Skip to main content

Full text of "Scottish annals from English chroniclers, A.D. 500 to 1286"

See other formats





A.D. 500 tO Il86 


M.A. Edinb. 


57-59 LONG ACRE 




PREFACE ... V11 


PART I, A.D. 500-735 ... 4 

PART II, A.D. 735-1005 . .55 

PART III, A.D. 1005-1107 . . .80 

PART IV, A.D. 1107-1138 ... .128 

PART V, A.D. 1138-1141 . 176 

PART VI, A.D. 1141-1180 . 217 

PART VII, A.D. 1180-1214 . .271 

PART VIII, A.D. 1214-1249 . . . _ 332 

PART IX, A.D. 1249-1286 . . . , 362 
INDEX . - ' ' 3f5 


IT is not clear to what extent the earlier chroniclers were 
misled by such errors in geographical direction as we see in 
Ptolemy's map, where Ireland extends to the N.N.W. of Cum- 
berland, and northern Scotland is twisted round till north 
has become east. Thus the relative position of Bede's 
northern and southern Picts is uncertain. 

Changes in the names of races add to the obscurity of 
their boundaries. The Welsh of Strathclyde are not always 
distinguishable from the Welsh further south, both being 
called Britons, a name originally applicable to the Picts. 

Scots settled in Pictland ; and in time part of Pictland 
took the name of Scotia, and its inhabitants that of Scots. 
The name of Picts became limited to those dwelling south 
of the Forth. But no generic name is given to the district 
south of Forth and Clyde and north of Solway and Tweed ; 
and it is probable that the different races inhabiting this 
area are not always very clearly distinguished. 

When Ninian preached in Galloway he was, according to 
Bede, a missionary to the Southern Picts. At that time 
(before the Anglo-Saxon occupation of England) the Britons 
had lost ground before the Picts and Scots ; Pictish territory 
was continuous from Galloway to Manau. Not till after the 
Anglo-Saxons had driven the Britons northwards did Dum- 
barton become a British stronghold. Then the Britons 
established themselves in Strathclyde, during a period of 
intense national feeling which may have given rise to the 
Arthur legends. Some of the twelve victories ascribed to 
Arthur may have been won in Scotland ; cf . the Historia 
Brittonum, in M.G.H., AA., XIII, 199-200. (Cf. Henry of 
Huntingdon, 48-49 ; William of Malmesbury, G.R., I, 11-12.) 

Henceforward Pictland south of the Forth was divided 
into Stirling and Manau on the one side, and Galloway on 
the other. ' 

After the formation of the Anglian kingdom of North- 
umbria the Picts of Manau held their own long enough to 


give its English name to their boundary, the Pentland Hills. 
For a time they were under English rule, as long before they 
may have been under British rule. But in 685 they were 
reunited to their kindred north of the Forth. In the be- 
ginning of the eighth century Manau had still preserved its 
identity ; in the middle of the twelfth, Calatria was still known 
by name. As in 1093 at Margaret's death, so still in 1255 
we are struck by the nearness to Edinburgh of a Celtic popu- 

The claim made in 1138 by Galloway to lead the Scottish 
van seems to have puzzled our chroniclers. Avoiding the 
name " Galwegians " Henry of Huntingdon calls them " men 
of Lothian " ; John of Hexham, " Scots " ; Richard of 
Hexham, " Picts." Galwegians are called " Welsh " by 
Benedict of Peterborough, Gervase of Canterbury, Roger 
Wendover. And no doubt Galloway had encroached upon 
the borders of Strathclyde. But the Galwegian war-cry 
" Albani," (if we may trust Henry of Huntingdon,) shows 
that these remote and turbulent provincials did not regard 
themselves as being distinct from their countrymen north of 
the Forth. 

It is sufficiently probable that kings placed upon the 
Scottish throne by English aid should bind themselves by 
personal homage to the English king. But if early English 
historians were eager to record Scottish acts of homage less 
from knowledge than from a sense of fitness, we need not 
regard their statements as infallible. It is necessary to re- 
member that the English claims to supremacy over Scotland 
rest upon the testimony of English witnesses. 

I have gratefully to acknowledge the bounty of the Car- 
negie Trust, whose support rendered this work possible. In 
the inception and original idea of the work I have to thank 
Professor Hume Brown for his kindly and invaluable assist- 
ance, as also from time to time during its preparation. Pro- 
fessor Mackinnon has added to many favours that of reading 
over the proofs ; with great pleasure I acknowledge manifold 
indebtedness to him. I am indebted to Edinburgh University 
Library for facilities of work afforded me. 

A. 0. A. 


Abbreviatio Chronicorum Angliae (A.D. 1000-1255), in M.P., H.A., iii, 153- 

Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammenburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (compiled in 

1075), ed. J. M. Lappenberg, in M.G.H., SS., vii, 267-389. 1846. 
Adamnan, Vita Sancti Columbae. Ed. W. Reeves. Bannatyne Club. Adam 

nan died A.D. 704. 
Ailred of Rievaulx (died 1166), Relatio de Standardo, in Chr. of Ste., etc., 

iii. 179-199. 
Saints of Hexham, in Raine's Hexh., i, 173-203. 

- Epistola de genealogia regum Anglorum, in Twysden, 347-370. 

- Eulogium Davidis, in Pinkerton, Scottish Saints, 439-456. 

Alcuin (d. 804), De pontificibus et sanctis ecclesiae Eboracensis carmen, in 
Raine's York, i, 349-398. 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. MSS. A and E, with variant passages from the 
other MSS., in Earle and Plummer's Two Saxon Chronicles. Claren- 
don Press, 1892-99. MSS. A, B, C, D, E, F, in Thorpe's Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle. Rolls Series, no. 23. A is the " Winchester Chronicle " ; 
C the " Abingdon Chronicle " ; D the " Worcester Chronicle " ; E 
the " Peterborough Chronicle." (For the MSS. v. E. and PL, S. C., 
i, Preface.) 

Anglo-Saxon Version of Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica. T. Miller, " The Old 
English Version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History." Early Engl. Text 
Soc., 1890-98. 

Annales Cambrise (originally compiled about 954 A.D., continued to 1288), 
ed. W. Ab Ithel. Rolls Series, no. 20. 

Annales Monastici, ed. H. R. Luard. Rolls Series, no. 36. 

Annals of Burton (1004-1263), in A.M., i, 181-510. Written in the 13th 

Annals of Dunstable (to 1297), in A.M., iii, 1-420. Down to 1241 written by 
Richard de Morins, prior of Dunstable, who died in 1242. From 1201 
the annals are original, from 1210 contemporary. 

Annals of Durham. V. Annals of Lindisfarne. 

Annals of Furness (continuation of W. of N.), in Chr. of Ste., etc., ii, 503-583. 
Copied in the end of the 13th century from the Annals of Stanley and 
contemporary notes. 

Annals of Innisfallen. Ed. C. O'Conor, Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, 
Vol. ii. Composed probably in 1215, but begun much earlier. 

Annals of Lindisfarne (A.D. 532-993), Annals of Durham (995-1199), ed. 
G. H. Pertz, in M.G.H., SS, xix, 502-508. 

Annals of Margan (1066-1232), in A.M., i, 1-40. Written in the 13th century. 

Annals of Osney (1016-1347), in A.M., iv, 1-352. From 1233 to 1277 con- 
temporarily written ; to 1293 largely an independent source. 

Annals of St. Edmunds (to 1212), in Memorials of St. Edmunds Abbey, ii, 
3-25, ed. T. Arnold. Rolls Series, no. 96. (A contemporary authority 
for the 13th century.) 

Annals of Stanley, in Chr. of Ste., etc., ii, 506-558 (the part from 1202-1271). 
Begun about the middle of the 13th century, 


Annals of Tewkesbury (1066-1263), in A.M., i, 41-180. Written in the 13th 

Annals of Ulster, ed. W.M. Hennessy and B. MacCarthy. Also in C. O'Conor's 

Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, Vol. iv. A 15th century com- 
Annals of Waverley (1-1291), in A.M., ii, 127-411. From 1157 an original, 

and from 1219 to 1266 contemporary source. 
Annals of Winchester (519-1227), in A.M., ii, 1-125. For 1267 to 1277 a 

contemporary source. 
Annals of Worcester (1-1377), in A.M., iv, 353-564. To 1303 written early 

in the 14th century. 
Anonymous Life of St. Cuthbert, in E.H.S. edition of Bede, ii, 259-284. 

Written 698x705. (Cuthbert died in 687.) 
L'Art de Verifier les Dates, 4th edition. Paris, 1818-1844. 
Asser, Annales rerum gestarum ^Elfredi Magni. In M.H.B., 467-498. Com- 
piled about 894. 
Bartholomew Cotton (d. ca. 1298), Historia Anglicana (to 1298). Ed. H. R. 

Luard, Rolls Series, no. 16. From 1264 a contemporary record of 

Bede (d. 735), Historia Ecclesiastica (finished 731), C. Plummer, Clarendon 

Press. (In this edition also is the Letter to Egbert and the Historia 

Abbatum. ) 
- Vita S. Cudbercti (written about 720), 

Vita S. Cuthberti Metrica (before 705), and 

Chronicon (in 725), are in J. Stevenson's edition, Vol. ii, Opera Minora. 

English History Society. 
Benedict of Peterborough, Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi (1169-1192), Rolls 

Series, no. 49. The author, who was not B. of P., began to write 

ca. 1172. 
Book of Ely (Liber Eliensis), ed. D. J. Stewart. Anglia Christiana Society, 

1848. (Compiled about 1174.) 
Book of Hyde : Liber Monasterii de Hyda, ed. E. Edwards. Rolls Series, 

no. 45. Although compiled late in the 14th century it derives some 

information from sources now lost. 
Chronicle of Abingdon : Chronicon monasterii de Abingdon, ed. J. Stevenson. 

Rolls Series, no. 2. 1858. 
Chronicle of Holyrood : Monachi anonymi Scoti Chronicon Anglo-Scoticum 

(60-1355 A.D.), ed. C. W. Bouterwek. Elberfeld, 1863. (The main 

part, to 1189, was compiled in the end of the 12th century.) 
Chronicle of Lanercost. Chronicon de Lanercost (1201-1346), ed. J. Steven- 
son. Bannatyne Club. 
Chronicle of the Archbishops of York, Anonymous (commonly attributed to 

Stubbs, its continuator), in Raine's York, i, 312-387. Written in the 

first half of the 12th century. 

Chronicle of Melrose, ed. J. Stevenson, Bannatyne Club. 
Chronicles of the reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I, ed. R. Hewlett. 

Rolls Series, no. 82. 
Chronicon regum Manniae, 'ed. J. Langebek, in Scriptores Rerum Danicarum 

medii sevi, iii, 209-244. Copenhagen, 1774. Also ed. by P. A. Munch, 

Christiania. 1860. 
Cnutonis regis Gesta, sive Encomium Emmae, ed. Pertz, in M.G.H., SS., xix, 

509-525. Hannover, 1866. (A.D. 1012-1042. The work is written 

contemporarily, and dedicated to Emma by the writer, a monk of 

St. Bertin.) 

Continuatio Beccensis (1157-1160), in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 317-327. Ap- 
parently contemporary. 
De Injusta Vexatione Willelmi Episcopi, in S. of D., i, 170-195. Written 

after 1109. 
De Miraculis et Translationibus S. Cuthberti, in S. of D., i, 229-261 ; and 

continued ibid., ii, 333-364, 1100-1115. 


De Obsessione Dunelmi, in S. of D., i, 215-220. Written apparently ca. 

De Primo Saxonum Adventu, in S. of D., ii, 365-384. Written probably in 
1138 or 1139. 

Dugdale, W. The Baronage of England, London, 1675. 
Monasticon Anglicanum. London, 1846. 

Eddi, Vita Wilfridi Episcopi, in Raine's York, i, 1-104. Written soon 
after 710. 

Edmer (d. 1124), Historia Novorum, ed. M. Rule. Rolls Series, no. 81. 

, Vita Wilfridi Episcopi, in Raine's York, i, 161-226. 

Breviloquium Vitee S. Wilfridi, ibid., i, 227-237. 

Elfric, Homilies, ed. B. Thorpe. ^Elfric Society, London, 1844-6. (Elfric 
flourished in the beginning of the llth century.) 

Ethelwerd (d. ? 998), Chronica. In M.H.B., 499-521. 

Ethelwulf, Carmen de Abbatibus, in S. of D., i, 265-294. Written before 820. 

Fitz-Thedmar, Arnald (d. 1275), De antiquis Legibus (a chronicle of London, 
1188-1274), ed. T. Stapleton, Camden Society. 

Florence of Worcester (d. 1118), Chronicon ex Chronicis, 450-1117, ed. Ben- 
jamin Thorpe, English History Society. In Vol. ii are printed also 
three continuations : to 1141, by a contemporary writer, John of 
Worcester; 1152-1265, by John of Taxter ; 1265-1295, by John of 

Flores Historiarum, ed. H. R. Luard, Rolls Series, no. 95. This is the West- 
minster version and continuation, formerly attributed to " Matthew 
of Westminster," of the St. Alban's Chronicle ; a continuation of 
Matthew Paris. The first edition came down to 1265, and was con- 
tinued by various hands to 1306 and 1326. 

Foadera, ed. T. Rymer. Vol. i, 1704, London. 

Folcard, Vita S. Johannis, Episcopi Eboracensis. In Raine's York, i, 239- 
260. Written before 1070. 

Fridegoda, Vita S. Wilfridi, in Raine's York, i, 105-160. Written before 961. 

Gale, Thomas. Historise Britannicse, Saxonicse, Anglo-Danicse Scriptores 
XV. Oxford, 1691. 

Geoffrey of Monmouth (d. 1154), Historia Britonum. Ed. J. A. Giles. Cax~ 
ton Society, 1844. 

Gervase of Canterbury (d. ca. 1210), ed. W. Stubbs. Rolls Series, no. 73. 

Chronica (to 1199), Vol. i. 

Gesta Regum (to 1210, continued by various writers to 1327), ii, 3-324. 

Mappa Mundi, ii, 414-449 (written about 1205 x 1210). 

Gesta Stephani regis Anglorum (1135-1147), in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 3-136. 

Written by a contemporary and partisan of Stephen. 
Haddan, A. W., and Stubbs, W. : Councils and ecclesiastical documents 

relating to Great Britain and Ireland. Oxford, 1869-1878. 
Hardy, T. D. Descriptive Catalogue of materials relating to the History of 

Great Britain and Ireland. Rolls Series, no. 26, 1862-1871. 
Henry de Silgrave, Chronicon (to 1274) ; ed. C. Hook, Caxton Society. (H. 

de S. may have died in 1268, his work being continued by a later hand ; 

ibid., page v.) 
Henry of Huntingdon (d. ca. 1155). Historia Anglorum, ed. T. Arnold, 

Rolls Series, no. 74. (The Hengwrt MS., in which some additional 

passages appear, was written in the end of the 12th century.) 
Historia Brittonum cum additamentis Nennii, ed. T. Mommsen, in M.G.H., 

AA., xiii, 111-198. Berlin, 1898. (Probably compiled in 679, and 

supplemented by Nennius nearly fifty years later.) 
Historia de S. Cuthberto, in S. of D., i, 196-214. Written probably in the 

first quarter of the 12th century. 
Hoveden, v. Roger Hoveden. 
Hugh Sottewain (Sotto vagina), precentor and archdeacon of York, History 

of Four Archbishops of York (to 1127)^ in Raine's York, i, 98-220, 

Written before 1143. 


Hugo Candidus (d. ca. 1175), Coenobii Burgensis Historia : ed. Sparke 

Scriptores Varii, iii, 1-94. 

Icelandic Sagas, ed G. Vigfusson ; tr. G. W. Dasent. Rolls Series, no. 88. 
Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta regis Ricardi. Ed. W. Stubbs, 1864. 

Rolls Series, no. 38. Derived in the beginning of the 13th century 

from Ambrose's L'Estoire de la guerre sainte (end of the 12th century). 
John of Eversden, continuator of J. of T. for the period 1265-1295 j in Fl. of 

W., ii, 196-279. 
John of Hexham (d. ca. 1209), Continuation of S. of D.'s H.R., in S. of D., 

ii, 284-332. 
John of Taxter (d. after 1265), Cronica Abbreviata : the part from 1152- 

1265 is in Fl. of W., ii, 136-196. 
John of Worcester, contemporary continuator of Fl. of W., from 1118 to 

1141, in FL of W., ii, 71-136. 
Jordan Fantosme, Chronique de la guerre entre les Anglois et les Ecossois en 

1173 et 1174, in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 202-376. Written before 1183. 
Keith, Robert : Historical Catalogue of the Scottish Bishops. Ed. M. 

Russel, Edinburgh, 1884. 

Lawrie, Sir Archibald : Early Scottish Charters. Glasgow, 1905. 
Liber Vitae Ecclesise Dunelmensis, ed. J. Stevenson. Surtees Society, 1841. 
Magna Vita S. Hugonis episcopi Lincolniensis : ed. J. F. Dimock. Rolls 

Series, no. 37. Written before 1220. 
Marianus Scottus (1028-1082 or 3), Chronicon, in Monumenta Germanise His- 

torica, Vol. v, pp. 481-562. 
Matthew Paris (d. ca. 1259), Chronica Majora (to 1259), ed. H. R. Luard. 

Rolls Series, no. 57. Paris revised the St. Albans chronicle of ? John 

de Cella and R. W. (q.v.), and continued it from 1236. 
- Historia Anglorum (1067-1253), ed. F. Madden. Rolls Series, no. 44. 

(Also called Historia Minor.) 
Memorials of Fountains Abbey, ed. J. R. Walbran. Surtees Society. 1863- 


Migne, J. P., Patrologiae Cursus Completus. Series Latina. 1844-1864. 
Miracula Sanctorum Patrum qui in ecclesia Haugustaldensi requiescunt, in 

Raine's Hexh., i, 216-219. 

Miscellanea Biographica, ed. Ja. Raine. Surtees Society, 1838. 
Monumenta Germanise Historica, Scriptores, Hannover, 1826-1896 ; Auctores 

Antiquissimi, Berlin, 1877-1898. Ed. G. H. Pertz, etc. 
Monumenta Historica Britannica, ed. H. Petrie (and J. Sharpe), Records 

Commission. 1848. 
Nennius, v. Historia Brittonum. 
Orderic Vital (b. in 1075), Historia Ecclesiastica (1-1141), in Migne's Patro- 

logia, 188, 15-984; written 1123-1141. 
Pinkerton, Lives of Scottish Saints (Vitae Antiquse Sanctorum). London, 

Raine, James : Saint Cuthbert. Durham, 1828. 

Miscellanea Biographica. Surtees Society, 1838. 

Raine, James : Historians of the Church of York. Rotts Series, no. 71. 


The Priory of Hexham. Surtees Society, 1864-1865. 
Ralph de Diceto (d. ca. 1202), ed. W. Stubbs. Rolls Series, no. 68. Abbre- 

viationes Chronicorum, to 1147. Imagines Historiarum (1148-1202), 

original from 1172, and from 1188 contemporary. 
Ralph of Coggeshall (d. about 1227), Chronicon Anglicanum (1066-1223) ; 

J. Stevenson, Rolls Series, no. 66. This is the chronicle of the abbey 

of Coggeshall, founded 1140, of which R. of C. was abbot from 1207- 

Reginald of Durham or of Coldingham, Vita S. Oswald!, in S. of D., i, 326- 

385 ; written after the middle of the 12th century. 
Richard of Devizes, Gesta Ricardi Primi (1189-1192), in Chr. of Ste., etc., 

iii, 381-454. Finished probably in 1193. 


Richard of Hexham (prior of Hexham 1141-1 160 x 1178), Historia de gestis 
regis Stephani et de bello de Standardo (1135-1139), in Chr. of Ste., 
etc., iii, 139-178. Written before 1154. 

Descriptio Hagustaldensis Ecclesiae (to 1138), in Raine's Hexham, i, 


Rishanger, Chronica (1259-1306), ed. H. T. Riley. Rolls Series, no. 28. 

Robert de Torigni (d. 1186), Chronica (94-1185), in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 

Robert Swapham (d. ca. 1273), Historia Ccenobii Burgensis, in J. Sparke, 
His. Angl. Scrip., iii, 97-122. 

Roger Hoveden (d. ca. 1201), Chronica, (732-1201), ed. W. Stubbs. Rolls 
Series, no. 51. From 1192 to 1201 is original and contemporary. 

Roger Wendover (d. 1236), Flores Historiarum (down to 1235) ; the part 
from 1154 to 1235 ed. byH. G. Hewlett, Rolls Series, no. 84. (Com- 
pletely edited by H. O. Coxe, English History Society. The period 
before 1154 is also to be found in M.P., Chr. Maj.) To 1188 is per- 
haps due to John de Cella, abbot of St. Albans from 1195-1214. 

Scots Peerage, ed. Sir James Balfour Paul. Edinburgh, 1904- 

Series Regum Northymbrensium, in S. of D., ii, 389-393. Written probably 
in the latter half of the 12th century. 

Skene, W. F., .Celtic Scotland. Edinburgh, 1876-1880. 

Chronicles of the Picts and Scots. Edinburgh, 1867. 

Four Ancient Books of Wales. Edinburgh, 1868. 

Sparke, Joseph : Histories Anglicanae Scriptores Varii, London, 1723. 

Symeon of Durham (d. after 1129), ed. T. Arnold. Rolls Series, no. 75. His 
Historia Dunelmensis Ecclesiae (to 1096) with its extensions the 
Continuatio Prima and Continuatio Altera (to 1154) are in Vol. i, 
3-169. Epistola de Archiepiscopis Eboraci, in i, 222-228. The His- 
toria Regum (to 1129) is in ii, 3-283 ; it contains remnants of a lost 
Northumbrian Chronicle which continued Bede's History for about 
seventy years, and which was probably written early in the 9th 

Thomas Wykes (d. ca. 1293), Chronicle. In A.M., iv, 6-319. An original 
authority from 1262. 

Tighernach (d. 1088), ed. Wh. Stokes, Revue Celtique, xvi, xvii, xviii. Also 
in O'Conor's Scriptores, ii. 

Twysden, Roger : Historic Anglicanae Scriptores Decem. London, 1652. 

Vita Edwardi Regis (written 1066 x 1074), in H. R. Luard's Lives of Edward 
the Confessor, 387-435. Rolls Series, no. 3. 

Vita Oswaldi Archiepiscopi Eboracensis (Anonymous), in Raine's York, i, 
399-475. Written 995x1005. (Oswald died in 992.) 

Vita Oswini Regis Deirorum, ed. J. Raine, in Misc. Biog., pp. 1-59. 

Vita S. Cuthberti, v. Anonymous Life. 

Walter of Coventry (fl. 1293 ?), Memoriale (down to 1225), ed. W. Stubbs, 
Rolls Series, no. 58. Compiled 1293 x 1307. The part from 1201 to 
1225 is derived from the Chronicle of Barn well, written about 1227. 

William Retell, Miracula S. Johannis, Eboracensis Episcopi, in Raine's York, 
i, 261-291; written ca. 1150. Continuation a, ibid., 293-320 was 
written 1170x1180. John of Beverley died in 721. 

-William of Malmesbury (d. ca. 1142). Gesta regum Anglorum (to 1127) ed. 
W. Stubbs, Rolls Series, no. 90. The first edition of the G.R. was 
finished in 1125. 

Historia Novella (1125-1142; written 1140-1142), in G.R., ii, 525-596, 

- Gesta Pontificum (completed in 1125), ed. N. E. S. A. Hamilton. Rolls 

Series, no. 52. 

William of Newburgh (1136- ?1198), Historia Rerum Anglicarum (1066- 
1198), in Chr. of Ste., Vols. i and ii. Begun probably before 1196. 



S.A. 1185. 1 

WHEN earl Simon, son of Simon earl of Northampton, had died 
without children, king [Henry II] rendered the earldom of 
Huntingdon with all that pertained to it to William, king of 
Scots, who was the son of earl Henry, the son of king David, 
who was the son of Malcolm, son of Duncan, son of Bethoc, 
daughter of Malcolm, son of Kenneth, son of Malcolm, son of 
Donald, son of Constantin, son of Kenneth, son of Alpin, son of 
Eochaid, son of Eth Find, son of Eochaid, son of Donald Breac, 
son of Eochaid Buide, son of Aidan, son of Gabran, son of 
Domangart, son of Fergus Mor, son of Ere, son of Eochaid 
Muin-remor, son of Angus Fith, son of Fedelmid Aislingech, 
son of Angus Buidnech, 2 son of Fedelmid Romach, son of 
Senchormac, son of Cruitlinde, son of Findacha, son of Achir- 
cir, son of Eochaid Andoit, son of Fiacha Cathmhil, 3 son of 
Eochaid Riada, 4 son of Conaire, [son of] Mog Lama, son of 
Lugaid Ildathach, 5 son of Coirbre Crom-chenn, son of Daire 
Dorn-mor, son of Coirbre Find-mor, son of Conaire Mor, son of 
Eterscel, son of Eogan, son of Oilill, son of lar, son of Degad, 
son of Sen, son of Bef ore-Sen, 6 son of Ther, son of Before-Ther , 7 
son of Roin, son of Arandil, son of Maine, son of Forgo, 8 son of 
Feradach, son of Oilill Erann, son of Fiacha Fer-mara, son of 
Angus Tuirmech, son of Fir-cetharocht, son of Firrocht, son of 
An-roth, son of Firalmai, son of Lamcure, son of Liethan, son 
of Eochaid Alt-lethan, son of Oilill Cas-fiaclach, son of Conla, 
son of Iretro, 9 son of Meilge, son of Cobthach Gael Bregh, son 

1 Cf. Stubbs, ibid., note. This genealogy must be compared with the 
genealogy in Skene, P. & S., 133-134 ; the Pictish Chron., ibid., 8-10 ; 
Fland Manistrech, ibid., 18-22 ; and the genealogies ibid. 148-149, 151-152 ; 
171-172, 174-176. 

2 In text Buthini ; P. & S., 133, buiding. 

3 In text, Catinail ; P. & S., 134, Cathmhail. 

4 The same as Cairbre Riada ; cf. the Coir Anmann, 61, 63, 65, which 
assigns to him the invasion of Dalriada in Scotland ; Irische Texte, iii, T14, 

5 In text Etholach ; P. & S., 134, Ellatig. 

6 In text Rosin. 

7 In text Rether. 

8 In text Forgso as if for Ferguso. 

9 larunn-gleo in Coir Anmann, 95 ; u.s., 328. 

1 B 


of Ugaine Mor, son of Eochaid Buadach, 1 son of Duach Lodg- 
rach, son of Fiacha [Tolgach, son of Muredach] 2 Bolgrach, son 
of Simon Brec, son of Eon Duf, son of Aidan Glas, 3 son of 
Nuada Fail, son of Oilill Olchain, 4 son of Sirna, son of Dian, 
son of Demail, son of Rothechtaid, 5 son of Ogmaen, son of 
Angus Olmucaid, son of Fiacha Labrainne, son of Smirnai, son 
of Sinrecha, son of Emboth, son of Tigernach, son of Faleg, 
son of Etheor, son of lair 01-faith, 6 son of Eremon, son of 
Mil Espaine, son of Bile, son of Neande, son of Brige, son of 
Bregan, son of Brat ha, son of Deatha, son of Erchatha, son of 
Aldoith, son of Node, son of Nonael, son of Eber Scot, son of 
Goidel Glas, son of Niul, son of Fenias Farsaid, son of Eogan, 7 
son of Glonin, son of Lamin, son of Etheor, son of Achnoman, 
son of Thoe, son of Boib, son of Rein, son of Mair, son of 
Etheth, son of Abiur, son of Artheth, son of Haoith, son of 
Aora, son of Jara, son of Israu, son of Esrau, son of 
Richaith Scot, son of Gomer, son of Japheth, son of Noah. 

JOHN OF EVERSDEN, IN FL. OF W., VOL. II, pp. 252-25S. 8 

And it is to be noted that these are the names of the kings 
of Scots, who reigned in Scotland after the Picts : 
Kenneth son of Alpin, first after the Picts, 16 years ; 
Donald son of Alpin, 3 ; 
Constantin son of Kenneth, 19^ 9 
Kenneth son of Kenneth, lV 
Tirged son of Dugal, 12 ; 
Donald son of Constantin, 1? ; 
Constantin son of Beth, 45 ; -* 

1 In text Rothai. 

2 Omitted in text ; cf. P. & S., 134. 

3 In text " Etheon son of Glachs." 

4 In text Elchatha Olchaim. 

5 In text, Rothotha ; P. & S., 134, Rodchada. 

6 Irel Fdidh in Coir Anmann, 79 ; u.s., 326. 

7 From here to the end there is considerable divergency from the Chr of 
the Scots, in P. & S., 134. The Irish genealogists derive Fenias Farsaid 
through Baath from Magog, brother of Gomer (Genesis X, 2.) The names 
given by the His. Britt., in M.G.H., AA., xiii, 160-161, are : Hessitio ' 
Alanus, Fetebir, Ougomun, Thoi, Boib, Simeon, Mair, Ethach, Aurthach' 
Ecthet, Oth, Abir, Ra, Ezra, Izrau, Baath, lobaath, lovan, lafeth, Noah 
Cf. also Filius Urbagen (Mommsen's MS. Z ; His. Britt., u.s., 119 ) in Revue 
Celtique, xv. 177-178. 

8 Cf. the Chr. of th? Scots in Skene, P. & S., 130-131 ; the Pictish Chr 
ibid., 8-10 ; Fland Manistrech, ibid., 21-22 ; Chr. of the Sc. & P., ibid.',' 
1 o 1 lo^. 

9 Read 14, xiu for xix. 
10 Read 42, xlii for xl u , 


Malcolm son of Donald, 9 ; 

Indolf son of Constantin, 9 ; * 

Duf son of Malcolm, 3 years and six months ; 

Culen son of Indolf, 4 years and six months ; 

Kenneth son of Malcolm, 22 years and two months ; 

Constantin son of Culen, 1 year and a half ; 

Kenneth son of Duf, 1 year and three months ; 

Malcolm son of Kenneth, 30 years ; 

Duncan grandson of Enis, 5 years and nine months ; 

Macbeth * son of Finlay, 17 years ; 

Lulach, 2 4 years and a half ; 

Malcolm, son of Duncan, received as wife St. Margaret, and 

reigned 37 years ; 

Donald, his brother, invaded the kingdom for 3 years ; 
Duncan, base-born son of Malcolm, 1 year and a half ; 
Edgar, son of Malcolm and Margaret, 9 years ; 
Alexander, his brother, 17 years three months ; 
David, most glorious brother of the same, 29 years ; and he 

begot Henry, earl of Huntingdon ; 
Malcolm, son of earl Henry, 12 years and a half ; 
William, son of earl Henry aforesaid, 49 years ; 
Alexander, son of the aforesaid William, 35 years ; 
Alexander, son of Alexander. He received as wife Margaret, 

daughter of Henry, king of England, and begot Margaret, 

queen of Norway. 


1 In text Macheth. 

2 In text Lusach. The four and a half years assigned to him seem to be 
repeated under the names of Donald and Duncan, successors of Malcolm III. 



BUT as time went on, Britain received a third race, after the 
Britons and Picts ; that of the Scots, in the region of the Picts. 
And they advanced from Ireland, led by Reuda, 2 and claimed 
for themselves, whether by friendship or by the sword, the 
settlements which they have still : and from this leader, to 
wit, they are even yet called Dalreudini, for in their tongue 
Daal signifies " a part." . . . 

[Ireland] is properly the country of the Scots : they left it 
as we have said, and added a third nation in Britain to the 
Britons and the Picts. 3 

1 Cf. A.S. Vers. i, 28 ; 30. A.S.C., Pref., MSS. D,E,F. H. of H., 14, 

2 Cairbre Riada (cf. supra, note) is the eponymous founder of Dalriada 
in Antrim, ca. 200 A.D. Cf. Ann. of the Four Masters, in O'Conor, Scriptores, 
iii, 78. 

The first king of Dalriada in Scotland was Fergus Mor, son of Ere ; cf. 
supra, pedigree of the kings. He became king in 502 ; cf. Skene, P. & S., 
17, 18, 59, 130, 66. 

3 For the earlier invasions of Southern Britain by Picts and Scots v. 
Bede, the Historia Brittonum, and Gildas. 

For the distribution of races cf. Gildas, De Exc. Brit., XT, in M.G.H., 
A A., xiii, 33: "Thenceforth [? 396] Britain was abandoned by all her 
armed soldiers and by her warlike forces, and by her rulers [the Romans,] 
cruel though they were ; and despoiled of a great number of her youth, who 
had followed the footsteps of the aforesaid tyrant [Maximus] and never again 
came home ; and, being wholly ignorant of every warlike practice, she suf- 
fered for many years, groaning and stupefied, to be trampled upon at first 
by two exceeding cruel foreign nations, of the Scots from the west-north- 
west, and of the Picts from the north." (A marginal note in one MS., 
M.H.B., 10, note : " Because the Scots at that time dwelt in Ireland, and 
the Picts in Scotland, that is, to the north.") 

Cf. Bede, H.E., I, 12, i, 25-26 : " Now we call these nations foreign not 
because their place was outside of Britain, but because they were separated 
from the district of the Britons, two gulfs of the sea lying between : and of 
these gulfs the one runs into the lands of Britain far and widely from the 
eastern, the other from the western sea, although they cannot meet. 

" The eastern gulf has in its midst " (in medio sui ; not necessarily on an 
island) " the city of Giudi ; the western has above it, that is on its right side, 
the town of Alcluith, which means in their tongue the Rock of Clyde ; for 
it is near a river of that name." 

This passage is omitted by the A.S. Vers. For Giudi MS. IV has Guidi ; 
so H. of H., 34. MS. C 2 has iudi. Cf. infra, aa. 655-658. 

Of the wall built, according to Gildas, XII, u.s., by the Britons between 


Now there is a very great gulf of the sea, which anciently 
separated the nation of the Britons from the Picts. And it 
runs inland for a long space from the west, where stands even 
to-day the very strong city of the Britons, which is called Alclu- 
ith. 1 And to the northern side, to wit, of this gulf came the 
Scots, as we have said, and made for themselves the place of 
their abode. 



I, P. 353. 

In the year 547 Ida began to reign ; 2 and from him the 
royal line of the Northumbrians takes its origin. And he 
continued in the kingdom for twelve years. 

the two gulfs, Bede says (H.E., I, 12, i. 26) : " And of the work there built 
that is, of a very broad and high rampart, even to-day the surest traces 
may be seen. It begins at a distance of nearly two miles westward from 
the monastery of Abercorn, in a place which is called in the Pictish speech 
Peanfahel, and Penneltun in the English tongue ; and running westwards 
ends near the town of Alcluith." 

E. W. B. Nicholson, Keltic Researches, 22-24, understands Peanfahel as 
Pinna valli, and identifies it with Blackness. 

Bede, H.E., I, 11 ; i, 25 : " And [the Romans] dwelt within the ram- 
part " [A.S. Vers. reads : " the Britons dwelt to the south of the dyke,"] 
" which we have related that Severus made across the island, to the district 
in the south, as cities, watchtowers [farus], bridges and roads there made 
still testify to-day. But by right of dominion they possessed the farther 
parts of Britain, and indeed the islands which lie beyond Britain." 

1 Dumbarton. 

2 Ida was the founder of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia (cf . Bede, 
H.E., I, 15 ; i, 31 ;) A.S.C., MSS. A,B,C,D,E,F, s.a. 547 ; Fl. of W., i, 5. 
His. Britt., in M.G.H., AA., xiii, 130 (Nen.), 201, 205. Ethelw., in M.H.B., 
504. R. of D., V.S. Osw., in S. of D., i, 338-339. H. of H., 50. 

Bernicia included Lothian and Teviotdale, extending in Bede's day as 
far as to Abercorn on the Forth (H.E., IV, 26, infra s.a. 685) and westwards 
to Whithorn (H.E., III, 4, infra s.a. 565. Cf. Fl. of W., i, 279, 280 ; W. of 
M., G.P., 256, 257 ; infra, s.a. 731, notes.) 

Genealogies of Ida's predecessors are given by His. Britt., in M.G.H., 
AA., xiii, 202. Ser. Reg. North., in S. of D., ii, 389 ; A.S.C., MSS. B,C, 
s.a. 547 ; Fl. of W., i, 5. H. of H., 50. Cf. J. of E., in Fl. of W., ii, 250-251. 

For his successors cf. His. Britt., u.s., 206-208 ; and in agreement with 
it the Northumbrian Annals, in M.H.B., 290 (cf. S. of D., H.R., 14) : " After 
him Clappa [reigned] one year ; Adda, 8 ; Ethelric, 4 [in S. of D., 7] ; Theo- 
dric, 7 [in S. of D., 4] ; Frithwald, 6 [in S. of D., 7] ; Hussa, 7 ; Ethelfrid 
24 [in S. of D., 28] ; Edwin, 17. . . ." 

De Pr. Sax. Adv., in S. of D., ii, 374 ; R. of D., V.S.O., in S. of D., i, 
339 ; and S. of D., H.D.E., i, 40, give the series thus : Adda, 8 ; Clappa, 1 ; 
Hussa, 7 ; Frithulf, 7 ; Theodric, 7 ; Ethelric, 4 ; Ethelfrid, 24. Different 
accounts are given by Ser. Reg. North., in S. of D., ii, 390, and by Fl. of W., 
i, 6. 

For a list of Ida's sons see S. of D., H.D.E., i, 40 ; De Pr. Sax. Adv., 
ibid., ii, 374. Cf. His. Britt., u.s., 202. 



p. 339. 

The kingdom of the Deirans was of old from the river 
H umber to the bed of the source of the Tyne ; and that of the 
Bernicians extended at once its border and its area from the 
source of the Tyne to the Scot wad, 1 which is called Forth 2 in 
the Scottish tongue. 

But all that lies between the rivers Tyne and Tees was at 
that time but a desert waste, and therefore subject to no man's 
dominion, and therein was but the den and dwelling-place of 
wild and woodland beasts. 


Hyring was the first king who reigned after the Britons 
in Northumbria. 3 

Northumbria is from the great river Humber ... to the 
Frisian sea, which is now caUed the Scottish Sea, 4 because it 
separates the Angles and the Scots. It was called the Frisian 
sea of old, because the Frisians with the Danes often and most 
frequently were wont to land there with their ships, and after- 
wards to ravage Northumbria along with the Picts and Scots. 
Afterwards this district was divided, upon diverse occasions 
and various misfortunes, in many ways. And no long time 
afterwards it was divided into two districts : into Deira, to 
wit, and Bernicia. . . . 

And Bernicia is the district in which reigned the holy king 
and martyr, Oswald; to wit, from the Tyne to the Sea of 

Thereafter Northumbria meant sometimes from the 
Humber to the Tees, sometimes to the Tyne, sometimes to 
the Tweed ; but now only so much as is between the Tyne 
and the Tweed. 


How the nation of the Picts received the faith of Christ. 
In the year of the Lord's incarnation 565, at which time 

1 " Even when the Picts dwelt there," Bk. of H., 15 : i.e., south of the 

2 In text Froch. 

3 Ibid., 251,, after a genealogy : " For all these kings from Hyring to 
king Ida have been either omitted by or unknown to all the historians, and 
their records have been either burned in the land or carried from the land." 

4 The Forth. 

5 This chapter is omitted in the Capitula, and by the A.S. Vers. 

Of., s.a. 565 : Bede, H.E., Recapit., V, 24 ; i, 353 ; A.S.C., MSS. A,B,C; 


after Justinian Justin the younger received the helm of the 
Roman Empire, 1 there came to Britain from Ireland a priest 
and abbot notable for the habit and life of a monk, Columba 
by name, to preach the word of God to the provinces of the 
northern Picts ; that is, to those which are shut off from their 
southern districts by steep and rugged mountain chains. 2 

For the southern Picts who have their seats to this side of 
the same- mountains had, as they relate, a long time before for- 
saken the error of idolatry and received the faith of truth, when 
the word was preached to them by Ninian, 3 a most reverend 

Ethelw., in M.H.B., 504 ; Fl. of W., i, 7 ; Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., SS., 
xix, 503 ; H. of H., 92-93. Cf. Tighernach, s.a. 563 ; Ann. of Ulster, s.a. 
562, both of which say that Columba was in his forty-second year. Cf . Ann. 
Cambr., s.a. 562. 

A.S.C., s.a. 565, MSS. E,F, and insertions in A: "And Columba the 
mass-priest came to the Picts, and turned them to Christ's faith" ["to the 
right faith," E] ; " they are dwellers [lit. "warders "jtothe north of the moun- 
tains. And their king gave him the island which is called lona : in it are 
five hides, as men say. There this Columba built a monastery ; and there he 
was abbot thirty- two winters. And there he died, when he was seventy-seven 
winters old. Even yet his successors have a place there." MSS. E,F : 
" The South Picts were baptized much earlier ; bishop Ninian, who was 
taught at Rome, preached baptism to them. His church and his monastery 
are at Whithorn, consecrated in Martin's name. There he rests with many 
holy men." [A] does not mention the church: "his monastery is Whit- 
horn," etc. 

For Whithorn cf. infra, s.a. 731. 

1 Justin II became emperor on the 15th November, 565. (Gibbon.) 

2 Cf. Bede, H.E., V, 9 ; i, 297 : " Now Columba was the first teacher of 
the Christian faith to the Picts beyond the mountains toward the north, 
and the first founder of the monastery which in the island of lona long 
remained venerable to many peoples of the Scots and Picts. And this 
Columba to wit is now by some called by a name composed from cella and 
Columba, ' Columcille.' " 

Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 410: "This Columba was the first teacher of the 
Christian faith in the mountains (morlondum) which are to the north of the 
Pictish kingdom." 

3 See A. of R.'s Life of St. Ninian, in Forbes's Lives of St. Ninian and 
St. Kentigern. Ninian's church was built in ? 397 A.D. (ibid., 27) ; the date 
of his death is given as September 16, 432. 

Palladius, sent as first bishop to Ireland, (Bede, H.E., I, 13, s.a. 431 \ 
V, 24, s.a. 430,) after some seasons " departed from Ireland and came to 
Britain, where he died in the land of the Picts " : His. Britt., in M.G.H., 
AA., xiii, 194-195. The Irish Nennius reads: "Palladius was expelled 
from Ireland, and came and served God in Fordun in the Mearns." Ibid., 
194. Todd Lee, Ser. vi, 15. 

W. of M., G.P., 256-257 : " Candida Casa [Whithorn] is the name of 
the place on the extreme borders of England, close to Scotland, where rests* 
St. Ninian the confessor : by race a Briton, he first preached there the gospel 
of Christ. 

" The name was given to it for this cause that he made there a church 
of smoothed stone, to the marvel of the Britons. 

" Antiquity found this St. Ninian remarkable for his virtues ; as AlbinuS 
writes in a letter to the brethren of that place, saying, ' I beseech all your 
devout assembly that you preserve the memory of our name in the church orf 


bishop and very holy man of the race of the Britons ; and one 
who had been regularly trained at Rome in the faith and the 
mysteries of truth. And even now x the English nation obtains 
the see of his episcopate, notable for the name and church of 
the bishop St. Martin; and there also [Ninian] rests in the 
body, along with very many saints. And this place, pertain- 
ing to the province of the Bernicians, is commonly called Ad 
Candidam Casam [Whithorn], because he made there a church 
of stone, after a custom strange to the Britons. 2 

Now Columba came to Britain while Brude, son of Maelchon, 
a most powerful king, reigned over the Picts, in the ninth year 
of his reign ; 3 and he turned that nation by word and example 
to the faith of Christ. And hence also he received in possession 
from them the aforesaid island [of lona], to make a monastery. 
For it is not large, but as it were of five families, according to 
the reckoning of the Angles ; 4 and his successors hold it to this 
day ; and there he himself was buried, when he was seventy- 
seven 5 years old, about thirty-two 6 years from the time when 
lie came to Britain to preach. 7 

But before he came to Britain he had made a noble monas- 
tery in Ireland ; and it is called in the Scottish tongue, from 
the abundance of its oak-trees, Dearmach* that is, the plain 
jf oaks. 

your most holy father, bishop Ninian, who shone with many virtues ' [i.e. 
miracles] 'as has been recently brought to my knowledge by some verses 
of poetry sent to us by our faithful disciples the scholars of the church of 
York. And in them I discovered the learning of a worker, and the holiness 
of a worker of miracles.' " This letter (782 x 804) of Alcuin or Albinus is in 
Migne, 100, 511-512 ; H. & S., ii, 8. 

1 I.e. shortly before 731 A.D. ; v. infra, s.a. 731. 

2 Cf. Finan's wooden church in Lindisfarne ; Bede, H.E., III, 25, infra, 
c.a. 651. 

3 Cf. the continuation of Marc. Com., in Migne, 51, 948, s.a. 557 : " In 
Britain Bridus became king of the Picts." 

Brude 's father Maelchon may have been the king of North Wales who 
.lied in 547. Of him the His. Britt., in M.G.H., AA., xiii, 205-206, says : 
" The great king Maelchon reigned among the Britons, that is to say in the 
region of Guenedota ; because his ancestor (atavus), that is Cunedag, had 
formerly come with his sons, whose number is eight, from the northern 
region, that is to say from the district which is called Manau Guotodin, 146 
yoars before Maelchon reigned : and they expelled the Scots with the greatest 
slaughter from these districts [of Guenedota] ; and never again did [the 
Scots] return to dwell there." For Manau cf. infra, 710x711, note. 

4 So A.S.C., u.s. : "Therein are five hides." 

5 " Seventy-six," MS. N. 

6 " Thirty-four," MS. N. 

7 Little light is thrown upon the chronology by the His. Britt., in 
TiI.G.H., AA., xiii, 158-159. 

Columba died on the 9th June, 597 : v. Reeves, Adamnan, 309-312. 

8 I.e. Durrow ; in Adamnan, 23, Dairmag. 


And out of each of these monasteries thenceforth very many 
monasteries were multiplied by his disciples, both in Britain 
and in Ireland ; so that over all of them the same island mon- 
astery in which he rests in the body held the principate. x 

Now that island is accustomed to have as its ruler ever an 
abbot-priest, to whose right both the whole province and the 
bishops also themselves must be subject, in uncustomary order, 
after the example of its first teacher, who was no bishop, but a 
priest and monk. 2 

And of his life and words some writings are reported to be 
in the possession of his disciples. But whatever manner of 
man he was himself, 3 this we hold for certain concerning him, 

1 Cf. Bede, H.E., III, 3, infra, after 635 A.D. ; III, 21, infra, s.a. 655, 
note ; V, 22, infra, s.a. 716. In each of these passages Bede uses a past 
tense of the verb in speaking of the authority of lona. The control of the 
Columbite monasteries in Britain was removed to Dunkeld by Constantin I, 
who reigned from 789 to 820 A.D. Later, the monastery of lona was abandoned 
owing to the Norwegian invasions ; but it was rebuilt by queen Margaret. 
Cf. O.V., VIII, xx, infra, s.a. 1093. Kenneth mac Alpin (who reigned 844-860) 
" in the seventh year of his reign transferred the body of St. Columba to the 
church which he had founded," at Dunkeld. Chr. of the Picts, in Skene, 
P. & S., 8. The monastery of Abingdon claimed to possess one of Columba's 
ribs ; Chr. of Ab., ii, 158. For his relics' wanderings v. Ann. of Ulst., s.aa. 
828, 830, 848, 877. 

2 This is misunderstood by A.S.C., MSS. A,E,F, s.a. 565 : " Now 
there must ever be in lona an abbot, not a bishop ; and to him must be subject 
all Scottish bishops ; because Columba was an abbot, not a bishop." 

Cf. Bede, H.E., IV, 27; i, 270: "For at that time the same most 
reverend father [Eata] ruled this place also [Lindisfarne], in the rank of 
abbot. For indeed from ancient times both the bishop was wont to dwell 
there with the clergy, and the abbot with the monks ; although they too 
pertained as a family to the care of the bishop. Because of course Aidan, 
who was the first bishop of that place, himself a monk came with monks 
thither, and established there monastic life : even as we know the blessed 
father Augustine also to have done before in Kent, when the most reverend 
pope Gregory wrote to him what we have set down above also, [H.E., I, 27 ; 
i, 48-49,] saying : ' But because thou, my brother, hast been trained in the 
rules of the monastery, and oughtest not to be separated from thy clergy : 
in the church of the English, which lately by God's guidance has been brought 
to the faith, that manner of life ought to be established which was to our 
fathers the beginning of the church at its birth ; for among them was none 
who said that anything of what they possessed was his own, but they had all 
things in common.' " Cf. Bede, V.S.C., XVI ; E.H.S. ed., ii, 79-80. S. of 
D., H.D.E., i, 26. 

Nevertheless Eata became abbot of Lindisfarne in 661 (Bede, H.E., 
III, 26, infra,) but was not bishop till 678 (H.E., IV, 12 ; i, 228-229.) In 
the Scottish system the bishops were members of monasteries, and subject 
to their abbot. 

3 A still plainer insinuation against the character of Columba occurs 
among Wilfrid's arguments at the Synod of Whitby ; Bede, H.E., III, 24 ; 
i, 187-188 : " Now of your father Columba and his followers, whose sanctity 
you profess to imitate, and whose rule and precepts, confirmed by signs from 
heaven, you profess to follow, I might be able to answer that when in the 
Judgment many say to the Lord that they have prophesied in His name, and 


that he left successors notable for great continence, and for 
love of God, and regular training. In the time of the chief 
festival, it is true, they followed doubtful orbits, inasmuch as 
no one had brought to them, situated far beyond the world, 
the Synodal decrees for the observance of Easter ; but they 
observed diligently those works of piety and chastity which 
they w r ere able to learn in the prophetic, evangelic and apostolic 
writings. But the observance of Easter after this fashion 
remained with them for no short time ; that is, for a hundred 
and fifty years, till the year of the Lord's incarnation 715. 

But then came to them the most revered and holy father 
and priest Egbert, of the race of the Angles. He had lived 
very long in exile for Christ in Ireland, and was both most 
learned in the Scriptures and distinguished for the long-contin- 
ued perfection of his life. And they were corrected by him, 
and brought over to the true and canonical day of Easter ; 
though even before then they celebrated it not, as some ima- 
gined, always on the fourteenth day of the moon, with the 
Jews, but on Sunday, although in other weeks than they ought. 
For, being Christians, they knew that the Lord's resurrection 
which took place on the first day of the week must always be 
celebrated on the first day of the week ; but, being barbari- 
ans and peasants, they had by no means learned when that 
first day (which is now called the Lord's day) arrived. 
And because they omitted not to burn with the grace 
of charity they merited to receive perfectly the know- 
ledge of this matter also, according to the promise of the 
apostle who says : " And if anything ye understand other- 
wise, even that also shall God reveal to you." * 

But of this we must speak more fully below, in its place. 2 



At this time Ceolwulf began to reign in Wessex, and con- 

cast out devils, and done many miracles, the Lord will reply that he never 
knew them. But forbid that I should say this of your fathers ; for it is far 
j uster to believe good than evil of men unknown. And therefore I do not 
deny that they also were servants of God, and beloved of God, who loved 
God with rustic simplicity, but with pious intention." 

1 Philippians, III, 15. 

2 V. infra, s.a. 716. 

3 Cf. Ethelwerd, s.a. 597, in M.H.B. V ^05 ; Fl. of W., 10 ; H. of H., 54-55. 




stantly he fought and strove against the Angle race, or against 
Welsh, or against Picts, or against Scots. 1 



How Ethel f rid, king of the Northumbrians, crushed the 
nations of the Scots in battle, and expelled them from the terri- 
tories of the Angles. 

In these times Ethelfrid, a most powerful king, and very 
eager for glory, reigned over the kingdom of the Northum- 
brians ; and he more than all the princes of the Angles wasted 
the nation of the Britons, so that he seemed comparable 
with Saul, at one time king of the Israelite nation 
with this exception only, that he was ignorant of the 
divine religion. For no one among tribunes, 3 no one among 
kings, after expelling or subduing the inhabitants made more 
of their lands either tributary to the English nation or 
habitable by them. And to him deservedly might that saying 
be applied which the patriarch pronounced, blessing his son, 
upon the person of Saul : " Benjamin is a ravening wolf ; in 
the morning shall he devour the prey, in the evening shall he 
divide the spoil." 4 

Wherefore Aidan, king of the Scots who dwell in Britain, 
was disturbed by his advance, 5 and came against him with a 
huge and mighty army; but he was conquered, and fled 
away with few. For almost all his army was slain in a 
most renowned place which is called Degsastan ; that is, 
Degsa stone. 6 

1 Ceolwulf reigned for fourteen years, according to the A.S.C., MSS. 
A,B,C,E, and Fl. of W. ; seventeen years, according to the Pref., MSS. A and 
?B (v. E. and PL, i, 2 ; ii, 2-3), where, however, the chronology is different. 

This annal seems highly improbable as regards Scotland. 

2 A.S. Vers., i, 92. Cf. Bede, H.E., V, 24, Recapit., i, 353. A.S.C., MS. E, 
MSS. A,B,C, s.a. 603. Fl. of W., i, 11. W. of M., G. R., i, 47. H. of H., 55. 

3 " More than all English-kind and aldermen," A.S. Vers. 

4 Genesis XLIX, 27. 

" And drew him into a war against his will," says W. of M., G.R., u.s. 

6 Perhaps Dawstane, near Jedburgh. 

A.S.C., MS. E, foolishly reads : "In this year Aidan, king of Scots 
fought against the Dalriada and against Ethelfrid, king of the Northumbrians, 
at Degsastan." Aidan, the son of Gabran, became king of Dalriada in 574. 
His name is spelt Aedan by Bede ; dSgihan by A.S.C., MS. E, and insertion 
in MS. A; Edan by W. of M ; Ean, Sigebert of Gemblours, in M.G.H., SS., 
vi, 322. (Cf. Plummer, Bede, ii, 64-66.) 

The place of the battle is named Dcegsan stane, by A.S.C., MS. E ; 
Dcegstane, ins. in MS. A; cet Egesan stane, MSS. B,C. 


And in this battle also Theodbald, brother of Ethelfrid, 
was slain with almost all the army which he led. 1 

And Ethelfrid accomplished this battle to wit in the year 
from the incarnation of the Lord 603, and the eleventh year of 
his kingship, which he held for four and twenty years ; more- 
over in the first year of Phocas, who then held the summit 
of the Roman realm. 2 

And never from that time has any of the kings of Scots 
even to this day dared to come to battle in Britain against the 
nation of the Angles. 3 



And for this king [Edwin], to wit, the power of his earthly 
empire also had increased, in token of his receiving the faith 
and the heavenly kingdom ; so that he received under his sway 
(as none of the Angles before him) all the territories of Britain, 
where dwelt the provinces either of [the Angles] themselves or 
of the Britons. And also the Mevanian isles ... he reduced 
to the empire of the Angles. 

616 x 617 


. . . For the whole time that Edwin reigned, the sons of 
the aforesaid king Ethelfrid, who had reigned before him, were 

1 " With all his band," A.S.C., MS. E. 

2 Phocas succeeded on the 23rd November, 602 (Gibbon. ) Ethelfrid's father 
Ethelric, king of Bernicia, had annexed Deira upon the death of Elle ; 
A.S.C., MSS. A,B,C,E, s.a. 588. Ethelfrid succeeded in 593 (A.S.C., MS. E) 
and ruled both kingdoms. Elle's son Edwin did not gain the kingdom till 

3 A.S.C., MS. E. " Since then no king of the Scots dared lead an army 
into this nation." 

" Hering, son of Hussa, led the army thither." 

4 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 118, 120. 

Alcuin, Carmen, in Raine's York, i, 353 : "And now with bowed necks 
passed under king [Edwin's] yoke the people of the Saxons, the Pict, the Scot, 
the Briton." 

This is amplified by W. of M., G.R., i, 49-50 : " . . . not only the nations 
of Britain, the Angles, Scots and Picts, but also the Orkney and Mevanian 
isles . . . both feared his arms and bowed to his authority." Ibid., 49 : 
" . . . there was no province of Britain which did not look for his behest, 
ready to obey ; except the men of Kent alone." 

5 A.S. Vers., i, 152. Cf. R. of D., V.S.O., in S. of D., i, 341. De Pr. 
Sax. Adv., in S. of D., ii, 375. W. of M., G.R., i, 51. Life of Eata, in Raine's 
Hexh., i, 211. Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., SS., xix, 503, s.a. 617. 


in exile 1 with many youths of the nobles 2 among the Scots 
and Picts ; and there were instructed in the doctrine of the 
Scots, and regenerated by the grace of baptism. . . . 


pp. 341-342. 

But when king Edwin, [Oswald's] uncle, was slain by Cad- 
wallon, king of the Britons, and Penda, king of the Mercians, 3 
Anfrid, the firstborn son of king Ethelfrid, returned from Scot- 
tish exile, and took possession of his father's kingdom of the 
Bernicians, 4 but only for one year. 


And when after a year [Anfrid] was slain, St. Oswald, second 
of the sons, succeeded him ; 5 but he reduced to himself the 
empire of the kingdoms not of the Bernicians and Deirans alone, 
but also of the Picts and of the Scots. And he joined Deira 
and Bernicia into one united kingdom. 

And these realms he held all his days. And in the tongues 
which he had formerly learned he was for many days inter- 
preter, when Aidan preached the word of God to the rude 
peoples on all sides subject to him. 

1 " Along with their mother [Acha]," V.S. Osw., u.s. 

According to A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 617, Ethelfrid had seven sons, " Anfrid, 
Oswald, and Oswy, Oslac, Oswudu, Oslaf, and Otha " L ; cf. Fl. of W., i, 10 
s.a. 593, who adds " and one daughter called Ebba." Cf. W. of M., G.R., 
i, 48: "Ethelfrid . . . had had two sons by Acha, the daughter of Elle 
[king of the Deirans,] and sister of Edwin : Oswald, aged twelve years, 
and Oswy, four years. And by the care of their guardians they escaped by 
flight, and retired to Scotland." 

During his sojourn in Scotland Oswald " completely learned " the 
Scottish tongue, and was able to interpret when Aidan preached ; Bede, 
H.E., III, 3 ; i, 132. Cf. R. of D., V.S. Osw., in S. of D., i, 341-342, infra. 
W. of M., G.R. i, 51-52. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 18. 

His brother Oswy was " very well versed in their language," Bede, 
H.E., III, 25 ; i, 182. 

Anfrid may have been the father of the Pictish king Talorg mac Anfrith. 
Cf. Skene, P. & S., pp. cii, cxviii, f. Cf. infra, s.a. 685, note. 
" With twelve men," V.S. Osw., in S. of D., i, 367. 

3 Edwin was slain in the battle of Hatfield, 633, October 12 : Bede, 
H.E., II, 20, i, 124 ; October 14, A.S.C., MS. E ; " along with ... the 
king of the Orkneys, Godbold, who had come to [the Northumbrians'] aid," 
says G. of M., xii, 8. 

4 At the same time Osric, son of Edwin's uncle Elfric, had Deira : Bede, 
H.E., III, 1, i, 127 ; A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 634 ; Ser. Reg. North., in S. of D., 
ii, 390. 

5 Before his victory over Cadwallon at Denisesburn (Bede, H.E., III, 1 ; 
i, 128) Oswald had a vision of St. Columba, foretelling his success ; R. of D., 
V.S.O., in S. of D., i, 367. 




How the same king [Oswald] asked a bishop of the Scottish 
nation, and received Aidan ; and granted to him the seat of his 
episcopate in the island of Lindisfarne. 

The same Oswald, therefore, so soon as he received the 
kingdom, desired that the whole nation over which he began to 
rule should be imbued with the grace of Christian faith, of which 
he had now made most thorough trial in the conquest of bar- 
barians ; and sent to the elders 2 of the Scots, among whom 
while in exile he had attained to the sacraments of baptism 
with the knights who were with him, asking that there might 
be sent to him a bishop, by whose teaching and ministry the 
nation of Angles which he ruled might both learn the gifts of 
faith in the Lord, and receive the sacraments. 

And not at all more slowly did he obtain what he asked ; 
for he received as bishop Aidan, a man of the highest meekness, 
and piety, and moderation, and one having the zeal for God, 
although not wholly according to knowledge. For he was 
accustomed to observe Easter Sunday after his nation's cus- 
tom, which we have very often made mention of, from the 
fourteenth day of the moon to the twentieth. For still at that 
time the northern provinces of the Scots [of Ireland] and the 
whole race of the Picts celebrated the Lord's Easter in this 
manner, considering that in this observance they followed the 
writings of the holy father and worthy of praise, Anatolius. 
But if this be true every man of training can most easily learn. 3 


Now they say that when king Oswald craved from the 
province of the Scots a bishop who should administer to him 
and to his nation the word of faith, there was sent first another 
man, of austerer character ; and when for some while he had 
preached to the nation of the Angles and profited nothing, and 

1 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 158. Life of Eata, Raine's Hexh., i, 211-212. Fl. 
of W., i, 17, s.a. 635. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 7 ; 17-20, s.a. 635. 

2 " To the aldermen of the Scots," A. S. Version. 

3 " Although . . . learn," omitted by A.S. Version. Cf. Bede, H.E., 
III, 17 ; infra, p.a. 651. 

In a letter to Wicred (Giles's Bede, i, 161) Bede alleges that the text of 
Anatolius had been deliberately altered in some copies. Cf. references in 
Plummer, Bede, ii, 191. 

4 Cf, A.S. Vers., i, 162 ; 164, 


was not willingly heard by the people, he returned to his own 
land, and related in the assembly of the elders that he had been 
unable in any way to benefit by his teaching the nation to 
which he had been sent ; because they were intractable men, 
and of a hard and barbarous disposition. 1 

But [the elders], as is said, began to hold a quiet discussion 
in council as to what should be done ; while desiring to save 
the nation, as was besought of them, yet grieving that the 
preacher whom they had sent had not been received. 

Then said Aidan (for he too was present in the council) to 
the bishop about whom the discussion turned : "Meseemeth, 
brother, that thou hast been harder than was just for unlearned 
hearers, and hast not offered them according to apostolic pre- 
cept first the milk of milder doctrine, until gradually nourished 
in God's word they were able to receive the more perfect and 
to keep the higher commandments of God." 

Hearing this, all who sat there gave heed to him with ears 
and eyes, and diligently discussed what he said ; and decided 
that he was worthy of the bishopric, that he should be sent to 
teach the unbelieving and the unlearned, since he was proved 
before all things to be imbued with the grace of discretion, 
which is the mother of the virtues. And so they ordained him 
and sent him to preach. 

And when he had opportunity, as before by his controlling 
discretion, so afterwards he appeared adorned by the other 
virtues also. 2 



From this island, then, from the brotherhood of these 
monks, Aidan was sent, after receiving the rank of bishopric, 
to instruct L the 'province of the Angles in Christ. And at 

1 Cf. Augustine's mission, put off from 596 to 597 A.D. ; Bede, H.E., 
I, 23 ; i, 42-43. 

2 Pleased with king Oswald's generosity to the poor, Aidan blessed his 
hands. After Oswald's death they were cut off by order of Penda, but 
remained incorrupt ; Bede, H.E., III, 6 ; i, 138. Ill, 12 ; i, 151-152. 
S. of D., H.D.E., i, 20-21. 

When the priest Utta set out (soon after 642) to fetch from Kent king 
Oswy's bride Anfled, daughter of Edwin, Aidan prophesied a storm, but 
gave him consecrated oil, which stilled it ; Bede, H.E., III, 15 ; i, 157-158 ; 
Metr. Life of St. Cuthb., V, ed. E.H.S., ii, 8-9. 

Aidan's prayers changed the wind and prevented Penda from burning 
Bamborough ; Bede, H.E., III, 16 ; i, 158-159. 

3 Cf, A.S. Vers., i, 160, 162. Ann, of Lind., in M.G.H., SS. ? xix, 504, 


this time the abbot and priest Seghine l ruled that mon- 

And hence in addition to other rules of life he left the clerics 
a most wholesome example of abstinence or continence ; and 
this chiefly commended his teaching to all, that he taught not 
otherwise than as he lived, and his followers also. For he 
endeavoured to ask nothing, to desire nothing of this world. 
Everything that was given to him by the kings or the rich men 
of the world he rejoiced to bestow immediately upon the poor 
whom he chanced to meet. 

It was his custom to travel about through the whole dis- 
trict, both of town and of country, not riding on horseback, 
but going on foot; unless perchance some greater need con- 
strained him : to the end that wherever on his way he should 
see men, rich or poor, he might turn aside to them at once, and 
either invite them to the sacrament of the adoption of the 
faith, if they were unbelievers ; or, if they were believers, 
strengthen them in their faith, and incite them both by words 
and deeds to acts of charity and the performance of good works. 2 

Now his life differed so much from the sloth of our times 
that all who went with him had to study, whether tonsured or 
lay ; that is, to employ themselves either in reading scriptures, 
or in learning psalms. 3 This was the daily work of [Aidan] 
and of all who were with him, in whatever place they came to. 

And if it ever fell out (what yet seldom chanced) that he 
was called to the king's banquet, he entered with one cleric, 

s.a. 635. Fl. of W., i, 245-246. R. of H., D.H.E., in Raine's Hexh., i, 10, 
s.a. 634. 

Aidan's bishopric cannot have begun before 635.. Twice, in H.E., III, 
17 (infra, s.a. 651,) and III, 26 (infra, s.a. 664,) Bede in the same chapter 
counts his bishopric from both 635 and 634 ; though two MSS. of III, 17, 
count it from 635 only. It is reckoned from 634, e.g. by S. of D., H.D.E., 
i, 57 (though ibid, his reckoning places Cuthbert's death in 686 instead of 
687 ;) but from 635, ibid., i, 7 ; cf. i, 24. 

Bede, H.E., III, 3, i, 132 : " To the bishop therefore when he came 
to him the king assigned the place of the episcopal see in the island of Lindis- 
farne, as he himself desired. As the tide ebbs and flows this place is twice 
each day, like an island, washed round by the waves of the sea ; and twice 
the beach is bared again, and contact with the land restored." 

A list of the bishops of Lindisfarne is given by Fl. of W., i, 246. 

1 Seghine was abbot of lona from 623 to 652. He may be the Seghine 
among the Scots to whom the pope-elect John addressed a bull on the Easter 
question, in 740; Bede, H.E., II, 19; i, 123, ii, 113. Cf. Adarnnan, 16, 26, 
111 ; Reeves, ibid., 373. Cf. Cummian's letter to Seghine on the Paschal 
controversy, in Migne, 87, 969-978. 

2 Cf. the diocesal journeys of Boisil and Cuthbert ; Bede, V.S.C., IX, 
infra, s.a. 661. 

3 The A.S. Version adds : " or, thirdly, to stand in holy prayers." 


or with two : and after partaking of very little hastened to 
depart with speed, to read with his followers or to pray. 

Following his example at that time all the religious 
men, and women also made it a custom throughout the whole 
year, (excepting the abatement of fifty days after Easter,) 
to prolong their fast to the ninth hour on the fourth and 
sixth days of the week. 1 

Never did he hide from the rich, through respect or fear, 
whatever they had done amiss, but corrected them with 
sharp rebuke. Never was it his wont to give any money to 
the powerful of the world, but only food, if he entertained 
them in the hospice ; but the rather those gifts of moneys 
which were bestowed upon him by the rich did he either dis- 
tribute in benefits to the poor, as we have said, or employ 
for the ransom of those who had been unjustly sold. Indeed 
many whom he had redeemed for a price, ransomed he after- 
wards made his disciples, and advanced by teaching and 
training even to the rank of priesthood. 



Thenceforward very many began to come to Britain day 
by day from the district of the Scots, and to preach the word 
of faith with great devotion to those provinces of the Angles 
over which Oswald reigned ; and to administer (as many as 
were possessed of episcopal rank 3 ) the grace of baptism to 
the believing. Churches therefore were built throughout the 
land, and the people flocked to hear the word, rejoicing ; 
and possessions and territories were granted by royal gift 
for the establishment of monasteries : along with their parents 
the children of the Angles were instructed by the Scots their 
teachers in the studies and observance of regular disci- 
pline. 4 

For they were monks chiefly who had come to preach. 

1 The Gaelic names for Wednesday, Thursday and Friday still bear 
witness to this custom : they are " day of the first fast," " day between the 
two fasts," " day of the fast." 

2 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 158, 160. Cf. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 19-20. 

3 Sacerdotali . . . gradu. 

4 Cf . the six monasteries founded in Deira, and six in Bernicia ; Bede, 
H.E., III, 24 ; i, 178. 

" From the church [of Lindisfarne] all the churches and monasteries of 
the province of the Bernicians took their origin," S. of D., H.D.E., i, 7. For 
the extent of the diocese in Scotland, cf. S. of D., i, 199 ; infra, ca. a. 830. 


Bishop Aidan was himself a monk, inasmuch as he was sent 
from the island which is called lona, 1 whose monastery held 
sway for no short time over almost all the monasteries of the 
northern Scots [of Ireland] and of all the Picts, and controlled 
the rule over their inmates. 

And this island, it is true, pertains to the jurisdiction 
of Britain, being separated from it by a narrow channel ; 
but 2 by gift of the Picts who dwell in those regions of Britain 
it was long ago given up to the Scottish monks, because 
through their preaching [the Picts] received the faith of 


By this bishop's teaching therefore King Oswald was in- 
structed, along with that nation over which he ruled ; and 
not only learned to hope for heavenly realms unknown to 
his ancestors, but also acquired from the same one God who 
made heaven and earth earthly realms beyond any of his 
forefathers. 4 

Indeed, he received under his sway all the races and pro- 
vinces of Britain, divided as they are among four languages ; 5 
that is, the language of the Britons, of the Picts, 6 of the Scots, 
and of the Angles. 

1 Hii! Cf. Bede, H.E., III, 21 ; i, 171, infra, s.a. 655, note. 

2 " It is true . . . but," not in A.S. Vers. 

3 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 164. H. of H., 93. 

4 According to Bede, H.E., II, 5 ; i, 89, Oswald's kingdom had the'same 
limits as his uncle Edwin's had had. 

5 Cf. His. Britt., in M.G.H., AA., xiii, 147. A.S.C., Pref., MS. F. A 
fifth language, Latin, is added to the tongues of Britain by Bede, H.E., I, 
1 ; i, 11. Cf. A.S.C., Pref., MSS. D,E. H. of H., 12. G. of M., I, 2. 

Before ? 1130 the Pictish language had ceased to exist, according to 
H. of H., 12-13 : " Although the Picts seem now to have been wiped out, 
and their language so wholly destroyed that now it seems a fable when mention 
is found of them in the writings of the ancients. 

" And to whom will it not suggest the love of heavenly things and the 
dread of earthly things, when he considers that not only their kings and 
princes and people have perished ; but even their whole stock, their language 
and the recollection of them have failed together ? And if of the rest it were 
no wonder, yet it seems marvellous of the language, which from the beginning 
of languages God established one among the rest." 

Cf. H. of H., 15 : " . . . This is certain, that [the Scots] came from 
Spain to Ireland, and that thence a section of them departed and added a 
third race in Britain to the Britons and the Picts. For a part of them also 
which remained there still uses the same tongue ; and they are called 
Navarri." (Traces of a former Celtic language still liriger in the dialects of 
northern Spain.) 

8 Nevertheless cf. Bede, H.E., III, 24 ; infra, s.a. 655. 




When the day of death compelled him to depart from the 
body, after he had completed seventeen 2 years of his bishop- 
ric, [Aidan] was in the royal vill not far from the town [of 
Bamborough] of which we have been speaking. For having 
in this [vill] a church and a bedchamber he had been accus- 
tomed very often to turn aside and stay there, and to go out 
thence in all directions to preach. And this he used to do 
also in other royal vills, inasmuch as he had nothing of his 
own possession excepting his church and the plots of ground 
adjoining it. 

When [Aidan] fell ill, therefore, they set up for him a tent 
on the western side of the church, so that the tent was made 
fast to the wall of the church. And hence it happened that 
he was leaning upon a buttress 3 placed against the outside 
of the church as a support when he breathed out the last breath 
of life. 

He died in the seventeenth 4 year of his bishopric, on the 
day 5 before the Kalends of September. And his body was 
presently carried over thence to the island of the monks of 
Lindisfarne, and buried in the graveyard of the brethren. 

But after some considerable interval of time, when a greater 
church 6 had been built there, and dedicated in honour of the 
most blessed prince of the apostles, [Aidan's] bones were carried 
over thither and bestowed, according to the reverence due to 
so great a bishop, to the right of the altar. 

And Finan succeeded him in the bishopric, he also being 

1 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 202, 204. A.S.C., s.a. 651 (MS. E, s.a. 650). Ann. of 
Lind., in M.G.H., SS., xix, 504, s.a. 651. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 21. 

King Oswin gave a fine horse to Aidan, and afterwards apologized for 
having been angry when Aidan had given it in alms to the poor : whereupon 
Aidan foretold his death, because the nation was not worthy of him. Bede, 
H.E., III, 14 ; i, 156-157. 

Oswin was slain by treachery on the 20th August, 651 ; ibid., i, 155. Cf. 
Life of Oswin, Misc. Biog., 11. 

