.' 8 He married, between 1391 and 1403, Mar- 
jorie Stewart, widow of John Dunbar, Earl of Moray 
(see that title). He had a daughter Christian, who 
was married to Patrick Ogilvy, son and heir of Alex- 
ander de Ogilvy, Sheriff of Angus (see title Airlie). 

4. Muriella, married, in terms of a papal dispensation 

dated 4 May 1380, 9 as his second wife, to Robert, 
Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland, and by him had 
issue. 

5. Janet, married to Philip de Arbuthnott. 10 

6. Margaret, married to Sir James de Lindsay of Craw- 

ford. 11 She survived her husband, who died in 1397. 12 

7. Elizabeth, married, first, to Sir Adam Gordon of Huntly 

(see that title) ; secondly, to Sir Nicholas Erskine of 
Kinnoull, who died before December 1406 ; and thirdly, 
to Thomas Somerville of Carnwath (under dispensa- 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., i. No. 475. 2 Ibid., No. 500. 3 Dunottar Castle, J. 
Longmuir, 11. * Regesta Vaticana, vol. 326, f. 220. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., i. 
No. 818. 6 Robertson's Index, 141. 7 Antiq. of Aberdeen, etc., ii. 372 n. 
8 Reg. Mag. Sig., i. No. 939. 9 Regesta Avenionensia, 224, f. 391. She had 
previously been dispensed to marry Reginald Cheyne, 4 January 1378-79 
(ibid., 215, 50). 10 Cf. vol. i. 276. Ibid., iii. 12. 1J Exch. Rolls, iii. 415. 



38 KEITH, EARL MARISCHAL 

tion dated 2 November 1411, 1 they being in the third 
and fourth degrees of consanguinity). She succeeded 
her mother in some of her large estates, including 
Aboyne and Cluny. She died about 1436, having had 
issue. 

8. Christian, had dispensation to marry John, son of John 
Hay of Tullibody, 1 March 1363. 2 Later, before 27 
December 1375, she was married to Sir William 
Lindsay of the Byres. 3 

SIR ROBERT, the eldest surviving son, succeeded his 
father before the end of 1410. 4 In two charters of the 
year 1407, Robert de Keth, son of William the Marischal, 
appears as a substitute after John Stewart, Lord of Buchan, 
and his two brothers Andrew and Robert. 5 In 1375 he had 
a charter of confirmation from Robert n. of the forest of 
Oowie, the forest of the Mounth, and other lands. 6 In 
March 1406-7, Robert, Duke of Albany, confirmed two 
charters by his father-in-law, Sir William de Keth, Marischal 
of Scotland, to his son and heir Sir Robert de Keth, Lord of 
Troup, one of the office of Sheriff of Kincardineshire, the 
other of the barony of Keith, office of Marischal of Scot- 
land, lands of Oolbanyston, barony of Aldene (now Aden), 
and forest of Kintore in Aberdeenshire, and other lands in 
Banff shire. 7 He was one of the commissioners to treat 
for the liberation of King James i. in 1423-24, 8 and was 
a hostage for his ransom 28 March 1424, his estate being 
at this time valued at 800 merks. 9 On 16 June 1425, he 
was handed over to Sir John Langeton, Warden of the 
Oastle of York, but on the same day leave was given him 
to return to Scotland until the following Martinmas. 10 

He was dead before 20 July 1430, when his son William 
witnesses as ' marescallus Scotiae ' a charter by Sir William 
Hay of Erroll, Constable of Scotland. 11 On 24 January 1446- 
47 King James n. issued a brieve to the Sheriffs of Aberdeen 
and Banff ordaining them to pay the bishops the teind penny 
due from the profits of Aden, Kintore, and Skene, through 

1 Regesta Avenionensia, 339, f. 549. 2 Reg. Vat., 251, f. 372. 3 Reg. 
Mag. Sig., i. No. 502 ; cf. vol. v. of this work, 392. 4 Frasers of Philorth, 
i. 81. 8 Robertson's Index, 163 ; Reg. Mag. Sig., i. No. 893. 6 Ibid., No. 
499. f Ibid., Nos. 883, 884. 8 Cat. Doc. Scot., iv. 942. 9 Ibid., 952. 
10 Ibid., 981, 983. Spalding Club Misc., ii. 322. 



KEITH, EARL MABISOHAL 39 

the decease of ' our cosynge umquhile the Lord of Kethe.' 1 
He married the heiress of Troup, whose name has not been 
ascertained, with whom he got that barony. 2 He is also, 
but on doubtful authority, said to have married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir David Lindsay, first Earl of Crawford. 3 
By the first marriage he had : 

1. SIR WILLIAM, who succeeded. 

2. John, who, on 2 June 1413, got from his father a charter 

of the barony of Troup, 4 which comprised the lands 
of Northfield. His descendants in the male line, 
known as the Keiths of Northfield, became extinct on 
the death s.p. of James Keith of Northfield in 1799. 5 

3. Alexander, mentioned in his brother's charter of Troup, 

2 June 1413. 6 

4. Margaret, married to Hugh Arbuthnott of Arbuthnott. 

She died in 1419. 7 

5. Elizabeth, married to Alexander Irvine of Drum. She 

died in 1400. 8 

6. Christian, married to Thomas Monypenny. 9 

7. Marion, described as daughter of Sir Robert Keith, 

Knight, of St. Andrews diocese, in a commission for 
a dispensation of her marriage with Alexander de 
Fraser, of Moray diocese, dated 26 April 1414. 10 This 
was probably Alexander Fraser of Kinnell and Lovat. 
(See title Lovat.) 

I. SIR WILLIAM KEITH, succeeded his father between 
2 July 1430 and 20 May 1431. 11 In a charter dated 20 May 
1442, he conveyed to Robert de Keth, Knight, his eldest 
son, whom failing, to William, John, or Alexander, brothers 
of the said Robert, the lands of Keith, Garvock, Dunottar, 
Fetteresso, Strathechin, Oulpersow, Kintore, and Aden, 
together with the offices of Marischal of Scotland and 
Sheriff of Kincardine. 12 Between 1446 and July 1451 he 
was made a Lord of Parliament as LORD KEITH. The 
date of creation can only be approximately ascertained. 

1 Reg. Epis. Aberdeen, i. 240. 2 Douglas's Peerage. 3 Cf. vol. iii. 17. 
4 Reg. Mag. Sig., i. No. 939. 6 See Scottish Notes and Queries, 1st ser., 
vii. 177, and Table of Descents, opp. 185. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 20 July 1413. 
7 Cf. vol. i. 279. 8 Antiq. of Aberdeen, i. 207. 9 Robertson's Index, 141, 60. 
10 Regesta Avenionensia, lib. 344, f. 742. n Transumpts, Ochtertyre 
Charter-chest. 12 Confirmed 28 October 1444, Reg. Mag. Sig. 






40 

In an official report of evidence regarding a dispute between 
the family of Skene of Skene and that of the Marischal, 
held before a Court in the Cathedral of Aberdeen on 22 
September 1446, he is styled Sir William Keith, Marischal. 1 
In a series of charters granted by King James n. on 6 July 
1451, he is styled Lord Keith, and appears as the latest on 
the list of Peers after William, Lord Hay, the Constable, 
who was created before 10 April 1450. 2 His creation there- 
fore was then probably of recent date. 3 He was one of 
the guarantors of a treaty of peace with the English in 
1457, and on 6 August of that year he witnesses the con- 
firmation of a treaty by King James n. as Lord Keith. 4 
Later he was raised a step in the Peerage, as in a royal 
charter dated 7 October of the following year (1458), he 
is designed * dilectus consanguineus noster ' EARL OF 
MARISCHAL and LORD KEITH. 5 He died probably 
before Whitsunday 1463, 6 and certainly before 16 March 
1463-64. 7 

He married a lady named Mary who is usually said to 

have been the daughter of Sir James Hamilton of Oadzow, 

but there is no evidence of this, and the dates make it 

doubtful. On 26 April 1414, Pope Benedict xm. issued 

a commission to grant dispensation for the marriage of 

4 William de Ketht' of St. Andrews diocese and Marjorie 

Fraser, daughter of Alexander Fraser, of Moray diocese. 8 

This is probably the wife of Sir William Keith, and the 

daughter of Alexander Fraser of Kinnell and Lovat, who, 

as stated above, appears to have married about the same 

time Sir William's youngest sister, Marion. She was dead 

before August 1442. 9 They had issue : 

1. Sir Robert, in whose favour his father resigned his 

estates and offices in 1442. 10 He is said to have 

died v.p. in 1446," and to have married Janet, 

daughter of Sir John Seton of that Ilk, by whom 

1 Antiq. of Aberdeen, etc., iii. 318. 2 Errol Charters. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., 
ii. 57-59. * Fcedera, v. ii. 77. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., and cf. Carmichael's 
Tracts, 5 and 6. 6 Exch. Rolls, vii. 227. 7 See renunciation of that date 
cited below. 8 Regesta Avenionensia, lib. 344, f. 741. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig., 
30 October 1444. A 'MS. Genealogy of the Ogilvy Family' printed in the 
Sarras Book suggests that the Earl also married a sister of Marjorie 
Ogilvy, Countess of Crawford (see that title and Airlie), but no evidence 
of the lady, or corroboration of the statement has been found. lo Supra. 
11 Wood's Douglas's Peerage, ii. 189. 



KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 41 

he had a daughter Janet, married to Andrew, second 
Lord Gray, with issue. 1 There is a renunciation by 
Janet Keith, daughter of Sir Robert Keith, 'Mari- 
schal, 1 in favour of William, Earl Marischal, her 
uncle, of Fetteresso, Garvock, and other lands, dated 
16 March 1463-64. 2 

2. WILLIAM, who succeeded as second Earl Marischal. 

3. John, mentioned in a charter by his father dated 20 

May 1442. 3 

4. Alexander, mentioned in the same charter with his 

elder brother John. 4 

5. Janet, married, first, to John Leslie, Master of Rothes ; 

secondly, to Thomas, second Lord Innermeath. 5 

6. Egidia, married to James, second Lord Forbes. She 

survived him, and was still a widow 14 August 1473. 9 

II. WILLIAM, second Earl Marischal, the eldest surviving 
son, succeeded his father about 1463-64, sat in Parliament 
in 1467 and 1469, and in subsequent Parliaments of King 
James in. till 1479. He had a Great Seal charter of the 
lands of Garvals and others, 1476. He was still alive on 
10 December 1482, when his son was forespeaker for him, 7 
but in 1483 he was succeeded by his son, the third Earl. 8 

This Earl married Mariota, or Muriella, third daughter 
of Thomas, second Lord Erskine, by whom he had : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded. 

2. Anthony, mentioned, with his brothers Robert and 

John, in a deed of I486, 9 as ' brothers-german to 
William, Earl of Marischal,' also on 29 March 1503, 10 
and on 4 February 1513-14." 

3. Robert, who witnessed a charter by his brother William, 

Earl Marischal and Lord Keith, 3 March 1511. 12 

4. John of Craig. 13 The last male representative of this 

branch died at Hammersmith 21 June 1795. 14 

5. Alexander of Auquhorsk, 15 born 1460. 16 

1 Cf. vol. iv. 276. 2 Sir P. K.-M. Papers, No. 17. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 
confirmed 28 October 1444. * Beg. Mag. Sig. 5 Ibid. ; cf. vol. v. 4. 6 Cf. 
vol. iv. 51. 7 Acta Auditorum, 104. 8 Exch. Bolls, ix. 682. 9 Antiq. of 
Aberdeen, iv. 35. 10 Acta Dom. Cone. n See writ cited p. 45 infra. 
12 Reg. Mag. Sig. 13 Antiq. of Aberdeen, i. 622; iii. 49; iv. 594, 595, 683. 
14 Diet. Nat. Biog., xxx. 330. 15 Records Marischal College, i. 34. 
16 Scottish Notes and Queries, x. 60, where the descent of this branch of 



42 KEITH, EARL MARISCHAL 

III. WILLIAM, third Earl Marischal, sat in Parliament as 
Master of Keith 18 March 1481-82 ; as Earl Marischal 1483 
onwards. Forespeaker for his father 10 December 1482 ; 1 
succeeded and had sasine of the estates 1483. 2 In 1488 
he aided King James in. in raising an army to suppress 
the insurgent barons, who were keeping the heir-apparent 
to the throne, James, Duke of Rothesay, a prisoner, and 
after the indecisive skirmish at Blackness, he was one of 
the King's representatives to treat with the insurgents. 
On the death of the King in the same year, 11 June 1488, and 
the accession of King James iv., he remained faithful to the 
late King's party, and on 8 April 1489 he, with the Master 
of Huntly and Lord Forbes, concerted measures with the 
disaffected in the south of Scotland against the Govern- 
ment, and in October of that year was on the side of the 
vanquished at the battle of Talla Moss. He was, however, 
taken into the young King's favour, and pardoned, for in 
1501 he was made Commander of the Scottish forces along 
with the Earls of Argyll, Huntly, Crawford, and Lord 
Lovat, and he took part in the campaigns in the High- 
lands which ended in the capture of the notorious Donald 
Dhu. 3 He acquired the lands and barony of Uras from Patrick 
Crichton on 14 October 1495. 4 On 15 October 1504 he enter- 
tained King James iv. at Dunottar. 5 He attended the 
Parliament in Edinburgh called by King James iv. in 1510. 
He made a mortification of some lands to the Black Friars 
of Aberdeen, to pray for the souls of himself, his wife, his 
father and his mother. From his frequent use of the phrase, 
he was commonly given the nickname of ' Hearken and take 
heed.' He is said by Pitscottie 6 to have had a command at 
the battle of Flodden. This has, however, been denied. 
The banner carried by the Keiths at this battle is still 
in existence, having been saved by the standard-bearer, 
John Skirving of Plewlandhill, and it is now in the Advo- 
cates' Library, Edinburgh. During the years 1517-20, when 
John, Duke of Albany, was Governor of Scotland, and for 
the time absent in France, the Earl Marischal, along with 

the Keiths is given by Mr. P. J. Anderson. Riddell seems to think that 
Alexander was an illegitimate son of the Earl Marischal (Ms. Notes on 
Douglas); cf. vol. v. 4. l Acta Audit., 104. 2 Exch. Rolls, ix. 682. 
3 Gregory's Highlands and Islands, 98, etc. * Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 Lord 
High Treasurer's Accounts, ii. 463. 6 i. 275, ed. 1814. 



KEITH, EARL MABISOHAL 43 

Lords Borthwick and Ruthven, was given the custody of 
the young King in the Oastle of Edinburgh. In recompense 
for large sums advanced to the Treasury, the Regent 
granted him the ward of the heiress of Inverugie, which 
was confirmed to his grandson by the King, when of age, on 
24 July 1527. l He was lying very ill on 24 November 1526, 
and was dead before 2 May 1527. 2 He married (contract 
dated 11 January 1481-82) Elizabeth Gordon, third daughter 
of George, second Earl of Huntly, 3 and by her he had : 
1. Robert, Lord Keith and Master of Marischal. He 
had a charter to himself and his wife 8 January 1505- 
6, of the lands of Laidacht and Mulboy, in the parish 
of Skene, and of Auchincloich, Auchrynie, Auchorsk, 
and others, in the barony of Kintore. 4 He is said to 
have been killed at the battle of Flodden 9 September 
1513, but he sat in Parliament 26 November 1513, in 
the record called William by mistake, and he was wit- 
ness to a charter, cited below, to his brother David 
on 4 February 1513-14, and was still alive 5 April 
1514. 5 He married, in 1505, 8 Elizabeth or Beatrice 
Douglas, eldest daughter of John, second Earl of 
Morton, 7 and by her had : 

(1) WILLIAM, who succeeded as fourth Earl Marischal. 

(2) Robert, who, in 1543, was appointed Abbot of Deer in com- 

mendam. 8 He died in 1551, leaving an illegitimate son 
Andrew, who was created Lord Dingwall. (See that title.) 

(3) Elizabeth, married (contract 27 March 1530) to George, fourth 

Earl of Huntly. 9 

(4) Janet, married, in 1543, 10 to John, seventh Lord Glamis. 11 

(5) Christian, married, after 1529, as his second wife, to Robert 

Arbuthnott of Arbuthnott. 12 Her testament dated 12 July 
1553. 13 

(6) Beatrice, 1 * married to Alexander Eraser, 15 son and heir of Alex- 

ander Eraser, seventh of Philorth. He died v.p. in 1564. 16 

1 Reg. Sec. Sig., i. No. 3851. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 315 ; Reg. Sec. Sig., 
i. No. 3753. 3 Cf. vol. iv. 530 ; Antiq. of Aberdeen, iv. 34. * Reg. Mag. Sig. 
6 Protocol Book of James Young. 6 Ms. Harl., 6441. 7 Antiq. of Aber- 
deen, iii. 327; Reg. Mag. Sig., iii. 302. 8 Antiq. of Aberdeen, iv. 19. Cf. 
Papal Bulls, 24 June 1543 and 11 May 1544, and instrument taken by 
Bishop of Cesena, dated 9 July 1546, calling attention to these Bulls. 
Sir P. K.-M. Papers. 9 Cf. vol. iv. 436, where she is inadvertently styled 
daughter instead of sister of William, fourth Earl Marischal. 10 Protocol 
Book of Edward Dickson, Adv. Lib. n Reg. Mag. Sig., 6 February 
1543-44. J2 Cf. vol. i. 289, 290. 13 Ibid., 290. 14 Edin. Tests., 26 March 1576. 
There designed Alice. u Papal dispensation, 15 June 1534. 16 Frasera of 
Philorth, i. 148, 149, 150 ; Reg. Mag. Sig. 



44 KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 

2. William, to whom his father granted the barony of 

Troup on 3 October 1493. 1 He witnessed a charter 
by his father dated at Dunottar 3 March 1511. 2 He 
was killed at Plodden 9 September 1513. 

3. Gilbert, mentioned as substitute to his brother William 

in the charter of Troup above-mentioned. 3 He 
obtained from his father the lands of Pittendrum, 
and was in possession of them in 151 1. 4 He resigned 
this estate on succeeding to the barony of Troup, on 
his brother William's death in 1513. 5 He married 
Elizabeth Forbes, daughter of John, sixth Lord 
Forbes, who is mentioned as his wife in the year 1525. 8 
He is said to have died without issue, but at his death 
in December 1537, he left a son George, who was still 
minor in 1553,' and a daughter Elizabeth, contracted 
in 1548 to George Garden of Durlathers, whom she 
did not marry, and in 1550 to George Baird of Glen- 
arthill. 8 His widow, Elizabeth Forbes, was married, 
secondly, to Alexander Innes of that Ilk. 9 

4. Alexander, who got from his father the lands of Pit- 

tendrum, which his brother Gilbert had resigned. 10 
He married Marion Lundie, sister of Robert Lundie 
of Benholm. 11 She survived him, and was married, 
secondly (contract 22 September 1515), to Robert 
Arbuthnott, second son of Robert Arbuthnott of 
that Ilk. 12 She left a son : 

John of Pittendrum, who is said to have died in 1575, having 
married a lady named Barclay, by whom he had a son, 
William of Pittendrum, who died 1590. He married 
(contract 3 March 1581) Barbara Keith, daughter of 
Alexander Keith of Troup, 13 by whom he left two 
sons : 

(i) Alexander, who succeeded, but whose male line 
became extinct after the death of the issue of 
his great-grandson Alexander Keith of Uras, 
and 

(ii) William, whose male line ended in Sir Alexander 
Keith of Ravelston and Dunottar, Knight Mari- 

1 Confirmed 27 April 1494 ; Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid., ut supra. 
* Ibid. 6 Antig. of Aberdeen, ii. 390. 6 Ibid., iv. 72 note. 7 Acts and 
Decreets, viii. 272. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig., 4 June 1548, 9 September 1550. 
9 Vol. iv. 52. 10 Antiq. of Aberdeen, ii. 390. Cf. vol. i. 284. 12 Ibid. 
13 Cf. Proc. of Resignation by Robert Keith of Benholm, brother of 
George, fifth Earl Marischal, 29 March 1599. 



KEITH, EARL MARISCHAL 45 

schal of Scotland. On 9 March 1801, having 
laid his titles for proving his claim before the 
Lyon King of Arms, Sir Alexander obtained a 
patent for bearing the arms of the chief of the 
family of Marischal. In 1818 he claimed the 
Marischal's office on the ground that it had not 
fallen by the attainder in 1716, inasmuch as it 
had not been included in the Act, either through 
mistake or by confusion with the title, or be- 
cause it had fallen into temporary desuetude 
since the Union. He was made Knight Maris- 
chal of Scotland on the occasion of George iv.'s 
visit to Edinburgh in 1822. He got Corstorphine 
Hill from his father, who had bought it, and he 
owned landed property in the counties of Rox- 
burgh and Peebles. He left issue an only child, 
Helen Margaret Oliphant, married, on 28 Nov- 
e'mber 1833, to Sir "William Murray, Bart., of 
Ochtertyre, who prefixed the surname of Keith 
to his own after his marriage. 

5. Mr. David, who, on 4 February 1513-14, had a charter 

from his father William, Earl Marischal, of the lands 
of Torterston and Buthlaw in Aberdeenshire. He is 
described as 'Mr.' David Keith in a deed dated 12 
February 1527-28, 1 and is also named with his brother 
Mr. George in the writ cited below. 

6. Mr. George, named on 20 July 1527 in a letter by King 

James v. promising to prefer him and his brother 
Mr. David to the first vacant benefice. 2 It is possible 
he is the Mr. George Keith, rector of Keith, named 
in charters of 1531 and 1538. 3 

7. Janet, married to William, second Earl of Montrose/ 

8. Elizabeth, married, first, to Colin, Master of Oliphant, 5 

by whom, who was killed at Flodden 9 September 
1513, she had a son, who succeeded as third Lord 
Oliphant ; secondly, to William, second Lord Sinclair. 6 

9. Agnes, married to Sir Archibald Douglas of Glenbervie, 

and died before 1548, leaving issue. 7 

10. Christian, to whom a dispensation was granted by 
Edward, Bishop of Orkney, 12 February 1524, to 
marry Walter Ogilvy of Oraigboyne, related in the 
fourth degree. 8 

1 Sir P. K.-M. Papers, Nos. 30, 36. 2 Reg. Sec. Sig., i. No. 3846. * Reg. 
Mag. Sig., 16 August 1532; 6 January 1538-39. * Ibid., 3 August 
1525. 6 Ibid., 1 March 1504-5. Ibid., 17 April 1524. 7 The Douglas 
Book, ii. 117. 8 Fourteenth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. pt. iii. 232. 



46 KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 

IV. WILLIAM, fourth Earl Marischal, succeeded his 
grandfather. His uncle, Gilbert Keith of Troup, was his 
tutor. 1 On 22 April 1525, when under age, he had a 
royal charter of the lands and barony of Dunottar, 
lands and manor-house of Fetteresso, lands and barony 
of Garvock, with the offices of Sheriff of Kincardine and 
Constable of Kincardine, Oowie, and Durris; lands of 
Strathauchin and Oulpresso, with fishings in the Dee and 
Dye ; lands and barony of Uras ; baronies of Kintore and 
Aden, and lands of Easter Skene and Oarlogy in Aberdeen- 
shire, with the superiority of the lands and barony of 
Troup, Durne, and Auchinhamper in Banffshire, on the 
resignation of his grandfather the third Earl, these lands 
and offices being entailed upon himself and his heirs-male 
bearing the name and arms of Keith. Included in the same 
charter are the lands of Auquhorsk, Tertowie, Millbuy, and 
others in Aberdeenshire, which had belonged jointly to his 
father, Robert, Lord Keith, and Beatrice Douglas, his wife. 2 
He was still under curators on 6 September 1530, when he 
paid 500 to the Treasury, and bound himself to marry the 
eldest heiress of Inverugy. 3 On 27 January 1531-32 he 
had a charter of Kincardine, making it the head burgh of the 
county, 4 and on 16 August 1532 he had another charter of the 
lands of Fortheres in the county of Forfar. 5 On 30 June 1538 
he had another royal charter, to himself and his wife, Mar- 
garet Keith, of one-fourth of the lands of Ackergill and others 
in the counties of Caithness, Elgin, Banff, and Linlithgow.' 

He accompanied King James v. to France in 1536. 7 He 
was appointed an Extraordinary Lord of Session 2 July 1541. 8 
Sir Ralph Sadler describes him as being favourable in the 
year 1543 to the marriage of Queen Mary with Prince 
Edward, although opposed to her departure for England 
until of age, and as bearing ' a singular good affection ' to 
Henry vin. 9 

On 12 March 1543 the Scottish Parliament selected him 
as one of the keepers of the young Queen's person, and in 
June 1544 he signed the agreement to support the authority 
of the Queen-mother against the Earl of Arran. 10 He 

1 Reg. Sec. Sig., i. 3846. 2 Beg. Mag. Sig. 3 Ada Dom. Cone., xliii. f. 44. 
4 Beg. Mag. Sig. 6 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 Pitscottie, ed. 1814, p. 362. 8 Hailes' 
Cat., 2. 9 Sadler, i. 99, 169. 10 Tytler, ed. 1834, v. 326, 369. 



KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 47 

embraced the reformed faith, and was one of George 
Wishart's influential supporters after the return of the 
latter to Scotland in 1543. 1 From a minute to a letter from 
the Duke of Suffolk to Sir George Douglas in December 
1543, it appears that the Earl Marischal was at that date 
among the number of King Henry vni.'s pensioners in Scot- 
land, and it is stated, on 17 April 1544, that the Earl 
had undertaken, with ' Calder and Lord Grey's friends,' to 
destroy the Cardinal's abbey and town of Arbroath and 
other bishops' and abbots' houses north of the Forth when 
the forces of these last had gone to resist the English, and 
a few days later Henry viii., to whom this offer was com- 
municated, signified his approval and authorised payment 
to the above-named persons of 1000 to enable them to 
effect their purpose. 2 

In 1545 he was one of the twenty Scottish Peers selected 
to form in rotation, four at a time, the secret council of 
Lord Maxwell, Warden of the West Marches, in the Castle 
of Lochmaben. 3 His name appears frequently at the Privy 
Council meetings from 1546 to 1566 inclusive. 4 

In July 1547 he is reported as coming forward, in company 
with Lord Forbes, * with all the North,' towards Peebles. 5 
In 1547 he, with many of his friends and relations, took 
part in the battle of Pinkie. 6 On 28 August 1548 Lord 
Gray reports to Somerset that the Earl Marischal will 
favour England if ' honestly entertained,' and recommends 
that money should be sent him. 7 He attended the Parlia- 
ment held in August 1560, and was therein appointed a 
Lord of Articles, but he demurred to signing the contract 
with England. 8 In September 1561 he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the Great Council, and the following year he was 
selected as one of a committee of Privy Council, four 
members of which in rotation were to reside for two months 
together in attendance on the Queen. 9 On 12 November 
1561 he was appointed, for the second time, an Extraordinary 
Lord of Session, and he continued in office until 18 January 
1573. 10 On 18 March 1565 he formed one of the escort for 
Queen Mary on her way from Dunbar to Edinburgh. 11 In 

1 Tytler, ed. 1834, v. 412, 414. 2 Hamilton Papers, ii. 234. 3 Tytler, vii. 5. 
4 P. C. Reg. 6 Gal. State Papers, i. 9. 6 Sir P. K.-M. Papers. 7 Cal. 
State Papers, i. 163. 8 Ibid., 458, 460, 461, 462. 9 P. C. Reg,, i. 157, 217. 
10 Hailes' Cat., 4, 5. " CaL State Papers, ii. 269. 



48 KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 

October of the same year he was appointed keeper of the 
havens and sea passages between Oowie and Bervie in 
Kincardineshire, and on the 10th of the same month his 
son, the Oommendator of Deer, is named as supplying the 
place of the Earl Marischal in the order of battle of the 
royal army. 1 He was one of the Lords of the Articles on 

14 April 1567, 2 but in the Parliament held at Edinburgh on 

15 December of that year Robert Keith of Oantray appears 
as his deputy. 3 In June 1567 the Earl Marischal was in 
Edinburgh with the Earl of Morton. He accompanied the 
latter when his force advanced against Queen Mary and 
Bothwell, and he was one of the three recipients of a 
challenge from Bothwell to fight in single combat with him 
' to prevent more bloodshed.' 

On 31 July 1576 the Earl, having been summoned to 
appear before the Privy Council to answer for failure to 
observe and keep the points of the 'General Band,' was 
certified to be unable to travel to Edinburgh from Dun- 
ottar/ In 1577, in a report to Queen Elizabeth, the Earl 
is described as ' very rich, but he and his uncle's children 
are subject to great infirmities and sickness,' as 'in 
alliance and friendship with the Earl of Huntly and the 
Oreichtons,' and as ' very religious and of great substance.' 8 
During the later years of his life the Earl Marischal seems 
to have withdrawn from all participation in public affairs, 
and to have lived in great seclusion at Dunottar Oastle, so 
much so that he became known to the people in the district 
as 'William of the Tower.' His landed property lay in 
so many counties that it was said he could travel from 
Berwick to John o' Groats eating every meal and sleeping 
every night upon his own estates, and at his death they 
were valued at 270,000 merks (15,000 sterling) per 
annum. 6 On 18 June 1580 King James vi. visited him at 
Dunottar. 7 He died on 7 October 1581, having made up a 
list of legacies on 2 September 1581. 8 

He married Margaret, eldest daughter of William Keith, 
younger, of Inverugie, 9 and granddaughter and co-heiress 

1 P. C. Reg., i. 379, 381. * Cal. State Papers, ii. 321. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., 
iii. 3. P. C. Reg., ii. 547, 548. 6 Cal. Scot. Papers, v. 253, 256. 8 Sir P. 
K.-M. Papers. 7 Ibid. 8 Edin. Tests., 15 June 1582; P. C. Beg., iii. 323, 
522. 9 Supra, p. 34. 



KEITH, EARL MARISCHAL 49 

of Sir William Keith of Inverugie, 1 with whom he obtained 

large estates, 2 and by her had : 

1. William, Lord Keith, commonly called Master of 
Marischal. He was taken prisoner by the English 
on the occasion of one of the inroads across the 
Border by Scottish troops in the year 1558. There 
were evidently great difficulties as to the payment 
of his ransom, which was fixed at 2000, 3 and he 
remained a prisoner till 1567 or 1568. On 16 February 
1568-69 at Stirling he was appointed one of a com- 
mission for resisting the Earl of Huntly, 4 and from 
June 1569 onwards until 20 February 1577-78 his 
name appears as attending the sittings of the Privy 
Council. 5 He died at Dunottar 10 August 1580.' 
He married Elizabeth Hay (contract 14 January 
1543 7 ), eldest daughter of George, sixth Earl of 
Errol, 8 and by her had : 

(1) GEORGE, who succeeded as fifth Earl Marischal. 

(2) William, who accompanied his elder brother on his travels 

on the Continent. He studied under Theodore Beza at 
Geneva, who, on his death, wrote a Latin poem upon him. 
He was killed in a scuffle there in 1577, when still a very 
young man. 9 

(3) Mr. Robert, who, on 15 July 1594, on the resignation of his 

uncle, Lord Altrie, obtained a Great Seal charter of the 
lands of Benholm. 10 On 20 May 1605 he sold these lands to 
John Gordon of Cairnburrow. 11 In October 1590 he seized 
the Abbey of Deer, then owned by his brother, the Earl 
Marischal, and remained there for six weeks. On being dis- 
lodged by the Earl and Lord Altrie he fled to the castle of 
Fedderat, where eventually a truce was made with him. 12 
He married, but left no legitimate issue. 

(4) John, who, on 31 October 1598, had a remission for acts of 

fire-raising committed at Cowie in 1593 and 1597. 13 Con- 
tracted, 11 November 1577, u to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
Alexander Keith of Troup, styled fiar of Troup 1586. 15 

(5) Margaret, married, first, to William Keith, younger of Lud- 

quharn ; secondly, to Sir John Carnegie of Kinnaird ; thirdly, 
to Sir William Graham of Braco. 16 

(6) Jean, married to James Gordon of Haddo. 17 

1 Cf. p. 34, ante. 2 Antiq. of Aberdeen, iv. 620, 622. 3 Sadler, ed. 1809, 
ii. 163 note. * P. C. Peg., i. 645. 6 Ibid., ii. passim. 6 Jonston's 
Poemata, 40; Spalding Club Misc., ii. 53, where date given is 9 
August. 7 Sir P. K.-M. Papers, No. 438. 8 Antiq. of Aberdeen, iii. 328. 
9 Jonston's Poemata, 39. 10 Eeg. Mag. Sig. Ibid., 25 May 1605. 
12 Antiq. of Aberdeen, ii. 423. 13 Reg. Mag. Sig. 14 Reg. of Deeds, xvi. 472. 
15 Aberdeen Homings, iii. 103. w Acts and Decreets, clxxix. 162. 17 Vol. i. 
of this work, 86. 

VOL. VI. D 



50 KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 

(7) Mary, married (contract 29 June 1582) to Robert Arbuthnott 

of that Ilk. 1 She died 11 March 1619. 2 

(8) Barbara. 

There was also a natural daughter Anne, mentioned in 
the fourth Earl's -will. 3 

2. Robert, who succeeded his uncle Robert in 1551 as 

Commendator of Deer, created Lord Altrie. (See 
that title.) 

3. John, referred to as brother of William, Master of 

Marischal, in a writ of 24 May 1560, when he is said 
to have lands in Duffus. 4 He was probably the Mr. 
John Keith afterwards rector of Duffus. 5 

4. Agnes (or Annas), married, first (contract 7 February 

1561-62), 9 before 9 June 1562, to James, Earl of Mar, 
afterwards of Moray, who became Regent. 7 He was 
assassinated in 1570 ; and secondly, to Colin, sixth 
Earl of Argyll. 8 She died at Edinburgh 16 July 
1588. 9 

5. Alison, married to Alexander, Lord Saltoun, in 1550. 

He died in 1587. 10 

6. Mary, married (contract 5 June 1575) to John Campbell 

of Oalder, 11 for which a dispensation was required on 
the ground of consanguinity. 12 

7. Beatrix, married in 1558 to John Allardyce of Allar- 

dyce. 13 Died 19 May 1596. 14 

8. Joneta (or Johanna), married, before 15 April 1557, to 

Sir James Orichton of Frendraught. 15 

9. Margaret, married (contract 28 August 1569) to John 

Kennedy of Blairquhan. 18 

10. Elizabeth, contracted to marry Alexander Irvine of 
Drum, as appears from a discharge by said Alex- 
ander Irvine in favour of William, Earl Marischal, 
of certain obligations entered into between them 
in a contract of marriage between said Alexander 
and ' the said noble Lord's dochter umquhile Eliza- 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 St. Andrews Tests. 3 Edin. Tests. 4 Protocol 
Book of Mr. Robert Lumsden, f. 33, MS. Reg. Ho. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 30 
Jan. 1581-82, etc. 6 Sixth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 647. 7 Antiq. of Aber- 
deen, iv. 745. 8 Cf. vol. i. 345 ; Edin. Tests., 9 August 1591. 9 Ibid. 
10 Reg. Mag. Sig., 4 September 1550; Frasers of Philorth, ii. 62; Edin. 
Tests., 26 March 1576, there called Alice. " Reg. Mag. Sig., 10 July 1575. 
n Sir P. K.-M. Papers, No. 429. 13 Reg. Mag. Sig., 4February 1558-59; Edin. 
Tests. " Edin. Tests. 15 Reg. Mag. Sig., ut cit. ; Edin. Tests. 16 Ibid. 






KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 51 

beth Keith. The discharge is dated 15 March 
1580-81. 1 

11. Isabel, married to Alexander Strachan, eldest son of Sir 

John Strachan of Thornton, 2 and died August 1595. 3 

12. Barbara, who was promised in marriage to Alex- 

ander Strachan above mentioned, failing her sister 
Isobel. 4 Barbara was married to Alexander Forbes 
of Pitsligo. 5 

V. GEORGE, fifth Earl Marischal, Lord Keith and Altrie, 
eldest son of Lord Keith, was born in 1553. 6 When eighteen 
years old he was sent abroad, going first to Paris, then to 
Geneva (with his younger brother William), and travelling 
afterwards in Germany and Italy. 7 He succeeded his 
grandfather in 1581. 8 In the year 1562 he had a charter of 
the Kirktoun of Longley (now St. Fergus). 9 On 10 May 
1580 he is mentioned by Robert Bowes as having returned 
to Scotland from France, 10 and in October of the same year 
he was appointed a Gentleman of the King's Chamber. 11 
On 8 June 1585 he had a remission under the Great Seal 
to himself, his brother John, and others named, for being 
concerned in the death of William Keith, son and heir of 
Keith of Ludquharn. 12 

On 10 December 1585 he was appointed a member of the 
Privy Council by Act of Parliament. 13 On 14 May 1587 the 
Earl Marischal was present at the banquet given by the 
King to his nobles. 14 On 17 May and 29 July 1587 he had 
charters of the lands of the Friars Preachers and White 
Friars of Aberdeen, 15 and in August of the same year he had 
a charter of confirmation of all his lands and offices in the 
sheriffdoms of Haddington, Kincardine, Aberdeen, Banff, 
Morayshire, and Inverness. 16 Before 1 January 1591-92 he 
is found using the title and dealing with the estates of 
Altrie, 17 and on 26 September 1592 he had charters to him- 
self and his eldest son of the lands and lordship of Altrie, 
and of the baronies of Inverugie, Dunottar, and Keith. 18 

1 Sir P. K.-M. Papers, No. 446. 2 Ibid., No. 439. 3 Edin. Tests. * Sir 
P. K.-M. Papers, No. 439. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 1 March 1575-76. 6 Sir P. 
K.-M. Papers. 7 Ibid., and MS. Family Histories. 8 Jonston's Poemata, 
40. 9 Antiq. of Aberdeen, iv. 598. 10 Gal. State Papers, v. 421. " Ibid., 
531. 12 Reg. Mag. Sig. 13 P. C. Reg., iv. 36 note. " Ibid., 169 note. r Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 16 Ibid., 5 August 1587. 17 Ibid. 18 Ibid. 



52 KEITH, EARL MARTSOHAL 

On 17 May 1589 he went as Ambassador-extraordinary to 
the Court of Denmark to settle the marriage of James vi. 
with Anne of Denmark, 1 and at Elsinore, on 20 August 
1589 he acted as the King's proxy at the marriage ceremony. 2 
On 2 November 1589 a special Act was passed by the 
King and Council at Opsloe (Christiania), recording the 
King's grateful approbation for all the proceedings of the 
Earl Marischal, and acknowledging the heavy expenses to 
which he had been put by the manner in which he had 
carried out the embassy. The original grant of the fee of 
the temporal barony and lordship of Altrie, which was made 
29 July 1587, 3 was at the same time renewed and con- 
firmed to him. 4 In 1587 Robert Keith, uncle of the Earl 
Marischal, was lay Abbot or Oommendator of Deer, and to 
recompense the Earl for the great expense to which he 
would be put by the embassy to Denmark, it was arranged 
that the Abbacy should be dissolved and erected into a 
temporal lordship called Altrie. Robert the Commendator 
was made first Lor4 Altrie during his lifetime, and on his 
death the lordship was to pass to the Earl Marischal and 
his heirs. 5 The Earl appears, however, to have been 
designated Lord Altrie even before the death of the Com- 
mendator. 

It is evident that the great expenses of the embassy to 
Denmark had made considerable inroads even into the large 
fortune to which the Earl Marischal had succeeded. On 
28 May 1591 Lord Altrie applied to the Privy Council for 
suspension of letters of horning obtained against him by 
the Earl Marischal failing payment of sums amounting to 
201, 14s. lOd. for the temporal lands of the lordship of 
Altrie in relief of the Earl's proportion of the taxation 
authorised by Parliament for the expenses connected with 
the King's marriage. 6 On 20 July 1592 the Earl Marischal 
was found guilty of corresponding with the exiled Earl of 
Bothwell, and was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle for 
several weeks. 7 

On 2 April 1593 he founded Marischal College in Aber- 
deen University, endowing it with the former possessions 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. ; P. C. Reg., iv. 396 note ; Melville's Memoirs, 367. 
2 Spalding Club Misc., ii. 63. 3 Reg. Mag. Si#. * P. C. Reg., iv. 438. 
6 Reg. Mag. Sig. , ut supra. 6 P. C. Reg. , i v. 628, 629. 7 Sir P. K. -M. Papers. 



of the Black and White Friars of Aberdeen, and with the 
lands which had belonged to the chaplainries of Bervie and 
Oowie. 1 The foundation was ratified by Act of Parliament 
21 July 1593. 2 In 1594, on the proposed forfeiture of the 
Catholic Lords, the Earl Marischal was one of the five 
Lords of the Articles who did not agree to the forfeiture. 3 
In 1606 there began a dispute, long continued, between the 
High Constable of Scotland and the Earl Marischal regard- 
ing the respective rights and privileges of their offices. In 
1641 the Estates delivered judgment, defining these rights 
and privileges, but in spite of this and previous decisions, 
the relative duties of the Constable and Marischal continued 
vague in practice until the Union of the two Parliaments/ 

On 6 June 1609, King James vi. constituted the Earl 
Commissioner to represent His Majesty in the Parliament 
of Scotland, which was opened on the 15th of that month. 5 
On 18 December 1618 he had a charter to himself and 
his wife, of the lands and barony of Benholm, which he had 
bought from John Gordon. 8 

The Earl died at Dunottar Castle 2 April 1623, 7 having 
married, first (contract dated 4 et seq. February 1580-81), 
Margaret, sister of Alexander, first Earl of Home; 8 she 
died May 1598 ; 9 secondly, Margaret, daughter of James, 
fifth Lord Ogilvy of Airlie. 10 She survived him, and was 
married, secondly, before 20 January 1624, to Sir Alexander 
Strachan of Thornton. 11 

By his first wife he had : 

1. WILLIAM, Lord Keith, who succeeded. 

2. Anne, married (contract dated 5 March 1604 1Z ) to 

William, seventh Earl of Morton. 13 (See that title.) 

3. Margaret, married (contract dated 23 December 1615), 

as his first wife, to Sir Robert Arbuthnott of Arbuth- 
nott. She died soon after without issue. 14 
By his second wife he had : 

4. James, of Benholm, who had a charter of the lands of 

Benholm 8 December 1619. 15 He married, before 19 

1 Records of Marischal College, ii. 39. 2 Ibid., 84. 3 Ibid. 4 Terry's 
The Scottish Parliament. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig. 8 Ibid. T P. C. Reg., xiii. 
Pref. Ixvi. B Reg. Mag. Sig., 1 May 1581 ; cf. vol. iv. 462. a Edin. 
Tests. 10 Sir P. K.-M. Papers, No. 114 ; Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 November 1612. 
11 P. C. Reg., xiii. 400. 12 Sir P. K.-M. Papers. 13 Reg. Mag. Sig., 29 July 
1624. " Cf. vol. i. 302. 15 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



54 KEITH, EARL MARISCHAL 

March 1623, Margaret, daughter of Sir David Lindsay 
of Edzell, by whom he had : 

(1) Margaret, married, before 1650, to Sir John Elphinstone of 

Elphinstone, and had issue. 1 

(2) Elizabeth,* married, as his first wife, to Sir Archibald 

Primrose of Dalmeny. 

(3) Anna, married to Patrick Smith of Braco (contract dated 

1652 3 ). 

5. Alexander, baptized 10 October 1611. 4 

6. John 5 (described on 12 December 1611 as third lawful 

son of George, Earl Marischal, and Dame Margaret 
Ogilvy 6 ), to whom his father granted the lands of 
Benholm, failing heirs-male of the body of his brother 
James. 7 He left no lawful male issue, 8 but he had a 
natural son Gilbert, legitimated 19 May 1587. 9 The 
later Keiths of Benholm were of a different family. 

7. Mary, died 14 October 1620, anno cetatis 5. 10 

VI. WILLIAM, sixth Earl Marischal, was born about 1585. 
He succeeded his father in 1623. On 21 October 1612 he had 
a charter of the baronies of Inverugie and Dunottar, with 
the forest of Cowie, with remainder to Sir Robert Keith of 
Benholm, whom failing, to Gilbert Keith of Troup. 11 

In 1601 he was sent abroad to finish his education, and 
visited Paris, Orleans, Tours, and Saumur. He seems to 
have interested himself in the project for the colonisation 
of Nova Scotia, and on 28 May 1625 he had a charter from 
King James i. of 48,000 acres there, to be denominated the 
barony of Keith-Marischal, with remainder to his heirs- 
male and assigns whatsoever. There was no grant of the 
dignity of Baronet. On 28 May 1625, by a letter dated at 
Whitehall, he was granted the office of Admiral, and the 
privilege of coining money within his territories in New 
Scotland. There is apparently no other notice extant 
regarding the Earl's connection with the Colony, 12 and the 

1 The Elphinstone Book, by Sir William Fraser, i. pp. xiv, xv ; Edin. 
Tests., 12 June 1662. 2 Ibid., 23 January 1637. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 4 July 
1657. 4 Aberdeen Reg. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 December 1619. 6 Sir P. K.-M. 
Papers, No. 465. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 December 1619; Reg. Sec. Sig., xc. 
f. 101. 8 Ms. Hist., 1809, penes Sir P. K.-M. 9 Reg. Sec. Sig., Iv. 64. 
10 Tombstone at Benholm, New Stat. Ace. n Reg. Mag. Sig. See his 
retour, dated 1630, as heir ' sui fratris atavi tritavi,' Robert Keith, who 
lived in the reign of Robert Bruce. Sir P. K.-M. Papers, No. 136. R. 
Riddell's MS. Baronetage ; Reg. Mag. Sig. 



KEITH, EARL MABISCHAL 55 

value of his lands and privileges there was probably not 
great. 1 

On 18 April 1623 he purchased from his brother James 
Keith of Benholm the lands of Kinellar and others, in the 
thanage of Kintore, 2 having on 22 February 1623 had a 
charter of the lands and barony of Benholm, which James 
Keith had sold to Sir Alexander Strachan of Thornton. 3 
He was made a Privy Councillor by King Charles I. 25 July 
1626, 4 and on 12 July of this year he was appointed a 
member of the Council of War for Scotland. 5 

He was placed in command by the King, on 11 April 1627,' 
of the three Scottish warships which had been bought 
in July 1626, for 5200, for the protection of the coasts of 
Scotland, but it is stated that ' notwittistanding of diverse 
letters wrettin to him by his Majestic for setting to sea 
. . ., my Lord wold never boate, but gave trust to 
. . ., the 3 capitans of them shippes, quho dranke and made 
good cheire, bot wold not offend the enimey.' 7 There was 
a dispute between the Earl Marischal and the Earl of 
Linlithgow, Lord High Admiral of Scotland, as to their 
respective rights in the disposal of these ships, and on 12 
December 1627 the King directed the matter should be 
regulated according to agreements made by the King with 
them. 8 In January 1628 the Earl and Countess presented 
a petition to the Privy Council asserting the Earl's right 
as Admiral within the bounds of his lands contiguous to the 
sea, from the Water of Dye to the Water of Banff, as also 
from the Water of Dye to the North Esk, within the whole 
sheriffdom of Kincardine, as granted to him by Ludovick, 
Duke of Lennox, Great Admiral of Scotland. 9 On 9 July 
1631 the Earl was constituted anew Commander of the 
King's navy in Scotland, consisting then of six vessels 
fitted out by the Earl, and of one belonging to the King. 10 

In November 1629 a commission was issued under the 
Signet to the Earl Marischal, Sir William Keith of Lud- 
quharn, Nathaniel Keith of Cocklaw, Alexander Keith of 
Pittendrum, Robert Keith of Whiterig, and others named, 
to apprehend James Keith of Craig, who had broken out of 

1 Sir P. K.-M. Papers. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., 15 February 1627. 3 Reg. Mag. 
Sig. * P. C. Reg., 2nd ser., i. 362. 6 Ibid., Pref., Ixiv. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
7 Balfour's Annals, ii. 139, 140, 141. 8 P. C. Reg., 2nd ser., ii. 149. 9 Ibid., 
354, 355, 356. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



56 KEITH, EARL MABISOHAL 

Dunottar Castle, where he had been placed in ward by the 
Earl for debt of upwards of 20,000.' On 26 January 1630 a 
similar commission was issued for the apprehension of James 
Keith of Harvieston, for debt of like amount, for which 
money the Earl Marischal had, through the escape of the said 
James Keith out of ward at Dunottar, become responsible. 2 

In April 1631 the Earl Marischal obtained permission from 
the Council to exchange victual for Norwegian timber to 
repair the harbour of Peterhead. 3 He was present in his 
official capacity at the coronation of King Charles I. 18 
June 1633, and fastened on the King's spurs. 4 He was ap- 
pointed a member of the Privy Council by King Charles, 
and attended a meeting of the Council in Edinburgh so late 
as 24 September 1635. 5 

He died at Dunottar Castle 28 October 1635, * about the 
50 zeire of his age.' 8 

He married (contract 12 October 1609 7 ) Mary Erskine, 
daughter of John, Earl of Mar, who was married, secondly, 
to Patrick Maule, first Earl of Panmure. (See that title.) 
By her he had : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded as seventh Earl Marischal. 

2. GEORGE, eighth Earl Marischal. 

3. Sir Robert. Considerable mystery surrounds Sir 

Robert. He is not mentioned by Crawfurd or Sir 
Robert Douglas, and his name first appears in Mr. 
Wood's edition of the latter's Peerage, where he is said 
to have died unmarried. He seems to have been 
born between 1620 and 1624, and to have been educated 
at Marischal College, Aberdeen. After some soldier- 
ing in Scotland, then afflicted by civil war, he entered 
the service of the French King. On 12 April 1659 he 
was found by an inquest held at Forfar to be ' des- 
titute of his natural wit, furious and natural idiot,' 
and his immediate younger brother John was ap- 
pointed his tutor, curator, and administrator.' It 
has been suggested, though without positive proof, 
that Sir Robert married in France, and left de- 
scendants. 8 An heir-male of Sir Robert's body would 

1 P. C. Reg., 2nd ser., iii. 340. 2 Ibid., 431. 3 Ibid., xviii. 201. 
4 Balfour's Ann., iii. 398. 6 P. C. Reg., xx. 114. 6 Balfour's Ann., ii. 223. 
7 Cf. vol. v. of this work, 622. 8 From information communicated by Mr. 
J. R. N. Macphail, Advocate. 



KEITH, EARL MARISCHAL 57 

be the head of this ancient family, and, but for the 
attainder, Earl Marischal of Scotland. 

4. Alexander, an idiot. 1 He was dead before 1654. 2 

5. John, first Earl of Kintore, called ' seventh and youngest 

son ' in MS. Hist, of John, first Earl of Kintore. 3 (See 
that title.) 

6. Mary, married, in April 1633, 4 to John, Lord Kilpont, 

eldest son of William, Earl of Menteith. 5 

7. Jean, married to Alexander Forbes, first Lord Pitsligo. 6 

8. Anne. 

VII. WILLIAM, seventh Earl Marischal, was born in 1614, 7 
and succeeded his father in 1635. A few years after his 
succession, the King obtained a loan of 15,000 sterling, 
which was not wholly repaid until 1672. 8 It is said that by 
his extravagant habits he reduced himself and his successors 
to absolute poverty. 9 

On 8 February 1639 he had a renewed grant from King 
Charles I. of his whole lands of the lordship of Deer, includ- 
ing those not included in the former's grant to his grand- 
father. 10 In this year he commenced to take an active 
part in Covenanting affairs, and was given charge of Aber- 
deenshire, along with Montrose and Alexander Leslie, in the 
first Bishops' War. 11 Henceforward he was deemed the head 
of the Covenanting party in the counties of Aberdeen, 
Banff, and Kincardine. 

On 15 March 1639 he entertained the Committee of the 
Covenanters at Dunottar, and proceeded to raise troops 
from among his tenantry to fight for the cause. He joined 
Montrose on 29 March, and entered Aberdeen with him. 
On 24 April the Covenanters met at Kintore, and with the 
Earl Marischal at their head marched again to Aberdeen, 
three thousand strong. He then proclaimed himself 
governor of the town, and a month later returned to Dun- 
ottar. In the following month, after the rout at Turriff, 
at which he was not present, he re-entered Aberdeen with 
a few hundred horsemen, and quartered his men in the 

1 Sir P. K.-M. Papers. This fact is suggestive, when Sir Robert's 
malady is considered. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. * Reg. Mag. Sig., 1 April 1633. 
6 Ibid. 6 Balfour's Ann., ii. 226. 1 sir P. K.-M. Papers. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 
10 Ibid. Ibid. 



58 KEITH, EARL MABISOHAL 

town. Soon afterwards, on being joined by Montrose, he 
returned again to Dunottar, leaving Montrose in Aberdeen, 
whence, on 15 June, making a sudden sortie with twelve 
hundred men, the latter routed a Royalist force of two 
thousand five hundred men under Lord Aboyne. The 
Treaty of Berwick put an end to hostilities for a time. 

On 2 March 1640 the Earl entered Aberdeen with Lord 
Eraser, and destroyed the Bond of Allegiance to the King 
which the townsfolk had signed, and in the following April, 
besides being empowered to enforce the Covenant in the 
vicinity, he received orders from the Council to convene all 
the nobles and gentry in order to take measures for raising 
regiments to aid the common cause. Entering Aberdeen 
on 5 May, he extorted nearly 6000 merks from the in- 
habitants. In June he again set out for Aberdeen from 
Dunottar with General Munro, and again levied a fine 
upon the town. On 15 July he was back in Aberdeen, after 
entering and despoiling the Castle of Strathbogie, and 
terrified the inhabitants into signing a bond, in which they 
submitted themselves and the town to him, and assured him 
of their devotion to the common cause. He then forced 
them to produce a hundred and forty men to join General 
Leslie's expeditionary force into England. In August 1641 
he was deputed to meet the King on his way to the north, 
and the following month he was appointed a member of 
the Privy Council. In March 1645, Montrose, now leading 
the Royalist forces, appeared before Dunottar Castle and 
summoned the Marischal to surrender some fugitives who 
had taken refuge there. At the same time Montrose en- 
deavoured to persuade him to espouse the cause of the 
King; but the Marischal treated his messages with con- 
tempt, and Montrose, deeming the castle to be impreg- 
nable, departed, after burning the town of Stonehaven. 1 
At the Parliament held at St. Andrews in August 1645, the 
Marischal was made a Commissioner for Visitation of the 
Universities. 

In 1648 he raised a troop of horse at his own expense, 
and joined the Duke of Hamilton in his expedition across 
the Borders for the liberation of Charles i., and he fought 
at the battle of Preston. On 8 July 1650 he entertained 

1 Mem. of the Troubles, ii. 307. 



59 

King Charles n. at Dunottar, and in January 1651 officiated 
at his coronation at Scone. 

On 6 June 1651, the last day of the Scottish Parliament's 
session at Stirling, the Earl Marischal, as hereditary keeper 
of the honours, took measures to have them transferred to 
Dunottar Castle, and to keep them there until further notice. 
It is stated in the Dunottar accounts for 1651 that the Earl 
arrived at Dunottar from Stirling on 12 June. They were 
there locked up, and the Earl took the key with him when 
he went to Alyth to attend a meeting of the Committee 
of Estates on 28 August. Upon that date he and other 
members of the Committee were taken prisoners there by 
a party of General Monck's cavalry. He, however, found 
means of sending the key to his mother, who had become 
Lady Panmure, and she immediately hastened to Dunottar, 
which the English forces were by this time rapidly ap- 
proaching, and committed the regalia to the care of George 
Ogilvy of Barras, who, by commission dated at Stirling on 
8 July had been appointed Governor of the Castle by the 
Earl Marischal. But the story of the regalia is well known, 
and need not be repeated here. 

On 10 September 1660, Captain Humphry Mason, the 
Commonwealth Governor, vacated Dunottar Castle, and it 
was given into the charge of Robert Keith of Whiteriggs, 
Deputy-Sheriff of the Mearns, on behalf of Lord Marischal. 
The Earl arrived at Dunottar from London in October 1660, 
and on the 8th of that month the regalia were returned to 
his custody by Mr. Grainger and Ogilvy of Barras. He was 
made a Privy Councillor, and afterwards Lord Privy Seal, 
which latter office he held until his death. At the opening 
of Parliament in Edinburgh in 1661, the Earl Marischal 
attended in state, and handed over the regalia. During 
the latter years of his life he lived chiefly in London. 

He died at Inverugie in March 1670-71. 1 He married, 
first, in 1637 (contract 22 May 1637), Elizabeth Seton, 
eldest daughter of George, second Earl of Winton ; 2 she 
died in childbirth 16 June 1650, aged twenty-eight; 3 
secondly, in April 1654, 4 Anne Douglas, eldest daughter 
of Robert, Earl of Morton ; she died s.p. about 1689. 5 

1 Sir P. K.-M. Papers. 2 Aberdeen Burgh Sas., xxxviii. 437. 3 Hay's 
Gen. Coll., ii. 266. * Malcolm's Londinum Redivivum. 5 Edin. Tests. 



60 KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 

By his first wife he had : 

1. William, born 11 August 1638, 1 died an infant. 

2. Mary, married, first, 29 October 1657, to Sir James 

Hope of Hopetoun ; 2 secondly, to Sir Archibald 
Murray of Blackbarony. 

3. Elizabeth, married (contract dated 25 March 1658) to 

Robert, second Viscount Arbuthnott. She died 
February 1664. 3 

4. Jean, married (contract 22 and 23 September 1669, 4 

where she is called youngest daughter) to George, 
third Lord Banff. 5 

5. Isabel, married to Sir Edward Tumour. 

6. Margaret, born 16 July 1644 ; 6 died an infant. 

VIII. GEORGE, eighth Earl Marischal, succeeded his 
brother in 1670. As a young man he took service in the 
French army, where he rose to the rank of colonel. In 
1648 he returned to Scotland, and placed his services at the 
disposal of the King against the Commonwealth. He 
fought at the battles of Preston and Worcester, and after 
both these engagements he was taken prisoner. What 
happened to him from the date of his capture after the 
battle of Worcester until the Restoration is not known, but 
after the latter event he is found still pursuing a military 
career. 7 On succeeding to his brother, he found the family 
estates heavily burdened and in great disorder. Many of 
the family estates had to be sold, but by the exercise of 
great economy, he was able at his death to leave the 
estates which remained to him practically free of debt, 
although greatly reduced in size. 8 He rebuilt the house of 
Fetteresso, which had been burnt down by Montrose during 
the Civil War. In 1675 he received from James, Duke of 
Albany and York, Lord High Admiral of Scotland, a gift 
of Admiralty between the waters of North Esk and Spey. 
In 1681 he signed the Declaration against Leagues and 
Covenants. He died in 1694. He married, 6 February 1662,' 
Mary Hay (contract dated January 1662 10 ), eldest daughter 

1 Tranent Reg. 2 Lament's Diary, 102. 3 Cf. vol. i. 308. 4 Gen. Reg. 
Sas., xxiii. 331. 6 Cf. vol. ii. 20, 21. 6 Tranent Reg. T Sir P. K.-M. 
Papers. 8 Ibid. 9 Chronicle of Perth, 45. 10 Sir P. K.-M. Papers. 



KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 61 

of George, second Earl of Kinnoull, and by her had an 
only son, 

IX. WILLIAM, ninth Earl Marischal, probably born be- 
tween 1664 and 1666, who took the oaths and his seat 
in Parliament 19 July 1698. 1 In the Parliament of 6 May 
1703, he protested against the calling of any of the Earls 
before him. He was strongly opposed to the Union, and 
entered a solemn protest against it in the Rolls of Parlia- 
ment. When the Union became an accomplished fact, it 
was enacted that the regalia of Scotland should be kept 
in the Castle of Edinburgh. The Earl Marischal handed 
them over by deputy to the Earl of Glasgow, Lord Treasurer 
Depute, protesting at the same time that their delivery 
was not to prejudice the heritable right of the Marischal 
to keep them when Parliament was sitting or otherwise, 
in the Gastle of Dunottar or elsewhere, and to receive 
intimation before their removal from the Grown Room in 
Edinburgh Castle. 2 In 1705 and 1708 the Earl had warrants 
for the Order of K.T. from King James, 3 and was imprisoned 
for a short time as a Jacobite, but in 1710 he was elected 
one of the sixteen Scottish Representative Peers in the 
Parliament of Great Britain. He died in London 27 May 
1712. He married, about 1690, Mary Drummond, eldest 
daughter of James, fourth Earl of Perth, High Chancellor 
of Scotland, and by her, who died at Edinburgh 7 March 
1729, 4 had : 

1. GEORGE, who succeeded. 

2. James, born at Inverugie 16 June 1696. He took 

part, with his brother, in the rebellion of 1715, and 
with him was attainted for high treason. He escaped 
abroad, and became an officer in the Spanish army. 
In 1728 he entered the Russian service, and was at 
once given the rank of major-general. In 1740 he 
came to England, and although still a Jacobite, was 
graciously received by King George n. On his return 
to Russia he was made Governor of the Ukraine. 
In 1747 he found it advisable to leave the Russian 
service, and within a month thereafter he entered 

1 Minutes of Parliament. 2 Proc. of Soc. Antiq. of Scot., xxiv., years 
1889-90; Regalia Papers, Bannatyne Club. 3 Ruvigny's Jacobite Peer- 
age, 194. 4 Musgrave's Obituary. 



62 KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 

the service of Frederick n., King of Prussia (Frederick 
the Great), as field-marshal. Two years later he 
was made Governor of Berlin, with a salary of 
1600 a year. He was killed at the battle of Hoch- 
kirchen, 14 October 1758, in the sixty-third year of 
his age. A monument to his memory was placed 
in the church of that town in 1766 by his kinsman 
Sir Robert Murray-Keith. He was buried by the 
King of Prussia in the Garrison Church at Berlin. 
His statue was erected in Berlin, and a replica of 
it was presented to the town of Peterhead by the 
German Emperor. He was never married. 

3. Mart/, married, as his second wife (contract 8 February 

1711), to John, sixth Earl of Wigtoun. She died 
in 1721. 

4. Anne, married in 1719 to Alexander, sixth Earl of 

Galloway. (See that title.) She died 1728. 

X. GEORGE, tenth Earl Marischal, was born in 1694, 1 and 
succeeded his father in 1712. He entered the Army, and in 
1711 was commissioned by Queen Anne as captain in the 
Earl of Hyndford's Dragoons. On 11 January 1714 he 
received a commission from King George I. as captain and 
lieutenant-colonel of the second troop of Horse Grenadier 
Guards. This commission was, however, soon afterwards 
cancelled at the instigation of the Duke of Argyll, who 
at the same time advised King George i. to remove many of 
the Scottish nobility from their positions in the public ser- 
vice, amongst others who were thus treated being the Earl 
of Mar, the Earl Marischal's kinsman, who was deprived of 
his office of Secretary of State. Soon afterwards the Earl 
set out for Scotland, and on his way north met his brother 
James at York, who was coming south to take up a com- 
mission in the English army. The latter, on being told 
what had occurred, turned his horse's head, and the two 
brothers returned to Scotland together. The Earl Marischal 
joined the Earl of Mar, and in 1715 was present at the so- 
called ' hunting party ' at Braemar on 26 August. At the 
battle of Sheriffmuir on the 13 November following he com- 

1 Records of Marischal College, ii. 284. 



KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 63 

manded the right wing of the Jacobite army, consisting of 
about 1500 horse. 

On 27 December he joined the Chevalier at Fetteresso, 
who had before this honoured his house at Newburgh with 
his presence. When James left for France, the Marischal, 
after a march through the north of Scotland, escaped also 
to the Continent. For his part in the rising the Earl 
Marischal was attainted for high treason, his estates, 
entered officially as being worth at the sale in 1720 2998, 
4s. 4d. per annum, were forfeited, and the title and office 
of Marischal were confiscated. About the year 1717 he 
arrived in Paris on a mission connected with the Jacobite 
cause. After leaving Paris he lived for a short time at 
Valencia, and was granted a small annual pension by the 
Court of Spain. 

He took command of the Spanish Jacobite expedition 
which landed in Scotland 16 April 1719, and which was 
defeated at Glenshiel 18 June of that year. In this engage- 
ment he was badly wounded, but effected his escape to 
Spain. There he lived for a long time chiefly at Valencia, 
continuing to correspond with the Chevalier. In 1744 it was 
proposed that he should again have the command of a small 
force to be landed in Scotland, but the scheme was not 
carried out, and he took no part in the rising of 1745. There- 
after he left Spain, and in 1746 took up his residence in 
Venice. His brother James, having quitted the Russian 
service for that of Prussia, persuaded him to come and 
live with him there, and on 28 August 1751 Frederick the 
Great appointed him his ambassador in Paris. In 1752 he 
was removed from Paris, given the order of the Black 
Eagle, and made Governor of Neufchatel. On the death of 
his brother Marshal Keith at Hochkirchen in 1758, Frederick 
sent him a letter of condolence, signing himself ' your old 
friend till death.' In 1759 he was sent as Prussian ambas- 
sador to Spain. On 29 May of the same year he was 
granted a free pardon by King George n., and in the warn- 
ing transmitted by him to Pitt from Madrid of the family 
compact between King Carlos and Louis xv. he paid tribute 
to the generosity with which the King had re-admitted him 
as a citizen of his native country. In 1760 an Act was passed 
permitting him to inherit, notwithstanding his attainder, 



64 KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 

any title or estate which might descend to him, and in the 
following year, on the death of William, fourth Earl of 
Kintore, he succeeded to the title and estates. He declined, 
however, to take the title, and was never generally de-' 
signed as Earl of Kintore. In April 1761 he visited London, 
and was graciously received by the King, whence he re- 
turned to Spain, but in March 1762 he was once more in 
the Principality of Neufchatel, where Rousseau came to 
visit him. In August 1763 he again left for Scotland. His 
estates had been sold in 1720 to the York Buildings Com- 
pany, and by an Act of Parliament of 1761 he was granted 
out of the sums realised by the sale, and interest remain- 
ing due on the purchase, the sum of 3618, with interest 
from Whitsunday 1721. In 1764 he purchased part of the 
estates, but immediately resold them to James Ferguson 
of Pitfour, with the exception of the principal family seat, 
Dunottar Castle, which he sold to Alexander Keith of 
Ravelston, a descendant of the third Earl (q.v.). On the 
urgent request of King Frederick the Great, he returned 
to live in Prussia. A villa-cottage was built for him at 
Potsdam, where he lived, a trusted friend of the King 
until his death, unmarried, 28 May 1778. l 

The estate of Kintore, with the old castle of Hall- 
forest and Keith-hall, with the title of Earl of Kintore, 
devolved on Lord Falconer of Halkertoun as heir of entail, 
upon the death of the tenth Earl Marischal, the re- 
mainder of his property being divided among his grand- 
nephews, John, eleventh Lord Elphinstone, and his 
brothers the Hon. William Elphinstone and the Hon. 
George Keith Elphinstone. 2 

CREATIONS. Between 1446 and July 1451, Lord Keith. 
Between 6 August 1457 and 7 October 1458, Earl Marischal. 
29 July 1587, Lord Altrie. 

ARMS. Argent, on a chief or three pallets gules. Behind 
the shield two batons gules placed saltirewise, semee of 

1 Memoirs of Marshal Keith, Diet, of Nat. Biog., xxx. ; Affairs of Scot- 
land, by David, Lord Elcho ; Sir P. K.-M. Papers. 2 See title Elphin- 
stone, vol. iii. 548. 



KEITH, EARL MARISOHAL 65 

thistles, ensigned on the top with an imperial crown or, 
as badges of the office of Great Marischal of Scotland. 

CREST. A hart's head erased proper, attired with ten 
tynes or. 

SUPPORTERS. Two harts proper, attired as in the crest. 

MOTTO. Veritas vincit. 

[c. T. G.] 



VOL. VI. 



DRUMMOND, EARL OF MELFORT 




OHN DRUMMOND, 

second son of James, 
third Earl of Perth (see 
that title), was born 
about 1649. He entered 
the Army, and may have 
been the John Drummond 
who had a commission 
as ensign in Sir William 
Lockhart's Regiment of 
Foot, 25 July 1672. 1 In 
the following year, how- 
ever, he was appointed a 
captain in the Scots Foot 
Guards. In 1679 he was 
made Deputy-Governor of 
Edinburgh Castle, and in 

1680 Lieutenant-General and Master of the Ordnance. In 

1681 he became Treasurer-Depute of Scotland under the 
Marquess of Queensberry, and in 1684 Secretary of State 
for Scotland. On the accession of King James vii. he was 
continued in office, and on 14 April 1685 was created 
VISCOUNT OF MELFORT AND LORD DRUMMOND 
OF GILESTOUN, getting a grant of the lands and barony 
of Melfort (part of the forfeited Argyll estates). He had 
also, on 19 March 1686, a charter of the barony of Muir- 
hall. In May following he exchanged these lands with the 
Crown for the lands and baronies of Cesnock, Duchall, 
Riccartoun, and others, which had fallen to the Crown as 
forfeited. 2 On 12 August 1686 he was created EARL OF 
MELFORT, VISCOUNT OF FORTH, LORD DRUMMOND 

1 Dalton's Army Lists. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., viii. 582, 592. 



DRUMMOND, EARL OF MBLFORT 67 

OF RIOCARTOUN, OASTLEMAINS, AND GILSTOUN. 1 
In both his patents of Peerage the remainder was to the 
heirs-male of his body of his second marriage, whom failing, 
to the heirs-male whatever of his body. The postponement 
of the children of his first wife to the succession arose from 
the fact that the Lundins, the family to which she belonged, 
were zealous Protestants, and would not allow her two 
sons to be brought up as Roman Catholics, to which faith 
their father had turned. On 6 June 1687 Melfort was made 
a Knight of the Order of the Thistle on the Institution of 
that Order. He was in London when the Prince of Orange 
landed, and at once took the precaution of resigning his 
estates and having them regranted to his wife, with 
remainder to their son John, 2 Lord Forth, and his heirs- 
male, whom failing, his heirs-female, whom failing, his 
heirs whatsoever. Having thus endeavoured to make his 
position as secure as possible, Melfort left England before 
the King, landing at Ambleteuse 16 December 1688. Mean- 
while his house in Edinburgh was ransacked by the mob, 
and all his papers scattered or destroyed. At St. Germains, 
however, he soon became a person of importance: being, 
as a contemporary chronicler relates, ' very handsome, 
. . . very ambitious, with abundance of lively sense, . . . 
very proud, and cannot bear a rival in business,' he 
speedily gained the confidence of the King, and was one of 
his most influential advisers. In 1689 Melfort accompanied 
James to Ireland, but made himself so unpopular in that 
country that he was sent back to France, from which 
country Louis xiv. despatched him as Jacobite envoy to 
Rome. His estates having been sequestrated, many of his 
moveables were seized in London in 1691 ; and his pictures, 
including specimens of Vandyke, Rubens, and others, were, 
according to Evelyn, sold in 1693, and excited considerable 
competition. In 1691 Melfort had returned to St. Germains, 
and was made a K.G. by James, who also, 17 April 1692, 3 
created him Duke of Melfort, a title which, it is said, was 
accepted and confirmed by Louis xiv. on the death of King 
James, when the French King granted to the Duke of 
Melfort and his male posterity the 'honneurs du Louvre,' 

1 Perth Peerage Case, 112. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., 9 November 1688. 3 Perth 
Peerage Case, 114. 



68 DRUMMOND, EARL OP MELFORT 

and the 'Tabouret' to the Duchess, and all the other 
honours and privileges enjoyed by French Dukes and 
Duchesses, except that of sitting in the Chamber of Peers. 1 
In 1695 Melfort was formally attainted, but it was pro- 
vided that the forfeiture was not to taint the blood of his 
children by his first marriage. 2 His arms were ordered to 
be * cancelled and erased out of the registers and records 
of Heraldry. 3 

Melfort appears now to have lost his influence at the 
Court of St. Germains. In 1696 he was banished to Rouen, 
but was afterwards permitted to live in Paris, and to pay 
occasional visits to St. Germains. In 1701 he was accused 
of writing a letter, which was seized in the Post Office, 
with the object of creating a rupture between the King- 
doms of France and England. He was consequently 
banished to Angers, and never again saw James. It is 
said that the latter, on his deathbed, directed that Melfort 
should be recalled and his dukedom publicly acknowledged. 4 
Melfort appears to have been a born schemer and intriguer, 
though his steadfastness to his master is noted by a con- 
temporary. 5 He died in Paris 26 January 1714, 6 aged sixty- 
four. He married, first, 30 April 1670, Sophia, daughter 
and heiress of Margaret Lundin of Lundin, co. Fife, by 
her husband, Robert Maitland, brother of John, Duke of 
Lauderdale. 7 By her he had issue : 

1. John, born 31 October 1673 ; died young. 

2. James Lundin of Lundin, who took his mother's name, 

and succeeded her in her estates; died, unmarried, 
6 November 1698. 

3. Robert, whose descendants ultimately became the 

heirs-male of the Earls of Perth. (See that title.) 

4. Anne, born 3 March 1671 ; married to Sir John Houston 

of Houston, with issue. 

5. Elizabeth, born 22 July 1672; married to William, 

second Viscount Strathallan, with issue. 

6. Mary, married, first, to Gideon Scott of Highchester, 

who died 1707; and secondly, before 11 November 

1 Historical Facts regarding the Succession to the . . . Baronies of 
Drummond, etc., Paris, 1866. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., ix. 407. 3 Ibid., App., 
110. This may have been nominally done, but, as a matter of fact, the 
arms had never been recorded. * Diet. Nat. Biog. 6 Lives of the 
Lindsays, ii. 158 note. 6 Perth Peerage Case, 262. 7 Vol. iv. 302. 



DRUMMOND, EARL OF MELFORT 69 

1718, to Sir James Sharp of Scotscraig, Bart., who 
died 25 April 1738. She died at St. Andrews 4 
October 1754, leaving issue by both husbands. 
Lord Melfort married, secondly, in 1680, Euphemia, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Wallace of Oraigie, a Lord of 
Session. She was one of the beauties of her day, and lived 
to be over ninety, dying at St. Germains in 1743. After 
her husband's death she was granted by Louis xiv. the 
privilege of keeping one of the two faro tables authorised 
by him. It was to her, too, that * I Padri e gli Alumni ' of 
the Scots College at Rome dedicated their republication of 
Lesley's Vita di S. Margherita, Regina di Scoria, originally 
printed in 1691. l 
By his second wife Lord Melfort had issue : 

7. JOHN. 

8. Thomas, an officer in the service of Charles vn., 

Emperor of Germany, who died, unmarried, 1715. 

9. William, in holy orders in the Roman Church, an abbe 

in Liege ; died in Spain 1742. 

10. Andrew, a colonel of horse in the French service ; mar- 

ried Magdalen Silvia de St. Hermione, with issue : 

(1) Louis, married, 1759, Jeanne Elizabeth de la Porte, daughter 
of the Marquess de Presles, Intendant of Dauphiny. It is 
probably he whose death as ' Earl of Melfort ' (? Comte de 
Melfort) was announced in the magazines of the day as 
having taken place at Yvoy-le-Pre, his seat in France, in 
November 1788. 2 They had issue : 

i. Louis Pierre Francis Malcolm, died 1833, said to have 
married, first, Caroline Barry, daughter of the Earl 
of Barrymore, and secondly, Caroline, daughter of 
Kenneth, Earl of Seaforth. She died s.p. 1847, and 
was buried at St. Pancras, London. He had issue, 
with other children : 3 

(i) Louis Edward Genevieve, born 1791 ; colonel on 
the French staff, Knight of St. Louis of France, 
and of St. Ferdinand of Spain; died 1888, 
having married, in 1823, Eudoxia Saulnier de 
Cherrieres. 

ii. Annabella Henrlette, married to the Comte de Mar- 
guerie, who was guillotined 1793. 

11. Bernard, died young at Douai. 

12. Philip, in the French service ; died of wounds received 

in action. 

1 House of Drummond, 306. 2 Scots Mag. ; European Mag. ; Gent. 'a 
Mag. 3 This branch is now extinct in the male line. 



70 

13. Margaret, baptized 7 April 1683. 1 

14. Henrietta, died unmarried 1752. 

15. Mary, married to Don Jose de Royas, Count Bozas of 

Oastel Bianco, in Spain ; died s.p. 1713. 

16. Frances, married, by papal dispensation, to her de- 

ceased sister's husband, Count Castel Bianco, with 
issue. One of their daughters, Maria Theresa, made 
a morganatic marriage, in 1776, with Louis de Bour- 
bon, the Infante of Spain, brother of Charles vi. 2 

17. Louisa, died unmarried. 

18. Teresa Margarita, died unmarried. 

II. JOHN DRUMMOND, who, but for the attainder, would have 
been second Earl of Melfort, was born in Scotland 26 May 
1682. 3 In 1686 he was styled Viscount Forth. 4 He took part 
in the Rising of 1715, and was Major-Gen eral of the insurgent 
army, but escaped lo France again, 4 February 1716. He 
died 29 January 1754, and was buried at St. Nicholas des 
Champs, Paris. He married, 25 May 1707, 5 Marie Gabrielle 
d'Audibert, widow of Henry Fitz James, titular Duke of 
Albemarle, a natural son of King James vii., and daughter 
of Jean d'Audibert, Comte de Lussan. She was an heiress, 
and brought her husband the various estates of her family, 
fourteen villages in Bas Languedoc, which had been erected 
into a Compte ('male et femelle tenant de la Tour des 
Louvres ') by Louis xiv. in October 1645. She died 15 May 
1741, at St. Germains, aged sixty-six. 6 

By her he had issue : 

1. JAMES. 

2. Louis, born at St. Germains 16 February 1709 ; colonel 

of the regiment of Royal Scots in the French service, 
raised at the expense of the family ; a Grand Cross 
of St. Louis ; was at the battle of Oulloden, where he 
lost a leg, and died at Paris 8 July 1792. 7 

3. John, born at St. Germains 31 October 1711 ; 8 Lieu- 

tenant of the Guard of the King of Poland, with the 
rank of major-general. 

1 Canongate Reg. 2 Drummond's Noble Families. 3 Historical Facts, 
etc., 33. * Drummond's Noble Families. 6 Pedigree in Perth Peerage 
Case, 263. Scots Mag. 7 Perth Peerage Case, 165 ; Drummond's Noble 
Families. 8 Pedigree in Perth Peerage Case. 



DRUMMOND, EARL OF MELFORT 71 

4. Constantine, born at Bagnals 19 June 1717, and died 
there 1719. 1 

III. JAMBS (called Thomas by Douglas), but for the 
attainder third Earl of Melfort, was born at St. Germains 
16 May 1708. 2 He succeeded to the large estates of his 
mother in Languedoc. He was a captain of cavalry in 
the French service, and lost both his feet in action. He died 
25 December 1766, having married, 29 January 1755, at 
Lussan, 3 Marie de Beranger. She, who was the daughter of 
Francis Beranger, in the town of St. Paul, Trois Chateaux, 
was born at Barjac 1 September 1728. 4 On 1 June 1775 she 
had a grant from Louis xv. of a pension of 3000 livres. 5 By 
her James Drummond had the following issue, three sons and 
one daughter having been born previous to the marriage : 6 

1. JAMES Louis. 

2. CHARLES EDWARD. 

3. Henry Benedict, entered the French navy 1767, 

severely wounded in action 27 July 1778, in recogni- 
tion of his services he was made a Chevalier of the 
Order of St. Louis 16 August 1778, and had on 15 
December following a gratuity of 600 francs. On 
30 January 1779 he was at the taking of Senegal, was 
appointed captain on 13 March following, and died 
on board the Feudant 6 April 1779, unmarried. 7 

4. Leon Maurice, born 11 April 1761, died 26 April 1826, 

having married, 26 October 1794, 8 Lucie Marie de 
Longuemare ; she died 12 August 1824, with issue : 

(1) GEORGE, of whom presently. 

(2) Lucie Clementine, born 1796, married, 8 September 1823, to 

Francis Henry Davies, Registrar of the Court of Chancery. 
He died 23 October 1863 ; she died 27 April 1879. 

(3) Leontine, born 1793, died 1809. 

5. Marie Cecile Henrietta, born at Lussan 23 May 1754. 

She got a pension of 1000 livres from Louis xv. ; 9 
died before 1803. 

6. Amelia Felicia, living at Amiens in 1804, died 1846. 

1 Pedigree in Perth Peerage Case. 2 Perth Peerage Case, 265. 3 Ibid., 
267. * Ibid., 267. 5 Ibid., 157. 6 They were affianced in 1747 at Avignon, 
but could not marry publicly without his father's consent. On the death 
of the latter in 1754, they were legally married as soon as French law 
allowed, in 1755. 7 Perth Peerage Case, 284. 8 Ibid., 272. 9 Ibid., 158. 



72 DBUMMOND, EARL OF MELFOBT 

IV. JAMES Louis, but for the attainder fourth Earl of 
Melfort, was born 14 October 1750. 1 He was a general in 
the French service, and a Commander of the Order of St. 
Louis. He retired from the French army in 1790, and went 
to Spain, entering the service of that country as a brigadier. 2 
In 1792, at the time of the Revolution, the Lussan estates 
which were in his possession were seized by the revolution- 
ary government, and the chateau, with all its contents of 
charters, family papers, furniture, etc., was burned by the 
mob. The estates themselves were divided and sold to 
forty-seven different persons. It has been stated 3 that 
James Louis Drummond died at Lepus Island in Spain in 
September 1800, without having ever returned to France. 
He married, at Paris, in 1788 (contract 30 April), Aglae 
Elizabeth Jaqueline d'Oms Alais, daughter of Marc, 
Vicomte d' Alais, Baron de Salindres. By her he had issue 
one daughter, who died young. 

V. CHARLES EDWARD, but for the attainder fifth Earl of 
Melfort, born 1 January 1752, entered the Roman Church. 
It is said that on escaping from France at the time of the 
Revolution he went first to Holland and then to England, 
and that while there, some time after 1805, considerable 
pensions were granted both to him and his brother Leon, 
as British subects who had never lost their nationality, 4 
in the Civil List in Scotland. But ultimately he went to 
Rome, where he died as a prelate in the household of the 
Pope in April 1840. 5 

VI. GEORGE, but for the attainder sixth Earl of Melfort, 
succeeded his uncle in 1840. He was born 6 May 1807, in 
Stephen Street, London, and baptized at Marylebone parish 
church 10 September 1808. He was for some time a 
captain in the 93rd Highlanders. In 1841 he established 
in France, before the Conseil d'Etat and the Tribunal de la 
Seine, his right to the French titles of Due de Melfort, 
Oomte de Lussan, and Baron de Valrose. 6 He proved his 

1 The children born before the legal marriage of their parents were 
apparently legitimated by express declaration at the time of the marriage ; 
Min. of Evidence, Perth Peerage Case, 267. 2 Historical Facts, etc., 36. 
3 Ibid. ; Complete Peerage. * Historical Facts, etc., 37. 6 Perth Peerage 
Case, 172. 6 Complete Peerage. 



DRUMMOND, EARL OP MELFORT 73 

descent before the House of Lords in England in 1848, and 
the attainders having been reversed by Act of Parliament 
28 June 1853, he was found entitled to the dignities of Earl 
of Perth (1605), Earl of Melfort (1686), Viscount Forth 
(1686), Lord Drummond (1488), and Lord Drummond of 
Riccartoun, Oastlemains, and Gilstoun (1686). He died 
28 February 1902, having married, first, 19 May 1831, the 
Baroness Albertine de Rotberg, widow of General Comte 
Rapp, a Peer of France. She died 2 June 1842, and he 
married, secondly, 9 August 1847, Susan Henrietta, daughter 
of Thomas Bermingham Sewell of Athenry, and widow of 
Colonel Burrowes of Dangan Oastle, co. Meath; she died 
11 September 1886. 
By his first wife he had issue : 

1. James Maurice Willoughby, born 12 August 1832, died 

February 1833. 

2. George Henry Charles Francis Malcolm, Viscount 

Forth, born at Naples 13 May 1834, was in the 42nd 
Highlanders; died 8 October 1861, having married, 
24 October 1855, Harriet Mary, eldest daughter of 
the Hon. Adolphus Oapell, and niece of the Earl of 
Essex. She married, secondly, 29 October 1861, 
Edward Oholmely Dering, and died 30 April 1868, 
leaving issue by her first husband : 

(1) George Essex Montifex, Lord Drummond, born 3 September 
1856 ; died s.p., and unmarried, 4 August 1887. 

3. Annabella, born 11 July 1835, died November 1838. 
By his second wife the Earl had : 

4. Marie Augusta Gabrielle Berengere Blanche, born 

15 December 1848. Married, 24 April 1871, to Colonel 
Mackenzie Fraser of Castle Fraser and Inverallochy, 
and died s.p. 5 February 1874. 

5. Marie Louise Susan Edith Grace, born 29 April 1854. 

She inherits the French titles of Countess de Lussan 
and Baroness de Valrose. 

At the death of the Earl, his title of Earl of Perth was 
inherited by his distant kinsman William Huntly Drum- 
mond, Viscount Strathallan (see title Perth). The French 
dukedom of Melfort became extinct. 

It is said, however, that in 1687 the first Earl made a 
resignation of all his honours, and there is no doubt that 



74 DRUMMOND, EARL OF MELFORT 

he got a regrant on 9 November 1688 from King James, 
creating all his lands into a new earldom of Melfort and 
lordship of the regality of Forth, in favour of his wife for 
her life, and of his eldest son John, styled in the writ * Lord 
Forth,' and the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, the 
heirs-female of his body, whom failing, his heirs whatsoever. 1 

CREATIONS. Viscount of Melfort and Lord Drummond of 
Gilestoun, 14 April 1685; Earl of Melfort, Viscount of 
Forth, Lord Drummond of Riccartoun, Castlemains, and 
Gilstoun, 12 August 1686, in the Peerage of Scotland. Due 
de Melfort, 17 April 1692, in the Peerage of France. 

ARMS (not recorded in Lyon Register, but given in Peers' 
Arms MS., Lyon Office). Quarterly : 1st and 4th, or, three 
bars wavy gules, for Drummond; 2nd and 3rd, or, a lion 
rampant within a double tressure flory counterflory gules 
surrounded by a bordure compony argent and azure, for 
Lundin of that Ilk. 

CREST. Out of an eastern crown or a demi-lion affrontee 
gules holding in its right paw a dagger, and in its left a 
thistle, both proper. 

SUPPORTERS. Two lions rampant gules collared azure, 
the collars charged with thistles or. 

MOTTO. Dei dowo, sum quod sum. 

[j. B. P.] 



1 Reg. Mag. Sig., MS. lib. Ixxi, No. 107. 




anfc JEleMUe 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEYEN 
AND MELVILLE 




T is probable that the Mel-, 
villes are of Norman de- 
scent. There is mention of 
Guillaume de Malleville 
among those who accom- 
panied William, Duke of 
Normandy, into England 
in 1066. 1 The same indi- 
vidual is again referred 
to as ' Le Sieur de Male- 
ville ' by Dumpulin in his 
Histoire General de Nor- 
mandie* and either he, 
or a relative of the same 
name, took part in the 
expedition undertaken in 
1096 by Robert Ourthose, 
Duke of Normandy, and Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of 
Lorraine. 3 

Sir William Fraser in his work on The Melvilles quotes a 
number of references to Melvilles in England at an early 
date. He also states that so recently as 1667 there were 
three principal families of the name of Maleville in Nor- 
mandy, and he considers it a fair inference from all the 
facts that the family of Malville are of Norman origin, 
and that, like many other adherents of the Conqueror, 
they obtained lands in England, and thereafter migrated 
northwards and settled in Scotland. 4 

GALPRID MELVILLE is the first of his family known to 
have settled north of the Tweed. Of his immediate 

1 Nobiliare de Normandie, par E. de Magny, 5. 2 P. 190, App. 16. 
3 Ibid. 4 The Melvilles, i. 2. 



76 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

parentage and descent nothing has been ascertained. His 
name is found in a charter by King Malcolm iv., dated 
1162, 1 and he was then in occupation of the important 
office of Sheriff of Edinburgh Castle, at that time a promi- 
nent royal residence. From his occupation of this post, 
and the numerous grants of land which he received from 
the King, it may be inferred that he enjoyed the royal 
favour in a marked degree. It appears from the only 
original charter to Galfrid which has been preserved, and 
from other available evidence, that among the royal grants 
of land were a part of Liberton parish with Lecbernard 
(Leadburn) in Midlothian. 2 The previous possessor of the 
Liberton lands was Malbeth, Malbet, or Macbet Bere, a 
baron of the time of David i. Before 1147, Malbeth 
made a grant to King David's new Abbey of Holyrood of 
two oxgangs of land,' with the chapel of Liberton and the 
teinds of Lecbernard. Galfrid Melville was in possession 
of the lands of Liberton and Leadburn between 1153 and 
1165, and he, or more probably his son of the same name, 
confirmed this gift by his predecessor to the new abbey. 3 
Besides his other lands, Galfrid appears to have held those 
now known as Melville, and it is considered probable that 
he gave his own name to these lands when he founded the 
church of Melville. The date of the charter in which it is 
first named, and by which it was conveyed to the Abbey of 
Dunfermline^ can only be approximately given as between 
1177 and 1188, but Galfrid refers therein to the church as 
already dedicated, and grants it to the monks of Dunferm- 
line in pure alms, under condition that a light shall be 
kept perpetually burning before the tombs of King David I. 
and Malcolm iv. 4 Another charter of Galfrid, of uncertain 
date, indicates that he was the owner of the surrounding 
land, and that there was then a manorial residence at 
Melville. 5 In the reign of William the Lion, Melville 
appears to have been promoted to the office of Justiciar, 
probably of the district south of the Forth, 6 and he was a 
witness to several charters by that King between 1171 and 
1178. His death probably occurred soon after the latter 

1 Reg. de Newbotle, xxxvi. 122, 123. 2 The Melvilles, iii. 1. 3 Holyrood 
Reg. 4, 24, 208. * Reg. de Dunferm., 91. 5 Ibid., 190. Reg. Epis. Glasg., 
36. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 77 

date. 1 He seems to have been twice married, but the name 
of his first wife has not been ascertained. 2 He married, 
secondly, Matilda Malherbe, a lady of Anglo-Norman ex- 
traction, who survived him, and by whom he had issue : 

1. GREGORY, his heir. 

2. Gdlfrid, who received from his nephew Richard, son 

of his brother Gregory, the lands of Grendun (now 
Granton, near Edinburgh), and those of Stanehouse 
or Stenhouse, near Liberton. From about the year 
1200 to about the year 1230 his name appears as 
witness to writs relating to lands in the county of 
Fife, from which the inference may be drawn that he 
had settled in that district. From this fact, and from 
a tradition preserved in the family of the Melvilles of 
Raith that the Laird of Carnbee was the second son 
of the first Lord of Melville, 3 also from the circum- 
stance that the lands of Stenhouse and Granton are 
found, before 1379, in the possession of the Melvilles 
of Oarnbee, the conclusion seems not unwarranted 
that Galfrid, the younger, was the ancestor of that 
branch of the family. 4 He was apparently alive in 
the reign of Alexander n. 5 

3. Thomas, who with his four younger brothers is named 

as a witness to their father's grant of the church of 
Melville to the Abbey of Dunfermline, but of whom 
nothing more is known. 

''4. Robert, named in the same charter, who is probably 
identical with Sir Robert Melville, whose name 
appears in 1223 and 1226 as witness to two transac- 
tions, one respecting the lands of Stobo, the other 
to part of the lands of Maxton, both in Roxburgh- 
shire, where, as also in Peeblesshire, the Melvilles 
are known to have had possessions, and where he 
may at that time have held lands. 8 

5. Hugh, who appears as a witness about 1203 to a grant 
by Alan Fitz-Walter, Steward of Scotland, of lands 
in Renfrew to the Abbey of Paisley, and to another 
charter to the same abbey about the same date. 7 

1 The Melvilles, i. 6. 2 Ibid. 3 Ms. Genealogy of the house of Raith in 
Melville Charter-chest. * The Melvilles, i. 7. 6 Ibid. Ibid., i. 8. 7 Reg. 
de Passelet, 14, 49. 



78 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

6. Richard, and 

7. Walter, both named in the charter above mentioned. 

GREGORY MELVILLE, the eldest son, succeeded his father 
Galfrid. In a charter of King William the Lion (1165-1170), 1 
the lands of Liberton and Leadburn are conveyed jointly 
to him and his father, and in another royal charter of the 
same reign he receives the lands of Grendun in exchange 
for about 208 acres in Ednam, given to him by King 
Malcolm iv. 2 It is uncertain whether he survived his 
father. The name of his wife is not known. He was 
succeeded by his son, 

SIR RICHARD MELVILLE, who seems to have been one of 
the personal followers of King William the Lion. He 
accompanied the King on his hostile expedition into 
England in 1174, and was taken prisoner on the occasion 
of the King's capture by the Yorkshire barons at Alnwick 
on 13 July of that year. 3 He was in possession of the lands 
of Liberton and Leadburn, Granton, and Stenhouse about 
the year 1178. 4 He also possessed lands in the parishes of 
Inverkeillor and Tannadice in Forfarshire. 5 He was Sheriff 
of Linlithgow towards the end of the reign of William the 
Lion. 6 He must have received the rank of knighthood, 
being referred to by his grandson as Sir Richard Melville. 
No record of him has been found after the death of King 
William. 

He married, between 1189 and 1199, Margaret Prat, 
daughter of Richard Prat of Tynedale, and received with 
her a large tract of land which has been identified with a 
part, or the whole, of the parish of Muiravonside in Stir- 
lingshire. 7 He left a son, 

WILLIAM, who succeeded to the estates, but who is only 
known from references to him in his son Gregory's charters. 
The name of his wife is not known. He appears to have 
left three sons : 

1. SIR GREGORY, his heir. 

1 The Melvittes, iii. 1. 2 Ibid. 3 Robertson's Scotland, i. 366-370 ; Pal- 
grave's Hist. Docs., 77-80. 4 The Melvilles, iii. 2, 3. Reg. Aberbrothoc ; 
Beg. S. Andree, 64, 152, 230. 6 Holyrood Reg., 28. * The Melvilles, 
iii. 4, 5. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 79 

2. Thomas, styled ' of Haddington,' in a charter of his 

brother Sir Gregory. 1 He married Christiana, sister 
of Gregory Lysurs, chaplain, a member of the Gorton 
family, from whom he received a grant of six acres 
of the lands of Temple, including four acres lying 
between Dalhousie and Gorton. 2 He left three 
daughters, who succeeded to his lands of Gorton : 
(1) Gristiana, married to Adam, son of Walter, son 
of Aldwyn. 3 (2) Alicia, married to Richard, son 
of Galfrid, son of Gunnild; and (3) Eva, married to 
Malcolm, son of David Dun/ 

3. David, described by Sir Gregory as his brother. 5 

SIR GREGORY MELVILLE, Knight, appears under the de- 
signation of Gregory, Lord of Melville, in a charter granted 
probably between 1240 and 1250. 6 ' He is frequently men- 
tioned as a witness to charters, 7 and before 1264 he ap- 
pears to have been Sheriff of Aberdeen. 8 

The name of his wife is not known, but he left at least 
one son, 

WILLIAM MELVILLE, who, in a charter by his father dated 
about 1270, is designated his son and heir. 9 He was one 
of those who, in 1296, swore fealty to King Edward i. He 
had a son, 

JOHN MELVILLE, who, in 1329, confirmed to the monks of 
Newbattle the charter of right of way through Tartraven 
granted by his grandfather Sir Gregory, 10 and also in 1344 
the gift of a stone of wax." The name of his wife is not 
known. He had a son, 

THOMAS MELVILLE, who was a consenting party to his 
father's grant to the Abbey of Newbattle in 1344, and to 
another agreement with the Prior of St. Andrews in 1345. 12 
His name has not been found elsewhere on record, and it 
is not known whether he ever succeeded to the estate. 
He left a son 

1 Beg. S. Andree, 377. 2 Reg. de Neubotle, 301. 3 Ibid., 301-304. * Ibid. 
5 Reg. S. Andree, 377. c Reg. de Neubotle, 150. 7 The Melvilles, i. 14. 
8 Exch. Rolls, i. 12. 9 Reg. S. Andree, 377. 10 Reg. de Neubotle, 161-163. 
11 Ibid., 176, 177. 12 The Melvilles, iii. 9-11. 



80 MELA1LLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

JOHN MELVILLE, who, on 20 November 1379, was in 
possession of the family estates, as upon that date he 
granted to John Melville, son of John Melville of Oarnbee, 
his lands of Granton and Stenhouse in the barony of 
Melville. 1 He was succeeded by his son, 

THOMAS MELVILLE, who was in possession of ' Mailvil ' as 
4 lord of the samyn sted ' on 27 March 1427, when he entered 
into a contract of excambion, with consent of John Mel- 
ville, his son and heir, and Sir William Tynyngham, parson of 
the 'Kirk of Mailvil,' anent the 'Kirklands of Mailvil.' 2 
At this date Thomas was probably well advanced in life. 
He died in December 1429. 3 He was succeeded by his son, 

JOHN MELVILLE, who was retoured heir to him 27 January 
1429-30 in the barony of ' Malwyle,' the retour stating that 
the barony was in non-entry from the decease of Thomas 
Melville eight weeks before/ He appears to have died 
before 1442. 5 His wife, whose name has not been ascer- 
tained, must have survived him, her terce having been paid 
up to June 1465. 6 

THOMAS MELVILLE appears to have succeeded his father 
about the year 1442, as he was then infeft in the lands of 
Grieston, Peeblesshire, which had been possessed by his 
father. 7 On 10 January 1451-52, as Thomas Melville, lord 
of that Ilk, he witnessed a charter by Robert Boyd of Kil- 
marnock to Sir David Hay of Yester. 8 In 1456 his goods 
were escheated to the extent of 10, 9 probably on account 
of debt, as there is evidence that his lands of Mosshouse 
and Grieston were mortgaged for a time. 10 He died in 
1458, 11 the last direct heir-male of his family. His widow 
was alive in 1471. 12 He was succeeded by his daughter, 

AGNES MELVILLE, who was under age at her father's 
death, and remained a ward of the Crown until 1471, being 

1 The Scotts of Buccleuch, ii. 10. 2 The Melvilles, i. 19 and note. 3 See 
his son's retour, dated 27 January 1429-30, The Melvilles, i. 20, note 1. 
* Retour, ut supra. 5 Exch. Rolls, ix. 657. 6 Ibid., vii. 254, 320, 403. 
7 Ibid., ix. 657; Certif. of Sasine, The Melvilles, iii. 22. 8 Confirmed 12 
January, Reg. Mag. Sig. 9 Exch. Rolls, vi. 143, 144. 10 The Melvilles, i. 
21 note. n Retour of Agnes Melville, his daughter, 23 April 1471, The 
Melvilles, iii. 46, 47. 1Z Exch. Rolls, vi. 254, 320, 403, 535, 628. 






MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 81 

retoured heir to her father in April of that year. 1 She was 
married to Robert Ross, son of Sir John Ross of Halkhead,* 
She died before 16 October 1478, 3 leaving a son and heir 
John Ross, a minor, afterwards Sir John Ross, and second 
Lord Ross. 4 He was retoured heir to his mother in 
the barony of Melville 16 May 1496, although apparently 
in possession of the estate in 1490. 5 He was killed at 
Flodden 9 September 1513. The baronies of Melville, Hawk- 
head, and others were inherited by his descendants in the 
male line until the death, unmarried, of William, last Lord 
Ross of Hawkhead, in 1754. On the death of his eldest 
sister, the Hon. Jean Ross (wife of John Ross McKye), with- 
out issue, 19 August 1777, the succession devolved upon her 
younger sister, the Hon. Elizabeth Ross, who had married, 
7 July 1755, John, third Earl of Glasgow. 6 The present 
Earl of Glasgow thus represents, in the female line, the 
ancient house of Melville of Melville. 

There is a persistent tradition in the family of the 
Melvilles of Raith, who are the ancestors of the present 
holder of the title of Melville, that the founder of their 
house was a Stephen Melville. The dates of the tradition 
do not fit the actual facts, but there is authentic evidence 
that a Stephen Melville actually flourished a few genera- 
tions earlier than the date assigned to him by tradition, 
and was in relationship, more or less close, with the family 
of the lords of Melville. Between the years 1233 and 1249 
Stephen Melville was witness, along with William Melville 
and others, to a charter affecting Kilbucho in Peebles- 
shire, 7 and about the same time he witnessed charters 
granted by William Lysurs, laird of Gorton, to Thomas of 
Temple, son of William, Lord of Melville, and to his three 
daughters. 8 At a later date he received from William 
Lysurs a grant to himself in feu-farm of these same lands 
with others. 9 His association with the Melvilles of that 
Ilk in these transactions indicates a probability of relation- 
ship to the family, and if this be the case, it seems likely 
he was a younger son of Sir Richard, and thus a brother of 
William Melville of that Ilk, and an uncle of Thomas, * of 

1 Retour, ut supra. 2 The Melvilles, i. 21. 3 Ada Dom. Cone., 13. 
* The Melvilles, i. 22. 5 Ibid. Cf. Beg. Mag. Sig., 27 September 1490. 
Supra, iv. 215. 7 Reg. Episc. Glasg., i. 128. 8 Reg. de Neubotle, 301-304. 
9 Ibid., 303, 304. 

VOL. VI. F 



82 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

Haddington 'or 'of Temple,' as he is variously designed. 1 
He left a son, 

WALTER, who inherited the lands acquired by his father, 
and disponed them soon after to Sir William of St. Glair. 2 
Walter may have been the father of 

JOHN MELVILLE, who lived in the time of King Robert 
the Bruce, and resigned in his hands the lands of Cap- 
roneston in Peeblesshire, in favour of his son Walter 
Melville and Margaret, daughter of John Ayr, his wife. 

WALTER MELVILLE also surrendered these lands in the 
hands of the same King for a regrant in favour of himself 
and his wife, and their issue and other heirs, which was 
confirmed on 5 July ,1365 by David n., after the deaths of 
John and Walter Melville. 3 Walter Melville and Margaret 
Ayr may thus have been the immediate progenitors of the 
first known and authenticated Laird of Raith. 

JOHN MELVILLE of Raith, who is first named in an un- 
dated charter granted to him by William Scott, laird of 
Balwearie, of the lands of Pitscottie, with a third part of 
the lands of Callange, which from the names of the wit- 
nesses, may be assigned to the year 1400. 4 This grant of 
Pitscottie was confirmed by Robert, Duke of Albany, as 
Earl of Fife, 3 August 1411. s The next reference to John 
Melville of Raith is in a charter to his son John, who, on 
31 May 1412, on his marriage with Marjory Scot of Bal- 
wearie, received the lands of Durachmure from his father- 
in-law. 6 The elder Melville was probably dead before 
1427, for it seems to be his son who, on 12 June 1427, 
entered into an agreement with Sir John Wemyss as to a 
mill dam from Loch Gelly to Melville's mill of Pitconmark. 7 

In the MS. pedigrees of the family he is said to have 
married a daughter of Stewart of Lorn, but of this no 
proof has been found. 

He left a son 

1 The Melvilles, i. 25. 2 Reg. de Neubotle, 304, 305. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
4 The Melvilles, iii. 17. s Ibid., 18. 6 Ibid., 18 19. 7 Wemyss Charter- 
chest. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 83 

SIR JOHN, who is first named in the charter of 31 May 
1412, and later, in the agreement with Sir John Wemyss 
of Reres of 1427, both already cited. He was a knight in 
1454, being described as Sir John Melville, Knight, in a 
writ of that date. 1 He must have died before August 1463, 
when his son appears to have been in possession of the 
family estates. 2 

He married Marjory, daughter of William Scott of Bal- 
wearie, 3 and by her had at least two children : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded, and 

2. Elizabeth, married, before 24 June 1436, to David 

Boswell of Balgregie, afterwards of Balmuto. 4 On 4 
November 1458 David Boswell, their son and heir, 
received a charter of Glassmonth, Balmuto, and other 
lands, on his father's resignation. 5 

WILLIAM MELVILLE, of Raith, witnessed a charter by 
George Abernethy of Balglaly Wester to John Boswell of 
Bowhill on 2 August 1463, 6 and being there designed 'of 
Raith,' he must have succeeded his father before that date. 
On 26 May 1474 he received from Henry, Abbot of Dun- 
fermline, a charter to himself and his heirs of the lands of 
Raith, the yearly rental of which was fixed at 5 Scots. 7 
On 22 October 1490, he and his eldest son bound themselves 
before the Lords of Council to submit certain questions 
connected with the disposal of the family estates to the 
decision of the Earl of Argyll, then Chancellor, the Earl 
of Bothwell, and Lord Home. 8 In the same year he appears 
as tutor to John Bonar, the young Laird of Rossie, whose 
sister his eldest son had married. 9 It was probably under 
an award by the arbiters above-mentioned that William 
Melville entered into an obligation to resign his lands and 
deliver goods to the value of 1000 Scots to his eldest son. 
The bond not having been satisfied, the son thereupon 
brought an action against his father for fulfilment of these 
obligations before the Lords of Council. The dispute was 
settled in the following May, William Melville then making 
a formal resignation of all his lands in favour of his son. 10 

1 The Melvilles, iii. 22, 23. 2 The Douglas Book, iii. 95. 3 The Melvilles. 
iii. 17. * Ibid., i. 28. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 The Douglas Book, iii. 95. 
7 The Melvilles, iii. 47-49. * Ada Dom. Cone., 154. 9 Ibid., 157, 158. 
10 The Melvilles, i. 30 



84 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

In June 1493 William Melville again submitted to an arbi- 
tration, this time between himself and his two younger 
sons, William and Andrew, on the one side, and his eldest 
son, John, on the other, the latter having objected to the 
alienation by his father of certain lands in favour of the 
two younger sons. 1 The award is not recorded. John, 
the eldest son, died within a year of the date mentioned, 
but litigation continued with his widow, Janet Bonar. The 
question in dispute was decided against the elder William. 2 
On 28 February 1497-98, William Melville appears as one 
of the parties to a marriage-contract between his daughter 
Elizabeth or Elspet and John Gourlay, younger of Lam- 
lethan. 3 He may have been dead before 29 October 1502, 
when his grandson, Sir John Melville, was retoured heir of 
his father, the deceased John Melville, in the family 
estates. 4 

He is said to have been twice married, the name of his 
first wife being given as Margaret Douglas, daughter of 
Douglas of Longniddry ; but the only wife of whom there 
is authentic record is Euphemia Lundie, daughter of Sir 
Robert Lundie of Balgonie. She survived him, and about 
a year later engaged in a dispute with her husband's grand- 
son, John Melville, about the payment of her terce, which 
was finally referred to the judgment of the Lords of 
Council, 5 and on 20 April 1506 she granted to him, now Sir 
John Melville, a lease of her lands of Feddinch ; he on his 
part undertaking that his mother, Janet Bonar, should 
renounce her claim against his grandmother and her sons, 
David and Andrew Melville, for the goods taken by them 
from the house of Raith and elsewhere during their 
occupation. 6 

By his wife Euphemia Lundie William Melville had 
issue : 

1. JOHN, younger of Raith, of whom later. 

2. William, whose name frequently appears in disputes 

between his father and elder brother. He appar- 
ently received from his father the lands of Pitscottie 
and Dura, and on 11 February 1492-93 he was one of 

1 Ada Audit., 176. 2 ActaDom. Cone., 339. 3 The Melvilles, iii. 51-53. 
4 Ibid., 53, 54. 6 Decree 23 March 15034, Robertson's Becord of Parlia- 
ment, 500, 501. 6 The Melvilles, iii. 55. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 85 

several defenders in an action of spoliation at the 
instance of various tenants of these lands. 1 He was 
one of the parties to his sister's marriage-contract 
in 1498, and seems to have survived until the year 
1513. 2 

3. Andrew, who is also mentioned in the litigation 

between his father and brother, and who was ejected 
by the latter from possession of the lands of Raith. 
In 1506, he, with his brother David and their mother 
Euphemia Lundie, were formally relieved of a claim 
by Janet Bonar, his eldest brother's wife, the pro- 
prietrix of Raith, for goods taken from the house. 3 
Prom a discharge granted to his nephew for 40, 
dated 22 March 1515-16, it is evident he had settled 
in Leith, 4 but nothing further has been discovered 
regarding him. 5 

4. David, named along with his brother Andrew in a dis- 

charge granted by their mother to Sir John Melville. 6 

5. Elizabeth or Elspet, who married John Gourlay, 

younger of Lamlethan. 7 

6. Margaret, who, according to the family pedigrees, 

married James Bonar of Rossie, but no conclusive 
evidence of this has been found. 8 

7. Gelis, married to Henry Pitcairn of Drongy, 9 and had 

issue John Pitcairn of Pitlour, 10 entered as her heir in 
a tenement in Edinburgh 6 February 1550-51. 

JOHN MELVILLE, younger of Raith, was infeft in the 
family estates on his father's resignation, on 4 November 
1490," and on 20 May 1491, following upon an action brought 
against his father before the Lords of Council, the elder 
Melville made another and formal resignation in favour of 
his son. 12 At the time of his death, which occurred before 
14 June 1494, he was engaged in another litigation with his 
father. 13 

He married Janet Bonar, daughter of William 14 Bonar of 

1 Acta Dom. Cone., 280. 2 The Melvilles, i. 34. 3 V. supra. * The 
Melvilles, Hi. 60. 6 Ibid., i. 34. 6 Ibid. * Ibid., 35. 8 Ibid. 9 Reg. 
Mag. Sig., 21 August 1505. 10 Protocol Book of A. King, Edin. Council 
Chambers, ii. 87. " Writ in Melville Charter-chest. 12 Ibid. 13 Acta 
Dom. Cone., 324, 325, 352, 353. * Acta Dom. Cone., xvi. f. 62. 



86 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

Rossie, who survived him and was alive in 1506, 1 and by 
her had issue : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded. 

2. David, who became a burgess of Edinburgh, and left 

a son, Walter. 2 

SIR JOHN MELVILLE, fourth of Raith, was retoured heir 
to his father in the lands of Raith, Pitconmark, and Torbain 
on 29 October 1502, his grandfather William Melville being 
then presumably dead. 3 In the discharge dated 20 April 
1506 by Euphemia Lundie, relict of William Melville, above 
referred to, 4 John Melville is designed Knight, which may 
have been one of the numerous dignities bestowed at the 
time of the marriage of King James iv. with the Princess 
Margaret of England on 11 August 1503. 5 On 6 February 
1509-10, Sir William Scott of Balwearie granted an obliga- 
tion to Sir John Melville discharging payment of the sum 
of 200 merks, due by the latter under a previous bond, if 
Sir William should fail in the * keping of favour and kind- 
ness in tym to cum to the said Johne.' ' Indications of the 
disturbed condition of Scotland at this time are furnished 
by the existence of a bond of friendship and mutual defence 
entered into by Sir John Melville, David Wemyss of 
Wemyss, John Moultray of Markinch, and other neigh- 
bouring lairds at Scone, and dated 13 February 1520-21 , 7 
and by these bonds of manrent, dated respectively 9 July 
and 30 August 1522, by Robert Orrock, son of James 
Orrock of that Ilk, Alexander Orrock of Silliebalbie, and 
David Bos well of Glasmonth, who undertake, in return for 
Sir John's aid and protection, to -assist him with their 
advice, and with armed force if necessary. 8 In October 
1526 Sir John Melville received the appointment of Master 
of Artillery for life. 9 In December of the same year he 
joined John, Earl of Lennox, in his attempt to free King 
James v. from the control of the Douglases. On the defeat 
and death of Lennox, ' all the Lords and Earles of the este 
and north parts ' who had joined Lennox fell into the 
hands of the Earl of Angus and his brother George Douglas, 

1 Melville Charter-chest, ut supra. 2 The Melvilles, i. 37. 3 Ibid., 
38. * Page 84 supra. 6 The Melvilles, i. 38. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 
9 Hey. Sec. Sig. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 87 

* to raunsom and fyne at their pleasyr. 1 What penalty was 
inflicted in Melville's case is not known, but on 14 August 
1527 a remission was signed in favour of Sir John, his son- 
in-law James Kirkcaldy of Grange, David Wemyss of 
Wemyss, and others, for their offence of taking up arms 
against the King, Angus being then Chancellor of Scotland. 2 
Two years later, on 26 July 1529, Sir John and Kirk- 
caldy of Grange received a similar remission this time, 
however, for having given treasonable help to the Douglases, 
who were then in exile. 3 As the result of a family feud 
of long standing between the Melvilles and the family of 
Moultray of Markinch, several serious frays took place 
about this time, and Melville himself received several 
dangerous wounds. 4 The quarrel had become so bitter 
and protracted that King James v. deemed it desirable to 
intervene. He therefore came to Oupar-in-Fife, where the 
parties appeared before him. On 29 January 1533-34, the 
King issued instructions in the form of a letter directing 
the Lords of Council and Session who had been com- 
missioned to decide the case to * make an gude end of 
the affair,' that the parties might stand 'in concord 
eftyrwart.' This object seems to have been achieved, for 
there is no evidence of further trouble between the two 
families. 5 

Sir John Melville accompanied King James v. in his 
expedition to the Borders in 1527, 6 and in the expedition of 
1533, when the King marched southwards with the unful- 
filled intention of invading England. 7 In July 1537, Sir 
John formed one of the jury in the trials of John, Master of 
Forbes, Janet Douglas, Lady Glamis and her son Lord 
Glamis, on a charge of conspiring against the life of the 
King, 8 and in August 1540 he sat as one of the jury who 
tried and convicted Sir James Hamilton of Finnart of 
another attempt on the King's life. 9 It was apparently in 
or before the year 1540 that King James v. conferred upon 
Melville the important office of Captain of the Castle of 
Dunbar, where he guarded the Highland chiefs whom the 
King brought back as hostages from his expedition to the 

1 Letter, Sir C. Dacre to Lord Dacre, 2 December 1526; Pinkerton, 
ii. 478. 2 The Melvilles, iii. 66. 3 Ibid., 48. 4 Ibid., i. 43-48. 6 Ibid., 49, 
50. 6 Ibid., 50. 7 State Papers, Henry VIII., iv. 637. 8 Pitcairn's 
Criminal Trials, i. 184, 190, 199. 9 Acta Part. Scot., ii. 602. 



88 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

Isles in that year. 1 Sir John enjoyed a considerable degree 
of royal favour, which was apparently continued until the 
King's death on 16 December 1542, and he had influential 
friends amongst those in the higher offices of State and in 
attendance at the Court. 2 Having participated in the 
first stirrings of the Reformation movement in Scotland, he 
speedily became obnoxious to the clergy, and at the insti- 
gation of Cardinal Beaton, the names of Sir John Melville, 
Kirkcaldy of Grange, and other Fifeshire gentlemen were 
included in a list of noblemen, gentlemen, and burgesses 
accused of heretical opinions which was presented to the 
King about July 1540, with the request that the estates of 
all those named should be forfeited. The list was rejected at 
that time, 3 but it is said that in October 1542 the King began 
to entertain the proposal. Owing to the King's death and 
the eventual submi'ssion of Cardinal Beaton to Arran's 
authority, the confiscation of Sir John's lands, and of those 
others enumerated in the list referred to, was not at this 
time effected. 4 It has been alleged that a strong enmity 
existed on the part of the Cardinal against Sir John Mel- 
ville, 5 but no charge of complicity in the prelate's murder 
was brought against Sir John. 6 On 1 June 1548, the Earl 
of Arran, Regent of the kingdom, wrote a letter to Mel- 
ville, authorising him to write to England and make 
arrangements for the release of James, Lord Fleming, from 
captivity, whom his father, Malcolm, Lord Fleming, had 
left in the hands of the Government in England as a hostage 
after the rout of Sol way Moss. 7 Within six months of the 
date of the Regent's letter, Sir John Melville was accused 
of treason. The principal evidence against him was a 
letter he admitted he had written to his natural son John 
Melville in England, in which he informed his son of the 
chief military events then taking place in Scotland, ex- 
pressed his sympathy with the English invading army, and 
suggested how intelligence might be gained for Somerset. 8 
He was arrested some time before 3 December 1548, 9 and 
on the 13th of that month he was found guilty of the 

1 Mem. of Sir James Melville, Bann. Club ed., 12. 2 Calderwood, 
i. 158 ; Sadler, i. 19 ; The Melmlles, ii. 2. s Knox's Hist., Laing's ed., i. 
82 ; Calderwood, i. 146, 147. 4 The Melmlles, i. 58. 6 Crawfurd's Peerage, 
324, 325. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 447. 7 The Melvilles, iii. 86. 8 Ibid., 
86-90, 102-108. 9 Memoirs, Bannatyne Club. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OP LEVEN AND MELVILLE 89 

charges brought against him. He was executed on the 
same day, and on the 14th all his lands and goods were con- 
fiscated to the Crown. By a charter dated 7 January 1549- 
50, Robert Carnegie of Kinnaird received Murdocairnie. 1 
Pitscottie and Dura passed to Mr. William Scott, son of 
Sir William Scott of Balwearie, the superior. 2 The largest 
part of the estates, consisting of Raith, Pitconmark, and 
Torbain, went to David Hamilton, third son of the Regent . 
Arran. 3 In 1563 Sir John's widow, Helen Napier, and her 
elder children, petitioned the Government to rescind the 
condemnation and forfeiture, mainly on the ground that Sir 
John had been deceived and concussed into the admission 
that the letter founded upon at the trial was written by 
him. 4 The petition was granted, but the Act of Parlia- 
ment giving effect to it proceeds merely on the technical 
ground that the judges, not having been specially commis- 
sioned, were incompetent to try the case. 5 

Sir John Melville married, first, about July 1503, a 
daughter of Sir John Wemyss of that Ilk; 6 and secondly, 
about 1525, Helen Napier, stated by genealogists to have 
been the daughter of Sir Alexander Napier of Merchiston, 
but in a family memorandum, dated 1575, said to have been 
his niece, and her mother a daughter of the Laird of Craig- 
millar." This statement however does not agree with the 
chronology of the Napier family [see that title], and it is 
probable that the memorandum is incorrect. Helen Napier 
survived her husband, and in 1569 obtained from David 
Hamilton, son of the Regent, a charter to herself and her 
son John of the lands of the Abthanery of Kinghorn Easter, 
now Abden, of which she was still in possession in May 
1584, but she probably died about 1588. 8 

According to a memorandum preserved in the family Sir 
John Melville had by his first wife sons and daughters, but 
the sons died v.p. By his second wife he is said, on the 
same authority, to have had nine sons, of whom several 
are said to have died young, and two daughters : 9 

1. William, who predeceased his father, was apparently 
a son by the first marriage. 10 In July 1544, his father 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 The Melvilles, i. 75. 3 Reg. de Dunferm., 396; The 
Melvilles, iii. 90. 4 The Melvilles, i. 70, 71. 5 Acta Parl. Scot. ; The Mel- 
villes, Hi. 102-8. 6 Wemyss Book, i. 101. 7 The Melvilles, i. 77. 8 Ibid., 
78, 446. 9 Ibid., 78. w Ibid., 79. 



90 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

settled upon him and his wife part of the lands of 
Pitconmark. 1 He married, 3 April 1541, Margaret 
Douglas, sister of Robert Douglas of Loclileven. 2 He 
seems to have died about 1547, no reference to him 
having been found after 5 March of that year, when 
he was a member of an assize in an action of appris- 
ing. 3 He left no surviving issue. His widow was 
still alive in May 1584. 4 

2. JOHN, the eldest son by the second wife, who succeeded. 

3. Sir Robert of Murdocairnie, created first LORD 

MELVILLE, of whom later. 