Bede, u.s., i, 157 : " But bishop Aidan himself was removed from the 
world and received from the Lord the eternal reward of his labours no later 
than the twelfth day after the slaying of the king whom he loved ; that is, 
on the day before the Kalends of September." [August 31.] 

" Sixteen," MSS. M and N. So below, " in the seventeenth year." 

3 The church was burned down twice, but neither time was this wooden 
prop consumed ; when the church was again rebuilt, the prop was preserved 
inside, and worked many miracles : Bede, H.E., III, 17 ; i, 160-161. 

4 The A.S. Vers., 204, has " fourteenth," misreading xuii as xiiii. 

5 August 31. 

6 basilica major. 


sent thither from lona, the island and monastery of the 
Scots ; and he continued no short time in the episcopate. l 



Now I have written these things of the person and works 
of the man aforesaid, by no means praising or approving in 
him that he knew less perfectly about the observation of 
Easter ; nay, detesting it much, as I have most clearly shown 
in the book which I have w r ritten De Temporibus ; 3 but as 
a truthful historian relating frankly the things which were 
done by him or through him, and praising in his actions what 
things are worthy of praise, and placing them on record for 
the benefit of the readers : namely the cultivation of peace 
and of charity, of continence and of humility ; a mind vic- 
torious over anger and greed, and scorning pride as well as 
vainglory ; diligence in keeping as in teaching the divine 
commands ;' assiduity in reading and in vigils ; authority, 
befitting a bishop, in exposing the proud and the power- 
ful, as also in comforting the sick ; and mercy in refreshing 
or defending the poor. And, to include much in few words, 
^-in so far as we have learned from those who knew him, he 
endeavoured to neglect nothing of all the things which in 
evangelic, apostolic or prophetic writings he had learned 
should be done, but to fulfil them all, to the extent of his 
strength, in works. 4 

These things in the aforesaid bishop I greatly esteem and 
love, because I doubt not they were truly pleasing to God. 
But that he kept Easter not at its right time, either not 
knowing the canonical time for it, or prevailed upon by the 
authority of his own nation not to follow what he knew, 
this I do not approve nor commend. And yet in it I approve 
of this, that in the celebration of his Easter he held in' his 
heart, and venerated, and preached, nothing other than -do 
we : that is, the redemption of the human race through the 
passion, resurrection and ascension to the skies of the mediator 

1 Finan died probably in 661. Cf. Bede, H.E., III, 26 ; i, 189, infra, 
s.a. 664. 

2 This part of the chapter is omitted by two MSS. of the A.S. version ; 
q. cf., i, 206, 208. 

3 Cf. Plummer, Bede, i, pp. xxxix ff. ; ii, 167. The De Temporibus Liber 
Major or De Temporum Ratione is in Giles's edition of Bede, vi, 141-342. 

4 Cf. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 20. 


between God and men, the man Jesus Christ. And hence also 
he kept it not, as some falsely imagine, on the fourteenth 
[day of the] moon, on whatsoever day of the week, as the 
Jews do ; but always on the Lord's day, from the fourteenth 
to the twentieth [day of the] moon : because, that is, of his 
faith in the Lord's resurrection, which, with holy church, he 
believed to have taken place on the first of the week ; and 
because of his hope in our resurrection, which with truth he 
believed would be upon the same first of the week, which 
now we call the Lord's day. 1 



Meanwhile, bishop Aidan being lifted up from this life, 3 
Finan had received in his stead the rank of the bishopric, 
being ordained and sent by the Scots. 

And he made on the island of Lindisf arne a church befitting 
the episcopal see ; and yet he constructed it, after the manner 
of the Scots, not of stone, but wholly of hewn oak, and covered 
it with reeds. 4 

And on a subsequent occasion 5 the most reverend arch- 
bishop Theodore dedicated it in honour of the blessed apostle 

But also Edbert, 6 bishop of the same place, removed the 
reeds, and had it wholly covered with plates of lead ; that 
is, both its roof and even its walls also. 

1 Because of this, in the Synod of Whitby (according to Bede, III, 25 ; 
i, 186) Wilfrid refuted the Scottish claim to the authority of St. John : '* For 
John kept the paschal season according to the decrees of Mosaic law, and 
cared naught about the first day of the week ; but this you do not, since 
you observe the Sunday of Easter from the fourteenth to the twentieth [day 
of the] moon : so that very often you begin Easter on the thirteenth [day 
of the] moon, in the evening. ..." 

2 This chapter is not in the Capitula nor in the A.S. Vers. Cf. H. of H., 
99. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 4, 23. 

3 31st August, 651. 

4 Of the previous church, His. de S.C., in S. of D., i, 201, says: "At 
this time died St. Cuthbert, and bishop Egred succeeded him ; and he trans- 
ported a certain church, formerly built by St. Aidan in the time of king 
Oswald, from the island of Lindisfarne to Norham, and there rebuilt it. . . ." 

Egred became bishop of Lindisfarne in 830 ; Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., 
SS., xix, 506. Cf. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 52. 

6 Possibly in 678 : cf. H.E., IV, 12 ; i, 229 ; ii, 188. 

6 Edbert was Cuthbert's successor as bishop of Lindisfarne. He died 
on the 5th May, 698 ; Bede, H.E., IV, 30 ; i, 277. 




. . . From his earliest boyhood [Cuthbert] was ever 
fired with zeal for the religious life ; 2 but from the beginning 
of his youth he assumed both the name and the habit of a 

Now he entered first the monastery of Melrose, 3 which is 
placed on the banks of the river Tweed, and which was then 
ruled by its abbot Eata, the most meek and simple of all 
men. 4 And [Eata] was afterwards made bishop of the church 
of Hexham or Lindisfarne, as we have mentioned above. 5 
And at this time his prior was Boisil, a priest 6 of great virtues- 
and of a prophetic spirit. Into [Boisil's] discipleship Cuth- 
bert humbly entered, and gained from him both knowledge 
of the Scriptures and examples of good works. 

1 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 360-362. Bede, V.S.C., VI ; E.H.S. ed., ii, 59-60. 
Anon. Life of St. C., 8, ibid., 262-263. Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., SS., xix, 
504. His. de S.C., in S. of D., i, 196, ff. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 21-23. 

2 In his boyhood, Cuthbert excelled at sports ; but he was rebuked by 
an infant of three for taking part in childish games. " Why," said he, " doest 
thou these things, at variance with thy nature and rank, Cuthbert, most holy 
bishop and priest ? To play among children becomes thee not, whom the 
Lord has consecrated as teacher of virtue even to the elders." Bede, V.S.C., 
I ; in E.H.S. ed., ii, 51. (Cf. Metr. Life, ibid., ii, 5 ; Anon, Life, ibid., ii, 
261.) Bede attributes this story to bishop Trumwin (cf. infra, s.a. 681), 
who got it from Cuthbert himself ; Anon. Life, ibid., ii. 261 ; V.S.C., ibid., 
ii, 50. 

Anon. Life, 20, in E.H.S. Bede, ii, 269-270: "At the same time 
[661 x 664] the holy man of God, [Cuthbert,] was invited by a certain woman 
who is called Kenswith [in the text " Kenspid "] ; a widow and nun, still 
living, who had brought him up from his eighth year to adult age, when he 
undertook the service of God. He therefore called her ' mother,' and often 
visited her. He came on a certain day to the vill in which she dwelt, which 
is called Hruringaham. . . ." His prayers extinguished a fire which threat- 
ened to destroy the village ; " probably Wrangholm, Bleau's Wrangumm, 
between the rivers Leader and Tweed " ; Stevenson, ibid., 270, note. 
Cf. Bede, V.S.C., XIV, ibid., ii, 75-76 ; Metr. Life, XII, ibid., 17. 

3 Cf. Fl. of W., i, 20 ; S. of D., i, 21-23, 129. 

P" Bede, H.E., V, 12, i, 304:" ... the monastery of Melrose, which is 
enclosed for the most part by a loop of the river Tweed." (A.S. Vers., i, 
424.) Such is the situation of Old Melrose. 

4 Cf. R. of H., D.H.E., in Raine's Hexh., i, 24 : " Now this Eata was 
a man of great sanctity and religion, and abbot of the monastery of Melrose ; 
and he was held in great reverence and authority both by the servants of 
God and by the powerful of the world. There were also in the brotherhood 
over which he ruled very many holy men ; but outstanding among the rest 
of the brethren was Boisil, who held below him the office of prior, excelling 
in the highest virtues and in the spirit of prophecy." Cf. the Life of Eata, 
in Raine's Hexh., i, 212-213. 

5 H.E., III, 26; i, 190. 

Sacerdo8. The A.S. Vers. has "mass-priest"; while Elfric calls 
Boisil a bishop : Horn., ii, 148. Cf. Plummer, Bede, ii., 268, 55. 



EDITION, VOL. II, PP. 59-61. 

What manner of testimony the holy man Boisil prophesied 
in the spirit concerning [Cuthbert] when he came to the monas- 

Meanwhile the venerable servant of the Lord left behind 
the things of the world, and hastened to undergo monastic 
discipline, as being incited by the heavenly vision l to seek 
after the joys of eternal bliss, to endure for the Lord temporal 
hunger and thirst, being invited to the heavenly banquets. 

And while he knew that the church of Lindisfarne had 
many holy men by whose teaching and example he could be 
instructed, yet he was prevented by the renown of Boisil, 
a monk and priest of lofty virtues, and preferred to go to 
Melrose. And by accident it chanced that when upon his 
arrival there he had leapt from his horse and, before entering 
the church to pray, had given to the attendant both the horse 
and the spear which he held in his hand, (for not yet had he 
laid aside the secular habit,) Boisil himself, standing before 
the doors of the monastery, saw him first. Foreseeing in the 
spirit how great in his manner of life he whom he beheld 
would be, he said this one word to those standing by, " Be- 
hold a servant of God " ; imitating him who perceived Nathaniel 
coming to him, and said, " Behold a man of Israel, in whom 
is no guile." Thus is Sigfrid wont to declare, a religious and 
aged servant of God and priest, who among others stood 
beside Boisil when he said these words ; at that time a youth 
in that monastery, instructed as yet in the first rudiments 
only of monastic life, but now leading his life as a perfect man 
in Christ in our monastery, that is, of Jarrow, and in the 
painful breathings of his last spirit thirsting for the joyful 
entry into the other life. 

Saying no more, Boisil received Cuthbert kindly, when 
presently he came to him ; and when [Cuthbert] explained 
the cause of his journey, that he preferred the monastery 
to the world, [Boisil] kindly kept him with him. For he 
was prior of that monastery. 

And after a few days, upon the arrival of Eata, a man of 

1 " On the mountains near the river which is called Leader," where he 
tended his master's sheep, Cuthbert had a vision of Aidan's soul being con- 
ducted to heaven ; Anon. Life of St. C., E.H.S. ed. of Bede, ii, 262-263. 
Cf. Bede, V.S.C., IV, ibid., 55-56.; Metr. Life, IV, ibid., 7-8. S. of D., 
H.D.E., i, 21-22. 


blessed memory, (then a priest and abbot of the monastery ; 
afterwards of the church of Lindisfarne, as well as being bishop 
of that place,) [Boisil] related to him l concerning Cuthbert, 
and explained to him that he had a mind of good purpose ; 
and obtained from him that [Cuthbert] should receive the 
tonsure and be united to the congregation of the brethren. 2 

And he entered the monastery and straightway took heed 
to hold with the rest of the brethren an equal observance of 
the regular life, or even to surpass them in his zeal for stricter 
discipline, being more proficient to wit in reading, working, 
watching and praying. But also, after the example of Sam- 
son, former very powerful Nazarene, he sedulously abstained 
from everything which can inebriate ; but he was not able 
to sustain so great abstinence from food, lest he should be- 
come less fit for necessary works. For he was robust in body 
and sound in strength, and fit for whatever exercise of labour 
he would. 3 



Now for three years after the slaying of king Penda 5 

1 Cf. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 22. 

2 In A-.D. 651, according to S. of D., u.s. 

3 When he appeared to king Alfred before the battle of Ethandune 
Cuthbert had " black hair, but an exceedingly pleasing countenance," De 
Mir. et Tr., in S. of D., i, 231-232 ; cf. His. de S.C., ibid., i, 204. His skull 
is depicted in profile and described in Raine's St. Cuthbert, pp. 214-215. 

4 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 238. H. of H., 98, 52. 

5 In the battle of the Winwsed, 655, November 15. Cf. His. Britt., in 
M.G.H., AA., xiii, 208 : " And [Oswy] slew Penda in the plain of Gai, and 
now was made the ' Slaughter of Gai plain ' ; and the kings of the Britons 
were slain, who had gone out with king Penda in the expedition as far as to 
the town which is called ludeu. 

" Then Oswy rendered all the riches which were with him in the town, 
as far as to Manau, to Penda ; and Penda distributed them to the kings of 
the Britons : that is, the ' Restitution of ludeu.' . . ." (The text reads 
manu / but the important MS. K (cf. ibid., 119) reads manau.) 

In the first paragraph Penda is Pantha, in the second, Penda ; but these 
are the same ; v. ibid., 204. The account is disjointed, unless we may read 
" Peada " in the second paragraph. 

Cf. Bede's account, H.E., III, 24 ; i, 177 : " In these times king Oswy, 
suffering cruel and unbearable invasions of the oft-named king [Penda] of 
the Mercians, who had slain [Oswy's] brother, at last by force of necessity, 
promised that he would bestow upon him innumerable royal ornaments and 
gifts, and greater than can be believed, as the price of peace, if but he would 
return home and cease to ravage the provinces of his realm to extermination." 
Penda refused, and the battle followed ; ibid., 177-178. Cf. A.S.C., MSS. 
A,B,C, s.a. 655 ; E,F, s.a. 654. Penda was slain " near the river Winwsed " ; 
Bede, U.S., 178; "in the district of Loidis," ibid., 179: in Bernicia, Fl. of 
W , i, 23. 

The eastern boundary of Manau was probably Dalmeny. ludeu may 


this same king Oswy ruled over the nation of the Mercians 1 and 
also over the other peoples of the southern provinces : and 
he also reduced the nation of the Picts for the most part to 
the kingdom of the Angles. 2 

66 1 

II, PP. 64-66. 

How when about to die Boisil foretold to Cuthbert, cured of 
his sickness, what was to come. 

Meanwhile, because unstable and fickle like the sea is every 
condition of the world when a sudden storm arises, the afore- 
said abbot Eata with Cuthbert and the other brethren whom 

be the same as Bede's Giudi, on or in the Firth of Forth. It has not been 
identified. We might expect it to pass through some such form as Duniuden. 
Cf. the name muir n-Giudan, for the Firth of Forth ; Book of Lecan, fo. 43, 
bb. (Reeves, Culdees, 124, note.) 

In 658 Mercia rebelled against Oswy's rule ; Bede, u.s. 180. 

1 Peada, king of the Middle Angles, was accompanied by four priests on 
his return after being baptized by Finan, A.D. 653. Of the four, Diuma alone 
was a Scot. Bede, H.E., III, 21 ; i, 170. A.S. Vers., i, 222. (Cf. H. of H., 
96, 98 ; S. of D., H.D.E., I, 4, i, 23 ; Fl. of W., i, 21.) 

Bede, H.E., III, 21; i, 170-171 :" Now when [Penda, king of the 
Mercians] was slain, and the Christian king Oswy received his realm, . . . 
Diuma, one of the four priests aforesaid, became bishop of the Midland Angles 
and also of the Mercians, being ordained by bishop Finan [? 656 A.D.]. For 
the scarcity of priests compelled one bishop to be placed over two peoples. 
And when in a short time he had won much people to the Lord, he died among 
the Midland Angles, in the district called In Feppingum." He was " the 
first to become bishop in the province of the Mercians, as well as of Lindsey 
and the Midland Angles " ; Bede, H.E., III, 24 ; i, 179. A.S. Vers., i, 238. 

Bede, H.E., III, 21 ; i, 171 : " Ceollach received the bishopric in his 
stead," [probably in 658,] " he too being of the race of the Scots. But not long 
afterwards he returned to the island of lona, where the Scots had the head 
and citadel of very many monasteries. 

" Trumhere succeeded him in the bishopric," [probably in 659 ;] "a 
religious man, and trained in the monastic life ; of the race, it is true, of the 
Angles, but ordained bishop by the Scots. And this took place in the time 
of king Wulfhere " [658-675]. Bede, H.E., III, 24 ; i, 179, says of Trumhere 
that he was "... taught and ordained by the Scots. And he was abbot 
in the monastery which is called Gilling." 

2 Bede, H.E., II, 5; i, 189-190 :" The seventh [Bretwalda], Oswy, 
brother [of Oswald], controlled his kingdom for some time with almost equal 
boundaries, and for the most part subdued the nations also of the Picts and 
of the Scots, which held the northern territories of Britain, and made them 
tributary." A.S. Vers., i, 110. 

Rhys (Celtic Brit., 140) thinks that Celts from Cornwall, Ireland and 
Scotland may have assisted Penda at the battle of the Winwsed. On the 
other hand, Oswy was apparently the uncle of the Pictish king Talorg mac 
Anfrith ; and this fact might have influenced interregnal relations : cf . 
supra, 616x617, note. 

With civil went ecclesiastical authority ; Bede, H.E., IV, 3 ; infra, 
s.a. 664. 


he had brought with him was sent home again, and the place 
of the monastery which he had founded l was given to other 
monks to dwell in. But the said soldier of Christ [Cuthbert] 
changed not his mind with the change of place from his once 
adopted purpose of divine warfare ; but, as he had been 
accustomed to do formerly also, he gave most diligent heed 
to the words as well as to the actions of St. Boisil. 

And at this time, as his friend Herefrid, a priest, and 
formerly abbot of the monastery of Lindisfarne, testifies that 
[Cuthbert] was wont to relate, he was seized by the sickness 
of a pestilence by which very many were carried away at 
that time far and wide through Britain. But the brethren of 
that monastery passed a whole night waking in prayer for 
his life and health. For they all regarded as still necessary 
to them the presence in the flesh of [Cuthbert], as of a holy 
man. And when one of them told this to him in the morning, 
for they had done it without his knowledge, he said, 
" And why do I lie still ? For it is not to be thought that God 
has despised the prayers of so many and so excellent men. 
Give me my staff and my shoes." And immediately he rose, 
and began to try to walk, leaning upon his staff ; and day 
by day the virtue increased, and he recovered health : but 
because the tumour which had appeared in his thigh, while 
subsiding gradually from the surface of his body sank into 
the interior of his entrails, he ceased not for almost the whole 
period of his life to feel some slight pain internally, to wit 
that, according to the word of the Apostles, " strength should 
be perfected in weakness." 

And when the servant of the Lord, Boisil, saw that he 
was healed of his infirmity, he said, " Thou seest, brother, 
that thou art freed from the affliction in which thou didst 
labour ; and I say to thee that thou shalt not again be touched 
by it, nor shalt die at this time. And at the same time I 
counsel thee not to omit to learn from me somewhat so long 
as I am able to teach, because death approaching threatens 
me. For there are not more than seven days in which health 
of body and strength of tongue remain for me to teach." 

Cuthbert replied, doubting nothing of the truth of his 
words, " And what, I ask, is best for me to read, that I may 
yet be able to complete it in one week ? " 

1 So Fl. of W., i, 25 : " Eata, a most reverend man, who by king Aldfrid's 
choice was formerly founder of the monastery of Ripon." Cf. Bede, H.E., 
III, 25 ; infra, s.a. 664. See Bede, V.S.C., VII, E.H.S. ed., ii, 61 ; Anon. 
Life of St. C., 12, ibid., 265. 


And he said, " John the Evangelist. And I have a text 
which has seven folded sheets, one of which we can go through 
each day, with God's help, reading and, in so far as is needful, 
discussing it between us." 

It was done as he had said. And they were able to fulfil 
this reading thus rapidly, because in it they treated only of 
the simplicity of the faith which works by love, and not of 
the depths of controversy. 

When therefore after seven days the reading was completed, 
caught by the said disease the man of the Lord, Boisil, came 
to his last day, and passed it with great exultation, and 
entered the joys of perpetual light. 1 

They relate that in these seven days he expounded to 
Cuthbert everything which remained for him in the future ; 
for he was a man of prophecy, as I have said, and of mar- 
vellous sanctity. Indeed he predicted that the bitterness of 
the aforesaid pestilence lay before his abbot Eata, three years 
before it came, and concealed not that he should himself be 
removed by it ; but that his abbot should not die of it but 
rather of that disease which the physicians call dysentery, 
he foretold in truthful words, as the issue of affairs disclosed. 

But to Cuthbert also among other things he told that he 
should be ordained as bishop. . . . 


VOL. I, p. 22. 

St. Boisil loved [Cuthbert] beyond the others, for the 
purity and pious devotion native to him. And he taught him 
in the knowledge of the Scriptures, as the book still shows, 
in which he taught and [Cuthbert] learned ; preserved in 
this church, after so great a period of years marvellous in its 
original freshness and beauty. 

1 Fl. of W., i, 27, erroneously ascribes Boisil's death to the plague of 
A.D. 664. Cuthbert had been prior of Melrose " for some years " before 
being transferred to Lindisfarae in A.D, 664 : Bede, V.S.C., IX, E.H.S. 3d., 
ii, 67. 

Boisil's interment was upon the 7th of July, according to the Durham 
obituary in L.V.E.D., 144. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 88, describes how Alfred 
of Durham was inspired to elevate and pilfer Boisil's bones (" body and 
vestments," List of relics, in S. of D., i, 168-169,) after A.D. 1122. Cf. the 
A.S. poem De Situ Dunelmi, in S. of D., i, 221. 

Boisil appeared twice in a vision (ca. 690) to a former attendant of his, 
bidding him tell Egbert to desist from foreign missions and go to lona instead ; 
Bede, H.E., V, 9 ; i, 296-298. 

The parish and town of St. Boswells are named after Boisil. 



VOL. II, PP. 67-68. l 

How zealous Cuthbert was toward the ministry of the word. 

After the death therefore of the priest Boisil, beloved of 
God, Cuthbert received the said office of prior ; 2 and em- 
ploying spiritual industry, as befitted a saint, for some years 
not only offered to the monastery precept as well as example 
of regular life, but also laboured to turn the populace in the 
neighbourhood far and wide from the life of foolish custom 
to the love of divine joys. For both many profaned the 
faith which they had by works unworthy of it ; and some, 
at a time of pestilence, even neglected the sacrament of the 
faith with which they had been imbued, and betook them- 
selves to false remedies of idolatry, as though they could 
check a scourge sent by God its author by incantations, or 
amulets, or any other charms of diabolic art. 3 

Therefore to correct the error of both classes he went 
forth frequently from the monastery, sometimes on horse- 
back, but oftener going on foot ; and came to the villages in 
the neighbourhood, and preached to the wandering the way 
of truth, as in his time Boisil also had accustomed him to 

It was indeed a custom at that time of the peoples of the 
Angles, when a cleric or a priest came to the village, for all to 
flock together at his command to hear the word ; to listen 
willingly to what was said, and more willingly to follow in 
practice what they were able to hear and understand. More- 
over Cuthbert had so great skill in teaching, 4 so great love of 
persuading when he had begun [to teach], such light in his 
angelic countenance, that none of those present dared to con- 
ceal from him the secrets of his heart ; and all in confession 
declared openly what they had done, because they thought 
that by no means were these things hidden from him ; and 
removed what they had confessed, as he commanded, by 
fitting fruits of penitence. 

1 Cf. Bede, H.E., IV, 27 ; i, 269-270. So also in his life as prior of 
Lindisfarne ; references s.a. 664, note. 

" And strove by daily progress in virtue to emulate or even to surpass 
him " ; S. of D., H.D.E., i, 23. Bede, H.E., IV, 27 ; i, 269 : " and trained 
very many to the regular life, both by his authority as teacher and by the 
example of his own performance." 

3 Cf . the hostility to the monks betrayed by the populace of Tyningham 
(Tynemouth ?) in Bede, V.S.C., III ; E.H.S. ed., ii, 53-55. 

4 " In speaking," Bede, H.E., IV, 27 ; i, 269. 


Now he was wont to journey through those places chiefly, 
and to preach in those villages, which were remotely situated 
among steep and rugged hills ; places which others dreaded 
to visit, and which forbade the approach of learned men by 
their poverty as well as their rusticity. Yet these he cherished 
with so great assiduity of teaching, giving himself up gladly 
to pious labour, that he often left the monastery and did 
not return home for whole weeks, sometimes for two or three, 
occasionally even for a whole month, but stayed among the 
mountains and called the peasant folk to divine things, by 
the word of preaching as well as by the example of virtue. 1 




In these times a great and frequent dispute arose about 
the observance of Easter, those who had come from Kent or 
from France protesting that the Scots celebrated Easter 
Sunday contrarily to the custom of the universal church. 

Among these the most eager defender of the true Easter 
was called Ronan ; a Scot, it is true, by race, but one trained 
in the rule of ecclesiastic truth in districts of France or of 
Italy. And he, striving with Finan, corrected many others, 
or fired them to a more intelligent searching of the truth : 
but Finan he could by no means reform. Nay rather, 

1 Boisil's example inspired Cuthbert to his diocesal journeys ; and 
through Cuthbert Turgot, S. of D., H.D.E., i, 129. 

On one of these journeys Cuthbert " was proceeding southward along 
the river Teviot among the mountains, teaching the countryfolk and bap- 
tizing. He had also a boy in his company, walking with him ; and he said 
to him, ' Thinkest thou who to-day has prepared a meal for thee ? ' And [the 
boy] replied that he knew no relative upon that route, and hoped not for any 
kind of compassion from unknown strangers. ..." They were miraculously 
fed by an eagle. Anon. Life of St. C., 17-18, E.H.S. Bede, ii, 268-269. 
(The text has Tesgeta ; read Tevgeta ?) *Cf. Bede, V.S.C., XII, ibid., 72-73 ; 
Metr. Life, X, ibid., 15. 

Storm-stayed in mid- winter at Mudpieralegis (Bede has Niduari) in the 
land of the Picts he was miraculously fed with dolphin cutlets ; Anon. Life, 
15, u.s., 267. (Cf. Bede, V.S.C., XI, ibid., 70-72 ; Metr. Life, IX, ibid., 
13-14.) The place of this legend is uncertain. There is a Niddrie not far 
inland from Abercorn in Manau, at this time (661 X 664) subject to Anglian 

On two occasions of a visit to Tyningham (Tynemouth ?) he performed 
miracles ; Bede, V.S.C., III, E.H.S. ed., ii, 53-55, and Metr. Life, III, ibid., 
6-7 ; V.S.C., XXXV, ibid., 113-114. 

2 This is omitted by the A.S. Version. The A.S.C. also has no mention 
of the Synod of Whitby. Cf. Eddi, V.W.Ep., X, in Raine's York, i, 14-16. 
Fridegoda, V.S.W., ibid., i, 116-118. Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., SS., xix, 
504, s.a. 664. 


because he was of a headstrong temperament, [Ronan] ren- 
dered him the more bitter by reproof, and an open adversary 
of the truth. . . . 

Now while Aidan lived this discord in the observance of 
Easter was patiently endured by all, because they clearly 
understood that, although he could not keep Easter contrarily 
to the custom of those who had sent him, yet he laboured 
zealously to perform the works of faith, piety and love, after 
the custom common to all saints. And hence he was de- 
servedly beloved by all, even by those who thought differ- 
ently about Easter ; and not only by the commonalty was 
he held in veneration, but even by the bishops also, Honorius 
of Canterbury and Felix of the East Angles. 

But after the death of Finan, 1 who came after him, when 
Colman succeeded to the bishopric, he also being sent from 
Scotland, a more serious controversy arose about the ob- 
servance of Easter, as well as about other points of discipline 
of ecclesiastic life. And hence deservedly this question roused 
the feelings and hearts of many, who feared lest perchance, 
though they had received the name of Christianity, they were 
running or should have run in vain. It reached even to the 
ears of the rulers, that is, of King Oswy and of his son Alchfrid. 
Because naturally Oswy, having been taught and baptized 
by the Scots, and being very well versed in their language, 
considered nothing better than what they had taught ; but 
Alchfrid 2 had as teacher of Christian lore Wilfrid, a most 
learned ian . . . and knew that his doctrine must rightly 
be preferred to all the traditions of the Scots. 

And hence also he had given to [Wilfrid] a monastery of 
forty hides 3 in the place which is called Ripon. And this 
place to wit he had given a little before to them who followed 
the Scots, in possession for a monastery. But because after- 
wards, when they were given the choice, they preferred to 

1 A.D. 661 ; Bede, H.E., III, 26 ; i, 189, infra. Cf. S. of D., H.D.E., I, 
5 ; i, 24 : " Now when Finan died in the tenth year of his bishopric, Colman 
succeeded to the rule of the church, he too being sent from Scotland. And 
after he had passed three years in the bishopric discord arose about the 
observance of Easter ; and he, preferring to follow the custom of his nation, 
left the bishopric and returned to his country in the thirtieth year of the 
Scottish episcopate, which they held in the province of the Angles." Ann. 
of Lind. place Finan's death in 660, but say that Colman held the bishopric 
for three years ; M.G.H., SS., xix, 504. 

Eddi strangely refers to Colman as " metropolitan bishop of the city of 
York," X, u.s., i, 14. 

2 The son of Oswy, and under-king of Deira ; cf. infra, and Fl. of W., i, 25. 

3 " Of thirty hides," Bede, H.E., V, 19 ; i, 325. Cf. Eddi, VIII, " of 
thirty dwellings " ; u.s., 12. 


leave the place rather than to change their customs, he gave 
it to him who had both a doctrine and a life worthy of 
it. 1 

... The question being raised there concerning Easter 
and the tonsure and other ecclesiastical matters, it was de- 
cided that a synod must be held in the monastery which is 
called Streaneshalch [Whit by,] . . . over which then ruled 
the abbess Hild, a woman devoted to God ; 2 and that this 
dispute must be terminated. 

And there came thither both kings, the father, that is, 
and the son ; the bishops Colman, with his clerics from Scot- 
land, and Ethelbert, 3 with the priests Agatho and Wilfrid. 
Jacob 4 and Romanus 5 were on the side of these latter ; 
the abbess Hild with her followers was on the side of the Scots, 6 
as also was the venerable bishop Cedd, long before ordained 
by the Scots, as we have shown above. 7 And he was a most 
careful interpreter in that council for either side. 8 

1 Cf. Bede, V.S.C., VIII, supra, s.a. 661. 

Bede, H.E., V, 19 ; i, 325 : " . . . and this place to wit he had given 
long ago to those who followed the Scots, to construct a monastery therein. 
But because afterwards, when the choice was given them, they chose rather 
to leave the place than to receive the catholic Easter and the other canonical 
rites according to the custom of the Roman and apostolic church, he gave it 
to him whom he saw to be imbued with better teachings and customs." 

2 Hild was daughter of Hereric, the nephew of king Edwin ; Bede, H.E., 
IV, 23 ; i, 252. Recalled by Aidan from her purpose of going to Chelles, she 
received a small monastery to the north of the Wear, and afterwards became 
abbess of Hartlepool, where she was often visited by Aidan and other religious 
men. Ibid., 253. 

3 Ethelbert was bishop of the West Saxons ; afterwards of Paris. Cf. 
Bede, H.E., III, 7, i, 140-141 ; ii, 144, 146 : III, 26, 28, i, 189, 194. 

4 Jacob was a former deacon of Paulinus ; cf. Bede, H.E., II, 16, 20 ; 
i, 117-118, 126. 

5 Romanus, a priest from Kent, was queen Anfleda's chaplain ; Bede, 
III, 25 ; i, 181-182. 

6 Edm., V.W.Ep., X, in Raine's York, i, 171: "And against these 
came Colman with his clerics, and brought with him to the synod abbess 
Hild, a supporter of his sect." 

7 Cedd was bishop of the East Saxons ; Bede, H.E., III, 22 ; i, 172-173. 
He had been one of Peada's four priests ; cf. supra, s.a. 655, note. His 
brother Ceadda (St. Chad) had been a disciple o'f Aidan ; Bede, H.E., III, 
28 ; i, 195. 

8 Bads reports the conference (H.E., III, 25 ; i, 183-189) as an argument 
between Colman and Wilfrid. Colman claims tradition -and the authority 
of St. John ; the doctrine of Anatolius, and the practice of Columba. Wilfrid 
replies by citing the practice of Rome and all Christendom, denying the 
Scottish interpretation of the meaning of St. John and of Anatolius ; referring 
to the Council of Nicsea (cf. Eddi, X; u.s., i, 15,) sneering at the sanctity 
of Columba, (v. supra, s.a. 565, note ;) and finally quoting Matt. XVI, 18-19, 
for the authority of Peter as gate- ward of heaven. The last argument is con- 
clusive with king Oswy and the assembly ; so also in Eddi, X, u.s., i, 15-16. 

For a discussion of the controversy see Plummer, Bede, ii, 348-354. 




. . . Colman seeing that his doctrine was spurned and 
his sect despised took with him those who wished to follow 
him, that is, those who refused to receive the Catholic Easter 
and the tonsure of the crown, (for the question concerning 
this also was not the least important,) and returned to 
Scotland 2 to discuss with his followers what he should do 
regarding these things. 

Cedd forsook the way of the Scots and returned to his 
see, as having acknowledged the observance of the catholic 
Easter. 3 

Now this dispute took place in the year of the Lord's 
incarnation 664, which was the twenty-second year 4 of King 
Oswy ; and the thirtieth year of the Scottish episcopate, 
which they held in the province of the Angles ; for Aidan 
held the episcopate for seventeen years, Finan for ten, and 
Colman for three. . . . 

And over the brethren who preferred to remain in the 
church of Lindisfarne when the Scots departed was placed 
in the rank of abbot the most meek and reverend man Eata, 
who was abbot in the monastery which is called Melrose. 5 

1 This chapter also is omitted by the A.S. Vers. Cf. H. of H., 99-100. 
S.of D., H.D.E.,i, 24-25. A.S.C.,MSS. A, B, C, E, s.a. 664 : " and Colman 
with his companions went to his own land." 

Eddi, V.W.Ep., in Raine's York, i, 16 : " But bishop Colman, hearing 
what was to be done, through fear of his own land spurned the tonsure and 
the manner of Easter, [preferring] to depart and leave his see to be occupied 
by one better than himself ; and thus he did." Edm., V.W.Ep., ibid., i, 
173 : " because he refused to prefer to his traditions the traditions of the 

2 Here, as above, " Scotland " (i.e. Ireland) includes lona ; see Bede, 
H.E., IV, 4, infra. 

3 Bede, H.E., III, 28 ; i, 195 : " And hence it happened that, as catholic 
instruction increased daily, all the Scots who dwelt among the Angles either 
submitted to [Wilfrid's regulations] or returned to their own land." Cf. 
A.S. Vers., i, 246, 248, which expands the passage, because of its omission 
of chapters 25 and 26. 

So Eata and Cuthbert had left Ripon in 661, supra ; but now they 

4 Oswy succeeded upon the death of Oswald on the 5th August, 642. 
Bede, H.E., III, 9, 14 ; i, 145, 154. The conference took place some time 
before the death of Deusdedit, archbishop of Canterbury ; H.E., 28 ; i, 
194-195 ; his death took place on the 14th July, 664 ; H.E., IV, 1 ; i, 201. 

5 Eata transferred Cuthbert as prior to Lindisfarne, Bede, H.E., IV, 27 ; 
i, 270. V.S.C., XVI, E.H.S. ed., ii, 79. Anon. Life of St. C., 23, ibid., 271. 
S. of D., H.D.E., i, 25-26. Life of Eata, in Raine's Hexh., i, 213-214. 

In 676 Cuthbert became an anchorite on Fame island ; Bede, V.S.C., 
XVII u.s., 83. H.E., IV, 28 ; i, 271. Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., SS., xix, 504. 
He had long desired to have " a very small cottage upon a rock, and to hide 


And this they say that Golman, when about to depart, had 
asked and obtained of King Oswy, because this Eata was 
one of Aidan's twelve boys of Anglian race whom he had 
received to train up in Christ, in the first period of his epis- 
copate. 1 For the king much loved this bishop Colman, for 
the prudence natural to him. 

Eata is he who not long afterwards was made bishop of 
the same church of Lindisfarne. 

Now when Colman went home he took with him part of 
the bones of the most reverend father Aidan ; but part he 
left in the church which he had ruled, directing that they 
should be buried in the sacristy. 2 

And of how great frugality and of what continence were 
Colman and his predecessors, even the place which they ruled 
bore testimony. For when they departed very few houses 
were found there, excepting the church ; that is, those only 
without which social intercourse could not exist at all. 3 Apart 
from flocks they had no moneys. For if they received any 
money from the rich, they gave it straightway to the poor. 
For it was not necessary either that moneys should be 

where the waves of swelling ocean might surround me on all sides from both 
the sight and the knowledge of all mortal men " ; V.S.C., VIII, u.s., 66. Cf. 
V.S.C., XXII, u.s. 93. 

Cuthbert was against his will elected bishop of Hexham in 684 ; Anon. 
Life, 28, u.s., 274. Bede, V.S.C., XXIV, u.s., 97-98 ; H.E., IV, 28 ; i, 272. 
He was consecrated on the 26th March, 685, and transferred to Lindisfarne, 
changing places with Eata ; V.S.C., u.s. ; H.E., u.s., 273. 

He died in 687, March 20, V.S.C., XXXVII, XXXIX, u.s., 116-118, 
123-125 ; H.E., IV, 29, i, 275. His body was still incorrupt in 698 ; Anon. 
Life, 42, u.s., 282; Bede, V.S.C., XLII, u.s., 129 ; Chron., E.H.S.ed., ii, 200- 
201 ; H.E., IV, 30, i, 276. So still in 1104, when transferred to the new 
cathedral at Durham ; De Mir. et Tr. S.C., in S. of D., i, 247-259 ; on which 
occasion " Alexander, brother of Edgar, king of Scots, shortly afterwards 
to be his brother's successor in the kingdom," was one of the witnesses ; 
ibid., 258. Nevertheless, that this was a prolonged and impious fraud is 
shown by Raine's description of the investigation in 1827 into the condition 
of Cuthbert's remains ; Saint Cuthbert, 184-228. The fraud made an 
extremely successful advertisement. 

1 So the life of Eata, in Raine's Hexh., i, 213: "For the Scots also 
greatly revered this abbot Eata, because he was, as has been said above, 
one of bishop Aidan's twelve boys." Eata died 685 x 687 ; Bede, H.E., V, 
2 ; i, 282-283 ; ii, 273. 

2 When the monks took up the body of Cuthbert and fled from Lindis- 
farne through fear of Halfdane, they carried with them Aidan's remains also ; 
S. of D., H.D.E., II, 6 ; i, 57 : " . . . and in a compartment of the same 
reliquary were placed (as we find in old books) the relics of the saints, namely 
the head of the king and martyr Oswald, . . . and part of the bones of St. 
Aidan also, (for, as has been said above, Colman had carried with him the 
other part when he returned to Scotland.) ..." 

W. of M., G.P., 198 ; G.R., i, 56, falsely asserts that his relics were 
brought to Glastonbury. 

3 conversatio civilis esse nullatenus poterat. 


gathered or that houses should be provided for the enter- 
tainment of the powerful of the world, since they never came 
to church except only for the sake of prayer or of hearing 
God's word. The king himself, when occasion required, 
came with only five or six attendants ; and departed when 
his prayer in the church was ended. And if perchance it 
happened that they were refreshed there, they were content 
with only the simple and daily food of the brethren, and asked 
for nothing more. 

For then the whole anxiety of those teachers was to serve 
God, not the world ; their whole care to cherish their hearts, 
not their stomachs. And hence also the habit of religion 
was at that time in great veneration ; insomuch that wher- 
ever any cleric or monk arrived, he was joyfully received as 
a servant of God by all. Yea, if he were discovered as he 
went upon the way, they ran to him, and, bowing their necks, 
rejoiced to be either signed by his hand or blessed by his 
mouth. And they diligently offered a hearing also to their 
exhortatory words. But on Sundays they flocked emulously 
to the church or to the monasteries, for the sake not of re- 
freshing the body, but of hearing discourse of God. And if 
any of the priests chanced to come into a village, straightway 
the villagers gathered together and endeavoured to learn of 
him the word of life. For the priests or clerks had them- 
selves no other reason for visiting the villages than to preach, 
to baptize, and to visit the sick ; and, to speak briefly, to 
care for souls. For they were to such extent chastened from 
all taint of avarice that none received territories or possessions 
for the construction of monasteries, unless compelled by the 
authorities of the world. And this custom was preserved in 
all things for some considerable time afterwards in the churches 
of the Northumbrians. 1 

But of this enough said. 

1 Bede's desire to hold up a pattern to the present must be allowed for 
in his estimation of the past. 

W. of M., G.P., 211 : " Paulinus was the first archbishop of York ; and 
he received the pallium from pope Honorius, as is known." Cf. ibid., 134. 
The pallium was sent from Rome on llth June, 634 ; Bede, H.E., II, 18 ; 
i, 122 ; II, 17 ; i, 118. Paulinus fled to Kent (H.E., II, 20 ; i, 125) immedi- 
ately after the battle of Hatfield, 12th October, 633 (ibid., i, 124.) G.P. 
continues : " When he was expelled, the Scots Aidan, Finan, and Colman, 
wished to be exalted neither by the pallium nor by the dignity of a town, but 
hid in the island of Lindisfarne." Cf. ibid., 67-68, 183, 266. Cf. Anon. 
His., in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i, 65, 66. 

W. of M., G.P., 135 : " For the Scots also who, by favour of the kings 
of the Northumbrians, had filled that province were accustomed rather to 
hide ingloriously in swamps than to dwell in lofty towns." Cf. of Cedd, 
Bede, H.E., III, 23 ; i, 175. W. of M., G.P., 307. 




How bishop Colman left Britain and made two monasteries 
in Scotia, one for the Scots, the other for the English, whom he 
had brought with him. 

Meanwhile 2 Colman, who was bishop from Scotland, 
left Britain and took with him all the Scots whom he had 
collected in the island of the monks of Lindisfarne, and also 
of the nation of the Angles about thirty men, both parties 
of whom were imbued with the studies of monastic life. And 
he left several brethren in his church, and came first to the 
island of lona, whence he had been sent to preach the word 
to the nation of the Angles. 

Then he departed to a certain small island which, far 
sundered from Ireland on the western side, is called in Scottish 
speech Inishboffin ; that is, the island of the white cow-calf. 3 
Arriving in this island, therefore, he built a monastery, and 
placed therein the monks whom he had brought, gathered 
from either race. 

And when they in turn could not agree, because that 
the Scots in the summer time, when the harvest was to be 
gathered, left the monastery and wandered about, scattered 
through districts known to them ; but yet returned when 
winter came, and desired to use in common the things which 
the English had prepared, Colman sought a remedy for this 
discord, and going about everywhere near and far found in 
the island of Ireland a place called Mayo in the Scottish tongue, 
suited for the building of a monastery. And he bought a 
small part of it from the earl to whose possession it belonged, 
to establish a monastery there ; this condition being added, 
that the monks abiding there should offer prayers to the 
Lord also for him who allowed them the place. 

And immediately he built a monastery, the earl also and 
all the neighbours helping ; and placed there the Angles, 
leaving the Scots in the aforesaid isle. And this monastery 
to wit is held to this day by Angles as its residents. . . . 

1 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 272, 274. 

2 I.e. before A.D. 672. Colman settled in Inishboffin in 668, according to 
Tigh.,-(667 according to Ann. of Ulst. and Four Masters ;) and died in 676 
(Tigh. ; but cf. Ann. of Ulst., s.a. 675 ; F.M., s.a. 674.) 

3 More correctly " the island of the white heifer " as in A.S. Vers., i, 272. 
Inishboffin lies off Aghros Point, in Galway. 



. . . Wilfrid administered the episcopate of the church 
of York, and also of all the Northumbrians ; 2 but of the 
Picts also, so far as King Oswy could extend his empire. 3 

671 x 672 

And not less worthily [than Wilfrid] did King Egfrid fill 
his office, extending his kingdom over the Picts and protecting 
it against the Mercians. 

For the Picts after the death of King Oswy made light of 
the tender infancy of the kingdom, and came forth unpro- 
voked and united against the Northumbrians. But the royal 
youth met them with his under-king Beornheth, and with 
his few knights so destroyed the innumerable army of the 
Picts that the plains strewn with corpses lost their flatness, 
and the rivers were checked, being blocked in their course. 

671 x 672 

VOL. I, PP. 29-30. 4 

. . . For even as the young man Joash, king of Judah, 
while the high priest Jehoiada yet lived, pleased God and 

1 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 260. Cf. Eddi, XXI, infra, s.a. 671. Cf. A. of R. 
V.S.N., in Pinkerton, 11. 

2 W. of M., G.P., 215 : " But [Wilfrid] persisted in refusing to receive 
consecration from the Scottish bishops, or from those whom the Scots had 
ordained ; because the apostolic see rejected their fellowship." Ibid., 
213: "The Psalter which [Wilfrid] had received from the Scots in the 
translation of St. Jerome he collated and kept, after the Roman custom, in 
the fifth edition." Cf. ibid., 211, note, MSS. B and C. 

W. of M., G.P., 214 : " The kings and warriors rejoiced and the province 
exulted in having a native preacher ; for they now vomited their surfeit of 
the Scots." 

3 R. of H., D.H.E., in Raine's Hexh., i, 22 : " At that time, therefore, 
[Wilfrid] was the only bishop in the whole realm of king Oswy ; that is, in 
the whole nation of the Deirans and the Bernicians, and also over the Britons, 
and over the Scots from the island of Lindisfarne ; and over the Picts, because 
Whithorn had not yet obtained a bishop of its own." 

Cf. Eddi, V.W. Ep., in Raine's York, i, 79, 193; Cf. also Bede HE 
V, 19 ; i, 327. 

W. of M., G.P., 266: "Of all the episcopates which formerly were 
placed in Northumbria and were under the supremacy of the [bishops] of 
York, that only which was in the island of Lindisfarne remained." 

4 Cf. Fridegoda, V.S.W., 539-552, in Raine's York, i, 127: "With 


triumphed over his enemies, but when the priest was dead 
displeased God and ceased to triumph over his enemies, and 
diminished his kingdom ; l so while king Egfrid lived in 
harmony with our bishop [Wilfrid,] according to the testi- 
mony of many his kingdom was everywhere increased through 
triumphant victories ; but when harmony flagged between 
them, and the aforesaid queen [Etheldreda] was separated 
from him and dedicated to God, 2 triumph ceased in the days 
of the king. 

For in his first years and yet tender kingdom 3 the bestial 
peoples of the Picts with savage mind despised subjection to 
the Saxons, and threatened to cast from them the yoke of 
slavery ; gathering on all sides from the hollows and cavities 4 
of the north innumerable nations, like swarms of ants in 
summer sweeping from the hills built up a mound against 
their falling house. 

When he heard this, king Egfrid, humble among his 
own peoples, courageous against his foes, knowing no slow 
endeavours straightway prepared an army of cavalry, and 
like Judas Maccabeus, trusting in God, 5 with a small band 
of the people of God advanced with Beornheth, a bold under- 
king, against an enormous and upon an invisible enemy, and 
made an immense slaughter of the people, filling two rivers 
with corpses of the dead ; so that (as is wonderful to relate) 
they walked over upon dry feet and pursued, slaying a multi- 
tude of the fugitives. And the peoples were reduced to 
slavery, and lay subject to the yoke of captivity till the day 
of the slaying of the king. 6 

heavy ramparts the Pictish nation in rebellion strove even then to throw off 
the accustomed English chains. . . . Therefore with courage fired the prince 
[king Egfrid] moved forward light cohorts, and slew with unconquered sword 
the guilty ones. They dammed two streams with slain enemies ; the king's 
companies came back laden with spoil. They made slaughter far and wide. 
Chains returned upon their necks ; long did the victorious king enjoy his 
great triumph. For he conquered with few soldiers, not with arms ; but by 
the virtue of God, and the merits of the gracious prince, he gained the nations 
which with empty bombast threatened him." Cf. Edm., V.W.Ep ., XX, 
XXI, ibid., i, 182-183. 

1 Cf. 2 Chron., XXIV, 2, 17-18, 23-24. 

2 In 672 A.D. Cf. Bede, H.E., IV, 19 ; i, 243. Cf. infra, s.a. ? 683, note. 

3 Oswy died and was succeeded by his son Egfrid in February, 671 ; 
although Bede (H.E., IV, 5, V, 24 ; i, 214, 354) twice gives the date as 670 ; 
v. Plummer, Bede, ii, 211. 

4 Lit., "sacks and bags." 

5 Cf. 2 Maccab. XV, 7, 21-28. 

6 Infra, s.a. 685. 


671 x 672 


Therefore even as the kingdom of the most religious king 
Egfrid was increased by his triumphs to the north and south, 
so was the kingdom of churches increased to bishop Wilfrid, 
of blessed memory, to the south over the Saxons, to the north 
over the Britons, and the Scots and Picts. 


And Eadhaed, Bosa and Eata were ordained 2 at York 
by archbishop Theodore ; and he also added two bishops to 
their number, three years after the departure of Wilfrid, 3 
Tunbert to the church of Hexham, (Eata remaining at the 
church of Lindisfarne,) and Trumwin d to the Pictish pro- 
vince 5 which at that time was subject to the empire of the 

? 683 


What manner of vision appeared to a certain man of God 
before the monastery of Coldingham was consumed by fire. 

1 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 300. Ann. of Lind., s.a. 681, in M.G.H., SS., xix, 504. 
Fl. of W., i, 37. H. of H., 101. R. of H., D.H.E., in Raine's Hexh., i, 213. 

A.S.C., s.a. 681 : " This year was consecrated . . . Trumwin bishop of 
the Picts, because then they belonged here," MS. E ; MS. F (written at Can- 
terbury) " because they belong there." Cf. Plummer, SC., ii, p. Ixx. 

2 In place of Wilfrid ; Bede, H.E., IV, 12 ; i, 229 ; V, 19, 24 ; i, 326, 355, 
ii, 324. 

3 Wilfrid was expelled by king Egfrid in 678 ; H.E., IV, 12 ; i, 228-229. 
Eddi, XXIV, in Raine's York, i, 34-36. De Arch. Ebor., in S. of D., i, 223. 
W. of M., G.P., 219-220. 

4 Trum win's name is shortened to Tuma in the Anon. Life of St. C., 
4, 30 ; E.H.S. Bede, ii, 261, 275. He is given as the authority for certain 
information concerning Cuthbert ; supra, s.a. 651, note. He was one of those 
who persuaded Cuthbert to accept the bishopric ; Anon. Life of St. C., u.s., 
275. Bede, V.S.C., XXIV, ibid., ii, 98 ; H.E., IV, 28, i, 272. S. of D., 
H.D.E., i, 31. 

5 In H.E., IV, 26 (infra, s.a. 685) his see is located at Abercorn. So in 
H. of H., 106, who calls him " abbot of Abercorn." But Fl. of W., i, 246, 
erroneously imagines him to have been the first bishop of Whithorn. He 
was in fact bishop of the Pictish province south of the Forth ; i.e. Manau. 

6 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 348-357. A.S.C., MSS. E, F, s.a. 679 : " and Colding- 
ham was burned by heaven-sent fire " ; S. of D., i, 59, " a few years only 
before [Cuthbert's] bishopric," in A.D. 685. Cf. Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., 
SS., xix, 504, s.a. 678. 

Coldingham was a monastery of both monks and nuns. Cf. S. of D., i. 


In these times x the monastery of virgins which they name 
Coldingham, 2 and of which we have made mention above. 3 
was consumed by fire through fault of carelessness. And 
yet all who know have been very easily able to perceive that 
it happened from the wickedness of them who dwelt in it, 
and especially of those who seamed to be the greater. 

But there lacked not a reminder to the guilty of God's 
mercy, that corrected by it they might like the Ninevites 

59 : " For there were in the same place congregations of monks and of nuns, 
though dwelling apart in different abodes ; and they had gradually declined 
from the state of regular discipline, and by dishonourable [in text inponesta ; 
read inhonesta] familiarity on either side had offered to the enemy opportunity 
of laying hold upon them." 

Cuthbert visited Ebba in Coldingham (661 x664.) On the sands there 
he passed the night in prayer, in the sea ; when he came out, two otters 
followed him and warmed his feet : Anon. Life of St. C., 13, in E.H.S. Bede,. 
ii, 266 ; Bede, V.S.C., X, ibid., ii, 68-70 ; Metr. Life, VIII, ibid., ii, 12-13. 

When Wilfrid was thrown into prison through his quarrel with king 
Egfrid and queen Eormenburg, (Eddi, XXXIV, in Raine's York, i, 49-50,) 
Ebba helped to procure his release, in 681 ; Eddi, XXXIX, ibid., 56. Wilfrid 
had been placed in custody of Tydlin, prefect of Dunbar ; Eddi, XXXVIII, 
54. (W. of M., in G.P., 231, confuses the names.) Egfrid and Eormenburg 
visited Coldingham. The queen was suddenly tormented by a devil, and 
Ebba turned this incident to Wilfrid's account. Eddi, XXXIX, 55-56. 
(Cf. Fridegoda, V.S.W., in Raine's York, i, 137-141 ; Edm., ibid., i, 197-201.) 

The conflagration took place after Ebba's death. She is said to have died 
on the 25th August, 683, (cf. the Durham obituary in L.V.E.D., 145,) four 
years before the death of Cuthbert. She was the daughter of Acha (cf . supra, 
616x617, note,) being the "uterine sister" of Oswy and Oswald; Bede, 
V.S.C., X, u.s. Thus she was Egfrid's aunt, Bede, H.E., IV, 19, 25 : i, 243, 
264. When Egfrid's queen Etheldreda took the veil she passed her first year 
as a nun under Ebba in Coldingham, A.D. 672-673 ; Bede, H.E., IV, 19. 
Cf. Fl. of W., i, 30 ; Edd., XXXVIII ; R. of H., D.H.E., in Raine's Hexh. 
i, 23. 

Ebba was buried at Coldingham. Her bones were pilfered by Alfred of 
Durham, after A.D. 1022, according to S. of D., i, 88, 168. Nevertheless 150 
years later Hugo Candidus, in Sparke, iii, 40, says: "And in Coldingham 
[rests] St. Ebba the abbess." 

The form Ebbe would better represent Bede's spelling (i, 243, 264) ; cf. 
also Eddi, Raine's York, i, 55 ; Fridegoda, ibid., i, 140 ; A.S. Vers. of Bede, 
i, 352. S. of D., i, 59. 

Before coming to Coldingham she had founded the monastery of Eb- 
chester, which is named after her. For works on the life of Ebba v. Hardy, 
Cat., i, 288-290. Cf. Bk. of Ely, 36-44. Her name is preserved in St. Abb's 
Head, Berwickshire. 

1 The previous chapter relates the story and death of Caedmon. 

2 Lit. " Colud's town ; " so H.E., IV, 19, i, 243 ; V.S.C., X, ed. E.H.S., 
ii, 68, Coludi urbem. The A.S. forms, " Colud's burgh," appear variously 
spelt in Eddi, XXXIX, Raine's York, i, 55 ; Anon. Life of St. C., 13 ; 
A.S. Vers. of Bede, i, 318, 348 ; A.S.C., s.a. 679, MS. E. Coldingham (" the 
dwelling of the descendants of Colud ") occurs early, as in S. of D., i, 59 ; 
B. of P., i, 96 ; L.V.E.D., 59, 67. Cf. also Lawrie, Charters, 17, 18, 55. All 
this may, however, be but folk-etymology ; for the name Colud seems not to 
occur elsewhere. 

3 H.E., IV., 19 ; i, 243. 


turn from them the anger of the just Judge by fasting, tears 
and prayers. 1 

For there was in that monastery a man of the race of the 
[Irish] Scots, Adamnan by name, who led a life in continence, 
and greatly devoted to prayers to God ; so that except on 
Sunday and on the fifth day 'of the week he never partook 
of any food or drink, and often passed whole nights wake- 
fully in prayer. And this discipline of so strict a life he had 
acquired at first from the necessity of mending his evil ways ; 
but as time went on he had turned the necessity into a 
custom. . . . 2 

And when for a long time he had diligently persevered in 
this, it chanced that on a certain day he had gone out a con- 
siderable way from that monastery, one of the brethren ac- 
companying him, and was returning after finishing his journey. 
And when he approached the monastery and beheld its 
buildings rising aloft, the man of God burst into tears, and 
betrayed in the expression of his face the sorrow of his heart. 
And his companion perceiving it asked him why he did thus. 
But he replied, " All these buildings which thou seest, public 
and private, very soon is it that fire shall consume them and 
turn them to ashes." 

And hearing this [his companion,] so soon as they entered 
the monastery, took heed to relate it to the mother of the 
congregation, Ebba by name. But she was naturally dis- 
turbed by such a prediction; and called the man to her, and 
very diligently inquired the matter of him, and how he knew 
of this. 

1 Cf. Jonah, III. 

2 The priest who had laid this penance upon him had died without having 
released him ; ibid., 263-264. 

Asceticism was frequent in the Irish church. Cf. the extreme case of 
Drythelm of Melrose, ca. 696, in Bede, H.E., V, 12 ; i, 303-310. He died, 
and returned to life after a remarkable vision of the other world ; and, al- 
though formerly he had led a religious life in Cunningham (ibid., 304,) he now 
became a monk in a separate dwelling at Melrose (ibid., 304, 310) ; " and 
because this place was situated above the bank of the river [Tweed], he used 
frequently, for the great desire of chastising his body, to enter it, and very 
often to be immersed in it, the waves flowing over him ; and thus continue 
there in psalms or prayers so long as he seemed able to endure it ; and to 
remain stationary while the water of the river rose to his loins, sometimes 
even to his neck. And when he came out thence to the shore he never troubled 
to lay off his garments, wet and cold, until they were warmed and dried by 
his body." He kept this up in the winter also, even when there was ice in 
the river. Ibid., 310. This story was vouched for by one Hsemgils, a priest, 
" who is still alive ; and, living solitarily in the island of Ireland, supports 
the last age of his life on coarse bread and cold water," ibid., 309 ; and 
Drythelm was personally known to king Aldfrid, 309-310. Hugo Candidus, 
in Sparke, iii, 40 : " And in Melrose [rests] St. Drythelm, the confessor." 


And he said : " Recently, while occupied by night with 
vigils and psalms, I saw suddenly standing before me one of 
unknown countenance. And since I was terrified by his 
presence, he told rne not to fear ; and addressing me as in a 
friendly voice he said, ' Thou dost well, who hast chosen in 
this time of the quiet of night not to indulge in sleep, but to 
continue in vigils and prayers.' And I said, ' I know that 
it is very needful for me to continue in salutary vigils, and 
to pray to God industriously for pardon for my sins.' And 
he rejoined, ' Thou sayest truth, because both for thee and 
for many others there is need to atone with good works for 
their sins, and, when they cease from the labours of temporal 
things, then the more freely to labour for the desire of eternal 
possessions ; but yet very few do this. For indeed I have 
visited in order all this monastery, and have looked into the 
houses and beds of each, and have found no one of all save 
thee busied with the welfare of his soul ; but all of them, 
both men and women, are either sunk in dull sleep or awake 
for sin. For even the small houses which were made for 
prayer or for reading are now turned into lairs of banquettings, 
potations, gossipings and other allurements. Also the virgins 
dedicated to God, spurning respect for their profession, so 
often as they have leisure employ themselves in the making 
of fine raiment with which either to deck themselves like 
brides, to the danger of their condition, or to attract to them- 
selves the friendship of strange men. And hence deservedly 
a heavy punishment has been prepared in raging flames for 
this place and its inhabitants.' ' 

And the abbess said : " And wherefore wert thou not- 
willing sooner to reveal to me this discovery ? " And he 
answered, " I was afraid, through respect for thee, lest per- 
chance thou shouldst be too greatly distressed. And yet thou 
hast this consolation, that this disaster will not arrive in thy 

And when this vision was made known, for a few days 
the inhabitants of the place began somewhat to be afraid, 
and to chastise themselves, pausing in their crimes. But 
after the death of the abbess they returned to their former 
defilements, nay they did more wickedly. And when they 
said ' l Peace and security," 1 suddenly they were visited by 
the penalty of the aforesaid retribution. 

And that all this so happened was related to me by my 
most reverend fellow-priest ^Edgils, who was living in that 

1 1 Thess. V, 3. 


monastery at the time. But afterwards, when because ot 
the desolation most of the inhabitants departed thence, he 
abode for a very long time in our monastery, and died there. . . . 




Egfrid [son of Oswy] is he who made war against his cousin, 1 
called Brude, the king of the Picts, and who fell there with 
all the strength of his army ; and the Picts with their king 
were victorious. 

And the Saxons of Northumbria 2 never succeeded in 
exacting tribute from the Picts. From the time of that 
battle it is called Gueith linn Garan. 3 




For in the next year after this 5 the same king [Egfrid]. 
who had rashly led an army to ravage the province of the 
Picts, although his friends greatly opposed it, and especially 
Cuthbert, of blessed memory, who had been recently ordained 
bishop, 6 was led on by the enemy's feigning flight into the 

1 fratruelem. Brude 's mother may have been a daughter of Talorg the 
son of Anfrid, Oswy's eldest brother. Cf. supra, 616x617, note. 

2 Saxones ambronum. Cf. genus ambronum in Nen., 63, u.s., 206. But 
ambro has the sense of " lascivious man, glutton " in Fl. His., i, 198 ; iii, 200 
(Luard :) with which sense cf. ambrones in Gildas, M.G.H., AA., xiii, 34. 

3 Apparently " battle of the pool of Garan." 

4 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 356, 358. A.S.C., MSS. E (infra, note,) A, B, C, s.a. 
685. Alcuin, Carmen, in Baine's York, i, 374. Ethelw., Carmen, in S. of D., 
i, 265. Fl. of W., i, 38-39. H. of H., 106. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 32. W. of 
M., G.R., i, 57. Anon. Life of St. C., 28, 37, 39, in E.H.S. ed., ii, 274 -275, 
279-281. Bede, V.S.C., XXIV, XXVII, ibid., 95-98, 101-104 ; Metr. Life, 
XXI, XXIX, ibid., 23-25, 28-29. Edm., V.W.Ep., in Raine's York, i, 205, 

206. Brev. V.S.W., ibid., i, 234. 

North. Ann., in M.H.B., 290, blunderingly, " The battle of Egfrid was 
63 years ago," i.e. in 674. 

Cf. Gaimar, 11. 1496-1500, i, 61. 

5 I.e. after 684, when Egfrid had sent an army under Bert to ravage 
Ireland, and was cursed by the Irish saints ; Bede, H.E., IV, 26 ; i, 266. The 
date is given explicitly near the end of the chapter : " In the same year, to 
wit, which is from the Lord's incarnation 685, ..." ibid., 268. 

6 Cuthbert was consecrated on the 26th March, 685 ; v. supra, s.a. 664, 
note. Cf. A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 685 ; Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., SS, xix, 504, 
Cf. Bede, H.E., IV, 27 ; i, 268. 

The result of the battle was revealed to Cuthbert at the time when it 


defiles of inaccessible mountains, and was killed along with 
the chief part of the troops which he had brought with him ; l 
in the fortieth year of his life, and the fifteenth of his reign, 
on the thirteenth day 2 before the Kalends of June. 

And indeed, as I have said, his friends protested against 
his entering upon this war ; but since in the previous year 
he had refused to hear the most reverend father Egbert and 
refrain from attacking Scotland [Ireland], a country which did 
him no harm, it was given to him in punishment of his sin not 
to hear those who wished to call him back from destruction. 

And from this time the hope and valour of the kingdom 
of the Angles began to " ebb, recede and sink." 3 For both 
the Picts and the Scots who were in Britain recovered the 
land of their possession which the Angles held ; 4 of the 

was lost, while he was at Carlisle with queen Eormenburg ; Bede, V.S.C., 
XXVII, E.H.S. ed., ii, 101-104 ; Anon. Life of St. C., 37, ibid., 279. A year 
before, Cuthbert had prophesied the death of Egfrid and the succession of 
Aldfrid ; V.S.C., XXIV, u.s., 96-98 ; Anon. Life, 28, u.s., 274-275. Neither 
of these events therefore appeared probable in 684. Aldfrid " was then in 
exile among the islands of the Scots for the study of letters," V.S.C., u.s., 
97 ; " he was then in the island which they call lona," Anon. Life, u.s., 274. 
He was a pupil (Three Frag, of Ir. Ann., Ill) and a friend (Reeve's Adamnan, 
185) of Adamnan. But " for no short time he had applied himself to reading 
in the districts of the Scots, suffering voluntary exile for the love of wisdom," 
V.S.C., u.s., 98 : cf. Metr. Life, XXI, ibid., 25 ; and had been in Ireland also, 
W. of M., G.R., i, 57. 

He wrote poems in Gaelic ; cf . Plummer, Bede, ii, 263. His mother, 
Fina, was an Irish princess ; cf. Reeve's Adamnan, 185 ; Ann. of Innisf., 
s.a. 694 : while his father was apparently the great-grand-uncle of Brude 
mac Bili, the reigning Pictish king, who was the son of the daughter of Talorg 
mac Anfrith. 

The campaigns first in Ireland, then in Pictland, might suggest that 
Egfrid suspected a conspiracy to put Aldfrid in his place ; and the sug- 
gestion is not contradicted by the result. 

1 A.S.C.,MS. E, s.a. 685 : " . . . and in the same year on the thirteenth 
before the Kalends of June king Egfrid was slain, to the north of the sea [i.e. of 
Forth], and a great army with him." 

W. of M., G.R., i, 57 : " a few escaped by flight and reported it at home." 
S. of D., i, 32 : " But king Egfrid . . . was killed, with the chief part of 
the forces which he had led with him to harry the land of the Picts, ... at 
Nechtansmere, which is the swamp of Nechtan ; . . . and his body was buried 
in lona, Columba's island." Stagnum Nechtani is located in Dunnichen 
Moss (pronounced Dun-nechan,) near Forfar. 

2 20th May. So A.S.C., MS. E ; Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., SS., xix, 504 ; 
S. of D., i, 32. 

This was a Saturday ; Ann. of Ulst., s.a. 685. Tigh., s.a. 686. 

3 Vergil, ^Eneid, II, 169. 

4 " For the Picts recovered their land, part of which the Angles held " ; 
H. of H., 106. 

John of Tynemouth, in Raine's York, i, 503, understands this as fol- 
lows : " For then the Angles of that province were driven out and slain ; 
and the part of the kingdom of the Bernicians from the Scottish sea to the 
Tweed, till then subject to the kings of the Northumbrians, was altogether 
taken from them. And not even to our day has it been possible to bring it 


Britons also considerable part recovered their liberty ; l and 
they have it even yet, after about forty-six years. 

And there among very many of the English race who 
were slain by the sword, or given up to slavery, or who escaped 
by flight from the land of the Picts, the most reverend man 
of the Lord Trumwin also, who had received the bishopric 
over them, retreated with his followers who were in the mon- 
astery of Abercorn, placed, it is true, in the district of the 
Angles, but in the neighbourhood of the firth which separates 
the lands of Angles and of Picts. And he commended them 
to his friends among the monasteries, wherever he could ; 
and himself chose the place of his dwelling in the oft -mentioned 
monastery of the servants and handmaids of God, which is 
called Whitby. And there for a very long term of years with 
a few of his [monks] he lived a life in monastic discipline 
useful not to himself alone, but to many others also. And 
there too he died, and was buried with the honour due to 
both his life and his rank, in the church of the blessed apostle 
Peter.2 . . . 

And Aldfrid succeeded Egfrid in the kingdom ; a man 
most learned in the Scriptures, who was said to be [Egfrid's] 
brother and the son of king Oswy. 3 And he nobly restored, 
though within narrower bounds, the ruined state of the 


Yet [Aldfrid] held not the kingdom with the same bounds 
as did his father and brother ; because the Picts had insolently 
abused their recent victory, and attacked the Angles, who 
were the less warlike after the long peace, and had curtailed 
their territories from the north. 

back to its former condition and subjection, through opposition of the secret 
judgment of God." John of Tynemouth flourished about the middle of the 
14th century. 

1 Probably Strathclyde is meant. At this time English Cumbria was 
separated ecclesiastically from Scottish Cumbria ; of. H. & S., ii, 5, 6. 

2 Trum win's bones were " found recently [in Whitby,] and brought forth 
into eminence," says W. of M., G.P., 254 : i.e., at Glastonbury. 

3 Aldfrid is said to be Oswy's illegitimate son ; Bede, V.S.C., XXIV, 
E.H.S. ed., ii, 97, 98 ; Metr. Life, XXI, ibid., 25. 

. A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 685: "And, after [Egfrid,] his brother Aldfrid 
succeeded to the kingdom." Cf. the account of his succession in W. of M., 
G.R.,i, 57, where he is said to have been older than Egfrid ; but cf. Bede, Metr. 
Life of St. C., XXI, u.s., 25 : " And like a new Josiah he rules our world 
with renown, mature in faith and in mind rather than in years." Aldfrid 
died in 705, according to Bede, H.E., V, 18, i, 320 ; A.S.C., all MSS., s.a. 705. 


686 x 704 


Hoiv at the instance of Adamnan very many of the churches 
of the Scots received the catholic Easter ; and how he wrote a 
book about the holy places. 

And at this time 2 the chief part of the Scots in Ireland, 
and some part also of the Britons in Britain, 3 received, God 
granting it, the rational and ecclesiastical time of the ob- 
servance of Easter. 

For when Adamnan, priest and abbot of the monks who 
were in the island of lona, 4 had been sent as a legation by 
his nation and had come to Aldfrid, king of the Angles ; and 
staying for some time in that province saw the canonical 
rites of the church, and also was wisely exhorted by very 
many who were better trained not to presume with his ex- 
tremely few followers, placed in an uttermost corner of the 
world, to live contrarily to the universal custom of the church, 
either in the observance of Easter or in any other decrees 
whatsoever, he changed his mind ; so that he very gladly 
preferred the things which he had seen and heard in the 
churches of the Angles to the custom of himself and his. For 
he was a good man and wise, and very notably trained in the 
knowledge of the Scriptures. 

And when he had returned home he endeavoured to lead 
his [monks] who were in lona or who were subject to that 
monastery to this path of truth which he had learned and 
which he had adopted with his whole heart, but could not. 

He sailed to Ireland, and by preaching to them, and with 
temperate exhortation declaring to them the lawful time of 
Easter, he brought over very many of them to catholic unity, 

1 Not in A.S. Vers. 

2 The previous chapter describes a vision which had been seen " recently," 
V, 14, i, 315. The last date given is of the consecration of Wilbrord in 696 ; 
V, 11, i, 303. 

3 I.e. the Cumbrians of Strathclyde ; v. H. & S., ii, 6-7. 

4 Adamnan was abbot of lona from 679 to 704. He visited Aldfrid 
(cf. supra, s.a. 685, note) twice ; first (probably in 686) after the battle of 
Nechtansmere, to obtain the release of sixty Irish prisoners taken by Bert in 
684 (Tigh., s.a. 687 ; Ann. of Ulst., s.a. 686 ;) and secondly two years later. 
Ad., V.S.C.. 185, 186. Bede speaks of him as if he were a civic legate, (V, 15 ; 
V, 21,) suggesting that he speaks of Adamnan's first visit ; but if Adamnan 
at the end of De Locis Sanctis (in Migne, 88, 814) means by " ecclesiastical 
anxiety " the Easter controversy, his manner of expression might suggest 
that the work was written after his conversion to the Roman Easter, and 
therefore presented to Aldfrid on Adamnan's second visit. Cf. Plummer, 
Bede, ii, 303. 


corrected from their ancient error, and nearly all who were 
free from the dominion of the monks of lona ; and persuaded 
them to observe the lawful time of Easter. 

And after celebrating the canonical Easter in Ireland, 
when he had returned to his island, and preached most per- 
sistently to his monastery the catholic observance of the time 
of Easter, and yet could not accomplish what he attempted, 
it happened that he departed from the world before the cycle 
of the year was completed : the divine grace manifestly dis- 
posing that the man most zealous for unity and peace should 
be removed to eternal life before the Easter time returned 
when he would have been compelled to have more grievous 
strife with them who refused to follow him to the truth. 1 

The same man wrote a book upon the Holy Places, most 
useful to many readers ; its author by instruction and dic- 
tation was Arcwulf, bishop of Gaul, who for the sake of the 
holy places had gone to Jerusalem, and after traversing all 
the land of promise had visited Damascus also, Constanti- 
nople, Alexandria, and many islands of the sea. And re- 
turning by ship to his own land he was carried by the violence 
of a storm to the western shores of Britain ; and after many 
things came to the said servant of Christ, Adamnan ; and 
there he was found to be a man learned in the Scriptures and 
acquainted with the holy places, and was most gladly received 
by him, and more gladly heard ; insomuch that everything 
worthy of mention that he testified he had seen in holy 
places, [Adamnan] took care immediately to commit it all 
to writing. 

And he made a work useful to many, as I have said ; and 
especially to those who, separated a long way from these 

1 Cf. in the letter of abbot Ceolfrid to Nechtan, king of the Picts ; Bede, 
H.E., V, 21, i, 344 : " But do not imagine that I pursue this so far as to 
judge that those who have this tonsure are to be damned, if they have 
favoured catholic unity in faith and works : nay, I profess confidently that 
very many among them have been holy men and worthy of God ; and among 
these is Adamnan, chief abbot and priest of the Columbite monks. When 
he was sent to king Aldfrid as legate of his nation, and wished to see our 
monastery also, [Wearmouth and Jarrow,] and showed in his customs and 
words wonderful prudence and humility and religion. . . ." Ceolfrid argued 
with him about his bearing the Celtic tonsure, i, 345: "These things I 
said to Adamnan at that time ; and he proved how much he had profited by 
seeing the statutes of our churches when he returned to Scotland [Ireland], 
and afterwards corrected by his preaching many multitudes of that nation 
to the catholic observance of the time of Easter. Nevertheless those monks 
who dwelt in the island of lona, and over whom he was placed in the special 
office of ruler, he was not yet able to bring over to the way of the better 
statute. The tonsure also he would have remembered to amend, if he had 
had so much authority." 


places in which the patriarchs or the apostles were, know 
them only from the things which they have learned by reading. 
Now Adamnan offered this book to king Aldfrid, and 
through his bounty it was given to lesser men also to read. 
Of [his bounty] also the wTiter was himself presented with 
many gifts, and sent back to his country. 1 


VOL. I, P. 355. a 

In the year 698 Berctred, royal leader 3 of the Northum- 
brians, was slain by the Picts. 

? 710 


345-346. 4 

How abbot Ceolfrid sent to the king of the Picts architects 
for a church, and also a letter concerning the catholic Easter and 
the tonsure. 

At this time 5 Nechtan, king of the Picts who inhabit 
the northern parts of Britain, warned by frequent study of 
the ecclesiastic writings, renounced the error by which he and 

1 The following chapters, 16 and 17 (i, 317-319,) are devoted to extracts 
from Bede's De Locis Sanctis, which is based upon Adamnan 's : cf. Ad., 
D.L.S., I, 2-3, 7, 22, 23 ; II, 1, 2, 8, 9, 10. Adamnan's work is printed in 
Migne, 88, 779-814. For other editions, v. Plummer, Bede, ii, 303-304. 

2 This annal is omitted by MSS. C, W, O 2 - 4 , D, etc. Plummer, ibid., 
note 13 ). 

Tighernach, s.a. 698, and Ann. of Ulst., s.a. 697, say that Berctred was 
the son of Beornheth ; cf. Eddi, XIX, supra, 671 X 672. 

Cf. A.S.C., s.a. 699, MSS. D, E: "In this year the Picts slew Bert 
the alderman," intending apparently to identify Berctred with the Bert 
(Berctus) who led an expedition into Ireland in 684; Bede, H.E., IV, 26; 
i, 266 ; v. supra, s.a. 685, note. 

H. of H., 109, expands this idea : " In the eleventh year of Ine's reign, 
Bert, the aforesaid consul of Egfrid, felt the curses of the Irish whose churches 
he had destroyed, even as his lord had felt them. For as king Egfrid entered 
the land of the Picts and there met his destruction, so he also entered the land 
of the same people to avenge his lord, and was slain by them. 

" About this time were 700 years from the Lord's incarnation." 

Ine became king of the West Saxons in 688 ; A.S.C., MSS. A, B, C, E, F. 

3 dux ; alderman ? 

4 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 468, 470. Cf. H. of H., 112. 

5 The previous chapter relates the death of abbot Hadrian, placing it 
in 709 ; V, 20 ; i, 330. Perhaps 710 is the correct date ; cf. V, 19, 24 ; i, 322, 
356 ; ii, 329. 

Nechtan mac Derilli succeeded his brother Brude, who died in 706. 
Nechtan was deposed in 726, but regained the kingdom for a short time 
two years later. He died in 732. Tigh, 


his nation had been held hitherto in the observance of Easter, 
and persuaded himself and all his subjects to celebrate the 
catholic time of the Lord's resurrection. 

And to accomplish this the more easily and with the greater 
authority he sought aid of the nation of the Angles, whom he 
knew to have long ago established their religion after the 
example of the holy Roman and apostolic church. For he 
sent messengers to the venerable man Ceolfrid, abbot of the 
monastery of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul, at the 
mouth of the river Wear and near the river Tyne in the place 
which is called Jarrow, which he ruled most gloriously after 
Benedict, of whom we have spoken above ; l requesting him 
to send him exhortatory letters, with which the more effectively 
he might be able to confute those who presumed to observe 
Easter not at its time ; as also concerning the manner or 
fashion of the tonsure with which it was fitting that clerics 
should be marked out : excepting that he was himself also 
to no small extent skilled in these matters. 

And he also asked that architects should be sent to him, 
to make a church of stone among his people after the manner 
of the Romans, promising to dedicate it in honour of the 
blessed prince of the apostles, and also that he himself and all 
his subjects would always imitate the custom of the holy 
Roman and apostolic church ; in so far at least as they had 
been able to learn it, being so far separated from the speech 
and race of the Romans. 

And favouring his pious vows and prayers the most rever- 
end abbot Ceolfrid sent the architects for whom he was asked, 
and sent to him also a letter written in this fashion : . . . 2 

When this letter had been read in presence of king Nechtan 
and of many very learned men, and had been diligently 
interpreted by those who were able to understand it into his 
own tongue, 3 he is said to have rejoiced greatly in its exhor- 

1 H.E., IV, 18, i, 241. Benedict Biscop founded the monasteries of 
Wearmouth and Jarrow ; ibid. ; cf. the Anon. His. Abb., in Plummer's 
Bede, i, 389, 390, 391-392 ; Bede, His. Abb., ibid., i, 364, 367-368, 370. 

Benedict and Ceolfrid were teachers of Bede ; H.E., V, 24, i, 357. 

2 This letter (Plummer's Bede, i, 333-345) deals at some length with the 
usual subjects of the controversy ; it is omitted by the A.S. Vers. It is 
really composed by Bede ; cf. Plummer, ii, 332-334. 

It begins : " To the most excellent lord and most glorious king Nechtan, 
abbot Ceolfrid sends greeting in the Lord " ; and ends : " May the favour 
of the eternal King keep thee safely reigning for a very long time, for the peace 
of us all, most beloved son in Christ." 

3 With this statement of the Pictish king's ignorance of Latin, compare 
W. of M., G.P., Life of St. Aldhelm (bishop of Sherborne, 705-709, ibid., 385,) 


tation ; insomuch that he rose up from the midst of the 
assembly of his nobles, and bowed his knees to the ground, 
giving thanks to God that he should be worthy to receive 
such a gift from the land of the Angles. 

" And indeed I knew even before," said he, " that this 
was the true celebration of Easter ; but now I know so well 
the reason for the observance of this time that I seem to 
myself in all ways to have understood before but little of 
these things. And hence I profess openly and protest to you 
present who sit here that I will ever observe, with my whole 
nation, this time of Easter ; and decree that all clerics who 
are in my realm must receive this tonsure, which we have 
heard to be wholly reasonable." And without delay he ful- 
filled by his royal authority what he had said. For imme- 
diately by public command the nineteen-year cycles of Easter 
were sent throughout all the provinces of the Picts to be 
transcribed, learned and observed ; the faulty cycles of eighty- 
four years being everywhere suppressed. All servants of the 
altar and monks were tonsured in the manner of the crown ; 
and the nation corrected rejoiced that it had been devoted 
as it were to a new discipleship of Peter, the most blessed 
prince of the apostles, and placed under the protection of his 

710 x 711 

VOL. I, p. 356. ! 

In the year 711 Bertfrid the prefect 2 fought with the 

336-337 : "I am silent about his fellow-countrymen, who emulously sent 
their writings to [Aldhelm] to submit to the criticism of his judgment. I 
pass over the Scots, then most deeply learned : they are known to have 
done the same. But I could name some of them of no mean literary gift ; 
especially Artwil, the son of the king of Scotland. Whatever he produced 
in the art of literature, and this was not at all trifling, he committed to 
Aldhelm's judgment, that by the revision of his accomplished mind might 
be scraped off the Scottish roughness." 

1 Cf. A.S.C., MSS. A, B, s.a. 710, MS. C, s.a. 709. 

Fl. of W., i, 48, s.a. 710 : " Bertfrid, king Osred's prefect, fought with 
the Picts and was victorious." 

2 Bertfrid, " second prince from the king," Eddi, LX, in Raine's York, 
i, 90, (cf. ibid., i, 91,) was the supporter of king Osred, the son of Aldfrid, 
against Adulf ; cf. Eddi, LIX, u.s., i, 88-89. Cf. W. of M., G.P., 242. 

Bertfrid is the same name as Berctred, supra, s.a. 698. The bearers of 
these and the allied name Bert (supra, s.a. 685, note,) may have belonged to 
the same family. 


710 x 711 


. . . And in the same year Bertfrid the alderman fought 
against the Picts, between Avon and Carron. 2 


How the monks of lona with the monasteries subject to them 
began at the preaching of Egbert to celebrate the canonical Easter. 

And not long afterwards 4 those monks of the Scottish 
race also who dwell in the island of lona, along with the 
monasteries which were subject to them, were persuaded 
by God's providence to the canonical rite of Easter and of 
the tonsure. For in the year from the Lord's incarnation 
71 6, 5 in which Osred was slain and Coenred received the 
helm of the Northumbrian kingdom, when Egbert, of whom 
we have often made mention above, 6 had come to them from 
Ireland, a father and priest beloved of God, and to be named 
with all honour, he was received by them honourably and 
with great joy. 

And since he was both a most gracious teacher and a 
most devoted doer of the things which he taught should be 
done, he was gladly heard by all, and changed by pious and 
assiduous exhortations that inveterate tradition of their 
fathers, concerning whom we may quote the apostolic saying 

1 H. of H., Ill, s.a. 710: "Then also the consul Bertfrid resisted the 
pride of the Picts, fighting between Avon and Carron. And there a great 
host of the Picts was laid low ; and he became avenger of king Egfrid and of 
the consul Bert." 
'* 2 Hcefe and Caere, D, E. Heve et Cere, H. of H. 

"In the plain of 1 Manau," Tigh., s.a. 711; Ann. of Ulst., s.a. 710. 
According to Skene, C.S., i, 270 (P. & S., Ixxxi ; F.A.B. of W., i, 91,) the Plain 
of Manau is between these two rivers. Manau extended further ; the name 
is preserved in Slamannan, Clackmannan and Dalmeny. 

3 A.S. Vers., i, 470-475. Cf. Bede, H.E., Recap., V, 24, i, 356 ; A.S.C., 
all MSS., s.a. 716 ; in the same year also Fl. of W., i, 48 ; H. of H., 112. 

Bede, Chron., in E.H.S. ed., ii, 203 : " Egbert, a holy man of the nation 
of the Angles, and one who adorned the bishopric (sacerdotium) with mon- 
astic life also, in pilgrimage for the sake of the heavenly fatherland, in the 
year from the Lord's incarnation 716 by pious preaching turned very many 
provinces of the Scottish [Irish] nation to the canonical observance of the 
time of Easter, from which observance they had too long deviated." 

4 I.e. after the proclamation of Nechtan. H.E., V, 21 ; supra, s.a. ? 710. 

5 So in H.E., V, 24, i, 356. In H.E., III, 5, i, 134, (supra, s.a. 565,) 
Bede says that the Celtic Easter was still celebrated in lona in 715. 

6 Cf. Ill, 4, supra, s.a. 565 ; III, 27, i, 192-194. In H.E., V, 9, i, 296-298, 
Bede relates how Egbert wished to set out from Ireland, where he lived as 


that they had zeal for God, but not according to knowledge ; * 
and he taught them, as we have said, to hold the celebration 
of the chief festival in the catholic and apostolic manner, 
under the figure of an endless crown. 2 

And clearly it happened by a wonderful dispensation of 
God's mercy that since this nation had laboured to impart 
to the peoples of the Angles, gladly and without grudging, 
such knowledge as they had of the comprehension of God, 
should itself also afterwards attain to the perfect rule of life 
through the nation of the Angles, in those things which it 
had lacked. So on the contrary the Britons, who refused 
to extend to the Angles what knowledge they had of the 
Christian faith, when now the peoples of the Angles believe 
and are in all things instructed in the rule of catholic faith, 
are themselves still antiquated and halting from their paths ; 
and display their heads without the crown, and celebrate 
the festivals of Christ without the fellowship of Christ's church. 

Now the monks of lona received the catholic rites of life 
through the teaching of Egbert, under abbot Duncan, 3 about 
eighty years from the time when they had sent Aidan as 
bishop to preach to the nation of the Angles. And the man 
of the Lord, Egbert, remained for thirteen years in the afore- 
said island, which he had himself consecrated to Christ, as 
though new grace shone forth of ecclesiastic fellowship and 
peace. And in the year of the Lord's incarnation 729, in 
which the Lord's Easter was celebrated on the eighth day 4 
before the Kalends of May, when he had celebrated the 
solemnities of mass in memory of the same resurrection of 
the Lord, on the same day he too departed 5 to the Lord ; 

exile (III, 27, u.s.,) for missionary enterprise on the continent. But Boisil 
of Melrose appeared to a former attendant of his, bidding him tell Egbert 
that " whether he will or not, he must come to the monasteries of Columba, 
because their ploughs do not go straight ; and it is meet for him to bring them 
to a straight course " ; ibid., 297-298. A storm followed, and Egbert at 
last desisted. This happened previously to 690 ; cf. H.E., V, 10, i, 298-299 ; 
ii, 291-292. 

Egbert appears to have been a bishop ; Bede, H.E., III, 27, i, 193 ; V, 9, 
i, 296 ; Ethelwerd, in M.H.B., 507 ; Ethelwulf, De Abb., in S. of D., i, 270, 
and note ; cf . Plummer, Bede, ii, 285. 

1 Rom. X, 2. 

2 I.e., the crown-tonsure. 

3 Duncan was abbot of lona from 707 to 717, according to Tigh. ; who, 
however, places in 717 the " expulsion of the family of lona across Drumalban 
by king Nechtan," and says that in 718 " the crown-tonsure was put upon 
the family of lona." 

4 24th April. 

5 Cf. Bede, H.E., Recap., V, 24 ; i, *356. A.S.C., all MSS., s.a. 729. 
Bede, H.E., III, 27 ; i, 193-194 : " . . . [Egbert] departed recently to 


and the joy of the chief festival, which he had begun with 
the brethren whom he had turned to the grace of unity, he 
completed with the Lord and the apostles, and the other 
citizens of heaven ; or rather he ceases not endlessly to cele- 
brate the same. 

And it was a wonderful dispensation of God's providence 
that the venerable man passed to the Father not only on 
Easter-day, but also while Easter was celebrated upon that 
day, upon which it had never before been accustomed to be 
celebrated in those places. 

The brethren therefore rejoiced in the sure and catholic 
recognition of the time of Easter ; and they were glad in the 
patronage of their father, by whom they had been corrected, 
and who departed to the Lord. And he rejoiced that he had 
been so long preserved in the flesh until he should have seen 
his hearers receive and hold with him that day for Easter 
which they had ever before avoided. And thus sure of their 
correction the most reverend father exulted to see the day 
of the Lord ; he saw it and was glad. 


BEDE, HISTORIA ECCLESIASTIC A, V, 23 ; VOL. I, pp. 350-351. l 

But over the province of the Northumbrians, which king 
Ceolwulf 2 rules, four bishops now hold sway : Wilfrid 3 
in the church of York ; Ethelwald 4 in that of Lindisfarne ; 

the heavenly realm s ; that is, in the year of the Lord's incarnation 729, when 
he was ninety years of age. Now he had lived his life in great perfection of 
humility, meekness, continence, simplicity and justice. And hence he did 
much good to hi s own nation and to those races of the Scots and Picts among 
whom he lived in exile, by the example of his life, and the persistency of his 
teaching, and the authority of his reproof, and the kindness of his distribution 
of the things which he had received from the rich." Particulars are given of 
his abstemiousness ; ibid. 

Gaimar, v. 1664, says that Egbert was buried at " Mirmartin," which 
may be a confusion for St. Martin's, Whithorn ; Plummer, S.C., ii, 40. Cf. 
supra, s.a. 685, note. 

1 Cf. A.S. Vers., i, 478, 480. H. of H., 116. S. of D., H.R., ii, 28-29. 

2 Cf. Bede, H.E., Prsef., i, 5. 

Ceolwulf became a monk in Lindisfarne in 737 ; A.S.C., MSS. D, E, F ; 
Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., SS., xix, 505; S. of D., i, 47, 201 ; H.R., ii, 32, 
375-376. There he relaxed the rule imposed by the Scots of drinking nothing 
but water or milk, and permitted the monks to drink wine or beer. S. of D., 
H.R., ii, 102. Hoved., i, 8, 45. 

3 Cf. Bede, H.E., V, 6 ; i, 292. 

4 Ethelwald succeeded Edfrid in 725, according to Ann. of Lind., in 
M.G.H., SS., xix, 505 (cf. ibid., 504, s.a. 722.) 

Ethelwald had been an attendant of Cuthbert ; afterwards prior (Anon. 
Life of St. C., 33, in E.H.S., Bede, ii, 277) and later abbot (Bede, V.S.C., 


Acca l in that of Hexham ; Pechthelm 2 in that which is 
called Whit horn, and which, through increase of the ranks 
of the faithful, has recently been raised to the see of an 
episcopate, and has him as its first bishop. 3 

At this time the race of the Picts also both has a treaty 
of peace with the nation of the Angles, 4 and rejoices to parti- 
cipate with the universal church in catholic peace and truth. 

The Scots who dwell in Britain are content with their 
own territories, and plan no snares or deceits against the 
nation of the Angles. 

The Britons, although for the most part they oppose the 
nation of the Angles with the hatred natural to them, and 
less rightfully with their evil customs the appointed Easter 

XXX, ibid., ii, 107) of Melrose (S. of D., H.D.E., i, 39. Cf. Bede, H.E., V, 
12; i, 310.) 

Ethelwald caused a sculptured stone cross to be erected and inscribed 
to Cuthbert's memory ; S. of D., u.s. He died in 740. Contin. of Bede's 
H.E., i, 363. 

He wrote (with bishop Edfrid and the anchorite Bilfrid) part of the precious 
volume of gospels lost in a storm at sea by the bearers of St. Cuthbert's 
body, ca. 880, and miraculously recovered at low tide at Whithorn, S. of D., 
H.D.E., i, 64-68. This is believed to be the Durham Book preserved in the 
British Museum, Cottonian MS. Nero. D. iv. 

1 Cf. R. of H., D.H.E., in Raine's Hexh., i, 35, s.a. 732 : " But by what 
pressure of necessity [Acca] was driven [from his see], or whither he went, I 
have not found written. There are however some who say that at this 
time he inaugurated and prepared the episcopal see in Whithorn." Cf. Bede, 
H.E., Contin., i, 361, s.a. 731, which is probably the correct date. But his 
expulsion is placed in 732 by S. of D., H.R., ii, 30 ; cf. W. of M., G.P., 225 ; 
and in 733 by A.S.C., MSS. D, E, F ; Fl. of W., i, 53. 

R. of H., u.s., 34 : " As some think, he lived for eight years afterwards." 
His death is placed in 737 by A.S.C., MSS. D, E, F. 

2 Pechthelm had been a monk and deacon of Aldhelm, bishop of Sher- 
borne ; Bede, H.E., V, 18 ; i, 320. Cf. W. of M., G.P., 257. He testified 
to miracles wrought, at Hsedde's tomb ; Bede, ibid. ; and is named as Bede's 
authority for a vision, H.E., V, 13 ; i, 311-313. 

3 W. of M., G.P., 257: " [Pechthelm's] successors were Frithwald, 
Pechtwin, Ethelbert, Baldulf. And beyond these I find no more anywhere ; 
for the bishopric soon failed, since it was, as I have said," [ibid., 256 ; supra, 
s.a. 565, note,] " the farthest shore of the Angles, and open to the raidings 
of the Scots and Picts." 

Whithorn is spoken of as being in England ; cf. supra, s.a. 547, note. 

Cf. Fl. of W., i, 279-280 : " The kings of the Northumbrians ruled over 
the whole district which is beyond the river Humber. There were in this 
district the archbishop of York, the bishops of Hexham, of Ripon, of Lindis- 
farne and of Whithorn. . . . [Cf. W. of M., G.R., i, 101.] 

" And the archbishop of York had all the bishops beyond the Humber 
subject to his control : the bishops of Ripon, of Hexham, of Lindisfarne ; 
him of Candida Casa, which is now called Whithorn ; and all the bishops of 
Scotland and the Orkneys, even as the archbishop of Canterbury has the 
bishops of Ireland and the Welsh." Cf. W. of M., G.R., ii, 352-353, 350. 

4 Yet in his letter to Egbert of York (written in November, 734,) Bede 
speaks of danger " from barbarians," " from the incursion of barbarians." 
i, 414, 415. 


of the whole catholic church, are yet wholly withstood by 
the power of both God and man, and can in neither respect 
obtain the purpose of their desires ; inasmuch as they, al- 
though in part they are independent, are yet in some part 
reduced to the servitude of the Angles. . . . 

This is at present the state of all Britain, in about the two 
hundred and eighty-fifth year from the arrival of the Angles 
in Britain, and in the year of the Lord's incarnation 731. ... 




Pechthelm, 1 bishop of Whithorn, died ; and Frithwald 
succeeded him in the rule of the bishopric. 

735, Aug. 


p. 361. 

In the year 735 . . . bishop Egbert received the pallium 
from the apostolic see, and was the first after Paulinus to be 
confirmed in the archiepiscopate [of York] ; 2 and he ordained 
Frithbert 3 and Frithwald 4 as bishops. And Bede the priest 



p. 362. 

In the year 740 ... Ethelbald, king of the Mercians, by a 
wicked deceit wasted part of Northumbria ; and their king 
Edbert 5 was occupied with his army against the Picts. 

1 For Pechthelm v. supra, s.a. 731. 

2 Cf. supra, s.a. 664, note. 

3 Bishop of Hexham ; 8th September, but s.a. 734, S. of D., H.R., ii., 31 
So R. of H., D.H.E., in Raine's Hexh., i, 37. Frithbert died in 766 ; Contin 
of Bede, i, 363 ; A.S.C., MSS. D, E, according to which he had been bishop 
for thirty-four years. 

4 A.S.C., MSS. D, E, s.a. 762 (cf. infra, s.a. 763) says that Frithwald 
died on the 5th May, 763, and had been bishop for twenty-nine winters : 
" He was consecrated at Chester on the eighteenth before the Kalends of 
September, in the sixth winter of Ceolwulf's king-ship " ; that is, 734, Aug. 
15. Ceolwulf succeeded Osric in 729 : A.S.C., D, E, F (although MSS. A, B, 
C, D say in 731) ; 729, May 9, Bede, H.E., V, 23, i, 349. 

But Egbert did not receive the pallium till 735; A.S.C., MSS. D, E, F. 

5 Edbert was the successor of Ceolwulf ; Contin. of H.E., s.a. 737, i, 362. 
He was tonsured in 758, and succeeded by his son Osulf ; ibid., 363. (Cf. 
s.aa. 737, 757, A.S.C., MSS. D, E, F ; Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., 88., xix, 

S. of D., H.D.E., i, 48 : " [Edbert] was, as we have said, the son of 
Eata, uncle of king Ceolwulf," ibid., II, 1, i, 47 ; so A.S.C., D, E, s.a. 737 ; 




In the year 744 was fought a battle between the Picts and 
the Britons. 1 



p. 362. 2 

In the year 750 Cuthred, king of the West Saxons, rose 
against king Ethelbald and Angus. 3 

Theudor 4 and Enred died. 

Edbert added to his kingdom the plain of Kyle, with other 

756, Mar. 

I, p. 48, S.A. 757. 6 

In the seventeenth year of [Cynewulf's] episcopate, 6 and 
the twentieth of Edbert's reign, 7 the man of the Lord and priest 
Baldred, who had led in Tyningham the life of an anchorite, 
trod the way of the holy fathers, departing on the day 8 before 
the Nones of March to Him who had refashioned him in the 
likeness of his Son. 

but Eata was the grand-uncle of Ceolwulf, A.S.C., A, B, C, D, s.a. 731, A, B, 
C, D, E, s.a. 738, " and when he received the kingdom he showed himself 
well able and eager to hold and to rule the empire. 

" All his adversaries, therefore, were either made subject to him or 
overthrown in war ; and all the surrounding kings, of Angles, of Picts, of 
Britons, of Scots, not only held peace with him, but even rejoiced to pay 
him honour." 

1 The Pictish king Talorgan was slain in battle with the Britons ; Ann. 
Cambr., s.a. [750] ; Brut y Tywysogion, s.a. 750. 

2 Cf. the battle of Burford, A.S.C., s.a. 752. 

3 This is enigmatical, and the text is probably corrupt. S. of D., H.R., 
ii, 40, follows this passage, but omits " and Angus." For Angus cf. infra, 
s.aa. 753, 761. . 

4 The king of Strathclyde ; cf. Tigh., s.a. 752 ; Ann. Cambr., s.a. 750. 

5 Cf. S. of D., ii, 41, s.a. 756, in the eighteenth year of Edbert's reign. 
Cf., s.a. 756, Hoved-., i, 7 ; Arm. of Lind., in M.G.H., SS., xix, 505. For 
stories about Baldred see Alcuin, Carmen, in Raine's York, i, 388-390. 

6 Cynewulf was consecrated bishop of Lindisfarne in 737, according to 
A.S.C., MSS. D, E, F. 

7 Cf. supra, s.a. 740, note. 

8 I.e. the 6th of March. Baldred's remains were pilfered by Alfred of 
Durham ; S. of D., i, 88 ; i, 168, but no mention is made of the legend of 
the triplication of his corpse. 


756, Aug. 


In the year from the Lord's incarnation 756, king Edbert, 
in the eighteenth year of his reign, and Angus, king of the P icts, 
led an army to the town of Dumbarton. 

And hence the Britons accepted terms there, on the first 
day of the month of August. 

But on the tenth day of the same month perished almost 
the whole army which he led from Ovania 2 to Newburgh, that 
is, to the New City. 



p. 363. 

In the year 761 died the king of the Picts, Angus, who as a 
slaughtering tyrant carried on his reign's beginning with bloody 
crime even to the end. 

And Os win was slain. 3 

761, Aug. 


In the year 759 Ethelwald, who was also called Moll, began 
to reign on the Nones of August. 5 

And in the beginning of his third year, a very severe battle 
was fought near Eildon, 6 on the eighth 7 before the Ides of 
August ; and in it Oswin fell, after three days, on the first day 

1 Cf. Hoved., i, 7. 

2 Cf. the Surtees Soc. ed. of S. of D., p. 20, n. Cf. S. of D., ii, 41, n. 
The locality of Ovania is uncertain. Hoved. has Ouama. 

3 S. of D. mentions Oswin's death before Angus's : " In the same year 
also died Angus, king of the Picts." H.R., ii, 42. 

4 Cf . Hoved., i, 7. 

5 5th August. Ethelwald Moll reigned in Northumbria from 759 to 
765; A.S.C., MSS. D, E, F. 

' " Beside Melrose " is inserted by an almost contemporary hand. 
Arnold, S. of D., ii, 41, note. Cf. A.S.C., MSS. D, E, (F without date,) s.a. 
761 : " And Moll, king of the Northumbrians, slew Oswin at Edwin's cliff 
on the eighth before the Ides of August " ; possibly a folk-etymology for 
Eldwnes clif ; Plummer, S.C., ii, 49. No place is mentioned in Contin. of 
Bede. Oswin was a " most noble prince " ; Fl. of W., i, 57. But accord- 
ing to H. of H., 125: "In the following year [761] Moll, king of North- 
umbria, slew Oswin, the bravest of his aldermen [ducum], who fought against 
his lord at Edwin's cliff despising the law of nations, and was slain by the 
law of God." Cf. R.W., E.H.S. ed., i, 237. 

7 6th August. So A.S.C. 


of the week. And king Ethelwald, who was called Moll, gained 
the victory in the battle. 



And Frithwald, bishop at Whithorn, died on the Nones of 
May. 2 He was consecrated at Chester on the eighteenth 3 
before the Kalends of September, in the sixth winter of Ceol- 
wulf 's kingship ; and he was bishop twenty-nine winters. 

Then Pechtwin was consecrated as bishop of Whithorn at 
^Elfet ee, 4 on the sixteenth 5 before the Kalends of August. 


In the year 774 . . . king Alchred 7 w T as by counsel and 
consent of all his subjects 8 deprived of the society of the royal 
family and the chief men ; and changed for exile the majesty 
of empire. He retired with few comrades of his flight first to 
Bamborough, afterwards to the king of the Picts, Kenneth by 
name. 9 -i 


In the year 775 Kenneth, king of the Picts, was snatched 
from the eddy of this muddy life. 11 

1 MS. F, s.a. 762, is less full. Cf. Fl. of W., i, 57, s.a. 763. H. of H , 
125, through misreading the A.S.C. calls Frithwald " bishop of Chester." 
S. of D., H.R., ii, 42-43 ; s.a. 764, but indefinitely, " in these times." M.P., 
Chr. Maj., ii, 344, s.a. 763. 

2 7th May. 

3 15th August, 734 ; cf. supra, s.a. 735. 

4 Perhaps Elvet, Durham. But ee means " river." 

5 17th July. 

6 Cf. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 49. Hoved., i, 9. A.S.C., D, B, s.a. 744, " in 
Eastertide " ; so also Fl. of W., i, 58. 

7 The successor of Ethelwald Moll ; A.S.C., D, E, F, s.a. 765. 
" By the deceit of his chief men " ; S. of D., i, 49. 

9 Kenneth, son of Feradach, became king of the Picts in succession to 
Brude " king of Fortrenn," who died in 763, according to Tigh. For Ken- 
neth's death v. infra, s.a. 775. 

10 Cf. Hoved., i, 10. 

11 The text of S. of D. proceeds: "and alderman Adulf taken trea- 
cherously by guile, after a short while's space was slain, and buried, and 

orgotten." But above in S. of D., ii, 45, the death of an alderman Adulf is 
placed under 774, immediately preceding the banishment of Alchred. 
Possibly by a confusion of names Eadwlf dux in the second place stands for 
Alcredus rex : king Alchred's capture thus following the death of his protector. 




This year died bishop Pechtwin, 2 on the thirteenth 3 before 
the Kalends of October. He was bishop fourteen winters. 4 



And in the same year Ethelbert was consecrated as bishop 
of Whithorn, in York, on the seventeenth 6 before the Kalends 
of July. 


IN RAINE'S HEXHAM, VOL. I, p. 40. 7 

In the same year, that is in the 789th year from the Lord's 
incarnation, Ethelbert left his see in Whithorn and received 
the bishopric of Hexham, which he ruled for eight years. 



This year Baldulf 9 was consecrated 10 bishop of Whithorn, 

Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., i, 350: "In the year of the Lord 780 Ethelred [read 
Alchred,] king of the Northumbrians, was deposed, and went first to the 
city of Bamborough, and afterwards to the king of the Picts, Kenneth by 
name ; and there also he ended his life." 

1 MS. F omits day and month. Cf. Fl. of W., i, 59, s.a. 777 ; H. of H., 
126 ; S. of D., ii, 46, Hoved. i, 10, s.a. 777 ; R.W., E.H.S. ed., i, 242, and 
M.P., Chr. Maj., i, 349, s.a. 778. 

2 " Bishop of Whithorn," S. of D., ii, 46 ; Hoved., i, 10. 

3 19th September. 

4 " In the twenty-fourth year of his bishopric," H. of H., 126, through 
error in the Roman numeral. So Hoved., following him, i, 23. 

" And Ethelbert succeeded him," S. of D., ii, 46 ; Hoved., i, 10. 

5 MS. F omits day and month. Cf., s.a. 778, Fl. of W., i, 59 ; H. of H. , 
126 ; Hoved., i, 24. 

6 15th June. 

7 Cf. S. of D., i, 53. Hoved., i, 12. Ethelbert died in 797 ; A.S.C., 
MSS. D, E, F. 

8 MS. F omits day and month. Cf. Fl. of W., i, 62. H. of H., 129; 
Hoved., i, 26. S. of D., H.R., ii, 53 ; Hoved., i, 12. 

9 Baldulf assisted at the consecration of Ardulf, king of the Northum 
brians, at York, on the 24th May, 796 ; A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 795 ; H. of H., 
130 ; of Anbald II, archbishop of York, at the monastery of Sockburn on 
the 14th of August (the 15th, wrongly, in S. of D.,) 796 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 
58 ; Hoved., i, 16 ; cf. A.S.C., s.a. 796, MS. E ; and at the consecration of 
Egbert II, bishop of Lindisfarne, at Bywell, llth June, 803; S. of D., 
H.D.E., i, 52. 

10 " In the place which is called Hearrahalch, which may be interpreted 


on the sixteenth l before the Kalends of August, by archbishop 
Anbald 2 and by bishop Ethelbert. 3 



And Osbald the patrician 4 . . . was deprived of all society 
of the royal family and the princes, and put to flight and driven 
from the kingdom. And he retired with a few to the island of 
Lindisfarne, and came thence by ship with some of the brethren 
to the king of the Picts. 

830 5 

ca. 830 


I, PP. 52-5S. 6 

[Egred, bishop of Lindisfarne, 7 ] bestowed upon the holy 
confessor Cuthbert that vill [of Norham], with two others which 
he had founded, [both] called by the same name, Jedworth, 
with their appanages. 8 

the ' place of lords.' " S. of D., H.R., ii. 53. I.e. at Harraton, near Chester- 
le-Street ? Arnold, ibid., note. So Hoved., i, 12 (cf. Stevenson, Ch. His., 
iii, 455, n.). " At Whithorn," says M.P., Chr. Maj., i, 356, s.a. 793. 

1 17th July. 

2 Of York, 779-796 ; A.S.C., MSS. D, E. 

3 Of Hexham ; Baldulf's predecessor. 

4 Osbald was for twenty-seven days successor of Ethelred (slain 18th 
April, 796) as king of Northumbria ; ibid. ; cf. De Pr. Sax. Adv., in S. of 
D., ii, 376. He died an abbot in 799 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 62. 

5 By the submission of Northumbria Egbert, king of Wessex, " acquired 
the whole of Britain " ; W. of M., G.R., i, 107 ; that is, he was the eighth 
Bretwalda ; A.S.C., all MSS., s.a. 827. 

6 Cf. Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., SS., xix, 506, s.a. 830. 

7 Egred was bishop from 830 to 846, Ann. of Lind. u.s. ; cf. S. of D., 
H.D.E., i, 52, 53 (cf. supra, s.a. 651, note.) He built a church in Jedburgh, 
according to Ann. of Lind., u.s. 

8 " . . . With two other vills : Jedworth, and the other Jedworth, and 
all that pertains to them, from Duna [Down Law ?] to Teviotmouth, and 
thence to Wilton, and thence beyond the mountain eastward." H. de S.C., 
in S. of D., i, 201. 

Cf. S. of D., H.R., ii, 101, under the year 854 :".... And the following 
residences [pertained to the church of Lindisfarne] ; Carnham, and Holm- 
cultram, and the two Jedburghs, to the southern district of the Teviot " 
(in text Teinetae ; read Teuietae,) " all of which bishop Egred had founded ; 
and Melrose, and Tigbrechingham " (in text Tigbrethingham,) " and Aber- 
corn " (in text Eoriercorn ; read Eouercorn ?) "to the western district of 
Edinburgh, and Pefferham, and Aldham, and Tyningham, and Coldingham, 
and Tillmouth, and the aforesaid Norham. ..." So Hoved., i, 45, who 
adds after Coldingham " and Birgham." 

Cf. His. de S. C., in S. of D., i, 199 : " And that land beyond the Tweed 
[pertains to the land of Lindisfarne], from the place where rises the river 


? 870 


Of the admirable deed of the holy abbess Ebba. 

In the year of the Lord 870 an innumerable host of Danes 
landed in Scotland ; and their leaders were Inguar and Hubba , 
men of terrible wickedness and unheard-of bravery. And they, 
striving to depopulate the territories of all England, slaughtered 
all the boys and old men whom they found, and commanded 
that the matrons, nuns and maidens should be given up to 

And when such plundering brutality had pervaded all ter- 
ritories of the kingdoms, Ebba, holy abbess of the cloister of 
Coldingham, feared that she too, to whom had been intrusted 
the care of government and the pastoral care, might be given 
up to the lust of pagans and lose her maiden chastity, along 
with the virgins under her rule ; and she called together all the 
sisters into the chapter-house, and burst into speech in this 
wise, saying, " Recently have come into our parts the wickedest 
pagans, ignorant of any kind of humanity ; and roaming through 
every part of this district they spare neither the sex of woman 
nor the age of child, and they destroy churches and churchmen, 
prostitute nuns, and break up and burn everything they come 
upon. Therefore if you decide to acquiesce in my advice, I 
conceive a sure hope that by divine mercy we may be able both 
to escape the fury of the barbarians and to preserve the chastity 
of perpetual virginity." 

And when the whole congregation of virgins had undertaken 
with sure promises that they would in all things obey the com- 
mands of their mother, that abbess of admirable heroism 
showed before all the sisters an example of chastity not only 
advantageous for those nuns but also eternally to be followed 
by all succeeding virgins : she took a sharp knife and cut off 
her own nose and upper lip to the teeth, offering a dreadful 

[White] Adder on the north as far as to the place where it falls into the Tweed ; 
and all the land which lies between the river [White] Adder and another river 
which is called the Leader, towards the west ; and all the land which lies 
on the eastern side of that river which is called Leader, as far as to the place 
where it falls into the Tweed, towards the south ; and all the land which 
pertains to the monastery of St. Baldred, and is called Tyningham, from 
Lammermoor even to Eskmouth." 

Among the lands granted (posthumously) by king Oswin to Cuthbert 
are named several vills of Roxburgh, in the valleys of the Bowmont and the 
Kale ; His. de S.C., in S. of D., i, 197. 

1 This story appears also in Fl. His., i, 432-433, s.a. 870. It is unknown 
to S. of D., H.R., ii, 104 ; to Hugo Candidus, in Sparke, iii, 14. 

For Inguar and Hubba cf. Ethelw., in M.H.B., 512-514. 


spectacle of herself to all beholders. And since the whole con- 
gregation saw and admired this memorable deed, each one 
performed a similar act upon herself, and followed the example 
of her mother. 

And after this had so taken place, when next morning 
dawned, the most wicked brigands came upon them, to give 
up to wantonness the holy women, and devoted to God ; as 
also to plunder the monastery itself and burn it down in flames. 
But when they saw the abbess and each of the sisters so hor- 
ribly mutilated, and saturated with their blood from the soles 
of their feet to their crowns, they retired from the place with 
haste, for it seemed to them too long to stay even for a short 
space there. But as they retired thence the aforesaid leaders 
commanded their evil satellites to set fire to and burn down 
the monastery with all its offices and with the nuns themselves . 

And so the execution was fulfilled by the servants of 
iniquity, and the holy abbess and all the virgins with her 
attained most holily to the glory of martyrdom. 


ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, MSS. A, B, D, E, S.A. 875, C S.A. 876. 

In this year the army [of Danes] went from Repton. And 
Halfdane went with part of the army into Northumbria, and 
took winter-quarters by the river Tyne ; 1 and the army 
conquered the land, and often harried upon Picts and upon 
Strathclyde Welsh. 2 . . . 

883 x 896 ^ , 

pp. 213-214. 3 

This is a miracle of God and St. Cuthbert, much to be ob- 

1 They settled in Northumbria next year ; A.S.C., MSS. A, B, D, E, 
s.a. 876, C s.a. 877. Asser, Ann. of Alf., s.a. 876. 

2 Cf. s.a. 875, Asser, Ann. of Alf., in M.H.B. 478 ; Fl. of W., i, 92. 
Ethelw., Chr., in M.H.B., 515 : " And very often they carried war 

against the Picts and the Cumbrians." H. of H., 146: "And often they 
raided upon the Picts." 

Ann. of Ulster, s.a. 874 (for 875) : "A conflict of Picts wifti Danes; 
and great slaughter was made of the Picts." 

3 Cf. De Mir. et Transl. S.C., IV, in S. of D., i, 241-242. S. of D., H.D.E., 
i, 70-71. 

This nocturnal retreat regarded as a miracle is placed byDe ]Viir. et Tr. 


served and magnified, when once the Scots crossed the river 
Tweed with an innumerable host, and wasted the land of St. 
Cuthbert, and despoiled the monastery of Lindisfarne, which 
had never before been violated. 1 

And hearing this king Guthred, to avenge the holy con- 
fessor, hastened thither with a very small band, and met them 
at the end of the day in the place which is called Mundingdene. 
And thus the battle was not begun. 

And when night supervened, and king Guthred had fallen 
asleep through the excess and diversity of his cares, in great 
fear and anxiety because he had a very small army while the 
enemy, who was now at close quarters, had a very large one, 
and thus he could neither fight nor escape ; behold, Christ's 
soldier Cuthbert appeared to him plainly, and with these words 
raised his fallen spirits. 

" Fear not," said he, " because I am with thee ; and despair 
not of the fewness of thy soldiers, because my foes, though still 
alive, are already in God's sight dead, and will not be able to 
oppose thee, because they have not feared to violate God's 
peace and mine. In the dawn rise quickly and fall upon them 
with confidence, because at once in the first conflict the earth 
will open, and drop them alive into hell." 

After these words he departed ; and the king awoke. 
Springing up therefore he assembled his army, and publicly 
related all this to all men. And immediately at dawn he fell 
upon the enemy ; but, according to the word of the man of 
God, at once in the first conflict the earth yawned and swal- 
lowed them alive, and he found them not, the ancient miracle 
being there wondrously renewed, when " the earth opened and 

S.C., u.s., 241, " when no great time had passed " after Olafbald's blasphemy 
and death, which followed the battle of Corbridge, A.D. ? 915, q.v. It 
happened " some .considerable time having intervened " after the grant by 
king Guthred to the Cuthbertines of the land between Tyne and Wear, 
according to S. of D., H.D.E., i, 71, 70 ; and this grant is placed under 883 
by S. of D., H.R., ii, 114-115. 

Guthred^ became**king in 883 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 114, and an insertion 
in ii, 86 ; cf. H.D.E., i, 68-69, without date. He died in 894, according to 
S. of D., i, 71 ; ii, 92 ; in 896, August 24, according to Ethelw., in M.H.B., 
518-519 ; while De Pr. Sax. Adv., in S. of D., ii, 377, says that he reigned 
fourteen years. 

1 Lindisfarne had, in fact, been sacked twice by the Danes, in 793 and 
in 875 ; S. of D., H.D.E., i, 50-51, 58. 

Here De Mir. et Tr. S.C. strikes a chord frequently repeated in later 
writers ; S. of D., i, 241 : " . . . the nation of the Scots gathered an in- 
numerable army and crossed the river Tweed, which is the northern boundary 
of the land of St. Cuthbert, and harried every place with slaughter, fire and 
rapine. They spared not rank, nor age, nor sex, but cut down all like cattle 
with equal and unheard-of cruelty." 


swallowed up Dathan, and covered over the company of 
Abiram." i 

? 915 


... All these vills 2 . . . bishop [Cutherd] gave to Elf red 
[son of Brihtulfing], that he should be faithful to him and to 
the congregation, and should render full service for them. 

And this too he faithfully did, until king Ronald came with 
a great multitude of ships and occupied the land of Adulf 's son 
Aldred, who was beloved of king Edward, even as his father 
Adulf was beloved of king Alfred. 3 

Aldred therefore took to flight and went to Scotland, and 
sought the aid of king Constantin, and brought him to battle 
at Corbridge against king Ronald. 

And in this battle, by influence of what sin I know not, the 
heathen king was victorious, put Constantin to flight, routed 
the Scots, and slew Elf red, St. Cuthbert's vassal, and all the 
best of the Angles, excepting Aldred and his brother Utred. 4 

1 Psalms, CVI, 17. 

2 In the neighbourhood of Durham and Hartlepool ; H. de S.C., ibid., 

3 For Adulf's death cf. infra, note ; for Aldred Adulfing, infra, s.aa. 
921, 926. 

4 After this victory Ronald divided St. Cuthbert's lands which lay 
between the Wear and the Tees, and gave them to his followers, Scula and 
Olafbald : H. de S.C., ibid., 209. 

The lands between the Wear and the Derwent had been held by Edred, 
son of Rixing, from the time when he " rode westward beyond the moun- 
tains, and slew the prince Adulf, and seized his wife, in violation of the peace 
and will of the people ; and took refuge in the protection of St. Cuthbert. 
And there he abode three years, .... and paid rent faithfully, until the 
aforesaid king Ronald gathered again his army and fought at Corbridge, and 
slew Edred himself and a very great host of the Angles." Then Ronald 
gave that part of the land of St. Cuthbert to Edred's sons ; H. de S.C., 
ibid., 210. 

In all this nothing but the word " again " supports Arnold's theory 
that there were two battles of Corbridge (S. of D., ii, pp. xxvi-xxx.) 

Edred paid rent for three years after the slaying of Adulf ; and Adulf 
died in 912, " in the Northumbrian borders," according to Ethelw., in M.H.B., 

According to S. of D., H.D.E., i, 72, "... while Cutherd administered 
the episcopate of Bernicia, a certain heathen king, Ronald by name, landed 
in the districts of the Northumbrians with a large fleet; Immediately he 
broke into York, and either slew or drove from their country all the best 
inhabitants." Cf. De Mir. et Transl., Ill, in S. of D., i, 238. Now Cutherd 
died in 915 ; H.D.E., i, 74. 

The A.S.C., MSS. D, E, F, has under the year 923 (but probably " post- 


? 921 


And then 2 the king of the Scots, 3 and all the people of the 
Scots, and Ronald, 4 and the sons of Adulf, 5 and all those who 
dwell in Northumbria, as well English as Danes and Northmen 
and others ; and also the king of the Strathclyde Welsh, 6 and 
all the Strathclyde Welsh, chose [king Edward] for father and 
for lord. 7 

dated some four or five years " ; Plummer, S.C., ii, 130-131) : "In this 
year king Ronald won York." S. of D., H.R., ii, 93 : " In the year 919 
Ronald [sic lege] broke into York." The invasion is mentioned without 
definite date in the Ser. Reg., in S. of D., ii, 391. The Ann. of Ulst. place 
it in 917 = 918. 

1 At the end of this passage in MS. A half a page is left blank ; then a 
new hand begins. E. & PI., a.l. 

MS. F, s.a. 924 : " In this year was king Edward chosen as father and 
as lord by the king of the Scots, and by the Scots ; and by king Ronald, and 
by all the Northumbrians ; and also the king of the Strathclyde Welsh, and 
by all the Strathclyde Welsh." Cf. s.a. 921, Fl. of W., i, 129-130 ; S. of 
D., H.R., ii, 123 : and s.a. 917, Hoved., i, 53. 

For the confusion in the dating of this part of the Chronicle cf . Plummer, 
S.C., ii, 116, 130, 131. 

The previous annal in the Chronicle, MSS. D, E, F, s.a. 923, gives 
Ronald's invasion of York ; the annal following, MSS. A, F, s.a. 925 (B, C, 
D, E, s.a. 924) is of Edward the Elder's death. Fl. of W., i, 130, places 
Edward's death in 924, and says that he " most gloriously ruled over all the 
peoples inhabiting Britain, of Angles, Scots, Cumbrians, Danes and Britons 
alike." So S. of D., H.R., ii, 123; Hoved., i, 53. Cf. the notice of his 
succession, Fl. of W., i, 117, s.a. 901 : "he took into subjection the kings 
of the Scots, the Cumbrians, the Strathclyde Welsh, and all those of the 
West Britons." So, s.a. 899, S. of D., ii, 121 ; Hoved., i, 50. Cf. W. of M., 
G.R., i, 135. 

None of these authorities is either contemporary or impartial. 

2 After Edward's visit to Nottingham and Bakewell, before midsummer 
MS. A, ibid. 

3 Constantin III. 

4 " Ronald, king of the Danes," Fl. of W., S. of D., Hoved., u.s. 

The death of the elder Ronald took place in 921 ; Ann. of Ulst., s.a. 
920 = 921. His successor Sitric (king of Northumbria, A.S.C., D, s.a. 925) 
is spoken of as king in A.S.C., E, s.a. 921. 

Ronald Godfreyson was one of the kings driven out of Northumbria in 
944, A.S.C., MSS. A, B, C, D ; cf. E, F. He is first mentioned in the Chronicle 
under the year 942, MS. A ; 943, MS. E, when he was baptized, with king 
Edmund as sponsor. 

5 Akfred and Utred ; supra, s.a. 915. 

6 MS. F, Lat., reads: "and by Strathclyde, king of the Welsh"; 
Plummer, S.C., i, 104, ii, 90. The king of Strathclyde at this time was Con- 
stantin's brother Donald, yo 

7 " And made a firm treaty with him," add Fl. of W., S. of D., Hovsd., 




. . . And Sitric died, and king Ethelstan 2 assumed the 
kingdom of the Northumbrians. 

And he subjugated all the kings who were in this island : 
firstly Howel, 3 king of the West Welsh ; and Constantin, king 
of the Scots, and Owen, king of Gwent, 4 and Aldred, son of 
Adulf of Bamborough. 5 

1 Cf. s.a. 926, Fl. of W., i, 131 ; S. of D., ii, 124. S.a. 921, Hoved., i, 

Compare W. of M., G.R., i, 147, after Sitric's death : " Olaf, Sitric's 
son, fled to Ireland, and Godfrey his brother to Scotland. The king's men 
followed after them, being sent to Constantin, king of the Scots, and to 
Eogan " [or Owen] " king of the Cumbrians, demanding back the fugitive 
and declaring war. 

" The barbarians had not the courage to murmur against it, but without 
demurring came to the place which is called Dacre, and yielded themselves 
and their kingdoms to the king of the English. 

' ' In gratitude for this agreement Constantin's son was instructed to be 
baptized, and [Ethelstan] himself received him from the sacred font. 

" But Godfrey escaped, during the preparations of the travel- 
lers. ..." 

V. also Ann. of Ulster, s.a. 926 = 927. 

The expulsion of Godfrey is placed under 927 by A.S.C., MSS. E, F ; 
S. of D., H.R., ii, 93 : under 926 by Fl. of W., i, 130-131, who mentions it 
simultaneously with the annexation of Northumbria by Ethelstan, previously 
to the submission of the kings. So S. of D., H.R., ii, 124 ; cf. De Pr. Sax. 
Adv., in S. of D., ii, 377. 

According to Fl. of W., W. of M., De Pr. Sax. Adv., u.s., Godfrey was 
the son of Sitric. But more probably he was his brother. Cf. Todd, War of 
the Gaedhil, 279. 

Sitric was Ethelstan's brother-in-law ; A.S.C., MS. D, s.a. 925. 

2 " Who first of the kings of the English reduced all his enemies, and 
obtained the lordship of the whole of Britain." S. of D., H.D.E., i, 63. De 
Pr. Sax. Adv., in S. of D., ii, 372 : " For he reduced to himself both Scotland 
and Cumberland, and other provinces of islands." 

"It is long to relate . . . what bounds [Ethelstan] placed to his empire 
in Scotland " ; W. of M., G.P., 397. The Ann. of Lind., in M.G.H., SS., 
xix, 506, s.a. 920, say that Ethelstan " was the first to obtain the monarchy 
of the whole of England," and immediately add, s.a. 924, " king Ethelstan 
entered Scotland." 

3 Probably a prince of Cornwall ; cf. Plummer, S.C., ii, p. viii. Com- 
pare however W. of M., G.R., i, 142, infra, note. 

4 Monmouthshire. 

5 Fl. of W., i, 131, appears to misunderstand the phrase from Bebban 
byrig, and changes the complexion of the whole passage? "All the kings 
also of the whole of Albion he conquered in battle and put to flight, to wit 
Howel, king of the West Britons ; then Constantin, king of the Scots ; Wuer 
[i.e. Owen], king of Gwent. Aldred also, the son of Adulf, he drove out 
from the royal city which in the English tongue is called Bamborough. 

" All these, when they saw that they could not oppose his vigour, sought 
peace from him, and came together on the fourth before the Ides of July in 


And with pledge and with oaths they confirmed peace, in 
the place which is called Eamot, l on the fourth 2 before the 
Ides of July, and renounced every kind of idolatry ; 3 and 
thereafter departed in peace. 



S.A. 934. 4 

In this year king Ethelstan went into Scotland, with both 
a land-force and a ship-force, 5 and ravaged a great part of it. 


And after these things 6 king Ethelstan determined to de- 
populate the unbelieving 7 nation of Danes and the faithless 
nation of Scots ; and he led a very large army by land and by 
sea into Northumbria and Scotland. And since there was 
none to begin to oppose him or to persevere in opposing him he 
advanced everywhere through the country and raided at his 
will, and returned with the bays of triumph. 

a place which is called Eamot : they took an oath and concluded a firm 
treaty with him." 

So also S. of D. and Hoved., who however omit the expulsion of 

Cf. W. of M., G.R., i, 142 : " And because his noble mind once roused 
strove after greater things, he compelled Judwal, king of all the Welsh, and 
Constantin, king of the Scots, to leave their thrones (cedere regnis). Never- 
theless not long afterwards, overcome by compassion, he established them 
in their former rank, to reign under himself ; asserting that it was more 
glorious to make a king than to be a king." 

1 cet Ea motum. Eamotum, F. of W. ; Eamotun, S. of D., Hoved. 

W. of M., G.R., i, 147, has Dacor. Dacre is a mile from R. Eamont, 
which flows out of Ulleswater. Eamot has also been identified with Emmet 
in Yorkshire. 

2 12th July. So Fl. of W., S. of D., Hoved: 

3 This clause must refer to some treaty with the Danes : the chronicler 
confuses different occasions. The renunciation of idolatry is omitted by 
Fl. of W., S. of D., Hoved. Cf. however W. of M., G.R., i, 146, supra, 

4 Cf. s.a. 934, Fl. of W., i, 131-132 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 124. Hoved., 
i, 54, s.a. 925. 

5 " With a very powerful naval force, and with no small army of 
cavalry." Fl. of W., i, 131. 

6 This follows the death of Ethelstan's brother Edwin. 

7 perfidam. 8 infidam. 



Thereupon 2 he subdued the enemy, 3 and wasted 
Scotland with a land army as far as Dunnottar 4 and Werter- 
moor, 5 and with a naval force harried it as far as Caithness. 6 



VOL. I, P. 76. 

He then put to flight Owen, king of the Cumbrians, and 
Constantin, king of the Scots ; and with an army on land and 
in ships he subdued Scotland, subjugating it to himself. 7 

1 Cf. S. of D., ii, 124 ; xxxiii. Hoved., i, 54. 

2 After making munificent offerings at St. Cuthbert's shrine. Ethel- 
stan's victory is attributed to the same cause in S. of D., H.D.E., i, 75-76 ; 
His. de S.C., in S. of D., i, 211-212 ; (cf. ibid., i, 76, note ;) Hoved., i, 54. This 
policy had been recommended to him by his father Edward, His. de S.C., 
u.s., 210-211. 

The offerings and credit for the victory are given to John of Beverley in 
W.K., Mir. S. J., in Raine's York, i, 263-264. Cf . Mir. S. J., Contin. a, ibid., 
294-298. Cf. Dugdale, Mon. Angl., e.g. ii, 129. 

3 " With the greatest violence," adds Hoved. 

4 Dunfoeder. So also S. of D., ii, 124. Hoved., i, 54. Cf. Skene, 
P. & S., cxxxvii. 

5 Wertermorum, " warder mountains." So also S. of D., Hoved., u.s. 
(A. S. mora, morum =montes, montibus, A.S. Vers. of Bede, H.E., 358, 364. 
Cf. supra, s.a. 565, note. In A.S.C.,s.a. 878 (MS. C, s.a. 879) mor = swamp. 
Cf. Plummer, S.C., ii, 15-16). Located as Wedder Hill by Arnold, S. of D., 
ii, p. xxxiii ; as Kirriemuir by Skene, C.S., i, 352. 

6 " And harried Scotland for the most part," S. of D., ii, 124. 

7 Cf. Fl. of W., i, 131 : " And for the most part harried it. For Con- 
stantin, king of the Scots, broke the treaty which he had made with him. [v. 
supra, s.a. 926.] And hence king Constantin being compelled by force 
gave him, along with worthy gifts, his own son as hostage. 

" And peace was restored, and the king returned to Wessex." 

Cf. S. of D., H.R., ii, 124. Hoved., i, 54. 

W.K., Mir. S. J., in Raine's York, i, 263 : " The Northumbrians and 
Scots rebelled against [Ethelstan] and transgressed the treaty which they 
had made with him. And when the king had collected a very large army, 
he advanced to subdue the guilty ones by land and sea." 

Mir. S. J., Contin. a, in Raine's York, i, 295 : " And when the Scots 
heard that the English army was approaching they dared not await them 
in [English] territory, nor oppose them in a battle in the open ; but crossed 
the river which is called the Forth (Scotorum Vadum), that they might pre- 
pare to resist in battle more safely within their own borders. And when 
king [Ethelstan] came to the river with the whole army of the English, he 
learned that the Scots had crossed ; and he instructed his men to pitch their 
tents on the bank of the river, and to await there for some while." 

W.K., Mir. S. J., u.s., 264 (after Ethelstan's vision of St. John of Bever- 
ley) : "And when morning broke king [Ethelstan] fell upon the enemy 
and obtained the victory, and compelled the king of Scotland to surren- 




938. 1 

Olaf, pagan king of the Irish and of many islands, incited 
by his father-in-law Constantin, king of the Scots, 2 entered 
the mouth of the river Humber with a strong fleet ; 3 and 
king Ethelstan and his brother prince Edmund met him 
with an army, in the place which is called Brunnanburgh. 4 

jr. And after exploring for no short time the situation of that land he 
received the king's son as hostage, and returned to York." 

Mir. S. J., Contin. a, u.s., 296-297 : " And so when morning broke, the 
king took heed to make his vision known to his men, and to assure them of 
the victory. And they rejoiced, and were encouraged for the contest. They 
crossed the river, and found the Scots and their king ready to oppose them. 
And a severe battle was fought ; and not only did many of the Scots perish, 
but even their king fled, to the confusion of the whole realm. 

" And seeing this the English king was glad, and returned thanks to 
God and to the venerable confessor, John, to wit, his intercessor. And 
immediately he reduced the whole kingdom to his empire, and went round 
and journeyed through all the neighbouring provinces of that land. 

" Then he summoned the princes and the provosts of the towns and 
imposed upon them the tribute which they should pay as a debt to him and 
his successors, to wit the English kings. 

" The islands also adjacent and in the neighbourhood he compelled to 
serve him so long as he remained in those parts, which was to the completion 
of three years. 

" And as he returned by the shore of the sea near Dunbar and saw the 
rocks jutting out he stopped, and sighing uttered words in this fashion 
' If by the intervention of St. John God would vouchsafe to give me some 
evident sign, in order that both future and present might be able to know 
that Scotland is subjugated by right to the realm of the English, inasmuch 
as it has been conquered by king Ethelstan, and pays at all times tribute 
to him and his successors, I would devoutly render thanks to him, not without 

" And drawing his sword from its sheath he struck it into the crag, which 
was in that hour, God's virtue governing it, as penetrable to his sword as if 
the stone had been butter or soft gravel. For the rock was so cleft by the 
stroke of the sword that the measure of an ell might be fitted to the length 
[of the hole]. And even to the present day it is an evident sign that the 
Scots were conquered and subjugated by the English, when such a memorial 
shows it clearly to all comers." 

1 So, s.a. 937, S. of D., H.R., ii, 125 ; Hoved., i, 54. Cf; Ann. of Ulst. 
261-262, s.a. 936=937. 

2 " To their raging fury, by the Scots' king's wish, the northern land gave 
cheerful consent," says a verse Life of Ethelstan quoted by W. of M., G.R., i, 
151-152, who thought that it dated from Ethelstan's life-time. In this passage 
the presence of Constantin at the battle is not mentioned. 

Constantin's son-in-law was Olaf Sitricson. 

3 This mention of the Humber is probably an erroneous assumption of 
Fl. of W. ; for if the Strathclyde Welsh and Irish Danes joined forces in the 
invasion they must have chosen a meeting-place near the western seaboard. 

4 A.S.C., MS. F, s.a. 937 : " In this year king Ethelstan and his brother 
Edmund led an- army to Brunnanburgh, and there fought against Olaf ; and, 
Christ aiding, had the victory." MS. E is shorter. 




[Ethelstan's] last war was with Olaf Sitricson, who had 
crossed his boundaries in the hope of usurping the kingdom ; 
along with the aforesaid Constantin, again in rebellion. 

And because Ethelstan retired advisedly to defeat the 
invader more gloriously, 1 the youth, overbold and hoping to 
his heart forbidden things, had advanced far into England 
when at last he was opposed at Brunefeld 2 by leaders of 

great skill and by a strong force of knights. . . . 



VOL. I, p. 76.3 

In the fourth year after [his invasion of Scotland,] that 
is, in the 937th year of the Lord's nativity, [Ethelstan] fought 
at Wendun, (which by another name is called At Burnswark 
or Brunnanburgh, 4 ; against the son of the former king Godfrey, 
Olaf, 5 who had come with six hundred and fifteen ships, 

1 According to W. of M., Olaf spied in guise of a harper upon Ethelstan's 
camp : H.R., i, 142-143. When Ethelstan retired to draw on the enemy 
bishop Werstan of Sherborne pitched his tent on the site which the king had 
abandoned and so was slaughtered by Olaf in the night : G.P., 178. 

2 One of the variant readings is Bruneford. 

3 Ethelw., in M.H.B., 520 : " Therefore after thirteen years " [from 
Ethelstan's succession in 926] " was fought a fierce battle against the bar- 
barians in the place Brunnanburgh, whence also even to the present it is 
commonly entitled the Great Battle. Then the barbarian troops were every- 
where overcome ; and they no longer had dominion, after those whom he 
drove beyond the shores of Ocean. Moreover the Scots bowed their necks, 
and the Picts also. ..." 

A.S.C., MSS. A, B, C, D, says that they fought " around Brunnanburgh." 
H. of H., 159, confusedly : " In the year of grace 945, and the fourth 
year of his reign, king Ethelstan fought a battle, the greatest of battles, at 
Brunnanburgh against Olaf, king of Ireland, who had supplemented his 
forces from the nation of the Scots, and of the Danes who dwelt in England." 
(The writer has misread the Roman numeral xxxuii as xxxxu.) 

4 The name occurs in a variety of forms : (1) Weondune, S. of D., i, 76 ; 
Wendune, S. of D., ii, 293 ; (2) Etbrunnanwerc, S. of D., i, 76 ; Bruneswerce, 
Gaimar, 1. 3524, i, 147, with variants ; (3) Brun(n)anburh, -byrig, A.S.C., 
A, B, C, D, E ; S. of D. ; Fl. of W. ; Brune(s)burh, H. of H., 159, 160 ; 
(4) Brunandune, Ethelw., in M.H.B., 520 ; (5) Brunfort, Bk. of Hyde, 124. 

The second of these forms, Burnswark, occurs in a suitable locality, 
although it is not the place understood by Fl. of W. or by W. of M., supra. 
Place-names show that there was a Danish settlement to the north of the 
Solway Firth ; and this would have been a suitable landing-place for the 
Irish Danes. Cf. regarding the extent of Bernicia, supra, s.aa. 547, 731, notes. 

5 Both Olaf Godfreysoii (as S. of D.) and Olaf Sitricson (as W. of M.) appear 
to have taken part in the war. For Godfrey and Sitric cf. supra, s.aa. 921, 
926, notes. 


having with him against Ethelstan the aid of the aforesaid 
kings to wit of the Scots and of the Cumbrians. 

But [Ethelstan], trusting in the protection of St. Cuth- 
bert, 1 laid low an endless host, and drove those kings from 
his kingdom, obtaining a glorious triumph for his men. . . . 


And the battle was protracted from the beginning of the 
day until evening ; and they slew five under-kings and seven 
earls, whom their opponents had brought with them to aid 
them. 3 

And they spilled so much blood as had never before been 
spilled in any battle in England. And they compelled the 
kings Olaf and Constantin to flee to their ships, and returned 
with great exultation. 

But their foes had acquired the greatest misfortune in the 
destruction of their army ; and they returned with few men 
to their own. 



S.A. 937. 4 

In this year king Ethelstan, lord of earls, ring-giver to men, 
and his brother also prince Edmund won life-long glory in 
conflict with the sword's edges around Brunnanburgh. They 
clove the shield- wall, hewed the war-lindens with hammered 

1 Cf. W. of M., G.R., i, 144, infra, in note. 

2 So S. of D., H.R., ii, 125 ; Hoved., i, 54-55. 

3 A.S.C., MS. F : " And they slew there five kings and seven earls." 

S. of D., H.R., ii, 93 : " In the year 937 king Ethelstan fought at Wendun, 
and turned to flight king Olaf with six hundred and fifteen ships, also Con- 
stantin, king of the Scots, and the king of the Cumbrians, with all their 

W. of M., G.R., i, 144 : " . . . Relying upon this gift of God," [a miracu- 
lous sword,] " and at the same time because it was now dawn, [Ethelstan] 
attacked the Norwegian with all his army and beat him back untiringly the 
whole day till evening. There fell Constantin, king of the Scots, a man of 
treacherous passion (perfidce animositatis) and of vigorous old age ; and five 
other kings, twelve earls, and almost the whole host of the barbarians. The 
few who escaped were preserved for the reception of the faith of Christ." 

Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 10, s.a. 924 : " Ethelstan with his forces in 
one contest deprived of life one king of Scots, and five kings of the Danes, 
and twelve earls." 

Two cousins of Ethelstan were slain in the battle ; W. of M., G.R., i, 151. 

4 Cf. H. of H., 160-161. 


blades ; so was it natural to them, the sons of Edward, from 
their ancestors that against every foe they defended their 
land, hoard and homes. 

The foe gave way ; the folk of the Scots and the ship- 
fleet fell death-doomed. The field was slippery with the 
blood of warriors, from the time when the sun, glorious star, 
glided up in morning tide over the world, the eternal Lord 
God's candle bright, till the noble creature sank to rest. 

There lay many a warrior by darts laid low ; many a 
northern man over the shield shot, and many a Scot beside, 
weary, war-sated. The West Saxons in companies continu- 
ously all the day long pressed after the hostile peoples, hewed 
the fugitives from behind cruelly with swords mill-sharpened. 
The Mercians refused not the hard hand-play to any of the 
heroes who for battle, death-doomed, sought land in ship's 
bosom, over the mingling waves, with Olaf. 

There lay on the battle-field five young kings, by the 
swords put to sleep ; and also seven earls of Olaf : of the 
army untold numbers, of the fleet and of Scots. 

There was put to flight the Northmen's lord, driven by 
need to his ship's prow, with a small band : the boat drove 
afloat ; the king fled out upon the fallow flood ; he saved his 

So there also the aged Constantin came north to his coun- 
try by flight, hoary warrior. No need had he to exult in the 
intercourse of swords. He was bereft of his kinsmen, deprived 
of his friends on the meeting-place, bereaved in the battle. 
And he left his son in the slaughter-place, mangled with 
wounds, young in warfare. 

He had no need to boast, the grizzly-haired man, of the 
bill-clashing, the old malignant ; nor Olaf the more, with 
their remnants of armies. They had no cause to laugh, that 
they in works of war were the better, on the battle-field of 
the conflict of banners, of the meeting of spears, of the assem- 
blage of men, of the contest of weapons ; that on the slaughter- 
field they played with Edward's sons. 

The Northmen retired, bloody remnant from the spears, 
in their nailed boats on the sounding sea. Over deep water 
they sought Dublin and Ireland again, with minds cast down. 

So too the brothers, both together, king and prince, 
sought their country, the West Saxons' land, rejoicing in the 

They left behind them to share the carrion the dusky - 
coated, the swart raven, of horny beak ; and the grey-coated, 


the white-tailed eagle : to enjoy the meat the greedy war- 
hawk, and the grey beast, wolf in the weald. 

Before this, greater slaughter of folk was never yet made 
in this island by the sword's edges ; in so far as books tell us, 
old sages, since hither from the east came Angles and Saxons 
to land, over the broad waves : since the proud war-smiths 
sought Britain, and the glory-seeking earls overcame the 
Welsh and obtained the land. 1 


In the year 941 Olaf laid waste the church of St. Baldred 
and burned Tyningham ; 2 and presently he perished. 3 

And hence the men of York harried the island of Lindis- 
farne, and slew many men. 

And the son of Si trie, named Olaf, reigned over the Nor- 
thumbrians. 4 

940 x 946 

HISTORIA DE S. CUTHBERTO, 28, IN S. OF D., VOL. I, p. 212. 5 

Upon [Ethelstan's] death his brother Edmund succeeded 
to the kingdom, collected again a great army, and hastened 
to Scotland. Yet in going he turned aside to the oratory of 
St. Cuthbert, bowed his knees before his tomb, and offered 
prayers ; and commended himself and his men to God and 
the holy confessor. . . . 6 

1 The success of the battle was such that Ethelstan had peace till his 
death, according to S. of D., H.D.E., i, 76. W. of M., G.R., i, 142. Cf. 
Ethelw., in M.H.B., -520. After Ethelstan's death one of the Olafs was chosen 
king of Northumbria ; A.S.C., MS. D, s.a. 941. This was Olaf Godfreyson, 
according to De Pr. Sax. Adv., in S. of D., ii, 377-378. 

2 Tyningham pertained to Lindisfarne or Durham ; cf. S. of D., i, 199, 
supra, s.a. 830, note. 

3 Olaf Godfreyson died in 942, according to A.S.C., MSS. D, E. 

4 Cf. A.S.C., MS. D, s.a. 941. Fl. of W., i, 133 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 125. 
W. of M., G.R., i, 157. 

In 944, according to A.S.C., Olaf Sitricson and Ronald Godfreyson 
('Hwo kings," MSS. A, B, C, D ; "two men of royal birth," E, F) were 
expelled from Northumbria by Edmund of Wessex. Cf. Ethelw., in M.H.B., 
520, where they are called " deserters." 

Cf. Fl. of W., i, 134. W. of M., G.R., i, 158. S. of D., H.R., ii, 94, s.a. 
945 (cf. ibid., s.a. 943.) H. of H., 162. 

5 Ethelstan died in 940, A.S.C., MSS. (A), B, C, D, E ; Edmund in 946, 
A.S.C., MSS. A, B, C, D (E, F, s.a. 948.) 

6 St. Cuthbert is again heavily bribed. Cf. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 76-77. 




In this year king Edmund harried all Cumbria, 2 and leased 3 
it all to Malcolm, king of the Scots, on the condition 4 that 
he be his helper both on sea and on land. 5 



S.A. 948. 

In this year king Edmund died ; 7 . . . and then prince 
Edred, his brother, succeeded to the kingdom, and reduced 
all Northumbria to his dominion. And 8 the Scots gave 
him oaths that they would all that he would. 9 

1 MSS. E, F have only : " In this year king Edmund harried all Cumbria." 
Cf. Fl. of W., i, 134 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 126 ; Hoved., i, 56. W. of M., 

G.R., i, 158. 

2 Lit. " Cumberland " ; but perhaps Strathclyde is meant. Fl. of W. 
has " the land of the Cumbrians " ; H. of H., Cumberland ; W. of M., " the 
province which is called Cumberland." 

3 Let. 

4 on thcet gerad. Fl. of W. translates this by eo tenore ; H. of H., hoc 

5 Fl. of W., i, 134, s.a. 945 : " and gave it to Malcolm, king of the Scots, 
on this condition, that he should be faithful to him on land and sea " ; the 
phrase of vassalage. 

W. of M., G.R., i, 158 : " The province which is called Cumberland 
having been commended to Malcolm, king of Scots, under fealty of an oath." 

H. of H., 162 : " And in the following year, [945, Edmund] raided and 
ravaged the whole of Cumbria, because he was unable wholly to subdue the 
nation of that province, treacherous and unaccustomed to laws. And he 
commended it to Malcolm king of Scotland, upon this agreement, that he 
should help him by land and sea." 

R.W., E.H.S. ed., i, 398, s.a. 946: "In the same year king Edmund, 
supported by the aid of Llewellyn, king of Demetia, despoiled the whole of 
Cumbria of all its wealth ; and after depriving two sons of Dunmail, the king 
of that province, of the light of their eyes, he granted that kingdom to Malcolm, 
king of Scots, to be held of him, that the northern parts of England might be 
safe by land and sea from the attacks of invading enemies." Cf. M.P., Chr. 
Maj., i, 455. 

6 Ethelw., in M.H.B., 520 : " and to [Edred] all the Northumbrians were 
subject, and the Scots also confirmed their oaths and their immutable alle- 
giance (fidem)." 

Fl. of W., i, 134 : " He, as his brother had done before, reduced to his 
dominion the whole of Northumbria, and received an oath from the Scots 
that they would be faithful to him." Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., i, 456 ; Fl. His., 
i, 501. 