4. Sir James of Hallhill, born in 1535. 5 He was author 

of the well-known Memoirs of His own Life. At 
the age of fourteen he was sent to France by Mary 
of Guise as a page of honour to the young Queen of 
Scotland. In May 1553 he entered the service of the 
Constable, under whom he saw considerable military 
service. 6 At the skirmish of St. Quentin in August 
1557, he was wounded and nearly taken prisoner. 7 
In 1559 he was sent by Henry u. of France on a 
special mission to Scotland, which he successfully 
accomplished. In 1564, having accepted an invita- 
tion to return to Scotland, he entered the Queen's 
service, who, on 20 July 1564, gave him a pension of 
100 Scots for life, 8 and was sent by her to England 
later in the same year on an important mission to 
Queen Elizabeth. 9 On 22 January 1564-65 he had a 
Crown charter of the lands of Drumcorse in Linlith- 
gowshire, 10 and on 10 April 1566 he received from 
Darnley and the Queen, for life, a pension of 500 
merks Scots yearly." He attended the marriage of 
Mary with Bothwell on 15 May 1567, and in August 
of the same year he was commissioned to meet 
the Earl of Moray, on his return from France, at 
Berwick, and offer him the Regency. 12 On the death 
of Mr. Henry Balnaves of Hallhill, in February 1570- 
71, James Melville, whom the former had adopted 

1 Reg. de Dunferm., 562. 2 The Melvilles, i. 79. 3 Ada. Dom. Cone., 
xxii. . 152. * The Melvilles, i. 79. 6 Ibid., 133. 6 Ibid., 134. T Ibid. 
8 Reg. Sec. Sig., xxxii. . 84 ; Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 246. 9 The Melvilles, 
i. 137. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig. ll Reg. Sec. Sig., xxxiv. 63. 12 The Melvilles, 
i. 141, 142. 



91 

as his son, inherited from him his whole estate, 1 
and during the government of the Regent Morton 
Melville retired into private life. 2 He was made a 
privy councillor by James vi., 3 who, in 1588, desired 
that he should be one of the two ambassadors to 
Denmark to make arrangements for the marriage 
with the Princess Anna, second daughter of Fred- 
erick ii., King of Denmark. But Melville would not 
accept the honour. 4 He was appointed Gentleman 
of the Queen's Chamber, and was knighted on the 
occasion of her coronation on 17 May 1590. 5 Sir 
James was in the Palace of Holyrood on the night 
of 27 December 1591, when the Earl of Bothwell 
attempted to get possession of the King's person, 
and was also with the King at Falkland when 
Bothwell made his second similar attempt on 28 
June 1592. 6 In July 1599 he was one of a commis- 
sion for raising men for military service, 7 and on 14 
July 1600 he was sworn a member of the Privy 
Council, as reconstituted in 1598. 8 He declined to 
accompany the Court to London when King James 
departed from Scotland in 1603. 9 He died 13 Novem- 
ber 1617, aged eighty-two. 10 He married Christine 
Boswell, 11 by whom he had, so far as known, 

(1) James, of Hallhill, who was retoured heir to his father in 
the lands of Prinlaws, U April 1618. 12 On 22 July 1636 he 
was retoured heir of line to his cousin Robert, second Lord 
Melville, in the lands of Nethergrange, the castle and mill 
of Burntisland and other lands, and on 12 April 1653 in 
the barony of Burntisland. 13 The date of his death has 
not been ascertained. He married, first, Catherine, third 
daughter of Alexander Colville, Commendator of Culross. 
They were married shortly after 5 September 1612, and she 
died 10 June 1614, leaving issue. 14 He married, secondly, 
Catherine Learmonth, by whom also he had issue : 

i. Sir James, of Hallhill and Burntisland, son of the 
first marriage, who was a member of various Com- 
mittees of Parliament between 1644 and 1661. 15 He 

1 Melville Charter-chest. 2 The Melvilles, i. 147. 3 Ibid., 149. * Ibid., 
155. 6 Calderwood, v. 95. 6 The Melvilles, i. 156, 158. * Acta Parl. Scot., 
iv. 156, 188. 8 Beg. Privy Council, vi. 130. 9 The Melvilles, i. 160. 
10 Ibid., 161. u Reg. Mag. Sig., 24 February 1575-76. 12 Fife Retours, 275. 
13 Ibid., 539. i* Protocol Book of James Primrose, ff. 104-106 ; St. 
Andrews Tests., 19 August 1614. 16 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. passim, and 
vii. 206. 



92 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

sold the barony of Burntisland to General James 
Wemyss, and after his death Hallhill was adjudged 
to George, Lord Melville, in payment of debt. He 
died in 1664. ! He married Margaret Farquhar, by 
whom he had at least two sons 

(i) James, who lost Hallhill by adjudication in 
1675, 2 and who seems to have died s.p. before 
1714. 

(ii) Gilbert, successively minister of Arngask and 
Glendevon, but who demitted office in 1709. 3 
In 1714 he was retoured heir-special to his 
father and uncle Robert, in part of Wester 
Kinghorn. 4 

ii. Robert, son of the second marriage, who seems to have 
died s.p., his nephew being retoured heir to him in 
1714. 6 

iii. John, son to James Melville of Hallhill, apprenticed 
23 February 1642 to John Foulis, apothecary, Edin- 
burgh, cancelled 25 October 1643. 6 

iv. William, son to James Melville of Hallhill, appren- 
ticed, 13 October 1652, to Andrew Balfour, merchant, 
Edinburgh. 7 
v. Anna, a daughter of the first marriage. 

(2) Robert, named in the will of the second Lord Melville as 

legatee of 1000 merks. He was minister of the parish of 
Simprin, in Berwickshire, from 1641 to 1652. He died 
about the latter date, leaving a widow Catherine Melville, 
a son John, apprenticed on 28 June 1648 to Robert Aitchison, 
merchant, Edinburgh, 8 and daughter Margaret. 9 

(3) Elizabeth, married to John Colville, Commendator of Culross, 

ancestor of the Lords Colville of Culross. 10 She was remark- 
able for her piety and intellectual accomplishments. 11 

(4) Margaret, married (contract 27 December 1589) to Sir Andrew 

Balfour of Montquhany, and she was still his wife in 1606. 12 

5. David of Newmill. His name first appears as a witness 
to contracts between his brothers John and Robert 
in 1561 and 1563. 13 He took the side of Queen Mary, 
and joined Sir William Kirkcaldy of Grange in the 
Castle of Edinburgh in 1570. He was appointed a 
captain in the Queen's forces 5 June 1571, and took 
part in various engagements. 14 In 1571, with his 

1 The Melvilles, i. 162. 2 Melville Charter-chest. 3 Fasti Eccles. Scot., 
ii. 626, 767. 4 Index to Serv. of Heirs, 1710-1719, p. 18. 6 The Melvilles, 
i. 447. 6 Reg. of Apprentices, 125. "' Ibid. Perhaps this "William was of 
a later generation. 8 Ibid. 9 Fasti Eccles. Scot., ii. 448, 449. 10 The 
Melvilles, i. 161 ; supra, ii. 550. n Ibid. 12 Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 January 
1605 and 24 June 1606. Fraser and others make her the second wife of Sir 
John Scott of Scotstarvit, but Sir John's wife was named Elizabeth 
Melville. Reg. Mag. Sig., 6 May 1647, and other references in same 
volume. 13 Melville Charter-chest; Reg. Mag. Sig. H Diurnal of 
Occurrents, 218, 238, 257. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 93 

brothers Robert and Andrew, he suffered forfeiture 
by Parliament, 1 but was reinstated in 1579. 2 Before 
1584 he acquired the lands of Newmill. 3 He also 
held the small estate of Prinlaws in the parish of 
Leslie, in Fifeshire. 4 and in 1581 he had a charter of 
the mills of Dairsie. 5 He died in October 1594. He 
married (contract 12 September 1589) Margaret 
Douglas, sister of Robert Douglas of Annaquhroche, 6 
by whom he left no issue, 7 for in January 1595 his next 
elder brother, Sir James Melville of Hallhill, and in 
March 1596 his eldest brother, John Melville of 
Raith, were retoured as his heirs. 8 

6. Walter, named with his brother David as a witness in 

1561 and 1563. 9 He is referred by his brother Sir 
James in his Memoirs as one of the gentlemen of 
the Earl of Moray's chamber, and he witnessed, on 
17 January 1564-65, a charter by that Earl. 10 He 
continued in Moray's service when Regent, and 
seems to have been at the battle of Langside. He 
is said to have died young. 11 

7. Sir Andrew of Garvock, He entered the personal 

service of Queen Mary, and in February 1566-67, three 
days after the murder of Darnley, she granted to 
him, as her 'lovit servitour,' a yearly pension of 
200 Scots. 12 He and his brother Robert were taken 
prisoners at the battle of Langside, but were leniently 
treated, three of their brothers being in the victorious 
army. 13 In 1570 he joined his nephew, Kirkcaldy of 
Grange, in the Oastle of Edinburgh, and in 1571 was 
forfeited by the Parliament held by the Regent 
Lennox at Stirling. 14 After the surrender of Edin- 
burgh Oastle in May 1573, Melville went to England, 
became Master of the Household to Queen Mary, 
attended her during her trial on 14 October 1586, 

1 The Melvilles, i. 79. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 186. 3 Marriage-contract 
between his nephew, Robert Melville, younger of Murdocairnie, and 
Margaret Ker of Ferniehirst, 24 and 28 October 1584, Melville Charter- 
chest. 4 P. C. Reg., iv. 133, 460, 461. 6 Beg. Mag. Sig., 15 February 1580- 
81. 6 Reg. o/ .Deeds, xxxvi. f. 101. * The Melvilles, i. 80. 8 Special Retours, 
Fife, 1519, 1523. 9 Melville Charter-chest, ut supra. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
11 The Melvilles, i. 81. 12 Reg. Sec. Sig., xxxvi. f. iii. 13 Report of battle 
of Langside, State Paper Office ; Tytler, vi. 470, 471. u Memoirs, 226 ; 
Calderwood, iii. 137. 



94 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

and took an affecting farewell of her on the morning 
of her execution. 1 He accompanied the Queen's 
remains to Peterborough Cathedral in August 1587, 
and attended the funeral pageant. 2 He was 
appointed one of the Masters of the Household 
to James VI M and probably held that office before 
10 September 1588, when the King gave him a yearly 
pension of 400 merks, ratified by Parliament 5 June 
1592. 3 In 1591, during an attack on the Palace of 
Holyrood by Bothwell, he brought a number of 
armed citizens to the King's rescue. 4 Before 1604 
he received the honour of knighthood, but did not 
accompany the King to England. He retired to his 
estate of Garvock, in the parish of Dunfermline, and 
purchased part of an adjoining property in South 
Fod. 5 In 1611 King James granted him a further 
pension of 1200 Scots, 6 which, however, appears 
to have been very irregularly paid. 7 When the 
King visited Scotland in 1617, Melville was again 
proposed as one of the Masters of the Household, 
but died in May 1617. 8 

He married, first, Jane Kennedy, one of Queen 
Mary's ladies-in-waiting, who was drowned in 1589 
in crossing the Firth of Forth 9 on her way to Court, 
whither she had been summoned by the King to 
attend upon Queen Anna. 10 He married, secondly, 
Elizabeth Hamilton, who survived him, and was 
alive in 1626. 11 By his second wife he had issue : 

(1) Sir George, Under-Master of the Household to King 

Charles n. in 1650 and 1651. 12 He married and had issue. 13 

(2) William, styled brother-german of George in a charter by 

the latter on 18 March 1623." 

(3) Henry, named as a legatee in the will of Robert, second Lord 

Melville. 16 

8. William, Commendator of Tongland. In November 

1 Tytler, vii. 74, 116. 2 TJie Melvilles, i. 164. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 
602 ; iv. 94, 156. Memoirs, 398. & The Melvilles, i. 165. 6 Royal Letters, 
1601-1616, H.M. Reg. Ho. 7 Reg. of Royal Letters, i. 96. 8 The Melvilles, 
i. 167 ; Canongate Burial Reg. 9 Apparently on 10 September 1589, in 
' Johnne Kempis boit,' run down by a ship called the St. Michael. See 
official account Reg. Sec. Sig., Ix. f. 96, 7 November 1589. 10 The Melvilles, 
i. 167. Ibid. n Ibid. Ibid., ii. 232-234. " Laing Charters, No. 1922. 
15 The Melvilles, i. 167. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 95 

1583 he was in the service of the Prince of Orange. 1 
About the year 1587 he was appointed a Lord of 
Session, and in 1588 was given the spirituality of 
the abbacy of Tongland in Galloway, 2 having been 
appointed Ooramendator some time previously, 3 pro- 
bably as a reward for going to France to obtain for 
King James vi. information regarding the Princess 
of Navarre, whom he contemplated marrying. 
Eventually the King having decided to marry the 
Princess of Denmark, William Melville was com- 
missioned to accompany his brother"Sir James to that 
country to conclude arrangements for the marriage. 
But the latter declined to undertake the mission, and 
it was discharged by the Earl Marischal. 4 The Com- 
mendator was admitted a member of the Privy 
Council 4 June 1607. 5 He died 30 October 1613. 6 

He married, before July 1594, Anna Lindsay, 
widow of James Murray of Pardewis, 7 by whom 
he had a son Frederick and a daughter. 8 
9. Janet, married to James Kirkcaldy of Grange, and 
had issue. 

10. Katherine, who obtained on 1 July 1549, on her 

father's forfeiture, a charter of Shawmill from David 
Hamilton, son of the Governor of Arran. She was 
married, first, to Robert White of Maw, without 
issue ; secondly, to John Brown of Fordell, by whom 
she had a son John, who was retoured her heir 18 
February 1558-59. 9 

11. Joneta or Janet, married (contract 25 March 1564 10 ) 

to James Johnstone of Elphinstone. They had issue 
two sons, James and Robert. 11 She died September 
1603. 12 

Sir John had also an illegitimate son John Melville, who 
wa.s one of the conspirators against Cardinal Beaton, and 
whose correspondence with his father furnished the chief 
evidence upon which the latter was convicted and executed. 

1 Thorpe's Cat. State Papers, i. 461. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., iv. 307, 308. 
3 The Melvilles, i. 168. 4 Memoirs, 364-366, 368. & P. C. Beg., vii. 380. 
6 Edin. Tests., 24 May and 17 June 1614. i Vol. i. of this work, 464. 
8 The Melvilles, i. 171 ; Edin. Tests., 17 June 1614. 9 The Melvilles, i. 81, 
447; Browns of Fordell, 16, 17. 10 Acts and Decreets, xlv. 403. u Reg. 
Mag. Sig. ; Memoirs, Bannatyne Club, 155. 12 The Melvilles, i. 81. 



96 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

I. SIR ROBERT MELVILLE of Murdochcairnie, first Lord 
Melville, third son of Sir John Melville, fourth of Raith, was 
born probably about 1527. In 1555 he appears in receipt of 
a sum of 50 Scots, paid by the special command of Mary 
of Guise, and later of a pension of 150 Scots yearly. He 
is designed ' servand to the quenis grace,' although it is not 
clear what post he held. 1 On 10 October 1559 he received 
from King Francis n. and Mary Queen of Scots a grant of 
annualrents over the lands of Hilton of Rosyth, 2 which had 
belonged to his father. On 14 February 1563-64, their father's 
forfeiture having been recalled the year before, he received 
from his elder brother, John, a charter of the lands of Mur- 
docairnie in Fife. 3 In October 1559 Sir Robert left the 
service of the queen-regent for that of the Protestant party. 
He later joined those who were opposed to Queen Mary's 
marriage with Darnley, but he was eventually pardoned 
by the Queen, and sent to the Court of England as her 
resident ambassador. 4 In May 1567 he was living at his 
own house of Murdocairnie, having apparently withdrawn 
from Court. 5 He was recalled from his retirement to 
be the bearer of Queen Mary's letter to Queen Elizabeth 
respecting her marriage with Bothwell. He had several 
interviews with Queen Mary during her captivity in 
Lochleven Castle, at the first of which he delivered his 
message from Queen Elizabeth condemning the marriage. 8 
On 30 September 1567, Drury wrote to Cecil that ' Robert 
Melville has of ten recourse to the Queen. . . . She calls now 
and then for some money, a small portion Robert Melville 
from the Regent brings unto her.' ' 

On 18 September 1567 he received sasine of the office of 
Keeper of Linlithgow Palace, 8 which had been bestowed by 
Queen Mary on 15 February 1566-67. After the escape of 
the Queen from Lochleven, she revoked the deeds signed by 
her when a prisoner, and Melville, who had been present at 
the signing of these writs, gave his written testimony upon 
the document containing the revocation. 9 He was taken 
prisoner after the defeat of the Queen's army at Langside, 

1 Treasurer's Accounts, 1555; Laing's Knox, ii. 361 note. 2 Melville 
Charter-chest. 3 Ibid. ; Reg. Mag. Sig. 4 Keith's Hist., 325, App. 119 ; 
Thorpe's Cal., i. 228. 6 The Melvilles, i. 88. 6 Ibid., i. 91. 7 Cal. State 
Papers, Foreign. 8 The Melvilles, iii. 116 note. 9 Eraser's Earls of Had- 
dington, i. 268-277 ; The Lennox, ii. 437-447. 



97 

but was soon probably released through the influence of his 
brother and other friends. 1 He adhered closely to the 
Queen, and in May 1571 he was with Kirkcaldy and 
Lethington in Edinburgh Oastle. 2 On 30 August 1571, 
his estates, which comprised, besides Murdocairnie, the 
tower and fortalice of Burntisland, and the port customs 
there, were forfeited by the Regent. 3 Upon the surrender 
of Queen Mary's partisans in Edinburgh Oastle in May 
1573, Melville, with others, was delivered into the custody 
of the Regent Morton; but owing to Queen Elizabeth's 
special intervention, his life was spared, and although for 
a time imprisoned, he was finally set at liberty a year 
later. On 18 August 1574 he writes from his own house 
in Fife expressing his gratitude to Queen Elizabeth for 
his life and liberty. 4 For the next few years he seems to 
have lived in retirement, and in November 1579 his forfeited 
estates were restored to him. 5 On 20 October 1581 he was 
knighted, 6 and on 13 April 1582 he was appointed clerk 
and deputy to the Earl of Gowrie, then Treasurer of 
Scotland. 7 In November 1582 and July 1583 Melville's 
previous purchase from the Duke of Lennox of the lands 
of Woodfield and the Moss of Grangemyre in the barony of 
Aberdour, Fife, was confirmed by royal charter. 8 On 29 
August 1583 he was made a member of the Privy Council, 9 
and there seems no doubt that he became a favourite of 
King James. On 10 May 1586 he and his son Robert re- 
ceived from Patrick, Master of Gray, ratification of a grant 
of the house of Abbotshall, and the erection of Burntisland 
into a free port, 10 and about the same time he obtained a 
charter of the lands of Garvock in Fife, and was infeft in 
them on 25 November 1584. 11 Immediately after the trial 
and condemnation of Queen Mary, he accompanied the 
Master of Gray to England to remonstrate with Queen 
Elizabeth, and they returned to Scotland on 7 February 
1587, the day before the Queen's execution. For his ser- 
vices on this mission Melville received a royal grant of the 
marriage of Kennedy of Ardmillan, valued at 1000. 12 He 
was deputed to act as Chancellor when King James left 

1 The Melvilles, i. 94. 2 Calderwood, viii. 72, 73. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
4 Thorpe's Col., iii. 386. 5 Acta Parl. Scot., viii. 186. Marjoribanks, 
Annals, 40. T P. C. Reg., iii. 478-480. 8 Beg. Mag. Sig. 9 P. C. Reg., iii. 
594. w Melville Charter-chest. " The Melvilles, i. 111. l2 Ibid., 112. 
VOL. VI. G 



98 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

Scotland for Denmark in October 1589, 1 and on the King's 
return was appointed a member of the Commission for 
maintaining peace and order on the Borders. As treasurer- 
depute, he frequently had to advance large sums to the 
King, 2 and probably it was to reimburse him for these heavy 
expenses that he received on 15 December 1590 a grant 
of the Grown casualties of ward and others from the lands 
and baronies of the deceased Lady Margaret Balfour of 
Burleigh during her son's minority, and also the casualty 
of his marriage. 3 On 19 December 1592 Sir Robert bought 
from James Balfour, Oommendator of the Priory of Charter- 
house, near Perth, the manor and lands of Monimail, which, 
with additions, became the barony of Melville in Fife. 4 
Three days before the sitting of Parliament, which opened 
in May 1594, he was made an Extraordinary Lord of Session, 
and on 11 June following he was admitted to the bench. 5 
In the beginning of the year 1596 King James made certain 
changes in the administration, and Melville was deprived 
of his office as Treasurer-depute. 6 In December 1600 he 
resigned his place in the Council in favour of his son, Sir 
Robert Melville of Burntisland. 7 In February 1601 he 
retired from the bench, his son being appointed an Extra- 
ordinary Lord of Session in his place. 8 In July 1603 his 
name appears as attending the Privy Council in London, 9 but 
in February 1604 the King issued a warrant dispensing with 
his attendance at Council and Exchequer on account of his 
' age, seiknes, and inflrmiteis.' 10 On 10 January 1606 he 
acted as one of the judicial assessors at the trial of 
those ministers who were accused of treason for holding 
a General Assembly at Aberdeen. 11 He was appointed a 
member of the reconstructed Scottish Privy Council in 
1610. 12 In his private affairs he continued to receive marks 
of royal favour. On 20 February 1605 the King granted to 
him, and to his son, and son's wife, a remission of all rent 
or feu-farms payable by them to the Crown from the lands 
of Murdocairnie, which was confirmed 24 June 1609, 13 and 
by patent dated 1 April 1616, Sir Robert was created a 

1 P. C. Reg., iv. 429. 2 Ibid., iv. 470. 3 Melville Charter-chest. * Ibid. 
6 Books of Sederunt, iv. f. 148. Thorpe's Col., ii. 706, 707. 7 P. C. Reg., 
vi. 182. 8 Books of Sederunt, IV. ii. f. 303. 9 P. C. Reg., vi. 577, 578. 10 The 
Melvilles, ii. 12. " P. C. Reg., vi. pp. xxxiv, 5, 164. 12 The Melvilles, i. 
123. 13 Ada Parl, Scot., iv. 455. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OP LEVEN AND MELVILLE 99 

peer of Parliament by the title of LORD MELVILLE OF 
MONIMAIL as a recognition of the many and important 
offices which Sir Robert held during the reign of the King 
and his predecessors, and of the dignity and efficiency with 
which he had transacted the affairs committed to him. 1 
The Peerage was to Sir Robert for life, and after his death 
to his eldest son, Sir Robert Melville of Burntisland, and 
the lawful heirs-male of either of them. 

Lord Melville died in December 1621, aged ninety-four. 

He married, first, Katherine Adamson, said to be a 
daughter of William Adamson of Craigcrook, a burgess of 
Edinburgh, and widow of Richard Hopper, also a burgess 
there. 2 He married, secondly, before 1593, Mary Leslie, 
daughter of Andrew, fifth Earl of Rothes. She died in 
March or April 1605. He married, thirdly, Jean, daughter 
of Robert Stewart, Earl of Orkney, and widow of Patrick 
Leslie, first Lord Lindores, who survived him and was alive 
in 1642. 3 He had issue by his first wife only : 

1. SIR ROBERT, second Lord Melville. 

2. Christian, married to Thomas Oliphant, portioner of 

Hilcairny, and had issue. Both were dead before 
March 1593. 4 

II. SIR ROBERT MELVILLE of Burntisland, second Lord 
Melville of Monimail. He is first mentioned in his marriage- 
contract dated 24 and 28 October 1584. 5 In 1586 he received 
from Patrick, Master of Gray, as Oommendator of Dunferm- 
line, a ratification of his infeftment in the house of Abbots- 
hall, which his father resigned in his favour. 8 On 22 
November 1587 he joined with his father in resigning the 
office of Keeper of the Palace of Linlithgow in favour of Sir 
Lewis Bellenden of Auchnoul. 7 On 9 January 1587-88 the 
King granted to the two Melvilles, father and son, the lands 
of Wester and Over Kinghorn and others, with the castle of 
Burntisland, the whole being erected into a free barony 
and regality to be named Burntisland, and on 1 March fol- 
lowing the elder Melville resigned the lands, the barony 
being then bestowed on the son. 8 On 18 May 1588 the 

1 The Melvilles, iii. 152, 153. 2 Reg. of Deeds, viii. f. 284. She was alive 
11 December 1586. 3 The Melvilles, i. 124. * Reg. of Deeds, xliii. f . 343. 6 The 
Melvilles, i. 124, 125. 6 Ibid., 125. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig. 8 Melville Charter-chest. 



100 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

lands of South Ferry of Portincraig, now Ferryport-on 
Craig, with the town, port, and right of ferry, were granted 
to the elder Melville in liferent and to the son in fee. 1 The 
whole of these grants were ratified to the younger Melville 
on 1 February 1591-92, and on 7 February 1591-92 a similar 
grant was made of the lands of Murdocairnie. 2 Judgment 
was given by the Privy Council in favour of the Melvilles, 
in a claim made for the possession of the ferry and fishings 
connected with the lands of Ferryport, on 26 January 1593- 
94, when the younger Melville is described as Sir Robert, but 
it does not appear when or why he received the rank of 
knighthood. 3 In December 1600 he was admitted a member 
of the Scottish Privy Council on his father's retirement, 
and on 26 February 1601 he was appointed an Extraordinary 
Lord of Session, with the title of Lord Burntisland. 4 He 
was one of those who followed King James to London after 
his accession to the English throne, and he acted as one of 
the Scottish Privy Councillors there. 5 

In August 1621 the Scottish Parliament ratified to Sir 
Robert and his wife a charter, dated 14 August 1613, confirm- 
ing a grant of the lands of Letham, mill of Monimail, lands 
of Monksmyre and Edensmoor, and erecting them into the 
barony of Monimail. 6 In December 1621 he succeeded his 
father as second Lord Melville of Monimail, 7 and he got a 
new charter of the barony 10 August 1627, to him and the 
heirs of his own body, whom failing, to his heir-male general 
or of conquest whom it should please him during his life to 
designate as his successor. 8 It was through the exercise of 
this nomination that the next holder of the title succeeded, 
as will be afterwards shown. He was a member of the 
first Convention of Estates in Scotland after the accession 
of King Charles I., but in 1626 he was deprived of office. 
Yet, as a Privy Councillor, he attended a Convention of 
Estates in July 1630, when he was placed on an important 
committee appointed to deal with the fisheries of Scotland. 9 

In the Parliament held in Edinburgh in 1633, on the 
occasion of King Charles's coronation there, Lord Melville 
took a prominent part in opposing the King's ecclesiastical 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. z Ibid. 3 P. C. Reg., v. 124-126. 4 Ibid., vi. 182 ; Books 
of Sederunt, ut supra. 6 P. C. Reg., vi. 577, 582. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., iv. 
661. ^ The Melvilles, i. 128. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig. 9 The Melvilles, i. 129, 130. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OP LEVEN AND MELVILLE 101 

policy. 1 He nevertheless continued to sit in the Privy 
Council, and was a member of a Special Commission 
appointed in February 1634 to audit the Treasurer's 
accounts. 2 He died at Edinburgh 19 March 1635. 3 At the 
time of his death his moveable estate was valued at the 
considerable sum of 28,571, 3s. Scots. 4 

He married, first (contract dated 24 and 28 October 1584), 
Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas Ker of Ferniehirst. 5 
She died 24 May 1594. 6 He married, secondly, before 1613, 7 
Jean Hamilton, daughter of Gavin Hamilton of Raploch, 
and widow of Robert, fifth Lord Ross. 8 She died in May 
1631. Lord Melville left no issue by either marriage. 

JOHN MELVILLE, fifth of Raith, elder brother of Sir Robert, 
first Lord Melville, and eldest son by his father's second 
wife, became entitled to the succession on the death of his 
half-brother William about 1547, but does not appear on 
record until about the year 1560. 9 It is likely he had just 
reached his majority when his father was executed in Feb- 
ruary 1548. 10 The family estates had immediately after 
that event been forfeited, as mentioned above, and David 
Hamilton was still proprietor of Raith in 1559. 11 Following 
on the joint petition by John Melville, his mother, and his 
brother Robert, which came before Parliament on 4 June 
1563, an Act was passed rescinding the forfeiture against 
Sir John, and restoring to his widow and children all the 
rights which they would have enjoyed had the sentence 
never been pronounced. 12 On 10 November 1563 John Mel- 
ville of Raith was duly retoured lawful heir-general of his 
father, Sir John Melville. On 19 January 1565-66 a final 
decree giving John Melville full possession of the lands of 
Raith was pronounced by the Lords of Session, and he was 
duly infeft on 15 October 1566. 13 He appears to have taken 
little part in public affairs, but he was present in the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in July 1567, 
and subscribed the articles dealing with the affairs of the 
Church. 14 The family papers show that during the twenty 



102 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

years following his acquisition of the estates he paid off a 
number of mortgages, some of which were loans inherited 
from his father. 1 He died in March 1605. His personal 
estate was valued at 861, 10s. Scots, his liabilities, how- 
ever, exceeding that sum by 736, 8s. 8d. Scots. 2 

He married, first (contract 30 March 1563), Isobel Lundie, 
daughter of Walter Lundie, Laird of that Ilk ; 3 secondly 
(contract 30 March 1570), 4 Margaret Bonar, daughter of 
William Bonar of Rossie, who died in October 1574 ; 5 
thirdly, Grisell Meldrum, of the family of Segie, who died 
in October 1597. 6 

By his first wife he had issue : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded. 

2. Margaret, married in 1585 to James Wemyss of Bogie. 

She died October 1598, leaving issue. 7 

3. Isobel, married in 1588 to George Auchinleck, younger 

of Balmanno. She died 21 December 1593, at her 
jointure-house of Pitterichie, in the parish of Glen- 
bervie, apparently without issue. 8 
By his second wife he had : 

4. Mr. Thomas, named as a witness in various documents. 

He was named executor in the will of Robert, Lord 
Melville, in 1621. He had a gift of the marriage of 
his nephew John, Lord Melville, in 1626, who names 
him as a legatee in his will dated 8 May 1642. His 
name is, however, omitted in the confirmed testa- 
ment on 21 April 1643, so that he probably died 
between those two dates. 9 

5. Agnes, one of her mother's executors. Married (con- 

tract 31 October 1604 10 ) to John Ramsay of Prior- 
letham. She died, without issue, before 15 February 
1609, when her brother Thomas and her sister Janet 
were appointed her executors." 

6. Janet, also named as an executor of her mother. 12 She 

was married to George Boiswell. 13 

7. Another daughter, referred to, but not named." 

1 The Melvilles, i. 175. 2 Ibid., 183. 3 Reg. of Deeds, vi. f. 147. 4 Ibid., 
xi. f. 244. 6 The Melvilles, iii. 121. <* Ibid., 142. 7 Edin. Tests., 10 Novem- 
ber 1599. 8 Ibid., 15 December 1596. 9 The Melvilles, i. 183 ; iii. 172 ; Mel- 
ville Charter-chest. 10 Acts and Decreets, ccclii. f. 208. n Edin. Com. 
Decreets, at date. u The Melvilles, iii. 121. 13 Acts and Decreets, ccclii. 
f. 208. " The Melvilles, i. 180. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 103 

By his third wife he had : 

8. James, who about 1588 received as a provision the 

lands of Feddinch. 1 He died apparently between 
1642 and 1652, leaving issue two daughters. 

9. Alison, probably a daughter of the third marriage, 

provision being made for her and her three younger 
sisters in 1587. 2 She was married to Mr. David 
Barclay of Touch, minister successively of Dailly, 
Maybole, Dumfries, Kilwinning, St. Andrews, and 
Dairsie. She died before 1627, no issue of the 
marriage being recorded. 3 

10. Margaret, recorded in 1587 as one of the younger 
daughters of John Melville, and in 1597 as a daughter 
of Grisell Meldrum. In January 1605 she was recom- 
mended by her father in his testament to the care of 
her cousin Sir Robert Melville of Burntisland. 4 She 
seemed to have been unmarried in 1621, when she is 
named in the will of her uncle Robert, first Lord 
Melville, as legatee for 500 merks. 5 

11. Christian, named with her sisters in 1587 and 1597. 8 
She was recommended by her father in his testament 
to the care of her uncle Sir James Melville of Hall- 
hill, and is named by Lord Melville as legatee of 
500 merks. 7 

12. Katherine, described by her father as his youngest 
daughter, and recommended by him to the care of 
his brother Sir Robert, first Lord Melville, in whose 
testament she is named, in 1621, as legatee of 1000 
merks. 8 

JOHN MELVILLE, sixth of Raith, was probably born about 
1563 or 1564. 9 He is first mentioned in 1584, when he was 
contracted in marriage to Margaret Scott, sister of James 
Scott of Balwearie, the bride's dowry being 5000 merks. 10 
In 1602 he received, on his father's resignation, a charter 
from Queen Anna of the lands of Raith. 11 In 1605 he suc- 
ceeded his father in full possession of the family estates. 12 
In 1608 he bought, for 12 Scots, an exemption from liability 



1 The Melvilles, iii. 129. 2 Ibid., 130. 3 JM& 4 Ibid ^ 151 . 
157. Ibid., 130, 142. 7 Ibid., 151, 157. 8 Ibid. 9 Ms. Genealogy. 
10 Melville Charter-chest. " Ibid. 12 TJie Melvilles, iii. 158. 



104 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

to serve in an expedition ordered by King James to proceed 
against the turbulent clansmen of the Western Islands. 1 
By a contract executed at Raith 8 March 1616, 2 John 
Melville resigned his lands to his eldest son John, reserving 
his own and his wife's liferent, and specifying certain pro- 
visions for the younger children. 3 This was followed, 18 
April 1616, by a formal charter of the lands, 4 confirmed by 
King Charles I. 3 February 1626. 5 He died January 1626. 6 
As already stated, he married Margaret, sister of James 
Scott of Balwearie, who survived him, and by her he left 
issue : 

1. JOHN, afterwards third Lord Melville. 

2. James, mentioned in 1609 in connection with the plan- 

tation of Ulster. Between 2 May and 6 June 1618 
his elder brother John granted him and his wife, on 
their marriage, a sum of 300 merks Scots yearly, as 
interest on the principal sum of 3000 merks, and on 
7 May 1623 James Melville, then designed * of Ard- 
mure,' and his wife, acknowledged receipt from his 
brother John of 3000 merks Scots. 7 In 1635 he was 
left a legacy of 1000 Scots by Robert, second Lord 
Melville. 8 He married (contract dated at Dysart and 
Raith 2 May 1618 9 ) Jean Sinclair, widow of George 
Seton of Parbroath. Nothing more is known regard- 
ing him. 

3. David, named in the contract of 1616 10 as provided 

to the sum of 700 merks. In May 1644 he was ap- 
pointed tutor to his brother Lord Melville's chil- 
dren. He died before 25 December 1644, apparently 
unmarried. 11 

4. Thomas, minister of Kinglassie, ancestor of the Mel- 

villes of Oairnie. He was born about 1602. 12 He was 
ordained minister of the parish of Kinglassie in 1630, 13 
and was a member of the General Assembly in 1650. 
He died 21 April 1675. He married Jean Gourlay, 
and had issue three sons and three daughters. 14 

1 P. C. Reg., viii. p. liv. 2 Melville Charter-chest. 3 Ibid. * The 
Melvilles, iii. 157. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 St. Andrews Tests., 20 April 1627. 
7 Melville Charter-chest. 8 Ibid. 9 Reg. of Deeds, cclxxxii., 18 February 
1619. 10 8 March 1616, Melville Charter-chest. " Ibid. 12 The Melvilles, 
i. 188. is Scot ' s Fastii iv . 547. i* 



MELVILLE, EARLS OP LEVEN AND MELVILLE 105 

5. Jean, whose portion, amounting to 3000 merks, was 

paid to her on 2 May 1618. 1 She was married (con- 
tract dated 26 July and 2 August 1623) to Michael 
Balfour of Grange or Newgrange. 2 

6. Elspeth or Elizabeth, married (contract dated 24 May 

1616) to Mr. Robert Murray, minister, provost of 
Methven, and had issue. 3 

7. Bathia, who, apparently about 1629, acknowledged. 

payment of '1000 from her brother as her share of 
her father's estate. 4 She was married (contract 17 
September 1634) to John Traill, younger of Dinnork. 
She survived her husband, and died in Kinglassie, 
Fife, in July 1652. 5 

8. Euphame, who apparently died unmarried. 8 

9. Margaret, who was married (contract dated 10 and 12 

December 1632) to James Scrimgeour of Wester 
Oartmore, son of Mr. John Scrimgeour of Wester 
Bowhill, Auchterderran. 

III. JOHN, third Lord Melville of Monimail, succeeded 
his father in the family estates in January 1626, and was 
infeft in Raith 13 March 1626. 7 He succeeded his cousin 
Robert in the title in 1635. The latter had been empowered 
by a royal charter of 1627 to nominate either his heir- 
general, James Melville of Hallhill, or his heir of conquest, 
John Melville of Raith, as his successor in the honours. 
His decision having been in favour of the Laird of Raith, 
the latter assumed the title on the death of his kinsman 19 
March 1635. The King, however, at first declined to 
acknowledge him as .Lord Melville, and instructed the 
Scottish Privy Council to forbid the use by the Laird of 
' suche title of a lord ' until authorised by royal warrant. 8 
The Council thereupon summoned Melville before them, 
but, on his production of the royal charter of 1627, they 
were satisfied, and informed the King accordingly. On 11 
May 1636 he was retoured heir of conquest and provision 
to Robert, Lord Melville, in the lands and barony of Moni- 
mail, with the title of Lord Melville, and in the lands of 

1 The Melvilles, iii. 153. 2 Ibid., i. 188. 3 Ibid., 188, 189. * Ibid., 189. 
5 Test, confirmed 9 March 1653, Melville Charter-chest. 6 The Melvilles, 
\. 189. 7 Melville Charter-chest. 8 The Melvilles, ii. 21. 



106 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

Letham, Monksmire, and others, in the county of Fife. 1 
He was present in the short Parliament of 1639 and in that 
of the following year. About the year 1640 Lord Melville's 
net rental in the parish is stated at 3900 merks. 2 In March 
1643 his lands of Monimail, Raith, and others were erected 
into the barony of Monimail. 3 He died 22 May 1643. His 
will was confirmed 27 May 1644, the debts exceeding the 
personal estate and assets by 2927. 4 He married (con- 
tract 27 October 1627) Anne, elder daughter and co-heiress 
of Sir George Erskine of Innerteil, a Lord of Session, with 
the title of Lord Innerteil, a brother of the first Earl of 
Kellie, and by her, who survived him and was still alive in 
1648, 5 he had issue : 

1. GEORGE, who succeeded. 

2. John, named in his father's will. He died, without 

issue, before 1675. 6 

3. James, who acquired the lands of Oassingray. On 22 

August 1693 he witnessed a discharge by his brother 
George, at Melville. He appears to have died about 
1706. He married (contract 7 September 1673) Anne, 
daughter of Mr. Alexander Burnett of Carlops. 7 
There was apparently no issue of the marriage, as 
his nephew David, third Earl of Leven, was retoured 
his heir-general 19 August 1714. 8 

4. Isabel, who was provided in 1643 to the sum of 6000 

merks. She appears to have died young. 

5. Jean, who was also provided to 6000 merks. 9 She 

died between 1645 and 1650. 10 

6. Anna, who was provided with a similar portion as her 

elder sisters. 11 She was married to Thomas Boyd, 
younger of Penkill. She had issue, and died before 
1675. 12 

7. Catherine, who was similarly provided for with her 

sisters. She died unmarried, and was buried at 
Raith 18 March 1692." 

IV. GEORGE, fourth Lord and first Earl of Melville, was 
born in 1636, and was only about seven years old when he 

1 Retours, Fife, No. 534 ; cf. Gen. Reg. Sets., xliii. f. 486. 2 Melville 
Charter-chest. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. pt. i. 250. 4 Melville Charter-chest. 
5 The Melvilles, i. 446. Ibid., 194. 7 Fife Sasines, 8 September 1673. 
8 The Melvilles, i. 194. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. Ibid. 12 Ibid. 13 Ibid. 






MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 107 

succeeded to the title and estates. His name first appears 
upon the rolls of Parliament in 1661, but in 1651 and 1652 
he received several letters from King Charles u. The first 
is dated 6 May 1651 from Dunfermline, and is virtually an 
application for money on behalf of Sir George Melville of 
Garvock, who then held the post of Under-Master of the 
Household to the King in Scotland. The other royal letters 
appear to be appeals for pecuniary aid for the King himself. 1 
In May 1660 he went to London to welcome King Charles n. 
on his restoration. On 20 April 1663 Lord Melville was 
appointed one of the curators of Anna Scott, Duchess of 
Monmouth ; he afterwards managed her affairs in Scotland, 
and discharged his duties so satisfactorily as to obtain the 
approval not only of the Duke and Duchess, but of King 
Charles himself. 2 In 1679 Lord Melville, with the approval 
of the King, joined the Duke of Monmouth, at that time 
Captain-General of the royal forces operating against the 
Covenanters, and made earnest representations to them 
that they should lay down their arms. 3 In 1683 orders 
were given for his arrest on suspicion of complicity in the 
Ryehouse Plot, and about the middle of July he effected his 
escape to Holland. 4 He attached himself to the Court of 
the Prince of Orange, and seems to have remained in 
Holland until after the latter sailed for England in Nov- 
ember 1688. Although it seems certain that Lord Melville 
did not accompany Monmouth in his disastrous descent 
upon England, 5 but only contributed towards the funds, he 
was formally declared a rebel by Parliament in June 1685, 
and his estates were forfeited and annexed to the Crown. 6 
On 21 January 1686-87, however, King James intimated 
that he had extended his clemency to Lord Melville, and 
had granted his forfeited estates to his son, the Master of 
Melville ; and from another letter by the King, dated 31 
March 1687, it appears that for these royal favours Lord 
Melville paid a composition of 3000 sterling, and a yearly 
rent of 200 sterling. 7 Lord Melville came to England 
after William and Mary had been proclaimed King and 
Queen, and attended the Convention of Estates which met 

1 The Melvilles, i. 195, 196. 2 Ibid., 197. 3 Acta Part, Scot., viii. App. 
58 ; The Melvilles, ii. 27. * The Melvilles, i. 201. 6 Ibid., 202. 6 Acta 
Part. Scot., viii. 491, App. 59-65. 7 The Melvilles, ii. 29, 30. 



108 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

14 March 1689. 1 On the adjournment of the Convention he 
came to Court, and was present on 11 May when the King 
and Queen accepted the Crown of Scotland. On 13 May 
1689 he was appointed sole Secretary of State for Scotland. 
On 26 February 1690 Lord Melville was appointed Royal 
Commissioner in the second session of the Scottish Parlia- 
ment, it being declared at the same time that his office of 
sole Secretary of State for Scotland should continue as 
before. 2 On 8 April 1690 he was promoted to the dignity of 
Earl, by the style and title of EARL OF MELVILLE, VIS- 
COUNT OF KIRKCALDY, LORD RAITH, MONYMAIL 
AND BALWEARIE, and on the 15 of the same month 
the King authorised him to open the session of the Scottish 
Parliament which, on 7 June, passed the Act for settling 
Church government in Scotland, ratified the Westminster 
Confession, and established presbytery. 3 Two Acts passed 
by this Parliament were in favour of the Earl of Melville 
himself, one rescinding the forfeiture of his estates, the 
other formally dissolving the estates from the Crown and 
conveying them to himself and his heirs. 4 Before the close 
of 1690 Lord Melville's sole Secretaryship for Scotland 
ended, Sir John Dairy mple being conjoined with him in the 
office, and accompanying the King to Flanders. Melville's 
Presbyterianism was disagreeable to many in Scotland. 
His enemies did not fail to misrepresent him, and to attack 
his ecclesiastical policy. This may have prejudiced the 
mind of the King. But it is also possible that King 
William may have wished to have beside him a man of 
younger years and more versatile talents when visiting the 
Continent in the beginning of 1691 in order to cement his 
alliance with the Continental powers against France. In 
1691 Lord Melville accepted the less important office of 
Lord Privy Seal. 5 In a letter probably written about the 
end of 1693, he mentions the fact of his having been ap- 
pointed one of the Scottish Commissioners of Admiralty. 
In May 1696 he was offered, by desire of the King, the 
post of President of the Privy Council, which, after some 
demur, he accepted, and he probably entered upon his new 
duties in August of that year. The salary was 1000 

1 Acta Part. Scot., ix. 22. 2 The Melvilles, iii. 201. 3 Acta Parl Scot., 
ix. Ill, 113, 196, 198. Ibid., ix. 181, 228. 5 The Melvilles, i. 227. 



109 

sterling yearly. 1 He attended the Parliament of 1696, and 
took his seat as one of the great officers of State, being 
afterwards appointed a member of the committee for the 
security of the kingdom. 2 Melville continued to hold his 
office during the remainder of King William's reign, and 
was permitted to retain it after the King's death in March 
1702 until December of that year. He attended the Parlia- 
ment of 1703, and petitioned it on behalf of the privacy 
and amenity of his house and park at Monimail, then styled 
Melville, praying that as he had planted and fenced the 
surrounding land through which there was a public path, 
Parliament would order the road to be diverted. The 
petition was granted. 3 He was not a member of the last 
Scottish Parliament which commenced 3 October 1706, but 
it passed an Act authorising the repayment to him of sums 
advanced by him for the public service. 4 He died 20 May 
1707. 5 He married (contract dated 17 January 1655) 
Catherine Leslie, only surviving daughter of Alexander 
Leslie, Lord Balgonie, and grand-daughter of the famous 
general the first Earl of Leven, her tocher being 25,000 
merks. 6 She survived him, and died 2 April 1713. 7 They 
had issue : 

1. Alexander, Master of Melville and Lord Raith, born 

23 December 1655. During his father's absence 
in Holland he attended to the interests of the family 
at home, and after the revolution he was appointed 
a member of the Privy Council and Treasurer-Depute. 
Like his father, he was a staunch Presbyterian, and 
although subjected to frequent and bitter attacks, 
he was much respected even by his political opponents. 
He died, vita patris, 26 March 1698. He married 
(contract 27 August 1689) Barbara Dundas, third 
daughter of Walter Dundas of that Ilk, 8 who survived 
him, and died 23 February 1719. They had issue two 
sons, who both died in infancy. 

2. John, born 28 May 1657, who died young. 

3. DAVID, third Earl of Leven, who succeeded. 

4. George, born 24 September 1664, who died young. 

1 Melville Charter-chest. 2 The Melvilles, i. 236. 3 Acta Part. Scot., 
xi. 61, 70. 4 Ibid., xi. App. 100, Melville Charter-chest. ' The Melvilles, 
i. 240. ' Lament's Diary, 84 ; Melville Charter-chest. 7 The Melvilles, 
i. 241. 8 Melville Charter-chest. 



110 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

5. James, born 18 December 1665. In 1675 the lands of 

Hallhill were conveyed to him by his father, but were 
regranted by the son to Lord Melville in 1699. 1 He 
owned also the lands of Balgarvie. 2 He died in 1706. 3 
He married Elizabeth Moncreiff, whose parentage 
has not been ascertained. They had issue three 
sons and four daughters. 

6. John, born 24 April 1670, who died young. 

7. Charles, born 27 December 1673, who died young. 

8. John, born 26 September 1677, who also died young. 

9. Margaret, born 28 October 1658 ; married to Robert, 

fourth Lord Balfour of Burleigh/ 

10. Mary, born 7 May 1662. 

11. Anna, born 8 March 1668. 

12. Katherine, born 1 June 1671. 

The last three all appear to have died young. 5 

V. DAVID, third Earl of Leven and second Earl of Mel- 
ville, was born 5 May 1660. 6 He succeeded to the earldom 
of Leven, as heir to his cousin Catharine, Countess of 
Leven, on the death of John, Duke of Rothes, 27 July 1681, 
and on 26 April 1682 he was retoured and infeft in the 
estates. 7 In 1683 he accompanied his father in his flight 
to Holland, where he seems to have spent some time in 
travelling. 8 In June 1687 he was at Berlin, and prior to 
that date, through the influence of the Electress Sophia of 
Hanover, he had entered the service of her son-in-law, the 
Duke of Brandenburg, being appointed colonel in the 
Elector's army in September of the same year. He arranged 
a meeting at Cleves between the Prince of Orange, who had 
previously employed him on missions of a confidential nature, 
and the Elector of Brandenburg, which paved the way for 
the Revolution of 1688. In aid of this enterprise Lord 
Leven raised at his own expense a regiment of his country- 
men, afterwards numbered the 25th, in Germany and 
Holland, his commission as colonel being dated 7 September 
1688. At its head the Earl accompanied the Prince to 
England in the following November, and received the sur- 

1 Melville Charter-chest. 2 The Melvilles, i. 243. 3 Ibid. * Ibid. 
6 Ibid., 243. 6 Ibid., 245. 1 Fife Retours, No. 1204. 8 The Melvilles, i. 
247. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 111 

render of Plymouth, the first of the English towns to 
declare for the Prince of Orange. After the coronation in 
London the King despatched Lord Leven to the Convention 
of Estates with a letter to that Assembly, which he pre- 
sented on 16 March 1689, the third day of its meeting. The 
Duke of Gordon being in possession of Edinburgh Castle, 
which he held for King James, Lord Leven was empowered 
to raise a regiment 800 strong to guard the town, which he 
succeeded in doing. In the proceedings of the Convention 
Lord Leven took an active part in the interest of King 
William. He attended the King's first Scottish Parliament, 
which sat in Edinburgh 5 June 1689, and protested for the 
precedency of his title over the Earl of Callander. 1 On 
10 July 1689, a royal warrant was issued to Lord Melville, 
then only in his thirtieth year, and Major-General Mackay, 
empowering them to take measures to induce the rebel 
Highlanders to lay down their arms. He commanded 
his regiment at the battle of Killiecrankie 17 July 1689. 
On the surrender of Edinburgh Castle on 14 June 1689, the 
keeping of it was conferred upon Lord Leven, 23 August 
1689. 2 He had, about this time, a seat on the Privy 
Council of Scotland, and took an active part in the two 
Parliamentary sessions of 1690. 3 He took part, with his 
regiment, in the campaign in Flanders in 1692, but was 
back in London in October of that year, leaving his regiment 
in Flanders. 4 The Earl took an active part in promoting 
the succession of Queen Anne, and his services in this 
respect were acknowledged by the Government. 5 At the 
close of 1702 he was deprived of the command of Edinburgh 
Castle, but was to some extent compensated by his appoint- 
ment on 1 January 1703 as Major-General of all the Forces 
in Scotland. 6 On 17 October 1704 the Queen restored to 
him the command of the Castle, 7 and on 7 April 1705 he 
was appointed Master of the Ordnance in Scotland, with a 
pension of 150 stg. in addition to the usual salary of 150. 
Soon afterwards, on the death of Lt.-General Ramsay, he 
obtained the post of Commander-in-chief of the Scottish 
forces, his commission being dated 2 March 1706. 8 He took 

1 Acta Parl. Scot., ix. 95, 99. 2 Melville Charter-chest. 3 Acta Parl. 
Scot., ix. 106, 114, 143, 161, 188, 200, 230, 232. * The Melvilles, i. 270. Ibid 
6 Melville Charter-chest. 7 Ibid. * Ibid. 



112 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

an active part in forwarding the Union between the two 
Kingdoms, and in 1706 was reappointed one of the Commis- 
sioners for the Union, whose sittings in London he attended 
regularly. After the Union Lord Leven was elected one of 
the sixteen Scottish Representative Peers in the Parliament 
at Westminster. On the death of his father, 20 May 1707, 
the Earl of Melville succeeded to the title and estates of 
Melville, Raith, and others, as second Earl of Melville, but 
did not assume the title. 1 In June 1712 the Earl was 
deprived of all his military offices, probably owing to the 
want of sympathy between his views and those of the 
faction which then dominated the policy of Queen Anne's 
Government. On 4 August 1714 King George I. was pro- 
claimed King in Edinburgh. The Earl and his son, Lord 
Balgonie, took part in the proceedings, and immediately 
afterwards set out tor London, to welcome the son of his 
former friend and correspondent, the Electress Sophia. 2 
But though he was graciously received by His Majesty on 
his landing in England, Leven's enemies succeeded in 
undermining his influence, and his political career was 
terminated. 

By the year 1716 his financial affairs had fallen into much 
embarrassment, and at that time he made over all his 
estates to his son in fee, under burden of relieving him of 
the greater part of his debts, which then amounted to 
nearly 400,000 Scots. In 1717 the lands of Inchleslie were 
sold to Colonel Patrick Ogilvie, brother of James, Earl of 
Findlater, for 11,454, Os. lOd. sterling, to satisfy pressing 
creditors, and in 1725 Raith was sold by public roup to Mr. 
William Ferguson, ancestor of the present possessor. The 
Earl died 6 June 1728, in his sixty-ninth year. s 

He married (contract 3 September 1691 4 ) Anna Wemyss, 

eldest daughter of James Wemyss, Lord Burntisland, and 

Margaret, Countess of Wemyss, sister of David, third Earl 

of Wemyss, by whom he had issue : 

1. George, Lord Balgonie, born in January 1695. He 

became an ensign in Brigadier James Maitland's 

Regiment, and afterwards held a commission as 

captain in the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards, but sold 

1 The Sfelvilles, i. 287. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid., 305, 306. 4 Melville Charter- 
chest. 



113 

it in 1716, in which year his father placed him in 
possession of the estates. He died vita patris on or 
about 20 August 1721, in the twenty-seventh year 
of his age, 1 having married (contract 27 July 1716) 
his cousin Margaret Carnegie, eldest daughter of 
David, fourth Earl of Northesk. 2 She died 7 July 
1722. 3 They had issue : 

(1) DAVID, who succeeded his grandfather in the titles and' 

estates. 

(2) Anne, who was born 7 April 1721, and died in 1723.* 

2. ALEXANDER, who succeeded his nephew in the honours 

and lands. 

3. James, mentioned as third lawful son of the second 

Earl of Melville. He was alive in 1738. 

4. Mart/, who was born in July 1692. She was married 

in 1708 to William, Lord Haddo, afterwards second 
Earl of Aberdeen, and died in 1710. 5 

5. Margaret, who was born in March 1696, and seems to 

have died young. 6 

VI. DAVID, fourth Earl of Leven and third Earl of Mel- 
ville, was born 17 December 1717. After his father's death 
in 1721 he was styled Lord Balgonie. He succeeded as Earl 
of Leven and Melville 6 June 1728, when in his eleventh 
year, and died in June of the following year. 7 

VII. ALEXANDER, fifth Earl of Leven and fourth Earl of 
Melville, was born in or about the year 1699. 8 He was 
educated for the legal profession, and in September 1715 
was sent to Leyden to complete his studies. He had 
previously obtained a commission as ensign in the 3rd 
Regiment of Foot Guards, and when on the eve of starting 
for Holland he was ordered by his colonel to join the com- 
pany to which he belonged. The difficulty was, however, 
overcome on the earnest representation of his father, and 
his attendance with his regiment was dispensed with. 9 He 
was still at Leyden in December 1718. He was admitted a 
member of the Faculty of Advocates 14 July 1719, 10 after 

1 The Melvilles, i. 306, 307. 2 Ibid., 306. 3 Ibid., 307. * Ibid. 6 Cf. 
vol. i. 90. 6 The Melvilles, i. 308. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid., 309. 9 Ibid., 309, 310. 
10 Books of Sederunt, at date. 

VOL. VI. H 



114 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

he had applied to Lord Dunmore, the colonel of his regi- 
ment, to be allowed to return home for this purpose. 
Shortly after his admission to the Bar he applied for per- 
mission to dispose of his commission. 1 On the death of his 
young nephew in June 1729 he succeeded as fifth Earl of 
Leven and fourth Earl of Melville. On the resignation of 
James Erskine, Lord Grange, he was appointed a Lord of 
Session, and he took his seat on the Bench 11 July 1734. 2 
In the same year he was appointed Chamberlain of the 
Crown lands of Fife and Strathern. 3 In 1741 he was made 
Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland, a post which he continued to fill up to and 
including the year 1753. On 30 November 1741 he was 
installed as Grand Master Mason of Scotland. In 1747 he 
was elected one of the sixteen Representative Peers for 
Scotland. In the autumn of 1749 he travelled in France, 
probably on account of his health, but had returned to 
London by the middle of October. 4 He died 2 September 
1754, at the residence of Lord Balcarres in Fife, where he 
had gone to dine. 

He married, first, 23 February 1721, Mary Erskine, eldest 
daughter of Colonel John Erskine of Carnock, her dowry 
being 18,000 merks Scots. She died 12 July 1723. He 
married, secondly, 10 March 1726, Elizabeth Monypenny, 
daughter of Alexander Monypenny of Pitmilly, with whom 
he received a dowry of 9000 merks. 5 She survived him, 
and died at Edinburgh 15 May 1783, aged eighty-four. 8 By 
his first wife he had issue : 

1. DAVID, who succeeded. 

By the second marriage he had issue : 

2. George, named in 1730 in a bond of provision by his 

father. He seems to have died young.' 

3. Alexander, who was born in 1731. He entered the 3rd 

Regiment of Foot Guards in 1753, and, obtaining 
rapid promotion, became lieutenant-colonel of the 
56th Regiment in 1766, after having served for a 
short time in the Marines. In 1774 he was in America. 
In 1775 he was appointed aide-de-camp to King 

1 Melville Charter-chest. 2 Books of Sederuut, at date. 3 Melville 
Charter-chest. 4 Ibid. 6 The Melvilles, i. 314, 315. 6 Scots Mag. 7 The 
Melvilles, i. 335. 






MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 115 

George in. with the rank of colonel in the Army. In 
1776 he was again in America, acting as brigadier- 
general under Sir William Howe, who spoke highly of 
his gallantry in the field. In 1780 he, with the rank 
of major-general, joined Lord Ooruwallis in North 
Carolina, and was at the battle of Guildf ord in March 
1781. Towards the end of the same year he was in 
command at Charleston, but on 27 May 1782 he 
obtained leave of absence on account of ill-health. 
For some years after his return home he was second 
in command of the Forces in Scotland. He died at 
Beechwood, near Edinburgh, 27 December 1794. 1 He 
married, 23 December 1760, Mary Margaret, second 
daughter of Walter Tullideph of that Ilk in Forfar- 
shire, who died 14 October 1761, s and by her had 
issue : 

Mary Anne. She was married, 30 April 1787, to John Rutherford 
of Edgerston. 3 

4. Anne, born 27 February 1730 ; married, 30 April 1748, 

to George, sixth Earl of Northesk, with issue. She 
died in Edinburgh 8 November 1779, aged fifty. 

5. Elizabeth, born in March 1735 ; died young. 

6. Elizabeth (secunda), born in July 1737; married, 10 

June 1767, to John, second Earl of Hopetoun, and 
had issue. She survived her husband and died 10 
April 1788, aged fifty-one. 

7. Mary, married, in 1762, to Dr. James Walker of Inner- 

dovat, in Fife, and had issue three sons and one 
daughter. She was alive in 1818. 

VIII. DAVID, sixth Earl of Leven and fifth Earl of Mel- 
ville, was born 4 March 1722. On his father's accession to 
the titles and estates in 1729 he took the title of Lord 
Balgonie. He entered the University of Edinburgh, where 
he was a class-mate of the famous Dr. Alexander Carlyle 
of Inveresk/ In 1740 he was sent with his tutor, Mr. 
Morton, to Groningen, in Holland, where he probably 
remained until March or April 1742, when his father 
expressed a wish that he should enter the Army. On 4 

1 The Melvilles, i. 335. 2 Scots Mag. 3 Kay's Portraits, ii. 79. 4 The 
Melvilles, i. 337. 



116 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

June 1742 lie received a commission as ensign in General 
Handasyde's Regiment of Foot, then stationed in the North 
of Scotland. He continued in the regiment during the 
rebellion of 1745-46, but did not, apparently, see any active 
service. On 2 September 1754, on the death of his father, 
he succeeded to the titles and estates. In the following 
month he went to London, and was graciously received by 
King George n. In 1759 he was installed Grand Master 
Mason of Scotland, an office which he held for two 
years. He held the appointment of a Lord of Police from 
1773 until the abolition of that Board in 1782, and in 1783 
he became Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly 
of the Church of Scotland, his commission being dated 5 
May 1783. 1 He continued to fill the same office until the 
year 1801 inclusive. v He died at Edinburgh 9 June 1802, in 
the eighty-first year of his age. 

He married, 29 July 1747, Wilhelmina, daughter of 
William Nisbet of Dirleton, 2 with whom, fifty years later, 
he celebrated his * golden wedding * at Melville House. 
She died there 10 May 1798, aged seventy-four. 3 They 
had issue : 

1. ALEXANDER, who succeeded. 

2. William, born 8 August 1751. He entered the Army 

as an ensign in the 42nd Highlanders (Black Watch), 
and accompanied the regiment to Ireland in 1771. In 
1773 he left the 42nd and joined the 17th Regiment 
as lieutenant. In 1776, as captain, he was with his 
regiment in America, and with it took part in the 
successful attack on Long Island in August of that 
year. He was killed 3 January 1777 in an action near 
Princeton, New Jersey. He died unmarried. 4 

3. David, born 13 January 1755. He joined the 16th Foot, 

and was stationed at Gibraltar soon after its siege 
in 1782. He was aide-de-camp to his uncle, General 
Alexander Leslie, while second in command of the 
Forces in Scotland. He was on duty in Ireland from 
1796 till 1804, and assisted in quelling the Irish rebel- 
lion of 1798. He became colonel in 1800, major- 
general on the North British staff in 1808, and general 

1 Melville Charter-chest. 2 The Melvilles, i. 339. 3 Ibid., 349. 4 Ibid., 
351. 



on 2 July 1838. After retiring from the Army he 
lived at Jedbank, near Jedburgh. He died 21 October 
1838. He married, 16 January 1787, Rebecca, 
daughter of the Rev. John Gillies, D.D., minister of 
the Blackfriars Church, Glasgow, but had no issue. 1 

4. John, born 20 November 1759. On 22 July 1778 he 

joined the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards as ensign, 
and was promoted captain in July 1781. He served 
in Flanders in 1793 and 1794, where he was wounded. 
He became general 12 August 1819. He died with- 
out issue November 1824. He married, 13 September 
1816, Jane, eldest daughter and heiress of Thomas 
Cuming, banker in Edinburgh. 2 

5. George, born 21 April 1766. He entered the Indian 

Civil Service in 1802, and was stationed in Ceylon. 
He died 8 March 1812. He married, 27 November 
1802, Jacomina Gertrude, only daughter of William 
Jacob Vander-Graaff, Governor of Java, by whom he 
had issue a daughter, Mary Christiana, born 10 
November 1803. 3 

6. Jane, born 1 April 1753 ; married, 9 November 1775, 

to Sir John Wishart Belsches Stuart, Bart., of Fetter- 
cairn, M.P., and had issue a daughter, Williamina, 
married to Sir William Forbes of Pitsligo, Bart. She 
died 28 October 1829. 4 

7. Mary Elizabeth, born 4 March 1757 ; married, 8 

November 1776 to her cousin, the Hon. James 
Ruthven, afterwards fourth Lord Ruthven, and had 
issue. She died in 1820. 5 

8. Charlotte, born 22 September 1761. She died, unmar- 

ried, 26 October 1830. 6 

IX. ALEXANDER, seventh Earl of Leven and sixth Earl 
of Melville, was born 7 November 1749. After making the 
usual 'grand tour' on the Continent, he returned home, 
and was, in 1786, appointed Comptroller of the Customs at 
Edinburgh. In July 1798 he was made lieutenant-colonel 
of the 5th or Fifeshire Regiment of Militia. 7 On 9 June 
1802 he succeeded his father as Earl of Leven, and was the 

1 The Melvilles, i. 351, 352. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. * Ibid. 6 Ibid. fi Ibid. 
7 Melville Charter-chest. 



118 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

first of his family to assume the designation of Earl of 
Leven and Melville, this step being probably due to the 
creation of another Peerage of Melville six months after 
his succession ; and in 1803 the Earl's younger children 
assumed the surname of Melville in addition to that of 
Leslie. At the general election, 1806, he was elected one 
of the sixteen Representative Peers for Scotland. 1 He died 
22 February 1820. He married, 12 August 1784, Jane, 
daughter of John Thornton of Olapham, Surrey, 2 who died 
13 February 1818. 3 They had issue : 

1. DAVID, Lord Balgonie, who succeeded. 

2. JOHN THORNTON, who succeeded his brother. 

3. William Henry, born 19 May 1788. He entered the 

Hon. East India Company's service, and arrived at 
Calcutta about 24 October 1808. In 1817 he was, at 
his own request, made assistant superintendent of 
police in that town. He returned home before 1832, 
and in 1841 was made a director of the East India 
Company. He edited a selection from the letters 
and papers of George, first Earl of Melville, printed 
for the Bannatyne Club in 1843 as The Leven and 
Melville Papers. He died unmarried 9 April 1856. 4 

4. Rev. Robert Samuel, born about 1793. He entered 

the Church of England, but died 24 October 1826, 
unmarried. 5 

5. Alexander, of Branston Hall, Lincolnshire, was born 

18 June 1800. Admitted to the Faculty of Advocates 
24 February 1824. He died 19 November 1881. He 
married 19 October 1825, Charlotte, daughter of 
Samuel Smith, M.P., of Woodhall Park, Hertford- 
shire, who died 26 April 1879. They had issue, six 
sons and six daughters. 

6. Lucy, born 10 December 1789, died 11 February 1791. 

7. Lucy (secunda), born 26 January 1794 ; married, 14 

July 1824, to Henry Smith, son of Samuel Smith, 
M.P., and nephew of first Lord Carrington. She died 
23 December 1865. 

8. Jane Elizabeth, born 16 May 1796 ; married, 13 October 

1816, to Francis Pym, of the Hasells, Bedfordshire. 
She died 25 April 1848. 
i The Melvtiles, i. 366, 367. 2 Ibid., 360. 3 Ibid., 368. * Ibid., 369. 6 Ibid. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 119 

9. Marianne, born 30 November 1797 ; married, 28 August 
1822, to Abel Smith, M.P., son of Samuel Smith, 
M.P., and nephew of first Lord Oarrington. She died 
s.p. 22 March 1823. 

X. DAVID, eighth Earl of Leven, and seventh Earl of 
Melville, was born 22 June 1785. After the death of his 
grandfather in 1802, he had the courtesy title of Lord 
Balgonie. He entered the Royal Navy before March 1800. 
In December 1809 he was promoted commander, became a 
post-captain in 1812, and in 1814 seems to have retired 
from the service. 1 He succeeded to the titles and estates 
on the death of his father 22 February 1820. On 3 June 
1831 he was elected a Representative Peer for Scotland, 
and held the position for thirty-eight years. On 31 October 
1846 he was promoted to be rear-admiral on the retired 
list. He died at Melville House, 8 October 1860, aged 
seventy-five. He was succeeded in the lordship and barony 
of Monimail and other lands, known as the estate of Mel- 
ville, by his eldest daughter and heir of ine and entail, 
Elizabeth Jane Leslie Melville or Oartwright. 2 He married, 
21 June 1824, Elizabeth Anne Campbell, second daughter 
of Sir Archibald Campbell, second Baronet of Succoth, who 
survived him, and died at Melville House, 6 November 
1863. They had issue : 

1. ALEXANDER, Lord Balgonie, born 19 November 1831. 

He was educated at Eton. He entered the Army in 
December 1850, and became lieutenant 1st Foot 
Guards (Grenadiers), of which the Duke of Wellington 
was colonel. He served in the Crimea through the 
greater part of the campaign of 1854, acting as aide- 
de-camp to General Sir Henry Bentinck, and was 
promoted to the rank of major. Towards the end of 
1855, ill-health, due to the hardships of the campaign, 
compelled him to return home. After spending the 
winter and spring of 1856-57 in Egypt, he returned to 
England, and died at Roehampton House, 29 August 
1857. 

2. David Archibald, born 14 October 1833, died unmarried, 

20 October 1854. 

The Melvilks, i. 371, 372. 2 Ibid., 379. 



120 MELVILLE, EARLS OP LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

3. Elizabeth Jane, born 13 May 1825, who, on the death 

of her father in 1860, inherited the family estates of 
Melville. She was married, 2 November 1858, to 
Thomas Robert Brook Oartwright, of Aynho, North- 
ants, and died 25 January 1892, having had issue. 

4. Anna Maria, born 28 December 1826 ; married, 26 April 

1865, as his first wife, to Sir William Stirling Max- 
well, Bart., who died 15 January 1878, with issue. 
She died 8 December 1874. 

5. Susan Lucy, born 1828; Lady of the Bedchamber to 

H.R.H. Princess Christian from 1868 to 1883. 

6. Emily Eleanor, born May 1840; married, 28 March 

1864, to John Glencairn Carter Hamilton, afterwards 
Lord Hamilton of Dalzell, who died 19 October 1900. 
She died 11 November 1882, leaving issue. 

XI. JOHN THORNTON, ninth Earl of Leven and eighth 
Earl of Melville, was bom 18 December 1786. In 1809 he 
acted as Assistant Deputy Paymaster-General to the forces 
in the Peninsula, then under Sir Arthur Wellesley. 1 He 
was in London in the year 1812, and must therefore have 
left Spain before the end of the war. He became one of 
the original partners of Williams, Deacon, Labouchere, 
Thornton & Co., bankers, London, and continued a partner 
until within a few years of his death. 2 He succeeded to the 
titles on the death of his brother David, 8 October 1860. He 
was chosen one of the Representative Peers of Scotland 
28 July 1865, and continued to hold this offiee until his 
death. In 1864, after Lady Elizabeth's succession to the 
barony of Melville, which occurred on 12 June of that year, 
in pursuance of a decree obtained in the Court of Session 
by the trustees of his brother, Earl David, in order to have 
it found that the entail made by his grandfather in 1784 
was invalid, and that he was entitled to dispose of the 
estate in fee-simple, the unentailed estates were re-entailed 
by the trustees in favour of Lord Leven and Melville and 
his heirs. These estates comprised the old Melville barony 
of Hallhill and others in Fife. In 1869 the trustees pur- 
chased the eastern portion of Glenferness, in Nairnshire, 
for 12,000, and soon afterwards they made a second entail, 

1 The Melvittes, i. 382. 2 Ibid., 384. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 121 

whereby these lands were entailed upon the same series of 
heirs as in the entail of Hallhill in 1864. On the same date 
in 1869 the Earl acquired the wester and larger part of the 
Glenferness estate for 47,900,* and it thereafter became 
his principal Scottish residence. He died at Glenferness 
16 September 1876, at the age of ninety. He married, first, 
15 September 1812, his cousin Harriet, youngest daughter 
of Samuel Thornton, of Olapham. She died 26 July 1832. 
He married, secondly, 23 April 1834, his cousin Sophia, 
fourth daughter of Henry Thornton of London. Issue by 
the first marriage : 

1. ALEXANDER, who succeeded. 

2. Alfred John, born 5 June 1826. He entered the ser- 

vice of the East India Company, and died at Penang 
25 May 1851. 

3. Emily Maria, born 28 November 1815; married, 18 

November 1858, to Robert Williams of Beidehead, 
Dorset, who died 7 June 1891. She died 10 March 
1896. 

4. Anna Maria, born 7 February 1821 ; died 25 September 

1836. 

5. Harriet Rosa, born 5 December 1822 ; died 20 April 1850. 

6. Julia Louisa, born 4 March 1829 ; married, 29 March 

1869, to Lieutenant-General Richardson Robertson of 
Tulliebelton, Perthshire, and died 24 October 1870. 
He died 1 November 1883. 

7. Adelaide Harriet, born 10 August 1831 ; died 10 Feb- 

ruary 1898. 
By his second wife he had issue : 

8. RONALD RUTHVEN, who succeeded his half-brother 

Alexander. 

9. Norman, born 5 February 1839. He entered the Army 

and became captain in the Grenadier Guards. He 
married, 4 December 1861, Georgina, daughter of 
William Shirley Bell of Abbeylarn, co. Longford, 
and has had issue. 

10. Ernest, born 20 January 1843, died 1 September 1862. 

11. Clara Sophia, born 5 July 1843, died 11 December 

1898. 

12. Florence Lucy, born 15 August 1848. 

1 The Melvilles, i. Preface, xv. 



122 MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 

XII. ALEXANDER, tenth Earl of Leven and ninth Earl of 
Melville, was born 11 January 1817. He was educated at 
Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. He became a 
partner in the banking-house of Williams, Deacon and 
Company, London. On the death of his father on 16 Sep- 
tember 1876, he succeeded to the titles of Leven and 
Melville, and to the estates of Hallhill and Glenferness. 
On 16 April 1880 he was elected a Representative Peer for 
Scotland, and continued to sit in the House of Lords in 
this capacity until his death. He died unmarried 22 
October 1889, aged seventy-two. 1 

XIII. RONALD RUTHVEN, eleventh Earl of Leven and 
tenth Earl of Melville, K.T., P.O., M.A. Oxford, and a 
Deputy-Lieutenant for Nairnshire, was born 19 December 
1835. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, 
and was a partner with his father and brother in the bank. 
On 22 October 1889, on the death of his half-brother, he 
succeeded to the titles and estates. He was one of H.M.'s 
Lieutenants for the City of London, a Representative Peer 
for Scotland, Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland, and was 
Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland for the years from 1898 to 1905 inclu- 
sive. He died 21 August 1906, leaving inter alia a sum of 
40,000 to be applied by trustees, under certain conditions, 
to the restoration of the Royal chapel at Holy rood Palace, 
but the scheme was eventually set aside. He married, 7 
May 1885, Emma Selina, eldest daughter of the second 
Viscount Portman, and had issue : 

1. JOHN DAVID, who succeeded. 

2. Archibald Alexander, born 6 August 1890. 

3. David William, born 23 May 1892. 

4. Ian, born 14 August 1894. 

5. Constance Betty, born 7 August 1888. 

XIV. JOHN DAVID, twelfth Earl of Leven, and eleventh 
Earl of Melville, was born 5 April 1886. He was educated 
at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, and succeeded to 
the titles and estates on the death of his father, 21 August 
1906. 

1 The MelvUlea, i. 386. 



MELVILLE, EARLS OF LEVEN AND MELVILLE 123 

CREATIONS. Baron Melville, 1 April 1616, extended limi- 
tation 17 August 1627. Earl of Leven and Lord Balgonie, 
11 October 1641. Earl of Melville, Viscount of Kirkcaldy, 
Lord Raith, Monymail, and Balwearie, 8 April 1690. 

ARMS (recorded in Lyon Register). Quarterly : 1st, azure, 
a thistle slipped proper, ensigned with an imperial crown or, 
a coat of augmentation to the arms of Leslie; 2nd, gules,, 
three crescents within a bordure argent charged with eight 
roses of the first, for Melville ; 3rd, argent, a fesse gules, for 
Melville of Raith ; and 4th, argent, on a bend azure three 
buckles or for Leslie. 

CRESTS. (1) Leslie : a demi-chevalier in complete armour, 
holding in his right hand a dagger point downwards proper, 
the pommel and hilt or. (2) Melville : a ratch hound's head 
erased proper, collared gules. 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, a knight in complete armour, 
holding in his dexter hand the banner of Scotland, all 
proper (Leslie) ; sinister, a ratch hound proper, collared 
gules (Melville). 

MOTTOES. 1. Pro rege et patria. 2. Denique ccelum. 

[C. T. G.]. 






THE ANCIENT EARLS OF 
MENTEITH 



COOKDING to an unnamed 
writer, who wrote about 
the year 1165, the district 
of Menteith was originally 
joined with that of Strath- 
earn to form one (called 
Fortrenn) of the seven 
provinces of * Scotia,' or 
Scotland north of the 
Forth and Clyde. 1 This, 
however, was at a very 
early period, and history 
is silent regarding the 
intervening centuries, but 
the original province was, 
at some period prior to 
1163, divided into two 
separate earldoms. As a district Menteith lay partly in 
Perthshire and partly in Stirlingshire, and comprehended 
the parishes of Aberfoyle, Port of Menteith, Oallander and 
Leny, Kincardine, Kilmadock, Lecropt, Dunblane, and part 
of Kippen, being practically those parishes which were 
bounded on one side or other by the river Teith. Probably 
these were all included in the earldom, while the ancient 
rulers of the district also appear to have exercised a certain 
authority over Oowal and Kintyre. 2 The older history, 
however, both of the Earls and of the earldom, is very 
obscure, as almost nothing is recorded of either. 

1 Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, 136. The account of Scotland here 
given was at one time attributed to Giraldus Cambrensis, but Dr. Skene 
suggests Ailred as the author. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 372. 




125 

I. GILCHRIST, Earl of Menteith, is named as such in a 
charter by King Malcolm iv. providing for the restora- 
tion of the Abbey of Scone, which had been destroyed 
by fire. The charter is dated in 1164, 1 and this is the first 
notice which has been found of an Earl of Menteith, while 
of Gilchrist's parentage or personal history nothing has 
been discovered, though his name suggests a Celtic origin. 
He again appears as witness to a charter, dated between. 
1175 and 1178, by King William the Lion, granting certain 
privileges to the then new city of Glasgow. 2 The date of 
Earl Gilchrist's death is not recorded, but he was dead 
before 1198, when his successor is named. Gilchrist is said 
to have had a daughter Eva, married to Alwin, second Earl 
of Lennox. (See that title.) 

II. MAURICE or * MURETACH,' Earl of Menteith, is the next 
on record, but whether he was Gilchrist's son is not clear. 
He appears as Maurice, Earl of Menteith, in a charter by 
King William the Lion, not dated, but which may have been 
granted between 1189 and 1198, confirming a donation of 
the church of Moulin to the monks of Dunfermline. 3 The 
next notice of him is as a witness to an agreement, not 
dated, but which cannot be earlier than 1198, between 
Gilbert, Prior of St. Andrews, and the canons there, and the 
Ouldees of that place, as to certain teinds in dispute betwixt 
them. There the Earl is designed 'Murethach, Earl of 
Menteith,' but as the writ already cited is earlier in date, 
it is probable that the so-called * Murethach ' and Maurice 
are one and the same. 4 This seems the more probable, as 
the next reference to Maurice implies that he had been 
some time in possession and was recognised as Earl, although 
his right was afterwards challenged. In or before 1213, a 
younger brother, also named Maurice, claimed the earldom, 
on what ground does not appear, though probably it was 
another case of conflict between the offspring of a union 
recognised by the Church and the heir of a Celtic marriage. 

1 Liber Ecclesie de Scon, 8. 2 Peg. Epis. Glasguensis, i. 36. 3 Reg. de 
Dunfermlyn, 34. 4 Sir William Eraser in his Red Book of Menteith, a 
work to which this article is much indebted, makes ' Murethach ' the 
second Earl and Maurice the third, two distinct persons. But on a careful 
study of the subject the writer thinks there is good reason to believe that 
the first ' Maurice ' and ' Murethach ' were the same. 



126 THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 

The two brothers did not resort to force over their respec- 
tive claims, but submitted to arbitration. An amicable 
arrangement was entered into under the auspices of Prince 
Alexander, afterwards King, the Earls of Fife and Strath- 
earn, and other nobles, under which the elder Maurice, who 
is formally styled Earl of Menteith, resigned the earldom, 
of which he must have been in possession, into the hands of 
King William, who then gave it to the younger Maurice, 
not yet designed Earl, as his right and heritage. The elder 
brother was to hold, by bailiary of the King, the lands of 
Muyline and Radenoche (probably Maling and Rednoch), 
with other lands, 1 which the younger Maurice gave up to 
the King for that purpose, and which were to revert to the 
estate on the elder's decease. The younger brother also 
delivered to the elder certain other lands, 2 to be used for 
the marriage of his daughters. This agreement was made 
at Edinburgh on St. Nicholas Day (6 December) 1213, the 
original writ being sealed by the Prince and some others, 
while it was duly ratified by the King himself on the follow- 
ing day. 3 How long the elder Maurice lived after this agree- 
ment is not known, and the names of his wife and daughters 
are not recorded, while he appears to have had no male issue. 

III. MAURICE, the younger brother of the preceding, no 
doubt assumed the earldom. In any case Maurice, Earl of 
Menteith, appears as one of the seven Earls who were 
present at the enthronement of King Alexander n. at 
Scone on 6 December 1214. The Earls also accompanied 
the young King with the funeral cortege of his father, King 
William, from Perth to Arbroath, where the interment took 
place before the high altar of the church on 10 December. 4 
Earl Maurice appears to have taken no great part in public 
life, as ten years elapse before there is record of him, but 
he was present with King Alexander at Stirling when he 
granted a charter to the Abbey of Paisley on 5 September 
1224. 5 Two years later, on 27 March 1226, the Earl is 
referred to as Sheriff of Stirling. 6 He did not after this live 

1 The other lands are Turn, Cattlyne, Brathuly, and Cambuswelhe. 
2 These are said to be Savelime (as held by both brothers), Mestrym, 
Kenelton, and Stradlochlem. 3 Bed Book of Menteith, ii. 214, 215. 
4 Scottish Kings, by Sir A. H. Dunbar, 82, 88. 6 Reg. de Pasaelet, 214. 
8 Cart, of Cambuskenneth, 176. 



THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 127 

very much longer, though he probably survived the year 
1231, usually assigned as the date of his death. He was, 
however, dead before January 1233-34, which is the first 
date on which his successor is named as Earl of Menteith. 
The name of his wife is not known, but he had two 
daughter : 

1. ISABELLA, who became Countess of Menteith. 

2. MARY, who also became Countess of Menteith. 

IV. ISABELLA, Countess of Menteith, is presumed rather 
than proved to have been the daughter of Earl Maurice, 
and her personality is largely merged in that of her hus- 
band, Walter Comyn, who was second son of William Comyn 
who afterwards became Earl of Buchan (vol. i. 505). When 
he was born is uncertain, but he was old enough to attend 
at Court and witness royal charters between the years 1211 
and 1214, including the agreement, already cited, as to the 
earldom of Menteith. In 1220 he went in the train of King 
Alexander n. to York, where arrangements were made for 
the King's marriage to Joanna of England. Between this 
date and 1229 he was a frequent witness to the King's 
charters, and seems to have closely followed the Court. 1 

After 1229 he appears as Lord of Badenoch, a territory 
which, it is suggested, he received for his services or those 
of his father in suppressing an insurrection raised by Gilles- 
cop M' William, who had been Lord of Badenoch, and whose 
estates were forfeited. According to Sir William Fraser 
he became Earl in 1231, on the authority of a charter in 
the Chartulary of Balmerino, ascribed to 3 February 1230- 
31, where he is styled Walter Oomyn, Earl of Menteith. 2 
But there is good reason to believe that the writ in ques- 
tion is, if not spurious, at least misdated. Apart from other 
reasons, the names and designations of the witnesses apply 
to a date some years later. Especially is this the case 
with Walter Comyn, who is still Walter Comyn on 4 Feb- 
ruary 1232-33, also on 30 June 1233, 3 and it is not until 

1 Red Book of Menteith, i. 14, 15, and authorities there given, though 
we cannot agree with Sir William Fraser in assuming that this Walter 
Comyn in 1225 filled the office of King's Clerk or Lord Clerk Register 
(Reg. Moraviense, 461). That officer was more probably an ecclesiastic. 
* Liber de Balmerinoch, 4. 3 Liber de Melros, i. 222, and The Maxwells 
ofPollok, i. 122, 123. 



128 THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 

9 January 1233-34 that he appears on record as Earl of 
Menteitli. 1 It is not certain that this rank followed on 
his marriage, as there is evidence that he received a charter 
of the earldom, though the date is not recorded, 2 and the 
charter may have been granted some time after his 
marriage. 

The Earl's father had died in 1233, and now he, by his 
possession of Menteith and the great lordship of Badenoch, 
became one of the most powerful nobles in Scotland. He 
remained still in frequent attendance at Court until the 
close of the King's reign, and was one of those who under- 
took to maintain the treaty of peace made between Scot- 
land and England in 1237, and again in 1244, when war 
nearly broke out on account of a private feud in which the 
Earl was specially interested. Patrick, Earl of Atholl, had 
been, in 1242, basely done to death at Haddington, and his 
relatives the Oomyns combined to avenge his death. Walter 
Biset of Aboyne, the chief instigator of the crime, and other 
Bisets, were banished from Scotland, and Walter passed to 
England and incited King Henry in. to war, which was 
averted by a second treaty, to which the Earl of Menteith 
was also a party. 3 

The comparatively sudden death of King Alexander n. in 
1249, when his son was only eight years old, nearly caused 
trouble in Scotland, but the Earl of Menteith, who headed 
what may be called the National party, took such wise and 
prompt steps that the boy King was at once placed on his 
throne without opposition, and at a later date was rescued 
from the hands of the rival faction, which acted in the 
English interest. One of the latest acts of the Earl was to 
enter, on 18 March 1258, with other Scottish magnates into 
an alliance with Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, to assist him 
in his war with England, and to establish commercial 
relations between Scotland and Wales/ Besides taking 
part in public life, the Earl also had a warm side to the 
Church, and soon after 1238, when he received permission 
from Pope Gregory ix., he built a Priory for Augustinian 

1 Reg. de Holyrood, 52. 2 Ms. Roll of Charters in Gen. Reg. House, about 
1579, containing notes of many now lost. Among these on folio 18, are 
five of the reign of Alexander n., one being ' Carta Walter! Cumyn de 
Comitatu de Menteithe.' 3 Col. Doc. Scot., i. Nos. 1358, 1654. * Fcedera, 
Record ed., i. 370. 



THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 129 

Canons on the Isle of Inchmahome, or the Isle of Rest. He 
made certain arrangements also with the Bishop of Dun- 
blane, who gave up rights of pension over the earldom of 
Menteith, with which no doubt the new priory was 
endowed. 1 

The Earl died suddenly in November 1258, by the 
stumbling of his horse, which fell upon its rider. 2 So at 
least it was reported to the English King, but the Scots 
believed that he was poisoned by his Countess, who 
survived him. She certainly gave ground for the story 
by marrying again within a short time after his death, 
an English knight, named Sir John Russell. This mar- 
riage, though made, it is said, with the King's consent, 
offended the Scottish nobles, who raised or renewed the 
accusation of poisoning, and succeeded in depriving the 
Countess of the earldom, and forcing her and her husband 
to retire to England. They were even confined in prison 
for some time because of the charge against them. The 
earldom was given to Mary, the younger sister of Isabella, 
and Walter Stewart, her husband. Countess Isabella went 
to the English Court, where Henry in. certified the agree- 
ment of 1213, already quoted, and she also appealed to 
the Pope, Urban iv., who sent a legate to York, to inquire 
into the matter. But the legate behaved in such a manner 
as to rouse the indignation and opposition of King Alex- 
ander and the Scottish nobles, and the Pope was obliged to 
remit the case to be settled by three Scottish clerics, who 
in turn allowed the subject to drop, as it entrenched upon 
the King's jurisdiction. The Countess and her second hus- 
band did not pursue the matter further. He died before 
1273, and she probably predeceased him. The Countess 
had issue by her second husband, a daughter, 

Isabella, 3 married, before 1273, to William Oomyn of Kirk- 
intulloch, who in that year instituted proceedings 
on behalf of his wife for possession of the earldom 

1 Liber Insula Missarum, pref . xxix. 2 Matthew Paris, Rolls series, 
v. 724. The Earl's lands of Badenoch passed to his grand-nephew 
William Comyn, who was succeeded in 1291 by his brother John. 3 Sir 
William Fraser states that this Isabella was the daughter of Walter 
Comyn, but there is clear evidence (Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 466) that she 
was the daughter of Sir John Russell. Sir John's parentage is not known. 
He is said to have belonged to the diocese of Ely. There certainly were 
Russells holding land there, but he cannot specially be identified. 

VOL. VI. I 



130 THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 

of Menteith, but without success. In 1285 the claim 
was renewed, and on 10 April a decision was given 
by the King in Parliament at Scone, when half the 
earldom was given to Oomyn, but not the rank of 
Earl. He died 3 August 1291, and his wife married, 
secondly, about 1293, Sir Edward Hastings, a great- 
grandson of David, Earl of Huntingdon, and brother 
of John Hastings, one of the Competitors, in 1291, for 
the Crown of Scotland. Sir Edward, in right of his 
wife, held one-half the earldom of Menteith. He died 
after May 1312, perhaps one of those who fell at 
Bannockburn, 24 June 1314. His wife is not on record 
after 1306, when she did homage to King Edward i. 
She bore no issue to either of her husbands. 
Walter Comyn had apparently a son Henry, who in a 
charter, dated about 1250, by Maldouen, Earl of Lennox, 
of the lands of Luss, is described as 'Henry, son of the 
Earl of Menteith,' 1 but nothing more is known of him. 

V. MARY, Countess of Menteith, married Walter Stewart, 
third son of Walter, third High Stewart of Scotland. He 
was distinguished by the sobriquet ' Bailloch ' or the 
* freckled.' His name as Walter Stewart appears in 
various writs as a witness. He is said to have gone 
to Egypt under Louis ix. of France, but there is no certain 
evidence of this. After the death of King Alexander n. 
he favoured the English faction, who by a stratagem in 
1255 secured the persons of the young King and Queen, but 
he was not at this time admitted to a share in the govern- 
ment. It was about 1260, when the Countess Isabella and 
her husband were forced to renounce the earldom, that the 
King and barons of Scotland decerned the lands and title to 
belong to the wife of William Stewart, and he was invested 
therein. 2 He was certainly Earl before 17 April 1261, 
when he was witness to a grant to the Abbey of Paisley. 3 
In the following year Dugall MacSwein granted to the 
Earl the lands of Skipnish, * Kedeslatt ' or Killislate, and 
others, being that part of Kintyre called South Knapdale 
and the parish of Kilcalmonell. Following on this, the 

1 The Lennox, by Sir W. Fraser, ii. 405 and facsimile. 2 Red Book of 
Menteith i. 41. 3 Reg. de Passelet, 121. 



THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 131 

Earl granted the church of Kilcalmonell to the monks of 
Paisley. 1 He also made grants to the monastery of Kil- 
winning of churches in Knapdale, which show that he had 
possession of North Knapdale also. 2 

About 1263 the Earl was Sheriff of Ayr, and aided in 
making preparations to repel the expected invasion of King 
Haco of Norway. 3 He is said to have taken part in the 
battle of Largs, and afterwards to have been commissioned 
to reduce the chieftains of the Western Isles/ but there is 
only a probability of the first, and Fordun does not name 
him as one of the commission referred to. 5 The Earl was 
Sheriff of Dumbarton in 1271. 6 On 25 July 1281 he was one 
of the witnesses to and guarantors of the marriage con- 
tract of the Princess Margaret with Eric, King of Nor- 
way. 7 In 1285 he and his Countess were again attacked 
by the rival claimants William Comyn and his wife, their 
claim having been in 1282 pressed upon Alexander HI. by 
the English King, 8 and in a Parliament at Scone it was 
decided that the earldom should be divided into two por- 
tions. One half was retained by Walter Stewart, with 
the title of Earl, he having the principal residence on the 
territory, and the other half was erected into a barony in 
favour of William Comyn and his wife. 9 The component 
parts of the earldom which remained to Walter Stewart 
are not known. The death of King Alexander in. threw 
the kingdom again into confusion, and during the rivalry 
which ensued between the parties of Bruce and Baliol, the 
Earl of Menteith supported the cause of Bruce. 10 In 1289 
he was present at Brigham, and approved of the marriage 
proposed between Prince Edward of England and the 
young * Maid of Norway ' as she was called, the heiress of 
the Scottish Crown. Her unhappy death renewed the con- 
test between Bruce and Baliol, and when it was proposed 
that the King of England should arbitrate, Menteith was 
one of those named by Bruce as his commissioners. He 
was present at Norham on 20 November 1292 when Baliol 

1 Reg. de Passelet, 121. 2 Theiner's Vetera Monumenta, 248, No. 488 ; Col- 
lections of Ayr and Wigton, i. 163. 3 Exch. Rolls, i. 5. * Red Book, etc., 
i. 65. Fraser states this, but founds on unreliable authority. 6 Fordun 
a Goodall, ii. 6 Reg. de Passelet, 191. 7 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 423. 8 Col. 
Doc. Scot., iv. 357, 387. 9 Wyntoun, Laing's ed., ii. 263, 264 ; Stevenson's 
Hist. Documents, i. 22. 10 Fcedera, Record ed., i. 781. 



132 THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 

swore fealty to Edward. 1 This is the last certain record 
of him, as although letters were addressed by the English 
King to Walter, Earl of Menteith, on 29 June 1294, 2 it is not 
clear that he was then alive. He may even have been 
dead by 10 February 1292-93, when Baliol's Parliament 
directed the lands of Knapdale belonging to the Earl to be 
incorporated in the sheriffdom of Lorn under Alexander of 
Argyll. 3 

The Countess Mary predeceased her husband, but at 
what date is not certain. Their tombstone is preserved in 
the Priory of Inchmahome, bearing the effigies of husband 
and wife, the former bearing on his shield the Stewart fess 
chequy with a label of five points, a device which also 
appears on his seal 'of arms in the Public Record Office, 
London. 4 They had issue two sons named together by 
their father in a charter : 

1. ALEXANDER, who succeeded to the earldom. 

2. Sir John, who has achieved an unenviable notoriety 

as the taker or betrayer of Sir William Wallace. His 
history has been fully sketched by Sir William Fraser, 
and need not be detailed here. He was possessor of 
the lands of Rusky in Menteith, and perhaps also of 
Knapdale. He died about 1323. 5 By his wife, whose 
name has not been ascertained, he had issue : 

(1) Sir John Menteith who married Ellen, daughter of Gratney, 

Earl of Mar, and died before 1344, leaving issue : 

i. Sir John Menteith, styled Lord of Arran and Knap- 
dale, who died about 1360. By his wife, a lady 
named Catherine, he had no issue. 

ii. Christian, married, first, to Sir Edward Keith of Sin- 
ton, by whom she had a daughter Janet, wife first 
of Sir David Barclay of Brechin, and secondly of Sir 
Thomas Erskine. (See title Mar.) Christian Menteith 
or Keith was married again, as his second wife, to Sir 
Robert Erskine of that Ilk. (See Mar.) 

(2) Walter, ancestor of the Menteiths of Rusky and Kerse, and 

also of the later family of Dalzell of Binns. 6 

(3) Joanna, the only one of Sir John's alleged three daughters who 

can be traced with certainty, was married, first, to Malise, 
seventh Earl of Strathearn, who died about 1324-25 ; secondly, 



1 Fcedera, i. 804. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 447 3 Red Book of Menteith, 
i. 75 ; ii. 220. Sir William Fraser thinks the Countess died before 1286, 
but the proof he gives is doubtful. 4 Macdonald's Scottish Armorial 
Seals, No. 2553. 6 Red Book of Menteith, i. 433-456. 6 Ibid., i. 460463. 



THE ANCIENT EARLS OP MENTEITH 133 

to John Campbell, Earl of Atholl. (See that title.) Thirdly, 
about July 1339, to Sir Maurice of Moray, created Earl of 
Strathearn in June 1344, by whom she had a daughter 
Joanna, married, first, to Sir Thomas Moray of Both well ; 
and, secondly, to Sir Archibald Douglas, third Earl of 
Douglas. (See that title.) Joanna Menteith married, 
fourthly, William, fifth Earl of Sutherland. 1 

VI. ALEXANDER, Earl of Menteith, is first noted with his 
brother John in a compact between Bruce and the Stewarts 
on 20 September 1286, at Turnberry. 2 In another writ, of 
uncertain date, granted by their father to the Abbey of 
Kilwinning, he and his brother are styled Alexander and 
John Menteith. 3 They had therefore changed their family 
name from Stewart to Menteith. Alexander joined with 
his father in a charter granting the church of Kippen to 
the Abbey of Oambuskenneth to secure themselves a place 
of burial. This writ is said to be dated in 1286/ He was 
at Norham in 1291, and swore fealty to Edward I., while he 
also appears in other matters before his succession, the date 
of which is uncertain, but was probably between 1292 and 
1295. In any case he was the Earl of Menteith who with 
the Earls of Atholl, Ross, and others gathered a force and 
invaded England in revenge for Edward's savage attack 
on Berwick. Their army was defeated at Dunbar on 27 
April 1296, and on that or the following day Menteith and 
others who had fled to Dunbar Castle were taken captive, 
and he was committed to the Tower. He was not, how- 
ever, detained long as a prisoner, but was liberated either 
before or shortly after a promise of service made by him to 
the English King, and dated at Elgin 27 July 1296. He 
repeated this promise, and swore fealty at Berwick a month 
later, on 28 August. 5 He then left two of his sons in the 
King's hands as hostages. 6 Perhaps this fact influenced 
his future movements, for, excepting some transactions 
dealing with the estates of Alexander Abernethy, and 

1 The Sutherland Boole, i. 36. Duncan Stewart (History of the Stewarts) 
says that a second daughter married Archibald or Gillespie Campbell of 
Lochow, and a third married Maurice Buchanan of that Ilk, but it seems 
more probable that the wife of Buchanan was a granddaughter of Sir 
John (Strathendrick, etc., by J. Guthrie Smith, 284). 2 Stevenson's Hist. 
Documents, i. 22. 3 Theiner's Vetera Monumenta, 258. 4 Cart, of Cam- 
buskenncth, 168 ; Duncan Stewart's Hist, of the Stewarts, 207. 5 Bagman 
Rolls, Bannatyne Club, 103, 119. 6 Hist. Documents, ii. 138. 



134 THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 

also of Alexander of Argyll and his son, of which he was 
appointed guardian by Edward, 1 he seems to have taken 
no part in public affairs. At least nothing is recorded 
about him, except a letter to him from the English King 
on 26 September 1297,* and the date of his death is not 
known. He married a lady named Matilda, 3 whose sur- 
name has not been discovered, and had issue : 

1. ALAN, who succeeded as Earl. 

2. Peter, who in 1296 was a hostage in England with 

his brother Alan. He accompanied King Edward to 
Flanders, and took part in the French campaign of 
1297, 4 where he may have been killed, as nothing 
further is known of him. In any case he seems to 
have predeceased his older brother. 

3. SIR MORDACH, who became Earl of Menteith. 

4. Alexander, who is styled ' brother ' by Murdach, Earl 

of Menteith, in a charter to Gilbert Drummond of 
half the lands of Boquhappil. 6 

VII. ALAN, Earl of Menteith, is first named on record as 
a hostage in England for the good behaviour of his father. 
He and his brother Peter went in the train of Edward I., in 
1296, to London, and in the following year were equipped 
by him at all points as his squires, and accompanied him to 
the campaign in Flanders of 1297. 8 The date of his succes- 
sion to the earldom is not certain. An Earl of Menteith 
was summoned to meet Prince Edward at Dunfermline in 
1303 and 1304, but it is not certain whether Earl Alexander 
or Earl Alan is meant. 7 The latter, however, was Earl not 
long afterwards. He was provided as one of the heirs of 
entail to the earldom of Fife by Duncan, tenth and last Earl 
of Fife of the ancient race. The charter itself is not known 
to be extant, but it is referred to in the indenture of 30 
March 1371 between Isabella, Countess of Fife, daughter 
of Earl Duncan, and Robert Stewart, Earl of Menteith, 

1 Hist. Documents, ii. 82; Rotuli Scotice, i. 31. 2 Ibid., i. 50. 3 Cart, 
of Cambuskenneth, 168. * Hist. Documents, ii. 138-141. 6 Red Book of 
Menteith, ii. 227 and facsimile. A Maurice of Menteith appears as a 
witness to charters by "William Maule of Panmure about 1293 and in 1309, 
but there is no evidence as to who he was (Reg. de Panmure, ii. 152-154, 
157). 6 Hist. Documents, ii. 138-142. 7 Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. 480-482. 



THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 135 

husband of Earl Alan's granddaughter. 1 The entail was 
probably made before 1306, when Earl Duncan married, 
and in that year also events took place which stirred up 
the national life. Earl Alan joined Bruce at the beginning 
of his struggle for Scottish Independence and his earldom 
was forfeited and given by Edward I. to John Hastings. 2 
This was on 22 May 1306, a month before the conflict of 
Methven. He is said to have been taken prisoner there, 
but this is doubtful, though he apparently surrendered later 
and was committed to John Hastings, to be imprisoned in 
the Castle of Abergaveny or elsewhere. 3 The Earl died in 
captivity, though the exact date is not known, but it must 
have been before 16 March 1308-9, when the Parliament of 
Scotland stated that the heir of the earldom was then 
a ward. 4 The name of his wife was Marjory, who sur- 
vived him, but her family has not been ascertained, 5 and 
his only child so far as certainly known, was a daughter, 8 
MARY, who became Countess of Menteith, though the 
Earl's immediate successor in the earldom was his 
brother, 

VIII. MURDACH, who is first named about January 1310-11 
as ' valet ' or page of Sir William Perrars, receiving money 
on behalf of his master. 7 In 1312 he was, with a number 
of other Scottish gentlemen, in the service of King Edward 
at Dundee, where he is described as owning a black piebald 
horse with four white feet. 8 He was still in England and 
had attained the rank of knighthood on 19 January 1316-17, 
when the English King gave permission to Sir William 
Ferrars to settle his manor of Groby, in Leicestershire, 
on Sir Murdac de Mentethe, who was to regrant it to 
Sir William and his wife, Elena, failing whom and their 
heirs the manor was to revert to Sir Murdac. 9 The latter 

1 See article 'Fife,' vol. iv. 13, 14. 2 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 1771. 3 Pal 
grave's Hist. Documents, 353, 354, November 1306. 4 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 
459. 5 Marjory, widow of Earl Alan, was on 13 March 1308-9 permitted to 
leave the manor of "Wotton for her life ; Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. No. 81. G A 
petition (of uncertain date) was presented to Edward n. by Gilbert* 
Malherbe, craving a grant of the ward and marriage of the late Earl of 
Menteith's son and heir (Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. No. 410), but the sex may be 
wrongly stated, or the child died young. Mary was the only known sur- 
viving heir. 7 Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. No. 193. 8 Ibid., 429. 9 Ibid., No. 534. 
Cf. Patent Rolls, Edward n., 1313-17, p. 613. 



136 THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 

returned to Scotland before 5 December 1318, when as Earl 
of Menteith he witnessed a grant by King Robert Bruce 
to the Bishop of Aberdeen. 1 Various contemporary 
authorities assert that Murdach was concerned in the 
plot to place Sir William Soulis on the Scottish throne, 
that he betrayed the conspiracy, and was made Earl of 
Menteith. Sir Thomas Gray in his ' Scalacronica ' says, 
' This conspiracy was discovered by Murdach of Menteith, 
who himself became Earl of Menteith afterwards. He had 
lived long in England in loyalty to the King, and in order 
to discover this conspiracy went to (Soulis') house. He 
became Earl of Menteith by consent of his niece, daughter 
of his elder brother, who, after his death at another 
time became Countess.' 2 A similar statement is made 
by another chronicler of the period. 3 Such definite 
statements are worthy of attention, but his promotion 
to the earldom, if the above charter be correctly dated, 
certainly appears to have taken place before the re- 
velation of the Soulis conspiracy, which was not made 
until about August 1320. Pordun refers to it and the 
* Black Parliament ' which followed, as at that date, and it 
is certain that Soulis, Sir David Brechin, and others impli- 
cated in the plot, appended their seals to the Barons' letter 
to the Pope on 6 April 1320. 4 It is no doubt probable that 
Earl Murdach was the revealer of the conspiracy, though 
it does not appear that he thus gained his earldom, which 
may rather have come to him, as Sir Thomas Gray states, 
by the consent of his niece. 5 But whether that be so or 
not, he certainly received grants of land which had belonged 
to those forfeited in August 1320. He had grants of Barn- 
bougie and Dalmeny, forfeited by Roger Moubray, and of 
Gilmerton near Edinburgh, which had belonged to Sir 
William Soulis. Rothiemay in Banffshire, and lands in 
Fifeshire formerly belonging to William Ferrars, were also 
bestowed upon him. 6 He also, in 1329, had other gifts from 
King Robert. 7 

, l Acta Part. Scot., i. 473, 474, where the date is inadvertently given as 
18 instead of 5 December 1318. 2 ' Scalacronica,' translated by Sir Herbert 
Maxwell ; Scot. Hist. Review, iii. 463. 3 Stevenson's Illustrations of 
Scottish History, 9, 10. 4 Fordun a Goodall, ii. ; Acta Parl. Scot., i. 474. 
6 It may be noted that Murdach, though apparently Earl of Menteith 
before 1320, did not join with the other Earls in the Pope's letter. 
6 Robertson's Index, 11, 16, 19, 20, 21. ' Exch. Rolls, i. 179, 210. 



THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 137 

During his tenancy of the earldom, Earl Murdach granted 
numerous charters of lands, among others, a considerable 
portion to his niece Mary. His cousin, Sir Walter Menteith, in 
whose charter he described himself as son of Earl Alexander, 
Gilbert Drummond, and Robert Logie, also received grants. 1 
The dates of these writs cannot be precisely stated, but 
they must have been granted between 1320 and 1332, when 
the Earl was killed at the battle of Dupplin, where he 
played a very heroic part. As is well known, Donald, Earl 
of Mar, then Regent, was in command of the Scots army, 
drawn up on Dupplin Moor to receive the force of Edward 
Baliol, who had landed at Kinghorn and was pushing north- 
ward. Mar, however, kept no discipline nor watch, and 
was attacked suddenly before daylight of 12 August 1332. 
The advance of Baliol's force was, however, checked for 
a time by the Earls of Moray and Menteith and others 
who led their men steadily and bravely forward, and the 
victory might have inclined to the Scots, but for Mar's 
inexperience and rashness. Menteith and Moray both 
were killed, and the Scots were defeated with terrible 
carnage. 2 

It is not clearly ascertained whom Murdach, Earl of 
Menteith, married, but Alicia or Alice, Countess of Meu- 
teith, had a pension from King Edward in. between May 
1335 and February 1339-40, on the ground that she was 
not permitted to receive anything from estates or goods, 3 
and she was probably Earl Murdach's wife, possibly an 
Englishwoman. They do not appear to have had any issue. 

IX. MARY, Countess of Menteith, succeeded her uncle 
Sir Murdach, who is said to have held the earldom by her 
consent. In April 1320 Sir John Menteith, her grand uncle, 
is designed guardian of the earldom of Menteith, 4 even 
though Murdach was nominally Earl, and it may be he 
thus safeguarded the interests of the heiress. The date of 
her birth is not known, but it must have been before 1306. 
Before May 1334 she had married Sir John Graham, 5 and it 

1 The Red Book of Menteith, i. 98; ii. 227-230. 2 Fordun a Goodall, ii. 
305. Some writers incline to the belief that Earl Murdach was killed at 
Halidon, but the balance of testimony is in favour of Dupplin. 3 Hotuli 
Scotice, i. 346, 399, 570, 572 ; Fcedera, Record ed., ii. 922, 931, 1113. * Acta 
Parl. Scot., i. 744. 6 A papal dispensation for their marriage was granted 



138 THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 

was probably then or at an earlier period that she received 
from Earl Murdach a grant of the lands of Aberfoyle, 
Buchlyvie, Boquhapple, and others, forming a considerable 
portion of the earldom. 1 After that date Sir John is found 
bearing the title of Earl of Menteith. As such he is 
witness to a charter of uncertain date, by Robert the 
Steward of Scotland to William Douglas of Bondingston 
and other lands in the barony of Dalkeith. 2 As Sir John 
of Graham, Earl of Menteith, he was one of the jury who, 
on 7 June 1344, the Earl of Fife being foreman, found 
Malise, Earl of Strathearn and Caithness, guilty of treason 
for surrendering his earldom of Strathearn into Edward 
BalioPs hands. 3 Two years later the Earl of Menteith 
came to an untimely end. He had accompanied King 
David ii. on his fateful expedition to England in 1346, and 
was present at the battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October. 
There he fought with great bravery in a futile attempt to 
change the fortune of the day, and was taken prisoner. 
Later he was conveyed to the Tower of London, on 22 
February 1346-47 was condemned to be executed as a traitor, 
a sentence which was carried out a few days later, on or 
before 6 March. 

The Countess of Menteith survived her husband for some 
years, and granted various charters, chiefly in favour of the 
Campbells, who were allied to her by marriage. It is not 
exactly known when she died, but there is ground for 
believing her death to have taken place before April 1360, 4 
when a papal dispensation styles her daughter Countess of 
Menteith. The only known child of Sir John Graham and 
the Countess was 

1. MARGARET, who succeeded. 

X. MARGARET, Countess of Menteith, is chiefly distin- 
guished for her matrimonial adventures, as very little is 

1 May 1334, but they had been married sometime before that date. Sir 
John Graham is believed to be identical with the Sir John Graham who 
was Lord of Dalkeith and Abercorn, but even to this day the proof is 
not complete. The latest writer on the point thinks that there is nothing 
to disprove the supposition that they were the same (Scottish Antiquary, 
xvii. 187), but the present writer is rather inclined to think the two John 
Grahams were not identical. 1 Duncan Stewart's History, 208. 2 Reg. 
Honoris de Morton, ii. 35. 3 Fragment of Roll of Parliament, MS. in Gen. 
Reg. Ho. 4 Eocch. Rolls, iv. pp. clxxv, clxxvi ; Red Book of Menteith, i. 125. 



THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 139 

known regarding her, except in connection with her hus- 
bands. She was born apparently some time before 1334, 
when her parents had a dispensation authorising their 
marriage and legitimising their offspring. Nothing further 
is stated of her until in November 1348 a dispensation was 
granted for her marriage with John Moray, Lord of Both- 
well, 1 and in this writ she is designed Margaret Graham, 
daughter of John Graham, Earl of Menteith. As a result 
of the marriage John Moray is said to have borne the title 
of Earl of Menteith, 2 but the authority is not entirely 
satisfactory, and as he died in 1351, while his mother-in- 
law was still Countess of Menteith in her own right, it 
seems strange that he should have been styled Earl. In 
the following year a dispensation was granted to Margaret, 
widow of the late John Moray, for her marriage with 
Thomas, Earl of Mar. 3 Either they anticipated this dis- 
pensation, or it never reached Scotland, as on 29 May 1354 
another dispensation was issued, legalising the marriage 
which had taken place in the interval. This second dispensa- 
tion proceeds on the ground that no other had been granted, 
a strange fact when it is understood that Queen Joanna of 
Scotland had interested herself in obtaining the first. 
Scarcely had the new dispensation reached Scotland when 
the Earl of Mar, * instigated by the devil,' as the old 
chronicler has it, divorced his wife because she had no 
children. When this event took place is not exactly known, 
but in 1360 another papal dispensation was granted, legal- 
ising the union she had formed some time before with John 
Drummond of Concraig, and legitimising their offspring. 4 
The dispensation styles her Margaret, Countess of Menteith, 

1 Dispensation dated 21 November 1348 ; vol. ii. 128. 2 Vol. ii. of this 
work, 129 ; Family of Rose of Kilravock, 116. The charter referred to by 
Mr. Innes in that work is not in evidence. It is the only instance of John 
Moray being styled Earl of Menteith, and in a writ, 12 April 1351, a few 
months before his death, he describes himself only as 'Panitarius' of 
Scotland (Rcgistrum Moraviense, 296, 297). 3 15 August 1352, Theiner's 
Vetera Monumenta, 300. 4 29 April 1360, Theiner, 305. A writer in Notes 
and Queries, 7th ser., vol. x. 163, suggests, on the evidence of a charter 
by her, confirmed by King Robert ii. on 30 March 1372 (Reg. Mag. Sig., 
fol. 113), that it was Mary, Countess of Menteith, who married John 
Drummond, but the proof is not complete, and there is, in the papal writ 
and the charter cited in the text, sufficient ground for believing that John 
Drummond, described as a ' noble young man,' married the Countess 
Margaret. 



140 THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 

and about the same date she, as Countess, grants the lands 
of Aberfoyle to John Drummond of Ooncraig, and to the 
children born betwixt them, a grant confirmed by King 
David ii. on 12 November 1361. l The fact that she is styled 
Countess seems to imply that her mother had then died, 
probably about 1359. Countess Margaret's third husband 
must have died soon after the granting of the dispensation, 
or after 17 May 1360, if, as seems probable, he was the 
John Drummond who took part in the agreement made on 
that day with the Menteiths, with whom he had been at 
feud. 2 He was certainly deceased before 9 September 1361. 
when a fifth dispensation was issued for the marriage of 
Margaret, Countess of Menteith, with Robert Stewart, 
third son of Robert, Earl of Strathearn (afterwards King 
Robert n.), the intending spouses being themselves the 
petitioners. 3 The marriage seems to have taken place soon 
after the date of the dispensation, and the Countess appears 
again only twice on record, first, in the indenture between 
her husband and Isabella, Countess of Fife, as to the earl- 
dom of Fife, which carried out the entail made by Isabella's 
father to Alan, Earl of Menteith, grandfather of the Coun- 
tess Margaret. The indenture was dated 30 March 1371 , 4 
and thereafter she and her husband held the two earldoms 
of Fife and Menteith. The second and latest known refer- 
ence to Countess Margaret is in the marriage-contract, on 
21 July 1372, of her daughter Janet to David de Loen. 
When the Countess died is not exactly known, but she was 
deceased before 4 May 1380, when a dispensation was issued 
for the Earl of Fife's marriage with Muriella Keith. (But 
see under title Albany for notice of her children.) 

ARMS. The original territorial arms of the earldom were 
barry wavy of six. 5 Walter Stewart, who became Earl of 
Menteith jure uxoris in 1258, bore a fess chequy with a 

1 Red Book of Menteith, i. 127; ii. 246. 2 Ibid., L 109-113; ii. 239-246. 
3 Theiner, 317. Margaret, Countess of Menteith, petitions under that 
designation, which seems to negative Sir William Eraser's view that 
her mother was a party. The writ recites a treaty between their 
'parentes,' but this evidently refers, not to their fathers or mothers, 
but to the agreement of May 1360, to which their ' parentes ' or kinsmen, 
the Earl of Strathearn and the Menteiths, gave consent. 4 Red Book of 
Menteith, ii. 251. 6 Ibid., i. pp. xlii-xlviii, and authorities there referred to. 



THE ANCIENT EARLS OF MENTEITH 141 

label of five points in chief. His son, the sixth Earl, bore 
on his shield an eagle having on its breast a shield bearing 
three bars wavy surmounted of a fess chequy with a label 
of five points in chief. 1 The seventh Earl bore the fess 
chequy and label alone, without the bars wavy. 2 

[j. A.] 



1 Red Book of Menteith, ii. 461 and 455. 2 Macdonald's Armorial Seals, 
2556. 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 




ALISE GRAHAM, the 
first of his name to bear 
the title of Menteith, 
was the only son of Sir 
Patrick Graham of Kin- 
cardine, second son of 
Sir Patrick Graham, an- 
cestor of the Earls and 
Dukes of Montrose. (See 
that title.) The younger 
Sir Patrick married Eu- 
famia Stewart, Countess 
Palatine of Strathearn, 
and became in her right 
Earl of Strathearn. (See 
that title.) Malise, their 
son, who was born about 
1407, or perhaps later, during the earlier years of his life 
also bore the title of Strathearn, and as such was proposed 
as a hostage for King James I., and was named among 
those who welcomed him at Durham in March 1424. The 
King, however, took advantage of the Earl's minority, and 
deprived him of the earldom of Strathearn, creating him at 
the same time EARL OP MENTEITH. The charter of 
the new earldom, dated 6 September 1427, is granted to 
* Malise, Earl of Menteith,' as if the dignity had been con- 
ferred on him some time previously, but there is no record 
to fix the date. The writ of erection enumerated the lands 
to be included in it as follows : Oraynis Easter, Oaynis 
Wester, Oraguthy Easter and Wester, Glasswerde, Drum- 
laen, Ladarde, Blareboyane,Gartnerthynach,Blareruscanys, 
Forest of ' baith sidis * of Lochcon, Blaretuchane and Mar- 
duffy, Gulyngarth and Frisefleware, Rose with Oragmuk, 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 143 

Inchere, Gartinhagil Bobfresle, Bouento, Downans and 
Balech, Tereochane, Drumboy, Orancafy, Achray, Glassel 
and Cravaneculy, Savnach, Brigend, Lonanys and Garquhat, 
Dramanust, Schanghil [Schannochill?], Ernetly and Mony- 
brachys, Gartmulne and Ernomul, Ernecomry, Achmore, 
with the Port and the Inch, lying in the sheriffdom of 
Perth. 1 The lands named, many of which can still be 
identified, indicate that the newly constituted earldom 
comprehended the whole of Aberfoyle parish and a portion 
of that of Port of Menteith. But this was only the smaller 
half of the original earldom, the remainder being annexed 
to the Crown. 

Two months after his receiving the above charter Earl 
Malise, in November 1427, entered England as a hostage 
for King James i., and was confined in the castle of Ponte- 
fract, whence he was not released until 17 June 1453. 
James, Lord Hamilton, who had married the Earl's sister, 
Euphemia Graham, widow of Archibald, fifth Earl of 
Douglas, was the chief agent in obtaining the release, and 
received a grant on 17 December 1453 of the lands of 
Illiestoun or Elleistoun, in the lordship of Kilpont, sheriff- 
dom of Linlithgow. The Earl in the charter styles himself 
Earl of Menteith and Lord of Kinpont, the latter being a 
very early possession of the Graham family, which had 
descended to him through his father. 

The Earl appears on various occasions in his place in 
Parliament, but little is known of his history except that 
he appears to have become involved in debt. He is said to 
have been present at the battle of Sauchie on 11 June 1488, 
and to have fought for the King ; but this is doubtful, as 
he must then have been above eighty years of age. In 
the retour of his grandson to the estates on 6 May 1493, 
Earl Malise is said to have died at the peace of King 
James iv. 2 The exact date of his death is not known, but he 
was dead before 19 May 1490, perhaps not very long before 

1 History of the Earldom of Strathearn, by Sir Harris Nicolas, App. 
xvi.-xviii. ; Bed Book of Menteith, ii. 293. The writer of this article begs 
to acknowledge kind encouragement from Dr. J. W. Barty, Dunblane, 
and much assistance to otherwise inaccessible lore from Mr. W. B. Cook, 
Stirling. But the opinions expressed in the article are entirely the 
writer's own, and he has verified most of the references personally. 
2 Red Book of Menteith, ii. 302. 



144 

that date, when a gift was made to John Home of Ersil- 
toun of the ward of the lands of Gilmertoun, held of Malise, 
Earl of Menteith, and then in the King's hands by his 
decease. 1 

The Earl was at least twice married. His first wife is 
said to have been Jane de Rochford. On 19 April 1471 
Janet, Countess of Malise, Earl of Menteith, is held to be 
entitled to her terce from Kinpont, belonging to her son 
Patrick. On 23 October 1476 the Earl gifted to his Coun- 
tess, for her good deeds done to him in youth and age, in 
England and in Scotland, a silver-gilt horn, a masar-dish, 
a silver cup, a missal, nine silver spoons, a silver saltfat, 
and others acquired by his own industry, the gift being 
sealed by his placing a gold ring on her finger. 2 She pro- 
bably died not long afterwards, but this is uncertain. In 
1490 the Countess of Menteith was named Marion, and she 
survived her husband, marrying John Drummond before 17 
May 1491. She was still alive in 1530, dying between 28 
April and 23 August in that year. 3 

Earl Malise had issue : 

1. Alexander, who as son and heir of his father took the 

latter's place as a hostage in England on 17 June 
1453. He was still apparently an exile at his death, 
which took place some time before 19 April 1471, 
when Patrick is described as son and heir of Earl 
Malise. 4 

2. Patrick, named first as son and heir of Earl Malise on 

19 April 1471, when he entered into an agreement 
for securing his mother's terce from the lands of Kin- 
pont. In 1476-77 and 1481-82, he is named in trans- 
actions with his father, always as son and heir. 5 On 
19 October 1478 he was infeft in the lands of Craig- 
uchty and Auchmar (or Auchmore) in terms of a 
precept from his father. He does not appear later 
on record, and it is not certain when he died, though 
it is not impossible that he may have been killed at 
the battle of Sauchie in 1488. He certainly pre- 
deceased his father, as Earl Malise was succeeded 

1 Ada Dam. Cone., xii. f. 32. 2 Scottish Antiquary, x. 59, 135 ; The Lake 
of Menteith, by A. F. Hutchison, 272. * Reg. Mag. Sig., 23 August 1530. 
* Scot. Antiq., x. 59. 6 Ibid., x. 137, 170. 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 145 

by a grandson. He married in terms of a papal 
dispensation, about 24 January 1465-66, Isobel, 
daughter of Thomas, Lord Erskine, 1 and had issue : 

(1) ALEXANDER, who became Earl of Menteith. 

(2) Henry, who, on 16 October 1510, had a charter from his brother 

Alexander of half the lands of Gardrany and Auchmore. 2 
He is named with his brother Thomas, in 1532, as cited 
below, and in 1534 his brother the Earl confirmed the grant 
of the above lands, with a lease of the other half. 3 No 
further definite record of him has been found. 

(3) Thomas, named along with Henry as a brother of the Earl 

of Menteith on 18 June 1532, when they were found as 
sureties for the restitution of certain stolen cattle. 4 He 
appears to have been either illegitimate, of which there is 
no evidence, or to have died before 1534, when Henry is 
described as the Earl's ' beloved only brother-german.' 8 

3. John, who is named as receiving from King James in., 
on 7 April 1469, the lands of Kilbride, in the 
sheriffdom of Perth. 6 Much confusion as to this 
John has been caused by an error in the Acts of 
the Lords of Council. The lands of Kilbride were 
after his death the subject of litigation, and in 
1492 the charter cited was produced in Court, and 
described as a grant to John Graham, ' sone and are ' 
to Earl Malise. 7 Sir William Fraser and others, 
founding on this, have assumed that John Graham 
was the second son of Earl Malise, but this is con- 
tradicted by the references already given to his 
elder brother Patrick. A later note of the charter 
made in February 1508-9, when it was again pro- 
duced, repeats the date as 7 April 1469, and describes 
it as a charter of Kilbride to John Graham and his 
heirs -male. 8 John Graham, however, appears on 
record before 1469, as receiving a fee from Exchequer 
in the years 1464 down to 1473. 9 He is then styled 
son of Malise, Earl of Menteith, while, as stated, 

1 Red Book, etc., i. 297 ; cf . 303. 2 Third Hep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 398. 
The lands are described as Gardrany or Auchmore, but later evidence (Red 
Book, etc., i. 334) shows these were separate holdings. 3 Red Book, etc., i. 
307. 4 Acta Dom. Cone, et Sess., i. 28. 5 Red Book, etc., i.307. 8 Crawfurd 
gives the date as 7 April 1464, but incorrectly, as 1469 is corroborated by 
later evidence. 7 Acta Dom. Cone., i. 238. 8 Ibid., MS. xx. f. 150. A 
note of the writ in the Gartmore Charter-chest also describes it as ' to 
John, sone to Malise, Earl of Monteth ' (Priory of Inchmahome, by Rev. 
W. MacGregor-Stirling, 165). 9 Exch. Rolls, vii. 486, 574, 624; viii. 
70, 172. 

VOL. VI. K 



146 GRAHAM, EARLS OF MBNTBITH 

his brother Patrick appears, in 1471, as son and heir- 
apparent, showing he was the elder. Very little 
more is known of this John Graham. It has been 
suggested that he was the John Graham described 
by Earl Malise in 1476 as his ' natural son,' l but 
this is not certain. The latest date at which John 
Graham of Kilbride is named as in life appears to be 
1478, 2 but he may be the John Graham who in 1480 
had a lea'se for three years of the Grown lands of 
Arnbeg and others. 3 Sir William Fraser thinks he 
died before 1478, but a recent writer on the subject 
suggests, on reasonable grounds, that he lived until 
after 1486, perhaps until 1488. He was certainly 
dead before 1491-92. 4 

John Graham of Kilbride married Margaret 
Muschet, not improbably a daughter of James 
Muschet of Tolgarth. She survived him, and had 
her terce from Kilbride. They had surviving issue 
one daughter, married to Malcolm Drummond of 
Megour, apparently after her father's death, as her 
mother alone is referred to as disponing under the 
marriage-contract. 5 There is no evidence of surviv- 
ing male issue. The charter of 1469 was granted to 
him and his heirs-male, and as Alexander, Earl of 
Menteith, in 1492, founded on that writ as one of his 
titles to Kilbride, in competition with a later charter 
to Muschet of Tolgarth, 6 it is evident Earl Alexander 
accounted himself heir-male of the grantee. This 
seems to preclude the existence of nearer heirs-male 
of the body of John Graham. 7 

1 Scot. Antiq., x. 135. 2 Red Book of Menteith, i. 302. 3 Exch. Rolls, 
ix. 564. 4 Scot. Antiq., xi. 108-112. 6 Acta Dom. Cone., \. 6 Ibid., i. 238. 
7 On 19 October 1556 and 19 February 1556-57, before a jury at Stirling, 
Alexander Drummond, then of Megour, claimed, as great-grandson of 
John Graham, to be infef t in a tenement in Stirling (Stirling Court and 
Town Council Records at date). He was heir only through a female, and 
could not have claimed at all if John Graham had left direct male heirs. 
Tradition identifies this John Graham of Kilbride with John (or Sir 
John) Graham ' of the bright sword,' who is claimed as the ancestor of 
the Grahams of Netherby and Esk. That personage doubtless did exist, 
as the local traditions regarding him are consistent, but the writer has 
been wholly unable to discover anything to identify the two men. John 
Graham ' of Kilbride ' is never styled ' Sir John,' nor given in record the 
rank of ' Miles,' while, as Indicated, there is a strong presumption that he 
left no lawful male issue. 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 147 

4. John (secundus), who on 8 December 1485, while still 
a youth, as son of Earl Malise, received from his 
father the lands of Port, Monvrachy and others, 
including the Lake of Menteith and the islands. 1 
He was under age and still under tutors on 25 
February 1494-95, 2 when he and his brother Walter 
joined in resigning the lands granted them by their 
father in favour of Alexander, Earl of Menteith. In 
the resignation they are styled ' sons carnal ' of Earl 
Malise, 3 but there seems no reason to doubt that 
they were his sons by his second wife, with perhaps 
some canonical impediment/ He apparently reached 
majority in or about 1499 when he again granted a bond 
in favour of Earl Alexander, from whom he appears 
also to have held the lands of Kilpont under rever- 
sion. 5 The remainder of his history is not on record, 
so far as is known, but George Orawfurd, writing 
before 1719, although he confuses him with John 
Graham of Kilbride, states that he married a lady 
of the Campbell family, and had a son Thomas, whom 
Orawfurd affirms to be the ancestor of the present 
family of Graham of Gartmore and Ardoch, but with- 
out giving any proof of his statement. 8 The tradi- 
tion of the countryside is that the present Gartmore 
family are descended from the family of Graham of 
Dunans or Downans. 7 There certainly was a Thomas 
Graham who died before November 1568, and who 
wag the progenitor of the Downans and Gartmore 
Grahams, but nothing has been found on record to 
prove him the son of John, the son of Earl Malise. 
A few steps of the pedigree are given here to 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 29 June 1489. 2 This fact shows that he was a totally 
different person from John Graham of Kilbride, although Crawfurd, 
Peerage, 331 n., confounds the two brothers. 3 The Priory of Inch- 
mahome, by Rev. W. MacGregor-Stirling, 71 n. 4 The following seems 
to be a case in point. George Douglas, Master of Angus, and Elizabeth 
Drummond were married in March 1487-88, and had issue, but some years 
afterwards some canonical impediment was discovered, and they obtained 
a dispensation on 3 December 1494. But in a writ of 1514, after his 
father's death, George Douglas, the second son, though born in wedlock, 
is styled ' films carnalis ' of his mother Elizabeth Drummond (Milne 
Home, MSS. ; Douglas Book, ii. 126 ; iii. 437). 6 Authorities cited in Red 
Book, etc., i. 298, 299. 6 Crawfurd's Peerage, 331 n. 7 Evidence taken by 
Mr. W. Fraser in 1859. 



148 GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 

correct oiie or two errors into which Orawfurd has 
fallen : 

a. Thomas, who died before 10 November 1568, as in writ cited 

below, but of whom nothing else is recorded. He had issue : 

(a) John. (6) Malise, in the Kirkland of Aberfoyle. 

(c) William, (d) Duncan, (e) Isabel, relict of the 

late Walter Stirling of Auchyll. 1 (/) Margaret, 

relict of the late Duncan Graham in Gartlonan. 

b. John Graham of Downans, to whom, on 10 November 1568, 

his "brother and sisters, as above named, of their own free 
wills committed all right they had or might claim against 
John Dormund (Drummond) of Drongy, as heir to his 
grandfather, for fire-raising and harrying the house and 
goods of the late Thomas Graham their father. 2 He had, 
on 17 July 1569, a charter of sale to himself and his son 
William, by John Drummond of Drongy, of the lands of 
Duchray, followed, apparently, by a Crown charter. 3 He was 
twice married, the name of his first wife not being known. 
His second wife was Christine Graham. 4 He had issue : 
(a) Thomas ; (6) William, both by first marriage, (c) An- 
drew ; (d) John, by second marriage, (e) a daughter. 

c. William, named with his father in the charter of 1569, who 

succeeded to Duchray. He died in or before 1618, having 
married Christine M'Farlane of the Gartavertane family, 
who survived him. 6 They had issue : 6 

(a) John. (6) Andrew, (c) Walter, ancestor of the 

Grahams of Glenny and Ballagan. (d) Thomas. 

(e) Gilbert. (/) George. 

d. John, ' fiar of Duchray ' in 1613. 7 He acquired Glenny, and is 

styled ' of Glenny ' in a writ of 7 November 1615. 8 He was 
retoured heir to his father in Duchray, Easter and Wester, 
on 30 October 1618. 9 In 1621 he is styled John Graham of 
Polder, and granted an annualrent from Over Glenny to 
his brother Walter. 10 In 1622, he, with consent of Katherine 
Stewart, his wife, sold Duchray to Thomas Graham in 
Inchrie, apparently his uncle, and John, his son. 11 About 
1644 he purchased Gallingad in Dumbartonshire, and re- 
ceived a commission against criminals in the shires of 
Stirling and Dumbarton and the Lennox. He was also on 
the Committee of War for Perthshire. 12 By his wife 
Katherine Stewart he had issue : 

(a) William of Polder. (6) Walter of Gallingad. (c) John, 
(d) Anna, (e) Mary, both married. 



1 In this connection it is important to notice a writ quoted in The Stir- 
lings of Keir, 169, which shows that this Isabel was married before 18 July 
1531. 2 Protocol Book of John Muschet, Town Clerk, Stirling, at date. 
3 Reg. Mag. Sig. ; Exch. Rolls, xx. 30. * Stirlingshire Reg. Baptisms. 
'"' Stirlingshire Sasines. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 15 January 1622 ; 29 July 1626. 
7 Stirlingshire Bonds. 8 Gen. Reg. of Deeds. Retours, Stirling. 10 Stir- 
ling Sasines, ii. f. 213. u Ibid., f. 293, 23 March 1622; Reg. Mag. Sig., 29 
July 1626. It was this John, son of Thomas in Inchrie, who married 
Marion Graham of Rednock [p. 161]. 12 Acta Part. Scot., vi. (1) 124 ; (2) 356. 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MBNTEITH 149 

e. William Graham of Polder bought Gartmore in 1644 from 
the Earl of Stirling. He was created a Baronet 28 June 
1665, and died in December 1684. He married Elizabeth, 
one of the daughters of John, Lord Kilpont, eldest son of 
William, seventh Earl of Menteith. (See title Airth.) His 
male line ended in his son Sir John Graham, second of Gart- 
more, and his succession devolved upon Robert Graham, 
son of Walter Graham of Gallingad, from whom the pre- 
sent Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham of Gartmore and 
Ardoch descends in direct line. 

5. Walter, not improbably a twin with the above John. 
He received on the same day as his brother, 8 De- 
cember 1485, a charter of the Lake of Lochcon (Loch 
Ohon, not Loch Achray as Sir W. Eraser has it) with 
its islands and other lands, including the mill town 
and kirk town of Aberfoyle, Bofresle, Downans, and 
Oranisbeg, confirmed by the King on 29 June 1489. 1 
He also with his brother John resigned, on 25 Feb- 
ruary 1494-95, the lands given him by his father. He 
received from his nephew, Earl Alexander, the lands 
of Kilbride, but as these were recognosced by the 
Crown the Earl recompensed him by other lands on 
14 May 1510. 2 He had also another grant of lands, 
which were, however, redeemed under reversion in 
1521, along with what remained of Kilbride. Walter 
Graham died between 17 June 1523, as cited below, 
and 26 February 1524-25, when a precept of clare 
constat was granted for infefting his son Thomas 
in the lands of Glassford, Boquhapple, and others. 3 
He married a lady named Marjorie Campbell, with 
whom he had a grant, on 17 June 1523, of the lands 
of Drongy, called Gartinsalze and Blarecholich, and 
part of the Brae of Boquhapple, from William Bal- 
four of Boquhapple. 4 She survived him, and married, 
secondly, before 1531, Duncan Campbell of Drumfad, 
whom also she survived. 5 
Walter Graham had issue : 

(1) Thomas, who succeeded his father as stated, before 26 
February 1524-25. He held the offices of Custumar of Inver- 



1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Ibid., 6 January 1493-94, 3 February 1511-12. 3 Bed 
Book, etc., i. 300 and authorities cited ; cf. Third Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 
398. 4 The Stirlings of Keir, 321. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 18 April 1550; 28 
September 1554. 



150 GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 

ness, Ross, Sutherland, and Caithness, and of Comptroller 
of the Treasury, 1 and possessed the lands of Calziemuck, 
Boquhapple, and others. He died in 1562, 2 having married 
Christine Oliphant,who survived him and married, secondly, 
Alexander Livingston of Terrinterran. 3 Thomas had issue, 
inter alias : 

(1) George. (2) James, who was his father's executor, 

and was killed on 26 December 1575, his brother 

George being his executor. 4 (3) Marion, called eldest 

daughter, married in 1558 to William Schaw, 

, younger of Knockhill. 5 

George, who succeeded about 1562, and died 26 January 
1598-99. He married Marjorie Graham, and had 
issue : 

i. Thomas, ii. George, iii. John, iv. Janus, v. Mar- 
garet, vi. Marjorie, vii. Janet, viii. Marion, 
ix. Katrine, x. Helen, and xi. Barbara, all 
mentioned in their father's testament. 6 
Thomas, married (contract 6 July 1609) Isobel Schaw, 
relict of John Buchanan of Arnprior (who died in 
April 1598), and they were both alive in 1628. 7 She 
may have been his second wife. Thomas had only 
one son, 

William, named in August 1628 as fiar of Boquhapple. 
He, on 28 April 1625, for a sum of money, renounced 
in favour of William, seventh Earl of Menteith, the 
lands of Glassford, Discheratoyre, Blairruskanmore, 
and Blairquhople, granted in 1518 to his great-great- 
grandfather, WalterGraham of Lochcon. 8 He acquired 
Wester Boquhapple in 1627. 9 He married (contract 
8 and 28 July 1622) Margaret, daughter of William 
Stirling of Auchyle, 10 and had issue three sons, i. 
Walter, ii. Patrick, Sheriff-depute of Stirlingshire, 11 
and iii. Thomas, 1 * also a daughter Elizabeth, married 
to Andrew M'Lachlan of Drumlean. 13 
Walter, who succeeded. He married, about 1648, Jean, 
second daughter of George Graham of Claverhouse, 14 
and had issue, i. William, ii. Patrick, 15 iii. Mungo, 10 
and iv. Marion. 

William, entered the Army and was a major at Killie- 
crankie, after which there was a process of treason 
against him. 17 On 22 April 1701 he was served heir of 

1 Exch. Rolls, xix. passim. * Reg. Mag. Sig., 6 August 1562. 3 Ibid., 
2 November 1583. 4 Edin. Tests., 16 November 1582. Walter Graham of 
Wester Torrie may also have been a son of Thomas, but there is no direct 
evidence. 6 Original writ in Blair-Drummond Charter-chest. 6 Dunblane 
Tests., 20 October 1620. 7 Part. Reg. Sas. Stirling, 27 August 1628; Strath- 
endrick, by J. Guthrie Smith, 365. 8 Red Book of Menteith, i. 301. Reg. 
Mag. Sig., 5 August 1630. 10 Ibid., 23 December 1623. Services of 
Heirs ; Stirlingshire Sheriff-court Book. 12 Original Bond. 13 Stirling- 
shire Sasines. 14 Ibid., viii. f. 316 ; vol. iii. of this work, 323. 16 Red 
Book of Menteith, ii. 193. 16 Menteith Letters, penes W. B. Cook, Esq. 
See Airth. Acta Parl. Scot., ix. App. 152. 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 151 

conquest to his uncle Patrick Graham, Sheriff-depute 
of Stirlingshire. 1 As ' Colonel William Graham of 
Boquhapple, indweller in the Citadel of Leith,' he 
died there in February 1736. He died intestate, and 
the inventory of his effects was given up by his 
'cousin-german,' William Graham, senior, merchant 
in Edinburgh.* The estate changed hands in 1681. 
There is no mention of children in the inventory 
cited, but he married, first, a Janet Herries, styled 
wife of 'Col. William Graham of Balwhapple' in a 
service of 24 December 1709. 3 He married, secondly, . 
Catherine, daughter of James Lythgow of Drygrange, 
widow of James Thomson of Colmslie, merchant in 
Edinburgh. 4 By his first wife he had a son Herries 
Graham, served heir to his mother in 1709, but as to 
this son no further information has been obtained. 

(2) Patrick, named in 1530, 5 probably rector of Kilmore, and 

ancestor of the Grahams of Soyoch. 6 

(3) Walter, 1 ancestor of the Grahams of Drumlean, Daldouran 

or Dundurran, Bowton of Kilbride, and Ballochallan. 8 

6. Euphame, married, first, to Robert Vaus of Bam- 
barroch, 9 and secondly, as his second wife, to Sir 
William Stewart of Garlics. She survived Sir William, 
and was alive in 1495. 10 

II. ALEXANDER, second Earl of Menteith, was the grand- 
son of Earl Malise, as appears from an instrument of sasine 
on 6 May 1493. 11 His parentage is nowhere stated, and it 
has been held that he was the son of Alexander, the eldest 
son of Earl Malise. Sir William Fraser combats this view, 
and though later evidence has proved part of his argument 
to be unsound, he is probably right in supposing that 
Patrick was the father of the second Earl. Alexander 
was infeft as his grandfather's heir on 6 May 1493, and the 
lands had then been three years in the hands of the Crown, 
probably because the heir was under age. He is named in 
record before that date, but not as Earl, simply as heir to 
Earl Malise. After his infeftment he is styled Earl, and 
he made various grants of lands included in the earldom. 
He granted Kilbride to his uncle Walter, which he afterward 
redeemed. In 1495 he was one of the King's Council, and 

1 Services of Heirs, 1701-1709. * Edin. Tests., 22 September 1736. 
3 Services of Heirs, 1710-19. * Plates to Nisbefs Heraldry (1892), 57. 

6 Beg. Mag. Sig., 23 August 1530. Information from W. B. Cook, Esq. 

7 Reg. Mag. Sig., 23 August 1530. 8 Information from W. B. Cook, Esq. 
9 Agnew's Sheriffs of Galloway, ii. 430. 10 Vol. iv. of this work, 150; 
Acta Dom. Cone., 401. Red Book of Menteith, ii. 302. 



152 

on 27 May 1501 he was party to a bond between King 
James iv. and various Perthshire lairds for the bringing of 
criminals to justice. In 1503 he entered into a contract 
for mutual defence and alliance with James, Lord Hamilton, 
first Earl of Arran. 1 On 13 July 1512 the Earl granted 
the lands cf ' the two Oraance ' and Craiguchty to Sir John 
Colquhoun of Luss. 2 Later he made grants to his uncle 
Walter, his own brother Henry, and other members of his 
own family. He was present in Parliament on 10 July 
1525, 3 though he does not appear largely in public affairs. 
In or before November 1533, the 'robbers of the dan 
Gregor ' paid him a visit and carried off forty cows from 
him and his son the Master. 4 He died between 31 January 
or 27 February 1536-37, when his son is styled Master of 
Menteith, 5 and 16 May following, when his son had sasine 
of the earldom. 6 He married Margaret Buchanan, daughter 
of Walter Buchanan of that Ilk, and had issue, so far as 
known, two sons and a daughter : 

1. WILLIAM, who became third Earl. 

2. Walter, a witness to the instrument of sasine of the 

earldom in favour of his elder brother on 16 May 
1537. 7 According to Sir Robert Douglas in his Peerage, 
it was this Walter who received a grant of the lands 
of Gartur from the Abbot of Inchmahome in 1553. 8 
It is also stated that he married Margaret Shaw, 

daughter of Shaw of Knockhill. He married, 

secondly, Isobel Graham. He died apparently before 
1558, leaving issue : 

(1) George, eldest son by second marriage. 9 (2) Walter, and (3) 
William, named in 1573 with his brother George. (4) Agnes, 
daughter by first marriage. 

George, son and heir of Walter and Isobel, who was in 
possession of the lands of Gartur, Upper and Nether Blair- 
cesnoch, and other lands in 1573, 10 when he had a tack of the 



1 Bed Book of Menteith, i. 306, and authorities cited. 2 Chiefs of Col- 
quhoun, ii. 321. 3 ActaParl. Scot., ii. 292. * Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, 
i. 164. 5 Reg. Ho. Charters, Nos. 1146, 1164, William being designed 
Master of Menteith on both dates. 6 Exch. Rolls, xvii. 739 ; Third Rep. 
Hist. MSS. Com., 398. * R e d Book of Menteith, i. 308. 8 Ed. 1764, 476. 
There is now no clear proof available that Walter Grahame of Gartur was 
the second son of Earl Alexander, but his pedigree is here given, as in 
Douglas, with additions. 9 Protocol Book of Robert Ramsay, notary, 
Stirling, 25 March 1558. 10 Laing Charters, No. 881. 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 153 

teinds from David Erskine, Commendator of Inchmahome. 
The exact date of his death is not known, but he married 
Isobel Kinross, who survived him, and who was alive in 
1596. l They had issue : 

i. Walter, who died s.p. before 10 January 1596-97. 
ii. Jasper, in. Mary, wife of Gilbert Graham in 
Rednock, is believed to be a daughter. 

Jasper, who was infeft in the lands named on a precept from 
the Earl of Mar, declaring him heir of his deceased brother 
Walter, with reservation of liferent terce to his mother . 
Isobel Kinross, on 10 January and 20 April 1596. 2 He was 
killed in 1618 by the Grahams of Polder and Duchray. He 
married Agnes Graham, who survived him, 3 and had 
issue : 4 

(i) John, (ii) Walter, named in the remission of 1622 

and other writs as brother of John, (iii) Robert. 

(iv) George, (v) Janet, married to John Stewart of 

Annat. 6 (vi) Elizabeth, (vii) Christian. Also a 

natural son John, named in 1622. 

John, of Blaircesnoch and Gartur, joined with his mother, 
his brother Walter, and natural brother John, in granting 
Letters of Slains to the murderers of their father, in 1622. 6 
He came of age before March 1621, when he had a precept 
of clare constat as heir of his father. 7 The date of his death 
is not certain. 

He married, first, Catherine, daughter of Duncan Buchanan 
of Cashlie (contract 28 January 1626 s ), without issue; 
secondly, Isabella Drummond, daughter of John Drummond 
of Coquhalzie, 9 by whom he had : 

a. Walter, b. Captain John, who died in June 1712, 
his heir being his nephew James. 10 c. Robert, in 
Shannochill, of whom hereafter, p. 155 infra : with 
other sisters indicated in Captain John's confirma- 
tion. Also apparently a son Henry, married to 
Margaret, third daughter of James Menteith of 
Aldcathie. 11 

Walter is referred to in several writs as son of John of 
Gartur. He died in or about April 1702. 12 He married 
Marion, daughter of Sir James Grahame of Airth, by whom 
he had : 

(a) James, baptized 14 September 1664 ; died an infant. 1 * 
(6) James, (c) Robert, (d) Marie, baptized 18 De- 



1 Laing Charters, No. 1304. 2 Ibid., Nos. 1304, 1310. s Reg. Mag. Sig., 
15 January 1622. 4 The issue are all named in a deed of 7 October 1617, 
Dunblane Reg. of Bonds. 6 History of the Stewarts, by Duncan Stewart, 
131. Reg. Mag. Sig. ( 15 January 1622. 7 Laing Charters, No. 1972. 
8 Ibid., No. 1973. 9 Ibid., No. 2616, where she is inadvertently described 
as the wife of his son ; Genealogy of the House of Drummond. I0 Dun- 
blane Tests., 28 August 1712; Laing Charters, No. 3065. Genealogy 
of House of Drummond, 49. 12 Session Records, Port of Menteith, ut cit. 
13 Ibid. 



154 GRAHAM, EARLS OP MENTEITH 

cember 1670. 1 (e) Margaret, married to Thomas 
Stewart of Ballymoran, co. Down. 2 

James, of Gartur, born 15 May 1668, 3 his elder brother having 
died. In 1713 he was served heir to his uncle, Captain John. 4 
He died in November 1719, having married Anna Graham, 
daughter of James Graham of Orchill, 6 and had issue : 
(a) James. (/3) John, who died s.p. (y) William, after- 
wards of Gartur. (8) Marion. 9 

James, who in 1694, after the death of William, the last Earl 
of Airth and Menteith, was, according to Sir Robert Douglas, 
the undoubted heir-male of that family. He succeeded his 
father in November 1719, and was his father's executor. He 
sold his lands of Gartur to his younger brother William. 
He died before 10 August 1745. 7 He married Elizabeth 
Wilkinson, daughter of Captain P. Wilkinson of Ireland, 
and had issue : 

aa. David, who was served heir to his father on 10 August 
1745. 8 He became a merchant in England, bb. John, 
an officer in the Army. 

William, who bought Gartur from his brother James. He 

became a merchant in Glasgow, and in 1762 the lands of 

Easter Torrie were adjudged to him from Robert Campbell 

of Torrie. 9 He died in June 1766, and his daughter Janet 

was his executrix in 1771. 10 He married Christian, only 

daughter of John Somerville of Glenhove, and had issue : 

aa. Walter, bb. John. cc. James, dd. Janet, who in 

1771 was her father's executrix. 

John, the only one of the brothers of whom anything is known, 
was the last of his family to hold the estate of Gartur. He 
died on 28 April 1818, aged sixty-nine. 11 He bequeathed his 
own estate of Gartur (called Woodend), near Stirling, to Lord 
William Grahame, second son of the third Duke of Montrose, 
but the conveyance was found invalid, and the estate went 
to a Miss Graham, a cousin of his own and his nearest heir. 12 
He married Matilda, daughter of James Erskine of Car- 
dross, without issue. She survived him until about 1844. 
On the tablet he is described as then the last male repre- 
sentative of the family of Gartur, but this was not the case, 
as the late Major Graham Stirling of Craigbarnet, who died 
in 1898, was the last male having right to that position. He 
was descended from the third son of John Graham of Gartur 
and Isabella Drummond (see p. 153), who was 

Robert Graham in Upper Shannochill, called also 'in 
Blairsesnoch ' and 'of M'Keanston,' an estate which he 
acquired about 1700. He was Collector of vacant Stipends, 
and in 1697 presented two mortcloths to the Session of Port." 

1 Session Records, Port of Menteith, ut cit. l History of the Stewarts, 
by Duncan Stewart, 164. 3 Session Records, Port of Menteith, ut cit. 
4 Laing Charters, No. 3065. 5 Douglas, ed. 1764, 476 ; Or and Sable, by 
L. G. Graeme, 435; Dunblane Tests. 6 Session Records. 7 Services of 
Heirs. * Ibid. Laing Charters, No. 3214. 10 Glasgow Tests., 18 July 
1768, 5 August 1771. \ l Inscription on tablet on wall in choir of Priory of 
Inchmahome. 12 Notes by Mr. Fraser in 1859. 13 Session Records. 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 155 

He married, first, Jean Menteith, daughter of James Men- 

teith of Auldcathie, and had issue. She died in January 

1686, 1 and he married, secondly, before 15 February 1688, 

Mary Stirling, third daughter of John Stirling of Crag- 

bernard, and sister of Mungo Stirling, 2 who survived her 

husband, and died in 1759, aged ninety. 3 Robert Graham 

in Shannochill died in March 1710, aged about seventy, 

having made his will on 18 February 1708. 4 He had issue : 

(a) John of M'Keanston, eldest son of first marriage, 

who was served heir to his father on 17 May 1711. 5 

(6) James, also of first marriage. 6 (c) Mungo, eldest 

son of second marriage, baptized 9 April 1700, 7 who 

died young and unmarried, his brothers Robert and 

George being his executors. 8 (d) Robert, of whom 

below, (e) George, who died in June 1736, 9 apparently 

unmarried. 

Robert, also in Shannochill, second son of marriage with Mary 
Stirling. In 1784 he was aged seventy-nine, which makes 
the year of his birth 1705, and he was five years old at 
his father's death. He was then (in 1784) residing with his 
son at Feddall, and he stated on oath that he was grandson 
to the late John Graham of Gartur, 10 and a descendant of 
Graham, Earl of Menteith, and that he was born and had 
lived till within a few years at Shannochill, in the parish of 
Port, within a mile from the island residence of the Earls. 11 
He married Catherine Menteith of the Auldcathie family, 12 
and had issue : 

i. Robert, ii. George, born 31 August 1742. iii. Mary. 

Robert, born 30 January 1741, who became tenant, first of 
Shannochill, then of Glenny in Port parish, also of Milton 
near Callander ; he was afterwards Laird of Feddall through 
his wife, and took the surname of Burden. He attended in 
1818 the funeral of his kinsman John Graham of Gartur, and 
died, it is said, in 1823. He married Agnes Campbell, daughter 
of Robert Campbell of Torrie, by his wife Ann Burden. She 
succeeded to her mother in the estate of Feddall. 13 They 
had issue, with three sons who died unmarried : 

(i) Robert, whose circumstances became so reduced that 

he was for a time a street porter in Edinburgh. 

He was twice married, but had no male issue, 
(ii) John, 1 * who became a farmer at Brae Leny on the 

Perth estate. He married Isabella Campbell, and had 

issue, besides a daughter Agnes, a son 

1 Dunblane Tests., 4 November 1686. 2 In his Stirlings of Keir, Mr. 
Fraser makes Mary Stirling the daughter of Mungo Stirling of Craigbarnet 
(her brother), and the wife of George Graham in Shannochill, her own son. 
3 Airth Peerage Case, 1839, 58. * Dunblane Tests., 7 September 1710 and 
10 December 1713, also 21 February 1723. 6 Services of Heirs. 6 Dun- 
blane Tests. , 10 December 1713. 7 Register of Baptisms, Port of Menteith. 
8 Dunblane Tests., 21 February 1723. 9 Stirlings of Keir, 134. 10 See 
p. 153 supra. u Airth Peerage Case, 58. 12 Red Book of Menteith, i. 463, 
has ' Christian,' but the name in the Baptismal Register is Catherine. 
13 Information collected by Mr. W. Fraser in 1859. H Ibid. 



156 GRAHAM, EARLS OF MBNTBITH 

a. Charles Campbell Graham, Stirling, only son, who, in 1832, 
succeeded to the estate of Craigbernard or Craigbarnet, in 
terms of an entail on 14 March 1799 by John Stirling, then of 
Craigbarnet, providing the estate to, among other heirs, 
the heirs of the body of John Graham, second son of 
Robert Graham Burden of Feddal. Charles was a major 
in the Army, and served with the Black Watch, whom he 
commanded at the assault on Sevastopol in 1855. He died, 
the last direct male heir of Gartur, on 24 July 1898, without 
male issue. He married, at Ballagan House, 2 December 
1856, Elizabeth Agnes, elder daughter of the late Robert 
Dunmore Napier of Ballikinrain, and had issue, an only 
daughter, Caroline Frances, married, 10 January 1883, to 
George H. Miller, lieutenant R.N., third son of James B. 
Miller, Esq. of Muirshiels, Renfrewshire. 1 

III. WILLIAM, third Earl of Menteith, is first named in 
record on 16 June 1521, when he and his wife redeemed the 
lands of Lochcon from his grand-uncle Walter, and he later 
took steps to redeem Kilbride. He joined with his father 
in 1528 in releasing other lands from mortgage, and in 1534, 
while still Master, he obtained from their owner the lands 
of Boquhapple and Drongy. He succeeded his father be- 
tween February and May 1537, and had sasines of the 
earldom of Menteith, and of the lands of Kilpont and of 
Kilbride. 2 He took little part in public affairs, though he 
was present in Parliament in December 1540. His career 
was cut short by an untoward incident. The event is 
narrated in more versions than one, but the main facts 
were that a party of marauders, Murrays of Athole accord- 
ing to one account, but according to most versions Stewarts 
of Appin, passing through Menteith, came to a place where 
a wedding feast was prepared, the Earl being an expected 
guest. The strangers seized on the provisions, ate up 
the whole, and went on their way. The Earl, enraged at 
their audacity, pursued the Stewarts, and, according to a 
local writer, overtook them near a spring, now known as 
the Tyepers Well, on the ' Tyepers ' path, which leads to 
Loch Achray and the Trossachs. 3 Here a fight ensued, in 
which the Menteith men were worsted and the Earl slain 
or mortally wounded. The exact date of this fray is not 
known, but the Earl was alive in September 1543 and was 

1 The Stirlings of Keir, 135, 136 ; The Sterlings of Craigbernard, 14. 
8 Red Book of Menteith, i. 309, 310 ; Exch. Rolls, xvii. 739, 753. 3 The Lake 
of Menteith, by A. F. Hutchison, 27. 



157 

dead before 23 January 1543-44. 1 He died intestate, but an 
inventory of his goods was given up and confirmed at Dun- 
blane in July 1545. 2 He had ' plenishing ' on the lands of 
* Kilbryd, Dalbrok, Auchayk, Oardranycht, and Boquhoppill,' 
also in 'Auchmore, Arnthome, Portend, Brigend and 
Inche,' in the diocese of Dunblane. In the diocese of St. 
Andrews he had Kinpont and Bonhard. The whole inven- 
tory in both dioceses amounted to 1392, 19s. 8d. Scots. 
Earl William married, before June 1521, Margaret Moubray, 
daughter of John Moubray of Barnbougle, and widow of 
John Cornwall of Bonhard, who was killed at Flodden. 3 
She survived him, and was alive in July 1548. 

1. JOHN, who became fourth Earl of Menteith. 

2. Walter, who, with his mother, was executor of his 

father. 4 He and his mother also were, in May 1545, 
infeft in the lands of Gartavertane, in terms of a 
grant to them by John Buchanan of Gartavertane, 
and again on 26 July 1548. They are also named 
in a charter to them on 28 May 1547, by George 
Home of Lundies, of the lands of Easter Argatie, 
followed by sasine on 30 May 1547. 5 No further notice 
of Walter has been found, and the date of his death 
is unknown, but his lands of Gartavertane were 
apparently, in 1565-66, in possession of his brother 
Andrew, and after October 1570 belonged to his 
younger brother Gilbert. 6 

3. Robert, who, in 1547, was infeft in the lands of Wester 

Boquhapple by his brother, Earl John, but he sold 
these lands in 1553 to his brother-in-law, Archibald, 
Earl of Argyll, and his wife and son. In May 1547 
he acquired part of Gartmore, and in 1554 he had a 
charter from Walter M'Awlay of Gartmore, granting 
the twelve-merk land of Gartmore to Robert Graham, 
brother-german of John, Earl of Menteith, whom 
failing, to Gilbert Graham, his brother, a grant which 

1 Acta Dom. Cone, et Sessionis, xxv. 31, where it is suggested that he 
died in September 1543 ; Reg. Sec. Sig., xviii. f. 25. See above. 2 Dunblane 
Tests., i. ff. 94, 95. 3 Decree of Lords of Council, to warrant her against 
the claims of the Crown over the rents of Bonhard, 31 January 1536-37, 
Reg. Ho. Calendar, No. 1146. 4 Acta Dom. Cone, et Seas., xxv. f. 31. 
6 Protocol Book of John Graham, Stirling. * Exch. Bolla t xix. 545 ; 
xx. 413. 



158 GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 

was repeated in 1563 and 1568 to Robert and his wife 
and to Gilbert, his brother. 1 Robert, * being sum- 
quhat evill disposit,' made his will at Stirling 20 
February 1572-73, 2 and died not long afterwards, 
without male issue by his wife, Elizabeth Erskine, a 
natural daughter of Thomas, Master of Erskine, to 
whom he was married in terms of a contract dated 
29 January 1562-63. 3 She survived Mm, and was still 
alive in 1577-78.* 

Robert Graham had at least one lawful daughter, 
Margaret, named in his will. She died in August 
1573. He had also a natural son John and a natural 
daughter Christian, both referred to in his will. 5 
4. Gilbert, frequently designed of Beircrofts, named in 
1551 as brother-german to John, Earl of Menteith, 
and also in the charters to his brother Robert, already 
cited. On 30 October 1570 he had sasine from the 
Crown of the lands of Gartavertane, which had 
belonged to his brother Walter, and in January 1572- 
73 resigned them into the hands of the Regent 
Morton for a regrant to his son and heir, William 
Grahame. 6 He died soon afterward, on 24 April 1573, 
leaving a sum of 3969 Scots, chiefly money due to 
him. 7 He married, before 1562, Helen, daughter of 
John Kincaid of Warriston and widow of Robert 
Crauford of Beircrofts. 8 She survived him, and 
married, thirdly, before July 1578, Gavin Hamilton of 
Hill. 9 Gilbert had issue four sons : 

(1) William, called Ninian in some writs, a minor in July 1573, ln 
who, on 25 June 1577, was served as heir of tailzie to his 
uncle, Robert Graham of Gartmore. Before January 1583- 
84 he had married Janet Graham, and died between 4 
August 1588 and February 1588-89. 11 His wife survived him, 
and married, before August 1590, Colin Campbell, variously 
designed as 'brother of the Laird of Ardkinglas,' also 

i Red Book of Menteith, i. 312, 313. 2 Edin. Tests., 27 September 1574. 
3 Reg. of Deeds, vi. f . 17. See also under title of Mar. 4 Exch. Rolls, xx. 
527. 6 Edin. Tests., 27 September 1574 and 16 November 1576. 6 Exch. 
Rolls, xx. 413; Red Book of Menteith, i. 314. 7 Edin. Tests., 4 June 1578. 
8 Edin. Com. Decreets, i. f . 64, 17 June 1564, where Helen Kincaid requires 
her father to produce her marriage-contract with Crauford ; cf. also Acts 
and Decreets, vol. 1. f. 404, and Edin. Tests., 4 June 1578. 9 Acts and 
Decreets, Ixxiii. f. 114. 10 Ibid., li. f. 319. " Red Book of Menteith, i. 
314 ; Acts and Decreets, cxvi. f. 347 ; Stirling Antiquary, iii. 321. 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTBITH 159 

' of Blairnarne ' l and ' of Boghall,' not of Ardbeith, as 
suggested by Sir William Fraser. 2 William and Janet had 
issue at least one son, 

i. Robert, who, on 27 May 1606, was retoured heir to his 
father in the lands of Gartmore and Gartavertane. 
He died in November 1614. He had a son Gilbert, 
who is styled of Gartmore in the court book of the 
Stewartry of Menteith between 1630 and 1634. He 
was still under age in 1632, and died before 9 October 
1634, when his sister, Agnes Graham, was served . 
heir to their father on these lands, which had been 
nineteen years in ward and one in non-entry. 3 Agnes 
married John Alexander, a younger son of William, 
Earl of Stirling. The lands were disponed by her to 
the Earl and were afterwards sold to William Graham 
of Polder in 1644, whose younger brother was the 
ancestor of the present family of Graham of Gartmore 
and Ardocb. 

(2) John, a minor in July 1573 and second son, 4 who in 1586 was 

styled of Bofreslie. 5 In 1581-82 he claimed to be heir of his 
younger brother James, but on 28 February in that year 
James was asserted to be alive. 6 John Graham was still 
alive on 6 February 1588-89. 7 

(3) James, named executor to his father on 3 May 1578, and gave 

up the inventory of his father's estate. 8 He was still alive 
on 28 February 1581-82, as above stated. 

(4) Andrew, who, as brother-german of William Graham of 

Gartavertane, had, on 1 July 1585, a gift of the escheat of 
Helen Short, widow of John Guthrie, Captain of (Castle) 
Campbell. 9 

(5) Marion, sister of William Graham of Gartavertane, married, 

apparently as second wife, to Alexander Alexander of 
Menstrie, father of William Alexander, first Earl of 
Stirling. 10 

5. Andrew, who, ill 1547, received the lands of Boquhapple 

from his brother Earl John. 11 It is probably also he 
who, as Andrew Graham of Gartavertane, had, on 6 
February 1565-66, a commission of Justiciary against 
evildoers within the earldom of Menteith. 12 

6. Margaret, married, on 21 April 1541, in the Priory of 

Inchmahome, as his second wife, to Archibald, fourth 
Earl of Argyll. (See that title.) 

7. Christian, married, before March 1553, to William 

1 Information from Dr. Barty, Dunblane. 2 Red Book of Menteith, 
i. 314 ; see Reg. Privy Council, viii. p. 723. 3 Special Retours, Perthshire, 
Nos. 161, 437. 4 Acts and Decreets, li. f. 319. 5 Reg. of Deeds, xxiv. 
f. 185, 14 April 1586. 6 Canongate Court Book. 7 Acts and Decreets, 
cxvi. f. 347. 8 Edin. Tests., 4 June 1578. 9 Reg. Sec. Sig., lii. f. 153. 
10 Edin. Tests., 24 May 1581 ; cf. House of Alexander, by Dr. C. Rogers, 
i. 27. Red Book of Menteith, i. 311. 12 Exch. Rolls, xix. 545. 



160 GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 

Livingstone of Kilsy th. (See that title, and authorities 
there given, showing that she was the daughter of 
William, third Earl, and not of John, fourth Earl, as 
usually asserted.) 

IV. JOHN, fourth Earl of Menteith, had a gift of his own 
ward and, marriage on 23 January 1543-44. 1 He succeeded 
apparently in September 1543, as he was held to be in 
possession of the teinds of Kinpont from that date, 2 though 
he was not formally infeft until 4 January 1546-47. 3 As 
Earl of Menteith he sat in Parliament at Stirling in June 
1545, and at Linlithgow in October same year. He also 
attended the Privy Council in February and March 1545-46. 4 
It was in September of the following year that the young 
Queen Mary abode for a short space in the Earl's Isle of 
Inchmahome, and he is said to have gone in her company 
to France, but this is doubtful, and the date cited by Sir 
William Fraser suggests what is really the case, that he 
was one of the many nobles who accompanied the Queen- 
Dowager to France in 1550. 5 After her return the Earl is 
again found present in the Privy Council, and in 1554, after 
she became Regent, he received from her a Commission of 
Justiciary over both the earldom and the stewartry of 
Menteith. 6 In 1558 the Earl joined the Lords of the Con- 
gregation and adhered steadily to them, taking part in 
the siege of Leith, ratifying the Confession of Faith, and 
attending meetings of the Assembly of the Church. 7 He 
died in January 1564-65. 8 

The Earl married (contract dated 8 October 1548) Marion 
Seton, 9 daughter of John, Lord Seton. She survived him, 
and married, as his third wife, John, tenth Earl of Suther- 
land, and was poisoned with him at Dunrobin 23 June 1567. 10 
The Earl had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, fifth Earl of Menteith. 

2. George, who, in 1560, was one of the hostages given 

1 Reg. Sec. Sig., xviii. f. 25. 2 Acta Dom. Cone, et Sess., xxv. f. 31. 
3 Exch Rolls, xviii. 409. * Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 455, 495 ; P. C. Reg., i. 22, 
60. 6 Diurnal of Occurrents, 50. 6 Red Book of Menteith, i. 318, and 
authorities cited. 7 Ibid., 319. 8 This date is given in the course of 
an action as to the teinds of Kilpont (Acts and Decreets, xlvi. 326). 
9 Acta Dom. Cone, et Sess., xxv. f. 60. 10 The Sutherland Book, i. 
128. 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MBNTEiTH 161 

to the English Admiral Winter for observing the 
treaty with England, and was then only five years 
old. His father was very desirous that he should be 
kept near the Border that he might frequently hear 
of him. He seems to have been placed in the charge 
of the Dean of Durham, and was apparently still in 
England in December 1561. 1 He became, after his 
brother's death, tutor-at-law to his nephew, Earl 
John, and he was still tutor on 20 January 1585-86, 
when summoned to confer with the Privy Council as 
to the repression of crime in Menteith. 2 He and his 
wife, his son and apparent heir, James, and his sons 
Dougall and Archibald are named in a writ of 18 
November 1601, a promise to give them the lands of 
Rednock in feu farm. 3 George Graham of Rednock, 
and his sons Dougall, Walter, John, and Hew were all 
charged with violent abduction of the daughter of 
Colin Campbell of Blairnarne in 1609, and he was 
alive in 1610. 4 He married Agnes Macdougall, 5 and 
had issue : 

(1) James, who had Crown charters of the lands of Easter Red- 

nock on 12 February 1584-85 and 12 June 1598. 6 He died 
without issue, after 1601, when he was apparent heir. 

(2) Dougall) named with his father and mother in a writ of 1601. 

already cited. He is called son and apparent heir in 1609. 7 

(3) John, who, on 10 March 1619, was served heir to his brother 

James in Easter Rednock, and also in Mondowie, co. 
Stirling, 8 which latter lands were sold to William, Earl of 
Airth in 1635. He married Jean Kinross, and had issue : 
i. Marion, married to John Graham of Duchray, known 
as the ' Highland Hector,' son of Thomas Graham of 
Inchrie, as on p. 148, ante, and had issue. 9 
ii. Anna, married (contract dated 19 July 1645) to Alex- 
ander Colquhoun of Camstradden, and had issue. 10 
iii. Elizabeth, married to John Macfarlane. 
iv. Mary, unmarried in 1650. 11 

(4) Walter, named in 1609. 

(5) Archibald, styled brother of Dougall in writ of 1601. 

George Graham had also a natural son Hetv, named 
in 1609. 

1 Cat. Scot. Papers, i. 312, 345, 372, 580. * P. C. Reg., iii. 718. 3 Writ in 
Polmaise Charter-chest. 4 P. C. Reg., viii. 249, 261, 403, 556. 6 Reg. Mag. 
Sig., 12 June 1598. 6 Ibid., at dates. 7 P. C. Reg., vii. 261, 556. 8 Special 
Rftours, Perth, No. 265 ; Stirling, No. 96. 9 Chiefs of Colquhoun, ii. 205. 
10 Ibid., 205, 207. Reg. Mag. Sig., 24 January 1650, where all their names 
are given. 

VOL. VI. L 



162 GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 

3. Mary, married, in January 1560-61, to George (not John) 
Buchanan of that Ilk, and had issue. 1 

V. WILLIAM, fifth Earl of Menteith, had a gift from the 
Grown on 10 April 1565 of his own ward and marriage,* 
and he entered into a contract with his mother by which 
she advanced the money paid for the gift, and drew the 
rents of the earldom until the sum was refunded. He was 
under age at his father's death, and had not been infeft in 
the earldom, but he was publicly acknowledged as Earl, 
and sat as such in the Gommission of Parliament at Stirling, 
which, on 29 July 1567, received Queen Mary's demission, 
and assisted at the coronation of the infant Prince James. 
He fought against the Queen at the battle of Langside, 
and took part in meetings of Privy Council and Parliament 
up to July 1569. He was still under age, but obtained, on 
28 October 1571, a dispensation from the Grown, upon 
which, on 20 November same year, he was infeft in the 
earldom of Menteith, the lands of Kilbride, and others.* 
He attained majority on or before 24 January 1572-73, when 
he ratified his marriage-contract made in his minority/ 
On 2 May 1574 he received a Commission of Justiciary 
against a number of marauders with Highland names, and 
was a member of the Privy Council until his death. His 
vassals and those of Leckie of that Ilk at this time quar- 
relled, and serious bloodshed took place, on account of 
which the principals on both sides were summoned before 
the Oouncil in May 1577, and in February and March 1577- 
78 the Earl was bound over to keep good rule. 5 He, how- 
ever, died a few months later, in September 1578, after 
an illness apparently of some duration, as he delivered his 
eldest son to the charge of George Buchanan of that Ilk, 
his brother-in-law, about ten days before his death, and left 
a will directing that the child should remain in Buchanan's 
charge. 8 Earl William married (contract dated 16 May 1571 7 ) 

1 History of Strathendrick, by J. Guthrie Smith, 288. Mary, in a royal 
precept of 10 November 1561, is styled elder daughter of Earl John (Beg. 
Sec. Sig. , xxx f . 76). She was therefore not the only daughter. 2 Reg. 
Sec. Sig., xxxiii. f. 11. 3 Red Book of Menteith, i. 324 and authorities there 
cited. * Reg. of Deeds, xii. f. 28. 6 P. C. Reg., ii. 612, 672, 729. Acts 
and Decreets. Ixxiv. f. 151, and 26 January 1578 79. 7 Reg. of Deeds, xii. f. 
28. It was owing to this contract that he infeft himself before his 
majority when it was made he was still under curators. 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 163 

Margaret Douglas, daughter of Sir James Douglas of 
Drumlanrig, and widow of Edward, seventh Lord Orichton 
of Sanquhar, who survived him, and married, thirdly 
(contract 22 May 1593), Robert Wauchope of Niddrie. 1 
By her the Earl had issue : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded as sixth Earl. 

2. George, designed brother-german of Earl John. He 

also, as son of the deceased Earl of Menteith, is a 
witness to a charter of 13 March 1590-91. 2 In 
1602 he had a serious quarrel with William Greir, or 
Greirson of Lag. 3 In 1605 he was denounced and put 
to the horn by his sister-in-law and her husband, 
Campbell of Lundie, as having given himself up to 
living by reif and sorning with the Clan Gregor and 
the Macfarlanes. But in November 1607 he was 
released from outlawry and given the wand of peace. 4 
He died in April 1617, survived by his wife Grisel, 
daughter of Henry Stirling of Ardoch, and leaving 
issue a son John, under the tutory of his nephew 
William, seventh Earl of Menteith, and a daughter 
Elspeth.* 

3. Helen, named as daughter of William, Earl of Men- 

teith, in an action by her as assignee of her brother 
George, 25 January 1610, before the Lords of Privy 
Council. 6 

VI. JOHN, sixth Earl of Menteith, was a boy under five 
years old when he succeeded to his father. This appears 
from an action between George Buchanan of that Ilk, to 
whom he had been intrusted by his father, and Countess 
Margaret, his mother, who claimed the custody of her son 
until he was seven years of age. 7 He was afterwards, as 
stated, for some time under the tutory of his uncle George, 
and after his death under that of John Graham of Fintry. 
He was, it is said, retoured heir to his father in 1583. 
Letters of dispensation were obtained from King James vi. 

1 See ante, vol. iii. 229. 2 Beg. Mag. Sig., 5 December 1591. 3 P. C.Reg., 
vi. 383. 4 Gen. Beg. of Inhibitions, x. f. 80 ; xxvii. f. 95, where in one place 
he is erroneously styled Robert ; cf. P. C. Reg., vii. f. 39. 5 Red Book 
of Menteith, i. 327; Dunblane Tests., 3 February 1618. 6 P. C. Reg., viii. 
403. 7 Acts and Decreets, Ixxiv. f. 151, and 26 January 1578-79 ; the case 
was twice continued, and the sequel has not been ascertained. 



164 GRAHAM, EARLS OF MENTEITH 

on 7 October 1587, and a little later he was, notwithstand- 
ing his minority, infeft in the earldom and other lands. A 
lawsuit arose between him and his mother about the custody 
of some of the charters of the earldom, which she alleged 
were committed to her keeping by the late Earl, but were 
now demanded by Earl John and his tutor, the Laird of 
Fintry. It was probably in connection with this dispute 
that an attack was made on the place of * Kelwode, 1 as the 
Earl was required to find caution that she should suffer no 
injury. 1 He entered into a mutual bond of maintenance 
and manrent with Malcolm Macfarlane, fiar of Gartaver- 
tane, on 6 March 1597. 2 He died in December 1598, having 
married (contract dated 22 October 1587, 3 when he was 
scarcely fifteen) Mary Campbell, sister of Duncan Campbell 
of Glenurchy, who paid 8000 merks as her dowry. She 
survived the Earl, and married, secondly (contract dated 
26 June 1599 4 ), Colin Campbell of Lundie. Earl John had 
issue : 

1. WILLIAM, who became seventh Earl of Menteith. 

2. Christian, who, on 20 January 1615, had a bond from 

her brother for four thousand merks Scots, to be paid 
when she should 'be cled with ane husband.' She 
was married to John Blackadder of Tulliallan, who was 
created a Baronet of Nova Scotia, on 28 July 1626. 

VII. WILLIAM, seventh Earl of Menteith, was still under 
age in 1610 when a royal dispensation was granted on 
account of his minority, and on 7 August in that year he 
was served heir to his father in the earldom of Menteith, 
the lands of Kilbride, and others. From this time for some 
years he devoted himself to consolidating and adding to his 
estates. In 1621 he had a Commission of Justiciary over 
malefactors in his own district, and in that year also he 
first sat in Parliament. In 1626 he was made a Privy 
Councillor and a Commissioner of Exchequer. In 1628 he 
was made President of Council and also Justice-General 
of Scotland, holding the last office, at the pleasure of the 

1 Bed Book of Menteith, i. 329 ; P. C. Beg., iv. 263. It has been suggested 
that ' Kelwode' is perhaps a mistake for Kilbride, but the record is quite 
distinct. 2 Bed Book of Menteith, ii. 316. 3 Beg. of Deeds, xxx. f. 164. 
Cf. vol. ii. 183, where the year is inadvertently given as 1589. 4 Reg. Mag. 
Sig.,3 August 1614. 



GRAHAM, EARLS OF MBNTEITH 165 

King, until 1633. In 1630 he was sworn a Privy Councillor 
of England also. His commanding talents and his public 
services were thus rewarded, until, in an evil moment, he 
laid claim to the earldom of Strathearn, held by his ancestor 
Earl Malise. He was, after a formal resignation, ratified 
in the title of Earl of Strathearn, but the remainder of his 
history, his death, and his family will be found in detail 
under the title of Airth. 1 

CREATION. 6 September 1427, Earl of Menteith. 

ARMS. The various Earls used slightly different coats of 
arms, all of which are recorded in the Red Book of Men- 
teith, ii. 459. Sir David Lindsay gives the Arms as 
Quarterly : 1st, argent, on a chief sable three escallops or ; 
2nd and 3rd, or, a chevron gules (on the seals this quarter 
is generally two chevronels for Strathearn) ; 4th, or, a fess 
chequy azure and argent. 

CREST. The seal of the seventh Earl bears for crest an 
eagle's head. 

SUPPORTERS. On the same seal are two lions rampant. 

[J. A.] 
1 Vol. i., pp. 133-145. 



STEWART, LORD METHVEN 




EN BY STEWART, first 
Lord Methven, younger 
son of Andrew Stewart, 
second Lord Avandale, 
and brother of Andrew, 
Lord Ochiltree, was born 
about 1495. He supported 
the Earl of Arran against 
Angus in 1524. He owed 
Ms advancement, how- 
ever, to the favour of the 
Queen - Dowager Mar- 
garet Tudor, widow of 
King James iv., who be- 
came attracted by him 
about 1526, when he held 
the office of Master 
Carver to the King her son. The Queen was then in the 
midst of her quarrel with the Earl of Angus, her second 
husband, and was soon completely governed by Henry 
Stewart, who favoured the English alliance. She appointed 
him Treasurer, Lord Chancellor, and Keeper of the Seals, 
and he ' ordered everything.' l The Queen obtained a 
divorce from Angus, at Rome, 11 March 1527-28, and shortly 
after 23 March 1527-28, at which date the news had not 
arrived, but before 2 April 1528, married Henry Stewart. 2 
He was imprisoned for a short time, but on the fall of the 
power of Angus was received into the favour of the King, 
and retained it until his death. He was created LORD 
METHVEN 17 July 1528, the King giving in conjunct fee 

1 Letters and Papers of Henry VIH., iv. No. 800. a Ibid., Nos. 4091, 
4134 ; State Papers, iv. p. 491. Dunbar's Scottish Kings gives the date of 
this marriage as in March 1526. 



STEWART, LORD METHVBN 167 

to his mother and to Henry Stewart her husband, brother 
of Andrew, Lord Avandale, the lands of Methven and Bal- 
quhidder, erected into a barony to be called the lordship 
of Methven. 1 He received the grant of many other lands 
also. On account of his marriage he assumed (and bore on 
his seal 1539) for one of his supporters a dragon (the badge 
of his wife's father, King Henry vn. of England), and for 
crest, a queen crowned, standing erect, holding a naked 
sword reversed with her right, and leaning on a wheel 
with her left. 2 

He was later made * Maister of the Ordinaunce and Sherif 
of Linlithcu by inheritance.' 3 The Queen later, in 1537, 
obtained a dissolution of her marriage with him also, on the 
ground that he was within the fourth and fourth degrees of 
consanguinity to the Earl of Angus, her second husband, 4 
and wished to marry again, but her son James v. prevented 
this scandal, and she died at Methven 18 October 1541. He 
received a final grant of the lordship of Methven 10 October 
1551 s to himself, Janet Stewart, Mistress of Sutherland, 
and their son, and died shortly after. He was, it is 
stated, married early in life to * Lady Leslie,' by whom he 
had a son. 8 His first proved marriage, however, was to the 
Queen-Dowager. On her death he married the mother of 
his four children, Janet Stewart, who, as his wife, received 
with him, June 1545, the third part of the lands of Nether 
Gorthie. 7 She was daughter of John, second Earl of Atholl, 
and widow, first of Alexander, Master of Sutherland, and 
secondly, of Sir Hugh Kennedy of Girvanmains. She survived 
him, liferenting the lordship of Methven, and married, 
fourthly (contract 9 April 1557), Patrick, Lord Ruthven.* 
This is her last proved marriage, but it is alleged that she 
was married, fifthly, to James Gray, son of Gilbert Gray of 
Foulis.' 

He had issue : 

1. John Stewart, Master of Methven, said to have been 
a son by * Lady Leslie,' to have received a pardon 
in March 1540 for holding heretical opinions, 10 and to 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Riddell's Remarks, 198. 3 Estimate of the Scottish 
Nobility, 24. * Liber Off. S. Andree, 6 June 1537, fol. 265. 5 Reg. Mag. 
Sig. c Stuart's Stuarts of Castlestuart. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig. 8 Cf. vol. 
IT. 260. 9 Ex inform. Hon. Vicary Gibbs. w Green's Princesses, iv. 
600 n. 3. 



108 STEWART, LORD METHVEN 

, have been killed at the battle of Pinkie 10 September 
1547. 1 

2. HENRY, son of Janet Stewart, who succeeded him. 

3. Janet, eldest daughter, who was married, or at least 

contracted, 21 February 1547-48 2 and 14 October 1551, 
to Oolin Campbell, sixth Earl of Argyll. 3 

4. Jean, daughter of Henry, Lord Methven, contracted to 

Patrick Wood, younger of Bonnytoun, 17 August 
1560. 4 She must either have been another daughter, 
or else the marriage with the Earl of Argyll did not 
take effect. In a pedigree by Sir William Segar, 
Garter, of the * Lord of Ogheltree,' she is stated to 
have married * Woods Dns de Lewingston.' 

5. Margaret, married, first, before 1566, to Andrew 

Stewart, Master of Ochiltree ; 5 secondly, to Uchtred 
Macdowal of Garthland. 8 She is perhaps the Dame 
Margaret Stewart, Lady Ochiltree elder, who died 
I January 1627, and whose testament-dative was 
given up by her daughter Susanna Stewart. 7 

6. Dorothea, married, 17 August 1561, 8 to William, first 

Earl of Gowr}e. It has been asserted that she was 
a daughter of the Queen-Dowager, and that the 
Gowrie conspiracy was in fact her son's attempt on 
the throne. Her parentage, however, is proved by 
letter of legitimation, dated 16 September 1551.* 

II. HENRY, second Lord Methven, received with his 
three sisters a legitimation in 1551, 10 and succeeded his 
father by grants of the baronial fief of Methven to him, 
nominatim 10 October 1551 and 1 December 1564, 11 the 
last grant being to the heirs-male of his body, whom fail- 
ing, to return to the King. He was on the Regent's side 
against Queen Mary," and after the slaughter of the Regent 
Lennox, whom he dearly loved, could not enjoy Scotland. 11 
He intended to go abroad, and his will was made on account 
of 4 beand of mynd to pas to ye pts. of Prance for learning 
of languages and behavior and exerceis quairthrow I may 

1 Stuart's Stuarts of Castleatiiart, 136. 2 Ada Dom. Cone, et Stss., xxvi. 
24. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. * Beg. of Deeds, iii. 415. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. * Duncan 
Stewart, 122. 7 Edin. Tests. Scott's Gowrie, 39. fl Reg. Sec. Sig., xzir. 
f. 99, to Henry, Janet, Margaret and Dorothy Stewart. I0 Ibid. u Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 13 Duncan Stewart, 122. 1S Estimate of the Scottish Nobility, 24. 



STEWART, LORD METHVEN 169 

be ye mair habill to serve our souerane Lord in defence of 
his realme and legis,' but before he carried out his intention 
he was killed, 3 March 1571-72, 1 ' in the cyuill warres, by 
the schott of a canon out the castle of Edinburgh/ 2 and 
was buried at Methven 21 March. His family is thus 
described: 3 'They be of noble blood, very religious and 
valiaunt.' 4 He married Jean Ruthven, daughter of Patrick, 
third Lord Ruthven. She was married, secondly, to Andrew, 
fifth Earl of Rothes, and died in September 1591, her 
testament being recorded 26 October 1594. 5 Issue : 

1. HENRY, succeeded his father. 

2. Dorothea, married to Mr. John Stewart, styled of 

Oampsie, 6 son of Alexander Stewart of Brjghouse. 7 

III. HENRY, third Lord Methven, succeeded his father 
in the lordship, ' a new house, and of no great lyvinge or 
power,' on 1 July 1592. The title of Methven is described 
as ' decaied by want of heires, and comming to the King's 
hands, he hath disponit it to the Duke (of Lennox). 8 He is 
stated to have married a daughter of Henry Stewart, a son of 
James, Earl of Arran. 8 On 31 July 1587 the King granted 
to his physician, Gilbert Moncrieff, part of the lordship of 
Methven, which had reverted to the King on the death 
without heirs-male of his body of Henry, last Lord Methven, 
in January 1585. 10 

CREATION. Lord Methven, 17 July 1528. 

ARMS. Quarterly : 1st and 4th, or, a lion rampant within 
a double tressure flory counterflory gules ; 2nd, or, a fess 
chequy azure and argent, for Stewart ; 3rd, argent, a saltire 
between four roses gules, for Lennox ; on an escutcheon 
surtout, a lion rampant holding a castle in its paws, for the 
title of Methven. 11 

[A. F. s.] 

1 Edin. Tests., 7 October 1572. * Estimate of the Scottish Nobility, 36. 
3 Ibid., 24. * ' Lord Methven's Tragedie,' 1572, by Lord Sempill, is men- 
tioned in Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors. Edin. Tests. ' Edin. 
Inhibs., xi. 204. r Perth Sasines, 28 December 1593. 8 Estimate of the 
Scottish Nobility, 36, 71. 9 Duncan Stewart's History of the Family of 
Stewart, 122. l Reg. Mag. Sig. " Macdonald's Scottish Armorial Seals, 
No. 2671. 



MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 



IDDLETON is one of those 
surnames derived from a 
place, and it is also one 
which, at an early date, 
appears in many locali- 
ties both in England and 
Scotland. The Middle- 
tons treated of in this 
article descend from a 
family who settled in the 
Mearns or Kincardine- 
shire, and assumed the 
style of Middleton *de 
eodem,' or of that Ilk. 
They are said to have 
obtained their lands in 
the time of David I., 
according to a charter by William the Lion to a Malcolm, 
son of Kenneth, cited by Nisbet on the authority of Sir 
George Mackenzie. The first of the name who is certainly 
on record is 

HUMPHREY DE MIDDLETON, a witness to a charter by 
Stephen of Kinardley to the monks of Arbroath, and it 
was probably he who also witnessed a charter made to the 
same abbey by Robert, son of Warnebald, about 1238. 1 He 
is also a witness to a charter by Walter of Lundin, granting 
to Philip of Feodarg (or Meldrum) the lands of Balcormok, 
about 1250.' 

1 Registrumde Aberbrothoc, 179, 198. 2 Macfarlane's Collections, MS., 
34, 3, 25, Adv. Lib. 




MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 171 

HUMPHREY MIDDLETON of that Ilk, perhaps grandson of 
the preceding, did homage to King Edward I., in 1296, for 
lands in Kincardineshire, and again in 1306 for the same. 1 
The next on record, who can be definitely connected with 
Porfarshire, is 

WILLIAM MIDDLETON,* who had between 1418 and 1432, a 
tack of the lands of Invercany, co. Forfar, from Walter, 
Abbot of Arbroath, with the mill and tithes. He was 
appointed Custodian of the forest of Trostow. 3 

GILBERT MIDDLETON of that Ilk, who was witness, 5 Sep- 
tember 1454, to a charter by John de Troup of lands in 
Kincardineshire to Alexander Sutherland of Dunbeath. 4 In 
1460 and 1461 he appears as a juror on two inquests, the 
first as to some land belonging to the Abbey of Arbroath, 
and the second, for serving Sir Alexander Fraser as heir to 
his grandfather in the lands of Cowie. 5 

LAURENCE MIDDLETON of that Ilk, who is referred to in 
1481 as a witness to a sasine in favour of Andrew, Lord 
Gray. 8 He died before 15 June 1493. 7 He married, it is 
said, a daughter of Straton of Lauristoun, and on 17 January 
1496-97 an action was raised against Alexander Straton of 
Lauriston at the instance of Alexander, son of James, 
Lord Ogilvy, and Nicolas Straton, his wife, for non-delivery 
of two-thirds of the goods of Laurence Middleton of that 
Ilk. 8 Nicolas Straton may therefore have been his widow. 
He had issue 

1. GILBERT, who succeeded. 

2. David. 3. Walter. 4. Alexander, named in the action 

of 17 January 1496-97, cited above. 
5. Violet, described as * daughter to the Laird of Middle- 

1 Cat. Doc. Scot., ii. 209 ; Fcedera, Record ed., i. 995. 2 There are various 
Middletons named in the English records between 1306 and 1418 (cf. Col. 
Doc. Scot., iii. iv.), but none of them can be connected with the family 
now treated of. * Beg. Nig. de Aberbrothoc, 60. Woodjand Douglas state 
that he had a Crown charter of these lands in 1430, citing the Haddington 
Collections, but the entry really refers to the tack. The lands were not 
then in the hands of the Crown. William is not designed ' of that Ilk ' 
in the tack, but probably was so. * Reg. Ho. Charters, No. 337. 6 Reg. 
Nig. de Aberbrothoc, 115; Frasers of Philorth, ii. 203. 6 Wood's Douglas. 
7 Acta Dom. Auditorum, 178. 8 Acta Dotn. Concilii, MS., vii. f. 53. 



172 MIDDLETON, EAKL OF MIDDLETON 

ton in the Mearns, and widow of Thainstoun.' l She 
was apparently the Violet Middleton married, as his 
second wife, to George Leslie of that Ilk. They had 
a Grown charter, on 24 November 1497, of half the 
lands of Edingareoch. 2 She died before 26 October 
1505. 

GILBERT MIDDLETON of that Ilk, sou and heir of the 
deceased Laurence, is so referred to on 15 June 1493, when 
he obtained a decreet against his father-in-law John Wishart 
of Pittarrow for 20 Scots, part of a dowry payable with 
his daughter Marjorie, now dead, who had been Gilbert's 
wife. 3 On 7 April 1494 he was one of the jurors on a ser- 
vice of Alexander Irvine of Drum. 4 He sold his lands of 
Middleton, except the manor-house and orchard, on 20 
August 1510, to Adam Orichton of Ruthvens and Isabel 
Gray, his spouse, a grant confirmed on 24 August ISIO. 5 
In 1516 he was Sheriff of Forfar, according to Orawfurd. 
He was dead before 28 March 1533. 8 He married, iirst, Mar- 
jorie, daughter of John Wishart of Pittarrow. She died, as 
stated, before June 1493, and he married, secondly, Agnes 
Lauder, said to be of the Bass family. They held, in 1519, 
the templelands of Middleton, Fettercairn, and Benholm. 7 
By her Gilbert Middleton had issue : 

1. Alexander, who died either before or very soon after 

his father. He married Isabell Grahame, who is 
described as relict of the late Alexander Middleton, 
son and heir of the late Gilbert Middleton of that Ilk, 
on 28 March 1533, when she brought an action against 
a Jonet Middleton and Gilbert Keith her spouse for 
spoliation. 8 

2. JOHN, who succeeded. 

3. 4, 5, 6. Four sons, whose names are unknown. 

7. Middleton of Olerkhill, described in a writ of 

1682 as fifth brother of Kilhill. 9 He was probably 
the Henry Middleton who had the lands of Olerkhill, 
and on 22 December 1553 he acquired the lands of 

1 Bishop Lesley's MS. Genealogy of the Leslies. a Records of the 
Family of Leslie, i. 49. 3 Acta Auditorum, 178. * Reg. of Deeds 
(M'Ken.), 10 February 1741. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. ' Ex inform. Dr. Maitland 
Thomson. 7 Barclay Allardyce MS. ; Jervise, Angus and Mearns, 366. 
8 Ada Dom. Cone, et Sess., ii. f. 152. ' Grant of Arms in Lyon Register. 



MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 173 

Oraraondgorth, co. Aberdeen. 1 On 8 August 1559 he 
received permission to stay at home from warlike 
raids, inquests and assizes. 2 Henry had issue, the 
most distinguished of his descendants being Captain 
Laurence Middleton of Futtaburgh, 3 who married, 
secondly, Grisel, daughter of Thomas Mowat of 
Garth. 4 They had a son George, alive in 1688. 5 

JOHN MIDDLETON of Middleton, of Netherseat, and finally 
of Kilhill, is first mentioned on record in the gift of his 
marriage as son and heir of the late Gilbert Middleton of 
that Ilk, 8 in favour of Alexander Strachan of Thornton, 
who sold it to David Falconer of Halkerton. On 6 October 
1539 part of the lands of Middleton were apprised from John 
for 650 merks at the instance of Sir John Campbell of Lundy 
and Isabella Gray, his spouse. On 19 January 1539-40 John 
Middleton and David Falconer of Halkerton made an 
excambion of their lands, and Falconer acquired Middle- 
ton, Easter-Husbandton of Middleton and Drumquhirbir, 
while Middleton obtained the Netherseat of Halkerton with 
other lands. This transaction was confirmed by charters 
under the Great Seal 27 January 1539-40. 7 Falconer subse- 
quently obtained other portions of Middleton. 8 On 15 April 
1552 John and his wife had a charter from the Constable 
of Dundee of Newtibber and Davidstoun, 9 and paid 40 for 
his entry thereto. 10 In 1542 he was taken prisoner at a raid 
called the Moss of Aberlour by an Englishman, Matthew 
Forrester. He arranged with his captor for a ransom of 
40, and left Andrew Buchanan as his surety, promising to 
pay the 40 by next New Year's day. He failed to keep 
his promise. Buchanan paid for his own release, and was 
allowed to go home under sureties for payment of Middle- 
ton's ransom. He had great difficulty in getting the latter 
to pay anything, and the last heard of the matter is that 
a decree was got charging Lord Maxwell, the Warden of 
the West Marches, to take cognisance of the affair. 11 He 
died in July 1588, having married, first, Isabella, daughter 

1 Eeg. Mag. Sig., 23 February 1553-54. 2 Reg. Sec. Sig., xxix. f. 88. 
3 Grant of Arms in Lyon Register. 4 Grant's Zetland Families. 6 Orkney 
Sasines, 29 August 1688. 6 Reg. Sec. Sig., 27 July 1535. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
8 Ibid., 8 October 1546. 9 Confirmed 7 May 1565, ibid. 10 Scrymgeour 
Inventory. n Acts and Decreets, i. 278. 



174 MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 

of David Falconer of Halkerton. She died between 26 
March 1553 and 13 March 1557-58. 1 Middleton married, 
secondly, before the last-mentioned date, Katherine, said 
to have been the daughter of Strachan of Thornton. 2 She 
died 30 November 1575. 3 
By his first wife he had issue : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded. 

2. Marjorie, married, before 1561, to Mr. Gilbert Bisset 

of Pitmuckston. She died in October 1608. 
By his second wife he had issue : 

3. Alexander. 4 He had succeeded to Berrihill, as the 

substitute of George Middleton, by Lammas 1589. 
He married (contract 2 September 1598) Margaret, 
daughter of John Robertson of Monquaith, and left 
issue by her. 

4. James, apprenticed, 7 March 1587, with Andrew Mal- 

colm, burgess of Edinburgh, merchant. His father 
paid a premium of 20 bolls victual yearly out of the 
lands of Oourthill, where James had infeftment, and 
Malcolm also got the rent of a house and lands in 
Montrose belonging to James; for this he was to 
teach him his trade, to exercise him in travelling in 
Scotland, Flanders, and France, to give him two suits 
of clothes a year, and to provide him in meat, drink, 
etc. 5 

5. George, named along with other children in his mother's 

testament-dative in 1575. He was alive in February 

1588-89, when he and his brother James gave up his 

father's testament-dative. 
He had also a natural son 
Jo/iw, to whom letters of legitimation were granted 22 

March 1584. 

JOHN MIDDLETON, the eldest son, had a charter 17 March 
1564-65 of the lands of Netherseat on the resignation of his 
father. 8 On 20 December 1595 he had a Grown charter of 
Bent Upperseat and Netherseat alias Kilhill. 7 He died 
between 2 July 1602 8 and 1 January 1604-5. He married, 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. * Barclay-Allardyce MS. 3 Edin. Tests., 14 July 1582. 
* Reg. of Dttds (Scott), 2 July 1588. 5 Ibid., xxx. 10 June 1588. Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 7 Ibid. 8 Reg. Sec. Sig. 



MIDDLETON, EARL OP MIDDLETON 175 

first, Elizabeth, daughter of David Ramsay of Balmain. 
Before his second marriage he entered into a contract with 
her brother, also David Ramsay, to pay annually for seven 
years 200 bolls of victual for the * weill and comoditie ' of 
his children * as sister beirnis to the said David.' ' He 
married, secondly (contract dated at Auquhorties 23 De- 
cember 1595), Katherine Mortimer, relict of James Forbes 
of Oorsindae, and daughter probably of John Mortimer of 
Oraigievar. 
By his first wife he had issue : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded. 

2. ROBERT, who succeeded his brother. 

3. James, alive in 1595. 

4. Mr. Alexander, alive in 1613. 

5. Patrick, alive in 1595. 

6. Margaret, married (contract 23 May 1598) to Robert 

Strachan in Kinkell, second son of Monboddo. 

7. Elizabeth, of whom nothing is known except that she 

was alive in 1595. 
By his second wife he had : 

8. Francis, designed brother of Robert of Caldham on 

16 October 1629, when he was leaving the country. 2 

JOHN MIDDLETON of Kilhill succeeded his father in 1604. 
He had a charter of Kilhill on his father's resignation 20 
December 1595. 3 On 2 November 1606 he excambed the 
lands of Kilhill, Latch, and Bent with Alexander Strachan 
of Thornton, then a minor, and his curators for the lands of 
OaWhame (by which designation his family was afterwards 
known), Muirtoun, and Roishill, with 6000 in cash/ 
Middleton omitted to resign the lands in the first instance 
into the King's hands, and the consequence was that the 
latter granted Kilhill to James, son of John Livingstone of 
Dunipace. 5 By arrangement between them his brother 
Robert entered into possession of Muirton in order to 
protect it from John's creditors, and subsequently, from 
1612, he was designed of Oaldhame, and John ' of Muirton." 

The date of John Middleton's death has not been ascer- 

1 Forfar Deeds, 23 November 1596. 2 Reg. of Deeds (Gibson), 474, 7 June 
1634. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. * Reg. of Deeds (Scott), v. 132, 10 May 1607. 
a Reg. Mag. Sig., 10 July 1607. 6 Reg. of Deeds, 216, 15 December 1513. 



176 MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 

tained, but he was alive 28 June 1618. 1 He married (con- 
tract 18 April 1599 2 ) Euphemia, daughter of John Mortimer 
of Plemington. They were married in June, but continued 
4 in mutuall societie and cumpany onlie be the space of ane 
quarter of a year.' She obtained a decreet of adherence 
against him 6 March 1606 ; in the proceedings she stated 
that she brought to him a tocher of 4000 merks. She got 
a judgment on 4 July 1607 for 400 merks annually. 5 



ROBERT MIDDLETON, his brother, had a confirmation 
from the King of the lands of Oaldhame 7 January 1624. 4 
He was on the Committee of War for Kincardineshire 4 July 
1644. Although it is said by Wishart that he never took 
up arms at all in the troubles of the day, he was killed in 
his bed in 1645 by Montrose 4 a grave ould gentleman,' 
quite undeserving of such a fate. He married, in or before 
1608, Katherine Strachan, who was buried 3 February 
1674. 5 By her he had issue : 

1. JOHN, afterwards Earl of Middle ton. 

2. Alexander, born about 1610; graduated at King's College, 

Aberdeen 1630. 6 Regent and Procurator Laudoni- 
ensis 30 June 1634, 7 Sub-Principal of King's College 
10 March 1641. 8 Admitted minister of the parish of 
Rayne 14 November 1655 ; 9 translated to Old Machar 
1661, 10 and to Newhills about 1663. 11 He held his 
appointment in conjunction with that of Principal of 
King's College, to which he had been elected in 1662. 12 
He demitted the charge of Newhills in 1679 ; he was 
buried in the church of Old Machar 7 December 
1686. 13 He married, on Tuesday, 17 January 1643, 
Margaret, daughter of Thomas Gordon of Kethock's 
Mill, 14 'being the first regent that entered in a marriage 
condition ' in King's College. She predeceased her 
husband by a few months, being buried at Old Machar 
26 July 1686. 15 They had issue : 

1 Reg. of Deeds (Scott), cclxxvi. 16 October 1618. 2 Ibid., 18 July 1615. 
3 Ibid., cclxxvi. 16 October 1618. Beg. Mag. Sig. 6 Montrose Burial 
Reg. 6 Officers and Graduates of University and King's College, New 
Spalding Club, 186. 7 Ibid., 55. 8 Ibid., 41. Scott, Fasti, iii. 599. 
J0 Ibid., 485. Ibid., 507. 12 Officers of King's College, 27. " Old 
Machar Reg. " Officers of King's College, 41. 16 Old Machar Reg. 



177 

(1) George, born 14, and baptized 25, February 1645. Graduated 
at King's College 17 July 1662 ; minister of Glamis 5 Janu- 
ary 1667 ; Regent of King's College 22 August 1673 ; Sub- 
Principal 21 October 1679 ; doctor of divinity of St. Andrews 
University 31 December 1683 ; Principal of King's 27 October 
1684, succeeding his father in that office. He held it till 
1717, when he was turned out by the Presbyterians. He 
died 26 March 1726, 1 having married, 15 February 1671, 2 
Janet, baptized 28 March 1652, daughter of James Gordon of 
Seaton. She was buried 17 January 1753, at the age of. 
one hundred years and ten months. 3 

By his wife George Middleton had eighteen children, of 
whom the following sons married and had issue : 

i. Alexander, baptized 8 May 1676, was Comptroller of 
Customs for the Port of Aberdeen, and Postmaster 
for the shire. Died 26 October 1751. Married, 17 
September 1705, Elspet Burnet, who was buried at 
Old Machar 21 December 1767, aged eighty-four.* 
They had issue : 

(i) George, baptized 22 August 1706. 
(ii) John, the second son, baptized 21 March 1708 ; 
emigrated to Barbadoes ; died 26 August 1792. 
Married, 31 July 1731, Mary Allister. They 
had issue, with one daughter, two sons : 
a. Alexander, born 8 August 1735, died be- 
fore July 1756. 

6. John, born 27 March 1739 ; married, 16 
October 1765, Hester Haselwood, with 
issue two sons, John and Richard. 

If descendants of this branch are 
alive they are the eldest heirs-male of 
the family, and would be entitled to the 
forfeited Peerage if restored. 

(iii) Alexander, third son, baptized 3 September 
1709 ; he emigrated to America, and died 21 
August 1750, having married, at Boston, Ann 
Todd, by whom he had five daughters, 
ii. John, sixth son, born 27 September 1678, was a writer 
in Edinburgh, but entered the Army, and ultimately 
was given the command of the 25th Foot 17 June 1725, 
and the 13th Foot 29 May 1732, being made brigadier- 
general 1735. He sat in Parliament for the burgh of 

1 Officers of King's College, 27. 2 Ibid. 3 An inscription, quoted in the 
Scots Mag., states that the cause of her longevity 
1 Was not an indolent life, 

She had eighteen children, 
'Twas not a continual sunshine, 
She met with cross accidents, 
'Twas a cheerful temper, 
A clear conscience, 
Moderate exercise, 
And a temperate life.' 
* Old Machar Reg. 

VOL. VI. M 



178 MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 

Aberdeen from 1763 till his death. As a young man 
he was a musical amateur, being one of the nineteen 
gentlemen performers at the feast of St. Cecilia, held 
at Edinburgh 22 November 1695. 1 He purchased the 
lands of Seaton. He died in London, and was buried, 
24 March 1739, at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 2 He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of William Cuninghame 
of Enterkin. She died and was buried in Aberdeen 
April 1734. They had issue five daughters and the 
following sons : 

(i) John, baptized 14 March 1713, buried 1714. 
(ii) George, baptized 11 July 1714; admitted 
advocate 17 December 1734. He died at Seaton, 
and was buried at Old Machar 11 August 1772, 
having married, in September 1736, Diana 
Gray, daughter of the Earl of Stamford, who 
died 14 January 1780, with issue. 

iii. Patrick, born at Old Aberdeen 8 March 1680. 3 Emigrated 
to Poland 21 June 1693. Was admitted burgess of 
Aberdeen ' for love and favour ' 7 August 1725. 4 He 
died at Cracow in 1771, aged ninety-one, having 
married, 29 July 1706, Susannah Moer, by whom he 
had fifteen children. In 1779 there were two alive 
and the following son : 

(i) Patrick, born 12 November 1712, became major- 
general in the Polish service ; married in 
Silesia, 6 July 1775, Janet de Seher, with 
issue. 6 

iv. Charles, baptized 10 December 1681. 
v. George, baptized 15 June 1683. 
vi. Wittiam, baptized 10 June 1687. 

vii. Robert, baptized 16 February 1693, commanded a revenue 
cutter for some time, after which he was appointed, 
in 1731, Collector of Customs at Inverness ; the year 
following he was transferred to Dundee, and from 
there to Borrowstouness. He married Helen, 
daughter of Captain Charles Dundas, fourth son of 
Sir James Dundas of Arniston, with issue, besides 
five daughters : 

(i) George of Lethamdolls, Stirlingshire, and Moss- 
hall, West Lothian, Captain in the Scots 
Brigade, who died, as Comptroller of Customs, 
at Leith, 20 February 1794, having married 
Elizabeth, daughter of George Wilson of 
Stottencleugh (who died June 1788), 6 with 
issue : 

a. Robert Gambler, born at Leith November 
1774. Entered the Royal Navy 1786, and 
retired with the rank of rear-admiral 

1 Chambers's Domestic Annals. 2 St. Martin's Reg. 3 Old Machar Reg. 
4 Burgess Roll, Aberdeen. 5 Cf. Major-General Middleton's account of 
his family, 1779, quoted in Biscoe's Earls of Middleton, 385. 6 South 
Leith Reg. 



MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 179 

9 June 1832. Died 21 August 1837 at 
Moor House, Limpsfield, Surrey, having 
married, 11 December 1802, at St. Mary- 
lebone, Middlesex, Susanna Maria, 
daughter of John Martin Leake of 
Thorpe Hall, Essex. They had twelve 
children, of whom the following sons 
grew up to manhood, married, and had 
issue : 

(a) William, born 19 April 1814, 
colonel 17th Madras Native In- 
fantry ; retired 1862 ; died 5 July 
1907, having married Harriet 
Theophila, daughter of William 
Sterling, of the Indian Civil 
Service. He had issue four 
daughters and one son, William 
Gambier, District Probate Regis 
trar for Warwickshire. He 
married Sophia Margaret Mouat, 
and has issue. 

(6) Alexander, twin with the fore- 
going. Died at Putney July 
1846, having married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Richard Neave, 
Secretary to Chelsea Hospital, 
with issue. 

(c) George, born 18 February 1823, 

became District Probate Regis- 
trar for Cheshire. Died at 
Clifton 4 December 1902, having 
married Mary Woolston, daugh- 
ter of Rear-Admiral Sir John 
Marshall, K.C.B. They had 
issue, besides one daughter, 
Janet Mary Woolston, a son, 
Robert Marshall, born 1857, 
married, 7 October 1886, Henri- 
etta Ellen, youngest daughter of 
James Chisholm Gooden. They 
have no issue. 

(d) Charles John, born 8 October 

1809, principal registrar of H.M. 
Court of Probate. He resigned 
office in 1892, and died 1 January 
1894. He married, 14 December 
1837, Catherine Anne, eldest 
daughter of the Rev. Clement 
Strong of Limpsfleld, Surrey, 
and of Gedney, co. Lincoln. She 
died 5 December 1901, leaving 
issue : 

a. Clement Alexander, born 
12 September 1838, was 



180 MIDDLETON, EARL OP MIDDLETON 

a judge at Kurrachee, 
India, and a Bencher of 
Gray's Inn ; died 11 March 
1891, having married, first, 
6 October 1864, Edith, 
daughter of the Rev. 
Canon Melville, rector of 
Barnes, Surrey. She died 
September 1867, and he 
married, secondly, 4 Oc- 
tober 1870, Helen, only 
daughter of Thomas Noel 
Harris. By her he had 
issue seven sons and four 
daughters. 

ft. Oswald Robert, born 4 Sep- 
tember 1840; served in 
the King's Own Royal 
Lancaster Regiment ; 
colonel 1 July 1885, and 
retired 1897. Married, 14 
July 1881, Christine, 
daughter of Admiral 
Robert Kerr, and has no 
issue. 

(y) Gerard Henry Noel, born 
26 November 1843, and 
died the following year. 
(8) Emily Augusta, born 2 
March 1845, died, un- 
married, 31 October 1883. 

(ii) Charles, who had a distinguished naval career. 
He was born at Leith 14 October 1726; was 
created a baronet 23 October 1781, and a Peer, 
under the title of Lord Barham, 3 May 1805. 
He died 17 June 1813, having married, 21 
December 1761, Margaret, sister of James, 
Lord Gambier, by whom he had a daughter, 
Diana, who succeeded him in the title and 
married, 30 December 1780, Gerard Noel 
Edwards, grandson of Lord Anne Hamilton 
and Mary Edwards. 1 She died 12 April 1823. 
Their son was created Earl of Gainsborough, 
(iii) Robert, served heir of provision, along with his 
brothers and sisters, to his mother, 29 August 
1752. 2 

(2) John, baptized 9 August 1646 ; 3 rector of Cricksey and 
vicar of Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex ; buried at Burnham 
16 February 1704-5. Married, first, Lydia, daughter of the 
Rev. Nathaniel Hewetson. 4 She died 10 November 1680. 6 

Secondly, Mary , who survived him and married, 

secondly, Rev. James Chrystie. He had issue by both wives. 

1 Cf. vol. iv. 385-388. 8 Services of Heirs. * Old Machar Reg. 4 Burn- 
ham Parish Reg. 6 Ibid. 



MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 181 

(3) William, baptized 16 November 1647. ] Died before 1658. 

(4) Alexander, baptized 1 April 1649. 2 Died young, before 3 

April 1653. 

(5) Thomas, baptized 31 August 1651. 3 George, John, and Thomas 

are named together in a deed by their father and mother 
on 27 April 1658, as if the three elder sons in life, and they 
were then under age. 4 Thomas was alive in 1675, and is 
believed to have written the Appendix to Spottiswoode. 

(6) Alexander, baptized 3 April 1653. 8 Rector of Milton, co. 

Kent, 2 April 1684 ; perpetual curate of Thanington in 
1687; 6 curate of Chartham and of St. Alphage, Canterbury. 7 
He died in 1715, being buried on 31 March in St. Alphage 
aforesaid. 8 He married, 27 May 1689, Phoebe, daughter of 
Anthony Hammond of St. Albans Court, Kent, relict of 
Thomas Thomson, younger son of Thomson of Kenfield, in 
the parish of Chartham, Kent. 9 By her, who died at Can- 
terbury and was buried at Pelham 14 July 1713, 10 he had 
issue one daughter. 

3. Gilbert, entered the Scots College at Paris in 1635, 

became a Jesuit, and died a young man. 

4. Robert, * the granter's son,' witness to an assignation 

by Robert Middleton of Caldham 16 July 1639. 11 

5. Francis, mentioned in 1640 as ' brother german of 

John, Earl of Middleton.' 

6. George, mentioned on 22 August 1662 as * Dr. George 

Middleton, brother-german to Mr. Alexander Middle- 
ton.' 12 

7. William. As Captain William Middleton he is men- 

tioned in several deeds, 1669 and 1670. 13 On 8 April 
1672 he was admitted a Burgess of Aberdeen 'for 
love and favour.' M As Colonel William he was a 
witness to baptisms in the Strathmore family up to 
1701. It is possible that he is the William Middleton 
of Kincardine O'Neil whom Sir James Strachan of 
Thornton designs his cousin-german in 1663. 15 The 
relationship may have been through Strachan's 
mother, Marie Ramsay, who was a sister of Eliza- 
beth Ramsay, mother of Robert Middleton of Cald- 
ham. The date of William's death has not been 

1 Old Machar Reg. * Ibid. 3 Ibid. * Protocol Book of A. Forbes, 
No. 83, Gen. Reg. Ho., ff. 40-42. 5 Old Machar Reg. 6 Hasted's Kent, iii. 
587, 589. 7 Parish Regs. 8 Cowper's printed Reg. of St. Alphege. 
9 Chatham Parish Reg. 10 Pelham Parish Reg. ; Transcripts in Canter- 
bury Cathedral. u Unrecorded deed. 12 Reg. of Deeds (Durie), 21 July 
1664. 13 Ibid. (Dab.), 20 December 1669 ; Ibid. (Dundee), 18 June 1675. 
14 Aberdeen Burgess Roll. 16 Sheriff Clerk Deeds, Aberdeen, 17 July 1672. 



182 MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 

ascertained. If he were the same as the William 
of Kincardine O'Neil his wife's name was Madeline 
Sinclair. 

8. Sir James, knighted before 1662, probably the Cornet 

James Middleton to whom in 1646 the Parliament 
granted 600 merks for his pains and expenses for 
carrying letters to and from the Lord-General to the 
Parliament and Committees. 1 In a Lyon Office pedi- 
gree he is styled ' Tribunus Militaris ' in Spanish 
Flanders. 2 He had a natural son Francis, baptized 
17 February 1663, being then eleven years old. 3 

9. Andrew, of Pitgarvie (afterwards of Balbegno), styled 

' brother-german to John, Earl of Middleton.' 4 He 
was Hon. Muster-Master, 5 and as such signed the 
Muster Rolls of the Life Guards from 18 October 
1684 down to 1688, the last year for which these rolls 
are preserved before the Revolution. 6 In 1690 he 
purchased the estate of Balbegno from Andrew Wood, 
younger, 7 and the following year sold Pitgarvie to 
David Melville, late of Pitnamoon. 8 He died in July 
1699, 9 having married, first (contract 3 January 1671), 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir David Ramsay of Balmain, 
with a tocher of 6000 merks; secondly (contract 9 
November 1678), Anna, youngest daughter of Thomas 
Forbes of Water ton. 

By his first wife he had issue : 

(1) Elizabeth, ' only daughter,' married (contract dated 28 April 

1698) to Charles Gordon of Achanachie. 

By his second wife he had : 

(2) Robert, who succeeded him, and married Anne, daughter of 

George Ogilvy of Lunan. 

(3) Charles, 'my second son,' died July 1699. 

(4) Andrew, ' third lawful son,' died July 1706. 

An attempt has been made by the collateral descendants 
of David Middleton, factor to the Duke of Bedford, to 
affiliate themselves to Andrew Middleton of Pitgarvie. Sir 
"William Fraser, who superintended a search as to this, 
considered it was not proved. All deeds relating to Pit- 



1 Acta Part. Scot., vi. pt. i. 2 Reg. of Gen. Lyon Office, i. 18. 3 Canon- 
gate Reg. * Gen. Reg. Sasines, 1 October 1673. 6 Reg. of Deeds (Mack.), 
vi. f. 1684. 6 Ex inform. Andrew Ross, Esq., Ross Herald. 7 Aberdeen 
Sasines, 8 July 1691. 8 Ibid., 14 April 1714. 9 Services of Heirs. 



MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 183 

garvie name only the daughter and three sons above given, 
but the claim is made more doubtful by Carte the historian, 
who, in describing the deserted condition of James n. at 
Rochester when flying from his kingdom, adds that there 
was not even a servant with him, and that the fire requiring 
to be mended, the Earl of Middleton, with the King's per- 
mission, called in his own servant David Middleton, after- 
wards factor to the Duke of Bedford, to put it right. 

10. - - a daughter, apparently married, either as his first 
or second wife, to Mr. Robert Ogilvie, minister of 
Methlick, as he is styled Principal Alexander Middle- 
ton's ' good brother.' 1 

I. JOHN, first Earl of Middleton, eldest son. 2 He has 
usually been supposed, on the authority of Clarendon and 
the Holborn Marriage Register, to have been born in 1617 or 
1619. As, however, his second brother, Alexander, was born 
about 1610, the birth of the Earl must be dated previous 
to that year, and was probably about 1608. At an early 
age he entered the ranks of a Scottish regiment in the 
French service, under the command of Sir John Hepburn. 
In 1638 all Scottish officers serving abroad were recalled to 
their country, and Middleton, who by that time had pro- 
bably received a commission ; and in June 1639 he was a 
captain in Montrose's army, and was present at the engage- 
ment of the Bridge of Dee. Montrose going over to the 
royalist side, Middleton took service with the English 
Parliamentarian troops, and attained the rank of Colonel and 
Lieutenant-General. For the next two years he saw con- 
siderable service with them, but as a result of the disputes 
which arose between the Presbyterians and Independents, he 
left the English army, returned to Scotland, and was, in 
August 1645, appointed second in command to David Leslie, 
and was present at the battle of Philiphaugh in the follow- 
ing month. In 1646 he was appointed General Major of the 
Horse, and 1000 was allowed for his expenses in levying a 
regiment of cavalry. 3 During the year he was engaged in 
operations in the North of Scotland against Montrose, who 
capitulated in July. For his services he was thanked by 
Parliament, who also voted him a salary of 1200 merks 
monthly, and a gold chain, worth 2666, to be given him. 

1 Spalding. 2 Gen. Reg. Sasines. 3 Acta Part. Scot., vi. pt. i. 215, 661. 



184 MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 

It may be doubted whether he ever got either the one or 
the other ; certainly, very shortly afterwards, he had heavy 
arrears to receive from Parliament. 1 On 8 April 1648 he 
was appointed one of the Colonels of Horse for Kincardine- 
shire, and on 11 May General Major of the whole Forces in 
Scotland. He served with Hamilton in the army of the 
' Engagement ' for the recovery of the King, but was, in the 
unsuccessful invasion of England, taken prisoner at War- 
rington, and sent to Newcastle ; from there he soon after 
succeeded in escaping, and then threw in his lot openly 
with the royalist party in Scotland. After taking part with 
Ogilvie and Huntly in a futile attempt at insurrection in 
1649, he ultimately agreed with Leslie to lay down his arms 
and to take service under him. This he accordingly did 
after Charles u. was crowned in January 1651. He had the 
rank of Major-General, and accompanied the King's army 
on its invasion of England, an expedition which ended in 
the battle of Worcester, at which Middleton was wounded 
and taken prisoner. He was a prisoner in the Tower for 
some time, but was fortunate enough to make his escape, 
and joined Charles on the Continent in March 1652. During 
the following year he was much engaged, though not with 
great success, in endeavouring to raise troops in Holland 
for service in Scotland. He got together a small force and 
joined Glencairn and the other supporters of the King in 
Scotland, and for some time carried on a desultory cam- 
paign, the cause not being advanced by constant quarrels 
amongst the royalist leaders. In 1654 he was excepted 
from Cromwell's Act of Grace and Pardon ; and on July of 
that year he was defeated by Monck at Lochgarry, some 
time after which he left Scotland and joined Charles at 
Cologne. In 1656 the exiled monarch created Middleton an 
Earl, and after the Restoration the dignity was confirmed 
to him on 1 October 1660 under the title of EARL OF 
MIDDLETON, LORD OF CLAIRMONT AND FETTER- 
CAIRN, with remainder to his heirs bearing the surname 
and arms of Middleton, and with precedency of September 
1656. The same year he was appointed the King's Com- 
missioner to Parliament, Commander-in-chief of the Forces 
in Sco.tland, and Governor of Edinburgh Castle. He was 

1 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. pt. i. 779; pt. ii. 65. 



MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 185 

again Commissioner in 1662, and was, on 15 July of that 
year, appointed an Extraordinary Lord of Session. In all 
his offices he behaved very badly. Drunken and dissolute, 
he abused his power in an absolutely indefensible way, and 
raised up enemies on every side, chief amongst them being 
Lauderdale. Chiefly by the influence of the latter he was, 
early in 1663, deprived of all his offices, and retired to 
England. He was, however, in time, to a certain extent, 
restored to royal favour, and received a command at 
Rochester. He was appointed Governor of Tangiers 15 
April 1667, being the fourth nominated to that post in five 
years ; but he did not go out to take up office for two years 
later, and had some difficulty about getting an advance of 
his pay. At last, somewhere in the latter half of 1669, he 
did go out. He did not enjoy his new post long, as in 1673 
he tumbled downstairs when drunk, and broke his arm, 
which produced such complications that he died. A brave 
soldier and capable commander, Lord Middleton was quite 
unsuited for the role of a statesman, and even in an age 
which made all allowances, his temper and habits did not 
render him popular. 

The Earl married, first (contract July 1639), Grizel, 
daughter of Mr. Alexander Durham of Easter Powrie, 
second son of James of Pitkerro, and sister of Sir 
Alexander Durham of Largo, Lyon King of Arms. 1 She 
died at Cranstoun in September 1666, and he married, 
secondly, 16 December 1667, at St. Andrew's, Holborn, 
Martha, daughter and co-heir of Henry Carey, second 
Earl of Monmouth. She survived him more than thirty 
years, dying in the precincts of Worcester Cathedral 23 
January 1705, aged seventy-one. 

By his first wife Lord Middleton had issue : 

1. CHARLES, Lord Clermont, who succeeded. 

2. Grizel, married, at Holyrood, 12 June 1662, to William, 

fourth Earl of Morton. 2 She died at Aberdour in 
March, and was buried at Kinross 29 April 1666. 3 

3. Helen, married, 23 August 1662, at Holyrood, to Patrick, 

Earl of Kinghorn, afterwards Earl of Strathmore. 4 

1 After her death her paternal arms, Or, a fess azure between three 
mullets in chief and as many crescents in base, were recorded in her name, 
to be impaled with those of her husband. 2 Lament's Diary. 3 Canon- 
gate Reg. 4 Ibid. 



186 MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 

4. a daughter, buried in Holyrood Church 8 June 1669. 

5. a daughter, buried November 1669. 

By his second wife the Earl had issue : 

6. John, died February 1696, and was buried in the crypt 

of Worcester Cathedral. 1 

7. Elizabeth, married, 20 July 1693, to William Spelman 

of Wickmer, Norfolk. He died in 1713, and she was 
buried at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 19 January 
1748.' 

II. CHARLES, second Earl of Middleton, was born in 1650. 3 
After the restoration he was appointed Envoy Extraordinary 
to the Court of Vienna, a position which he held till 1682. The 
previous year he writes to Charles from Leutzen, complaining 
that his pay is six months in arrear, that he is absolutely 
destitute and unable to get to Vienna even by pawning what 
he has. 4 He accompanied the Duke of York on his return 
to Scotland in 1682. He was in the wreck of the Gloucester, 
the ship that carried the Duke and party, but Middleton 
was fortunate enough to get a seat in the longboat. Many 
others, including the Earl of Roxburghe, were drowned. 
On 25 September Middleton was made one of the principal 
Secretaries of State for Scotland ; on 11 July 1684 he was 
admitted to the Privy Council, and on 15 July was ap- 
pointed one of the Extraordinary Lords of Session. On 25 
August following he was one of the principal Secretaries of 
State for England, and when Parliament was summoned in 
1685 he was, along with Lord Preston, intrusted by the 
King with its management, and upon the whole he seems 
to have managed it very well, so far as the narrow and im- 
politic views of his master would let him. He remained a 
faithful servant to the King notwithstanding his disapproval 
of many of the royal projects, and when James went over 
to France Middleton remained in England with the view 
of promoting the interests of the exiled King as far as he 
could. He was imprisoned for a short time in 1692, but 
soon regained his liberty, and then went to St. Germains. 
A summons of treason was ultimately issued against him, 
and he was tried (in absence) and outlawed by the High 

1 M. I. on tombstone. 2 Bath Journal. 3 Mss. Biblioth&que Nationale, 
Paris. * Add. MSS. B. M. 18827, f. 20. 



MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 187 

Court of Justiciary 23 July 1694, his title and estates being 
forfeited by Parliament 2 July 1695. 1 He acted as prin- 
cipal Secretary of State to James in his exile, and no doubt 
did the best he could for him under unfavourable circum- 
stances. When James died in 1701 he was one of the 
council appointed by the King's will to assist the Queen in 
her guardianship of her son. He was always in favour of 
moderate and prudent measures, and probably earned the 
displeasure of the Queen by opposing the opinions of Perth, 
Lovat, and others who wished the young Prince to raise 
the standard of revolt in his own country without delay. 
Whether it was owing to his being in the shade of disfavour 
or not, it was at this time that Middleton, who had hitherto 
resisted all temptations to go over to Rome, and who, so far 
as he was anything, for he had * but a careless way of living,' 
was a Protestant, suddenly became a con vert to Romanism, 
and, it is said, retired to a convent for some time to be in- 
structed in the Roman Catholic faith. Taking advantage of 
his absence, the wily and treacherous Lovat attempted to 
gain the confidence of the Queen, and Middleton, in order to 
check his machinations, soon returned to St. Germains-en- 
Laye. In August 1712, when the Chevalier was obliged to quit 
St. Germains, Middleton accompanied him as his principal 
adviser, and continued as such till 14 December 1713, when 
he resigned office, returned to St. Germains, and was ap- 
pointed the Chamberlain to the Queen. Two years after 
this the latter died, 7 May 1718, and Middleton did not long 
survive his royal mistress, dying at St. Germains 28 July 
the following year. 2 'One of the politest gentlemen in 
Europe ' is the verdict of a contemporary ; ' has a great 
deal of wit mixed with a sound judgment and a very clear 
understanding . . . one of the pleasantest companions in 
the world.' 3 Had James had more counsellors like him he 
might have been spared many of his misfortunes. 

The Earl married Catherine Brudenal, daughter of Robert, 
second Earl of Cardigan. She, who was born in 1648, was 
governess to the Princess Louisa, who died in 1612. She 
survived her husband, and lived in the old castle of St. 
Germains, which had been granted by Louis xiv. to the 
members of the Queen's household for their lives, died 

1 Acta Part. Scot. 2 Hist. Reg. 3 Macky's Characters. 



188 

there 11 March 1743, 1 aged ninety-five, and was buried in 
the church the following day. 2 By her Lord Middleton had 
issue : 

1. JOHN, Lord Olermont, of whom presently. 

2. Charles, born 4 December 1688, 3 Maitre de Camp of 

Cavalry, and Chevalier of the Order of St. Louis in 
Prance. He took part in the Jacobite attempt of 
1708, was taken prisoner and committed to the Tower 
along with his brother, but was released in 1711. 
He died in the old Chateau of St. Germains-en-Laye 
3 August 1738/ 

3. Katherine, born 10 August 1685, 5 and baptized at 

St. Martin's-in-the-Fields 25 August. 6 She was 
married in 1705 or 1706 to Sir John Gifford, Baronet, 
of Burstall, Gentleman of the Chamber to James at 
St. Germains. 7 Gifford died 8 October 1707, and was 
buried in the Church of St. Germains, 8 leaving an 
only daughter, Mary Anne, who died in 1759. His 
widow married, secondly, after 25 November 1709, 
Lieutenant-General Michael Rothe, Commander of 
the Order of St. Louis, an Irish General in the French 
service. He, who was the son of Edward Rothe or 
Rooth, was born at Kilkenny 29 September 1661, and 
died at Paris 2 May 1741. His widow died at the 
same place 10 June 1763, leaving issue. 

4. Elizabeth, born 25 June 1690 ; married, at St. Germains- 

en-Laye, 25 November 1709, to Lord Edward Drum- 
mond, son of James, Duke of Perth. She survived 
her husband, who died in 1760, and died in Paris, 
at a great age, after 1773. 9 

III. JOHN, Lord Olermont, titular Earl of Middleton, 
was born 7 November 1683, and baptized 19 of the 
same month. 10 He accompanied his parents to France, 

1 Burial Reg., Mairie St. Germains. 2 Gazette, de France. 3 Family 
Bible. 4 Burial Register, Mairie St. Germains. 6 Family Bible. 6 Parish 
Register. 7 (Euvres completes de Comte A. Hamilton. This disposes of 
the marriage given in Wood's Douglas's Peerage of a Mary Middleton to 
Sir John Gifford, Knight ; it also indicates that there is apparently a 
generation omitted in the notice of the Giffords in the Complete Baronet- 
age. 8 Burial Register, Mairie St. Germains. 9 Complete Peerage. 
10 Family Bible, and Parish Register, St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 



MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 189 

and in 1708 he was, with his brother, one of the 
members of the unlucky expedition of that year, which 
ended so ignominiously for James. Lord Clermont was 
particularly unfortunate, for he was in the only ship, the 
Salisbury, that was taken. He and his brother spent three 
years in the Tower, from which they were not liberated 
till 20 June 1711, and then only upon entering into personal 
recognisances of 4000 each, and getting bail for 2000 
each. Later he is designed as * in the French King's ser- 
vice.' In 1729 he was conducting a negotiation between 
Lord Oxford and the Abbe Bignon, who was acting for the 
King of France, in regard to the exchange of some manu- 
scripts, and incidentally he begs Oxford to 'lay an old 
bachelor's heart at Lady Margaret's feet.' 1 Her father 
replied, * Peggy is your humble servant,' which was a safe 
non-committal answer. Lord Olermont died, unmarried, 
at St. Germains, 3 November 1746, and was buried there 
the following day. 2 

No claim has ever been made to this forfeited Peerage, 
but if the forfeiture were reversed the collateral heir-male 
of the first Earl would be entitled to the dignities under 
the creation of 1 October 1660, if, according to the true 
construction of the letters-patent, it were a grant to heirs- 
male, but if it could be held that it was a grant to the heir 
of the Earl of Middleton on such heir assuming the name 
and arms of Middleton, then the heir of line of the Earl 
would be the person who, on assuming the name and arms, 
would be entitled. 3 

CREATION. Earl of Middleton, Lord of Olairmont and 
Fettercairn, 1 October 1660. 

ARMS (recorded in Lyon Register). Parted per fess or 
and gules, a lion rampant armed and langued azure within a 
double tressure flory counterflory of the second and first 
and counterchanged. 

1 Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley, only daughter and heir of Edward, 
second Earl of Oxford, married, in 1734, William, second Duke of Port- 
land. She was well known for her love of art and patronage of litera- 
ture. 2 Burial Register, Mairie St. Germains-en-Laye. 3 Hewlett on 
Scottish Dignities, 167. 



190 MIDDLETON, EARL OF MIDDLETON 

CREST. Issuing out of a tower sable a lion rampant gules, 
armed and langued azure. 

SUPPORTERS. Two eagles volant sable, armed and 
beaked or. 

MOTTO. Fortis in Arduis. 

[M.R.-R.-M'G.-G.] 



,MP. .*.-.-... 










jflftontrose 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 




HE derivation of the name 
of Graham, the patro- 
nymic of a title which, 
perhaps above all others 
in the long roll of Scot- 
tish honours, history has 
gilded with the halo of 
romance, has been the 
subject of much specula- 
tion. It has been as- 
cribed both to Gaelic and 
to Norse and Saxon roots, 
but most frequently to 
one or other of two Saxon 
words Grim, signifying 
fierce or savage, and 
Gram, a chief or leader. 
There is little doubt, however, that the noble house of 
Graham, with its numerous branches, comes from a Norman 
stock. Indeed, Sir Thomas Gray of Heton, the compiler of 
the Scalacronica, whose father was a near neighbour of 
the elder branch of the Grahams in the north of England, 
and must have often encountered the contemporary heads 
of each branch, both in peace and war, in the reigns of the 
first and second Edwards, expressly instances ' lez Grames ' 
among those Norman families who rose to distinction in 
Scotland in the reign of William the Lion. 1 In this view 
Graham, perhaps originally Gray-ham, 2 is to be looked for 
as the place of origin, probably, although not necessarily 
in England, 3 of the original Norman settler. 

1 Scalacronica, 41. 2 Caledonia, ii. 545 note. 3 Jehan de Graimes is 
mentioned as a noble of Provence in 1496 ; he may, however, have de- 
scended from a Scot abroad. Rymer's Fcedera, xii. 612. 



192 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

The tradition of the descent of the Grahams from Grim 
or Grame, a leader of the Scots, under whom the defences 
of the Antonine Wall were first effectually overcome, de- 
serves notice here, being, from the credence it so long ob- 
tained, in a sense part of the family history. Fordun in the 
fourteenth century found the remains of the wall already 
known to the inhabitants of the adjoining district by the 
name of * Grymisdyke.' l It is therefore not improbable, 
although quite different explanations of the name have 
been suggested, 2 that a leader or chieftain called Grym did 
flourish at some remote period and gave his name to the 
wall ; but if so, the embellishment of his fame by Fordun, 
Boece, and Buchanan, under which he appears as returning 
with Fergus 11. from the court of Denmark, and becoming 
that monarch's father-in-law and an ancestor of our royal 
race, as well as of the Grahams, is simply a part of that 
fictitious early history which was once an article of faith 
with every patriotic Scotsman, but which, unsupported by 
contemporary authority, has long since been rejected by 
the critical historian. In these and later chronicles it is 
interesting to note the gradual evolution of the name of the 
wall, or at least its eastern portion which lay nearest to the 
confines of the old Northumbrian kingdom, from Gryme's to 
Grame's or Graeme's, and latterly to Graham's, Dyke. 3 

The orthography of the name, in view more particularly 
of the standing diversity of usage between * Graham ' and 
' Graeme,' also requires a foreword. The name first appears 
in writing in the monastic chartularies ; and there, in writs 
dating from the beginning of the twelfth to the middle of 
the thirteenth century, the form is invariably ' de Graham.' 
With the gradual change from place-names to surnames, 
and under the influence of Norman French as an official and 
polite language, variants such as 'Grame,' 'Gram,' and 
' Graym ' appear ; and, about the time when the hero of 
the wall is first treated of by Fordun, ' the Grame ' or ' le 
Grame' appear as further variants not necessarily re- 
stricted to the chief. These latter forms had their fullest 
vogue in the fifteenth century when Blind Harry composed 

1 Fordun a Goodall, i. 110. 2 Transactions of the Glasgow Archceologi- 
cal Society, New Ser., i. 376. 3 Fordun ut supra; Buchanan's Hist., 
Bk. v. cap. iii. ; Irvine's Historice Scotice Nomenclatura, 93. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 193 

his memorable epic, and first introduced to history 'Sir 
John the Grame ' the friend and companion in arms of 
Wallace. The spelling * Graeme ' is that adopted by 
Buchanan l for the name of the mythical progenitor, and 
there can be little doubt that the pages of the great 
humanist, so long regarded as of unquestionable authority, 
are chiefly responsible for this form of the name. It has 
been used principally by the Inchbrakie and Garvock 
branches and their cadets Gorthie, Braco, and Graemeshall, 
Balgowan, and Eskbank. At all times, however, there 
have been instances in which its adoption, and a reversion 
to the original form, have been matters of individual taste ; 
and quite frequently one finds a writ where the granter is 
designed 'Graham' subscribed 'Graeme,' and vice versa. 

The first of this celebrated name who appears upon 
authentic record is 

WILLIAM DB GRAHAM, who comes into view as a personage 
of importance in the reign of David I. From the connection 
maintained by his assumed descendants for at least two 
centuries with Tynedale, it is possible that his family first 
settled there, and that he attached himself to the fortunes 
of David while the latter was yet Prince of Oumbria, 
perhaps through the Scoto-Saxon Earls of Dunbar. He 
witnessed a charter by King David to the Church of St. 
Outhbert c. 1127, 2 and the well-known foundation-charter of 
the Abbey of Holyroodhouse in 1128, 3 also a charter by 
David to the Priory of Coldingham in 1139/ He was one 
of those who, c. 1141, perambulated the lands of Olerkington, 
given by the King and Earl Henry his son to the Church 
of Haddington, 5 and he also witnessed a charter by Robert, 
Bishop of St. Andrews, to Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow, the 
King and Prince being consenters, between 1147 and 1152. 8 
He is assumed to have acquired the manor of Dalkeith by 
grant of King David, and, although direct evidence is awant- 
ing, the following may be supposed to have been his 
sons : 

1. Peter de Graham, Lord of Dalkeith, ancestor of the 

1 Hist., Bk. v. cap. iii. 2 Liber Cart. Sanctce Crucis, 8. 3 Ibid., 6. 
4 Raine's North Durham, App. Nos. six. and xx. 6 Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 
181. Reg. Epis. Glasg., i. 13. 

VOL. VI. N 



194 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 

elder branch of the family, Barons of Dalkeith, Aber- 
corn, and Eskdale, who, in the early part of the 
reign of William the Lion, granted to the monks of 
Newbattle the lands of Balnebuth on the Esk. 1 The 
charter bears to be granted * pro salute Domini mei 
Willelmi Regis et pro anima mea et pro animabus 
predecessorum meorum et pro anima uxoris mese 
Gevae et pro salute flliorum meorum ' ; and, if 
Radulph de Graham after mentioned is correctly sup- 
posed to have been his youngest son, he was probably 
twice married. His sons were : 

(1) Sir Henry of Dalkeith, who first appears as a witness to a 
charter by Countess Ada to the monks of Newbattle be- 
tween 1153 and 1159. 2 He confirmed his father's grant to 
that abbey, Robert ' nepos Dominae Gevae ' being one of the 
witnesses to his charter, 3 and frequently appears as a wit- 
ness to the charters of William the Lion, in one of which 
he is styled ' vicecomes meus,' presumably of Edinburgh, 
where the charter was granted.* He had at least two 
sons : 

i. Sir Henry of Dalkeith, and probably also of Tarbolton 
in Ayrshire, who, between 1203 and 1233 confirmed 
the grants of his father and grandfather to New- 
battle Abbey, 6 and who made grants to the abbeys 
of Hexham and Blanch land from his manor of 
Simundburn in Tynedale, the Northumbrian lord- 
ship of the Scottish Kings. 6 His sons were : 
(i) Sir Henry of Dalkeith, who was in curia regis at 
Berwick, 1248, when Alexander n. confirmed 
to the abbey and convent of Melrose a grant 
of lands at Halsington in Berwickshire, flowing 
from Robert de Mu scamp, Lord of Wooler, 7 
and was, when well stricken in years, one of 
the magnates of Scotland who in the Parlia- 
ment of Scone 5 February 1283-84 acknow- 
ledged Margaret of Norway as heir to the 
throne. 8 He had a charter of Tarbolton from 
James the Steward of Scotland after 1283. 9 
By his marriage with the daughter and heiress 
of Roger Avenel (who died 1243) he acquired 
the lordships of Abercorn in Linlithgowshire, 
Kilbucho and Newlands in Peeblesshire, and 
Eskdale in Dumfriesshire. 10 He is supposed 
to have had six children : 

a. Sir Nicholas of Dalkeith, Abercorn, and 

1 Chart. Newbotle, 6. 2 Ibid., 55 and Montrose MS. Collections, 
Buchanan. 3 Chart. Newbotle, 6. * Ibid., 65. 5 Ibid., 1. 6 Priory of 
Hexham, Surtees Society, ii. 16, 114 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 168. 7 Acta Parl. 
Scot., i. 409. 8 Ibid., 424. 9 Third Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 386. 
10 Caledonia, iv. 879. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 195 

Eskdale, who, in a charter to the monks 
of Melrose of their lands of Halsington, 
is styled ' primo genitus Domini Henrici 
de Graham.' 1 He is included in a list, 
dated 22 September 1278, of persons own- 
ing twenty librates of land and upwards 
in the county of Northumberland, held in 
capite of Edward i. 'who ought to be 
knights and are not,' and were allowed 
till the following Christmas, under 
sureties, to take upon themselves the 
degree of knighthood. 2 He played an 
important part in the troubles which 
followed the death of Alexander in. ; sat 
in the Parliament at Brigham 1290, 3 was 
one of the nominees of Bruce in the com- 
petition for the throne 1292, and swore 
fealty to Edward i. at Berwick 1296, being 
designed 'del Counte de Linlescu, 4 from 
which we may infer that his principal 
residence was Abercorn. His lands in 
the counties of Berwick, Roxburgh, Ayr, 
Peebles, and Edinburgh in Scotland, as 
well as his wife's lands after mentioned, 
were more than once forfeited by Edward 
'for rebellion,' 5 but about 1303 he was 
received to the King's peace, and died 
soon thereafter. 6 He married, before 
1269, Maria, younger daughter of Malise, 
Earl of Strathearn, by his wife Marjory de 
Muschamp, co-heiress of the barony of 
Muschamp (including Wooler, Belford, 
and Lowick) in Northumberland. 7 By 
the death of her sister Muriel, Countess 
of Mar, in 1291 s.p. she became vested in 
the whole of her mother's moiety of the 
barony. 8 On 14 June 1306, as widow of 
Sir Nicholas, she did homage to King 
Edward upon his restoration of her seisin 
of the half-barony of Muschamp, and she 
died between 1314 and 1318. 9 The children 
of Sir Nicholas were : 

(a) Sir John of Dalkeith, Abercorn, and 
Eskdale. In an inquest at Barn- 
borough with regard to his mother's 
half of Muschamp, 19 May 1306, 
he is said to be twenty-eight years 
of age. 10 He was one of the sup- 

1 Original penes Earl of Haddington, 1736, p. Montrose MS. Collections. 
2 Hodgson's Hist, of Northumberland, i. 295. 3 Ada Parl. Scot., i. 
441. Fadera, Rec. ed., i. 767; Ragman Rolls (Ban. Club), 162. 6 Rotuli 
Scotia, i. 30; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 1138. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 1359, 1770. 
7 Ibid., i. 2538. 8 Stevenson's Historical Documents, i. 267, ii. 49. 9 Cal. 
Doc. Scot., iii. 392. 10 Ibid., ii. 1770. 