7 " Was stabbed," MSS. E, F ; " on St. Augustine's mass-day," MSS. 
A, B, C, D (26th May.) 

8 " And soon," MSS. E, F. 

9 A similar phrase is used of a covenant between Edward and the Danes, 
in A.S.C., MS. A, s.a. 921. 



And [Edred] directed his banners thence x into Scotland. 
The Scots therefore were struck with excessive fear, and 
yielded themselves without a battle to the king. And they 
swore to him, both Northumbrians and Scots, the fealty due 
to theii; lord. But this oath endured not long. 

For when Edred had returned to the southern parts of 
his kingdom Olaf , who had been driven out from the kingdom 
of Northumbria, was both received by his own with rejoicing 
and restored again to the kingdom, which he held, by his 
bravery, for four years. 


Tenth [Bretwalda] was Edgar, great-great-grandson of 
Alfred ; a strong and peaceful king, who had both Angles 
and Scots either in subjection to him or wholly at his will : 
and his heirs after him, even to this day. 



In this year prince Edgar was consecrated as king at 
Bath, on the fifth 4 before the Ides of May, in the thirteenth 
year from his succession to the kingdom ; 5 and he was then 

1 After his invasion of Northumbria in the year of his accession, ibid., 
162. Cf. A.S.C., MS. D, s.aa. 947, 948. 

W. of M., G.R., i, 162 : " In the year of the Lord's incarnation 946 
Edred, third of Edward's sons, received the kingdom ; and he ruled for nine 
years and a half. His higJi spirit, not inferior to that of his father and brothers, 
had this result : the Northumbrians and Scots were readily brought to the 
oath of fealty to him ; but soon broke their treaty, setting up one Eric over 
them as king : but [Edred] destroyed them almost to a man, wasting the 
whole province with hunger and the sword." 

2 A.S.C., MS. A, s.a. 958 ; D, E, s.a. 959, " and Edgar succeeded his 
brother in the kingdcm" : MSS. B, C, s.a. 959, "in Wessex and in Mercia 
and in Northumbria " ; MS. F, s.a. 958, " over all Britain." 

MSS. D, E, verse passage, s.a. 959 : " And God also helped him, so that 
kings and earls willingly submitted to him, and became subject to that which 
he would. And without fighting he ruled all that he would." 

3 The coronation is placed in 973 by MS. A, in 974 by B, C. A, B, C have 
eulogistic verse, but no mention of the homage of kings. 

4 llth May. " The day of Pentecost," MSS. A, B, C ; Fl. of W., i, 142 ; 
H. of H., 166. Whit-Sunday was llth May in 973. So Fl. of W., u.s., " in 
the first indiction." 

5 He reigned 959-975, A.S.C., B, C, D, E (958-975, A, F.) 


one less than thirty winters old. And soon after this the 
king led all his ship-army to Chester ; and there came six 
kings to meet him, and they all plighted their faith to him, 
that they would be his helpers on sea and land. 1 


S.A. 973. 2 

Edgar, the peaceful king of the English, . . . was 
anointed king. Then after a time he sailed with a huge fleet 
round northern Britain, 3 and landed at Chester. 

And his eight under-kings met him as he commanded ; 
to wit, Kenneth, king of the Scots ; Malcolm, king of the 
Cumbrians ; 4 Maccus, king of very many islands ; and five 
others, Dufnal, Siferth, Huwal, Jacob, Juchil ; and swore 
that they would be his faithful helpers both on land and on 

And on a certain day he entered a boat with them, and, 
placing them at the oars, himself took the rudder's helm, 
and steered skilfully through the stream of the river Dee, 
while all the crowd of earls and nobles accompanied him in 
similar craft ; and he proceeded from the palace to the mon- 
astery of St. John the Baptist. And after praying there he 

1 H. of H., 166 : " And after Pentecost he led his army to Chester ; 
arid to meet him there came six kings, who were all subject to his dominion. 
And they all gave him the allegiance (fidem) due to their lord, that they would 
serve him at his command by land and sea." 

2 For this fable cf. W. of M., G.R., i, 165. S. of D., H.R., ii, 130-131. 
Hoved., i, 63-64. Letter of Nicholas, monk of Worcester, to Edmer ; in 
(Stubbs, Dunstan, 423. 

De Pr. Sax. Adv., in S. of D., ii, 372 : " After [Edwy, reigned] his brother 
Edgar, son of Edmund. And to him eight kings were subject, namely Ken- 
neth, king of the Scots, and Malcolm, king of the Cumbrians, and Maccus, 
king of very many islands, and other five." Another MS. reads " seven 

Cf. seven signatories to a charter (not genuine) of Edgar, 3rd June, 966, 
in Kemble, Cod. Dipl., ii, 413. Edgar had begun in his charters to call 
himself " king of all Britain " ; e.g., in 961, ibid., 375 ; in 963, ibid., 391. 
Previously he had called himself " governor and ruler of all Britain," as in 
961 ; ibid., 372. 

3 Cf. Fl. of W., i, 143-144 : " Therefore while he lived [Edgar] gathered 
to himself 3,600 strong ships ; and of these every year, when the solemnity of 
Easter was concluded, he was accustomed to collect 1200 on the eastern, 1200 
on the western, 1200 on the northern shore of the island ; and to row to the 
western fleet with the eastern, and, sending it back, to the northern fleet with 
the western ; and, sending that back, with the northern fleet to the eastern, 
and in this way to circumnavigate the whole island every summer, doing this 
manfully to defend his kingdom against outsiders, and to train himself and 
his men to warlike uses." So S. of D., H.R., ii, 131. Cf. W. of M., G.R., i, 

4 The king of Strathclyde at this time was Donald, son of Eogan. 


returned with the same pomp. And as he entered it he is 
reported to have said to his nobles that then only should any 
of his successors be able to boast himself king of the English 
when so many kings submitted to him, and he obtained a 
display of such honours. 1 

971 x 975 


First of the earls after Eric, the last king whom the 
Northumbrians had, Osulf administered under king Edred all 
the provinces of the Northumbrians. 

Thereafter under king Edgar Oslac was appointed earl 
over York and the districts pertaining to it ; 2 and Adulf , 
surnamed Yvelcild, was placed over the Northumbrians from 
the Tees to Myreford. 3 

These two earls along with Elf si (who was bishop beside 
St. Cuthbert) 4 conducted Kenneth, king of Scots, 5 to king 

And when [Kenneth] had done him homage, king Edgar 
gave him Lothian ; and with great honour sent him back to 
his own. 6 

1 Cf. W. of M., G.R., i, 165 : " [Edgar] brought to his court Kenneth, 
king of the Scots ; Malcolm, king of the Cumbrians ; the Viking-chief Mas- 
cusius ; and all the Welsh kings, whose names were Dufnal, Giferth, Huual, 
Jacob, Judethil : and he bound them to him with one oath for ever ; so that 
they met him at the city of Chester, and he brought them in triumphal pro- 
cession through the river Dee. For he placed them in one ship and made 
them row, while he sat at the prow ; in this way displaying his royal mag- 
nificence, in that he had the power of so many kings subject to him. Indeed 
he is reported to have said that then only could his successors boast that they 
were kings of the English, when they enjoyed so great a manifestation of 
honour." Cf. W. of M., ii, pp. cxxix-cxxx. 

2 Cf. A.S.C., MSS. D, E, F, s.a. 966 : " And the same year Oslac suc- 
ceeded to the office of alderman." 

3 The Firth of Forth. Skene would read Myreford ; C.S., i, 369. 

S. of D., H.R., ii, 197 confuses Adulf and Osulf : " And afterwards, in 
the reign of Edgar, [Osulf] received as ally Oslac. Thereafter Osulf ad- 
ministered the government in the northern region of the Tyne, and Oslac 
over York and its territories. To these succeeded Waldeve the elder, who 
had as successor his son Utred. . . . And in his place was substituted his 
brother, Adulf Cudel. ..." 

4 Elfsi was bishop of Lindisfarne (at Chester-le- Street) from 968 to 990 ; 
S. of D., H.D.E., i, 78 ; H.R., ii, 130, 134. 

5 Kenneth II reigned from 971 to 995. 

6 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., i, 467-468, s.a. 975 : " Also at the same time bishop 
Elfsi and earl Adulf conducted Kenneth, king of Scots, to king Edgar. And 
when they had brought him to the king he received of the royal bounty many 
gifts, among which [king Edgar] conferred upon him a hundred ounces 
of purest gold, with many silken robes, ornaments and rings, with precious 
stones ; and he gave besides to the same king the whole land which in the 
mother-tongue is called Lothian, on this condition, that every year on the 


971 x 975 


Moreover although, as is said, [Edgar] was puny of 
stature and form yet the favour of Nature had planted so 
great strength in his small body that he readily challenged 
to combat whomsoever he knew to be presumptuous ; fear- 
ing this chiefly, that he should be feared in such sport. 

Indeed it is reported that once in a feast, where the sar- 
casm of fools usually displays itself more openly, Kenneth, 
king of Scots, said jestingly that it seemed strange that so 
many provinces were subject to so insignificant a mannikin. 
And this was taken up perversely by a jester, and afterwards 
cast in Edgar's face at a formal banquet. 

But he, concealing the matter from his followers, sum- 
moned Kenneth as if to consult him about a great secret ; 
and taking him far aside into a wood gave him one of two 
swords which he carried with him. " And now," said he, 
" thou mayest try thy strength, since we are alone. For 
now I shall have caused it to appear which should rightly 
be subject to the other. Thou also, shrink not from disputing 
the matter with me. For it is base that a king should be 
witty at the feast and unready in conflict." 

[Kenneth] was confused, and dared utter no word : he 
fell at the feet of his lord king, and besought pardon for his 
innocent jest ; and immediately obtained it. 



In this year the king [Ethelred II] 2 went into Cumbria 3 
and harried it very nearly all. 

chief festivals, when the king and his successors wore the crown, they should 
come to court and celebrate the feast with rejoicing along with the other 
princes of the realm. 

" Moreover the king gave him very many dwelling-places on the route, 
so that he and his successors, coming to the feast and again returning, might 
be able to lodge there. And these [dwelling-places] continued in the possession 
of the kings of Scotland until the time of king Henry II." 

Still less authoritative is the account given by John of Wallingford, 
Chronica, in Gale, Scriptores, 544-545. 

1 MS. F, s.a. 1000 : "In this year the king went into Cumbria, and 
destroyed it all. And the hostile fleet," etc. 

H. of H., 170 : " Therefore king Ethelred went with a very powerful 
army into Cumbria, where was the chief abode of the Danes. And he con- 
quered the Danes in a very great battle, and raided and wasted almost the 
whole of Cumbria." Cf. Fl. of W., i, 154 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 137. 

2 Ethelred II reigned 979-1016 ; A.S.C., MSS. D, E, F. 

3 Lit. " Cumberland " ; So H. of H. Cf. supra, s.a. 945, note. 


And his ships went out around Chester, and were to come 
to meet him ; but they could not. 1 

Then they harried Man. And the hostile fleet had gone 
that summer to Richard's dominion. 2 

1 Fl. of W., i, 154 : " [Ethelred] ^commanded his fleet to circumnavigate 
northern Britain, and meet him in an appointed place ; but being deterred 
by the force of the winds it could not : yet it ravaged the island which is 
called Man." So S. of D., H.R., ii, 137. 

2 Normandy. 


? 1006 

IN the year from the Lord's incarnation 9 6 9, 1 in the reign of 
Ethelred, king of the English, Malcolm, king of the Scots, 2 son 
of king Kenneth, collected the army of the whole of Scotland 
and, ravaging with slaughter and fire the province of the North- 
umbrians, invested Durham with a siege. 

At this time Aldhun ruled the bishopric there ; 3 and Wal- 
deve, who was earl of Northumbria, had shut himself in in 
Bamborough. For he was of extreme age, so that he could 
display no valour against the enemy. And to his son, Utred 
namely, a youth of great vigour and the highest military ap- 
titude, bishop Aldhun had given as wife his daughter, Egfrida 
by name. . . . 

The aforesaid youth seeing that the land was ravaged by 
the enemy and Durham invested by a siege, and that his father 
did nothing to prevent it, united the army of the Northumbrians 
and of the men of York in no small band ; and slew nearly the 
whole host of the Scots, while their king scarce escaped with a 
few by flight. 

And the heads of the slain, ornamented as was the fashion 
at that time with braided hair, he caused to be conveyed to 
Durham ; and caused them to be well washed by four women, 
and set up on stakes around the walls. And to each of the 
women who had washed them they gave a cow as wage. 

When king Ethelred heard these things he called to him 
the aforesaid youth and, although his father Waldeve still lived, 
for the merit of his vigour and for the war which he had so 
manfully carried through he gave him his father's earldom, 
adding to it also the earldom of York. . . . 

But afterwards when he, that is, Utred, advanced more and 

1 CL Ann. of Ulster, s.a. 1005=1006. 

In A.S.C., MSS. C, D, E, s.a. 1013, Utred is spoken of as being earl of 
Northumbria : therefore this invasion must have taken place not later than 

2 Malcolm II reigned 1005-1034. 

3 Cf. infra, s.a. 1018, note. 


more in the art of war, king Ethelred gave to him as wife his 
daughter Elfgiva. And by her he had a daughter Aldgitha, 
whom her father gave in marriage to Maldred, son of Crinan 
the thane ; * and by her Maldred had Gospatric, the father of 
Dolfin, of Waldeve and of Gospatric. 



When [Utred] was slain 2 his brother Adulf, surnamed 
Cudel, succeeded him in the earldom ; a man very cowardly 
and timorous. 

And fearing that the Scots would avenge on him the death 
of their men whom, as has been said above, his brother had 
killed, he granted to them the whole of Lothian, for amends 
and steadfast peace. 

In this way was Lothian added to the kingdom of the Scots. 3 



VOL. I, p. 84. 

In the year of the Lord's incarnation 1018, while Cnut con- 
trolled the kingdom of the English, 4 a comet appeared for 
thirty nights to the peoples of Northumbria, and with dread 
presage foreshowed the province's future disaster. 

For shortly after, that is, after thirty days, while they 
fought at Carham against an endless host of Scots, the entire 
people, from the river Tees to the Tweed, with their nobility 5 
almost wholly perished. . . . 6 

1 " To a very rich man Maldred, son of Crinan. And by her he had 
earl Gospatric," etc. De Pr. Sax. Adv., in S. of D., ii, 383. 

This Crinan may have been the lay abbot of Dunkeld who was Malcolm 
II's son-in-law, and father of Duncan I ; and who, according to Tighernach, 
was slain in 1045. 

2 Utred was slain in 1016, according to A.S.C., MSS. C, D, E, F. Fl. of 
W., i, 172 ; S. of D., H.Pv., ii, 148 ; H.D.E., i, 218, and note. 

The A.S.C. says that Cnut appointed Eric as Utred's successor in North- 
umbria, " all as Utred was " ; cf. Fl. of W. ; but possibly Adulf may have 
had Bernicia. Cf. De Pr. Sax. Adv., in S. of D., ii, 383 : " And when Utred 
was slain by Turbrand, surnamed Hold, by wish of king Cnut, his brother 
Adulf Cudel administered the earldom." S. of D., H.R., ii, 197 : " And in 
[Utred's] place was set his brother Adulf Cudel." 

3 De Obs. Dun. omits mention of the battle of Carham. 

4 Cnut became king of England after 30th November, 1016 ; A.S.C., 
MSS. C, D, E, F : he was crowned in 1017, MSS. A, C, D, E, F. Cf. De Pr. 
Sax. Adv., in S. of D., ii, 373. Laws of Edw. Conf., in Thorpe's Ancient 
Laws, i, 458. 

5 Lit. " elders." 

6 Bishop Aldhun, " hearing of the lamentable slaughter of St. Cuthbert's 




Aldhun, bishop of Durham, died. 

A great battle was fought at Carham between the Scots and 
the Angles, between Utred, Waldeve's son, the earl of North- 
umbria, 2 and Malcolm ; king of Scots, the son of Kenneth. And 
with him in the battle was Owen the Bald, 3 king of the men of 

? 1031 


In this year king Cnut went to Rome. 

And the same year 5 he went to Scotland, and the Scots' 

people," prayed to be released from life, and " after a few days, caught by 
disease, he died, after passing twenty-nine years in the episcopate." He 
became bishop in 990, according to Fl. of W., i, 149 ; so S. of D., H.R., ii, 
134. After his death the see was vacant for " nearly three years," S. of D., 
H.D.E., i, 85 ; cf. Fl. of W., i, 183 : and his successor was appointed in 1020 ; 
S. of D., H.R., ii, 156, 

1 Hoved., i, 87 : "A great battle was fought between Angles and Scots 
at Carham." 

Ann. of Durh., s.a. 1018, in M.G.H., SS., xix, 507 : " Aldhun, bishop 
of Durham, died. 

" A comet widely spreading flames was seen throughout Northumbria 
for thirty nights. 

" When thirty days after this had passed, there was fought at Carham 
that famous battle, between Northumbrians and Scots, in which nearly the 
whole people of St. Cuthbert perished ; and among them were also eighteen 
priests (sacerdotes) who had inadvisedly mixed themselves up with the war. 
And hearing this the aforesaid bishop ended in death his grief and his life." 

2 Utred was slain in 1016 ; v. supra, s.a. 

3 Eugenius Calvus. Upon his death in ? 1018 (cf. Ann. Cambr., s.a. 
1015) Duncan succeeded to the throne of Strathclyde. 

4 MS. D, s.a. 1031 : " In this year king Cnut went to Rome. And so 
soon as he came home he went to Scotland ; and the Scots' king submitted 
to him, and became his man. But that he held for only a little while." Cf. 
Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 179. H. of H., 188 : " in the fifteenth year of king 

W. of M., G.R., i, 221 : " Cnut set out for Rome in the fifteenth year 
of his reign " ; [cf. supra, s.a. 1018, note ;] " and there he stayed for some 
days ; and after redeeming his sins by alms given among the churches " 
[cf. H. of H., 188] " he returned by ship to England. And presently upon 
a rebellion of Scotland and her king Malcolm he led an expedition thither, 
and subdued them with little difficulty." 

5 MS. F inserts " when he came home." 

Cnut's visit to Rome took place in 1027 (cf. Vita Chunradi Salici Imp., 
in Bouquet, xi, 3.) But he did not return to England immediately ; see his 
letter to the English nation, in Fl. of W., i, 185-189 ; W. of M., G.R., i, 221- 
224. From 1028 to 1029 he was occupied in Norway, according to A.S.C., 
MSS. D, E, F. MS. C does not give the date of his return, and MS. A appears 
to place it in 1031. 


king Malcolm l submitted to him ; 2 and two other kings, Mal- 
beth and lehmarc. 3 



In the same year died king Malcolm in Scotland. 



VOL. I, PP. 90-91. 5 

Cnut died in the year from the Lord's incarnation 1035 ; 

and when his son Harold was now in his fifth year on the throne , 
and Edmund in his twentieth in the bishopric, 6 Duncan, king 
of Scots, came with enormous forces and besieged Durham, and 
laboured greatly to reduce it, but in vain. 

For a great part of his cavalry was slain by those who were 
besieged; and he fled away in confusion, and in his flight lost 
all his infantry killed. 

And their heads were carried into the market-place, and 
hung up on stakes. 

And not long afterwards, when he had now returned to 
Scotland, the king himself perished, slain by his own people. 

1 " Malcolm," not in MS. F. " Malcolm, king of Scotland, " H. of H. 

2 him to beah, MSS. E, F ; eode him on hand, MS. D. Cf. H. of H., 
!8 : " [Cnut] was sovereign (dux) of all Denmark, of all England, of all 
orway, and also of Scotland." Cf. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 177-178. 

Cnutonis Regis Gesta, in M.G.H., SS., xix, 520 : " Now when first Cnut obtained the sole rule over the Danes he claimed under his dominion, 
and was emperor over, five kingdoms ; namely of Denmark, England, Britain, 
Scotland, Norway." 

3 lermarc, H. of H. 

4 " Malcolm, king of Scots, died." Fl. of W., i, 189. S. of D., H.R., ii, 
158. Hoved., i, 89. 

" And Macbeth succeeded him," S. of D., Hoved., u.s., in error for 
"Duncan." (S. of D., Machethad ; Hoved., Machetad.) Cf. s.a. 1054, 
infra, note, where Fl. of W. calls Duncan " king of the Cumbrians." 

Marianus Scottus, in M.G.H., SS., v, 556, s.a. 1034 : " Malcolm, king 
of Scotland, died on the seventh before the Kalends of December [25th Novem- 
ber.] Duncan, son of his daughter, succeeded him for five years and nine 
months." Cf . Tigh., s.a. 1034. Duncan's mother was Bethoc, eldest daughter 
of Malcolm II. 

5 Ann. of Durh., in M.G.H., SS., xix, 508, s.a. 1039 : " In this year 
Duncan, king of the Scots, invested Durham with a large army, and was 
routed by the besieged, and lost a great multitude of his men." 

6 Edmund became bishop of Durham in 1020, according to S. of D., 
H.R., ii, 156. (Cf. H.D.E., i, 85 ; Fl. of W., i, 183.) He died in 1042 ; S. 
of D., ii, 162 ; i, 91. 


1040, Aug. 

HlSTORICA, SCRIPTORES, VOL. V, P. 557, S.A. 1040. 1 

Duncan, king of Scotland, was slain 2 in the autumn (on 
the nineteenth 3 before the Kalends of September) by his 
general 4 Macbeth mac Finlay, who Succeeded to the kingdom 
for seventeen years. 



Earl Siward with a great army came to Scotland, and 
expelled king Macbeth, and appointed another ; but after his 
departure Macbeth recovered the kingdom. 


p. 204, S.A. 1050. 5 

Macbeth, 6 king of Scotland, distributed money broadcast 7 
at Rome. 


And Osbern, surnamed Pentecost, and his ally Hugh ren- 
dered up their castles ; and by permission of earl Leofric 9 
went through his county, and were received by Macbeth, king 
of the Scots. 

1 Not in MS. 2. The words in brackets are in the margin of MS. 1. 

2 " At an immature age," Tigh., s.a. 1040. 

3 14th August. 

4 a duce suo ; "by one of his aldermen " ? 

5 This annal is derived from Marianus Scottus, in M.G.H., SS., v. 558. 
Cf. S. of D., H.R., ii, 166 ; Hoved., i, 96. 

6 S. of D. has Machethad ; Hoved. Machetad ; M.S. and Fl. of W. 

" To the poor," adds M.S. The word used by Fl. of W. is spargendo ; 
by M.S., seminando. 

8 Cf. S. of D., H.R., ii, 170. 

This follows the expulsion of the Normans, after the reconciliation of 
Godwin with Edward the Confessor. 

9 Earl of Mercia. He died in 1057 ; A.S.C., D, E, F ; Fl. of W., i, 
215-216. (For him and his wife Godiva cf. H. of H., 196 ; M.P., Chr. Maj.,i, 


1054, July 


At this time earl Siward [of Northumbria] went with a great 
army into Scotland, 2 with both a fleet and a land-force ; 3 and 
fought against the Scots, and put to flight the king Macbeth, 
and slew all that were best there in the land ; 4 and brought 
thence much war-spoil, such as no man obtained before. 

1 A.S.C., MS. C, s.a. 1054 : At this time earl Siward went with a great 
army into Scotland, and made a great slaughter of the Scots, and put them 
to flight ; and the king escaped. Also many fell on his side, both of Danes 
and of English, and also his own son." 

Ann. of Durh., s.a. -1054, in M.G.H., SS., xix, 508 : " Siward routed 
Macbeth, and placed Malcolm as king ; and in the following year, 1055, died 
at York. And Tosti succeeded him, in the earldom." 

Cf. Fl. of W., i, 212. S. of D., H.R., ii, 171. Hoved., i, 100-101. W. of 
M,,. G.R., i, 236-237. 

V.E.R., 416 : " . . . For about the same time rebelled on the one side 
Griffin, king of the West Britons, on the other the king of Scots, Barbarus 
by name .... And the latter was first conquered by earl Siward, with 
almost the annihilation of his men, and put to shameful flight : secondly, 
when ,earl Tosti controlled the earldom, and the Scots thought him inex- 
perienced and therefore, holding him in less esteem, harassed him very fre- 
quently with robbery rather than with war, an uncertain race of men, and 
fickle ; and one which trusts rather in woods than in the plain, also more 
in flight than in manly courage in battle, the earl aforesaid destroyed him 
by both prudent strategy and warlike valour, in a hostile expedition without 
loss of his men, so that [the Scots] with their king chose rather to serve than 
to rebel against him and king Edward ; and to ratify this also by giving 

"By king Edward's command," Fl. of W., S. of D., Hoved., W. of M. 

3 " With an army of horse and a strong fleet," Fl. of W., S. of D., Hoved. 

4 Fl. of W., i, 212 : " And slew many thousand Scots, and all the North- 
men. ... And he put Macbeth to flight, and, as the king had commanded, 
set up as king Malcolm, son of the king of the Cumbrians." (Cf. S. of D., 
Hoved.) Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., i, 523. 

W. of M., G.R., i, 236-237 : "By the king's command [Siward] fought 
with Macbeth, king of the Scots, and deprived him of his life and kingdom ; 
and there installed as king Malcolm, son of the king of the Cumbrians." 
Malcolm's father Duncan had been placed by Malcolm II upon the throne 
of Strathclyde after the death of Owen. 

Macbeth reigned nevertheless until 1057. 

The poem on Edward the Confessor's death (5th January, 1066) in 
A.S.C., MSS. C and D, says that he " ruled with distinction Welsh and Scots, 
and Britons also " ; ed. PL, i, 192, 193, s.a. 1065. 

H. of H., 194 : "About this time Siward, the very powerful consul of 
Northumbria, almost a giant in stature, and of strong hand and mind, sent 
his son to acquire Scotland. 

" And when they reported to his father that he had been slain in battle 
[Siward] said, 'Did he receive the mortal wound in front of his body, or 
behind ? ' The messengers said, ' In front.' And he replied : ' I rejoice 
wholly, for I would deem myself or my son worthy of no meaner death.' 

" Siward therefore marched into Scotland and conquered the king in 
battle, destroyed the whole kingdom, and after destroying it subjugated it 
to himself." 

Cf. the account of Siward's own death, H. of H., 195-196. 


And there were slain his son Osbarn, and his sister's son 
Siward, and some of his bodyguard, and also of the king's, on 
the day of the Seven Sleepers. 1 


HISTORICA, SCRIPTORES, VOL. V, P. 558, s.A. 1057. 2 

(Mac Finlay was slain in August. Lulach succeeded and 
was slain in March; and Malcolm succeeded him.) 

Malcolm, son of Duncan, governed Scotland. 

(Duncan reigned for five years, that is from the mass of St. 
Andrew 3 to the same and beyond, to the nativity of St. Mary. 4 
Then Mac Finlay reigned seventeen years to the same mass of 
St. Mary. Lulach reigned from the nativity of St. Mary to the 
mass of St. Patrick 5 in the month of March. Then Malcolm 
reigned for twenty years, to the mass of St. Patrick. 6 ) 


SCRIPTORES, VOL. XIX, p. 508, S.A. 1059. 7 

Archbishop Kinsi [of York] and Ethelwin, [bishop] of Dur- 
ham, and earl Tosti conducted king Malcolm to king Edward. 



S.A. 1061. 

Aldred, archbishop of York, went to Rome with earl Tosti, 
and received the pallium from pope Nicholas [II]. 8 

Meanwhile Malcolm, king of Scots, harried savagely the 
earldom of his sworn brother, earl Tosti to wit ; the peace of St. 
Cuthbert being violated in the island of Lindisfarne. 

1 27th July. 

2 The parts in brackets are in the margin of MS, 1. 

3 30th November, [1034.] 

4 8th September, [1040.] 

5 From 8th September, [1057,] to 17th March, [1058.] 

6 17th March, [1078 ;] about the time when M.S. wrote. 

7 Cf. in S. of D., s.a. 1059, an insertion by a "nearly coeval " hand, 
H.R., ii, 174, and note. 

For Kinsi cf. infra, s.a. 1114; for Ethelwin, infra, s.aa. 1069, 1070. 
Tosti became earl of Northumbria in 1055 ; A.S.C., MSS. D, E, F ; Fl. of W., 
, 212. 

8 This sentence is from Fl. of W., i, 218 ; cf. A.S.C., MS. D, s.a. 1061. 
The A.S.C. and Fl. of W. make no mention of this Scottish invasion. 

Tosti was expelled by his thanes in 1065 ; A.S.C., MSS. C, D ; (E s.a. 1064). 
FL of W., i, 223-224. 




[Tosti, Harold's brother,] went north into the Humber ; 2 
and he harried there in Lindsey, and slew there many good men . 

When earl Edwin [of Mercia] and earl Morcar [of Northum- " 
bria] learned this, they came thither and drove him from the 

And then he went to Scotland ; 3 and the king of the Scots 
protected him, and aided him with provisions. And he abode 
there all the summer. 



Then it was announced to king [William] that the people 
in the north had gathered themselves together, and would 
stand against him if he came. 

Then he went to Nottingham, and built a castle there ; 
and went on to York, and built there two castles ; and in 
Lincoln, and everywhere in that part. 

And earl Gospatric and the best men went to Scotland. 4 




When the men of York heard this, 5 in great fear they has- 

1 Cf. Fl. of W., i, 225-227 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 179-181 ; Hoved., i, 111. 
H. of H., 200. W. of M., G.R., i, 280-281. 

2 I.e., hearing of the approach of Harold. 

3 MS. D : " And the mariners forsook him ; and he went to Scotland, 
with twelve ships. And Harald [Hardrada], king of Norway, met him there, 
with three hundred ships ; and Tosti submitted to him and became his man." 
Similarly MS. E ; and cf. H. of H., W. of M. But MS. C and Fl. of W. place 
their meeting in the Tyne. 

After a victory over Edwin and Mortar on the 20th September, Harald 
Hardrada and Tosti were beaten and slain by Harold at Stamford Bridge, on 
the 24th September ; A.S.C., MSS. C, D. " And meanwhile earl William 
came ashore at Hastings," on the 29th September ; MS. E. 

Among the survivors of Stamford Bridge was the earl of Orkney, (A.S.C., 
MS. D,) Paul by name, who had been left with the party guarding the ships ; 
Fl. of W., i, 226-227. 

According to Ad. of Brem. the king of Scots took part in person in the 
battle ; M.G.H., SS., vii, 356. 

4 MS. D, s.a. 1067, has already related the flight of the royal family : 
v. infra, note. 

5 Heard, i.e., of William's advance to Nottingham. 


tened their surrender, and refused force, and gave to the king 
the keys of the city with hostages. . . . 

The bishop of Durham L also entered into the king's favour, 
and intervened as mediator of peace for Malcolm, king of Scots , 
and brought the conditions he received to Scotland. 

And Malcolm, although [his aid] had been asked for by the 
English, 2 and he had prepared to make a strong expedition in 
their aid, yet became still when he heard the legation of peace ; 
and sent back his messengers with rejoicing, with the bishop of 
Durham, and by them swore loyal obedience to king William. 

Thus he consulted his own interest and greatly pleased his 
people, in that he preferred peace to war. For the Scottish 
nation, although harsh in battle, yet loves ease and quiet ; 
wishes not to be disturbed by neighbouring kingdoms, being 
intent upon the study of the Christian religion rather than of 
arms. 3 



After this, 5 Maries wein and Gospatric and all the most 
noble of the Northumbrian nation, avoiding the king's aus- 
terity, and fearing that they like others should be sent to prison, 
went by ship to Scotland, taking with them prince Edgar and 
his mother Agatha and his two sisters, Margaret and Christina. 
And there, with the peace of Malcolm, king of Scots, they passed 
the winter. 

1 Ethelwin became bishop of Durham in 1056, A.S.C., MS. D ; 1057, 
S. of D. ? H.D.E., i, 92. Cf. infra, s.aa. 1069, 1070. 

2 So also Swein of Denmark had been besought for help ; O.V., 309. 
Cf. Chr. of Ab., i, 493. 

3 Cf. O.V. at the end of his notice of Scottish affairs, VIII, 20, in Migne, 
188, 622 : " Behold, for the sake of the Scots, who from ancient times have 
adhered to catholic faith, and have served Christian simplicity with joy, I 
have prolonged somewhat the repetition entered upon." 

4 Cf. S. of D., H.R., ii, 186. Hoved., i, 117. 

A.S.C., MS. D, s.a. 1067 : " And in the summer child Edgar went out 
with his mother Agatha and his two sisters, Margaret and Christina ; and 
with them Marleswein and many good men. And they came to Scotland under 
king Malcolm's protection ; and he received them all." (Cf. Ann. of Wav., 
in A.M., ii, 190.) MS. D proceeds to give an account of the marriage of 
Malcolm and Margaret ; but this is premature : v. infra, s.a. 1070. 

MS. E, s.a. 1067 : " And in the summer child Edgar went out, and 
Marleswein, and many men with them, and went to Scotland. And the king 
Malcolm received them all, and took the child's sister, Margaret, to wife." 
Cf. H. of H., 204. R. de D., MS. D, i, 200, n., s.a. 1068. M.P., Chr. Maj., 
ii, 2 ; H.A., i, 8-9. Fl. His., ii, 2. 

5 I.e., after the coronation of Matilda, on May llth. (Florence of 
Worcester makes no mention of the first rising in the north.) 


1069, Dec. 


VOL. I, P. 102. 

But to return for a little to the foregoing : during the afore- 
said flight, 1 by which [bishop Ethelwin and the elders] escaped 
with the body of the holy father [Cuthbert] to the above-named 
island [of Lindisfarne], a man of great authority beyond the 
river Tyne, called Gillomichael, 2 that is, the " lad of Michael," 
by contrariety, for he would have been more justly named 
" lad of the devil," inflicted many injuries upon the fugitives, 
by impeding their journey, afflicting their persons, despoiling 
them, and doing all the evil that he could. But not with 
impunity. . . . 3 

1069 1070 


York, the sole refuge of rebellion, [William] almost de- 
stroyed, the citizens being done to death by hunger and the 
sword. 4 

For there Malcolm, king of Scots, with his subjects ; there 
Edgar and Morcar and Waldeve with the Angles and the 
Danes, often cherished the nest of brigandage. 5 Often they 
assassinated [William's] rulers. 6 

1 I.e., upon the approach of William ; ibid., 100-101. They set out on 
the llth December, 1069 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 189. H.D.E., i, 103 : " Because 
this Gospatric had given this counsel especially, that they should flee 
and leave the church. And he himself had taken away with him the greatest 
part of its ornaments." But cf. H.D.E., i, 101. 

Gospatric appears to have been the cousin of Malcolm III ; cf . infra, 
s.a. 1072. 

Ethelwin had offended the northern party by warning Robert of Corn- 
mines of his danger, and by entertaining him at his house, which was burned 
down ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 187. He was nevertheless involved in the loss of 
the northern cause ; cf. infra, s.a. 1070. 

2 From his being associated with Gospatric, Gillo-Michael may be sup- 
posed to have been a Scottish Celt rather than an Irish ally of the Danes. 

3 In sleep one of the clergy of Durham had a vision, in which St. Cuthbert 
denounced Gospatric and revealed the death and torments of Gillo-Michael : 
" And there too Gillo-Michael was racked with fearful pains ; for he lay pros- 
trate in the most noisome place, thrust through from side to side with a very 
sharp hay-scythe, and suffered intolerable tortures. The wretch cried out, 
and lamentably without intermission emitted dismal howlings and weeping 
cries. For the wretch had no interval of time in which for a space to rest 
from his punishment." Ibid., 103. 

4 Cf. W. of M., G.P., 208. W.K., Mir. S. J., in Raine's York, i, 265-266 . 

5 nidum tyrannidis. 

6 duces, " earls "or " aldermen." 

Cf. Lanfranc's reasons why York should have no primate ; Raine's 
York, ii, 100 : " Else it might chance, either in [king William's] time or his 




Malcolm, king of Scots, began to harry the land of king 
William with sword and fire. 

1069 1070 

Malcolm gladly received all the English fugitives, affording 
to each what protection he could ; and especially Edgar, whose 
sister he had made his wife, 2 for the ancient memory of her 

For his sake he infested the neighbouring provinces of Eng- 
land with rapine and fire ; not that he thought it would help 
him at all toward the kingdom, but in order to distress William's 
mind, for [William] was indignant that his lands were open to 
Scottish raids. 

Wherefore William collected a band of infantry and of 
knights, and advanced to the northern parts of the island. And 
firstly he obtained the surrender of the metropolis town, which 
the English held obstinately with the Danes and the Scots, 
after the citizens had been consumed by prolonged famine. 3 
Also the greatest number of the enemy who had gathered to 
the aid of the besieged he routed in a great and heavy battle ; 
no bloodless victory for him, because he lost many of his men. 

Then he ordered the villages and fields of the whole district 
to be destroyed, the fruits and crops to be ruined with fire or 
water ; and chiefly along the coast. . . . 

successors', that one of the Danes or Northmen or Scots who coming in ships 
to York were wont to infest the kingdom should be created king by the 
archbishop of York and by the natives of his province, fickle and treacherous ; 
and that thus the kingdom should be disturbed and divided." 

1 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 3. 

2 V. infra, s.a. 1070. 

3 The help of the Scots and the vigorous defence of York are not men- 
tioned by the A.S.C. After the slaying of Robert of Commines (" surnamed 
Cumin," slain in Durham on the 28th January, 1069, S. of D., ii, 186-187 ; on 
the 31st, i, 99,) Edgar Etheling, Waldeve, Marleswein and Gospatric had left 
Scotland and rejoined the Northumbrians in revolt against William ; A.S.C., 
MS. D, s.a. 1068. They acted in concert with the Danes, ibid., s.a, 1069. 
Cf. Fl. of W., ii, 3-5. H. of H., 204-205. They advanced to York and 
" harried the city " (on the 21st September, Fl. of W. ;) but^upon William's 
sudden advance " the Etheling went back again to Scotland." A.S.C., ibid. 
Cf. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 190. 

" And the king was in York that mid- winter's day," (25th December, 
1069,) A.S.C., MS. D, s.a. 1068. 




S.A. 1070. * 

Bishop Ethelwin, returning from flight, planned in his mind 
to flee for ever. 2 . . . Therefore a ship was prepared for him 
and, laden with the necessary things, awaited a favourable 
wind in the harbour of Wearmouth. 

At that time were there also several other ships, whose com- 
manders were Edgar Etheling, with his mother Agatha and his 
two sisters, Margaret and Christina ; Si ward Barn, Maries wein, 
Alfwin son of Norman, and very many others who, after the 
storming of their castles at York, when the Danes returned to 
their own, feared for themselves the king's indignation because 
they had aided them, and were preparing to go as fugitives to 
Scotland, and awaited there a favourable voyage. 

During the same time an endless host of Scots led by king 
Malcolm passed through Cumberland, and turning towards 
the east wasted with fierce harrying the whole of Teesdale and 
the districts near to it on either side. 

And when they came to the place which is called in English 
Hundredeskelde, and in Latin Centum Fontes, they slew there 
certain nobles of the English nation ; and the king, keeping 
part of the army, sent home part with endless spoil by the way 
they had come : with this crafty purpose, that, when all the 
enemy was supposed to have gone, the wretched inhabitants, 
who through fear of the foe had safely preserved themselves 
and their belongings in what hiding-places they could, should 
return in security to their vills and their homes, and that he 
might take them unawares by a sudden advance. 

And so it was done. For he harried Cleveland in part, and 
by a sudden raid occupied Hartness ; and thence he savagely 
overran the lands of St. Cuthbert and robbed all men of 
everything, and several of their very lives also. 

Then, while he looked on, the flames kindled by his men 
consumed even the church of St. Peter, prince of the apostles, 
in Wearmouth. 3 Other churches too he burned, with those 
who had taken refuge in them. 

1 So Hoved., i, 120-122. 

2 In 1070, S. of D., H.D.E., i, 105 ; after March 20th, (MS. D, 25th,) 
ibid., 101. Ethelwin was outlawed at Easter, 1070 ; A.S.C., MS. D, s.a. 1068. 
Cf. Ann. of Durh., in M.G.H., SS., xix, 508, s.a. 1070. 

Before this date, " Ethelwin, bishop after Ethelric, appointed there as 
prior Utred, Ulfkill's son. This Utred is the father of Gospatric, who is 
now sheriff in Teviotdale " ; Raine's Hexh., i, app., viii. 

3 St. Peter's had at this time long been a ruin ; S. of D., H.D.E., i, 113, 
112. Cf. Hinde, Surtees Soc. ed. of S. of D., i, p. xxix. 


And there, while he rode by the banks of the river, and, 
looking forth from an elevated spot upon his men's cruel deeds 
wrought upon the wretched English, feasted his mind and his 
eyes with the sight, it was announced to him that Edgar Ethel- 
ing and his sisters, fair maidens of royal birth, and many' other 
very rich men fleeing from their estates had come to shore in 
ships at that harbour. They therefore commended themselves 
to him ; 1 and when they came to him he spoke to them kindly, 
and granted them with his firmest peace to dwell in his realm 
so long as they would, with all their followers. 

During these Scottish devastations and plunderings earl 
Gospatric, who, as has been said above, 2 had acquired for a 
price from king William the earldom of Northumbria, sum- 
moned vigorous helpers and invaded Cumberland with fierce 
harrying. When he had finished slaying and burning he re- 
turned with great booty, and shut himself in with his associates 
in the very strong fortress of Bamborough. And very often 
breaking out from it he weakened the enemy's strength. 

For at that time Cumberland was under king Malcolm's 
dominion, not possessed by right but subdued by force. 

When [Malcolm] heard, -while still he gazed upon the church 
of St. Peter, blazing with the flames kindled by his men, the 
things which Gospatric had wrought upon his subjects, he could 
scarcely support himself for rage, and commanded his men to 
spare no longer any of the English nation, but either to slay 
them all and cast them to the ground, or to take them captive 
and drive them away under the yoke of perpetual slavery. 

When they received this permission it was pitiable even to 
see what they did against the English : old men and women 
were some beheaded by swords, others stuck with spears like 
pigs destined for food. Torn from their mothers' breasts babe$ 
were tossed high in the air, and caught on the spikes of spears 
fixed close together in the ground : the Scots-i crueller than 
beasts, delighted in this cruelty as in the sight of games. 

Thus the age of innocence, hanging between heaven and 
earth, sent forth souls to ascend to heaven. But the youths 
and girls, and all who seemed fit for work and toil, were bound 
and driven in front of the enemy, to be made slaves and hand- 
maids in perpetual exile. When some of the girls among these 
were wearied more than their strength could end ure by running 

1 Datis . . . dextris, the phrase of feudal homage. 

2 In reality below, ii, 199 ; cf. Arnold, ibid., 191, 196-197, notes. V. 
infra, s.a. 1072. 


in front of their drivers, and fell of a sudden to the ground, the 
place of their fall was the place of their death also. 

Malcolm regarded these things, and was turned to pity by no 
tears, no groans of the wretched ; but instead commanded 
them to be further hastened on the way. x 

Therefore Scotland was filled with slaves and handmaids of 
English race, so that even to this day cannot be found, I say 
not a hamlet, but even a hut without them. 

When Malcolm had returned to Scotland bishop Ethelwin 
set sail for Cologne ; but immediately a contrary wind arose 
and drove him back to Scotland. 2 And thither also with a 
favouring course it carried Edgar Etheling, with his companions 
above-named. 3 

And this Edgar's sister, Margaret, king Malcolm united to 
himself in wedlock, with the consent of her kindred : a woman 
noble in her royal descent, but much more noble in her prudence 
and religion. And by her zeal and industry the king himself 
laid aside his barbarity of manners, and became more honour- 
able and more refined. 



Then the king Malcolm began to yearn for [Edgar's] sister 

, J The chronicler has already sacrificed his credibility by the malice of his 
account of the Wearmouth incident. 

2 Of. Chr. of Abps., in Raine's York, ii, 356-357. 

" And he passed the winter there," S. of D., H.D.E., i, 105. 

Edwin of Mercia also decided to take refuge in Scotland ; but " while 
yet upon the way he fell a victim to treachery, and was slain by his own 
people." Fl. of W., ii, 9. Cf. W. of M., G.R., ii, 310-311 ; H. of H., 205. 

Ethelwin and Siward Barn next year (1071) sailed from Scotland and 
joined Morcar and He re ward in Ely. There all but Here ward were taken 
by the king ; A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1071 ; Fl. of W., ii, 9 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 
195; Hoved., i, 125. Ethelwin died in prison, accused of theft, according 
to S. of D., H.D.E., i, 105 ; cf. i, 92, 94. So also his brother Ethelric : cf. 
also W. of M., G.P., 271. 

3 A. of R., Epistola, in Twysden, 367 : " But Edgar Etheling, seeing 
the affairs of the English disturbed on every side, went on board ship with his 
mother and sisters and endeavoured to return to the land [of Hungary] 
in which he had been born. But a storm arose on the sea, and he was compelled 
to land in Scotland. On this opportunity it occurred that Margaret was 
given to king Malcolm in wedlock. And of her praiseworthy life and precious 
death, a book published about these things gives sufficient information. 
Her sister Christina was blessed as Christ's spouse." For Christina cf. infra, 
s.a. 1093, note. In the Hengwrt MS. of H. of H. (pp. 296-297) a copyist 
of the end of the twelfth century has erased " returned to Scotland," and 
has inserted the above passage almost completely. Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 2; 
.ti./i., i ? y. 

4 This passage is probably an interpolation from some life of St. Mar- 
garet, added after 1100 ; see Plummer, S.C., ii, pp. Ixxviii, 260, 262-263. 

A letter from Lanfranc to Margaret, 1070 x 1089, is in H. & S., ii, 155-156. 


Margaret as his wife ; but [Edgar] and all his men long refused ; 
and she herself long opposed it : and said that she would have 
neither him nor any one, if the sublime mercy would grant to 
her that she might please the mighty Lord in maidenhood with 
bodily heart in this short life, in pure continence. 

The king eagerly urged her brother until he said " yea " to 
it. And indeed he dared not do otherwise, because they had 
come into his power. 1 

Then it came to pass as God had designed beforehand, and 
it could not be otherwise ; even as he himself saith in his gospel 
that even a sparrow cannot fall into a snare without his design. 
The prescient Creator knew beforehand what he would have 
made of her. For she was to increase God's praise in the land, 
and to direct the king from the erring path, and to bend him to 
a better way, and his people with him ; and to suppress the 
evil customs which that people had formerly used : even' as 
afterwards she did. 

Then the king received her, though it was against her will. 
And her customs pleased him, and he thanked God who had by 
his power given him such a consort ; and wisely bethought him, 
since he was very prudent, and turned himself to God, and 
scorned every impurity ; according to that which the apostle 
Paul, teacher of all nations, saith : " Salvabitur vir infidelis 
per mulierem fidelem. Sic et mulier infidelis per virum fidelem" 
and so on. That is, in our language, " very often the unbe- 
lieving husband is sanctified and saved by the righteous wife ; 
and likewise the wife by the believing husband." 

This queen aforesaid afterwards accomplished many useful 
works in the land to God's praise, 2 and also in royal estate 
acquitted herself well, as was natural to her. 

From a believing and noble race was she descended. Her 
father was Edward Etheling, son of king Edmund. Edmund 
was son of Ethelred, Ethelred son of Edgar, Edgar son of [Ed- 
mund], 3 and so forth in that royal line. And her mother's kin 
goes to emperor Henry [II], who held sway over Rome. 4 

1 O.V. implies that the union had been planned before between Malcolm 
and Edward the Confessor. V. infra, s.a. 1091, note. 

2 Cf. her reforms in the Scottish church ; Turgot, V.S.M., in H. & S., ii, 

3 MS. "Edred." 

4 A.S.C., MS. D, verse-passage, s.a. 1057 : " This prince [Edward] king 
Cnut had sent to Hungary to be betrayed. But he grew up there into a 
good man, as God granted him, and as well befitted him ; so that he obtained 
the Emperor's kinswoman to wife, and begot by her fair children. She was 
called Agatha." 

According to Fl. of W.,i, 181, s.a. 1017, Cnut sent the sons of Edmund to 


1072, Aug. 

ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, MS. D, S.A. 1073, MS. E, S.A. 1072. * 

In this year king William led a ship-force and a land-army 
to Scotland, and lay about that land with ships on the sea side ; 
and he himself with his land-army went in over the Forth. 2 
And he found there naught of which he was the better. 

And king Malcolm came and made peace with king William, 
and gave hostages, 3 and was his man ; and then [William] went 
home with all his army. 

the king of Sweden to be killed ; but he " sent them to the king of Hungary, 
Solomon by name, to be nourished and preserved in life. And in process of 
time one of them, Edmund namely, died there ; but Edward received in 
wedlock Agatha, daughter of the brother of emperor Henry. And by her he 
had Margaret, queen of Scots, and Christina, the nun, and prince Edgar." 
Cf. Fl. of W., i, 275, where the emperor is called " Henry III." Cf. S. of D., 
H.R., ii, 155. Hoved., i, 87. H. of H., 196. Cf. W. of M., G.R., i, 218, where 
Agatha is called " sister of the queen " of the Huns. 

O.V., in Migne, 188, 620 : " [Margaret] was the daughter of the king of 
the Huns, Edward, who was the son of Edmund, surnamed Ironside, brother 
of Edward, king of the English ; and who while in exile received as wife, with 
the kingdom, the daughter of Solomon, king of the Huns." When the 
princes were exiled Stephen I reigned in Hungary, 1000-1038. Solomon 
came to the throne in 1063. 

Cf.the story of Edward's recall (from Hungary, in 1075, Fl.of W., i, 215; 
S. of D., H.R., ii, 173 ; W. of M., G.R., i, 278) inserted in H. of H., 296. Ed- 
gar Etheling was still alive when W. of M. wrote the G.R., finished in 1125 ; 
i, 278. For his character cf. ibid., i, 278 ; ii, 309-310. 

1 Cf. H. of H., 205. Arm. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 192, s.a. 1072. Ann. of 
Dunst., in A.M., iii, 12, s.a. 1070. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 4 ; H.A., i, 10, 16-17, 
s.aa. 1067, 1072. 

Fl. of W., ii, 9, s.a. 1072 : " After the Assumption of St. Mary [15th 
August] William, king of the English, set out for Scotland with a naval and 
equestrian army, to subjugate it to his dominion ; having in his company 
Edric, surnamed the Wild (Silvaticus). And Malcolm, king of Scots, met him 
in the place which is called Abernethy, and became his man." Cf. S. of D., 
ii, 195, 196. Hoved., i, 126. R. of C., 2. R. de D., Abbr. Chr., i, 207, 
changes Florence's " became his man " into " did him homage." Cf. A. of 
R., De S., speech of Walter Espec, infra, s.a. 1138. 

In a marginal note in M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 8, n., Berwick is named as the 
place of meeting and homage. A. of R., u.s., names Abernethy. 

For Edric the Wild cf. A.S.C., M.S. D, s.a. 1067 ; Fl. of W., ii, 1-2, 7. 

Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 30: " In this year Malcolm, king of Scot- 
land, was pacified with king William." 

Ann. of Osn., in A.M., iv, 9 : " King William subdued Scotland to 
himself." Cf. H. of H., 210. 

2 " Led his land-army in at the Forth," cet tham, MS. E; ofer 
thcet Wceth, MS. D. Apud Scodwade, Ann of Wav., u.s. 

S. of D., H.R., ii, 195-196 : " For Malcolm, king of Scots, had grievously 
offended him, because in a former year, as has been said above, he had 
savagely harried the borders of his kingdom." So Hoved., i, 126. 

3 Among the hostages given was apparently the king's son Duncan ; cf . 
infra, s.a. 1087. 

M.P., H.A., i, 10, says that Malcolm " soothed [William's] ferocity with 




1072. ! 

And on his return from [Scotland] William deprived Gos- 
patric of the honour of the earldom, imputing to him that by 
his counsel and aid he had been among those who had slain the 
earl [Robert] de Commines with his followers in Durham, al- 
though he had not in person been present there ; and that he 
had been on the side of the enemy when the Normans were 
slain at York. 


When [Osulf ] was dead, Gospatric, son of Maldred, Crinan's 
son, went to king William and obtained the earldom of North- 
umbria, bought for much money. 3 

For the honour of that earldom pertained to him by his 
mother's right. For his mother was Aldgitha, the daughter 
of earl Utred, who had her by Elfgiva, daughter of king 

This Aldgitha her father gave in marriage to Maldred, son 
of Crinan. 4 

And [Gospatric] held the earldom until, for the reasons 
aforesaid, the king took it from him. Therefore he fled to 
Malcolm, 5 and not long afterwards went by ship to Flanders. 6 
And when after some time he returned to Scotland, the afore- 
said king [Malcolm] granted to him Dunbar, with the lands 
adjacent to it in Lothian, that by these he should provide for 
himself and his men until happier times returned. 

This Gospatric was the father of Dolfin, 7 Waldeve and 



Of Edgar. 

Edgar, with archbishops Stigand [of Canterbury] and 

1 Cf. Hoved., i, 59, 126. 

2 Cf. Hoved., i, 59. 

3 Gospatric became earl at Christmas, 1067 ; v. Freeman, N.C., iv, 
749. Osulf was earl from March to autumn [of 1067] ; S. of D., ii, 199. 

4 Cf. supra, s.a. ? 1006. 

5 V. supra, s.a. 1068. Gospatric appears to have been Malcolm's cousin. 

6 Not till after his final deposition in 1072 ; v. supra, s.a. 

7 Dolfin seems to have received from Malcolm the government of Car- 
lisle ; v. infra, s.a. 1092. 


Aldred, [of York], had submitted to the king ; 1 but in the 
following year he sullied his oath, going over to the Scot. 

But when he had stayed there for some years and obtained 
nothing to his advantage for the present and nothing to hope 
for in the future, excepting his daily allowance, he proceeded 
to make trial of the Norman's liberality, and sailed over to 
him, 2 at that time dwelling beyond the sea. 

They say that this was most pleasing to the king, that 
England should be relieved of a provoker of wars. . . . 


VOL. I, PP. 111-112. 3 

But Aldwin left the monastery of Jarrow, having as the 
companion of his way and purpose Turgot, 4 still in the garb of 
a cleric, but imitating in devotion and deed the life of the 
monks. . . . 

They came to the former monastery of Melrose, at that time 
a solitude ; and delighting in the secluded habitation of that 
place began to live there [as monks] serving Christ. 

But when their [monastic] life there had become known to 
the king of the Scots, Malcolm, to whom that place pertained, 
they suffered at his hands grievous wrongs and persecutions 
for this cause, that, following the evangelic precept, they 
refused to swear fealty to him. 

Meanwhile the venerable bishop Walcher 5 besought, ad- 
monished and adjured them in frequent letters and mandates, 

1 At ? Berkhamstead, in 1066 ; A.S.C., MS. D. 

2 Cf. Fl. of W., ii, 10, s.a. 1073 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 200. 

3 Before visiting Melrose, Aldwin had attempted to revive monasticism 
in Muncaster and Jarrow, S. of D., H.D.E., i, 108-111 ; in 1073, ibid., 122, 
127. Immediately after returning from Scotland he partially restored Wear- 
mouth monastery, in 1074; ibid., 113. 

This part of H.D.E. was written while Turgot was still prior of Durham; 
cf. Arnold, ibid., Ill, note. 

4 Turgot became prior of Durham in 1087 ; S. of D., i, 127 ; and was 
made archdeacon in 1093, ibid., 129. He was consecrated bishop of St. 
Andrews in 1109; v. infra, s.a. Cf. the story of his life in S. of D., H.R., 
ii, 202-205. 

5 Bishop of Durham, 1072-1080. He became earl of Northumbria in 
1075 ; S. of D., i, 114 ; ii, 207-208 ; and was killed in 1080, May 14, by Adulf 
Rus, son of earl Gospatric's cousin Utred ; " and he is said to have slain him 
with his own hand. But presently he too was slain, by a woman, and was 
buried in the church at Jedburgh. But such pollution was afterwards cast 
out thence by Turgot, formerly prior of the church of Durham, and arch- 
deacon." S. of D., H.R., ii, 198, This must have been while Turgot was 


and at last threatened that he with the clergy and all the people 
would excommunicate them in presence of the most sacred body 
of St. Cuthbert, unless they returned to him to dwell under St. 

Therefore dreading excommunication more than the king's 
anger, which threatened them with death, for then they had 
wholly resolved to die, they left that place and came to the 
bishop. And he granted them immediately the monastery of 
the blessed apostle Peter, in Wearmouth. . . . 



In this year king William went over sea to Normandy ; and 
child Edgar came from Flanders into Scotland, on St. Grim- 
bald's mass-day : 2 and Malcolm the king and [Edgar's] sister 
Margaret received him with great worship. 

At the same time the king of France, Philip [I], wrote to 
him and asked him to come to him, and he would give him the 
castle of Montreuil, so that he could thereafter do evil daily to 
his enemies. 

So then Malcolm the king and [Edgar's] sister Margaret 
gave him and all his men great gifts and many precious things, 
of skins covered with purple, and of fur-robes of martin and 
miniver and ermine skins ; and of fine raiment, and golden 
vessels and silvern : and conducted him and all his sailors with 
great worship from his domain. 

But on their journey it evilly befel them, when they were 
out at sea, that very rough weather came upon them, and the 
raging sea and the strong wind cast them on the shore ; so that 
all their ships burst asunder, and they themselves came with 
difficulty to land ; and very nearly all their precious things 
were lost. And some of his men also were taken by French- 
men. 3 And he himself and his best men went back again to 

still prior, i.e. 1088x1108: and as Teviotdale was only nominally sub- 
ject to Durham from before 1101 (cf. infra, s.a. 1107, note) it was prob- 
ably some time before that date. 

For the story of Walcher's death cf. A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1080 ; Fl. of W., 
ii,"' 13-14; S. of D., i, 116-117, ii, 208-210; W. of M., G.R., ii, 330-331 : 
G.P., 271-272. 

1 Cf. MS. E, s.a. 1074. S.a. 1073 Fl. of W., ii, 10 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 
200. MS. D " seems here also to have interpolated from some source con- 
nected with St. Margaret," Plummer, S.C., ii, 268. 

2 8th July. 

' 3 I.e. the Normans in England. 


Scotland, some wretchedly walking on foot, and some miserably 

Then the king Malcolm advised him to send to king William 
across the sea, and crave his protection ; and so also he did. 
And the king granted it him, and sent for him. 

And again Malcolm the king and [Edgar's] sister gave him 
and all his men innumerable gifts, and very honourably sent 
him again from their domain. 

And the sheriff of York came to meet him at Durham, and 
went all the way with him, and caused food and fodder to be 
found for him at every castle at which they arrived, until they 
came over sea to the king. And then king William received 
him with great worship. And then [Edgar] was at his court 
there, and took such rights as he allotted him. L 

1077 , 



In [Lanfranc's] seventh year of office 2 . . . Thomas, arch- 
bishop of York, 3 sent a letter to him, 4 asking him to send two 
bishops to consecrate a certain priest who had brought a letter 
to him from the Orkney Isles, to the effect that he should be 
consecrated bishop of those islands. 

And Lanfranc consented to his request and commanded 
Wulstan, bishop of Worcester, and Peter, bishop of Chester, 
to go to York and suffice with Thomas to perform so great a 

1 Cf. W. of M., G.R., ii, 310; Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 192. 

2 Lanfranc was consecrated in 1070, August 29th, A.S.C., MS. A ; and 
soon afterwards succeeded in enforcing the claims of Canterbury over the 
see of York. 

3 Thomas of Bayeux, archbishop of York, 1070-1100; A.S.C., MS. A, 
s.a. 1070, MS. E, s.a. 1100; Fl. of W., ii, 6; H.S., Abps. of Y., in Raine's 
York, ii, 103-109 ; Chr. of the Abps., ibid., ii, 364. He was elected after the 
18th November, 1070 ; v. H.S., u.s. He received the pall in 1071 ; FL of 
W., ii, 9 ; S. of D., ii, 195. 

4 For Thomas's letter see H. & S., ii, 162 ; for Lanfranc's letter to bishops 
Wulstan and Peter (bishops 1062-1095 and 1072-1085), ibid., 163. 

The date fixed for the ceremony in Thomas's letter is the 3rd March ; 
Lanfranc's letter is in one MS. dated in 1073, indiction XI. In 1073 the 
3rd March was a Sunday. But if the consecration was in 1077, the nearest 
Sunday was the 5th of March. 

The Chr. of the Abps. of York professes to quote from Ralph's document 
of subjection to York ; in Raine's York, ii, 363 : " Also the same arch- 
bishop [Thomas I] consecrated Ralph, elect of the Orkneys, after he had 
made, read and given a profession, which thus begins : ' In the sight of God 
and of this church, I, Ralph,' etc." 




And in this year king Malcolm won the mother of Malsnech- 
tan, 1 . . . 2 and all his best men, and all his treasures, and his 
cattle ; and he himself escaped with difficulty. 



In this year came king Malcolm from Scotland 4 into Eng- 
land with a large army, between the two Mary's masses ; 5 and 
harried Northumberland until they came to the Tyne, and slew 
many hundred men ; and took home many treasures and 
precious things, and men in captivity. 

? 1079 


HEXHAM, VOL. I, PP. 177-180. 6 

Malcolm, king of the Scots, prepared destruction for the men of 
Hexham. The saints gathered to their aid, and he was hindered 
from its fulfilment. 

At the time when Malcolm, king of the Scots, ravaged 
Northumbria with cruel slaughter, he ever preserved peace 
with the church of Hexham, through honour for the saints who 
rest in it. 

But when on one occasion his messengers fell among robbers 
near the lands of that church, and returned robbed and wounded 
to the king, they laid the charge of this cruelty against the 
innocent people. And the king was enraged and furious over 

1 Malsnechtan was the son of Lulach mac Gillachomgain, who contested 
the throne with Malcolm III (cf. supra, s.a. 1057), and was slain in battle 
in 1058. Malsnechtan, " king of Moray," died in 1085. Ann. of Ulst., s.aa. 

2 Here nearly a line is blank in the MS. ; and after this annal is a blank 
of six lines. E. & PL, S.C., i, 213, notes. 

3 Cf. s.a. 1079, Fl. of W., ii, 13 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 208. Hoved., i, 133, 
s.a. 1078. H. of H., 206. Ann. of Wav., s.a. 1078, in A.M., ii, 193. R. of C., 
2, s.a. 1079. Ann. of Osn., in A.M., iv, 10, s.a. 1079. 

Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 32, s.a. 1079: " Malcolm, king of Scot- 
land, did many evils in Northumberland, unmindful of the treaty made 
between king William and him." 

This invasion took place while William was occupied with his son Robert's 
rebellion ; cf. A.S.C., MSS. D, E ; Fl. of W., ii, 13. 

4 " King of Scots," Fl. of W., S. of D., Hoved. 

5 I.e., between 15th August and 8th September. "After the Assump- 
tion of St. Mary," Fl. of W., S. of D., Hoved. 

6 This is abridged in the Miracula Sanctorum in Raine's Hexh., i, 216. 


this accusation, and swore that for such ingratitude he would 
wholly destroy the place itself and the people. 

In short, at the king's command the cruel army came thither, 
ready for spoil, prompt for slaughter, eager for crime, neither 
sparing for entreaty nor resting for satiety. 

And the king's wrath was not hid from the people of Hex- 
ham. But what should they do ? They had no strength to 
resist, no stronghold to flee to, no support in the alliance of any 
vassals ; the one and only hope of all was in the oft-tried 
virtue of the saints. To the church therefore collected young 
men and maidens, old men and children, women and infants, 
either to be rescued by divine virtue or surely to be slain before 
the relics of the saints. 

Already the king was there with a strong force ; already he 
had occupied the neighbouring district of the river Tyne, and 
would have satisfied his cruelty, had not night come on and 
prevented his crossing. 

But the priest who was over the church sent certain of the 
clergy with relics to the king, both to clear themselves of the 
charge brought against them and to entreat peace for the 
innocent people. 

The king was angry, and summoned his Galwegian vassals, 
more cruel than the rest ; and said in the hearing of the mes- 
sengers, " So soon as day dawns, cross the river and fall upon 
them : let not your eye spare or pity rank, or sex, or age. What- 
ever the sword cannot, let fire destroy ; and leave of them no 

Thus speaking, with rage he bade the messengers return. 

And when they had gone back to the church, and related 
what they had heard, a pitiable tumult arose ; a great crying , 
and weeping and much wailing. . . . 

In short, already the shades of night were ended by a dawn 
which, coming forth more brightly than usual, took away the 
hope of relief which they had entertained : when, behold ! a 
mist arose from the westward, and filled the whole bed of the 
river aforesaid from its source to its mouth. And gradually 
closing upon itself, in a short time it became so dense and thick 
that if any one had chanced to hold out his right hand at some 
distance the hand would have been swallowed up by the 
darkness, and rendered invisible to him. 

The Galwegians therefore entered the mist, and passing 
through some wastes crossed the stream on the west, on the 
way which leads to Cumbria, and towards evening found 
themselves on the border of their own district. 


But the king waited both for the Galwegians whom he had 
sent, and for the departure of the mist, which he abhorred ; 
and was in doubt what he should do. But when the mist rose 
and disclosed the light which it had hidden the river had swollen 
with a sudden flood, and for three days hindered the king's 

Then the king returned to himself, and summoned his 
nobles and said : " What do we ? Let us retire hence, since 
these saints are at home. " . . . 

? 1079 


And it would be too impious to hide in silence how Malcolm , 
king of Scots, was restrained from invasion and violation of the 
peace of the church of Hexham, St. Acca and the other saints 
who rest there preserving it by the protection of their merits. 
For .although it is very well known even to the people, yet, 
lest through time it pass wholly from the memory of men, it 
must be committed to writing for the information of posterity . 

Malcolm, then, king of the Scots, a man to wit of the greatest 
ferocity and with a bestial disposition, was wont to ravage the 
Northumbrian province miserably with frequent invasions, and 
to lead away from it as captives into Scotland very many men 
and women. 

And when on one occasion he had entered the bounds of 
that province, to ravage it, with an army more numerous than 
usual, the provincials, hearing of his approach, almost all fled 
to the church of Hexham, with such of their goods as they 
could carry with them, under the protection of the saints who 
rest in it. 

And when Malcolm learned this he determined to go thither 
and to plunder all those who had taken refuge there, and utterly 
to destroy the church itself. 

And hearing this the priest of that church went to meet him, 
and admonished him not to dare to commit such an outrage 
Upon the holy patrons of that church of God. But [Malcolm] 
despised his warnings, and drove him with ignominy from him. 

And he returned with speed to the church, and exhorted all 
in common who had taken refuge there earnestly to beseech 
God's glorious saints under whose protection they had fled that 
with accustomed mercy they would deign to protect their own 
from so savage a foe, and from Scots more cruel than beasts. 
And thus they did. 


And in the following night, when the same priest had for 
sadness fallen into slumber, there appeared * to him a certain 
man, venerable in face and in raiment, who inquired of him, 
as if he knew not, the cause of so great sadness. And when he 
replied that he was afraid of the violence of the enemy who 
threatened them, [the man] said to him, " Fear not ; for before 
the dawn I will cast my net into the river, 2 and thereby the 
passage of the Scots will be wholly prevented." 

When he had said this he disappeared. And when morning 
dawned, the river which is called Tyne was found to have so 
greatly risen, without flood of rains or violence of winds, that 
it could by no means be crossed without the help of a ship. 
Moreover in the same night and during the following day fell 
suddenly so thick a mist that the greatest part of the army of 
the aforesaid king divided in the darkness and scattered 
asunder, so that very many turned with great haste to the 
north, many to the east, and several also to the west, clearly 
confounded by a divine miracle through the intercession of the 
saints of the church of Hexham. 

But king Malcolm came with that fragment of his army 
which had remained with him, and saw that all means of cross- 
ing was denied him. He therefore' halted upon the river's 
bank, intending to wait till the river subsided so that he could 

But after waiting for three days, when he saw that, without 
any agency of rain, the water rose more and more, he was 
terrified by so evident a miracle, and retreated in great haste. 

And thus were all they who had fled to the aforesaid church 
of Hexham rescued from his cruelty by the merits of the saints 
who rest there. 



1080. 3 

And in this year in the autumn-time the same king William 
sent his son Robert to Scotland against Malcolm. 

1 A more elaborate vision is related by A. of R., Saints, in Raine's Hexh., 
i, 179. There Wilfrid and Cuthbert appear to the priest. Cf. Mir. Sanct., 
ibid., i, 216. 

2 " I will spread my net from the source of the river Tyne to its mout. 
A. of R., u.s., 179. 

3 Cf. Hoved., i, 136. Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 32. 

This passage follows William's devastation of Northumbria in revenge 
for the death of Walcher ; "cf. Fl.'of W., ii, 16 ; v. supra, s.a. 1074, note. 
William of St. Carilef was appointed bishop of Durham in succession to 


But when he had come to Falkirk he returned without 
accomplishing anything, 1 and founded a New Castle upon the 
river Tyne. 



1087. 2 

[William II] distributed his father's treasures, as he had 
commanded, through England. . . . 

His brother also returned to Normandy, and generously 
distributed the treasures which he had obtained, to the 
monasteries, the churches and the poor, for his father's soul. 

And he freed from imprisonment Ulf , son of Harold, former 
king of the English, and Duncan, son of Malcolm, king of 
the Scots ; and honoured them with military arms, and allowed 
them to depart. 



While this reconciliation was pending, 4 Edgar Etheling was 

Walcher, on the 9th November, 1080; and consecrated in January, 1081, 
according to S. of D., H.R.,ii, 211 ; H.D.E., i, 119. (Cf. De Inj. Vex. Will. 
Ep., in S. of D., i, 170. Fl. of W., ii, 16.) Cf. A.S.C., Latin Appendix to 
MS. A : " In his eleventh year [of office, Lanfranc] held a council at the city 
of Gloucester, and there Thomas, archbishop of York, at the king's command 
and with Lanfranc's consent consecrated William as bishop of Durham, be- 
cause he could not obtain assistance from the Scottish bishops, who are 
subject to him. . . ." 

William died on the 1st January, 1096 ; A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. ; S. of D., 
H.D.E., C. Pr., i, 133. 

1 Chr. of Abingd., ii, 9-10 : " Malcolm, king of Scotland, refused at that 
time to be subject to king William. And hence the king gathered an army 
together, and sent his elder son Robert across to Scotland in his stead ; and 
with him also many primates of England, one of whom was abbot Ethelhelm 
[of Abingdon]. He bade them offer peace or war : peace, if an answer was 
given them in compliance ; but if not, war. 

" And the king met him with his men in Lothian, and chose to have 
peace rather than war. So he gave hostages, that the principality of Scot- 
land should be subject to the kingdom of England. 

" This agreement being made, the king's son returned joyously with his 
army to his father, by whom was given in reward for his performance (his and 
the others' who were with him), even as would have befitted the dignity of 
any." (The Latin is ungrammatical.) 

Ethelhelm was abbot 1066-1084; ibid., i, 494, ii, 11. 

2 So S. of D., H.R., ii, 214 ; Hoved., i, 140. 

3 Cf. H. of H., 216. Fl. of W., ii, 27-28. S. of D., H.R., ii, 218. Hoved., 
i, 143. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 201. 

4 I.e., between William II and Robert. " When the king was wearied 
of the prolonged siege " of Henry in Mont St. Michel, during the whole of 
Lent ; Fl. of W., ii, 27. 


deprived of the land 1 which the count [Robert of Normandy] 
had previously ceded to him ; 2 and went out of Normandy to 
the king, his brother-in-law, in Scotland, and to his sister. 

While king William was out of England, king Malcolm of 
Scotland came hither into England and harried a great part of 
it, 3 until the good men who had charge of this land sent an 
army against him, and turned him back. 


Meanwhile, in the month of May, Malcolm, king of the Scots , 
invaded Northumbria with a great army ; intending to ad- 
vance farther, if success had resulted, and to bring force against 
the inhabitants of England. God willed otherwise : there- 
fore he was hindered from his design. Nevertheless before 
he returned his army carried away with it no moderate amount 
of booty. 


VOL. II, PP. 338-340. 

Meanwhile the aforesaid king of the English [William II] 
and Malcolm, king of the Scots, after disturbance of quarrels 
had arisen on both sides, came to violent enmity, to the hurt of 
either realm. 

And hence Malcolm led forth his army, and compelled the 
Northumbrians to seek their places of refuge. And some of 
them hid themselves in recesses of the woods and mountains : 
but many, and especially those who are called peculiarly St. 
Cuthbert's people, carried their goods to Durham ; for here in 
times of danger they have ever a sure place of refuge, trusting 
in the protection not so much of the place as of the peace due 
to the presence of the most holy body. Thither they brought 
all their flocks and all their furniture, and the open spaces in the 
town scarcely sufficed for so many and so great crowds of men 
and animals. 

1 " The honour," Fl. of W., S. of D., Hoved. 

3 " And [the king] expelled him from Normandy," Fl. of W., ii, 28. 