196 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 



porters of Baliol included in the 
capitulation of Sir John Comyn at 
Strathord 1303-4. l Having joined 
the fortunes of Bruce, Edward n., 
twelve days before the battle of 
Bannockburn, granted to his 
favourite, Hugh le Dispenser, and 
Alianora his wife, a charter of all 
the lands and tenements in Scot- 
land forfeited by John de Graham, 
the King's enemy and rebel. 2 At 
first at feud with the monks of 
Melrose, he eventually granted to 
them full confirmation and an en- 
largement of the original grants 
by the Avenel family of their lands 
in Eskdale, which confirmation 
was ratified by King Robert, by 
charter dated 25 December 1316. 3 
Sir John made a donation to the 
Abbey of Dunfermline of the 
patronage of the church of New- 
lands in Peeblesshire, 1317. 4 Along 
with his kinsmen, Sir David de 
Graham and SirPatrick de Graham, 
he affixed his seal to the celebrated 
letter of the Scots Barons to the 
Pope, asserting the independence 
of their country, 6 April 1320. 6 His 
estates were forfeited to Edward 
in., and he died 25 April 1337, 
leaving a widow, Isabella, who had 
a terce of his lands in Crichton, 
apparently exempted from the 
forfeiture, and a lease of the 
other two-thirds. 6 Their children 
were : 

A. Sir John de Graham, filius, 

last of Dalkeith, Abercorn, 
and Eskdale, who parted 
with those estates, finally 
resigning Dalkeith in favour 
of Sir William Douglas de 
Laudonia 6 January 1341- 
42. 7 On his death the direct 
male line of the elder 
branch of the family of 
Graham ended. 

B. Sybilla (?), married to Sir 

William More, and, on the 
resignation of her father or 



1 Col. Doc. Scot., ii. 1741. 2 Ibid., iii. 361. 3 Liber de Melros, ii. 346, 
349. 4 Reg. de Dunfermelyne, 236, 245. 5 Acta Part. Scot., i. 474. 8 Cat. 
Doc. Scot., iii. p. 382. 7 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 41, 44. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 197 

brother, succeeded to the 
barony of Abercorn. 1 
c. Margaret, said to have been 
married to Sir William 
Douglas de Laudonia, the 
' Knight of Liddesdale, ' 
though his only known wife 
was named Elizabeth. (See 
title Morton.) It may, how- 
ever, have been a marriage 
with a Graham which car- 
ried to the family of Douglas 
Dalkeith, Kilbucho, and 
Newlands in Peeblesshire, 
and the lands of Eskdale. 2 
(6) Isabella, married (as his second 
wife) to Walter, High Steward of 
Scotland, sometime husband of 
Marjory Bruce, daughter of Robert 
i., and by him, who died 1326, had 
a son, Sir John Stewart of Ralston, 
and other children. 3 

6. Henry, who had, apparently in his father's 
lifetime, a grant of Symundburn, 4 and 
is probably the Henry de Graham, 'del 
Counte de Dunfres,' of the Ragman Roll. 6 

c. David de Graham, killed by Richard, 

son of Richard the Smith, in the town 
of Corbridge, in 1278, 6 was perhaps also 
a son, as also was probably 

d. Peter or Peres, 'del Counte de Dunfres,' 

mentioned in Ragman Roll as swearing 
fealty along with Henry. 7 

e. William, an ecclesiastic. 8 

/. Idonea, married to Sir Adam of Swinburne, 
and had a grant from her brother Henry 
of the manor of Swinburne in 'liberum 
maritagium,' confirmed by an assize of 
novel disseisin at Wark, in Tynedale, 
1291. 9 

(ii) Sir Nicholas, ancestor of the Grahams of Tar- 
bolton and Walston, in Ayrshire, who in a 
charter by John de Graham, Lord of Tarbolton, 
dated 1338, is styled ' proavus meus,' making 
him a contemporary of the third Sir Henry. 10 
He granted a charter to Alexander of Raith, 

1 Robertson's Index, 40. 2 Caledonia, i. 546, iv. 799; Robertson's 
Index, 54. Cf. The Scottish Antiquary, xvii. 187. 3 Vol. i. of this work, 
14. 4 Hodgson's Northumberland, ii. (part 2) 232, 250. 5 Ragman Rolls, 
140. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 148. 7 Ragman Rolls, ut supra. 8 Hodgson's 
Northumberland, ut supra. 9 Ibid., Mr. Algernon Charles Swinburne, 
the poet, is a descendant of this lady ; Burke's Peerage and Baronetage. 
10 Original penes Cunningham of Enterkin, 1736, according to Montrose 
MS. Collections. 



198 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 

1284, confirmed by the charter last mentioned. 
The main line of this branch came to an end 
in Sir John Graham, by whom Tarbolton was 
resigned in favour of Sir John Stewart of 
Crookston and Darnley, ancestor of the 
Stewarts, Earls of Lennox, as appears from a 
charter by Robert the Stewart of Scotland, 
dated 16 May 1357. 1 

ii. Peter, ancestor of the Grahams of Elvingston, near 
Haddington, which is still described in the titles as 
part of the barony of Dalkeith. Between 1190 and 
1238 he granted lands in Elvingston to the House of 
the Holy Trinity of Soltre. 2 The 'Peres de Graham 
del Counte de Edneburgh ' of the Ragman Soil was 
perhaps a descendant. 3 David de Graham granted 
an obligation to the brethren of Soltre between 1296 
and 1332. 4 The direct male representation of this 
family ended with a John de Graham in the reign of 
David ii. 5 

iii. Robert, who witnessed charters by Adam de Crebarrin 
(Carberry) and John de Crebarrin to the monastery 
of Dunfermline, 6 and who is probably the same who 
was involved in a plea with ' Master Cyprian ' as to a 
carrucate of land in Sudichenton, in England, 1220." 

(2) William, who, along with his elder brother Hemy, was a 

witness to the charter by Countess Ada to the monks of 
Newbattle above mentioned, 1153-59. 8 

(3) Alexander, a witness to the charter by the first Henry de 

Graham to the monks of Newbattle, 9 may have also been a 
brother. 

(4) John, present in the court of William the Lion at Alyth 

1200, when William Comyn renounced in favour of the 
Bishop of Glasgow all claim he had to the lands of Muck- 
rath, near Kirkintilloch, 10 and who, along with Henry de 
Graham, was a witness to a charter by Robert de Lyne and 
another by Thomas de Lestalrig to the Abbey of Newbattle, 11 
and witnessed also a donation by Thomas, son of Thankard, 
to the Abbey of Arbroath, 12 was probably another son of 
Peter de Graham. 

(5) Radulph, in whose favour William the Lion, about the year 

1180, granted a charter of the lands of Cousland, Pentland, 
and Gogar, providing that his mother (not named) be 
included in the donation, 13 may have been a son of Peter by 
a second marriage to the Lady Geva. The only other fact 
ascertainable about Radulph de Graham is that he was a 



1 Third Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 387. 2 Reg. de Soltre, 10. 3 Rag- 
man Roll, 161. 4 Reg. de Soltre, 41. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., fol. vol. 21, No. 1. 
6 Reg. de Dunfermelyne, 103, 104. " Col. Doc. Scot., i. 752. 8 Chart. New- 
botle, 55. 9 Ibid., 6. 10 Reg. Epis. Glasg., i. 78; Ada Parl. Scot., i. 389. 
11 Chart. Newbotle, 11, 38. 12 Reg. Vetus de Aberbrothock, 69. 13 Second 
Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 166. To the original at Buchanan the 
Great Seal in green wax is appended with silk, and both are in good 
preservation. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 199 

witness to a charter by Robert de Lyne to Simon, son of 
Robert of Scrogis, which Simon afterwards resigned the 
lands of Scrogis to Walter, Bishop of Glasgow, who held 
that see 1207-32. l He probably died young, without issue. 

2. ALAN, of whom below. 

ALAN DE GRAHAM is designed ' frater Petri de Graham ' 
in his brother's charter of Balnebuth to the Abbey of New- 
battle. 2 Probably through a misreading in an early Mac- 
farlane copy of this charter, Douglas names the brother ol 
Peter, and presumed ancestor of the noble family of Mont- 
rose, John, and confounds him with the John above men- 
tioned, who obviously belongs to a later generation, and 
this has been followed by all subsequent Peerage writers. 
No other mention of Alan has been traced, but it is assumed 
that his son was 

WILLIAM DE GRAHAM, who as 'Willielmus de Graham' 
follows Alan as a witness in the charter of Balnebuth. 3 
He was witness to a charter by Alexander of Seton to 
Adam of Polwarth and Emma, the granter's sister, of the 
lands of Beath, c. 1200. 4 From a charter to be afterwards 
noticed it is not improbable that the wife of William de 
Graham was a sister of Polwarth. He appears to have had 
three sons : 

1. DAVID, of whom below. 

2. William, who in the reign of Alexander n. was con- 

cerned in the settlement of disputes between the 
monks of Newbattle and William de Vallibus, Lord 
of Dirleton, in regard to the marches between Had- 
dington and Elbottle, 5 and of another dispute between 
the Prior and Convent of St. Andrews and Bernard 
Fraser and the heirs of Drem. 6 

3. Patrick, who witnessed a charter of Alexander n. to 

the monks of Newbattle in 1248. 7 

DAVID DE GRAHAM appears to have settled in Berwickshire, 
but nothing is known of him except that he married Amabel, 
widow, probably of Nicholas, de Faunes, Lord of Faunes 8 and 

1 Meg. Epis. Glasg., i. 74, 75. 2 Chart. Newbotle, 6. 3 Ibid. * Liber de 
Dunfermelyne, 100. 6 Chart. Newbotle, 88. Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 
322. 7 Chart. Newbotle, 32. 8 Liber de Calchou, 100; cf. Liber de Dry- 
burgh, 141. 



200 GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 

Mellerstain, 1 and died, possibly in his father's lifetime, 
leaving a son 

SIR DAVID DE GRAHAM, the real founder of the house of 
Montrose. He was probably a minor at his father's death. 
There is a charter in his favour by Richard de Faunes, his 
brother uterine, the date of which cannot well be put much 
later than 1200, of two tofts in Melokistan (Mellerstain). 
The granter further ' voluntateejusdem David ' concedes to 
the Dame Amabel ' matri nostrae ' the said lands for her life, 
and these were, subject to the mother's liferent, to revert 
to the granter in the event of his brother dying without 
issue or changing his life. From the circumstance that 
David, at a later period, granted these lands to the Abbey 
of Kelso, 2 it is not unreasonable to conjecture that his 
education was intrusted to the Abbot and Convent, and 
that his taking orders seemed to his brother a contingency 
worth providing against. 

When David de Graham reached manhood he would seem 
to have become attached to the service of Patrick, fifth 
Earl of Dunbar, his half-brother's overlord, and, along with 
representatives of the families of Polwarth and Noble, he 
is frequently to be found from about 1232, witnessing 
charters by that Earl and his son and grandson, the sixth and 
seventh Earls, or by others of lands within the earldom. 3 
In 1244 he was, along with Patrick, sixth Earl of Dunbar, 
and others, a guarantor of the obligations undertaken by 
Alexander 11. to Henry in. of England in the treaty of 
Newcastle, 4 and two years later was a party to the peram- 
bulation and ascertainment of a part of the marches be- 
tween England and Scotland. 5 In April 1248 he was in 
curia Regis at Berwick, 8 and in May following at Stirling, 
being described as then Justiciar-depute of Lothian. 7 In 
the minority of Alexander in. he was one of the anti- 
English party removed by the young King at the instance 
of his father-in-law King Henry from the administration 
of affairs, 20 September 1255. 8 In this affair Patrick, 

1 The text of the charter by William the Lion in favour of this David 
de Graham, as engrossed in a confirming charter of Robert n. anno 1389 
(Second Rep. Hist. MSS., Com., App. 166), cannot be relied on. 2 Liber de 
Calchou, 100-103. 3 Raine's North Durham, App. passim. 4 Cat. Doc. 
Scot., i. 2672. 5 Ibid., i. 1699. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 409. " Ibid., i. 
404. 8 Cat. Doc. Scot., i. 2013. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 201 

seventh Earl of Dunbar, appears as supporting Henry ; and 
Sir David as adhering to the Oomyns, Earls of Menteith 
and Buchan, leaders of the anti-English party ; but a few 
years later he is found holding the office of Sheriff of 
Berwick, and under that designation witnessing a charter 
by the Earl of Dunbar to the monastery of Coldingham. 1 
In 1264 he appears as an associate of John Comyn and 
others in their proceedings against Isabella, Countess of 
Menteith, widow of Walter Oomyn, and Sir John Russell, 
her English second husband. 2 

It is, however, from what is recorded of the grants of 
lands and heritages made to Sir David throughout Scotland 
by various donors that the best impression is obtained of 
the influence which he must have exercised upon his con- 
temporaries and the politics of his times. In a charter of 
confirmation in his favour by Alexander in., dated 17 De- 
cember 1253, there are enumerated no fewer than nineteen 
of these grants, the donors including persons of such note 
as Malcolm, Earl of Fife, Patrick (sixth) Earl of Dunbar, 
Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester, Maldouin, Earl of 
Lennox, Duncan, Earl of Oarrick, and Alexander the 
Steward. 3 Two of the charters confirmed are extant. In 
each of these the one by Adam of Poulwrth, son of Adam 
of Poulwrth, of a tenement in Dunipace which had be- 
longed to Patrick, the granter's brother, in excambion for 
lands at Wedderlie in Berwickshire, c. 1233, and the other by 
Henry de Graham, son of Sir Henry de Graham, of the lands 
of Clifton in Midlothian, c. 1245, the grantee is designed 
' cognatus meus.' 4 There is also extant a prior confirma- 
tion by Alexander n., dated 23 October 1237, of the charter 
by the Earl of Dunbar, bearing to be granted to David de 
Graham for his homage and service, of the whole waste 
lands of Dundaff and Strathcarron, which was the King's 
forest, in excambion for the lands of Gretquerquer in Gal-, 
loway, which the Earl by his charter had formerly con- 
ferred on David. 5 This is the original grant of the barony 
of Dundaffmuir, the oldest existing possession of the house 
of Montrose. The grants by the Earl of Lennox and his son 

1 Raine's North Durham, App. Nos. cxxxix-xl. 2 Red Book of Men- 
teith, i. 40. 3 Lennox Book, ii. 13. 4 Second Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 
App. 166. 5 Ibid. 



202 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

of the lands of Mukraw, Killearn, and Strathblane recorded 
in the Chartulary of Lennox 1 were the nucleus of their 
barony of Mugdock. Towards the close of his life Sir 
David obtained from Malise, Earl of Strathearn, a grant of 
the lands of Kincardine, Coul, Olune, Poswell, Pirny, and 
Berdrals in Perthshire, 2 out of which was formed the 
barony of Kincardine. 

The Christian name of Sir David's wife was Agnes, and 
there is reason to believe that her surname was Noble, and 
that the lands of Kinpunt and Eliston in Linlithgowshire, 
acquired by Sir David from Ralph Noble and Thomas Noble, 
c. 1245, 3 were so obtained in marriage with her, she being 
mentioned in these grants, but in no other known charter, 
in favour of Sir David, excepting King Alexander's con- 
firmation in 1253. 4 

Their children, so far as known, or as has been suggested, 
were : 

1. PATRICK, who succeeded. 

2. Sir David, who swore fealty to Edward i. as Lord 

Superior of Scotland, 1291, 5 and was one of the 
nominees of Baliol in the competition for the throne, 
in June 1292.' He was one of the prisoners taken by 
Edward at the battle of Dunbar 27 April 1296, and was 
committed to prison in the Castle of St. Breval. On 
30 July 1297 he was released and had his estates 
restored on condition of serving in the King's 
expedition to the Continent. 7 He accordingly accom- 
panied Edward to Flanders, and died there 1297. 8 
He married Muriel, the youngest of three daughters 

1 Chart. Lennox, 37. * Second Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 166. 
3 Third Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App., 397. 4 Crawfurd, who has been 
followed by Douglas and Wood, here inserts in the family tree another 
David, son of the above and father of Patrick next herein noticed. His 
authority is a charter penes Ducem de Montrose, which charter is granted 
by Malise, Earl of Strathearn, to Annabella his sister for her marriage of 
the lands of Kincardine in Kather, c. 1251-60, and as there is a subsequent 
charter by Earl Malise to David de Graham of the lands of Kincardine 
and others, c. 1260-71, it has been assumed that there was a second David 
married to Annabella. But apart from this assumption there is no evi- 
dence of the existence of an intermediate David, and it will be seen infra 
that the wife of Patrick was named Annabella, who had lands in her own 
right, and that Patrick had a younger brother David, who was married 
prior to 1268 ; which does not seem to leave room for an interposed genera- 
tion. 6 Col. Doc. Scot., ii. 508. a Ftedera, Rec. ed., i. 767. 7 Cal. Doc. Scot., 
ii. 940 ; Rotuli Scotia, i. 45. 8 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 1967. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 203 

and co-heiresses of John Byset, Lord of Lovat, in 
Inverness-shire. 1 Among the records of Scotland 
found by King Edward in Edinburgh Castle, and de- 
livered by him to Baliol in 1292, was a letter by 
William de Fenton, Andrew de Bos^cho, and David de 
Graham (husbands of the three heiresses of Lovat) 
acknowledging that they had received from William 
Wyscard, or Wishart, Archdeacon of St. Andrews, 
and Chancellor of the King, those charters which 
the late John Byset had deposited in the Abbey of 
Jedburgh. 2 Chancellor Wishart became Bishop of 
Glasgow in 1268, 3 so that the marriage of David de 
Graham and Muriel Byset must have taken place 
prior to that date. In consequence of this marriage 
the private interests of Sir David lay chiefly in the 
north of Scotland, and he appears to have been 
involved in disputes with his brother-in-law Sir 
William de Fenton and the Bishop of Moray as to 
the lands of Kiltarlity and fishings of the water of 
Farrar. 4 He had also, however, from his father the 
lands of Merton and others in Berwickshire. 5 He had 
a son and a daughter : 

(1) SIR PATRICK, who was under age at his father's death, as, 
on 17 March 1298, Edward I. grants to Robert de Felton, for 
good service in Flanders, the marriage of Patrick, son of 
David de Graham deceased. 6 He joined Bruce at the com- 
mencement of his struggle for the independence of Scotland, 
but made an early surrender to Edward i., by whom, as 
'Patrick de Graham, chevalier d'Escosse,' he was put in 
charge of the Bishop of Chester 8 November 1306. 7 An 
incident of the English monarch's last expedition towards 
Scotland was the receipt at Ebbecestre, in Durham, of a 
request by Loughlan M'Locherry of the Isles for a grant 
of the estates of Patrick de Graham, Mons. Aymer de 
Valence making the same request. 8 He had been released, 
and had regained possession of his estates prior to March 
1314, when John of Argyll, his father-in-law, being put in 
command of an English fleet, was authorised to receive 
among others, Patrick de Graham, Knight, to the King's 
peace. He was one of the Barons who attached their seals 
to the famous letter of remonstrance to the Pope on 6 April 

1 Hist, of Beauly Priory, Grampian Club, 54; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 129. 
2 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 116. 3 Crawfurd's Officers of State, 15. 4 Reg. 
Epis. Morav., 135. 6 Rotuli Scotice, i. 269. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 970, 975. 
7 Ibid., 1849, 1852; Fcedera, Rec. ed., i. 995; Palgrave, No. cliv. 8 Pal- 
grave, No. cxlii. 



204 GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 

1320. l He was taken prisoner at Halidon Hill 1333. a He 
married a daughter of John of Argyll, it would appear, 
without the consent of Robert deFelton, to whom, as above 
mentioned, his marriage had been granted by Edward i. 3 
There is no record of his issue, but from the fact that Hugh 
Fraser, Lord of Lovat, in 1367, did homage to the Bishop of 
Moray for Kiltarlity and the fishings of Farrar, it has been 
supposed that he left a daughter through whom his share 
of Lovat was carried to the Frasers.* On the other hand, 
it appears from an instrument of resignation by William the 
Graham, son and heir of Henry the Graham, in favour of 
Thomas, Earl of Moray, his overlord, dated at Chanonry 
2 August 1420, that the lands of Kerdale belonged to a 
family of Graham till the early part of the fifteenth century, 
and on default of issue of William de Graham then passed 
to his 'gudfadyr' Hay of Lochloy. 6 

(2) a daughter, Christian name unknown, married (as his 

first wife) to William, Earl of Ross. Hugh, Earl of Ross, 
killed at Halidon Hill 1333, in a charter to Patrick de 
Graham of the lands of Scatraig in Strathnairn designs 
him ' avunculus meus.' 6 

3. Sir John Graham of Dundaff, immortalised by Blind 
Harry, has been placed by Douglas and Wood as a 
son of Sir David Graham. This, however, is incon- 
sistent with the history of Sir John as related by the 
Minstrel, the sole direct authority for it, Harry mak- 
ing Sir John the son of an older knight of the same 
name, Lord of Dundaff, and living there at the outset 
of Wallace's career. 7 That there was a son of Sir 
David called John is very probable. He may have 
been the John de Graham who, along with William 
Oomyn, was sued, for an alleged assault at Jedburgh, 
by John de Leverhelde in 1278, 8 and may have had 
a grant of Dundaff or some part of the barony, from 
his father, or he may simply have retired there after 
the disaster of Dunbar. He is described by Harry as 
having ' purchest pes in rest he mycht bide still,' 
and as paying ' tribute sore against his will.' 9 That 
a John de Graham of this period married a lady whose 

1 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 474. 2 Knigh ton's Chron. Decem Scriptores, 
col. 2564. 3 Col. Doc. Scot., iii. 65, ii. 1967. 4 Hist. Beauly Priory, 89. 
6 Original penes Brodie of Brodie, 1736, p. Montrose MS. Collections. 

6 Crawf urd's Peerage, 337 ; where, however, a mistake is made both as 
to the granter and the grantees of the charter said to be penes me. 

7 Act is and Deedis of Schir William Wallace (Scottish Text Society), 87. 

8 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 148. 9 Actis and Deedis of Schir William Wallace, 
ut supra. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 205 

Christian name was Margery, and who was an heiress 
in Perthshire is ascertained ; ' and Viscount Strath- 
allan has it that a John de Graham was the first of 
the name to acquire a footing in that shire, and 
obtained it by marriage. 2 Marjorie de Graham swore 
fealty to Edward i. at Berwick 28 August 1296, 3 and 
on 3 September had a precept to the Sheriff of Perth- 
shire directing, conditionally, the restoration of her 
estate. 4 In the view here suggested, the son of 
John and Margery de Graham was 

(1) Sir John Graham, the younger, the ' Schir Jhone the Grayme 
that worthe wes and wicht,' who, according to Blind Harry 
and a general tradition, was the comrade and companion- 
in-arms of Sir William Wallace from the slaughter of Hasel- 
rigg till the fatal battle of Falkirk, where Sir John fell 
gloriously along with Sir John Stewart, 22 July 1298. s The 
fact of his burial in Falkirk church is vouched for by a 
monument there, which is undoubtedly of great antiquity, 
although it has more than once been renewed, 6 and which 
bears the well-known inscription : 

' Mente manuque potens, et Vallai fidus Achates 
Conditus hie Gramus, bello interfectus ab Anglis.' 

Two swords said to have been wielded by this hero are 
preserved, one at Buchanan Castle, bearing the date 1406, 
and an inscription in the vernacular corresponding to that 
on the tomb, and the other (which was long an heirloom of 
the Grahams of Orchill) in the Town Hall of Auchterarder. 
The marriage of Sir John to the ' first dochter ' of Halyday, 
nephew of Wallace, 7 is an obvious myth. 

SIR PATRICK DE GRAHAM, the eldest son of Sir David, 
was a witness in 1272 to a charter by Sir Alexander 
Stirling, granting certain lands to the church of 
St. Servan of Alveth. 8 The numerous other charters 
which he witnessed are to be found in many chartularies 
from Inchaffray to Hexham, and need not be adverted to 
here. He added to and consolidated the estates which his 
father had acquired in Lennox and Strathearn, obtaining 
confirmations from Malcolm, Earl of Lennox 9 (under whom 

1 Rotuli Scotia, i. 26. 2 Genealogy of the House of Drummond, 165. 
3 Ragman Rolls, 144. 4 Rotuli Scotice, ut supra. 5 Actis and Deedis of 
Schir William Wallace, 102 et seq, Hailes, Annals, 3rd ed., i. 317. 6 In 
1722 by James, Duke of Montrose, through Mr. James Graham of Airth, 
and in 1772 by William Graham of Airth. 7 Actis and Deedis of Schir 
William Wallace, 102. 8 Cart, of Cambuskenneth (Grampian Club), 25. 
9 Cart, of Lennox, 39, 40. 



206 GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 

lie held, in addition to Mugdock,an estate on Loch Lomond- 
side and the lands and lake of Oorriearklet) and Malise, 
Earl of Strathearn. 1 He had a letter of recommendation 
from Alexander in. to Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, brother 
of Edward I., 10 April 1279. 2 He sat in the Parliament of 
Scone when the magnates of Scotland acknowledged the 
right of Margaret of Norway to succeed to the throne in 
the event of the death of her grandfather Alexander in., 5 
February 1283-84. 3 In the following year he was one of 
the four ambassadors sent by Alexander to France to nego- 
tiate his second marriage with Joleta, daughter of the 
Count of Dreux ; 4 and it was perhaps in connection with 
this service that, on 13 November 1285, he obtained from 
the King confirmation of the grants of Kincardine by the 
Earl of Strathern, conferring certain privileges and pro- 
viding for the event of the lands coming to hold of the 
Crown in chief. 5 In the events which followed on the 
death of Alexander none of the lesser barons of Scotland 
acted a more conspicuous part. He was present at the 
assembly of Brigham, which agreed to the treaty of mar- 
riage between Queen Margaret and Prince Edward 17 
March 1290. 6 At this time Sir Patrick was Keeper of 
Stirling Castle, and along with William de Sinclair and 
John Foulis, Keepers of the other royal castles, went to 
the presence of the English King and obtained a postpone- 
ment of his demand for delivery of the castles till the 
arrival of the Queen in England or Scotland free of all 
other marriage. 7 He was, along with his brother David, a 
nominee of John Baliol in the competition for the throne ; 
on 13 June 1291 he swore fealty to Edward as Lord Para- 
mount, and on 26 December following witnessed Baliol's 
homage to the English King at Newcastle. 8 He was party 
to the general release granted by Baliol to King Edward 

2 January 1292-93, 9 his seal attached to it being thus 
described : ' On a chief three escallops, at each side of 
shield a boar's head.' 10 On 20 June 1294 he witnessed, at 
the New Temple, London, a charter by Baliol to the Bishop 

1 Second Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 166. 2 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 157. 

3 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 424. * Fordun a Goodall, ii. 127. 6 Second Rep. 
Hist. MSS. Com., App. 166. 8 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 441. 7 Fosdera, Rec. 
ed., i. 738. 8 Ibid., 768, 782. 9 Ibid., 784. 10 Scottish Armorial Seals, No. 
1119. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 207 

of Durham, 1 and he was included in the summons dated 29 of 
the same month, addressed by King Edward to Baliol and 
certain of his nobles, to attend him in London on 1 Sep- 
tember, with their men, horses and arms, in order to 
accompany him on his expedition to France. 2 The accounts 
of Walter de Oamehou, a royal chamberlain, 1293-95, con- 
tain a statement with regard to lands in the Lennox, that 
no rents were received from them, Sir Patrick de Graham 
having ejected the King therefrom ' vi et armis.' 3 He was 
one of the barons who sealed the ratification of Baliol's 
treaty with Philip of France at Dunfermline 23 February 
1295-96. 4 In the battle of Dunbar, 27 April 1296, he main- 
tained his station against the English, 5 and, according to 
Wood, ' died with honour, lamented and applauded even by 
his enemies, a goodly knight all dressed in harness meet.' 
Hemingburgh characterises him, ' miles strenuissimus, inter 
sapientores regni illius quasi primus et inter potentiores 
nobilissimus.' 6 

He married Annabella, sister of Malise, Earl of Strathearn, 
who had (1251-60) a charter from her brother of part of the 
lands of Kincardine, in Perthshire, for her marriage. 7 It is 
possible that she had been previously married to John of 
Lestalrig [Restalrig], for on 22 November 1293 there was 
an appeal taken to Edward i., as Lord Superior of Scotland, 
by Simon of Lestalrig, in a complaint by him to John Baliol, 
that Patrick de Graham, in time of the fatuity of the said 
John, had impetrated certain rights over Restalrig through 
Annabella, wife of the said John, to the loss and damage of 
Simon, John's son and heir. 8 On 28 August 1296 ' Anable, 
qe fu la femme Patrik de Graham,' swore fealty to 
Edward at Berwick, 9 and on 3 September a petition by her 
to the King for restoration of her own heritage and her 
dower out of her husband's lands, was referred to the 
Keepers of Scotland. 10 

The children of Sir Patrick de Graham, so far as known 
or has been suggested, were : 

1. SIR DAVID, who succeeded. 

1 CaL Doc. Scot., ii. 691, 692. 2 Fcedera, Bee. ed., i. 804. 3 Cat. Doc. 
Scot., ii. 708. 4 Ada Parl. Scot., i. 451. 5 Hailes, Annals, i. 289. 6 Heming- 
burgh, ii. 104. T Second Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 166. 8 Rotuli 
ScoticK, i. 19. 9 Ragman Roll, 146. 10 Stevenson's Hist. Documents, 
ii. 92. 



2. Patrick, probably the 'Monsieur Patrick de Graham 

vadlet' who, having participated in the rising of 
Bruce, was in 1306 ordered by Edward I. to be sent 
to the Tower, and to be there kept in irons and 
sustained meanly, the Constable to be responsible 
for the execution of the order * corp pour corps.' 1 
On 14 December 1308 an order was made for the 
mitigation of this imprisonment. 2 No further mention 
of him can be traced. 

3. John. According to Sir William Fraser, the Sir John 

de Graham who married Mary, Countess of Menteith, 
and was executed by Edward in. after the battle of 
Durham, 1346, was probably a younger son. 3 

4. a daughter, married to Sir Malcolm Druru- 

mond, who flourished 1301-25, 4 and was the mother, 
by him, of Margaret Drummond, married, first, to Sir 
John Logie, and, secondly, to David II. 5 

SIR DAVID GRAHAM, the eldest son, was taken prisoner 
at the battle of Dunbar, 1296, and confined at first in the 
Tower, and afterwards in the castle of St. Breval. On 30 
July 1297 he was enlarged on giving security to accompany 
Edward I. on his expedition to Flanders. 6 Returning to 
Scotland, and adhering to the national party, he accom- 
panied its leaders in an inroad to Selkirk Forest, and was 
present at their meeting at Peebles in August 1298 or 1299. 
According to the report by Sir Robert Hastangis, the 
English governor of Roxburgh Castle, he was involved in a 
quarrel between Bruce and John Comyn, the affray, however, 
being terminated by an agreement, under which the Bishop 
of St. Andrews (doubtless the peacemaker on this occasion), 
Bruce, and Oomyn should be Guardians of the realm. 7 Sir 
David was included in the capitulation to the English forces 
of Sir John Comyn and the other leaders who had continued 
to uphold the cause of Baliol, at Strathord 9 February 1303-4, 
and one of the conditions imposed upon him was an exile 
from Scotland for six months. 8 The murder of his patron 
Oomyn may possibly account for a reluctance which he 

1 Fcedera, Rec. ed., i. 994; Palgrave, No. cliii. * Cat. Doc. Scot., iii. 
62. 3 Red Book of Menteith, i. 104 ; but cf. The Scottish Antiquary, xvii. 
186. * Genealogy of House of Drummond, Tree in App., 260. 6 Dunbar's 
Scottish Kings, 154. Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 742, 901, 940. ~ Ibid., 1978. 
8 Palgrave, No. cxxxii. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 209 

seems to have shown to identify himself with the cause of 
Bruce ; for on 20 May 1308 he is among those who receive 
the thanks of Edward n. for faithful service to his father 
and himself. 1 For some years thereafter there are refer- 
ences in the English records to the residence of ' David de 
Graham of Scotland ' in England, as a quasi prisoner, the 
latest being a grant on 12 February 1312-13 of 80 per 
annum from the issues of the Knights Templars' manor of 
Eykill in Yorkshire ' to sustain him in his service ' along 
with the use of houses and firewood in reason. 2 He was 
probably released after the battle of Bannockburn, and 
appears as a person of note and influence in the reign 
of Robert the Bruce. On 1 April 1320 he witnessed, at 
Berwick-on-Tweed, the King's charter to Sir James Douglas 
of the lands of Douglasdale and Oarmichael, 3 and his seal 
is appended to the letter by the Scots barons to Pope John, 
dated at Arbroath the 6 day of the same month and year. 4 
In June 1323 he was one of the guarantors to Edward n. 
that Bruce would fulfil his part of the treaty then entered 
into for a thirteen years' peace. 5 At Scone, on the 5 March 
1325, Sir David, as ' Sir David de Graham pater,' received 
two charters from King Robert, viz. one of the lands of 
Old Montrose, in the shire of Forfar, in excambion for the 
lands of Cardross, near Dunbarton, and another of lands in 
Oharlton and Kynnaber, near Montrose, in exchange for 
the lands of Sokach, in the earldom of Oarrick (probably 
the lands of Succoth, part of Oardross, had been held by the 
Grahams as vassals of the Earls of Carrick) and the islands of 
Inchcalliach and Inchfad, in Loch Lomond. 6 The estate so 
acquired by the King became, as is well known, his favourite 
residence, and was the scene of his death in June 1329. 
The date of the death of Sir David de Graham is not known, 
but probably he died about the same time as his great 
sovereign. 

The name of Sir David's wife has not been ascertained, 
but he appears to have had at least two, possibly three 
sons, and a daughter : 

1. SIR DAVID, of whom below. 

1 Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. 43. 2 Ibid., 193, 255, 303, 306, 311. 3 Douglas 
Book, iii. 355. * Acta Part. Scot., i. 474. 6 Fcedera, Rec. ed., ii. 522. 
6 Second Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 166, 167. 

VOL. VI. O 



210 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

2. Sir Patrick of Kinpunt. In the accounts of Ed- 
ward m.'s Sheriffs in Scotland for 1335-36 and 1337 
it is stated that the 12 land of Kinpunt and 6, 
13s. 4d. lands of Illaston are in the King's hands, 
through the forfeiture of Patrick de Graham, and 
concerning the first-mentioned subject the Sheriff 
remarks, ' non respondet quia vasta.' ' Sir Patrick 
appears to have lost his liberty as well as his lands 
in the wars which followed upon the attempt of 
Edward Baliol, as in the Chamberlain's Account, 
1341-42, there is entered a payment to Patrick de 
Graham in aid of his ransom, by order of David 11., 
then newly returned from Prance. 2 The same 
account bears a payment to Sir Patrick de Graham 
by the King's precept on account of his expenses 
passing to Norway on the affairs of the King and 
kingdom. 3 Sir Patrick is probably the Patrick the 
Grame of Wyntoun's story, * a gud knycht that had 
travelled beyond the se,' who, in a Border jousting 
in time of truce, arranged between the Steward, 
Guardian of Scotland, and Henry, Earl of Derby, 
afterwards of Lancaster, being challenged by an 
English knight, said : 

' Man, will thou have of me justyng 
Rys up to morn in the mornyng 
And here the mes well, and schry ve the 
And thou sail sone delyverit be,' 

and in truth, on the following day, * bare him throw 
the body quhit ' with a mortal stroke. 4 Sir Patrick 
was apparently again a prisoner in England in 1349, 
when he had a licence from Edward in. to go to 
Scotland ; but had been ransomed before 1352, when 
he obtained a safe-conduct to pass through England 
to parts over seas. 5 In later life he witnessed a 
charter by Donald, Earl of Lennox, to Walter, Lord 
of Buchanan, of the lands of Kirkmichael and Blair- 

1 Col. Doc. Scot., iii. pp. 333, 341. 2 Exch. Rolls, i. 509. 3 Ibid., 507. 
4 Wynton's Cronykil, ed. Laing, ii. 444. Viscount Strathallan has it, 
' Patrick Graham was provoked to a duell by an English man, to whom 
he said, "Pray you dine well, for I shall send you to sup in paradyse !" '; 
Genealogy of House of Drummond, 166. 6 Rotvli Scotice, i. 730, 751. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 211 

fad, 1 and in 1360-61 had a safe-conduct from Edward 
in. to pass through England on a pilgrimage to St. 
James. 2 There is a charter by Patrick de Graham, 
Lord of Kinpunt, and David de Graham, Lord of 
Dundaff, son and heir of the deceased Sir David 
de Graham, knight, Lord of Dundaff, to John de 
Ancrum, burgess of Edinburgh, of the lands of Craig- 
crook, near Edinburgh, confirmed by David n., 1362. 
Of practically the same date there is a charter 
by John de Ancrum mortifying these lands to the 
Chaplain of the Altar of the Blessed Virgin Mary in 
the Parish Church of St. Giles, also confirmed by the 
King, and in an Inventory of St. Giles's muniments 
this transaction is referred to as 'Donacio Patricii 
de Grahame super terris de Oraigcrooke. 3 

3. William de Graham, Keeper of Lochleven Castle 1362, 4 

may have been a son. 

4. Margaret de Graham, of the diocese of Edinburgh, 

who had a dispensation, 24 November 1329, legitimis- 
ing her marriage with Hugh, Earl of Ross, killed 
at the battle of Halidon Hill 1333, and another, as 
his widow, to marry John de Barclay 1341 , 5 was pro- 
bably a daughter. 

DAVID DE GRAHAM, the eldest son, in his father's lifetime, 
as Sir David de Graham ' filius,' witnessed a charter by 
Simon Locard de Ley to William de Lindsay, rector of the 
Church of Ayr, of an annualrent out of the lands of Cart- 
land from Whitsunday 1323. 6 After the battle of Dupplin 
and the coronation of Edward Baliol at Scone 1332 he was 
one of thirteen knights who, along with the Earl of Fife, 
submitted to Baliol. 7 That he took an active part in the 
resumption of the national resistance to the enterprise of 
Baliol and his patron Edward in. may be inferred from the 
fact that in the accounts of Edward's Sheriffs in Scotland 
for 1335-36 the lands of Oraigcrook and Nether Carlowrie, 
in the barony of Abercorn, are stated to be in the King's 
hands by the forfeiture of David de Graham. 8 He accom- 

1 Lennox Book, ii. 25. 2 Rotuli Scotice, i. 854. 3 Cart, of St. Giles, 7, 8, 
288. * Exch. Rolls, i. 114, 138, 166. 6 Theiner, Vetera Monumenta Hib. et 
Scot., 249, 276. 6 Reg. Epis. Gla*g,, 238. 7 Chron. de Lanercost, 269. 
8 Cat. Doc. Scot., iii. pp. 333, 380. 



212 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 

panied David n. in his unfortunate expedition into England, 
and was taken prisoner with him at the battle of Neville's 
Cross 17 October 1346. 1 He must have been speedily ran- 
somed, as on 17 September 1348 he was present in a 
Justiciary Court at Forfar for the decision of a question 
between the monks of Arbroath and the burgesses of 
Dundee. 2 In 1354 he was one of the Commissioners ap- 
pointed for negotiating the release of the King, and sat 
in the Parliament at Edinburgh 26 September 1357, when 
the treaty of ransom was approved, and was one of the 
guarantors of the treaty. 3 On 11 January 1359 he obtained 
from David n. a confirmation of his father's charter of 
Old Montrose, 4 and from this time to the end of David's 
reign is a frequent witness in both lay and ecclesiastical 
charters. 

Sir David sat in a general council held at Perth by 
David n. on 13 January 1364, was one of those elected by 
the Estates to hold Parliament at Scone 27 September 1367, 
was on the Committee for General Affairs 1368, and on the 
Committee of Dooms 1369. 5 On 18 February 1369 it was 
found in a cause between him and William Barnard that 
the latter had not lawful sasine of the lands of Kinnaber, 
and that Sir David was first in possession of these lands. 8 
He was one of those who took the oath of homage and 
fealty to Robert n. at Scone 27 March 1371, and he also 
witnessed the Act of Settlement of the succession to the 
Crown by that monarch on 4 April 1373. 7 On 23 July 1374 
he obtained a decreet of Parliament finding that he was 
entitled to possess the lands of Old Montrose notwith- 
standing anything shown on behalf of Sir John Lindsay of 
Thurston. 8 At Perth, on St. Andrew's day 1376, he witnessed 
a charter by Laurence of Hay, Lord of Eskyndy 9 [Essendy], 
and he must have died soon thereafter. 

The name of his wife is not known. His children were : 

1. PATRICK, of whom below. 

2. David witnessed a charter at Perth 20 February 

1369-70. 10 

1 Botuli Scotice, i. 678. 2 Reg. de Aberbrothock, ii. 20. 3 Acta Parl. 
Scot., i. 516 ; Fcedera, Rec. ed., iii. 370. * Second Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 
App. 167. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 495, 501, 506, 508, 534. 6 Ibid., i. 536. 
7 Ibid., i. 545, 549. 8 Ibid., Supp. 18. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig., fol. vol. 128, 
No. 8. 10 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 85. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 213 

3. John, who as 'third son of Sir David Graham of Old 
Montrose ' in 1370 is claimed as ancestor of the 
Grahams of Morphie on grounds which would make 
him progenitor also of the Grahams of Auchincloich 
(in Kilsyth) and their branches. 1 

PATRICK DE GRAHAM, the eldest son, in terms of a stipu- 
lation in the negotiation of 1354 with Edward in., was in 
1357, under the designation of * Patrik fltz et heir monsieur 
David de Graham,' delivered to the English King as one of 
the hostages for the ransom of David n. 2 In 1372, as son 
and heir of Sir David, he granted an obligation to support 
a chaplain of the altar of the Holy Cross in the parish 
church of Dumbarton, 3 and in the following year was a 
party along with his father to the Act of Settlement of 
succession to the throne. 4 Immediately on succeeding to 
the family estates he was sent on a mission to England 
along with Sir Simon of Ketyns and John Mercer of Perth, 
receiving from Edward in. a safe-conduct, 23 March 1378, to 
come before the council and return before 1 May to de- 
liberate on the affairs of the kingdoms. 5 He acquired the 
lands of Achincross in Lennox from Robert, Earl of Fife 
and Menteith, 1377, 6 and Ardochmore near Oardross from 
Simon de Moravia 1382. 7 In 1388 he obtained from Robert 11. 
a warrant disjoining his lands in Kilpatrick parish from the 
shire of Dumbarton, and annexing them to that of Stirling. 8 
In 1394 he was again a Commissioner to treat with the 
English. 9 From 1388 to 1400 he acted as an Auditor in 
Exchequer. 10 On 22 April 1398 he was appointed General 
Chamberlain and Keeper and Receiver of Customs, 11 and 
on 27 June following was on the special council at Perth 
to assist the Duke of Rothesay in the Government. 12 On 
6 May 1400 he witnessed at Edinburgh a charter by 
David Fleming, Lord of Biggar and Lenzie, to Sir John 

1 Burke's Landed Gentry, Scot. Armor. Seals, No. 1129, Reg. Honor, de 
Morton, ii. 88, but cf. Nisbet's Heraldry, i. 79. 2 Fcedera, Rec. ed.,iii. 
372. 3 Dumbarton Charter-chest. 4 Ada Parl. Scot., i. 549. 6 Rotuli 
Scotice, ii. 7. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., fol. vol. 146, No. 96. 7 Second Rep. Hist. 
MSS. Com., App. 167. 8 Lennox Book, i. 28. By an order pronounced 
by the Boundary Commissioners under the Local Government (Scotland) 
Act 1889, dated 24 October 1890, these lands have been restored to the 
county of Dumbarton. 9 Rotuli Scotice, ii. 126. 10 Exch. Rolls, iii. 161- 
508. Acta Parl. Scot., i. 571. Ibid., i. 572. 



214 

of Dalzell, 1 and his death must have occurred in the same 
year. 

The Christian name of his first wife was Matilda, accord- 
ing to a charter of impignoration by Angus Hawincross of 
that Ilk of part of the lands of Boclair in favour of Sir 
Patrick of Graham, knight, son and heir to David de 
Graham, Lord of Dundaff, and Matilda, wife of the said 
Patrick, dated at the manor-place of Mugdock 24 August 
1372. 2 He married, secondly, about the year 1384, Buphemia 
or Egidia, daughter of Sir John Stewart of Ralston, the half- 
brother of Robert u., 3 with whom he obtained the lands of 
Culteranich in Upper Strathearn. 4 

The issue of his first marriage were : 

1. SIR WILLIAM, of whom below. 

2. Matilda, married to Sir John Drummond of Concraig. 5 
Of the second marriage there were born four sons : 

3. Patrick, who had a charter from his father with con- 

sent of Sir William of Graham, knight, his father's 
son and heir, of the lands of Kinpunt and Eliston in 
West Lothian, with a destination failing heirs-male 
throughout to his brothers-german Robert, David, 
and Alexander successively. 8 About the year 1406 
he married his second cousin Euphemia, Countess 
Palatine of Strathearn, daughter and heiress of David 
Stewart, Earl of Strathearn, son of Robert n., and 
Euphemia Ross, and became in her right Earl of 
Strathearn 7 (see that title). From their son Malise 
were descended the Earls of Menteith. (See also that 
title.) 

4. Sir Robert, generally designed of Kinpunt, having 

probably succeeded to that estate on his brother's 
advancement to the earldom of Strathearn. From 
what is related of his acquaintance with 'lawe 
positive and canone and civill bothe,' 8 it is not un- 
reasonable to suppose that he was that son of Sir 
Patrick Graham who was a student at Paris in the 

1 Eleventh Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App., Pt. vi. 24. * Lennox Book, i. 
162. 3 Exch. Rolls, iv. cxcii. 4 Second Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 167. 
6 Crawfurd's Peerage, 337, and Genealogy of Ho. of Drummond, 41. 
6 Third Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 397. 7 Sir Harris Nicolas, Hist, of 
Earldom of Strathern, etc., 16. 8 ' Cronykill of the Dethe and False 
Murdure of James Stewarde, Kyng of Scotys,' in Misc. Scotica, ii. 26. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 215 

year 1394 along with John Stewart, a natural son of 
Robert n. 1 He was the leading actor in the murder 
of James I. at Perth on 20 February 1436-37, and 
justified on the scaffold the part he took in it. 2 
Viscount Strathallan mentions * an indenture of the 
date 1399 ' between Sir Patrick Graham of Kincar- 
dine and Sir John Oliphant of Aberdalgie * that Robin 
de Graham, sone of the said Sir Patrick the Grahame, 
shal wed to wyffe, God willand, Marion Oliphant, 
daughter of the said Sir John, with many remark- 
able and singular conditions very well worthie of the 
observing.' 3 Sir Robert Grabam had a son Thomas, 
witness to the infeftment of Lucas of Stirling in the 
lands of the Kere 22 January 1433-34, 4 who suffered 
with him for the murder of the King. 5 There is a 
charter by Sir James Hamilton of Oadzow to Marion 
Oliphant, and her sons Robert, Walter, Patrick, and 
Umfrid Grahame, of the lands of Oessford, on 24 
February 1446-47. 6 

5. David, 7 who had a charter from Robert, Duke of 

Albany, of the lands of Mukclere (Mucklaree) in the 
barony of Oluny. 8 In 1406 David de Feme, burgess 
of Perth, had a charter of the same lands from 
Robert, Duke of Albany, Governor of Scotland, on 
the resignation of David de Grame ' dilecti consan- 
guinei nostri.' 9 

6. Alexander, who, with his brother Robert, witnesses a 

charter by Robert, Duke of Albany, to Sir William 
Graham, dated 4 August 1420, 10 and as 'patruus' of 
Patrick, Lord Graham, witnesses a charter by him 
at Mugdock, 23 October 1460, when he must have 
been upwards of seventy years of age. 11 

SIR WILLIAM DE GRAHAM was present in a Justiciary 
Court of Strathearn when Alexander de Moravia, indicted 
for the slaughter of William de Spalding, was repledged by 

1 Exch. Molls, iii. 347. 2 'Cronykill' in Misc. Scotica, ii., ut supra. 
3 Genealogy of Ho. of Drummond, 166. * Stlrlings of Keir, 211. 
6 ' Cronykill ' in Misc. Scotica, ii., ut supra. 6 Fourteenth Rep. Hist. 
MSS. Com., App. iii. 16. 7 Third Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 397. 
8 Robertson's Index, 144. 9 Beg. Mag. Sig., fol. vol. 240, No. 44. 10 Beg. 
Mag. Sig., 29 August 1430. Original Writ, Buchanan. 



216 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

Robert, Earl of Fife, afterwards Duke of Albany, by the 
law of Clan Macduff, 7 December 1391. l He had a charter 
from Alice of Erth, Lady of Oraigbernard, of certain lands 
in Mugdock wherein he is styled Lord of Kincardyn, 13 
February 1400- 1. 2 He had also a grant from Archibald, 
fourth Earl of Douglas, of Logyachray in Stirlingshire, 3 and 
apparently by the favour of that powerful nobleman ap- 
pears to have become a tenant in chief of the Crown for 
his barony of Dundaff on the forfeiture of George of Dunbar, 
Earl of March. Accompanying the Earl of Douglas in his 
invasion of England, he was made prisoner with him at 
Homildon Hill 14 September 1402, but was soon after ran- 
somed. 4 After Douglas had been again made prisoner at 
Shrewsbury 1403, Sir William on 8 March 1405 had a safe- 
conduct from Henry rv. to commune with the Earl of Fife 
(Murdoch, son of the Duke of Albany) and Earl of Douglas, 
' being with the King,' on certain matters touching their 
condition. 5 In the following year he was one of the 
hostages for the return of Earl Douglas temporarily liber- 
ated. 6 In the same year he was a commissioner receiving 
a safe-conduct to go to England to treat for peace or a 
long truce between the kingdoms. 7 He had a charter from 
Robert, Duke of Albany, of the lands of Old Montrose and 
others, 8 was an adherent of the Duke, by whom he is styled 
' consanguineus carissimus,' 9 and is a frequent witness to 
charters granted by Albany as Governor of Scotland. He 
was at different times one of the commissioners sent by 
the Duke to England to treat for the release of James I. 
having safe-conducts both from Henry iv. and Henry v. for 
that purpose. 10 He was an Auditor in Exchequer March 
1405, and at intervals till June 1418. 11 Towards the end 
of his life he acquired from Duncan, Earl of Lennox, the 
superiority of Mugdock and his other extensive estates in 
the Lennox, which have since been held directly of the 
Crown, 12 and he obtained new charters of his other estates, 
with the exception of Kincardine, the fee of which he had 

1 Liber Insulce Missarum, xl-1, see also Genealogy of Ho. of Drummond, 
43. 2 Lennox Book, ii. 54. 3 Robertson's Index, 148. 4 Cal. Doc. Scot., 
iv. p. 403 ; Rotuli Scotia, ii. 172. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot. , iv. 675. 6 Rymer's Fcedera, 
viii. 429. r Ibid., viii. 461. 8 Haddington Collection. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig., 
fol vol. 236, No. 35. 10 Rymer's Fcedera, ix. 5, 48. Exch. Rolls, iii. 613 ; 
iv. 306. 12 Reg. Mag. Sig., 28 August 1430. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTBOSB 217 

previously settled on his eldest son. 1 From these charters 
the names of his sons are ascertained. 

In some of the charters by Robert and Murdoch, Dukes 
of Albany, and of the English letters of safe-conduct from 
the year 1412, he is styled Dominus de Graham or Lord 
Graham, which has led Orawfurd and Douglas to assign him 
the position of first Lord Graham, but in the latest of the 
charters above referred to by Duncan, Earl of Lennox, of 
the lands in that earldom, dated 10 August 1423 he is 
styled simply 'Dominus Willielmus de Graham miles.' 
That is also his designation in a charter granted by him of 
the lands of Ballancleroch at Campsie, dated at Mugdock 
11 August 1423. 2 Probably the title * Dominus de Graham ' 
was used by him simply as a comprehensive term in place 
of Dominus * de Dundaff ' or * de Kincardine ' as formerly. 
He died in 1424. 3 

He married, first, in his father's lifetime, a lady whose 
name is not certainly known. Orawfurd, followed by 
Douglas and (with hesitation) by Wood, calls her Mariota, 
daughter of Sir John Oliphant of Aberdalgie, but he 
gives no authority, and there is probably confusion with 
the wife of his brother Robert. 4 He married, secondly, 
before 1416, the Princess Mary (or Mariota) Stewart, 
daughter of Robert in., and widow of George, Earl of 
Angus, and of Sir James Kennedy of Dunure, and perhaps 
also of Sir William Cunningham of Kilmaurs (see title 
Glencairn). After the death of Sir William de Graham, 
Princess Mary was married in 1425, for the fourth or fifth 
time, to Sir William Edmonstone, by whom she was ances- 
tress of the Edmonstones of Duntreath. She died after 
1458, and was buried in the parish church of Strathblane. 5 

The children of the first marriage of Sir William de 
Graham, so far as known, were: 

1. ALEXANDER, of whom below. 

2. JoTm, who appears as a substitute in a charter by 

Murdoch, Duke of Albany, to his father of the 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 29 August 1430. 2 Lennox Book, ii. 411. The seal 
attached to this charter is, on a shield, quarterly, 1st and 4th, on a chief 
three escallop shells, 2nd and 3rd, three cinquefoils, each with five blades. 
The circumscription is ' S. Willm Gramis De Mot Ros ac Kinkar.' 3 Exch. 
Rolls, iv. clxxiv. 4 Crawfurd's Peerage, 338. 6 Genealogical Account 
of Edmonstone Family, 31. 



218 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 

barony of Dundaff and others dated 8 January 1421- 
22, 1 and is probably the same who witnesses a 
charter by Archibald, Duke of Touraine, Earl of 
Douglas, to the Priory of St. Andrews, 2 and who, as 
John de Graham, armiger, witnesses an instrument 
regarding the Abbey of Oambuskenneth's lands in 
Dunipace 21 January 1426-27. 3 

3. Elizabeth, who was contracted, but not married, to 

Robert de Keith, Marshal of Scotland, and again con- 
tracted to Walter, Earl of Caithness, the youngest 
son of Robert n. by Eupheinia Ross the mandate 
for the dispensation being dated 1 August 1404. 4 
She was finally married to Sir John Stewart of 
Dundonald, natural son of Robert n., between 1412 
and 1414. 5 

The issue of the second marriage, as appears from the 
charter of Dundaff and others above mentioned, were : 

4. Sir Robert Graham, variously designed of Old Mon- 

trose, of Ewisdale, of Strathcarron, and of Fintry, 
was fiar or first substitute in a charter by Robert, 
Duke of Albany, Governor of Scotland, in favour of 
William, Lord Graham and Mariota Stewart, his 
spouse, sister of the King, in conjunct fee and life- 
rent, of the lands of Old Montrose, Charlton, and 
Kynnaber in the shire of Forfar dated 4 August 1420. 6 
He afterwards resigned the lands contained in this 
charter to his nephew, Patrick, Lord Graham, in 
exchange for the lands of Craigton or Fintry in 
Stirlingshire. 7 He acquired from his nephew George, 
Earl of Angus, the lands of Earl's Strathdichty (which 
came to be called Fintry, when the Stirlingshire 
Fintry reverted to the main line of the family in the 
seventeenth century) and Ballargus in Forfarshire. 8 
He married, first, Janet Lovel, daughter of Sir 
Richard Lovel of Ballumbie, and secondly Matilda, 
daughter of Sir James Scrimgeour of Dudhope. 
From him are descended the Grahams of Fintry, 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 29 August 1430. 2 Beg. Prior S. Andree, 406. 3 Cart, 
of Cambuskenneth, 114, 116. 4 Regesta Vaticana, 326, fol. 220. 5 Exch. 
Rolls, iv. 202, 254. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 29 August 1430. 7 Second Rep. Hist. 
MSS. Com., App. 167. 8 Douglas Book, ii. 46, 57, iii. 84. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 219 

with their cadets of Ballargus, Olaverhouse (after- 
wards Viscounts Dundee see that title) and 
Duntrune. He was also the father of Patrick 
Graham, Bishop of Brechin in 1463, and Archbishop 
of St. Andrews 1471-78. 1 

5. Patrick, named in the charter cited. He has been 

supposed by Douglas and Wood to have been the 
Archbishop of St. Andrews, but probably died 
young s.p. 

6. William, who had a grant of the lands of Garvock con- 

firmed by James in. 1473, ancestor of the Grahams of 
Balgowan, including the gallant General Sir Thomas 
Graham, Lord Lynedoch, the hero of Barossa, and the 
Grahams of Eskbank, and Redgorton. 

7. Henry, who presumably died young s.p. 

8. Walter, who had a charter from his nephew Patrick, 

Lord Graham, of the lands of Wallaceton and Ardoch- 
more, Dumbartonshire, dated 6 September 1444, 2 and 
another from John Maxwell of Oalderwood and 
Auchincloich of the lands of Auchincloich, Hilton, 
and Aldmarroch in the Lennox, reserving the life- 
rent of Mariota Stewart, Countess of Angus, his 
mother, dated 31 December 1450. 3 He was ancestor 
of the Grahams of Knockdolian in Ayrshire, who 
attained to considerable prominence in the sixteenth 
century, and their cadets, Grugar, Auchincloich (in 
Kilpatrick), Auchinhowie, and, it is said,Dougalston. 4 

ALEXANDER GRAHAM, the eldest son, as 'Alexander de 
Graym, filius et haeresDomini de Graym,' had safe-conducts 
on 31 July 1408 and 18 May 1412 to go into England as a 
hostage for Murdoch of Fife, son of the Duke of Albany. 5 
He had a charter from Euphemia, Oountess of Strathearn, 
of the lands of Oallandermore and Callanderbeg 13 July 
1414, 6 and witnessed a charter by the Duke of Albany to 
William de Hay of Errol, dated at Falkland 14 March 
1415-16. 7 He died in the lifetime of his father, probably 

1 This is proved by a writ in the Morton Charter-chest. Reg. Honor, de 
Morton, ii. 213. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., 7 September 1444. 3 Ibid., 15 January 
1450-51. 4 Trans, of Glas. Archceol. Soe.,NewSer., 376. 6 Rotuli Scotice, 
ii. 187, 200; Rymer's Fcedera, viii. 544. Third Rep. Hist. MSS. Com. 
App. 397. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig., 16 June 1430. 



220 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

before 1420. The name of his wife is not known. His 
sons were : 

1. PATRICK, of whom below. 

2. Alexander, who is known only as an occasional wit- 

ness to his brother's writs. 

3. Katherine, married to Humphrey Moray of Ogilvy 

and Abercairny. 1 

I. PATRICK DE GRAHAM, the elder son, had a precept from 
Walter, Earl of Atholl and Caithness, as tutor of law to 
Malise, Earl of Strathearn, for infefting him as heir of his 
father, Alexander de Graham, in the lands of Kincardine, to 
be held blench, and lands of Oallandermore and Callander- 
beg to be held ward, dated 10 November 1424. 2 It having 
been provided in the treaty with England for the release 
of James I. that the original hostages for payment of the 
King's ransom might be exchanged for others of equal rank, 
there was, on 8 March 1427, an order by the English 
Government for release of Gilbert Hay, son of the 
Constable of Scotland, * the Lord Graham ' being received 
in his place. On 20 June 1432 there was an order permitting 
him to return home on a further exchange, in which order 
he is styled simply Patrick Graham. 3 There is no record 
of his taking any active part in public affairs during the 
strenuous reign of the first James. His sympathies were 
probably with the disaffected nobles, but prudence dictated 
a policy of effacement, if not an absence abroad. On 1 July 
1444 he had a remission of the fine levied on his lands of 
Nether Pirny in Strathearn 'propter absenciam domini 
ejusdem. 1 4 The annexation of the earldom of Strathearn 
to the Crown made a further important difference to his 
feudal status, his lands of Kincardine becoming a Crown 
fief ; and accordingly he obtained, about 1444, a new charter 
and infeftment of these lands erected into a barony. 5 In 
1458 his lands in the Lennox were also erected into a barony 
of Mugdock. 6 On 13 January 1460-61 he and William the 
Graham, his heir, entered into an indenture with Robert 
Graham of Fintry and David Graham his son, confirming 

1 Abercairny Inventory. 2 Original Writ, Buchanan. 3 Rymer's 
Fcedera, x. 372, 510 ; Rotuli Scotice, ii. 277, 278. * Exch. Rolls, v. 173, 175. 
6 Second Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 167. 6 Reg. Mag. Rig., 24 October 
1458. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 221 

the exchange of Old Montrose and others in Forfarshire 
by Fintry for the lands of Fintry and Buchlyvie in Stir- 
lingshire. 1 Prior to 28 June 1445 he was raised to 
the Peerage under the title of LORD GRAHAM, sitting 
at that date for the first time as a Lord of Parlia- 
ment. 2 He was keeper of Dumbarton Castle and Sheriff 
of Perth under James n. ; 3 in 1457 represented the 
King at a general council of the church at Perth ; 4 and in 
1451, 1457, and 1459 was- an envoy to England under safe- 
conducts from Henry vi. 5 He witnessed a charter by Queen 
Mary of Gueldres to the Abbey of Holyrood on 16 April 
1459, 6 and was one of the four ' governors ' chosen by her 
for the boy King, James in. 7 On 5 March 1464-65 he was 
one of those appointed to remain with the King at Berwick 
during negotiations at Newcastle for a renewed truce 
with England. 8 In 1460 he excambed the old family estate 
on Lochlomond-side, and the lands and lake of Corriearklet 
to Patrick Buchanan of that Ilk, for the lands of Balmore 
and Ledlewan, near Mugdock. 9 He obtained, on 10 July 
1462, a bond of manrent from Sir John Ogilvy of Lintrethin, 
upon a curious consideration, viz. in respect of his having 
given Sir John the same privilege of fishing upon a certain 
part of the water of Northesk then flowing through his (Lord 
Graham's) barony of Kinnaber, as he, Sir John, had had 
when the said water ran as the march between his lands 
of Wardropton and Lord Graham's lands. 10 The last certain 
mention of Lord Graham is in a deed dated 24 June 1466 ; " 
and he died in that year. 

Patrick, Lord Graham, married Christian, daughter of 
Sir Robert Erskine. 12 She survived him, and married, 
secondly, William Charteris of Kinfauns. 13 She appears in 
the records of the Lords Auditors between 1474 and 1479 in 
at least three lawsuits, in all of which judgment was given 
in her favour. 14 Their children, so far as known, were : 

1. WILLIAM, second Lord Graham. 

1 Second Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 167. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 59. 
3 Exch. Rolls, v. 411, vii. 111. * Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 83. 6 Rymer's 
Fcedera, xi. 286, 389, 423 ; Rotuli Scotice, ii. 347, 378, 390 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., 
iv. 1281. 6 Liber Cart. Sanctce Crucis, 148. r Genealogy of the House of 
Drummond, 167. 8 Acta Parl. Scot., xii. Supp. 30. 9 Original Writs, 
Buchanan. 10 Ibid. u Ibid. 12 Diocesan Registers of Glasgow (Grampian 
Club), ii. 296. 13 Acta Audit., 46. u Ibid., 34, 36, 46, 87. 



222 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

2. David, who witnessed his brother's infeftment in 
Dundaff, Mugdock and Airthray, 13 May 1467, ' and, 
as David Graham of Gargunnock, was present at 
the marriage of his nephew, William, third Lord 
Graham, 1479, 2 supposed ancestor of the Grahams 
of Meiklewood, vassals of the Lords Erskine. 

3". Mr. James. 

4. Robert. 

These three younger sons were all still in life in 1488, being 
substituted in a charter by James m., dated 23 May in 
that year, in favour of William, third Lord Graham, next 
after the heirs-male of his own body and his brothers 
german. 3 

5. Janet, married (bond of relief by her father to 

cautioners for her tocher is dated 16 June 1455) 
to Gilbert Keith of Inverugie. 4 

6. Elizabeth, married (agreement or articles dated 19 

December 1480) to William Livingston of Kilsyth. 5 

II. WILLIAM, second Lord Graham, sat in Parliament 
9 October 1466, and, on 23 November following, had a pro- 
tection from Edward iv., along with his relative Patrick, 
Bishop of St. Andrews, and others, for two years, to come 
to England, and thence to go to France, Flanders, etc., 
and return to Scotland. 6 It is known that Bishop Graham 
went to Rome, and remained there for some years, but how 
far Lord Graham availed himself of the protection is doubt- 
ful. He sat in Parliament again on 14 October 1467 and 21 
November 1469, 7 and died about the year 1471. 

He married, prior to 1460, Eleanor or Elene Douglas, 
daughter of William, second Earl of Angus, 8 who survived 
him. In an action pursued by her against her mother-in- 
law, Christian, Lady Graham, in 1474, the latter success- 
fully pleaded the exception 'again ye said Elene yt scho 
suld be under sentence of cursing. 9 In May 1478 the Abbot 

1 Original Writ, Buchanan. 2 Burgh of Stirling Records (1887), 265. 
3 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. * Slains Charters. 5 Vol. v. of this work, 
186. 6 Rymer's Fcedera, xi. 575 ; Rotuli Scotia, ii. 420. " Acta Parl. Scot., 
ii. 85, 93. 8 It has been thought she was the daught-er of George, fourth 
Earl of Angus [see vol. i. 178, and the Douglas Book, ii. 64], but in a writ 
of 9 December 1460, penes Lord Ruthven, she refers to William Douglas 
of Cluny as her brother, and he was brother of Earl George. 9 Acta 
Audit., 34, 36. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 223 

and Convent of Arbroath granted a lease to Helene, Lady 
Graham, and Oliver, her son, of the lands of Balfour and 
Kirkton, with the mill and teind sheaves, for nineteen years 
from Whitsunday 1480. 1 

The children of William, second Lord Graham, so far as 
known, were : 

1. WILLIAM, third Lord Graham. 

2. George, ancestor of the Grahams of Oallendar, his 

brother William, third Lord Graham, having a licence 
from King James iv. to alienate to him these lands, 
part of the barony of Kincardine, to cure a recogni- 
tion incurred by a prior alienation without consent, 
the King's charter dated 28 February 1508-9. 2 He fell 
at Flodden 9 September 1513. 

3. Patrick, substituted after George in the charter of 

1488 above mentioned. Taking orders, he became 
a canon of the Cathedral Church of Glasgow and 
rector of the University. 3 

4. Oliver, named in the lease to his mother of 1478, 4 but, 

as he is not mentioned in the charter of 1488, he 
probably died young. 

5. Jean or Marion, said to have been married to John, 

second Lord Ogilvy of Airlie. 

6. Christian, married, first, to James Haldane of Glen- 

eagles, and secondly, as his second wife, before 1504, 
to Sir Thomas Maule of Panmure. 5 

7. Agnes, married to Sir Walter Forrester of Garden. 6 

III. WILLIAM, third Lord Graham, was a minor at his 
father's death, and his ward and marriage were granted 
by James in. to Thomas, Lord Brskine, and James Shaw of 
Sauchie. The records of the Burgh of Stirling bear that on 
16 May 1477 William, Lord le Grame, being in the four- 
teenth year of his age, swore upon the gospels to stand for 
his profit and honour to the counsel and deliverances of 
Thomas, Lord le Brskine, his uncle, Alexander Erskine, 
Lord Brskine's son and heir-apparent, John Drummond of 

1 Liber de Aberbrothock, ii. 176. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 3 Fraser's 
Chiefs of Colquhoun, i. 86. * Liber de Aberbrothock, ut supra. 5 Acta 
Dom. Cone., xxiv. f. 92, where both her husbands are referred to. Cf. 
Reg. de Panmure, ii. 276, 279. 6 Ada Parl. Scot., ii. 578. 



224 GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 

Cargill, afterwards first Lord Drummond, and Mr. John 
Lyon of Ourtastone, in all his actions and rules touching 
his person and lordship till the twenty-first year of his age 
complete, the curators on the other hand promising them 
to give good and salutary counsel to their ward. 1 The 
ward and marriage were afterwards redeemed for the 
minor by Lord Drummond for 1500 merks. 2 Lord Graham 
sat in the Parliaments of James Hi. in 1479, 1481, 1482 and 
1487, 3 and supported the cause of that monarch against his 
son and the confederated Lords, being present on the royal 
side at the battle of Sauchieburn, 11 June 1488. He was 
soon received into favour, and even familiar friendship, by 
James iv., 4 and sat in this sovereign's first Parliament 
6 October 1488, and in the second 6 February 1491-92. 4 
His principal acquisitions were the estates of Aberuthven 
and Inchbrakie in Perthshire. 6 Between 7 July 7 and 
20 November 1503 8 he was created EARL OF MON- 
TROSB, and sat as such in Parliament 3 February 
1505-6. 9 On 3 March 1504-5 as William, Earl of Mon- 
trose, he had had a charter upon his own resignation of 
the lands of Old Montrose, which lands, the charter bears, 
belonged hereditarily to him by the grant of Robert I. and 
the confirmation of David n. under their Great Seals, to 
his predecessors, and which James iv. now erected into 
the free barony and earldom of Montrose. 10 Of the same 
date he had three other charters, viz. a new erection of 
the barony of Kincardine, of Aberuthven, Inchbrakie, and 
others united into a barony of Aberuthven, and of Kyn- 
naber in Forfarshire also erected into a barony. The Earl 
accompanied James iv. in his ill-starred invasion of Eng- 
land, and fell at Flodden, * sub vexillo regis,' along with his 
brother George of Oallendar, and his brother-in-law, Sir 
William Edmondstone of Duntreath, 9 September 1513. 

1 Stirling Records, 262. 2 Cf. Discharge dated in 1480, Gen. of Ho. of 
Drummond, 147. 3 ActaParl. Scot.,ii. 124,137, 142, 175. 4 The Treasurer's 
Accounts, under date 23 November 1507, bear this entry, ' Item, that day 
afternone, to the King to play at the cartes with Schir Duncan Forestar 
and the Earle of Montros, iij li. xs. ; Accounts, iv. 85. 6 Acta Parl. 
Scot., ii. 200, 229. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 16 July 1498, 20 January 1501-2. 
r Sasine in favour of Lord Erskine of that date, Buchanan Writs. 
8 Eleventh Rep. of Hist. MSS. Com., Appendix, Pt. vi. 31, where he is 
styled Earl of Montrose. 9 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 262. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig., 
at date. 



225 

The Earl married, first, in the parish church of Muthill, 
on 25 November 1479, in virtue of a dispensation by the 
Ohurch, Annabel Drummond, one of the five fair daughters 
of John, Lord Drummond, 1 who is conjoined with her 
husband in a charter by James in. of the lands of Old 
Montrose (the manor-place whereof was then inhabited by 
the said William, Lord Graham) and other lands, dated 28 
January 1487-88, 2 and must have survived till the close of 
the century, as her son William, second Earl, was still 
a minor at his father's death; secondly, Janet, eldest 
daughter of Sir Archibald Edmonstone of Duntreath, 
who is conjoined with him in the charter of the barony of 
Aberuthven, dated 17 March 1504-5, 3 and was dead before 
15 April 1506 ; and lastly, to Christian Wawane of Seggie 
in Fifeshire, relict of Patrick, Lord Halyburton* (see that 
title). The children of the first Earl of Montrose were : 

1. WILLIAM, second Earl, a son of the first marriage, of 

whom below. 

2. Walter , a younger son of the first marriage, who had 

a tack of Little Oairnie for nineteen years from the 
Abbot of Inchaffray, 8 January 1541-42, 5 and appears 
to have been ancestor of the second family of the 
Grahams of Thornick, afterwards Cairnie. 6 

3. Patrick, son of the third marriage, ancestor of the 

Grahams of Inchbrakie and their cadets Gorthie, 
Bucklyvie, Airth, Strowan, Graemes-hall, etc. His 
charter of Inchbrakie from his father is dated 20 
June 1513. 7 

4. Helen, married to Humphrey Golquhoun, younger of 

Luss. They had a dispensation to marry, being within 
the fourth degree of consanguinity, 13 July 1509. 8 

5. J , married to David Graham, third of Fintry. 9 

6. Elizabeth, married, in February 1513-14, to her cousin 

Walter, Master of Drummond, grandson of John, 
first Lord Drummond, 10 who died v.p. 

1 Stirling Records, 265; Gen. of Ho. of Drummond, 147. 2 Reg. Mag. 
Sig., at date. 3 Ibid. * Ibid., 24 May 1505; Exch. Bolls, xiii. 150. 
5 Dupplin Charters. 6 Act Book Com. of Dunblane, 29 October 1551, 
and Dupplin Inventory. 7 Inchbrakie Charters. 8 Diocesan Regs, of 
Glasgow, ii. 295, 296. Sir William Fraser in The Chiefs of Colguhoun, 
i. 104, calls her, incorrectly, Catherine. 9 Ms. Mem. at Buchanan, which 
gives the initial only. 10 Original Writ, Drummond Castle. 

VOL. VI. P 



226 GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 

7. Margaret, who, as daughter of the second marriage, 
was in April 1506, in her infancy, contracted to John, 
Master of Lennox, son and heir-apparent of Matthew, 
Earl of Lennox, 1 which marriage did not take place, 
and she was afterwards married (contract 10 July 
- 1510 2 ) to Sir John Somerville of Cambusnethan. 

Lord Graham is said to have had other issue : 

Andrew Graham, sometime vicar of Wick, consecrated 
Bishop of Dunblane in 1575, is said to have been a 
younger son of the third marriage, 3 but this is 
doubtful. 

Jean, who, according to Lord Strathallan, was by 
William Ohisholm, Bishop of Dunblane, the mother 
of a daughter Jean, who became, in 1542, the second 
wife of Sir James Stirling of Keir, 4 but she is not 
mentioned in her supposed father's will. 5 

IV. WILLIAM, second Earl of Montrose, was under age 
at the death of his father, 6 but in virtue of the Act of 
24 August, was served his heir 24 October, 1513. 7 He 
early displayed qualities of prudence and statesmanship 
which enabled him, during a long life, extending over 
the reigns of James v. and Mary, to take an honourable, 
if not a very prominent, part in the conduct of public 
affairs. In 1525, several Lords being appointed by Parlia- 
ment to attend the King's person quarterly, the Earl of 
Montrose was one of four appointed to serve from Beltane 
to Lammas. 8 Having been named an ambassador to France 
in connection with the marriage of James v., June 1535, 9 
he was one of the Commission of Regency to conduct the 
government during the King's absence in France in the same 
connection, 29 August 1536. 10 He supported the measures 
taken by the King against the Earl of Angus and the 
English party, and on 29 May 1542 obtained, for his good 

1 Lennox Book, 339. 2 Memorie of the Somervilles, i. 307. 3 Keith's 
Catalogue, 107, but the statement there made is not confirmed by the 
writ at Buchanan founded on. It seems more probable that Bishop 
Graham was a son of the Laird of Morphie, as stated by Grub, Eccles. 
Hist., ii. 192. 4 Gen. of Ho. of Drummond, 179; Stirlings of Keir, 39. 
6 Spalding Club Misc., v. 320. 6 Precept by the Earl and his tutors in 
favour of Robert Graham of Knockdolian, 22 May 1514. Montrose MS. 
Collection. 7 Original Retour, Buchanan. 8 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 295. 
9 Hamilton Papers, i. 15. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 227 

service ' and for special favour,' a grant in feu of the 
King's lands of Rathernes and Blacksaugh, in the stewartry 
of Strathearn, 1 afterwards acquiring by purchase the lands 
of Orchill and Garvock in the same district. 2 

In the Parliament held at Edinburgh on 15 March 1542- 
43 he was present and voted for the election of James, Earl 
of Arran, as Governor of the Kingdom during the minority 
of Queen Mary ; 3 but in the differences which arose between 
the Regent and Cardinal Bethune he supported the Car- 
dinal. 4 He was one of those appointed to attend con- 
tinually upon the person of the infant Queen in Stirling 
Castle, and was a leading member of the Regent's Council. 5 
On 11 January 1545-46 he had a charter ' for his good 
service in standing by the Queen at the field of Stirling, 
and for his guarding of the Castle of Stirling and her 
person,' of many lands forfeited by Mathew, Earl of Lennox, 6 
which he retained till the restoration of Lennox by Queen 
Mary in 1564. 7 He was with the Regent Arran at the 
siege of Broughty Castle in November 1547. 8 When Arran 
demitted the regency in favour of the Queen-Dowager, 
Mary of Lorraine, the Earl of Montrose was one of the 
noblemen who, at the request of the Dowager and Henry n. 
of France, executed a bond in favour of the late Governor, 
now Duke of Ohatelherault, engaging to keep him scatheless 
in respect of his intromissions 12 April 1554. 9 He was not 
present in the Parliament of August 1560, which declared 
the jurisdiction and authority of the Pope within Scotland 
to be at an end, 10 and was the only nobleman who attended 
Queen Mary's first mass after her arrival in Scotland from 
France." He was made a member of the Privy Council 6 
September 1561," but is not recorded as attending any of 
Mary's Parliaments after her return from France. The 
Queen, in her progress to the north, dined and supped 
with the Earl at Kincardine on 18 August 1562, and left 
for Perth the next day after dinner. 13 William Ohisholm, 
second of that name, Bishop of Dunblane, being at 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 29 May 1542. 2 Original Writ, Buchanan. 3 Ada 
Parl. Scot., ii. 594. 4 Hamilton Papers, i. 556. 5 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 442 ; 
P. C. Reg., i. 5, 141. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 7 Orig. Writs, Buchanan. 
8 Cal. of State Papers, i. 44. Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 603. 10 Ibid., 525. 
11 Cal. of State Papers, i. 547. 12 P. C. Reg., i. 157. 13 Ms. Book of Sir J. 
Ogilvie, Master of the Household to Mary, Queen of Scots ; cf . Mary, 
Queen of Scots, by D. Hay Fleming, 522. 



228 GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 

Rome in the year 1563, gave the name of the Earl of 
Montrose amongst others to Pope Pius iv. as one of 
those remaining in the faith, each of the noblemen thus 
named receiving from his Holiness an autograph letter of 
exhortation. 1 In a memorial by Thomas Bishop to Cecil, 
dated 3 February 1565, the Earl of Montrose is included in 
a list of probable enemies to the restored Lennox, 2 but 
notwithstanding this he favoured the marriage between 
the Queen and Lord Darnley. 3 In the troubles which fol- 
lowed the Darnley marriage the Earl appears to have 
steered a middle course, and to have been to a certain 
extent trusted by all parties. In May 1565, in a submission 
between Lady Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, and 
the young Earl of Angus, as to the succession to the Angus 
estates, he was named * odman,' or oversman, * equalie 
chosen be baith pairtis.' 4 On 3 June 1565 Randolph, 
writing to Cecil, names him as one of the noblemen on 
the Queen's side. 5 With other noblemen the Earl came 
to Edinburgh after the Queen's marriage to Bothwell, 
to avenge the King's murder, and secure the separation 
of the Queen from Bothwell, 6 but he was of the number 
who dissented from the deposition of the Queen and her 
imprisonment in Lochleven Castle. 7 Upon her escape be 
joined her at Hamilton, and signed the bond for her sup- 
port 8 May 1568, 8 but he was not among those who took 
the field for her, and his grandson and heir, a strong 
reformer, was on the other side. 9 In his will, dated at 
Kincardine 22 May 1570, 10 the Earl desires that if he 
* departs ' in Strathearn he shall be buried at Aberuthven, 
but if at Montrose then in the church of St. Mungo there. 
Still reputed a papist, he died at Kincardine 24 May 1571. 

The second Earl of Montrose was first contracted, on 10 
July 1510, to Mary, eldest daughter of Sir John Somerville 
of Quothquhan, 11 but the marriage never took place, and 
in December 1515 he married Janet Keith, daughter of 
William, Earl Marischal, who predeceased him between 
27 August 1546 and 25 August 1547. 12 

1 Robertson, Statuta Ecclesice Scoticance, Pref., 167, 168. 2 Cal. of State 
Papers, ii. 119. 3 Ibid., 173. Lennox Book, ii. 135. 5 Keith's Hist.. 
fol., 283. 6 Ibid., 399. 7 P. C. Reg., xiv. 22. 8 Cal. State Papers, ii. 403. 
9 Ibid., 405. 10 Edin. Tests., 7 June 1576. " Memorie of the Somervilles, 
[. 306. 12 Original Writs, Buchanan. 



229 

Their children were : 

1. ROBERT, Master of Graham, of whom below. 

2. Alexander, who had a charter from his father of the 

lands of Wallacetown, dated 17 May 1535, which 
lands were afterwards redeemed from him by Robert 
Graham of Knockdolian, 1 and another charter, dated 
25 March 1536, from his cousin David, Lord Drum- 
mond, of the lands of West Pordoun and others, and 
the third part of the farms of the burgh of Auchter- 
arder, which lands he sold to his brother Mungo in 
1564. 2 In the marriage-contract of his nephew John, 
Master of Graham, 1562-63, he is designed * Pensioner 
of Oambuskenneth.' 3 He married Marion, daughter 
of George, third Lord Seton, formerly wife of Thomas, 
Master of Borthwick, and widow of Hugh, Earl of 
Eglinton, 4 it is supposed without issue. 

3. William, an ecclesiastic, was admitted, on his father's 

presentation, to a Oanonry in Glasgow Cathedral and 
the Rectory of Killearn 2 June 1549. 5 He had a 
charter from his father of the lands of Killearn, 
Ibert, and Drumbeg, dated 7 January 1560, 6 and died 
about the year 1597. 7 By one Elizabeth Stirling he 
had a natural son John, who founded the family of 
Graham of Killearn, 8 the last of whom, Robert 
Graham, sold the estate in 1752, and died at Twick- 
enham Park 30 September 1779. 9 

4. Mungo, who had a charter from his father of Rathernes, 

dated 25 August 1547, 10 and another of Orchill and 
Garvock, dated 8 December 1560. He married (con- 
tract 26 March 1571) Marjorie, daughter of Sir William 
Edmonstone of Duntreath, 12 was a Master of the 
Household to James vi. for many years, 13 and was 
dead before 15 May 1590, the date of a precept of 
clare constat by John, Earl of Montrose, in favour of 

1 Originals penes Napier of Kilmahew, 1736, p. Montrose MS. Collection. 
2 Original receipt penes Graham of Killearn, 1736, ibid. 3 Gen. of 
House of Drummond, 172. 4 Vol. iii. of this work, 439. 6 Orig. Writ, 
Buchanan. 6 Orig. penes Graham of Killearn, 1736, p. Montrose MS. 
Collections. 7 Original Writs, Buchanan. 8 Ibid. Montrose Chartu- 
lary, and memo, in Journal of second Duke. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig., 27 June 
1551. u Orchill Inventory at Buchanan. 12 Gen. Account of Edmonstone 
Family, App., 83. 13 Exch. Bolls, xxii. 30. 



230 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

his son Sir John Graham, second of Orchill. 1 His 
widow married, secondly (contract dated at Stirling 
17 September 1592), Sir John Maxwell of Pollok, 
then sixty-eight years of age. 2 The male repre- 
sentation of this family came to an end with David 
Graham of Orchill, M.P. for Perthshire, who died 
in 1726. 3 

5. Margaret, married to Robert, Master of Erskine (con- 

tract dated at Edinburgh 17 February 1534-35), 4 
without issue. 

6. Elizabeth, married to George, fourth Earl of Caithness 

(testament recorded 4 April 1576 5 ), and had issue. 

7. Nicolas, married to John Moray of Abercairny (instru- 

ment of resignation upon the contract, wherein 
Robert, Master of Graham, is procurator for the said 
Nicolas, his sister, dated 11 February 1539-40 6 ), and 
had issue. 

8. Agnes, substituted in an assignation by her brother 

Robert, Master of Graham, to his parents of a gift 
of the ward of part of the estate of his uncle Patrick 
Graham of Inchbrakie, 27 August 1546 ; 7 married 
(contract 15 April 1547 8 ) to Sir William Murray of 
Tullibardine, and had issue. 

9. Janet, married to Sir Andrew Murray of Balvaird 

(charter to her in her virginity by Andrew Murray, 
son and heir of Sir David Murray of Arngask, knight, 
of the lands of Lochton, Kippo, etc., dated 28 Sep- 
tember 1542 fl ), and had issue. 

10. Christian, married to Robert Graham of Knockdolian 
(liferent charter by him in her favour of the lands of 
Hilton and Auldmarroch, dated 7 May 1552 10 ), and 
had issue. 

ROBERT, Master of Graham, eldest son and apparent heir 
of William, second Earl of Montrose, was present in the 
first Parliament of Queen Mary 13 March 1542-43, and, with 
his father, voted for the election of the Earl of Arran as 

1 Original receipt penes Graham of Killearn, 1736, p. Montrose MS. 
Collection. 2 Eraser's Maxwells of Pollok, i. 39. 3 Original Writs, 
Buchanan. * Ibid. 6 Vol. ii. of this work, 340 ; Edin. Tests. Aber- 
cairny Inventory. 7 Original Writ, Buchanan. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig., 28 
May 1547. Ibid., 6 September 1548. 10 Original Writ, Buchanan. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 231 

Governor. 1 He was also, with his father, a member of the 
Convention at Stirling, 26 June 1545. 2 Having had the fee of 
the barony of Mugdock vested in him, he reconveyed it to 
his father, under reservation of his own and his wife's life- 
rent, by a charter dated at Edinburgh 4 September 1547. 3 
Six days later he fell on the field of Pinkie, being slain by 
a cannonshot from an English galley at the outset of the 
battle, ' with fi ve-and-twenty near by him.' 4 His brother- 
in-law, Robert, Master of Erskine, was also killed in this 
disastrous battle. Cardinal Beaton, writing in 1541, alludes 
to Madame d'Aubigny as having ' inaist ee ' as a second 
husband to the young Master of Graham, 5 but the Master 
married Margaret, daughter of Malcolm, Lord Fleming 
(receipt for tocher dated 6 January 1546-47 6 ), who, after 
his death, married, secondly, Thomas, Master of Erskine, 
and, thirdly, John, fourth Earl of Atholl, Chancellor of 
Scotland (see titles Atholl and Mar for further particulars 
regarding her). The only issue of the Master's marriage 
was a posthumous son, 7 

V. JOHN, third Earl of Montrose, whose prominence in 
the family history is next to that of his grandson, the great 
Marquess. As early as 1566, when he was but eighteen 
years of age, his grandfather had put him in possession of 
the castle and barony of Mugdock. 8 As Master of Graham 
he was present in the Parliament or Council at Stirling 
when Lord Darnley was created Duke of Albany in view of 
his marriage with Queen Mary, and on 1 August thereafter 
was in the Council at which a proclamation was issued by 
the King and Queen citing the Earl of Moray to appear 
and answer on pain of being put to the horn. 9 Adhering 
to the reformed religion, he was a member of the General 
Assembly, 20 July 1567, and signed the articles then agreed 
to. 10 He from the first espoused the cause of the Lords 
who acted against Queen Mary and Bothwell, being con- 
sulted on all important occasions, as at the opening of the 

1 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 410, 594. 2 Ibid., ii. 594. 3 Original Writ, Buchanan. 
4 Patten's Account of Somerset's Exped. (reprint), 54. 6 Scot. Hist. Review, 
vi. 154. 6 Wigtown Writs. r Crawfurd's Officers of State, 152. 8 Original 
Writs, Buchanan. 9 P. C. Reg., i. 335, 347. 10 Keith's Hist., fol., 
581. 



232 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

famous silver casket in Edinburgh, 21 June 1567. 1 ' Johne 
Maistir of Grahame ' is one of the parties named in the 
procuratory which Mary granted at Lochleven, 24 July 
1567, for receiving her renunciation and demission of the 
Grown in favour of her son, and on the following day he 
was one of the signatories of the order for the delivery of 
the regalia in order to the coronation of the infant James vi. 2 
He was one of the Lords who, on the same day, refused 
the English ambassador, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, liberty 
of access to the imprisoned Queen, and on the 29 he was 
present at the coronation at Stirling. 3 He fought on the 
Regent's side at the battle of Langside on 13 May. 4 In 
the civil war which followed, his lands of Mugdock were 

* spulzied ' by Argyll, 5 and he himself, after vainly * dealing ' 
with his uncle, Lord Fleming, for the surrender of Dum- 
barton Castle in December 1569, was present at the capture 
of the castle of Doune in June 1570. 6 A bond of manrent 
by James Stirling of Keir to John, Master of Graham, dated 
at Kincardine 3 November 1570, 7 and other writings indi- 
cate that before his grandfather's death he had in a great 
measure relieved the latter from the burden of private as 
well as public affairs. 

The third Earl succeeded to the title during the short 
and troubled regency of the Earl of Lennox, and supported 
him and his successors Mar and Morton in their struggle 
with the Queen's party, being appointed a Privy Councillor 
at the election of the Regent Mar on 7 September 1571. 8 
By one of the articles of the pacification of Perth, in Feb- 
ruary 1572-73, the Earl, with the Lord Glamis and Sir John 
Wishart of Pittarrow, were appointed sole judges for 

* restitution of all guddis reft or spulzeit be vertew of thir 
troubles benorth the Water of Forth.' 9 Under the firm 
administration of Morton he was, along with the Earl of 
Atholl, appointed a commissioner for holding wappinschaw- 
ings in the Stewartry of Strathearn 5 March 1574-75. 10 
William Ohisholm the younger, last Bishop of Dunblane of 
the old faith, having left the country and been forfeited, 

1 Cal. of State Papers, ii. 731. 8 Acta Part. Scot, iii. 12. 3 Keith, ii. 
424-426, 437. * Cal. of State Papers, ii. 405. 6 Orig. Sums, of Spulzie, 
Buchanan. 6 Cal. State Papers, iii. 21, 219. J Orig. Writ, Buchanan. 
8 Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 69. 9 Hist. King James the Sext, 132. 10 Acta 
Parl. Scot., iii. 91. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 233 

the Earl of Montrose procured the appointment of Mr. 
Andrew Graham as bishop, and thereafter obtained a feu- 
charter from the bishop and chapter of the lands of Braco, 
Drummawhance, Tourachan, and others in the parish of 
Muthill, a fair estate with which the munificence of the 
Earls of Strathearn had endowed the See, dated 1 and last 
February 1575-76. 1 This imitation of Morton's own well* 
known policy, or some other cause, led to a coolness be- 
tween the Earl of Montrose and the Regent, and the Earl 
joined the coalition against Morton, and was present in the 
Convention of the Estates held at Stirling on 8 March 
1577-78, when the King, in Morton's absence, by the advice 
of ' a greit nowmer of his nobilitie ' then * besyde his 
hienes,' ostensibly took the government into his own hands. 2 
Morton soon afterwards regained the upper hand at Stir- 
ling, and the Earl of Montrose, with the Bishop of Orkney 
and Lord Lindsay, were sent there from Edinburgh by the 
party in opposition to the ex-regent, and protesting against 
the validity of Morton's Parliament, 16 July 1579, were put 
in ward for a time at Stirling. 3 The Earl of Montrose 
broke ward, and was with Argyll and others in arms against 
Morton until the pacification effected by Mr. Bowes, the 
English ambassador, in August 1578. 4 He at this time took 
steps for obtaining the King's confirmation of his charter of 
Braco, in which he was successfully opposed by the ' kyndlie 
and native tenants' of the lands. 5 The opposition thus 
encountered probably led to his becoming a strong partisan 
of the opposition to Morton, and after the latter's fall and 
imprisonment he was appointed commander of the levies 
assembled on the Borders in view of an invasion which 
Queen Elizabeth threatened for a time. 6 When that danger 
passed he guarded Morton from Dumbarton to Edinburgh, 
and was Chancellor of the Assize which on 1 June 1581 ' 
condemned the ex-regent to death, for connivance at the 
murder of Darnley. 

The Earl of Montrose held aloof from the conspiracy 
known as the ' Raid of Ruthven ' in August 1582, and he was 
not present in the Parliament held at Holyrood in the fol- 

1 Instrument of Sasine on Charter at Buchanan. 2 Acta Part. Scot., 
iii. 115 et seq. 3 P. C. Beg. iii. 8 n. * Ibid., 22 n. 6 The record of the 
struggle will be found in Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 165, 166. P. C. Reg., iii. 
387, 393. ~> Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 305. 



234 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTBOSE 

lowing October, when the acts of the conspirators were 
legalised. 1 He supported Arran in the recovery of his 
influence, and was upon the Assize at Stirling which con- 
demned the Earl of Gowrie to death 4 May 1584. 2 Out of 
Gowrie's forfeited estates he obtained grants of the barony 
of Oowgask in Strathearn and of Strathbraan, Trochrie 
and Glenshie and Innerchochill, in the Dunkeld district, 3 
but these great acquisitions did not remain long with him, 
the forfeiture being rescinded at the instance of Queen 
Elizabeth in December 1585. 4 He had assented to the 
league with England which led up to the bloodless revolu- 
tion in favour of the Banished Lords, but upon their return 
held aloof from public affairs till May 1587. 5 

In the Parliament of 1587, held upon James vi. attaining 
his majority, the Earl of Montrose thought it necessary to 
protest that the act of general pacification should not be 
hurtful or prejudicial to him and others who were on the 
assizes of Morton and Gowrie. The young Earl of Gowrie, 
on the other hand, protested, and reserved his right of 
action against Montrose 'and utheris for spoliatioun of 
certane cornis, guids, insicht plenishing and utheris intro- 
mittet with be thame appertening to umqle Wm. Erie of 
Gowrie ' and to his wife, Dame Dorothea Stewart ' furth of 
ye said Erlis manis and place of Ruthven and utheris his 
places and maniss.' 6 In the face of these proceedings, it is 
somewhat singular to find a marriage taking place only six 
years later between Montrose's eldest son and Gowrie's 
eldest sister, the only son of which marriage was destined 
to confer an undying lustre on the former's title. When 
therefore the Gowrie conspiracy led to the death of the 
last Earl of Gowrie and the forfeiture of his estates, it was 
natural that Montrose, then high in the royal favour, 
should again participate in the division of these estates. 
The grant on this occasion was limited to Cowgask and Hall 
of Huntingtower and other parts of the barony of Ruthven, 
but it was provided that these were to be held blench, in 
distinction to the remaining forfeited estates of Gowrie, 
which were to be feued out for a revenue to the Grown. 7 

1 Ada Parl, Scot., iii. 326. 8 Ibid., 305. 3 Original Writs, Buchanan. 
4 Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 399. 6 P. C. Reg., iv. xi. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 
471, 472. 7 Ibid., iv. 301. 



235 

From the year 1584 to the close of his life the Earl was 
high in the confidence of his sovereign, and filled many 
important and onerous public offices. That he was acces- 
sory to the so-called ' rebellion ' of the Earls of Huntly, 
Errol, and Bothwell in 1589, known as * the affair of the 
Brig of Dee,' and was even appointed to be denounced 
rebel for continuing in arms, 1 and was also associated with 
the same parties in a quasi-rebellion in October 1593, 2 is 
hardly a qualification of this remark, as the noblemen con- 
cerned were all personce grata? with the young King, and 
their movement was really directed against the administra- 
tion of the Chancellor Maitland. 3 The Earl of Montrose 
was frequently a Commissioner for holding the Parliaments 
of King James. 4 On 12 May 1584 he was appointed an 
Extraordinary Lord of Session, and held that office till 9 
February 1585-86 ; was again appointed 6 November 1591, 
the King's letter bearing that he had ' been dispossessed of 
the place of befoir without any guid caus or occasion,' 5 and 
continued to hold office till 19 May 1596. He was ap- 
pointed High Treasurer 13 May 1584, holding that office for 
about a year. 6 By an Act of Council, dated at Holyrood 
House 18 January 1598-99, he was appointed Chancellor. 7 

The Earl was one of the noblemen who in the year 1600 
entered into * engagements ' for the furtherance of the 
succession of James vi. to the English throne, and promised 
to contribute of his * geir ' for that purpose 400 crowns. 8 
The death of Elizabeth and the departure of the King and 
his family to England led to further honours being conferred 
upon him. By a commission dated at Hampton Court 8 
February 1604 he was, under the designation of Earl of 
Montrose, Lord Graham and Mugdock, empowered to re- 
present the royal person during the time of Parliament, 9 
and he accordingly presided in the Parliament which was 
held at Perth 3 to 11 July 1604. Being appointed Chief 
Commissioner for Scotland in the negotiation of the treaty 
initiated by the King for the union of the kingdoms, he 
journeyed to London upon that business, and his signature 
is adhibited to the Treaty of Union 6 December 1604, which 

1 P. C. Reg., iv. 394. 2 Ibid., v. 98 n. 3 Ibid., iv. 403 n. * Acta Part. 
Scot., iii. 121, 193; iv. 191. 5 Brunton and Haig's Senators, 189. 6 Craw- 
furd's Officers of State, 153. 7 Second Hep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 168. 
8 Napier's Memoirs of Montrose (1856), i. 3. 9 Acta Parl. Scot., iv. 259. 



236 GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSB 

was not approved by the Parliament of either country. 1 
There is preserved at Buchanan Castle, along with the 
commission after mentioned, a letter by the King to the 
Lords of Session mentioning that John, Earl of Montrose, 
had surrendered the place and office of Chancellor, and was 
to~be preferred to be Commissioner-General in Scotland, 
and requiring them to make an Act that he may sit in the 
Inner House as the Duke of Lennox does. 2 The commission 
to the Earl to be Commissioner-General or Viceroy of Scot- 
land ' supremus regni Scotise procurator ' is dated at 
Royston, ides December 1604, 3 and the office so conferred 
appears to have been held by the Earl till his death. 

The Earl of Montrose, whose estates were at no part far 
distant from the Highland line, had his share of the incon- 
veniences arising from that proximity, and had frequent 
transactions with the restless Macgregors, ranging from a 
friendly ' submission ' with Sir Alister Macgregor of Glen- 
strae in 1586 4 to the execution of commissions of Justiciary 
against the clan after they had put themselves beyond the 
pale by the slaughter of Drummond, the King's forester of 
Glenartney, in 1589. 5 

The Earl of Montrose, in the course of his strenuous life, 
was concerned in several of the family feuds, for which the 
Scottish nobility were so unhappily distinguished in his 
time. The most important of these arose out of a dispute 
about Temple lands between the Earl's * cousin,' Mr. John 
Graham of Hallyards, one of the Senators of the College of 
Justice, and Sir James Sandilands of Slamannanmuir. On 
13 February 1592-93 Sandilands, in company with the Duke 
of Lennox, ' purposing, as it was said, to pass to Leith to 
play at the goffe,' encountered Graham and a retinue of 
servants in Leith Wynd, and in the affray which followed, 
Graham was killed. 6 Just two years later, on 31 January 
1594-95, the Earl of Montrose, and the Master, his son, 
who deeply resented the death of Graham, unfortunately 
met with Sandilands in the High Street of Edinburgh at the 

1 P. C. Reg., vii. 22, 23 n. 2 Second Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 168. 
3 Ibid. The commission is very beautifully engraved and illuminated, 
and the Great Seal appended to it is enclosed in a box having the royal 
arms on one side and the arms of Montrose on the other. 4 Original 
Writ, Buchanan. 6 P. C. Reg., iv. 453, 509; vi. 101, 151,403. Brunton 
and Haig's Senators, 193 ; Rymer's Fcedera, xvi. 194. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 237 

Salt Tron, both parties being well supported by friends and 
followers, and * fought a combat ' in which Sandilands was 
severely wounded, and his friend Crawford of Kerse, a 
relation of Hugh Campbell of Loudoun, the Sheriff of Ayr, 
slain. 1 This affair, which is referred to in the Privy 
Council records as * the unhappy accident ' between the 
parties, caused a great sensation, ' the King being in the 
Tolbooth at the time,' and it led to bad blood between the 
Montrose and Loudoun and Crawford families, occasioning 
both the Earl and his son being from time to time put 
under caution to keep the peace. 2 

The third Earl of Montrose is said by Scotstarvit to 
have been 'altogether void of learning.' This statement 
of an ill-natured chronicler is perhaps not altogether in- 
consistent with the fact of its subject having taken part 
in the government of his country from the age of seventeen, 
nor yet with the summary of his character given to Queen 
Elizabeth by her agent in Scotland in the time of the 
Morton regency * a gallant young gentleman, valiant, 
greatly allied, of great power, very well beloved, and 
greatly followed,' and again, ' a man of spirit and action.' s 
He was unable on account of ill-health to preside in the Par- 
liament on 3 August 1607, the Duke of Lennox taking his 
place. 4 He died at his place of New Montrose 9 November 
1608, at the age of sixty-one, 5 and, presumably in virtue of 
his eminence as a statesman, was accorded burial in the 
Church of St. Giles, Edinburgh. 8 

He married, in his sixteenth year (contract 24 August 
1563), 7 his second cousin Jean, eldest daughter of David, 
Lord Drummond, the discharge for her tocher of 6000 merks 
being granted by his grandfather the second Earl. 8 The 
Countess died in 1595, and was buried at Aberuthven. 9 The 
children of the third Earl of Montrose were three sons and 
a daughter, viz. : 

1. JOHN, fourth Earl of Montrose, who succeeded him. 

2. Sir William Graham of Braco, Knight and Baronet, 

who had a blench charter from his father of the 

1 P. C. Reg,, v. 201, 211, 212, 222. 2 Ibid., v. 206, 387, 537. 3 Cal. State 
Papers, v. 386, 575. * P. C. Reg., vii. 425 n. 8 Ibid., viii. 190 n. 6 Napier's 
Memoirs, ii. 835; Nicoll's Diary, 331. 7 Original Writ, Buchanan. 
8 Original Writ, Drummond Castle. 9 Miss L. Graeme, Or and Sable 
(1903), ' From a rare vol. now out of print.' 



238 

lands of Braco, Drummawhance, and others, dated in 
1585, and a liferent grant from his elder brother of 
the lands of Killearn Ibert and Wester Oarleston in 
1590. 1 He was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia 
28 September 1625. In 1627 he purchased from his 
nephew, the fifth Earl, and his curators the barony 
of Airthray, the incumbrances on which he had 
previously acquired. 2 He married, first, Margaret 
Keith, daughter of William, Lord Keith (see title 
Marischal), and widow of the Laird of Ludquhairn, 
by whom he had no children ; and secondly, after 
1609, Mary Edmonstone, daughter of Sir James 
Edmonstone of Duntreath, and widow of John 
Cunningham of Ounninghamhead, by whom he had 
an only son : 3 

Sir John Graham, second of Braco, served heir-general to 
his father 23 January 1636. Sir John married Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Dugald Campbell of Auchinbreck, and had 
by her : 

Sir William. Graham, third of Braco, served heir in 
Braco and others 9 October 1647 ; James and Robert, 
who died young, without issue ; and Grizel, married 
to Sir James Keith of Powburn. 4 Sir William 
Graham last mentioned mai-ried Marie Cowan, 
daughter of Mr. John Cowan of Tailzartoun, Provost 
of Stirling, and had by her two sons : 

Sir James Graham., third of Braco, and John, 
who both died young. 5 On the death of Sir 
James in 1689, the fourth Marquess of Mon- 
trose succeeded to Braco as heir-male (Airth- 
ray had been sold by the third baronet to 
Sir James Hope of Hopetoun in 1659), and 
obtained a discharge from Dame Grizel Keith 
of any claim she might have upon the succes- 
sion, 23 November 1692. 6 

3. Sir Robert Graham of Scotston, who was infeft by 
his father in Scotston, Wardropton, and various 
other lands in Kincardineshire, Porfarshire, Perth- 
shire, and the burgh of Auchterarder, 28 December 
1590, 7 and as 'filius natus minimus Joannis Oomitis 

1 Original Writs, Buchanan. 2 Ibid. 3 Gen. of Ho. of Drummond, 
172, corroborated by Original Writs, Buchanan ; but see Laing Charters, 
No. 1958 (1624), which seems to instruct a third marriage to Margaret 
Cockburn, widow of Alexander Home of Renton. 4 Gen. of Ho. of 
Drummond, ut supra, corrected by Original Writs, Buchanan. 5 Ibid. ; 
Greyfriars Burial Records, Scot. Hist. Soc., 260. 8 Original Writs, 
Buchanan. 7 Ibid. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSB 239 

de Montrose ' had a charter to himself and Anne 
Lindsay, his future spouse, eldest daughter of Alex- 
ander, Lord Spynie, of the lands of Innermay and 
Muckersie in Perthshire, which his father had pur- 
chased for him from the Earl of Atholl in 1604, dated 
7 March 1607. 1 Sir Robert contracted numerous 
debts, in satisfaction of which he conveyed Scotston 
and the other lands in which he was first provided 
to his brother the fourth Earl, 2 and dying in 1617 
without issue, his brother the Earl was served heir 
of provision to him in Innermay 7 October 1617. 3 
4. Lilias, married (contract dated at Kincardine, Airth, 
and Callander 12 and 13 January 1585-86) to John, 
Lord Fleming, 4 afterwards first Earl of Wigton, and 
had issue. 

VI. JOHN, fourth Earl of Montrose, was born in the year 
1573, 5 and while yet a child was put in the fee of his father's 
baronies and estates by two charters under the Great Seal 
dated 23 May 1581. 6 These charters, in view of the general 
revocation executed by James vi. on his attaining majority, 
were ratified by the King in Parliament 1587, and, along 
with a charter of Braco in 1587, were again so ratified 
1592. 7 While fiar of Montrose the fourth Earl appears to 
have lived chiefly in the west country, at Mugdock and 
in Glasgow, where for a time he owned a house. 8 As 
* Magister de Montrois ' he sat in the Parliament held at 
Perth in March 1596, 9 and in the pageants connected with 
the Parliaments held by his father as Great Commissioner 
in 1604 and 1606 he carried the Great Seal. 10 

The part taken by the fourth Earl, when Master of 
Montrose, in the ' accident ' with Sir James Sandilands has 
been already mentioned ; but the career thus stirringly 
begun proved to be one of the least eventful in the family 
annals. On 25 September 1609 he obtained a licence from 
the Privy Council to go abroad, and this licence was 
renewed on 22 June 1613 ' because through sickness and 
other causes he has been unable to use the former privi- 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig.,&t date. 2 Original Writ, Buchanan. 3 Ibid. * Ibid. 
5 Cal. of State Papers, iv. 549. 6 Original Writ, Buchanan. 7 Acta Part. 
Scot, iii. 474, 592. 8 Original Writ, Buchanan. 9 Acta Part. Scot., iv. 109. 
10 Napier's Memoirs, i. 7. 



240 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

lege,' l but it does not appear that the journey was ever 
undertaken. He was present in the Parliaments of 1609 
and 1617. 2 Appointed a lay member of King James's Court 
of High Commission, which became so unpopular with 
Presbyterians, in 1616 he represented the King as Com- 
missioner at the famous General Assembly of the Kirk 
held at Aberdeen, and he was to have been Commissioner 
at the St. Andrews Assembly in the following year, but 
excused himself on the ground of ill-health. 3 

The Earl being aggrieved at the precedence granted to 
Hugh, Earl of Eglinton, by the decreet of ranking by the 
Commissioners for ranking the nobility, dated 5 March 
1606, entered into two contracts with Alexander, Earl of 
Eglinton, the one dated 17 June 1617 and the other 27 
November 1620, by which the last-mentioned Earl acknow- 
ledged that the precedence belonged of right to the Earl of 
Montrose, and therefore quitted the same in his favour, 
the Earl of Montrose, on the other hand, obliging himself 
to assist and defend the Earl of Eglinton in his rank 
against all other Earls postponed to him by the decreet. 4 
The two earldoms were both the creation of James iv., but 
that of Montrose was certainly the earlier in date. 

The Earl acquired, from Robert Graham of Auchinhowie, 
the lands of Auchincloich and Auchinhowie in the Lennox, 
and from his own brother, Sir Robert Graham, Scotston 
in the Mearns and Innermay in Perthshire, but the last- 
mentioned estate he immediately sold. He held no office 
of state under James vi., perhaps owing to his rela- 
tionship to the Ruthvens ; but Charles i., by a warrant 
dated at Whitehall 15 March 1626, appointed him president 
of the Privy Council of Scotland. 5 Another mark of the 
new sovereign's favour was a mandate to the High 
Treasurer of Scotland, whereby the King, being informed 
that the Earl of Montrose was to put his son in the fee 
of his whole lands for the good service done by the Earl 
to the late King and himself, required the Treasurer ' to 
receive his said son our immediate tenant in the said 
lands, and give way to his infeftment, that it may be 

1 P. C. Reg., viii. 363, x. 87. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., iv. 405, 524. 3 P. C. 
Reg., x. 437, 598 n.\ xi. 255, 270 n. 4 Second Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 
App. 168. 6 Ibid. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 241 

expede through our seals, according to this order, with all 
expedition.' The mandate is dated at Whitehall 14 Novem- 
ber 1626, but on that very day the Earl died at Kincardine. 1 
He was buried at Aberuthven 3 January 1627. 2 

The fourth Earl of Montrose married (contract dated at 
Dunkeld 12 December 1593) Margaret Ruthven, second 
daughter of William, first Earl of Gowrie, 3 and by her, 
who predeceased him, being buried at Aberuthven on 15 
April 1618, 4 he had issue one son 5 and six daughters : 

1. JAMES, fifth Earl and first Marquess of Montrose, who 

succeeded. 

2. Lilias, married (contract dated at Mugdock 30 June 

and 6 July 1620) to John Oolquhoun, afterwards Sir 
John Oolquhoun, Baronet, of Luss, and had issue. 6 

3. Elizabeth, 7 who died in infancy. 

4. Margaret, married (contract dated at Kincardine 15 

April 1619) to Sir Archibald Napier of Merchiston, 
afterwards created Lord Napier, and had issue. 8 

5. Dorothea, married in April 1628 (contract dated 28 

February) to Sir James Rollo, younger of Duncrub, 
and dying without issue, 16 May 1638, was buried in 
the Abbey Ohurch of Holyrood. 9 

6. Katherine. 

7. Beatrix, baptized at Perth by the Bishop of Dun- 

blane 7 March 1615," married to David, third Lord 
Madderty, and had issue. 

The fourth Earl of Montrose had also a natural son, Sir 
Harry Graham, whose mother is not known, but she was 
probably a Perthshire lady. There has lately been dis- 
covered a cancelled bond of provision, dated Kincardine 
21 January 1643, whereby his brother the great Marquess 

1 Napier's Memoirs, i. 24. a Ibid., i. 25. 3 Original Writ, Buchanan. 
4 Napier's Memoirs, i. 6. 6 It is probable that the Earl had another son 
who may have been called John after the Great Commissioner, and who 
died young. There is an old worn stone in the floor of Strathblane 
Church in front of the pulpit, which bears the Montrose arms and the 
date 1604. Mr. Guthrie Smith regards it as ' a memorial of the dead ' 
(Parish of Strathblane, 236); but it may have had something to do with 
the division of the church carried through in that year. 6 Napier's 
Memoirs, i. 14. 7 Test, of fourth Earl, dated at the burgh of Montrose 
31 December 1612, at Buchanan. 8 Napier's Memoirs, i. 11. 9 Ibid. , i. 35. 
10 For her sad history see Napier's Memoirs, i. 75-85. u Ibid., i. 7. 
Quaintly alluded to in an early factorial account as the ' bairn Beatrix.' 

VOL. VI. Q 



242 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

(then Earl) of Montrose, ' for the special love and favour ' 
which he bore towards him, 'and for his better assist- 
ance in prosecuting his fortunes,' became bound to pay 
him the sum of 6000 merks Scots with annualrent till 
paid. 1 That Harry Graham adopted the military profession 
may be interred from his being mentioned as one of the 
prisoners taken at the storming of Newcastle on 19 Octo- 
ber 1644. 2 With other prisoners he was sent to Edinburgh, 
and kept in confinement there till released after the battle 
of Kilsyth, August 1645. He thereafter followed the 
fortunes of his illustrious brother, but escaped his tragic 
fate by being left behind in Orkney in 1650. In the account 
of the ' True Funerals ' of the great Marquess 11 May 1661 
he is described as riding in the procession in complete 
armour, carrying on the point of a lance the colours of the 
house. 3 No mention of him of a later date has been dis- 
covered. 

VII. JAMES, fifth Earl, and afterwards first Marquess of 
Montrose, the hero of one of the most brilliant campaigns 
in the history of warfare, 4 was born in the year 1612, pro- 
bably in the 4 place of New Montrose,' the family mansion 
in Montrose burgh. 5 As we have seen, the death of his 
father prevented his being put, with the approbation of 
Charles i., in the fee of the family estates ; the miscarriage 
of the plan was compensated in some measure by a royal 
gift to the young Earl of his ward and marriage. On 28 
March 1627 he was served heir of his father in the lands, 
barony, and earldom of Old Montrose and the various other 
lands and baronies in the counties of Forfar, Perth, and 
Stirling. 8 Having received his early education at Glasgow, 
under a pedagogue, Mr. William Forrett, who afterwards 
became his chamberlain or master of the household, Mon- 
trose matriculated at St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, 
on 26 January 1627, and remained nearly three years at 
that university, gaining the silver arrow for archery in 

1 Original Writ, Buchanan. 2 Spalding, ii. 283. 3 Napier's Memoirs, 
ii. 521, 562, 642, 831. 4 Ibid., and Second Rep, Hist. MSS. Com., App. 
168-177 passim. 6 This house was sold by Montrose's tutors to James 
Scott of Logie. In the year 1638 he made an attempt to recover it by 
legal process, apparently without success. Original Writs recently dis- 
covered at Buchanan. e Original Retour, Buchanan. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSB 243 

1628. 1 In both these matters he followed, at the distance 
of five years, Archibald, Lord Lome, 2 who, by so much 
his senior in age, was to become, as Earl and Marquess of 
Argyll, his great rival and enemy. In May 1628 he had 
at St. Andrews a serious illness, but neither this nor his 
devotion to archery, golf, and field sports prevented him 
from there laying the foundation of the excellence in 
scholarship which afterwards distinguished him. His 
university education was terminated by his marriage at 
the early age of seventeen; and, in accordance with a 
curious condition in his marriage-contract, Kinnaird Castle, 
the home of his father-in-law David, Lord Carnegie, be- 
came his ordinary residence from 1629 to 1632. The late 
Earl had left a not inconsiderable heritage of debts : to 
clear off these, Airthray, or rather its reversion, was sold to 
Sir William Graham of Braco in 1627, and Scotston to 
Arthur Straton of Kirkside in 1630 ; and, between the 
years 1630 and 1632 the Earl and his curators ' for certain 
sums of money ' converted almost the whole of the kindly 
tenancies of the ancestral baronies of Mugdock and Dun- 
daff into feu holdings. 3 We may perhaps trace the mind of 
the young Earl in the obligations imposed on the Stirling- 
shire cultivators, thus transformed into ' bonnet lairds,' to 
attend and wait upon the Earls of Montrose present and to 
come or their deputies in times of war and trouble and 
insurrection in the country, and at ' frayes and followings,' 
and also to ride and go at any time with the Earl for * help 
and defence of his Lordship and his friends, their honour, 
life, lands, goods, and geir.' 

The young Earl was ' furth of Scotland ' from the end of 
1632 to the beginning of 1637, and so missed taking his 
place in the Parliament held by Charles I. in person, and at 
the coronation of the King, in the year 1633. From the 
number of charters, writs, and documents which he executed 
at Edinburgh between the 20 and 22 days of October 1632, 
including contracts of sale of Oowgask and Huntingtower, 4 
we may suppose the last-mentioned date to have been the 
eve of his departure. The statement of Saintserf, 5 that he 
spent three years in France and Italy, perfecting his educa- 

1 Proc. Soc. of Antiq. Scot., xxviii. 343. 2 Vol. i. of this work, 351. 
3 Original Writs, Buchanan. 4 Ibid. 6 Quoted by Napier. 



244 

tion in languages and other branches of study, and in all 
the manly exercises then in vogue, is confirmed by a series 
of discharged bonds and bills drawn by him abroad, chiefly 
upon William Dick of Braid, merchant burgess of Edinburgh, 
through the latter 's * factors ' in Paris, and retired by the 
Earl's 'honourable friends' in Scotland having his com- 
mission for managing his affairs in his absence. 1 These 
documents, which date at Paris from 10 March 1633 to 
13 December 1635, also instruct that he was accompanied 
in his tour by a kinsman John Graham, son of Sir Robert 
Graham of Morphie, and as * servitor ' or secretary by Mr. 
John Lamy, who had been his purse-master at St. Andrews, 
and was afterwards minister of Maryton. They also tell 
us that he spent the winter of 1633-34 at Angers, doubtless 
attending the famous school of arms of the French monarchy 
in that town. The records of the English College at Rome 
inform us that ' on the 27th of March 1635 two Scottish 
Earls, Angus and Montrose, in company with other four 
noble gentlemen of that nation, were entertained in our 
refectory with all the honours due to their rank.' The 
autumn of 1635 was spent in Paris, and by 1 February 1636 
Montrose was again at Westminster. 

The statement that the young Earl upon appearing at 
Whitehall met with a cold and forbidding reception by the 
King, and that this was due to an intrigue by the Mar- 
quess of Hamilton, 2 may not be wholly untrue ; but that he 
hastened home on that account is incorrect, as he does not 
appear to have returned to Scotland and assumed for the 
first time the full management of his estates till the year 
1637. 3 He had scarcely done so, when the troubles arising 
from the attempt of the King and Archbishop Laud to 
enforce the use of the new service-book broke out, and 
he joined the ranks of * the supplicants ' against that 
measure, 4 becoming a Lord of the Tables 15 November 
1637. He headed the list of subscribers to the * contribu- 
tion ' levied by the party in February 1638, 5 and was one 
of the most zealous supporters of the National Covenant 

1 Recently discovered at Buchanan. 2 Napier, quoting Heylin's Com- 
mentary on L'Estrange, i. 205. 3 Original Writs, Buchanan. 4 Baillie's 
Letters ; Spalding's Hist, of the Troubles, passim. 5 Rothes' Relation, 
80,81. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 245 

in the same month, and a prominent lay member of the 
famous Glasgow Assembly in November. In March of the 
following year he had command of the forces sent to the 
north against the town of Aberdeen, which he obliged to 
take the Covenant, bringing the Marquis of Huntly and 
his son Lord Gordon prisoners to Edinburgh. Active re- 
sistance to the Covenanters being revived by Viscount 
Aboyne, Huntly 's second son, Montrose once more marched 
north, and, defeating Aboyne at the Bridge of Dee on 19 
June, again occupied Aberdeen, but further hostilities were 
obviated by news of the pacification of Berwick 18 June 
1639. The Earl of Montrose was one of the noblemen who 
paid their respects to the King at Berwick after the 
pacification. 

The success of the Covenanters led the more extreme 
members of the party, in the General Assembly and Par- 
liament of August 1639, when the abolition of Episcopacy 
decreed by the Assembly of 1638 was confirmed, to take 
up a position against the royal prerogative which Montrose 
could not accept. He did not, however, as yet break with 
them, and in the army which was raised to invade Eng- 
land had the command of two regiments, raised chiefly 
from his own estates in Angus and Strathearn, and largely 
at his own expense. He led the van of the army through 
the Tweed, dismounting and fording the stream on foot, 
and was present at the victory, such as it was, of New- 
burn, 28 August 1640. He retained his commission in the 
Scots army while it lay at Newcastle, during the protracted 
negotiations with the King, which commenced at Ripon on 
1 October 1640, and were concluded at London in August 
1641, but was frequently in Scotland. In this interval the 
differences between him and the ' prime Covenanters,' of 
whom Argyll was now the unquestioned leader, widened 
into an irreparable breach. Montrose had, at Oumbernauld, 
in August 1640, induced his cousin, the Earl of Wigton, 
and seventeen other noblemen, to sign with him a ' band ' 
which, while recognising the authority of the Covenant, 
obliged the subscribers to stand together in defence of 
religion, King, and country, menaced by the 'particular 
and indirect practising of a few.' Rightly or wrongly, 
Montrose accused Argyll of aiming at the deposition of 



246 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 

the King and the dictatorship. The influence of Argyll 
was, however, all-powerful ; the Oumbernauld ' band,' 
being discovered and given up, was publicly burned by order 
of the Estates, January 1641 ; and Mr. John Stewart of 
Lady well, the witness brought forward by Montrose against 
Argyll, was thrown into prison, and recanting there under 
pressure, was executed some months later. About the 
time of Ladywell's confession, on 11 June 1641, Montrose, 
along with Lord Napier, Sir George Stirling of Keir, and 
Sir Archibald Stewart of Blackball, was committed a 
prisoner to the Oastle of Edinburgh on the allegation of a 
plot, the particulars of which the party in power found 
great difficulty in formulating, notwithstanding repeated 
examinations of the prisoners and a search for incriminat- 
ing matter in Montrose's charter-room and repositories at 
Kincardine, Old Montrose, and Mugdock. The King arriv- 
ing in Edinburgh on 14 August to hold Parliament, Montrose 
and his friends were served with a libel of interminable 
length, which in effect charged them with two inconsistent 
offences corresponding with the enemy, who was the King 
himself, and insulting and vilifying His Majesty. The 
charge made against Montrose in the earlier editions of 
Clarendon's History, that he at this time came secretly 
to the King and offered to do away with Hamilton and 
Argyll, then acting in concert, and with Hamilton's brother 
Lanark, is entirely inconsistent both with the knowledge 
we have of Montrose's character and with his situation at 
the time as a state prisoner. The temporary withdrawal 
of Argyll, Hamilton, and Lanark from Edinburgh, upon the 
allegation of a conspiracy against them, commonly called 
4 the Incident,' is not, it may be added, connected with 
Montrose's name by any contemporary account. It being 
impossible to prove the libel against Montrose and his 
friends, they were liberated in November 1641 on bail for 
their reappearance, but the proceedings soon after dropped. 
Montrose, now finally severed from the ruling party in the 
Government, retired to his estates, and for two years was 
chiefly occupied in attending to his private affairs, selling 
more land, and, with the generous assistance of his kins- 
men, borrowing money in every direction for the payment 
of his numerous creditors, and for the prosecution of a part 



GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 247 

in the Civil War, which he must now have seen was at 
hand. 1 

King Charles, two days after raising the royal standard 
at Nottingham on 25 October 1642, wrote to Montrose 
soliciting his advice and assistance, and at the same time 
the latter received and rejected overtures of reconciliation 
from Argyll and his party, the sincerity of which, accom- 
panied by an offer to pay his debts, may be doubted. Mon- 
trose, in February 1643, proceeded to Newcastle with his 
royalist friends Ogilvy and Aboyne, and, meeting the 
Queen on her arrival from Holland at Burlington, accom- 
panied her to York. He there proposed to her Majesty a 
plan to frustrate the intention of the Scots Estates to send 
an army to support the English Parliament by a counter 
demonstration in Scotland, but this proposal was defeated, 
it is said, by the influence of the Marquess of Hamilton, 
and Montrose was refused a commission from the King at 
that time. He returned to Scotland and again lived pri- 
vately, not without further advances from the Covenanting 
party, till the progress of events proved the futility of 
Hamilton's assurances of his ability to keep his country- 
men neutral, and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643, 
always denounced by Montrose, being entered into, Leslie, 
now Earl of Leven, again led a Scots army across the 
Tweed, in support of the English Parliament, 15 January 
1644. Upon this event Montrose hastened to the King at 
Oxford, where he was welcomed, and received a com- 
mission, dated 1 February, to be Lieutenant-General in 
Scotland under Prince Maurice, the King's nephew. In 
the month of March he was present at the skirmish of 
Bowdenhill between the Marquess of Newcastle and Leven, 
and in the following month, with a scanty force, entered 
Scotland and raised the royal standard at Dumfries, but 
was compelled to retreat on the approach of a Covenanting 
army under his old friend and fellow * bander ' the Earl of 
Callendar. 

At this juncture Montrose was created by King Charles 
MARQUESS OF MONTROSE, EARL OF KINCARDINE, 
LORD GRAHAM AND MONTDIEU. In the original 
warrant for the patent, under the royal sign -manual, 

1 Original Writs, Buchanan. 



248 GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 

and countersigned by Sir Robert Spottiswoode, Oxford, 
6 May 1644, the name of the new dignity was at first 
left blank, and the title of Marquess of Montrose 
only has since been inserted; but that the minor titles 
above enumerated were understood to be also granted is 
certain from the fact that the Marquess used them all, at 
least on occasions of particular solemnity, during the short 
remainder of his life. The change of * Mugdock ' into the 
more euphonious ' Montdieu ' was not intended to be 
restricted to the title for in an inventory of writs, dated 
in 1650, recently discovered, 1 the name ' Montdew ' is used 
throughout, where ' Mugdock ' occurs in the writs them- 
selves. It is permissible to suggest that this change, which 
cannot readily be ascribed to the initiative of Montrose 
himself, was proposed by Queen Henrietta Maria, whose 
influence upon his views and actions was only excelled by 
that of the King himself. 

The Marquess of Montrose now employed the force he 
commanded in the north of England in recapturing the 
castles or forts of Morpeth and Shields from the Scots, and 
relieving Newcastle, beleaguered by Leven ; but in the end 
of June he was summoned to the aid of Prince Rupert, 
who, however, lost the battle of Marston Moor before his 
arrival, 2 July 1644. It had been arranged that the Earl 
of Antrim was to throw a body of Irish troops into 
Scotland in aid of Montrose's intended operations there. 
Despairing of forcing a passage to these auxiliaries, as 
originally proposed, Montrose now formed the bold resolu- 
tion of making his way to them secretly, putting himself 
at their head, and trusting to his personal influence to 
raise in Scotland further forces to support them. Leaving 
the men he had lately commanded with Prince Rupert, 
and giving out that he was to join their Majesties at 
Oxford, he travelled northwards in the disguise of a groom, 
with only two companions, to the house of Tullibelton on 
the Tay, the residence of Patrick Graham, younger of 
Inchbrakie, who at once became his active adherent. 
Lord Antrim's Irish, only 1200 strong, who had landed 
in Scotland some six weeks before, under Alister Mac- 
donald, called MacOoll Keitache, or more commonly Ool- 

1 Prefixed to a receipt by Montrose's ' friends ' to the Earl of Tullibar- 
dine. Original at Buchanan. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSB 249 

kitto, and were hard pushed by Argyll, were now summoned 
to Blair Athole, where Montrose raised the royal standard. 
In a district which had only four years before endured a 
merciless ' pacification ' by Argyll, and by the accession of 
his young kinsman, Lord Kilpont, eldest son of the Earl of 
Menteith or Airth, and others who were expected to oppose 
him, he was soon at the head of about 3000 men, who, how- 
ever, were for the most part miserably armed and furnished. 
A well-appointed but ill-disciplined army of 6000 horse and 
foot which, under Lord Elcho, marched against Montrose 
from Perth was attacked and routed by him with the 
greatest ease at Tippermuir, on Sunday, 1 September 1644, 
losing all its artillery, arms, and baggage. Perth immedi- 
ately surrendered to the victor, but Argyll approaching 
with a superior force, and the majority of the Highlanders 
deserting homewards with their plunder, Montrose found 
it necessary to evacuate that city. The mysterious murder 
of Lord Kilpont in his camp lost him that nobleman's per- 
sonal following, and, after a demonstration against Dundee, 
he marched northwards to Aberdeen, being joined on the 
way by the Earl of Airlie, the mortal enemy of Argyll, 
with a small contingent of horse. Avoiding his old battle 
front of the Bridge of Dee, he crossed the river at Orathes, 
and, descending the left bank, completely defeated the 
northern Covenanters after a stiff fight of two hours 
between ' the Oraibstone and the Justice Mills,' on Friday, 
13 September. That the city was sacked in the pursuit 
was in a great measure the blame of the magistrates, who 
had refused terms and fired on Montrose's messenger, kill- 
ing his drummer. 

The career of the Marquess from this date to that of the 
battle of Philiphaugh, so fatal to his cause, is part of 
Scottish history, and need not be repeated here. 

It may, however, be permitted to allude to the measures 
adopted by his enemies against his person and estates, 
which are scarcely adverted to by historians, or even by 
his biographer, Mr. Napier. On 22 April 1644 the place 
of Mugdock was raided by the Laird of Buchanan by the 
orders of the Committee of Estates. 1 On 26 April Montrose 
was excommunicated by the General Assembly, 2 and on 

1 Ada Part. Scot., vi. i. 184. 2 Wood's Douglas, ii. 241. 



250 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

12 September following, a Proclamation was issued by the 
Estates setting a price of 20,000 Scots upon his head. 1 
On 11 February 1645 Decrees of Forfeiture were pro- 
nounced against him, followed by the public 'rending' of 
his coat of arms in face of Parliament. 2 A commission 
was issued to Argyll to levy the rents of the estates of 
Mugdock and others in Stirlingshire, in satisfaction of a 
claim against the public, and a similar right over the 
Perthshire estates was given to the Earl of Tullibardine, 3 
who obtained possession of the charter-chest, the liferent 
of the Marchioness of Montrose in the Forfarshire lands 
being, however, respected. Eventually Mugdock Castle 
and the greater part of that barony were disponed absol- 
utely to Argyll, who, a few years later, conveyed them to 
his second son, Lord Neil Campbell, changing the name of 
the estate to Neilstoun. The Perthshire estates, and the 
reversion of those in Forfarshire, were disponed by Parlia- 
ment to Sir William Graham of Claverhouse, who, how- 
ever, truly acquired them in trust for the Marquess himself 
and his numerous creditors. 4 

After his defeat at Philiphaugh, on 13 September 1645, 
Montrose maintained himself and his followers for some 
time in arms, but the machinations of his enemies pre- 
vailed against him, and, exiled from Scotland by the 
King's command, he disembarked at Bergen in Norway, 
where he was well received, and spent some time in 
Denmark and Hamburg. In terms of his instructions 
from the King he made his way in the spring of 1647 to 
Paris to take orders from the Queen. He remained in 
France for more than a year, but was unable to effect 
anything in the King's interest. Montrose left France 
secretly in April 1648, rejecting a post in the French 
service, and made his way to Austria, and thence to 
Bohemia. At Prague he was received with distinction by 
the Emperor Ferdinand, who bestowed on him the baton of 
a Field-Marshal of the Empire. Furnished with a letter of 
recommendation to the Archduke Leopold, Governor of the 
Netherlands, and an authority to levy troops in the borders 
of Flanders, he again visited Denmark and North Germany, 
arriving in Brussels in the autumn of 1648. 

1 Copy Proclamation at Buchanan. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. i. 344. 
3 Ibid., vi. ii. 210; vi. i. 586. 4 Original Writs, Buchanan. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 251 

It was at Brussels in February 1649 that Montrose 
received the news of the execution of his royal master, and 
it is said that he fainted with the shock it inflicted on him, 
and on recovering shut himself up for two days, denying 
access to his most intimate friends. He then proceeded to 
the Hague and tendered his services to Charles n., writing 
to the same effect to the Queen mother, whose letters of 
acknowledgment have been preserved by his descendants. 
Prevailing for the time against the influence of the envoys 
to the Hague of thQ party in power in Scotland, he obtained 
from the young King a new commission, dated 4 March 
1649, appointing him Lieutenant-Governor of Scotland and 
Captain-General of the Forces to be there raised or intro- 
duced. Montrose was also at this time on terms of familiar 
friendship with Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, the widowed 
sister of Charles i., then resident with her daughters at the 
Hague. The King now setting out for St. Germains, Mont- 
rose took leave of him at Brussels in July 1649, and, armed 
with letters of recommendation to the Emperor and other 
powers of Europe, set out on a mission to their courts with 
the object of raising men and supplies for a new campaign 
in Scotland. In fulfilment of this mission he visited Den- 
mark, Sweden, Poland, Courland, and many of the minor 
states of the Empire, but the only material assistance he 
appears to have obtained was from Queen Christina of 
Sweden, who greatly admired him, and the King of Den- 
mark. Montrose landed at Kirkwall from Gottenburg in 
the end of March 1650. The consciousness that this 
expedition was a forlorn hope may perhaps be traced in 
the motto he adopted for the occasion, inscribing it on 
his banners, and having it engraved for his signet, 'Nil 
Medium,' the same thought which prompted his famous 
lines : 

' He either fears his fate too much, 

Or his deserts are small, 
Who dares not put it to the touch 
To gain or lose it all.' 

The event justified the foreboding. Landing in Caithness 
with a few hundred foreigners and Orkneymen, he obtained 
no support on the mainland, and falling into an ambuscade 
at Corbiesdale, on the Oykell, skilfully prepared for him by 
Colonel Strachan, the lieutenant of David Leslie, his little 



252 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

force was cut to pieces with but faint resistance, 27 April 
1650. Montrose was wounded and had his horse killed 
under him, but he was generously remounted by his friend 
Lord Frendraught, and along with the young Earl of Kin- 
noull and two others made good his escape for the 
time. 

He was, however, arrested by MacLeod of Assynt, and 
was conducted from Tain, where Leslie received him, by 
Inverness, Forres, Elgin, Keith, Kinnaird (where he was 
allowed an interview with his two younger children), and 
Dundee, to Leith, on horseback, in the same mean habit in 
which he was taken, exposed by the way to the insults of a 
fanatical clergy. Taken to Edinburgh, he was condemned 
to death, and on 21 May 1650 he appeared upon the 
scaffold, erected in the High Street, on the east side of the 
Market Cross, dressed in a rich habit supplied by his 
friends, and with a serene and undaunted aspect addressed 
the people in vindication of his dying unabsolved by the 
Ohurch. The insults of his enemies still pursued him. The 
history of his exploits was attached to his neck by his 
executioner, but he smiled at their malice, declaring that 
he wore it with more pride than he had the Garter ; and 
when his devotions were finished, demanding if any more 
indignities were to be practised, he submitted calmly to an 
ignominious death. 

The sentence pronounced against him was carried out to 
its full extent as regards the indignities ordered to be 
practised upon his remains after his death. Two days after 
his dismembered body had been laid in a dishonoured grave 
at the place of common execution, 1 some bold spirits, 
emissaries, it is said, of Lady Napier, the devoted wife 
of his exiled nephew, opened the grave by night, took 
out the heart, which they embalmed, put in * a rich box 
of gold,' and sent to his son in Flanders. 2 After the 
Restoration his remains were collected and deposited in 
the abbey church of Holyroodhouse on 7 January 1661. 
There they remained till 14 May thereafter, when they 
were, with the greatest solemnity and magnificence, ' to 

1 The common scaffold then stood to the south-east of the East Meadow 
of Edinburgh. Hence the old name of Preston Street, ' the Gibbet Loan.' 
2 See as to the fate of this relic Napier's Memoirs, ii. 819. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 253 

counterbalance ' (as a contemporary account has it) * the 
height of malicious invention exercised on him to the full,' 
carried to the Cathedral Church of St. Giles, and there in- 
terred at the back of the tomb of his grandfather, the Great 
Commissioner. 1 Within the past few years, under the in- 
fluence, it is understood, of a remark which fell from her 
late Majesty Queen Victoria, upon the absence of any 
memorial to Montrose in the church which contains his 
tomb, a handsome effigy and memorial window have been 
erected in the aisle in St. Giles' Cathedral which has long 
borne his name. 

The first Marquess of Montrose married, at Kinnaird, 10 

November 1629, Magdalen Carnegie, daughter of David, 

Lord Carnegie, afterwards first Earl of Southesk. Not 

fully in sympathy, it is said, with the political views of her 

illustrious husband, she, in 1644, withdrew from Kincardine to 

Forfarshire and lived with her two youngest children, partly 

at her jointure-house of Old Montrose and partly with her 

father at Kinnaird. In an account of the rents of Old 

Montrose, Maryton, and Fullerton, crops 1645, 1646, and 

1647, recently discovered, 2 there are various entries of 

deliveries of victual by * my lady's command,' including 

corn for her horse, and it is instructed that her ladyship 

was in Edinburgh after the reaping of the last-mentioned 

crop, 1647. In the disposition of her husband's lands by 

the Committee of Estates to Sir William Graham of Olaver- 

house, dated 21 February 1648, her liferent rights are 

reserved; but she seems to have died soon after, as the 

amounts appear to relate to her executry. 3 

The children of this marriage were : 

1. Jo/in, Lord Graham, born 1630. He was brought with 

his brother James to Perth by Sir John Graham of 

Braco after the battle of Tippermuir, and constantly 

accompanied his father thereafter, to prevent his 

falling into the hands of the Estates, until his death, 

after a short illness, at Bog of Gight (Gordon Castle), 

1 At the restoration of the Chapman aisle of St. Giles' Cathedral in 
1879 no trace of the remains was discovered ; St. Giles', Edinburgh, Dr. 
Cameron Lees, 272. 2 Original Writs, Buchanan. 3 The account of the 
death and burial of Lady Montrose in November 1645, accepted by Napier 
(ii. 615) on the authority of Burns's Diary, Maidment's Historical Frag- 
ments, is obviously inaccurate. 



254 GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSB 

in February 1645. This promising youth, whose only 
known signature is attached to a bond executed by 
Montrose and his friends three days before the battle 
of Inverlochy, 1 was buried in the churchyard of 
Bellie, Banffshire. 
2 JAMES, second Marquess of Montrose. 

3. David, baptized 8 January 1638, at Montrose, died 

young, not improbably in November 1641 , 2 

4. Robert, produced by the Earl of Southesk before the 

Committee of Estates in terms of an order, 19 April 
1645, and two days later appointed to be delivered by 
the Earl 4 to (Magdalen) Carnegie his mother, to be 
kept and entertained by her,' the Earl being exonered 
of his trust. His father, on his way to his execution, 
was allowed an interview with him and his sister, 
May 1650. When his brother the second Marquess 
regained his estates in 1656, Lord Robert joined him 
and lived in family with him at Mugdock till the year 
1663. He rode along with his brother in the pageant 
of their father's ' funeralls ' in 1661. It is not im- 
probable that he latterly engaged in some foreign 
service, and that he died abroad in the year 1666, 
when various items for mourning appear in the family 
accounts without any corresponding mortuary 
charges. In any event he predeceased his brother 
the Marquess, Sir William Graham of Braco having 
the character of nearest agnate of the Marquess's 
heir in February 1669. 

5. Jean, designed, in an assignation which she granted on 

2 July 1686 of a provision in her parents' marriage- 
contract, ' Lady Jane Grahame, only lawful daughter 
procreat betwixt umquhile James, Marquess of 
Montrose, and umquhile Lady Magdalen Carnegy his 
spouse.' Her childish fortunes were linked with 
those of her brother Robert. Along with him she 
joined their brother the second Marquess at Mug- 
dock, and lived there in family with him till his death. 
She then removed with the widowed Marchioness to 
Glasgow, and was intrusted with the management 

1 Original at Buchanan. 2 When Lady Montrose incurs an account to 
Alexander Caithness for light mournings. Original Writs, Buchanan. 



255 

of the household on a journey she took to London. 
In her will the Marchioness, who died in December 
1672, recommends the care of her children ' while at 
the schools ' to their aunt Lady Jean. In her later 
years Lady Jean Graham resided at Nether Liff, near 
Dundee. In a letter to the widow of her nephew, 
the third Marquess of Montrose, dated 30 June 1686, 
she mentions 4 the present indisposition I am in,' l 
and she died at Liff soon after. 2 

VIII. JAMES, second Marquess of Montrose, was born in 
the year 1633, during his father's absence in France. 3 As 
already mentioned, he was brought to his father at Perth 
after Tippermuir, September 1644, but he was left at school 
at Montrose before the battle of Aberdeen. He had no 
sooner become Lord Graham, by the death of his elder 
brother in February 1645, than he was seized by the orders 
of the Committee of Estates and imprisoned with his tutor 
in Edinburgh Castle. Petitioning to be released on account 
of the plague, on 7 August 1645 an order was pronounced 
for his delivery to the Earl of Dalhousie to be educated, 
Lord Carnegie being security for his good behaviour. It is 
said by Saintserf that he at this time nobly refused to be 
exchanged lest it should cost his father the benefit of a 
prisoner. In the account of the rents of Old Montrose above 
mentioned, there is allowed from the victual of crop 1646, 
x bolls 1 firlot corn as ' delyvered ... to my lord graime 
his horss.' The minutes of the General Assembly of date 
4 December 1648, containing a recommendation as to the 
course to be taken for his college education, show that 
Lord Graham was then still in the power of the Estates ; 
but he must shortly afterwards have escaped or been 
allowed to go to Flanders, where he was at his father's 
death. After this he was, with his servants, * boarded and 
entertained' for two years by his cousin Captain Harry 
Graham, a grandson of the Rector of Killearn, who had 
been for some time an officer of a Scots regiment in the 
Dutch service, and from whom he no doubt received his 

1 Original "Writs, Buchanan. 2 St. Andrews Tests, 14 July 1688. 
3 Saintserf mentions him as being 'not full twelve years old' at the 
time of the battle of Kilsyth, August 1645. Napier's Memoirs, ii. 563 
et passim. 



256 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 

military education. 1 Being neglected by the exiled court, 
he returned, in 1652, to Scotland, and obtained possession, 
to some extent, of his Perthshire estates. 2 About the end of 
the following year, in response to a personal appeal by the 
exiled King, he joined in the ineffectual attempt of the Earl 
of Glencairn and General Middleton against the Common- 
wealth. From articles of capitulation entered into on his 
behalf by Sir Robert Graham of Morphie and John Graham, 
younger of Fintry, with General Monk, dated 23 September 
1654, it would seem that he held a separate command. By 
these articles the Marquess, upon giving security within 
fourteen days to Colonel Ralph Cobbett, Governor of 
Dundee, for 3000, was allowed to enjoy his estates, both 
real and personal, so far as they had not been disposed of 
by the Parliament, without trouble or molestation, with 
liberty, within six months, to raise a regiment of 1000 foot 
for service abroad with any prince or state in amity with 
the Commonwealth of England, and to recruit once in 
three years. 3 

The Marquess was at this time almost without resources, 
but being generously assisted by his kinsmen and friends, 
he was enabled not only to buy back the castle and barony 
of Mugdock from the Marquess of Argyll and Lord Neil 
Campbell in 1655, and to settle there, when the place was 
made habitable (Kincardine Castle, burned by the army 
of the Estates in 1646, has never been restored), but also, 
in the following year, to purchase from David Graham 
of Fintry the lands of that name in Stirlingshire, which 
had also originally belonged to his ancestors. The tutors 
of John Graham of Olaverhouse (afterwards the celebrated 
Viscount Dundee) at the same time reconveying to him 
the remainder of the family estates which the deceased 
Sir William Graham had acquired in trust from the Com- 
mittee of Estates, subject to the encumbrances, the 'Mar- 
quess obtained a charter of his whole estates from the 
Lord Protector Cromwell, in which he is styled * James 

1 Discharges by Captain Harie Graham 1657, and Major Harie Graham 
1663, at Buchanan. See as to Captain, afterwards Colonel, Henry Graham, 
The Scots Brigade in Holland, 1899, i. 498 n. The suggestion that he was 
the same as Harry Graham, the brother of the great Marquess, is, of 
course, unfounded. 2 Sir Edward Nicholas to Hyde, 6 June 1652, Nicholas 
Papers, i. 302, and Original Writs, Buchanan. 3 Ibid. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTBOSE 257 

Graham now ordinarly designed Marquess of Montrose,' 
dated 28 August 1656. 1 

The Restoration brought the change which might have 
been expected in the fortunes of the second Marquess of 
Montrose. He went to London and greeted the King, who, 
in part satisfaction of his father's losses, made him a 
grant of 10,000 sterling, payable by yearly instalments 
out of the customs of Glasgow, 26 September 1660. 2 His 
Majesty further, by a patent under the Great Seal, dated 
at Whitehall 12 October, ratified and confirmed the patent 
of Charles I. and of new created the Marquess and the 
heirs-male of his body Marquesses of Montrose, Earls of 
Kincardine, Lords Graham and Mugdock, with rank and 
precedency from 6 May 1644. In the Parliament which 
sat on 1 January 1661, and which, on 8 February rescinded 
the forfeiture of his father, the Marquess on 16 April ob- 
tained a decree against Argyll for 100,664, 3s. 4d. Scots, 
consisting of the rents of Mugdock and other lands intro- 
mitted with by Argyll, the price paid to the latter for the 
reconveyance of Mugdock and interest on the price. In 
part satisfaction of the debt the lordship of Cowall, in the 
King's hands by the forfeiture of Argyll, was disponed to 
the Marquess. 3 At the trial of Argyll for treason in May 
1661, the Marquess of Montrose refused to vote, owning 
that he had too much resentment to judge in the matter. 4 
A few years later he redisponed Cowall to the new Earl of 
Argyll, restored by the King to his father's original honours. 5 

The second Marquess of Montrose was served heir of his 
father on 30 May 1665, the titles upon which he had hitherto 
enjoyed his estates having rested upon rescinded Acts of 
Parliament, and in the following year he came to an 
arrangement with his friends, who had settled with the 
numerous creditors of his father, by which the whole debts, 
very carefully detailed and scheduled, were paid or secured. 
Unfortunately, this settlement necessitated the sale of the 
family estates in Forfarshire, Old Montrose, and Fullerton, 
which now finally passed out of the family, and the con- 
traction of new liabilities. 6 The Marquess made his re- 

1 Original Writs, Buchanan. 2 Ibid. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., vii. 168, 583. 
4 Burnet's Hist., i. 226. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., vii. 583. 6 Original Writs, 
Buchanan. 

VOL. VI. R 



258 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

sidence at Mugdock Castle, which he enlarged and im- 
proved, and he there entertained the Earl of Middleton, 
the Commissioner, and some of the Council attending the 
Convention in Glasgow which has been called the ' Drunken 
Parliament,' October 1662. l He never held any office of 
state, but was appointed an Extraordinary Lord of Session 
25 June 1668. 2 He was, according to Wood, ' a man of 
honour and probity, so great a lover of justice, and so 
strict in the observance of his word and promise, that none 
was ever more worthy of the title of an honest man. To 
distinguish him from his great predecessor, he was known 
as the good Marquess, a title by which he was long affec- 
tionately remembered.' He died at Mugdock in February 
1669, aged thirty-five, and was buried at Aberuthven on 
23 April following. 3 

The Marquess married (contract 15 and 30 November and 
2, 4, 12, and 20 December 1656) Isabella Douglas, daughter 
of William, ninth Earl of Morton, and widow of Robert, 
first Earl of Roxburghe. After her husband's death she 
bought from Sir Ludovick Stewart of Minto his 'great 
mansion ' in the Drygate of Glasgow, and made it her prin- 
cipal residence. The family inheritance being still much 
impoverished, she in May 1671 made a journey to London 
with her three eldest children, and presenting them at the 
Court, obtained for them, with the aid of the Earl and 
Countess of Lauderdale, substantial marks of royal favour. 
This excellent lady died on 16 December 1672: she was 
buried at Aberuthven on 23 January following/ They 
had issue : 

1. JAMES, third Marquess, who succeeded. 

2. Charles, who, while on a tour, or series of visits, 

through the West of Scotland with his brother Lord 
Graham, contracted a painful illness, from which, after 
five months' suffering, he died at Glasgow on 25 Feb- 
ruary 1674. He was buried in Barony churchyard. 

1 J. Guthrie Smith's Parish of Strathblane, 28. 2 Brunton and Haig's 
Senators, 393. 3 Original Writs, Buchanan. 4 Ibid. For a notice of 
the quaint sermon preached at her funeral by John Paterson, minister, 
and afterwards Bishop, of Glasgow, see Parish of Strathblane, 29. There 
are several letters of this lady in the Lauderdale Collection in the British 
Museum. She was the last Marchioness of Montrose who subscribed 
her maiden name in the old Scots fashion. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSB 259 

3. Anna, married to Alexander, third Earl of Oallender, 

and had issue. She died about 14 February 1709. 1 

4. Jean, married (contract 10 February 1679) to Jonathan 

Urquhart of Oromarty. Her husband's affairs be- 
coming embarrassed, she returned to live with her 
brother, the third Marquess, and died at his house 
in the Oanongate about 20 February 1683. She had 
a son James, who was brought up with the fourth 
Marquess, and became a colonel in the Army. 2 

5. Grizell, married, before 1688, to William Cochrane of 

Kilmaronock, and had issue. She died 30 June 1726. 3 

IX. JAMES, third Marquess of Montrose, born at Glasgow 
20 October 1657, received his early education there under the 
superintendence of Dr. Mathew Brisbane, in whose house 
he lived for some time, and at the University, where he 
matriculated in 1672. 4 By warrants dated 21 May 1671 and 
9 April 1679 Charles n. continued to him the grants which 
had been made to his father out of the customs of Glasgow 
in aid of the losses sustained by the family through his 
grandfather's loyalty. Following the example of the great 
Marquess he finished his education in France, the royal 
licence to him to go abroad being dated 8 March 1676. The 
accounts of Robert Graham, brother of the Laird of Braco, 
his guardian and companion while abroad, show that he 
also studied the profession of arms at Angers. 6 Upon re- 
turning to London he appeared at court, and became so 
great a favourite that a report was spread that he was 
about ' to marry with the blood royal.' On 16 February 
1678 he received a commission as captain of a troop of 
horse in the Duke of York's Regiment to be raised in Scot- 
land, and invited his kinsman Olaverhouse to be his lieu- 
tenant. On 26 October following the Marquess was 
appointed captain of the troop of Life Guards in Scotland 
in place of the Marquess of Atholl, Olaverhouse succeeding 
to the command of his original troop. As captain of Life 
Guards the Marquess was with the Duke of Monmouth at 
the Battle of Bothwell Bridge, 22 June 1679. 6 

1 Major Urquhart to Duke of Montrose, 5 May 1709. 2 Original Writs, 
Buchanan. 3 Dumbarton Register. 4 Munimenta Univ. Glasg., iii. 125. 
5 Original Writs, Buchanan. 6 Napier's Dundee, ii. 17, 233, and Original 
Writs, Buchanan. 



260 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

William, Earl of Menteith and Airth, having no children, 
and his estates being heavily encumbered, was at this time 
designing to convey the reversion of his titles of honour 
and estates to some member of the Graham family who 
would be in a situation to preserve both. It was also the 
wish of the Earl that the person so selected should marry 
his cousin Isabella, daughter of Sir James Graham, his 
uncle, and only near heir-male. For this position, at least 
for the titles and estate, there was for a time a rivalry 
between the Marquess of Montrose and Olaverhouse, but 
the former prevailed ; and on 14 February 1680 the Earl 
conveyed to himself in liferent and the Marquess and his 
heirs-male in fee not only the earldom of Menteith and 
barony of Drymen and the barony of Airth, but also * the 
stile, title of honour, and dignity of Earl of Menteith and 
Airth, Lord Kinpunt and Kilbryde,' under burden of the 
debts secured on the estates, upon which charter resigna- 
tion was made in the hands of the King at Newmarket 18 
March 1680. 1 His Majesty, however, refused to allow the 
conveyance of the titles to pass, and, as that of the lands 
of Airth was dropped, the charter, which contained also 
the Marquess's own estates, upon his separate resignation, 
was limited, as regards the conveyance by the Earl of 
Menteith and Airth, to the earldom of Menteith and barony 
of Drymen, 2 May 1680. 2 This was a great disappoint- 
ment to the Earl, who, when the charter was ratified in 
Parliament on 6 September 1681, protested against the 
ratification. 3 The Marquess did not marry the Earl's 
cousin, but it does not appear that his failing to do so dis- 
appointed the Earl so much as the lady herself and her 
mother/ The Marquess did not live to inherit Menteith, 
but he acquired by purchase from George Buchanan of 
that Ilk, and his creditors, in the year 1680, the barony 
of Buchanan, 5 which is now the principal estate and seat 
of his successors, and for varied beauties of situation is 
unsurpassed, if not unrivalled, by any in Scotland. He was 
obliged, however, in order to settle differences arising out 

1 Original Writs, Buchanan. * Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 3 Acta ParL, 
Scot., viii. 257. 4 Menteith Letters, Buchanan. 6 Original Writs, 
Buchanan. By this purchase the Marquess regained the ancient estate 
of his family on Loch Lomond the first proposal being indeed practically 
limited to that estate. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 261 

of this transaction, to grant in feu to Buchanan of Arn- 
prior a fourth part of the barony, long since reacquired by 
the family. 1 

The Marquess was for a time President of the Council, 2 
acted as Chancellor of the Jury at the trial of the Earl of 
Argyll on 12 December 1681, 3 and was appointed Sheriff of 
Dumbarton (the hereditary title to that office in the Lennox 
family being then in abeyance through the death of Charles, 
Duke of Lennox, and the lapsing of the Dukedom to the 
Crown jure sanguinis) and Justiciar or Bailie of the 
Regalities of Lennox and Glasgow, 21 February 1682.* He 
resided chiefly at the Canongate, and died there of a fever, 
to the general regret of the royal family and the nation, 5 
25 April 1684, aged twenty-six. He married Christian, 
younger daughter and co-heiress of John, Duke of Rothes, 
Chancellor of Scotland (marriage articles dated 9 June 
1681 6 ), a lady described by a contemporary as 'fair and 
graceful ' and of ' debonnaire temper.' 7 She survived him, 
and married, secondly, in May 1687, John Bruce, younger 
of Kinross, 8 but without issue. She died at Edinburgh 21 
April, and was buried 4 May, 1710. By her first husband 
she had an only child, 

X. JAMES, fourth Marquess of Montrose, born about April 
1682, who was served heir-male of his father on 18 Feb- 
ruary 1685." The deceased Marquess had named as tutors 
to him his mother, the Earls of Haddington and Perth, 
William Hay of Drummelzier, and Sir William Bruce of 
Kinross, but on the death of Lord Haddington, and his 
mother's second marriage, the tutory was found by the 
Court of Session to be null, although the Marchioness and 
her husband offered to entertain the Marquess gratis, and 
at his age of ten years to give up to him 2000 merks of her 
jointure, 1 February 1688. This annulling of the tutory 
was thought to be a device of James vn. to have the Mar- 
quess brought up as a Roman Catholic, and Lords Harcarse 
and Edmonstone having voted against it, were deprived by 
the King 29 February. 10 If it was really the design of the 

1 Original Writ, Buchanan. 2 Crawf urd's Peerage, 348. 3 Fountainhall, 
i. :?41. * Original Writ, Buchanan. 6 Napier's Dundee, i. 333 n. Original 
Writ, Buchanan. 7 Napier's Dundee, iii. 706 n. 8 Ibid. 9 Original 
Retour, Buchanan. 10 Fountainhall, ii. 849 et seq. 



262 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

King to have the Chancellor Perth appointed tutor-dative 
he did not carry it into effect. The nearest agnate of the 
Marquess, Sir James Graham of Braco, being under twenty- 
five years of age, James Graham of Orchill, the nearest 
agnate above that age, was served tutor-at-law 16 March 
1688, 1 and administered the estate till 1696, when the 
Marquess became of an age to choose his curators. The 
mansion in Glasgow being the dower-house of his mother, 
the youth of the Marquess was spent between that city, 
where he received his education, and Kinross House, his 
stepfather's residence. Along with a young kinsman, 
Mungo Graeme of Gorthie, he completed his education by 
making the grand tour of Europe from September 1698 to 
August 1700, 2 and he returned home with the reputation of 
being one of the handsomest and most accomplished young 
noblemen in Scotland, uniting in his person the great 
qualities of the two families, Montrose and Rothes, from 
whom he derived his descent. 3 

While yet under age the Marquess received two con- 
siderable accessions to his estate, succeeding in 1689 to 
Braco by the death of Sir James Graham, of whom he was 
the heir-male, and in 1694 to the territorial earldom of Men- 
teith and barony of Drymen by the death of the Earl of 
Menteith. He had barely attained majority when, in 1703, 
he succeeded, through the skilful negotiation of his friend 
Mungo Graeme, who was sent to London with that object, 
in purchasing from the disponees of Charles, Duke of Lennox 
and Richmond, the estates of Lennox and Darnley, which 
the Duke had inherited on the death of the celebrated 
Frances, Duchess of Lennox, and had immediately sold. 4 
Mungo Graeme or ' Gorthie,' as he was generally addressed, 5 
from this time, and for half a century onward, had the 
entire charge or oversight of the affairs of the Montrose 
family in Scotland, leaving the Marquess more free to 
pursue a political career. The estate of Lennox at that 

1 Inq. de Tutela, at date. 2 Original Records, Buchanan. :J Macky's 
Memoirs, 192. * Lennox Book, i. 125. 5 He was some ten years older than 
the Marquess, also succeeded his father when an infant, and was Laird 
of Gorthie for the long period of eighty-one years. His grandfather was 
one of the few kinsmen of the great Marquess who actively assisted 
him. On 7 January 1661 he took down the Marquess's head from Edin- 
burgh Tolbooth, and died the same night. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 263 

time comprehended a very wide right of superiority in 
Dumbartonshire and western Stirlingshire, and the Mar- 
quess was required to grant a bond to Queen Anne under- 
taking to sell their superiorities to such of the vassals as 
wished to buy them at a fixed rate. In order to effect this 
great purchase he feued out much of his Perthshire estates, 
including Braco. 1 He resigned the title, honour, and. 
dignity of Marquess of Montrose and his whole estates in 
the hands of the Queen for new infeftment in favour of 
himself in liferent, and David, Lord Graham, his son, in 
fee, and received a new charter, extending the Mar- 
quessate to heirs-female, as well as heirs-male, 5 August 
1706. 2 

The Marquess was appointed by Queen Anne High 
Admiral of Scotland 23 February 1705, and President of 
the Council 28 February 1706. He steadily supported the 
Union and the Protestant succession, received a holograph 
letter of thanks from the Queen with promise of further 
recognition of his services 22 October 1706, 3 and was, by 
a patent dated 24 April 1707, advanced to the dignities of 
DUKE OF MONTROSE, MARQUESS OF GRAHAM 
AND BUCHANAN, EARL OF KINCARDINE, VIS- 
COUNT OF DUNDAFF AND LORD ABERUTHVEN, 
MUGDOOK AND FINTRY, with remainder to the heirs- 
male of his body, whom failing to the heirs-male provided 
to the title and dignity of Marquess of Montrose by former 
diplomas made and granted to his predecessors. 4 His 
Grace was one of the sixteen representatives of the 
Scottish Peerage chosen by the last Parliament of Scot- 
land on 13 February 1707, and was rechosen at the general 
election for the British Parliament in 1708. He was ap- 
pointed Keeper of the Privy Seal 19 February 1709 ; but 
was removed in 1713 by the Tory administration of the 
Earl of Oxford. 

On the accession of King George I. the Duke arrived in 
London on 10 August 1714, in order to receive the King, who 
by commission dated 8 October appointed him one of the 
principal Secretaries of State in room of the Jacobite Earl 
of Mar, and at the same time Keeper of the Signet. In 

1 Original Writs and Records, Buchanan. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 
3 Original at Buchanan. 4 Ibid. 



264 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

the first-mentioned capacity he had, along with the Lord 
Justice-General, the Earl of Hay, and the Justice-Clerk, 
Cockburn, the chief part in the civil administration of the 
government of Scotland during the Jacobite rising of 1715- 
16. Upon the termination of the struggle he was the 
recipient from all quarters of appeals on behalf of the un- 
fortunate victims of the rising, and did much to mitigate 
the severity of their punishment. 

The first Duke of Montrose will always be remembered 
in connection with the notorious Rob Roy. The whole 
story of their connection cannot be told here, but as to 
the history of Rob Roy's estate and the manner of its 
coming into the hands of the Duke, it may be stated that 
Rob Roy's estate of Oraigrostan and Ardess was forfeited 
for his accession to the rebellion of 1715, and the Duke 
of Montrose acquired it in 1720 by open purchase from the 
Commissioners of Enquiry, and not, as has been generally 
asserted, by the use of legal diligence against Rob Roy. 1 

The Duke's services were much appreciated by George I., 
and he visited Hanover during one of that sovereign's resi- 
dences there. Re-elected a Representative Peer in 1715 
and 1722, he was appointed Sheriff Principal of Stirlingshire 
29 June 1716, Lord Clerk Register 6 July 1716, Keeper of 
the Great Seal in Scotland 13 December 1716, and Lord- 
Lieutenant of Dumbartonshire 17 April 1717, and was sworn 
a Privy Councillor at St. James's 11 October 1717. Having 
been in his boyhood a subscriber to the African Company 
(Darien Scheme), his Grace had now the somewhat un- 
fortunate distinction of being also a subscriber to the 
undertakings both of the York Buildings Company and 
the South Sea Company. 2 

Upon the accession of George n. the Duke of Montrose 
was again elected one of the Representative Peers 20 
September 1727, and was re-appointed Lord-Lieutenant 
of Dumbartonshire, Sheriff-Principal of Stirling and Keeper 
of the Great Seal in Scotland by commission dated 24 Octo- 
ber 1727. He continued to be a member of the government 
of Sir Robert Walpole till April 1733, when, having joined 

1 Original Writs, Buchanan. 2 On 1 March 1722 the Duke writes to 
Gorthie, ' My loss in these cursed stocks makes it ye more necessary for 
you to be verie exact in gathering in my rents.' 



GRAHAM, DUKE OP MONTROSE 265 

in the opposition to that minister's unpopular Excise Bill, 
he was deprived of the office of Keeper of the Great Seal. 
In the general election of the following year the Duke and 
his associated Peers lost their election at Holyrood, and the 
Duke of Montrose, who soon after fell into indifferent 
health, did not again sit in Parliament. 

The Duke made his principal residence in Scotland at 
Glasgow, where in 1718-19 he built, upon the site of Sir 
Ludovick Stewart's house and two adjoining properties in 
Drygate, a large new mansion long known as ' Montrose's 
lodging.' Mugdock Oastle became the residence of a cadet 
of the family, and Buchanan was at this time little more 
than a country house. His Grace was in 1714 appointed to 
his father's office of Bailie and Justiciar of the Barony and 
Regality of Glasgow during pleasure, and re-appointed for 
life 1717, which gave him a certain interest and control 
in municipal politics ; and on 1 October 1714 he was 
elected Chancellor of the University. He died in London 
7 January 1742, and was buried at Aberuthven on 12 
February following. 

He married (contract 31 March 1702) Christian, second 
daughter of David, third Earl of Northesk, who survived 
him, and died in Edinburgh on 25 May 1744, being also 
buried at Aberuthven. By her he had issue : 

1. James, Lord Graham, born 7 April 1703, died 2 March 

1704. 1 

2. David, Lord Graham, born 8 June 1705, known as 

Marquess of Graham after 1707, and on 23 May 
1722 created a Peer of Great Britain by the titles 
of EARL GRAHAM and BARON GRAHAM OP 
BELPORD in Northumberland, with remainder to 
his brothers William and George. He took the oaths 
and his seat in the House of Lords 19 January 1727. 
Always a delicate youth, he died of a rapid consump- 
tion at Cleay House, Norfolk, his father's English 
country seat, 30 September 1731, and was buried at 
Aberuthven. 2 

3. Christian, born 29 October 1706, died 30 May 1711. 

1 The dates of the births and deaths of the first seven children are 
taken from a memorandum at Buchanan. 2 Correspondence of the Duke 
of Montrose with Gorthie. 



266 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

4. Elizabeth, born 23 April 1708, died 17 February 1711. 

5. John, born 9 April 1709, died 19 March 1710. 1 

6. James (secimdus), born 26 March 1710, died 3 April 1711. 

7. Thomas, born 7 March 1711, died 27 December 1711. 

8. WILLIAM, who succeeded as second Duke of Montrose. 

9. Margaret, born 5 June 1714, 2 died 1 April 1729. 3 

10. George, born 26 September 1715. 4 From his infancy of 
a sprightly and engaging temperament, 5 Lord George 
Graham entered the Royal Navy as a midshipman on 
the Oxford 8 June 1730. Passing his examination 
before the Commissioners ' with applause ' he was 
appointed a lieutenant on 6 April 1734. 6 He was 
posted captain 15 May 1740, and in the same year 
was appointed Governor of Newfoundland. He saw 
much active service during the War of the Austrian 
Succession, and Aaron Hill wrote a poem to him on 
his action near Ostend 24 June 1745. There is at 
Buchanan Castle a portrait of Lord George Graham 
by Hogarth about quarter size. It represents his 
Lordship sitting in the cabin of his ship with part of 
his company, and is an example of the characteristic 
humour of the painter. 7 He is sometimes called of 
Dundaff, his father having conveyed to him that 
barony, by this time a mere superiority, with some 
similar subjects in Perthshire and Renfrewshire 27 
February 1735. 8 In the general election of 1741 he 
was chosen member for the county of Stirling, and 
he continued to represent it till his death. 9 He died 
at Bath, unmarried, on 2 January 1747, having, by his 
last will and testament, dated 11 February 1744-45, 
bequeathed all his estate and effects to his 'dear 
and most honoured friend ' Lady Mary Forbes, 
daughter of the Earl of Granard. 10 

XI. WILLIAM, second Duke of Montrose, was born at 

1 Buried in the New Kirk (St. Giles' Cathedral), Edinburgh. Index to 
Genealogical Birthbrieves, recorded in the Lyon Office (Scot. Record Soc.). 
- Glasgow Reg. 3 Buchanan Correspondence. * Ibid., and Accounts. 
6 Duke of Montrose from London to Gorthie, 8 May 1722, ' Lord George is 
mighty diverting, and takes much with everybody here.' 6 The same to 
the same, 13 April 1734. 7 Lord George in his will describes this painting 
as ' My conversation piece, drawn by Mr. Hogarth.' 8 Original Writs, 
Buchanan. 9 Foster's Members of Parliament. 10 Original at Buchanan. 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTBOSB 267 

Glasgow 27 August 1712, and in August 1723, along with 
his brother George, was placed under the tuition of the poet 
Mallet, who, in a letter to a friend, alludes to the brothers 
as * sprightly and hopeful boys.' His young charges made 
the grand tour of Europe with Mallet. Choosing the 
military profession, Lord William Graham was posted in 
Colonel Derby's company of the Guards, 16 May 1730, but 
he retired from the service on the death of his elder 
brother, whom he succeeded as Earl Graham and Baron 
Graham of Belford, and in the courtesy title of Marquess of 
Graham. He took his seat in the House of Lords 17 January 
1734. On 11 July 1739, riding with a single servant from 
London into Hampshire, he was attacked in a bye-lane not 
far from the ale-house called Tumbledown Dick near Farn- 
borough, by two mounted highwaymen, who had that morn- 
ing robbed the Salisbury coach. The more formidable of 
the two villains rode, pistol in hand, at Lord Graham, who 
drew his pistol and shot him through the head. The other 
rogue, seeing his comrade fall, left the servant and escaped 
by dismounting and disappearing in a wood. 1 The news- 
paper accounts of this adventure, which were somewhat 
exaggerated, created a great sensation at the time. 

Upon the death of his father, Duke William was served 
heir to his brother, the deceased Marquess of Graham, in 
the family estates, 7 April 1742. On 15 April 1747 he was 
served heir of provision to his brother Lord George Graham 
in Dundaff, etc. Under the Act of 20 George u. c. 43, for 
the abolition of heritable jurisdictions in Scotland, his 
Grace was allowed as compensation for the sheriffship of 
Dumbartonshire 3000, the regality of Montrose 1000, the 
regality of Menteith 200, the regality of Lennox 578, 
18s. 4d., and the regality of Darnley 800 in all 5578, 
18s. 4d., in full of his claim of 15,000. He adhered to the 
political views of his father, giving the Government, through 
his factors, such aid as was in his power during the Jaco- 
bite rising of 1745-46, when his tenantry on the Highland 
border were greatly oppressed ; but he did not himself take 
any active part in public affairs. 

William, Duke of Montrose, was elected Chancellor of the 
University of Glasgow 21 January 1742. He sold the family 
1 Duke of Montrose to Gorthie, 14 July 1739. 



268 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

mansion in Glasgow 1751, and a few years later added 
greatly to the House of Buchanan, being the first to lay 
out in something approaching its present scale the noble 
domain which surrounds it. It became his settled policy 
to concentrate his estate in that neighbourhood, and with 
this object he sold the property lands of Lennox, the whole 
lordship of Darnley, and lastly, in 1770, the ruined castle 
and remaining property lands of Kincardine, buying in place 
of them lands in Stirlingshire. His Grace had the mis- 
fortune, when yet but little past middle age, to suffer the 
affliction of blindness, which he bore with singular courage 
and patience. He resided chiefly in England, his country 
seat there being Petersham, and latterly Twickenham 
Park, where he died 23 September 1790. He was buried at 
Aberuthven. 

The Duke married, at London, on 28 October 1742, Lucy, 
youngest daughter of John, second Duke of Rutland, and 
by her, who died at London 18 June 1788, aged seventy- 
one, and was buried at Aberuthven, he had, besides a son 
who was born and died on 20 January 1745, two chil- 
dren : 

1. JAMES, third Duke of Montrose. 

2. Lucy, born at London 28 July 1751 ; married, at London 

13 June 1771, to Archibald Douglas of Douglas, after- 
wards created Lord Douglas, and died 13 February 
1780, aged twenty-eight, leaving issue. 

XII. JAMES, third Duke of Montrose, born 8 September 
1755 ; was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
took the degree of M. A. in 1775. As Marquess of Graham he 
took a great interest in politics, his first essay in that direc- 
tion being an attempt to bring over the county of Dumbar- 
ton to his family interest by the only method in which that 
could then be attempted, viz. a conveyancing operation on 
a large scale. His father made over to him the dukedom 
of Lennox, which, notwithstanding the effect of the bond 
to Queen Anne, still included the superiority of perhaps 
the greater part of the county. Expeding a Crown charter 
of the dukedom, dated 3 July 1779, the Marquess assigned 
to friends and adherents, in liferent, the superiorities of at 
least thirty estates giving votes for the county by the then 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 269 

existing franchise. This would have been sufficient to 
carry the election in favour of his candidate, the Hon. 
George Keith Elphinstone (afterwards Admiral Viscount 
Keith), but unfortunately no less than fourteen of these 
superiorities had been included in one charter in favour of 
the then Sir James Oolquhoun of Luss, who supported Lord 
Frederick Campbell, the candidate of the Argyll family, 
and successfully objected to the multiplication of superiors 
upon him ; and at the general election of 1780 Captain 
Elphinstone was defeated. Sir James Colquhoun did not, 
however, win all the moves in this game, 1 and ultimately 
Captain Elphinstone obtained the seat upon a scrutiny, 
Lord Frederick withdrawing. 2 The Marquess was himself 
elected to the Parliament of 1780 as one of the members 
for Richmond, co. York. He procured the repeal of the 
clause in the Acts 1746, c 39, and 1747, c. 51, which pro- 
hibited the Highlanders in Scotland from wearing their 
national dress. In this Parliament, which brought so great 
a change in English party government, he attached himself 
to Mr. Pitt, who had been his fellow-student at Cambridge, 
and with him, from being a moderate Whig, adopted those 
conservative opinions which have ever since distinguished 
his family. When, in December 1783, Mr. Pitt was sent 
for by the King to form a government, the Marquess of 
Graham was appointed a Lord of the Treasury. In the 
general election of 1784, which resulted so triumphantly 
for his leader, the Marquess, leaving Richmond, where he 
was opposed in the Whig interest by Charles Dundas, after- 
wards Lord Amesbury, was returned for the pocket borough 
of Great Bedwin, in Wiltshire. He was appointed President 
of the Board of Trade, 10 June 1784, joint Postmaster- 
General 13 July, and joint Paymaster of the Forces (an office 
formerly held by Mr. Burke) 6 August. At the general 
election of 1790 the Marquess was again returned for 
Gre^it Bedwin, but the death of his father raised him to 
the Upper House as Earl Graham before he could take his 
seat. 
Succeeding his father in September 1790, the third Duke 

1 Chiefs of Colquhoun, 5. 365 et seq., where, however, Sir William 
Fraser mistakes the political views which then actuated the parties 
respectively. 2 Irving's Dumbartonshire, vol. i. 335. 



270 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

of Moutrose was, in November following, appointed 
Master of the Horse ; and in May 1791 he became a Com- 
missioner for Indian Affairs, and was sworn a Privy Coun- 
cillor. By a commission dated 14 January 1795 he was 
appointed Lord Justice-General of Scotland, and retained that 
ancient office till his decease, being the last layman to hold it. 
Upon this appointment he resigned the Mastership of the 
Horse. When a Whig administration took office in Feb- 
ruary 1806 the Duke was deprived of the Presidency of the 
Board of Trade and the joint Postmaster-Generalship ; but 
on his friends once more coming into power he was again 
appointed Master of the Horse. He once more resigned 
that office in February 1821 on being appointed Lord 
Chamberlain in succession to the Marquess of Hertford. 
He resigned the last-mentioned office in 1827. 

The Duke was in 1781 elected Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow in succession to his father, was LL.D. of 
that University and a D.C.L. of the University of Oxford. 
He was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Stirlingshire 1794, 
Colonel of the Stirlingshire Militia 1798, and Lord-Lieutenant 
of Dumbartonshire in 1813. He was made a Knight of the 
Thistle 1793, and obtained the Garter in 1812. He was ap- 
pointed Captain-General of the Royal Company of Archers 
28 September 1824. During the height of the excesses of 
the French Revolution he enrolled himself as a private in 
the City of London Light Horse, and cheerfully underwent 
all the duty imposed upon him by that situation. To the 
last he retained a keen interest in the local politics of the 
three counties where his estates, as concentrated by his 
father, were situated, particularly those of Dumbartonshire, 
where the contests, now become internecine between con- 
flicting Conservative ambitions, were always interesting 
from the fact that any two of the great family interests, 
Montrose, Luss, and Duntreath, were generally able, by 
combining, to defeat the third. The Duke lived to see the 
system which made these contests possible swept away by 
the Reform Bill, but not to see a Conservative candidate 
returned by the popular vote, dying at London, at the age of 
eighty-one, on 30 December 1836. He was buried at Aber- 
uthven, being the last of his family to be interred there. 

The Duke, as Marquess of Graham, married, first, on 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 271 

3 March 1785, 1 Jemima Elizabeth Ashburnham, eldest 
daughter of John, second Earl of Ashburnham, who died at 
London 17 September 1786, aged twenty-five, and was 
buried at Aberuthven ; and, secondly, on 24 July 1790, 
Caroline Maria Montagu, eldest daughter of George, fourth 
Duke of Manchester, who survived him and died at Peters- 
ham, Surrey, on 26 March 1847, aged seventy-six and was 
buried there. 
The only child of his Grace's first marriage was : 

1. James, Earl of Kincardine, born 4 September 1786 ; 

died 29 April 1787 ; buried at Aberuthven. 2 
The children of the second marriage were : 

2. JAMES, fourth Duke of Montrose. 

3. Montagu William, born 2 February 1807 ; a captain in 

the Ooldstream Guards, Member of Parliament under 
the old franchise for Dumbartonshire 1830 and 1831, 3 
and in the reformed Parliament for Grantham, and 
afterwards for the county of Hereford; married, 14 
February 1867, Harriet Anne, widow of George 
Astley Charles Dashwood, second son of Sir George 
Dashwood, Bart., without issue, and died 21 June 
1878 ; his widow died 18 April 1884. 

4. Georgina Charlotte, born 3 June 1791 ; 4 married, 26 July 

1814, to George William, tenth Earl of Winchilsea; and 
died 13 February 1835, leaving issue. 

5. Caroline, born 30 September 1792 ; died, unmarried, 24 

March 1857. 

6. Lucy, born 25 September 1793; married, 9 February 

1818, to Edward, second Earl Powis; and died 16 
September 1875, leaving issue. 

7. Martha, born 26 January 1802 ; died young. 

8. Emily, born 23 January 1805 ; married, without issue, 

to Edward Thomas Foley of Stoke Edith Park, county 
Hereford, whom she survived fifty-three years, dying 
1 January 1900. 

XIII. JAMES, fourth Duke of Montrose, D.O.L., born at 
London 16 July 1799, was educated at Eton and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1819. As 

1 Scots Mag. 2 Parish of Strathblane, 19 n. 3 In 1830 Lord William 
was returned by the casting vote of the Chairman of the meeting of 
freeholders. 4 Scots Mag. 



272 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

Marquess of Graham he was returned to Parliament as one 
of the members for Cambridge 1825, and represented that 
constituency for several years in the unreformed House of 
Commons, where he was a firm supporter of the Duke of 
Wellington's administration. Rather a practical man of 
business than an orator, he did not, after succeeding to the 
title, take a very prominent part in the proceedings of the 
Upper House. He, however, held office in each of the three 
administrations of the Earl of Derby, as Lord Steward of 
the Household February to December 1852, as Chancellor 
of the Duchy of Lancaster 1858-59, and as Postmaster- 
General 1866-68. 

The Duke was sworn a Privy Councillor so early as 1821, 
and was at the time of his death the oldest member of the 
Council, with the exception of the late Lord Stratford de 
Redcliffe. In 1827 he was appointed honorary colonel 
of the Stirling, Dumbarton, Kinross, and Clackmannan 
Militia; in 1828 a Commissioner of the Board of Control, 
which office he held for three years, and in 1843 Lord- 
Lieutenant of Stirlingshire. On 12 March 1845 he was 
made a Knight of the Thistle. In 1837 he was elected 
Chancellor of the University of Glasgow in succession to 
his father. 

The old Place of Buchanan having been in great part 
destroyed by fire in the month of January 1850, the 
Duke erected in its stead, on a commanding site in the 
park, the fine edifice in Scottish baronial style now known 
as Buchanan Castle. The foundation-stone was laid by 
the late Duchess of Montrose on 22 August 1854, and the 
building was completed in 1857. His Grace died at Cannes 
in the south of France on 30 December 1874, and is buried 
in Christ Church burial-ground, Cannes. 

He married, at St. George's, Hanover Square, on 15 
October 1836, Caroline Agnes, youngest daughter of John 
Horsley, second Lord Decies; she married, secondly, on 
22 January 1876, William Stuart Stirling Orawfurd of Mil- 
ton, who died 23 February 1883; and, thirdly, on 26 July 
1888, Marcus Henry Milner, D.S.O., who survives her. 
She, who was well known in the racing world, died 16 
November 1894. 

The children of the fourth Duke of Montrose were : 



GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 273 

1. James John, Marquess of Graham, born 7 February 

1845, died 31 January 1846. 

2. James, Marquess of Graham, born 22 June 1847, lieu- 

tenant and captain 1st Life Guards, retired Decem- 
ber 1871, died, unmarried, 3 April 1872, and is buried 
in the churchyard of Buchanan. 

3. DOUGLAS BERESFORD MALISE RONALD, fifth Duke. 

4. Agnes Caroline, born 19 April 1839, married 15 Sep- 

tember 1859, to John Murray of Touchadam and Pol- 
maise, lieutenant-colonel Grenadier Guards, and died, 
without leaving issue, 8 May 1873. Colonel Murray 
died 11 August 1903. 

5. Beatrice Violet, born 13 February 1842, married, 15 

December 1863, to Algernon William, second Lord 
Greville, and has issue. 

6. Alma Imogen Leonora Carlotta, born 7 September 

1854, a Lady of Grace of St. John of Jerusalem, 
married, 27 July 1872, to Gavin Campbell, Marquess 
of Breadalbane, K.T. 

XIV. DOUGLAS BERESFORD MALISE RONALD, fifth and 
present Duke of Montrose, was born at London 7 Nov- 
ember 1852. He was educated at Eton and in Germany ; 
second lieutenant Coldstream Guards 1872 ; lieutenant 5th 
Lancers 1876 ; retired 1878. Lieutenant-colonel Lanarkshire 
Yeomanry 1880-90, and colonel commandant of the 3rd 
battalion Princess Louise Argyll and Sutherland High- 
landers 1880-1902. Served in South Africa 1902 (King's 
medal with two clasps); A.D.O. to the King; K.T. 29 
November 1879; Order of the Rising Sun of Japan 1907; 
Lord-Lieutenant of Stirlingshire 23 July 1885 ; Lord Clerk- 
Register of Scotland 30 May 1890. He married, 24 July 
1876, Violet Hermione, second daughter of Sir Frederick 
Graham of Netherby. Her Grace was one of the four 
Duchesses who bore the canopy of Her Majesty at the 
Coronation in Westminster Abbey 9 August 1902. 
They have issue : 

1. James, Marquess of Graham, born 1 May 1878 at 35 

Chester Square, Pimlico; lieutenant Army Service 

Corps 1900; served in South Africa 1900 (King's 

medal with three clasps). Commander of the Royal 

VOL. vi. s 



274 GRAHAM, DUKE OF MONTROSE 

Naval Volunteer Reserve, Clyde Division. Assistant 
Private Secretary (unpaid) to Chancellor of Exchequer 
(Austen Chamberlain) 1905 ; C.V.O. ; D.L. Stirling- 
shire. Married, 14 June 1906, Mary Louise, only 
child ol William Alexander Louis Stephen, twelfth 
Duke of Hamilton, born 1 November 1884, and has 
issue : 

(1) James Angus, Earl of Kincardine, born 2 May 1907. 

2. Douglas Malise, born 14 October 1883; lieutenant 

Royal Field Artillery. 

3. Alistair Mungo, born 12 May 1886 ; lieutenant Royal 

Navy. 

4. Helen Violet, born 1 July 1879. 

5. Hermione Emily, born 22 February 1882, married, 29 

March 1906, to Donald Cameron of Locheil, captain 
Grenadier Guards, and has issue. 

CREATIONS. Lord Graham 1445 ; Earl of Montrose 1503 ; 
Marquess of Montrose, Earl of Kincardine, Lord Graham 
and Mugdock, 6 May 1644, confirmed 12 October 1660 ; 
Duke of Montrose, Marquess of Graham and Buchanan, 
Earl of Kincardine, Viscount Dundaff, Lord Aberuthven, 
Mugdock, and Fintrie, 24 April 1707, in the Peerage of 
Scotland. Earl Graham and Baron Graham of Belford, in 
the county of Northumberland, 23 May 1722, in the Peerage 
of Great Britain. 

ARMS. Quarterly : 1st and 4th, or, on a chief sable 
three escallops of the first, for the name of Graham ; 
2nd and 3rd, argent, three roses gules barbed and seeded 
proper, for the title of Montrose. 

CREST. An eagle, wings hovering or, preying on a stork 
on its back proper. 

SUPPORTERS. Two storks argent, beaked and membered 
gules. 

MOTTO. Ne oublie. 

[W. C. B.] 



MONYPENNY, LORD MONYPENNY 




EW families can boast of 
a longer connection with 
their ancestral lands than 
that of Mony penny of 
Pitmillie in Fife, of which 
stock the Lords Mony- 
penny were cadets. John, 
Prior of St. Andrews, 
granted the whole lands 
of Petmolyn to John de 
Monypenny which per- 
tained to him by heredi- 
tary right by reason of 
his ancestors. 1 He was 
probably the John Mony- 
penny who appears on 
a roll as having done 
homage to Edward I. on 14 March 1295-96, and as having 
performed the same duty at Berwick-on-Tweed 28 August 
1296. 2 Thomas Monypenny of Pitmillie had a charter 
from Thomas Hay temp. David n. of his part of the lands 
of Lucharis, co. Fife. 3 John Monypenny of Pitmillie had 
a charter in the same reign of the lands of Drumavet, in 
the barony of Grail, 4 and another from Walter Maule of 
Panmure of the lands of Scryne and others in the barony of 
Balhousie, co. Forfar. 5 Janet Monypenny had a charter 
of the third part of Leuchars in the same reign.' John 
Monypenny got, on 22 January 1335-36, a safe-conduct, 
having been with others sent to meet the ambassadors 
of the Pope and the King of France at Berwick. 7 

1 Reg. Prior. S. Andree, 404. 2 Col. of Does., ii. No. 730 and p. 209. 
s Robertson's Index, 53, 11. 4 Ibid., 59, 13. 6 Ibid., 59, 14; Beg. de Pan- 
mure, ii. 167. 6 Robertson's Index, 61, 12. 7 Fcedera, iv. 684. 



276 MONYPENNY, LORD MONYPENNY 

THOMAS MONYPENNY, perhaps the son of the above, had 
a charter from King Robert in. to himself and Christian 
Keith his spouse of the third part of the barony of Leuchars. 1 
He witnessed an agreement between Sir Patrick Ogilvy, 
Sheriff of Angus, David Ogilvy of that Ilk, and Agnes 
Pinlay, 24 November 1427. 2 

He had probably two sons : 

1. John Monypenny of Pitmillie, one of the inquest on 

the service of Alexander Ochterlony, as heir of his 
father William in the lands of Kelly 24 April 1409. 3 
He had a son 

(1) Thomas, who got from his father the lands of Balbot, in the 
constabulary of Crail, a grant which was confirmed by the 
Regent Albany 16 December 1413. 4 He was ancestor of 
the Pitmillie line of the family. 

2. SIR WILLIAM, probably the second son, witnessed a 

charter of Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith, dated 
at Dalkeith 10 July 1411, confirmed 26 July 1411. 5 
He married, dispensation dated 10 February 1410, Mar- 
garet or Marjorie, only daughter of Philip Arbutlmott 
of that Ilk. 6 By her he had a son. 

I. WILLIAM, who was an ambassador from Scotland to 
Prance in connection with the marriage in 1442 of Isabella, 
daughter of James I., to the Duke of Brittany's eldest son. 7 
On 5 December 1444 he had a safe-conduct to himself and 
other ambassadors going to the coronation of Margaret of 
Anjou, Queen of Henry vi. 8 On 14 July 1447 he had another 
safe-conduct in which he is styled * natif d'Escoce, escuier 
d'escuieres ' of the King of France, to negotiate the mar- 
riage of Eleanor of Scotland, who afterwards married Sigis- 
mund, Duke of Austria, to the Dauphin of France. 9 On 1 
May 1450 he got, for his services to the King's sisters and 
father, a grant of the lands of Halls of Erth, co. Stirling, 
which were incorporated into a free barony under the name 
of the barony of Monypenny. On 16 June following he 
appointed his * brother ' Thomas Fleming his bailie in his 

1 Robertson's Index, 141, 60. 2 Eraser's Douglas Book, iii. 62. 3 Had- 
dington's Coll. 4 Beg. Mag. Sig., fol. vol. 264, 23. 6 Ibid., 248, 11. 
6 Vol. i. 278. 7 Exch. Rolls, v. Iviii. 8 Rot. Scotice, ii. 325. Fcedera, 
xi. 179. 



MONYPENNY, LORD MONYPBNNY 277 

new barony, 1 and on 26 June he had a grant of Lethbert- 
scheiles, co. Stirling. 2 Some time between 1451 and 1458 
he received from the French King a grant of the lands of 
Concressault in France, perhaps on the occasion of his going 
to that country for the purpose of escorting home the 
Princess Joanna, the deaf and dumb daughter of King 
James i. He was, in fact, a highly trusted ambassador of 
the Scottish King, and was subsequently employed in 
missions not only to France, but to Spain, Rome, and Nor- 
way. 3 On 7 October 1458 he had a charter, under the 
designation of Sir William Monypenny of Ardweny and 
Oonkersalte, 4 of the lands of Bordland of Ratre and others, 
co. Aberdeen, forfeited by the deceased Hugh, Earl of 
Ormonde. 5 These lands he resigned a month afterwards 
in favour of St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews. On the 
same date he had a charter to himself and Katherine his 
spouse of the dominical lands of Butteleis, in the Stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright, on their own resignation, with remainder 
to the heirs of their bodies, whom failing, to the heirs 
of Marjory Stewart, grandmother of Katherine. On 9 
November 1458 two charters were granted to William 
Monypenny of Pitmillie, one of the lands of Leuchars and 
Drumravok, co. Fife, and Ardweny, co. Forfar, with remain- 
der to himself and the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, 
to Sir William of Oonquersault, whom failing, to Thomas 
the grantee's brother, Mr. George Monypenny, James, 
another brother, Mr. David his uncle, or his heirs-male 
whatsoever : the second of Balboit, co. Fife, to himself and 
the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, to his brother 
Thomas, James, and George, then to Sir William of Oon- 
quersault and his own uncle David. 8 On 18 September 
1459, under the designation of Sir William Monypenny, 
Lord of Ardweny and Oonquersault, Knight, he had a charter 
of the lands of Balgradane and others in the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright. 7 It must have been about this time that 
he was raised to the dignity of a Peer of Parliament by 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 8 July 1450. 2 Ibid. s Eocch. Rolls, vi. lix. * It is 
not clear why he was called of Ardweny, as a month later William Mony- 
penny of Pitmillie gets a regrant of these lands on his own resignation to 
himself and the series of heirs mentioned below. Sir William may have 
had some rights of superiority over them. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 9 Ibid. 
7 Confirmed probably in October 1571, Reg. Mag. Sig., 1424-1573, No. 1043. 



278 MONYPENNY, LORD MONYPENNY 

the designation of LORD MONYPENNY, as it was under 
that title that he had, on 17 July 1464, a charter of the lands 
of Kirkinnon and the barony of Torscrachan in the Stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright. 1 On 25 December 1466 he had a charter 
of the lands of Feldy, co. Perth ; 2 on 8 October 1471 another 
of Kirkandrews in the above-mentioned stewartry, though 
from a subsequent charter of 26 February following it would 
appear that he excambed certain lands in the lordship of 
Bothwell, co. Lanark, for Kirkandrews, which James, Lord 
Hamilton, resigned in his favour. 3 On 13 September 1472 
he had a charter of Easter Lecky, co. Stirling. 4 Guillame, 
seigneur et baron bannaret de Monypenny et de Conquer- 
sault was an ambassador from France to England. 5 He 
died between 24 October 1485, when he resigned the 
dominical lands of Buttillis and others in favour of William 
Lennox of Caly, 6 and 4 July 1488 when his son and heir is 
styled Lord Monypenny. 

He married a lady whose name was Catherine Stewart, 7 
but her parentage has not been ascertained. 

II. ALEXANDER, second Lord Monypenny, had a Grown 
charter, 20 May 1483, of the lands of Leuchars and Tor- 
scrachane on his father's resignation, and another on 20 
March 1483-84 of the same lands, along with those of 
Ardweny. On 4 July 1488 he appears under the designation 
of Lord Monypenny in a charter in which he resigned the 
barony of Feldy in favour of Alexander Stewart of Avon- 
dale. Within the next seven years he had disposed of his 
other lands of Ardweny, Kirkennan, and Leuchars; the 
last was acquired by Sir Alexander Bruce of Birgham, and 
is now known as Earlshall. In 1508 William Lennox of 
Caly sued Alexander, Lord Monypenny, for warrandice of 
Torscrachane. 8 It is said 9 that he exchanged Leuchars 
with Bruce for lands called Escariot in France, to which 
place he probably retired, and died without male issue, 10 
the peerage becoming extinct or dormant. 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 1424-1573, No. 1043. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. * Ibid. 5 Fcedera, 
xi. 690. Beg. Mag. Sig. 7 Acta Dom. Cone., 197. 8 Ibid., xx. 28. 
9 Crawford's Peerage. 10 It is stated by the author of the Stuarts of 
Aubigny that he had a daughter and heiress Anne, who married, first, 
John Stewart of Henriestoun, Seigneur d'Oizon, fifth son of Sir John 
Stewart of Darnley, Earl of Lennox ; secondly, Jean de Montferrand ; 
and thirdly, Anthony de la Roche Chandre. Cf. vol. v. 350. 



MONYPENNY, LORD MONYPENNY 279 

CREATION. 1464, Lord Monypenny. 

ARMS (as given in Sir James Balfour's MS.). Quarterly : 
1st and 4th, or, a dolphin azure, finned gules ; 2nd and 3rd, 
gules, three cross crosslets fitchee issuing out of as many 
crescents argent. 

[j. B. P.] 



THE ANCIENT LORDS OR EARLS 
OF MORAY 



OB AY, which in the 
earliest historic times 
included the county of 
Ross as well as what is 
now called Morayshire, 
has been, as an earldom, 
so much associated with 
the name of Randolph 
that we are apt to forget 
that there were Earls or 
Mormaers of Moray long 
before his day. The dis- 
trict of Moray has im- 
pressed itself upon the 
ancient history of Scot- 
land more than any other 
province, partly from the 
turbulent character of its early settlers and partly because 
its ancient chiefs laid claim to the crown of Alban, or 
Scotland north of the Forth, while two of them actually 
sat on the throne. It therefore seems appropriate that a 
brief sketch of their history should here be given, the 
rather that much of it has been garbled by our early 
historians. 

The province as it existed when it first appears on record 
was in the grip, if not under the immediate government, of 
the Norse Earls, from Earl Sigurd Eysteinson, who died in 
874, down to Thorflnn, who died in or after 1057. 1 Between 

1 In the Orkneyinga Saga, ed. 1873, Earl Thorflnn is said to die in 1064, 
but Dr. Skene (Celtic Scotland, i. 413) suggests 1057 as a not improbable 
date. Cf. Orkneyinga Saga, App. 204; Coll. de Rebus Albanicis, 337, 
346, 




THE ANCIENT LORDS OB EARLS OF MORAY 281 

these dates, however, we have glimpses of the native 
Mormaers of Moray who took advantage of changes in the 
holders of the Orkney earldom to resist fiercely the Norse 
invasion. Setting aside others who are but as shadows in 
the mist, there appears on record 

FINLAY/ Findlaec, or Finleik, an * Earl of the Scots,' who 
was bold enough to challenge the great Norse Earl Sigurd 
the Stout 2 (Hlodverson) to a battle at * Skida mire ' or 
Skitten in Caithness. It has been thought that Earl Finlay, 
who is described by the Irish Annalists as Finlay Mac- 
Ruari, Mormaer of Moray, and also as Ri (King) in Alban, 3 
desired to take advantage of Earl Sigurd's recent appoint- 
ment to the earldom of Orkney and to wrest some of his 
possessions from him. This seems probable, as Earl Sigurd 
secured victory chiefly by promising certain privileges to 
his followers, who fought so stubbornly that Finlay and his 
men were defeated. As a consequence Sigurd became ruler 
over Ross, Moray, Sutherland, and part of Caithness, thus 
more firmly fixing the Norse overrule in those districts. 
Finlay appears to have submitted to the Earl, who was 
killed at the battle of Clontarf in 1014. 4 Finlay himself was 
slain by his nephews, the sons of his brother Maelbrighde, 
in the year 1020. Maelbrighde, also styled ' MacRuaidhri,' 
may have been joint ruler of Moray with his brother, and 
not improbably was the elder of the two, although very 
little is known of him. It may be he who, as Earl Mag- 
biod or Magbiadr, is referred to as contending with Earl 
Liot of Caithness at Skitten, and being defeated, but Liot, 
though victorious, died of his wounds. 5 Findlaec is of more 
importance in Scottish history as the father of Macbeth, 
also Mormaer of Moray, of whom later. It has been 
suggested that Finlay's wife was Donada, second daughter 
of Malcolm n., King of Scots. 6 The next native ruler of 
Moray appears to have been 

1 The shadowy predecessors of Findlaec are said to be ' Ruadri ' his 
father, son of Donald, son of Morgan, son of Cathmail, son of Ruadri, and 
so on into legendary generations (Celtic Scotland, iii. 477). 2 He was Earl 
from 980 to 1014. 3 'Findlaec MacRuaidhri, Mormaer Moreb,' Annals of 
Tighernac ; Chron. Picts and Scots, 77 ; cf. 368. * Ibid., 367. 6 Flatey- 
jarbok Orkneyinga Saga, App. 209. Scottish Kings, by Sir Archibald 
H. Dunbar, Bart., 17. 



282 THE ANCIENT LORDS OR EARLS OF MORAY 

MALCOLM, son of Maelbrighde, who, after killing his uncle 
Findlaec, is only named again in the record of his own 
death, which apparently was not a violent one, in 1029, 1 
except that he is recorded as making a grant to the ancient 
Abbey of Deer. 2 He is described by Tighernac as * Ri ' of 
Alban, 3 and in his province of Moray he was probably con- 
joined with or succeeded by his brother, 

GILLECOMGAN, described as son of Maelbrighde, Mormaer 
of Moray, who was, with his brother, implicated in the 
murder of their uncle. His own fate was even more tragic, 
as in 1032 his residence was burned, and he and fifty of his 
men perished in the building. 4 It has been suggested that 
this was the revenge taken by his cousin Macbeth, son of 
Finlay, for the murder of the latter. Gillecomgan married 
Gruoch, daughter of Boedhe, son of Kenneth, and had issue 
a son Lttlach, of whom hereafter. The successor of Gille- 
comgan was 

MACBBTHAD or Macbeth, who is known chiefly in the 
presentation of him made by the genius of Shakespeare, 
which will preserve his name for all time. He was born, it 
is supposed, about 1005, and succeeded to his father Finlay 
in 1020, and to his cousin in 1032. Dr. Skene thinks he was 
the Maelbaethe who, with another petty king and Malcolm 
n. of Scotland, submitted to Onut, King of England, who 
invaded Scotland in 1031. 6 Be this as it may, Macbeth, a 
few years later, came into special prominence by his murder 
of King Duncan I., his cousin, a contemporary of his own, 
not the * aged Duncan,' as so often stated, on 14 August 
1040. 8 An early chronicler describes Macbeth as Duncan's 
* dux ' or the leader of his host, which probably was the fact. 
Duncan had tried to take possession of the northern parts 
of Scotland, but was resisted by another cousin, Thorflnn Sig- 
urdson, who had become Earl of Orkney. In short, Duncan, 
Macbeth, and Thorfinn had nearly equal pretensions to the 
kingship. It was therefore truly a family contest. Duncan 
marched north, being joined by the men of Moray under 

1 Chron. Picts and Scots, 368. 2 Early Scottish Charters, by Sir A. C. 
Laurie, 2. 3 Chron. Picts and Scots, 77. * Ibid., 368. 6 Celtic Scotland, 
i. 395, 397. 6 Scottish Kings, 15. 



THE ANCIENT LORDS OR EARLS OP MORAY 283 

Macbeth. Thorfinn and his army were stationed at Burg- 
head, and the two forces met about three and a half miles 
from that place in a south-westerly direction. Duncan was 
defeated, and, as suggested by a recent writer, he could 
easily by boat reach Pitgaveny, where he was murdered 
after the battle, and on the same day. 1 Thorfinn and Mac- 
beth, it is suggested, then divided Duncan's kingdom be- 
twixt them, Thorfinn retaining the portion conquered by 
himself or his father, while Macbeth became * Ri ' or King 
of Alban, with Scone as his capital. 2 

It is probable that Macbeth claimed a right to the crown 
of Alban through his mother, as he was grandson of King 
Malcolm n., who died in 1034, and, as has been stated, his 
reign must have been acceptable to the people, for it lasted 
seventeen years, and one ancient chronicler, 3 who calls 
him the ' fierce red one,' refers to him as ' fair, yellow, tall,' 
and speaks of his reign as a time of plenty. He and his 
wife gave grants to the Ouldees, and he is supposed to have 
visited Rome about 1050. Four years later, however, his 
peace was disturbed by an invasion of Scotland led by 
Siward, Earl of Northumbria, who was a kinsman by 
marriage of the late Duncan and of his son Malcolm, who 
now aspired to his father's throne. Siward marched both 
a sea and a land force into Scotland, and a battle was 
fought at or near Scone on 27 July 1054, which was fiercely 
contested by Macbeth with the aid of his Norse allies, and 
perhaps also of certain Normans who had taken shelter at 
his court. Siward is said to have been victorious, but he 
was unable to follow up his success, and retired again 
southward. Another expedition, three years later, by 
Malcolm, son of the murdered Duncan, was more successful, 
and Macbeth was slain at Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire, on 
15 August 1057. He married Gruoch, daughter of Bodhe, 
son of Kenneth in. and widow of his cousin Gillecomgan, 
but by her had no issue. He was succeeded as Mormaer 
of Moray and King of Alban by his stepson, 

LULACH or Lulaigh, son of Gruoch by her first husband. 
The annalists style him Lulach the Simple or the Fatuous. 

1 Scottish Kings, 15. 2 Celtic Scotland, i. 405. 3 St. Berchan, Chron. 
Picts and Scots, 102. 



284 THE ANCIENT LORDS OR EARLS OP MORAY 

His career, however, was very brief, as he was slain 'by 
stratagem,' it is said, at Essie, in Strathbogie, on 17 March 
1057-58, and his rival, Malcolm, became King of Scots. 
Lulach had issue : 

1. Melsnechtai, who appears in the Boofc of Deer as a 

granter of lands to that Abbey. He is said to have 
been expelled in 1087, while his mother, his best men, 
and his treasure and cattle fell into the hands of King 
Malcolm, and Melsnechtai escaped with difficulty. 
He then retired from public life, probably into a 
monastery, as he is recorded to have * ended his life 
happily ' in 1085, a euphemism for monkhood. 

2. a daughter, who is recorded to have been the 

mother of Angus, the Earl of Moray who was killed 
at Stracathro in 1130. It is nowhere stated who her 
husband was, but it is generally maintained that his 
name was Eth, and recent writers have, with a fair 
probability, identified him with 

ETH or Ed, the Earl who appears in King Alexander 
i.'s foundation charter of Scone as ' Beth Comes.' He 
appears in another charter to Scone as Beth, as also in 
more than one charter by King David I. to Dunfermline 
Abbey as Ed or Head. His identity has been disputed. 
Dr. Skene admits that * Head may certainly have been the 
Earl of Moray who preceded Angus, and gave his name 
to the family of MacHeth,' 1 but he rejects the idea that 
Beth and Head or Ed were the same. One of his reasons 
is that as the name Beth occurs in two separate writs, 2 it 
could not have been miswritten in both, and that Beth was 
a different person. But it is possible, looking at the 
matter in the light of later research, that the later charter 
is the more genuine, and the name * Beth ' may have been 
transferred to the so-called foundation charter when it was 
compiled in its present form. 3 Dr. Skene also suggests that 
Ed and Edelrad are the same, forgetting that while Ed or 
Head appears in charters so late as 1128, Edelrad was dead 

1 Celtic Scotland, iii. 63 n. 2 Early Scottish Charters, Nos. xxxvi. 
xlix. 3 Ibid., pp. 279-282. If, as has been suggested, neither charter is 
genuine and 'Beth' is a mistake, the evidence for f Ed' or 'Head' 
remains. 



THE ANCIENT LORDS OR EARLS OF MORAY 285 

at least before 1107. It is not improbable therefore that 
the * Beth ' who appears in two Scone charters of Alex- 
ander i. about the year 1123 or 1124, and has the rank of 
Earl, is identical with the * Ed ' or ' Head ' who holds the 
same rank in two charters by King David I. to the Abbey 
of Dunfermline of dates about 1128 or a little later. 1 This 
'Ed,' 'Head,' or 'Heth' has been claimed as the Earl of 
Moray, and in recent works it has been asserted, with good 
show of reason, that he was the ancestor of the Clan 
Mackay of Sutherland, thus supporting the alleged connec- 
tion of that clan with Moray and Buchan. 2 Eth is said to 
be the ancestor of Malcolm MacEth who in the time of 
King Malcolm iv. was made Earl of Ross, and who is 
believed to be the direct progenitor of the Mackays in the 
north. 3 Eth and his wife had issue, 

ANGUS or Aengus, who is described as ' Ri ' or King of 
Moray, and son of the daughter of Lulach. The only 
reference to him on record is to the effect that while 
King David i. was at the English Court investigating 
a charge of treason, Angus, Earl of Moray, with a large 
force invaded Alban, and was defeated by the royal army 
under Edward the Constable. Four thousand Moray men 
were slain and Angus was killed, the battle taking place in 
1130, at Stracathro in Forfarshire. 4 By this Earl's death 
the ancient Celtic line of the Mormaers or Earls of Moray 
came to an end, though the province gave much trouble to 
the Kings of Scotia or Alban until Malcolm iv. took stern 
measures of repression. 5 

[J. A.] 



1 Early Scottish Charters, Nos. Ixxiv. xciv. 2 Skene's Highlanders of 
Scotland, 2nd ed. by Dr. Macbain, 414; The Book of Mackay, by A. 
Mackay, i. 25. 3 Ibid. * Celtic Scotland, i. 461, 462, and authorities cited. 
5 Ibid., 472, 473. 



RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY 



ROM Morayshire to Dum- 
friesshire is ' a far cry,' yet 
it is in the latter county 
that the first known an- 
cestor of the family of 
Randolph appears, as 

DONEGAL or Dougal of 
Stranith or Nithsdale. He 
was apparently alive at 
the date, about 1124, when 
he is named in the first 
charter of the territory 
of Annandale granted by 
King David I. to his friend 
Robert the Bruce. 1 The 
territory was to be bounded 
on one side by the marches of Dunegal of Stranith, and 
on the other by those of Ranulph the younger, then Earl 
of Chester. This, which is the only recorded reference to 
Dunegal in his own person, suggests that he was, as com- 
monly accepted, the lord of the domain represented by the 
valley of the Nith, which extended from Dumfries upwards 
to Oumnock, including the baronies of Dunscore, Tibbers, 
Morton, Sanquhar, and Oumnock, Morton Castle, it is said, 
being the principal stronghold. Dunegal was evidently a 
native chief ruling his own district, but there is no further 
record of him. 
He had issue : 

1. RANULF or Ralph. 

2. Duvenald or Donald, who appears frequently in 




1 Early Scottish Charters, by Sir A. C. Laurie, No. liv. 



RANDOLPH, EARL OP MORAY 287 

charters as a witness with his brother Ranulf. 1 
He seems to have held the lands of Dunscore, which 
were inherited by his son Edgar, and afterwards by 
his granddaughter Affrica, who granted a portion 
of them to the monks of Melrose, confirmed by 
King Alexander n. on 8 March 1228-29 ; 2 also the 
territory of Dalgarnock, the church of which was 
granted by Edgar to the monks of Holyrood, and 
also to Gilbert his nephew or grandson. 3 Edgar also 
granted the churches of Oloseburn and Morton to 
the Abbey of Kelso. 4 Duvenald is said by Chalmers 
to have been killed at the battle of the Standard in 
1138, but he was still alive in or after 1150, 5 though 
he disappears from record before his brother Ranulf. 
Edgar had a son named Gylconell, but nothing further 
is known of him. 

3. Gillepatrick, named as a brother of Ranulf and Donald 
in a charter by King William the Lion, as having 
possessed land in 'Glenham.' 6 This charter is dated 
after 1165, but it is not certain that the brothers 
were then alive. Of Gillepatrick nothing further is 
known. 

RANULF or Randulf, son of Dunegal, appears as a wit- 
ness at intervals in royal charters of King David I. and 
Malcolm iv. until about or after 1162. Three of these 
writs were granted at Glasgow, Oadzow, then a royal 
domain, and apparently Jedburgh, in King David's time. 7 
In the reign of King Malcolm he was a witness to charters at 
Dunfermline, St. Andrews in 1160, Edinburgh and Jedburgh, 
the last writ being dated about the end of 1164 or beginning 
of 1165. 8 This is his last appearance o^ record, and he has 
not been found as a witness to any writ of King William's 
reign, or after 1165.' Ranulf also appears as making 
grants to the Church, giving to the Abbey of Kelso certain 
lands in Dumfries, 10 and apparently about 1160 he and his 
wife granted to Jedburgh about a hundred acres of land 

1 Early Scottish Charters, 86, 96, 186. 2 Liber de Melros, 181-184. 
8 Beg. de Holyrood, 44, 213. 4 Liber de Calchou, 274, 279. 6 Early 
Scottish Charters, 186. 8 Liber de Calchou, i. 16. T Early Scottish 
Charters, 86, 96, 152. 8 Reg. Epis. Glasguensis, i. 16. 9 Ibid., 16, 17. 
10 Liber de Calchou, i. 11. 



288 RANDOLPH, EARL OP MORAY 

in Rughchester or Rowcastle in Bedrule parish, a grant 
confirmed with others by King William the Lion after 
1165. 1 It is not certain when Ranulf died, as nothing 
further is recorded of him. He married a lady named 
Bethoc, who apparently was the owner of Rowcastle 
referred to above. The author of Caledonia and others 
have assumed that she was the Bethoc who gave name 
to the parish of Bethoc-rule or Bedrule, but this is a 
mistake, as that Bethoc was of much earlier date, and 
through her daughter Hextilda, Bedrule and other lands 
came into possession of the family of Oomyn, who held 
them until the time of Bruce. 2 But it is possible that the 
later Bethoc was herself a Oomyn, and held Rowcastle as 
her marriage portion. Ranulf was succeeded by Thomas 
* son of Ranulf,' and he may also have had a daughter, 
married to Reginald, Lord of the Isles. 3 

THOMAS son of Ranulf succeeded, and appears on record 
only by that name. 4 He does not, however, appear before 
1222, in which year he was sent by King Alexander n. to 
King Henry HI., who bestowed upon the King of Scots the 
custody of the land and the heir of David Lindsay. 5 The 
next reference to Thomas is in the year 1225, when he is 
named among the King's clerks. 8 In 1226 he acted as clerk 
and attorney of Alexander n. in regard to the executry of 
Hugh le Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, which had been purchased 
by the Scottish King, whose sister had been married to 
the Earl's son Roger, then a minor. He seems to have 
conducted all the negotiations relating to the ward's 
estate, and also executed necessary repairs on the mills 
belonging thereto. 7 He acted, indeed, as King Alexander's 
bailiff over the estate, and either as part of his fee or in 
his own right held lands in Norfolk and Lincoln. 8 He was 
in Scotland with the King on 18 March 1228-29, when he 
witnessed a royal charter confirming a grant of Dunscore 

1 Morton's Annals of Teviotdale, 58. 2 Vol. i. of this work, 505. 3 Cf. 
vol. v. 32. * There is no doubt that this Thomas was the grandfather 
of the famous Earl of Moray, but it is uncertain that he was the son of 
the previous Ranulf, and as he did not die till 1262, it would seem as if a 
generation had been missed. No evidence, however, has been found on 
the point. 6 Col. of Patent Rolls, Hen. in. (1216-25), 325. 6 Acta Parl. 
Scot., i. 406. 7 Col. Doc. Scot., i. Nos. 939-941. 8 Ibid., Nos. 915, 984, 1005, 
1232. 



RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY 289 

to the monks of Melrose. 1 He appears also as a witness 
to other writs in 1231, 1236, and 1237. 2 In this last year 
also, he is referred to as Sheriff of Dumfriesshire, 3 and on 
25 September same year he is named among those magnates 
of Scotland whom King Alexander caused to swear to keep 
the treaty between himself and the English King as to his 
hereditary rights to the three northern English counties.* 
His name occurs again in the confirmation of the same 
treaty in 1244. 5 He appears as a witness to a royal 
charter on 28 November 1247.' He was one of the group 
of magnates, supporters of the Oomyn faction, who were 
removed from about the person of the young King Alex- 
ander in. of Scotland by the influence of King Henry in. 
in 1255, 7 but he is not named as one of those who returned 
to power in 1257. He died in 1262, and his body was borne 
to Melrose, and buried there on 18 May. He married a 
lady named Juliana, of whom nothing is known save her 
Christian name, and that she was buried with her husband 
on the same day. 8 He had issue, apparently, two sons : 

1. SIR THOMAS. 

2. Sir Nicholas, son of Thomas Randolf, who was taken 

prisoner at Dunbar Castle April 1296, and sent to 
the Tower of London, where he still was in November 
1297. 9 Nothing further is known of him. He pro- 
bably died in the Tower. 

SIR THOMAS, son of Thomas, son of Ranulph, so designed 
in a charter, dated in 1266, to which he is a witness, 10 
when he was already a knight, and by Bower in chronicling 
his appointment, in 1269, as High Chamberlain. 11 In 1266, 
also, he is named as Sheriff of Roxburgh, and still held that 
office in 1268-69. 12 He was, as stated, appointed High 
Chamberlain of Scotland in 1269, as successor to Reginald 
Cheyne, being described as ' vir magnae mansuetudinae et 
sapientiae,' and held that office until about 1278. 13 In 1279 
he appears as one of the itinerant justices deciding pleas 

1 Liber de Metros, i. 184. 2 Ibid., 185, 195, 227. 3 Ibid., 187. * CaL 
Doc. Scot., i. No. 1358. 6 Ibid., No. 1655. 6 Liber de Melros, i. 205. 7 Col. 
Doc. Scot., No. 2013. 8 Chronica de Mailros, 185. 9 Col. Doc. Scot., ii. 
Nos. 742, 960. 10 Liber de Melros, i. 287. " Fordun a Goodall, ii. 111. 
12 Liber de Calchou, i. 158; Col. Doc. Scot., i. No. 2680. 13 Fordun a 
Goodall, ii. Ill ; Exch. Rolls, ii. p. cxxii. 

VOL. VI. T 



290 RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY 

in the ward of Tynedale, then in the hands of the King of 
Scotland. 1 In 1280 he was one of the executors of John 
Baliol of Bernard Oastle, and in 1290, on the death of his 
widow, Devorgilla Baliol, Sir Thomas was one of her 
executors. 2 But whether this was on account of relation- 
ship or because of his known probity cannot be determined. 
He was present at the Convention at Brigham on 17 March 
1289-90, which assented to the proposed marriage of the 
young Queen of Scotland to Prince Edward of England. 3 
He was also present when King John Baliol did homage to 
Edward, and released the latter from all obligations, and 
his seal, bearing on a shield three cushions, two and one, 
with the legend * Sigillum Thome Randolf,' is still attached 
to the release, of date 2 January 1292-93. 4 On the 23 
February following he was witness at Dundee to a charter 
by the new King to John *de Insula' of the lands of 
Whitsome. 5 In 1294 he was summoned by King Edward i. 
to accompany him in arms to France, 6 and he appears to 
have been in that country as an envoy from King John in 
September 1296. 7 He is not again on record, and may have 
died not long after. In any case he was dead before 1306, 
when his son joined Bruce. 

Sir Thomas Randolph is usually said to have married a 
sister of King Robert Bruce, and his son, the famous Earl 
of Moray, is declared publicly in many charters to be the 
King's nephew, while Barbour plainly calls him son of the 
King's sister. 8 But though the fact appears plain, the 
identity of the lady is a mystery. Douglas and others 
refer to her as Isabel, but, as pointed out under the title 
OARRICK, the only sister on record of that name (who 
may have been born in 1272) became Queen of Norway in 
1292, when, as will be seen, the future Earl of Moray was 
entering public life. It would seem, therefore, that the 
wife of Sir Thomas Randolph must have been a sister of 
King Robert, born to his father by an earlier marriage 
than that with the Countess of Carrick. Even then there 
are difficulties, and no record evidence of such marriage 

1 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 53. 2 Ibid., Nos. 171, 535; Stevenson's Hist. 
Doc., i. 214. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 441. 4 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. Nos. 658, 660. 
In July 1292 he had a gift from the King of six stags from the Forest of 
Selkirk ; Rotuli Scotice, i. 9. 5 Rotuli Scotice, i. 22. 6 Foedera, Record ed., 
i. 804. 7 Stevenson's Hist. Doc., ii. 83, 94, 95. 8 The Brits, bk. ix. 1. 327. 



RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY 291 

has been discovered, but the probability may be accepted 
when supported by the contemporaneous testimony. Their 
issue so far as known were : 
1. THOMAS, afterwards Earl of Moray. 

2. a daughter, commonly called Isabel, married to 

William Murray, ancestor of the Murrays, Earls of 
Annandale. This marriage is proved by a charter of 
lands granted by Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, 
to his nephew, William Murray. 1 

I. THOMAS RANDOLPH, afterwards the famous Earl of 
Moray, appears on record first on 26 December 1292, as 
witness to King John Baliol's fealty to Edward i. He is 
referred to as 'Thomas Randol filius,' his father being also 
present. 2 The date of this his first entry to public life 
suggests that his birth could scarcely have been later than 
1278, only seven years after his grandfather's marriage to 
the Countess of Oarrick. He is next found present at the 
coronation of his uncle King Robert on 27 March 1306, 3 on 
which occasion he was probably knighted. He is described 
as a newly made knight after the battle of Methven, when he 
was taken prisoner, being first ordered into the custody of 
Sir Adam Gordon, to be kept at Inverkip, then removed to 
Berwick, and later delivered to the Earl of Lincoln, who 
should answer for his body. 4 A scramble was made for his 
lands, and Stitchel, Garlics, and Morton are named among 
those belonging to him craved by the English courtiers. 5 
His confinement led the young Randolph to submit to 
Edward, and he remained attached to the English cause 
until, some time in 1308, he was taken prisoner by Sir 
James Douglas. Before 16 March 1308-9 he submitted 
to his uncle, and was received into favour, as on that date 
he joined with other Scottish magnates in their letter to 
Philip, King of France, when he is styled Lord of the 
valley of Nith. 8 His defection from the English interest 
had been already reported to Edward u., who, on 4 March 
1308-9, treated Randolph's manor of Stitchel as forfeited, 

1 Original in Mansfield Charter-chest; vol. i. of this work, 215. 2 Fcedera, 
Record ed., i. 782, 783; Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 660. 3 Hailes, Annals, at 
date. 4 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. No. 1807; Palgrave, 355. 6 Palgrave, 304, 306, 
etc. 6 Acta Part. Scot., i. 459. 



292 RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY 

and bestowed it on Adam Gordon, and his lands of Brox- 
mouth were similarly dealt with, while on 12 June 1314, 
a few days before Bannockburn, Edward made a grant of 
all Randolph's forfeited lands in Scotland to his favourite 
Hugh Le Despenser. 1 Bannockburn cancelled all such 
grants, but for at least a year and a half Randolph had 
received a gift of lands far exceeding his southern posses- 
sions, and was created EARL OF MORAY, his jurisdiction 
as such extending from the Spey to the western sea. 

The creation must have taken place between 12 April 
1312, when he is styled Sir Thomas Randolph, 2 and 29 October 
same year, when he is styled Earl of Moray. 3 The original 
charter is not known to exist, but its extent is known from a 
writ, dated 20 December 1324, renewing the former grant and 
repeating the contents. 4 The bounds of his new territory 
began at the mouth of the Spey where it fell into the sea, 
and ran up that river, including Fochabers, * Rothenayk,' 
Rothes and Boharm, thence to the march of Badenoch, and 
so including all the lands of Badenoch, Kincardine-on-Spey, 
and Glencarnie ; then following the march of Badenoch to 
the boundary of Lochaber, and so including the lands of 
Lochaber, Mamore, Locharkaig, Glengarry, and Glenelg ; 
then by the march of Glenelg to the sea towards the west, 
and by the sea to the bounds of North Argyle which be- 
longed to the Earl of Ross ; and so by those marches to 
the marches of Ross, and by the marches of Ross to the 
water of Forne 5 and thence to the eastern sea. 

The year 1312 which saw this large accession to Randolph's 
property was also that in which King Robert began to win 
back the various towns and strongholds which had been 
held by the English, but so little is known of his move- 
ments that it cannot be stated what share Randolph took 
in affairs, though it was probably considerable. About this 
time he is said to have received a grant of the Isle of Man, 
for a reddendo of six ships of twenty-six oars, and 100 marks 
sterling to be paid at Inverness. 6 Later, in 1314, he 

1 Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. Nos. 76, 268, 362. 2 Reg. Nig. de Aberbrothoc, 536 ; 
Reg. Ho. Charters, No. 72a. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 463. 4 Precept for 
Charter, copy in Gen. Register House; Charter following printed in 
Registrum Moraviense, 542. 6 Now the river Beauly. 6 It is stated by 
a recent writer that King Robert granted this charter on 20 December 
1313 (Scot. Historical Review, iii. 405), but Randolph is not styled Lord of 



RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY 293 

achieved the retaking of Edinburgh Castle, and his exploits 
at Bannockburn on 24 June of that year are matters of 
history. He accompanied Edward Bruce in his expedition 
to Ireland in May 1315, returning twice to Scotland and 
back in his service, the second time to ask King Robert's 
personal presence in Ireland, where he stayed with that 
King until their return in May 1317. Two months later 
it was reported to Edward n. that the Earl intended a 
descent on the Isle of Man and on Anglesey, 1 but it is not 
clear that it was ever made. 

It is unnecessary to narrate every incident of Randolph's 
career, as his story is bound up with that of Scotland, but 
one or two points less known may be referred to. He was 
one of the Scottish barons who signed the letter to Pope 
John xxn. on 6 April 1320 vindicating the Scottish claim 
to independence. 2 In 1323, however, he was, a fact not 
recognised by Barbour, despatched on a very important 
mission to the Pope himself at Avignon. The whole pro- 
ceedings are detailed at length by Lord Hailes, 3 and need 
not be repeated here, but the result proved that Randolph 
was as successful in diplomacy as in battle, as he obtained 
from the Pope a clear recognition of Bruce's right to bear 
the title of King of Scots, which hitherto the Pope had 
denied to him. The Pope's letter to King Edward n. an- 
nouncing this result is dated at Avignon 13 January 1323-24. 4 
In September 1324 the Pope wrote declaring his hope and 
trust in the Earl's labours to make peace between the 
English and Scots, and giving him permission to visit the 
Holy Sepulchre. 5 In the following year the Earl was again 
employed as an ambassador, this time to the King of 
France, his commission being dated 20 April 1325.' In July 
the Pope, to whom he had proposed another visit, wrote 
that he would be pleased to see him. 7 Apparently an inter- 
view took place, and the Earl undertook some mission, as 
on 25 February 1325-26 the Pope wrote again, apparently 
expressing surprise that the Earl was still lingering in 

Man until some years later, when he so designs himself in a writ of 
6 December 1316 (Reg. Ho. Charters, No. 83). The extant copies of the 
charter of the Isle of Man are dated 20 December 1324. l Cal. Doc. Scot., 
iii. No. 562. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 474. s Annals of Scotland (ed. 1779), 
ii. 111-114. * Fcedera, Record ed., ii. 541. 6 Papal Letters, ii. 239. Acta 
Parl. Scot., xii. 5, 6. 7 Papal Letters, ii. 471. 



294 RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY 

France, and requesting him to return to Scotland and 
prosecute the business of the Roman Church with which 
he was charged. 1 What that business was cannot now be 
known, unless it was the matter touched upon in a letter in 
September 1325, when the Earl was requested to set free 
the clerks who had been seized. 2 The Earl doubtless took 
part in public affairs after his return from abroad, but 
little is recorded of him at this time, except his share in 
the famous invasion of England in the summer of 1327, 
when he and Sir James Douglas outwitted the English 
army with the young King Edward at Stanhope in Wear- 
dale. He also, no doubt, took part in the treaties of 
York and Northampton, by which the independence of 
Scotland was at last acknowledged. During the later 
years of King Robert the Bruce the Earl was much with 
him, and resided frequently at Oardross, where both took 
much interest in shipbuilding. 3 He also appears to have 
superintended the household of the young David, Earl of 
Oarrick. 4 In the early months of 1329 the King grew so 
infirm that he settled his affairs, and on 7 June of that year 
he died, leaving Scotland in the hands of the Earl of Moray, 
who became Regent in terms of the Act of Parliament of 
1318. 5 In that office he united stern justice with wise 
administration, and his doings are much praised by the 
Scots chroniclers. He did not, however, hold the office long, 
as he suffered from the malady of the stone, of which he 
expired at Musselburgh on 20 July 1332, while on the march 
to repel an expected invasion of Scotland. 6 He married 
Isobel, daughter of Sir John Stewart of Bonkill by Margaret, 
heiress of Bonkill, and by her (the date of whose death is 
unknown, though she was still alive on 16 July 1351, when 
she founded and endowed, with lands purchased by herself, 
a chaplainry for the soul of her late husband, Thomas 
Randolph, Earl of Moray) 7 had issue two sons and two 
daughters : 

1. THOMAS, second Earl of Moray. 

2. JOHN, third Earl of Moray. 

3. Agnes, married between August 1320 and January 

1 Papal Letters, ii. 476. 2 Ibid,, 467. 3 Exch. Rolls, i. 126, 127, 136. 
* Ibid., 141. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 465. 6 Fordun a Goodall, ii. 303. 
T Registrum Moraviense, 208. 



RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY 295 

1323-24, to Patrick, ninth Earl of Dunbar. (See that 
title.) She had no issue, certainly no surviving issue. 
4. Isabel, married to Sir Patrick Dunbar, by whom she 
was the mother of George, tenth Earl of Dunbar, and 
John Dunbar, Earl of Moray, who is referred to later. 
She had other children, for whom see title Dunbar. 1 

II. THOMAS, second Earl of Moray, succeeded his father on 
20 July 1332, but his career was very brief, as he was killed 
at Dupplin on 12 August of same year. What led to that 
conflict is matter of history, but the account of the battle 
given by the chroniclers serves to show that the young 
Earl had inherited his father's coolness and courage. Even 
in the surprise of an early morning attack on a sleeping 
camp, he was able to rally his men and check the English 
onset. But the rush made by the main body of the Scots 
overwhelmed their defenders, and a rout followed in which 
Moray was slain, with many others of rank. So far as 
known he was unmarried and left no issue. He was suc- 
ceeded by his brother, 

III. JOHN, third Earl of Moray, who had scarcely suc- 
ceeded to his father and brother when he took an active 
part against the English, and was present at the attack on 
Edward Baliol's force at Annan on 16 December 1332, when 
the usurper was driven out of the kingdom. He commanded 
the first division of the Scots army which marched to raise 
the siege of Berwick in July 1333, and was defeated at 
Halidon Hill. Henry de Beaumont appears to have had 
a grant of the earldom of Moray from Edward Baliol. 
In 1334 he is styled Earl of Boghan and Murref, Constable 
of Scotland. 2 Moray was one of those who escaped from 
the battle, went abroad, and returned in 1334, to take 
his place in the defence of Scotland. He was made Regent 
in April 1335 jointly with Robert the High Stewart, and 
one of his first acts was to bring about the surrender of 
David, Earl of Atholl, one of the most active of the 
English partisans. He was present at the Parliament 
held at Dairsie, near Oupar in Fife, in April 1335. He 

1 Vol. iii. of this work, 260. 2 Thirteenth Rep, Hist. MSS. Com., App. 
vi. 205. 



296 RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY 

took an active part in the defeat at Edinburgh of Count 
Guy de Naraur, who had led an armed force into Scot- 
land. He courteously escorted the defeated Count to 
the English border, but unfortunately on his return his 
party were attacked and he himself taken prisoner, being 
sent at once to Bamborough Castle, thence by York and 
Nottingham to Windsor. From Windsor he was in May 
1336 removed to Winchester, and in September sent from 
Southampton to the Tower in irons, where he was im- 
prisoned for some time. 1 His sister, the Countess of Dunbar, 
corresponded with him in his confinement, and there is 
a story that he was brought from his prison to Dunbar 
Castle, while she defended it against the English, and it 
was threatened to kill him if she did not surrender. But 
the Countess only laughed, and said that in such a case she 
would be his heir. The Earl was certainly moved from 
prison to prison about the date of the siege. 2 In July 1340 
preparations were made for his ransom, and in the follow- 
ing year he went to France to negotiate with the Earl of 
Salisbury, then a prisoner there, for his ransom. He re- 
turned to ward in July 1341 and was liberated in February 
1341-42, when he went to France. 3 He returned apparently 
in the following year and made raids on the north of Eng- 
land, the young King David serving, it is said, as a volun- 
teer under him. He granted on 1 April 1346 the lands of 
Dovelly and the keeping of his castle of Tarnaway to John 
Grant, 4 and his career came to an end at the battle of 
Neville's Cross on 17 October same year, where he com- 
manded the right wing of the Scottish army. He died 
without issue, and so far as there is evidence, his large 
estates were divided between his two sisters, Agnes, 
Countess of Dunbar and March, and Isabella, wife of Sir 
Patrick Dunbar, and ultimately descended to the latter's 
children. Although the title of Moray was limited to heirs- 
male, it was assumed by the Earl's brother-in-law, Patrick, 
Earl of Dunbar, and he and his wife held the combined 
titles of Dunbar, or March, and Moray, until their deaths. 5 
The Earl is said to have married an Isobel Stewart of the 

1 Col. Doc. Scot., iii. Nos. 1171-1173; 1205, 1213. Ibid., No. 1280. 
3 Ibid., Nos. 1337-1376 passim. * The Chiefs of Grant, iii. 8, 9. 6 Vol. iii. 
of this work, 266, 271. 



RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY 297 

Bonkill family, but this appears to be a mistake, his wife 
being Euphemia, daughter of Hugh, Earl of Ross, by whom 
he had no issue. She survived him, and married, in 1355, 
Robert Stewart, Earl of Strathearn, afterwards King 
Robert n. 1 

CREATION. Earl of Moray, between 12 April and 29 
October 1314. 

ARMS. Argent, three cushions gules appear on the seal 
of Sir Thomas Randolph 1292: the first Earl and his suc- 
cessors bore the same coat with the addition of the royal 

tressure. 2 

[J. A.] 



1 Her seal is very elaborate, showing inter alia three shields bearing 
(1) three lions rampant, for Ross, (2) a fess chequy, for Stewart, and (3) 
three cushions lozengeways within a royal tressure, for Randolph ; 
Macdonald's Scottish Armorial Seals, No. 2332. 2 Ibid., Nos. 2250-2256. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF MORAY 




indicated in the previ- 
ous notice, the earldom 
of Moray did not revert 
to the full possession of 
the Crown until after 
the death of Patrick, 
ninth Earl of Dunbar, in 
or about July 1368. On 
9 March 1371-72 the 
earldom was re-granted 
to 

I. JOHN DUNBAR, second 
son of Sir Patrick Dun- 
bar and Isabella Ran- 
dolph, younger sister of 
John Randolph, third 
Earl of Moray. The new Earl was thus a grandson of the 
famous Randolph, but the territory was lessened by the dis- 
tricts of Lochaber and Badenoch, with the castle and barony 
of Urquhart, being deducted from the original grant, as also 
the gift of the great customs. The earldom was granted 
to John Dunbar and Marjorie Stewart, and to the longer 
liver of them, and their heirs, whom failing, to George 
Dunbar, Earl of March, and his heirs whomsoever. 1 
Nothing is known of John Dunbar's history before the 
death of King David n., except a notice on 21 June 1370 
which seems to imply that he had been one of an embassy 
to England, apparently as ' vallet ' or squire of Sir Robert 
Erskine. 2 After the accession of King Robert u. he and 
Sir Robert, with others, opposed the Earl of Douglas in his 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., i. No. 525; Ada Parl. Scot., i. 560. 2 Cal. Doc. Scot., 
Hi. No. 173. In 1371 he received 13, 6s. 8d. as a gift from King Robert n. ; 
Exch. Rolls, ii. 366. 



DUNBAB, EARL OF MORAY 299 

claim to the crown and persuaded him to agree to the 
coronation of the new King. 1 He swore to maintain the 
settlement made of the crown on the Stewart family in 
1373. 2 He had on 26 August 1375 a grant of the thanage 
of Kintore, and of other lands at a later date, in the 
beginning of the reign of King Robert in. He had also 
pensions of 100 from the customs of Elgin and Forres, and 
the same sum from Aberdeen. In December 1379 his 
merchants and retainers were accused of plundering a 
wrecked vessel, laden with * Skoone ' herrings (probably 
from ' Schoueden ' in Holland), and the owners were allowed 
to plunder a Flemish vessel in turn. 3 He had a safe-conduct 
to England 15 December 1381. 4 He was one of the Com- 
missioners named in the treaty with England and France 
7 July 1384, 5 and of the money brought by Sir John de 
Vienne from France the Earl received 1000 gold francs as 
his share. 6 In the Parliament of April 1385 he complained 
of attacks and murder done on two of his vassals, a com- 
plaint which the Earl of Buchan was directed to inquire 
into, and to do justice. He was one of the Scottish nobles 
who took an active part against England, and a joint leader 
with the Earl of Douglas in the expedition which ended at 
Otterburn in August 1388. 7 One chronicler says that the 
attack by Percy on the Scottish camp was so sudden that 
the Earl of Moray fought the greater part of the time 
without his helmet. 8 He had a serious dispute with the 
Bishop of Moray, many complaints being made on both 
sides. The disputants appeared before the Regent Albany 
and others at Inverness 27 October 1389, and a decree 
was given settling the questions between them. 9 He was 
present in January 1389-90 when his son undertook to 
defend the Bishop's territories, and on 13 August 1390 he 
and his brother-in-law, Alexander, Earl of Buchan, were 
specially forbidden to deal in any .way with the bishop's 
castle of Spynie. 10 He was still at Elgin on 1 May 1390, 11 a 

1 Fordun a Goodall, ii. 382. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 549. His seal is still 
attached to the settlement. See facsimile. 3 Cat. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 283. 
4 Fcedera, Record ed., iv. 137. 6 Ibid., vii. 434. 6 Ibid., vii. 484 n. " Acta 
Parl. Scot, i. 553. 8 Fordun a Goodall, ii. 405. 9 Reg. Morav., 191, 197- 
200. 10 Ibid., 201-204. He was also witness to a Royal charter at Elgin on 
28 September 1390; Antiq. of Aberdeen, etc., i. 499. u Familie of Innes, 
Spalding Club. 66, 67. 



300 DUNBAR, EARL OP MORAY 

date which, connected with various safe-conducts to and 
from England, for dates running between 16 March 1389- 
90 and 13 June 1391, has an important bearing on the 
question of his death. It is usually stated that the Earl 
went to England to fight a duel with Thomas Mowbray, 
Earl of Nottingham, Earl Marshal, whom he had chal- 
lenged. It is then added that he was wounded, and died 
at York on his way home. This story is found in a MS. 
Appendix to Higden's Polychronicon and in Caxton's 
continuation of Higden, with variations. The earlier story 
is that on 28 May (year not stated) the Earl of Nottingham 
and the Earl of Moray ran courses with sharp lances, and 
because the former held himself so much better than the 
Scottish Earl, praise was awarded to him. 1 This is a simple 
narrative, but Caxton's is fuller and less complimentary to 
Moray. He says the Earl of Moray challenged the Earl 
Marshal to joust with sharp spears. They ran together, 
but not their full courses, as the Scottish Earl * was cast, 
bothe hors and man, and two of his ribs broken with the 
same fall, and so borne home in to his inne, and anon after 
was carried homeward in a littyer and at York he diet.' 2 
The incident is said to have taken place in 1394, but this is 
a mistake, and the statements made as to the Earl's death 
are not borne out by the available evidence. The Earl 
received a safe-conduct on 16 March 1389-90 to fight the 
Earl of Nottingham, the conduct to be valid between 15 
April and 20 June 1390, 3 but, as indicated, he did not leave 
Scotland before 1 May, when he was in Elgin. 4 On 30 May 
1390 he had similar letters permitting passage to and fro 
in England, and on that day, or a few days before, having 
' lately come ' to England to joust with Nottingham, he 
received from King Richard 200 marks sterling in money 
and a silver cup and ewer with gilt cover, in all, the sum of 
139, lls. Id. sterling, Sir David Lindsay, Sir William 
Dalziel, and other Scottish knights also receiving gifts. 5 
On 10 June 1390 he had a safe-conduct to go on pil- 
grimage to the shrine of St. John of Amiens, 6 while, as 

1 Higden, Rolls ed., ix. App. 236, a nearly contemporary MS. 2 Ibid., viii. 
535, Caxton's continuation, about 1482. 3 Rotuli Scotice, ii. 103. 4 Familie 
of Innes, Spalding Club, 66, 67. 6 Rotuli Scotice, 104 ; Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. 
Nos. 411, 412. 6 Rotuli Scotice, ii. 106. It is not clear whether the Earl 



DUNBAR, EARL OF MORAY 301 

stated, he is referred to on 13 August and 28 September as 
in Scotland. On 30 December same year he was apparently 
again in England, and on 13 June 1391 he had another safe- 
conduct to go there. 1 This is the last notice of him in life, 
and he was dead before 15 February 1391-92, when his son 
is styled Earl of Moray. He may have died at York, but 
the evidence that it was the result of wounds is insufficient. 

The Earl married (in terms of a dispensation dated 11 
July 1370) Marjorie, a daughter of Robert, Earl of Strath- 
earn, afterwards King Robert II., who survived him. She 
married, secondly, between 1391 and 1403, Sir Alexander 
Keith of Grandown, as appears from a Papal indult to him 
and her on 24 April 1403 to choose a confessor. 2 She may 
have been the mother of Sir Alexander's daughter Christian, 
who married, about 1413, Sir Patrick Ogilvy (see title 
Airlie), but this is not certain. Her seal shows 'a lion 
rampant within a royal tressure.' 3 

John, Earl of Moray, and his wife Marjorie had issue : 

1. THOMAS, who succeeded. 

2. Alexander, who is first named on record on 21 September 

1393, when his brother Earl Thomas, acting as his 
procurator, acknowledged on his behalf that he had 
no right or title to the Maison Dieu at Elgin, except 
by intrusion, his father, Earl John, having occupied 
the place violently. The Earl therefore resigned the 
house in the hands of the Bishop of Moray, who 
restored the former Master/ Nothing more is 
recorded of Alexander, save that he is said to have 
married Matilda, the heiress of James Fraser of 
Frendraught, and to have had issue, 

JAMES DUNBAR, who became fourth Earl of Moray. 

3. James, aged 14 in 1404, who had a grant of the lands 

of the Precentory of Moray. 5 

4. Euphemia, contracted, on 28 May 1408, by her brother 

Earl Thomas, to Alexander Gumming, ancestor of the 
family of Altyre. 8 

went to Amiens in person, as two servants of his received a safe-conduct 
for pilgrimage on 30 May 1390; Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. No. 412. J Rotuli 
Scotice, ii. 108, 110. 2 Regesta Vaticana, 323, f. 178. * Scottish Armorial 
Seals, No. 2569. * Reg. Morav., 130. 5 Papal Reg. Petitions, i. 626. 
8 Shaw's History of Moray, 1827 ed., 475 ; Chiefs of Grant, i. pp. lii, 58. 



302 DUNBAR, EARL OP MORAY 

II. THOMAS DUNBAR, second Earl of Moray, succeeded his 
father some time between 13 June 1391 and 15 February 
1391-92, at which date he, as Earl of Moray, son and heir 
of the late John, Earl of Moray, and his mother, the 
Countess Marjorie, granted to Gilbert of Glencairnie the 
lands of the two Fochabers in exchange for Glencairnie. 1 
Some years later, on 26 March 1398, the Earl bought the 
two Fochabers from Gilbert. 2 On 25 September 1394 he 
entered into an agreement with Alexander of the Isles, Lord 
of Lochaber, the latter to defend and protect the earldom 
and kirk-lands, at a salary of 80 merks and other emolu- 
ments. 3 The Earl also, on 22 November 1396, granted to 
the burgh of Elgin a confirmation of a charter by King 
Alexander n. 4 The Earl was also one of the principal 
movers in procuring peace in the north by arranging for a 
conflict between two rival clans, which took place at the 
North Inch, Perth, on 28 September 1396. 5 He was also, on 
27 January 1398-99, appointed one of the Council to aid 
David, Duke of Rothesay, in the government, when made 
King's lieutenant. 6 He was present at the battle of Hom- 
ildon Hill on 14 September 1402, and was taken prisoner by 
the English. 7 All the Peerages are silent as to his career 
after this date, assuming apparently that he then died, but 
it appears he was the captive of a certain William Lilbourne, 
to whom compensation was made in July 1405, when the 
Earl was released. 8 In June 1412 he had a safe-conduct to 
go on pilgrimage to Amiens, 9 and he was still alive at or 
about 3 June 1415, when it was proposed to marry his son 
to Eufamia, Countess of Ross, 10 as will be shown later. 
After that date, however, it is difficult to distinguish 
between him and his son, the next Earl, and the date of 
his death is uncertain. It was probably he who granted a 
precept of sasine in the lands of Moy to Donald, Thane of 
Cawdor, on 14 August 1419, 11 while it also seems probable, 

1 Chiefs of Grant, iii. 13, 14. 2 Ibid., 14. 3 Reg. Morav., 354. 4 Charter 
at Elgin, with Earl's seal attached, showing three cushions lozengeways 
within a royal tressure, a label of three points in chief. Crest: On a 
helmet with capeline and coronet, a staghead. Supporters : Two lions 
sejant guardant. Legend : S. Thome de Dunbarre. Laing's Scottish 
Seals, i. No. 300 ; Macdonald's Scottish Armorial Seals, 801. 6 Fordun a 
Goodall, ii. 420. 6 Acta Parl. Scot., i. 572. 7 Cat. Doc. Scot., iv. p. 403. 
8 Ibid., No. 684. 9 Ibid., No. 826. 10 Regesta Avenion., lib. 347, f. 356. 
11 Thanes of Cawdor, 8. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF MORAY 303 

for reasons to be stated later, that his son succeeded him 
before August 1422. 