3 H. of H., u.s. : " Meanwhile Malcolm, king of the Scots, came into 
England for spoil and very greatly harried it." 

4 Cf. S. of D., H.R., ii, 218. Hoved., i, 143. H. of H., 216. 
Malcolm advanced to Chester-le-Street ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 221 ; infra, 

s.a. 1093. 


While this went on, Malcolm placed his forces not far away 
to the north, and there stayed for some days. 

Meanwhile the nobles of the cities which were nearest massed 
together in an army of many youths, and made ready to op- 
pose the enemy's attempts ; and now they too had made their 
camp in the neighbourhood of Durham, to the south. But 
both peoples passed some little time there, while each through 
fear of the other contemplated either peace with the other or 
flight. Thus neither of the foes did harm to the other, but each 
through its inaction caused great distress to those shut in. For 
the multitude at once of men and of the various kinds of animals 
crowded into small space could scarcely support itself, one 
pressing upon another. And scarcely did any one dare to pro- 
ceed, or to drive cattle to pasture ; since, hemmed in all round 
by swords, they feared from both sides death or depredation. . . . 

Therefore with one accord they gathered to the church, 
and out of contrition of heart each offered spontaneously gifts 
according to his means ; and implored the confessor's aid for 
them and theirs, doomed to perish unless he quickly succoured 
them. . . . 

And upon Cuthbert's intervention God turned not his mercy 
from them. Here truly, as is written, " God became the refuge 
of the poor, their helper upon occasion, in tribulation." * 

Not yet had the morrow's light burst forth in dawn when, 
behold ! suddenly, by what fear I know not, the whole army of 
the Scots was driven into flight. And when the news of their 
departure spread to the English camp, it immediately granted 
to them also freedom to depart to their own. . . . 2 

f ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, MS. E, S.A. 1091. 3 (Continued.) 

When king William heard this in Normandy, he made ready 
for his journey and came to England, and his brother earl 

1 Psalms, IX, 9. , 

2 " In the same hour " as the Scots retreated, William of St. Carilef, 
bishop of Durham, was restored to his see ; ibid., 340. This was upon his 
arrival at Durham on the llth September, 1091 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 218. 
(Cf. H.D.E., i, 128.) 

De Inj. Vex. Will. Ep., in S. of D., i, 195 : " But in the third year [of 
his exile] he was reconciled with the king and recovered his bishopric, the 
king himself with his brother and the whole army of England restoring him 
to his see when upon their way to Scotland against Malcolm ; to wit, upon 
the very day on which he had been driven from it, on the third before the 
Ides of September" [llth September]. (The date is to be taken with this 
sentence ; not with the following one, as in the text.) 

3 Cf. Fl. of W., ii, 28 : " And when the king heard this, he returned to 


Robert with him ; and presently ordered an army to be called 
out, both a ship-army and a land-army : but the ship-army 

England in the month of August with his brother Robert'; and not long 
afterwards set out for Scotland with no small fleet and an army of horse, to 
subdue Malcolm, king of the Scots. But before he arrived there, a few days 
before the festival of St. Michael, almost his whole fleet was sunk, and many 
of his army of horse perished of hunger and cold. 

" And king Malcolm met him with an army in the province of Loidis.'' 

Cf. Hoved., i, 143-144. Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 36. Ann. of Wav., 
in A.M., ii, 201. Cf. also V.O.R., in Misc. Biog., 22-23. (The same work, 
21-22, speaks of a previous invasion of Scotland under Nigel of Albini.) 

W. of M., G.R., ii, 365 : " . . . And without fulfilling his intention he 
returned to the kingdom with both his brothers, because disturbances of 
Scots and of Welsh were calling him. 

" And immediately he led an expedition first against the Welsh, after- 
wards against the Scots ; but achieved nothing worthy of his greatness, 
losing many soldiers, and having many beasts of burden captured. And 
not then only, but many times, he had small success against the Welsh. . . ." 
Cf. ibid., 363. 

A peculiar account is in O.V., VIII, 20, in Migne, 188, 619-620 : " At 
that time Malcolm, king of Scots, rebelled against the king of the English, 
and refused the service due to him. 

" Also king William, after he had made peace, as we have related above, 
with his brother Robert in Normandy, and had brought him with him against 
the faithless traitors who had conspired against the king, massed together 
the army of the whole /of England and led it as far as the great river 
which is called the Scots' water [the Forth]. But because the crossing was 
impracticable, he halted upon the bank. 

" And the king of Scots stood opposite to him with his legions, ready to 
fight; and announced to the king of the English by his messengers as 
follows : f v 

" ' I owe nothing to thee, king William, but conflict, if I be provoked 
with injuries by thee. But if I see Robert, the first-born son of king William, 
to him I am prepared to offer whatever I owe.' 

" Hearing this, earl Robert by decision of the wise sailed across with a 
few knights. 

"And the king of Scots received him kindly, and amicably kept him 
with him for three days. Then he took the earl up upon a lofty mountain, 
and thence showed him in a certain plain a great host of armed men. Then 
he led him between two mountains in another direction, and showed him a 
iter army in another plain : ' Such are the ranks of Scotland with which 
am surrounded,' said he, ' and prepared to receive thy brother, should he 
jsume to sail over hither to me. Would that he would attack us, and 
the sharpness of our missiles ! 

" ' I assert that king Edward, when he gave to me Margaret his grand- 
niece (proneptis] in wedlock, gave to me the county of Lothian. Thereafter 
king William yielded what his predecessor had given to me, and made me 
subject to thee his first-born son. And therefore what I, have promised to 
thee I shall adhere to. But to thy brother I have promised nothing, and 
owe nothing. "No one," as Christ says, " can serve two masters." ' 

" Robert replied : ' As thou affirmest, so it is. But changes of circum- 
stance have taken place, and my father's statutes have veered in many cases 
from their former stability. Now therefore, renowned king, consent with me, 
and come with me to my brother ; and thou shalt find with him sweetness 
and affluence of good, because he is nearer and more powerful, and has 
greater plenty of riches.' 

" This being promised, therefore, the king became willing to believe ; 
and, after conferences, was pacified with king [William]. Thereafter the 
kings sent back their armies, and themselves set out together for England." 


nearly all perished miserably before he could come to Scotland, 
a few days before St. Michael's mass. 1 And the king and his 
brother went with the land-army. 

But when king Malcolm heard that they would seek him 
with an army, he went with his army out of Scotland into 
Lothian in England, and there awaited. 

When king William with his army drew near, earl Robert 
and Edgar Etheling went between them, and made peace be- 
tween the kings, so that king Malcolm came to our king and 
became his man for all such subjection as he had made before to 
his father. And that he confirmed with an oath. 

And king William promised him in land and in everything 
all that he had had before under his father. 

In this peace Edgar Etheling was also reconciled with the 
king. And then the kings parted with great amity ; but that 
lasted only a little while. 2 



In this year king William with a great army went north to 
Carlisle, and restored the town and built the castle ; and drove 
out Dolfin, 4 who ruled the land there before. And he garri- 
soned the castle with his vassals ; and thereafter came south 

1 29th September. 

2 Fl. of W., ii, 28 : " And, seeing this, earl Robert summoned to him 
Edgar Etheling, whom the king had expelled from Normandy, and who then 
abode with the king of Scots ; and supported by his aid made peace between 
the kings upon this condition, that Malcolm should obey William as he had 
obeyed his father ; and that William should restore to Malcolm twelve vills 
which he had had in England under his father, and should give him each year 
twelve marks of gold. But the peace made between them continued no long 

" The earl made peace for Edgar also with king William." Cf. Hoved., 
i, 144. R. de D., Abbr. Chr., i, 216. 

H. of H., 216 : " Therefore the king and his brother Robert with him 
came to England,, and directed their troops toward Scotland. Therefore 
Malcolm was oppressed by great fear, and became the king's man, and sub- 
ject to him by an oath of fealty." Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 30 ; H.A., i, 39-40, 
s.a. 1090, Fl. His., ii, 23, s.a. 1091. 

Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 201 : " And king Malcolm came to king 
William and became his man, upon that agreement upon which he had been 
his father's man ; and he swore to him fealty, and king William promised 
that he would give him whatever he had under his father." 

Earl Robert " had long ago given his intimate friendship to the Scot," 
W. of M., G.R., infra, s.a. 1093. He " found [with William] little truth in 
their agreement," and Edgar fared no better ; A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1091, ad fin. 

3 Cf. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 202. Fl. of W ii, 30. 

4 The son of Gospatric. 


hither, and sent thither a great multitude of [churlish] 1 folk 
with women and cattle, there to dwell and to till the land. 2 



In this year, in Lent, king William was taken so very 
ill at Gloucester 4 that he was everywhere proclaimed to be 

And in his sickness 5 he vowed many vows to God : to lead 
his own life aright ; and to protect and have peace with 
God's churches, and never again to sell them for money ; and 
to have all just laws among his people. . . . And to many 
monasteries he granted land. 

But that he afterwards withdrew, when he had recovered ; 
and relinquished all the good laws which he had previously 
promised us. 

Then after this the king of Scotland sent and desired [the 
fulfilment] of the agreement which had been made with him. 

And king William summoned him to Gloucester, and sent 
him hostages to Scotland, and Edgar Etheling afterwards ; and 
thereafter the men again, who brought him with much honour 
to the king. 

But when he came to the king he could not be held worthy 
either of speech with our king or of the agreements which had 
been formerly made with him. And therefore they parted in 
great enmity, and king Malcolm went home to Scotland. 

1 In text Eyrlisces ; read cyrlisces. (Thorpe.) Ann. of Wav., u.s., 
multos villanos. 

2 Fl. of W., u.s.. mentions no colonization, but adds : " For this city, 
like several others in those parts, had been destroyed by the pagan Danes 
two hundred years before, and remained deserted to that time." 

3 Cf. Fl. of W., ii, 30-31 ; S. of D., ii, 220-221 ; Hoved., i, 145-146. 
Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 202. 

W. of M., Gf.R., ii, 366 : " But indeed at that time [1091, supra], through 
the efforts of earl Robert, who had long ago given his intimate friendship to 
the Scot, harmony was established between Malcolm and William. Never- 
theless when many disputes had been raised on both sides, and because justice 
wavered through the ill-will of either side, Malcolm came of his own accord 
to Gloucester, praying much for peace, but only upon just conditions. But 
he obtained nothing, except to return scatheless to his kingdom ; because the 
king disdained to take by guile him whom he had conquered by valour." 

4 " Was struck down by a violent illness at Alveston, and hastened to 
the city of Gloucester, and there lay sick during the whole of Lent," Fl. of W. , 


5 " When he thought he was soon to die, as his barons insinuated to 
him," Fl. of W., u.s. 




Malcolm, king of the Scots, met king William the younger 
in the city of Gloucester on the day of the festival of St. Bar- 
tholomew, 2 as had been previously appointed by ambassadors 
between them : in order that, as certain of the chief men of 
England wished, peace might be restored, and firm friendship 
might be established between them. 

But they departed mutually dissatisfied : for William dis- 
dained to see Malcolm or to confer with him, through too great 
pride and power. Moreover also he wished to constrain [Mal- 
colm] to do him justice 3 in his own court, according to the judg- 
ment of his own barons only. But Malcolm would by no means 
do this, unless upon the borders of their realms, where the kings 
of the Scots were accustomed to do right by the kings of the 
English, and according to the judgment of the chief men of both 


ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, MS. E, S.A'. 1093. 4 (Continued.) 

But so soon as [Malcolm] came home, he gathered his 
army and advanced into England, harrying with more 
wantonness than behoved him. 

1 Cf. S. of D., H.R., ii, 220-221 ; Hoved., i, 145-146. 

2 24th August. On Thursday, llth August, 1093, Malcolm with William 
of St. Carilef and Turgot had laid the foundation stones of Durham cathe- 
dral ; De Inj. Vex. Will. Ep., in S. of D., i, 195. Cf. S. of D., H.D.E., i, 129 ; 
H.R., ii, 220. Hoved., i, 145. 

Probably during this visit to England, and after the interview with 
William Rufus, Malcolm visited his daughter Matilda at Wilton ; v. infra, 
s.a. 1100. 

8 ut . . . rectitudinem ei faceret. Cf. the use of this and similar phrases 
occurring frequently in the tract De Inj. Vex. Will. Ep., in S. of D., i ; (e.g. 
176, 177, 179, 180,) in the sense of appearing before the law for compensation 
of an injury. 

Carlisle must have been one subject of dispute ; v. supra, s.a. 1092. 

4 Cf. Fl. of W., ii, 31-32 : " Malcolm, king of the Scots, and his first- 
born son Edward, with many others, were slain by the knights of Robert, 
earl of Northumbria, on the day of the festival of St. Brice " [13th Novem- 
ber]. So S. of D., H.R., ii, 221 ; Hoved., i, 146-147. Cf. W. of M., G.R., 
ii, 366. H. ofH., 217. R. of C., 3. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 33. Ann. of Winch., 
in A.M., ii, 37. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 202. Ann. of Osn., in A.M., iv, 
13. Ann. of Marg., in A.M., i, 5-6 : " On the Ides of November [13th Nov- 
ember] was slain Malcolm, king of Scotland ; and in the same month died 
queen Margaret." 

Cf. the L.V.E.D., 73 : " This is the agreement which the convent of 
St. Cuthbert has promised to Malcolm, king of Scots, and queen Margaret, 
and their sons and daughters, to uphold for ever : to wit, that for the king 


And then Robert, 1 the earl of the Northumbrians, with 
his men entrapped him unawares, and slew him. Morel of 
Bamborough slew him : he was the earl's steward, and king 
Malcolm's comrade. 2 

With him was slain also Edward, his son, who should have 
been king after him if he had survived. 



Of Malcolm, king of the Scots. 

Malcolm yielded himself 3 before they came to close quarters ; 
and lived the whole time of William in doubtful and oft- 
broken treaties. 

But in the reign of William, William's son, he was attacked 
in a similar manner, and rid himself of his aggressor by a 
false oath. And not long afterwards when, forgetful of his 
promise, he was very proudly riding into the province, he 
was slain, with his son, by Robert de Mowbray, earl of 

and the queen while they live they shall nourish every day one poor man ; 
and also two poor men shall be kept for them in the Lord's Supper for the 
common mandate : and one prayer shall be said at litanies and at mass. 
But both in this life and after it both they and their sons and daughters shall 
be partakers in everything which is done for the service of God in the monas- 
tery of St. Cuthbert, namely masses, psalms, charities, vigils, prayers and 
everything of this kind. 

" And especially for the king and queen from the day of their death 
shall be repeated in the convent thirty full offices for the dead, and every day 
Verba mea. And every bishop shall celebrate thirty masses ; and each of 
the others shall sing ten psalters. And their anniversary shall be celebrated 
every year with festivity, as is king Ethelstan's." 

The day of Malcolm and Margaret is given as the 12th of November in 
the obituary of Durham ; L.V.E.D., 147, 152. 

1 Robert de Mowbray revolted two years later, A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1095, 
according to H. of H., 218, " exalted with pride, because he had laid low the 
king of Scots." ; , 

2 Lit. " gossip " : compater, Ann. of Wav., u.s. (Cf. cumpceder = godfather, 
A.S.C., MS. A, s.a. 894.) Compater also means "comrade." 

A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1095 : " Morel, who was steward, and also [earl 
Robert of Northumbria's] kinsman." 

" Malcolm fell rather by treachery than by strength," W. of M., G.R., 
ii, 366 ; " was unexpectedly intercepted and slain," H. of H., 217. A differ- 
ent account is given by O.V., VIII, 20 ; in Migne, 188, 620 : " After some 
time, when king Malcolm wished to return to his own, and was returning in 
peace, honoured by the king with many gifts, Robert de Mowbray with Morel, 
his nephew, and armed knights fell upon him and slew him, unarmed, un- 
awares. And when the king of the English heard this, and the nobles of the 
realm, they were greatly grieved, and much ashamed for a thing so base and 
so cruel, committed by Normans. . . ." 

For Morel's subsequent treachery cf. A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1095. Cf. also 
O.V., in Migne, 188, 624-625. 

3 I.e., to William I in 1072 ; v. supra. 


And he lay buried for many years at Tynemouth ; but 
lately he was carried to Scotland, to Dunfermline, by his son 
Alexander. 1 



And in [Malcolm's] death the justice of God's judgments 
is clearly discernable, to wit that he should perish with his 
men in that province which he used himself often to ravage 
at the prompting of avarice. 

For five times he had harried it with savage devastation, 
and carried off the wretched inhabitants as captives, to re- 
duce them to slavery. Once, in Edward's reign, 3 when Tosti, 
the earl of York, had set out for Rome. Again, in the reign 
of William, when he harried Cleveland also. 4 Thirdly, in the 
reign of the same king William, 5 he advanced as far as the 
Tyne, and returned with great booty after slaughter of men 
and burning of the land. A fourth time, in the reign of 
William the younger, 6 he came with his endless forces to 
Chester-le-Street, situated not far from Durham, and intended 
to advance farther : but a small band of knights gathered 
together against him, and he very quickly returned through 

1 Compare however the letter written by Robert de Durham, monk of 
Kelso, to Ralph, prior of Hexham ; printed in Raine's Hexh., i, app., xiv- 
xvi : cf. also in M.P., Chr. Maj., vi, 370-371. Hexh., app., xv : " It pleased 
your courtesy to relate such things in that banquet and conversation, namely, 
that you had found the bones of some man of large stature, and of another, 
smaller ; and these you thought to be the bones of the former venerable king 
of Scotland, Malcolm, and of his son." 

M.P., Chr. Maj., v, 633, s.a. 1257 : " In the same year were found 
the bones of Malcolm, king of the Scots, and of Edward, his son, while the 
foundations were being prepared for a certain building at Tynemouth." 

Little reliance can be placed upon M.P., Chr. Maj., vi, 372 : " This 
Robert [de Mowbray], being a very bold man and powerful in war, conquered 
and slew Malcolm, king of Scotland, his allegiance to whom he boldly 
renounced by permission of king Henry I [read " William II "] of England. 

" And because of his royal excellence [de Mowbray] caused the slain 
king's body to be buried honourably in the church of Tynemouth, which that 
earl had built. 

" But afterwards when the Scots with effrontery demanded the body of 
their king, the body of a certain plebeian of Seaton (Sethtune) was granted 
and given to them. And thus was the cupidity of the Scots beguiled." 

2 Copied by Robert de Durham, monk of Kelso, from the " History of 
the Danes " ; Raine's Hexh., i, app., xiv-xvi. M.P., Chr. Maj., vi, 370-371. 
Cf. Hoved., i, 146-147. 

3 " While Ethelwin was bishop of Durham," adds Hoved., i, 146. 

4 " And while the aforesaid Ethelwin was bishop," adds Hoved., u.s. 
6 " And while Walcher was bishop of Durham," adds Hoved., u.s. 

6 " And while William ruled the bishopric of Durham," adds Hoved., u.s, 


fear of them. The fifth time, with all the army he could 
muster he invaded Northumbria, intending to reduce it to 
utter desolation. But he was slain * near the river Alne, 
along with his first-born son, Edward, whom he had intended 
to inherit the kingdom after him. His army was either put 
to the sword or, such as escaped the sword by flight, drowned 
in the flooded rivers, which were then swollen more than 
usually with the winter rains. 

And since none of his men remained to cover it with earth 
two of the natives placed the king's body in a cart, and buried 
it in Tynemouth. 

And thus it happened that by God's judgment he himself 
lost both possessions and life in the same place where he had 
deprived many of life, and possessions, and liberty. 



And truly of what heart this king Malcolm was, one deed 
of his which I have learned from the narration of the noble 
king David will declare to the readers. 

[Malcolm] was informed on one occasion that one of his 
highest nobles had conspired with his enemies to slay him. 
The king imposed silence upon his informant, and was silent 
himself also, awaiting the return of the traitor, who chanced 
then to be away. 

And when he had come to the court with a great retinue 
to entrap the king, the king commanded all huntsmen to be 
ready with their dogs in the earliest morning. And dawn 
had even now driven away the night when the king called 
to him all the nobles and knights, and made haste to go to 
the hunt. And he came to a certain wide plain which was 
surrounded in fashion of a crown by the closest forest ; and 
in the middle of it was seen a knoll swelling up, as it were, 
which embroidered with flowers in a beautiful variety of 
different colours offered daily a pleasant resting place to 
knights wearied with the chase. 

Upon this knoll the king took his stand, higher than the 
rest ; and according to the hunting law which the common 
people call the " Tryst " assigned a separate place to each of 

1 " By Morel, a most vigorous knight," adds Hoved., i, 147. 

2 Cf. the St. Albans compiler in M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 30-31. Cf. M.P., 
H.A., i, 40-41. 


the nobles with his dogs, so that wherever the quarry chose 
to emerge, besieged on all sides it should find its fate. 

And he himself kept beside him his betrayer, separated 
from the others ; and departed, none accompanying them. 
And when removed from the sight of all the king stopped, 
and looking upon him said : " See, I and thou with me are 
alone together, armed with like weapons, borne on like horses. 
There is none to see, there is none to hear, there is none to 
bring support to either of us ; if therefore thou art able, if 
thou dares t, if thou hast the heart, fulfil what thou hast pur- 
posed, render to my foes what thou hast promised. If thou 
thinkest to slay me, when canst thou better, more securely, 
more freely, or more manlily ? Hast thou prepared poison ? 
But that is the way of weak women ; who could not ? Dost 
thou lie in wait by my bed ? That can adulteresses also. 
Hast thou hidden a sword to strike secretly ? That is the 
way of assassins, not of a knight ; no one can doubt it. Act 
rather as a knight, act as a man, and fight man to man, that 
at least thy treason may lack baseness, since it could not 
lack infidelity." 

So far [the noble] had scarce borne up ; and immediately,' 
struck by his words as by a heavy thunderbolt, he fell from 
his horse, cast aside his arms, and ran to the king's feet with 
tears and trembling. And the king said to him, " Be not 
afraid, thou shalt suffer no ill from me." 

And when [the noble] had promised henceforth to be 
faithful and his friend, giving an oath and naming hostages, 
in fitting time they returned to their friends, telling to none 
what things they had done or said. 


ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, MS. E, S.A. 1093. 1 (Continued.) 

When the good queen Margaret heard this, her dearest 
lord and son thus betrayed, she was distressed in mind 
even to death ; and went with her priests to church, and 
obtained by prayer to God that she gave up her spirit. 

1 Cf. H. of H., 217. W. of M., G.R., ii, 366. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., 

i, 202. 

O.V., VIII, 20, in Migne, 188, 620: "Margaret, queen of Scots, over- 
whelmed by so sad a message of her husband's death, shuddered, and called 
together all the nobles of her realm ; and commended to them her sons Edgar 
and Alexander and David, and besought them to honour them as sons of the 

" And when her prayers had been received by the court with great 



When she learned of their death, Margaret, queen of the 
Scots, was moved with so great sorrow that she fell suddenly 
into a great infirmity. And without delay she called to her 
her priests, and entered the church, and confessed to them 
her sins ; caused herself to be anointed with oil and fortified 
with the celestial viaticum, imploring God in persistent, and 
most earnest prayers that he would not permit her to exist 
longer in this troublous life. 

, And but little more slowly was she answered: for in 
three days after the slaying of the king she was loosed from 
the chains of the flesh and passed, as is believed, to the joys 
of eternal salvation. 

And indeed while she lived she was a devoted upholder 
of piety, justice, peace and charity; constant in orisons, 
she mortified her body with vigils and with fasts. 

She enriched churches and monasteries, loved and hon- 
oured the servants and handmaids of God ; broke bread for 
the hungry, clothed the naked ; provided all pilgrims who 
came to her with lodging, raiment and food ;. and she loved 
God with her whole mind. 



Both [Malcolm and Margaret] were remarkable for their 
devotion to piety ; but she especially. For during the whole 
term of her life she had four and twenty poor folk whom she 
supplied with food and clothing, in whatever place she was. 
Besides, forestalling the song of the priests in Lent she kept 
watch at nights in the temple, attending personally at triple 
matins, of the Trinity, of the Cross and of St. Mary ; and 
then [repeating] the psalter, with the tears suffusing her gar- 
ments and heaving her bosom. Leaving the temple she fed 

favour, she commanded the ranks of the poor to be assembled, and all her 
treasure for the love of God to be distributed to them ; and she asked 
them all to be diligent in prayer to the Lord for her, her husband, and her 
children. . . . 

" At last, when things were fitly arranged and the treasures distributed 
to the companies of the poor, she entered the church, and asked that mass 
be celebrated by ,her chaplains. Then she was devoutly present at the sacred 
rites, and after receiving the holy eucharist expired between the words of 

1 So S. of D., H.R., ii, 222 ; Hoved., i, 147. 


the poor, at first three, then twenty-four, at last three hundred ; 
herself with the king being in attendance, and sprinkling 
water upon their hands. 1 

MIGNE, PATROLOGIA, VOL. 188, COL. 620-621. 

As a woman of high rank she excelled in her descent, 
having sprung from the blood of kings ; but she shone more 
brightly in the goodness of her customs, and in the sanctity 
of her life. ,. . . 

Among the other good things which the noble lady did, 
the faithful queen rebuilt the monastery of lona, which in 
the time of Brude, king of the Picts, son of Maelchon, Columba, 
the servant of Christ, had built ; but which had been de- 
stroyed in the time of wars, and by great age. And she gave 
to monks fitting revenues for the work of the Lord, and 
restored it. 

She had sent her two daughters, Edith and Mary, to be 
brought up and to be instructed in the sacred writings, to 
her sister Christina, who was a nun in the abbey of Romsey. 2 
There they were nourished very long among the nuns, and 
learned well both the art of letters and the observance of 
good customs ; and attaining to marriageable age, the devout 
virgins were ready for the solace of God. For being orphaned, 
as has been said, of either parent, and deprived of the aid of 
brothers and of other friends or relatives, they experienced the 
clemency of God, who disposes all things well, giving them 
ready help. 

For Alan Rufus, count of Brittany, asked as his wife from 
king [William] Rufus Matilda, who has been above called 
Edith. But being prevented by death, he did not obtain 
her. 3 

1 Turgot's Vita Margaretae, dedicated to her daughter Edith or Matilda, 
is printed by Pinkerton, Lives of Scottish Saints, 329-355. 

2 Christina became a nun in Romsey in 1086 ; A.S.C., MS. E, s.a, 1085 ; 
Fl. of W., ii, 19, s.a. 1086 ; Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 195, s.a. 1086. Cf. 
W. of M., G.R., i, 278 : " Christina, who grew old in the nun's habit at 

3 For Alan Rufus read Alan the Black, earl of Brittany, second earl of 
Richmond. Thierry, His. de la Conquete, ii, 152-153. (For this Alan cf. 
De Inj. Vex. Will., in S. of D., i, e.g. 173, 191.) He died in 1093. V. Free- 
man, W.R., ii, 602-603. (Dugdale places his death in 1089 ; Bar., i, 47.) 

For Alan Rufus or Fergant, first earl of Richmond, v. L'Art de Ver. les 
Dates, iv, 68. His first wife (Constance, daughter of the Conqueror) died in 
1090 ; he remarried in 1093. He entered a monastery about seven years 
before his death in 1119. 


Thereafter William de Warenne, earl of Surrey, asked 
for Matilda ; but she was divinely reserved, and married to 
another with greater renown. For Henry wedded the virgin 
aforesaid, when he received the kingdom of the English ; and 
of her begot William Adelinus and Matilda the empress. 

And Eustace, count of Boulogne, received Mary as wife ; 
and she bore him an only daughter, whom Stephen, earl of 
Mortain, united to himself with her father's heritage. 1 


To queen Margaret were born six sons and two 
daughters ; and of these, three were kings, 3 Edgar, Alex- 
ander and David. 4 Their sister Matilda wedded the most 
glorious king Henry ; and of this most excellent and Christian 
queen was born Matilda, who wedded first the Roman emperor, 
and then Geoffrey earl of Anjou. And of her were born king 
Henry II, Geoffrey and William. 

And Mary, the daughter of queen Margaret, was given as 
wife to Eustace of Boulogne ; and of her was born Matilda, 
who wedded Stephen, the earl of Mortain and afterwards 
king of the English. He had by this queen earl William of 
Warenne, and Eustace, count of Boulogne. 


ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, MS. E, S.A. 1093. 5 (Continued.) 

And then the Scots chose as king Donald, Malcolm's 

1 Cf. A. of R., Epis., in Tw., 368. Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 299 : 
" And the count of Boulogne received Mary in wedlock, and begot of her this 
Matilda, his heiress. And her king Stephen took as his wife, and with her 
received the earldom of Boulogne ; and he had of her his sons Eustace and 
William, both of whom, without children, succumbed to an early death." 

2 Cf. W. of M., G.R., i, 278. S. of D., H.R., ii, 192. A. of R., Epis., in 
Twysden, 367. Edm., H.N., 121. 

3 " And by them the nobility of the kings of England, expelled from 
their own realms by the Normans, was passed on to the kings of Scots." 
M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 2 (due to the St. Albans compiler.) 

4 " David, that most courtly king of the Scots," H. of H., 196. 

" The youngest, David, famed for his meekness and wisdom, is now held 
king of Scotland." W. of M., G.R., i, 278. (The G.R. was finished in 1125 : 
but this part may have been written before David's accession io 1124.) 

" David, the splendour of his race," A. of R., u.s. 

5 Cf. s.a. 1093 Fl. of W., ii , 32; S. of D., H.R., ii, 222-223; Hoved., 
i, 147. H. of H., 217. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 202-203. 


brother, and drove out all the English who were with king 
Malcolm before. 1 

WhenDuncan,king Malcolm's son, who was in king William's 
^ court, inasmuch as his father had formerly given him as 
a hostage to our king's father, 2 and he had remained here 
ever since, heard that all this had so happened, he came to 
the king and did such fealty as the king would have of him ; 3 
and so, with [the king's] consent, went to Scotland with what 
aid he could get of English and French, 4 and deprived his 
kinsman Donald of the kingdom, and was received as king. 5 

But afterwards some of the Scots gathered themselves 
together, and slew almost all his followers ; and he himself 
escaped with few. 

Thereafter they were reconciled, on the condition that 
he should never again introduce English or French into the 
land. 6 



In this year also the Scots deceived and slew 8 , I)uncan, 
their king ; and thereafter took to themselves again as king, 
a ( second time, his paternal uncle Donald, by whose direction 
and instigation [Duncan] was betrayed to death. 


Edmund was the only son of Margaret who fell away from 
the good. For he, taking part in his uncle Donald's wicked- 
ness, was not innocent of his brother's death, bargaining 

1 " Expelled from Scotland all the English who were of the king's court," 
Fl. of W., u.s. 

2 Cf . s.a. 1072, supra. W. of M. calls Duncan "the base-born son of 
Malcolm," G.R., ii, 476; infra. 

3 Fl. of W., ii, 32 : " Hearing this, Malcolm's son Duncan besought 
of king William, to whom he then gave military service, that he would grant 
him his father's kingdom ; and obtained it, and swore fealty to him." 

4 " With the help of that king," H. of H., 217. 

5 Fl. of W., ii, 32 : " And thus he hastened to Scotland with a host of 
English and Normans, and drove out his uncle Donald from the kingdom, 
and reigned in his stead." 

6 Fl. of W., ii, 32 : " Nevertheless after this they allowed him to reign ; 
on this condition, that he should no more introduce into Scotland either 
English or Normans, or allow them to give him military service." 

7 Cf. Fl. of W., ii, 35 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 224 ; Hoved., i, 149. H. of H., 
217. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 204. 

8 " Slew by craft their king Duncan, and several with him," Fl. of W., u.s. 
" Casting out from Scotland all the English," adds S. of D., u.s. 

" After this* king William returned to England on the fourth before the 


indeed for half the kingdom. But he sincerely repented, 
when he was captured and kept in fetters for life ; and, when he 
came to die, directed that he should be entombed in those 
chains, declaring that he was deservedly punished for the 
crime of fratricide. 



Also in this same year, soon after St. Michael's mass, 
Edgar Etheling went with an army into Scotland, with king 
[William's] aid, 2 and in a hard-fought battle won the land, 
and drove out king Donald ; and in fealty to king William 
set up there as king his kinsman Edgar, who was the son of 
king Malcolm and queen Margaret. And thereafter he went 
again to England. 


[William II] appeased the Scottish kings by his mildness, 
emulating his brother's custom. 3 

For he both knighted Duncan, the base-born son of Mal- 
colm, and appointed him king of Scots, upon his father's 

But when [Duncan] was slain by his uncle Donald's 
treachery, [William] advanced Edgar to the kingdom ; the 
aforesaid Donald being slain by the craftiness of David, the 
youngest, and by the strength of William. 


[Margaret's] son Edgar, driven out by his uncle, was 
restored to the throne by William ; assuredly by an act of 
remarkable compassion, such as became so great a man, to 
restore the son to the kingdom, at his humble request, for- 
getting the wrongs done by the father. 

Kalends of January " [29th December,] and led an unsuccessful expedition 
to Wales; Fl. of W., u.s. 

1 Cf. Fl. of. W., ii, 41 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 228 ; Hoved., i, 153. H. of H., 
230. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii,' 207. 

O.V., VIII, 20, in Migne, 188, 62, appears to confuse king Edgar with 
king Duncan II. 

2 " [William] sent Edgar Etheling to Scotland with an army," Fl. of W., 
S. of D., Hoved., u.s. Similarly H. of H., u.s. 

3 I.e., Robert of Normandy ; cf. W. of M., G.R., ii, 365 ; v. supra, s.a. 

Compare with this the delineation of William's character in W. of M,, 
G.R., ii, 366-374. 




1098. * 

At that time Magnus, king of the Norwegians, son of king 
Olaf the son of Harald [Hardrada], 2 since he had added the 
Orkneys and the Mevanian isles to his empire, came sailing 
thither with a few ships. 3 



p. 40. 

King [William II] came from Normandy, and was crowned 
at London with the royal diadem ; and there Edgar, king of 
Scotland, carried the sword beside him. 



King [Henry's] wife Matilda was descended from an ancient 
and illustrious line of kings, being the daughter of the king 
of Scots, as I have said above. 

From tender years she was brought up among nuns at 
Wilton and Romsey, 5 and also trained her woman's bosom 
in letters. And hence to reject ignoble marriages more than 
once offered by her father she wore the veil, the mark of con- 
secrated profession : for which reason, when the king wished 
to receive her as his wife, the matter came to be disputed, 

1 So S. of D., H.R., ii, 228 ; Hoved., i, 154. Cf. W. of M., G.R., ii, 376. 

2 In text " Harfagr." 

3 O.V., X, 5, in Migne, 188, 727-728 : " In the fifth year of the reign of 
William Rufus, king of the English, the king of the Norwegians mustered on 
all sides warlike forces, and, the east wind blowing, traversed the Ocean and 
came to the Orkney Isles. He passed round Scotland on the west-north- 
west, and came past the other islands which pertain to his dominion, to 
Anglesey. He wished to enter Ireland ; but since the Irish were prepared 
for war upon the sea-coasts, he turned aside. He dwelt in the isle of Man, 
which was deserted, and replenished it with inhabitants, and fully supplied 
it with houses and other necessaries for human use. The other Cyclades 
also, placed in the great sea as if beyond the world, he visited, and by royal 
command compelled to be inhabited by many inhabitants. . . ." 

For Magnus's visit to Galloway cf. Chr. Reg. Man., in Langebek, iii, 218. 

4 Cf. the account in the Narratio Restaurationis Abbatise S. Mart. Tor- 
nac., in D'Achery, Spicilegium, xii, 374-376. 

5 " Matilda . . . from being a nun at Wilton, but not professed, 
became queen of England." Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 40. She was 
goddaughter of Robert of Normandy ; W. of M., G.R., ii, 462. 


and the archbishop 1 could not be brought to consent without 
the production of lawful witnesses to swear that she had 
worn the veil because of her suitors, without profession. She 
was therefore satisfied when she had borne two children, one 
of either sex ; and ceased from further obedience and fruit- 



. . . For this Matilda had been nourished from infancy 
and brought up in a monastery among nuns ; and it was 
believed by many that she had been consecrated by her 
parents to the service of God : because that she had been 
seen in public veiled, after the fashion of those among whom 
she lived. 

And when she was beloved of the king, having previously 
laid aside the veil, and this circumstance excited comment 
among very many, and deterred them from their desired 
embraces, she went to Anselm, whose consent all were await- 
ing, and with humble prayer besought of him counsel and 
aid in the difficulty. 

He referred to the report that was current, and asserted 
that for no reason would he ever be induced to take from 
God his bride and unite her in wedlock with a mortal man. 

She replied, wholly denying that she had been consecrated ; 
and even denied that she had ever once been veiled of her 
own will. And if he would not believe this otherwise she 
offered to prove it in the judgment of the whole English 

" But yet," said she, " I do not deny that I have worn the 
veil. For, when I was a girl, and trembled under the rod of 
my aunt Christina, whom thou knowest well, she, in order 
to save my body from the raging lust of the Normans, 3 
who lurked at that time in wait for every one's shame, used 
to put a black hood over my head ; and, if I threw it off, 
used often to torture as well as dishonour me with cruel 
lashings and with too revolting taunts. 

" And although I endured this hood in her presence, 

1 Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, 1093-1109. 

2 This account is apparently a later insertion by Edmer in the H.N., 
perhaps in reply to W. of M., above. Rule, ibid., xxiv-xxv. 

3 In the Narr. Rest. Abb. Tornac., u.s., 375, a definite occasion is 
described of resort to such protection against William II. 


moaning and trembling, yet so soon as I could withdraw from 
her sight I was wont to seize it, fling it to the ground, and 
trample on it with my feet, and thus, though foolishly, to rage 
in the hatred with which I burned against it. 

"In this way and no other, my conscience to witness, 
was I veiled. Yet if any say that I was consecrated, the 
truth about that too may be gathered from this, that (as 
many still surviving know) my father's anger was kindled 
when he chanced to see me veiled, 1 although in such manner 
as I have said : he lifted his hand and caught the veil, rent 
it in pieces, and called down God's hatred upon the one who 
put it upon me, asserting that he would rather have destined 
me to be earl Alan's wife 2 than to consort with nuns. 

" This is my plea concerning the false accusation against 
me ; and I request that thy Wisdom may ponder it, and thy 
Fatherliness do for me as thou knowest should be done." 

To be brief, Anselm delayed giving his decision, and 
determined that the case must be settled by judgment of the 
ecclesiastics of the realm. 

And so a day was fixed, and by Anselm's command the 
bishops, the abbots and all nobles and men of a religious 
order assembled in a vill called Lambeth of St. Andrew of 
Rochester, whither the course of the present affair had brought 
[Anselm] at that time also. 

The case was thus conducted in the prescribed order. 
Competent witnesses from different places came forward, 
testifying that the girl's words were supported by absolute 
truth. Two archdeacons were added to these ; namely 
William of Canterbury and Humbald of Salisbury, whom 
father Anselm had sent to Wilton, where [Matilda] had been 
brought up, thoroughly to investigate the truth of this affair ; 
and speaking publicly they bore witness both that they had 
made most diligent inquiry of the sisters, and that they had 
been unable to learn from them anything which opposed 
the proffered plea. 3 

Anselm charged them all, therefore, and commanded them by 
Christian obedience that none should be turned by fear or favour 
from the truth, but that each of them should assist according 
to his powers as if, as was the case, in the cause of God, that 
a just decision might be reached ; " lest," as he said, " such 

1 Probably in 1093. Cf. supra, s.a., note. 
2 Cf. supra, s.a. 1093. 

3 The Narr. Rest. Abb. Tornac., u.s., 375, professes to give the abbess's 
account of the affair. 


a sentence of justice be passed that by its example, may 
God forbid ! in times to come either anyone may without 
right he deprived of freedom, or God be unjustly cheated of 
those who ought to remain his own." 

All applauded the need for so doing, and promised that 
they would not do otherwise. 

And so the father withdrew alone from the assembly, 
and the church of England, which was gathered together, 
discussed the sentence to be pronounced. Thereafter [Anselm] 
was brought in with honour, and it was declared to him what 
the common opinion of all had arrived at in the matter. 

They said that, after examining the question, it seemed 
to ^ them to be established, and they declared themselves 
ready to prove it, that the girl could not justly be restricted 
in her case by any judgment whereby she might not dispose 
of the freedom of her person in any way she should lawfully 

" And though we can prove this," they said, "by an easy 
argument, yet we refrain, because there is no need to do so ; 
remembering a decision, weightier than our arguments, con- 
current with this sentence of justice, given in a similar case 
by your predecessor of venerable memory, our father and 
teacher Lanfranc. 

. i "For when William the Great first subdued this land 
many of his followers took credit to themselves for so great 
a victory and protested that all things must obey and be 
subject to their pleasures and excesses ; and began to rage 
with unspeakable lust not only after the possessions of the 
conquered, but even after the married women also and the 
maidens, whenever opportunity offered. But this some 
foresaw, and in fear of dishonour betook themselves to the 
nunneries, and by receiving the veil among the nuns pro- 
tected themselves from so great disgrace. And when after- 
wards this curse was allayed , and tranquillity (considering 
the state of the times) had been restored to the country, it 
was inquired of that father Lanfranc what he thought about 
the women who had saved their honour by taking such 
refuge; whether they were to be compelled to retain in the 
monastery the veil which they had taken, or not. 

u "And he solved this question by the advice of a general 
council, in such wise that they adjudged that for the chastity, 
their devotion to which [these women] had attested by so 
evident a manifestation, they ought rather to have due honour 
shown them than to have any continence of adherence to 


religion violently forced upon them, unless they desired it of 
their own will." 

And they added, " We were present with them, and we 
heard this approved by wise men. And we wish this to hold 
good in the present case ; and we request that it be confirmed. 
For though we know that her case is less difficult than theirs, 
seeing that they wore the veil of their own will, and she for 
a like cause under compulsion, yet that none imagine us to 
be influenced in favour of any we wish to proceed no farther 
in judgment, being satisfied with this alone, that what held 
in the greater may also hold in the lesser case." 

Then Anselm replied, " You know whereof I have warned 
you, wherein I have instructed you, and what you have pro- 
mised. Since, therefore, you have so adjudged among you 
as you say, according to what has appeared to you more 
just, I by no means reject your decision, but receive it with 
the greater security since I hear that it is supported by the 
authority of so great a father." 

[Matilda] was then brought in, and heard and understood 
with cheerful countenance what had taken place ; and in a 
few words asked that a hearing be granted to her. 

She spoke therefore, and offered to prove, either by oath 
or in any other form of ecclesiastic law they might prefer, 
that her plea now terminated was based upon the solid truth. 

She said that she was ready to do this not because she 
imagined herself to be disbelieved, but with intent to cut off 
from spiteful men all future opportunity for slander. 

In reply they told her that nothing of this kind was need- 
ful ; for if any evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart 
brought forth evil, sooner than spoken it would be suppressed, 
the actual truth being now proved and confirmed by approval 
of so distinguished personages. 

After this she received an address and benediction from 
Anselm, and went away ; and after a very few days had passed 
became, as I have said, a queen and wife. 

And when this union was to take place and be sanctioned 
by the ceremony of the church, father [Anselm] himself stood 
higher than the rest, and publicly addressing the whole nobility 
of the realm and the lesser folk who were flocking around 
for this purpose, and indeed surrounding the king and 
[Matilda] before the doors of the church, informed them in 
what manner the maiden's case (made public by report) had 
been sifted and decided by the bishops and ecclesiastics of 
the realm. 


This done, by God's authority he exhorted and commanded 
anyone who thought at all differently of the affair, and had 
conceived any reason whereby it could be shown that this 
union might not take place according to the law of Christ, 
not to hesitate but to declare it openly, preserving peace with 
all men. 

To this all with one voice cried that the matter was justly 
concluded, and that no ground remained in it for anyone, 
unless perchance moved by malice, to be able with right to 
raise any accusation ; and they were lawfully united with 
the honour which befitted a king and queen. 

Behold, I have described the manner of the transaction, 
the truth of my conscience to witness ; even as I, who was 
present, saw and heard it, without bias toward either side : 
only giving publicity to the girl's words, without asserting 
whether they be true or not. If anyone therefore wish still 
to say that Anselm did anything wrong in this, let him see 
for himself. 

But we who have known his inmost mind in this as in 
many things bear him witness that, as he himself used to say, 
he could not at that time have had knowledge or ability 
whereby to do in this matter better or more wisely than he 
did. 1 

1 1 oo, Nov. 


And presently thereafter the king took to himself as wife 
Matilda, daughter of Malcolm, king of Scotland, and of the 
good queen Margaret, king Edward's kinswoman, of the 
true royal kin of England. 

And she was given to him with much honour on St. Martin's 
mass day, 3 at Westminster ; and the archbishop Anselm 
wedded her to him, and thereafter consecrated her as queen. 4 

1 The Narr. Rest. Abb. Torn., u.s., 376, says that Anselm opposed the 

2 Cf. Fl. of W., ii, 47-48 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 232 ; Hoved., i, 157. R. 
de D., i, 233. W. of M., G.R., ii, 470-471. H. of H., 233. R. of H., in 
Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 141. R. de T., ibid., iv, 81. Fl. His., ii, 36, s.a. 1102. 
O.V., X, 13, in Migne, 188, 754. 

A passage in one MS. of M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 121-122, describes her as an 
unwilling bride. Cf. the absurd account in M.P., H.A., i, 188-189, s.a. 1101. 

3 llth November. 

4 According to O.V., u.s., she was consecrated by Gerard, bishop of 



And he had turned his mind long since to love for her ; 
holding lightly riches of dower, if but he might obtain the 
long-desired embraces. 

For she, though of lofty rank, as being king Edward's 
great-grandniece, by his brother Edmund, was yet mistress 
of but moderate means, being then a ward without either 
parent. . . . 


Their sister Matilda wedded Henry, most glorious king 
of the English. 

And of her admirable glory and virtue of, mind, arid of 
how assiduous she was and devout in divine offices ancl holy 
vigils, and moreover though in so great authority how humble, 
he who would write will pronounce her for us another jbsther 
in modern times. And this we have omitted to do, both 
because of the magnitude of the subject, .and because, of our, 
hitherto insufficient, knowledge of these things. But one 
deed of hers I shall relate, which I have heard from the 
mouth of the oft-to-be-mentioned and never-to-be-forgotten 
king David ; in order that from it, as I think, may sufficiently 
appear what manner of woman she was with regard to Christ's 

" While I served," said he, " as a youth in the king's 
court, 2 doing on a certain night I know not what in my dwell- 
ing with my friends, I was called by her and came t6 the- 
queen's chamber. And behold the house was full of lepers , 
and the queen stood in the midst ; and after laying aside her 
cloak, and putting on a linen covering, she poured water into 
a basin, and began to wash and to dry their feet ; and after 
drying them to press them with both hands, and to kiss them. 

" And when I said to her, ' What dost thou, my lady ? 
Truly if the king knew this, he would never deign to kiss 

1 For Matilda cf. W. of M., G.R., ii, 494-495; Edm., H.N., 173, 187 ; 
Bk. of H., 305, 311-313. 

She died on the 1st May 1118 : Edm., H.N,, 248 ; A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. ; 
J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 71 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 252 ; H. of H., 240-241. 
R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 101-102. O.V., XII, 1, in Migne, 188, 850. 

2 This anecdote is placed by the St. Albans .compiler in 1105; M.P., 
Chr. Maj., ii, 130 : " At the same time David, brother of the English queen 
Matilda, came to England to visit his sister. . . ." Cf. M.P., H.A., i, 201, 
s.a. 1105. 


with his lips thy mouth, polluted with the corruption of 
lepers' feet.' 

" Then she said smiling, ' Who knows not that the feet 
of the eternal King are to be preferred to a mortal king's lips ? 
I indeed have called thee, dearest brother, that thou mayest 
learn from my example to perform such things ; take there- 
fore the basin, and do as thou seest me do.' 

" At this word I was greatly afraid, and replied that in no 
wise could I endure it. For not yet did I know the Lord, 
nor had his spirit been revealed to me. So she persisted in 
her task, and I, guilty one, laughing returned to my friends." 

1 102 

Henry, king of the English, gave the queen's sister Mary 
in marriage to Eustace, count of Boulogne. 2 

1 Cf. W. of M., H.N., ii, 579. Henry had previously offered Mary to 
William, earl of Mortain ; Bk. of H., 306. 

2 " Because he was both sprung from noble ancestors, and also remark 
able for prudence and bravery," W. of M., u.s. 


1107, Jan. 


IN this year also died king Edgar, in Scotland, on the Ides of 
January ; 2 and Alexander his brother succeeded to the 
kingdom, as king Henry granted him. 3 



Edgar was a man sweet and lovable, like in all things to king 
Edward [the Confessor], his relative, employing no tyranny, 
no harshness, no greed against his people, but ruling his 
subjects with the greatest charity and benevolence. 


When Edgar succumbed to his destined fate, Henry allied 
to himself his successor, Alexander, giving him his illegitimate 
daughter in marriage. 

1 Cf. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 213. R.W., E.H.S. ed., ii, 184. M.P., 
Chr. Maj., ii, 134 ; H.A., i, 208. A letter of Anselm to Alexander on his 
accession is in Migne, 159, ii, 166 ; H. & S., ii, 169-170. 

2 13th January. It was the 6th of January according to Fl. of W., ii, 
55 ; the 8th, according to S. of D., H.R., ii, 238 ; Hoved., i, 164 ; Chr. of 
Melr., 63. The Durham obituaries place Edgar's death on the 8th January, 
L.V.E.D., 140 ; the 9th, ibid., 149. 

3 " As king Henry granted him," not in Fl. of W., S. of D., Hoved. " By 
concession of king Henry," H. of H., 236. 

O.V., VIII, 20, in Migne, 188, 621 gives a confused account, omitting 
mention of Duncan : " But Donald, brother of king Malcolm, usurped the 
kingdom, and for some time opposed [Edgar] cruelly. At last the vigorous 
youth was- slain by his uncle. But Alexander, his brother, slew Donald 
and received the kingdom. And thus, as the avenger and successor of his 
brother, Alexander reigned for several years." 

Alexander had been present in 1104 at Durham during the investigation 
into the condition of Cuthbert's remains : De Mir. et Transl. S. Cuthb., in 
S. of D., i, 258, 261. Cf. Fl. of W., ii, 53. S. of D., H.R., ii, 236. Hoved., 
i, 162. 

Through support of Norman barons David forced Alexander to admit 
his claim to southern Scotland. A. of R., De S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 
193 ; infra, s.a. 1138. 

4 Cf. O.V., VIII, 20, in Migne, 188, 621 : " And [Alexander] took to 
wife a daughter of Henry, king of the English, by a concubine. And 



Of her while she lived [Alexander] had no offspring, so far 
as I know ; and when she died before him, he grieved not much 
for her. For the woman lacked (so it is said) what might 
have been desired of her, either in modesty of manners or in 
refinement of person. 



In the eighth year of the episcopate of Ranulf [Flambard], 
who succeeded William [of St. Carilef], 1 at the request of Alex- 
ander, king of Scots, [Turgot] was chosen by Henry, king of the 
English, for the bishopric of the church of St. Andrew in Scot- 
land, in which church is the seat of the primate of the whole 
Scottish nation. 

But for a year and more his ordination was postponed, be- 
cause of dissensions between the church of York and the church 
of St. Andrew of Scotland. For the former demands for herself 

dying without children he passed the kingdom to his brother David." For 
Sibylla's death v. infra, 1122, July. 

1 For William of St. Carilef cf. supra, s.a. 1080, note. 
Ranulf Flambard was appointed bishop of Durham in 1099, A.S.C., 
MS. E ; 29th May, Fl. of W., ii, 44 ; S. of D., H D.E., C.Pr., i, 141. He was 
consecrated on the 5th of June ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 230 ; H.D.E., C.Pr., i, 
135, 138. Turgot's appointment would therefore have been before 5th 
June, 1107. S. of D., infra, s.a. 1115, says that Turgot was bishop for 8 
years 2 months and 10 days ; and he died on the 31st August, 1115 ; if this is 
right, his consecration was upon the 21st June, 1107. 

Because of Flambard's quarrel with Henry I (S. of D., ut infra, 138- 
139), " relying upon frail support he failed to recover the appanages of his 
diocese, to wit Carlisle and Teviotdale, which certain of the bishops had 
attached to their churches during his exile, while the church had no pro- 
tector. Even the king himself through hatred of him had ordered the church's 
charter (which [Ranulf] had obtained from king William in confirmation to 
the church of its possessions) to be torn up and destroyed " : S. of D., H.D.E., 
C.Pr., i, 139. 

This failure to make good his claim to Teviotdale was after his restora- 
tion in the autumn of 1107 : cf. ibid., 138. Teviotdale is included in 
Thomas I's confirmation of the privileges of Durham, ? 1090, in Raine's 
York, iii, 19. Cf. also infra, 1109x 1114, note. Carlisle had been absorbed 
by the diocese of York, Teviotdale by that of Glasgow. 

S. of D., H.D.E., C.Pr., i, 140 : " [Ranulf Flambard] built a castle on 
the height of a jutting cliff, above the river Tweed," [in margin : " the castle 
of Norham,"] " by it to check inroads of robbers and invasions of the Scots. 
For there, as upon the boundary of the kingdoms of English and of Scots, 
raiders had formerly frequent opportunity for incursion, no fortress having 
been placed there to repel such attacks." This was in 1121, according to 
Hoved., i, 179. 

Flambard died in 1128, A.S.C., MS. E ; on the 5th September, S. of D., 
H.R., ii, 283. 


as by a certain right the ordination and subjection of the 
primate of the Scots ; but on the contrary the latter asserts 
that she owes nothing by any right of antiquity or custom. 



Meanwhile l a certain monk of Durham, named Turgot, was 
appointed by Alexander, king of Scotland, and by the clergy 
and the people to the bishopric of St. Andrews of Scotland. 

And when his consecration was delayed more than was 
expedient, both because Thomas, elected archbishop of the 
church of York, had not yet been consecrated, 2 and because of 
certain other reasons which it is tedious to relate, Ranulf, 
bishop of Durham, proposed to consecrate the elected [of St. 
Andrews] at York, in the presence of this Thomas ; the bishops 
of Scotland and of the Orkney isles 3 assisting him. 

But because he knew that this could not properly be done 
without the consent and authority of the bishop of Canterbury, 
he reported the matter to him by a certain knight, and re- 
quested that [Turgot] might be consecrated by his counsel and 

In answer [Anselm] wrote to him this letter : 

" Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, to Ranulf, bishop of 
Durham, greeting. 

" You have reported to me by a certain knight, Scolland by 
name, that you wished the bishop elect of the church of St. 
Andrews of Scotland to be consecrated, before the archbishop 
elect of York was consecrated : and that you wished this to be 
done by my counsel and by my concession. 

" But this neither ought to nor can canonically be done, 
either by that archbishop elect or by another through him, 
until he himself become archbishop by canonical consecration. 

1 The events previously recorded by Ednier are the erection of Ely to 
an episcopal see (ibid., 195 ; cf. Fl. of W., ii, 60, s.a. 1109 ; W. of M., G.P., 
325-326 ;) the appointment of Richard de Beaumais as bishop of London, 
on the 26th July, 1108 (Edm., 197-198 ; cf. Fl. of W., ii., 59 ; S. of D., H.R., 
ii, 240 ;) and the appointment of Ralph of Seez as bishop of Rochester, on 
the 29th June, with his consecration on the 9th August, 1108. (Edm., 196- 
197, 198. His consecration is placed upon the llth August by Fl. of W., ii, 
59 ; S. of D., ii, 240.) 

2 Thomas II of York was elected in 1108 ; A.S.C., MS. E ; Fl. of W., ii, 
57 ; S. of D., H.R., ii, 239-240. He was not consecrated till 27th June, 
1109 ; Fl. of W., infra. He died in 1114 ; infra. 

For his character and pontificate cf. R. of H., D.H.E., in Raine's Hexh., 
ii, 50-54. 

3 This bishop of Orkney (so-called) must have been Roger, consecrated 
1102x1108; v. infra, 1109x1114. 


Wherefore I neither counsel nor concede it, indeed I forbid that 
it be done before the consecration of that archbishop elect ; 
unless by me, if perchance necessity should demand it. 
"Farewell." * 



S.A. 1109. 2 

Thomas [II], archbishop elect of the church of York, was 
consecrated by Richard, bishop of London, at London, on the 
fifth 3 before the Kalends of July ; and afterwards received 
from the cardinal Ulric, at York, the pallium which the pope 
[Paschal II] had sent to him, on Sunday, the Kalends of 
August. 4 

And upon the very same day he consecrated Turgot, prior 

1 In a letter Anselm commanded Thomas not to postpone longer but to 
appear at Canterbury on the 6th September to profess obedience and to 
receive consecration. " And if you do not this, it is my right to attend to 
and do the things which pertain to the episcopal office in the archbishopric 
of York. Moreover I have heard that before you are consecrated you wish 
to cause the bishop elect of St. Andrews of Scotland to be consecrated at 
York. But this you neither ought to do, nor do I permit it, but altogether 
forbid it to be done, either in his case or in the case of any other person who 
ought to be promoted to the rule of souls by the archbishop of York ; be - 
cause you have no right to give or to concede to any the care of souls which 
you have not yet received. Farewell." (Edmer, 199.) 

At the end of his letter in reply Thomas says : " Of the bishop elect of 
St. Andrews of Scotland, what you have heard are rumours which ought not 
to be believed. That therefore may easily be forbidden, the performance of 
which has not been contemplated by me." (Ibid., 200.) 

2 So S. of D., H.R., ii, 241. Cf. W. of M., G.P., 274. Chr. of Abps., in 
Raine's York, ii, 371. 

H.S., Abps. of Y., in Raine's York, ii, 126 : " The archbishop, conse- 
crated, returned to York, taking with him the cardinal who brought the 
pallium. They were received with fitting honour ; and the archbishop after 
receiving the pall celebrated mass, and then in presence of the cardinal con- 
secrated Turgot, who had been prior of the church of Durham, as bishop of 
St. Andrews of Scotland. 

" And Fothach " [MS. Eod hoc, read Fodhoch] " his predecessor, be- 
cause he had been ordained by the Scots, came by counsel and command of 
king Malcolm and queen Margaret to Thomas I to make amends and to be 
reconciled, and professed canonical subjection to the church of York, and to 
archbishop Thomas and his successors. And in York, at the command of 
the archbishop, he dedicated churches. And this perhaps I ought to have 
said when I treated of Thomas I." Cf. supra, s.a. 1077, n. 

For Fothach cf. Chr. of Abps., in Raine's York, ii, 363 ; where his name 
is spelt Foderoch, for which read Fodhoch. 

3 The 27th June. This was after Thomas had professed " subjection 
and canonical obedience " to the church of Canterbury ; Edm., H.N., 210. 
Cf. W. of M., G.P., 262 ; H.S., Abps. of Y., in Raine's York, ii, 124. 

4 The] 1st August. Fl. of W. has in kal. : S. of D., u.s., has Hi. kal., the 
30th -_ July. 


of Durham, in the bishopric of St. Andrews, called Cenrimunt, 
in Scotland. 1 


But that the church should no longer waver through lack 
of a shepherd, king Henry commanded, upon the request of 
[Alexander,] the king of Scots, that Thomas the younger, arch- 
bishop of York, should consecrate [Turgot] without any de- 
mand for subjection, 2 saving the authority of either church ; so 
that afterwards a just conclusion should decide the contro- 
versy on either side, where, and when, and by whom the 
question should be examined into. 

Thus consecrated, therefore, he came to Scotland ; and 
when, through quarrels arising, he could not worthily perform 
the episcopal office, he resolved to go to Rome, and there to 
conduct his life by the counsel and judgment of the lord pope 
Paschal [II]. 



In the year 1113 monks of Tiron came to England, ten years 
before the monks of Savigny came to England. 

The monks of Tiron came to Selkirk in the land of David, 
king of Scotland ; and there abode for fifteen years. 


In this year king Henry was in Windsor at Christmas. . . . 

1 A later form of the name was Kilrymont. 

For evidence that about this time St. Andrews was a seaport for tra- 
vellers from the north of England to the continent see Mir. S. J., Contin. a, 
inRaine'sYork, i, 308, 314, 315, 315-317; Vita Oswini, in Miscellanea Biogra- 
phica, 45. For other evidence of intercourse between Scotland and England 
cf. W.K., Mir. S. J., u.s., 274-275, 287-291. 

About the same time W. of M. writes of Wearmouth as being " in the 
remotest district, . . . close to Scotland " ; G.R., i, 59. 

2 Nevertheless the Chr. of the Abps. of York claims that Turgot at his 
consecration professed subjection to York; in Raine's York, ii, 371. Cf . also 
H.S., infra, s.a. 1115, note. 

3 This passage is written at the foot of the page : the first sent mce under 
the second column, with a mark of reference to the date ; the second sen- 
tence under the first column, with no such reference ; Arnold, ibid., note. 
See infra, s.a. 1128. 

4 In Plummer, S.C., i, 244. 


Also he gave the earldom of Northamptonshire to David, 
who was the queen's brother. x 

Thereafter died Thomas, the archbishop of York, on the 
thirteenth day before the Kalends of March. 2 

1109 x 1114 


VOL. II, P. 127. 3 

This Thomas [II] ordained as bishop to the church of 
Glasgow a holy man, Michael, who gave written profession of 

1 Cf . the charters addressed to him and others by Henry I, in Chr. of 
Ramsey, 227 ; one 1115 x 1119, the other 1114 x 1118. 

2 The 17th of February. A.S.C., MS. E, gives no date. Fl. of W., ii, 
67, says on the 24th February ; so S. of D., H.R., ii, 248. H.S., Abps. of Y. ? 
says the 19th ; Raine's York, ii, 128 ; so Chr. of Abps., ibid., 372. 

3 Cf. the prohibition, 1109x1114, of Thomas II of York, refusing to 
allow chrism and oil to be given in Teviotdale except from the bishop of 
Durham, because it is " in the parish of the bishop of Durham " ; in Raine's 
York, iii, 37 : that is to say, denying that Teviotdale pertained to Glasgow. 
Cf. s.a. 1107, supra, note. 

With the claim of York to superiority over Glasgow cf . the letter of Ralph, 
archbishop of Canterbury, to pope Calixtus II ; in Raine's York, ii, 241 : 
" and indeed of the bishop of Glasgow it is to be related in short that he is a 
bishop of the ancient Britons, who the blessed father Gregory decreed should 
severally be subject to the bishop of Canterbury. And the bishop of this 
church to wit, according to the tradition of their elders, down to these times 
of the Normans used to be consecrated by the bishop either of the Scots or o f 
the Welsh Britons." 

Ibid., 246-247 : " [Thomas II] therefore ordained a certain Briton as 
bishop to the Glasgow church, which almost beyond memory had not had 
the solace of a bishop. And of this bishop it is to be known that, as has 
been said before, if he was bishop of the ancient Britons, according to the 
decrees of the blessed father Gregory he was the suffragan of the church of 

" But if perchance because of the nearness of the provinces he ought 
to be regarded, although by change of place and people, as a bishop of the 
Picts, none the less is he subject to the church of Canterbury, inasmuch as 
he was appointed and created by archbishop Theodore, as Bede bears witness. 

" Nevertheless, as is found in the records 'of those holy men, Columba, 
to wit, priest and abbot, who, as Bede relates, first preached Christ to the 
peoples of the Scots and Picts, before the arrival of St. Augustine in Britain, 
and the venerable bishop Kentigern, who first ruled the church of Glasgow, 
this was not a bishop of Whithorn whom Theodore appointed, but he was one 
of those ancient bishops of the peoples of Britain whom, as has often been 
said above, St. Gregory subjected severally to the church of Canterbury." 

Kentigern is said to have been born about 516 at Culross, and to have 
died on the 13th January, 601 ; cf. Keith, Sc. Bps., 231. The Ann. Cambr. 
appear to place his. death in 612. 

The next recorded occupation of the see is that of John, who was nomi- 
nated by David, and consecrated by Paschal II, probably in 1117 ; H. & S., 
i, 14 ; Inquisitio Davidis, ibid., ii, 18. 


canonical obedience to the church of York and to archbishop 
Thomas and his successors. 

He lived for some time with the archbishop, and by his 
command dedicated churches in our diocese, and made orders. 
He rests buried in the church of Morland, where by a happy end 
he departed to God. 

Kinsi, archbishop of York, 1 had consecrated his predeces- 
sors Magsuea and John, as we have learned from truthful men 
who testified that they had seen it done. But because of 
hostile invasion and desolation and the barbarity of the land 
for long the church was without a pastor, until earl David (after- 
wards king of Scotland) appointed as bishop Michael aforesaid, 
and sent him over to be consecrated by archbishop Thomas. 

And Thomas ordained as bishop of the Orkney isles Ralph, 2 
a priest of the town of York, elected by the Orcadians in the 
church of St. Peter. His predecessors 3 had been ordained 
by our archbishops : Ralph, 4 by Thomas I ; and Roger, 5 a 
monk of the monastery of Whitby, by Gerard. 6 

1 Kinsi received the pallium in 1055 ; A.S.C., MS. D ; and died on the 
21st December, 1060 ; A.S.C., MSS. D, E. Cf. supra, s.a. 1059. 

Chr. of the Abps., in Raine's York, ii, 343-344 : " [Kinsi] ordained 
Magsuea " [Mac Suein ? in text, Magsuem] " as bishop of the church of 
Glasgow ; likewise also he consecrated the successor of that Magsuea, John, 
elected to the same church. And he received from them documents of pro- 
fession ; but in the conflagration made by the Normans of the church of 
York these were burned, along with the ornaments and books and the privi- 
leges and other charters." St. Peter's Minster was burned down by the 
Normans before the Danes reached York in the northern rising against 
William I ; v. A.S.C., MS. D, s.a. 1069. 

2 For Ralph Nowel v. infra, s.a. 1128. 

Chr. of the Abps. of York, in Raine's York, ii, 372 : " Ralph also, a 
priest of the town of York, elected by the Orcadians in the church of St. 
Peter, the same Thomas [II] ordained as bishop of the Orkney isles. And 
[Ralph] made and gave him written profession, which thus begins : ' I, 
Ralph, of the holy Orcadian church,' etc." 

3 For the earlier history of the see, ca. 1055, cf. Adam of Bremen, in 
M.G.H., SS., vii, 366 : " Moreover [Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen] ap- 
pointed a certain Thurolf to the Orkneys. Thither also he sent John, 
ordained in Scotland, and one Adalbert, his namesake." 

Ibid, 384 : " To the same Orkney islands, although formerly they were 
ruled by bishops of the English and the Scots, our primate by order of the 
pope ordained Thurolf as bishop in the city of Blascona, to direct the affairs 
of all." 

4 For Ralph I cf. supra, s.a. 1077. 

5 Cf. Chr. of Abps., in Raine's York, ii, 367 : " [Gerard] also ordained 
Ralph's successor Roger as bishop of the Orkneys, first having received from 
him profession, which thus begins : ' I, Roger, now to be ordained bishop 
of the holy Orcadian church,' etc." Cf. the letter of Anselm, in H. & S., 
ii, 167-168. 

6 Gerard was archbishop of York 1102-1108 ; cf. W. of M., G.P., 259; 
A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1108; H.S., in Raine's York, ii, 110-111, where he is 
stated to have died on the 21st of May : Chr. of Abps., ibid., ii, 365-366. 

Cf. the letter of pope Paschal II, in Raine's York, iii, 22 : " Bishop 


tinued from 1109.) 2 

But quarrels increasing between him and the king prevented 
[Turgot] from carrying this into effect ; l and through distress 
of mind he fell into a melancholy. 

And hence he received permission to stay for a while at 
Durham, because of his infirmity ; and on the vigil of the 
apostles Peter and Paul 2 he came to Wear mouth, where for- 
merly he had received from Aid win the monk's habit. And 
there he celebrated mass in the morning, as well as he could, 
and set out for St. Cuthbert ; 3 and taking to his bed there, was 
prepared for his decease by fevers, sometimes mild, sometimes 
violent , and this for two months and four days. 4 

And when the hour of his decease arrived, while he was say- 
ing, as best he could, in prayer, " In peace was prepared his 
place and his habitation in Zion," 5 and " praise ye the Lord 
in his sanctuary," 6 he expired in the hands of the brethren, 
on the second 7 before the Kalends of April, the third day of 
the week, at the third hour, after completing the eighth year 
of his episcopate, two months and ten days : obtaining from 
God the reward which he had diligently asked, that he should 
render his soul near the sacred body of Cuthbert. And he was 
buried in the chapter-house. His body lies between the body 

Paschal, servant of the servants of God, to his honourable brethren the 
suffragans throughout Scotland of the metropolis of York, greeting and 
apostolic benediction. 

"May your affection know that we by the grace of omnipotent Gcd 
have promoted to the metropolis of York our venerable brother Gerard, for- 
merly bishop of Hereford ; and have by liberality of the apostolic see granted 
to him the pallium and the privilege. And therefore we instruct and com- 
mand that you show him henceforth due obedience, as to your archbishop." 

1 I.e. his projected visit to Rome. 

2 28th June. 

3 I.e. for Durham. 

4 H.S., in Raine's York, ii, 130 : " [Thurstan] went thither, . . . ard 
found at Durham Turgot, bishop of St. Andrews of Scotland, lying in the 
sickness from which he did not recover. And [Turgot] rejoiced exceeding] y 
in his journey and arrival, and gave himself into his hands, recognizing him 
as his father and metropolitan ; and promising to obey him devotedly, if Gcd 
should restore him to health." 

5 Psalm LXXVI. 

6 Psalm CL. 

7 The 31st March. But clearly 31st August is meant, that date being 
" 2 months and 4 days" from 28th June. His death is dated on the 31st 
of August by king Alexander I, infra ; and the 31st August was a Tuesday 
in 1115. 


of bishop Walcher to the south, and that of bishop William to 
the north. 

And he died in the year from the Lord's incarnation 1115. 1 


At this same time 2 Alexander, king of Scots, sent this letter 
to archbishop Ralph : 3 

" To his dearest lord and father Ralph, venerable arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Alexander, by God's mercy king of the 
Scots, greeting and the obeisance of devoted faithfulness. 

" We inform you, kindest father, that the bishop of the 
church of St. Andrew the apostle, master Turgot, on the 
second 4 before the Kalends of September departed from the 
world. Wherefore we are greatly afflicted by the loss of so 
great consolation. 

" We request therefore your Fatherliness's counsel and aid, 
even as we trust in you, that with God's help we may be able 
to substitute such a one as may know how profitably to rule 
and to teach us and our nation by a life pleasing to God. 

" We ask also that you may deign to remember what 
already on one occasion we mentioned to you concerning 
the bishops of the church of St. Andrews, that in ancient times 
they used not to be consecrated except either by the Roman 
pontiff himself, or by the archbishop of Canterbury. And 
this we have adhered to, and have established by authority 
through successive terms of office, until lord archbishop 
Lanfranc, by what agreement we know not, in the absence 
of us and ours for a time passed it on to Thomas, archbishop 
of York. But this we by no means permit to continue thus 
any longer, being supported, if it please you, by your authority. 

" Now therefore, if we are to hope for your assistance, 
which with most humble prayers we desire and ask, in 
restoring this to us and to our church, see that you send back 
in your esteemed letters sure information secretly. 
" Farewell." 

1 Cf. S. of D., H.R., ii, 249, s.a. 1115. 

2 This passage follows the consecration in Westminster abbey of Ber- 
nard, bishop of St. Davids, on the 19th September, 1115. (Ibid., 235-236.) 

3 Ralph of Seez, archbishop of Canterbury, 1114-1122. 

4 31st August, 1115. 



IN RAINE'S YOKK, VOL. Ill, PP. 40-41. l 

Bishop Calixtus, servant of the servants of God, to all the 
bishops throughout Scotland, suffragans of the church of 
York, greeting and apostolic benediction. 

A certain grave and perilous presumption is said to pre- 
vail in your parts, to wit that, without consulting your metro- 
politan and other fellow-bishops, one is consecrated as bishop 
by another. But concerning this undoubted presumption 
pay heed diligently to what the great Nicene synod has de- 
termined, in its fourth chapter. . 

Therefore by apostolic authority we command you that 
none be consecrated henceforth as bishop in your churches 
except by your metropolitan the archbishop of York, or by 
his permission. 

Moreover we instruct and command your fraternity that 
setting every pretext aside you offer canonical obedience to 
our venerable brother Thurstan, consecrated archbishop of 
York by God's grace, and as if by the hands of St. Peter ; 
even as in the time of Gerard, archbishop of the same church, 
was commanded by the lord of holy memory our predecessor, 
pope Paschal. 

And if you obey our commands may the divine mercy 
keep you, and lead you to eternal life. 

1 Cf. Calixtus's letter of the same date given by H.S., Abps. of Yk., in 
Raine's York, ii, 167-168: " Letters of the same pope to all the bishops of 
Scotland, subject to the metropolitan church of York : 

" ' Bishop Calixtus, servant of the servants of God, to the venerable 
brethren Ranulf [Flambard] of Durham, Ralph [Nowel] of Orkney, [John] 
of Glasgow, and all the bishops throughout Scotland, suffragans of the church 
of York, greeting and apostolic benediction. . . . 