This Earl Thomas married a lady named Margaret, who 
is named as his wife in the charter of 15 February 1391-92, 
already cited. What family she was of has not been clearly 
ascertained. It is not improbable that she was the Mar- 
garet, Countess of Moray, who, between 1429 and 1431, 
received a payment of 50 from the King, 1 and who married 
Sir John Ogilvy of Lintrathen and Airlie (see that title), 
drawing her terce from the earldom of Moray until about 
1471, when she died. 2 The Earl had issue a son, 

III. THOMAS DTJNBAR, third Earl of Moray, whose name 
occurs first on record in May 1414, when he and his father 
appended their seals to a grant by John de Narn to his son 
John. 3 He is next named on 3 June 1415, when his father 
was still alive. It was then proposed to marry him to 
Eufamia Leslie, Countess of Ross, but the proposal was not 
carried out. Before the Pope's commission could have 
reached Scotland, she had, on 15 June 1415, resigned, 
probably under compulsion, her earldom and lands in favour 
of John, Earl of Buchan, son of the Regent Albany. (See 
title Buchan.) He succeeded his father some time before 
9 August 1422, when, as Earl of Moray, he entered into a 
contract with Hugh Fraser, Lord of Lovat, 4 for a marriage 
between a son of Lovat's and his own daughter, an agree- 
ment which will be again referred to. A few months later, 
on 15 February 1422-23, the Earl released John Hay of 
Lochloy from a similar engagement. Hay's father had 
contracted him also to marry a daughter of the Earl, but 
the latter now freed him from the obligation. 5 In the 
following year the Earl was chosen as one of the hostages 
for the ransom of King James i. (his income being valued 
at 1000 merks yearly), and entered into ward as such on 
28 March 1424. He was exchanged on 16 July 1425, and 

1 Exch. Rolls, iv. 250. 2 Ibid., vols. vi. vii. passim, per Indices, and viii. 
84, 147 n. 3 Writ quoted by Mr. Alexander Sinclair in Herald and Gen- 
ealogist, vi. 305, but its whereabouts is not stated. * Spalding Club, 
Misc., v. 256, 257. 6 Thanes of Cawdor, 10 ; Family of Rose of Kilravock, 
124. The Earl's seal attached shows on a shield three cushions lozenge- 
ways within a royal tressure ; legend, ' S. Thome de Dunbar comitis 
Moravie ' ; Scottish Armorial Seals, No. 802. 



304 DUNBAR, EARL OF MORAY 

was permitted to return to Scotland. 1 Nothing further has 
been found regarding him, and the year of his death is 
uncertain, though it may have been 1427, when his cousin 
James was released from captivity as a hostage in England. 
As to this Earl's marriage nothing is certainly known. As 
stated above, it was proposed in June 1415 he should 
marry Euphemia [Leslie], Countess of Ross 2 suo jure, but 
this did not take effect, and it is said that the lady, after 
resigning her estates, became a nun. In August 1422 the 
contract with Lovat binds the latter to marry his son and 
heir (then an infant) to a daughter of the Earl ' gotin or to 
be gotin on Isobell of Innes,' who is not named as the Earl's 
wife; and failing such daughter, the heir of Lovat shall 
marry a daughter of the Earl * to be gotten betwixt him 
and his spousit wife,' and so on until a marriage took 
place. 3 Macfarlane, who recites this contract, assumes 
that Isobell Innes was the Earl's mistress, and that his 
4 spousit wife ' was alive, but this is doubtful. It seems 
more probable that the ' spousit wife ' and her children were 
yet in the future, and that the contract was somewhat of 
a speculative nature, as it is not clear that the Earl had 
any children by Isobel Innes, whether she was his wife or 
not. There is no valid evidence that the Earl had any issue 
at all. He is said indeed to have had a daughter Janet, 
who, it is affirmed, was married to a Eraser of Lovat. But 
the Wardlaw MS., which is probably the source of the 
statement, is so confused and incorrect at this point that it 
cannot be relied on. 4 (See title Lovat.) 
The Earl was succeeded by his cousin, 

IV. JAMES, fourth Earl of Moray, who is always stated 
to be the son of Alexander Dunbar and Matilda Fraser, the 
heiress of James Fraser of Frendraught, though no charter 
evidence is adduced, not even by Macfarlane. When he 
succeeded his father or grandfather is not certain, but on 

1 Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. Nos. 942-983 passim. 2 The Pope's Commission for 
a dispensation states that the parties were related in the third and fourth 
degrees of consanguinity by different stems (Regesta Avenion., lib. 347, 
f. 356. 3 It is not necessary to recite the whole contract, which may be 
found in the Spalding Club Misc., v. 256 ; The Priory of Beauty, Grampian 
Club, and the Wardlaw MS., Scot. Hist. Soc., 98, 99. 4 Wardlaw MS., 
Scot. Hist. Soc., 98, 105. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF MORAY 305 

28 January 1421-22 he received, on his own resignation, a 
charter from Murdach, Duke of Albany, of the lands of Fren- 
dracht and Auchinbo, co. Aberdeen, Carnousies and Cluny, 
co. Banff, and Drummely, co. Kincardine, to be held to him- 
self and the lawful heirs of his body, whom failing, to 
Thomas Dunbar, Earl of Moray, and the lawful heirs of his 
body, whom failing, to the heirs of James, and then revert- 
ing to the Grown. 1 In February 1423-24 he was proposed 
as a hostage for King James I. (his income being returned 
as 500 merks yearly), and he was delivered as such on 
28 March 1424. Like his cousin, he was first warded at 
Knaresburgh Castle, whence he was transferred to York in 
June 1425. From York he was taken to Pontefract in 
February 1426-27, and finally he was exchanged for another 
hostage, and set free on 9 November 1427. 2 It is possible 
the date of this release may indicate the time of his 
succession to the earldom of Moray. But record is 
almost wholly blank as to the history of the earldom 
during this Earl's occupancy of it and for several years 
after his death. He died, or was killed, on or about 10 
August 1430. 3 

Earl James was married, but the history of his marriage 
or marriages is obscure. Macfarlane, the two editions of 
Douglas's Peerage, and Dr. George Burnett in the Exchequer 
Rolls, all express varying opinions, but failing any charter 
evidence, of which none has been discovered, the oldest 
testimony on the subject may be stated. Hector Boece, 
though not a reliable authority, seems to have known facts 
about the Dunbars which were overlooked by genealogists 
until lately discovered to be comparatively true. He wrote 
about 1527, and his continuation volume, printed in 1574, 
is closely followed by Pitscottie, who states that James 
Dunbar, Earl of Moray, was handfasted to Isobel Innes, 
daughter to the Laird of Innes, but she died before 
marriage. After her death the Earl married Katharine (or 
Janet), daughter to Alexander Seton of Gordon. 4 This is a 

1 Antiq. Aberdeen, etc., iii. 587. 2 Cat. Doc. Scot., iv. Nos. 942-1010 
passim. 3 Beg. Mag. Sig., 20 September 1430. * Pitscottie, Scot. Text 
Soc., i. 64, and ii. 345. The statement about Isobel Innes is complicated 
by the relations proved between another Isobel Innes and Thomas, Earl 
of Dunbar (ante, p. 304), while Katharine (called Janet by Macfarlane 
and others) Seton or Gordon is not otherwise known. 

VOL. VI. U 



306 DUNBAR, EARL OF MORAY 

statement which is accepted in varying forms by all later 
writers, and nothing has been found to disprove it. By his 
wife Earl James had two daughters, named together on 
26 April 1442, in a royal precept, as daughters of the late 
James of Dunbar, Earl of Moray. 1 They were : 

1. Janet, married, between 1442 and 1446, to James, 

second Lord Crichton. (See that title.) He died 
about 1454, and she married, secondly, John Suther- 
land, who, in a charter of 17 January 1458-59, 
is designed husband of Janet, Countess of Moray. 2 
By him she had a son Alexander, named as her son 
on 28 March 1488. 3 She was a lady of considerable 
learning in those days, as she was able to sign 
her own name, as appears from a charter by her 
of 28 September 1454. 4 She died between 1494 and 
1506. 

2. Elizabeth, called Mary by some writers and also 

Agnes, married, before 26 April 1442, to Archibald 
Douglas, who was created Earl of Moray. (See next 
article.) 

By Isabel Innes the Earl had a son Alexander, afterwards 
Sir Alexander Dunbar of Westfield. He died 10 March 
1497-98. He inherited or obtained the lands of Oarnousie, 
Cluny, and others which had belonged to his father. 5 He 
married Isobel Sutherland, eldest daughter of Alexander 
Sutherland of Duffus, who survived him and was still alive 
in 1502." He was ancestor of the Dunbars of Westfleld, 
Cumnock, Mochrum, Duffus, and others of the name. His 
wife's seal on 12 June 1502 showed, on a shield two 
cushions, with a star in base. 7 

CREATION. Re-grant of the earldom of Moray 1371-72. 

ARMS. In the Armorial de Gelre MS. in the Royal 
Library at Brussels, of date about 1369, the arms of the 

1 Antiq. Aberdeen, etc., iii. 231. 2 Westfield Writs, Bundle i. No. 17. 
3 Ibid., No. 75. Letters of Reversion by Alexander Dunbar of Westfield, 
Isabella Sutherland his spouse, and Janet, Countess of Moray, Lady of 
Frendraught, of the lands of Colmyst. 4 Antiq. A berdecn, etc., i. 524 n. 
6 Cf. Reg. Mag. Sig., 12 February 1504-5. 6 Stodart's Scottish Arms, 
ii. 12. 7 Ibid. 



DUNBAR, EARL OF MORAY 



307 



Earls are given as argent, three cushions gules within a 
double tressure flory counterflory of the last. 

OREST (in the same MS.). A stag's head argent, attired 
and collared or. The fourth Earl seems to have borne a 
talbot's head. 1 

[J. A.] 
1 Scottish Armorial Seals, No. 805. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORAY 




FTER the death of James 
Dunbar, Earl of Moray, 
there is no mention of 
the earldom in any public 
record until 1445. Some- 
time before 26 April 1442, 
however, his younger 
daughter Elizabeth had 
married Archibald 
Douglas, third son of 
James, seventh Earl 
of Douglas. 1 On that 
day the spouses had a 
precept for sasine in the 
lands of Kintore, which 
had been granted in 1375 
and 1383 to John Dunbar, 
Earl of Moray, 2 and had been resigned by Janet and Eliza- 
beth, the two co-heiresses of the earldom. They were now 
regranted to Archibald and Elizabeth, and to the heirs of 
Archibald, whom failing, to the other heirs of James, Earl 
of Douglas, whom failing, to the heirs of Elizabeth Dunbar. 3 
This peculiar entail indicates that the earldom of Moray 
had come under the sway of the Douglases. There is no 
other evidence, but Boece states that the Earl of Douglas, 
at this time James, long known as James Douglas of 
Balvany, who had large possessions in Banff and Inver- 
ness-shires, and others in Moray itself, 4 secured for himself 
the ward and marriage of the younger of the two heiresses 

1 The Douglas Book, i. 447 ; vol. iii. of this work, 178. 2 Exch. Bolls, 
vi. pref. cxxix. In 1436 the wards and rents of Kintore were granted to 
Alexander Seton of Gordon (Ibid. , v. 8), but no further notice of it appears. 
3 The Douglas Book, i. 447. * Ibid., 437. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORAY 309 

of James, last Earl of Moray. 1 This is borne out by the 
writ of 1442, when the territory was apparently settled on 
Archibald Douglas, who, however, does not appear on record 
as EARL OF MORAY until 3 July 1445, 2 having probably 
been created in the June Parliament of that year. He 
attended frequently at Court or in Parliament, and took 
part in affairs between 1445 and 1450, in which latter year 
his elder brothers went to Rome. In 1451 he is named with 
his brothers James, Hugh, and John in the series of charters 
granted to their eldest brother William, Earl of Douglas. 3 

After the murder of Earl William by the King in February 
1451-52, Moray took his part in retaliation for his brother's 
fate, and ravaged Strathbogie, the country of the Earl of 
Huntly, who in a conflict at Dunkinty Moss, near Pitten- 
driech, was defeated. As a result the title of Earl of 
Moray was, for a time at least, bestowed upon Sir James 
Orichton of Frendraught, son of Chancellor Crichton. (See 
that title.) In August 1452 the Douglases were reconciled 
to the King, and the Earl of Moray is found exercising his 
rights as such in the following year. 4 In 1455, however, as 
is well known, the struggle between King James n. and the 
Douglases reached a crisis. The Earl of Douglas had been 
forced to flee into England, but the Earl of Moray and his 
other brothers continued in arms against the King. They 
were met by a strong force under the Earl of Angus and 
completely routed at Arkinholm, near Langholm, on 1 May 
1455, when Moray was slain and his head sent to the 
King. 5 

When forfeiture was pronounced against the Douglases in 
the Parliament of June 1455 it was charged against the 
Earl of Moray that he had treasonably fortified the castles 
of Lochindorb and Darnaway against the King. The evid- 
ence is doubtful, and as regards Darnaway the Earl appears 
to have beautified rather than fortified it. The fine hall 
so often ascribed to the great Randolph seems rather to 
have been the work of this Earl. His labours left the 
building unfinished, and King James n. ordered it to be 

1 Pitscottie, citing Boece, Scot. Text Soc., i. 62. Boece says it was 
William, Earl of Douglas, but in 1442 he had not succeeded. It was, 
however, no doubt his influence which made his brother Earl. 2 Ada 
ParL Scot., ii. 59 ; cf. also Reg. Morav., 221. 3 Ada Part. Scot., ii. 68-72. 
* Chiefs of Grant, iii. 22, 31 August 1453. 6 The Douglas Book, i. 449. 



310 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORAY 

completed in the same style, the hall being then roofed in. 1 
It was in the Forest of Darnaway that the scene of The 
Buke of the Hotulat was laid, written by Sir Richard 
Holland, Precentor of Moray, in praise of the Douglases 
and of Elizabeth, Countess of Moray, who is styled 'The 
Dow of Dunbar.' She survived her husband, was con- 
tracted to marry George, Lord Gordon (see title Huntly), 
but was divorced on the plea of consanguinity before 1459. 
She was married, before 1463, as his second wife, to Sir 
John Colquhoun of Luss. She was alive in 1472, but died 
some time before 17 February 1485-86, when James Douglas 
acknowledges himself to be the heir of his mother Elizabeth, 
Countess of Moray. 2 He also was probably dead before 18 
March 1493-94, when Janet Dunbar was served heir to her 
sister in certain lands in Caithness. 3 The Earl and Countess 
had issue two children. James, already named, styled son 
and heir in the agreement with Lord Gordon after his 
father's death, and Janet, also named in same writ. 4 Of 
her nothing further is known. 

[J. A.] 



1 Exch. Rolls., vi. 220, 380, 483. 2 Protocol Book of James Young, Edin- 
burgh City Chambers. 3 The Chiefs of Colquhoun, i. 47-50; original 
retour in Riddell Collection, Adv. Lib. 4 Spalding Club, Misc., iv. 28. 



[ORICHTON, EARL OF MORA'Y. See title ORICHTON.] 



STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 




AVID STEWART, third 
son of King James II., 
after the forfeiture of the 
Douglases, received from 
his father on 12 February 
1455-56 the title of EARL 
OF MORAY and perhaps 
a grant of the earldom, 
but he died an infant 
before 18 July 1457. 1 

II. JAMES STEWART, 
son of King James iv. by 
Janet Kennedy, daughter 
of John, second Lord 
Kennedy, born in 1500, 
received a Grown charter 
on 12 June 1501 of the lands and earldom of Moray, and the 
office of Sheriff, to himself and the heirs-male of his body, 
with the title of EARL OF MORAY. 2 He spent part of his 
youth in France, returning from that country in 1519. He 
had various charters granted to him of lands in co. Elgin 
and elsewhere, and on 26 January 1530-31 the King, his 
nephew, bestowed the earldom of Orkney and Zetland upon 
him. 3 In 1532 he was the King's Lieutenant-General for 
the north of Scotland. He was one of the ambassadors to 
France in 1535, and was made a Chevalier of the Order of 
St. Michael. 4 He died without male heirs on 12 June 1544. 
He was at the age of fourteen contracted in marriage 
to Margaret Douglas (afterwards Countess of Lennox), 
daughter of Queen Margaret Tudor and Archibald, sixth 

1 Exch. Rolls, vi. pp. cxxvi n, 280, 291, 355. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 
3 Ibid. * Accounts of Lord High Treasurer, vi. Pref. lix. 151, 345. 



312 STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 

Earl of Angus, then aged nine, and a charter of Nether 
Loudoun and other lands in Ayrshire was on 7 December 
1525 granted to the intended spouses, 1 but the marriage 
did not take place. He married, about 24 August 1529, 2 
when they had a charter, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
Oolin, third Earl of Argyll. (See that title.) They had a 
daughter, 

Mart/, married to John, Master of Buchan (see that title), 
without issue. 

This Earl of Moray had two natural children (1) John, 
whose mother was a Marion Stewart, and who is named in 
his father's will. 3 In 1552 he was accused of endeavouring 
to possess land in the burgh of Elgin under a forged docu- 
ment. 4 (2) Elisabeth, also named in her father's will, the 
marriage of the Laird of Balnageich being assigned to her. 5 

CREATION. 12 June 1501. 

ARMS (of James Stewart). His seal bore, quarterly : 
1st and 4th, three cushions lozengeways within a royal 
tressure ; 2nd and 3rd, a lion rampant within a royal tres- 
sure debruised by a ribbon sinister.' 

[J. A.] 



1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Ibid. 3 Sixth Hep. Hist. MSS. Com., 671. * Acts 
and Decreets, viii. f . 29. * Sixth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 671. 6 Macdonald's 
Scottish Armorial Seals, No. 2593. 



STEWART, EAEL OF MORAY 




AMES STEWART, 
natural son of King 
James v. by Margaret 
Erskine, daughter of 
John, Earl of Mar, was 
born in 1531. l His career, 
which did so much to 
influence Scotland in his 
day, .belongs rather to 
the province of the his- 
torian than the genealo- 
gist, and its salient 
points can only be briefly 
summarised in a notice 
like the present. On 
April 1536 he was suf- 
ficiently old to be able 
to ride, as fifty shillings was then paid for a cover to a 
French saddle for him. 2 On 31 August of the same year he 
had a charter of the lands of Tantallon and others. 3 In 
1538 he was made Prior in commendam of St. Andrews, 
was educated at the university there, paid a visit to France 
in 1548, and next year, on his return home, stripling though 
he was, he was largely instrumental in defeating an in- 
road of the English on the coast of Fife. 4 On 7 February 
1550-51 he and his brother John, Prior of Coldingham, had 
letters of legitimation. 5 He was in Paris 1552, obtained 
the Priory of Macon in France and a papal dispensation to 

1 The year 1533 is generally given as the date of his birth, but the Papal 
Bull appointing him Prior of St. Andrews in 1538 speaks of him as in his 
seventh year. Original in H. M.Reg. Ho., Bulls, etc., No. 61. 3 Treasurer's 
Accounts, vi. 280. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. 4 Lord Herries's Memoirs, 24. 
6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



314 STEWART, EARL OP MORAY 

hold three benefices, notwithstanding his illegitimacy, 1555. 
In 1558 he was appointed one of the commissioners to go 
to France to negotiate the marriage between his sister 
Mary and the Dauphin. The following year, deserting the 
party of the Queen-Regent, with whom he had up to this 
time acted, he joined the Lords of the Congregation. 
He was sent to France in March 1560-61 to invite Queen 
Mary to return home ; on her arrival in Scotland in 
August 1561 she did not fail to indicate her confidence 
in her brother. On 12 November he was given a com- 
mission for bringing the unruly Borders into subjection to 
the law, a task which he performed efficiently, 1 and on 30 
January 1561-62 he got a charter of the earldom of Moray, 2 
to himself and the heirs-male of his body, but as Huntly had 
had a grant of the same earldom in February 1548-49, and 
was not yet forfeited, though he had been deprived of his 
Chancellorship and of the lands of the earldom, 3 the creation 
was not made public. On 7 February 1561-62 he was created 
EARL OF MAR, but resigned that earldom a few months 
later. On 27 October 1562 he had a commission to proceed 
against the ex-Chancellor, the Earl of Huntly, and the 
following day he completely defeated him at Corrichie. 4 
Huntly having died on being led captive from the field, his 
body was brought to Edinburgh, where sentence of forfeit- 
ure was pronounced against him 28 May 1563. 5 Before 
this, however, on 10 February 1562-63 Lord James had 
been 'belted ' earl, probably under the title of EARL OF 
MORAY, LORD ABERNETHY and STRATHEARN, 6 but 
in order to provide against any possible exception being 
taken to the grant of the title having been made before 
Huntly'sforfeiture, he got a second charter, with the same 
limitation as the first, on 22 January 1563-64. Again, a 
third charter of the earldom was granted him on his own 
resignation, 1 June 1566, extending the succession to heirs 
or assigns whatsoever. The Earl obtained a ratification in 
Parliament 19 April 1567 of the charter of the earldom of 
22 January 1563-64, and of another of the lands of Braemar 
and Strathdee granted on 20 December 1564. In both these 

1 P. C. Reg., i. 184, 188. 2 Moray Chart. 3 See ante, vol. iv. 535. * P. C. 
Reg., i. 222. 6 Cf. vol. iv. 535. 6 He is styled Comes Moravie in a charter 
of 12 February 1562-63 (Reg. Mag. Sig.). 



315 

charters, as quoted in the ratification, the remainder is 
only to heirs-male of his body, failing whom, the subjects 
were to revert to the Grown. It is difficult to understand 
why Moray did not get the charter of 1566, with its wider 
remainder, ratified, but it may be noted that in the preamble 
of the ratification itself it is narrated that the Queen, by the 
charter of January 1563-64 granted to her ' derrest brother 
James, Erie of Murray, Lord Abernethye, etc.' the lands and 
earldom of Moray, ' as at mair lenth is contenit in the said 
infeftment . . . maid to the said Erie, his airis and assig- 
nais thairupoune.' l Similar language is used regarding the 
other charter. It is not easy to see how the words of the 
ratification and of the charters themselves can be recon- 
ciled ; but meanwhile they did not invalidate the charter 
of 1566. 

Failing in his attempt to prevent the marriage of his 
sister with Darnley, he was denounced rebel 7 August 
1565, 2 and retired to England shortly after ; he was, how- 
ever, pardoned the following year, and returned to Scot- 
land the day following the murder of Riccio, to which 
nevertheless he was a consenting party. While not directly 
associated with the assassination of Darnley there is little 
doubt that he was party to the plot, but before the mar- 
riage of Mary with Bothwell he left Scotland for France. 

In the momentous events which took place in Scotland 
during Moray's stay in France he had no part ; and it was 
not until Mary had, on 24 July 1567, signed her deed of 
demission, resigning the Crown in favour of her son and 
appointing Moray Regent, 3 that he returned to Scotland. 
He had an affecting and trying interview with his sister at 
Lochleven on 15 August ; at her urgent request he reluc- 
tantly agreed to assume the Regency, and on 22 August 
was formally installed in that office. His conduct in the 
events which followed, the escape of Queen Mary from 
Lochleven, her defeat at Langside, and her flight to Eng- 
land has been variously criticised ; ambitious, reticent, and 
self-controlled, his true character has remained a subject 
of debate with historians. What he might have done for 
his country had he been spared to continue his rule it is 

1 Ada Parl. Scot., ii. 553-557. 2 P. C. Reg., i. 349. 3 Acta Parl. Scot., 
Hi. 11 ; P. C. Reg., i. 339. 



316 STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 

impossible to say, as his career was suddenly brought to an 
end by his assassination at Linlithgow by James Hamilton 
of Bothwellhaugh 21 January 1569-70. His body was taken 
to Holyrood, and thence, on 14 February, carried to St. 
Giles', where it was interred in the south aisle. The funeral 
sermon was preached by Knox to a crowded congregation, 
and his epitaph by George Buchanan can still be seen on 
the brass above his restored tomb. 'Jacobo Stovarto, 
Moraviae comiti, Scotiae proregi, viro setatis suse longe 
optimo, ab inimicis omnis memoriae deterrimis, ex insidiis 
extincto, ceu patri communi, patria moerens posuit.' 1 

Moray had, in January 1549-50, been contracted in mar- 
riage to Christina, Countess of Buchan in her own right, 
then a mere infant. The marriage, however, was never 
completed, and he married, following his ' hartis inclina- 
tion,' at Holyrood on 10 February 1561-62, Agnes Keith, 
eldest daughter of William, Earl Marischal. 2 The ceremony 
was performed by Knox in St. Giles' church. She survived 
her husband, and was married, secondly, between May 1571 
and 26 February 1571-72, to Colin Campbell, sixth Earl of 
Argyll, and died 16 July 1588. 3 By her the Earl of Moray 
had issue three daughters : 

1. ELIZABETH, Countess of Moray in her own right. She 

was served heir to her father 10 September 1588." 

2. Annabel, died young, before November 1572. 5 

3. Margaret, posthumous, 6 married (contract 22 and 28 

April and 27 June 1584), 7 to Francis, ninth Earl of 
Erroll. She died s.p. before January 1586-87. 

II. JAMES STEWART, who became Earl of Moray in virtue 
of his marriage with Elizabeth, the eldest of the sisters 
above mentioned, was born before 1568, being the eldest 
son of Sir James Stewart, created Lord Doune in 1581. 8 
He is described as being 'of very tall stature,' 9 and no 

1 Lees' St. Giles', 263. 2 Cf. his spirited letter to his mother of 9 October 
1562, referring indignantly to her treatment of the young heiress of 
Buchan (Reg. Honoris de Morton, i. 9, 10). 3 Cf. vol. i. 345. * Moray 
Chart. b Seventh Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 655 ; Acts and Decreets, xlviii. 
120. 6 Sixth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., 655. 7 Reg. of Deeds, xxvi. 225. 8 The 
statement that Sir Ensor Doone, the outlaw of Exmoor, was a twin 
brother of the ' bonnie Earl ' is entirely mythical. The ' Doones,' how- 
ever, are now believed to have been of Scottish descent (Lorna Doone, 
etc., 1908, by H. Snowden Ward); cf. vol. iii. 189. 9 Estimate of the 
Scottish Nobility. 



STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 317 

doubt his handsome appearance and social accomplishments 
procured him the epithet of the 'bonnie Earl,' by which he 
has been known to posterity. In 1580 he obtained a gift 
of the ward and marriage of the two daughters of the 
Regent Moray, and in the same year married the elder, 
assuming jure uxoris the title of Earl of Moray. He and 
his wife had a pension of 500 per annum from the King, 1 
and he served on commissions for executing the Acts against 
the Spanish Armada and the Jesuits. 2 Towards the end of 
1590, his relations with Huntly, his rival in the north, had 
become extremely strained. The two Earls were bound 
over to keep the peace. 3 Moray appears to have absented 
himself from Court, and to have retired to the south of 
Scotland. On the ostensible ground that he had been in 
communication with Bothwell, or at least a sympathiser 
with him, Huntly received a commission for his capture. 
Trusting to a promise of receiving the King's pardon, which 
had been conveyed to him by Lord Ochiltree, Moray had 
taken up his quarters at Donibristle, near Aberdour, in 
Fife. There, on the night of 7 February 1591-92, when he 
was alone in the house, with exception of Dunbar, Sheriff 
of Moray, and a few servants, he was attacked by Huntly 
and his followers. The house was set on fire, and Dunbar 
in rushing out was instantly killed. Moray himself suc- 
ceeded in reaching the seashore, and might have escaped 
had not a silken tassel on his cap caught fire and betrayed 
him to the enemy. He was slaughtered under circum- 
stances of extreme barbarity, and the news which reached 
Edinburgh next day excited the utmost popular indignation. 4 
The tale of the murder has often been told, and its memory 
is enshrined in a ballad which is still one of the best known 
of its class. 5 He was under twenty-five years of age at the 
time of his death. 6 On the day following the murder the 
bodies of Dunbar and the Earl were brought over by the 
latter's mother to Leith, with a view to their being buried 
in the Regent's tomb : as a matter of fact, they lay long 
unburied, an incentive to revenge. Not only so, but Lady 
Moray had her son's portrait, as he lay with his handsome 

1 P. C. Reg., Hi. 450. z Ibid., iv. 307, 466. 3 Ibid., 597. * Ibid., 725 n. 
5 Cf. Maidment's Scottish Ballads, i. 237. 6 Estimate of Scottish 
Nobility. 



318 STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 

features slashed by his assassins, painted and presented to 
the King. 1 But only one of Huntly's followers suffered for 
the outrage ; that nobleman himself, after a short deten- 
tion in ward, was liberated, and no further proceedings 
were taken. The King earned himself much unpopularity 
in connection with the incident ; he was supposed to be 
not altogether free from complicity in the crime, and one 
version of the ballad states that jealousy of Moray's favour 
with the Queen influenced the conduct of James in the 
matter. 

By his wife Elizabeth, Countess of Moray, who died 
three months before him, 18 November 1591, the Earl had 
issue : 

1. JAMES, third Earl. 

2. Francis, one of the Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber 

to King Charles, created a Knight of the Bath on 2 
June 1610. He is stated to have been a member of 
Sir Walter Raleigh's Club at the 'Mermaid,' London. 2 

3. Margaret, who was naturalised in England on the 

accession of King James. She was married, first, as 
his second wife, in September 1603, to Charles 
Howard, Earl of Nottingham, the celebrated admiral. 
He was then about sixty-seven, and it was said that 
his marriage with this young lady * set his wisdom 
many degrees back in the repute of the world.' 3 He 
survived the marriage many years, and died 14 Decem- 
ber 1624, aged eighty-eight. His widow was married, 
secondly, to William, Lord Monson of Castlemaine, 
who, as he was born in 1607, must have been much 
younger than she was. She died at Oovent Garden 
4 August 1639,. and was buried at Chelsea. She had 
issue by both husbands. 

4. Elizabeth, married to John Abernethy, eighth Lord 

Saltoun. Charter to her as bis future wife, 5 April 
1605. 4 She died before 30 December 1608, 5 having 
had no issue by her husband. 

5. Grizel, married (contract 18 December 1611 6 ) to Sir 

Robert Innes of that Ilk, and had issue. 

1 It is said that this picture is still in existence. J Wood's Fasti Oxon., i. 
824. 3 Osborn's Queen Elizabeth, 80. 4 Banff Sasines, Secretary's Register, 
iii. 14. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 14 February 1609. 6 Ibid., 2 February 1629. 



STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 319 

III. JAMBS, third Earl of Moray, was but a very young 
man at the time of his father's death. Within a few 
months of that event the King's letter was procured, super- 
seding all actions against him as heir to his father or 
mother for two years, which was ratified by Parliament ; l 
at the same time a ratification was made to him of the 
charter to his grandfather, Sir James Stewart, first Lord 
Doune, and his wife, Margaret Campbell, of the lordship of 
Doune, dated 6 January 1587. 2 On 16 February 1597-98 he 
and his tutors and curators were charged to inter the body 
of his father, which had till then remained unburied. 3 On 
5 March 1601 he was denounced rebel for failing to com- 
pear when summoned before the Privy Council. 4 At this 
time he was still a minor, and was under age indeed till at 
least 5 March 1602, when a charter was granted by him 
with consent of his curators, Lord St. Oolm, Sir Robert 
Orichton of Cluny, and Paul Doig of Dunrobin. 5 The feud 
between him and his father's murderer, Huntly, was natur- 
ally bitter, and he was also at feud with the Earl of Argyll, 
who was donator of the ward of the earldom. The King 
took much pains to reconcile the parties, and at last it was, 
nominally at least, accomplished on 23 February 1603,' and 
a decreet arbitral was pronounced by the King on the 
matter 3 May 1604. For some reason which is not now 
explainable, it seems to have been felt that the position of 
the title was not on a satisfactory basis, so shortly after 
the Earl came of age he got, on 11 August 1607, a Parlia- 
mentary ratification of various charters which had been 
granted to his ancestors, and among them the charter of 
the earldom which had been granted to his grandfather the 
Regent on 1 June 1566, extending the remainder to heirs 
whatsoever. 7 He sat as member of the Privy Council for 
the first time 15 October 1607. 8 Following the ratification 
above mentioned he had, on 17 April 1611, a charter of 
novodamus of the lands and earldom of Moray to himself 
and the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, to his brother, 
Sir Francis Stewart, and similar heirs, whom failing, to his 
own nearest lawful heirs and assigns whomsoever. 9 He 

1 Acta Parl. Scot., iv. 629. 2 Ibid. 3 P. C. Reg., v. 445. Ibid., vi. 
220. * Reg. Mag. Sig., 2 June 1603. 6 Calderwood, vi. 205. 7 Acta Parl. 
Scot., iv. 381. 8 P. C. Reg., vii. 447. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



320 STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 

was one of the commissioners against the Olan Gregor and 
for the trial of three resetters in Elgin and Porres. 1 He 
had charters of the lands of Fintray and others 16 July 
1618 ; a confirmation of a charter of Harperlands and others 
in the county of Elgin, 24 February 1620, and a charter of 
the lordship of St. Oolm (to which he had succeeded on the 
death of his cousin James, the second holder of that title), 
26 February 1620, and one of Oambusbeg and the patronage 
of the Precentory of Moray 6 March 1624. 2 On 8 March 
1626 he was nominated one of the Council in Scotland of 
King Charles i., and on 24 of the same month was made 
the King's Justiciar in Forres, Nairn, Elgin, Inverness, 
Aberdeen, and Banff. 3 He died at Darnaway 6 August 
1638, and was buried next day at the church of Dyke with- 
out any pomp. 

The Earl married, by arrangement of the King in an 
endeavour to heal the feud between the two families, Anne 
Gordon, eldest daughter of George, first Marquess of 
Huntly ; contract 2 October 1607. 4 By her he had 
issue : 

1. JAMBS, fourth Earl of Moray. 

2. George, died at Edinburgh, unmarried. 

3. Margaret, married, about 25 April 1640, 5 against the 

wishes of her family, to James Grant of Freuchie. 
She died 18 December 1662, and was buried 30, -at 
Duthil. 

IV. JAMES, fourth Earl of Moray, was styled Lord Doune 
before he succeeded to the Peerage. He was served heir 
to his father 15 November 1638. 6 He had a charter, 12 
November 1641, of the Castle of Spynie, 7 and was made Sheriff- 
Principal of Inverness 27 July 1647. 8 He was a royalist, but 
did not take much part in the troubles of his time, though 
he was colonel of a regiment of horse and foot in Elgin and 
Nairn in 1643, and in the following year commanded the 
foot which were raised in the northern counties of Scotland. 8 
He either did not wish to connect himself too far with the 
fortunes of his party or possibly was of weak constitution, 

1 P. C. Reg., ix. 47, 286. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig. 3 Ibid. * Ibid., 27 June 1611. 
6 Eraser's Chiefs of Grant, i. 250. 6 Moray Chart. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
8 Ibid. g Ada Parl. Scot., vi. pt. i. 52, 79, etc. 



STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 321 

as he was excused from attending a rendezvous in 1645. 1 
He died 4, and was buried 22, March 1653, when it is said 
he had sold a large part of his estates. 2 

He married (contract 18 October 1627 s ) Margaret, sister 
and ultimately co-heiress of James, Lord Home. They had, 
along with her sister Anne and her husband, John, Lord 
Maitland, a charter, 20 February 1643, of certain Home 
lands in security of certain sums of money owing them by 
the late Earl, probably as the marriage portion of his 
sister. She also acquired from her sister by disposition, 
dated 21 May 1645, to herself and her son James, Lord 
Doune, the house and grounds in the Canongate of Edin- 
burgh which had been built, or rather re-built, by the 
Countess of Home, and which is now known as Moray 
House. On 26 August 1653 the Countess of Moray resigned 
the subjects in favour of her eldest surviving son, who had 
succeeded to the Earldom. 4 By his wife the Earl of Moray 
had issue : 

1. James, Lord Doune, died v.p. unmarried, before 14 June 

1653, when his brother was served heir to him in the 
Canongate house and lands. 

2. ALEXANDER, fifth Earl of Moray. 

3. Francis of Oulalay, died unmarried. 

4. John, baptized 30 January 1639. 5 

5. Archibald of Dunearn, in Fife, baptized 28 February 

1643, 8 married Anna, 7 daughter of Sir John Henderson 
of Fordel, and had with other issue : 

(1) Charles, married, first, Christina, 8 daughter of Sir William 
Bennet of Grubbet, Bart., and, secondly, Jean, daughter of 
Sir Alexander Hamilton of Dalziel, with issue by both wives. 9 

6. Mary, married, at Moray House, Canongate, 13 May 

1650, to Archibald, ninth Earl of Argyll, and died 
May 1668. 

7. Margaret, married, after March 1653, as his third wife, 

to Alexander, first Lord Duffus, and died January 
1667. 19 

8. Henriet, married, in 1662, to Sir Hugh Campbell of 

Oawdor. 

1 Acta Part. Scot., vi. pt. i. 471. 2 Brodie's Diary, 29 ; Beg. Mag. Sig., 27 
August 1652. 3 Moray Chart. 4 Ibid. 8 Canongate Reg. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 
8 Canongate Reg. of Proclamations, 13 February 1697. 9 Ibid., 24 August 
1700. 10 Wardlaw MS., 474. 

VOL. VI. X 



322 STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 

9. Anne, baptized 4 June 1644, died young. 1 
10. Anne (secunda), baptized 29 March 1650, 2 married 
(contract 15 March 1666) to David Ross of Balna- 
gown, and died August 1719. 3 

V. ALEXANDER, fifth Earl of Moray, baptized 8 May 
1634, 4 was served heir to his father 23 June 1653. He 
was, next year, fined 3500 by Cromwell, 5 a sum which 
was ultimately reduced to 1166, 13s. 6 In 1661 he had 
a Parliamentary ratification to himself of the charter 
of the earldom of Moray and of the burghs of Darna- 
way, Doune, and Fisherton of Pettie of 17 April 1611. 
It is another instance of the careless draftsmanship of 
these ratifications when it is found that the document 
states that it is a ratification of the charter of 1611 to 
James, Earl of Moray, ' and to the said deceast James 
Earle of Murrayes airs male and of tailzie mentioned in 
the foresaid charter.' 7 As a matter of fact no such class 
of heirs is mentioned in the deed itself. On 1 June 1675 he 
was appointed Lord Justice-General in place of the Mar- 
quess of Atholl; on 27 September 1678 he was nominated 
a Commissioner of the Treasury, and on 17 July 1680 was 
made an Extraordinary Lord of Session. 8 On 2 November 
in the same year, on the downfall of the once great Duke 
of Lauderdale, Moray succeeded him as Secretary of State, 
an office which he retained till the Revolution. In 1686 he 
was appointed Commissioner to Parliament, 9 in the hope, 
it is said, that he might be able to influence the fortunes of 
an attempt to obtain toleration for Roman Catholics. On 
6 June 1687, on the creation or revival of the Order of the 
Thistle, he was created one of the first Knights of that 
Order by King James vii. At the Revolution of 1688 
Moray, as a supporter of the old dynasty, was deprived 
of all his offices. He retired then into private life, and 
took no further part in the politics of the day. He 
resided quietly at Donibristle, where he died 1 November 
1700. 

The Earl married Emilia, daughter of Sir William Balfour 

1 Canongate Reg. 2 Ibid. 3 M. I., Fearn Abbey. * Canongate Reg. 
6 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. pt. ii. 820. 6 Ibid., 846. 7 Ibid., vii. 349. 8 Brunton 
and Haig's Senators, 411. 9 Acta Parl. Scot., viii. 578. 



STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 

of Pitcullo, Lieutenant of the Tower of London. By her, 
who died 29 July 1702, 1 the Earl had issue : 

1. James, Lord Doune, who died v.p. 1685, having mar- 

ried (contract 26 December 1677 2 ) Catharine, daughter 
of Elizabeth, Countess of Dysart in her own right 
(who ultimately married the Duke of Lauderdale) by 
her first husband, Sir Lionel Tollemache, Bart. 3 She 
was married, secondly, after 1690, as his second wife, 
to John, fifteenth Earl of Sutherland, and died about 
1705. 4 By her Lord Doune had issue : 

(1) Elizabeth, married, 3 December 1698 (post-nuptial contract 

dated 30 September and 29 December 1699), to Alexander 
Grant of Grant, with a tocher of 5000 sterling, bequeathed 
to her by the Duchess of Lauderdale, her grandmother. 6 
She died 22 April 1708, without surviving issue. 

(2) Emilia, married, first, to Alexander Fraser of Strichen, and, 

secondly, to John, nineteenth Earl of Crawford. She died 
18, and was buried at Holyrood 26, February 1711. 6 

2. CHARLES, sixth Earl of Moray. 

3. John, died s.p. 

4. FRANCIS, seventh Earl of Moray. 

5. Mary, died 27 October 1718, aged fifty-three, and was 

buried in the church of Iver, Buckinghamshire, where 
there is a monument to her memory, erected by her 
brother Charles. 7 

VI. CHARLES, sixth Earl of Moray, was created a Baronet 
in the lifetime of his father, 23 September 1681, with re- 
mainder to heirs-male of his body. He was served heir to 
his father 18 August 1730. 8 He executed a deed of entail 
of the earldom in favour of his brother Francis and the 
heirs-male of his body 8 December 1730. 9 He died at 
Donibristle 7 October 1735, aged seventy-six. He married 
his cousin Anne, daughter of Archibald, ninth Earl of 
Argyll, and widow of Richard, fourth Earl of Lauderdale. 
She died s.p. 18 September 1734, aged seventy-six. 1 

VII. FRANCIS, seventh Earl of Moray, was served heir to 
his brother 31 December 1735. 11 He was one of those sum- 

1 Scot. Hist. Soc. Misc., i. 477. 2 Moray Chart. 3 Cf. vol. iii. 403, 405. 
4 Fraser's Sutherland Book, i. 324 6 Chiefs of Grant, i. 369. 6 Holyrood 
Burial Reg. 7 Scot. Antiquary, ix. 188. 8 Moray Chart. 9 Ibid. 10 Cf. 
vol. i. 368. u Moray Chart. 



324 STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 

moned to surrender on suspicion of disaffection during the 
rising of 1715. He does not appear to have taken any 
prominent part in public affairs, but Douglas describes him 
as ' of great learning and honour.' He died at Donibristle 
11 December 1739, aged sixty-five. He married, first, 
Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir John Murray of Drumcairn, 
brother of the fourth Viscount of Stormont, by whom he 
had no issue ; secondly, about 1702, Jean Elphinstone, 
second daughter of John, fourth Lord Balmerino, and by 
her, who died at Donibristle 13 May 1739, had issue : 

1. JAMES, eighth Earl of Moray. 

2. John, of Pittendreich. Member of Parliament for 

Anstruther Easter 1741-47 ; a captain in the 54th 
Foot, the Earl of Loudoun's Highlanders, 8 June 
1745, and was taken prisoner at the battle of Preston- 
pans. He afterwards entered the service of the 
States-General ; was lieutenant-colonel of the Earl 
of Drumlanrig's Regiment 3 July 1747 ; colonel in 
Lieut.-General Halkett's Regiment 26 November 
1754 ; and colonel-commandant of Major-General 
Charles William Stewart's Regiment 5 May 1758 ; on 
the death of the last-mentioned officer he became 
colonel of the regiment 30 July 1760, and major- 
general 1 September 1772. He was allowed to retain 
his rank and pay in 1783, and a regiment was called 
by his name till 1795. 1 He died, unmarried, at 
Musselburgh, 13 August 1796, in the eighty-eighth 
year of his age. 2 

3. Francis, who died in Germany, as lieutenant-colonel 

of Honeywood's Dragoons, 28 August 1760. 3 He 
married, first, 4 January 1745, Helen, sixth daughter 
of Alexander, ninth Earl of Eglintoun ; she died at 
Edinburgh 4 January 1747, leaving one son, Francis, 
who died, unmarried, at Rheims, in October 1768." 
Colonel Stewart married, secondly, a lady whose name 
has not been ascertained, but who died at Hedgerley, 
in Buckinghamshire, 13 February 1784. They had 
a daughter, Jane, married, 1 November 1788, at 

1 Scots Brigade in Holland, ii. 413 n. 2 Restalrig Reg. 3 Wood's 
Douglas's Peerage, ii. 260 ; Scots Mag. ; the latter gives September as the 
date of death. * Scots Mag. ; testament confirmed 21 June 1774 ; Edin. 
Teats. 



STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 325 

St. Margaret's, Westminster, to Thomas Lewis 
Obeirne, who afterwards became Bishop of Meath. 

4. Archibald, appointed captain in the Navy 20 February 

1745, and died at Harley Street, London, 20 February 
1795. 

5. Henry, a major in the Army, died in Germany. 

6. Anne, married to John Steuart of Blackball, and died 

at Edinburgh 17 January 1783, aged eighty. ' 

7. Amelia, married (post-nuptial contract dated .15 Feb- 

ruary 1738) to Sir Peter Halkett of Pitflrrane, Bart., 
who was killed at Fort du Quesne 9 July 1755. She 
died at Inveresk 18 May 1781. 

VIII. JAMES, eighth Earl of Moray, was born about 1708, 
and was served heir to his father 2 April 1740. 2 Not long 
after his succession to the Peerage he was created a Knight 
of the Order of the Thistle, 23 February 1741 ; and he sat in 
the House of Lords as a Representative Peer from 1741 till 
1767. Under the Act of 1747 for abolishing heritable juris- 
dictions he obtained 3000 for the sheriffship of Moray and 
Elgin, and 1200 for the stewartry of Menteith, in all 
4200, in full of his claim for 14,000. He died at Doni- 
bristle 5 or 6 July 1767. He married, first, December 1734, 
Grace, daughter of George Lockhart of Oarnwath, and 
widow of John, third Earl of Aboyne. She died at Darna- 
way 17 November 1738. The Earl married, secondly, 24 
April 1740, Margaret, second daughter of David, third Earl 
of Wemyss. She died at Drylaw, near Edinburgh, 31 
August 1779. 

By his first marriage the Earl had issue : 

1. FRANCIS, ninth Earl of Moray. 

2. Euphemia, born 27 August 1735, 3 died 3 October 1770, 

unmarried. 
By his second marriage he had : 

3. James, born 17 April 1741 ; captain 20th Foot, 24 

February 1762; lieutenant-colonel Sutherland Fencible 
Regiment, 1793 ; deputy-governor of Fort George, 13 
January 1777 ; captain North British Veteran Batta- 
lion, 21 April 1803. Died at Fort George 4 May 1808. 

4. David, born in 1745 ; was a lieutenant in the Navy, and 

1 Restalrig Reg. 2 Moray Chart. 3 Canongate Reg. 



326 STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 

died at Budley Saltarton, Devonshire, 12 June 1784. 
He married Elizabeth Begg, who died in Castle 
Street, Edinburgh, 14 October 1799, leaving issue. 

IX. FRANCIS, ninth Earl of Moray, was born 11 January 
1737. As a young man he completed his education by 
foreign travel, and seems to have made excellent use of 
the opportunities afforded him. 1 On his succession to the 
title and the family estates he paid great attention to the 
development of the latter, and became celebrated as a tree- 
planter. Within two years after his succession it is said 
he planted at Darnaway, Doune, and Donibristle upwards 
of thirteen million trees, of which nearly a million and a 
half were oaks. The Earl sat as a Representative Peer 
from 1784 to 1796, and was on 4 June 1796 created BARON 
STUART OF CASTLE STUART in the county of Inver- 
ness, in the Peerage of Great Britain. He was Lord- 
Lieutenant of Morayshire. He died at Drumsheugh, near 
Edinburgh, 28 August 1810, aged seventy-three, and was 
buried at Donibristle. He married, at Gray, 28 June 1763, 
Jane, eldest daughter of John, twelfth Lord Gray, and by 
her, who died 19 February 1786, had issue : 

1. James, Lord Doune, born at Edinburgh, 2 March 1765, 

died v.p. at Bath 11 June 1776. 

2. JoJm, also styled Lord Doune after his brother's death, 

was born at Edinburgh 11 February 1768 ; elected M.P. 
for Great Bedwin 1790 ; died, v.p. unmarried, at Drum- 
sheugh, 6 July 1791, and was buried at Donibristle. 

3. FRANCIS, tenth Earl of Moray. 

4. Archibald, twin with Francis, born at Edinburgh 2 

February 1771 ; cornet 2nd Dragoon Guards 4 August 
1790, and afterwards lieutenant-colonel of the Dor- 
setshire Militia. He died 30 October 1832, having 
married, 17 March 1793, Cornelia, youngest daughter 
of Edmund Morton Pleydell of Melbourne St. Andrew, 
co. Dorset. By her, who died 1 March 1830, he left 
issue : 

(1) Francis Archibald, born 5 December 1793 ; died, unmarried, 

14 July 1875. 

(2) John Morton, born 20 April 1795 ; died, unmarried, 6 July 1840. 



1 Wood's Douglas's Peerage, ii. 261. 



STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 327 

(3) James William, born 21 February 1797 ; died, unmarried, 

2 December 1850. 

(4) Edmund Luttrell, born 21 February 1798 ; was rector of the 

parish of Winterborne Hough ton, co. Dorset; died 5 Novem- 
ber 1869, having married, 2 September 1834, Elizabeth, 
second daughter of the Rev. J. L. Jackson, rector of Swan- 
age. She died 28 March 1885, leaving issue : 
i. EDMUND ARCHIBALD, fifteenth Earl, 
ii. FRANCIS JAMES, sixteenth Earl. 

iii. Morton Gray Stuart Gray, of Kinfauns Castle, co. 
Perth, and Gray House, co. Forfar. Born 16 April 
1855. He and his sister received a Patent of Pre- 
cedence 10 April 1897 as son and daughter of an Earl. 
In 1901 he assumed the additional name and arms of 
Gray; married, 17 December 1890, Edith Douglas, 
daughter of Rear- Admiral George Palmer, and has 
issue : 

(i) Francis Douglas, born 10 July 1892. 
(ii) Archibald John Morton, born 14 November 

1894. 

(iii) James Gray, born 9 February 1897. 
(iv) Hermione Moray, born 13 October 1899. 
iv. Cornelia, married, 29 July 1873, to the Rev. William 
Henry Augustus Truell, of Clonmannon, co. Wick- 
low, and has issue. 

(5) Douglas Wynne, born 8 May 1801 ; died 10 December 1855, 

having married, 4 February 1842, Marcia, youngest daughter 
of Francis Fownes Luttrell. She died 13 February 1870, 
leaving issue a son, 

i. Douglas Moray, born 22 January 1843 ; died, unmarried, 
26 November 1863. 

(6) George Gray, born 20 April 1805; in holy orders; died, un- 

married, 11 June 1835. 

5. Charles, died unmarried. 

6. Grace, married, 10 July 1789, to George Douglas of 

Oavers, and died March 1846. 

7. Anne, died 18 April 1837, aged fifty-six. 1 

X. FRANCIS, tenth Earl of Moray, was born 2 February 1771. 
He raised an independent company of Foot, which was dis- 
banded in 1791. He was created a Knight of the Order of 
the Thistle 3 September 1827 ; was Lord-Lieutenant of the 
county of Elgin. He died at Darnaway Castle 12 January 
1848. He married, first, at Bellevue, 26 January 1795, Lucy, 
second daughter and co-heir of General John Scott of Bal- 
comie. She died 3 August 1798. The Earl married, 
secondly, at Edinburgh, 7 January 1801, his cousin, Margaret 

1 Bestalrig Reg. 



328 STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 

Jane, eldest daughter of Sir Philip Ainslie of Pilton. She 
died 3 April 1837. 
By his first wife the Earl had issue : 

1. FRANCIS, eleventh Earl. 

2. JOHN, twelfth Earl. 

By his second wife he had issue : 

3. James Stuart, born 17 January 1804 ; captain 85th 

Regiment of Light Infantry ; died 12 December 1840. 

4. - - a son, born and died 1 April 1805. 

5. ARCHIBALD GEORGE, thirteenth Earl. 

6. Charles Stuart, born 23 April 1812 ; an officer in the 

72nd Highlanders ; died 21 January 1847. 

7. GEORGE PHILIP, fourteenth Earl. 

8. Elizabeth, born 19 November 1801, died 1802. 

9. Jane, born 30 November 1802, married, first, 25 

January 1832, to Sir John Archibald Drummond 
Stewart of Grandtully, Bart., who died s.p. 20 May 
1838 at Paris, and was buried at Murthly. She 
married, secondly, 25 August 1838, Jeremiah Lonsdale 
Plowden, M.D., of Brownswood, co. Wexford, who 
died 3 March 1887. She predeceased him, dying at 
Hastings 14 March 1880, aged seventy-eight. She 
left an only daughter Evelyn, who succeeded as 
Baroness Gray in 1895. 1 

10. Margaret Jane, born 17 September 1807, died 16 Sep- 

tember 1863. 

11. Ann Grace, born 6 March 1809, died 11 September 

1873. 

12. Louisa, born May 1813, died 14 February 1864. 

XI. FRANCIS, eleventh Earl of Moray, was born 7 November 
1795, at Valleyfield, co. Perth, and died, unmarried, at 
Hayes Park, Middlesex, 6 May 1859. 

XII. JOHN, twelfth Earl of Moray, who succeeded his 
brother, was born 25 January 1797 at Bruntsfield House, 
Edinburgh. He entered the Army in 1815, and became 
captain in 1825. He died, unmarried, at Doune Lodge 
8 November 1867. 

1 Ci vol. iv. 293. 



STEWART, EARL OF MORAY 329 

XIII. ARCHIBALD GEORGE, thirteenth Earl of Moray, suc- 
ceeded his brother of the half-blood ; he was born 3 March 
1810; entered the Army 1829, captain 6th West India 
Regiment 1839, retired as lieutenant-colonel in 1861. He 
died, unmarried, at Darnaway 12 February 1872. 

XIV. GEORGE, fourteenth Earl of Moray, succeeded his 
brother, being the fourth brother in succession who held 
the title. He was born 4 August 1814. On the death of 
his cousin Margaret, Baroness Gray, he succeeded to that 
title, and became LORD GRAY. 1 He died, unmarried, at 
4 York Street, London, 16 March 1895, leaving large 
bequests to charitable and religious objects. 

XV. EDMUND ARCHIBALD, fifteenth Earl of Moray, son 
of the Rev. Edmund Luttrell Stuart, and great-grandson of 
Francis, ninth Earl, succeeded his kinsman. He was born 5 
November 1840 ; called to the English Bar 26 January 1867 ; 
in 1878 assumed the additional name and arms of Gray on 
succeeding to the Gray estates, but discontinued their use 
on succeeding to the earldom. He died s.p. 11 June 1901, 
having married, 6 September 1877, Anna Mary, daughter 
of the Rev. George J. Oollinson, vicar of St. James, 
Olapham. He was succeeded by his brother, 

XVI. FRANCIS JAMES, sixteenth Earl of Moray, born 24 
November 1842. A Deputy-Lieutenant for Perthshire ; was 
major 1st Battalion the King's (Liverpool) Regiment, and 
retired as lieutenant-colonel. Assumed in 1895 the addi- 
tional surname and arms of Gray, but resumed that of 
Stuart on succeeding to the Moray title. Married, 24 June 
1879, Gertrude Floyer, daughter of the Rev. Francis Smith, 
rector of Tarrant Rushton, co. Dorset. 

CREATIONS. Earl of Moray, Lord Abernethy and Strath- 
earn, 30 January 1561-62; Lord St. Oolme, 7 March 1611, in 
the Peerage of Scotland. Baron Stuart of Castle Stuart, 
in the county of Inverness, 4 June 1796, in the Peerage of 
Great Britain. 

1 Cf. vol. iv. 295. 



330 STEWART, EARL OP MORAY 

ARMS (recorded in Lyon Register). Quarterly : 1st and 
4th, or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory 
counterflory gules, surrounded with a bordure compony 
argent and azure ; 2nd, or, a fess chequy azure and argent, 
for Stewart of Doune; 3rd, or, three cushions within a 
double tressure flory counterflory gules. 

CREST. A pelican in her nest feeding her young proper. 
SUPPORTERS. Two greyhounds argent, collared gules. 

MOTTO. Solus per Christum redemptorem. 

[j. B. P.] 



DOUGLAS, LORD MORDINGTOUN 




AMES DOUGLAS, second 
son of William, tenth 
Earl of Angus, was pro- 
bably born about 1591, 
though the exact date 
has not been ascertained. 
As a youth he was ' sub- 
ject to ane universal 
gute,' and his father 
begged the King, when 
he was permitted to go 
into voluntary exile in 
1608, to be allowed to 
take his son with him 
in order that he might 
undergo a course of * the 
baicthis in Loren ' (Lor- 
raine). 1 This the King at first refused to permit him to do, 
but ultimately, on 3 November 1608, a licence was granted 
to James Douglas, son of the Earl of Angus, to go abroad. 2 
He is styled * Provost of Abernethy ' in his father's will, 
which is dated, just previous to starting on his journey, 
31 October 1608. 3 Douglas is next heard of in a quarrel 
which took place between his elder brother, who had suc- 
ceeded to the title, and the Kers of Ferniehirst. The 
latter had revived a claim to hold courts of bailiary in 
Jedburgh Forest in name of the Earl of Angus. Such dis- 
turb^ ^ces arose that all parties were summoned before the 
Privy Council, a special charge being made against James 
Douglas that he sent the younger Ker a challenge to single 

1 Douglas Book, iv. 191. 2 P. C. Reg., viii. 189. 3 Douglas Book, iii. 
321. 



332 DOUGLAS, LORD MORDINGTOUN 

combat. The result was that on 19 May 1612 both parties 
were found to have unlawfully convened their vassals to 
accompany them in their ' unlauchf ull and violent actionis ' ; 
and that Douglas had * verie undewtif ullie behavit ' in send- 
ing his challenge to Ker. He was, therefore committed to 
ward in Blackness Castle, a proceeding which seems to 
have had a sobering effect on him, as on 2 July he and 
Sir Andrew Ker, younger of Perniehirst, ' heartily embrace 
each other,' and promise that they will not in future send 
challenges to one another on any account. 1 James Douglas 
was at first designed ' of Parkhead,' but in 1621 he resigned 
these lands in Douglasdale, and also Pitdriechie and Faw- 
syde in the Mearns, in favour of his brother the Earl. 2 In 
1625 he is styled of Reidsyde. 3 In November 1625 he had 
a charter of certain lands in the barony of Dirletoun from 
Thomas, Earl of Kellie. 4 He must have been knighted 
between that date and 25 April 1627, when he is associ- 
ated as a consenting party to a further alienation of the 
Dirletoun lands by the Earl of Kellie. 5 He is styled Sir 
James Douglas of Mordingtoun in the ratification of 
a charter of certain lands in the barony of Callendar, 
granted him by the Earl of Linlithgow 2 June 1632, 6 but 
it is stated that he had acquired Mordingtoun by 1628. 7 
The Callendar lands he resigned in favour of James, Lord 
Livingston of Almond, the youngest son of the first Earl 
of Linlithgow. On 23 August 1634 he had a charter of 
the lands of Over Mordingtoun and others, co. Berwick, 
on the resignation of the Earl of Morton. 8 

Sir William Douglas having married his cousin Ann, 
only daughter and heiress of Laurence, Lord Oliphant, 
he claimed, in right of his wife as heir-general of her 
father, who had died in 1630, the Peerage of Oliphant, of 
which Lord Oliphant had by a procuratory of resignation 
denuded himself, so as to favour the collateral heir-male, 
but of which no regrant had been made at the date of Lord 
Oliphant's death. The case was heard by the Court of 
Session in presence of King Charles I. in 1633, and is a 
leading case, insomuch as it settled for the time several 

1 P. C. Reg., ix. 374, 400. 2 Douglas Book, ii. 409. 3 Gen. Reg. Sets., 
xviii. 124. 4 Confirmed 24 January 1626, Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 Ibid., 18 May 
1627. 6 Ibid., 9 June 1632. 7 Douglas Book, ii. 409. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



DOUGLAS, LORD MORDINGTOUN 333 

important points of Peerage law. Especially it was held that 
dignities were descendable to heirs-female if not specially 
barred. 1 But it was also held that Lord Oliphant by his 
resignation had effectually denuded himself of his dignities, 
and that they were now in the King's hands, till he should 
declare his pleasure therein. This His Majesty did by creat- 
ing the heir-male a Peer under the title of Lord Oliphant 
with precedence apparently only from 1633. Some years 
afterwards, on 13 March 1640, a Patent was issued stating 
that ' the stile and title of Lord Oliphant ' should be estab- 
lished in the person of the daughter of the last lord, and in 
that of her spouse and the heirs procreated between them, 
whom failing, to the heirs-male of her body, but that the 
designation hereof should be changed to Mordingtoun. It 
would appear, therefore, that Sir William Douglas and his 
wife were created LORD and LADY MORDINGTOUN, 
with the precedency of the ancient Oliphant creation. 2 

Lord Mordingtoun died 11 February 1656, having married, 
first, in 1624, 3 as above stated, Anne, only child of Laurence, 
fifth Lord Oliphant. By her he had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, second Lord Mordingtoun. 

2. James, born about 1638, entered at Douai College 28 

April 1649, but being 'ineptus ad studia' was sent 
home to his parents in Scotland. 4 

3. Anne, married to Robert, seventh Lord Sempill. 
Lord Mordingtoun married, secondly, Elizabeth Hay, 

daughter of Francis, Earl of Erroll, and widow of Hugh, 
Lord Sempill. 5 

II. WILLIAM, second Lord Mordingtoun, baptized 27 Sep- 
tember 1626, 6 was served heir of his father 9 July 1663. 7 

1 Such judgment being, as G. E. C. remarks, in flat opposition to Lord 
Mansfield's theory, some one hundred and fifty years later, as to the pre- 
sumption being in favour of heirs-male (Complete Peerage, v. 369, note 6). 
* The Patent is not on record, the portion of the Great Seal Register 
which should have contained it being lost. But in the printed abstract 
of the Register it is shown to have existed from the fact that the words 
' Diploma Jacobi domini de Mordingtoun,' with the date 13 March 1640, 
appear in an index which is still extant. No mention is made of the 
lady's name. The limitations of the Peerage are taken from Riddell's 
Peerage and Consistorial Law, i. 17-20, 180, where the matter is fully 
discussed. 3 Perth Presbytery Record, 21 and 28 July 1624. 4 Records 
of Scots Colleges, New Spalding Club, 40. 5 Gen. Beg. So*., Ix. 316. 
c Cauongate Register. 7 Retours, Berwick, 328. 



334 DOUGLAS, LORD MORDINGTOUN 

He sat in Parliament 1661, with the precedency of Lord 
Oliphant. 1 He had a charter of the lands of Olaribald and 
others, co. Berwick, 24 August 1663. 2 He obtained a pro- 
tection from creditors 22 February 1677, having been the 
thirteen months in prison. 3 The date of his death has not 
been ascertaiaed. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Hugh, 
Lord Sempill, by whom he had issue : 

1. JAMES, third Lord Mordingtoun. 

2. William, born 1653, entered Douai College, with his 

brothers James and Francis, 4 December 1667 : ' con- 
victor optimae indolis, ad flguras, 11 September 

1673. Olam dicessit Valencenas ad noviciatum Car- 
melitarum, unde postea dimissus rediit hue 7 Junii 

1674, et hinc in Scotiam unde Romam profectus est 
ibidem in Ooll. Scotorum 1675.' 4 

3. Francis, born 1655, went to Douai on the same day as 

his brothers : * convictor optimae indolis, ad figuras. 
Admissus in societatem abiit hinc 3 September 1674, 
ad tyrocinium Romanum, quod ingressus est 2 De- 
cember.' 5 

4. Lewis, died at the Motes, Westminster, and was buried 

at Kensington 7 July 1682. 6 

5. Anna, married to Patrick Porterfield of Oomiston, who 

granted her a charter 18 November 1695. 7 

III. JAMES, third Lord Mordingtoun, was born in 1651, 
entered Douai along with his brothers 4 December 1667, 
and left in August 1671. He, being cautioner for his father's 
debt, had protections 13 February, 31 July, and 13 December 
1677. 8 On 2 August 1662 he had, as Master of Mording- 
toun, a charter of the lands of Nether Mordingtoun. 9 The 
date of his death has not been ascertained. 10 He married 
Agnes Seton, daughter of Alexander, first Viscount of 
Kingston, by whom he had one son, 

IV. GEORGE, fourth Lord Mordingtoun. He was the 

1 Acta Part. Scot., vii. 29. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. Ix. 321. 3 Privy 
Council Deer eta. * Douai Diary, Scots Colleges, 46. 6 Ibid. Lyson. 
7 Edin. Sas., liv. 380. 8 Privy Council Decreta. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. 
192. 10 It is stated that George, Viscount (sic) Mordington, of the King- 
dom of Scotland, was lying ' in one of the worst parts of Newgate for a 
debt of 50,' his petition for relief being endorsed 22 April 1708 (ex inform. 
Hon. Vicary Gibbs). 



DOUGLAS, LORD MORDINGTOUN 335 

author of a work against Popery entitled The Great 
Blessing of a Monarchical Government, etc., which was 
published in 1724, and dedicated to King George I. He 
voted at several elections of Representative Peers. He 
(or perhaps his wife) is said to have kept a gaming-table 
in London. 1 He died in Oovent Garden 10 June 1741. He 
married, 1 April 1715, Catherine, daughter of the Rev. 
Robert Launder, rector of Shenley, Herts. She died in 
June 1741, 2 leaving issue : 

1. CHARLES. 

2. MARY. 

3. Campbellina. 

V. CHARLES, de jure fifth Lord Mordingtoun, but he 
never assumed the title. He was concerned in the re- 
bellion of 1745, was taken prisoner, and arraigned at 
Carlisle 11 September 1746, as Charles Douglas, Esq. He 
then pleaded his Peerage as heir-male of the body of the 
second Lord Mordingtoun, and the plea, though opposed 
by the Crown, seems to have been allowed, without any 
proof having been required as to the limitation of the 
dignity being, as he alleged, to the male heir. He appears 
to have died s.p. certainly before 1791. 

MARY, suo jure Baroness Mordingtoun, sister of the 
above, assumed the title at her brother's death, on the 
supposition that the limitation of the patent included heirs- 
female. She died 22 July 1791, having married, after 1741, 
William Weaver, an officer in the Horse Guards, who fought 
at Dettingen and Fontenoy. He died 28 April 1796, aged 
over eighty, at Hallow Park, co. Worcester. 

Since the death of the Baroness the title has not been 
claimed, and if the issue of the second Lord then became 
extinct, the Peerage is now vested in the heir of line of 
the only daughter of the first Lord, Anne, who was married 
to Robert, Lord Sempill. 

CREATION. Lord Mordingtoun 13 March 1640. 

ARMS (as given by Douglas and contemporary Peerages). 

1 Complete Peerage, v. 370, and cf . ii. 175. 2 London Mag. 



336 DOUGLAS, LORD MORDINGTOUN 

Quarterly: 1st and 4th, argent, a man's heart gules 
ensigned with an imperial crown proper, in a chief azure 
three mullets of the first, for Douglas ; 2nd and 3rd, gules, 
three crescents argent, for Oliphant. 

OREST. On a cap of dignity a salamander in flames 
reguardant vert. 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, a savage armed with a baton and 
wreathed about the head and middle with laurel ; sinister, 
a stag collared and chained, all proper. 

MOTTO. Forward . 

[j. B. P.] 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 



Douglas. 1 



ORTON, a small holding 
in East Oalder, not the 
parish of Morton in Niths- 
dale, has given the title 
to this family, an offshoot 
at a very early date from 
the great House of 
Douglas. Archibald of 
Douglas, the second on 
record of the Lords of 
Douglas, who flourished 
between 1198 and 1239, 
had, it is believed, two 
sons, the first being 
William Douglas, ' Long- 
leg,' who was the an- 
cestor of the Earls of 
The second son, it is alleged, was 




ANDREW OF DOUGLAS, who is claimed as the ancestor of 
the Earls of Morton. It is nowhere stated that he was 
the son of Archibald of Douglas, but the latter received, 
some time before 1226, the lands of Hermiston in Midlothian 
and Livingston in West Lothian from Malcolm, Earl of Fife,* 
and as these lands are found later in the possession of 
Andrew, there is a strong presumption that he was the son 
of Archibald. He is also in a charter of 1245 by Ralph 
Noble, granting to David of Graham the lands of Kilpont 
and Illiestoun, co. Linlithgow, apparently styled brother of 
William Douglas, but the writ is so defaced that the fact 
cannot be positively asserted. 3 Both brothers had then 
attained the rank of knighthood. They again appear to- 

1 Vol. iii. of this work, 136. z Registi-um Honoris de Morton, i. pp. 
xxxiii, xxxiv. 3 Red Book of Menteith, ii. 209-211 and facsimiles. 

VOL. VI Y 



338 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

gether as witnesses in a charter of 1248, granted to the 
monks of Dunfermline. 1 Sir Andrew was present, in 1259, 
at the marriage-contract of his nephew Hugh Douglas with 
Marjorie Abernethy. 2 He does not appear again on record 
till 1277, when he was probably dead, as his son was in 
possession of Hermiston. He had issue a son, 
WILLIAM, who succeeded. 

Freskin Douglas, who did homage in 1296 for lands in 
Linlithgowshire, 8 has been assumed to be a son of 
Sir Andrew, but, while it is'possible, no corroborative 
evidence has been found. 

WILLIAM DOUGLAS succeeded to his father Andrew before 
1277, when Hermiston was confirmed to him by King Alex- 
ander in. 4 He was among those who attached their seals 
to the homage roll at Berwick on 28 August 1296 as William 
* fiz Andrew de Douglas ' of the county of Linlithgow, and 
his seal shows a mullet and legend ' s. WILL. DE DVGLAS.' 5 It 
is not known when he died, but he apparently left two 
sons : 

1. JAMES, who succeeded. 

2. Andrew, who in 1351 is referred to by Sir William 

Douglas of Liddesdale as his uncle. He had charters 
of the lands of Oreswell in Lanarkshire, and David- 
stoun, and is named in various writs between 1330 
and 1351 . 

SIR JAMES DOUGLAS, styled * de Laudonia ' or of Lothian, 
who succeeded, does not appear on record till 2 April 1315, 
when he received from King Robert Bruce a grant of the 
lands of Kincavil and Oaldor-clere (or East Calder) in 
Linlithgowshire, 7 at a rental of 12, 5s. 10d., later, in 1317, 
burdened with an annual rent of ten merks, payable to 
Reginald Orauford, a servant of the King, for the service 
of an archer in the royal army. 8 Little further is recorded 

1 Beg. de Dunfermelyn, 97. 2 The Douglas Book, iii. 2. 3 Cal. Doc. 
Scot., ii. 205 ; Wood's Douglas, ii. 264. * Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 8. 
6 Cal. Doc. Scot., ii. 208, 556. Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 56 ; 10, 30, 31, 
55, 68, 90 ; Reg. Mag. Sig., i. 74, 196, 252. 7 Reg. Honor, de Morton, 12 ; 
Reg. Mag. Sig., i. No. 59. 8 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 11. This charter 
bears to be dated in the second year of King Robert, or 1307, but it is more 
probable, judging from the witnesses, and also the writ above cited, that 
its date is 1317 or the twelfth year. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OP MORTON 339 

of him, and his career must have been brief, as he was 
dead before 20 April 1323, when his son and heir William 
had a release from the balance of his rent after paying the 
annualrent. 1 He married a lady named Joan, who was 
still alive in 1337, when she was drawing her terce from 
the lands of Blackness. 2 

They had issue, so far as recorded, three sons : 
1. Sir William Douglas, the eldest son, known to 
history as the ' Knight of Liddesdale,' may have 
been born about 1300, and appears on record first 
on 20 April 1323 after his father's death. He 
then had possession of his father's lands and at 
first is usually styled son and heir of the late 
Sir James of * Laudonia ' or as William Douglas of 
Kincavil. He had also Blackness. Shortly after his 
succession he had a dispute with the nuns of Manuel 
about second teinds, which was amicably settled on 
1 June 1325. 3 In 1330-31 he was one of the Wardens 
of the Marches, and the English borderers complained 
of his slackness in redressing their grievances. 4 He 
was apparently not present at the battle of Dupplin, 
and he escaped the defeat at Halidon Hill, as he was, 
on 23 March 1332-33, taken prisoner by the English 
near Lochmaben, and remained a captive for about 
two years. 6 He was present at the Parliament held 
at Dairsie, Pifeshire, in 1335, and is praised by 
Pordun for his discreet behaviour there. Prom this 
time he was one of the most active and able upholders 
of the Scottish patriotic party, and specially aided 
the High Steward in his operations in 1339 at the 
siege of Perth, where he was wounded. It is possible 
that the grant of the lands of Bonnington, Barns, and 
others made to Douglas by the High Steward 6 was 
a reward for his services at this time. He had also 
grants in 1339 from Duncan, Earl of Fife, of Logy- 
achry and others, in Perthshire, and from Patrick, 
Earl of Dunbar, of lands in Annandale. 7 He then 

1 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 22. 2 Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. No. 389. 3 Reg. 
Honor, de Morton, ii. 25. * Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. No. 1033. 6 Ibid., No. 
1074; Chron. de Lanercost, 272, 273. 6 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 34. 
This writ is not dated, but was probably granted about this time. 7 Reg. 
Honor, de Morton, ii. 31, 38, 39. 



340 DOUGLAS, EARL OP MORTON 

devoted himself to win back Teviotdale from the 
English, which he succeeded in doing by the year 
1342, in addition to his alleged taking of Edinburgh 
Oastle, and his jousting with Henry of Lancaster, 
Earl of Derby, in December 1341. 1 

His successes won for him the name of the * Flower 
of Chivalry ' ; but he had also other rewards. On 18 
July 1341, King David, then recently returned from 
France, bestowed on him the earldom of Atholl, for- 
feited by the Earl. 2 The lands of Kilbucho and New- 
lands in Peeblesshire, resigned by John Graham, Lord 
of Dalkeith, were granted on 11 August 1341, and 
Sir William was made a knight between that date 
and 22 September of same year, when he received a 
grant of lands in Eskdale and Ewesdale, which were 
bestowed in full Parliament. 3 These grants were 
followed by that of the whole barony of Dalkeith 
resigned by John Graham, Lord of Abercorn, on 6 
January 1341-42, to which, on 19 January, were added 
the lands of the late Sir John Moubray.* In the 
following month Sir William received the territory 
of Liddesdale, from which he derived his name of the 
Knight of Liddesdale. The territory had belonged 
to Sir Archibald Douglas, some time Regent of Scot- 
land, killed at Halidon. On 14 February 1341-42, in 
presence of the King and General Council, the Steward 
asked that sasine might be given to him of Liddesdale 
which King David had granted to him when he was 
made a knight. Sir William Douglas opposed the 
desired sasine on the ground that the lands belonged 
to the late Archibald Douglas, and were in his charge 
as guardian of the heir. This claim was set aside 
on certain legal grounds, and Liddesdale was given 
to the Steward, only two days later, on 16 February 
1341-42, to be transferred to Sir William Douglas and 
his heirs, in exchange for the earldom of Atholl, 
resigned by Douglas, who immediately afterwards is 
called Lord of Liddesdale. 5 It would almost appear 

1 Scot. Hist. Review, iv. 198 ; cf. Gal. Doc. Scot., iii. No. 1373. 2 The 
Chron. de Lanercost gives this grant in 1335. 3 Reg. Honor, de Morton, 
ii. 43, 44. * Ibid., 44, 45. 5 Ibid., 46-48 ; Robertson's Index, 48, No. 29. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 341 

that the proceedings in Parliament were a mere 
form under which Douglas obtained his kinsman's 
land to himself. 1 About this time also, or later, Sir 
William received from his kinsman Hugh, Lord of 
Douglas, part of the lands of Westerkirk, the lands 
of Stablegorton, and the lands of Polmoody. 2 

The knight was now lord over a very large extent 
of territory, much of which he had won by his bravery, 
although, as indicated, some doubt rests on his ac- 
quisition of Liddesdale. But this seems to be the 
culminating point in his career, and after this date 
his fair fame became sadly besmirched. His jealousy 
and ill-treatment of Sir Alexander Ramsay are well 
known, but it is not so generally recognised that even 
at this period he was carrying on treasonable intrigue 
with England. He marched with King David into 
England, was taken captive at the battle of Durham, 
and was a prisoner in England until 1351, when he 
was set free to negotiate with certain Scottish nobles 
as to King David's release, but the terms offered were 
unacceptable, and he returned to prison. 3 On 17 
July 1352, however, he entered into a special com- 
pact with King Edward, the full details of which 
need not be given here, but by which he gave the 
English free passage through his lands at all times 
for the invasion of Scotland. His daughter and 
nearest male heir were to be given as hostages, and 
he was to receive possession of his estates in Liddes- 
dale and Annandale. 4 He was immediately after- 
wards liberated, and the Hermitage delivered to him, 
but he did not live to reap his expected reward, as in 
August 1353, at a place then called Galsewood, now 
known as Williamhope in Ettrick Forest, he was 
slain by his kinsman and godson William, Lord of 
Douglas, afterwards Earl. The knight's treasonable 
doings were not then known, but there were many 

1 Douglas Book, i. 225. 2 Ibid., 224 ; Beg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 89-93. 
The knight's seal, attached to a writ at Durham about this period, 8 
January 1344-45, shows a shield couche, on a chief two stars ; crest on 
a helmet, a boar in front of a tree ; supporters, two savages. Cf. Scottish 
Armorial Seals, No. 724. 3 JRotuli Scotia:, i. 740, 746-748. 4 Fcedera, 
Record ed., iii. 246, 247. 



342 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

other points which might cause a quarrel, and so he 
met his fate. 

On 3 November 1351, at Peebles, while in Scotland, 
on his special mission, he made what has been called 
his ' will,' but is really an entail of his lands made in 
the prospect of his having no male heir. In this con- 
tingency he conveyed his whole barony of Newlands 
and Kilbucho in Peeblesshire and his barony of Dal- 
keith, in Midlothian, to his nephew James, the son 
of his deceased brother Sir John Douglas, and to the 
heirs-male of his body, with remainder to William, 
John, Henry, and Thomas, brothers of James, and 
the heirs-male of their bodies successively. 1 Sir 
William Douglas is said to have married a daughter 
of Sir John Graham of Dalkeith, but no corroborative 
evidence of the statement has been found, unless the 
acquisition of the lands of Dalkeith, Kilbucho, and 
others may be taken as proof. William's only known 
wife was the lady named Elizabeth, with whom, as 
the widow of Sir William, King Edward in. negoti- 
ated as to the delivery of the castle -of Hermitage to 
him, and her marriage with an Englishman. 2 She 
married, in 1355, with King Edward's consent, Hugh 
Dacre, brother of Sir William Dacre. 3 

The Knight of Liddesdale left issue only one child, 
a daughter, 

Mary, who is not named in the entail quoted, but was sent to 
England in 1352 as a hostage for her father. On 24 June 
1357, she received permission to marry Peter Tempest, a 
courtier of the English King, 4 but apparently the marriage 
did not take place. About 1361 she was married to Reginald, 
son and heir of Sir William More of Abercorn, who divorced 
her before 1365. In that year a papal dispensation was 
granted for her marriage with Thomas Erskine, son and 
heir of Sir Robert Erskine. She died before 30 June 1367, 
in childbirth, leaving no surviving issue. 5 

2. SIR JOHN DOUGLAS, second son of Sir James Douglas, is 
said to have defended the island fortress of Lochleven 
against the English, but no evidence of this has been 

1 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 53-55. 2 Fmdera, Record ed., iii. 263, 
287. 3 Ibid., 304. He is said (Burke's Dormant, etc. Peerage, 152) to have 
married Ela Maxwell. * Cal. Doc. Scot., iii. No. 1637. ' See Douglas 
Book, 253, 254, and title Mar, vol. v. for further particulars. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 343 

found. He was killed some time between 1346 and 
25 January 1350, by Sir David Barclay, who himself 
was murdered on that date. 1 He married a lady 
named Agnes, who has been identified as Agnes 
Munfode, widow of John Munfode, 2 but this is not 
completely proved. He had issue : 

(1) JAMES, who succeeded to Dalkeith. (See below.) 

(2) William, who was created a knight between 1351 and 1375. 

He appears frequently in entails and in charters and testa- 
ments by his brother James, and in 1371 Archibald Douglas, 
Lord of Galloway, gave licence to James, Lord of Dalkeith, to 
infef t his brother William in the lands of Borg in Galloway. 3 
He was still alive on 1 June 1406, when his brother names 
him in the foundation charter of the church of St. Nicholas 
of Dalkeith. The name of his wife is not known, but refer- 
ence is made to his sons in that writ, and to his daughters 
in another. 4 Borg, however, reverted to the main line. 

(3) John, who is named in the entail of 1351, with his brothers. 

His name occurs among those taken prisoner at the battle 
of Durham, as the captive of Robert Ogle and Robert Ber- 
tram. 6 His later career is not known, but he was dead 
before 26 May 1366, when his widow had a charter of the 
half of Strabrock and the fourth part of the earldom of 
Caithness, to her and her heirs-male and female by John 
Douglas. 8 He married Mariota Chene, one of the two 
daughters and co-heiresses of Reginald de Chene, the third 
of that name. She survived him, and married, secondly, 
John Keith, son of Sir Edward Keith, Marischal of Scot- 
land, who became, through her, the ancestor of the Keiths 
of Strabrock, Inverugie, 7 and Ludquhairn. 

(4) HENRY, who became the ancestor of the Douglases of Loch- 

leven and of the present Earl of Morton. A notice of him 
will be found later. 

(5) Thomas, named with his preceding four brothers in the 

entail of 1351, by Sir William Douglas of Liddesdale. The 
last date at which he appears is 1378, and he is not named 
in the testaments in 1390 and 1392, of his brother Sir James. 
He was certainly dead before 1 June 1406. In January 1369- 
70 it was proposed that he should many Margaret, 
daughter of William Creswell, and be infef t in the lands of 
Roberton, county Lanark, but it is not certain that the mar- 
riage took place. 8 

(6) Nicholas, not named in the entail of 1351, perhaps because 

1 Fordun a Goodall, ii. 348. 2 Beg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 125, 152, 524 ; 
cf. 46, 60. 3 Harleian MS., 6439. * Reg. Honor, de Morton, 425, 184. 
5 Fcedera, Record ed., iii. 95. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., i. No. 228. There is no 
clear evidence that John Douglas had issue by his wife, but his successor 
in Strabrock was a Sir James Douglas, who was the father of Sir William 
Douglas, the first of Hawthornden ; and the ancestor of the family of 
Douglas of Hawthornden ; Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 141 ; The Melvilles, 
iii. 14, 15. "' Cf. Reg. Ho. Charters, No. 202. 8 Reg. Honor, de Morton, 
ii. 84. 



344 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

he was very young. It has been suggested that he was 
illegitimate, but he is named as brother in Sir James's 
wills and in all the entails. He was alive in 1392, but dead 
before 1 June 1406. He is said to have married Janet 
Galbraith of Gartconnell, and to be the ancestor of the 
family of Douglas of Mains. 

(7) Ellen. 

(8) Margaret. These daughters are named by their brother, Sir 

James, in founding a chaplainry in honour of his parents 
and uncle, on 1 August 1377, when they were both dead. 1 

(9) Elizabeth, named by Sir James in his wills of 1390 and 1392, 

and also in the writ already cited of 1 June 1406. 2 She does 
not appear to have been married. 

3. James, 3 who was killed fighting bravely against the 

English in August 1335, when John Earl of Moray 
was taken prisoner. 4 

4. Elizabeth, said to have been married to Sir Thomas 

Somerville of Carnwath, is claimed as a daughter of 
Sir James Douglas. 

Sir James Douglas of Laudonia had also a natural son, 
Sir William, known as Sir William Douglas the elder, to 
distinguish him from the Knight of Liddesdale. He was 
placed by his brother in command of Edinburgh Oastle after 
it was recaptured by the Scots in 1341. He fought at the 
battle of Durham, was taken prisoner by William Deyn- 
court, 5 and sent first to the Tower of London, then to 
Rockingham and Nottingham Castles. He was set free 
from chains on 16 May 1350 under parole, and he was liber- 
ated not long afterwards, being present when his brother 
made the entail of 3 November 1351, at Peebles. 

SIR JAMES DOUGLAS is first named in a charter dated 
7 April 1351, at Dalkeith, by which his uncle, Sir William, 
granted to him the lands of Aberdour in Fife. 8 He next 
occurs in the entail of 3 November 1351, already cited, 
made by Sir William Douglas of Liddesdale, and he is there 
designed nephew of the granter and son of the late Sir 
John Douglas, brother of Sir William. There he and four 
of his brothers are named in succession. 7 It is not certain 

1 Beg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 84 passim. 2 Ibid. 3 Douglas suggests 
that Henry Douglas, a prisoner in England in 1338 (Fcedera, Record ed., ii. 
1037), was a fourth son, but no other reference to him is known to exist, 
and the point is doubtful. 4 Fordun a Goodall, ii. 319. 6 Fcedera, Record 
ed., iii. 95. 6 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 55. 7 Ibid., 53, 54. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 345 

when he succeeded to Dalkeith and the other lands named 
in the entail. The grant of Aberdour was confirmed by 
King David n., on 20 October 1360, and was followed by 
others, of Garmilton Dunyng, in East Lothian, Grun- 
zeanton, Raehills, and others in Annandale, besides charters 
from Robert the High Stewart, of the lands of Keillor in 
Perthshire, and from Patrick, Earl of March and Moray, of 
Dundaff hill in Stirlingshire, all between 1360 and 1365. 1 
Between 1365 and 30 June 1367, he had a dispute with 
Thomas Erskine, younger of Erskine, about certain lands 
in Dumfriesshire, which had belonged to Mary Douglas, 
daughter of the Knight of Liddesdale. She had married 
Erskine in 1365, and died in childbirth, when he claimed a 
liferent right over her estates. This was disputed by 
James Douglas, who was her nearest heir, and the question 
was put to the arbitration of a duel in presence of King 
David ii. James Douglas was knighted by his kinsman, 
Sir Archibald, and Thomas Erskine by his father, and 
entering the lists they fought fiercely, and were with 
difficulty separated, even at the command of the King, but 
ultimately Erskine accepted a sum of money for his claim, 
and Sir James obtained his cousin's lands, being duly 
served heir to her on 30 June 1367. 2 

About the same date probably, certainly before 7 April 
1370, when the deed was ratified by the King, William, Earl 
of Douglas, resigned any rights he had over the barony of 
Dalkeith. Previous to this, however, on 5 January 1368-69, 
Sir James received the royal permission to build, repair, or 
alter the castle of Dalkeith, and on 8 December 1369 he 
resigned the barony and castle in the hands of the King, 
receiving on the following day a charter in favour of him- 
self and the lawful heirs-male of his body, with remainder 
always to his nearest heirs-male having the surname of 
Douglas, but if these failed entirely, then the nearest heirs, 
male or female, were to possess the barony. 3 After this 
he is styled in all writs Lord of Dalkeith, his former desig- 
nation having been Sir James Douglas, knight. From 
1368 to 1371 Sir James appears on various committees of 
Parliament, and he did homage to King Robert II. on his 

1 Reg. Honor, de Morton, 57-63. 2 Douglas Book, i. 254 ; Beg. Honor, de 
Morton, ii. 64 ; cf. No. 90. 3 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 69, 72, 75. 



346 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

accession. 1 In 1371 he was one of an important embassy 
to France. Between 1369 and 1372 Sir James received 
a large accession of territory. Between 1369 and 1370, 
when David n. was still alive, George, Earl of March, 
granted to him the castle and lands of Morton in Nithsdale. 1 
About the same time, though perhaps later, the Earl 
granted one hundred pounds of land in the Isle of Man 
to Sir James in view of the latter's intended marriage 
to the Earl's sister, or one hundred pounds of sterlings 
until they were inf ef t in the lands. 3 On 21 November 1372 
the Earl added the lands of Mordington, county Berwick, 
to his sister and Sir James in free marriage, and also the 
lands of Whittinghame in East Lothian, both confirmed by 
King Robert 11. on 6 December of same year. 4 On 20 
October 1374, by a special agreement made at Dunferm- 
line with the Earl of Dunbar, John Orauford of Tramprane 
resigned all rights he had to the barony of Morton in favour 
of Sir James, receiving an infeftment in the lands of Dal- 
garnach, county Dumfries. 5 On 2 January 1374-75 he had 
a royal charter entailing his lands of Kincavil and Calder- 
Olere, county Linlithgow, Kilbucho, Newlands, and Linton- 
Rotherik, county Peebles, in favour of himself and of 
James his son by Agnes Dunbar, and the heirs-male of the 
body of the younger James, failing whom, to William, Henry, 
and Thomas, brothers of the elder James. 8 Another 
charter of same date entailed the barony of Preston in 
Dumfriesshire on the same series of heirs. 7 

Sir James does not appear to have taken much part in 
public affairs, but he was much attached to the Church, and 
expressed his devotion in stone and mortar. In December 
1372 he obtained the royal consent to found a chaplainry in 
the chapel of St. Nicholas of Dalkeith, and to endow it from 

1 Acta Part. Scot., i. 506, 508, 534, 545. His seal, still attached to the 
deed of homage, shows a shield couche, on a chief two stars ; crest, on a 
helmet with wreath a boar passant between two trees ; supporters, two 
demi-savages. Legend, 'S. JACOBI DE DOUGLAS.' Cf. Scottish Armorial 
Seals, No. 725. 2 Reg. Honor, de Morton, 77-80. 3 Ibid., 76, 77. This 
grant was confirmed by King Robert u., about November 1372 (Ibid., 99, 
100), and was probably made not long previously. 4 Ibid., 102-105. 
6 Ibid., 106 ; cf. 113-117. In the previous January Alan Grahame, Lord 
of Morton, son and heir of the late Sir John Grahame, gave up his rights 
over Hutton-under-the-moor (Ibid., 118, 119, Reg. Honor, de Morton). 
6 Ibid., 109-111. i Ibid., 111-113. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 347 

the lands of Horsbruke or Horsburgh, county Peebles. 1 In 
1377 he further endowed another chaplainry in same place, 
for the souls of his father and mother and other relatives.* 
In December 1384 he endowed another chapel within the 
Castle of Dalkeith in memory of his wife, Agnes Dunbar, 
with special endowments and provisions for continuing the 
services amid the interruptions of war or necessary repairs 
to the castle. 3 In June 1406 he crowned his previous 
benefactions by adding to the original fabric of the chapel of 
St. Nicholas and endowing six chaplainries for a provost 
and five other priests, by adding considerably to the 
previous emoluments, and erecting the whole into a col- 
legiate charge. 4 

In the later years of his life Sir James made at least two 
wills, which have been preserved. They are interesting as 
being the oldest known documents of that nature existing 
in Scotland, and also as showing what possessions were most 
valued by a Scottish Baron of the period. Jewels and relics 
of various kinds, some of them of great value, are given to 
his son and heir, with his armour, silver-plate, and all his 
books, including those of law and romances, except works 
on grammar and logic, which were bequeathed to a natural 
son, John Douglas of Aberdour. He makes a special pro- 
vision that all books borrowed by him should be returned to 
their owners. Other jewels are bequeathed to other 
friends. One remarkable provision is that for the welfare 
of his uncle's soul and his own, all the obligations found 
that were his uncle's should be burned and declared void. 
Whether this was because of anything treasonable in these 
writs may be a question. These wills contain much the 
same bequests and provisions, the first being dated on 
30 September 1390, and the second on 19 December 1392. 5 
Sir James, however, survived his latest will by nearly 
thirty years, as he did not die till 1420, and then he suc- 
cumbed to a malady, called popularly 'the Quhew,' 
evidently the influenza, which was, we are told, very fatal 
that year. 6 

1 Reg. Honor, de Morton, 98. 2 Ibid., 124-126. 3 Ibid., 151-154. 4 Ibid., 
324-328. 6 Ibid., ii. 170-176, 179-196 ; National MSS. of Scot., Hi. No. iv., 
where the will of 1392 is printed with facsimile and translation. 6 Fordun 
a Goodall, ii. 460. 



348 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

Sir James Douglas married, first, Agnes Dunbar, daughter 
of Sir Patrick Dunbar by Isabella Randolph, and sister of 
George, Earl of March. (See title Dunbar.) The marriage 
appears to have taken place between 8 and 21 November 
1372, or perhaps on the latter date. 1 She came to her 
husband with a large dowry, not of broad lands only, 
though these, as already indicated, were extensive, but 
only a month before his death King David n. made 
a grant to her of six hundred merks of sterlings yearly 
from the customs of Aberdeen, and four hundred merks 
yearly from the customs of Haddington, a thousand merks 
in all, for her dress, personal furnishings, and other neces- 
saries, though it has been suggested that the annuity 
ceased at her marriage. Her relations with the King, and 
the payments made on her behalf in 1369 and 1370, have 
called forth the opinion that her influence as favourite was 
beginning to supersede that of Queen Margaret Logic, 
whom the King was then endeavouring to divorce. 2 Agnes 
Dunbar or Douglas died some time before October 1378. 3 
Sir James married, secondly, about October 1378, Egidia 
Stewart or Lindsay, sister of King Robert u., and widow 
successively of Sir James Lindsay of Crawford and Sir 
Hugh Eglinton. 4 She was living in 1392, when her husband 
made his last will, but died before June 1406, when she is 
referred to as deceased. 

By his first wife only Sir James had issue : 

1. SIR JAMES, who succeeded. 

2. William, who is said to have received Mordingtoun 

from his father. He is named for the first time, on 
22 April 1372, in his brother's marriage-contract. He 
is also named in his father's testaments as a legatee 
of 20 merks and a gold ring. On 15 July 1401 his 
father granted him various lands and a fishing on the 
Tay, in the barony of Kinnoul. He was still alive in 
1406. 5 

3. Agnes, contracted on 15 August 1381, when quite 

young, to marry John Livingstone of Oallendar, 8 as 

1 Beg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 100, 102, 103. 2 Ibid,, 84; Exch. Rolls, ii. 
Pref. Ixiii, 328, 345, 357, 364. 3 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 139, 140. 4 Vol. 
iii. of this work, 11. fi Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 200, 201, 325. 6 Ibid., 
145-147. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 349 

his second wife. He was killed at Homildon in 1402, 
and she married, secondly, John Gordon of that Ilk, 
whom she also survived. She was alive in 1422, but 
may have died in that year. 1 

4. Jacoba, to whom her father bequeathed a gold circlet 

valued at 40 merks. 2 She was contracted on 1, and 

married before 8, November 1388, to Sir John Hamilton 

of Oadzow, 3 by whom she had issue. (See title 

Hamilton.) She survived him, and on 12 June 1410 

had a dispensation to marry, as his second wife, Sir 

William Douglas of Drumlanrig. They are said to 

have been in the fourth degree of affinity, while 

Joanna Murray, Sir William's late wife, and Jacoba 

from divers stocks, and Sir John and Sir William from 

one stock, were in the fourth degree of consanguinity/ 

According to Douglas, a daughter of Sir James and his 

first wife is said to have married a Tweedie of Drummelzier, 

but as 1351 is the date assigned to the marriage in the 

family history of the Tweedies, it seems doubtful, and no 

evidence has been found. 

Sir James Douglas had also two natural sons, whom he 
names in his testaments, and a daughter : 
Sir James Douglas, styled of Aberdour in his father's 
testaments of 1390 and 1392. On 10 July 1411 he 
received from his father the lands of Stanypath and 
Baldwinsgill, or Baddinsgill, and was then styled Sir 
James Douglas of Roberton. 5 He was named one of 
his father's executors, and he appears in numerous 
charters. On 11 May 1413 he paid seven hundred 
merks for the liberation of William Douglas, grand- 
son of Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith,' and he was 
witness to a charter on 2 April 1415, 7 after which he 
disappears from record. 

John Douglas, also called of Aberdour. His father named 
him in his testaments as the intended recipient of 
his books, but he predeceased his father, dying before 
1406. 8 

1 Vol. iv. 518 ; v. 426. - Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 172, 181. 3 Ibid., 
i. Pref. xxxviii ; ii. 162. * Regesta Avenionensia, 333, f. 641. 5 Reg. 
Honor, de Morton, ii. 206. 6 Rotuli Scotice, ii. 205. T Reg. Ho. Charters, 
No. 242. 8 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 172, 181, 325. 



350 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

Margaret, married, before 25 October 1372, to Philip 
Arbuthnott of that Ilk, 1 and had issue. She is 
usually said to be the daughter of Agnes Dunbar, 
but as the latter was married a month after her 
reputed daughter, and is constantly styled the first 
wife of Sir James, the conclusion seems irresistible 
that Margaret was a natural daughter. 

SIR JAMES DOUGLAS, succeeded his father as Lord of 
Dalkeith. He is first named in two entails dated 2 January 
1374-75, providing the barony of Kincavill and others to 
him as son of Sir James Douglas and Agnes Dunbar, when 
he must have been a mere infant. 2 On 22 April 1378 it 
was proposed that he should marry one of two daughters of 
John, Earl of Oarrick, afterwards King Robert HI., and on 
24 March 1381-82 he received from her grandfather King 
Robert II. a grant of the lands of Mordington, Whitting- 
hame, and many others, erected into a free regality. 8 He 
attained the dignity of knighthood between September 
1390 and December 1392, when he is styled Sir James. 4 He 
is named in various writs of no great importance up to 
February 1439-40, when he and his second wife had charters 
of the lands of Whittinghame and Morton. 5 He died between 
that date and May 1441. It is said that this Laird of Dalkeith 
was made a Lord of Parliament as Lord Dalkeith, but there 
is no evidence of the fact, and in royal charters before and 
after his death he is described as James, Lord of Dalkeith, 
knight. 

The second Laird of Dalkeith married, first, Elizabeth, a 
younger daughter of John, Earl of Carrick, afterwards 
King Robert HI. The marriage was proposed in 1378, 
when he was to choose one of two sisters, Margaret 
or Elizabeth. About 24 March 1381-82 further arrange- 
ments were made, as appears from an imperfect charter, if 
the marriage did not take place then. It would appear 
they were married before 10 November 1387, and their 
eldest son was born before September 1390. 6 It is not 
certain when she died, but Sir James married, secondly, 

1 Reg. Honor, de Morton, 97, 98; cf. vol. i. 276. 2 Beg. Honor, de Morton, 
110-113. 3 Ibid., 136, 148; cf. 154, 160. * Ibid., 186. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig., 13 
October 1439; 28 February 1439-40. Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 136, 148, 
189, 170. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 351 

before 1439, Janet, eldest daughter of Sir William Borth- 
wick. The marriage could not have taken place till after 
2 November 1411, when a papal dispensation was issued for 
Janet Borthwick's marriage with Adam Hepburn of Hailes. 1 
She survived Sir James, and married, secondly, Sir George 
Crichton, afterwards Earl of Caithness, 2 whom she also 
survived. 
By his first wife Sir James had issue : 

1. William, born, as indicated, before September 1390, 

when he is named in his grandfather's will. He was 
in 1405 one of the hostages who went to England for 
Archibald, fourth Earl of Douglas, and he seems to 
have remained a prisoner in England until May 1413, 
when his grandfather paid 700 merks for his libera- 
tion. He appears also to have been one of the 
hostages for King James I., and was still in England 
in 1425, 3 when he probably died, as he then disappears 
from record, and his next brother succeeded to their 
father. On 9 December 1420 a dispensation was 
issued for his marriage with Margaret Borthwick, 
widow, not of Sir William Abernethy, as stated by 
some, but of his son William, who had been slain at 
Harlaw in 141 1. 4 By her he had no issue. 

2. JAMES, who succeeded. 

3. Henry, who had a grant from his father of the lands 

of Borg in Galloway. 5 He and his brother, after 
their father's death, had a serious feud about the 
castle and lordship of Dalkeith, which called forth 
the special intervention of the King in September 
1442. He is sometime styled 'of Dalkeith,' and 
apparently claimed rights over that estate during his 
brother's incapacity. 9 He died before 1456, when his 
widow drew her terce from his lands. 7 He married 
Margaret, daughter of James Douglas, afterwards 
seventh Earl of Douglas, who survived him and died 
before 3 September 1473. They had issue three sons, 
Hugh, Mr. James, and JoTm. On 27 May 1474 Hugh 

1 Eegesta Avenionensia, vol. 339, f. 549. 2 Vol. ii. 328-330. 3 Cal. Doc. 
Scot., iv. No. 707; Rotuli Scotice, ii. 205, 242, 252. * Reg. Papal Letters, 
vii. 170 ; Frasers of Philorth, ii. 39. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 3 September 1473. 
6 Ibid., 2 January 1451-52. 7 Exch. Rolls, vi. 196, etc. 



352 

Douglas granted to his kinsman James, first Earl of 
Morton, a formal renunciation of all right he or his 
heirs might have to the lordship of Dalkeith, under a 
penalty of 30,000, if he or his heirs repudiated the 
engagement, excepting such rights as might fall to 
him by inheritance. His brothers, Mr. James and 
JoJm, were witnesses to the writ. 1 

Douglas, both editions, omits Henry in this genera- 
tion, and places him in the next. He also inserts an 
Archibald as son of this Sir James, who is said to 
be the ancestor of the Netherdale, Tilliquhilly, and 
Inchmarlo families, 2 but no evidence of this Archibald 
has been found on record. 

By his second wife Sir James had issue a son : 
4. William, to whom the lands of Whittinghame and 
Morton were secured, although in 1474 he resigned 
his rights over Morton in favour of his nephew the 
first Earl of Morton. 3 He was the ancestor of the 
Douglases of Whittinghame, whose principal male 
line ended in an heiress Elizabeth, who married 
Alexander, Viscount of Kingston, in 1661. She was 
served heir to her brother Archibald Douglas on 15 
May 1662. The only one of her children who left issue 
married William Hay of Drummelzier, and their 
descendants are the lineal representatives of the 
Douglases of Whittinghame. (See title Kingston.) 

The male line of Whittinghame is represented by 
the Counts Douglas in Sweden, created Counts Sken- 
ninge and Barons of Skalby. 4 

JAMES DOUGLAS, the second, but eldest surviving, son, 
succeeded his father some time between February 1439-40 
and May 1441. He appears, however, to have been con- 
sidered mentally deficient, or perhaps a spendthrift, as on 
22 May 1441 the Government of King James n., then a 
minor, declared him to be incapable of managing his own 
affairs, and appointed James Giffard of Sheriffhall (his 
brother-in-law) to be his curator, to act as governor and 

1 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 222-224. 2 Wood's Douglas, ii. 268. See 
notes pp. 343 supra and 353-354 infra. 3 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 
219-221, 307, 330. * Wood's Douglas, ii. 268 ; The Scots in Sweden, by 
Th. A. Fischer, 120. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 353 

administrator of all his lordships, castles, manors, and of 
all his goods, and the receiver of his rents, for the space 
of nineteen years, constituting Giffard also constable of the 
castles of Dalkeith, Aberdour, and others, with full powers 
of jurisdiction over the lands. Failing James Giffard from 
any cause, it was provided that his brothers John and 
William successively should take office as curator till the 
nineteen years should expire. 1 It was no doubt the great 
estates in question which led to this appointment, but 
another view is presented by a writ issued in the King's 
name in September of the following year, stating that, by 
advice of his council, he had taken the castle and lordship 
of Dalkeith into his own hands because of the great and 
perilous strife between James of Douglas and Henry his 
brother, and the bloodshed, ' spuilzie, reif,' and disorders 
following thereon, and to prevent further evils. 2 This 
document suggests that the Laird of Dalkeith was not 
really insane, but facile, and that his brother had designs 
on the estates, which he strenuously resisted. He seems 
to have been made a knight before June 1441, and he is 
styled Sir James Douglas by his son in 1479. 3 The castle 
of Dalkeith appears to have been kept in repair and ammu- 
nition by the Crown until 1445, when the payments cease ; 
but if it be true, as was alleged, that the Douglas party 
burned the castle in 1452, it may then have been still in 
the hands of the Grown, though nothing is known as to the 
fact. James Douglas, third of Dalkeith, died between 8 
September 1456, when he resigned his lands in favour of 
his son, and 14 March 1457-58, when his son was made Earl. 4 
James Douglas married Elizabeth, daughter of James Gif- 
ford of Sheriffhall, who was alive on 8 September 1456, and 
perhaps survived him, and had issue, so far as known, one 
son : 5 

JAMES, who succeeded, and became first Earl of 
Morton. 6 

1 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 207-209. 2 Orig. in Reg. Ho., No. 307. 
3 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 210, 239. 4 Ibid., i. p. xlii ; Acta Part. Scot., 
ii.78. 6 This Laird of Dalkeith is usually said to have also had a daughter 
Beatrix, married to Sir William Hay, first Earl of Erroll, but Lady Hay 
was the daughter of James, seventh Earl of Douglas (vol. iii. 175, 565). 6 In 
a recent publication, The Book of the Irvings, 1907, by Col. J. B. Irving of 
Bonshaw, 185, 186, it is stated that there was another son, John, who is 
alleged to have married the heiress of Hawthornden Abernethy, and so 

VOL. VI. Z 



354 DOUGLAS, EARL OP MORTON 

I. JAMES DOUGLAS, the fourth Lord of Dalkeith of that 
name, succeeded his father at some unascertained date 
between 8 September 1456, when his father resigned all 
his estates in his favour, and 14 March 1457-58, when he 
was raised to the Peerage as EARL OF MORTON. 1 When 
the King's intention was indicated his step-grandmother, 
Janet Borthwick, objected to the new title on the ground 
that the barony of Morton belonged to her and her son 
William, but the Chancellor stated that the title was to be 
assumed not from Morton in Nithsdale, but from Morton in 
the barony of Calderclere. 2 On 15 May 1459 he had a 
charter to himself and his wife of the lands of Balbartanes, 
and on 31 May 1465 of the lands of Woodfleld. 3 On 30 May 
1459 he resigned the lands of Whittinghame into the hands 
of Alexander, Duke of Albany, in favour of his uncle Sir 
William Douglas. 4 On 30 June 1466 he entered into a con- 
tract with Patrick Graham, Bishop of St. Andrews, and 
his father and brother, for the marriage of the bishop's 
niece to the Earl's son John. The Grahams bound them- 
selves to aid the Earl to recover Whittinghame and Morton, 
which had been diverted from the main line. 5 It has been 
suggested, in view of the coup made a few days later, on 
10 July 1466, when Bishop Graham, who was allied with 
Lord Boyd and his party, secured the person of the young 
King James in., that this bond was made to draw Morton 
into the conspiracy, 6 but if he did accede to it, he soon 
repented, as he was one of the jury who in 1469 found the 
Boyds to be guilty of treason. 7 

became the founder of the family of Douglas of Tillyquhilly about 1450. 
But there is no evidence on record of this John, whose mother is said to 
be Agnes Keith, daughter of the Earl Marischal. No alliance is known 
between the Morton Douglases and the Keiths before 1505 (ante, p. 43). 
Hawthornden had been in Douglas hands since 1386, when Sir William 
Douglas, son and heir of Sir James Douglas of Strabrock (see note p. 343 
supra) had a lease of the lands from John Melville of that Ilk (The Mel- 
villes, etc., iii. 14, 15). The parentage of Sir James Douglas is not proved, 
but his predecessor in Strabrock was a brother of Sir James Douglas, first 
of Dalkeith, named John Douglas, who obtained the lands through mar- 
riage with an heiress, Mariota Chene, and Sir James may have been their 
son (Origines Parochiales, ii. 812 ; Robertson's Index, 34 ; Beg. Mag. Sig., 
i. No. 228, where heirs male and female are referred to). 1 Reg. Honor, 
de Morton, L, xlii ; Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 78. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 78. 
3 Reg. Mag. Sig. * Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 333, 334. 5 Reg. Honor, de 
Morton, ii. 213, 214. 6 The House of Douglas, by Sir Herbert Maxwell, 
i. 241. 7 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 18fi. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 355 

In 1471 the Earl had a letter from the then recently 
elected Pope Sixtus rv., inviting him to take part in a pro- 
posed expedition against the Turks, but he did not accept 
the call. 1 On 12 January 1473-74 his uncle, Sir William 
Douglas of Whittinghame, resigned in the Earl's favour all 
his rights over the barony of Mortoun, Dumfriesshire, and 
on 27 May same year his kinsman, Hugh Douglas of Borg, 
son of his uncle Henry, resigned all his rights, except those 
of a possible heir-male, to the lordship of Dalkeith, 2 and he 
thus obtained full power over all his great estates, a fact 
which he commemorated by benefactions to the Church. 
On 9 July 1474, at the instance or pious importunity of Sir 
John Scot, vicar of Aberdour, the Earl granted an acre of 
land on the north side of the road from Aberdour to King- 
horn on which to build a hospice of St. Martha, for the 
comfort of poor pilgrims to the monastery of Inchcolm, a 
grant which was largely augmented in 1479, and finally 
enlarged in 1486, in favour of four sisters of the third order 
of St. Francis. 3 He also, in 1475, re-erected and largely 
endowed the collegiate church of Dalkeith, founded by his 
great-grandfather. 4 In 1478 he made some encroachment 
on the King's moor, near Peebles, and had to pay a fine of 
100, of which he paid 50 in money, and gave a gold chain 
and crucifix in pledge for the remainder. 5 On 10 May 1482 
there was a full reckoning between the Earl and James 
Giffard of Sheriffhall, when the intromissions of the latter 
and his father with the Dalkeith estates were honourably 
discharged, and James Giffard, in view of a sum of money 
given to him in his need, bound himself in manrent and 
service to the Earl. 8 The Earl is named in a safe-conduct 
to England on 14 June 1491. 7 In his later years he had a 
dispute with a certain David Giffard, who accused him of 
detaining and destroying charters relating to David's lands. 
On 22 June 1493 the action was decided in favour of the 
Earl, who admitted that he had burned the writs, but with 
consent of William Giffard, the plaintiff's father. 8 This 
appears to be the Earl's last appearance on record, and he 
was dead before 22 October 1493, when his son John is 
designed Earl of Morton. 9 

1 Letter, 25 August 1471, Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 217-219. 2 Ibid., 
219-224. 3 Ibid., 235-243. * Ibid., 226-235. 6 Ibid., 243. 6 Ibid., 244-247. 
1 Rymer's Fcedera, xii. 449. 8 Acta Auditorum, 182. 9 Ada Dom, Cone., 308. 



356 DOUGLAS, EARL OP MORTON 

The first Earl of Morton married Joanna, third daughter 
of King James I. She had the misfortune to be deaf 
and dumb, and had been contracted on 18 October 1440 to 
marry James, third Earl of Angus, but he died before the 
marriage took place. 1 She was sent to Prance in 1445, but 
returned in the spring of 1458, 2 and the marriage took place 
before 15 May 1459, when a royal charter was granted to 
the Earl and his spouse Joanna, sister of King James ii. 3 
She was apparently still alive on 16 October I486. 4 A 
monument bearing two recumbent figures, much dilapi- 
dated, in the chancel of Dalkeith Church, has been identi- 
fied as that of the first Earl of Morton and his wife. 5 Of 
this marriage there was issue : 

1. JOHN, second Earl of Morton. 

2. James, referred to as second son of the Earl, and 

brother of Earl John, in various writs, from 1466 up 
to 1480, 8 but nothing further has been ascertained 
regarding him. 

3. Janet, married before 1 February 1480-81, to Sir 

Patrick Hepburn of Dunsyre, afterwards first Earl of 
Bothwell. (See that title.) 

4. Elizabeth, referred to by her father in a charter of 

1479, but nothing more is certainly known regarding 
her. 

II. JOHN, second Earl of Morton, first appears on record 
on 30 June 1466, when he is designed son and apparent heir 
of James, Earl of Morton. 7 He next appears in a writ ol 
24 May 1474, as Sir John Douglas, knight, 8 having received 
that dignity in the interval, perhaps at the marriage of 
King James in. at Holyrood, on 13 July 1469. Later in the 
same year, 9 July 1474, he is described as Master of Morton. 9 
Between that and September 1479 he was provided to the 
estate of Roberton, co. Lanark, as he is described as Sir 

1 Vol. i. 176. 2 Exch. Rolls, vi. pp. Iv-lvii. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. A dispen- 
sation was issued to them on 7 January 1463-64, on the ground that they 
were related in the second and third degrees of consanguinity. They 
were not ignorant of this, but were persuaded to marry by the late King 
James n. To prevent scandal, they now petitioned for a dispensation, 
which was granted. * Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 241. 6 The House of 
Douglas, by Sir Herbert Maxwell, i. 239, 240. 6 Reg. Honor, de Morton, 
ii. 213-239 passim ; Reg. Mag. Sig., 27 November 1480. 7 Reg. Honor, de 
Morton, ii. 213. 8 Ibid., 221. 9 Ibid., 237. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 357 

John Douglas, knight, Lord of Roberton. 1 On 22 June 1493 
he appeared in Court to protest for his own protection in 
the action between his father and David Giffard, 2 and on 22 
October same year he is styled John, Earl of Morton, when 
he was called to answer a point affecting a grant of lands 
to Sir John Murray of Touchadam. 3 

Very little is recorded of this Earl, as he apparently took 
no great interest in public affairs. He frequently appears, 
however, as a litigant in matters relating to himself or his 
estates. In one case he obtained a renunciation of certain 
lands in his favour under curious circumstances. John, 
Lord Lindsay of the Byres, in making up his titles was 
retoured heir to his brother before the Sheriff of Linlith- 
gow, and in the list of lands the clerk of Court * reklesly ' 
and improperly inserted the lands of * Hawthornsyke,' 
which never had belonged to the Lindsays. On 17 June 
1496, in presence of the Court, Lord Lindsay stated these 
facts and duly renounced the lands in favour of Morton, to 
whom they rightly belonged. 4 On 20 January 1496-97 
Morton protested that the marriage (without his consent) 
of the heiress of Medhope should not prejudice any claim 
he had against her as a ward. 5 In another case the Earl 
brought a claim, on what ground is not stated, against 
James Lockhart of Lee, as heir of Sir Mungo, for a gold 
cross (or crucifix) set with garnets, four orient pearls, two 
sapphires and a ruby, and valued at 18, 13s. 4d. of the 
then current money. The claim was decided in favour of 
the Earl. 6 A more serious affair, however, engrossed his 
attention in the year 1506, when his estates of Roberton 
(co. Lanark), Oalderclere and Mordington were claimed by 
the Crown on the plea that they had been alienated with- 
out the consent of the King as superior. The Earl disputed 
the claim, and produced a charter by King Robert n., erect- 
ing and uniting these and other lands into the barony 
of Dalkeith. The Lords of Council decided in Morton's 
favour, and he appeared before King James iv. in person, 
displayed the decree and besought that the lands should be 

1 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 241. 2 Acta Auditorum, 182. 3 Acta Dom. 
Cone., 308. 4 Ibid., MS. vii. f. 13. 5 Ibid., f. 61. This not improbably gives 
an approximate date of the marriage of Elizabeth Martin of Medhope 
with Cuthbert Home (vol. iv. 451). 6 Acta Dom. Cone., viii. f. 68, 11 July 
1497. 



358 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

released. This was done by a special grant on 14 June 1506, 
under the Privy Seal, and the whole proceedings were re- 
corded by a notary, on 10 January 1506-7, in presence of the 
King and Council. 1 Another dispute with the Crown took 
place a few years later, in February 1509-10, as to the dues 
payable from the Earl's lands of Kinghorn to the Bishop of 
Dunkeld. A charter by King David II., of 5 June 1359, was 
produced showing that the lands were to pay 208 bolls of 
wheat, the same quantity of bear, and 500 bolls of oats to 
the See of Dunkeld. 2 The Earl was alive on 19 July 1511, 
when his son the Master acted as his procurator, 3 but he 
was dead before September 1515, when his son is styled 
Earl. 4 

This Earl was, as already indicated, (p. 354) while very 
young, contracted to marry Elizabeth, daughter of David 
Graham of Fintry, brother of Bishop Graham of St. An- 
drews. 5 But the contract was never fulfilled, and the 
Earl, while still Master of Morton, married Janet,' daughter 
of Patrick Crichton of Cranstoun-Riddell, and had issue : 

1. JAMES, third Earl of Morton. 

2. Richard, referred to in an entail of the Morton estates 

of 22 April 1543, and again in a similar writ of 17 
October 1564, where he is described as brother- 
german of James, Earl of Morton. He had issue two 
sons William and James also called in the entail. 7 

3. Beatrice, called also Elizabeth, married to Robert, 

Lord Keith, son of William, third Earl Marischal. 
(See that title.) 

4. Agnes, married, as his second wife, to Alexander, fifth 

Lord Livingston. (See title Linlithgow.) 

III. JAMES, third Earl of Morton, is first named on record 
on 10 July 1505, when, as Master of Morton, he is appointed 
a procurator on behalf of King James iv. 8 In 1508 and 
1509 he was acting as bailie of the abbacy of Dunferm- 
line. 9 He was still Master of Morton on 19 July 1511, but 

1 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 256-258 ; Reg. Sec. Sig., i. No. 1282. 2 Acta 
Dom. Cone., xxi. . 152. 3 Ibid., xxiii. f. 55. 4 Exch. Rolls, xiv. 106. 5 Reg. 
Honor, de Morton, ii. 213, 214. 6 Cf. Reg. Mag. Sig., 22 February 1506-7. 
1 Acta Parl. Scot., ii. 562-565. 8 Reg. Sec. Sig., i. No. 1110. 9 Exch. Rolls, 
xiii. 242. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 359 

he is styled Earl of Morton in an account rendered to 
Exchequer between July 1514 and September 1515, contain- 
ing a reference to his wife's dowry. 1 On 15 November 
1516 he and his wife Catherine Stewart had a tack from 
the Grown of the lands of Buittle, co. Kirkcudbright, for 
nineteen years, at a yearly rent of 62, 6s. 8d., and this 
grant was changed to a charter of feu-farm on 17 April 
1527. 2 On 25 November 1531 he and the vicar of Dalkeith 
(Sir John Orichton, perhaps a kinsman on the mother's 
side) entered into an interesting agreement which shows 
that at an early date the Lords of Dalkeith had endeavoured 
to realise the great source of wealth lying underneath 
their lands in the shape of coal. It is narrated that the 
first and second Earls had incurred much expense in win- 
ning the coals of ' Oolden ' or Cowden, and Dalkeith, but 
the third Earl more than all had put forth 'sumptuous 
labouris, exorbitant expensis and greit diligence ' to find and 
obtain the precious deposit. The vicar therefore, with an 
eye to the main chance in the probable increase of revenue 
to accrue to the Church, and to encourage the Earl's per- 
severance, leased to him the teind coals of ' Golden ' or 
Cowden, and Dalkeith, along with the teind sheaves of the 
lands of Braidwood, for the term of the Earl's own life and 
that of his next successors, for which the Earl binds him- 
self to pay a yearly rent of forty shillings. 3 

This Earl also, like his father, took little part in public 
affairs, though apparently not from want of inclination, but 
on account of weak health, and a sore in one of his legs, in 
consideration of which he was released from all military 
service. 4 This weakness, and the fact that he had no male 
issue, led to his latter years being embittered by the perse- 
cution of King James v., who had a greedy eye to the Earl's 
possessions (probably because he was a Douglas), and had 
no scruple in using harsh measures to make the Earl sur- 
render his estates. The Earl, weak and sickly as he was, 
was charged to pass immediately to Inverness and the 
north of Scotland, and there to remain in ward during the 
winter season, deprived of all his home comforts. Morton 
dreaded this fate exceedingly, but nevertheless travelled 

1 Exch. Rolls, xiv. 106. 2 Beg. Sec. Sig., i. Nos. 2835, 3733. 3 Reg. Honor, 
de Morton, ii. 259, 260. 4 Ibid., i. 3. 



360 DOUGLAS, EARL OP MORTON 

northward as far as Brechin, where he halted for two days. 
There the King followed him and sent each day soliciting 
a resignation of his lands to be made, nominally in favour 
of his kinsman Robert Douglas of Lochleven, but really that 
the King might obtain possession of the lands. The Earl, 
weak in health and shaken by the King's persecution, at 
last gave way, and at Brechin, on 17 October 1540, resigned 
his lands as requested, which was immediately followed by 
a royal precept and charter of same date, and a sasine of 
11 January 1540-41, securing the lands to Robert Douglas, 
reserving the Earl's liferent and his widow's terce. 1 Nine 
days later, at Falkland, on 20 January 1540-41, Morton 
solemnly stated that he had made the resignation only 
under the fear of death and the dread of losing his heritage. 
On the same day, also at Falkland, Robert Douglas, under 
similar compulsion, as he explained, resigned the estates in 
the King's hands, under reservation of the lands of Aber- 
dour. King James did not long enjoy his triumph, and a 
few months after his death, the Earl brought an action 
before the Court of Session for reducing the extorted re- 
signation of 1540 and all that had followed. After hearing 
the case and witnesses, the writs executed by Morton and 
by Robert Douglas were, on 24 April 1543, declared to be 
null from the beginning on account of the pressure brought 
to bear on the Earl. 2 

Previous to this decision, however, the Earl had already 
assumed his freedom, and on 18 March 1542-43 had entered 
into an agreement with Sir George Douglas of Pittendreich 
that the latter should at once procure the annulment of 
Lochleven's infeftment, and on decree being obtained, Sir 
George should pay 2000 to the Earl, who should cause his 
daughter Elizabeth to marry James (the second) son of Sir 
George. If, however, the Earl and his wife had male issue 
James Douglas and Elizabeth were to receive 5000 merks 
in name of tocher. 3 They were married between that date 
and 22 April 1543, when the Earl formally entailed all his 
baronies and estates upon James Douglas and Elizabeth 
his wife, and the longer liver of them, in conjunct fee and 
their lawful heirs-male ; whom failing, to David Douglas, 

1 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 261-268. 2 Ibid., 281-293, where the whole 
story is set forth in a graphic form. 3 Ibid., 274, 275. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 361 

brother of Sir George, and his heirs-male ; whom failing, 
to a long series of heirs-male ; whom all failing, to the 
heirs-male and heirs whomsoever of James Douglas, ap- 
parently excluding the Lochleven family altogether. 1 Robert 
Douglas of Lochleven, however, raised a claim to the 
earldom, which was put to arbitration, and finally, on 30 
June 1547, for a sum of 5000 merks to be paid to him, he 
renounced his rights in favour of James Douglas, now 
styled Master of Morton, with the proviso that if the lands 
should fall to Robert and his heirs by virtue of the above 
entail made to the Master of Morton, in that case and no 
otherwise Robert and his heirs should enjoy the lands not- 
withstanding this contract. 2 A penalty of 1000 merks 
was to be incurred for failure in any payment, and on 24 
January 1548-49, Margaret Brskine, widow of Robert 
Douglas, made a claim on Sir George Douglas for default, 3 
but it is not certain that the third Earl of Morton was then 
alive. He was certainly dead before 4 November 1550, 
when his successor granted a precept of clare constat to 
John Ooldane, son of the late John Ooldane in a husband- 
land in Dalkeith. 4 

The third Earl married, before 10 December 1507, 
Katherine Stewart, 5 a natural daughter of King James iv. 
by Margaret Boyd, Bonshaw. He had with her a sum of 
at least 200. 6 The date of her death is not certain. She 
was alive on 22 April 1543, but apparently she did not 
survive her husband. They had issue : 

1. Margaret, married, about 23 September 1532, 7 to 

James Hamilton, second Earl of Arran, afterwards 
Governor of Scotland, and had issue. (See title 
Hamilton.) She and her husband, on 31 May and 3 
October 1560, confirmed the entails of 22 April 1543 
to James, fourth Earl of Morton. 8 

2. Beatrice, married, about 25 July 1530, to Robert, sixth 

Lord Maxwell. Their second son John became eighth 
Lord Maxwell, upon whom King James vi., in 1581, 
bestowed the earldom of Morton, and he held the 

1 Reg. Honor, de Morton, 276-280. 2 Ibid., 296-298. 3 Ibid., 298, 299. 
4 Precept, penes Sir W. Fraser's trustees ; cf. also Laing Charters, No. 
580. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 8 Exch. Rolls, xiv. 106, 200. * Reg. Mag. 
Sig. 8 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 301, 302. 



362 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

title for some years. (See infra, and title Nithsdale.) 
Beatrice Douglas was still alive on 31 October 1583. 1 
3. Elizabeth, married, as already indicated, to James 
Douglas, who became fourth Earl of Morton, second 
son of Sir George Douglas of Pittendreich, and of 
whom a notice follows. 

IV. JAMES, fourth Earl of Morton, succeeded as such 
some time before 4 November 1550, at which date he 
signed a precept of clare constat, as cited above. He 
was, as already stated, the second son of Sir George 
Douglas, styled Master of Angus, by Elizabeth Douglas, 
heiress of Pittendreich. He was born about 1516, 2 and 
was therefore about twelve years of age in 1528, when his 
father, and his uncle the sixth Earl of Angus, were for- 
feited and banished from Scotland. He remained in Scot- 
land with or near his mother, and Godscroft tells how, all 
the time of his father's exile, from 1528 to 1543, young 
James lurked under a borrowed name, and took service 
with one and another friend, as a grieve or farm overseer. 
In this, the historian says, he acquired skill in husbandry 
and also habits of thrift and frugality, which stood him in 
good stead in dealing with the estate of Morton, and also 
that of his nephew and ward, the eighth Earl of Angus. 3 
Godscroft also states that he was some years in England, 
long enough to acquire the 'English tongue and tone, 
which he did ever thereafter much delight to use.' 4 This, 
however, was apparently at a later date, when he was 
taken prisoner in June 1548, and remained in the Tower, 
whence he was probably released after the treaty with 
England and France on 28 March and 18 April 1550. 5 
He had previously taken some little part in public 
affairs, and after his becoming a member of the Privy 
Council, on 14 October 1552, he came more prominently 
forward. In June 1557 he became tutor and guardian to 
his nephew Archibald, eighth Earl of Angus, administering 
his large estates. In that year also he openly joined the 
party of the Reformation, although he did not for a time 

1 Book of Carlaverock, i. 220. 2 Beg. Honor, de Morton, i. 107. 3 Gods- 
croft, ed. 1748, 138. Sir W. Fraser doubts this story, but Sir Herbert 
Maxwell gives reasons for accepting it. 4 Ibid., 139. 6 Cal. Scottish 
Papers, i. No. 360. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 363 

give them actual support, preferring to wait the course of 
events at his own castle of Dalkeith. After April 1560, 
however, he came forward as one of the Protestant leaders, 
and from that period his history is identified with all the 
most prominent events in Scotland. It need not be repeated 
here, as it has been given at some length by two recent 
writers from differing points of view. 1 In the end of 1562 
he was appointed Chancellor, 2 and two years later, on 2 
June 1564, he had a royal charter confirming his rights to 
the earldom and estates, a charter which was repeated on 
17 October same year to him and a series of heirs, including 
William Douglas of Lochleven, who ultimately succeeded 
to the earldom. 3 Besides thus safeguarding his own estate, 
he also in the following year arranged a contract by which 
the Douglas estates were secured to his nephew the young 
Earl of Angus. 4 

In 1572, after the death of the Regent Mar, Morton was 
chosen in his place, and ruled the country with a rough 
honesty until he was deposed on 8 March 1577-78. He 
regained power for a time, but on 29 December 1580 he 
was accused by Captain James Stewart of complicity in 
the murder of Darnley and thrown into prison. He was 
tried for treason on 1 June 1581, and beheaded by the 
Maiden on the following day. 

As already stated, the fourth Earl married, between 18 
March and 22 April 1543, Elizabeth, youngest daughter of 
his predecessor. They are said to have had ten children, 
who died young, except three daughters, who survived 
their father. The Countess was on 12 July 1581 pronounced 
by a jury to have been insane for twenty-two years. The 
names of the surviving daughters are nowhere given. 6 

The Earl had four natural sons : 

1. James, some time Prior of Pluscardine, in Moray. He 

married (contract dated 18 February 1577-78) Anna, 
only daughter of George Home, fiar of Spott, 8 and 
had issue. 

2. Archibald, who had the lands of Pittendreich in 

1 The Douglas Book, ii. 298-322 ; History of the Douglases, by Sir Herbert 
Maxwell. 2 P. C. Reg., i. 228. 3 Reg. Honor, de Morton, ii. 302-304, 305- 
310; Actn Parl. Scot., ii. 562-565. 4 12 and 13 May 1565, The Douglas 
Book, ii. 325 ; iii. 255-262. 6 The Douglas Book, ii. 321, where authorities 
are given. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 24 February 1577-78. 



364 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

Moray. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Alex- 
ander Sutherland of Duffus, 1 and had issue. 

3. George, who, according to Godscroft, was lame. He 

had a pension from the Priory of St. Andrews. 

4. William, who is named in 1585 with his brothers, who 

were all rehabilitated by Act of Parliament in that 
year. 2 He had been previously, in 1581, allowed to 
possess the lands of Mosshouses, in the barony of 
Melville, near Edinburgh, and he was dead before 
November 1605. 3 



SIR HENRY DOUGLAS of Lugtoun and Lochleven (see ante, 
p. 343) was the fourth son of Sir John Douglas of Dalkeith, 
by his wife Agnes Munfode. On 20 September 1369 he 
had from King David n. a charter of the third part of 
the lands of Lugtoun, co. Edinburgh. 4 He had a safe- 
conduct, 16 May 1374, to visit Canterbury. 5 On 3 January 
1383-84 he had a charter of certain annualrents in the 
county of Peebles. 8 He had a precept and confirmation 
of the lands of Halkerton and Esperton, held by the church 
of Ballentrodach, 1388. 7 He was sent to England by King 
Robert n. to receive the oath of Richard 11. respecting a 
treaty with Prance, 18 June 1389. He had three charters 
from the King, one on 18 March 1389-90, as Sir Henry 
Douglas, to himself and his wife, the King's dearest niece, 
Margery Stewart, of the barony of Lugtoun, co. Edin- 
burgh, the castle of Lochleven and certain lands in the 
county of Kinross, and the lands of Langnewton, co. Rox- 
burgh. 8 He died before 1393. 9 He married, before 19 
May 1384, Margery, widow of [Roger] Magven of that 
Ilk, and of Sir Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk, and 
daughter of Sir John Stewart of Ralstoun, half-brother 
to King Robert n. They had a plenary indulgence 4 
April 1385. 10 The descent of the family at this point is 
doubtful, and has been variously stated ; " but it seems 

1 Vol. iii. of this work, 202. 2 Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 397; The Douglas 
Book, ii. 321, 322. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., 16 June 1581 ; 13 Nov. 1605. 4 Reg. 
Mag. Sig., folio vol. 168. 5 Rymer's Fcedcra, vii. 37. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 
fol. vol. 167. 7 Harl. MS., 6439. 8 Ibid., 1781, 4-5-6. 9 Exch. Rolls, iii. 
321 ; v. 122; Reg. Honor, de Morton, i. p. xli. 10 Reg. Vat., 300, 535. 
11 Wood's Douglas's Peerage, ii. 272; Eraser's Wemyss Boole, ii. 47. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 365 

most probable that Sir Henry and Margery Stewart had 
two sons : 

1. SIR WILLIAM, who succeeded. 

2. SIR HENRY, who succeeded his brother. 

3. Margaret, married to Sir John Wallace of Oraigie. 

Sir Henry seems also to have had a natural daughter, 
Elene, married to John Pairlie, younger of Braid, with 
whom she had a charter 9 October 1381. ' 

SIR WILLIAM DOUGLAS of Lochleven succeeded his father, 
to whom he was served heir 20 December 1409, and 
acquired the lands of Ralstoun on the resignation of these 
in his favour by Sir Walter Stewart, son of Sir John Stewart 
of Ralstoun, and brother of Sir William's mother, Margery 
Stewart, in 1416. 2 These lands he settled on his younger 
son James. It was probably he, and not, as Sir William 
Fraser suggests, a hitherto unknown son of the same name 
who accompanied the Earls of Buchan and Wigtown to 
France, where he in all likelihood was killed in the battles 
of Beauge or Fresnay le Oomte in 1421. 3 He apparently 
married Elizabeth Lindsay, as appears from, with other 
evidence, a dispensation by Henry, Bishop of St. Andrews, 
for the marriage of William Douglas of St. Andrews 
diocese, and Elizabeth Lindsay of Brechin diocese, they 
being in the third and fourth degrees of consanguinity. 4 
He had issue : 

1. SIR HENRY. 

2. Sir James, often styled of Lugtoun and Lochleven, but 

who was really of Ralstoun, which was settled on 
him by his father as above stated. He was one of 
the three Scottish knights who took part in a joust 
at Stirling with a similar number of knights of Bur- 
gundy who had come to Scotland on the occasion of 
the marriage of Marie of Gueldres with the King in 
February 1448-49. 5 He was probably a supporter of 
the Earl of Douglas's faction, as his name occurs in 
an English safe-conduct obtained by the Earl, 12 
May 1451, at which time the latter was intriguing 
with the Yorkists. 6 Notwithstanding this he was 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., folio vol. 175. 2 Exch. Rolls, iv. p. cxc. 3 Wemyss 
Book, 47. 4 Harl. MS., 6438. 6 Asloan MS., 18-40. Ibid., 8, 44 ; Rotuli 
Scotice, ii. 346. 



366 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

employed by King James u. on an embassy to the 
French Court in 1456. l Both he and his wife were 
attainted for complicity in the Douglas rising, 2 and 
they escaped to England. He married Jonet, 
daughter and co-heiress of Walter Fenton of Baky, 
and with her got the lands of Drumblate and Towie, 
which were forfeited in 1458. 3 They had a son, 
Henry, designed of Kilbrony or Oulbirney in Inver- 
ness-shire. 4 

3. Alexander, mentioned 1488. 5 

4. Elizabeth, who was Maid-of-honour to Joanna, Queen 

of James I. She is famous as the heroine of the 
brave attempt to hinder the assassins of the King 
from entering the chamber at Perth on the night of 
21 February 1436-37, by thrusting her arm into the 
staples of the door from which the bolts had been 
removed. She afterwards married Richard Lovel of 
Ballumby, with whom, on 24 August 1438, she had a 
charter from Alexander Lindsay, second Earl of 
Crawford, of the lands of Muirhouse, co. Inverness. 
In this charter she is styled neptis of the Earl, 
which shows that the commonly accepted marriage 
of her father to a daughter of Sir David Lindsay, 
first Earl of Crawford, is correct. 6 

HENRY DOUGLAS of Lochleven and Lugtoun appears first 
on record, under the latter designation, as a witness to a 
charter of Sir Robert Conynghame of Kilmaurs, 30 June 
1425. 7 He was one of the supplementary hostages for 
King James i., and went to England as a substitute for 
Norman Leslie, being styled Henry Douglas, dominus de 
Lochleven and Lugtoun. 8 He was released 20 June 1432, 
and was knighted before 24 January 1440-41, when as Sir 
Henry Douglas of Lugtoun he witnessed a charter of the 
Earl of Mar. 9 He had, along with his wife, a charter of 
the lands of Keillor, co. Perth, 7 July 1464. 10 He was alive 
30 January 1468-69, when he witnessed a charter of Alex- 
ander Leslie of Balcomie." 

1 Stevenson's Letters and Papers, etc., i. 243. * Exch. Rolls, vi. 435, 514. 
3 Ibid., cxxxii. 4 Reg. Mag. Sig., 12 January 1510-11. 6 Harl. MS., 6436. 
6 Reg. Mag. Sig., 29 October 1463. J Ibid., 28 October 1425. 8 Fcedera, x. 
381,509. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig., 30 October 1444. 10 Ibid. " Ibid.,?A May 1545. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 367 

His wife's name was Elizabeth Erskine, said to have 
been a daughter of Sir Robert Erskine of that Ilk, but of 
this there is no proof. They had issue : 

1. ROBERT, who succeeded. 

2. Mr. David. 

3. Thomas. All three sons appear as witnesses to a 

charter of Archibald Bawcanquell, 12 August 1494. 1 

ROBERT DOUGLAS of Lochleven had a charter of the lands 
and barony of Kinross and the castle of Lochleven, on 16 
October 1463, his father's liferent and his mother's terce 
being reserved. 2 His precept of clare constat as heir is 
dated 28 May 1476. 3 On 2 July 1495 he had a charter of 
half the lands of Dalqueich, co. Kinross, and he acquired 
the whole of these lands from John Peebles, 19 June 1497. 4 
He was knighted before 14 March 1503-4, when he wit- 
nessed a charter as Sir Robert Douglas of Lochleven. 5 He 
fell at Plodden 9 September 1513. 6 

He married, first (contract 10 April 1445), Elizabeth, 
daughter of David Boswell of Balmuto, with a tocher of 
500 merks. He had a papal dispensation for the marriage, 
because they were within the fourth and fifth degrees of 
consanguinity. 7 He married, secondly, after 1479, Isobel, 
only daughter of Sir John (not Andrew, as in Douglas) 
Sibbald of Balgony, relict of George Douglas, fourth Earl of 
Angus, 8 and of John Oarmichael of Balmadie. She was alive 
in 1500, but dead in February 1502-3 ; 9 and thirdly, before 
1503, Marion, daughter of Sir William Baillie of Laming- 
ton, and relict of John, third Lord Lindsay of the Byres. 10 
By his first wife only he had issue : 

1. ROBERT, who succeeded. 

2. Agnes, married to Thomas Hamilton of Raploch. 

3. Margaret, married, first, probably in 1484, when she 

had a charter from him of the lands of Laidgreen, co. 
Perth, 11 to Sir David Stewart of Rosyth ; secondly, to 

1 Beg. Mag. Sig., 8 December 1494. 2 Ibid. 3 Harl. MS. 6433. * Beg. 
Mag. Sig., 28 June 1498. 5 Ibid., 14 March 1503-4. 6 Scottish Antiquary, 
xiii. 107, quoting A eta Dom. Cone. His name does not appear in the 
extract from that roll in Scot. Antiq., xii. 116. 7 Macfarlane's Gen. Coll., 
i. 297. 8 Douglas Book, ii. 63 ; vol. iv. 564 of this work. 9 Acta Dom. 
Cone., ix. 205 ; xii. 184. 10 Records of Parliament, 500. " Beg. Mag. Sig., 
11 February 1487-88. 



368 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

Henry Mercer of Meiklour. 1 They had a dispensa- 
tion to marry in 1496, having already had numerous 
children. 2 

SIR ROBERT DOUGLAS of Lochleven was served heir to his 
father 15 and 20 October 1514, 3 and appears to have alienated 
part of the family possessions. On 4 February 1519-20 he 
sold to Sir Henry Balfour, rector of Loncardy, the Easter- 
town of Tilliochy, co. Kinross. 4 On 15 October 1517 he 
granted the friars of St. Andrews an anuualrent of twenty 
merks from his lands of Keillor, and on 10 June 1519 another 
annualrent of five merks from Bordland. 5 He married, 
first, Margaret, daughter of David Balfour of Burleigh; 8 
secondly, January 1499-1500, 7 Margaret Hay, daughter 
of William, first Earl of Erroll, and widow successively of 
Alexander Fraser of Philorth and Sir Gilbert Keith of 
Inverugie. 8 She was his wife before 1526. 9 He left issue : 

1. THOMAS. 

2. Henry, who, as son of Robert Douglas of Lochleven, 

witnessed the charter of his father of 4 February 
1519-20 above mentioned. 

3. Margaret, married, before 12 August 1516, to her 

cousin Henry Stewart, younger of Rosyth. 
Sir Robert had two other sons, presumably illegitimate, 
Robert, to whom and to Janet Ramsay, his wife, he granted 
the lands of Drumgarland 1515, 10 and Richard, who was a 
macer of the Court of Session, which office continued in 
his descendants for five generations. 11 

THOMAS DOUGLAS, the eldest son, witnessed, as heir- 
apparent of his father, the charter of 15 October 1517 
above mentioned. He died vita patris, having married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Archibald Boyd of Nariston, third 
son of Robert, first Lord Boyd. 12 By her he had issue : 

1. ROBERT, who succeeded his grandfather. 

2. John, parson of Newlands." 

3. Henry. 14 

1 A eta Dom. Cone., xii. 18. * Harl. MS., 6441. 3 Ibid., 6435. * Reg. 
Mag. Sig., 6 March 1519-20. Ibid., 15 May 1522. 6 Macfarlane's Gen. 
Coll., ii. 297. 7 Ada Dom. Cone., ix. 14. 8 See vol. iii. 565. 9 Ibid., 
xxxvi. 75. 10 Harl. MS. , 6435. " Ibid. , 6437. 12 Cf . vol. v. 146, and Protocol 
Book of Robert Rollok, N.P., Gen. Reg- Ho., f. 2a. 13 Acts and Decreets, 
i. 168 14 Acta Dom. Cone, et Sess., xxv. 107. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 369 

4. Margaret. In 1541 Robert Douglas of Lochleven made 

overtures for the marriage of William Melville, 
eldest son of Sir John Melville of Raith, to his sister 
Margaret. The consent of the King having been 
obtained 3 April 1541, the marriage was solemnised. 1 
In July 1544 Sir John Melville made a settlement on 
his son and his wife of the lands of Pitconmark, 2 but 
William did not long survive, dying about 1547. His 
widow was alive in May 1584. 3 

5. Marion, married to John Lindsay of Dowhill. 4 

6. Elizabeth, said to have been married to Alexander 

Alexander of Menstrie. 5 

SIR ROBERT DOUGLAS of Lochleven succeeded his grand- 
father at all events before 20 February 1539-40, when he 
had a royal charter to himself as Robert Douglas of Loch- 
leven of the lands of Fossoway, co. Perth. 6 On 17 October 
1540 he had a charter of the lordship of Dalkeith and many 
other lands following on the resignation of James, third 
Earl of Morton, who had made a resignation in his favour. 
This resignation, however, the Court of Session held in 1542 
to be a forced one, and reduced the charter, making some 
compromising reflections on King James v. 7 On 20 January 
1540-41 he had a royal charter to himself in liferent and his 
son William in fee of the lands and barony of Kinross, with 
the castle and loch of Lochleven, the burgh of Kinross 
being erected into a burgh of barony ; and another of the 
lands and baronies of Keillour, Lugtoun, and Langnewton. 8 
On 27 March 1546 he had, along with his wife, a charter 
from John Oharteris of Cuthilgurdy of the lands of Outhil- 
gurdy. 9 He was killed at the battle of Pinkie 10 Septem- 
ber 1547. He married (contract 11 July 1527 10 ) Margaret, 
second daughter of John, fifth Lord Erskine, who after- 
wards, about 1531, became the mother, by King James v., 
of James Stewart, ultimately the Regent Moray. She died 
5 May 1572. 11 By her he had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, who succeeded. 

1 Melville Book, ii. 2. 2 Reg. de Dunfermline, 562. 3 Melville Book, i. 79. 
4 Acquittance for part of her tocher 1532, Harl. MS., 6435. 6 Wood's 
Douglas's Peerage. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 7 Burnett MS. ; cf. also Reg. Honor, 
de Morton, ii. 281-293 ; Reg. Mag. Sig., 30 May 1542 and 2 June 1564. 8 Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 9 Confirmed 13 May 1547, Ibid. 10 Harl. MS., No. 6435. Ibid., 
No. 6441 ; cf. vol. v. 612. 

VOL. VI. 2 A 



370 DOUGLAS, EARL OP MORTON 

2. Robert, Earl of Buchan. 1 

3. George of Helen hill. He had a charter from James, 

Commendator of St. Andrews and Pittenweem, 25 
April 1565, of an annual pension of 500 merks from 
the lands of these houses. 2 As George Douglas of 
Helenhill he witnessed a charter of James, Oommen- 
dator of Mel rose, 19 June 1587, 3 but he was also 
styled of Rumgally. 4 He was knighted before 3 
May 1588, 5 and had a charter from his brother 
William of the lands of Aschescheillis, co. Peebles, 
in January 1588-89." During the captivity of Queen 
Mary in his father's castle George Douglas fell a 
victim to her charms, and so conspicuous was his 
admiration for her, that he was removed from that 
residence. He did not fail her, however, in her hour 
of need : it was he who, along with Lord Seton, met 
her on the mainland after her escape, and rode with 
her to Niddry and then to Hamilton. He was at the 
battle of Langside, and accompanied the Queen in 
her flight to England. 

He married, first, after 1575, Jonet, daughter of John 
Lindsay of Dowhill and relict of Andrew Lundie of 
Balgony, and of Sir William Scott of Balwearie ; 7 and 
secondly, after 1593, Margaret Durie, relict of William 
Scott of Abbotshall. 8 He had issue one daughter, 

(1) Elizabeth, married to George Ramsay, afterwards Lord 
Ramsay of Dalhousie. 9 

Sir George had also a natural son Robert, afterwards 
Robert Douglas of Olattie. Popular rumour said 
that he was the son of Sir George by Queen Mary, 
but no proof has ever been adduced for the state- 
ment. He was the father of Robert Douglas, the 
famous Presbyterian divine. 10 

4. Euphemia, married, dispensation in 1545, they being 

in the third degree of consanguinity, to Patrick, sixth 
Lord Lindsay of the Byres. She died in June 1580. 11 

1 See vol. ii. 269. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., 24 November 1565. 3 Ibid., 30 June 
1587. * Laing Charters, 26 June 1584, No. 1082. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 
6 Ibid., 19 January 1591-92. r Ibid., 29 February 1583-84 ; Edin. Tests., 19 
May 1598. 8 Dunfermline Regality Decreets, 1591-1610, fol. 97. 9 Cf. vol. 
iii. 97. 10 Reg. of Deeds, Ixvi. f. 292. " Cf. vol. v. 400 ; Edin. Tests., 13 
November 1591. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OP MORTON 371 

5. Janet, married to Sir James Oolville of Easter Wemyss. 1 

6. Catherine, married (contract 1557 2 ) to David Durie of 

that Ilk. 3 

V. SIR WILLIAM DOUGLAS of Lochleven was born 1539- 
40, 4 and was served heir to his father in 1555. 5 He is 
chiefly known in history as the custodian of Queen Mary 
during her imprisonment in Lochleven Castle. He, his 
mother, and Robert his son and heir, were in 1565, charged 
to deliver the castle of Lochleven to the King, and to re- 
move from it within six hours, 6 but were ultimately allowed 
to remain as William was * extremelie seek, in perrell of 
his lyffe.' 7 He was one of the many persons formally charged 
with the murder of Riccio. 8 He had a charter of Phar- 
ington, co. Roxburgh, 23 October 1574. 9 He subscribed a 
bond of manrent to the Earl of Mar 3 May 1578. 10 He had 
the ward and marriage of the children of his brother 
Robert, Earl of Buchan, in 1580. 11 He was one of the 
Ruthven Raiders, 12 and for his participation in this he had 
to go to France in 1583, 13 but was probably not long abroad, 
as he is designated Sheriff-Principal of Banff in 1584. 14 On 
5 January 1586-87 he had a confirmation, as son and heir of 
his deceased father, of a charter by Cardinal Beaton to the 
latter, in gratitude for the defence of the Church against 
the Lutheran heresy, of the lands of Kinnesswood and 
others, dated 25 June 1544, and of another by Sir Michael 
Donaldson, Prior of St. Serf's, of the lands of Kirkness, 
dated 9 October 1544. 15 On the death of Archibald, Earl of 
Angus and Morton, in 1588, the estates and honours of 
Morton devolved upon Sir William, who thus became fifth 
EARL OP MORTON, and he had a charter on 20 June 
1589 of the Castle of Dalkeith to his wife Agnes Leslie, and 
of the earldom of Morton to himself, with remainder to his 
four sons successively or any other heir-male of his body ; 
whom failing, to Francis Douglas of Longniddry, William 
Douglas of Whittinghame, William Douglas in Linton, 
Robert Douglas of Freertown, and the heirs-male of their 
bodies ; whom failing, to his own heirs-male whomsoever, 

1 Of. vol. ii. 553. 2 Harl. MS., 6442. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., I February 1577-78. 
4 Harl. MS., 6442. 6 Morton Charters. 6 P. C.Reg., i. 391. J Ibid., i. 396. 
8 Ibid., i. 436. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig. 10 P. O. Reg., ii. 691. " Ibid., iii. 312. 
n Ibid., 507. 13 Ibid., 615, 620, 652. " Ibid., 705. 16 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



372 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

bearing the name and arms of Douglas; whom failing, to 
his heirs and assigns whatsoever. In 1594 he was appointed 
the King's lieutenant in the south, when His Majesty went 
north. 1 On 22 July of the same year he had a lease of the 
lands of Tulloes and others, co. Forfar, which belonged to 
the monastery of Arbroath, 2 and on 23 January 1606 he had 
a royal charter of the lands of Oolquhair and others in An- 
nandale. 3 He died 27 September 1606, 4 having married, in 
or before 1565 (contract 19 August 1554, when he was a 
child 5 ), Agnes, daughter of George, fourth Earl of Rothes. 
They had issue : 

1. ROBERT. 

2. James ; appointed Oommendator of the Abbey of 

Melrose in 1568.' He was dead before 15 October 
1620, having married, first (contract 6 November 
1587 7 ), Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Ker of Fernie- 
hirst, 8 by whom he had a son Archibald', secondly 
(contract 7 November 1598, registered 28 April 
1599 9 ), Helen, daughter of William Scott of Abbots- 
hall, by whom he had Robert (who was of age 1624 10 ) 
Annas, Euphame, and Mary ; thirdly, in 1609, Jean, 
Anstruther, 11 by whom he had Margaret, married to 
William Baillie of Hardington ; Jean, married, first, 
to Patrick Edmonston of Wolmet, secondly, to 
Porterfield of Hapland, and thirdly, to Ounning- 
hame of Dankeith ; 12 and Isabel. 13 

3. Archibald, styled third son in the entail of 1589. On 

2 August 1594 he had a charter from his father of 
the lands of Kinnesswood and others. 14 He was 
afterwards knighted, and was known as Sir Archibald 
Douglas of Kellour. 15 He died in Orkney 1649. 16 He 
married Barbara, daughter of William, seventh Lord 
Forbes, relict of Robert Allardyce, younger of that 
Ilk, and of Alexander Hay of Delgatie." His eldest 
son Arthur married (contract 26 and 30 June 1628 18 ) 

1 P. C. Reg., v. 175, 179. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig. 3 Ibid. 4 P. C. Reg., vii. 
xvii., but Douglas gives 24 September, and the Harleian MS. 22 September. 
5 Hist. Rec. of the Family of Leslie, ii. 66. 6 Liber de Metros, i. v. note. 
7 Reg. of Deeds, xxviii. 137. 8 Cf. vol. v. 68. 9 Reg. of Deeds, Ixviii. 
f. 400. 10 Harl. MS., 6442. " Ibid. 12 Ibid. 13 Gen. Reg. of Inhibitions, 
28 August 1661. 14 Reg. Mag. Sig. , 27 December 1594. 15 Ibid. , 16 July 1619. 
16 Harl. MS., 6432. " Cf. vol. iv. 57. 18 Reg. of Deeds, ccccxliv., 1 October 
1631. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 373 

Isobel, daughter of Sir William Douglas of Stonypath, 
brother of Sir Archibald Douglas of Whittinghame, 
by which marriage he obtained the latter estate. 
They had a charter of it 27 September 1628. 1 

4. Francis, mentioned by Macfarlane, but if he existed 

he must have died young, as he is not amongst the 
sons in remainder to the Peerage. 

5. George, mentioned as fourth son in the entail. As 

Sir George Douglas of Kirkness he appears as one of 
the curators of John Lyon of Aldbar in July 1609 ; z 
and he died before 9 December same year. 3 He 
married, in 1597, Margaret Forrester, daughter of 
Thomas Forrester of Strathendry, and their issue 
succeeded to Kirkness in a direct line, 4 till General 
William Douglas of Kirkness died in 1747, leaving no 
lawful issue, and his uncle William became heir-male 
of Sir George. The representation of this branch is 
claimed by Sir Arthur Percy Douglas of Oarr, Bart. 
The Earl had seven daughters, all celebrated for their 
beauty, and called the seven pearls of Lochleven : 5 

6. Margaret, married (contract 17 April 1574'), when he 

was eighteen, to John Wemyss, son and heir of Sir 
David Wemyss of that Ilk. She had a charter on 
18 April 1574 from John Douglas, Archbishop of 
St. Andrews, on the resignation of the elder Wemyss, 
of the lands of Methil and others, erected into a 
barony, to herself and her future spouse. 7 She was 
dead before 1581, when he married again. 

7. Christian, married (contract 17 February 1575-76) to 

Laurence, Master of Oliphant. On 7 April 1576 she 
had a charter from Lord Oliphant of the lands of 
Pitkerie and others, in the barony of Kelly, co. Fife, 8 
and on 12 of the same month a charter from the 
King in ejus pura virginitate of the lands of Galraw 
and others, co. Forfar, on the resignation of Lord 
Oliphant ; and she was married, secondly, as his first 
wife, 9 January 1586 (contract 2 and 14 December 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Ibid., 13 July 1610. 3 Fife Inhibitions. 4 There 
is a pedigree of their descendants for several generations in Harl. MS., 
6442. 5 Macfarlane's Gen. Coll., ii. 299, where the word is given as 
'pearches.' 6 St. Andrews Com. Deeds. 7 Wemyss Book, i. 161. 8 Con- 
firmed 12 April 1576, Reg. Mag. Sig. 



374 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

1585 '), to Alexander, first Earl of Home, from whom 
she had a charter of the barony of Dunglas 18 July 
1586. 2 She was alive in August 1591, but was dead 
before 1607, when Lord Hume married again. 

8. Mart/, married, in 1582, as his second wife, to Walter, 

Lord Ogilvy of Deskford. 3 

9. Euphemia, married, in 1586, as his second wife, to 

Thomas Lyon of Baldukie, Master of Glamis, Lord 
High Treasurer. 4 

10. Agnes, married, as his first wife, 5 24 July 1592, to 

Archibald, seventh Earl of Argyll, and died 3 May 
1607. 6 

11. Elisabeth, married, as his third wife, before 10 

July 1590, to Francis, ninth Earl of Erroll. Her 
father was severely reprimanded by the King for 
giving his daughter in marriage to the Earl of Erroll, 
not only without the King's consent, but contrary to 
his express prohibition. 7 

12. Jean (omitted by Douglas, but given by Macfarlane), 

died unmarried. 

ROBERT DOUGLAS, the eldest son, had a charter from the 
King on the resignation of his father of the lands and 
baronies of Kinross, Kellour, Lugtoun, and Langnewton, 26 
July 1565. 8 He and his brother-in-law, the Master of 
Oliphant, had licence to travel abroad for three years, 24 
December 1584.' From this journey they never returned : 
whether they were drowned at sea, or were captured by 
pirates, or met their death on land, is not certain; but 
they disappeared in some way which has never been 
explained. There was a petition presented to Queen Eliza- 
beth, about 1600, for an expedition for the relief of the 
Master of Oliphant and Master of Morton, reported to have 
been made slaves by the Turks, and to, be now detained in 
captivity in the town of Algiers, on the coast of Barbary. 10 

1 Beg. of Deeds, xxviii. 246b, 346b. 2 Confirmed 29 November 1586, Beg. 
Mag. Sig. 3 Macfarlane's Gen. Coll., ii. 300; cf. vol. iv. 26. 4 Macfarlane, 
ut sup. ; Beg. Mag. Sig., 1 November 1589 ; Crawfurd's Lives, 393. 6 Laing 
Charters, 1492; P. C. Beg., vi. 79; Harl. MS., 6442. 6 Cf. vol. i. 349. 
7 P. C. Beg., iv. 506. 8 Beg. Mag. Sig. 9 Beg. Sec. Sig., li. 160, 161. 
10 Calendar of State Papers connected with Scotland, 1509-1603, i. 431. 
The date of the Petition is there given as December 1582, but this must 
be a mistake, as the travellers did not start till the very end of 1584. It 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 375 

Robert Douglas married (contract 19 March 1582-83 *) Jean 
Lyon, second daughter of John, eighth Lord Glamis. She 
was married, secondly, as his third wife (contract 29 July 
1587), to Archibald, eighth Earl of Angus. He died the fol- 
lowing year; and she was married, thirdly, before April 
1593, to Alexander Lindsay, created Lord Spynie. By his 
wife Robert Douglas had a son : 

VI. WILLIAM, sixth Earl of Morton. He was served 
heir to his father 3 July 1605, and to his grandfather 
4 November 1606. He was one of the ablest and most 
distinguished of the holders of the title. He was in high 
favour at Court, and was a devoted servant both of 
King James vi. and Charles I., receiving many marks of 
the royal favour. He had charters of the lands of Oolquhair 
and others, which had belonged to the Abbey of Melrose, 
and which were now erected into the barony of Dunfedling 
on 24 March 1613, but these he immediately resigned into 
the King's hands in favour of Walter, Lord Scott of Buc- 
cleuch : 2 of the lands and barony of Segy and others, 9 
October 1616 : 3 of the baronies of Aberdalgy, Dupplin, and 
Gask, and many other lands, with a grant to himself in 
liferent and his son Robert in fee of Hedderwick, Olassie- 
deuglie, and others, 6 December 1625 : 4 of Blairf orth and 
others, co. Perth, 7 February 1628 : 5 of Schireffhall, co. 
Edinburgh, 3 November 1632 : 6 of the two Killennoquhyes 
and Haltoun, co. Kinross, 30 November 1633 : 7 and of 
Cullendrane, Maw, and Fossoway, in the same county, 1 
August 1634. 8 He had also, on 16 March 1638, a very com- 
prehensive charter of the lands, earldom, and barony of 
Morton, with all his other lands. Aberdour was at the 
same time erected into a burgh of barony, and his title was 
altered to EARL OF MORTON AND LORD ABER- 
DOUR. 9 

In 1607 he had a great dispute as to the title with John, 
Lord Maxwell, whose father had been created Earl of 
Morton in 1581 after the attainder of his uncle the Regent 
Morton. The attainder, however, having been reversed 29 

may be noted also that Robert Douglas was never actually Master of 
Morton, as his father did not succeed to the title till 1588, long after his 
disappearance. 1 Acts and Decreets, xciii. 304. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., 1 April 
1613. s Ibid. * Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 



376 DOUGLAS, EARL OP MORTON 

January 1585-86, the earldom reverted to the heir of entail. 
Lord Maxwell appears to have been extremely discontented 
about the matter, and in consequence of having sent a 
challenge to the Earl, was denounced rebel, 1 the Earl him- 
self becoming bound not to send or receive any challenge 
to or from Maxwell. The King and Privy Council inter- 
fered strenuously in the matter, and Maxwell was ulti- 
mately committed to prison. (See title Nithsdale.) William, 
Earl of Morton, had licence to travel in France, Germany, 
or Italy for three years on 16 January 1617, but he did not 
immediately avail himself of the permission, as the King 
paid him a visit at Dalkeith from 11 to 14 June 1617. 2 The 
visit must have been a very elaborate one, as His Majesty's 
luggage took eighty carts and two hundred and forty horses 
to transport. He was admitted to the Privy Council 15 
November 1621, 3 and a few days later was made one of the 
inner cabinet of that body. He attended the funeral of 
King James vi. 7 May 1625. 4 He commanded a Scottish 
regiment of 2000 men sent to Prance to assist the Duke of 
Buckingham in his expedition for the relief of Rochelle, 5 
and he was with that commander in August 1627. After 
the surrender of Rochelle, Morton's regiment returned to 
Scotland, and was placed in garrison, the command being 
transferred from the Earl to Sir George Hay/ On 8 July 
1630 he was appointed Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, 7 
an office which he resigned six years afterwards. He was 
installed as Knight of the Garter 21 April 1634, and ap- 
pointed Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard in 1635. On 
22 June 1639 he was one of those who accompanied the 
Lyon King of Arms to the Scots camp at Duns Law to 
witness the publication of the King's proclamation. 8 He 
was with King Charles when he visited Edinburgh in 1641, 
and went with him to the Parliament. He was, however, 
not allowed admittance, on the ground that he had not 
signed the Covenant. 9 This disqualification was got over 
by his signing it on 18 August. 10 On 20 September he was 
nominated for the Chancellorship by the King, but this gave 
rise to a heated debate, the Earl of Argyll especially vehe- 

1 P. C. Beg., vii. 425. 2 Ibid., xi. p. xxvi. 3 Ibid., xii. 590. * Ibid., 2nd 
ser., i. 33 n. 5 Ibid., ii. p. xi. 6 Ibid., Hi. 124. 7 Ibid., 594. 8 Balfour's 
Annals, ii. 329. 9 Ibid., iv. 44. 10 Ibid., 45. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 377 

mently objecting to the appointment in respect that such 
a position would shelter him from his creditors, that he was 
a ' contemptuous rebel,' and often at the horn, that he had 
deserted his country in her greatest need, and that he was 
' decreptit and unable.' l Morton replied with moderation, 
and enumerated many kindly acts he had done to Argyll, 
but ultimately, evidently seeing the general opinion of the 
house was against him, he begged His Majesty to withdraw 
his nomination. This was accordingly done, but the Earl 
was again admitted to the Privy Council 18 November 
1641. 2 In the political troubles which ensued Morton 
proved himself a devoted friend to the King. He was one 
of the richest men of his day in Scotland, and he did not 
hesitate to spend his means freely in the royal cause. 
This compelled him to sell to the Scotts of Buccleuch his 
great property of Dalkeith, from which, it is said, he drew 
an annual rental of 100,000 Scots. On that account he 
got, on 15 June 1643, a royal charter of the earldom of 
Orkney and lordship of Zetland, to be redeemable by the 
Crown on payment of 30,000 sterling. 3 It was provided 
that he should furnish the King with hawks, or pay to the 
royal falconers for their expenses in taking them 
235, 13s. 4d. Scots. He had a ratification of these lands 
in Parliament 27 July 1644, and by charter 4 November 
1646. When the King came to the Scottish army at New- 
castle in 1646 the Earl went to wait on him, but he after- 
wards retired to his castle at Kirkwall, where he died 
7 August 1648. 4 He married, in April 1604 5 (contract 5, 12, 
20, 22, 24, and 28 March 1604 6 ), Ann, eldest daughter of 
George, fifth Earl Marischal. She did not survive her hus- 
band long, dying 30 May of the same year. They are both 
interred in St. Magnus Cathedral. By her the Earl had 
issue : 

1. ROBERT, seventh Earl of Morton. 

2. JAMES, ninth Earl of Morton. 

3. William, died in France 1643. 7 

4. John, who was killed fighting under Montrose when 

the latter was defeated at Carbisdale 27 April 1650. 8 

1 Balfour's Annals, iv. 69. 2 P. C. Beg., 2nd ser., vii. 142. 3 Beg. Mag. 
Sig. 4 Cat. of Scots Earls, L. O. MS. Balfour (Annals, iv. 396) says 
March 1649. 5 Aberdeen Reg. 6 Beg. of Deeds, cii. 31 March 1604. 7 Cat. 
of Scots Earls, L. O. MS. 8 Ibid. 



378 DOUGLAS, EARL OP MORTON 

5. George, also fought under Montrose's banner, and was 

wounded in one of his victorious engagements. He 
is said to have afterwards entered the service of the 
States of Holland, where he died ' in a considerable 
post.' l A George Douglas is mentioned as a cap- 
tain in the regiment of Friesland Infantry in 1655, 
but no other record of his service has been found. 2 

6. Ann, married (contract 7 September 1622) to George, 

second Earl of Kinnoull, and died in 1667. 3 

7. Margaret, born 1610, married, 6 or 7 August 1626, to 

her cousin Archibald, Marquess of Argyll, and died 13 
March 1678. 4 

8. Mary, married (contract 29 March, 2 April, and 9 

November 1632) to Charles, second Earl of Dunferm- 
line, and died 1659. 5 

9. Jean, married (contract 13 July 1640) to James, third 

Earl of Home. 6 She was living in 1683. 
10. Isabel, married, first, after 1643, as his third wife, to 
Robert Ker, first Earl of Roxburghe ; he died 18 
January 1650 in his eightieth year, and she was 
married, secondly, to James Graham, second Marquess 
of Montrose, who was about sixty years younger 
than her late husband. 

VII. ROBERT, seventh Earl of Morton of the Douglas line, 
had a charter to himself as Lord Dalkeith of some acres in 
Kinross, 3 November 1632. 7 He was served heir to his 
father 29 March 1649, 8 and died at Kirkwall 12 November 
of the same year. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Edward Villiers of Brokesby, and sister of William, second 
Viscount Grandison. She died in December 1654. By her 
he had issue : 

1. WILLIAM, eighth Earl of Morton. 

2. Robert, who was a lieutenant of gensdarmes in 

France, Master of the Horse to Henrietta, Duchess 
of Orleans, and lieutenant in the Horse Guards of 
Charles n. He died s.p. 1661. 9 

3. Anne, married, in April 1654, William, seventh Earl 

Marischal. 

1 Cat. of Scots Earls, L. O. MS. 2 Scots Brigade in Holland, i. 495. 
3 Cf. vol. v. 224. 4 Vol. i. 359. 5 Vol. iii. 374. 6 Vol. iv. 478. J Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 8 Retours, Kinross, 14. 9 Wood's Douglas's Peerage. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 379 

4. Margaret, married at Perth, 24 July 1662, to Sir James 
Macdonald of Slate, Baronet. 1 

VIII. WILLIAM, eighth Earl of Morton, had a new grant 
in 1662 of the islands of Orkney and Zetland, but as his 
grandfather had spent a large proportion of his fortune on 
the support of the royalist cause, he himself was in em- 
barrassed circumstances, and the grant was taken in the 
name of his cousin, Viscount Grandison, in trust for the 
Morton family. In 1669 Parliament ratified a decree of the 
Court of Session, acting on the instance of the Lord Advo- 
cate, reducing the original disposition of the islands of 
Orkney and Zetland of 1643 and the confirmation of 1662. 
The narrative related that 'importunity prevailing with 
his Majestic and his royal father, their goodness and 
inclination to gratify their subjects, they have been in- 
duced to give away and part with so great a jewel of the 
Crown.' 2 This iniquitous Act, one of the most disgraceful 
ever passed by the Scots Parliament, not only caused grave 
loss, if not absolute ruin, to the Morton family, but involved 
other creditors who had lent the Earl money on the 
security of lands, of which he had a valid title from the 
Crown. Sir Andrew Dick of Craighouse, for instance, lost 
100,274 merks, which he had lent on an apparently absolutely 
safe investment. 3 On 9 September 1672 the Earl of Morton 
renounced his right to the style and designation of Lord 
Dalkeith, in favour of James, Duke of Buccleuch and Mon- 
mouth, a deed which was ratified by Parliament the same 
year. 4 A large portion of the Kinross-shire lands which 
belonged to the Earl were also parted with to Sir William 
Bruce of Balcaskie at this time. 5 

The Earl died in 1681, having married at Holyroodhouse, 
12 June 1662, Grizel, eldest daughter of John, first Earl 
of Middleton. By her, who died March 1666, he had issue 
one son, 

Charles, born 7, baptized 10, February 1663. 6 He died 
v.p. 

IX. JAMES, ninth Earl of Morton, succeeded his nephew. 
He was previously known as Sir James Douglas of Smith- 

1 Lament's Diary. 2 ActaParl. Scot., vii. 377. 3 Ibid., ix. 465. 4 Ibid., 
viii. 102. 6 Ibid., 239. 6 Aberdour Parl. Reg. 



380 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

field, having been knighted 3 September 1635, by the Earl 
of Lindsay on board the royal ship the Marie Honor, for his 
gallant behaviour. He was a gentleman of the Privy 
Chamber to King Charles i. He died 25 August 1686. 1 He 
married Ann, daughter and co-heir to Sir James Hay, third 
Baronet of Smithfield. She was buried 17 February 1700. 2 
By her he had issue : 

1. Charles, Lord Aberdour, drowned at sea on his 

passage to Holland : he was unmarried. 

2. JAMBS, tenth Earl of Morton. 

3. ROBERT, eleventh Earl of Morton. 

4. William, died s.p. 

5. GEORGE, twelfth Earl of Morton. 

6. a daughter, who died unmarried. 

X. JAMES, tenth Earl of Morton, proved himself a man 
of considerable ability and energy. He was a strong sup- 
porter of the Revolution of 1688 and of the Hanoverian 
Government. He was a Privy Councillor and one of the 
commissioners for the Union, of which he was strongly in 
favour. It was probably owing to his exertions in this 
cause that he at last succeeded in getting the Act of 1669 
repealed, and the islands of Orkney and Zetland again 
granted to him, with a reversion to the Crown, as before, 
on payment of 30,000. He died unmarried 7, and was 
buried at Holyrood 14, December 1715. 3 

XI. ROBERT, eleventh Earl of Morton, succeeded his 
brother. He is described as ' a man of parts, honour, and 
probity,' though he once found himself in the dock at the 
Old Bailey : he was however acquitted, ' the prosecution 
being looked on as malicious.' 4 He died at Edinburgh, un- 
married, 22, and was buried at Holyrood 30, January 1730. 5 

XII. GEORGE, twelfth Earl of Morton, was born in 1662. 
In 1685 he got into trouble by slaying a footman of the 
laird of Chatto, in a quarrel about a dog. 8 He entered 

1 This is the date given by Macfarlane for the death of his predecessor, 
but it evidently refers to this Earl. 2 Funeral entry, Lyon Office 
3 Holyrood Reg. ; funeral entry, Lyon Office, where the date of death is 
given as the 10th. * Luttrell's Diary, v. 431. 6 Holyrood Reg., which 
gives, erroneously, 30 December as date of burial ; funeral entry, Lyon 
Office 6 P. C. Dec., 29 June 1685. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 381 

the army and attained the rank of colonel. He sat for 
Kirkwall in the last Parliament of Scotland, 1702-7, sup- 
porting the Union. He was elected member for the Lin- 
lithgow Burghs in two Parliaments, 1708-13, and 1715-22 ; 
he represented Orkney and Shetland in the Parliaments of 
1713-15, 1722-27, and from 1727 till he succeeded to the 
earldom in 1730. He was a Representative Peer for 
Scotland 1730-34, and Vice-Admiral of Scotland 1733-38. 
He died 4 January 1738, 1 and was buried in Greyfriars, 
Edinburgh. He married, first, a daughter of Alexander 
Muirhead of Linhouse, co. Edinburgh ; and secondly, be- 
fore 1702, Frances, daughter of William Adderley of 
Halstow, co. Kent. By his first wife he had issue a son 
who died in infancy : by his second he had issue : 

1. JAMES, thirteenth Earl of Morton. 

2. William, died young. 

3. Robert, of St. Olla, sat in Parliament for Orkney and 

Shetland, 1730-34 and 1734-41. He served as a volun- 
teer in the Army 1735, got a company in the 3rd 
Foot Guards May 1740, and was appointed A.D.O. to 
the King, with the rank of colonel, in 1743. Having 
escorted Marechal Belleisle as a prisoner from the 
Continent to England, he returned to the war, and 
was killed at Fontenoy, 30 April 1745. He was 
unmarried. 

XIII. JAMBS, thirteenth Earl of Morton, was born about 
1702. Succeeding his father in 1738, he was in the same 
year created a Knight of the Order of the Thistle. He was 
elected a representative Peer for Scotland 12 May 1739, and 
continued as such till his death. In 1742 he succeeded in 
getting an Act of Parliament making the grant of Orkney 
and Shetland absolute to himself and his heirs, without 
power of redemption by the Grown. He appears to have 
found the management of this northern property more 
trouble than it was worth, and in 1766 he sold it for 
63,000 (more than double the sum for which the Grown 
might have redeemed it a few years previously) to Sir 
Laurence Dundas, ancestor of the Earls of Zetland. He 

1 Funeral entry, Lyon Office. 



382 

had, before that, in 1747, under the Act for abolishing herit- 
able jurisdictions, obtained 7147 for the office of Steward 
and Justiciar of Orkney and Zetland, besides 93 for the 
regality of Aberdour. In 1746, while travelling in France, 
he, his wife and child, along with the Countess's sister, 
were imprisoned in the Bastile for three months, from some 
cause which has never been explained. After three months 
they were liberated, and they returned to England in May 
1747. He was appointed Lord Clerk Register in 1760, an 
office which he held till 1767. He was also a Trustee of the 
British Museum, and it is no small testimony to his scien- 
tific attainments and general ability that he was elected, 
27 March 1764, President of the Royal Society. He held 
this office till his death, which occurred at Ohiswick 12 
October 1768. He married, first, before 1731, Agatha, 
daughter and heiress of James Halyburton of Pitcur. She 
died in the Oanongate, Edinburgh, 12 December 1748, and 
was buried at Aberdour. He married, secondly, 31 July 
1755, Bridget, eldest daughter of Sir John Heathcote, 
second Baronet of Normanton, co. Rutland, who survived 
him thirty-seven years, dying 2 March 1805, at London, 
aged eighty-two years. 
By his first wife the Earl had issue : 

1. Charles, born 7 April 1731, died young. 

2. SHOLTO CHARLES, fourteenth Earl of Morton. 

3. James, born 6 Octoberl734, died at Westminster School, 

9 August 1746, aged twelve. 1 

4. George, born 19 September 1738, 2 died young. 

5. Robert, died young. 

6. Frances, died at Aberdour, 9 May 1739, in her sixth 

year. 

7. Mary, married 14 May 1774, as his second wife, 

to Charles, fourth Earl of Aboyne, and died 25 
December 1816. 3 
By his second wife the Earl had issue : 

8. John, born 1 July 1756. Lieutenant 1st Foot Guards, 

26 June 1778, and captain, with the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel, 26 June 1786. He died 1 May 1818, 
having married, 4 October 1784, Frances, born 11 
June 1762, daughter of Edward Lascelles of Hare- 

1 Scots Mag. 2 Canongate Reg. 3 Cf. vol. i. 105. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 383 

wood, afterwards Earl of Harewood. She died 31 
March 1817, leaving issue : 

(1) GEORGE SHOLTO, who succeeded as sixteenth Earl. 

(2) Edwin, twin with George, died in infancy. 

(3) Charles, born 10 March 1790 ; styled of Earl's Gift, co. Tyrone, 

and rector of Donagheady. He had (with his brothers and 
sisters) a Patent of Precedence as an Earl's son, 23 August 
1835. He died 28 January 1857, having married, first, 2 
March 1816, Isabella Gore, daughter of Arthur, second Earl 
of Arran. She died 30 November 1838, leaving issue ; and 
he married, secondly, 28 December 1852, Agnes Julia, 
fourth daughter of Captain John S. Rich of Woodlands, 
co. Limerick. She survived him, and was married, 
secondly, in 1862 to Colonel Wills Crofts Gason. 

(4) Edward Gordon, born 20 June 1800 ; created, 3 August 1866, 

Baron Penrhyn of Llandegai, co. Carnarvon ; died 31 March 
1886, having married, first, 6 August 1833, Juliana Isabella 
Mary, daughter and co-heir of George Hay Dawkins- 
Pennant of Penrhyn Castle, and took by royal licence, 12 
January 1811, the name of Pennant after Douglas. She 
died 25 April 1842, and he married, secondly, 26 January 
1846, Mary Louisa, second daughter of Henry Fitzroy, fifth 
Duke of Grafton. 

(5) Arthur James, captain Royal Navy, born 13 January 1802, 

died unmarried, 14 August 1864. 

(6) Frances, born 10 January 1786 ; married, 21 April 1804, to the 

Hon. Major-General Sir William Stewart, G.C.B., second son 
of John, seventh Earl of Galloway. 1 She died 6 August 1833. 

(7) Anne, born June 1787, died in infancy. 

(8) Harriet, born 8 June 1792 ; married, 25 November 1809, to 

James, Viscount Hamilton, eldest son of John James, first 
Marquess of Abercorn. He died 27 May 1814, and she was 
married, secondly, 8 July 1815, to George, fourth Earl of 
Aberdeen, and died 26 August 1833. 2 

(9) Charlotte, born 11 July 1793, died 13 July 1840. 

(10) Emily, twin with Charlotte, died in 1815. 

(11) Emma Elizabeth, born 8 October 1794 ; married, 10 July 1827, 

to William Hamilton Ash of Ashbrook, co. Londonderry, 
and died 2 February 1857. 

(12) Caroline, married, 31 December 1819, William Augustus Fox 

Lane, and died 7 November 1873. 

9. Bridget, born 3 May 1758, married the Hon. William 
Henry Bouverie, second son of William, first Earl of 
Radnor, and died in 1842. 

XIV. SHOLTO CHARLES, fourteenth Earl of Morton, was 
born at Edinburgh 1732. In 1759 he, as Lord Aberdour, 
raised a corps of light dragoons, of which he was captain 
commandant 10 October of that year. He was one of the 
Lords of Police from 1760 till his death, which took place 

1 Cf. vol. iv. 168. 2 Vol. i. 67, 95. 



384 DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 

at Taormina, Sicily, 25 September 1774. He married, 19 
November 1758, at Edinburgh, Katharine, fourth daughter 
and co-heir of John Hamilton, second son of Thomas, sixth 
Earl of Haddington. She, who was born December 1736, 
died 25 April 1823. They had issue : 

1. GEORGE, fifteenth Earl of Morton. 

2. Hamilton Douglas Halyburton of Pitcur. In 1765, on 

the death of Colonel James Halyburton of Pitcur, 
that estate devolved, in terms of the entail, on the 
second son of Lord Aberdour, who thereupon assumed 
the additional name of Halyburton. He was born 10 
October 1763, and entered the Navy at an early age. 
His short career was a promising one, but was early 
terminated. He was first lieutenant on board 
H.M.S. Assistance, which was sent to superintend 
the evacuation of New York in December 1783. On 
the 30 of that month he was sent in command of a 
boat with twelve junior officers and one bluejacket 
in pursuit of some men who had deserted with one of 
the ship's boats. The weather was bad, however, 
and disaster overtook the boat of which Douglas 
Halyburton had charge. She was discovered on New 
Year's Day 1784 lying on the mudbanks of the New 
Jersey shore, and the bodies of her unfortunate crew, 
who had perished from exposure and cold, were found 
near her. They were carefully buried in a brick vault 
at Sandy Hook, and in 1908, in the course of some ex- 
cavations, their remains and other relics of the disaster 
were brought to light. There is a mural inscription in 
the sacristy of Trinity Church, New York, to the 
memory of Halyburton and his companions, narrat- 
ing the circumstances and date of their death. 1 

XV. GEORGE, fifteenth Earl of Morton, was born 3 
April 1761, and sat as one of the Representative Peers of 
Scotland from 1784 tiU 1790. On 11 August 1791 he was 
created BARON DOUGLAS OF LOOHLEVEN, in the 
Peerage of Great Britain. He was Chamberlain of the 
Household to the Queen-Consort 1792-1818 ; invested as a 
Knight of the Order of the Thistle 26 July 1797 ; Lord High 
Commissioner to the Church of Scotland 1820-24; Lord- 

1 Ex inform. J. M. Bulloch. 



DOUGLAS, EARL OF MORTON 385 

Lieutenant of Fifeshire 1808-24, and of Midlothian from 
1824 till his death. He was a Vice-President of the Royal 
Society, F.S.A., etc. He died, 17 July 1827, at Dalmahoy, 
near Edinburgh, having married, 13 August 1814, Susan 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Francis Yarde-Buller, 
Bart., and sister of John, first Baron Ohurston. She 
married, secondly, 17 September 1831, Edward Godfrey of 
Old Hall, Suffolk, and died there 23 July 1849, aged fifty- 
six. The Earl had by her no issue, and the barony of 
Douglas of Lochleven became extinct. 

XVI. GEORGE SHOLTO, sixteenth Earl of Morton, suc- 
ceeded his cousin, being the eldest son of John Douglas, 
sixth son (but eldest with surviving issue) of James, thir- 
teenth Earl. He was born 23 December 1789, and was in 
the Diplomatic Service from 1811 till 1825, being Secretary 
of the legation at Stockholm, Florence, and Berlin succes- 
sively. He sat as a Representative Peer from 1830 till his 
death. He was a Lord-in-waiting 1841-49, and from Feb- 
ruary till December 1852; lieutenant-colonel of the Mid- 
lothian Yeomanry Cavalry 1843-44. He died in London 31 
March 1858, having married, 3 July 1817, at Berlin, Frances 
Theodora, daughter of the Right Hon. Sir George Henry 
Rose, G.O.H., and sister of Hugh Henry, Baron Strath- 
nairn. She, who was born 31 August 1798, died 12 July 
1879. They had issue : 

1. SHOLTO JOHN, seventeenth Earl of Morton. 

2. George Henry, born 5 October 1821 ; an admiral R.N. ; 

died 19 June 1905, having married, 18 July 1850, 
Charlotte Martha, daughter of Admiral Sir William 
Parker, Bart., G.O.B., with issue. 

3. Henry, in holy orders ; born 17 December 1822 ; 

rector of Hanbury, Worcester, 1855-77, and vicar of 
St. Paul's, Worcester, 1877-1904 ; died 4 October 
1907, having married, 7 June 1855, Mary, daughter of 
George, Earl of Haddington. She died 29 March 
1904. They had issue one daughter. 

4. Edward William, born 19 October 1825. Married, 

first, 16 July 1857, Augusta Anne, youngest daughter 
of the Right Hon. George Bankes. She died s.p. 
6 May 1880, and he married, secondly, 27 April 1881, 
Evelyn Anne Trefusis, daughter of Charles Rodolph, 
VOL. vi. 2 B 



386 

nineteenth Lord Clinton. They had issue one 
daughter. 

5. Arthur Gascoigne, in holy orders; born 5 January 

1827 ; Bishop in the Scottish Episcopal Church of the 
diocese of Aberdeen and Orkney 1883-1905; died 19 
July 1905, having married, 17 April 1855, Anna Maria 
Harriet, youngest daughter of Richard Richards of 
Oaerynwch, co. Merioneth. They had issue four 
sons and two daughters. 

6. Frances Harriet, married, 10 September 1838, to William 

Thomas Spencer, sixth Earl Fitzwilliam, K.G., and 
died at Coollatin Park 15 June 1895, leaving issue. 

7. Ellen Susan Anne, V.A., married 15 July 1851, to the 

Hon. and Rev. Douglas Hamilton Gordon, third son 
of George, fourth Earl of Aberdeen, with issue. 

8. Harriet Bridget Emily, died, unmarried, 25 March 1832. 

9. Alice Louisa, married, 26 June 1862, to the Right Rev. 

Alexander Ewing, D.C.L., Bishop in the Scottish 
Episcopal Church of the diocese of Argyll and the Isles. 

10. Gertrude Jane, married, 6 October 1860, to the Hon. 

Mark George Kerr Rolle, second son of Charles 
Rodolph, nineteenth Lord Clinton, with issue. 

11. Agnes Charlotte, married, 9 August 1883, to Major- 

General Sir Owen Tudor Burne, G.C.I. E., etc. She 
died s.p. 7 July 1907. 

XVII. SHOLTO JOHN, seventeenth Earl of Morton, born 
at Berlin 13 April 1818 ; lieutenant llth Hussars 1843-44 ; 
lieutenant-colonel of the Midlothian Yeomanry Cavalry 
1844-53, and colonel-commandant 1853-72. He sat as a 
Representative Peer from 1859 till his death, which occurred 
24 December 1884. He married, first, 24 January 1844, 
Helen, daughter of James Watson of Saughton. She died 
17 December 1850, and he married, secondly, 7 July 1853, 
Alice Anne Caroline, daughter of John George Lambton, 
first Earl of Durham. She, who was born 16 April 1831, 
died s.p. 15 January 1907. By his first wife the Earl had : 

XVIII. SHOLTO GEORGE WATSON, eighteenth Earl of 
Morton, born 5 November 1844; a Representative Peer 
since 1886; married, 25 July 1877, Helen Geraldine Maria 
(born 12 December 1852), fourth daughter of Charles 



DOUGLAS, EARL OP MORTON 387 

Frederick Ashley Oooper Ponsonby, second Baron de 
Mauley of Oanford. They have issue : 

1. SHOLTO CHARLES, Lord Aberdour, captain Leicester- 

shire Imperial Yeomanry ; born 4 December 1878 ; 
married, 7 June 1905, Minnie Christina Brenda, 
daughter of Admiral Sir John Hay, and has issue : 
(1) Sholto Charles John Hay, born 12 April 1907. 

2. Charles William Sholto, born 19 July 1881 ; late lieu- 

tenant 4th Battalion Oxfordshire Light Infantry. 

3. Archibald Roderick Sholto, born 11 September 1883 ; 

late lieutenant Leicestershire Imperial Yeomanry ; 
married, 22 October 1907, "Winona Constance de 
Maraisville, daughter of Colonel Walter Ansell 
Peake, D.S.O., of Borough-on-the-Hill, Melton 
Mowbray. Has issue : 

(1) Roderick Walter Sholto, born 16 July 1908. 

4. William Sholto, born 11 June 1886. 

5. Ronald John Sholto, born 22 April 1890. 

CREATIONS. 14 March 1457-58, Earl of Morton in the 
Peerage of Scotland: 11 August 1791, Baron Douglas of 
Lochleven in the Peerage of Great Britain (extinct). 

ARMS (recorded in the Lyon Register). Quarterly : 1st 
and 4th, argent, a man's heart gules ensigned with an 
imperial crown proper, for Douglas; 2nd and 3rd, argent, 
three piles issuing from the chief gules and in chief two 
mullets of the field, for Douglas of Lochleven. 

CREST. A wild boar proper sticking in the cleft of an 
oak tree, fructed vert, with a lock holding the clefts of the 
tree together, azure. 

SUPPORTERS. Two savages wreathed about the head 
and middle with laurel, holding a club downwards in the 
exterior hands. 

MOTTO. Lock Sicker. 

[J. A.] 
[J. B. P.] 

[DOUGLAS, EARL OP ANGUS AND MORTON. See title ANGUS.] 



MAXWELL, EARL OF MORTON 




PTEB the death of the 
fourth Earl of Morton 
his next living heir of 
entail was his nephew 
Archibald, Earl of Angus, 
but he also fell under 
the King's displeasure, 
and by a bold stroke 
another nephew for a 
time obtained the title. 
This was John, eighth 
Lord Maxwell, second 
son of Beatrix Douglas, 
second daughter of 
James, third Earl of 
Morton, by her husband 
Robert, sixth Lord Max- 
well. Lord Maxwell, however, gained the earldom by un- 
fair means. He first, before his uncle was tried, entered 
into an agreement with the King's powerful favourite, 
Esme, Earl of Lennox, that in the event of Morton's for- 
feiture they should divide his estates, Lennox to have 
Dalkeith, Aberdour, and Oaldercleir, and Maxwell the 
remainder. Maxwell then sat as one of the jury which 
condemned Morton, and as a reward obtained his stipulated 
share of the late Regent's estates on 5 June 1581, though 
he did not take his place in Parliament as Earl until 24 
October of that year, when apparently his creation as 
EARL OF MORTON took place. 1 This grant, so far as 
the estates were concerned, was rescinded on 29 January 
1585-86," and the lands were restored to Archibald, Earl 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date ; Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 195 ; cf. P. C. Reg., xii. 
393. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 



MAXWELL, EARL OF MORTON 389 

of Angus, the nearest heir of line and tailzie of the late 
Regent. But the title of Morton is not dealt with in the 
royal letter of restoration, and Maxwell and his descen- 
dants continued to have a right to it until 29 August 1620, 
when Robert, then Lord Maxwell, was created Earl of 
Nithsdale, with precedence from October 1581, it being 
then declared that the Act restoring the earldom of Morton 
to the Douglases should not prejudice the title of Earl of 
Morton bestowed on John, Lord Maxwell, in October 1581. 1 
The Earl's career and his successors in the title will be 
found stated under the title of Nithsdale. 

CREATION. Earl of Morton, 1581. 



ARMS (as borne on the Earl's seal 2 ). Quarterly: 1st, a 
saltire ; 2nd, an eagle with two heads displayed ; 3rd, three 
urcheons ; 4th, a cross : over all, on an escutcheon of pre- 
tence, a chief charged with two mullets. 

In the additions to Sir David Lindsay's MS. the following 
coat is given, which is also on another seal of the Earl : 
Quarterly : 1st, argent, on a chief gules two mullets of 
the first ; 2nd, or, a double-headed eagle displayed sable, 
beaked and membered gules ; 3rd, three urcheons sable ; 
4th, gules, a cross or ; on an escutcheon of pretence argent 
a saltire sable. 

CREST. A stag or, attired azure, couchant before a holly 
tree proper. 

SUPPORTERS. Two stags proper attired azure, gorged 
with ducal coronets and chained or. 

MOTTO. I byde ye fair. 

[J. A.] 
1 P. C. Reg., xii. 392-394. 2 Carlaverock Book, i. 299. 



NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 



AIBN as a surname occurs 
in Scotland as early as 
the fifteenth century, 
if not sooner; and the 
Nairns of Sandfurd (now 
absurdly corrupted to St. 
Fort) on the E'if e shore of 
the Firth of Tay, appear 
to have been the leading 
family of the name. The 
early descent, however, 
of the branch which ulti- 
mately was raised to the 
ranks of the Scottish 
Peerage is obscure, and 
the first ancestor who 
can be traced with cer- 
tainty is John Nairn, who, with Margaret Oliphant his 
spouse, had a charter 7 December 1511 from George, 
Bishop of Dunkeld, of the lands of Mukkersy in the barony 
of Dunkeld, which he had on lease from the Bishop for 10 
and forty-eight salmon yearly. John was dead at the time 
of the confirmation of this charter, 8 February 1540-41. l 
He was probably father of 



GEORGE NAIRN of Mukkersy, who was on a jury 17 March 
1544-45. 2 He witnessed a charter of William, Lord Oichton 
of Sanquhar, 6 July 1553. 3 His wife's name is not known, 
but he had a son, 

GEORGE NAIRN of Mukkersy, who witnessed, along with 




1 Beg. Mag. Sig. 
&ig., 20 July 1565. 



2 Acta Dom. Cone, et Seas., xxiii. 87. 3 Reg. Mag. 



NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 391 

his father, the charter above mentioned. He died February 
1592-93, 1 having married (but not as his first wife, whose 
name has not been ascertained), contract 29 April 1558, 2 
Elizabeth or Isobel Davidson, relict of Adam Ramsay and 
of Finlay Anderson, burgesses of Perth. She was his wife 
February 1562-63, 3 but was dead before 3 November 1564. 4 
They had issue : 

1. JOHN, who succeeded. 

2. George. 

3. William, burgess of Dunkeld. 5 

4. Robert. 

5. Alexander. 

6. James. 

7. Thomas. 

8. Isobel. 

JOHN NAIRN of Mukkersy, named in a deed with his 
father in 1566, 8 styled brother-german and heir of the late 
William Nairn, burgess of Dunkeld, in a deed whereby he 
and Thomas and Archibald his sons, with consent of 
Katherine Ramsay, spouse of Archibald, and liferentrix 
of the lands, sold to Mr. Alexander Ireland, burgess of 
Perth, and Isabella Scott his wife, the ecclesiastical lands 
of Kinclevin and others, co. Perth, 9 October 1599. 7 He 
had issue : 

1. George, named in his father's will : he probably died v.p. 

2. THOMAS. 

3. Archibald, who married, as above stated, Katherine 

Ramsay. He was dead before 2 April 1627, when she, 
as his widow, had a charter from Sir George Hay of 
Innernytie, and his father Sir George Hay, the Chan- 
cellor, to herself in liferent and her son John Nairn, 
writer in Edinburgh, in fee, of the east half of the 
dominical lands of Kinclevin. 8 

4. Alexander, who witnessed the deed of 9 October 1599 

above mentioned. 

5. Helen, named in her father's will. 

1 Edin. Tests. 2 Reg, of Deeds, Hi. 57. 3 Acts and Decreets, xxv. 442. 

4 Edin. Com. Decreets. Reg. Mag. Sig., 21 November 1599. 6 Acts and 
Decreets, xxxviii. 88. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig., 21 November 1599. 8 Confirmed 

5 June 1627, Reg. Mag. Sig. 



392 NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 

6. Margaret, married (contract 28 August 1578) to 
William Gray, portioner of Lynedoch. Her father 
was a party to the contract, and a charter in imple- 
ment thereof was witnessed by Thomas, his son and 
heir. 1 

THOMAS NAIRN of Mukkersy had a charter of sale 14 May 
1605 from Christina Ross, one of the heirs-portioners of her 
father, John Ross of Ochtergavin, for herself and her younger 
sister Elizabeth, of the mains of Ochtergavin, to himself and 
his wife. 2 He was on an assize of lands apprised by Mr. 
Robert Nairn, advocate, 21 November 1608. 3 He died after 
1612, having married Elizabeth Fyfe, mentioned in the 
charter of 1605 above quoted. They had issue : 

1. George, who witnessed charters of 28 June 1610 and 

25 November 1611 as * apparent of Mukkersy.' * He 
probably died vita patris. 

2. ROBERT. 

ROBERT NAIRN, the second son, was admitted advocate 
22 May 1605. On 3 May 1609 he had a charter of the barony 
of Garden, belonging to Sir James Forrester, on which he 
had lent 3000, 5 but he was one of many creditors. Under the 
designation of Mr. Robert Nairn of Bannockburn, advocate, 
he had a charter 4 June 1612, of the mains of Ochtergavin and 
others, which had fallen to the King by their alienation as 
above mentioned without his consent, being held from him 
by the service of ward. 6 As Mr. Robert Nairn, advocate, 
of Mukkersy, he had a royal charter, 19 July 1621, of the 
lands of Rogartoun, Blackball, and others, which were 
incorporated into the barony of Strathurd. 7 On 18 July 
1635, as Mr. Robert Nairn of Strathurd, he had a charter 
of Easter Greenyards and others, co. Stirling. 8 He died 
February 1652, having married Catherine, daughter of Sir 
John Preston of Penicuik, Lord President of the Court of 
Session. They had issue : 

1. ROBERT of Strathurd, of whom afterwards. 

2. John, who succeeded to Mukkersy ; admitted advocate 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 30 November 1582. 2 Confirmed 5 June 1605, Ibid. 
3 Ibid., 3 May 1609. 4 Ibid., 10 May and 27 July 1611. 6 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 
" Ibid. 8 Ibid. 



NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 393 

6 July 1647, 1 was Sheriff-depute of Perth in December 
1657. 2 He married, 25 February 1647, Barbara Oant, 3 
daughter of Mr. John Cant of Morton. 4 They had 
two daughters : 

(1) Margaret, married, about 1690, to Alexander Carnegie of 

Kinfauna, fourth son of David, second Earl of Northesk. 6 

(2) Jean, who was, along with her sister, served heir to her 

father in the lands of Beuchills 30 April 1675. 6 Her sister . 
was served heir to her 11 May 1683. 7 

3. Alexander of Greenyards, born 10 September 1630 ; 

admitted advocate 22 November 1656; re-admitted 
5 June 1661 ; 8 died in January 1684." He married 
Buphame Baston, who survived him, and died May 
1686. 10 They had, with other issue : 

(1) Alexander, entered the fourth class in the University of 
Glasgow 1 March 1693 ; n served heir to his father in Easter 
Greenyards 7 June 1699. 12 

4. James, born 6 December 1631. 

5. William, said to have been a captain in the service of 

King Charles u. ; killed at the battle of Worcester 
1651. 

6. Agnes, married to William Blair of Tarsappie. 

7. Elizabeth, born 6 April 1635, married to Sir David 

Falconer of Newton, Lord President of the Court 
of Session, and was buried in Greyfriars 20 January 
1676. 13 

I. ROBERT NAIRN, the eldest son, was admitted a member 
of the Faculty of Advocates 20 February 1644. He was 
with the Royalist forces at the battle of Alyth 27 August 
1651, and was with many noblemen and gentlemen taken 
prisoner by Monck's cavalry. 14 He was taken to London, 
and committed to the Tower, where he remained till the 
Restoration. On 19 January 1661 he was appointed one 
of the Senators of the College of Justice, receiving at the 
same time the honour of knighthood. 15 On 11 January 
1671 he was appointed one of the Lords Commissioners of 

1 Faculty List. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., 1 January 1658. 3 Edin. Marriage Reg. 
4 Edin. Tests. 5 Carnegies, Earls of Southesk, ii. 429. 6 Retours, Perth, 
873. 7 Retours, Gen., 6477. 8 Faculty List. 9 Retours. 10 Stirling Tests. 
11 Munim. Univ. Glasg., iii. 153. 12 Retours, Stirling, 343. 13 Greyfriars 
Reg. 14 Scotland and the Commonwealth, 9. 16 Brunton and Haig's 
Senators, 372. 



394 NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 

Justiciary. By patent, dated at Whitehall 27 January 
1681, he was created LORD NAIRN, with a special re- 
mainder, failing heirs-male of his body, to Lord George 
Murray, youngest son of the Marquess of Atholl, or fail- 
ing him, to any other son who should be the husband of 
Margaret, his only child, and the heirs-male of their bodies, 
and failing such heirs-male, ' to the eldest daughter or heir- 
female to be procreated between them without division,' 
such heirs succeeding to his estates. Wodrow tells a 
story about Lord Nairn being one of the judges at the 
trial of the Earl of Argyll in December 1681, being very 
old and infirm, had to retire to bed, and afterwards being 
carried into Court when he voted in a semi-comatose con- 
dition for the relevancy of the indictment, but there does 
not seem to be any corroborative authority for the state- 
ment. Whatever may have been Nairn's state of health at 
the trial, he cannot have been a very aged man. He died 
30 May 1683. He married, in or before 1669, Margaret, 
daughter of Patrick Graham of Inchbraco ; she was buried 
3 May 1704. 1 They had issue : 

1. A child, born 16 December 1669, 2 buried in Greyfriars 

24 March 1670. 3 

2. Margaret. She was contracted in marriage 15 July 

1676, when she was three years of age, to George, 
youngest son of John, Marquess of Atholl. As above 
mentioned, the patent of the Nairn Peerage was 
originally in his favour, but in consequence of his bad 
health the contract was annulled, and a new one 
drawn up in 1690, substituting the fourth son William 
in his place. He died 21 November 1691. 4 The marriage 
of Margaret to his brother took place in February 1690, 
and the succession to the title accordingly opened 
under the specific remainder above mentioned to 

II. LORD WILLIAM MURRAY. He was born about 1664, and 
served in the Navy. He was admitted to Parliament 22 
April 1690, not without some objection on the ground that 
he was not Lord George mentioned in the patent, 5 and took 
the oath of allegiance. 6 In 1693 he was fined 1200 for 

1 Funeral entry in Lyon Office. 2 Greyfriars Burial Reg. 3 Edin. Reg. 
* See ante, i. 477. 6 Acta Parl. Scot,, ix. 110. 6 Ibid. 



NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 395 

absence from Parliament, but was afterwards excused 
attendance on the ground of indisposition. 1 He took 
part in the rising of 1715, was taken prisoner at Preston 
14 November 1715, and was, together with his son the 
Master of Nairn, committed to the Tower 8 December. 
At the trial of Nairn and other Scottish lords who had 
also been indicted for high treason, a trial which lasted 
from 18 January to 19 March 1716, he was convicted and 
sentenced to be executed. Great efforts were made by 
the friends of the condemned noblemen to obtain a relaxa- 
tion of their sentence, and it is said that besides Lady 
Nithsdale, whose efforts on behalf of her husband are a 
well-known story, Lady Nairn also personally importuned 
the King for pardon. 2 He was ultimately pardoned, or at 
least the carrying out of his sentence was suspended till 
his life was protected by the Indemnity of 1717. In 1716 an 
Act of Parliament was passed to enable the King to make 
provision for Lady Nairn and her children out of her for- 
feited paternal estate. On 24 June 1721 the titular King 
James in. created him Earl of Nairn and Viscount Stanley. 
He died 3 February 1726, having married, as above 
mentioned, Margaret Nairn, who died 14 November 1747. 3 
They had issue : 

1. JOHN. 

2. Robert, also an ardent Jacobite, engaged in the 

rebellion of 1745, and fell at the battle of Culloden 
16 April 1746. He married, 16 August 1720, Jean, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Laurence Mercer of 
Aldie, and assumed her name. By her, who died 
1 December 1749, he had issue : 

(1) James, died s.p. 1758. 

(2) William, a colonel in the Army, died 19 January 1790, having 

married, 3 April 1762, Margaret, daughter and heiress of 

William Murray of Pitkaithley, leaving three daughters : 

i. Jean, married, 10 April 1787, as his first wife, to George 

Keith Elphinstone, Viscount Keith, 4 and died 12 

December 1789, leaving a daughter : 

(i) MABGARET, who was born in London 12 June 
1788, and succeeded in 1823 to her father's 
titles of Baron Keith of Stonehaven Mari- 
schal, in the Peerage of Ireland of 1797, and 

1 Ada Parl. Scot., ix. 251, 259. 2 Hill Burton's Hist., viii. 335. 3 Testa- 
ment confirmed 31 July 1755, Dunkeld Tests. 4 See vol. iii. 548. 



396 NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 

Baron Keith of Banheath, in the Peerage of 
the United Kingdom of 1803, but not to the 
British Peerage of Baron Keith of Stonehaven 
(1801), nor to the Viscounty (1814). She also 
ultimately became suo jure Baroness Nairn 
(see below). 

ii. Cochrane, a daughter, died unmarried in 1801. 1 
iii. Catherine, executrix of her sister Cochrane, died 

at Hope Park, Edinburgh, 16 January 1822. 2 

(3) Margaret, married, 4 April 1758, to James Robertson of 
Lude. 3 

3- William, described as of * the city of London, mariner,' 4 
is said by Douglas to have been captain of the 
Calmar, Bast Indiaman, and to have died off St. 
Helena 25 March 1743, s.p. 

4. James, an officer in the British Army, died at Perth 

5 October 1788. 5 He left a daughter, 

(1) Mary, married to Lieutenant Cook, R.N., and died s.p. 

5. Margaret, married (contract 1 November 1712) to 

William, fourth Viscount of Strathallan. She was, 
for her active support of Prince Charles, committed 
prisoner to Edinburgh Castle 11 February 1746, and 
remained there till 22 November following, when 
she was liberated on bail. She died at Machany 28 
May 1773, leaving issue. 

6. Amelia Ann Sophia, married (contract 26 and 28 Sep- 

tember 1719') to Laurence Oliphant of Gask. She 
also figures in the Jacobite records of the time, and 
died at Gask 18 March 1774, leaving issue. 

7. Catherine, married, in 1728, to her cousin William, 

third Earl of Dunmore. 7 (See that title.) 

8. Marjory or May, married, in March 1739, 8 to Duncan 

Robertson of Drumachin, and died at Potterhill 
January 1793. 

9. Charlotte, married (contract 9 and 10 June 1731 8 ) 

to John Robertson of Lude, and died at Perth 11 
August 1787. 10 
10. Mary, died unmarried at Gask 2 March 1774. 

1 Dunkeld Tests. 2 Edin. Com. 3 Scots Mag. This lady is not men- 
tioned in the Peerage Case. * Peerage Case. * Scots Mag. 6 Perth 
Sas., xx. 583. 7 See vol. iii. 387. 8 Scots Mag. 9 Perth Sas., xx. 456. 
10 Scots Mag. 



NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 397 

11. Louisa, married, 27 April 1748, 1 to David Graham of 

Orchil, and died at Gask 5 April 1782. 

12. Henrietta, died unmarried at Gask 19 August 1802, 

aged eighty-nine. 

III. JOHN, third Lord Nairn, was engaged in the rising of 
1715 with his father, was a lieutenant-colonel in Lord 
Charles Murray's regiment, and was taken prisoner at the 
battle of Preston. He was committed to the Tower, and 
sentence of forfeiture was passed against him, but he ob- 
tained his personal freedom. In 1737 an Act was passed to 
enable him * to sue or maintain any action or suit, notwith- 
standing his attainder ; and to remove any disability in 
him, by reason of his said attainder, to take or inherit any 
real or personal estate that may or shall hereafter descend 
or come to him. 2 Such clemency, however, did not pre- 
vent his taking an active part in the rebellion of 1745. 
He was in command of the second line at the battle of 
Prestonpans, was chosen one of the Prince's Privy Council, 
and was with him in his march into England. He was 
present at the battles of Palkirk and Oulloden ; from the 
latter field he escaped, and after wandering with Lord 
George Murray in Badenoch for some time, he escaped to 
the Continent. He was again attainted in 1746. 3 He died 
at Sancerre in France 11 July 1770, aged seventy-nine. He 
married (contract 3 November 1712) his cousin, Katherine 
Murray, youngest daughter of Charles, first Earl of 
Dunmore. She, who was born 10 January 1692, died at 
Versailles 9 May 1754. They had issue : 

1. James, died s.p. 1737. 

2. William, died s.p. a minor, in 1729 or 1730. 4 

3. JOHN, of whom afterwards. 

4. Charles, an officer in the Dutch service, from which 

he retired and lived at Silverwells, Perthshire, 
where he died 8 June 1795, and was buried at 
Auchtergaven. 

5. Robert, mentioned in his grandmother's will, but ap- 

parently died before its confirmation in July 1755. 

6. Edward, who also must have died before 1755. 

' Scots Mag. 2 11 Geo. n. cap. 56. 3 19 Geo. n. cap. 26. 4 Nairn 
Peerage Case. 



398 NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 

7. Thomas, shared the Jacobite opinions of his family, 

and was an officer in Lord John Drummond's regi- 
ment. He was taken, in October 1745, on board the 
Esperance on his passage to Scotland to join Prince 
Charles. He died at Sancerre s.p. 14 April 1777. 1 

8. Henry, born 1 November 1727, 2 an officer in the French 

service. Died at Perth 1818. 3 

9. Margaret, died s.p. in 1729 or 1730. 
10. Clementina, died s.p. at Sancerre. 

JOHN, who but for the attainder would have been fourth 
Lord Nairn, never assumed the title. He was an officer in 
the British Army, being captain in the 1st Royals in 1747, 
and ultimately a lieutenant-colonel. He died at St. 
Andrews 7 November 1782, 4 having married, about 1756, 
Brabazon, daughter of Richard Wheeler of Layrath, co. 
Kilkenny. She died 22 April 1801. 5 They had issue : 

1. John, an officer in Eraser's 71st Regiment, died in 

America unmarried 1781. 

2. WILLIAM. 

3. Brabazon, died unmarried at Edinburgh 6 March 1783. 8 

IV. WILLIAM NAIRN, born at Drogheda 1757, succeeded 
his brother as captain-lieutenant in the 71st Regiment. 7 
He rose to the rank of major, and became Assistant In- 
spector of Barracks in Scotland. By Act of Parliament of 
17 June 1824 the forfeiture of his ancestor was repealed, 
and he was restored to the title of Lord Nairn. He died 9 
July 1830, 8 having married, in June 1806, Caroline, the 
poetess, third daughter of Laurence Oliphant of Gask. 
She, who was born at Gask 16 August 1766, died there 27 
October 1845, aged seventy-nine. They had issue one son, 

V. WILLIAM, fifth Lord Nairn, born 1808, only survived 
his father a few years, and died at Brussels unmarried 17 
December 1837. 9 

The succession then opened to 

VI. MARGARET MERCER ELPHINSTONE, suo jure Baroness 
Keith of Stonehaven Marischal, in the Peerage of Ire- 

1 Peerage Case. 2 Ibid. s Ibid. * St. Andrews Burial Reg. 6 St. 
Andrews Com. 6 Edin. Tests. 7 Peerage Case. 8 Edin. Tests. 
9 Peerage Case. 



NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 399 

land, and Baroness Keith of Banheath in the Peerage of the 
United Kingdom. She was the daughter of George Keith 
Blphinstone, Viscount Keith, by his first wife, Jean Mercer, 
great-granddaughter of Lord William Murray, second Lord 
Nairn. 1 She was born in Mayfair, London, 12 June 1788. 
Prom a social point of view she is chiefly memorable as 
having been a very attached friend of Charlotte, Princess 
of Wales, of whose household she was a member. On the 
death of her father in 1823 she succeeded to his titles of 
Baron Keith of Stonehaven Marischal in the Peerage of 
Ireland of 1797, and Baron Keith of Banheath in the 
Peerage of the United Kingdom of 1803, but not to the 
British Peerage of Baron Keith of Stonehaven (1801) nor to 
the Viscounty (1814). On the death of her kinsman William, 
Lord Nairn, in 1837, she became swo jure Baroness Nairn. 
She died at Paris 11 November 1867, in her eightieth year, 
when the two baronies of Keith became extinct. She 
married, 20 June 1817, in Mrs. Murray of Henderland's 
house in Edinburgh, Auguste Charles Joseph, Count de 
Flahault de la Billardrie, sometime A.D.O. to Buonaparte, 
afterwards, under the Bourbons, Ambassador to Berne, 
Vienna, and the Court of St. James's, the last in 1860. ' The 
bride in green gloves and ribbons, and not one of her near 
relations to countenance her folly . . . never imagined she 
would marry for love.' 2 The Count finally resided in Paris 
as Chancellor of the Legion of Honour, and died there 2 
September 1870, aged eighty-five. They had issue two 
daughters, of whom only the elder married. 

VII. EMILY JANE, born 16 May 1819 ; was married, 1 Nov- 
ember 1843, as his second wife, to Henry, fourth Marquess 
of Lansdowne. She claimed the Peerage of Nairn (her 
mother, being already the possessor of two baronies, having 
not moved in the matter) on the ground that the issue male 
of the grantee having failed, the title fell in terms of the 
patent to the eldest daughter or heir-female. The House 
of Lords held that the Marchioness was the * eldest 
daughter or heir-female ' within the meaning of the patent, 

1 See ante, p. 395. 2 C. K. Sharpe to the Earl of Leven and Melville ; 
Melville Book, ii. 318. He afterwards says, Never were two such happy 
people.' See Memoirs of the Comtesse de Boigne, ii. 132, for a somewhat 
different version of the story. 



400 NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 

and accordingly adjudged the dignity to her. The fact 
that the patent contained the clause ' such heirs succeed- 
ing to the estates ' does not seem to have influenced their 
Lordships. 1 The Marchioness of Lansdowne died 25 June 
1895 at Meiklour, leaving issue : 

1. HENRY CHARLES KEITH PETTY. 

2. Edmond George Petty, born 19 June 1846; created 

Lord Fitzmaurice of Leigh, Wilts, 9 January 1906; 
married, 33 November 1889, Caroline, daughter of 
W. J. Fitzgerald of Lichfield, Connecticut. 2 

3. Emily Louisa Anne, born 1855, married, 2 June 1886, 

the Hon. BverardC. Digby, colonel Grenadier Guards, 
and has issue. 

VIII. HENRY CHARLES KEITH PETTY FITZMAURICE, Lord 
Nairn in the Peerage of Scotland ; Marquess of Lansdowne, 
Earl Wycombe, Viscount Cain and Calnstone, and Lord 
Wycombe, Baron of Chipping Wycombe, in the Peerage of 
Great Britain ; Earl of Kerry and Earl of Shelburne, Vis- 
count Olanmaurice and Fitzmaurice, Baron of Kerry, Lix- 
naw, and Dunkeron in the Peerage of Ireland ; G.O.M.G. 
1884; G.O.S.I. and G.O.I.E. 10 December 1888; K.G. 6 
March 1895 ; D.O.L., LL.D., etc., born 14 January 1845 ; 
was Governor-General of Canada 1883-88, and of India 
1888-94 ; Secretary of State for War 1895-1900 ; Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs 1900-1905. Married, 8 November 
1869, Maude Evelyn Hamilton, O.I., V.A., etc., daughter of 
James, first Duke of Abercorn, and has issue : 

1. HENRY WILLIAM EDMOND, Earl of Kerry, M.V.O., 

D.S.O., major, late Irish Guards ; born 14 January 
1872 ; married, 16 February 1904, Elizabeth Caroline, 
only daughter of Edward Stanley Hope, O.B. 

2. Charles George Francis, captain 1st Dragoons ; born 

12 February 1874. 

3. Evelyn Emily Mary, born 27 August 1870 ; married, 

30 July 1892, the Right Hon. Victor Christian William 
Cavendish, P.O., M.P., eldest son of Lord Edward 
Cavendish, and has issue. 

4. Beatrix Frances, born 25 March 1877; married, 16 

1 Hewlett on Dignities, 211, where Lord Chancellor Cairns's judgment 
is given. 2 Marriage annulled 1894. 



NAIRN, LORD NAIRN 401 

October 1897, to Henry de la Poer Beresford, K.P., 
Marquess of Waterford, with issue. 

ARMS. The arms of the Lords Nairn were : Parted per 
pale sable and argent, on a chaplet four quatrefoils counter- 
changed. 

The Marchioness of Lansdowne and Baroness Nairn re- 
corded the following arms in the Lyon Register in 1878. 
Quarterly : 1st and 4th, ermine, on a bend azure a magnetic 
needle pointing to a polar star or, for Petty ; 2nd and 3rd, 
argent, a saltire gules and chief ermine, for Fitzmaurice ; 
on an escutcheon of pretence, quarterly, 1st, Nairn as above ; 
2nd grand quarter counterquartered, 1st and 4th, or, on a 
fess gules between three crosses patee in chief of the second 
a mullet azure, in base three besants, for Mercer; 2nd 
and 3rd, argent, a chevron sable between three boars' heads 
erased gules, for Elphinstone ; 3rd grand quarter counter- 
quartered, 1st and 4th, paly of six or and sable, for Atholl ; 
2nd, or, a fess chequy azure and argent, for Stewart ; 3rd, 
azure, three mullets argent within a double tressure flory 
counterflory or, for Murray; 4th grand quarter, argent, 
three martlets sable, on a comble azure a cross or, a franc 
quartier of the third charged with a sword paleways, point 
upwards proper. 

[j. B. P.] 



VOL. VI. 



2c 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF 
MERCHISTON 




A PIER, Le Napier, or 
Naper, the last the ear- 
liest found form of the 
name, appears as a sur- 
name at an early date 
both in England and Scot- 
land. In England it oc- 
curs at least as early as 
1189-90 or the first year 
of King Richard i., when 
William le Naper renders 
an account to the great 
roll of the Pipe of 107s. 
4d. of the old rent of 
Waltham in Essex. 1 A 
Robert Naperius appears 
in Lincolnshire in 1205, 
and a Meingot Naper in Essex in same year. 2 In 1234 the 
office of Forester of Shotover, co. Oxford, was committed 
by King Henry HI. to Thomas le Napier, 3 and he or a person 
of the same name, Thomas le Naper, took service under the 
King to go to Gascony in 1253. 4 Wood, in his edition of 
Douglas, quotes a reference to a John le Naper, King's 
hunter, who had a grant of land in Essex in 1258. 5 The 
name still existed in England when the first of the surname 
is recorded in Scotland, a John Naper, who occurs as a 
witness to charters by Malcolm, Earl of Lennox, about 
1294.' In 1296, in the rolls of homage to King Edward I., 
John le Naper, perhaps the last named, appears in Dum- 
bartonshire, another John le Naper in Peeblesshire, and a 
Matthew le Naper in Forfarshire, 7 showing that the name 

1 The Great Roll of the Pipe Ric. i. (1189-90), 1844, p. 29. * Rotuli de 
Oblatis and Finibus, 1835, pp. 247, 264. 3 Close Rolls (1231-34), 457. 
4 Patent Rolls (1247-58), 231. 6 Wood's Douglas, ii. 281. 
Levenax, 22, 24 n. J Col. Doc. Scot., ii. 200, 202. 



8 Cart, de 





of JHmjnston 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHI8TON 403 

was then distributed in Scotland. The origin of the family 
of Napier of Merchiston, the subject of this article, has 
never been clearly proved, though in 1441 Alexander Naper, 
who then held Merchiston, claimed cousinship or kinsman- 
ship with John Naper of Kilmahew, descended from the 
John Naper of 1294. 1 There were many Napiers in the end 
of the fourteenth century, of which one family, the Napiers 
of Wrightshouses, bore the same arms as those of Kilma- 
hew, differing from the armorial blazons of the Napiers of 
Ballikinrain and Merchiston, which were identical. The 
first clearly ascertained progenitor of the Napiers of Mer- 
chiston was 

ALEXANDER NAPER, who was a burgess of Edinburgh, and 
had extensive dealings in wool between the years 1418 and 
1448. 2 So early as 1434 he had monetary transactions with 
King James i., and in security obtained a charge over the 
lands of Merchiston, which were then in the King's hands. 
There are several payments to him from the Exchequer 
in the years 1434, 1435 and 1438, on account of the dis- 
charge ; 3 and on 20 July 1435 it is said that the King is 
indebted to Master William Foulis, Keeper of the Privy 
Seal, in 44, 6s. 6d., being part of a larger sum which he 
had borrowed for redeeming the lands of Merchiston out 
of the hands of Alexander Naper. 4 The lands, however, 
were never redeemed, probably owing to the assassination 
of the King at Perth 20 February 1436-37. In an account 
rendered at Edinburgh 18 July 1438, mention is made of 
the lands of Merchiston which were pledged by way of 
sale or donation by a charter granted to Alexander Naper, 
burgess of Edinburgh ; a letter of reversion of the same 
remaining in Edinburgh Oastle. 5 Alexander Naper was 
one of the bailies of Edinburgh in 1427, 6 and also in 1435-36. 
He was Provost of the Burgh 13 February and 8 March 
1436-37. 7 On 14 August 1441 he names John Napier of 
Kilmahew his cousin or kinsman, and he himself had rights 
over the lands of Ballikinrain. 8 When the Commissioners 
for Scotland met the English ambassadors at the Church 

1 Strathendrick, by J. Guthrie Smith, 175, 191-193. 2 Exch. Rolls, iv. 
301 ; v. 218, 313. 3 Ibid., iv. 574, 623 ; v. 26, 28. * Ibid., iv. 667. * Ibid., v. 
68. 6 St. Giles's Charters, 50, 60. 7 Edin. Burgh Rec., i. 254. 8 Strathen- 
drick, by J. Guthrie Smith, 191, 192. 



404 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MERCHISTON 

of Saint Nicholas, Newcastle, 14 August 1451, to arrange 
for a three years' truce between the two countries, 
Alexander Napere the elder (leinye) is the designation of 
one of the Commissioners of the King of Scots. 1 He had 
also a safe-conduct to visit Canterbury as a pilgrim 13 
September 1451 ; 2 and there is a charter of some ground 
near Leith, dated 13 March 1452-53, which Wood ascribes 
to the elder Alexander, and which has a seal attached 
bearing a saltire engrailed between four roses. He is stated 
to have died about the year 1454, and he left two sons : 

1. ALEXANDER, who succeeded him. 

2. Robert, who received certain payments from the 

public Exchequer * for his fee ' between the years 
1456 and 1462. 3 

ALEXANDER NAPIER is first mentioned in the records 
6 September 1432, when he had a charter of an annualrent 
of two merks from Adam Bonkill, wherein he is designed 
son and heir of Alexander Napare, burgess of Edinburgh. 
He appears to have distinguished himself in defence of 
the Queen-Dowager of King James i., when she was 
seized and imprisoned by the Livingstons, 3 August 1439. 
The lands of Philde, co. Perth, were granted to him by 
James n., 7 March 1449-50, in recognition of his faithful 
services to the Queen-Mother, and in compensation of 
severe bodily injuries, wounds, and personal damage 
sustained by him on the occasion of the violent capture 
and incarceration of the Queen. 4 Another charter of 
the same lands which were in the King's hands by the 
forfeiture of Alexander Livingston, son of Sir Alexander, 
was granted to Alexander Napier and Elizabeth, his wife, 
9 March 1450-51 , 5 but the property appears to have reverted 
to the Livingston family between 1454 and 1466." On the 
downfall of the Livingstons, Napier was on 24 September 
1449 appointed Comptroller of the Royal Household, an 
office previously held by Robert Livingston, in which he 
continued many years thereafter. 7 He had a charter of 
lands in Fife, 24 May 1452 ; 8 was Provost of Edinburgh in 
1452 until 1455, and again in 1457, 9 when he rendered 

1 Col. Doc. Scot., iv. 252. 2 Fcedera, xi. 302. 3 Exch. Rolls, vi. 234, 587 ; 
vii. 127. * Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 Ibid. 6 Ibid., 25 December 1466. 7 Exch. 
Bolls, v. per Index. s Beg. Mag. Sig. 9 Edin. Burgh Bee. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OP MEROHISTON 405 

accounts of the bailies of Edinburgh, 10 July 1457. 1 On 
18 June 1453, there were delivered to Alexander Napare, 
Provost of Edinburgh, by the auditors of the Exchequer, 
various coins of silver and gold in a ' lockfast box ' to be 
kept until the King wished to have them assayed. 2 Amongst 
the records of the city of Edinburgh is a feu-charter 
granted by the Provost, Bailies, and community, with 
consent of Sir Robert Linton, chaplain of the altar of 
Saint Catherine in the Church of Edinburgh, setting in 
feu-farm to Alexander Naper of Merchistoun, the lands 
of Over Merchiston pertaining to the said altar, at a feu- 
duty of 20 marks yearly, 26 June 1456. About the same 
time the Pultrie lands near Edinburgh, with the hereditary 
office of Poulterer to the King, were acquired. 3 Alexander 
Naper of Merchiston had a general discharge under the 
sign-manual and Privy Seal of all moneys received by him 
during the time he held the office of Comptroller, and 
especially of 500 marks owing by Alexander for the charter 
of Balbertane, co. Fife, which formerly belonged to James, 
Lord Dalkeith, 24 October 1456. He sat in the Parliament 
of 6 March 1457, 4 and was one of those chosen for visiting 
the money. There is also a warrant to the English 
Chancellor, dated at Westminster 10 May 1459, for Alex- 
ander Naper and others, then in England, to go to Scot- 
land with their sixteen servants, and to return at pleasure, 
the permission to endure for one year. 5 On the 16 of the 
same month, he witnessed a deed of James n. at Edin- 
burgh, at the abbey of the Holy Cross there ; " and he 
was knighted in the year 1460, probably on the occasion of 
the coronation of James in. Sir Alexander Naper was 
Comptroller of the Royal Household at 7 July 1461, when 
there was a discharge to him under the Privy Seal of 
James in., and he held the office of Vice-Admiral of Scot- 
land, for he is so designated in a safe-conduct to him and 
other ambassadors to the Court of England, 24 September 
1461. 7 He attended at Perth a meeting of the Exchequer, 
28 May 1464, 8 sat in the Parliament held at Edinburgh on 
13 January 1464, 9 and on 6 November in the same year 

1 Exch. Bolls, vi. 313. 2 Ibid., v. 556. 3 Ibid., vi. 144. 4 Ada Parl. 
Scot., ii. 47. 6 Cal. Doc. Scot., iv. 1299. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 7 Rot. Scot., ii. 
415 ; Foedera, xi. 476. 8 Exch. Rolls, vii. 229. 9 Reg. Ho. Charters, No. 377. 



406 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 

had a safe-conduct to go into England. 1 By a commission 
under the Privy Seal, 24 February 1464-65, he was appointed, 
with others, to search the port and haven of Leith for pre- 
venting the exportation of gold and silver ; he is mentioned 
in a charter of James in. to the Church of Saint Giles, 
Edinburgh, 24 February 1466-67 ; 2 and he was sent with 
the Lord Chancellor to negotiate the marriage between that 
monarch and the King of Denmark's daughter in 1468. 3 
In the years 1469, 1470, and 1471, Sir Alexander Naper of 
Merchiston was again Provost of Edinburgh. 4 He was 
also one of the Committee appointed by Parliament 6 May 
1471, with power to determine all matters that should 
occur for the welfare of the King and the common good 
of the realm ; and he had a discharge of a sum of 200 
Scots of certain finance taken up by him in Bruges in 
Flanders, and of 100 for armour brought home -by him 
for the King, dated 27 January 1472-73. 5 Sir Alexander 
had a safe-conduct to go on an embassy to Charles the 
Bold, Duke of Burgundy, regarding the claims of James in. 
to the Duchy of Gueldres, 1 May 1473. 6 The King's secret 
instructions to him on this occasion are still preserved, 
and he and his lands were to be exempt from all pleas, 
etc., from the day of his departure until forty days after 
his return, as he was going beyond seas upon the King's 
business. On 24 May 1473 he had a remission of the 250 
marks due to the Crown as a composition for a part of the 
earldom of Lennox, in consideration of the long and true 
service done to the King and his royal progenitors by his 
lovite Knight and Master of the Household Alexander 
Napare of Merchiston. He died before 15 February 
1473-74, and was buried at St. Giles's Church, Edinburgh. 
He married Elizabeth Lauder, probably a daughter of the 
Laird of Hatton, 7 and had issue : 

1. JOHN, of whom below. 

2. Henry, who had some lands in the barony of Leslie in 

Fife, and was contracted to Janet, daughter of John 
Ramsay of Culluthy, as appears from the said John's 
obligations in his favour 23 May 1476. 

3. Alexander. 

1 Foedera, xl. 537. a Reg. Mag. Sig. 3 Macfarlane MSS. 4 Ada Parl. 
Scot., ii. 93 ; Edin. Burgh Bee., i. 260-261. 6 Exch. Rolls. 6 Mark Napier's 
Life of Napier, 512. 7 Reg. Mag. Sig., 22 February 1494-95. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MERCHISTON 407 

4. Janet, married, first, in or about January 1456-57, to 
Sir James Edmondston of that Ilk ; secondly, before 
1491, to Alexander Hepburn of Whitsome; and 
thirdly, before 1512, to Adam Hume. 1 

JOHN NAPIER of Merchiston, called also of Rusky, is 
designed son and apparent heir of Alexander Naper of 
Merchamstoune on 26 March 1455, when he obtained under 
the Privy Seal a gift of the marriage of Elizabeth Menteith, 
co-heiress of Rusky, the lady whom he soon afterwards 
married. He had also a charter from Mary of Gueldres, 
the Queen-Dowager, relict of King James n., of the lands 
of Calziemuck in Rusky, which are granted to him for life 
and afterwards to George his second son 16 July 1462. He 
was a bailie of Edinburgh in 1463, when certain lands in 
that burgh on the south side of the High Street thereof 
were resigned by him. 2 He sat in Parliament 1471 ; 3 was 
infeft in the lands called the Pultrielaiids, as nearest heir 
of the deceased Sir Alexander Napier his father, 15 February 
1473-74, and is styled John Naper of Merchiston in the 
records of Parliament in 1476. On other occasions he 
styles himself John Napier of Rusky, as in witnessing a 
charter of David, Earl of Craufurd, 29 January 1476. 4 He 
had a charter of the lands of Inglistoun and Annaston 
from John Dalrimple of Laucht 26 October 1482, and in the 
year 1484 he was allowed custom of herrings in recompense 
for his labours in arranging the affairs of certain Bretons. 5 
He was a town councillor of Edinburgh in 1477 and 1482, 
being so designed in a charter of customs which James in. 
granted to the burgh on 16 November in the latter-named 
year, 8 and he was Provost of Edinburgh in 1484. 7 He was 
dead before 3 November 1487, when his son is described as 
of Merchiston. 8 He married Elizabeth, one of the two 
daughters of Murdoch Menteith of Rusky (whose mother 
was Margaret, second daughter of Duncan, Earl of Lennox), 
and co-heir with her sister Agnes, wife of John Haldane 
of Gleneagles, of their brother Patrick Menteith of 
Rusky. Elizabeth Menteith, wife of John Napier, 
was infeft in a part of the lands of Rusky 8 May 

1 Edmonstones of Duntreath, 75-77. 2 Cal. Reg. Ho., iii. 374. 3 Ada Parl. 
Scot., ii. 98 et seq. * Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 Exch. Rolls, ix. 292 and 340. 6 Reg. 
Mag. Sig., 16 November 1482. 7 Acta Dom. Audit., 138. 8 Napier Writs. 



408 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MERCHISTON 

1473, was retoured one of the heirs-general of Duncan, 
Earl of Lennox, her great-grandfather, in the fourth 
part of the lands of the earldom 4 November 1473, 
and had seisin thereof on the 16 of the same month. 1 
Elizabeth Menteith of Rusky and Archibald Napier her son 
and apparent heir had a Grown charter of the lands of 
Over and Nether Merchiston with the tower and manor 
there 22 February 1494-95, to be held blench, 2 and Elizabeth 
was still living in 1507, but was deceased at 8 January 
1509-10, when there is a precept of clare constat by Matthew, 
Earl of Lennox, for infefting Archibald Napier of Merchiston 
in the lands of Blairnavadis, etc., as heir of his mother the 
late Elizabeth Menteith, Lady Rusky. 3 They had issue : 

1. ARCHIBALD, of whom below. 

2. George, who was styled second son in 1462. From a 

charter of 23 October 1507, it appears that George 
having no heirs of his body had professed the religious 
order of the Friars Minors, and the lands of Rusky en- 
tailed to him were confirmed to Archibald his brother. 4 

3. John had a Grown charter in which he is designed John 

Napier, son of John Napier of Merchiston, 5 15 August 
1487, of the lands of Balcormo in Fife, which he 
subsequently conveyed to Robert Abercromby 22 
January 1492. 8 He was a burgess of Edinburgh, 7 
at 11 July 1497. He married Margaret Preston, who 
had a seisin 7 February 1496-97, 8 and from whom, as 
his widow, a wadset of the lands of Nether Mer- 
chiston was redeemed in 1520. 

4. Janet, married to William Adamson of Bonally, co. Edin- 

burgh, to whom there are various charters in which 
they are jointly named between the years 1538 and 
1543. 9 He is stated to have been slain at Pinkie 1547. 

5. Margaret. 

ARCHIBALD NAPIER of Merchistoun appears as one of the 
witnesses to an instrument of resignation 7 November 
1470, being styled son and apparent heir of John Napier of 
Merchiston. 10 Together with Catherine his wife, he had 

1 The Lennox Book, i. 291, 297. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 3 Napier In- 
ventory. * Reg. Mag. Sig. Ibid. 6 Ibid., 24 January 1492-93. 7 Protocol 
Book of J. Young. 8 Ibid. 9 Reg. Mag. Sig. 10 Cal. Reg. Ho., iii. 427. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 409 

seisin of a house in Leith 30 September 1482 ; he was also 
retoured heir of his father in the Pultrielancls lying near 
the village of Dene 12 December 1488, and he was infeft in 
the lands of Ingliston and Annaston in the barony of Duris- 
deer 22 June 1489. He founded a chantry at the altar 
of St. Salvator within the collegiate church of St. Giles 
of Edinburgh, which he endowed with an annualrent of 20 
marks furthof his tenements in the said burgh. This he did 
with consent of Elizabeth Menteith, Lady Rusky, his mother, 
and for the welfare of the souls of the late Sir Alexander 
Napier of Merchiston, knight, his grandfather, of Elizabeth 
Lander, spouse of his said grandfather, of John Napier of 
Merchiston his father, and of the said Elizabeth Menteith, 
spouse of John, also of Katherine Douglas his own spouse. 
Dated at Edinburgh 9 November 1494 and confirmed 22 
February 1494-95. 1 Prayers were also to be said for James I., 
James n., and James in., and the priest was to go out in an 
alb to the grave of his said grandfather Alexander, and 
there say De ProfundisS The Lennox succession had been 
in abeyance ever since the death, in 1458, of Isabella, Duchess 
of Albany and Countess of Lennox ; and a protracted 
contest arose between the Napiers of Merchiston, the 
Haldanes of Gleneagles, and the Stewarts of Darnley con- 
cerning the succession. In 1490 an arrangement had been 
come to between the Napiers and Darnley, but it was only 
after the Haldanes and Darnley had come to an agreement 
that the matter was finally settled, 11 July 1493. Darnley 
was allowed to assume the contested title, and the lands of 
the earldom were divided by partition, the Napiers and the 
Haldanes each taking a fourth share. Certain other lands 
were also assigned to them by Darnley in exchange for 
their claims upon the earldom. Shortly after this, there 
are several deeds settling the various estates upon Archi- 
bald Napier in fee, reserving his mother's liferent. On 22 
February 1494-95 there are Crown charters to them of 
Over and Nether Merchiston, etc., of Gartness, and other 
lands which had been assigned to Elizabeth Menteith by 
partition as one of the heirs of the Earl of Lennox. 3 He 
had a charter, 31 March 1503, of the Pultrielands with 
the office of King's Poulterer, which had been held by the 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 St. Giles's Charters, 171. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. 



410 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 

late Alexander Napier, knight, his grandfather, by John his 
father, and by Archibald himself since beyond the memory 
of man, 1 for the service of making an annual present of 
poultry to the King si petatur tantum. On 21 May 1509 
there is a further charter of half the lands of Rusky, etc., 
in Menteith, which with the Lennox inheritances were now 
incorporated in one free barony, to be called in time coming 
the barony of Edinbellie-Napier, 2 it being said that he and 
his mother had lately built a mansion-house there called 
Barnisdale. He was alive on 13 May 1521, and he died 
before 10 July 1522. 3 He married, first, Catherine, daughter 
of Sir William Douglas of Whittinghame, who is mentioned 
as his wife in 1482 and 1495, and who died in 1498-99, as 
appears from an inventory taken at Merchiston 16 February 
in that year. Secondly, Elizabeth Oreichtoun, who was 
deceased before 2 March 1511, when an inventory of her 
effects was taken at Merchiston. Thirdly, Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Colin Campbell of Glenurchy, who survived 
him and was his relict on 8 May 1529, when a precept was 
issued for infefting her in the lands of Gargunnock. She 
afterwards became the wife of John Dickson, Ross Herald. 

By his first marriage Archibald Napier had : 

.1. SIR ALEXANDER, of whom presently. 

2. Catherine, married to Robert Buchanan of Drumnakil, 

charter 26 May 1520. 

3. Isabella, married to James Menteith, Provost of 

Stirling, inventory 2 March 1511. 

4. Margaret, married, first, to Robert Napier of Wrights- 

houses, who granted her a charter intuitu matri- 
monii 5 December 1513, and she was his wife at 20 
April 1514, 4 and at 11 July 1523 ; 5 secondly, she was 
married to Thomas Corry of Kelwood, with whom she 
had charters in 1536 and 1541, 9 and who fell at Pinkie 
1547, she surviving him. 7 

5. Marion. 

6. Janet. 

7. Elizabeth, a nun at Sciennes. 8 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. ; Accounts of Lord High Treasurer, ii. 175. 2 Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 3 St. Giles's Charters. 115. 4 Protocol Book of J. Young. 
6 Partition of Lennox, 185. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 7 Acts and Decreets, xxvii. 
11 ; Exch. Rotts, xviii. 438. 8 Protocol Book of J. Fowler, Edin. City 
Chambers, 30 August 1520. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 411 

By his second marriage he had further issue : 

8. John, to whom a reversion of the barony was given in 

a charter of 21 June 1512. 1 

9. William, also mentioned in the charter of 1512, where 

he is styled brother-german of John. 2 
By his third marriage he had : 

10. Alexander of Inglistoun, styled son of the late Archi- 

bald Napier of Merchiston 13 May 1529, when he 
was infeft in half the lands of Gargunnock. He 
confirmed a ratification granted by Margaret Camp- 
bell, his mother, and others of his tutors, to Alex- 
ander Napier of Merchiston 7 August 1531 ; was 
admitted a burgess of Edinburgh in right of Katherine 
(sic) his wife, daughter of Clement Little, burgess, 
21 June 1553 3 (his wife is, however, called Isabel 
Little in 1562 4 ) ; and he died without issue, his testa- 
ment being confirmed 17 December 1572. 5 Isabella 
Little, his widow, was in 1578 the wife of Alexander 
Douglas, macer. 6 

11. Mungo, burgess of Edinburgh, who was heir of his 

brother Alexander ; 7 left two daughters, his co-heirs, 
viz. Marion, married to Robert Kennedy, brother of 
Gilbert Kennedy of Drumnellan, 8 and Katherine, the 
wife of George Ooutts, saddler in May bole. 9 

SIR ALEXANDER NAPIER, the eldest son, was knighted 
before 3 September 1507, 10 and obtained from his father a 
charter of Edinbellie-Napier, to him and Janet Chisholm, 
his wife, 2 January 1509-10, confirmed under the Great Seal 
4 March following. He had another charter under the 
Great Seal, proceeding upon his father's resignation, of the 
lands comprised in the baronies of Edinbellie and Mer- 
chiston to him and Janet Chisholm his wife, and the 
longest liver of them and their heirs, failing which, to John 
and William his brothers and their heirs respectively and 
successively. It is provided in the charter that Gartnes 
should be the chief messuage of the Lennox lands, at which 
infeftment should be taken ; and in the event of heirs- 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Ibid. 3 Edin. Guild Reg. * Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 Edin. 
Test. 8 Acts and Decreets, Ixxiv. 147. 7 Ibid., li. 68. 8 Edin. Inhib., 
i. 160. 9 Gen. Reg. Inhib., 2nd ser., vi. 23. 10 Chartulary of Cambus- 
kenneth, 207. 



412 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 

female succeeding, the King desired that the name of the 
barony of Edinbellie should be changed to Gartnes-Napier. 1 
Sir Alexander was slain during his father's lifetime at the 
battle of Flodden 9 September 1513. 2 He married Janet, 
daughter of Edmund Chisholm of Oromlix, who married, 
secondly, Sir Ninian Seton of Tullibody and Touch, charter 
14 January 1534-35 ; 3 thirdly, Sir James Towers of Inver- 
leith, whose wife she was in 1542. 4 By her Napier had : 

1. ALEXANDER, who succeeded his grandfather. 

2. Helen, married to Sir John Melville of Raith, with 

whom she had charters in the years 1536 and 1541. 5 

3. Janet t married, first, in 1531, to Andrew Bruce of Pow- 

foulis; and secondly, in or before 1560, to Robert Bruce. 6 

ALEXANDER NAPIER of Merchiston was infeft in the 
barony of Edinbellie-Napier as heir of his father 11 March 
1513-14. On 18 June 1525, when about 16 years of age, 
it was proposed that he should marry Agnes Murray, 
daughter of Sir John Murray of Blackbarony, or her sister 
Margaret ; but the marriage did not take place, and the 
contract was formally revoked by him 23 September 1531, 
shortly after he came of age, on the ground that it had 
been obtained from him during his minority by sinister 
machinations. 7 On 15 May 1533 he had a resignation of 
the lands of Gargunnock from Margaret Campbell, relict of 
Archibald Napier and her son Alexander Napier of Inglis- 
toun, and he and his brother-in-law, Andrew Bruce of 
Powfoulis, obtained leave from King James v. to visit 
France, and remain there for three years. The royal 
letters of protection for his lands and property which 
followed upon this license are dated 26 September 
1534, and the purpose of the journey is said to be ' for ful- 
filling of his pilgrimage at Sancte Johne of Amiens, in 
France.' 8 The King renewed his permission for Napier to 
remain abroad 28 July 1537, he being ill of a fever, but he 
was ordered home by summons dated 1 August 1538 to 
attend the Parliament appointed to meet 4 November 
ensuing. On 28 March 1544 he again received license 

1 Beg. Mag. Sig., 12 June 1512 ; Riddell's Addit. Remarks. 2 Reg. Mag. 
Siflr.,24 June 1558. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. * Ibid., 24 September 1542 ; Acts 
and Decreets, xviii. 188. 5 Reg. Mag. Sig. 6 The Bruces of Airth, 
63, Ixxxii. 7 Napier's Memoir, 41 ; Acta Dom. Cone., M.S., xxxv. . 105. 
8 Memoir, 43. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OP MEROHISTON 413 

from the Regent Arran, in the name of Queen Mary, to 
go to France and other parts beyond sea to be cured of 
his infirmities and sicknesses. His testament is dated 
October 1545, of which his widow obtained confirmation 
12 July 1548 ; the confirmation states that the testator 
was killed at the battle of Pinkie in September 1547. He 
was about thirty-eight years of age at his death. He 
married Annabella, youngest daughter of Sir Duncan Camp- 
bell of Glenurchy, who fell at Flodden, for which marriage a 
dispensation was obtained 9 October 1533, they being related 
in the fourth degree of consanguinity. She survived him, and 
married, secondly, Robert Fairlie of Braid. 1 They had issue : 

1. SIR ARCHIBALD his heir. 

2. Alexander, second son, ancestor of the Napiers of 

Luton Hoo, co. Bedford. 2 

3. Andrew, merchant, burgess of Edinburgh, preferred 

10 November 1563 to the prebend of St. Salvator's 
College in St. Giles's Church, Edinburgh. 3 He married 
(contract dated 13 July 1574) Janet, daughter and 
heir of Adam Kyle, burgess of Edinburgh, 4 and had 
issue. On 30 April 1601 John Naper, fiar of Mer- 
chiston, enters caution for him that he shall answer 
when required touching the mass said in his house. 5 
Archibald his son is mentioned, 8 and Anna his eldest 
daughter, married to Mr. William Berclay, son of 
Walter Berclay of Torrie, contract dated 21 March 
1601. 