" We therefore command your Fraternity by authority of the present 
letters that you be very diligently heedful to love and honour our brother 
Thurstan aforesaid as your metropolitan, and to show him henceforth due 
obedience and honour, setting every pretext aside. 

" ' Given at Beauvais on the twelfth before the kalends of December.' " 

Contrast with this claim the letter of Alexander, supra, s.a. 1115 ; and 
compare G. of M., H.Br., IV, 19 ; R. de D., Abbr. Chr., i, 66 ; a copyist of 
W. of M., in G.P., p. xxvi ; the declaration of Thomas to Lanfranc, W. of M., 
G.P., 43. 

For the compact made between the two archbishops v. H. & S., ii, 159 : 
" And the metropolitan of Canterbury has granted to the archbishop of 
York and his successors to possess for ever the subjection of the bishop of 
Durham, that is, of Lindisfarne ; and of all districts from the boundaries of 
the bishop of Lichfield and that of the great river Humber even to the farthest 
borders of Scotland ; and whatever on the other side of the aforesaid river 
rightly pertains to the territory of the church of York." 

In support of the Canterbury claim to the subjection of the Scottish 


Given at Beauvais, the twelfth * before the Kalends of 



In the same year in which Ralph, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, returned from foreign parts to England, (it was the 
1120th year from the incarnation of the word of God,) came 
to him certain honourable and vigorous men sent by Alexander, 
king of Scots. Of these, one was a monk and prior of the 
church of Dunfermline, Peter by name ; two were priests, 
and one was a knight. And he who cares to know the busi- 
ness of their embassy, let him run through, reading or hearing, 
the following letter which they brought : 

" Alexander, by God's grace king of Scots, to Ralph 
archbishop of Canterbury, reverend and with reverence to 
be beloved, greeting. 

" Hearing sure tidings of your prosperous arrival in England, 
long desired by me, I rejoice with you over your safety and 
prosperity, and return thanks therefor to the highest Pro- 
tector. While occupation on all sides with temporal cares 
prevents me from travelling so as to be able at present to 
enjoy your presence, I wish to declare to your Goodness the 
affection of my mind, both by description in a letter and 
by relation of messengers. For, supported by the advice 
of a person of so great prudence, I do not doubt that I shall 
be able, with God's favour, excellently to carry through a 
good purpose to the performance of a good work. 

" I wiU not then conceal from your Excellency that the 
church of St. Andrew which is in my kingdom has for long 
lacked pastoral care, and that I wish to comfort its longings, 
by the providence of God and of your grace, with a suitable 
pastor. Wherefore I beg the clemency of your mercy, that 

bishops cf. the Letter of Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, to pope Calix- 
tus II; in Raine's York, ii, 234-235, 240. Cf. supra, 1109x1114, note. 
Extracts from this letter are in H. & S., ii, 193-195. 

Thurstan had succeeded to the archbishopric of York in 1114; A.S.C., 
MSS. E, H; 15th August, Fl. of W., ii, 67. He was consecrated in 1119, 
A.S.C., MS. E ; J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 73. He died in 1 140, Feb. 5, J. of W. , 
in Fl. of W., ii, 123 ; Feb. 6, S. of D., H.R., ii, 305 ; having become a monk 
on the 21st January, according to J. of W., u.s. 

For the relations between the popes and Thurstan cf . letters to him from 
Calixtus II, infra, s.a. ? 1122 ; from Innocent II, in Raine's York, iii, 63-64, 
and infra, s.a. ? 1134 ; and ibid., iii, 266, s.a. 1136 ; from Honorius II, ibid., 
47-48, 49, s.a. 1125. 

1 20th November. 


you grant me in freedom a certain person commended to 
me by very many ; namely the monk Edmer, if he seem to 
you worthy to be enthroned in episcopal rank. For I tremble 
lest I have grievously offended the highest Shepherd, by 
allowing his flock (through my negligence ; and perhaps 
encumbered with other charges) to be so long desolate for 
lack of a pastor, and in many ways to be turned aside from 
the path of truth ; I also shrink with filial fear from offending 
him further in this matter, and repair to the fount of your 
prudence, that you, being mindful of the love which has 
mutually existed between us, may defend me, your son, 
long since spiritually adopted by you with paternal affec- 
tion, with the protection of your counsel in this matter. 


Father Ralph marvelled over this, and thought that this 
word was gone out from God ; especially because it was 
perfectly well known that this brother had neither in his own 
person nor through any man applied at all to anyone in this 
matter. And although father Ralph was ill pleased to have 
him absent, (for Edmer was wont to be zealous in his service, 
as he had been in that of his blessed predecessor Anselm,) 
yet he was loth not to give assent to the king's request, lest 
he should seem to oppose God's decree. 

Since therefore he had received these ambassadors, who 
were on their lord's account upon their way for the same pur- 
pose and for others to the king of the English, [Ralph] and 
the convent of the brethren of Canterbury sent this letter 
by their hands to the king : 

" To Henry, king of the English, his dear lord, and to 
be esteemed with highest honour, father Ralph, unworthy 
bishop of the holy church of Canterbury, and the whole 
convent of that church, greeting and prayers, and faithful 

" We make it known to your sublime Goodness and 
honourable Highness that Alexander, king of Scots, with 
consent of the clergy and people of his realm, has sent his 
ambassadors to -us, and besought of our church counsel of 
pastoral care for the needs of the church of St. Andrew. Con- 
sidering therefore their just request, and regarding both the 
honour due to the fear of God, and the advantage of holy 
mother church, we have given devout assent to their praise- 
worthy desires. We have therefore granted, .according to 
their request, a person of our church named by them, master 
Edmer, whom we know to have been trained from boyhood 


in church discipline, and to be fittingly adorned with holy 
customs, and altogether worthy of episcopal office. And we 
beg of your venerable Excellency with humble hearts that 
by your Highness 's devout will and authority both their 
request (a worthy one before God) and the concession of our 
humility in a matter so necessary to the church of God may 
be approved. 

" May almighty God deign to preserve your Highness 
in safety for long time, for his honour and the defence of his 
church ; and after your temporal reign to honour you with 
the rank of an eternal kingdom. Amen." 

The king's answer to this : 

" Henry, king of the English, to Ralph, archbishop of 
Canterbury, greeting. 

" I will and permit that thou grant in freedom to the king 
of Scotland the monk concerning whom he has besought thee, 
after the custom of his land, in the bishopric of St. Andrews. 

"Witness Evera[r]d of Came, at Rouen." 

After this, father Ralph sent that brother, as he thought 
behooved him, to the king of Scotland, writing to the king in 
this wise : 

" To his dear lord and intimate friend, Alexander, by 
God's grace king of the Scots, brother Ralph, unworthy 
minister of the church of Canterbury, greeting ; and, with 
prayers, faithful services to the extent of his power. 

" We give unnumbered thanks to God, who has dispelled 
the mists and opened the eyes of your mind to know and to 
seek that which was your duty. And none the less thanks 
to you all, in that you have by your righteous requests ren- 
dered us the most friendly to you of your friends, and of 
your intimates the most intimate and the closest. For al- 
though in these requests you seek to tear from our body as 
it were an eye or a right hand, yet I have to praise your just 
desire, and comply with it, God granting, in so far as I can. 
Willingly, indeed, and, if it may be said without offence 
to God or to you, unwillingly, I concede to your good desire : 
willingly, because I dare not oppose God's .will, which I see 
present and auspicious in this transaction, nor to embitter 
your heart against us ; but unwillingly, because in my weak- 
ness and age, left as it were alone, I am deprived both of the 
consolation and persistent support of a father and of the 
counsel and aid of a wise son. A wise man's counsel ! Would 
that you did not despoil us of it ! But seeing that you do 
despoil us, would that you may endeavour that your country 


be ruled, in the things which pertain to God, by the counsel 
of so great a man ; one so renowned, so useful to the church 
of God in his life and customs ; trained from his boyhood 
both in divine writings and. if need were, in secular writings 
also. If another from distant parts were to ask what you 
are asking, know this for certain, that I would not suffer to 
be taken from us the treasure of our heart ; but to you there 
is nothing, God willing, that we would refuse. 

" We send to you therefore the person whom you ask, 
and altogether in freedom, that he may learn more surely 
from you whether your request is directed toward the honour 
of God and of the holy mother, the church of Canterbury. 
Consider carefully therefore and advisedly what you do, for 
there are many who would gladly disturb his consecration, 
and by disturbing it, if they could, bring it to naught. There- 
fore our advice would be that so soon as possible he should 
be sent back to us for consecration, lest by delay what we 
fear should intervene, or what we should like ill. 

" The convent of the brethren of our church salute you ; 
truly your subjects, and altogether ready for your service. 
And we ask this in common, that you so treat our brethren 
who are in your realm that God may be grateful to you for 
it, and we. Almighty God keep you and your spouse, and 
defend you from all evil. Amen." 

The brother came therefore to Scotland, and presently, 
on the third day of his arrival, (the day which was that of 
the festival of the most glorious apostles Peter and Paul, 1 ) 
received the episcopate of the apostle St. Andrew of Kilry- 
mont ; the clergy and the people of the land electing him, 
and the king consenting. 

And this affair was, by God's dispensation, so performed 
that [Edmer] neither was invested by the king with the 
pastoral staff or ring, nor did he do the king homage. And 
so the day was kept with rejoicing, and was joyously spent 
in the praise of God. 

But on the morrow the king discussed more secretly with 
the bishop elect concerning his consecration, and in every way 
abhorred his being consecrated by the [archjbishop of York ; 
and when upon [Edmer's] showing he heard that from old 
time the authority of the church of Canterbury was over the 
whole of Britain, 2 and that therefore [the king] so deciding 

1 29th June. 

2 Even S. of D., H.R., ii, 250, changes Bede's phrase " all the church 
of the English " (H.E., IV, 2 ; i, 204) into " all the bishops of Britain," 


[Edmer] wished to ask the episcopal benediction of Canterbury, 
[the king] was disturbed in his mind, and rising departed 
from him. For he would not that the church of Canterbury 
should be placed before the church of St. Andrew of Scotland. 

He therefore called William, a monk of St. Edmund's, 
(who after Turgot had been set over this bishopric, and had 
almost drained it,) and instructed him to remain as he used 
to be in the bishopric, plundering the newly invested bishop. 

A whole month had passed after this, and such lands of 
the bishopric as remained had been wholly drained [of revenue] 
when according to the wish of the princes of the realm king 
Alexander met with the bishop elect and with difficulty ob- 
tained from him that, because [the king] was planning to 
lead an army against his enemies, [Edmer] should receive 
the pastoral staff from off the altar, as if from the hand of 
God, that so he might apply himself thenceforth in so far as 
he could to the care of all souls in the whole realm. After 
this [Edmer] came to the church of St. Andrew ; and there 
the queen met him, and he was received by the scholars and 
by the people, and succeeded to the office of bishop. 

Meanwhile Thurstan [archbishop] of York delayed thus 
long in foreign parts, and exerted himself manfully in his 
affair above-mentioned ; and incited the English king even 
to this, that once in writing he commanded the [arch]bishop 
of Canterbury, and the king of Scots three times, that neither 
should the former consecrate the elect of St. Andrews, nor 
should the latter by any reason permit him to be consecrated. 
And this thing wounded the feelings of many and set them 
at variance, and in no small degree disabled the bishop elect 
from applying himself in the capacity of bishop to the cor- 
rection of Christians. Therefore those were encouraged who 
were minded to obey their own pleasures rather than the 
commands of God ; and the correction which they dreaded 
of their customs they now mocked fearlessly. 

To be brief, the king himself became alarmed by the 
English king's commands, and began thenceforward to have 
the man in less honour in his presence, and gradually to re- 
duce his [revenues.] And [Edmer] observed this, and most 
surely knowing that he could effect but little for God in his 
realm if [the king] were opposed to him proposed to go to 
Canterbury, and seek thence counsel as to what best he should 
do in such a case. 

But when he made this known to the king, [the king] said 
that [Edmer] had been wholly released from the church of 


Canterbury, and had no part in her at all ; and that he would 
never in his life consent that a Scottish bishop should be 
subject to the [arch]bishop of Canterbury. And when 
[Edmer] replied that not for the whole of Scotland would he 
deny that he was a monk of Canterbury, the king's spirit 
was disturbed, and he said, " We have done nothing in 
seeking for ourselves a bishop from Canterbury." 

Overcome therefore thenceforward by rancour of mind 
the king began to distress this man in many ways, to harass 
him with many wrongs, privately and publicly ; to despoil 
him of the rank and revenue of episcopal possessions. He could 
not look straight upon him, nor hear with patience his words, 
even if they were inspired by God. And this matter could 
not be hid from the people. Thus many rumours arose, 
embittering the two sides one against the other. 

The bishop elect observed this, and considering that his 
existence (as we have previously mentioned) under such 
circumstances was of no use, sent word to the king by inter- 
mediaries as follows : " Since I see that thou art not, as were 
for my benefit, favourably disposed towards me, and I know 
not how it is that I have deserved it ; and since it is certain 
that I shall not effect much in thy kingdom under thy dis- 
pleasure in the correction of Christians, I ask that thou permit 
me to go to Canterbury, attended by thy favour, in order 
that I may both ask there counsel as to what I should do and 
receive there episcopal benediction, for the honour of God 
and the exaltation of the kingdom of Scots." 

This was not pleasing to [the king's] mind ; and he asserted 
that he would by no means give his assent, protesting that 
the kingdom of Scotland owed no subjection to the church 
of Canterbury, and that [Edmer] himself had been made 
wholly independent of that church when he was given to 
him. And when [Edmer] answered him that hitherto he 
had not known this, especially as the letter sent for him by 
the archbishop to [the king] contained among other things 
that [the archbishop] had sent him to Scotland for this pur- 
pose, to learn whether the king's request which he had made 
in choosing him was directed toward the honour of God and 
of the holy mother, that is to say the church of Canterbury, 
not in order that the [archbishop] might resign through him, 
his foster-son, the rank held by that church unshaken for 
now five hundred years ; the king was very wroth, and 
swore that he could not enter into new pleas every day in this 


Thereupon Edmer called into consultation with him John, 
bishop of Glasgow, and two monks of Canterbury whom he 
had with him at the time ; and asked of them what they 
decided he should best do in such an affair. 1 Then they 
went to the king and learning more fully the attitude of his 
mind toward the man they enjoined this upon [Edmer,] as 
though the conclusion of their counsel sprang not from [the 
king,] but solely from themselves : 

" If thou wishest, as a son of peace, to live in peace, seek 
it elsewhere ; here, so long as this [king] reigns, there will 
be no communion between peace and thee. We know the 
man. He wishes in his kingdom to be all things alone, and 
will not endure that any authority have the least power in 
any matter, without his control. Now he is inflamed against 
thee and knows not why ; never will he be fully reconciled 
with thee, even if he should see wherefore. And therefore 
know that thou must either leave all, or lead thy life in dis- 
honour continually among the Scots, following their usages, 
contrary to the safety of thy soul. But if thou prefer to 
depart, thou art compelled to restore to him both the ring 
which thou didst receive from his hand, and the staff which 
thou didst take from off the altar. Otherwise, except thou 
art able to fly over it, thou shalt not escape from his land." 

In reply to this how much was said, how much contested 
on either side, I am reluctant to write, and turn to other 

But after all this the bishop elect himself, considering 
the manner in which everything in connection with him had 
been done, namely how he had received the ring from the 
king's hand, how he had been invested in the bishopric, how 
he had taken the staff from off the altar, answered thus in 
brief : 

" The ring which I received from his hand I will gladly 
restore, inasmuch as I have received none of the authority 
which is betokened by it, for it was given by a layman, to whom 
such power in no way belongs ; but the staff which I took 
from off the altar in presence of two bishops I will place where 
I received it, and commend it to be disposed of by the dis- 
pensation of Jesus Christ. And I consent, because force is 
used against me, to resign the whole episcopate upon the 
understanding that I shall not reclaim it in the time of king 

1 Cf. the remarkable letter of advice written in 1120 to Edmer in Scot- 
land by Nicholas, prior of Worcester, a monk of Canterbury ; in Wharton's 
Anglia Sacra, ii, 234-236 ; H. & S., ii, 202-204. 


Alexander, unless the [arch]bishop and convent of Canter- 
bury and the king of the English give me other counsel 
regarding it." 



1121. * 

Edmer, monk of the church of Canterbury, the previous 
year elected to the bishopric of the church of St. Andrew of 
the nation of the Scots, gave up his purpose of ruling the 
bishopric, and returned to his own place. 


EDMER, HISTORIA NOVORUM, PP. 285-288. (Continued.) 

Under these circumstances they parted in peace ; and 
Edmer came to Canterbury, and was joyfully received by 
the [archjbishop and by his brethren. For he was beloved 
by all ; and as they had been saddened by his absence, so 
in his presence they were made exceeding joyful. 

But the king sent by his envoy one letter in accusation 
of him to the archbishop, of the following content : 

" Alexander, by God's grace king of the Scots, to Ralph, 
reverend archbishop of Canterbury, ever to live in Him who 
is life. 

" To your immeasurable goodness in yielding to my re- 
quest, and sending to me a person to be raised to the bishopric 
of St. Andrews, the friendly and, as is right, submissive 
affection of my mind returns unnumbered thanks. 

" But the person when placed in the bishopric would not 
yield to the customs of the land and the manners of the folk, 
as affairs and occasion demanded, and as would have been 
right and necessary. And at last this person besought of 
me, in the presence of certain bishops and earls and good 
men of my land, that I would grant him permission to retire, 
and freedom from the allegiance which he had made to me : 
since on no account would he remain, unless I detained him 
in captivity. Hearing this I answered him in these words, 
that if he could show that any wrongs had been inflicted 
upon him by me, in word or in deed, or that I had failed in 
any of the things which I ought to have done for him, I was 
most willingly ready, for love of God and for my own honour, 

1 So Hoved., i, 178. 


to improve. He replied to this in presence of all who stood 
by, that I had put no wrongs upon him, either in word or in 
deed, and that I had never failed to do anything which I 
ought to have done for him. Besides this, I myself and the 
bishops and earls and the other good men of my land there 
present, offered, with great friendliness, respectful obedience 
in everything that was right ; and reminded him with strong 
exhortation that it was not necessary for him to leave his 
office for lack of honourable display of respect ; and we 
earnestly asked that he would remain until I had informed 
the king of England and you, that I might have the benefit 
of counsel from both. After listening to this he answered 
me that he would on no account remain, unless I kept him 
in captivity. For he knew that he was neither profitable 
nor suitable in the control of the bishopric, and he saw that 
if he remained loss threatened his soul and the souls of others. 
At last by common counsel I refused to keep him by force, 
and agreed, though reluctantly, to his request ; and he gave 
up the bishopric, and confirmed with a kiss the bond of friend- 
ship between me and him. And this is the truth of the case, 
which I have wished to declare to you in writing, so that, if 
anything else might reach your ears, you should not believe 

"Lastly may your Goodness know that I wish, as a faith- 
ful friend, to be wholly submissive to you, and desire to be 
subject to your counsel and your affection. And I earnestly 
request you to show honour to master Edmer. 


Now whether in this the king reported to so great a father 
things true, sophistical or false, will not escape the discern- 
ment of Him who in his own time will reveal the counsels, 
inventions and deceits of each one, to repay each according 
to his deeds. 

But father Ralph wrote in reply this letter : 

" To Alexander, illustrious king of the Scots, brother Ralph, 
unworthy minister of the holy church of Canterbury, so to 
reign in his earthly kingdom as to be able to reign with Christ 
in heaven. 

" The thanks which we can, venerable lord, we return 
to your Highness for the gift of love and honour which we 
discern, from the report brought by your envoys and letters, 
you entertain towards our littleness. And in this you shall 
always have, to the extent of our ability, our affection : and 
know surely that if anything in our life (God bestowing) is 


found to be of use, it is yours. We also of our good will pay 
you thanks for the reception of our dearest son Edmer, your 
bishop elect, whom, sent to you by your request, you have 
treated honourably. And him we too have worshipfully 
received, as befits so great a personage, on his return to our 
country ; and have rejoiced in no small degree over his arrival. 

" And when afterwards speech was interchanged more 
privately between us we heard that he thought of some things 
differently from the sense of your letter (which we had heard 
before,) and that he did not wholly give his assent to every- 
thing that we had previously heard. Now therefore, since 
in your letters we have heard one thing and have heard another 
thing from the brother himself, it is our purpose to keep this 
our son beside us until, by God's guidance, you come to Eng- 
land ; unless perchance before then you announce to us any- 
thing else which we should do. And when, God granting, 
we shall be able to speak with you in person, and to hear the 
state of matters on both sides, if the life and teaching of this 
our friend seems to be of use to you and to your land, after 
obedience has been enjoined upon him to the place of his 
election, if you wish to receive him, he can return. But if 
something else be pleasing in your sight, we will keep him 
with great joy, he being as a man of manifold training in 
the word of God, and fitted for every good work ; and thus 
having good hope in God's mercy we shall have profit in his 

" May your affection be ever strong in the Lord." 

So much then of these things. 

1 122 



Archbishop Thurstan 1 demanded of John, bishop of 
Glasgow, 2 profession and subjection; and when he refused 
to do this, suspended him from the episcopal office. 

[John] immediately set out for Rome ; and when he saw 
that he did not prosper there in his cause proceeded to Jeru- 

1 For Thurstan cf. supra, s.a. 1119, note. 

H.S., Abps. of Y., in Raine's York, ii, 208 : " And our [archbishop] 
complained not at all to the king that the [supporters of Canterbury] had 
opposed him as much as they could, when he accused the bishop of Glas- 
gow and the bishops of Scotland of having withdrawn themselves from the 
church of York ; [an act] which was opposed to the dignity of the king of 

2 Cf. supra, 1109x1114, note. 


salem and there stayed for some months, graciously enter- 
tained by the patriarch, whose place he very often took in 
the episcopal duties. 

1 122, Jan. 

YORK, VOL. Ill, p. 44. 

Bishop Calixtus, servant of the servants of God, to his 
venerable brother John, bishop of Glasgow, greeting and 
apostolic benediction. 

Thou wert consecrated as bishop by the lord of holy 
memory our predecessor, by request of the church of York. 
And whereas thou oughtest humbly to have acknowledged 
this benignity, thou hast, as we learn, been so uplifted with 
pride that thou hast refused to offer profession to thy metro- 
politan, the archbishop of York, even in spite of our command. 

Know surely that we cannot longer endure continuance 
in this contumely ; wherefore with repeated command we 
order thee as a not ungrateful son to recognize thy mother, 
the church of York, in whose chapter thou wert elected as 
her suffragan ; and to offer profession to our venerable brother 
Thurstan, thy metropolitan. 

Otherwise by authority of the Lord we ratify the sentence 
which with canonical right he has pronounced against thee. 

Given at Tarentum, the eighteenth 1 before the Kalends 
of February. 

1 122, Jan. 

YORK, VOL. Ill, P. 45. 

Bishop Calixtus, servant of the servants of God, to the 
illustrious and glorious king of Scots, Alexander, greeting 
and apostolic benediction. 

Because of the presumption of the bishops who are in 
thy realm, and in the cause of our venerable brother Thurs- 
tan, archbishop of York, we have already sent thee other 
letters ; but in no point, in so far as we have learned, have 
we been obeyed by thee hitherto. 

Wherefore we exhort thy Nobility in the Lord by the 
visitation of the present letters, and command that thou by 
no means permit the bishops of thy realm to consecrate one 

1 15th January, 


another without permission of the metropolitan. But when 
the circumstance of the churches requires, let the bishops 
elect go reverently to thy metropolitan, to wit the archbishop 
of York, and receive consecration either by his hand, or, if 
need compels, by his permission. 

And indeed by apostolic authority we command both 
them and thee thyself to obey the archbishop as father and 

Given at Tarentum, the eighteenth 1 before the Kalends 
of February. 

1 122, Jan. 

YORK, VOL. Ill, PP. 45-46. 

Bishop Calixtus, servant of the servants of God, to his 
beloved brothers in Christ, all the bishops throughout Scot- 
land, suffragans of the church of York, greeting and apostolic 

We remember that we exhorted you all long ago in our 
letters to yield honour and obedience to our venerable brother 
Thurstan, archbishop of York ; but, as we have been in- 
formed, you have till now neglected to do so. 

Therefore we repeat to you the injunction of the apostolic 
see and command you to lay aside all pretext and dissimu- 
lation and to recognize our brother aforesaid, archbishop of 
the church of York, as your metropolitan appointed over 
you, and to show him honour and obedience. 

Moreover let the elected of the churches go to him to 
receive consecration as to their metropolitan. And let not 
one presume to consecrate another without [the metropolitan's] 
permission : his consecration also shall be void, and we shall 
not be able to forego doing canonical justice concerning it, 
God supporting us. 

Given at Pisa, the eighteenth 2 before the Kalends of 

? 1 1 22, May. 

VOL. Ill, PP. 46-47. 

Bishop Calixtus, servant of the servants of God, to his 
venerable brother Thurstan, archbishop of York, greeting 
and apostolic benediction. 

1 15th January. 2 15th January. 


Our brother John, bishop of Glasgow, about whom you 
have written, has come to us and laboured by great persistence 
in prayers and in several other ways that we should free him 
from the exhibition of that profession which thou demandest 
of him. But we, both wishing to preserve to the church of, 
York her dignity and recalling to memory thy affection, have 
not granted assent to that father's prayers, neither to his words 
nor to his promises. Therefore he has set out for Jerusalem, 
as has been told us by others, and departed from the city 
without our permission or knowledge. What he will do we 
know not. 

Do thou therefore, dearest brother, so study to love thy 
mother, the Roman church, and to visit her with thy mes- 
sengers ; and so also be mindful of our affection, that thou 
mayest ever be more worthy of, and ever have, the favour of 
apostolic good-will. 

Given at the Lateran, the seventeenth x before the Kalends 
of June. 

1 122, July. 


Sibylla, queen of Scots, daughter of King Henry, departed 
by sudden death on the fourth 2 before the Ides of July. 

? i 1 22, Aug. 

VOL. Ill, p. 47. 

Bishop Calixtus, servant of the servants of God, to John, 
bishop of Glasgow, greeting and apostolic benediction. 

Moved by many prayers of our beloved son Alexander, 
king of Scots, we have given thee respite for some time for 
thy return, within the term of the day appointed, with due 
humility to obedience to our venerable brother Thurstan, 
archbishop of York. 

And as we have learned by the immediate information 
of his letters, thou hast presumed to withdraw thyself from 
obedience and subjection to him ; and therefore we com- 
mand thee to return to subjection and obedience to the 
archbishop aforesaid, within thirty days after the receipt of 
these letters. Otherwise we confirm the sentence which has 
been pronounced by him upon thee. 

1 16th May, 2 12th July. 


Given at the Lateran, the seventh l before the Kalends 
of September. 

1 122 


During these varied circumstances 2 the above-named 
bishop of Scotland [Edmer] lived on at Canterbury, as he 
used formerly to do before he had been chosen for the bishopric ; 
not readily forsaking the assembly of the brethren, but con- 
ducting himself after the manner of the others in all things. 
In the above matters passed a whole year and a half. 

There came to Canterbury meanwhile various bishops 
and abbots, and all the prelates who had formerly known the 
man from dwelling with father Anselm, and made inquiry 
concerning his affair. And learning the manner of the case, 
they with one accord declared that, according to the ordin- 
ances of the canons, he could in no way without condem- 
nation resign a church the authority over which he had 
received by canonical election, although he had not been con- 
secrated ; thus arguing that election stood higher in some 
sort than consecration. He therefore followed the advice 
given by them and by some others, being also incited by the 
example of his blessed father Anselm, whose blessed way of 
life had formerly been his guide in many things, and who had 
once been driven from England even as he from Scotland, 
for a like cause, in a similar manner, as has been mentioned 
long before ; 3 and wrote and sent to the king of Scots a 
letter which, behold, we write below : 

" To Alexander, illustrious king of Scots, Edmer, formerly 
bishop elect of Scotland, eternal health in Christ, and faithful 

" For the good will which your Excellence at one time 
deigned to show that you had towards me, the thanks which 
I can, most worthy lord, I render to you. And indeed I am 
not ignorant that it was of your kindness and not for merits 
of mine that you passed over innumerable men adorned with 
both uprightness of life and the dignity of knowledge and 
wisdom, and chose me for the bishopric, and wished me to rule 
over your kingdom in the things which are God's. May 
almighty God give you for such good will the recompense 
which good will deserves in his sight. And this my soul 
prays for and desires every day. 

1 26th August. 2 Affairs of 1120 to 1121, October. 3 Cf. ibid., 79. 


" But that the affair has turned out differently from what 
was the course of our common purpose must be ascribed, I 
doubt not, to God's dispensation, which no one can penetrate 
or escape. What I have learnt, however, upon my departure 
from the bishopric I would make known to your sacred con- 
fidence, if the opportunity were given me of speaking more 
privately with you. For though in the body I departed from 
you, yet know surely that I will not, with God's help, violate 
the allegiance which I owe to you. And hence I shall faith- 
fully seek your honour and the honour of your kingdom, if 
you despise not, in every way I can, be He witness, who 
truly and alone surveys my conscience. And I say not this 
because I greatly desired to be bishop in your kingdom, but 
because I would that the dignity of your land be increased 
rather than diminished. 

" Moreover may your Beatitude know that all who hear 
how I was chosen, received and installed in the bishopric, 
and how I was put in the place of the bishop, with one voice 
declare that neither can I rightfully resign the bishopric, nor 
can another while I live, according to the law of the Lord, 
be put in my place. For neither can a man legally give up 
his wife or a wife her husband, in order to marry another. 
But perhaps you say, ' Thou hast resigned it.' I did resign 
it : but (may I say it with your peace) under the influence 
of force which I was unable to oppose. For seeing that con- 
stant discord and endless hostilities were directed against 
me on your behalf by those whom I knew to be your friends 
unless I wholly abandoned the bishopric, and seeing that your 
conduct towards me agreed therewith, and the confiscation by 
which you despoiled me, without law or justice, of necessity 
I resigned what was taken from me and I could not keep. 

" But to treat of these things in the short space of a letter 
is not conveniently practicable. Wherefore I pass them 
over ; and in brief , if you allow it with your peace, and wish, 
as is becoming to your royal Highness, to assist my return 
to you with honour to complete in your land God's service 
and yours, according to God's will, I suggest that I shall 
endeavour to undertake the journey and in all things to obey 
your will, unless (which God forbid) it seem to oppose the 
will of God. 

" But if you will not at all agree to this, I can do no more ; 
to God I commit his church's cause : let him see, let him 
dispose, let him assign to each in this his affair what each 
deserves. I have freed, as I think, my soul ; I have laid 


my case where I ought, before him, prepared in all things to 
follow his will. 

" Lest you think, however, that I wish to detract in any- 
thing from the freedom or the dignity of the realm of Scots, 
I wish you to be satisfied that what you asked of me, and what 
I then refused to agree to, thinking otherwise then than as 
I ought to have thought, according to what I have since 
learned, regarding the king, that is, of the English, the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and the episcopal benediction : if you 
still continue in your opinion, you shall no longer have my 
refusal ; nor shall these things sunder me in any way from 
the service of God or from love to you, by my not doing what 
you wish. Those things only which belong to the right of 
the bishop of St. Andrews be it permitted me to administer, 
with your good will and devout support. 

" I had brought this ere now to your knowledge ; but 
because the report ran everywhere, all doubt being laid aside, 
that you were coming to England at one time, or at another 
time, or this time certainly, I delayed writing that which I 
chose rather to declare to you in a private interview. 

" Whether you accept this, or discard it for loftier counsel, 
I for my part have acted with simple and pure conscience, 
He seeing and surveying everything who knows with impartial 
rule what to render to each one. Since therefore in his hands 
are the hearts even of all kings, with my inmost heart I pray 
him by his grace to turn your heart and actions to himself, 
so that both his church which sojourns in your land may 
progress from day to day with your help in the holy way of 
life, and your soul may receive accordingly the reward of 
eternal bliss after this life, glorious lord and worthiest son 
of the holy church of God. Amen. 

" What pleases your Sanctity in these matters I humbly 
crave you to inform me, your vassal, in your letters. 

"Farewell, good and holy lord." 

Archbishop Ralph also and the brethren of the church of 
Canterbury sent in those days a letter to the king, containing 
(with other things) the following : 

" To the glorious king of Scots, Alexander, Ralph, un- 
worthy minister of the holy church of Canterbury, and the 
convent of the brethren serving in that church Christ the 
Lord, to rule on earth through Him whom all the heavenly 
host obeys. 

' Your Wisdom knows, dearest lord, how great a time 
the episcopal see which is held to be the greatest in your 


land has lacked its shepherd ; and without doubt as greatly 
as it has been despoiled of its vigour, by so much worse will 
result thereby the downfall of its subjects. And hence we 
exhort your noble Energy (which God's favour has till now 
so honoured among other kings, free from outstanding blame, 
that it is by all held to be worthy of praise,) that you put an 
end to so great a loss to religion, and of your good will recall 
to his see the pastor whom you have canonically elected and 
we have legally sent to you. And since no fault is apparent 
either in you or in him whereby this may not worthily be 
done, we understand not how, by authority of the fathers, 
your church referred to can, in his lifetime, appoint another 
bishop : for a godly spouse spurns all but her lawful husband, 
while hers lives, lest she become adulterous. Wherefore for 
whatsoever reason this has been delayed till now, for the 
sake of your glory recall to the first degree of your affection 
and to the office laid upon him a man who is, as we hope, of 
use to you, and who has been nobly trained from his boy- 
hood in the law of God. 

" The God of peace and of love, from whom every good 
counsel comes forth, be with you always. 

w ' What you think of that which we enjoin upon you, we 
pray you have it written to us in reply. May affection for 
you flourish with the lady the queen your wife, and with all 
who love you and desire the things which are right, glorious 
lord and honourable son of holy mother church. Amen." l 




Meanwhile 2 John, bishop of Glasgow, was recalled by the 
pope from Jerusalem to Rome, and instructed to return to 
his bishopric. 3 

1 Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, died the same year, 1122, on the 
20th October ; Edmer, 302 (on the 19th September, according to S. of D., 
ii, 267.) 

2 I.e., during the dispute between York and Canterbury, when both 
archbishops went to Rome immediately after the consecration of William 
of Curboil in Canterbury, 25th February, 1123, ibid. ; 16th Feb., J. of W., 
in Fl. of W., ii, 77. 

3 John of Glasgow (erroneously called " John, bishop of Lothian ") went 
with John of Crema and the archbishops from London to Rome " soon after " 
the 29th September, 1125 ; A.S.C., MS. E ; Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 219. 
Cf. H.S., Abps. of Y., in Raine's York, ii, 210. 


1124, April. 


And thereafter died king Alexander of Scotland, on the 
ninth day x before the Kalends of May. 2 



Moreover Alexander was sufficiently humble and amiable 
to clergy and monks, but to the rest of his subjects beyond 
measure terrible ; a man of great heart, applying himself in 
all things beyond his strength. And he was literate, and 
most zealous in establishing churches, in seeking out the 
relics of the saints, in the making and regulating of priestly 
robes and holy books ; and also to all visitors most liberal, 
beyond his means. And regarding the poor he was so devout 
that he seemed in nothing to have greater delight than in 
receiving them, washing, nourishing, and clothing them. 



Now in the same year, four months before his death, 
Alexander had caused to be elected to the bishopric of the 
church of St. Andrews which is in Scotland Robert, prior of 
the regular canons at Scone. 

But his ordination was for a long time deferred, 3 because 
of the debt of subjection which, according to custom, Thurstan, 
archbishop of York, demanded of him. But the Scots on 
the other hand said with foolish prating that this was not 
owing to be done, according to any authority or custom. 


COL. 621. 

And David, youngest of the brothers, by wise decision 
shunned the savage invasions of the Scots, and sought the 

1 The 23rd April : so the Scots Peerage, i, 3. Alexander died on the 
25th April, 1123, according to J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 78 ; 25th April, 1124, 
according to the Chr. of Melr., and Chr. of Hoi. ; on the 26th April, 1124, 
according to S. of D., H.R., ii, 275, " after reigning eighteen years and three 
months." R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 111, places his death in 1125 ; 
so also O.V., VIII, 20, in Migne, 188, 622 ; M.P., H.A., i, 235 ; Fl. His., ii, 51. 

2 J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 78, s.a. 1123 : " To Alexander, king of Scots, 
succeeded his brother David " : R. de T., u.s. Ill, "a man of great sanctity, 
and religious " ; M.P., Chr. Maj. ii, 152, " a man of great sanctity and 
wonderful generosity." Cf. supra, s.a. 1093, note. 

3 V. infra, s.a. 1128. 


court of Henry, king of the English. And, while intestine 
slaughter harried the Scots, and in madness of war unappeas- 
ably took arms against its own vitals, he stayed permanently 
in the court of his sister's husband, 1 and grew up, trained 
among the boys of the household ; and merited the familiar 
friendship of the wise and powerful king. 

And hence he received from him the distinguished arms 
of knighthood ; and, presented with manifold gifts, took his 
seat near him, among the chief nobles. 


Moreover king David took to wife, king Henry giving her 
to him, Matilda, daughter of earl Waldeve and of Judith, 
who was the niece of the first king William. And of her 
[David] had a son Henry, a man gentle and pious, a man of 
sweet nature and of pure heart, and worthy in all things to 
be born of such a father. 

And with [Henry] I have lived from the cradle, and have 
grown up with him, as boys together ; and in my youth I 
have known his youth also. 

And in the body, but never in mind or affection, in order 
to serve Christ I left him, in the full bloom of his prime ; as 
a] so his father, now flourishing in hale old age, whom I have 
loved beyond all mortals. 


COL. 621-622. 

Now his first-born offspring, of male sex, was cruelly slain 
by a certain miserable cleric, who for an unheard-of crime 
which he had committed among the Norwegians had been 
punished by the loss of his eyes and the cutting off of feet 
and hands. For there, after receiving the sacraments, when 
the people had retired, he struck a certain priest while he 
celebrated mass a strong blow with a great knife in the abdo- 

1 Cf. A. of R., supra, s.a. 1100. 

2 O.V., VIII, 20, in Migne, 188, 621 : " He also took to wife the daughter 
of earl Waldeve and of Judith, cousin of the king ; and he held both the 
earldoms, of Northampton and of Huntingdon, which earl Simon de Senlis 
had possessed with the woman aforesaid. [Cf. W. of M., G.R., ii, 312.] 

" And she bore [David] a son, called Henry ; and two daughters. Clarice 
and Hodierna." 

So also R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 111. Perhaps both writers 
follow the lost work of David Scotus ; cf. Howlett, ibid., note. 

The marriage took place about 1113-1114; Scots Peerage, i, 3. Cf. 
A.S.C., supra, s.a. 1114. 


men ; and horribly scattering his intestines, sacrificed him 
upon the altar. 

He was afterwards received by earl David in England, 
for the love of God, and sufficiently sustained in food and 
clothing, along with a child, his daughter : and as if wishing 
to caress the two-year-old son of his benefactor, he cruelly 
thrust him with the iron fingers which he used, being maimed ; 
and thus, by instigation of the devil, without warning scat- 
tered the entrails of the suckling between the hands of his 
nurse. And thus was done to death the eldest child of David. 

Therefore [the cleric] was bound to the tails of four wild 
horses ; and when they pulled vigorously in different directions, 
he was torn asunder, for the terror of miscreants. 



477. ! 

When Alexander was laid with his ancestors, David, the 
youngest of Malcolm's sons, ascended the Scottish throne. 
Him the king had made an earl, and had presented with a 
noble woman in wedlock. 

He was a youth more courtly than the others, and one 
who had rubbed off all tarnish of Scottish barbarity through 
being polished from his boyhood by intercourse and friend- 
ship with us. 

Indeed, when he obtained the kingdom, he immediately 
relieved from payment of three years' taxes all his country- 
men who were willing to dwell in a more civilized manner, 
or to be attired with more refinement, or to be more parti- 
cular about their food. 

And indeed it has never been placed upon the records 
of history that three kings and brothers were of so great 
sanctity as they, redolent of the nectar of their mother's 

1 Cf . infra, s.a. 1153, for David's character; also supra, s.a. 1093. 

S. of D., H.R., ii, 275 : " And his brother David succeeded him, and 
immediately held in peace and loyalty to him on all sides the kingdom which 
he had received without opposition, and which his brother had held with 
the greatest labour." 

A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1124: "And David, his brother, who was earl in 
Northamptonshire, succeeded to the kingdom ; and had them both together, 
the kingdom in Scotland and the earldom in England." Cf. the charters 
(1124 x 1134) in Chr. of Ramsey, 280, 255, 226. 

Matilda died after 1147 (Scots Peerage, i, 3,) and the earldom of North- 
ampton appears to have passed to her son Simon. (Cf. supra, Introductory.) 

On the death of prince Henry in 1152 Simon received the earldom of 
Huntingdon also ; Dugdale, Baronage, i, 58-59. 


piety. 1 For besides their frugality in food, the liberality of 
their charities, their persistence in prayers, they in such 
measure overcame the vice familiar to kings that never is 
anyone rumoured to have entered their chambers except 
their lawful wives ; nor is any of them reported to have 
sullied his modesty with any concubinage. 



But Malcolm, 2 base-born son of Alexander, affected to 
snatch the kingdom from his uncle [David], and fought against 
him two sufficiently fierce battles. But David, who was 
loftier in understanding and in power and wealth, conquered 
him and his followers. 



S.A. 1125. 

Over the kingdom of Scotland also the same John [of 
Crema] received the office of legate, the pope sending the 
following letter to the king of that nation about it : 

" Bishop Honorius, servant of the servants of God, to 
his beloved son David, illustrious king of the Scots, greeting 
and apostolic benediction. 

" It befits humble and devout sons of St. Peter to perform 
very needfully the things which they know redound to the 
honour of the holy Roman church. And therefore we ask 
and command thy Nobility respectfully to receive and to 
honour our beloved son John, the cardinal, to whom we have 
delegated our authority in those parts. Cause also the bishops 
of thy land to assemble to his council when they are sum- 
moned by him. The controversy which has long been kept 
up between Thurstan, archbishop of York, and the bishops 
of thy land, we commit to this our legate to be very carefully 

1 O.V., VIII, 20, in Migne, 188, 621 : " Thus all these brothers reigned 
in turn in Scotland, and nourished, excelling in good customs and the love of 
God ; and lived, according to their measure, inasmuch as they were youths 
and laymen, laudably." 

2 Cf. O.V., infra, s.a. 1130. 

A. of R., (after alluding to Alexander's attempt to deprive David of the 
earldom of southern Scotland,) calls Malcolm " the heir of his father's hatred 
and persecution " (of David ?) ; De S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 193 ; infra, 
s.a. 1138. These words seem to deny that Malcolm was the son of Alexander, 
as O.V. alleges. Cf. infra, s.a. 1151, note. 


investigated and discussed ; but we reserve the final decision 
for the judgment of the apostolic see. 

" Given at the Lateran, on the Ides of April." * 
By this authority John aforesaid, going round England, 
came also to David, king of the Scots, at the river Tweed, 
which separates Northumbria and Lothian, in a place which 
is called Roxburgh. 2 And after fulfilling there the office of 
his legacy he returned and held a council at London. 3 . . 

1125, Dec. 


RAINE'S YORK, VOL. Ill, PP. 48-49. 

Bishop Honorius, servant of the servants of God, to his 
beloved son the elected of Whithorn, greeting and apostolic 

He to whom it is granted by God to rule another, let him 
not be prevented by any pride from being befittingly subject 
to those preferred before him. And therefore by the present 
writings we command thee to go to be consecrated to our 
dearest brother Thurstan, archbishop of York, as to thy 
proper metropolitan ; and to receive consecration from his 
hand with the devotion of humility, the favour of the Holy 
Spirit being present. 

Given at the Lateran, the fifth 4 before the Ides of De- 

? 1126 


RAINE'S YORK, VOL. Ill, P. 60. 

To his reverend lord and father Thurstan, by God's grace 
metropolitan of the church of York, Gilla-Aldan, humble 
bishop-elect of Whithorn, greeting and obedience. 

I have learned both in publicly authenticated documents 
and in the truthful testimony of ancient men that the bishop 
of Whithorn from of old owes respect to his mother the metro- 
polis of York, and submission to her in the things which 
pertain to God. 

Wherefore I, Gilla-Aldan. the elected of Whithorn, pro- 

1 13th April. 

2 H.S., in Raine's York, ii, 210 : " After going round almost the whole 
of England, and travelling nearly to Scotland." 

3 8th to 10th September, A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1125 ; cf. H.S., u.s. The 
9th September, 1126 (wrongly), S. of D., H.B., ii, 278. 

4 9th December. 


mise to preserve henceforth due subjection, as appointed 
by the holy fathers, and canonical obedience to the holy 
church of York ; and to thee, archbishop Thurstan, and to 
thy successors canonically appointed. 

1125, Dec. 

VOL. Ill, PP. 49-50. 

Bishop Honorius, servant of the servants of God, to his 
venerable brother, the bishop of Glasgow, greeting and 
apostolic benediction. 

It has often been enjoined upon thy Fraternity by apostolic 
writings to yield obedience to our venerable brother Thurstan, 
archbishop of York, as to thy proper metropolitan. But 
thou hast not yet obeyed the apostolic commands. There- 
fore by the present writings we order and command thee to 
yield obedience and honour to the same brother of ours, 
Thurstan, archbishop of York, as to thy metropolitan. 

Given at the Lateran, the fifth l before the Ides of De- 


VOL. II, PP. 214-215. 2 

Because now our archbishop [Thurstan] saw in the court 3 
master John, bishop of Glasgow, it was not his purpose to 
be silent concerning him. He complained therefore that this 
John, elected as his suffragan in the church of York, and 
through his letters consecrated by pope Paschal [II], after- 
wards refused to show any obedience or honour for letters 
(which he caused to be read there) of the same pope Paschal 
and of Calixtus. When these letters had been heard, he was 
understood to be bound by them to some extent. 

Likewise also he complained of the bishops of Scotland. 
From the beginning of their arrival the lord pope had been 
persuaded by certain men that Scotland was not part of the 
kingdom of England. For they wished to ask for a pallium 
for the bishop of St. Andrews, and that thus he should be 

1 9th December. 

2 Cf. Chr. of Abps., in Raine's York, ii, 383-384. 

3 In the council held at Rome to settle the dispute between the arch- 
bishops of York and Canterbury. The archbishops had been summoned to 
Rome for the 2nd February, 1126; H.S., u.s., 209. (Thurstan had been 
robbed on the way ; ibid., 212.) 


created an archbishop. But our archbishop both in secret 
and publicly in the court showed that Scotland was part of 
the kingdom of England, and that the king of Scotland was 
the vassal of the king of England for Scotland ; and this the 
lord pope must believe to be so. 1 

The bishop of Glasgow replied to the complaint of our 
archbishop that he had come without being summoned, but 
on an embassy from his lord the king of Scotland ; and so 
it was decreed that he ought not now to be compelled to 
reply, but that a day should be appointed for him, and that 
some who were not present should be summoned by letters 
of the lord pope. ' 

The [archbishop] of Canterbury and his followers opposed 
us to the extent of their power, through hatred roused by 
the refusal of profession ; unjustly claiming for themselves 
the whole province of Britain, so that the lord pope smiled 
and shook his head, and said to one of them, " Brother, have 
enough ! " 2 . . . 

As had been pre-arranged, the lord pope appointed a day 
for our archbishop and for the bishop of Glasgow, from the 
first to the second of Lent ; 3 speaking thus to bishop John : 
" Brother, we loose thee not from them to whom pope Calixtus 
of blessed memory has bound thee." 

He determined to summon by his letters the bishops of 
Scotland for the day appointed. 



And then after Michael's mass 4 David the Scots' king 
came from Scotland hither to land, and king Henry received 
him with great honour ; and then he dwelt all the year in 
this land. 

In this same year the king caused his brother Robert to 
be taken from bishop Roger of Salisbury, and committed him 
to his son Robert, earl of Gloucester ; and caused him to be 
taken to Bristol, and they put him in the castle there. 

That was all done through his daughter's 5 counsel, and 
through the Scots' king David, her uncle. 

1 The Latin is corrupt. 2 Frater, indulgeat.tibi. 

3 16th to 17th February, 1127. 

4 29th September. 

5 Matilda's husband, the emperor Henry, had died the previous year. 




VOL. II, p. 21 7. l 

In the following September king [Henry I] returned to 
England. And on the following Christmas our archbishop 
[Thurstan] came to the king's court, ready to go thence to 
Rome, for the plea which had been fixed in the following 
Lent by the lord pope, as we have said before, between 
[Thurstan] and John, bishop of Glasgow, and the bishops 
of Scotland. . . . 

There were then at court David, king of Scots, and Conan, 
count of Brittany. . . . 

After passing Christmas at Windsor, where the court was, 
[Thurstan] came on the morrow to London, expecting that 
the king would come thither on the fifth day, and preparing 
to make the journey [to Rome]. 

The king came there, bringing with him the king of Scots, 
and by some provision of agreement between our archbishop 
and the bishops of Scotland, by a concession also of king 
David, persuaded our [archbishop], who was ready to start, 
to defer for the present his journey, and to send ambassadors 
to Rome, asking on the king's behalf and his own that a truce 
should be given him in this case till the second Lent ; 2 and 
permission for an agreement between them meanwhile. 

The archbishop yielded this and sent, and obtained this 
truce with difficulty. 

1126 1127 


S.A. 1128. 3 

Henry, king of the English, held his court at Windsor 
upon [the day of] the Lord's nativity. 4 He went over thence 
to London ; and there at his command upon [the day of] 
the Lord's circumcision 5 swore the archbishops, the bishops, 

1 Of. Chr. of Abps., in Raine's^York, ii, 384-385. 

2 I.e. in 1128, when Ash Wednesday was on the 7th of March. There 
seems to be no record of this council ; probably some agreement inter- 

3 Cf. A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1127. J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 84-85, s.a. 1126. 
W. of M., H.N., ii, 528-529. Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 48. 

Cf. the renewal of the oath in 1131 ; W. of M., G.R., ii, 534. 

4 25th December, 1126. 

5 1st January, 1127. 



the abbots, and David, king of the Scots, 1 the earls and 
barons of the whole of England, that they would be loyal to 
his daughter the empress [Matilda], 2 and secure for her afte] 
him the kingdom of England by hereditary right, unless whe^i 
he died he should leave a son of lawful wedlock as his heir. 
To the queen also they swore that all that the king had given 
her they would always preserve inviolable and unchanged. 


JOHN OF WORCESTER, IN FL. OF W., VOL. II, p. 84, S.A. 1125.3 

. . . [William of Curboil, archbishop of Canterbury,] 
came to Rome and was honourably received by Honorius, 
the chief pontiff who had succeeded Calixtus. And that 
pope intrusted to [William] to represent him in England and 
Scotland, 4 and appointed him legate of the apostolic see. 

1127, July. 


In the year from the Lord's incarnation 1127, the six- 
teenth 6 before the Kalends of August, on the festival of St. 
Kenelm, the martyr, when Thurstan, archbishop of York, 
and Ranulf, bishop of Durham, and Robert, bishop of St. 
Andrews, and John, bishop of Glasgow, and Geoffrey, abbot 
of St. Albans, were together in Roxburgh with king David, 
the same bishop Robert summoned prior Algar and sub-prior 
Roger 7 to the door of the church of St. John the Evangelist, 
saying and protesting that he had claimed no privilege, no 
custom, concerning the church of Coldingham, except as all 
churches of the whole of Lothian in common owe obedience 

1 " First of the laymen swore David, king of Scotland, the uncle of the 
empress." W. of M., H.N., ii, 529 ; cf. ibid., 538, 585. 

2 " His daughter Alice, who was formerly the wife of the emperor of 
Saxony," says A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1127. She is also called Adela, J. of H. ; 
Adeliza, R. of W. 

3 Cf. S. of D., H.R., ii, 281, s.a. 1127. 

4 " Throughout England," S. of D., u.s. 

5 The version on page 67 was written by a hand of the twelfth century ; 
that on page 59 by one of the thirteenth. (Robert's charter is printed by' 
Lawrie, Early Scottish Charters, 59-60. H. & S., ii, 213-214.) 

Preceding this is the following letter, ibid., 67 : " David, by God's 
grace king of Scots, to Edward, monk of Coldingham [Cott'], greeting. 

" I command and request thee to give me enough of thy timber to supply 
my wood-pile at Berwick, from the wood which is between thee and Liulf 
son of Uctred, in Calang'. 

" Witness Herbert the Chancellor. At Peebles." 

8 17th July. 

7 Prior and sub-prior of Durham. 


to the bishop of St. Andrews ; but that he wished this church 
to be freer and quitter from all service than any other church 
in Lothian, for the sake of the love of his brethren the monks 
of Durham. 

The following were there present at the time when he 
said this : 

Robert, clerk, brother of the same bishop ; Blahan, priest 
of Linton ; Adulf, priest of Aldehamstoc ; Henry, priest of 
Lienhall 1 ; Orm, priest of Houm 2 ; Osbern, priest of Ednam ; 
John, priest of Legerwood ; Godwin, butler of the same 
bishop ; Godwin, his treasurer ; and Baldsan, and many 
others who were present as witnesses when the bishop said 


In the year 1128 the abbacy was removed from Selkirk 3 
to Kelso, near Roxburgh ; and the church of St. Mary was 
founded for the aforesaid monks of Tiron, and there the 
devout king David enriched it with great gifts and beautified 
it with many adornments, and endowed it nobly with broad 
lands and possessions. 


JOHN OF WORCESTER, IN FL. OF W., VOL. II, p. 89, S.A. 1128. 

Upon the request of David, brother and successor of 
Alexander, Thurstan archbishop of York consecrated at York 
as bishop Robert, whom Alexander, king of Scotland, had 
intruded upon the church of St. Andrews. In this ceremony 
[Thurstan] summoned to him as helpers Ranulf [Flambard,] 
bishop of Durham, and a certain Ralph [Nowel], long since 
ordained bishop of the Orkney isles. 4 

But because he had been ordained neither by election nor 
consent of the prince 5 of the land, or the clergy, or the people, 
this Ralph [Nowel] was opposed by all, and by none received 
as bishop. 6 

1 I.e. Coldstream. 2 Hume ? 

3 Cf. supra, s.a. 1113. 4 Cf. supra, s.a. 1114. 

5 f. W. of M., G.R., ii, 485 : " Paul, earl of the Orkneys, although sub- 
ject by hereditary right to the king of the Norwegians, so regarded king 
[Henry I's] esteem that he sent him frequent presents. For [Henry] took 
ready delight in viewing the wonders of foreign lands. . . ." 

6 A letter (1119x1124) of pope Calixtus II on Ralph Nowel's behalf 
appears in Raine's York, iii, 39 : " Bishop Calixtus, servant of the servants 


Because he was bishop of no town, at one time adhering 
to the bishop of York and again to the bishop of Durham, 
he was supported by them and regarded as the vicar of either 
in episcopal ministries. 1 

By these, then, Robert was consecrated, but was not 
allowed by the Scots, so it is said, to make any profession 
of any kind of subjection or obedience to the church of York 
or to its bishop, although he was a canon of York. 


VOL. Ill, PP. 51-52. 2 

Thurstan, by God's grace archbishop of York, to all sons 
of holy church, greeting. 

Be it known to all, both present and to come, that I have, 
for love of God and of the venerable king David of Scotland, 
irregularly 3 consecrated Robert as bishop of St. Andrews, 
without profession and obedience, saving the complaint of 
the church of York and the just right of the church of St. 

Andrew ; and if ever an archbishop of York wish to speak 


of God, to his beloved sons in Christ, Eistein and Sigurd, kings of Norway, 
greeting and apostolic benediction. 

"... Therefore, dearest sons in Christ, we visit your affection with 
apostolic letters, and ask you, and admonish you in the Lord, to receive 
kindly our son the bishop of Orkney, elected, as we understand, canonically, 
and consecrated according to the custom of the church by his metropolis of 
York ; and to protect him from wrong, and to cause him to remain more 
peacefully in his episcopate." c\ '! 

So also a letter from pope Honorius II to Sigurd of Norway, in Decem- 
ber 1125: Raine's York, iii, 50-51: "Bishop Honorius, servant of the 
servants of God, to his beloved son in Christ, Sigurd, illustrious king of 
Norway, greeting and apostolic benediction. 

" It has been brought to our ears that our venerable brother Thomas, 
archbishop of York, consecrated Ralph as bishop of Orkney. But after- 
wards, as we have learned, another has been intruded there. But either 
one or none can obtain the episcopal chair ; and therefore we command thy 
Nobility by the present writings to restore the episcopal see, Orkney to wit 
to Ralph above-named, along with the lands and its other appurtenances, as 
to the proper bishop and pastor of that place : and henceforth to keep him 
in thy care, lest thou incur God's wrath for it. 

" Given at the Lateran, the fifth before the Ides of December [9th De- 

1 Ralph Nowel accompanied Thurstan at Rheims in 1119 ; Chr. of the 
Abps., in Raine's York, ii, 164, 166, 172. He represented Thurstan at the" 
battle of the Standard, infra, 1138; and William of St. Barbara at the 
consecration of William, archbishop of York, in September 1143; J. of H., 
in S. of D., ii, 315. H.S., Contin., in Raine's York, ii, 222. 

2 Cf. a similar document of David I of Scotland, in Raine's York, iii, 52 ; 
also H. & S., ii, 215. 

3 absolute ,= without prayer. 


of his complaint, the king will afford him full justice where 
it shall be justly owing. 

Witnesses : Kanulf , bishop of Durham ; John, bishop 
of Glasgow ; Ralph, of Orkney ; Geoffrey, abbot of the 
monastery of York ; Herbert of Roxburgh ; Waldeve of 
Crowland ; Adulf the prior 1 ; Nicholas of Scone ; Walter 
of Gaunt ; Eustace Fitz John ; Hugh the dean, 2 and the 
whole chapter of St. Peter; Geoffrey Murdac ; Aschetin 3 
de Bulmer ; and from Scotland : Allmar, knight ; Alden, 
son of Athelwold 4 ; Ulchil, son of Mervin ; Ulchil, son of 
Maldred ; Gille Cholman 5 ; Blugedent 6 ; Robert de Water- 
ville ; Roger Conyers. 

1128 7 


Geoffrey, prior of Canterbury, by request of David, king 
of the Scots, and with archbishop William's consent, was 
chosen abbot of the place in Scotland which is called Dun- 
fermline ; and was ordained by Robert, bishop of the church 
of St. Andrew. 



In this year Angus 9 was slain by the Scots' army, and a 
great slaughter was made there with him. There was God's 
right avenged on him, because he was all forsworn. 


MIGNE, PATROLOGIA, VOL. 188, COL. 622. 10 

In the year from the Lord's incarnation 1130, while king 

" Prior of Scone," Letter of David, u.s., omitting Nicholas. 

In text, de Cavo ; read decano, as in the Letter of David, u.s. 

" Anketin," David, u.s. 

" Son of Alsimald," David, u.s. 

" Gilcolyn," David, u.s. 

" Slugepah," David, u.s. 

In this year the false crusade of Hugh of the Temple drew treasure and 
men to Jerusalem from Scotland also ; but " when they came there, it was 
nothing but lies. Thus were all these people pitifully betrayed." A.S.C., 
MS. E, s.a. 1128. 

8 This is a late addition at the end of MS. D, s.a. mlxxx instead of mcxxx. 
V. Plummer, S.C., ii, p. xxxii. 

9 Angus was earl of Moray, and nephew of Malsnechtan ; cf. supra, s.a. 

10 Cf. R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 118 : " In the same year Angus 
(Aragois), earl of Moray, with Malcolm, illegitimate son of Alexander, who 



David cautiously executed justice in the court of king Henry* 
and diligently examined the crime of treachery which, as 
they say, Geoffrey de Clinton had committed against the 
king, 1 Angus earl of Moray entered Scotland with Malcolm 2 
and five thousand armed men, and strove to subdue the whole 
region to himself. 

But Siward's son Edward, (who was tribune of the Mer- 
cians under king Edward,) leader of the knighthood and 
cousin of king David, collected an army and suddenly opposed 
the army of the enemy. At last a conflict took place, and 
he slew earl Angus, overwhelmed, captured and routed his 
troops. Thereafter with his cohorts, now elated by triumph, 
he eagerly pursued the fugitives and entered Moray, which 
lacked a defender and lord, and with God's help obtained 
the entire earldom] 3 of that extensive district. 

Thus David increased his power, and was exalted above 
his predecessors ; and by his zeal the district of the Scots 
was adorned with religious and learned persons. 

1131, Nov. 

VOL. Ill, pp. 61-62. 

Bishop Innocent, servant of the servants of God, to his 
venerable brother John, bishop of Glasgow, greeting and 
apostolic benediction. 

Our predecessor pope Paschal, of holy memory, saving 
indeed the right of the church of York, laid upon thee the 
hand of consecration. And afterwards his successors Calixtus 
and Honorius, of holy remembrance, pontiffs of Rome, com- 
manded thee by apostolic writings to offer obedience and 

was brother of king David and had reigned before him, and with five thousand 
armed men entered Scotland, and wished to reduce the whole region to 

" At that time David was present in the court of the king of the English ; 
but Edward, his cousin and leader of his knighthood, went against them with 
an army and slew earl Angus, and overthrew, captured and routed his troops. 

" Then he entered Moray, which lacked a defender and lord ; and the 
earldom (ducatum) of the whole spacious region was, with God's help, through 
Edward made subject thenceforth to the religious king David." 

Perhaps both versions are derived from the lost work of David Scotus ; 
Howlett, ibid., note. O.V. does not name his source of information. Cf. 
supra, s.a. 1068, note. 

1 Geoffrey de Clinton was " charged with false treason to the king," 
H. of H., 252. For him cf. O.V., XI, 2, in Migne, 188, 789. 

2 Cf. supra, s.a. 1124. 

3 ducatum : control ? 


honour to our venerable brother Thurstan, archbishop of 
York, as to thy proper metropolitan. 

But although, as he states, thou didst promise to obey 
him, nevertheless thou hast not yet carried it into effect. 
Wherefore we command thee by the present writings to lay 
aside all delay and tergiversation, and humbly to obey our 
brother aforesaid, archbishop Thurstan ; otherwise we cannot 
fail him in his just right. 

Given at Auxerre, the third l before the Kalends of De- 

1131, Nov. 

YORK, VOL. Ill, p. 62. 

Bishop Innocent, servant of the servants of God, to all 
bishops throughout Scotland, suffragans of the church of 
York, greeting and apostolic benediction. 

It is just that he who desires to rule others should by no 
means blush to be subject to those preferred before, him. 
For obedience and humility are guardians of the virtues ; 
but an arrogant and disobedient man incurs the wrath of 
God, and becoming intolerable drives from him his neigh- 
bour's love. 

But even as obedient and humble sons are to be cherished 
in the bosom of the apostolic see, so conversely those who 
are rebellious and proud are, in the strict rigour of justice, 
to be constrained by condign chastisements. 

That therefore due honour and justice be preserved to 
each, we order and command you by apostolic writings humbly 
to offer obedience and honour to our venerable brother arch- 
bishop Thurstan as to your proper metropolitan, without any 
opposition ; and to obey him inviolably, in so far as was com- 
manded you by our predecessors of happy memory, the 
Roman pontiffs Calixtus and Honorius. 

Given at Auxerre, the third 2 before the Kalends of 


JOHN or HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 285. 3 

In the year 1133, the month of August, before the Assump- 

1 29th November. 2 29th November. 

3 H. of H., 253, s.a. 1133 : " Also the king made a new bishopric at 
Carlisle, and crossed the sea." He crossed on the 3rd (J. of H., u.s.) or 2nd 


tion 1 of St. Mary, at York, were consecrated by archbishop 
Thurstan bishops Geoffrey, chancellor of king Henry, to the 
bishopric of Durham ; Aldulf, prior of Nostell, to the town 
of Carlisle, which king Henry initiated as an episcopal see, 
giving to him the churches of Cumberland and Westmoreland 
which adjoined the archdeaconate of York. 

? 1134, May. 

VOL. Ill, PP. 63-64. 

Bishop Innocent, servant of the servants of God, to his 
venerable brother Thurstan, archbishop of York, greeting 
and apostolic benediction. 

The apostolic see has long ago proved by sure signs the 
admirable firmness of thy faith and thy estimable constancy 
in religion and in catholic unity. Hence it is that thou hast 
so great solicitude of thy holy mother, the church of Rome, 
and, like a kind son, thou hast never forgotten her. 

Therefore we love thy person with sincere affection in the 
lord, and recognize what things will be to the benefit of thy 
Fraternity and of the church committed to thy rule, and 
gladly apply ourselves thereto. 

And concerning the oppressions and wrongs inflicted upon 
thee and the church of York, as we have learned, by the king 
of Scotland and by John, bishop of Glasgow, we sympathize 
with paternal affection ; and when the opportunity is granted 
us by the Lord, the apostolic see will preserve to thee and to 
that church her just right. . . . 

Given at Pisa, the sixth 2 before the Nones of May. 

of August (R. de T., ut infra). The eclipse which took place at his crossing 
was on the 2nd of August ; L'Art de Ver. les Dates, i, 111. 

R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 123, s.a. 1133 : " Also king Henry made 
a new bishopric at Carlisle in the boundaries of England and Scotland ; and 
he placed there as the first bishop Aldulf , the prior of regular canons of St. 
Oswald, to whom he was used to confess his sins. And this bishop placed 
regular canons in the church of his see." R.W., E.H.S. ed., ii, 212, s.a. 
1132, adds " and already enriched it with many possessions." According to 
R.W., Carlisle is "on the border of England and Galloway " ; ibid. 

Cf. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 223, where the bishop's name is spelt 
Adulf. R. de T., supra, gives his name as Adalulf ; R.W. as Athelulf ; 
B. of P., infra, as Adelwald. 

Aldulf obtained his diocese in 1138; infra, s.a. He was in his see in 
1148; J. of H., u.s. 322. For his death cf. B. of P., i, 349 : " And the 
aforesaid [Aldulf] died in the year 1157 on the morrow of the Lord's Ascen- 
sion [10th May] ; which year was the fifth of the reign of king Henry II." 
1157 was in reality the third. 

Cf. R. de T., u.s., 189, s.a. 1156. Ann. of Wav., u.s., 237, s.a. 1156. 

1 15th August. 2 2nd May. 




S. OF D., VOL. I, p. 142.1 

And in [Thurstan's] third year [of office] king Henry 
died, in the year of the Lord's incarnation 1135. And to 
him immediately succeeded Stephen, that king's nephew by 
his sister ; and he held the English kingdom with the greatest 
labour for nineteen years, the chief men of the whole realm 
being at discord among themselves. 

Now the cause of the discord was this. In king Henry's 
day they had sworn the kingdom to his daughter, who, once 
empress of the Germans, was at this time united in wedlock 
with the earl of Anjou. 2 For this reason David, king of Scots, 
and all the earls of England were at discord with king Stephen ; 
and while they mutually opposed one another they afforded 
all ill-doers the opportunity of working wickedness, so that 
the greater part of the realm was left desolate. 3 

JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 287, S.A. 1136. 4 

David also, the king of Scotland, uncle of the empress, 
not unmindful of the oath which he and the whole realm had 
sworn to king Henry concerning his successor, immediately 
rose against the kingdom of England, and very quickly ob- 
tained the fortresses of Cumberland and Northumbria with 
the peoples of the district as far as to Durham, excepting 
Bamborough. 5 

He received also oaths and hostages from the nobility, 
in pledge that they would keep their faith to his niece. 

!Cf. A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1136. 

2 Geoffrey Plantagenet. Cf. A.S.C., MS. E, s.a. 1127. This marriage 
was held by some to have rendered the oath of the barons void ; W. of M., 
H.N., ii, 530. 

3 Cf. G. of C., ii, 72. 

4 Cf. R. of H., G.R.S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 145-146. 

A. of R., Saints, in Raine's Hexh., i, 183 : " David, king of the Scots, 
was fired with zeal for the king's daughter, to whom he with the whole of 
England had been bound by oaths." 

5 R. of H., G.R.S., u.s., iii, 145 : " Likewise soon after Christmas 
[1135] David, king of Scotland, that lady's uncle, with a large army seized 
and held five towns in the province of Northumbria ; namely Lugubalia, 
which in English is called Carlisle, and Carham, which is called by the English 
Wark, and Alnwick, and Norham, and Newcastle. But Bamborough he 
could by no means take." 




HEXHAM, VOL. I, p. 183. 

David, king of the Scots, . . . gathered an army and 
harried Northumbria with slaughter and fire. 

But he conceded so much to the church of Hexham as 
not only to suffer none to touch anything which pertained 
to it, but also to decree that as many as could flee thither 
and carry with them aught of their goods should rejoice in 
his peace. 

Hence it was that, when the most cruel nation of the 
Galwegians raged with unheard-of brutality, and spared not 
sex nor age, our countrymen who were with king [David] 
were moved by compassion and sent many, rescued from 
their hands, to Hexham, as to a sure defence of their safety. 



When king Stephen had come to Oxford, in the first year 
of his reign, at the end of Christmas, he heard a messenger 
tell him : " The king of Scots, pretending that he came to 
thee to be a guest, has entered Carlisle and Newcastle, and 
has guilefully taken them both." 

And king Stephen answered him, "What he has guile- 
fully taken I will retake victoriously." 

The vigorous king therefore moved forward so great an 
army against David, king of Scots, as none could remember 
to have been in England before. 

OF STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, PP. 145-146. 

[David] intended also to attack Durham ; but king Stephen 
came thither with a very great army at the beginning of the 
fast, which fell that year on the Nones of February 2 ; and 
abode there fifteen days. 

1 So Hoved., i, 190. 

M.P.,Chr. Maj., ii, 164 : " During the same time David, king of Scots, 
who had given an oath to the empress, came as a foe into England and took 
Carlisle and Newcastle on Tyne, and placed his men in them." Cf. M.P., 
H.A., i, 253. 

W. of M., G.R., ii, 539 :" Afterwards " [i.e. after the burial of Henry 
at Reading] " shortly before Lent king Stephen went into Northumbria to 
meet David, king of Scotland. For he was said to have hostile thoughts." 

2 5th February: this was Ash Wednesday in 1136. Cf. J. of H., in 



Therefore king David came to meet him at Durham, and 
was reconciled with him, giving back to him Newcastle ; but 
Carlisle he kept, by concession of king Stephen. 

Yet king David did not become king Stephen's man, 
because first of the laymen he had sworn the oath to king 
[Henry's] daughter, his own niece, to uphold England for 
her after Henry's death. But king David's son Henry be- 
came king Stephen's man, and king Stephen gave to him 
in addition the castle which is called Huntingdon. 2 

And returning thence king [Stephen] held his court at 
London in Lent on the festival of Easter. . . . 



p. 539. 

And Stephen obtained from him without difficulty what 
he wished. For [David] was bent both by the mildness of 
[Stephen's} manners 3 and by the approach of oJd age, and 
gladly yielded to the repose of real or pretended peace. 4 

STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, p. 146. 5 

But at last a conference was held in that province, and 
peace was made between the two kings, and Henry, son of 
David king of Scotland, did homage to king Stephen at 

And the king gave him besides his father's earldom of 
Huntingdon Carlisle and Doncaster, and everything that 
pertains to them ; and, as some say who testify that they 

S. of D., ii, 287 : " King Stephen met [David] at the beginning of the fast at 
Durham, on the nones of February ; and there stayed fifteen days." 

According to W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 33 : " David, king of Scots, 
who had broken into Northumbria across the river Tyne, was with great 
strength repulsed and humbled." 

1 So Hoved., i, 190 ; cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 164 ; H.A., i, 254. 

2 M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 164 : " And the king gave him in perpetual right 
Huntingdon, to be held of him." 

3 Cf. his character as delineated ibid., 539. 

4 " . . . And David, king of Scotland, began to war upon him. Then, 
notwithstanding this, their messengers passed between them ; and they came 
together and were reconciled ; though it little availed." A.S.C., MS. E, 
s.a. 1135. 

Cf. (from H. of H.) R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 129 ; Ann. of Tewk., 
in A.M., i, 45 ; Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 225. 
6 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 287. 


were present in this assembly, he promised him that if he 
should wish to give to anyone the earldom of Northumbria, 
he would first cause the claim upon it of Henry, the king of 
Scotland's son, to be justly adjudged in his court. 

Also David, king of Scotland, restored to king Stephen of 
England four of his castles aforesaid which he had occupied ; 1 
for the fifth, namely Carlisle, had been given to him : and 
the hostages were restored, and the vassals of either side 
conciliated in the same peace. 

1136, Mar. 

OF STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, p. 146. 2 

Also in the following Easter 3 Henry, son of the king of 
Scotland, was at Stephen king of England's court, which he 
held with festivity at London ; he was received with the 
greatest honour, and sat at table at the king's right hand. 

Wherefore both William, archbishop of Canterbury, with- 
drew from court ; and certain nobles of England, displeased 
with the king, summoned Henry in [the king's] own presence. 4 

And David, king of Scotland, was very much displeased 
with this affair, and when he got back his son refused to send 
him again to the king's court, although he was often sent for. 