4. Margaret. 

5. Marion, married, first, about 1565, to John Lourestoun 

in Gorgy ; and secondly, to Archibald Bruce of Pow- 
foulis, whose wife she was at 10 May 1570. 

SIR ARCHIBALD NAPIER of Merchiston, usually called of 
Edinbellie, was infeft in the barony of Edinbellie, as heir 
of his father, 8 November 1548, and in a seisin of the barony 
of Merchiston and the Pultrielands, it is mentioned that 
his father was slain at the battle of Pinkie. 7 He redeemed 

1 Acts and Decreets, Hi. 50. 2 Partition of Lennox, 192-216. 3 Edin. 
Burgh Deeds, 28 July 1574. 4 Reg. of Deeds, xiii. 257. a P. C. Reg., vi. 
682. * Edin. Inhib.,iii. 188; Gen. Reg. /wTii&s., xxiv.200. 7 In the Roll his 
name is very clearly written Alexander, but that is probably a clerical 
error. Exch. Rolls, xviii. 470. 



414 NAPIER. LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 

the lands of Gartnes, etc., from Duncan Forrester 1 June 
1555 ; and on 14 June 1558 the Queen granted and quitclaimed 
to him various lands in Lennox, with fishing in Lochlomond, 
etc., which had been formerly held by Matthew, Earl of 
Lennox, who was forfeited for rebellion yet the said Archi- 
bald and his predecessors had not participated in his guilt, 
but died under the banner of their sovereigns at Flodden 
and at Pinkie. 1 On 16 March 1561 he took the oath as 
Justice-Depute, 2 and he was knighted in 1565, probably on 
the occasion of the marriage of Queen Mary with Darnley 
28 July in that year. Although a Protestant, he seems to 
have been suspected of favouring the cause of the Queen, 
for on 12 August 1563 he was bound in 2000 to remain in 
ward in the burgh of Edinburgh or within two miles 
thereof. 3 This was on the initiative of the King's adherents, 
but on 18 July 1571 the Laird of Merchiston was taken and 
brought to the castle this time by the Queen's party. 4 In 
1576 he was appointed Master of the Ounyie-house (Mint), 5 
an office which he continued to hold for more than thirty 
years, and the records show that he acted upon many com- 
missions * anent the cunyie,' superintending assays and new 
coinage. 1 He was arbiter chosen to settle a dispute be- 
tween the merchants and craftsmen of Edinburgh in 1583, 7 
and he was from 1582 onwards frequently a member of the 
General Assembly of the Church. He had a Crown charter 
of an annualrent furth of the lands of Calziemuk 2 Nov- 
ember 1583, 8 and other charters of the meadow called 
Kingismedow and half the lands of Lauranstoun on 8 Feb- 
ruary 1587-88 and 16 November 1593, respectively. 9 The 
destination of the last-named lands was to Sir Archibald 
himself and Elizabeth Mowbray his wife, and to Alex- 
ander their son in fee, failing whom, then to Archibald 
his brother, and lastly to William, another brother. On 
10 February 1586-87 he made a declaration before certain 
friends that although he would not infef t his eldest son John 
in the lands of Over Merchiston, yet he would at no time 
wadset nor dispone those lands nor any part of them from 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 8 Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, i. 415. 3 P. C. 
Reg., i. 637. * Diurnal of Occurrents, 233. 6 P. C. Reg., viii. 400. 6 Ibid., 
iii. 375, 464. 7 Acta Parl. Scot., iii. 121 ; Edin. Burgh Records, iv. 257, 
264-265. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig., at date. 9 Ibid. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 415 

him. This declaration was, however, disregarded, and a 
serious dispute arose in after years between John and his 
half brothers and sisters in consequence of some settle- 
ments made upon them by Sir Archibald. On 12 July 1587, 
he was on a Commission of Parliament to inquire as to 
establishing a universal measure and weight. 1 There was 
an order addressed to him for putting in force the Acts 
against Jesuits in the shire of Edinburgh 6 March 1590 ; 2 
and on 16 December in the same year he was charged to 
find surety in 5000 that he would keep good rule in the 
Highlands, and would make himself and those for whom he 
was responsible answerable to justice when called. 3 He 
was on a Committee of the Privy Council to conclude 
upon the form and circumscription of the new coinage 4 
March 1596-97 ; 4 and in the autumn of 1604 he was de- 
spatched to London to treat with the English Commissioners 
upon matters affecting the coinage, conducting his business 
with dexterity and skill. He died at Merchiston 15 May 
1608, aged about seventy-four, 5 his testament being con- 
firmed at Edinburgh 17 February 1609. Sir Archibald 
married, first, Janet, only daughter of Sir Francis Bothwell, 
a Lord of Session, and Provost of Edinburgh, sister of Adam, 
Bishop of Orkney. She is mentioned as his wife in a grant 
of land which Napier acquired from Andrew Yorkstoun 29 
May 1563, and she died at Merchiston on the 20 December 
following. He married, secondly, about 1570, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Robert Moubray of Barnbougle, co. Linlithgow. 
By his first marriage he had issue : 

1. Jofon, of whom below. 

2. Francis, assayer at the Mint, of Hilhowsfleld in 1594, 8 

afterwards of Pitliver, and styled also of Crof tangrie. 7 
He was a burgess of Edinburgh when he married, on 
4 December 1586, Margaret, daughter of James Mow- 
bray of Pitliver. She obtained a decreet of adher- 
ence against him 8 February 1600, 8 and he died in 
January 1604. His widow married, secondly, William 
Mowbray, whose wife she was in 1607. 9 

1 Ada Parl. Scot., iii. 437. 2 P. C. Reg., iv. 464. 3 Ibid., iv. 803. 
* Ada Parl. Scot., iv. 113 ; P. C. Reg., v. 369. 6 Ibid., viii. 400. Gen. 
Reg. Inhibs., xxxi. 19 January 1613. J Ibid., xxx. 235. 8 Edin. Com. 
Decreets. 9 Gen. Reg. Inhibs., xxii. 139. 



416 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MERCHISTON 

3. Janet is mentioned in the testament of Janet Both- 

well, her mother, 14 December 1560. 
By his second marriage he had : 

4. Sir Alexander of Lauriston, designed third son of Sir 

Archibald in a deed made in his favour 3 June 1595. 
He was served heir of his father in an annualrent 
from the lands and barony of Oorstorphine 13 May 
1617, 1 and in part of the barony of Lauriston 19 
September 1622. 2 He was appointed one of the 
Senators of the College of Justice 14 February 
1626, 3 and he died in 1629. He married Mary 
Craufurd, who is named as his widow on 13 July 
1638, when she is described as future wife of 
Robert M' Alexander of Orossclays, 4 and by her had 
three children, to whom a bond was granted, 12 
July 1630, 5 namely, Alexander,' Elisabeth, born 13 
August 1619, 7 and Margaret, who died in 1650. 8 

5. Archibald of Woolmet, mentioned in a deed of gift to 

him by his father, 5 January 1584-85, and in the 
charter of Lauriston, 16 November 1593. He married 
Alison Edmonston, and was slain by five of the name 
of Scott and Thomas Orichtoun whilst riding home to 
his own house of the Woolmet, 8 November 1600. 
Our Sovereign Lord's letters were purchased by 
'Alesoune Edmeistoune,' the relict. 9 He left an 
only daughter Helen. 10 

6. Mr. Walter, is mentioned in relation to a dispute 

about the teind sheaves of Merchiston, 29 August 
1608. 11 

7. William, mentioned in 1593, 1595, and 1608 ; 12 also in 

1610, when, together with his brothers and sisters, 
he delivered up certain written instruments belong- 
ing to the Mint, which were found amongst the 
effects of his deceased father. 13 

8. Susanna, eldest daughter, married (contract, 5 April 

1589) to Patrick Hepburn of Whitsome. 14 

i Edin. Retours, 387. 2 Ibid., 486. 3 P. C. Reg., 2nd ser., i. 236. * Gen. 
Reg. Sets., xlvii. 349. 5 Reg. of Deeds, ii. p. xxx, 25 June 1641. 6 Glasgow 
Tests. 7 Edin. Reg. 8 Glasgow Tests. 9 Pitcairn, ii. 339 ; Birrell's Diary, 
52. 10 Edin. Test., 21 January 1602. P. C. Reg., viii. 159. 12 Ut supra. 
13 P. C. Reg., viii. 400-402. 14 Reg. of Deeds, xxxv. 188. The order of the 
daughters is uncertain, excepting that Susanna was the eldest. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 417 

9. Abellina, married to William Wardlaw of Riccarton; 
she had a charter as his future spouse, 21 April 
1585. 1 

10. Agnes, married, first, to Sir Patrick Gray of Inver- 

gowrie, son of Patrick, fourth Lord Gray, contract 
16 December 1596. 2 He died in 1606, 3 and she 
married, secondly, Henry Balfour, styled of Balgay, 4 
who died before 6 February 1612. 5 She married, 
thirdly, Mr. John Ogilvy of Newbigging, son of 
James, sixth Lord Ogilvy of Airlie. 6 

11. Helen, married to Sir William of Pitcullo, 7 and died 

December 1628. 8 

12. Marion, who is shown to have been older than 

Elizabeth. 9 

13. Elizabeth, married, first, in 1613, as his second wife, 

to James, sixth Lord Ogilvie of Airlie. 10 Secondly, 
to Alexander Auchmoutie, Gentleman of the King's 
Bedchamber. 

JOHN NAPIER of Merchiston, the renowed inventor of 
logarithms, eldest son of the foregoing, was born at Mer- 
chiston Castle in 1550, and entered as student at the 
University of Saint Andrews 1563, though it is probable 
that he did not complete his academic career at that city. 
After spending some time on the continent of Europe he 
settled, about the year 1574, at Gartnes, co. Stirling, where 
for many years he devoted himself to the study of pure 
mathematics and the Holy Scriptures ; it is probably a mis- 
take to connect him in any special degree with Merchiston, 
excepting during the last eight years of his life. His 
Plain Discovery of the whole Revelation of St. John, 
which appeared in 1593, and was dedicated to King 
James vi., largely influenced the Protestant movement 
in Europe, passing through several editions in English, 
Dutch, French, and German. Of his minor works men- 
tion may be made of De Arte Logistica, which deals with 
the sciences of Algebra and Arithmetic, but was not pub- 

1 Reg. Sec. Sig. , Hi. 95. 2 Protocol Book of J. Lawson, fol. 97. 3 Edin. 
Testa. * Gen. Reg. Inhib., xxvi. 317, anno 1607. ' For far Inhibs. 8 Cf. 
vol. i. 123. 7 P. C. Reg., viii. 401. 8 Gen. Reg. Inhib., 2nd ser., vi. 8; 
Canongate Burial Reg. 9 Edin. Sas., Sec. Reg., vii. 159 and 252. 10 P. C. 
Reg., xi. 20 ; cf. vol. i. 122-123. 

VOL. VI. 2 D 



418 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROH1STON 

lished until long after his death. His skill and ingenuity 
found expression also in various contrivances for the im- 
provement of agriculture and the invention of new and 
powerful engines of warfare, though the last he refused to 
divulge. His claim to undying fame rests, however, upon 
his sublime discovery of the correspondence between arith- 
metical and geometrical progression, and the logarithmic 
canon, which after years of intense study he founded upon 
it. From a letter addressed to Tycho Brahe in the year 
1594, 1 it appears that Napier had already at that time 
discovered the abstract law, but the practical application 
of it to the construction of those tables which have re- 
volutionised the whole method of calculating, and have 
rendered possible the modern sciences of Astronomy and 
Navigation, was the work of something like twenty years. 
He himself says that it ' ought to have been accomplished 
by the labour and assistance of many computers, but had 
been completed by the strength and industry of himself 
alone.' In the year 1614 he submitted to the learned 
world his Description of the marvellous Canon of Loga- 
rithms, which was dedicated to Charles, Prince of Wales, 
afterwards Charles i. To Napier, says Hume the historian, 
the title of a great man more justly belongs than to any 
other whom his country ever produced. Of special facts 
which illustrate his career the following may suffice. John 
Napier, flar of Merchiston, had a Crown charter of the 
lands of Edinbellie, etc., 8 October 1572, to him and to 
Elizabeth Striveling, daughter of Sir James Striveling of 
Keir, his future spouse, in conjunct fee; and also to the 
said John the lands of Merchiston and the Pultrielands. 2 
Liferent of the latter is reserved to Sir Archibald Napier, 
his father, and to Elizabeth Mowbray, the wife of Archi- 
bald. On 28 July 1593 he became surety in 5000, that 
Sir James Ohisholm, his father-in-law, should do nothing to 
hurt the King, or the realm, or the true religion during his 
absence abroad. 3 He granted an annuity of 100 to Joan, 
his daughter, 13 November 1595; and on the same date a 
charter of the lands of Ballacharne and Tomdarroch to 
Robert Napier, his son by Anne Ohisholm. John Napier, 

1 Epist. ad Johan. Kepler, 1718, p. 460 ; Napier's Memoir of Napier, 
361-366. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig. 3 P. C. Reg., v. 610. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 419 

flar of Merchiston, and Anne Ohisholm, his wife, had a 
Grown charter of the island of Inchemone in the Duchy of 
Lennox, 30 January 1596-97 ;' and on 11 March 1602 he 
complained to the Privy Council against the Provost and 
Bailies of Edinburgh that they had caused to be built upon 
the lands of Sciennes, of which he was heritable proprietor, 
lodgings for the use of the plague-stricken. 2 He succeeded 
his father in 1608, and on 1 November 1610 he resigned 
the Pultrielands in favour of William Nesbitt of Dene, 
who had purchased the property for 1700 merks. 3 There 
had been disputes of long standing between the Napier 
tenants of Oalziemuck and the Grahames of Boquhopple 
and other feuars of neighbouring lands in Menteith. These 
dated back so far as the year 1591, and had occasionally 
led to violence. He entered, however, on 24 December 
1611, into a mutual bond with Campbell of Lawers, who 
undertook to bring to punishment any Macgregors or other 
Highland broken men who should trouble Napier's lands in 
Lennox or Menteith, the latter to assist Lawers and his 
family in all their lawful and honest affairs. 4 In the course 
of a complaint against Thomas Grahame of Boquhopple, 28 
April 1613, it is mentioned that John Napier of Merchiston 
was heavily diseased with the pain of the gout, 5 and when 
he made his will, 1 April 1617, his hand was * led by the 
notaries underwritten, at my command, in respect I do 
not write myself for my present infirmity and sickness. 6 
He died on 3 April 1617, and was buried in the parish 
church of Saint Cuthbert. The original portraits of Napier 
known to his biographer in 1834 were six in number ; one 
dated 1616, cet. 66, presented by Margaret, Baroness Napier, 
to the University of Edinburgh; a second at Thirlestane, 
which has never been out of the family, representing the 
philosopher at the same period of life ; a third in the 
possession of Mr. Napier of Blackstoun; a fourth in the 
possession of Aytoun of Inchdairnie; a fifth acquired by 
Lord Napier, the history of which is unknown; and the 
last, which is attributed to Jameson, belonged to the late 
Professor Macvey Napier. 7 This great man was twice 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 P. C. Reg., vi. 359. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. 4 Napier's 
Memoir, 326. ' P. C. Reg., x. 41. 6 Napier's Memoir, 430. 7 Ibid., pp. 
ix. and x. 



420 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 

married; first (contract dated 23 February 1571-72), to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Stirling of Keir, but on 
8 October 1572 she was still his future spouse. She died 
in the latter part of the year 1579, and he married, 
secondly, Anne, daughter of Sir James Chisholm of Cromlix, 
co. Perth : after Napier's death she married William Cun- 
ningham of Oraigends. 1 

By his first marriage he had : 

1. ARCHIBALD, afterwards Lord Napier. 

2. Joan, mentioned in 1595. 

By the second marriage he had further issue : 

3. John of Schambodie, 2 called eldest son of John Napier 

and Agnes Chisholm in a charter 2 November 1598. 
Had a charter of the lands of Torrie-Easter from his 
father and. mother, to him and Mary Foulis, his 
wife, 22 January 1614; these lands he again con- 
veyed to his brother Alexander Napier and his heirs, 
10 January 1622. Both charters were confirmed 28 
July 1625. 3 He married (contract 21 December 
1613) Mary, daughter of Sir James Foulis of Colin- 
ton. 4 He had issue John, baptized 9 April 1615, 5 and 
Anna, baptized 26 May 1616. 6 

4. Mr. Robert, born 1580, of Boquhopple 1620, and of 

Drumhony 1628, witnessed the cancelling of certain 
bonds in 1629 ; 7 editor of his father's posthumous 
works ; of Culcreuch in 1634, when he was put on 
the Commission of the Peace for Stirlingshire. 8 "With 
others he managed the estates of his nephew Lord 
Napier during the Commonwealth, and he died in 
1655. By his first wife he had two sons, viz. Archi- 
bald, whose issue became extinct, and John, who died 
s.p. By his second wife, Anna, daughter of Sir William 
Drummond of Riccarton, third Baronet, he had : 

1. William of Culcreuch, who was his heir in the lands of Cul- 

beg, Stirlingshire, 19 August 1657. 9 

2. Alexander, heir of his father in the lands of Boquhopple, 

1 June 1655, 10 and acquired Culcreuch from his elder 
brother 1675. His descendants ultimately succeeded to 
the baronetcy of Nova Scotia, which was destined to heirs- 
male general, and are now (1909) represented by Sir Archi- 
bald Lennox Milliken Napier, Baronet. 

1 Laing Charters, No. 2055. 2 P. C. R*g., xi. 492. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig, 
4 Laing Charters, 1697; Reg. Mag. Sig., 28 July 1625. 5 Edin. Beg. 
6 Ibid. 7 P. C. Reg., Hi. 261. 8 ibid., 2nd series, v. 382. 9 Retours. Ibid. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 421 

5. Alexander of Tome-Easter, 1 died without male issue 

in October 1652. 2 By his wife Anne Dunkeson he 
had a daughter Anne, born 2 April 1636, who was 
served his heir 6 September 1653. 3 

6. William of Ardmore, had a charter of the lands of 

Easter-Torrie from Alexander, his brother-german, 
with consent of Anne Ohisholm, their mother, and 
of William Cunningham of Craigends, her spouse, 
30 June 1630. He married Margaret Cunningham, 
who is mentioned in the same charter. 4 He is stated 
to be ancestor of the Napiers of Craiganet. 

7. Adam, who, with Anna Buchanan, his wife, had a 

grant of the lands and barony of West Nisbet, 27 
December 1639. 6 He was progenitor of the Napiers 
of Blackstoun, co. Renfrew, and he died in the month 
of August 1647. 6 Anna Buchanan survived him, 
and was appointed guardian to Archibald and Anna 
Napier his children. 

8. Margaret, married to James Stewart of Rossyth, 

banns published 16 May 1606 ; 7 mentioned as wife 
1 January 1608, 8 and had a charter 7 December 
1613. 

9. Jean, whose banns of marriage with John Gaw of 

Maw were published 16 May 1606. 9 She was sub- 
sequently married to George Hamiltoun, eldest son 
and apparent heir of James Hamilton of Kinbrax- 
month. Her brothers Archibald, John, and Robert, 
and her uncle Sir Alexander Napier of Lauriston, 
were all parties to the marriage-contract, which is 
dated 17 March 1620. 10 

10. Elizabeth, married (contract dated 12 January 1622) 

to William Cunningham, son and apparent heir of 
William Cunningham of Craigends. Charter dated 
4 February 1622, confirmed 30 January 1637, by 
which date William was deceased." 

11. Agnes, married (contract dated 14 June and 11 July 

1620) to George Drummond of Balloch. 

1 See Ed in. Kecords, iv. 500. 2 Edin. Reg. 3 Retoiirs, Fife and Stirling. 
4 Laing Charters, No. 2055. 6 Beg. Mag. Sig. 6 Edin. Tests., 4 June 
1649. 7 Canongate Reg. 8 Beg. Mag. Sig., 3 March 1608. 9 Canongate 
Reg. 10 Reg. Mag. Sig., 17 January 1624. Ibid. 



422 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MERCHISTON 

12. Helen, married (contract dated 18 January 1629) to 
Matthew Brisbane, only son of William Brisbane, 
parson of Erskine. 

I. SIR ARCHIBALD NAPIER of Merchiston, who succeeded, 
matriculated at Glasgow University in March 1593. He 
was infeft in the fee of the barony of Merchiston, 18 July 
1597, and had also a charter of the lands of Auchlenschee 
in Menteith, 12 December 1598. 1 In company with his 
uncle, Sir Alexander Napier of Lauriston, he was charged 
with committing a violent assault upon John Hepburn, 
a servant of the Lord Treasurer, in the outer Tolbooth 
of Edinburgh on 10 June 1601, whilst the Lords were 
administering justice, but the case against Archibald was 
dismissed. He accompanied James vi. to London in 1603, in 
the situation of Gentleman of the Bedchamber. He was 
honoured with knighthood during the King's visit to Edin- 
burgh in 1617, and on 20 August in that year he was 
sworn of the Privy Council. 2 He was served heir of his 
father in the lands of Merchiston, Edinbellie, etc., 3 June 
1617, 3 and had a charter of lands on 14 December 1619, 
to him and to Margaret Graham, his wife. 4 He was 
appointed Treasurer-Depute for Scotland by letters dated 
at Royston 21 October 1622, and was admitted to the 
office at Edinburgh 19 November following. 5 He was also 
constituted Clerk of Justiciary and Master of the Cere- 
monies 6 November 1623, but resigned the appointment 
9 August 1624. 6 He was very assiduous in his attendance 
at meetings of the Privy Council, and served upon numerous 
committees. Thus, on 25 August 1619, he was appointed 
on a committee to discuss the freighting of foreign ships : 7 
and other subjects engaging his attention during the last 
years of King James were the development of glass-manu- 
facture and the working of coal in Scotland, to report upon 
the copper coinage, to deal with the feud between the 
Buchanans and Macfarlanes, and to make inquiry into the 
case of Orkney and Shetland, and the possibility of getting 
an increased rent for them. 8 On 9 March 1625, a warrant 
was addressed to him to provide money for the repair of 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 17 January 1624. 2 P. C. Reg. , xi. 214. 3 Edin. Retours. 
4 Reg. Mag. Sig. & P. C. Reg., xiii. 95. 6 Pitcairn, iii. 558. 7 P. C. Reg., 
xii. 67. 8 Ibid., xii. and xiii. per indices. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 423 

Stirling Castle and Linlithgow and Falkland Palaces. 1 He 
continued to hold the office of Treasurer-Depute under 
Charles i., who ratified the appointment made by King 
James 29 May 1625 ; 2 and he had been one of the Ordinary 
Lords of Session since 25 November 1623. He was removed 
from this office, however, 25 January 1626, by reason that 
he was an officer of State, and to comply with new 
regulations which had been introduced; but he was 
appointed an Extraordinary Lord on 14 February. 3 He 
took the oath of Privy Councillor to Charles i. at Holy- 
rood House, 23 March 1626, 4 was appointed on the Com- 
mission of Exchequer on the 30 of the same month, 5 and 
was sworn a member of the Council of War for Scotland, 
27 July 1626. 8 He was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia, 
2 May 1627, 7 and was raised to the Peerage of Scotland 
two days later under the title of LORD NAPIER OF 
MEROHISTON, by patent dated at Whitehall 4 May, the 
limitation being to heirs-male of his body. On 29 August 
1627, Lord Napier was directed to examine and report upon 
Dumbarton Castle, 8 and in the same month he undertook 
the charges of victualling and equipping various privateers 
to serve against the French, who were at that time 
reported to be descending upon Scotland; and he gave 
bonds for the public service to raise money for paying the 
crews of His Majesty's three ships of war on the coast. 9 
Amongst other expedients for raising money , Charles granted 
a lease to Lord Napier of the Crown lands of Orkney for 
45,000 marks a year, which his lordship sub-leased to 
William Dick at a higher rental. This and other matters 
gave great offence to several of the leading statesmen, 
who did their best to ruin him in the royal opinion. A 
true relation of the unjust pursuit against Lord Napier, 
ivritten by himself is the title of a MS. he left behind him 
relating to this part of his career, and it was published by 
his descendants in 1793. In 1630 he surrendered the lease 
of Orkney, his pension, and the office of Treasurer-Depute, 
for which he had 4000 allowed him. He also received 
a letter of approbation under the Great Seal, 6 March 

1 P. C. Reg., xiii. 705. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig. 3 P. C. Reg., 2nd ser., i. 220, 
236. '* Ibid., 248. 6 Ibid., 265. 6 Ibid., 370. r Precepts, Privy Seal and 
Reg. of Signatures. 8 P. C. Reg., 2nd ser., ii. 52. 9 Ibid. 



424 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OP MEROHISTON 

1631, and was a member of the new Privy Council 
appointed by Charles on 31 March. 1 He had a Crown 
charter of the lands of Garvock in Fife, 24 January 1635. 2 

When the King's fleet arrived in Leith roads in May 
1639, Lord Napier went on board with a conciliatory pro- 
posal from the Committee of Estates to the Marquess of 
Hamilton, the Commander - in - chief, and matters were 
soon adjusted. 3 He signed the famous bond at Oumber- 
nauld in January 1641, and having incurred the enmity of 
the Covenanters, he was taken prisoner and warded in 
Edinburgh Castle from 11 June till 16 November 1641, 
when he was released on giving security to keep the peace. 
In 1644, he was confined to his apartments in Holy rood 
House, with the Master of Napier, his son, and Sir George 
Stirling, his son-in-law. They were commanded not to stir 
from thence under a heavy penalty. The Master having 
disregarded this injunction and made his escape, the 
Covenanters immediately imprisoned Lord Napier, Sir 
George Stirling, Lady Elizabeth Napier, the Master's 
wife, and Lilias Napier, his sister, in Edinburgh Castle, 
and confined Lady Stirling to the house of Merchiston. 
The plague raging in the Castle of Edinburgh, Lord Napier 
and his friends were, as a favour, removed to the gaol of 
Linlithgow, whence they were liberated by the Master of 
Napier after the battle of Kilsyth. Lord Napier accom- 
panied the Marquess of Montrose to the south of Scotland, 
and after the defeat of Philiphaugh escaped with him into 
Athole. He died at Fincastle in November 1645, 4 being 
then upwards of seventy years of age, and was buried in 
the Church of Blair Athole. He married (contract dated 
15 April 1619) Margaret Graham, second daughter of John, 
fourth Earl of Montrose, and sister of James, first Marquess 
of Montrose, and by her had issue : 

1. John, born 22 May 1623, 5 died young. 

2. ARCHIBALD, second Lord Napier. 

3. Margaret, married, as his second wife (contract 2 

January 1637), to Sir George Stirling of Keir, and 
died before 1654. 

4. Lilias, born 15 December 1626, 6 died unmarried after 1665. 

1 P. C. Reg., iv. 188. * Eeg. Mag. Sig. 3 Guthrie's Memoirs. 4 Edin. 
Tests., 20 January 1646. 5 Edin. Reg. 6 Ibid. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 425 

II. ARCHIBALD, second Lord Napier, after escaping from 
his father's apartments at Holyrood, as already mentioned, 
joined his uncle the Marquess of Montrose at Cardross, 
21 April 1645. He took an active part in the battle of 
Auldearn, 4 May ; and at the battle of Alford, 2 July, he 
commanded the reserve of Montrose's army. After the 
victory at Kilsyth, 15 August 1645, Napier was despatched 
by Montrose to receive the submission of the city of Edin- 
burgh, and to bring away all royalists who had been im- 
prisoned. His tenants in Menteith being plundered and 
oppressed by the adherents of the Marquess of Argyll, 
Lord Napier determined to march to their relief, and in 
February 1646 went to Kincardine, a seat of Lord Mon- 
trose, which he fortified as a place of retreat after he 
should have succoured his friends in Menteith. In this 
house he was besieged by General Middleton, who brought 
against it artillery from Stirling. Lord Napier held out 
for fourteen days, when, water and provisions failing, 
it became necessary to capitulate, 16 March 1646, but 
his lordship escaped through a postern gate, and joined 
Montrose in safety. Middleton ordered the house to be 
burnt, shot twelve of the garrison, and sent thirty-five 
prisoners to Edinburgh. Lord Napier was served heir of 
his father in the barony of Merchiston and other lands 
18 November 1646, 1 and was infeft in the barony of Edin- 
bellie-Napier 19 May 1647. Previous to this infeftment, 
he had granted a commission to John, Lord Erskine, Eliza- 
beth, Lady Napier, his wife, Robert Napier of Culcreuch, 
his uncle, and others, empowering them to manage his 
estates, as he was about to proceed out of the realm. 
Somewhat against the advice of his friends, who feared 
confiscation of his estates, Lord Napier joined Montrose in 
Paris ' where it was ever sayde yt Montrose and his nephew 
wes like ye Pope and ye Church, who wold be inseper- 
able.' 2 Being excepted by name out of Cromwell's Act of 
Grace and Pardon, 12 April 1654, Lord Napier was virtually 
banished, and retired into Flanders, where he died on the 
eve of the Restoration, in the beginning of the year 1660, 
at Delfshaven in Holland. Lord Napier married (contract 
28 May, 6 and 13 June 1641) Elizabeth Erskine, eldest 

1 Gen. Eetours, No. 3206. 2 Letter from Brussels, 14 June 1648. 



426 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 

daughter of John, eighth Earl of Mar, 1 who, after the 
Restoration, obtained a pension of 500 a year in con- 
sideration of her husband's loyalty and sufferings. She 
died in the year 1683. 2 They had issue : 

1. ARCHIBALD, third Lord Napier. 

2. John, killed in a naval action against the Dutch 1672, 

without issue. 

3. Jean, married to Sir Thomas Nicolson of Carnock, co. 

Stirling, Bart., and had an only child THOMAS, who 
became fourth Lord Napier. She died in London in 
the year 1680, her will, which is dated at London 29 
May 1679, being proved at Edinburgh, 3 February 
1681. 

4. MARGARET, who succeeded as Lady Napier. 

5. Mary, died unmarried in September 1680. 

III. ARCHIBALD, third Lord Napier, obtained a royal 
warrant in 1662, addressed to the Earl of Middleton, for 
the payment to him and his mother of the sum of 3000 
in recompence for the privations to which his family had 
been put during the Commonwealth. He had a charter 
of the baronies of Merchiston, Edinbellie, Drumquhassel, 
Lanrik and Ruskie, with other lands, 3 March 1669. Being 
unmarried and the sole male descendant of the patentee's 
body, Lord Napier felt anxiety to preserve the title from 
becoming extinct at his death. He accordingly resigned 
the Peerage into the King's hands, 20 November 1676, and 
obtained a new patent with the former precedence, dated 
at Whitehall 17 February 1677. The destination was now to 
the heirs-male of his own body, failing whom, to his three 
sisters, Jean, Margaret, and Mary, and the heirs-male of 
their bodies respectively, whom failing, then to the first- 
born heir-female of Jean, without division, and her heirs- 
male and female successively, but without division, so long as 
there remained any heir of the body of Jean, and failing that, 
to the same heirs of Margaret and Mary successively ; then 
to the heirs-male whatever of Archibald, Lord Napier ; and 
lastly, failing all these, to his heirs and assigns whatever. 
A charter granting the Peerage and Barony of Edinbellie- 
Napier in the same terms was passed 7 February 1677, 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig., 8 April 1646. 2 Edin. Tests., 22 September 1684. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OP MERCHISTON 427 

containing a clause obliging the heir-female who should 
succeed to the title and her heirs to assume the surname 
and arms of Napier. Lord Napier died a bachelor in 
August 1683. 1 

IV. THOMAS, fourth Lord Napier, formerly Sir Thomas 
Nicolson of Oarnock, Baronet, born 14 January 1669, and 
served heir of his father, the late Sir Thomas Nicolson, in 
the lands of Oarnock, etc., 3 October 1671, now succeeded 
his uncle as fourth Lord Napier in terms of the foregoing 
destination, he being the only child of the Hon. Jean 
Napier, the eldest sister. The baronetcy of Nova Scotia, 
however, passed from this family, arid after being long 
dormant, was assumed by William Milliken Napier 17 
March 1817, who proved himself to be heir-male of Sir 
Archibald Napier, the original patentee of 2 May 1627. 
Sir Thomas was served heir of Archibald, Lord Napier, his 
uncle on the mother's side, 9 July 1684, 2 and he died un- 
married in France on 9 June 1686. The title now de- 
volved upon his aunt the Hon. Margaret Napier as heir of 
entail and provision. She succeeded also to the baronies 
of Merchiston and Edinbellie, but the lands of Oarnock in 
Stirlingshire were inherited by Helen, Isabella, and Mar- 
garet Nicolson, sisters of the deceased Thomas, Lord 
Napier's father, who were served heirs-portioners 6 
September 1686. 

V. MARGARET, Baroness Napier, second daughter of the 
second Lord Napier, and widow of John Brisbane, had in- 
feftment of the barony of Edinbellie 18 November 1686 ; she 
was served heir of Thomas, Lord Napier, her nephew, in 
certain property in Edinburgh on the 8 of the same month, 3 
and heir-general of her brother Archibald, Lord Napier, 31 
December 1687." She was married, probably in 1676, to John 
Brisbane, only son of Matthew Brisbane, writer in Edin- 
burgh, the third son of Matthew Brisbane of Rosland, co. 
Renfrew. He graduated at Edinburgh 1652, and proceed' 
ing to England was present in the character of Deputy 
Treasurer with the Fleet under the Duke of York, in 

1 Edin. Tests., 22 July 1684 and 12 October 1685. 2 Retours, No. 1292, etc. 
3 Edin. Retours, No. 1304. * Gen. Retours, No. 6882. 



428 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 

action against the Dutch 3 June 1665. He was, in 1671, 
Judge- Advocate to the Fleet in the Mediterranean under 
the command of Sir Edward Spragg, who employed him in 
negotiating a peace with Algiers. He was employed by 
Charles n. upon various missions and embassies to the 
Courts of France, Flanders, and Portugal, and he was in 
1683 secretary to the Commission which was appointed for 
executing the office of Lord High Admiral in England. He 
was nominated Envoy-Extraordinary to the Court of Lisbon 
in June 1684, but died the same year, aged forty-six, with- 
out proceeding thither. He was buried in Saint George's 
Chapel, Windsor. His widow had a warrant from Charles n., 
4 August 1683, for a pension of 200 yearly in recognition 
of her husband's important services; and this was after- 
wards continued to her by James vn. and Queen Anne. 
She died at London in September 1706, 1 having had issue : 

1. Charles Brisbane, who died in infancy in Paris in 

1678. 

2. John, Master of Napier, in the Royal Navy, died off 

the coast of Guinea in 1704, unmarried. 

3. Elizabeth, Mistress of Napier, married (contract dated 

15 December 1699) to William Scott, eldest son of Sir 
Francis Scott of Thirlestane, co. Selkirk, Baronet, 
whose descent is given below. She died 11 August 
1703, and was buried at Westkirk, leaving issue : 

(1) FRANCIS, Lord Napier. 

(2) Margaret, died young. 

(3) Agnes, married, at Thirlestane, 10 July 1719, to Walter Scott 

of Harden. 

(4) Anne Isabella Elizabeth, born 1 August 1705, died young. 

The first Scott of Thirlestane distinctly so designed is John 
Scott of Thirlestane in 1535. Of his origin nothing is certainly 
known, but the most probable suggestion is that he was a grand- 
son of Alexander Scott of Howpaslot c. 1470, a younger son of Sir 
Walter Scott of Buccleuch. 8 He is called 'kynesman to the 
Lairde Bukcleughe ' in an account of a raid made upon the lands 
of Thirlestane by the Armstrongs of Liddesdale 21 September 1543. s 

JOHN SCOTT of Thirlestane, in company with Robert Scott of 
Howpaslot, entered into a bond of manrent with Malcolm, Lord 
Fleming, Great Chamberlain of Scotland, that they should ride 
with him when charged, and take his part in all actions, quarrels, 
and debates against whomsoever, our Sovereign Lord alone 

1 Edin. Tests., 3 September 1707. 2 M'Call's Some Old Families, 172-181. 
3 Hamilton Papers, ii. 66. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MKROHISTON 429 

excepted, at Peebles 19 January 1535. l He had a lease of the 
lands of Ramsaycleuch from Andrew, Commendator of Melrose, 
24 May 1536, 2 and in the year 1542 obtained from James v. a 
warrant directing the Lyon Herald to assign him the double 
tressure of the royal arms of Scotland, to be borne upon his 
paternal shield in recognition of his having come to the aid of 
his Sovereign with a troop of lances of his friends and followers 
at Sautrey Edge, against the English army then invading Scotland 
an incident commemorated in the Lay of the Last Minstrel. Much 
criticism has been bestowed upon the subject of this grant, and 
there can be no question that the document which had been long 
considered as the original is not such, but is apparently an early 
copy of it. There is, however, other evidence of the fact of the 
grant, and the subject was investigated in the year 1700 by the 
Lyon King of Arms, who declared himself satisfied of the truth 
of the original grant, upon evidence produced to him, and gave a 
new warrant to Sir Francis Scott 18 December 1700. 3 John Scott 
of Thirlestane, who was deceased by 14 September 1549, is stated 
to have married, first, a daughter of Scott of Allanhaugh, by 
whom he had several sons : 

1. ROBERT, his heir. 

2. Symon of Winterburgh, tutor of Thirlestane, ancestor of the 

Scotts of Newburgh. 

3. William, mentioned as brother-german of Robert Scott of 

Thirlestane in a declaration by Walter Kerr of Cessford 

5 October 1567. 4 

He married, secondly, Marion Douglas, whom he obliged him- 
self to infeft in a liferent of Eltreif and Gilmanscleuch, to her 
and the heirs between them in the month of February 1535. 6 Her 
' eldest lauchfull sone ' was 

4. James of Gilmanscleugh, who raised an action against Robert 

Scott of Thirlestane and his curators 19 December 1577, 6 
and he signed the band of 1589. 

ROBERT SCOTT of Thirlestane was laird in 1549, when he obtained 
from James, Commendator of Kelso and Melrose, a rental of lands 
as son and heir of John Scott of Thirlestane. 7 On 21 May 1550, he 
signed an obligation to the Queen and Lord Governor to bring in 
prisoners to trial and condign punishment ; 8 and seven years later 
he was concerned with many other Scotts in breaking into the 
Church of Saint Mary of the Lowes, and searching therein for Sir 
Peter Cranstoun, priest, for his slaughter, upon ancient feud and 
forethought felony, 10 April 1557. 9 He was chosen one of the curators 
of Sir Walter Scott of Branxholm 18 January 1562 ; he signed the 
band of the clan 1564 ; and he is said to have held the office of 
Warden of the West Marches. He occurs in the Register of the 
Privy Council 3 December 1573, 10 and he was deceased on 19 
December 1577.' 1 He married Margaret, daughter of Sir Walter 
Scott of Buccleuch, and by her had issue : 

1. SIR ROBERT of Thirlestane. 

1 Original penes Fleming of Cumbernauld. 2 Thirlestane Inventory. 
3 Riddell's Tracts, 143. 4 Scotts of Buccleuch, ii. 222. 6 Acts and 
Decreets, Ixxi. 102. 6 Ibid. 7 Thirlestane Inventory. 8 Scotts of Buc- 
cleuch, ii. 197. 9 Pitcairn, i. 400. 10 P. C. Reg., viii. 804. Acts and 
Decreets, Ixxi. 102. 



430 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 

2. Walter of Gamescleugh, ancestor of the Lords Napier. He 

took part in the daring assault upon Carlisle Castle in 1596, 
which set free Kinmont Willie, and was slain in a duel by 
John Scott, son of Walter Scott of Tushielaw, in January 
1609. l By his wife Janet, daughter of Sir Patrick Porteous 
of Halkshaw, he had 

(1) PATRICK, afterwards of Tanlawhill, of whom later ; 
(2) Simon; (3) Marion, and (4) Margaret, all men- 
tioned in a decreet of removal before the Lords of 
Council 19 May 1612, at the instance of Robert 
Scott. 2 

3. William of Fingland, died about 1610, leaving two sons, Walter 

and Robert, both of whom died s.p. 

SIB ROBERT SCOTT of Thirlestane, born 1566, was a minor at his 
father's death under tutory of his uncle Simon Scott of Winter- 
burgh. His name occurs very frequently in the records of this 
period. He signed the Bond of Alliance of the Scott clan at Tod- 
rickshank 3 June 1589; was the sole companion of the Laird of 
Buccleuch on the occasion of his memorable interview with Queen 
Elizabeth 1597 ; was knighted in 1606; M.P. for Selkirk 1607; and 
died about the year 1627. Sir Robert married, first, before 1594, 
Margaret, daughter of Sir John Cranstoun of Cranstoun, by 
whom he had a son, 

1. Sir Robert of Cruxton, who died v.p., s.p., in 1619. He married 

Mary Lyon, daughter of the Master of Glamis ; she was 
married, secondly, to Robert Semple of Beltries. 3 
He married, secondly (contract dated at Peebles 23 January 

1602), Katherine Jardine, daughter of Sir Alexander Jardine of 

Applegarth, and had another son, 

2. SIR JOHN SCOTT, of whom below. 

SIR JOHN SCOTT of Thirlestaiie, who succeeded, agreed in 1641, 
with his cousin-germ an, Patrick Scott of Tanlawhill, that the latter 
should redeem the Thirlestane estate from extensive mortgages 
with which his father had encumbered it. He engaged in the 
Civil War on the side of the King, and was banished until the 
Restoration ; and he died in 1666. He married, anno 1645, Dame 
Eupham Young, relict of Sir David Ogilvie of Clova, younger 
son of James, first Earl of Airlie. They had an only son, Francis 
of Davington, whose descendants are now extinct in the male 
line. 

PATRICK SCOTT of Thirlestane, the only surviving son of Walter 
of Gamescleugh, was chamberlain to the first Earl of Buccleuch, 
and one of the curators of the Countesses Mary and Anne of 
Buccleuch. He embraced the parliamentary side in the Civil War, 
was Commissioner of War for Selkirkshire 1643, and M.P. for 
the same county 1648-49. 4 A fine of 2000 was imposed upon his 
estate by Cromwell's Act of Grace and Pardon, 12 April 1654, for 
the part he took for Charles n. in common with other Presby- 

1 P. C. Reg., ix. 361. 2 Acts and Decreets, 273, fol. 2. 3 Scotts of 
Buccleuch, ii. 270. 4 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. 51. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 431 

terians between the King's coming to Scotland and the battle of 
Worcester, but upon special representations this was rescinded 
by an Act of Council 17 July 1655. He was fined 3000 in 1662. 
With the acquiescence of his cousin John Scott, he redeemed the 
lands of Thirlestane, etc., out of the hands of Sir William Scott 
of Harden, the Earl of Buccleuch, and others, to whom Sir Robert 
Scott had given mortgages for large sums in the years 1621 and 
1623. His portrait is preserved at Thirlestane. Patrick Scott 
married Isabel, daughter of Sir John Murray of Blackbarony, 
Bart., and had 

1. SIR FRANCIS, his heir. 

2. David, died young. 

3. Walter, to whom his brother Francis was served heir 9 Feb- 

ruary 1663 and 29 November 1667. 

4. Jean, married (contract dated 4 February 1661) to Sir James 

Hay of Linplum. 

5. Margaret, married (contract dated 15 February 1670) to Sir 

Alexander Bannerman of Elsick. 

6. Mary, married (contract dated 8 and 13 January 1674) to Sir 

William Primrose of Carrington. 

SIR FRANCIS SCOTT of Thirlestane, the eldest son, was born 
at Dalkeith 11 May 1645, 1 and was created a Baronet by patent 
dated at Whitehall 22 August 1666, to him and to the heirs-male 
of his body. He was served heir of his father 29 November 1667, 
was one of the representatives of Selkirkshire in Parliament from 
1693 to 1701, and was appointed Master of Works 17 October 1704. 
He died at Edinburgh 7 March 1712 in his sixty-seventh year. ' He 
married (contract dated 27 November 1673) Henrietta, sixth 
daughter of William Ker, third Earl of Lothian, and by her, 
who died at Edinburgh 30 June 1741, aged eighty-eight, had 

1. SIR WILLIAM, his heir. 

2. Patrick, died young. 

3. Francis, died young. 

4. Robert, baptized 20 July 1682, 2 died young. 

5. Charles, died young. 

6. James, baptized 13 July 1685, 3 died young. 

7. Anne, died young. 

8. Henrietta, married (contract dated 16 June 1731) to William, 

Lord Boss, and died 16 January 1750. 

9. Isabel, died young. 
10. Lilias, died young. 

SIR WILLIAM SCOTT of Thirlestane, second Baronet, pursued 
his studies and graduated at the University of Edinburgh, and 
was admitted a member of the Faculty of Advocates 25 Feb- 
ruary 1702. He was the author of several Latin poems which were 
printed in vol. i. of Selecta Poemata, published at Edinburgh 1727. 
He executed a deed of entail of Thirlestane 20 May 1719, and he 
died 8 October 1725. He married, first (contract dated 15 Decem- 
ber 1699), Elizabeth, Mistress of Napier, and had issue as above ; 
secondly, he married (contract dated 30 June 1710) Jean, daughter 
of Sir John Nisbet of Dirleton, relict of Sir William Scott of 
Harden, but had no issue by her. 

1 Dalkeith Reg. 2 Canongate Reg. 3 Ibid. 



VI. FRANCIS, fifth Lord Napier, though sixth possessor of 
the title, succeeded his mother in 1706 in the Peerage 
title and Merchiston estates, and his father Sir William 
Scott in 1725 in the baronet's title and the estate of 
Thirlestane. He served as a volunteer in the allied army 
under the Earl of Stair in the campaign of 1743, and 
was appointed one of the Lords of Police 2 October 1761. 
He died at Lewes in Sussex 11 April 1773. 1 He married, 
first (contract dated 14 March 1729), Henrietta, third 
daughter of Charles Hope, first Earl of Hopetoun, who 
was born 21 February 1706, and died at Edinburgh 17 
February 1745; secondly, in April 1750, Henrietta Maria, 
daughter of George Johnston of Dublin, a cadet of the 
family of Hilton : she died at Brompton 20 September 1795, 
aged sixty-two. 

By his first marriage, he had : 

1. WILLIAM, sixth Lord Napier. 

2. Charles, born 19 November 1731. Of Merchiston Hall, 

co. Stirling. Lieutenant R.N. 31 July 1754, captain 
15 August 1762. Died at Esslemont House 9 Decem- 
ber 1807. He married, first, 19 December 1763, Grizel, 
daughter of Sir John Warrender of Lochend, Bart., 
who died without issue 15 November 1774 ; secondly, 
at Edinburgh, 2 July 1777, Christian, daughter of 
Gabriel Hamilton of Westburn, and had issue : 

(1) Francis, born 1778, East India Company's Civil Service. 

Died at Madras 1798. 

(2) Gabriel Hamilton, born 1784, died 1795. 

(3) Sir Charles, born 6 March 1786, a distinguished British sea- 

man, K.C.B. Admiral of the Blue. Died 1860. 

(4) Sir Thomas Erskine, born 1790. A general in the Army, 

K.C.B. Colonel 71st Regiment, and Governor of Edinburgh 
Castle. Died 1863. 

(5) Agnes, born 1780, died 1792. 

(6) Henrietta Hope, born 1782 ; married, 1807, to George Gordon 

of Hallhead ; died 1867. 

(7) Agnes Dundas, born 1783, died unmarried. 

(8) Christian Graham, born 1787; married, 1809, to Charles 

Campbell, afterwards of Combie. 

3. Francis, born 15 November 1733. Lieutenant of 

Marines 1755, captain 1757, major 1772, and lieut- 
col. 1779. He married, 9 January 1771, Eliza, only 
child of John Greenaway, Keeper of His Majesty's 

1 Edin. Tests., 13 August 1783. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 433 

Stores in Portsmouth Dockyard, and died without 
issue at Dublin in 1779. 

4. John, born 4 April 1736. An officer in the 25th Regi- 

ment, died unmarried in Germany 31 July 1759. 

5. Mark, born 30 December 1738, entered the Army 1755, 

colonel 1782, major-general 1793. Died at Edinburgh 
10 June 1809. He married, first, 24 February 1761, 
Anne, daughter of John Neilson of Oraigcaffie, by 
whom he had an only daughter Mary, who died 
young; secondly, Margaret, daughter of Alexander 
Symson of Ooncraig, and had, besides other children 
who died in youth : 

(1) Francis, W.S., born 20 August 1770, married, 30 March 1796, 

Mary Elizabeth Jane Douglas, eldest daughter of Colonel 
Archibald Hamilton, and died 11 June 1818. He was father 
of the late Sheriff Mark Napier, author of Memoir of John 
Napier ofMerchiston and other works, and of other children. 

(2) Hope, born 1771. Lieutenant R.N. Died unmarried 1796. 

(3) Alexander, born 1775, died unmarried 1797. 

(4) Mark, born 14 February 1779. Lieutenant-general in the 

Army. Died 26 June 1843. 

(5) William, Charles, born 1781. Lieutenant Royal Artillery. 

Died unmarried 1803. 

(6) John George, born 1790. An officer of the East India Com- 

pany. Died 1806. 

(7) Isabella, born 11 December 1772, married, 28 April 1797, to 

Lieut.-Col. Charles Maitland of Craigieburn, and died 11 
December 1805, leaving issue. 

(8) Katherine Douglas, born 19 September 1776, died unmarried 

18 April 1858. 

(9) Marcia Anne Symson, born 11 January 1783, married, 2 

January 1804, to Alexander Ogilvy, and died 1 April 1861, 
leaving issue. 

(10) Maria, born 24 May 1787, married, July 1823, to Rev. Thomas 
Henry Yorke, vicar of Bishop Middleham, and died 1 Feb- 
ruary 1868. 

By his second marriage Lord Napier had further issue : 

6. George, a colonel in the Army, and Comptroller of 

Army Accounts in Ireland ; born 11 March 1751 ; 
died at Olifton 13 October 1804. In consideration 
of his services His Majesty was pleased to bestow a 
pension of 1000 a year upon his widow and daughters. 
He married, first, 22 January 1775, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Captain Robert Pollock, by whom he had, 
besides other children who died in infancy, a daughter 
Louisa Mary, born 1776, died 26 August 1856. He 
married, secondly, 27 August 1781, Sarah Lennox, 
VOL. vi. 2 E 



434 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 

seventh daughter of Charles, second Duke of Rich- 
mond and Lennox, and by her, who died in August 
1826, had 

(1) Sir Charles James, born 10 August 1782. Lieut.-general in 

the Army, and colonel of the 22nd Regiment. A very 
distinguished soldier, at one time Commander-in-chief in 
India, G.C.B. He was twice married, but died without 
issue 29 August 1853. 

(2) Sir George Thomas, born 30 June 1784. A general in the 

Army, and colonel of the 1st West India Regiment, K.C.B. 
Married twice, and died 8 September 1855, leaving issue. 

(3) Sir William Francis Patrick, born 17 December 1785. A 

general in the Army, K.C.B., author of the History of the 
Peninsular War. He married, 14 March 1812, Caroline 
Amelia, daughter of Gen. the Hon. Henry Edward Fox, and 
died 12 February 1860, leaving issue. 

(4) Richard, born 7 August 1787. Fellow of All Souls', Oxford, 

and a Barrister. He married in 1817 Anna Louisa, daughter 
of Sir J. Stewart, Bart., and widow of Captain Staples, R.N., 
and died 13 January 1868, leaving issue. 

(5) Henry Edward, born 5 March 1789. Captain R.N. ; F.R.S., 

etc. Married, 17 November 1823, Caroline Bennett, and 
died 13 October 1853, leaving issue. 

7. James, born 8 February 1752, died 1760. 

8. Patrick, born 14 June 1757. Lieutenant R.N. 1777, 

captain 1782; died unmarried 15 June 1801. 

9. James John, born 11 October 1761. Lieutenant of 

Marines ; killed in the Fox frigate during the Ameri- 
can War 1776. 1 

10. Stewart, born 27 May 1763. Lieutenant of Marines ; 

died 9 October 1779, buried at Marylebone. 2 

11. Hester, born 11 October 1754; married, 17 February 

1774, to Alexander Johnstone of Oarnsalloch; and 
died his widow in 1819, leaving issue. 

12. Mary, born 3 September 1760, died at Merchiston 

12 April 1765. 

VII. WILLIAM, sixth Lord Napier, the eldest son of the 
foregoing, was born 1 May 1730, and entered the Army in 
1747. He attained the rank of major in the Scots Greys 
14 November 1770, but was compelled to sell his com- 
mission in 1773 on account of ill-health. He was then 
appointed Deputy- Adjutant-General of the Forces in Scot- 
land, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the Army, 17 

1 Edin. Tests., 31 December 1788. * Ibid. 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OP MEROHISTON 435 

January 1773, a commission he continued to hold until his 
death, which took place at Edinburgh 2 January 1775. He 
was buried at St. Outhbert's, Edinburgh. On 20 September 
in the same year, King George in. granted a pension of 
300 to trustees for the behoof of Francis, the youthful 
Lord Napier, and of his four sisters who are named below. 1 
Lord Napier married, 16 December 1754, Mary Anne, fourth 
daughter of Charles, eighth Lord Oathcart; she died at 
Edinburgh 11 July 1774, in her forty-seventh year, and was 
buried at St. Outhbert's. Their issue were : 

1. FRANCIS, seventh Lord Napier. 

2. Mary Schaiu, born 5 August 1756, married, 14 April 

1779, to Reverend Andrew Hunter, D.D., Professor 
of Divinity at Edinburgh, and one of the ministers of 
the Tron Church, who died 21 April 1809. She died 
at Edinburgh 9 October 1806, leaving issue. 

3. Henrietta, born at Ipswich 4 April 1759. 

4. Mary Elisabeth, born at Worcester 20 January 1766, 

died at Edinburgh 4 November 1778. 

5. Jane Wilhelmina, born at Frampton Hall, Lincolnshire, 

19 March 1769, died 3 August 1779. 

VIII. FRANCIS, seventh Lord Napier, was born at Ipswich 
23 February 1758. He entered the Army 3 November 1774, 
when he had an ensign's commission in the 31st Regiment, 
and a lieutenancy 21 March 1776. He accompanied that 
regiment to Canada, took part in the American War, and 
was one of those who piled their arms at Saratoga in 1777. 
He was detained a prisoner at Cambridge, U.S., for six 
months, but obtained permission to return to Europe upon 
his parole not to serve in America till he should be regu- 
larly exchanged as a prisoner of war an event which took 
place in October 1780. After serving in the 35th Regiment, 
he was on 31 May 1784 captain, and 29 December following 
major, in the 4th Regiment of Foot, and he retired from the 
Army in 1789. Lord Napier had the degree of LL.D. con- 
ferred upon him by the University of Edinburgh 11 Novem- 
ber 1789, and on 16 of that month laid the foundation-stone 
of the College of Edinburgh, as Grand Master Mason of 
Scotland. He was chosen one of the sixteen Representa- 

1 Privy Seal, English Beg., x. 327. 



436 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 

tives of the Scottish Peerage in 1796, in 1802, and again in 
1807 ; was appointed Lord-Lieutenant and Sheriff-Principal 
of the county of Selkirk 17 November 1797, and was 
from 1802 to 1816 High Commissioner to the General 
Assembly of the Ohurch of Scotland. He died 1 August 
1823. Lord Napier married, at St. George's, Hanover 
Square, 13 April 1784, Maria Margaret, eldest daughter 
of Lieut.-General Sir John Olavering, K.B., by Lady Diana 
West, daughter of John, first Earl of Delawarr. By her, 
who died 29 December 1821, he had issue : 

1. WILLIAM JOHN, eighth Lord Napier. 

2. Francis, born at Wilton Lodge 30 July 1793. In the 

Royal Navy. 

3. Charles, born 24 October 1794, major in the Army, 

died 15 December 1874 ; married, first, in 1824, Alice 
Emma, daughter of Roger Barnston, who died 16 
May 1834; secondly, 2 July 1840, Annabella Jane, 
only daughter of Edward Gatacre of Gatacre, co. 
Salop, D.L., who died 6 March 1885. Major Napier 
left issue by both marriages. 

4. Rev. Henry Alfred, born 20 June 1797, rector of 

Swyncombe, co. Oxford. Died 20 November 1871. 

5. Maria Margaret, born at Cork 9 September 1785, 

married, 29 August 1816, to Rev. Orfeur William 
Kilvington of Hatfield, Vicar of Brignall, co. York, 
and died 19 July 1861. 

6. Charlotte, born at Edinburgh 18 January 1788, and 

died there 6 June 1789. 

7. Anne, born 11 December 1789, married, 8 June 1816, to 

Sir Thomas Gibson Oarmichael of Skirling, seventh 
Baronet, and died at Leghorn 7 December 1862. 

8. Sophia, born 21 October 1791, died unmarried 10 

December 1829. 

9. Caroline, born 18 December 1798, married, 9 April 

1825, to Neville Reid, and died 9 November 1844, 
leaving issue. 

IX. WILLIAM JOHN, eighth Lord Napier, the eldest son, 
was born at Kinsale 13 October 1786, entered the Royal 
Navy, and served in the Defence at the battle of Trafalgar, 
and afterwards in the Imperieuse ; mentioned in despatches 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 437 

7 January 1807; attained the rank of captain, and died 
at Macao 11 October 1834. He married, 28 March 1816, 
Elizabeth, only daughter of the Hon. Andrew James 
Oochrane Johnstone, and granddaughter, maternally, of 
James, third Earl of Hopetoun, and by her, who died 
6 June 1883, aged eighty-eight, had issue : 

1. FRANCIS, ninth Lord Napier. 

2. William, born 27 July 1821, Clerk of the Works at 

Hong -Kong, married, 3 May 1854, Louisa Mary, 
daughter of John H. Lloyd, Q.O., and died 21 January 
1876, leaving issue. 

3. Maria Margaret, born 18 March 1817, married, 19 April 

1837, to John Gellibrand Hubbard, M.P., created 
Baron Addington in 1887, and died 18 April 1896, 
leaving issue. 

4. Georgiana Louisa, born 29 June 1818, died unmarried 

16 April 1900. 

5. Eliza, born 26 September 1822, married, 18 August 

1847, to Admiral Sir John Charles Dalrymple Hay, 
third Baronet, and died 2 April 1901, leaving issue. 

6. Anne Carmichael, born 27 January 1824, married, 29 

April 1847, to Captain the Hon. George Hope, R.N., 
fifth son of John, Earl of Hopetoun, and died 28 
May 1877. 

7. Ellinor Alice, born 11 May 1829, died 11 May 1903 ; 

married, 10 November 1853, to the Hon. George Grey 
Dalrymple, and had issue. 

8. Lucy Matilda, born 23 November 1831, died 10 January 

1842. 

X. FRANCIS, ninth Lord Napier, born 15 September 1819, 
K.T., P.O., LL.D. of Harvard, Glasgow and Edinburgh 
Universities. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary to the United States of America 1857-59, to the 
Netherlands 1859-61, Ambassador to Russia 1861-64, to 
Prussia 1864-66. Governor of Madras 1866-72, and acting 
Viceroy of India in 1872. His Lordship was created BARON 
ETTRIOK OF ETTRICK in the Peerage of the United 
Kingdom 16 July 1872, and he died 19 December 1898 in 
Florence, and was buried, 8 February 1899, at Thirlestane. 
He married, at Florence, 2 September 1845, Anne Jane 



438 NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OP MEROHISTON 

Charlotte, only daughter of Robert Manners Lockwood, 
and had issue : 

1. WILLIAM JOHN GEORGE, tenth Lord Napier. 

2. John Scott, born 13 November 1848, late colonel 

Gordon Highlanders, O.M.G., 1900 ; married, 6 April 
1876, Isabella, youngest daughter of Thomas Shaw of 
Ditton, co. Lancashire, relict of Major James Leith, 
V.O., and has issue. 

3. Basil, born 3 July 1850. Lieutenant R.N. Died 21 

February 1874. 

4. Mark Francis, born 21 January 1852. Barrister-at- 

law, M.P. for Roxburgh 1892-95. Married, 30 May 
1878, Emily Jones, and has issue : 

(1) Basil, born 15 March 1879. Died whilst serving with the 

Imperial Yeomanry in South Africa 28 December 1900. 

(2) Claude Inverness, born 2 April 1880. 

(3) Philip Henry, born 16 April 1884. 

XI. WILLIAM JOHN GEORGE, tenth Lord Napier of Mer- 
chiston in Scotland, second Baron Ettrick of Ettrick in 
the United Kingdom, and a Baronet, was born 22 Septem- 
ber 1846 ; D.L. for co. Selkirk, Secretary to Her Majesty's 
Legation at Stockholm 1887-88, and at Tokio 1888-91. He 
married, first, 5 January 1876, Harriet Blake Armstrong, 
youngest daughter of Edward Lumb of Wallington Lodge, 
Surrey, who died 5 June 1897; secondly, 19 July 1898, 
Grace, third daughter of James Oleland Burns. 

By his first marriage he has issue : 

1. Francis Edward Basil, Master of Napier, born 19 

November 1876. Late lieutenant 7th King's Royal 
Rifle Corps. Married 12 December 1899, the Hon. 
Clarice Jessie Evelyn, daughter of James, ninth 
Lord Belhaven and Stenton, and has issue : 

(1) William Francis Cyril James, born 9 September 1900. 

(2) Georgina, born 28 November 1901. 

(3) Augusta Caroline Harriet Georgina, born 25 January 1904. 

2. Frederick William Scott, born 19 May 1878. Lieu- 

tenant 3rd Battalion King's Own Scottish Borderers. 
By his second marriage Lord Napier and Ettrick has 
further issue : 



NAPIER, LORD NAPIER OF MEROHISTON 439 

1. Archibald Lennox Colquhoun William John George, 
born 11 December 1899. 

CREATIONS. Lord Napier of Merchiston, 4 May 1627: 
remainder extended to heirs-female and heirs-general what- 
ever, but with original precedence, 7 February 1677, in the 
Peerage of Scotland. Baron Ettrick of Ettrick in the 
Peerage of the United Kingdom, 16 July 1872. Baronet of 
Nova Scotia, 22 August 1666. 

ARMS (recorded in Lyon Register). Quarterly : 1st and 
4th, argent, a saltire engrailed cantoned of four roses 
gules, barbed vert, for Napier ; 2nd and 3rd, or, on a bend 
azure a mullet pierced between two crescents of the field, 
within a double tressure flory counterflory of the second, for 
Scott of Thirlestane. 

ORESTS. A dexter arm erect couped below the elbow 
proper, grasping a crescent argent, for Napier. 2nd, a 
mural crown argent, masoned sable, issuing therefrom 
six lances disposed three and three in saltire, with pennons 
azure, for Scott. 

\^H 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, an eagle, wings expanded proper ; 
sinister, a chevalier in coat of mail and steel cap, all 
proper, holding in the exterior hand a lance with a pennon 
azure. 

MOTTO. Ready aye Ready. 

[H. B. McC.J 



LESLIE, LORD NEWARK 




AVID LESLIE was the 
fifth son of Patrick Les- 
lie, Oommendator of Lin- 
dores (see title Lindores). 
As a military commander 
he had a brilliant career, 
which can only be 
sketched in outline in a 
work like the present. 
At an early age he took 
service under Gustavus 
Adolplms, and rose to 
the rank of a colonel of 
horse. His reputation 
as an officer must have 
reached his native land, 
as on 28 July 1643 the 
Estates hearing that he was then in Scotland, 'and that 
he has beheaved himselff with greate commendatioun in 
Germanic where he hes serveit this long tyme bygaine . . . 
and being verie assured and confident of his affection to 
the trew protestant religioune his majesties service, the 
honour and sauffitie of this his native country,' directed 
the Chancellor to write to the Duchess of Hesse, asking her 
to allow Leslie to come into their service, and at the same 
time voted him the large salary of 9000 merks per annum 
for three years. 1 A few months later he was appointed 
major-general in that army which left for England in 
January 1644 under the command of his kinsman the Earl 
of Leven. He was at the battle of Marston Moor, and 
largely contributed by his skill as a leader of cavalry to 
the success of the Parliamentary forces on that day. On 

1 Ada Parl. Scot., vi. pt. i. 19, 20. 



441 

16 March 1645 he was appointed Lieutenant-General of the 
Horse. 1 Recalled to Scotland after the defeat of Baillie at 
Kilsyth, he met Montrose and his victorious troops at 
Philiphaugh 13 September 1645, and completely defeated 
them. For this service Parliament voted him a sum of 
50,000 merks. 2 In 1647 the Scottish army having returned 
from England was reduced to a few thousand men, 
Leslie being again appointed Lieutenant-General with a 
salary of 1000 Scots a month over and above his usual 
pay. In the same year he proceeded to the north, success- 
fully put down all resistance there, and then went to the 
Isles, where all the castles and houses of the Macleans 
were surrendered to him. 3 In 1648 he was on the Com- 
mittee of War for Perth, and in June of that year was 
publicly thanked by the Estates for his great services to 
his country, for his ' wisdome, vigilaunce, undefatigable 
paines, constant fldelitie, gallant conduct, and everie gyft 
desyreable in ane great leader of armies.' 4 He refused to 
take part in the ' Engagement ' for the rescue of the King, 
and declined a commission as lieutenant-general of horse. 
In 1649 he led the expedition to the north which re- 
sulted in the capture of the ill-fated Montrose. After 
the acceptance of the Covenant by King Charles n. he was 
appointed commander of the Scottish army, and after 
having repeatedly out - manoeuvred Cromwell when the 
latter invaded Scotland, he at last was defeated by him 
at Dunbar 3 September 1650, through circumstances which 
have never been completely explained. Leslie himself says, 
*I take God to witness we might have as easily beaten 
them as we did James Graham at Philiphaugh if the 
officers had stayed by their troops and regiments.' 5 He 
was at Worcester with King Charles n., and escaped from 
the battle there 3 September 1651. He was, however, 
captured in Yorkshire, taken to London, and imprisoned 
in the Tower till 1660. He was fined 4000 by Cromwell's 
Act of grace and indemnity in 1654, a sum afterwards 
reduced to 1333, 6s. 8d. 8 After the Restoration, as a 
reward for his services, he was, on 31 August 1661, created 

1 Acta Parl. Scot., vi. pt. i. 363, 394. 2 Ibid., 627. 3 Ibid., vi. pt. ii. 167. 
4 Ibid., 97. 5 Lothian Papers quoted in Hill Burton's Hist., vii. 26. 6 Acta 
Parl. Scot., vi. pt. ii. 846. 



442 LESLIE, LORD NEWARK 

LORD NEWARK, with remainder to the heirs-male of his 
body, and received a pension of 500 per annum. 

Apart from his military career not much is known about 
the life of this distinguished general. On 10 January 1650 
he had a grant of the barony of Abercrombie and the lord- 
ship of St. Monans which he purchased from Lord Aber- 
crombie. 1 He died of apoplexy February 1682. He married 
Anna (called Jean by Douglas), daughter of Sir John Yorke 
of Gouthwaite, co. York ; she survived him, and was buried 
at Holyrood 28 February 1713. 2 They had issue : 

1. DAVID, second Lord Newark. 

2. Helen. 

3. Anna. 

4. Joanna. These three sisters all died unmarried, and 

their remaining sisters were served heirs portioners 
of provision to them 4 March 1693. 3 

5. Elizabeth, probably the eldest daughter, was married, 

before 22 April 1686, 4 to Sir Archibald Kennedy of 
Oulzean, Baronet. 

6. Mart/, born 1656, was married, first, in or before 

1676, to Sir Francis Kinloch of Gilmerton, Baronet, 
who died 1699. She was married, secondly, 18 
January 1702, as his second wife, to Sir Alexander 
Ogilvie of Forglen, Baronet, and Lord of Session, 
and died at Edinburgh 24 March 1748, in her ninety- 
third year. 

7. Margaret, was married, probably early in 1696, to 

James Campbell, fourth son of Archibald, ninth Earl 
of Argyll. He had previously been married to Mary 
Wharton, a girl of thirteen, whom he had abducted 
from her father's house. His marriage with her was 
annulled by Act of Parliament. 5 Margaret Leslie 
died 19 April 1755. 

II. DAVID, second Lord Newark, had a charter to himself 
as Master of Newark, and his son, of the barony of Aber- 
cromby, 16 August 1672. 8 He succeeded his father in 
1682, and sat in Parliament for some years, but in 1693 
was fined 1200 for absence. 7 He died 15 May 1694, 

1 Reg. Mag. Sig. 2 Holyrood Reg. 3 Retours, Gen., 7339-7341. * See 
vol. ii. 490 note. 6 See vol. i. 368. 6 Reg. Mag. Sig. 7 Ada Parl. Scot., 



LESLIE, LORD NEWARK 443 

having married, 26 May 1670 (contract 1 June 1670 '), Eliza- 
beth, seventh daughter of Sir Thomas Stewart of Grand- 
tully. By her, who was buried at Holyrood 17 January 
1714, he had issue, besides a son who died young, five 
daughters : 

1. JEAN, styled Baroness of Newark. 

2. Mary, died unmarried. 

3. Elizabeth, born 5 October 1675, died unmarried at 

Edinburgh 8, and was buried at Holyrood 11, April 
1760. 2 

4. Grizel, married (contract 7 August 1722 3 ) to Thomas 

Drummond of Logiealmond. 

5. Christian, married, as his second wife, to Thomas 

Graham of Balgowan, died at Edinburgh 21, and was 
buried at Holyrood 25, August 1752. 4 

JEAN, the eldest daughter, took the title of Baroness 
Newark on the assumption that her grandfather, the first 
Lord, had on 16 August 1672 resigned his honours into the 
King's hands, and had a new charter, dated 14 July (sic) 1672, 
and written to the Great Seal 29 August 1672, by which 
the destination of the title was said to be to the grantee in 
liferent, and to his son the Master of Newark in fee and 
the heirs-male of his body, whom failing, to the Master's 
daughter, Jean, and the heirs-male or female of her body, 
and to the heirs-male or female of their bodies, whom 
failing, to the next daughter of the Master, whom failing, 
Charles Leslie and James Leslie his brothers, and to the 
heirs-male of their bodies. But the royal signature and 
charter following on it were held by the House of Lords 
in 1793 to be fabricated. Jean Leslie was married (con- 
tract 8 March 1694) to Sir Philip Anstruther of Anstruther, 
who died 1743. She died 21 February 1740, leaving issue : 

1. WILLIAM, styled third Lord Newark. 

2. David, died unmarried. 

3. ALEXANDER, styled fourth Lord Newark. 

4. Christian, died unmarried. 

5. Helen, married, 6 June 1743, 5 to John Chalmers of 

Raderny, D.D., afterwards minister of the parish of 

1 Lament's Diary ; The Red Book of Grandtully, i. p. cxxvii. 2 Holyrood 
Burial Reg. 3 Laing Charters, 3095. * Holyrood Burial Reg. 6 Scott's 
Fasti. 



444 

Kilconquhar, who died 7 April 1791. She died 21 
February 1787. 1 

6. Jean, died unmarried at Grangemuir 8 January 1790. 

7. Catherine, died unmarried 1796. 

8. Margaret, died unmarried. 

9. Johanna, died unmarried after 1785. 

WILLIAM, the eldest son, assumed the title of Lord 
Newark on his mother's death. He was a captain in 
Jordan's marines, reduced 1749, and got a company of 
invalids 1755. He voted at various elections of Scottish 
Representative Peers without challenge till 2 January 
1771, when his vote was objected to on the ground that he 
was not an heir-male of the body of the grantee of the 
patent of 1661. He died, unmarried, at Edinburgh 5 
February 1773, and was succeeded by his brother 

ALEXANDER, who also assumed the title of Lord Newark. 
He was a merchant at Boulogne. He voted at the election 
of Peers in 1774 without challenge, but at the election of 
1790 his vote was objected to on the same grounds as his 
brother's had been questioned previously. In 1793 the 
House of Lords pronounced the deeds above referred to, 
which had been produced in support of his claim, to be 
fabricated, and the Peerage must therefore be considered 
to have become extinct at the death of the second Lord. 
Alexander Leslie (the family had taken their mother's 
name) died at Stonehouse, near Plymouth, 10 March 1791, 
aged eighty. He married, about 1743, Elizabeth Price, the 
daughter of a captain in the East India Service. By her, 
who died before April 1799 when her will was proved, 2 he 
had issue : 

1. John, who assumed the title of Lord Newark on his 
father's death. He was, 26 November 1793, pro- 
moted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the 3rd Foot, and 
the next month was appointed A.D.O. to the King. 
He died, apparently unmarried, at Exmouth 12 June 
1818. Notwithstanding the decision of the House of 
Lords in 1793, he seems to have continued to style 
himself Lord Newark throughout his life, and his will 

1 Scott's Fasti. z Complete Peerage. 



LESLIE, LORD NEWARK 445 

was proved in 1818 as that of John, Lord Baron 
Newark. Since his death there has been no assump- 
tion of the title. 

2. Philip, born 1747, was a merchant in Boulogne. He 

married, 27 October 1777, Frances Manners, daughter 
of John, Marquess of Granby, and sister of Charles, 
fourth Duke of Rutland. She had been married, first, 
9 July 1772, to George (Carpenter), Earl of Tyrconnel, 
from whom she was divorced 1777, on account of her 
elopement in July 1776 with Leslie, whom, as above 
stated, she married a few days after the divorce. 1 
By her, who was born 25 March 1753, and died at 
Edinburgh 15, buried in Holyrood 20, October 1792, 2 
he had issue. 

3. David, who resumed his paternal name of Anstruther, 

was of Huntsmore Park in Buckinghamshire. He 
married Donaldson of Allachie, co. Aberdeen. 

4. Francis, an officer in the Hon. East India Company's 

service, died at Madras in December 1777. 

5. William, born June 1759, married at Bath 2 November 

1791 - Senior, niece of Sir Robert Smith, a general 
in the Danish service, and governor of Rendsburgh. 

6. Elizabeth, married to Magnus, London, and died 

at Boulogne 20 June 1787, leaving issue. 3 

7. Jane, married to John Sanford of Minehead, co. 

Somerset, and died 8 January 1790, leaving issue. 

CREATION. Lord Newark, 31 August 1661. 

ARMS (not recorded in the Lyon Register). Quarterly : 
1st and 4th, argent, on a bend azure three buckles or, for 
Leslie ; 2nd and 3rd, or, a lion rampant gules debruised by a 
ribbon sable : over all on an escutcheon gules a castle 
triple-towered argent, masoned sable, for Lindores. 

CREST. A demi-angel winged or, holding in his right 
hand a griffin's head proper. 

SUPPORTERS. Two griffins argent, beaked, winged, and 
armed or. 

MOTTO. Periissem ni periissem. 

[j. B. p.] 

1 Complete Peerage. 2 Holyrood Burial Reg. 3 Scots Mag. 




IR JOHN LIVINGSTON, 
of Kinnaird, ancestor of 
the Earls of Newburgh, 
is stated by the Peerage 
writers 1 to have de- 
scended from Robert, 
second son of Sir John 
Livingston of Oallendar, 
ancestor of the Earls of 
Linlithgow, but no proof 
of this descent is given, 
and it can only be con- 
sidered as being not 
without probability. 
The pedigree for which 
vouchers have been 
found begins with Henry 
Livingston of Falkirk, who may have descended through 
the Livingstons of Middlebinning, from Robert Livingston 
of Linlithgow, Comptroller, who was executed 22 January 
1449-50, along with a son of Sir Alexander Livingston of 
Callendar (see title Linlithgow). This Robert was pro- 
bably a son of Henry Livingston of Manerstoun, a kinsman 
of the Oallendar family, perhaps grandson of Sir John 
Livingston, killed at Homildon Hill in 1402. 



HENRY LIVINGSTON of (or in) Falkirk appears to be first 
mentioned in two charters dated 3 and 4 January 1550-51, 2 
one in favour of Mr. Alexander Livingston of Dunipace, 
and the other in favour of Thomas Livingston of Haining, 
third son of Alexander, fifth Lord Livingston, 3 in both of 

1 Crawfurd's Peerage, 275 ; Douglas's Peerage, 513. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
3 Vol. v. of this work, 437. 



447 

which William, son of Henry Livingston in Falkirk, is in- 
cluded as an heir-substitute of entail. Henry Livingston 
was elected Provost of Stirling in succession to John 
Oraigengelt of that Ilk, at Michaelmas 1553. 1 His prede- 
cessor had been in office several times, and seems to have 
taken offence at being passed over on this occasion, for the 
town council's choice of Livingston created a fierce feud 
between the Laird of Oraigengelt and his supporters and 
the Livingstons, which culminated in a collision between 
the two parties in Stirling on 21 August 1555. The Living- 
stons were the victors in the fight, and they celebrated 
their victory in a cruel and barbarous manner by cutting 
off the left arms of John Craigengelt and his eldest son. 
For this outrage the Livingstons were summoned to stand 
their trial. On 26 November 1555 Mr. Alexander Living- 
ston of Dunipace found William, Lord Livingston, as surety 
for their entry at the next justice-ay re of Stirling, to under- 
lie the law for art and part in the mutilation of the 
Oraigengelts, and on 8 January 1555-56 Henry Livingston 
in Falkirk, with William and Thomas, his sons, and his 
three servants, found the Laird of Dunipace caution for 
their appearance to answer the same charge. 2 The result of 
the trial, if it took place, is not recorded, but the minutes 
of Stirling Town Council show that the feud continued, 
and another outbreak became so imminent that the Queen- 
Regent addressed a letter to the council, advising them, 
in view of the Michaelmas election in 1556, to choose one 
of their own ' honest nychtbouris ' as Provost, and ' on na 
wiss ' to elect either Livingston or Craigengelt, or any of 
the partakers in their feud. 3 This well-meant advice re- 
ceived but scant attention, for another ' outlandman,' 
Robert Forrester of Calziemuck, was chosen Provost, and 
John Oraigengelt one of the councillors. By and by, how- 
ever, the feud died out, both Oraigengelt and Livingston 
being members of the council in 1560, while the former 
was again elected Provost in 1564. 4 Along with his son, 
John Livingston of Abercorn, Henry Livingston appeared 
before the Privy Council on 7 September 1570, in circum- 
stances which point to a suspicion on the part of the 

1 Stirling Burgh Records (1519-1566), 278. s Pitcairn's Crim. Trials, 
i. (pt. ii.) *383. 3 Stirling Burgh Records (1519-1566), 68. 4 Ibid., 280. 



448 

Regent Lennox that they were sympathisers with Queen 
Mary. 1 Henry was alive in 1575, his name occurring in a 
deed (written in his * hospitium ' in Stirling, and dated 13 
August of that year) relating to Mr. Thomas Livingston, 
rector of Oarnocht and Eriok, probably his son. 2 He 
married Margaret, 3 daughter of Sir James Forrester of 
Torwood, 4 who was perhaps his second wife, as his eldest 
son seems to have been of age in 1545, while his youngest 
son is said to have been born in 1563. 5 His children so far 
as ascertained were : 

1. Alexander, who had a feu-charter of lands in Falkirk 

from the Abbey of Holyrood on his father's resigna- 
tion 7 May 1545. He next day granted a liferent 
charter to Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Wedder- 
spoon, burgess of Linlithgow, apparently in contem- 
plation of marriage. 6 He was styled of Westquarter, 7 
part of Redding, an old possession of the family of 
Livingston. His line ended in an heir-female, his 
great-granddaughter Helen, who married Sir William 
Livingston of Oulter, son of the sixth Lord Living- 
ston. 8 

2. William, styled in 1555 servitor of Mr. Alexander 

Livingston of Dunipace. 9 

3. Mr. Thomas, treasurer of Glasgow. 10 He married 

Helen Little, nurse of King James vi., relict of 
Alexander Gray." 

4. JOHN, of whom below. 

5. David, who had a charter to his parents in liferent 

and himself in fee 17 July 1567. 12 

6. Mr. Henry, minister of St. Ninians. 13 He married Agnes 

Gray, with issue, and died before 26 August 1624." 

SIR JOHN LIVINGSTON, 'son of Henry Livingston of 
Falkirk,' was infeft in the lands of Winchelhaugh near 
Stirling in April 1564, 15 and he granted an annualrent from 

1 P. C. Reg., xiv. 74-75. 2 Stirling Protocols MS., 1513-1596. 3 Reg. of 
Deeds, iii. 527. * Forrester MS. pedigree, which gives Henry Livingston 
of Falkirk as Margaret's second husband. 6 Scott's Fasti, pt. iv. 709. 
6 Register of Tacks by the Commendators of Holyrood, 1545-67 (Ms. in 
Reg. Ho.). 7 Reg. of Deeds, iv. 436. 8 Westquarter charters. 9 Reg. of 
Deeds, i. 242. 10 Ibid., iv. 436. " Ibid., xix. 82. 12 Westquarter charters. 
13 Scott's Fasti, pt. iv. 709. M Ms. Fragments of Stirling Protocols, 1513- 
1596. "Ibid. 



LIVINGSTON, EARL OF NBWBURGH 449 

these lands on 20 June 1565, when he is described as of 
Abercorn. 1 He had feu-charters of the Mains of Abercorn 
15 October 1564 and 26 March 1565. 2 On 21 October 
1478, Henry Livingstoun of Manerstoun was a party to 
an arbitration relating to the mill of Abercorn, 3 and on 
21 October 1485, James, his son and heir, was infeft in 
the barony. John Livingston, nephew and heir of this 
James, obtained seisin of half of the mill of Abercorn 23 
March 1513-14, along with half of the lands of Manerstoun 
and Philipstoun. 4 Manerstoun itself was part of the 
barony of Abercorn, and the territorial designation 
assumed by the fourth son of Henry Livingston of Falkirk 
in 1565 points to a relationship with the Manerstoun 
branch of the Livingstons such as is suggested above, 
although actual evidence of the connection is awanting. 
John Livingston of Abercorn was one of Queen Mary's 
master stablers in 1561, and afterwards held the same 
position under James vi. and Queen Anna. He had a gift 
of the office 11 February 1588-89, 5 and was appointed first 
master stabler to Queen Anna, 9 September 1589. 6 As 
equerry of the Queen's stable, he was granted 100 a year 
for life, 7 February 1603-4 ; ' and in October 1605, in regard 
of his long and faithful service, he had a grant of the 
making of twenty persons born in foreign parts denizens 
of the realm. 8 He was made a knight before 30 August 1606, 
and was resident in Scotland ; 9 and he was alive in 1610. 10 He 
married (contract 15 October 1567 ") Elizabeth Carmichael. 
Her parentage is not stated, but John Carmichael of Meadow- 
flat is a party to the contract. They had issue : 

1. James, of Abercorn, who married Helen Hamilton. 12 

2. Sir Henry, appointed captain of a company of the 

Scots Brigade in Holland 12 January 1607. 14 He was 
knighted at Theobald's 16 July 1616, 15 and died before 
24 November 1626. 16 He married Johanna Turck, and 
left issue : 

(1) John, who in 1628 was given a commission in his father's old 

1 Ms. Fragments of Stirling Protocols, 1513-1596. 2 Reg. Sec. Sig., xxxii. 
103; xxxiii. 22. 3 Ninth Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., App. 232-234. * Ibid., 
6 Rec. Sec. Sig., lix. 72. 6 Ibid., Ix. 56. r Cal. State Papers, Dom., 
Addenda, 1580-1625, 75. 8 Ibid., 491; Signet Bills, Public Record Office. 
9 Reg. of Deeds, cxxxii. f. 457. 10 Gen. Reg. Inhibs., xli. 210. Reg. of 
Deeds, vii. 454. Ibid., Ixii. 377. 13 Ibid., Ixiii. 359. 14 Scots Brigade 
in Holland, Scot. Hist. Soc., i. 69 n. u Shaw's Knights of England, ii. 
158. 16 Scots Brigade in Holland, Scot. Hist. Soc., i. 69 n. 

VOL. VI. 2 F 



450 LIVINGSTON, EARL OF NEWBURGH 

company. He was appointed captain in the Scots Brigade 
14 January 1630, sergeant-major and lieutenant-colonel 4 
December 1640, and died before 11 May 1649. 1 

(2) James, apprenticed to John Livingston, merchant, 24 June 

1636.^ Apparently he was the James (afterwards Major 
James) Livingston who married Mary, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Foulis of Colinton, 30 January 1649, 3 and died 24 
November 1667, and was buried in the Canongate Church. 4 
His son, Captain John Livingston, who married, 17 March 
1681, 5 Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Robert Hamilton of Silver- 
tonhill, is said by Nisbet to have been the nearest heir-male 
on the death of the second Earl. 

(3) Alexander. 

3. SIR JOHN of Kinnaird, of whom below. 

4. Alexander, who had letters of denization in 1607 along 

with his brothers John and James. He married Jane, 
daughter of Matthew Ohubbe of Dorchester, 6 with 
whom he had a grant of a pension of 200, 8 Novem- 
ber 1613. 7 He also had grants of the parsonage house 
of Oharminster, co. Dorset, 26 July 1615, 8 and (in 
reversion after his brother James) of the Keepership 
of Sonningwell Park, Berks, 11 November 1618. 9 He 
appears to have been living in 1636. 10 

5. James, junior, a servant of Prince Charles 11 in 1618, 

and afterwards a Groom of the Royal Bedchamber. 12 
He was served tutor-at-law to his nephew James, son 
of his brother John, 23 December 1628. 13 He was 
apparently the same with James Livingston of Beil 
and Skirling, Groom of the Bedchamber and Keeper 
of the Privy Purse to King Charles I. He married 
(licence dated 13 December 1632 ") Anne, daughter 
and eventual heir of John Naesmith, surgeon to King 
James I., and died without succession. 

6. Robert, witness to a bond by his father 30 August 1606. 15 

7. Mary, married (contract 30 July 1596) to William 

Sinclair of Galwaldmoir. 16 

8. Jean, married (contract 24 June 1599) to William, 

eldest son of Robert Baillie of Pemmeltoun. 17 

1 Scots Brigade in Holland, Scot. Hist. Soc., 325 n., 356-357. 2 Edin- 
burgh Apprentice Reg. 3 Canongate Reg. 4 Ibid. 5 Edin. Reg. 6 Col. 
State Papers, Dom., 1611-18, p. 225. T Patent Rolls, 11 Jac. i. Public 
Record Office. 8 Ibid., 13 Jac. i. 9 Ibid., 16 Jac. i. 10 Col. State Papers, 
Dom., 1636-37, p. 308; but the date of the document is uncertain. n Reg. 
Mag. Sig. 12 Col. State Papers, Dom., 1625-26, p. 23 et seq. 13 Retours. 
14 Harleian Soc., xxiv., his age being given as forty, but actually about 
twenty-one. 15 Reg. of Deeds, cxxxii. f. 457. 16 Ibid., Ixii. 383. lr Ibid., 
Ixxiii. 429. 



LIVINGSTON, EARL OF NEWBURGH 451 

SIR JOHN LIVINGSTON of Kinnaird, named in a deed after 
his brother Henry, 1 and therefore probably junior to the 
latter, appears as a Groom of the Bedchamber. 2 According 
to a petition presented by his widow, he served King 
James for thirty-eight years. 3 On 14 November 1604 he 
had a grant of a pension of 100 a year on the resignation 
of his father, John Livingston of Abercorn. 4 He was in 
high favour with James iv., and a number of grants to him 
are recorded in the State Papers. On 26 March 1618, the 
King granted de novo to John Livingston, his familiar 
servant and one of the Gentlemen of his Bedchamber, the 
lands and barony of Kinnaird in Perthshire, with the 
superiority of half of the lands and barony of Nachtan and 
others, in Fife, all from of old incorporated in the barony 
of Kinnaird, which John Kinnaird of Kinnaird and Margaret 
Ogilvie, his spouse, and John Kinnaird, their son and 
apparent heir, resigned. 5 On 6 December following, he 
had another charter of the barony of Kinnaird, on his own 
resignation; and also of the parish church of Kinnaird 
with teinds, which Ludovic, Duke of Lennox, resigned, with 
remainder, failing heirs-male of his body, to Sir Henry 
Livingston, his brother-german and heirs-male, whom fail- 
ing, James Livingston, junior, his brother-german, etc. 6 
On 4 June 1622 he obtained another charter of the same 
subjects, with remainder, failing heirs-male of his body, to 
his eldest heir-female. 7 Early in 1626, John Livingston of 
Kinnaird obtained from Charles I. the post of Olerk of the 
Market to the King's house throughout the realm for the 
space of twenty-three years, 8 and he was granted a 
patent as baronet of Nova Scotia 25 June 1627. 9 He 
died in February 1628. 10 

Sir John married at the Rolls Ohapel, on 7 February 
1618-19, Jane, daughter of Richard Sproxtoune of Wakefleld, 
steward of the Star Chamber, and widow of William Mar- 

1 Beg. of Deeds, Ixiii. 359. 2 Cal. State Papers, Dom., Addenda, 1580- 
1625, p. 431. 3 Ibid., 1631-33, p. 476. 4 Ibid,, 1603-10, p. 167. 6 Reg. Mag. 
Sig. 6 Ibid. 7 Reg. Sec. Sig., xciii. 12. 8 Ibid., 13 January, 8 February 
1526. 9 P. C. Reg. (2nd series), i. p. ciii. 10 Edin. Tests. His will is dated 
28 February 1627-28, and was proved in London 21 March thereafter. A 
letter from Sir Henry Savile's widow to Secretary Dorchester states that 
her nephew Livingston assured himself that the physic given him by the 
fashionable physician, Dr. Mayerne, had shortened his days (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom., 1629-31, p. 484). 



452 LIVINGSTON, EARL OF NEWBURGH 

wood. 1 As widow of Sir John Livingston she had a charter 
of the lands of Dunipace, 2 and married, thirdly, between 
1633 and 1645, Edward, first Lord Gorges, 3 and was buried 
from Lincoln's Inn Fields, at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
15 May 1665. In a petition for the continuance of her 
pension, dated in 1664, she states that she is eighty years 
old. 4 By this lady Sir John Livingston had a son and 
daughter : 

1. SIR JAMES, who succeeded. 

2. Dorothy, married 23 November 1641, at Kensington, 

when about twenty years of age, to the Right Hon- 
ourable Charles, Lord Stanhope of Harrington. 5 

I. SIR JAMES LIVINGSTON of Kinnaird, who was a minor 
at his father's death, and was placed under the tutorship 
of his uncle, James Livingston, junior, was served heir to 
his father 19 March 1629. 8 He was one of the Gentlemen 
of the Bedchamber to King Charles I., 7 and on 13 September 
1647 received the title of VISCOUNT OF NEWBURGH 
AND LORD OF KINNAIRD, with succession to the heirs- 
male of his body. 8 Acting in concert with the Earl of 
Suffolk, his father-in-law, he planned the escape of the 
King when a prisoner at Bagshot, but the plan was not 
carried out. After the execution of Charles i., in conse- 
quence of Cromwell having discovered a secret corre- 
spondence with Charles n., Viscount Newburgh prudently 
joined the King at the Hague. After the treaty of Breda, 
he accompanied him to Scotland, and was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel of His Majesty's Life Guards. 8 His 
name appears among the Lords ' taken in ' at the Scottish 
Parliament opened on 26 November 1650, but while he sat 
in the house 'none opposing it,' he was ordained not to 
vote until he had subscribed the Covenant, and also the 
League Covenant, both in the church and in face of 

1 Cal. State Papers, Dom., 1619-23, pp. 9, 11, 13. 2 For the story of 
the relations of the lady's father and her first husband, see Brit. Mus. 
MS. Lansd., 162. Her mother was a sister of Sir Henry Savile, Provost of 
Eton (Genealogist, new ser., xv. 42-43), and connected with other impor- 
tant people. The King gave her for her jointure 500 a year from the 
customs. 3 The Livingstons of Callendar, 136. 4 Ibid., 134. 6 Ibid., 
135. 8 Retours. 7 Douglas's Peerage (Wood's ed.), ii. 8 Reg. Mag. Sig. 
9 Balfour's Annals, iv. 85. 



LIVINGSTON, EARL OP NEWBURGH 453 

Parliament. 1 He was with the Scottish army at Worcester, 
and escaped capture on its defeat. He was one of those 
excepted from Cromwell's Act of Grace in 1654. 2 At the 
Restoration he was created EARL OF NEWBURGH, 
VISCOUNT OF KINNAIRD, AND LORD LIVINGSTON 
OF FLAORAIG, 31 December 1660, with succession to his 
heirs whomsoever. 3 He was again placed in command of 
the Scottish Life Guards, but was superseded in 1670. 
For his 'good services and loyalty,' he was granted a 
tack of the custom of the borders betwixt England and 
Scotland, 23 April 1662. 4 His estates had been restored 
to him by the Scottish Parliament in 1661. He died in 
December 1670, 'leaving behind him the character of one 
of the finest gentlemen of the age.' 5 Lord Newburgh 
married first, in or shortly before 1649, Catherine Howard, 
eldest daughter of Theophilus, second Earl of Suffolk, and 
widow of George, Seigneur d'Aubigny. She died at the 
Hague in 1650, and he married, secondly, after June 1655, 
Anne, daughter of Sir Henry Poole, Bart., who was buried 
at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 26 May 1692, and by whom 
he left an only son, 

II. CHARLES LIVINGSTON, second Earl of Newburgh 
(styled Lord Kinnaird till his succession to the Peerage), 
who was served heir to his father 25 January 1684." He 
was a state prisoner in the Tower from 16 July to 15 
August 1690, 7 and died in 1694, being buried at Oirencester 
7 April, when the baronetcy and the viscounty of New- 
burgh became extinct. He married (licence 12 September 
1692) Frances, daughter of Francis, Lord Brudenel, son and 
heir-apparent of George, Earl of Cardigan. She married, 
secondly, in 1695, Richard, third Lord Bellew of Duleek, 
and died at Dublin 23 February 1736. 8 By his wife the Earl 
had an only child, 

III. CHARLOTTE MARIA LIVINGSTON, Countess of New- 
burgh, who possessed the title for the long period of sixty - 

1 Balfour's Annals, 195-196. 'Testiflcatt from the minutes of Kinnaird 
concerning the Viscount of Newburgh, his taking of the solemn league 
and covenant redd in Parliament' (Acta Parl. Scot, vi. pt. ii. 617). 
2 Ibid., 818, 821. 3 Reg. Mag. Sig. * Acta Parl. Scot., vii. 443. 5 Douglas's 
Peerage, ii. 308. 6 Retours. 7 The Livingstons of Callendar, 139. 8 He 
had a natural son Charles, born 1690, to whom he left an annuity of 40. 



454 LIVINGSTON, EARL OF NEWBURGH 

one years. She was married (contract 22 December 1713 ') 
to Thomas, eldest sou and heir-apparent of Hugh, second 
Lord Clifford of Ohudleigh. He died 21 February 1718, and 
the Countess married, secondly, at Brussels, 24 June 1724, 2 
Charles, third son of Francis, Lord Radcliffe, second Earl 
of Derwentwater, by Mary Tudor, a daughter of Charles n. 
He had engaged in the rebellion of 1715, and having been con- 
victed of treason and condemned to death along with his 
brother the Earl of Derwentwater, who was executed, he 
succeeded in making his escape out of Newgate prison 11 
December 1716, and landed safely in France. He settled in 
Paris, having been granted a pension by the Chevalier, and 
assumed the title of Earl of Derwentwater as heir of his 
brother. On two occasions he is said to have visited London 
without any notice being taken by the Government, but 
when, in November 1745, he sailed from Calais on board a 
French man-of-war conveying arms and ammunition for the 
Jacobite insurgents, he ran a greater risk of being appre- 
hended, and the vessel having been seized in open sea and 
brought to Deal, he and his son were committed to the 
Tower. The latter was soon liberated, but after the re- 
bellion was suppressed Radcliffe was placed at the bar of 
the Court of King's Bench, to have execution pronounced 
against him in terms of his former sentence, and every plea 
for mercy proving unavailing, he was beheaded on Tower 
Hill 8 December 1746, and buried in St. Giles-in-the-Fields. 
His widow died 4 August 1755. Issue of first marriage : 
1. Anne Clifford, born 1715, married, first, 22 December 
1739, as second wife, to John Joseph Mahony, Count 
Mahony, a general in the Neapolitan service. She 
died 28 April 1793, leaving an only child : 

(1) Cecilia Carlotta Francisco, Anna, Countess Mahony, baptized 
28 December 1740, married, 18 May 1757, to Benedict, Prince 
Giustiniani, died 18 February 1789. He died 26 February 
1793, with issue : 

i. Vincentius Giustiniani, baptized 1 February 1759, died 
15 August 1761, aged two years, six months, and fifteen 
days. 3 

ii. Girdano Philip James Joseph Nicolas Augustini 
Gratilianus Gaspar Balthassar Melchior, born 27 
August 1760, died 12 December 1760. 4 

1 Supplemental Case, Peerage Case, 1. 2 Ibid., 2. 3 Peerage Case 
Minutes 185. * Ibid., 182. 



LIVINGSTON, EARL OF NEWBURGH 455 

iii. VINCENT JOSEPH PHILIP GRATILIANUS JAMES GAS- 
PAR BALTHASSAR MELCHIOR DOMINICUS, born 2 Nov- 
ember 11&2, 1 sixth Earl of Newburgh. 

iv. Laurence James Angela Philip Dominic Louis 
Ignatius John Joseph Vincent, baptized at Rome 
2 October 1767, 2 died 22 March 1843. 

v. James Thomas Joseph Vincent, baptized at Rome, 
30 December 1769, 3 cardinal bishop of Albano, died 
24 February 1843. 

Lady Anne Clifford married, secondly (royal licence 
dated at Naples 13 April 1773 4 ), Don Carlo Severino, 
lieutenant-colonel of the Regiment Royal Campagna, 
at Ischia, without issue. She died in the island of 
Ischia 1 April 1793. 5 

2. Frances Clifford, married, 20 September 1738, to 

William Middleton of Yorkshire. 6 
Issue of second marriage : 

3. JAMES BARTHOLOMEW RADCLIFFE, third Earl of New- 

burgh. 

4. James Clement Radcliffe, born 5 November 1727 ; 

married Clementina ; major-general in the 

service of the King of France ; died without issue in 
1788. 7 

5. Barbara Joanna, baptized at Rome 18 March 1728, 8 

and was buried in the churchyard of St. Vedast, 
Cambray, 7 August 1769." 

6. Charlotte, died unmarried, buried in St. Giles-in-the- 

Fields 22 March 1800. 10 

7. Anne Thomasine, born 12 January 1730, 11 died in child- 

hood, and buried 31 May 1734 in the church of San 
Lorenzo in Lucina. 12 

8. Mary Frances Guillelma, born August 1732, died 27 

August 1798 ; married, 11 February 1755, to Francis 
Eyre of Warkworth, Northampton, who died 7 October 
1804, aged seventy-two years. She died 27 August 
1798, 13 leaving issue : 

(1) Francis Eyre of Hassop, born 10 February 1762, who assumed 
the title of Earl of Newburgh in 1814, but took no proceed- 
ings to establish his right to it. He married, 29 August 
1787, Dorothy, daughter of John Gladwin, Esq. of Mansfield, 

1 Peerage Case Minutes, 116. 2 Ibid., 114. 3 Ibid., 186. 4 Ibid., 165. 
5 Ibid., 108. 6 Douglas's Peerage (Wood's ed.), ii. 308. 7 Peerage Case 
Minutes, 87. 8 Ibid., 89. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid., 90. Ibid., 60. 12 Ibid., 66. 
13 Ibid., 137. 



456 LIVINGSTON, EARL OP NEWBURGH 

and died 23 October 1827. She died 2 November 1838, leav- 
ing issue : 

i. Thomas, born 21 October 1790. In 1831 he presented a 
petition to the King claiming the Peerage, which was 
referred to the House of Lords, but no proceedings 
followed. He married, 14 November 1817, Margaret 
Kennedy, daughter of Archibald, first Marquess of 
Ailsa ; died s.p. 22 March 1833, 1 and was buried at 
the Roman Catholic Chapel, Moorfields, 28 May 1833. 2 
His widow survived till 3 December 1889. 

ii. Francis, who also assumed the Newburgh title. 
He was born 7 July 1794, died unmarried 15 October 
1852. 3 

iii. Dorothy, born 13 July 1788, who, on the death of 
her brother Francis, assumed the title of Countess 
of Newburgh. She married, as his second wife, 21 
July 1836, Colonel Charles Leslie, K.H., of Balquhain, 
and died without issue 22 November 1853, leaving 
Hassop, Slindon, and all her other estates in the 
counties of Derby, Sussex, Gloucester, and Northum- 
berland to her husband, whom she appointed her 
sole executor. 4 

iv. Mary, born 12 October 1789, died 5 October 1813 

unmarried. 

v. Charlotte, born 6 June 1792, died 6 August 1818, 
unmarried. 

vi.-Anne, born 16 May 1796, died 25 April 1802. 

vii. Barbara, born 18 May 1798, a nun, who died 13 
April 1849. 6 

viii. Radcliffe (a daughter), born 27 May 1802, who died 
unmarried, and was buried at the Roman Catholic 
Chapel, Moorfields, 1 August 1840. 6 

(2) James of Metz. He married Therese Josephine deChenecourt, 

and died in 1816, leaving an only child, 

i. Caroline, who died at Paris, unmarried, 16 April 1838, 
aged thirty-one. 7 

(3) Charles, who died unmarried in 1819. 

(4) Mary, married, 9 April 1793 8 to Arthur Onslow, serjeant-at- 

law, and died, without issue, 14 May 1800. 9 

IV. JAMES BARTHOLOMEW RADCLIFFE, who succeeded his 
mother in the Newburgh Peerage, was baptized at Vin- 
cennes 25 August 1725. 10 After the execution of his father 
he put in a claim to the reversion of the Derwentwater 
estates, but this was disallowed, and a trust created by 
Act of Parliament, 11 under which the estates were to be 
administered for the benefit of Greenwich Hospital, with 
a certain allowance to the children of Charles Radcliffe. 

1 Vol. ii. of this work, 500. 2 Peerage Case Minutes, 145. 3 Ibid. 
* Historical Records of the Family of Leslie, iii. 240. 6 Peerage Case 
Minutes, 150. 6 Ibid., 152. 7 Ibid., 155. Ibid., 157. 9 Ibid., 158. 
10 Ibid., 56. " 22 Geo. n. cap. 52, sec. 14. 



LIVINGSTON, EARL OF NEWBURGH 457 

It appears from the Act referred to that a sum of 30,000 
was set apart for this purpose, of which 6000 was to be 
divided between the Countess (for behoof of her second son) 
and her three daughters, and the remaining 24,000 in- 
vested in securities, the interest to be paid to the eldest 
son, and after his decease the principal was to go to his 
eldest son on attaining the age of twenty -one. In 1784, 
the third Earl of Newburgh considering it prudent to fortify 
his Scottish title in view of the fact that he was born in a 
foreign country, and that his father had been attainted of 
high treason, presented a petition to the King praying His 
Majesty to declare that the petitioner was rightfully en- 
titled, as well to the honour and dignity of the earldom 
of Newburgh, as to all the rights and privileges which are 
annexed to Peers of the realm. This petition was by His 
Majesty's command presented to the House of Lords 14 
June 1784, and referred to the consideration of the Com- 
mittee for Privileges. There seems to be no record of any 
further proceedings. The Earl died at Slindon in Sussex 
2 January 1787. 1 He married (contract 11 November 1749) 
Barbara, eldest daughter and heiress of Anthony Kemp, 
Esq. of Slindon. She died 12 September 1797, aged seventy- 
seven, leaving a son and daughter : 

1. ANTHONY JAMES, who succeeded as fourth Earl. 

2. Anne, who died unmarried, 18 November 1785, aged 

twenty-seven. 2 

V. ANTHONY JAMBS RADCLIFFE, fourth Earl of Newburgh, 
was born 20 June 1757. On his petitioning Parliament in 
1788 for an allowance out of the Derwentwater estates, an 
Act was passed settling a rent-charge of 2500 a year 
upon him and the heirs-male of his body. He married, 30 
June 1789, Anne, only daughter of Joseph "Webb, Esq. of 
Welford, and died without issue 29 November 1814. His 
widow survived him forty-seven years, dying 3 August 
1861, aged ninety-eight. In default of direct heirs, the 
earldom devolved upon 

VI. VINCENT JOSEPH PHILIP GRATILIANUS JAMES GASPAR 
BALTHASSAR MELCHIOR DOMINICUS, PRINCE GIUSTINIANI, 

1 Peerage Case Minutes, 67. 2 Ibid., 74. 



458 LIVINGSTON, EARL OF NEWBURGH 

nominally fifth Earl of Newburgh, great-grandson of the 
Countess Charlotte Maria (see above, p. 455), born 2 Nov- 
ember 1762, who, however, took no steps to establish his 
right to the succession, the Eyre family being allowed to 
assume the Newburgh title unchallenged. The Prince 
married, 21 May 1789, at Naples, 1 Maria Nicoletta Giuseppa 
Prancesca Raffaela Cornelia Melchiora Gaspara Baldassara 
Angela Giovanna Luisa Guidetta, daughter and heir of 
Dominico (Grillo), Duke of Mondragone in the kingdom 
of Naples, and died 13 November 1826, leaving an only 
daughter and heiress, 

VII. MARIA CECILIA AGATHA ANNA JOSEPHA LAURENTIA 
DONATA MELCHIORA BALDASSARA GASPARA, PRINCESS 
GITJSTINIANI, born 5 February 1796, whose claim to the 
earldom of Newburgh, viscounty of Kinnaird, and barony 
of Livingston was allowed by the House of Lords 30 July 
1858, she, along with her son, having been naturalised by 
Act of Parliament the previous year. She died 8 January 
1877, having married, 21 September 1815, Charles, fourth 
Marquis Bandini and Rustano in the Roman States. He 
died 5 June 1850. They had issue : 

1. SIGISMUND, of whom below. 

2. Nicoletta, born 1817, married, 1835, to Charles, Mar- 

quess Santa Croce of Villa Hermora, died 1836. 

3. Elisabeth, born 1820, married, 1841, to Marquess 

Augustin Triorifi of Ancona. 

4. Cristina, born 1822, married, 1845, to Count Marcello 

Marcelli Flori, died 4 July 1865. 

5. Maria, born 1825, married, 1851, to Cavaliere Freder- 

icao Pucci Boncambi of Perugia. 

VIII. SIGISMUND NICHOLAS VENANTIUS GAIETANO FRANCIS 
GIUSTINIANI BANDINI, sixth Earl of Newburgh, born 30 June 
1818, succeeded his father as fifth Marquis of Bandini 5 
June 1850, and assumed the name of Giustiniani as adopted 
heir of his uncle James, Cardinal Giustiniani, Bishop of 
Albano, created Prince Bandini Giustiniani in the Roman 
States by diploma 27 January 1863, to him and his de- 
scendants in the eldest male line only. He succeeded his 

1 Peerage Case Minutes, 122. 



LIVINGSTON, EARL OF NEWBURGH 459 

mother in the Scottish Peerage 8 January 1877. He 
died at Rome 3 August 1908, in his ninety-third year, 
having married, 15 September 1848, Maria Sophia Angelica, 
daughter and co-heiress of Oavaliere Giuseppe Maria 
Massani. By her, who was born 13 May 1830 and died in 
December 1898, he had two sons and eight daughters, all 
naturalised by private Act of Parliament 1860. 

1. Carlo, born 29 April 1860 ; died 2 September 1861. 

2. CARLO, who succeeded. 

3. Nicoletta Maria, born February 1850 ; died 15 May 

1855. 

4. Carolina Maria Elena Gioacchina Giuseppe, born 10 

June 1851 ; married, 8 April 1872, to Count Guardino 
de Colleoni Porto, Count de Solza. 

5. Elena Maria Concetta Isabella Gioacchina Giuseppa, 

born 8 June 1853 ; married, 25 June 1876, to Prince 
Camillo Rospigliosi, with issue. 

6. Nicoletta Maria Nazarena Gioacchina Margherita, 

born 23 October 1863 ; married, 20 February 1881, to 
Marco, duca Grazioli. 

7. Maria Christina Isabella Agnese Gioacchina, born 20 

February 1866 ; a nun. 

8. Maria Isabella Giovanna Teresa Gioacchina, born 17 

April 1867; married, 17 November 1898, to Esme 
William Howard, O.V.O., G.M.G., with issue. 

9. Maria Cecilia Pia Anna Gioacchina, born 20 Novem- 

ber 1871. 
10. Anna Maria, born 19, and died 29, July 1874. 

IX. CARLO, seventh Earl of Newburgh, born 1 January 
1862; married, 8 August 1885, Donna Maria Lanza di 
Trabia, daughter of Giuseppe, Prince di Trabia e di Butera 
of Palermo, and on his marriage assumed the title of Duca 
di Mondragone. He has issue : 

1. Sigismondo Mario Bandino Giuseppe, Lord Livingston, 

born 20 June 1886. 

2. Lorenzo Maria, born 14 April 1898. 

3. Maria Giuseppina, born 4 May 1889. 

4. Giuseppe Maria, born 3 September 1896. 

CREATIONS. Viscount of Newburgh, and Lord of Kinnaird, 



460 LIVINGSTON, EARL OP NEWBURGH 

13 September 1647 ; Earl of Newburgh, Viscount of Kinnaird 
and Lord Livingston of Flacraig, 31 December 1660. 

ARMS. Argent, on a bend between three gillyflowers 
gules an anchor of the first, all within a double tressure 
vert. 

CREST. A Moor's head proper, banded gules and argent, 
with pendants argent at his ears. 

SUPPORTERS. Dexter, a savage proper, wreathed about 
the head and middle vert ; sinister, a horse argent 
furnished gules. 

MOTTO. Si je puts. 

[w. B. c.] 



CHEYNE, VISCOUNT OF NEWHAVEN 




HIS branch, of the wide- 
spreading house of Ohey ne 
or Cheyney was for at 
least four centuries 
settled in Buckingham- 
shire. Thomas Oheyne, 
King's Esquire, received 
from Edward in. a grant 
of the manor of Drayton 
Beauchamp in that 
county in 1364, 1 and was 
buried there in 1368. 2 



WILLIAM OHEYNE, who 
was probably son of the 
above Thomas, held the 
manor of Drayton Beau- 
champ, and died there 29 August 1375. 3 By Joan his wife, 
who was living 1385, he had a son, 

ROGER OHEYNE, King's Esquire, born 1 August 1362, died 
14 May 1414, buried at Oassington in Oxfordshire. 4 Ac- 
cording to the inquisitions taken after his death, 5 he was 
seised, with other lands, of the manor of Drayton Beau- 
champ, a manor in Oassington, and a messuage in the 
parish of St. Michael, Paternoster Ohurch, Bow Lane, in 
the ward of Dowgate, in the Oity of London. He had two 
sons : 

1. Sir John Cheyne. 

2. SIR THOMAS OHEYNE of Ohesham Bois, co. Bucks, died 

1 Patent Roll, 38 Edw. m., pt. 2, m. 32. * Boutell's Monumental 
Brasses. 3 Patent Roll, 8 Ric. n. pt. 2, m. 19. * Boutell's Monumental 
Brasses. 6 I. P. M., 2 Hen. v., File 7, No. 19. 



462 OHEYNE, VISCOUNT OF NEWHAVEN 

before 15 August 1468, leaving, by Eleanor his wife, 
daughter of Sir John Ohesham, knight, and widow of 
Sir John Penyston, knight, a son, 

(1) JOHN CHEYNE, of Chesham Bois, died before 15 August 1468 ; 
by his wife, who is said to have been Perin or Perina, 
daughter of Sir Robert Whitney, knight, he had a son, 
i. JOHN CHEYNE, of Chesham Bois, who, according to an 
inquisition taken on Saturday next after the Feast of 
St. John the Baptist 6 Edw. iv., 1 died 17 May 1466. 
By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Brude- 
nell of Raans, co. Bucks (who married, secondly, 
John Tyringham of Tyringham), he had a son, 

(i) JOHN CHEYNE, who succeeded his father's great- 
uncle Sir John Cheyne at Dray ton Beauchamp, 
and of whom hereafter. 

SIR JOHN CHEYNE was twenty-four years old at the death 
of his father, and was therefore born in 1390. He died, 
without surviving issue, on the Feast of the Assumption, 
15 August 1468, seised of the manors of Drayton Beau- 
champ, the Grove in Chesham, and Iselhampstead Cheyne 
(i.e. Chenies), co. Bucks, and Cogenhoe, co. Northampton. 
His heir was found by two inquisitions 2 to be John Cheyne 
(aged three years), son of John, son of John, son of Sir 
Thomas Oheyne, brother of the said Sir John Oheyne. Sir 
John married, first, Joan, who is said to have been daughter 
of Sir Robert Fitz Marmaduke, knight, and secondly, 
Agnes, daughter of William Lexham of Houghton-in-the- 
dale, Norfolk. 3 She married, secondly, before 16 October 
1472, Edmond Molyneux of London, who died 21 January 
1484-85, and was buried at Chenies. 4 At the death of Sir 
John Oheyne, his widow Agnes, under settlements executed 
5 February 1465-66 and 22 July 1468, became seised, in right 
of survivorship, of the manors of Cogenhoe and Chenies. 
The latter manor she appears, by her will, dated 20 Novem- 
ber 1494, to have settled upon her niece Anne Semarc, 5 from 

1 1. P. M., 6 Edw. iv., File 19, No. 22. 2 Ibid., 8 Edw. iv., File 30, No. 51. 
3 She is expressly called daughter of William Lexham in the inquisitions 
to Sir John Cheyne, and she cannot have been, as asserted in Wood's 
Douglas and in Bridges' Northamptonshire, i. 347, identical with Agnes, 
sister and heir of William de Cogenhoe. 4 Lipscombe's Bucks, iii. 252. 
5 Bridges' Northamptonshire, ii. 596, and Complete Peerage, under Bed- 
ford. Anne Semarc's mother was probably a Lexham, for she received a 
bequest under the will of Margaret, widow of William Lexham, proved 
5 May 1473 (P. C. C.. 8 Wattys). 



CHEYNE, VISCOUNT OF NEWHAVEN 463 

whom it passed by descent to the Russells, Earls and Dukes 
of Bedford. The manor of Oogenhoe was settled by the 
same will l upon the heir of Sir John Oheyne, John Oheyne 
of Ohesham Bois, co. Bucks. 

JOHN OHEYNE, who thus succeeded his father's great- 
uncle Sir John Oheyne at Drayton Beauchamp, and the 
latter's widow at Oogenhoe, was eight weeks old at his 
father's inquisition in June 1466, 2 and was therefore aged 
two years and about four months at the death of Sir John 
Oheyne. According to two inquisitions, taken in the 
counties of Bucks and Northampton 10 and 21 August, 27 
Henry vin., 3 he died 2 January 1534-35. His will, dated 
16 December 1534, is recited in these inquisitions. By his 
wife Margaret (who survived him), daughter of Robert 
Ingleton of Thornton, co. Bucks, he had, with a younger 
son John and several daughters, a son, 

ROBERT OHEYNE of Drayton Beauchamp and Ohesham Bois, 
co. Bucks, who was aged forty-seven in August 1535, and 
was therefore born in 1488. He died 9 December 1552, and 
was buried at Chesham Bois ; 4 his nuncupative will, made 
on the day of his death, was proved 10 March 1552-53. 5 
An inquisition was taken at Ohesham 2 March 1552-53. 6 
By his first wife Elizabeth (who died 20 December 1516, 
and was buried at Ohesham Bois 7 ), daughter of John 
Webbe, Gentleman-Usher to Edward vi., and widow of 
Fulke Woodhull or Odell, he had, with other issue, a 
son, 

JOHN OHEYNE of Drayton Beauchamp and Ohesham Bois, 
aged thirty-eight at the date of his father's inquisition, and 
therefore born about 1515. He died 14 November 1585 ; 
his will, dated 24 June 1585, was proved 18 March 1585-86." 
An inquisition was taken at Chipping Wycombe, co. Bucks, 
14 March 1585-86. 9 He married, first, Winifred, daughter 
of John, Lord Mordaunt; she died 8 July 1562, and was 

1 Bridges' Northamptonshire, i. 347, on the authority of Browne Willis's 
Collections. 2 I. P. M., 6 Edw. iv., File 19, No. 22. 3 I. P. M., 27 Hen. 
viii., vol. 57, No. 18 and No. 35. 4 Lipscombe's Bucks, iii. 272. 6 P. C. C., 
5 Tashe. 6 I. P. M., 7 Edw. vi., No. 2. 7 Lipscombe's Bucks, iii. 272. 
8 P. C. C., 16 Windsor. 9 I. P. M., 28 Elizabeth, C. 210, No. 60. 



464 OHEYNE, VISOOUNT OF NEWHAVBN 

buried at Ohesham Bois. 1 They had, with several daughters, 
three sons : 

1. JOHN OHEYNE. 

2. Sir Francis Cheyne, who succeeded his father in the 

estates of Drayton Beauchamp and Ohesham Bois to 
the exclusion of his eldest brother, under a settle- 
ment executed by his father in 1568 or 1569. He 
was born in 1547; was Sheriff of Bucks November 
1589 to November 1590 ; knighted 1603, and again 
Sheriff of Bucks 1 December 1603. He died 5 or 11 
January, 2 and was buried in the chancel of the church 
of Drayton Beauchamp 12 January 1619-20. 3 His will, 
dated 31 December 1619, with codicil dated 1 January 
1619-20, was proved 25 January 1619-20. 4 An inquisi- 
tion was taken at Buckingham 17 August 1620. 5 He 
married, about 1574, Mary, daughter of Thomas Powle, 
clerk of the Grown in Chancery, and sister of Sir 
Stephen Powle of Stepney, co. Middlesex, but had 
no issue. She was buried at Drayton Beauchamp 
25 February 1629-30. 6 

3. Thomas Cheyne, died 29 January 1619-20, and was 

buried at Drayton Beauchamp. 

John Oheyne married, secondly, Joyce, daughter of Sir 
Anthony Lee of Burston, co. Bucks, knight, and by her, 
who died in 1578, he had (with a daughter Katherine) : 

4. Henry Cheyne, who died s.p. before 23 May 1618. 

JOHN OHEYNE of Chendith, in the parish of King's 
Langley, co. Herts, born about 1546. On account of his 
extravagance, he was partially disinherited by his father, 
who, however, settled upon him the manor of Ohendith 
and certain lands in Herts, Bucks, and Northamptonshire. 
He died in London 27 January 1590-91. Two inquisitions 
were taken after his death, one at Hemel Hempstead, 25 
March 1591, 7 and the other at St. Albans, 5 May 1595. 8 He 
married, about 1568, Margaret, daughter of Thomas Skip- 

1 Lipscombe's Bucks, Hi. 272. 2 According to the inscription on his 
tomb 5 January, but in his inquisition 11 January. 3 Parish Register, 
for extracts from which the compiler has to thank the Rev. E. W. Betts, 
Rector of the Parish. P. C.