1136, Apr. 

VOL. Ill, PP. 66-67. 

Bishop Innocent, servant of the servants of God, to his 
venerable brother Thurstan, archbishop of York, greeting 
and apostolic benediction. 

We have received with due benignity thy letters and 
messenger, and return to thy devotion manifold thanks for 
yearly contributions sent to us ; and implore the divine 
clemency to keep safe for long time so devoted a son of St. 

1 Of. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 287 ; M.P., H.A., 253-254. 

2 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 287 : " But in the festival of Easter king 
Stephen, advancing this Henry in honour, caused him to sit at his right hand. 
Therefore William, archbishop of Kent, and certain nobles with Ranulf, earl 
of Chester, said things insulting to the young man, and withdrew from the 
king's court. 

" And when king David got back his son he refused to send him again 
to king Stephen." 

3 22nd March, 1136. 

4 coram ipso Henrico calumpnias intulerunt. Cf. infra, s.a. 1140. 


Peter, and that thou mayest receive eternal rewards for 
temporal benefits. . . . 

And we have by our writings commanded our venerable 
brother William, archbishop of Canterbury, legate of the 
apostolic see, to pronounce the sentence of anathema against 
John, pseudo-bishop of Glasgow, until he be healed of his 
errors and return to the metropolitan right and to subjection 
to thee. 1 

Be it thy care to pronounce the sentence of anathema 
against that John, unless within three months he return to 
his holy mother the church of Rome and of York. 

Given at Pisa, the tenth 2 before the Kalends of May. 



pp. 20-21. 

. . . And when the castle [of Bathampton] was yielded 
into king [Stephen's] hands the hard condition was imposed 
upon [the defenders], 3 whether they would or not, that they 
should wander in exile from the whole realm until the king's 
mercy should recall them. And they abode for a long time, 
as we have heard, with the king of Scotland. 


CHRONICLES OF STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, PP. 150-1 5 1. 4 

The next year, that is in 1137, the treaty of peace was 
broken, and immediately after Easter 5 David, king of Scot- 
land, gathered his army and purposed to ravage Northumbria. 

But by instruction of king Stephen, who was then in 
Normandy, the chief part of the earls and barons of England 
came w T ith a great army of knights to Newcastle, which is 
in Northumbria, ready to oppose him if he should invade the 
realm of England. 6 

At last through messengers between them a truce was 

1 Innocent II's letter of the same date to William of Curboil is given in 
Raine's York, iii, 67. 

2 22nd April. 

3 The castellans of Robert of Bathampton. Cf. infra, s.a. 1138. 

4 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 288. 

5 Easter fell on llth April in 1137. 

* J. of H., u.s. : " Very quickly a host of the earls and nobles of Eng- 
land assembled at Newcastle, to oppose his efforts." 


given and taken until the Lord's Advent ; and after the forty 
days they returned to their own. 1 

But when in the Lord's Advent 2 king Stephen returned 
from Normandy, after he had given a great sum and received 
a two years' truce from the earl of Anjou, the ambassadors 
of David, king of Scotland, and of his son Henry immediately 
arrived, restoring to him their truce unless he gave to Henry 
the earldom of Northumbria. 

But the king by no means agreed to their request. 3 

1 J. of H., u.s. : " Thurstan also, archbishop of York, although far 
spent with age, spoke with the king of Scotland and his son at Roxburgh, 
and obtained a truce until the return of king Stephen from Normandy." 

2 28th November. 

3 " And the truce was broken off," J. of H., u.s., 288. 

O.V., in Migne, 188, 960 : " For certain miscreants made a conspiracy 
and had animated one another mutually by secret machinations to wicked 
ness, that on a fixed day they should slay all Normans and deliver the 
principality of the realm to the Scots." 




VOL. I, p. 33. 

WHILE thus [Stephen] strove with vain labour in the southern 
parts of England against those who had rebelled against him 
and were acting hostilely, the .fury of the Scots reviving broke 
out again and took possession of Northumbria, exhausted 
by the cruellest despoliations. 



pp. 32-33. 

When Bedford had at last been taken [by Stephen], and 
you might have thought that now an end had been put to 
the strife, and that all disturbance of rebellion had been stilled 
and wholly allayed, behold, the root and source of all the 
mischief arose to promote strife and war, plundering and 
burning, in that part of England which is called Northum- 
bria. . . . ! 


p. 34. 

There was a king in Scotland, which is conterminous 
with England, a certain river dividing the two kingdoms 
with a definite boundary ; a king of meek heart and born 
of pious parents, whom he too emulated upon the righteous 
path of life. 

Because he, with the other magnates of the realm, indeed 
first of them all, had bound himself by an oath in presence 
of king Henry that when [Henry] died he would receive none 
into the kingdom save either the daughter of the king or her 
heir, he was greatly grieved that Stephen had succeeded to 
the helm of the English kingdom. But since that had been 

1 Lights and portents in the sky give warning of approaching evil. 



planned and brought about by the barons themselves without 
consulting him, he wisely weighed the consequences, and 
awaited in silence some while the result to which affairs begun 
should tend. 

At last, when king Henry's daughter sent a letter to him 
and stated that she was alienated from her father's will, 
deprived of the kingdom promised and sworn to her ; that 
the laws were broken, justice trampled under foot, and the 
oath of the barons of England and their sworn treaty wholly 
violated and regarded as nothing ; and when therefore she 
prayed him, suppliantly and with tears, that he, as her kins- 
man, would help her in her forsakenness, as being bound to 
her by oath would afford assistance to her in her pitiable 
plight, then the king groaned aloud, and, fired with zeal for 
justice, determined to disturb the kingdom of England, both 
for the bond of common kinship and for the faith promised 
and due to the woman ; in order that strife should be stirred 
up on all sides against king [Stephen,] and that he should 
be compelled, by God's help, to yield to a juster [claimant] 
that which he had occupied unjustly, as it seemed to [king 

King [David] had with him, spurring him on with the 
frequent rowel of exhortation to excite disturbance, on one 
hand the son of Robert of Bathampton and his associates, 
who, as has been said, had been exiled from England, and 
had taken refuge with him in the hope of recovering their 
country ; l and on the other hand Eustace Fitz John, king 
Henry's chief and familiar friend ; 2 and very many others, 
who agitated for war either for the sake of gain or for the 
opportunity of defending what appeared to them to be justice. 

King David therefore (for such was his name) published 
an edict throughout Scotland, and roused all to arms ; and 
slackening the reins of his control instructed them to inflict 
upon the English all the most bloodthirsty, all the most brutal 
deeds they could devise, laying compassion aside. 

Now Scotland, which is also called Albany, is a district 
closed in by marshes and abounding in fertile woods, in 
milk and cattle, and begirt with safe harbours and wealthy 
islands ; but its inhabitants are barbarous and unclean, 
neither subdued by bitter cold nor stunted by severe hunger ; 
and they rely upon swift feet and light armour. They regard 
as nothing the dread close of bitter death among the members 

1 Cf. supra, s.a. 1136. For R. de Bathampton cf. H. of H., 259. 

2 For Eustace Fitz John cf. A. of R., infra. 



of their own family, but among strangers they surpass all in 
.cruelty. l 

An insurgent host of this nation, therefore, [king David] 
amassed from the nearer regions of Scotland into an incon- 
ceivable army, and moved it toward England. And crossing 
the boundaries of the two kingdoms he pitched his camp in 
the province of Northumbria, which was broad and populous, 
and abounded in all necessities for troops. There the troops 
and ranks of soldiers were drawn up, and [advanced] against 
all the land, which was extensive 2 and rich. 3 

1138, Jan. 

JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 289. 4 

On the fourth 5 before the Ides of January king David's 
nephew William Fitz Duncan in an invasion before day stoutly 
extended around the town of Wark the part which he led 
of the army, and began to attack and to pursue. And king 
David 6 came with a greater company and assailed the town 
with many engines and catapults, with great valour, for three 

But Jordan de Bussey, 7 nephew of Walter Espec, master 
of the knights in the town, by the invincible steadfastness 
of the minds of his knights spurned and set at naught all the 
king's endeavours. 8 For they slew the king's standard- 
jhearer, and every day many others. 

1 Cf. Gildas, De Exc. Br., in M.G.H., AA., xiii, 35 : " The foul hordes 
-of Scots and Picts, who differ in part in their customs, but agree in one and 

the same thirst for the shedding of blood, and in being readier to cover their 
gallows faces with hair than the shame of their bodies, and parts next thereto, 
with' clothes." (In margin of one MS. is the note: "Here he libels the 
Scots, because they are not well clad " ; M.H.B., 11, note.) 

2 In text spaciosa : read speciosa ? 

3 Here there is a lacuna in the MS. 

O.V., XIII, 17, in Migne, 188, 969-970 : " Moreover David, king of 
Scotland, for favour of the Angevins assisted the pestilent disturbers of the 
realm, because of the treacherous invitation of seditious men by whom he had 
'been incited to the injury, of their country ; or because of the oath which, by 
command of king Henry, he had already given to his niece. 

" For he held the very strong town of Carlisle which, as they say, Julius 
Cresar founded ; and there he had placed a very fierce band of Scots. Natur- 
ally they invaded England cruelly, and assailed the neighbouring peoples 
with war, and in brutal fashion worked their barbarity upon them. They 
spared none, but slew alike young and old ; pregnant women also with cruel 
sword they disembowelled and did to death." 

*Cf. R. of H., G.R.S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 151. 

5 10th January. So A. of R., in Raine's Hexh., i, 78, n. 

6 " And his son Henry," R. of H., u.s. 

7 The leader's name is not mentioned by R. of H. 

8 R. of H., u.s., 151 : " But he profited nothing ; nay, by God's help, 
his every effort was turned to his own hurt." 


So king David set apart some to persevere with the siege, 1 
and sent on William Fitz Duncan with the Scots into Northum- 
bria. And he came on the day of the conversion of St. 
Paul 2 to the vill of Warden, which is adjacent to the lands 
of Hexham, and encamped there with his forces. 


Now the king of the Scots, because he had given an oath to 
king Henry's daughter, acted through his followers execrably, 
as if under the veil of sanctity. For they cleft open pregnant 
women, and took out the unborn babe ; 4 they tossed children 
upon the spear-points, 5 and beheaded priests upon the altars : 6 
they cut off the heads of crucifixes, and placed them upon 
the trunks of the slain ; and placed again the heads of the 
dead upon the crucifixes. 7 Thus wherever the Scots arrived, 
all was full of horror and full of savagery. There was the 
screaming of women, the wailing of old men ; groans of the 
dying, despair of the living. 

1 R. of H., u.s., 151 : " Now the king saw that his labour there 
was turned to naught, and that serious loss increased to him from day to 
day ; and burning with great displeasure and wrath left the town at last and 
hastened with his whole host to the devastation of Northumbria." 

2 25th January. 

3 So Hoved., i, 192-193. Cf. R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 134 ; 
Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 226. R.W., E.H.S. ed., ii, 221 ; M.P., Chr. Maj., 
ii, 166-167. 

The passage is copied imperfectly from H. of H. by B. of P.,.G.H.,II, i, 
64, under the invasion of 1174. 

Cf. A. of R., Eulogium Davidis, in Pinkerton, 445-446 : " After the 
death of king Henry, when [David] led an army into England, that nation, 
savage and most hostile to the English, raged beyond the manner of men, and 
wrought cruel dooms upon the church and the priests, upon either sex and 
every age. And all these things were done, although against his will, yea, 
even against his command ; yet he might have refrained from leading them, 
might, having had experience of them once, not have led them again : he 
might perchance have restrained them more ; and we confess with tears that 
he sinned. May others excuse him. . . . For he himself preferred to accuse 
rather than to excuse himself. . . ." 

4 Such an incident is referred to in A. of R.'s speech of Walter Espec, 
De S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 187. Cf. J. of H., u.s., 290 : " They cut to 
pieces pregnant women, and children." 

5 A. of R., u.s., 187 : " Little children tossed in the air and caught on 
the points of spears have furnished a delightful spectacle for the Galwegians." 

6 R. of H., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 152 : " And they dug up the altars, 
and near them and upon them mangled priests and innocents." 

7 R. of H., u.s., 152 : " They say also that they dismembered the cruci- 
fixes in the churches in the basest manner they could, to Christ's dishonour 
.and their own confusion." 


OF STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, PP. 1 5 1-1 52. l 

So that execrable army, savager than any race of heathen, 
yielding honour to neither God nor man, harried the whole 
province and slaughtered everywhere folk of either sex, of 
every age and condition, 2 destroying, pillaging and burning 
the vills, churches and houses. 3 For they slaughtered by 
the edge of the sword or transfixed with their spears the sick 
on their pallets, women pregnant and in labour ; the babes 
in their cradles, and other innocents at the breast or in the 
bosom of their mothers, with the mothers themselves ; and 
worn-out old men and feeble old women, and the others who 
were for any reason disabled, wherever they found them. 
And the more pitiable a form of death they could destroy 
them by, the more did they rejoice. . . . 

It is even reported that in one place they slew many little 
children gathered together, and draining their blood collected 
it in a stream which they had previously dammed up, and 
thus drank that bloody water, nay, now for the most part 
blood. 4 . . . 


STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, PP. 187-188 (speech of 
Walter Espec.) 

It chanced that in the same house were found several 
little children. A Galwegian stood, and seizing one after 
the other by both feet struck their heads against the door- 
post. And when he had piled them in a heap he laughed 
to his comrade, and said, " See how many Gauls I alone have 
slain to-day ! " 

1 A similar but shorter account is given by J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 290. 
Cf. A. of R. ? Speech of Espec, in Chr. of Ste., iii, 187. 

2 A similar expression occurs in A. of R., u.s., 187. Cf. A. of R., Eul. 
Dav., supra ; J. of H., u.s., 290. 

3 J. of H., u.s., 290 : " It is incredible to relate what crimes and out- 
rages, and blasphemies against God, and abuses of humanity itself that army 
of the Scots committed. All places were full of slaughter, rapine and fire." 

4 Cf . the speech attributed to Walter Espec before the battle of the 
Standard, A. of R., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 187 : " Wearied by the slaughter 
of innocents, with unwashed knives, with which they had scattered the 
entrails of their hapless victims, they cut the meats to eat ; and mixing 
with water human blood, they quenched their thirst with the cruel draught, 
saying that they were most blessed whom fortune had preserved till a time 
when they could drink the blood of Gauls." [Highland Scots still call the 
Lowlanders " Gauls " (Gaill for an earlier. Galli ;) the meaning is " foreigners."] 



Now that wicked army was composed of Normans, Ger- 
mans, English, of Northumbrians and Cumbrians, of [men 
of] Teviotdale and Lothian, of Picts (who are commonly 
called Galwegians,) and of Scots ; and none might know 
their number. For wherever the district had wealth an 
endless number joined themselves to the above-named, without 
any command, from love of plunder or for the opportunity 
of revenge, or from the mere desire to do harm. 

So they scattered through the province, and spared none.; 
and on this occasion wasted with steel and fire almost the 
whole of Northumbria as far as the river Tyne, excepting 
the towns and the sea-board district, which is on the eastern 
side. But that they intended to have destroyed on their 

One part of that army also crossed the Tyne, and slew 
innumerable folk in the desert places, and ravaged in the 
same manner most part of the land of St. Cuthbert towards 
the west. 



Those who know say that an indescribable invasion was 
made by many enemies of different nationalities into North- 
umbria and through the neighbouring districts far and near, 
for nearly six months. 

Very many were taken captive, robbed, imprisoned, 
tortured ; ecclesiastics were put to death for the possessions 
of the church ; and scarce any can reckon the number of the 
slain, either on our side or on theirs. 


They slew all the men, and bound together with cords 
the maidens and widows, naked, in troops, and drove them 
away into Scotland under the yoke of slavery. 2 

Nevertheless the king restored to Robert, prior of Hex- 
ham, in pledge of their liberty, as many as fell to him as his 
share of the booty. 

The Scots also broke into the sanctuaries of the Lord, 

1 Cf. R. of H., D.H.E., quoted in Raine's Hexh., i, 80, n. 

2 Cf. A. of R., speech of Espec, u.s., 187 : " Nobles, both boys and 
girls, have been led into captivity." 


and in the consecrated places irreverently committed acts 
violent, lewd and execrable. 

JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 289. 

And a certain Scot advanced from the ranks with his 
followers, a man powerful and rich in the land of his birth, 
and seemed to wish to proceed through the river Tyne to 
the church of Hexham, hoping for booty. The young men 
of Hexham fell upon him and put to flight his companions, 
and bore him to the ground, pierced through the body but 
resisting keenly. 

Because of this, indignation was aroused through the 
whole army of the Scots, who to avenge his death hastened 
to fall upon the church of Hexham and to destroy it utterly 
with its inhabitants. But William Fitz Duncan called them 
back, anxious for the defence of the place. 


Now while these things were done by his men the king of 
Scotland delayed with a great host at Corbridge. 1 

At this time in the land of Ranulf de Merlay was destroyed 
a certain monastery 2 of the observances of the Cistercians, 
built in that year ; and very many others were harassed by 
the most grievous oppressions. 

And hence also that monastery which is set at the mouth 
of the river Tyne, and which in English is called Tynemouth, 
paid to the king of Scotland and his followers twenty-seven 
marks of silver, to buy for itself and for those who resided 
there peace in the present need. 3 

But in the madness of this stormy time the noble monastery 
of Hexham, although placed in midst of the course, and as 
it were in the way, of that wicked army and the evils aforesaid, 
and hemmed in by them on every side, yet through the mar- 
vellous merits of the saints Andrew, the apostle, and Wilfrid, 

1 J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 289-290 : " King David followed with his 
son and his forces, and remaining at Corbridge until after the Purification of 
St. Mary [2nd February], failed not to disturb the affairs of the province." 

2 A later note says " Newminster," the construction of which (near 
Morpeth) J. of H. places at the end of his annal for 1138. 

3 For a copy of the charter v. Dugdale, Monasticon, iii, 313. It is dated 
on the day of St. Barnabas, [llth June,] 1138, and is granted for the souls 
of David's relatives, for so long as the monks themselves " will keep peace 
with us and our vassals." 


bishop and confessor, its intercessors, and of the rest of its 
patrons, to wit saints Acca and Alcmund and Eata, bishops 
and confessors, and of the other saints who rest in that church, 
by God's help afforded the stablest peace to its residents and 
to all who fled to it for refuge, and was to them all the safest 
shelter from all hostile attacks. 

Nevertheless the Picts at first, as they advanced with a 
great rush to the river Tyne, which flows near that vill, 
intended to have destroyed [Hexham] like the rest. But im- 
mediately before they crossed the aforesaid river two of their 
number were slain by their compatriots ; * and the rest per- 
ceived this, and turned back again in terror. 

Moreover, two of the same nation of Picts came to a 
certain oratory 2 of St. Michael the archangel, situated on 
the same northern side of the river Tyne, and pertaining to 
the aforesaid church of Hexham. They broke open its door,, 
and took away with them what they found there. 

But the vengeance of God was not lacking. For they 
were presently given up to a devil, and deprived of their 
senses ; and as madness lashed them on they ranged hither and 
thither by night and by day through woods and fields, in the 
sight of all ; and first the one broke his own neck upon the 
stones, then the other, hamstrung by a certain man, drowned 
himself in the Tyne : each of them perishing miserably, 
punished in either case by death. 

When thus these things had taken place the rest of the 
army were terrorstricken and dared invade no more the 
possessions of the aforesaid church of Hexham. 

So David, king of Scotland, and his son earl Henry on 
behalf of themselves and of all their followers granted their 
perpetual peace to that monastery and to its brethren 
and to all that pertained to it. And this they confirmed 
by their charters, which are preserved in that church : this 
only being provided, that they too should preserve peace 
with [David] himself and his followers. . . . 

1 J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 290 : " But [David] respected the dignity and 
age of the church of Hexham, and preserved peace with it, and with all who 
had taken refuge in it ; sending five Scots thither, to see that no one dared 
to invade it with hostile intention." 

2 St. John's Lee ; Raine, Hexh., i, 80, 16. For this incident cf. R. of H., 
D.H.E., in Raine's Hexh., i, 17. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 290. 

Cf. A. of R., speech of Espec, in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 188 : " Michael 
will be with us with his angels to avenge his wrong ; for they have defiled 
his church with human blood, have polluted his altar by placing upon it a 
human head," 



Afterwards they pursued across the Tyne the provincials 
who had taken refuge in the desert places, and in a place 
which is called Tanfield they fell upon the multitude of the 
whole province, peaceful and inapprehensive, slaughtered 
them all, and bore away abundant spoil. 

At last king [David] returned with his followers to his 
own ; and in Lent l king Stephen came at Wark with his 
forces of knights into the land of the king of Scotland, and 
instructed his men to slay and to pursue. 2 


And [David] turned aside to Carham, and afterwards 
entered his own land and lay hid with his army in certain 
desert places not far from Roxburgh, preparing a trap for 
the king of England. For he hoped that [Stephen] would 
stay in Roxburgh. And he had instructed its citizens to 
receive him with friendship, as if they would keep faith with 
him ; but also instructed them that when he should arrive 
in the night with his army the host of soldiers also whom 
he had placed in the town should come forth suddenly, and 
with the citizens should join him, and all combining should 
surround the unwary king of England and annihilate him 
and all his men. 

JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, PP. 290-291. 

For [David] was on the watch for an occasion and for 
favourable opportunities by night to fall upon him. Indeed 

1 Ash Wednesday was the 16th February in 1138. 

2 R. of H., G.R.S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 155 : " Meanwhile about the 
Purification of St. Mary [2nd February] Stephen, king of England, came with 
an immense number of earls and barons, and with a very great army of horse 
and of foot. And when the king of Scotland learned this he left Northumbria 
with his army, and hastened to his own land." 

H. of H., 261 : " King Stephen therefore bestirring himself burned and 
destroyed the southern parts of the kingdom of king David, while David 
himself dared not meet him." So Hoved., i, 193 ; R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., 
etc., iv, 134 ; Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 226. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 167 : 
" King Stephen therefore moved a great army into Scotland ; but before he 
came there the king of Scots retired into his own, and took to impregnable 
places. And the English king burned with fire the southern parts of Scot- 
land, and so returned to England." Cf. M.P., H.A., i, 257. 

3 Cf . J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 290 : " But king David gathered himself and 
his followers not far away within a certain swamp, quite small, and wholly 
inaccessible on all sides, except by a certain narrow footpath ; and instructed 
the citizens of Roxburgh boldly to receive the king of England within the 
town, if he should come." 


he was sure that he would have as allies in his prearranged 
betrayal very many of the nobles of the English army ; fpr 
they too, conspiring with secret plans, had incited him to 
the conflict. 


But God who sees the plans of men, how vain they are, 
brought this trap to naught. For the king of England cross- 
ing the river Tweed turned not aside to Roxburgh, but 
harried and burned a great part of the land of the king of 
Scotland ; and, because many of his knights wished not to 
bear arms nor to wage war (for it was the beginning of Lent,) 
and also because the king of Scotland and his subjects dared 
not meet him in battle, and also because his army lacked for 
food, he returned with his men to south England. 1 


But after Easter 3 a villanous madness of treason broke 
out. . . . 

King Stephen being thus occupied with the southern 
parts of England David, king of Scots, led forth an innumer- 
able army into England. 


But immediately in the first week after the celebration 

1 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 291 : " But the trap was made known to 
king Stephen, who prepared to return, and in anger compelled Eustace 
[Fitz John] to resign into his hands again the castle of Bamborough ; and 
in haste returned to England." 

J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 102 : " After [the capture of Bedford], hear- 
ing a report of the invasion of enemies, the devastation of lands, the burning 
of vills, the besieging of castles and towns, [Stephen] set out for Northumbria 
with a strong force. And after staying there a short while he returned, 
scarcely having accomplished to his wish the things for which he had gone." 

2 Similarly Hoved., i, 193 ; R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 134-135 ; 
Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 227. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 167 ; H.A., i, 258. 

Cf. J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 111 : " Meanwhile David, king of Scot- 
land, with a mighty host of horse and foot issued forth for the third time 
from the sheath of the confines of his kingdom, and around the borders of 
Northumbria began to burn fields, towns and castles, and to ravage nearly 
the whole land." 

3 3rd April. 

4 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 291 : " After the celebration of Easter 
week king David of Scotland again moved an expedition into Northumbria, 
and destroyed everything along the sea-coast, which had been exempt from 


of Easter was over, on the sixth day of the week, 1 the oft- 
mentioned king of Scotland returned to Northumbria again 
with his wicked army ; and destroyed first the sea-board 
province, which the other time he had left untouched, and 
whatever else besides this he had anywhere passed over un- 
harmed ; and then the greatest part of the land of St. Cuth- 
bert, in the eastern district between Durham and the sea, 
with no less fury and cruelty than has been above related. 
Very many also of the farms of the monks who serve God and 
St. Cuthbert day and night he destroyed in like manner, 
both this and the other time ; and with them their culti- 

But at last St. Cuthbert had compassion upon his own. 
For while his men were so employed the king tarried with 
his knights not far from Durham. And there a serious sedition 
arose because of a certain woman, and the Picts threatened 
to destroy the king and his followers. 

And while he was in much anxiety over this alarm behold 
it was published by a false rumour that a very great army 
from south England was approaching. Therefore he left 
the food which had been made ready for him, and fled, with 
no man pursuing, towards his own land with all his men. 

And he turned aside to the town of Norham, which is in 
the land of St. Cuthbert, and besieged it, attempting by 
various methods and machines to storm and take it. 

And while he remained at the siege he sent his nephew 
William Fitz Duncan with the Picts and part of his army on 
an expedition into Yorkshire. And they came thither and 
gained the victory, for the people's sins, and in great part 
destroyed by sword and fire the possessions of a certain noble 
monastery which is situated in Furness, and the province 
which is called Craven. 2 

Meanwhile William Fitz Duncan slaying and pursuing 

his former devastations. He proceeded also to Newcastle, and sent forward 
his forces to do cruelly hostile deeds, around Durham, towards the Tees ; 
and turned aside thence to Norham, the fortress of the bishop of Durham ; 
and, causing it to be besieged, very soon compelled the townsmen to sur- 
render. And he ordered the town itself to be destroyed." 

1 Friday, 8th April. 

2 This seems to have been a demonstration in support of William's claim 
(through his wife, Alice de Romille) to the honour of Skipton and Craven, 
in possession of which he was confirmed by king David in 1151 : cf. J. of H., 
infra, s.a. 1151. 

Furness was Wimund's monastery ; v, W. of N., infra, s.a. 1151, 


around Clitheroe encountered a force of English knights 
arrayed against him in four troops. This force he put to 
flight by the stoutness of his first attack, and gave them up 
to slaughter ; and carried off much spoil, and a multitude of 

[This battle was waged between the English and the Picts 
and Scots at Clitheroe, on the sixth day of the week, the 
fifteenth l before the nativity of St. John the Baptist, in the 
aforesaid year, that is, in 1138.] 2 


They spared therefore no rank, no age, neither sex, no 
condition ; and first slaughtered as pitiably as they could 
children and relatives in the sight of their kindred, and 
masters in the sight of their servants, and conversely ; and 
husbands before the eyes of their wives : then, alas ! pro- 
miscuously with the other women and with their spoil, they 
carried off as well the noble widowed matrons and the chaste 
maidens. Stripped also, and bound and fastened together 
in troops by cords and thongs, they drove them away before 
them, goading them with their spears and arrows. 

This same thing they did in other wars, but to a greater 
extent in this. 

Thereafter when these were apportioned with the spoil 
certain of [the enemy] were moved to pity, and set some of 
them free, giving them up to the church of St. Mary in Car- 
lisle. But the Picts and many others took with them to 
their country those who fell to their lot. And then these 
bestial men, who regard as nothing adultery and incest and 
the other crimes, after they were weary of abusing these most 
hapless creatures after the manner of brute beasts, either 
made them their slaves or sold them to other barbarians for 

Now so soon as the king of Scotland learned of this [vic- 
tory at Clitheroe] he rejoiced with his followers with great 
joy, and began to assail the aforesaid fortress [of Norham] 
more vigorously than usual. The townsmen at first defended 
themselves very well ; but afterwards because they were 
few, and several of them had been wounded, and indeed 
they were [in all] but nine knights ; and also because they 
hoped for no aid from their lord Geoffrey, bishop of Durham , 

1 10th June. 

2 The sentence in brackets is a later insertion. Arnold, ibid,, note. 


and also because they had been little practised in such struggles, 
they were dismayed and made surrender to the king while 
both their wall was very good and their tower very strong, 
and while they had abundance of provisions. 

Therefore the knights and others who were in the town 
incurred great ignominy because they had defended the 
fortress ill, and had yielded too soon : and not they nly, 
but their lord also, because he had not defended his fortress 
according to his opportunity and the needs of the time. 

The knights returned with their men to Durham. 

So the king gained the town, and took the food which 
was found there in sufficient abundance ; and announced to 
the bishop of Durham that if he forsook Stephen, king of 
England, and would swear fealty to his party, he would 
return to him his fortress and make good the losses he had 
caused him. 

The bishop refused : the king therefore caused the town 
to be destroyed. 

And while these things took place there about Rogation 
time, 1 knights went out from the town of Carham and seized 
below their town, along with the waggons and attendants, king 
David's provisions, which were being carried back and fore 
near them. 

The king was fired therefore with excessive anger, and 
hastened with all his host to besiege them ; and again began to 
storm the town with machines and by every method he could. 
But by God's help his every effort fell void. Moreover also 
very many of his men were wounded and hurt by them, and 
several were killed. 

Likewise also in encounters which they had had with the 
king's son Henry before this siege they had slain some men, 
and wounded and taken others, and had received ransom 
for them. Blessed be God in all things, who has protected 
the righteous and betrayed the unrighteous ! 

But when the king saw that he laboured in vain about 
the town, he caused the crops to be destroyed through the 
fields. 2 

1 Rogation Sunday was 8th May. 

2 J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 291 : " After these days knights went out from 
Wark and seized attendants and waggons with king [David's] provisions, 
driving them back into the town. And also they made an attack upon 
Henry, the king's son, and upon his companions, some of whom they slew, 
and others they wounded and held to ransom. 

" The king bore this ill, and condemned them to a renewal of the siege, 
wasting'their crops in the fields, and refusing them all their supplies." 


Then from his own land and every land from which he 
could he caused to be collected an army more numerous 
than any he had ever had before. 1 

Eustace Fitz John also, 2 one of the king of England's 
barons, who had a very strong castle called Aln wick in North- 
umbria, and who had long secretly favoured the king of 
Scotland, on this occasion with open treachery denied his 
natural lord, to wit the king of England ; and he himself 
with all his forces gave aid to the Scots against the realm of 
England. And thus he took with him a great multitude of 
soldiers, and set out with the king of Scotland to destroy 
Yorkshire ; and intended to have given up his other very 
strong castle, Malton by name, 3 ... to the king of Scot- 
land and his men. 

So king David intrusted the siege of Wark to two of his 
thanes, that is, of his barons, with their people, and set 
out with the greatest part of his army for the town which is 
called Bamborough. 

And there before the fortress he took a certain rampart, 
and killed nearly a hundred men. 4 

Then after devastating the crops around [Bamborough] 
and around Mitford, 5 the town of William Bertram, and in 
many other places throughout Northumbria, he crossed over 
the river Tyne, and entering the land of St. Cuthbert awaited 
the part of his army which had not yet come to him. 

1 J. of H., u.s., 292 : " In the same year and at the same time, namely 
in the autumn, king David united his forces and directed his march to York- 
shire, leaving two barons in the meanwhile with a host to besiege Wark." 

J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 112 (after the battle of the Standard) : " He 
had an innumerable army, as well of French as of English, Scots and 
Galwegians, and from all the islands which pertained to him and to his 

A. of R., De S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 181 : " When therefore king 
Stephen was occupied with his southern regions the king of Scots collected 
an innumerable army, summoning not only those who lay under his empire 
but also no small host of the islanders and the Orcadians. And advancing 
with the greatest pride and ferocity he intended either to reduce to himself 
the whole district of northern England, or to harry it with slaughter and 

2 " From whom king Stephen had taken Bamborough,' J. of H., u.s., 

3 Malton castle was taken by the Northumbrian barons after the battle 
of the Standard ; cf. R. of H., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 165. 

4 J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 292 : " They set out therefore by Bamborough. 
And the youths of that place rashly ventured from the protection of a ram- 
part which they had driven out in front of the fortress, and molested the 
Scots with taunts as they passed by. Aroused to anger, the Scots at once 
applied themselves to the destruction of the wall ; and very quickly burst 
in, and slew as many as they caught." 

5 In text Milford ; read Mitford. 


And without delay assembled to him by his command 
the Picts and the Cumbrians and the men of Carlisle and of 
the surrounding district. When therefore his whole army 
was collected he rejoiced with excessive joy, because it seemed 
to him abundant and invincible : for in truth it was vast, 
consisting of more than twenty-six thousand men. And his 
heart was uplifted, and his followers' ; and they placed their 
trust in themselves and in their numbers, and had no regard 
towards God, but spoke all too unbecomingly and proudly. 

And not Yorkshire alone did they purpose and threaten 
to depopulate but also the greater part of England. For 
they deemed not that any host would venture or be able to 
oppose them. 

Now these things happened within the octaves of the 
nativity of St. Mary [Magdalen.] 1 And the king went past 
Durham with his army, and caused the crops to be harried 
as far as to the river Tees, and the vills and churches which 
he had left untouched on the other occasion to be broken 
into, plundered and burned according to his custom. 

Also crossing the Tees he began to do the same. 2 


In this year came David, king of Scotland, with an im- 
mense army to this land ; he wished to win this land. 

And against them came earl William of Albemarle, to whom 
the king had intrusted York, and two other trusty men, with 
few followers ; and fought against them, and put the king 
to flight at the Standard, and slew very many of his com- 

1138, Aug. 


But the divine compassion was stirred by the tears of 
innumerable widows, orphans and hapless men, and suffered 
him no longer with impunity to practise so great cruelty. 
For while he prepared himself and his men for wickedness of 
this kind all his preparations, and what he intended to do 

1 23rd x 29th July. 

2 Cf. W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 33-34 : " And [the Scots] crossed 
the Tyne, and, sparing neither sex nor age, advanced to the river Tees ; and 
not even there did they place for themselves the limit of their orgies, but 
now with confident hopes occupied the whole province of Deira, with the 
city of York." 


and where he intended to go, were known to the men of York- 
shire, both by the report of rumour and by the passage of 
sure messengers. Therefore the barons of that province 
assembled at York, and eagerly discussed among themselves 
what plan they should adopt in this emergency. These were 
Archbishop Thurstan, who (as will appear in the following) 
occupied himself very greatly with this affair ; and William 
of Albemarle, Walter of Gaunt, Robert de Bruce, Roger de 
Mowbray, Walter Espec, Ilbert de Lacy, William de Percy, 
Richard de Courcy, William Fossard, Robert de Estuteville, 
and the other powerful and sagacious men. 

And since very many hesitated, distrusting one another 
because of the treason in which many were supposed to be 
involved, and because they had not a prince and leader in 
the war, for king Stephen their lord was at that time sur- 
rounded by no lesser difficulties in south England, and could 
not for the present come to them, they feared with a few 
to oppose so great a multitude, and almost seemed to abandon 
wholly the defence of themselves and their country, had not 
their archbishop Thurstan, a man of great steadfastness and 
courage, 1 aroused them by his speech and counsel. . . . 


STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, p. 182. 2 

And Thurstan also, the archbishop of York, published an 
episcopal edict throughout his whole diocese that all who 
could proceed to the wars should hasten to the nobles from 
each of his parishes, preceded by the priests with cross and 
banners and relics of saints, to defend the church of Christ 
against the barbarians. 


During the commotions of this time came to them Bernard 

1 "Indomitable in the steadfastness of his heart in fair fortune or foul ; 
burdened with years, weak in body, so that he was carried in a litter wher- 
ever the situation of affairs required." J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 292. Cf. 
R. of H., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 261. 

2 Cf. J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 111 : " But on this last occasion, when 
[David] threatened to advance as far as York and the Humber, Thurstan, 
archbishop of York, held a conference with all the men of the province of 
York, and caused all by common consent and counsel to take an oath in 
fealty to king [Stephen] that they would oppose [king David]." Cf. W. of 
N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 34. 

Cf. the account given in the 12th century Lives of the Abps., in Raine's 
York, ii, 528-529. 

3 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 292-293. 


de Balliol, 1 one of the nobles of the same province, sent by 
the king of England with a host of cavalry. And he greatly 
roused their minds to the same thing, both on the king's 
behalf and on his own. 

So by king [Stephen's] command and by exhortation of 
their archbishop they all with one accord fixed upon one 
plan, and each returned to his own. 

And after a short time they assembled again at York ; 
each with his men, armed and supplied with weapons of war. 
After receiving, therefore, their individual confession, the 
archbishop enjoined upon them and likewise upon all the 
people a three-days' fast with alms ; and then solemnly be- 
stowed upon them absolution, and God's blessing and his 
own. . . . 

Then he gave them his cross, and the banner of St. Peter, 
and his vassals. 

And they went to the town which is called Thirsk. 2 And 
thence they sent Robert de Bruce and Bernard de Balliol to 
the king of Scotland, who was already ravaging the land of 
St. Cuthbert, as has been said above ; and with great humility 
and friendliness they besought him at least thenceforth to 
cease from his cruelty. And if he would accede to their 
counsel they promised most faithfully that they would obtain 
from the king of England for his son Henry the earldom of 
Northumbria which he had demanded. 

But [David] and his followers hardened their hearts, and 
both spurned their words and with indignity derided them. 

Therefore Robert returned to him the homage which he 
had done him, and Bernard the oath which on one occasion 
he had sworn him when he had been taken prisoner by him, 
and they returned to their comrades. 3 


STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, PP. 192-195. 
At that time Robert de Bruce, a man aged and of great 
resources, grave in manner, scant of speech, but speaking 

1 For Bernard de Balliol cf. R. of H., D.H.E., in Raine's Hexh., i, 62. 

2 " All inspired by an equal resolution of mind," J. of H., u.s., 293. 

3 J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 293 : " Then Robert de Bruce and Bernard 
de Balliol proceeded to the king of Scotland on the banks of the Tees, pro- 
mising the earldom of Northumbria to his son Henry, and urging him to 
cease from this invasion. The king refused to agree. Therefore Robert 
freed himself from the homage which he had done him for the barony which 
he held of him in Galloway," [i.e. Annandale,] " and Bernard freed himself 
from the loyalty he had long ago promised him ; and thus they returned to 
their comrades." 


with a certain dignity and weight, while he was of the right 
of the English king had yet from his youth adhered to the 
king of Scotland, and had attained to the greatest friendship 
with him. He, therefore, as a man of veteran military 
experience and sufficiently acquainted with such affairs, fore- 
saw with natural insight the danger which threatened the 
king. And prompted by old friendship he got permission 
from his comrades and went to the king, either to dissuade 
him from war or lawfully to renounce allegiance to him after 
ancestral custom. For he was bound to him not only by 
friendship, but also by the obligation of fealty. 

So when he saw the king anear he said : "I am here, 
king, thy vassal, to give thee now counsel honourable for thee, 
advantageous for thy kingdom, to the benefit of thy children 
hereafter. For it is no wise man's part to look to the be- 
ginning of things, and not to their result and conclusion ; or 
for the present alone to lay aside recollection of the past or 
provision for the future. Against whom dost thou bear arms 
to-day and lead this huge army ? Against the English, truly, 
and the Normans. king, are not these they with whom 
thou hast ever found useful counsel and ready help, and willing 
obedience besides ? Since when, my lord, I ask thee hast 
thou found such faith in Scots that thou dost with such confi- 
dence divest and deprive thyself and thine of the counsel of 
the English, the help of the Normans, as if the Scots would 
suffice alone for thee even against the Scots ? New to thee is 
this confidence in Galwegians, attacking with arms to-day 
those by whose aid hitherto thou hast ruled the Scots with 
affection, the Galwegians with terror. Thinkest thou then, 
king, that the heavenly Majesty will behold with favouring 
eyes when thou seekest to destroy those through whom the 
kingdom was procured for thee and thine, and security in the 
kingdom ? With what forces or by what aid did thy brother 
Duncan overthrow the army of Donald, and recover the king- 
dom which a tyrant had usurped ? Who but our army 
restored to the kingdom Edgar thy brother, nay, more than 
brother ? Thou thyself, oh king, when thou didst demand 
from thy brother Alexander the part of the kingdom which 
the same brother [Edgar] had bequeathed to thee at his death 
didst obtain without bloodshed all that thou wouldst, through 
the fear of us. Remember when in a past year thou didst 
beseech for the aid of the English against Malcolm, the heir 
of his father's hatred and persecution, how joyful, how eager, 
how willing to. help, how ready for the danger came Walter 


Espec and very many other nobles of the English to meet 
thee at Carlisle : how many ships they prepared, how they 
made war, with what forces they made defence ; how they 
terrified all thy enemies, until they took Malcolm himself, 
surrendered to them ; taken, they bound him ; and delivered 
him over bound. So did the fear of us while binding his limbs 
bind still more the courage of the Scots, and by quenching 
all hope of success remove the presumption to rebel. 

"Whatever hatred, therefore, whatever enmity the Scots 
have against us is because of thee and thine, for whom we 
have striven so often against them, and have bereft them of 
the hope of rebellion, and have reduced them in all things to 
thee and to thy will. Let the Scots laugh therefore, in that 
thou procurest for them vengeance upon us, since they have 
naught else to avenge upon us but that we have loved thee 
and thine, have been loyal to thee and thine ; that with our 
arms, our shields, even our very bodies we have protected 
thy life, have preserved the kingdom for thee. 

" Spare therefore, king, spare thyself, spare thy king- 
dom, above all spare thy son, most brilliant of youths ; whom 
to-day, divested of counsel and despoiled of all aid, thou 
exposes t to the betrayal and subjectest to the fury of the 
Scots. Beware moreover lest thou be involved in the sins 
of wicked men, at whose hands are required the slaughter of 
children, the grief of pregnant women, the injury of priests, 
contempt for even the Divinity ; against whom the blood not 
of one Abel but of unnumbered innocents cries from the earth. 
Thou hast seen, king, the vile abominations which these 
men have done. Thou hast seen, I say, thou hast seen, hast 
abhorred, hast wept, hast beaten thy breast, hast exclaimed 
that it was done against thy command, against thy will, 
against thy decree. Show now that thou hast spoken the 
truth by restraining them from like iniquity, that they may 
return and be punished without thee, if without thee they 
have done such things. 

" And this would be sufficient even if none opposed thy 
attempt, or if the certainty of victory were assured. But 
now stands against thee an army not to be despised, as much 
more powerful than thine in arms and strength as it is less 
powerful in number. Thou knowest not, king, how danger- 
ous is despair when death is certain but there is still choice of 
the manner of death. If thou conquer we shall surely die. 
We shall die, I say ; we, and our children ; our priests will 
be slaughtered on the altars, our wives will be defiled by 


base lust. We have chosen therefore either to conquer or to 
die gloriously, although we have no doubt of the victory. 

" Hence my grief, hence my tears, that I shall view either 
the cruel death or the dishonourable flight of my gentlest 
lord, my dearest friend, my old comrade, in whose friendship 
I have grown aged ; whose generosity I have experienced 
in the bestowal of manifold gifts, in the granting of lands 
also and many possessions ; after the youthful sports which 
we practised together, after the affairs of wars where in many 
dangers we were ever together ; after the splendid feasts which 
the kingdom of one supplied to both, after the delights which 
the hunting of birds and beasts conferred." 

When he had spoken thus his speech was broken by tears 
and sobs. And the king was moved and melted to tears by 
his compassionate nature, and all but entered into a compact. 

But William, the king's nephew, a man of high spirit and 
the chief provoker of war,, intervened and with the greatest 
fury accused Robert himself of treason, and bent the king 
from his purpose. 

And [Robert] delayed not, but after the ancestral custom 
broke the chain of fealty by which he had hitherto been bound 
to the king, and returned, not without great grief, to his 

1138, Aug. 


p. 266. i 

In the year from the Lord's incarnation 1138, on the 
eleventh 2 before the Kalends of September, and also in the 
twenty-third year since [Thurstan] had received the arch- 
bishopric, there was a battle between David, king of Scot- 
land, and archbishop Thurstan : and king David was conquered, 
and conquered were all the Scots. 

For the same archbishop met secretly with the king's knights 
upon Cowton moor, near Northallerton ; and commanded to 
be made in subterraneous passages certain instruments, called 
in English petronces, which gave forth horrible sounds. 

And when they resounded the wild beasts and other animals 3 
which went before the army of the aforesaid king David, to 

1 Cf. a passage inserted in A. of R., De S., MS. C ; Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 
182, n. Cf. Raine's Hexh., i, 92, n. 

2 22nd August. 

3 ferce et ccetera armenta. A. of R., MS. C, has armamenta. Possibly 
the use of war-dogs is referred to. 


assist it, were terrified through fear of the din, and recoiled 
fiercely upon the army of the same king David. 

And thus the aforesaid archbishop Thurstan with the above- 
mentioned knights put him to flight, and after slaying [twelve] l 
thousand carried away much spoil also. 


And hence 2 the king of Scotland was the more enraged ; 
and he could be held back by persuasion of none, but advanced 
to the Tees on the octave 3 of the Assumption of St. Mary, which 
was the second day of the week ; and determined to take our 
men by surprise, because exactly upon that day there was a very 
close mist. And thus, hoping that he should come upon them 
unawares, he left many vills untouched, and did not allow his 
men after their wont to burn anything on that day. 4 


At the same time the archbishop 6 sent to them Ralph, sur- 
named NoweU, 7 bishop of the Orkneys, along with one of, his 
archdeacons 8 and others of the clergy ; that he should in his 
stead both enjoin penance and give absolution to the people 
who daily flocked to them from all sides in crowds. He sent 
to them also the priests with their parishioners, as he had 
promised them. 

While thus they awaited the arrival of the Scots behold, 
their scouts returned, whom they had sent in front to recon- 

1 In text pro; read 12 ? 

2 I.e., because of the gathering of the barons. 

3 22nd August. 

4 W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 34, asserts that the Scots burned their 
camp behind them. 

5 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 293. 

6 Thurstan had been " very prudently restrained by the chief men from 
this departure to the battle," J. of H., u.s., 293 : cf. R. of H., G.R.S., in 
Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 161. He was prevented from going by disease, accord- 
ing to H. of H., 262. 

7 " His suffragan bishop," J. of H., u.s. Cf. supra, s.a. 1128. A speech 
before the battle is attributed to him by H. of H., 262/followed by Cotton. 
MS. of A. of R., Raine's Hexh., i, 89 ; Hoved., i, 193-194 : cf. M.P., Chr. 
Maj., ii, 167-168, where the St. Albans compiler in error calls Ralph bishop 
of Durham ; so also M.P., H.A., i, 259. 

From this speech is borrowed that attributed by B. of P. to the earl of 
Arundel at Breteuil ; G. H. II, i, 52-53. 

Ralph Nowel proclaimed " to the people the necessity of fighting as a 
remission of sins," and absolved them ; A. of R., De S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., 
iii, 196. 

8 Possibly Hugh Sottewain ; cf. R. of H., u.s., 163; infra. 


noitre ; and they learned that the king had already crossed 
the river Tees with his army, and was already destroying their 
province after his wont. 

Therefore they went with the greatest haste to meet them, 
and passing the vill which is called Northallerton came in the 
earliest morning 1 to the plain which is two miles distant from 
that place. 2 


STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, PP. 185-187. 
(From the speech of Walter Espec. ) 3 

. . . " For why should we despair of victory, when victory 
has been given to our race [the Normans] as if in fee by the most 
High? . . . 4 

" Who then would not laugh, rather than fear, when to 
fight against such men runs the worthless Scot with half -bare 
buttocks ? They are those, they are only those who of yore 
thought not to oppose us, but to yield, when William conqueror 
of England penetrated Lothian, Calatria and Scotland as far as 
Abernethy, where the warlike Malcolm was made ours by his 
surrender ; and now they challenge to war their conquerors, 
their masters ; -they oppose their naked hide to our lances, our 
swords and our arrows, using a calf -skin 5 for a shield, inspired 
by irrational contempt of death rather than by strength. 6 

1 I.e. of the 22nd August ; so J. of W., supra. 

J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 293 : " On the octave, therefore, of the Assump- 
tion of St. Mary, on the eleventh before the Kalends of September, the second 
day of the week, the whole army gathered round the Standard." Cf. R. of 
H., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 164. Cf. A. of R., addition in MS. C, ibid., iii, 
181, n. W. of N., ibid., i, 34, gives the date as the fourth year of king Stephen. 

2 " In a certain plain of the vassalage of St. Cuthbert," J. of H., in 
S. of D., ii, 293. Cf . the additions in the Cotton. MS. of A. of R., " namely 
upon Cowton Moor, near Northallerton," Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 182, n ; and 
again, " This battle was fought ... on Cowton Moor," ibid., iii, 199, n. 
" At Allerton in Cowton Moor," Hoved., i, 193. 

3 A. of R. ascribes to Walter Espec a long rhetorical exhortation of the 
English before the battle (u.s., 185-189.) The allegation of sacrilege plays 
a large part both in this speech and in that attributed to Ralph Nowel by 
H. of H. 

4 He goes on to profess victories achieved throughout France and Italy. 

5 Calf-skins stretched on hoops were used as carrying-trays until quite 
recently in Scotland. The lightness and roundness of the Scottish shield 
suggests the sarcasm. 

6 Cf. H. of H., pp. 262-263, speech of Ralph Nowel, bishop of Orkney : 
"... And now Scotland, subject to you by right, strives to- repulse you, 
displaying unarmed rashness fitter for a brawl than for the fight : while in 
them is no knowledge of the art of war, no skill in strategy, no tolerance of 
discipline. There is therefore no ground for fear but rather for shame, be- 
cause these whom we have always sought and conquered in their own laud 


" Why therefore does the great length of those spears, which 
We perceive afar off, alarm us ? The wood is fragile, the iron 
blunted ; when it smites it is destroyed, when it is struck it 
breaks, scarcely sufficing for one blow. Catch it on a stick, 
and the Scot stands there unarmed. l 

"Is it the multitude we fear ? . . . I say naught of what 
I think of their number, lest I seem to detract anything from 
our future glory. . . ." 


STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, PP. 1 89-191. 

Meanwhile 2 king [David] gathered together his earls and 
the highest nobles of his realm, and began to discuss with them 
the array of the battle. And it pleased the greater number 
that all the armed men, knights and archers whom they had 
should go before the rest of the army, so that armed men should 
attack armed men, and knights engage with knights, and arrows 
resist arrows. 

The Galwegians 3 opposed this, saying that it was their right 
to fill the front line, to make the first attack upon the enemy, 
to arouse by their courage the rest of the army. 

The others said that it was dangerous if at the first assault 
unarmed met armed men ; for if the first rank sustained not 
the brunt of battle but yielded to flight the courage of even the 
brave would be readily dispelled. 

None the less the Galwegians persisted, demanding that 
their right be granted to them. " For why art thou fearful, 
king," said they ; " and why dost thou so greatly dread those 
iron tunics which thou seest afar off ? We surely have iron 
sides, a breast of bronze, a mind void of fear ; and our feet have 
never known flight, nor our backs a wound. What gain were 
their hauberks to the Gauls at Clitheroe ? Did not these men 
unarmed, as they say, compel them to throw away their hau- 

have reversed the order and swarmed, drunken and senseless, in our country. 
. . . Why do we hesitate then to advance against unarmed and naked men ? 

1 For the weapons of the Scots cf. H. of H.'s account of the Anglo-Saxon 
occupation, 38 : " And since the [Picts and Scots] fought with javelins and 
spears, and the [Saxons] strove very stubbornly with axes and long swords, 
the Picts were unable to sustain so heavy an onslaught, but consulted their 
safety in flight." 

2 During the English preparations for battle. 

3 " The Picts, who are commonly called Galwegians," says R. of H., 
supra : i.e., the Picts south of the Forth. It is not impossible that the 
inhabitants of West Lothian were still included in the name, which in origin 
(Gall-ghaidheil = foreign Gaels) was applicable to all users of the Gaelic tongue 
who had been under foreign rule. 


berks, to forget their helmets, to leave behind their shields ? 
Let then your prudence see, king, what it is to have confi- 
dence in these, which in a strait are more burden than defence. 
We gained at Clitheroe the victory over mail-clad men : we 
to-day shall use as shield the valour of our minds, and van- 
quish these with spears." 

After this was said, when the king seemed rather to incline 
to the counsels of his knights, Malisse, earl of Strathearn, 1 was 
greatly wroth, and said : " Why is it, king, that thou relies t 
rather upon the will of Gauls, since none of them with their 
arms to-day will advance before me, unarmed, in the battle ? " 

And Alan de Percy, base-born son of the great Alan, a 
most vigorous knight, and in military matters highly distin- 
guished, took these words ill ; and turning to the earl he said, 
" A great word hast thou spoken, and one which for thy life 
thou canst not make good this day." 

Then the king, restraining both, lest a disturbance should 
suddenly arise out of this altercation, yielded to the will of the 

The second line the king's son arranged with great wisdom ; 
with himself the knights and archers, adding to their number 
the Cumbrians and Teviotdalesmen. 

Now he was a youth beautiful of face and handsome in 
appearance ; of such humility that he seemed lower than all, 
of such authority that he was feared by all ; so gentle, so lov- 
able, so affable that he was beloved of all ; so chaste in body, in 
speech so sober, in all his ways so honourable, so zealous in 
the church, so diligent in prayer ; so kind to the poor, against 
ill-doers so resolute, so submissive to priests and monks, that 
he seemed as a king to simulate the monk, as a monk, the king. 
He was moreover of such bravery that none in that army was 
like him, either in attacking the enemy or in courageously re- 
ceiving his attack ; bolder than the rest in pursuit, keener for 
the repulse, unreadier to flee. 

To him Eustace Fitz John had joined himself, and was pre- 
sent in his line, of the great nobles of England the most inti- 
mate with the late king Henry ; a man of the highest pru- 
dence, and in secular matters of great resourcefulness. He had 
left the English king because he had been seized by him in 
court, contrary to ancestral custom, and had been forced to 
give back the castles which king Henry had intrusted to 

1 For a similar identification of an earl of Strathearn with the cause of 
the Galwegians cf. infra, s.a. 1160. 


him. For this reason he was offended, and betook himself to 
[Stephen's] enemies, to avenge the wrong inflicted upon him. 

The men of Lothian formed the third rank, with the islanders 
and the men of Lorn. 

The king kept in his own line the Scots and Moravians ; 
several also of the English and French knights he appointed 
as his body-guard. And thus was the northern army arrayed. l 


And presently some of [the English] erected the mast of a 
ship in the middle of a machine which they had brought thither ; 
and they called it " The Standard." And hence [wrote] Hugh 
Sottewain, archdeacon of York : " From the* stand it was 
called the Standard, because there stood the brave knights to 
conquer -or die." 3 

And upon the summit of this tree they hung a silver pyx 
with the body of Christ, and the banners of St. Peter the apostle 
and of Saints John of Beverley and Wilfrid of Ripon, confessors 
and bishops. Now this they did with the purpose that Jesus 
Christ our Lord should by the presence of his body be their 
leader in the battle, which they had undertaken in defence of 
his church and of their country. 

In this they provided also for their men, that if by any 
chance they should be separated and parted from the rest they 
might have a plain and certain sign by which to return to their 
comrades ; and might there regain their support. 

Thereafter they had scarce donned their warlike arms when 
behold, the king of Scotland was reported to be close upon them, 
with his whole army most ready and eager for battle. 4 

1 In A. of R.'s speech of Espec, Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 189 : " [The Scots] 
are preceded by actors, dancers and dancing-girls ; we, by the cross of Christ 
and relics of the saints." 

2 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 293. R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 135 
Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 227. 

A. of R., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 181-182 : " And they planted the 
royal banner, which in the common tongue is called the Standard, in the 
very wide plain near Northallerton, and there decided to intercept the enemy." 
Cf. H. of H., 262. 

3 No more of this poem by H.S. has been preserved. 

4 J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 111 : " But our men were warned, though 
late, by a certain esquire ; and almost taken by surprise very quickly armed 
and arrayed themselves, and sent forward archers before the van ; and by 
them the army of Scots was greatly injured. 

" Then the king's barons themselves advanced with the knights, who 
had all descended from their horses and were in the first rank ; and with 
their hands and weapons they joined issue with the enemy." 


Therefore the greater part of the knights left their horses 
and became foot-soldiers. The picked men of these, mixed 
with archers, were arrayed in the front rank ; while the rest, 
excepting the disposers and prompters of the fight, were massed 
with the barons in the heart of the battle, near to and around 
the Standard. 1 And the rest of the host surrounded them, 
formed closely on all sides. But the company of horse and the 
horses of the knights were removed a little farther, lest they 
should be frightened by the shouting and din of the Scots. 2 


STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, PP. 191-192. 

But the southerns, since they were few, very wisely massed 
into one column. For the most vigorous knights were placed 
in the first front, and the lancers and archers so distributed 
through them that they were protected by the arms of the 
knights, and could with equally greater vigour and security 
either attack the enemy or receive his attack. 

But the nobles who were of maturer age were arrayed (that 
they might support the others) around the royal banner, some 
being placed higher than the rest upon the machine itself. 

Shield was joined to shield, side pressed to side ; lances were 
raised with pennons unfurled, hauberks glittered in the brilliance 
of the sun ; priests, white-clad in their sacred robes, went round 

1 According to A. of R., De S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 182-183, the 
leaders of the English army were William, earl of Albemarle ; Walter of 
Gaunt ; Ilbert de Lacy ; Robert de Bruce, who " although he very greatly 
loved the king of Scotland, yet failed not his people in this crisis," (u.s. 182,) 
with his son Adam [Robert died in 1142, Adam in 1143, according to J. of H., 
in S. of D., ii, 312, 315 ;] Roger de Mowbray ; Walter Espec, who receives 
from Ailred special eulogy. (He was the founder of the Cistercian monastery 
of Rievaulx, whence were founded " very many monasteries in both king- 
doms ; that is, of England and of Scotland," A. of R., u.s., 184. For the 
arrival of the Cistercians cf. supra, s.a. 1113.) 

Ralph Nowel is placed first on the list by Hoved., i, 195. 

J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 293, includes in his list of the leaders de Percy, 
de Balliol, de Courcy, Fossard, de Estuteville ; Peverel, de Ferrers and 

The barons took oaths to conquer or die ; A. of R., u.s., 189 ; R. of H., 
ibid., iii, 162. 

After the victory Stephen " made William of Albemarle earl in York- 
shire, and Robert de Ferrers earl in Derbyshire," J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 
295. Cf. R. of H., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 165. 

Cf. also R. de T., ibid., iv, 135 ; Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 227. M.P., 
Chr. Maj., ii, 167. 

2 Cf. A. of R., De S., u.s., 189 : " And that the hope of flight should 
be wholly removed from them all, they decided to remove all their horses 
farther, and to engage as infantry, wishing either to die or to conquer." 
Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 293. 


the army with crosses and relics of the saints, and most becom- 
ingly fortified the people with speech as well as prayer. l 


STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, p. 195. 

And at once 2 the northern army left its position and ad- 
vanced with spears erect. There followed the peal of clarions, 
the blare of trumpets, the clashing of spears striking one against 
the other. Earth trembled, heaven groaned ; the mountains 
and hills around returned the echo. 


Likewise on the enemy's side king [David] himself and almost 
all his [knights] became foot-soldiers, and their horses were 
kept apart. 

In the front of the battle were the Picts. in the middle the 
king with his knights and his English ; the rest of the bar- 
barians extended round them on all sides, roaring. 

And while they advanced in this order to battle, behold, the 
Standard was seen with its banners not far off ; and immedi- 
ately the hearts of the king himself and his followers stood still 
with fear and dread. Nevertheless they persisted in their 
wickedness, and laboured to complete the evils they had begun. 


The whole people of the English replied, 4 and the mountains 
and hills re-echoed, " Amen, Amen ! " And at the same time 
the army of the Scots cried out the war cry of their fathers, 
and the shout rose even to the skies, " Albani, Albani ! " 5 
But the shouting was drowned in the fierceness and frightful 
crashing of blows. 


STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, p. 196. 

And the column of the Galwegians after their custom 
gave vent thrice to a yell of horrible sound, and attacked the 

1 Here A. of R. places the mission of de Bruce ; v. supra. 

2 After the return of de Bruce. 

A rhythmical account of the battle is printed in Twysden, 331-332. 
Cf. Hoved., i, 194. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 168-169. 

4 I.e., to Ralph Nowel's benediction. 

5 M.P., H.A., i, 259 gives the cry as " Albany, Albany ! " Perhaps it is 
the middle-Gaelic Albannaig, " men of Scotland." 


southerns in such an onslaught that they compelled the first 
spearmen to forsake their post ; but they were driven off 
again by the strength of the knights, and [the spearmen] 
recovered their courage and strength against the foe. l 

And when the frailty of the Scottish lances was mocked by 
the denseness of iron and wood they drew their swords and 
attempted to contend at close quarters. But the southern flies 
swarmed forth from the caves of their quivers, and flew like 
closest rain ; and irksomely attacking the opponents' breasts, 
faces and eyes, very greatly impeded their attack. 2 

Like a hedgehog with its quills, so would you see a Galwegian 
bristling all round with arrows, and none the less brandishing 
his sword and in blind madness rushing forward now smite a 
foe, now lash the air with useless strokes. 


Thus the chief leader of the men of Lothian 4 was struck by 
an arrow ; he fell, and his whole nation turned in flight. For 
God above was offended against them, and all their valour was 
broken like spiders' webs. 

And seeing this the chief line of Scots, fighting most keenly 
in another part, lost courage and yielded to flight. 


STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, PP. 196-1 97. 5 

And struck with panic all the rear were on the point of melt- 
ing into flight, when the noble youth, king [David's] son, came 

1 Cf. H. of H., 263, 264 : " The beginning of the fight : when the line 
of the men of Lothian, who had extorted from the Scots' king against his will 
the honour of the first blow, smote with their thonged javelins and very long 
spears upon the line of our knights, they found them impenetrable as if they 
struck against a wall of iron. . . . For the whole nation of the Normans and 
the English were massed together in one array around the Standard, and 
stood immovable." So Hoved., i, 195. Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 169; H.A., 
i, 259-260. 

J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 293 : " The Scots were placed in the front rank ; 
for they as one man claimed this for themselves, because of the dignity of 
their race. And they, naked and almost unarmed, advanced against columns 
mailed and thus invulnerable." 

Both H. of H. and J. of H. avoid the name of " Galwegians " for the 
men in the van of the Scottish army. 

2 H. of H., 263-264 : " But the archers, scattered among the knights, 
beclouded and transfixed those truly unarmed men." 

3 So Hoved., i, 195. Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 169. 

4 Cf. supra, note. (Gospatric II, earl of Dunbar, died about this time.) 

5 Cf. H. of H., 264 : " But the king's most vigorous son paid no heed 
to what he saw was being done by his side, but yearned solely after glory 
and valour ; and while the others fled he assailed with great bravery the 
enemy's line, and smote it with a wonderful onslaught. 

" For his company alone remained on horseback, being composed of 


up with his line and hurled himself, fierce as a lion, upon the 
opposing wing ; and after scattering that part of the southern 
army like a spider's web, slaying all who opposed him advanced 
beyond the royal banner. And thinking that the rest of the 
army would follow him, to remove from the foe their refuge 
in flight he attacked those stationed with the horses, routed 
and dispersed them, and compelled them to flee as far as two 
furlongs. l At this wonderful onslaught therefore the unarmed 
folk fled in terror. 

But by the fiction of a certain prudent man, who raised aloft 
the head of one of the killed and cried that the king was slain, 
they were brought back and attacked their opponents more 
eagerly than ever. 

Then the Galwegians could sustain no longer the shower 
of arrows, the swords of the knights ; and took to flight after 
two of their leaders had been slain, Ulgric and Donald. More- 
over the column of the men of Lothian scarcely awaited the 
first attack, but immediately dispersed. 

Then the king leapt from his horse, and with the nobles who 
were with him advanced against the enemy. 

JOHN or HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 294. 

King [David] thought it the due of his promise to conquer 
or die, for the oath which he had sworn, and the whole of 
England with him, to the heirs of king Henry. 

And so the Scots and the Picts held out with difficulty from 
the first hour when the struggle commenced to the third ; 2 for 
they saw themselves pierced and transfixed with the arrows, 
and overwhelmed and distressed. And they all slipped away 
from the field, casting their baggage from them. In derision of 
this affair that place is called Bagmoor. 3 

English and Normans who lived in his father's household. But even on 
horseback they could by no means long hold out against the mail-clad knights 
who stood firm on foot and were massed immovably. And they were com- 
pelled to flee, with broken spears and wounded horses, though they had 
fought gloriously." Cf. Hoved., i, 195. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 169 ; H.A., i, 260, 

1 stadia. 

2 Cf. R. of H., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 164 : " Therefore on the [22nd 
August] . . . between prime and terce the conflict of this battle was begun 
and ended. For immediately in the first encounter innumerable Picts were 
slain, and the rest threw away their arms and took to dishonourable flight." 

Cf. J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 111 : " And in the first moment of en- 
counter they made an end and gained the victory ; the Scots yielding to 
them, and either falling at once or fleeing in the greatest fear." 

W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 34 : " But the battle was not kept up 
long, since little or nothing was done there with the sword. For the men 
of light armour, when arrows pierced them from afar, soon turned their 
backs, and left the field to us with victory." 

3 For the opprobrium of the defeat cf. M.P., H.A., i, 260. 


Immediately the steadfastness of the rest of the army was 
shaken and weakened. Therefore the aldermen made haste 
and compelled the king to call back the horses, and to depart 
with his column in close formation, lest he too should go to 
destruction with his followers. x 


The plain was filled with corpses ; very many prisoners 
were taken, and the king and all the others took to flight. In- 
deed of so great an army all were slain, or captured, or scattered 
like sheep when the shepherd is struck down ; and in marvellous 
fashion, as if bereft of sense, they fled away from their country 
into the surrounding districts of their foes no less than back 
towards their land. And wherever they were found they were 
killed like sheep for the slaughter. 2 

And by a just judgment of God they who had pitiably slain 
many, and left them unburied, were themselves slain much 
more pitiably, and, without benefit of ancestral or alien burial, 
left exposed as prey to dogs, birds and wild beasts, either 
were torn and picked to pieces or decayed and putrefied beneath 
the sky. 

The king too, who recently had seemed to touch with his 
head the stars of heaven, through the excessive exaltation of 
his mind and magnitude of his army, and who therefore threat- 
ened to depopulate the whole or the greater part of England, 
presently escaped ingloriously and accompanied by but a few, 
in the greatest confusion and disgrace, barely with his life. 3 

And thus the power of God's vengeance was most plainly 

1 Cf. H. of H., 264 : " And the royal line, which king David had drawn 
from several nations, so soon as they saw this [flight of the main body] began 
to flee away, first singly, then in groups, till the king held out almost alone. 
And when the king's friends saw this they seized his charger and compelled 
him to retire." So Hoved., i, 195. Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 169 ; H.A., i, 
260. Cf. A. of R., De S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 197, and note. 

A. of R., ibid. : " The English army advanced against them and would 
surely have slain or taken the king himself with all his men had not his knights 
lifted him by force upon his horse, though he refused utterly to flee, and 
compelled him to retire." 

2 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 294 : " But very many Scots lost their way 
through ignorance of the district ; and they were slaughtered wherever they 
were found." 

O.V., XIII, 19, in Migne, 188, 971 : " The Scots, fearing the threatening 
sword, fled to the water, and ran into the great river called [Tees], without 
a ford ; and fleeing from death were straightway swallowed up in death." 
For Zedam (the Jed) in the text read Teisam (the Tees) ? 

3 J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 112 : " But he himself fled away, beaten, in 
the greatest fear and disgrace." Cf. W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 34. 


made manifest in this also, that the army of the conquered 
was inestimably greater than that of the conquerors. 

And the number of the slain could not be reckoned by any ; 
for, as many bear witness, of the army which came forth from 
Scotland alone more than ten thousand were found to be missing 
from among the survivors. 1 For in the various districts of the 
Deirans, Bernicians, Northumbrians and Cumbrians and other 
provinces, many more were slain after the battle than had fallen 
in the battle. 

But the English army lost few of its men, and by God's help 
gained the victory quickly ; and taking the booty, which was 
found there in sufficient abundance, dispersed in a short time 
almost wholly; And as they returned each man to his own 
they rendered again with joy and thanksgiving to the churches 
of the saints the banners which they had received. Indeed 
they had advanced to the battle in their finest raiment and 
with all their riches, as if to a royal wedding. 


STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, p. 197. 

Then they who had fled saw the royal banner retiring, (for 
it was blazoned in the likeness of a dragon, and easily recog- 
nized,) and knew that the king had not fallen but was in retreat. 
And they returned to him and formed a column terrible to their 

Meanwhile that pride of youths, glory of knights, joy of old 
men, king [David's] son, looked back and saw that he was left 
with a few followers in the midst of the foe ; and turning to 
one of his .comrades he smiled and said, " We have done what 
we could, and have surely conquered in so far as is in our power. 
Now there is need of resourcefulness no less than of valour. 
And nought else is a surer mark of a steadfast mind than not 
to be downcast in adversity ; and when thou hast not strength 
thou mayest overcome the enemy by stratagem. Therefore 

1 Cf. H. of H., 264 : " Rumour says that eleven thousand of the Scots 
were slain, in addition to those who were found and killed in the corn-fields 
and woods. But our men triumphed fortunately, with very little blood 
shed." Cf. Hoved., i, 195 ; R.W., ii, 225 (E.H.S. ed.) ; Ann. of Tewk., in 
A.M., i, 46. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 169 ; H.A., i, 260. 

Cf. J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 112 :" But of [David's] army nearly ten 
thousand fell in different places, and as many as fifty were captured of his 
picked men " (in text, eis ; read ejus.) Cf. G. of C., i, 105. 

The Scottish losses were " many thousands," W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., 
etc., i, 34 ; Chr. of Osn., in A.M., iv, 22. Twelve thousand, according to 
R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 135 ; R. de D., i, 250 ; Ann. of Wav., in 
A.M., ii, 227 ; Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 15. 


throw aside the banners by which we are marked out from the 
others, and let us mix with the enemy as though we pursued 
with them, until we outstrip them all and come as soon as 
may be to my father's column, which I see afar off yielding to 
necessity, but continuing still in its strength." 

So saying he spurred his charger and rode through the midst 
of the enemy, until having passed the foremost he reined in his 
steed to a milder pace. And that you may know how confi- 
dently he ruled his mind in adversity, and with what fore- 
thought : while the rest of the knights cast the load of their 
armour anywhere from them, the noble youth, patient of toil, 
bore up till he came to a certain poor man's hut ; he called out 
the poor man, undid his cuirass, and throwing it before the 
man's feet said " Take it, that 1 what is a burden to me may 
furnish thy need." 

But the king had now advanced far, already proceeding 
in terrible array, so that by taking some of his pursuers he very 
greatly deterred the others who were pressing on. And thus 
he came as far as to Carlisle ; and there, secure as to himself 
but anxious for his son, he awaited for two days, doing 
nought beside. At last on the third day he recovered his long- 
looked-for son, safe and unhurt. 


But our men, because they were on foot and had caused all 
their horses to be removed to some distance, could not pursue 
them long ; otherwise they would either have taken or put to 
death the king himself, and his son, and all who were with 
him. 2 . . . 

But the king's son came on foot with one knight only to 
Carlisle, while his father scarce escaped through woods and 
passes to Roxburgh. . . . 

Of two hundred mailed knights whom [David] had, only 

1 Here the York MS. ends ; the remainder is from the 13th century 
Cambridge MS. (Cf. Hewlett, ibid., liii, liv.) 

2 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 294 (after the escape of the king) : " Also 
the army of York did not pursue them as they retired, but hastened each 
man to return to his own." 

A. of R., De S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 198-199 : " The English nobles 
pursued long, and slew both Scots and Galwegians, and took many of the 

" A single knight fell on either side. The English leaders, however, 
all came back safe and sound. . . ." 

The brother of Ilbert de Lacy was the only knight slain on the English 
side ; H. of H., 264 ; Hoved., i, 196 ; cf. R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., iv, 135> 
R.W., E.H.S. ed., ii, 225 ; Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 227. 


nineteen brought back their hauberks ; because each had 
abandoned as booty to the foe almost everything that he had. 
And thus very great spoils were taken from his army, as well 
of horses and arms and raiment as of very many other things. 

Eustace Fitz John came with him, and met with the same 
fate as he ; for, wounded, he scarce escaped with his life to his 
castle. 1 


Now the king of Scotland reinforced the siege of Carham 
after he had got back Henry, his son, and had gathered again 
his men, who had fled scattered from the battle not as allies 
but rather as bitterest foes. 

For the English and the Scots and the Picts and the rest of 
the barbarians, wherever they chanced to meet one another, 
whichever of them were in greater force either slaughtered and 
wounded the others, or at the least robbed them : and thus by 
the just judgment of God they were oppressed as much by their 
own men as by strangers. 

The king therefore, when he heard of it, inflicted heavy 
penalties and fines upon his followers, and extorted an endless 
sum of money from them ; and in addition he bound them to 
him by oaths and hostages more strictly than he had ever done 
before, to the effect that they would never again desert him in 

JOHN OF WORCESTER, IN Fl. OF W., VOL. II, PP. 112-113. 3 

And after his return, to comfort his men and console himself 
the king of Scotland besieged with all his strength and with 
many engines and diverse contrivances the castle which is called 
Wark or Carham, and which belongs to Walter Espec : which 
castle he had before besieged, but had been put to flight from it 
by the earl of Mellent. 

1 I.e. to Alnwick ; supra. After the battle his castle of Mai ton was 
besieged ; R. of H., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 165. 

2 J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 294-295 : " The ranks also of the Picts and 
Scots themselves, when they came together in their retreat, strove with 
disastrous enmity, and destroyed one another. 

" When therefore the king was received into his own realm he sum- 
moned to him the Picts and Scots, and fined them of a great quantity of 
money ; and took hostages and oaths from them that in every struggle and 
danger they would stand faithfully by him and for him." 

3 Cf. R. of H., G.R.S., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 166 : " Thereafter he 
attempted to take the town of Carham, with machines and new implements, 
and in many other ways." 


But the warders of the castle defended themselves manfully 
and stubbornly, and he could profit nothing at all. 

For they sallied forth more frequently than ever from the 
castle, and either cut down or burned his engines, slaying many 
men. And hence he now despaired of the possibility of its 

1138, Sep. 


But the townsmen broke with machines his machines, and 
slew many of the king's men by diverse deaths, and wounded 
very many, while losing but one of their own knights. 

For he had left the castle and, trusting too greatly in his 
valour, and therefore rashly bold, was overcome and slain by 
a multitude of Scots while he incautiously delayed at the 
destruction of a machine. 

And thus the king, seeing that his every effort was of no 
avail but rather did much harm to himself and to his men, 
removed his machines and abandoned his attacks, and com- 
pelled his men strictly to blockade the town, although they 
were unwilling. For they were wearied of the prolonged siege, 
because of the great losses and privations and hardships which 
they had often suffered there. 

At that time certain pestilential men, whose whole aim and 
joy was to plan and perpetrate crimes, combined together in 
detestable union, the more effectually to attain the desires of 
their malevolence. And of this execrable company the chiefs 
and leaders were Edgar, base-born son of earl Gospatric [of 
Dunbar,] and Robert and Utred, sons of Maldred. 

Urged by greed, therefore, and encouraged by impunity, 
and spurred by madness, they raided through Northumbria 
like wolves seeking a prey to devour. 

They crossed also the river Tyne, and came into the land of 
St. Cuthbert ; but not finding there ought which they had 
power or courage to seize they returned with empty hands. 
They therefore carried off the booty which they found in a cer- 
tain vill called Errington, of the parish of the church of Hex- 
ham. Then after two nights' interval the same marauders 
invaded another vill called Dissington. Now this was the vill 
belonging to the canons of the aforesaid church, and was distant 
from Hexham eight miles toward the east. There, then, they 
slew three of the servants of the canons, and inflicted many 



indignities upon their prior, 1 who had chanced to arrive there 
that night : and they departed with their booty. 

And this happened to the canons contrary to their hope, 
because the king of Scotland, as has been said above, had, on 
his own behalf and on behalf of all his subjects, granted the 
firmest peace to them and to their vassals, and to all their pos- 
sessions, and to their parish, and expressly to this vill of theirs. 

About the same time came to these parts one Alberic, bishop 
of Ostia, whom Innocent [II], pope of the Roman see, had sent 
to act in the office of legate in England and Scotland. 2 

OF STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, PP. 169-1 70. 3 

And at last [Alberic] came to Durham. 

At that time William Cumin, king David of Scotland's 
chancellor, was detained there, having been taken and impri- 
soned as he fled from the aforesaid battle. And presently 
[Alberic] rescued him from prison, and restored him in freedom 
to his lord. 4 

So [Alberic] came through the wilderness to the cloister of 
Hexham, 5 having with him two bishops, Robert of Hereford 
and Aldulf of Carlisle, and three abbots and very many clerics. 
And he was received with sufficient honour by the brethren of 
that place, and very diligently consoled them for the loss which 
had recently befallen them, as we have related above, in the 
slaying of their vassals and the plundering of their land. 

Thereafter he came through Northumbria and Cumberland 
to Carlisle, on the fourth day 6 before the feast of St. Michael, 
and found there the king of Scotland with the bishops, abbots, 
priors and barons of his land. 

Now [the Scots] had long differed from the cisalpine, indeed 

1 " And disgraced the prior . . . with insult and jest," J. of H., in 
S. of D., ii, 298. 

Robert Bisset was prior from 1130 to 1141 ; ibid., 284, 311. 

Cf. J. of H., u.s., 298 : " And three days before [Alberic's] arrival at 
[Hexham] Edgar, son of earl Gospatric, with his abettors had broken out 
from the camp of the king of Scotland, taking booty from a certain vill of 
the territory of Hexham. . . ." 

2 Cf. J. of H., u.s., 297. Alberic brought letters from the pope to the 
kings of England and Scotland : R. of H., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 169. 

3 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 297-298. 

4 Cf. J. of W., in Fl. of W., ii, 112 :" [David's] chancellor, William 
Cumin, was held prisoner by the bishop of Durham ; but now released from 
his chains he gave thanks to God, hoping exceedingly never to fall into such 
a plight again." For William Cumin cf. infra, s.a. 1141, note. 

5 On his way to the king of Scotland ; J. of H., u.s., 298. 

6 26th September. 


from almost the universal church, and seemed to favour too 
greatly Petrus Leonis, of hated memory, and his apostasy. 1 
But at this time inspired by divine grace they all with one 
accord received pope Innocent's commands and his legate with 
great honour. 

So he discussed with them diligently for three days of the 
affairs of his legation. 

JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 298. 

And for three days, with the bishops and princes of the 
realm of Scotland, for they had met him there by the king's 
command, [Alberic] corrected what was to be corrected and 
decreed what was to be decreed. 

And he obtained bishop Aldulf's restoration to the favour 
of the king, and to his see of Carlisle. 2 

John, bishop of Glasgow, who had given up the episcopal 
office and had betaken himself to the monastic life at Tiron, he 
recalled by apostolic authority. 


And since he learned that John, bishop of Glasgow, had 
intrusted to none the care of souls which he had received, and 
had left his bishopric without permission and secretly, and, 
compelled by no apparent necessity, had become a monk at 
Tiron, [Alberic] decided concerning him that a royal messenger 
should be sent for him, with letters both from himself and from 
the king ; and that if he refused to return sentence should be 
passed upon him. And so it was done. 

He also summoned king [David] for the re-establishment of 
peace between him and the king of England ; and for the sake 
of this fell at his feet, entreating him to take pity upon holy 
church and upon himself and his subjects, to whom he had 
caused so many and so great evils. But he with difficulty ob- 
tained the truce that [David] would bring no army and no evil 
upon the land of the king of England before the festival of St. 
Martin, 3 excepting the blockade which existed round Carham. 

This also he obtained of the Picts, 4 that they should bring 

1 Petrus Leonis (Anacletus II) died earlier in the same year, 1138. Cf. J. 
of H., in S. of D., ii, 297. He had been appointed pope in 1130, but was suc- 
cessfully opposed by Innocent II. 

2 For Aldulf's consecration v. supra, s.a. 1133. 

3 llth November. 

4 J. of H., u.s., 298 : " He had also the assent of the Scots and the Picts 
in this, that they should bring back all their captives to Carlisle before the 


back to Carlisle before the same time limit all captive girls and 
women whom they might have and restore them to liberty 

[The Picts] also, and all the others, promised him most 
faithfully that they would by no means violate churches thence- 
forth ; and that they would spare children and woman-kind, and 
[men] who were disabled by weakness or age ; and that they 
would thenceforth slay no one at all unless he opposed them. 

The king also spoke with the prior of Hexham, who had 
come thither with the legate, before [the prior] had appealed 
to him, concerning the loss sustained by him and by his breth- 
ren ; and deplored it much, and promised that he would cause 
the whole to be restored : and moreover that he would compel 
his men to compensate them for the wrong which had been done 
to them and to their church, and for the slaying of their vassals. l 

And this in great part he did. For both their money and 
that of their vassals was almost wholly returned. 

When thus these things had been done the legate departed 
thence on the day of the festival of St. Michael, 2 and returned 
by Hexham and Durham to south England, and related to 
Stephen, king of England, and his subjects what he had effected 
with David, king of Scotland, and his men. 

or STEPHEN, VOL. Ill, PP. 171-1 72. 3 

And after a few days the king of Scotland learned from some 
men who had come out of the town of Carham that they who 
were in the town were now oppressed by the greatest scarcity 
of food. And so he instructed that they should be more strictly 

Nor was this report untrue ; for the knights who were in the 
town had killed their horses through lack of food, and, after 
preserving them in salt, had now for the most part eaten them. 
But not even yet would they surrender the town. Indeed they 
planned, when their food wholly failed, to go forth armed from 
the castle and to break through the midst of the foe, defending 

feast of St. Martin, and should give them their liberty ; and that none of 
them should dare thenceforth to violate churches or to slaughter women, 
boys or old men." 

1 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 298 : " The legate, with his mind sufficiently 
in sympathy with [the brethren of Hexham] over this wrong, remonstrated 
with the king at Carlisle, and persuaded his royal mind to punish this out- 

2 29th September. So J. of H., u.s., 298. 

3 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 291-292. 


themselves so long as they could, unless meanwhile God should 
provide them with another plan. 

Therefore about the festival of St. Martin William, abbot of 
Rievaulx, came to that province ; and on behalf of Walter 
Espec, to whom that town belonged, as has been said above, 
told them most surely that they should yield it to the king of 
Scotland. For [Espec] knew well how they had been reduced 
to extreme straits for lack of food. 

King [David] therefore gave them twenty-four horses, 
through the abbot's intervention, and allowed them to depart 
with their arms ; and having received the town caused it 
immediately to be destroyed. 1 


Now while these things proceeded 3 [Alberic] very often and 
very zealously discussed with many, and especially with the 
queen of England, the re-establishment of peace between the 
two kings. And after he knew that the queen's mind was 
strongly fired for the accomplishment of this object he fre- 
quently solicited the king himself upon the matter, by her 
mediation and by the persistence of her woman's wit and 

And they found him at first obdurate, and as it were spurn- 
ing this reconciliation. Indeed many of his barons, to whom 
serious losses had resulted from their quarrel, had pressed upon 
him urgently by no means to make peace with the king of 
Scotland, but to avenge himself valiantly upon him. 

Nevertheless her glowing woman's breast, not knowing 
defeat, ceased not from prompting him, night and day, in every 
way she could, until she bent the royal mind to her wish. For 
she greatly loved her uncle David, king of Scotland, and Henry, 
his son and her cousin ; and therefore she endeavoured the 
more to make peace between them and her husband, the king 
of England. 



In his fourth year, after Christmas, king Stephen took the 

1 " And in the town nothing was found left to eat except one horse alive 
and another in salt." J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 292. 

2 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 299. 

3 I.e. in the council begun at Westminster on the 13th December, 1138 ; 
R. of H., u.s., 172-176. 

* Cf. Hoved., i, 196. R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 136 ; cf. Ann. of 


castle of Slede by siege. And after this he advanced into Scot- 
land ; and since he conducted his cause there with Mars and 
Vulcan as his leaders 1 the king of Scotland was compelled to 
be reconciled with him. 

So [Stephen] taking with him into England Henry, the son 
of the king of Scots, besieged Ludlow; and there this Henry 
was dragged from his horse by an iron hook, and almost cap- 
tured ; but the king himself brilliantly rescued him from the 


CHRONICLES OF STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. Ill, pp. 177-178. 2 

Now immediately after the oft-named legate [Alberic] had 
departed from England messengers passed between the two 
kings, and peace was made in this wise : 

Stephen, king of England, granted to Henry, son of king 
David of Scotland, along with all the lands which he had had 
before, the earldom of Northumbria excepting two towns, 
namely Newcastle and Bamborough ; for these two he kept in 
his own hands. But for these towns he was to give him cities 
to their value in south England. 

He instructed also that the barons who held of the earldom, 
as many as would, should acknowledge their lands to be sub- 
ject to earl Henry and do him homage, saving the fealty which 
they had sworn to himself. And this most of them did. 

But the king of Scotland and Henry his son, with all their 
subjects, thenceforth so long as they lived were to continue 
at peace with and most loyal to king Stephen of England in all 
things. And that he might be the surer of their loyalty they 
were to give him as hostages the son of earl Gospatric, and the 

Wav., in A.M., ii, 227. R.W., E.H.S. ed., ii, 225-226. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 
170 ; H.A., 261-262. 

1 " Since he wasted everything with sword and fire," Hoved., u.s. But 
contrast with this the account given by the Hexham chroniclers, infra. 

2 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 300 : " And by the perseverance of the 
queen of the English peace was concluded between the two kings ; Henry, 
son of the king of Scotland, receiving at Durham the earldom of Northum- 

Hoved., i, 198, s.a. 1140: "In the same year king Stephen gave 
Northumbria to Henry, the son of David, king of Scots." 

O.V., XIII, 19, in Migne, 188, 971-972 :" After prolonged warfare 
between the two kings, waged by both sides fiercely to the injury of many, 
legates of peace were divinely aroused and went between the two kings, who 
were now weary of the loss and slaughter and constant trouble and labour ; 
and restored them to peace." 


son of Hugh de Moreville, 1 and the son of earl Fergus ; 2 and 

the son of Mai - and the son of Mac , the sons, that is, 

of two earls of Scotland. 3 

The laws also, both the customs and the statutes, which 
king Henry his uncle had established in the earldom of North- 
umbria, they were to defend there inviolably in all things. 

And this agreement was confirmed at Durham, on the fifth 4 
before the Ides of April, by Henry, son of the king of Scotland, 
and by their barons, in the presence of Matilda, queen of 
England, and of many earls and barons of south England. 5 

This also was carefully marked out, that earl Henry was to 
have no right over either the land of St. Cuthbert or the land 
of St. Andrew of Hexhamshire, because it pertained to the 
archbishopric of York. 

Thereafter [earl Henry] set out with the queen to the court 
of king Stephen, and found him at Nottingham ; and after 
confirmation by him of what they had done at Durham [Henry] 
stayed through the whole summer in south England ; and fre- 
quenting the king's court expended great sums in his service. 6 


JOHN or HEXHAM, IN S. or D., VOL. II, p. 300. 
And [Henry] also received as his wife Ada, 7 sister of earl 
William de Warenne and of Waleran, earl of Mellent, and of 
Robert, earl of Leicester. And he had by her his sons Malcolm, 
William and David. 

1119 x 1140 


p. 385. 

And [Thurstan] ordained three bishops at diverse times, 

1 Hugh de Moreville, constable of Scotland. 

2 Fergus, earl of Galloway. 

3 Scottia clearly still means Scotland north of the Forth. 

4 9th April. So J. of H., u.s., 300. 

5 " In presence of the earls and barons of England, the Scots giving 
hostages in support of their promise," J. of H., u.s., 300. 

6 Cf. J. of H., u.s., 300. 

7 Ada was " the daughter of William, earl of Warenne, and uterine sister 
to wit of Waleran, earl of Mellent " ; R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 172. 
For the family history v. William of Jumieges, VIII, 40-41 ; in Migne, 149, 

O.V., Xni, 19, in Migne, 188, 972 (continued from note, supra) : " And 
thus Henry, son of king David of Scotland, approved their friendship in this 
fashion, and loved Adelina, the daughter of William, earl of Surrey, and 
asked for her in marriage. Bound by such relationship he adhered closely to 
the friendship of the Normans and English ; because he foresaw, by advice 
of the wise, that this would be beneficial and most useful for him and his." 

For Ada cf. a charter of J. of H. in Raine's Hexh., ii, 87-88. 


namely Geoffrey to Lindisfarne ; l Ethelwold to Carlisle ; 
Gillaldan to Candida Casa, that is, to the church of Whithorn ; 2 
and Girard as abbot to the monastery of Dunkeld. 3 

And from all these he received written professions [of 

JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 306, S.A. 1140. 

In the same year earl Henry with his wife proceeded to the 
king of England. 

Ranulf , earl of Chester, rose in hostility against him because 
of Carlisle and Cumberland, which he demanded to be given 
back to him by right of inheritance ; and upon [earl Henry's] 
return wished to entrap him with an armed band. But king 
[Stephen], urged by the queen's prayers, protected him from 
the threatened danger, and restored him to his father and to his 

And [Ranulf's] displeasure was transferred to plotting 
against the king's safety. 

1 Geoffrey Rufus, bishop of Durham, 1133 ; S. of D., H.D.E., i, 141-142. 
Cf. infra, s.a. 1141. 

2 Cf. supra, 1125, December. 

a Caldensi : "of Calder," Raine. 




IN S. OF D., VOL. I, P. 162. 

WHEN therefore [Stephen] was imprisoned, the empress, king 
Henry's daughter, was received with great favour by the men 
of London. 

Learning this, David, king of Scotland, set out for her 
court, taking with him his chancellor, who had prevailed 
upon him for a price to treat with the empress in his cause. 
And now [his chancellor] wished to be named the bishop- 
elect of Durham ; and to this he easily persuaded the flatterers 
who collected round him from all sides. 1 

1 For the extraordinary affair of William Cumin (1141-1144) see H.D.E., 
Continuatio Prima, in S. of D., i, 143-160 ; Continuatio Altera, ibid., i, 161- 
167 ; J. of H., ibid., ii, 309, 312, 313-314, 316-317. 

Geoffrey, bishop of Durham, died after Easter, 1141 ; (May 14, accord- 
ing to H.D.E., C.P., u.s., 143 ;) his body was preserved in salt and his death 
kept secret till William Cumin should return from Scotland (ibid. ; J. of H., 
u.s., 309.) Cumin had gone to Scotland as if to obtain king David's support 
in his unscrupulous candidature for the bishopric of Durham (C.P., u.s., 143.) 
He returned as if armed by David's authority (ibid. ; J. of E., u.s., 309.) 
" But all this in secret, in darkness, and in the shadow of death ; until the 
king of Scotland should come, and speech be held openly about these things 
by the barons who accompanied the king ; Eustace, namely, and Robert de 
Bruce, Bernard de Balliol, Hugh de Moreville. For these had been easily 
induced to join his party, by hope of advantage no less than by promise of 
gain." (C.P., 144.) 

Delegates were sent to Matilda's court with the king of Scotland to 
relieve the Durham church of this invader. But Cumin himself went to 
court ; C.P., 145. The papal legate, Henry of Blois, " interdicted William 
himself from all church fellowship if he received the bishopric unless canoni- 
cally promoted." (Ibid.) 

In spite of this, Matilda wrote to the chapter of Durham supporting his 
claim and no other. (Ibid.) He accompanied David and Matilda in the 
flight from London, and after the rout at Winchester he met David in Durham 
about the 29th September (ibid.) 

" At length, after much had passed, William was left by king [David] 
in the castle, as guardian of the bishopric under the empress's hand ; and the 
king himself was made surety between the garrison and the prior and brethren 
of the monastery, that they should not desire or do injury one to the other " 
(C.P., 146.) " But he was ever pleasant and affable to the monks, by whom 
he hoped to be promoted " (C.A., 162.) 

After David's departure, however, he administered as bishop, received 




JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 309. 

King David, therefore, seeing that many things combined 
for the advancement of his niece the empress, set out after 

homage of the barons, oppressed those who opposed him, and was anathe- 
matized by the papal legate and by the church of York ; " but when he heard 
of his condemnation, William cared little or nothing about it " (C.P., 146.) 

Herbert, abbot of Roxburgh, tried to supplant him, hoping for David's 
support, but failed (C.P., 146-147.) 

Cumin induced a Cistercian monk to forge papal letters directed to him 
and to king David. " By such trickery he had no difficulty in deceiving 
the king, who ordered the letter to be copied everywhere in his kingdom ; and 
he gave the monk a palfrey, and honouring him with other gifts sent him 
back to William " (C.P., 147.) But Richard, abbot of Melrose, " captured 
the monk himself, the pseudo-legate ; and made him confess all his plot, 
and how he had been instructed and incited by the acts and promises of 
William " (C.P., 148.) 

The papal legate demanded the attendance of the prior of Durham ; 
and Cumin tried to prevent his escape. Failing in this attempt he began to 
practise cruelties upon the monks, shutting out messengers, servants and 
food (C.P., 148.) Messengers returned from Rome commanding a canon- 
ical election. The day was fixed ; but Cumin invested all the roads, and 
tried to forbid the election. 

William of St. Barbara was elected (C.P., 149.) " And the pope placed 
William Cumin under his anathema, and the archdeaconate which he held 
in the church of Worcester was given to another, with no hope of demanding 
it again " (J. of H., 314.) Cf. the letters of Gilbert Foliot, in Migne, 190, 
767-768, 760-761, 814. (Cumin had been made archdeacon of Worcester 
about 1130 A.D. ; Hardy's Le Neve, Fasti, iii, 73.) 

Cumin forbade the consecration of the bishop-elect (C.P., 150,) and 
when it had taken place, in June, 1143, abused the brethren, especially the 
priests who respected his excommunication. He compelled continuance of 
ecclesiastic rites. 

He could not extort homage from Roger de Conyers, to whom the bishop 
betook himself. They advanced against Cumin, but were driven back by 
force. The bishop's supporters took refuge in the church of St. Giles (C.P., 
151 ; J. of H., 314,) but Cumin's men broke in upon them. The bishop 
returned to de Conyers, and was harassed from the rear (C.P., 152.) 

Cumin now began to practise the cruelties of the time. He expelled 
hostile monks, and, according to the continuator of S. of D., plundered, 
harried and burned the neighbourhood, and indulged in the ingenious tortures 
practised by the barons of the period (C.P., 153-154.) The barons con- 
trived a truce, which Cumin disregarded, plundering the lands of de Balliol 
(C.P., 155.) Early in 1144 peace was agreed to, Cumin remaining in the 
castle till the pope should be consulted. 

Nevertheless some hostilities occurred. The bishop secured the aid of 
prince Henry, earl of Northumbria, but Cumin evaded him (C.P., 157.) 
According to J. of H., 314, " earl Henry, son of the king of Scotland, and 
Alan, earl of Richmond, bribed by William Cumin's moneys, had often 
deluded the bishop with empty courtesies." 

In August, 1144, Cumin was overcome ; later, his castellans gave up to 
prince Henry the castle of Thornby, which Henry refused to make over to 
the bishop (C.P., 159.) 

King David met Cumin at Newcastle ; Cumin had offered to render to 
him the castle of Durham, but returned without any agreement (C.P., 159.) 

The bishop entered Durham on the 18th of October, 1144, and Cumin 


the Lord's Ascension l to go to her in south England. And 
turning aside at Durham he was received into the town, and 
commanded that everything should be reserved for the de- 
cision of the empress ; and that meanwhile William Cumin 
should have charge of the direction of affairs. 

And so the king came to his niece, and had the consent 
of very many of the leading men that she should be advanced 
to the apex of the whole kingdom. 

But she by no means followed the king's counsel ; and, 
with her womanish vanity raised to a certain haughtiness 
of royal pride, distressed her chief men by contemptuous 
threats. 2 . . . 

S. OF D., VOL. I, P. 162. 

When at last [William Cumin] was established at court 
the empress was at length induced to consent, by mediation 
of the king of Scotland as well as of the others. 

An agreement had been arrived at, and [Cumin] hoped 
immediately to be invested by the empress with the episcopal 
staff, when suddenly in that assemblage of the court a dis- 
turbance arose, stirred up by king [Stephen's] supporters ; 
and the empress with all her followers fled, having learned of 
a plot of the Londoners. 

surrendered, professing penitence and offering to make amends (C.P., 160.) 
An agreement was come to, and he was absolved (C.A., 166-167 ; J. of H., 
316-317 ; H.S., Contin., in Raine's York, ii, 222-223 ;) but enmities con- 
tinued. His nephew Osbert was killed : " a young knight most beloved by 
all who were in the service of earl Henry, son of the king of Scots " (J. of H., 
316-317.) " Also Richard de Lovetot seized William Cumin himself, and 
for many days afflicted him in prison with grievous tortures and sufferings " 
(J. of H., 317.) 

Bishop William II " lived nine years in the bishopric, suffering during 
his tenure many evils as well on account of the unjust exactions of the 
king of Scotland as because of the depredations of his neighbours, and their 
plunderings not frequent so much as almost incessant " (C.A., 167.) 

1 28th May. 

2 Cf. H. of H., 275 ; Hoved., i, 205. Ges. Ste., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 
73, 74. 

Cf. Ges. Ste., u.s., 74-75: " . . . And what was a mark of her exces 
sive pride and arrogance, when the king of Scotland and the bishop of Win 
Chester and the earl of Gloucester, her brother, (for these, the chief men of 
the whole kingdom, she kept at that time in constant attendance upon her,) 
came before her with bended knees to entreat her for anything, [she began | 
instead of rising with respect, as was fitting when they inclined themselves 
before her, or acquiescing in their demands, very often to dismiss them 
dishonourably, unheard and mocked with a disdainful answer. She almost 
[began] not to rely upon their counsels, as was fitting and as she had pro 
mised them, but to order everything wholly after her own foresight, and 
after the preconception of her own purpose." 



And after some days 2 [Matilda] collected her forces and 
came with her uncle the king of Scots and her brother Robert 
and besieged the tower of the bishop of Winchester. 3 

IN S. OF D., VOL. I, p. 162. 

And not long afterwards while the empress stayed at 
Winchester she was besieged there by the nation of the Lon- 
doners. . . . And there an encounter took place between 
the barons who had flocked together on both sides in support 
of either party ; and Robert, earl of Gloucester, was taken, 
and the king of Scotland put to flight, and all the others 
scattered hither and thither. 


But the king of Scotland, after losing almost all his com- 
rades, escaped the threatening danger and betook himself 
hastily back into his own kingdom. 4 For one of his god-sons 
concealed him ; David Holifard, an ally of them who had 
besieged the town of Winchester. For this reason they who 
anxiously searched for the king did not find him. 

S OF D., VOL. I, PP. 145-146. 

But while the empress was besieged at Winchester William 
[Cumin] escaped by flight among the fugitives, and came to 
Durham about the feast of St. Michael ; 5 and there he found 

1 So Hoved.. i, 205. Cf. W. of M., H.N., ii, 580, 578. J. of H., in S. 
of D., ii, 310. W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 41. R. de T., ibid., iv, 141. 
R. de D., i, 254-255. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 173 ; H.A., i, 267, s.a. 1140. 

Cf. Ges. Ste., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 79 : " There [at the siege of Win- 
chester] was David, king of Scotland ; twice, as has been set down before, 
ignominiously put to flight from England ; yet a third time to be dis- 
honourably routed, along with innumerable others, not without disgrace to 
himself and the greatest peril to his men." 

2 After her flight from London. 

3 Henry of Blois. 

4 Cf. Ges. Ste., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 83 : " Why should I mention the 
king of Scotland, who, as they say, was captured for the third time ; but 
ever a bribe passed between and he was set free, and escaped with difficulty 
in grief and weariness to his own, with but a few ? " 

Cf. W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 42 : " Moreover David, king of 
Scots, not to fall into the hands of the enemy, escaped his pursuers by a ruse. 
And some men conducted him warily, and he returned in great fear and peril 
to his own." 

5 29th September. 



the king of Scots, returned the day before from the same 
siege, guested in the monks' court. And immediately [Cumin] 
entered the castle. 


JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. or D., VOL. II, p. 321, S.A. 1148. 

In the same year died John, bishop of Glasgow ; 1 a most 
intimate friend of king David of Scotland, because of the 
excellence of his virtue. 

And he was buried in the church of Jedburgh, where he 
had himself established a convent of regular clergy. 

In his stead was elected Herbert, abbot of Kelso, 2 he too 
a vigorous man ; and he was consecrated by pope Eugenius 
[III] at Auxerre. 



I, P. 70. 

But the northern district, which had fallen into the power 
of David, king of Scots, as far as the river Tees, remained in 
peace, 3 through that king's industry. 

1149, May. 

ROGER HOVEDEN, CHRONICA, VOL. I, p. 211, S.A. 1148. 4 

And Henry, son of Matilda the empress, now a youth of 
sixteen years, nourished in the court of David, king of Scots, 
the [uncle] 5 of his mother, was knighted 6 by the same king 
David in the city of Carlisle ; he having first given an oath 
that, if he became king of England, he would give to [David] 
Newcastle and all Northumbria, and would permit him and 
his heirs to possess in peace without counter-claim for ever the 

1 Cf. s.a. 1147 Chr. of Melr., 73 ; Chr. of Hoi., 35. 

2 "Hubert, abbot of Kelso," Chr. of Melr., 73. He is called " Herbert, 
abbot of Roxburgh," in H.D.E., C.P., i, 146; cf. supra, s.a. 1141, note. 
Chr. of Melr. places his consecration on the 24th of August, 1142. 

3 I.e., free from baronial anarchy. 
4 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 183, s.a. 1148. 

Cf. (s.a. 1148) R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 159 : " In the festival of 
Whitsuntide [22nd May] king David girt with the arms of knighthood Henry, 
. . . who had crossed in the previous year from Normandy to England." 
(In MS. H of R. de T. a marginal note of the 13th century adds : " According 
to others, on the nativity of John the Baptist " [24th June] ; ibid., note.) 

Cf. W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 70 ; and s.a. 1148 R. de D., i, 291 ; 
Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 233 ; Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 16. M.P., H.A.. i, 
285. Fl. His., ii, 67. 

5 In text am ; read avunculi. 

6 Cf. A. of R., Epis., in Tw., 347. 


whole land which lies from the river Tweed to the river 
Tyne. 1 

Thereafter by aid and counsel of David, king of Scots, 
Henry sailed over into Normandy ; and he was received by 
the nobles of Normandy, and so made duke. 


JOHN or HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, PP. 322-323. 2 

In the year 1150 Henry, son of Geoffrey, earl of Anjou, 
and of the empress Adela, came at Pentecost 3 to Carlisle, 
king David received him with great honour, and with lavish 
provision of bounteous liberality. For he gave him the belt 
of knighthood, 4 his son Henry assisting him, and Ranulf, 
earl of Chester. 

Now this Ranulf had laid aside the indignation in which 
he had been accustomed to demand again Carlisle, by heredi- 
tary right ; and had done homage to king David. For by 
discussion they had agreed between them that instead of 
Carlisle he should have the honour of Lancaster ; and that 
the son of earl Ranulf should take to wife one of the daughters 
of Henry, the king of Scotland's son. 


In the fourteenth year of [Stephen's reign] David, king 
of Scots, gave the arms of manhood to his [grand-Jnephew 

And when they were gathered together at that festival, 
the king of Scots with his forces, and his [grand-Jnephew 
with the nobles of the west of England, king Stephen, fearing 
that they would invade York, came into the town with a great 
army, 6 and stayed there during the month of August. 

JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 323. 
And king David and the young knight Henry, duke of 

1 W. of N., u.s. i, 70 : " Having first, as is said, afforded surety that 
he would at no time deprive [David's] heirs of any part of the lands which 
had passed from England into the dominion of that king." 

2 Cf. G. of C., i, 141 ; ii, 75. 3 22nd May. 
4 " With several of like age," G. of C., i, 141. 

5 Cf. G. of C., i, 141. 

6 Cf. J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 323 : " In these days came king Stephen 
to York, and gave the small fort of Coldric into the hands of the citizens, to 
be destroyed. For by the promise of great sums of money they had induced 
the king to come thither, because of the terror of the townsmen, who dared 
not go into or out of the town in that part." 


Normandy, and Ranulf, earl of Chester, came to one decision, 
to unite forces and march against king Stephen. 

King David advanced with his forces to Lancaster, and 
the aforesaid Henry with him ; for there earl Ranulf had 
promised to meet them with his ranks assembled. But he 
performed none of the things which he had agreed upon, 
and deranged their plans. 

Therefore duke Henry returned to his own land. . I . 


And Eustace, the son of king Stephen, for he too had 
assumed the arms of manhood the same year, invaded the 
lands of the nobles who were with Henry, the empress's son. 
So as there was none to oppose him, accompanied by Mars and 
Vulcan he inflicted upon [Henry] no little loss. 

But the English king and the Scottish king, of whom 
the one was at York, the other at Carlisle, being afraid one 
of the other and fearing to take the offensive, departed each 
on his own account and retreated to the abodes of their 



In the year of grace 1150 . . . was made the abbacy 
of Holmcultram, 3 and the abbacy of [Kinloss] in Moray. 4 

In the same year the Premonstratensian order came to 
Dryburgh, at the feast of St. Martin. 5 

H34X 1151 


Of bishop Wimund and his inepiscopal life ; and of how he 
was blinded. 

He was born in a most obscure spot in England ; and, 
since he had not by acquisition of the rudiments of letters 
wherewith to subsist upon in the schools, being a novice in 

1 Cf. G. of C., i, 141. 

2 Abbreviated from the Chr. of Melr., 74. 

3 On the 1st of January ; Chr. of Melr. According to Tanner, Notit. 
Monast., Cumberl. VII, it was founded by prince Henry ; not, as J. of H., 
infra, s.a. 1153, by David. 

4 On the 21st of May ; Chr. of Melr. Hoved. gives the name as Kinros. 

5 llth November. 


the art of writing, he filled the office of antiquary to certain 
men of religion, to relieve his poverty. 

Thereafter at Furness, tonsured and having professed 
the regular life, when with competent ease he had acquired 
abundance of writings, aided by a three-fold gift, namely 
keen intelligence, unerring memory, ready eloquence, he so 
advanced in little time that he seemed to show great promise. 

As time passed he was sent with some brethren to the 
island of Man ; and by the pleasantness of his eloquence 
and the cheerfulness of his face, and also because he was of 
a build tall and robust, he so pleased the barbarians that he 
was sought by them as their bishop ; and their desire was 
fulfilled. 1 

1 et eorum quidem completum est desiderium. 

Olaf, king of Man, had written to T[hurstan], archbishop of York, ask- 
ing him to consecrate one Nicholas as bishop of Man ; adding, " and let 
not the clamour of the [monks] of Furness disturb you in any way, nor 
their unjust complaint ; for unless they are silent they shall sooner lose what 
they seem to have among us than acquire more, since it increases not with 
God's favour or men's." Raine's York, iii, 59-60. Cf. another letter written 
by Olaf about the foundation of the bishopric, ibid., 58-59, while " E." 
was abbot of Furness. 

R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 167 : " The first bishop [of the island 
of Man] had been Wimund, a monk of Savigny ; but because of his cruelty 
he was expelled and deprived of his eyes." So R.W., E.H.S. ed., ii, 250, 
who has " harshness " (importunitaa) instead of " cruelty." The- Furness ' 
monks were Cistercians of Savigny. Furness abbey was founded in 1126. 

Chr. of Abps., in Raine's York, ii, 372 : " The same Thomas [II of 
York] ordained also Wimund, bishop of the isles ; and [Wimund] made 
profession to him and gave it in writing, which thus begins : ' I, Wimund, 
of the holy church of Skye/ etc." 

But Thomas II of York died in 1114; and it was not till 1134 that 
" Olaf gave to Yvo, abbot of Furness, part of his land in Man to found an 
abbey in the place which is called Rushen. And he enriched the church in 
the Isles with revenues, and endowed it with privileges " ; (Chr. Reg. Man., 
in Langebek's Scriptores, iii, 222.) Whether this was the occasion of the 
resuscitation of the bishopric of Man is not clear. The Chr. Reg. Man. 
records an earlier attempt to resuscitate it : ed. Munch, 29. 

Wimund went with the colony of monks to Rushen, and was consecrated 
bishop probably by Thomas's successor, Thurstan. 

Wimund's successor was John, a monk of Seez. R. de T., u.s., s.a. 
1152 ; R.W., u.s., s.a. 1151. M.P., H.A., i, 291. For Wimund's last years 
cf. W. of N., infra, s.aa. 1152-1153. 

It is impossible to identify William of Newburgh's Wimund with the 
Malcolm Macbeth (or Mac Heth) of the Scottish chroniclers. Wimund 
represents himself as being the son of Angus. After his father's death in 
1130, and the confiscation of his estates, Wimund became a monk in Furness 
abbey. Thence he went to Man, probably in 1134; and not long after- 
wards became bishop of that diocese. He was unconquered by David, but 
it is implied that he was blinded during David's reign ; not later than 1151, 
if we may argue from J. of H., 326, infra. And in that year or the next a 
new bishop was appointed in Man. 

Apart from his name we have no indication in the early chronicles as to 
the parentage of Malcolm : he is called Macbeth in the Chronicle of Holy- 
rood ; 38, 42, A Malcolm, said by O.V. to be the illegitimate son of Alex- 


Immediately he was elated by his success, and began to 
strive after great things. And not content with the rank of 
episcopal office, he now roamed in his mind among great and 
marvellous things concerning himself ; and he had, along 
with the vainest heart, a mouth talking big things. 

At last he collected men needy and daring, and, respecting 
not the judgment of truth, announced that he was the son 
of the earl of Moray, 1 despoiled by the king of Scots of the 
patrimony of his fathers ; and that he was minded not only 
to prosecute his right but also to avenge his wrongs : that 
he wished to have them as sharers of his peril and fortune ; 
that while the affair was one of considerable labour and 
danger, yet it was one of great distinction and of the highest 

Therefore all were aroused, and, swearing by his words, 
began to make fierce ravages through the neighbouring islands ; 
and he was now as Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord, 
disdaining to be with Peter a fisher of men, according to the 
obligation of episcopal office. 

He was reinforced daily by troops of satellites, amongst 
whom indeed he stood the highest almost from the shoulder ; 
and as a great leader he fired the minds of all. 

He made incursions into the provinces of Scotland, harry- 
ing everything with rapine and slaughter. And when the 
royal army was sent against him he retired into remoter 
passes, or fled back to the ocean, and escaped all the prepar- 
ation of war ; and when the army had returned broke out 
again from his hiding-places to molest the provinces. 

And while he succeeded in everything, and was even a 
terror to the king himself, a certain bishop, a very simple man, 
for a time miraculously checked his advance. For when 

ander I, rebelled with Angus in 1130. The name Macbeth is not necessarily 
patronymic ; it may mean " man in religion." But the hereditary preten- 
ders in Moray were descendants of the king Macbeth, whose great-great- 
grandson Wimund claimed to be. 

Malcolm Macbeth was imprisoned in Roxburgh from 1134 (Chr. of 
Melr., 69) till 1157, when he was released (Chr. of Hoi., 38) and apparently 
restored to favour. He had married the sister or daughter of Somerled, 
and had sons by her old enough to take the field in 1153 (Chr. of Hoi., 36). 
Somerled was still vigorous in 1164; so that the marriage of his daughter 
could scarcely have taken place before 1134. Malcolm Macbeth died earl 
of Ross, on the 23rd September, 1168 ; Chr. of Hoi., 42. 

- 1 For Angus, earl of Moray, son of Lulach's daughter, v. supra, s.a. 1130. 
For further statements that Wimund's claim was false v. infra, s.a. 1153. 

From Wimund's success with the Manxmen we may suppose that he 
could speak their language. The Chr. of the Abps. connects him primarily 
with the Isles ; but his origin is unknown to the chroniclers. 


[Wimund] proclaimed war against him and threatened him 
with destruction unless he paid tax, " God's will," said he, 
" be done ; for never by my example shall any bishop be 
made the tributary of another bishop." 

So he gathered his people and went against [Wimund] 
as he advanced in fury, greater than he in faith alone ; for 
in other respects he was far from being [Wimund's] equal ; 
and he himself for the encouragement of his men giving the 
first blow in the battle, hurled a small axe, and, God willing, 
laid low his enemy, who was marching in the front. 

The people were reassured by this chance, and made a 
bold onset upon the marauders ; and slaying great part of 
them they compelled their savage leader timidly to flee. 

And he himself used afterwards to relate this among friends 
with enjoyment, as if boasting of it, that God alone had been 
able to conquer him through the faith of a simple bishop. 

The same thing I also have learned from the relation of 
one who had been of the number of his satellites, and who 
had fled with the others who escaped. 

But [Wimund] recovered his strength and harried as 
before through the islands and provinces of Scotland. And 
therefore the king was forced to make terms with the marauder ; 
clearly following a prudenter plan, to deal wisely with an arro- 
gant and cunning enemy with whom one could not deal boldly. 
He therefore yielded to him a certain province, with the 
monastery of Furness ; and for the time checked his raids. 

But while [Wimund] was borne in glory like a king sur- 
rounded by an army through the province which had been 
made subject to him, and was severe beyond measure with 
the very monastery of which he had been monk, certain 
provincials who were galled by his power or by his insolence 
laid a trap for him, with consent of the nobles. And finding 
a favourable opportunity when [Wimund] had sent the host 
on to their quarters, and was following them at an easy paqe 
and attended by a small escort, they seized and bound him, 
and put out each of his eyes, since each was wicked. and 
with mutilation emasculated him, for the peace of the king- 
dom of Scots, not for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. 

And afterwards he came to our [abbey of] Byland, and 
there lived quietly for very many years, until his death. 
But even then he is reported to have said that if he had had 
even the eye of a sparrow his enemies should by no means 
have exulted in their actions toward him. 


JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 326, S.A. 1152. 

In these days the cardinal priest John l landed at Tyne- 
mouth in Northumbria, being sent as legate of the apostolic 
see with palls for the Irish [bishops.] . . . And he wrote to 
David, king of Scotland, telling of himself and of the cause 
of his arrival, and asking of him safe conduct into Ireland. 

And at that time the king with his army had confirmed 
his nephew William Fitz Duncan in the honour of Skipton 
and Craven, and had stormed a small fort built by the enemy, 
and had driven out the knights and destroyed it. There the 
Scots sinned in robbing churches ; and for this the king made 
amends, giving to each church a silver chalice. 

When the king heard the letter of the lord cardinal he 
hastened to meet him at Carlisle, sending forward his chan- 
cellor to meet him at the church of Hexham ; for there the 
cardinal had been very well received, and with him a certain 
bishop of Ireland. 

When therefore the cardinal came to him, about the feast 
of St. Michael, 2 the king and his son earl Henry received him 
hospitably, and merited his favour by expense and devoted 


JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 327. 

In the year 1153 the cardinal priest John, the legate, 
after adjusting in Ireland the things for which he had been 
sent, returned after Easter to the king of Scotland, being 
bound to him by a strong feeling of affection because of his 
most devoted courtesy of reverence. 


JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 327, S.A. 1153. 3 

After Pentecost 4 died . . . earl Henry, the son of 
David, king of Scotland ; a prince of most modest disposi- 

1 Cardinal Paparone. 

2 29th September. 

3 Cf . Hoved., i, 212: "In the same year [1152] died Henry, earl of 
Northumbria, the son of David, king of Scots ; and Matilda, his daughter." 
This is from Chr. of Melr., 74, s.a. 1152. 

Cf. A. of R.'s panegyric on Henry, Eulogium Davidis, in Pinkerton, 

4 Pentecost was the 18th May in 1152 ; 7th June in 1153. Henry died 
on the 12th of June, 1152, according to Chr. of Holyr., 35. 


tion, a man of self-restraint, God-fearing, and devoted in 
charities to the poor. And he was buried in the monastery 
of monks at Kelso near Roxburgh, which monastery David 
his father had built. 

But king David concealed his grief over the death of the 
queen of England, his niece, and of his only son, and took 
forthwith his son's first-born, Malcolm, and giving to him as 
guardian earl Duncan, with a numerous army, commanded 
that this boy should be conducted round the provinces of 
Scotland, and proclaimed to be the heir to the kingdom. 

And the younger son, William, he took with himself, and 
came to Newcastle ; and took hostages from the chief men 
of Northumbria, making them all subject to the dominion of 
that child. 


JOHN OF HEXHAM, IN S. OF D., VOL. II, p. 328, S.A. 1153. 

Henry [Murdac], 1 archbishop of York, . . . also made 
complaint to king David at Carlisle about his forest-land, 
which had been wasted by the king's men who worked in the 
silver mine. 2 



Of David, king of Scots, and of his son, and of his son's sons. 

In these times Henry, the only son of the said king David, 
the earl of Northumbria and expected successor to the throne, 
departed by an early death from human things, to the great 
grief of English as well as of Scots ; leaving by his wife, who 
was the daughter of the earl of Warenne, 4 three sons and as 
many daughters. He was a most noble youth, and, what 
is hard to find in a man walking the broad ways of the world, 

1 Henry Murdac was consecrated archbishop by pope Eugenius III in 
1147 ; J. of H., in S. of D., ii, 331. When Stephen and York refused to 
receive him he was received in 1148 by bishop William II of Durham, and 
honoured by king David and bishop Aldulf at Carlisle ; ibid., 322, s.a. 1149. 

2 Cf. R. de T.,in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 123, s.a. 1133 : " Also at this time 
a vein of silver was found at Carlisle ; and for it the explorers who sought 
for it in the bowels of the earth paid yearly to king Henry five hundred 

The Magnum Rotulum, 31 Henr. I, 142, shows a revenue from this 
source of 45 pounds only ; Hewlett, ibid., note. 

3 Cf. R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 172-173, 
4 Cf. supra, s.a. 1139, 


conspicuous both for courtesy of manners, and for their 

While this mischance struck his pious father's heart most 
bitterly, yet the strength of his constant mind (for he was 
a good and wise man) placed a becoming limit to his grief ; 
and embracing his two grandsons (for, if I mistake not, their 
mother, though pregnant, had not yet given birth to the 
third) he considered that his son lived for him in them, and 
received consolation. 

At last after some years, when about to pay the common 
debt, he declared as successor to the throne Malcolm, his 
son's firstborn, though still a child ; and he assigned to [Mal- 
colm's] brother William the earldom of Northumbria. 1 

And the elder seemed to take more after his father, both 
in similitude of manners and in habit of body ; while the 
younger seemed to take after his mother, that is, to show 
the likeness of his mother's race in face and manners. 

So David, king of Scots, slept with his fathers ; a great 
and glorious man in the world, and of no less glory in Christ. 
For, as we learn from trustworthy witnesses who know his 
life and actions, he was a man religious and pious ; a man of 
much prudence, and of the greatest moderation in the ad- 
ministration of temporal things, and none the less of great 
devotion towards God ; a man by no means on account of 
affairs of the kingdom more careless of divine offices : nor 
on account of the divine offices with which he occupied himself 
less capable in the affairs of the kingdom. 

After honourable nuptials and immaculate wedlock, from 
which was born to him an only son who mirrored his father 
in most similar manners, he lived for many years in celibacy. 
He was so generous in pious bounties that, besides his plenti- 
ful distribution to the poor, many churches of the saints 
founded, enriched, decorated by him relate his charities. 

And truly, while he was most like in many ways as well 
as in the title of his name to him whom God pronounces that 
he has found a man according to his heart, 2 yet, among 
many and outstanding good qualities, he departed not from 
his similitude in a certain grave excess. 

For even as the other after many tokens of virtue fell 
into adultery as well as homicide, in the one case being 
weak, in the other wicked ; so also he, in other respects 
good and pious, in more than righteous zeal for his niece 

1 " The earldom of Lothian," R. de T., u.s., 173. 

2 1 Kings, XIII, 14. 


the former empress, whose just cause (as he believed it) 
he supported, sent into the province of the English the 
nation of Scots, from unbridled barbarity greedy of blood, to 
spare neither age nor sex ; although he consented not, and 
forbade it in vain. But even as the other through the 
abundant grace of his Elector healed that wound, or rather 
those wounds, by pious humility : so also he expiated the 
guilt of so great excess by sufficient fruits (as we believe) of 

Therefore not only in the performance of pious works but 
also in the making of fruitful repentance did this new David, 
a king not barbarous of a barbarous nation, reflect the royal 
image of the David of old. 

It is to be noted also that even as the other, after repen- 
tance, was chastened by Heaven for his former sin through a 
most wicked son, so he also, although much more mildly, 
by a certain pretended monk and bishop. 

And him indeed I have often seen afterwards at our [abbey 
of] Byland, and have learned his most insolent actions, with 
his most deserved mischance. And truly this ought not to 
be passed over in silence, that posterity also may know how 
in this man He was glorified who opposes the proud and gives 
grace to the humble. 1 


JOHN OFHEXHAM, IN S. orD., VOL. II, PP. 330-331, S.A. 1154. 2 

In the same year David, king of Scotland, was oppressed 

1 See W. of N.'s account of Wimund, supra, 1134x1151. 

Cf. also A. of R., Eul. Dav., in Pinkerton, 446, 447 : " . . . [David's] 
patience toward a pseudo-bishop who said falsely that he was the son of the earl 
of Moray. [David] triumphed over the Moravians and Islesmen. . . . Thou 
didst chide him, Lord ! thou didst chide him, as a father his son ; yet in 
mercy, since thou didst not limit thy mercy in thy wrath. For thou gavest 
him filial affection in his scourgings. so that he murmured not, rebelled not, but 
even gave thanks in the scourgings, saying with the prophet, ' All that thou 
hast done to us, Lord, in true judgment hast thou done it.' These were his words 
when his army was routed, when he was forced by his own knights to yield 
to necessity. These were his words when the Lord sent against him as an 
enemy a certain pseudo-bishop, who falsely said that he was the earl of 
Moray's son : and 'in this sufficiently appeared God's power, in whose hands 
are the rights of all realms, at whose nod all things are disposed ; God him- 
self making peace and creating evil. Let not then the wise boast in his 
wisdom nor the strong in his strength, since the steps of man are directed 
by the Lord, who scourged with the lies of a certain monk a most uncon- 
quered king, who had reduced to himself so many barbarous races, and who 
had triumphed with little labour over the men of Moray and of the Isles. 
And though [the monk] obtained straightway the fitting reward of his deeds, 
yet in all this the most Christian king perceived the hand of the Lord." 

2 Cf., s.a. 1152 for 1153, R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 167 ; R. de D., 


with sickness at Carlisle, and died on the ninth * before the 
Kalends of June ; and his memory is blessed throughout all 
generations. 2 

There has been none like unto that prince in our days : 
devoted to divine services, failing not to attend each day at 
all the canonical hours, and also at the vigils of the dead. 
And in this he was to be praised that in a spirit of foresight 
and courage he wisely tempered the fierceness of his barbarous 
nation ; that he was frequent in washing the feet of the poor, 
and compassionate in feeding and clothing them ; that he 
built, and supplied sufficiently with lands and revenues, the 
monasteries of Kelso, Melrose, Newbattle, Holmcultram, 
Jedburgh, Holyrood, these being situated to this side of the 
sea of Scotland, besides those which he benefited in Scotland, 
and in other places. 3 And also in the case of foreign races 
he gave his bounties to pilgrims, men in religion and laymen. 
More boastfully would I relate that he showed himself a 
model even for men of the cloisters in daily frugality of food 
and clothing, in the sanctity of an honourable life, in the 
restraint of his customs. 

He reigned twenty-nine years. And his body was carried 
to Dunfermline and buried in the sepulchre of the kings of 
Scotland, where also rests the holy queen Margaret, his 

And of him it is related that the sea which is near to 
Dunfermline raged under stormy blasts of wind, and threat- 
ened with shipwreck them who wished to cross with the body. 
But when the king's body was placed in the ship the sea was 
stilled from its raging ; and when the body was lifted out of 
the ship upon the other shore, the sea was disturbed by the 
renewed surging of the storm. 

i, 296 ; Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 16 ; M.P., Chr., Maj., ii, 190. S.a. 1153 
Ann of Wav., in A.M., ii, 235. M.P., H.A., i, 293. 

Cf. Hoved., i, 212-213 (from Chr. of Melr., 75) : " In the same year 
[1153] died David, king of Scots, on the ninth before the Kalends of June ; 
and his grandson Malcolm, son of earl Henry, a boy of twelve years, succeeded 
him in the kingdom." 

1 24th May. So Hoved., and Chr. of Melr., u.s., and a fragment in 
S. of D., i, 169. The Durham obituary places his death on the llth of May ; 
L.V.E.D., 143 ; the 12th, ibid., 150. 

2 A marginal addition says : " This devout David, king of the Scots, 
sweetest comrade of men in religion, star of the poor and of pilgrims, ob- 
tained a vision of the angels of the Lord so often as he wished " ; v. Raine's 
Hexh., i, 168, n. 

3 David and his son Henry are included by R. of H. among the bene- 
factors of Hexham for the gift of dwellings in Carlisle ; D.H.E., in Raine's 
Hexh., i, 59. 

For Holmcultram cf. supra, s.a. 1150. 


And so the whole people of the land raised up Malcolm, 
the son of earl Henry, king David's son ; and at [Scone,] l 
as is the custom of that race, appointed the boy king, though 
he was still but twelve years old, in the place of his grand- 
father David. 

And of this it may truly be said, "With their seed their 
goods remain, and their grandchildren are a holy heritage." 2 

And Northumbria was subject to his brother William. 3 



Of David, holy king of Scots. 

The religious and pious king David has departed from 
the world ; and though he has found a place worthy of such 
a soul, yet his death imposes grief upon us. For who would 
not grieve that a man so necessary to the world has been 
removed from humanity, save he who grudges to humanity 
peace and progress ? 

For this gentle king, just king, chaste king, humble king, 
who may readily say how much benefit he has conferred on 
human life ; whom gentleness had made lovable, justice 
terrible, chastity fit, humility accessible ? And if all this 
is adjudged most worthy of praise in any private person, 
how much more so in a king, to whom power grants permission 
for everything ? For inferiors readily favour his vices, eager 
to imitate, quick to flatter; when even impunity prompts 
boldness, and lust sharpens and inflames luxury. 

For we know that he sought not the kingship, but abhorred 
it, and did rather receive it because of outward necessity 
than seize upon it greedily, conquered by the lust of reigning. 
And hence he so abhorred those acts of homage 5 which are 
offered by the Scottish nation in the manner of their fathers 
upon the recent promotion of their kings, that he was with 
difficulty compelled by the bishops to receive them. 

And when exalted to the kingship he showed no pride in 
his manners, no cruelty in his words, nothing dishonourable 
in his deeds ; and hence the whole barbarity of that nation 

1 In text apud Scotiam ; read apud Sconam ? (But in the Chr. of Hoi., 
36, s.a. 1153, apud Scotiam means "in Scotland.") 

2 For Ecclesiasticus, XLIV, 11. 

3 A. of R. prays Henry II to protect David's grandsons ; Epis., in 
Twysden, 369-370. 

4 Ailred commends David's example to Henry of Anjou. 
Cf. A. of R.'s Eulogium Davidis, in Pinkerton, 439-456. 

5 dbsequia. 


was softened, and immediately submitted itself to a king of 
so great benevolence and humility ; as if forgetting their 
natural fierceness they submitted their necks to the laws 
which the royal gentleness dictated, and received with glad- 
ness the peace which till then they did not know. And hence 
he seemed not undeservedly beloved by God and man ; by 
God beloved indeed, because immediately in the beginning 
of his reign he diligently practised the things which are of 
God, in the building of churches, in the founding of mon- 
asteries, which also he enriched with possessions and loaded 
with honour. 

For while he found three or four bishops only in the whole 
Scottish kingdom, and the other churches wavering without 
a pastor to the loss of both morals and property, when he 
died he left nine, both of ancient bishoprics which he himself 
restored and of new ones which he himself erected. And he 
granted many great monasteries in full to the brethren of 
the Cluniac, Cistercian, Tironian, Aroensian, Premonstraten- 
sian, Belvacensian orders. And among these he was as one 
of themselves, both praising what was good, and hiding his 
shame when anything arose that was less to be praised ; 
impartial to all, anxious for all ; granting much, demanding 

sweet soul, whither hast thou gone ? whither hast thou 
departed ? Where are those eyes full of pity and grace, 
with which thou wert wont to rejoice with the joyous, and 
to weep with the tearful ? 

1 with my eyes have seen how once, when ready to go 
a-hunting, his foot was placed in the stirrup and he wished 
to mount his horse, yet at the voice of a poor man requesting 
that an audience be given him he drew back his foot, left his 
horse and returned to the hall, not to return on that day to 
his purpose ; and kindly and patiently heard the case for 
which he had been appealed to. 

Moreover he was accustomed to sit at the entrance of the 
royal hall, and diligently to hear the cases of poor men and 
old women, who on certain days were called to him singly, 
in whatever district he came to ; and often with much labour 
to satisfy each. For often they disputed with him, and he 
with them, when he refused to take the person of a poor man 
contrary to justice, and they refused to agree to the reason 
which he gave. 

Moreover, if it chanced that a priest, or a knight, or a 
monk, or a man rich or poor, or a citizen or a stranger, or a 


merchant or peasant, had speech with him, he so talked with 
each concerning his affairs and duties, appropriately and 
humbly, that each one thought him careful of his affairs alone ; 
and so he dismissed all joyous and uplifted. 

Touched with the infirmity by which he was to be freed 
from the flesh, on the fourth day of the week, that is on the 
thirteenth a before the Kalends of June, when he understood 
that the dissolution of his body was approaching, he called 
his friends and showed them without delay what he thought 
about himself. But they consoled the sick man in human 
fashion, promising life and perfect health. 

But when the disease grew worse on the sixth day of the 
week, and the violence of his disease took from him the 
power of standing as well as of walking, he summoned the 
priests and men of religion, and requested that the sacrament 
of the Lord's body be given to him. 

They prepared to bring what he had commanded, but 
he forbade them, saying that he would receive the sacred 
mysteries before the sacred altar. He was carried therefore 
into the oratory by the hands of priests and knights, and after 
the celebration of mass he asked for the venerable cross which 
they call the Black [Rood] to be brought to him for adoration. 

Now this cross has the length of a palm and is made of 
purest gold, of wonderful workmanship ; and it shuts and 
opens in fashion of a case. In it is seen a certain portion of 
the Lord's cross, (as it has often been proved to be by the 
argument of many miracles ;) having the image of our Saviour 
carved in hardest ivory, and wondrously decorated with 
golden adornments. 

This cross the religious queen Margaret, who was mother 
of this king, and who had sprung from the royal blood of 
English and of Hungarians, had brought to Scotland as an 
heirloom, and had passed on to her sons. 2 

When therefore the king had most devoutly adored this 
cross, not less feared than loved by all the Scottish nation, 
with many tears he made confession of his sins, and prepared 
for his departure by receiving' the divine mysteries. 

Then he was carried back to his chamber ; and when the 
priests came to perform the sacraments of holy unction he 
rose as well as he could, and casting himself from his bed to 
the ground he received that beneficial office with so great 
devotion that with hand as well as voice he restrained the 

1 20th May. 

2 Cf. Turgot, Vita Margaret*, in Pinkerton, 334. 


priests when they sang a little too fast ; and he followed 
every word, and responded to every prayer. 

When all had been performed in order he awaited his last 
day in the greatest calm of body and of mind, diligently 
requesting his friends immediately upon his decease to announce 
his death to all. 

" For," said he, " the sooner my death is known, the sooner 
will the divine mercy show me some consolation from the 
prayers of my friends." 

In this devotion the day closed for him, and the night 
also following it he continued in great tranquillity. 

But on the Sunday which preceded Christ's Ascension, 
that is upon the dawn of the ninth l before the Kalends of 
June, when this sun arising dispelled the night's darkness 
with the rays of his light, [David] departed from the darkness 
o the body to the joys of the true light, with so great tran- 
quillity that he seemed not to have died but to have fallen 
asleep ; with so great devoutness that he was found to have 
lifted his two hands joined together above his breast toward 

Assist him, saints of God ; hasten to him, angels of the 
Lord ; receive his soul, worthy of your comfort, place it in 
Abraham's bosom along with Lazarus, whom he despised 
not, but cherished, with the holy apostles and martyrs, 
whose memorials he diligently reared and cherished ; with 
Christ's priests and confessors, whom he venerated in their 
successors and churches ; with the holy virgins whose chastity 
he emulated ; with the despisers of the world, whom he allied 
to himself by the mammon of unrighteousness, and to whom 
in Christ's name he submitted himself in all humility. Be 
with him the mother of pity, whose power is well known to 
be as much greater than the others' as her mercy is more 

And I, although a sinner and unworthy, yet mindful, 
sweetest lord and friend, of thy benefits which from my earliest 
age thou hast bestowed upon me ; mindful of the favour in 
which now at the last thou hast received me, mindful of the 
benevolence with which thou hast listened to me in all my 
petitions, mindful of the munificence which .thou hast shown, 
mindful of the embraces and kisses in which thou hast dis- 
missed me, not without tears, to the wonder of all who were 
present, I sprinkle and shower my tears for thee, and pour 
out my affection and my whole spirit. This I offer as a 

1 24th May. This was Rogation Sunday in 1153. 


sacrifice to my God for thee. With this exchange I requite 
thy benefits. And because this is the least, my mind shall 
remember thee, there in its inmost shrine where daily for the 
welfare of all the Son is offered up to the Father. 



Of Malcolm, most Christian king of the Scots. 

To the said David, king of Scots, succeeded Malcolm, 
not yet a youth, the oldest of his grandsons by his son. 

And in many good qualities he equalled his venerable 
grandfather, and in some even surpassed him gloriously ; 
and shone in the midst of a barbarous and perverse race like 
a heavenly star. 

For he was anticipated by God in the blessing of sweetness, 
so that from a child he conceived the fervour of heavenly 
love ; and in his whole life so excelled in the candour of his 
modesty, in the tokens of humility and innocence, in the 
purity of conscience, in the gentleness as well as gravity of 
his manners, that among laymen (to whom he conformed in 
dress alone) he appeared as a monk, and, among the men 
whom he ruled, as some angel upon earth. 

Truly wonderful was this in a king, and a king of so bar- 
barous a nation, which he so ruled as though God directed 
all his works, that he was not despised by the barbarians 
for these marks of virtue, but rather admired and loved ; 
while he was most greatly feared by the wicked and bold 
because of his royal authority and severity. 

Yet there were not wanting those who, exalting themselves 
in fresh revolts, either thought fit to attack him or refused 
him his dues. But these, God manifestly aiding him, he so 
either crushed or subdued that thenceforth all men dreaded 
to molest a man with whom God was. 

But upon the advance of youth he lacked not some who, 
sent by Satan, recking as nothing the loss of chastity in them- 
selves, with wicked daring and poisonous persuasion urged 
him to the experience of carnal pleasure. But he, already 
desiring to follow the Lamb wherever he should go, had with 
his whole bosom inhaled the zeal for holy integrity, and knew, 
(no man, but God alone showing it to him inwardly,) that 
this treasure was to be cherished in the frail flesh as if in an 
earthen vessel ; and at first despised the unbecoming per- 


suasions of his contemporaries, and even of those whom he 
held in the place of masters, and then, when yet they held not 
their peace, so checked them with a certain authority by 
word and countenance that none of them thenceforth dared 
try such things with him again. 

But the enemy, urged on by jealousy, repulsed in this 
laid stronger snares for the godly child. He employed the 
mother, to insinuate to him the hidden poison as the counsel 
of motherly kindness ; and not only to allure him by blan- 
dishments but even to instigate him by commands, urging 
him to be a king, not a monk ; and showing that a girl's 
embraces best befitted his age and body. Constrained rather 
than conquered by his mother's importunity, he appeared 
to consent, not to distress his parent. She gladly, standing 
by the bedside of her reclining son, placed by his side a beautiful 
and noble virgin, without opposition from him. When the 
accomplices had gone out and he had obtained solitude, fired 
by the flame of charity rather than of lust he rose immediately, 
and for the whole space of the night left the royal couch to 
the virgin, and slept upon the pavement, covered with a cloak. 
Since he was found thus in the morning by the attendants, 
and the maiden's testimony followed, the virginity of both 
was declared. 

When his mother afterwards employed either reproof or 
blandishment, by a certain authority of the constancy of his 
mind he constrained her, so that she thought not to venture 
further in this matter. 

Let the venerators of signs say what they will, esteeming 
merit by miracles, and by the distinction of signs alone assign- 
ing the title of sanctity : I certainly hold this miracle in the 
young king of integrity so assailed and so unconquerable to 
be preferred not only to the illumination of the blind, but 
even to the raising of the dead. 1 



IN S. OF D., VOL. I, P. 168. 

When [Hugh de Puisac] had obtained the bishopric [of 
Durham], 2 for the defence of himself and his followers he 

1 Nevertheless compare Malcolm's charter in the Liber S. Maria de 
Calchou, Bann. Club, 22-23. 

2 Hugh was installed in the see on the 2nd of May, 1154, according to 
the fragment in S. of P., i, 169. 


built by the king's command a castle upon the river Tweed, 
to oppose the invasion of the Scots. 

It had been built long before by Ranulf [Flambard], 1 
former bishop of Durham, but had been destroyed by the 
Scots' army. 

H55, Feb. 

AND STUBBS, COUNCILS, VOL. II, pp. 231-232. 

Bishop Adrian, servant of the servants of God, to his 
venerable brethren bishops H[erbert] of Glasgow, Christian 
of Whithorn, R[obert] of St. Andrews, Lfaurence] of Dun- 
blane, G[regory] of Dunkeld, T. 2 of Brechin, G[eoffrey] of 
Aberdeen, W[illiam] of Moray, S[imon] of St. Peter's in Ross, 
and Afndrew] of Caithness, greeting and apostolic benediction. 

As often as in any church, by disposal of God's mercy, 
such a pastor is appointed that we have good confidence 
regarding his discretion and prudence ; so much the greater 
joy should we be filled with, as we are obliged to be zealous 
for the welfare of all the churches. 

And therefore we have received with due kindness our 
venerable brother Roger, archbishop of York, and your 
metropolitan ; and we have granted to him the pall, that is 
the plenitude of episcopal authority. And we have treated 
him honourably, while he stayed for some time beside us, 
as one whom with sincere heart's affection we love with 
special favour ; and have held him dear among our brethren 
and fellow bishops, as was fitting. We therefore commend 
him very earnestly to your Fraternity on his return to his church 
with the favour of the apostolic see and the support of our 
letters ; enjoining and commanding by the authority of the 
present [writings] that you endeavour to love and honour 
him as your metropolitan, and that you offer him the/ obedi- 
ence and reverence due to him by metropolitan right, laying 
pretext aside. 

And if you do not do this, but refuse to obey him, we 
wish you to know that by God's authority we shall ratify 
the sentence which this our brother has canonically pro- 
nounced upon one of you for this cause. 

Given in Rome, at St. Peter's, on the third 3 before the 
Kalends of March. 

1 For Norham v. supra, s.a. 1107, note. 

2 This is an error for Samson ; ibid., 232, note. 

3 27th February. 


ROGER HOVEDEN, CHRONICA, VOL. I, p. 216, S.A. 1157. 1 

In the same year Malcolm, king of Scots, came to the 
king of England at Chester, and became his man, in such 
fashion as his grandfather had been the man of the elder 
king Henry, saving all his dignities. 


CHRONICLES or STEPHEN, ETC., VOL. I, pp. 105-106. 2 

To the king of Scots also, who possessed as his proper 
right the northern districts of England, namely Northumbria, 
Cumberland, Westmoreland, formerly acquired by David, 
king of Scots, in the name of Matilda, called the empress, 
and her heir, [king Henry II] took care to announce that the 
king of England ought not to be defrauded of so great a part 
of his kingdom, nor could he patiently be deprived of it : 
it was just that that should be restored which had been 
acquired in his name. 

And [Malcolm] prudently considering that in this matter 
the king of England was superior to the merits of the case 
by the authority of might, although he could have adduced 
the oath which [Henry] was said to have given to David, 
his grandfather, when [Henry] received from him the belt of 
knighthood ; when [Henry] asked them again, restored to 
him the aforenamed territories in their entirety, and received 
from him in return the earldom of Huntingdon, which be- 
longed to him by ancient right. 

Things being so arranged, England enjoyed for a time her 
ease and security in all her borders. And the king ruled 
more widely than all who were known to have ruled in England 
till that time, that is from the furthest bounds of Scotland 
as far as to the Pyrensean mountains ; and his name was 
held in renown in all these regions. 

1 From Chr. of Melr., 76. 

2 R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 192 : " After the octave of Easter " 
[Low Sunday was the 7th of April] " Henry, king of the English, sailed over 
into England from Barfleur ; and Malcolm, king of Scots, restored to him 
all that he had of his dominion, that is, the city of Carlisle, the castle of 
Maidens, Bamborough, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and the county of Lothian ; 
and the king restored to him the county of Huntingdon." " Of Maidens " 
(Edinburgh) is erased in MS. M, and omitted by six other MSS. (The castle 
was restored to the Scots in 1186.) Cf. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 237 ; 
R. de D., i, 302 ; R.W., i, 16 ; Ann. of Dunst,, in A.M., iii, 18 ; M.P., Chr. 
Maj., ii, 214; Fl, His., ii, 74, 




And the king and Malcolm, king of Scots, met at Carlisle ; 
but they returned without having become good friends, 2 and 
so that the king of Scots was not yet knighted. 

H59, July. 


In the same year [1159] Henry, king of England, collected 
a great army and besieged Toulouse. 4 . . . 

Returning from this army Malcolm, king of Scots, was 
knighted at Tours by Henry, king of the English. 5 

1159, Nov. 

HADDAN AND STUBBS, VOL. II, pp. 233-234. 

Bishop Alexander, servant of the servants of God, to his 
beloved sons the archdeacon, prior, and all the clergy of the 
church of St. Andrew, greeting and apostolic benediction. 

The petitions which our venerable brother [William,] 
bishop of Moray, and our beloved son master Nicholas, have 
placed before us concerning your church on behalf of our 
dearest son Malcolm, king of Scots, would have been gladly 
put into effect by us if it could have been done with God and 
with justice. And we, desiring with benefit to satisfy the 
same king, our son, have corrected these petitions and have 
brought them to a better state, for the reform of the church 
and the honour of his realm. For what the same messengers 
proposed to us on behalf of the king could not, as we have 
said, be fulfilled in justice ; for, while for the present your 
church is destitute of a pastor, it was by no means fitting 
that the confirmation of the church in the things which were 
asked should be made. And the counsel of our brethren 
having been imparted to us, because we see that it accrues 

1 From Chr. of Melr., 76. 

2 " But they departed not well pacified on either side " ; Chr. of Melr., 

3 Cf. R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 202-203. Also ibid., Continuatio 
Beccensis, iv, 323 : " On the sixteenth before the Kalends of July [16th 
June] Malcolm, king of Scots, sailed over into Normandy with forty-five 
ships ; and when he came to the town of Poitou, where the English king's 
army was assembled, he was honourably received by that king." 

4 " And with him in that siege were Malcolm, king of Scotland, and a 
certain king of Wales, ..." G. of C., i, 167. 

5 From Chr. of Melr., 77. 


to greater benefit and advantage both of the church and of 
the king, we have thought fit to grant to our brother, now 
elected bishop, although he has by no means asked for it, 
the legation in the whole realm entrusted to our son the king 
aforesaid, in order to correct there what things are to be 
corrected, and salutarily to decree the things which ought to 
be decreed ; on this condition that if you unanimously agree 
in selecting his person, and the same king will impart his assent, 
he shall be ordained bishop in that church. And although 
such transferences ought not to take place without consul- 
tation and the assent of the Roman pontiff, yet he shall not 
need to return to the apostolic see for his confirmation, but 
thenceforth shall perform freely the legation placed upon 
him, and the plenitude of the episcopal office in that church, 
And we, after his ordination, shall be careful with God's help 
to confirm to him and to the aforesaid church which he shall 
rule its ancient and justifiable customs and dignities. 

And if you cannot agree regarding him, we command 
you to agree by common will and unanimous desire with re- 
gard to some other person literate, suitable and honourable, 
and be at pains to elect him as your pastor. And if you 
wish to present the elect to us, we shall both treat him honour- 
ably, and endeavour to honour him in every way we see fitting. 
And thenceforth the legation of this [William] being at an 
end, he who has been confirmed and consecrated shall obtain 
by apostolic authority the legation through the whole realm 
of our aforesaid son the king, and shall exercise the office of 
legate freely in those parts. 

Given at Anagni, on the fifth l before the Kalends of 



In the year of grace 1160 . . . Malcolm, king of Scots, 
returned to his own land from the army of Toulouse. 

And when he came to the vill which is called Perth earl 
Feretach 3 and five other earls, in anger against the king 
because he had gone to Toulouse, besieged the vill of Perth, 
and wished to take the king ; but they could not. 

1 27th November. 

2 This is derived with slight change from Chr. of Melr., 77. 

3 Feradach or Ferteth, earl of Strathearn. 



King Malcolm three times went with a great army into 
Galloway, and at last subdued it to himself. 

In the same year king Malcolm gave his sister Margaret 
to Conan, earl of Brittany, as wife, 1 



In the same year [1162] Malcolm, king of Scots, gave his 
sister Ada to the count of Holland 3 as wife. 



In the year of grace 1163, which was the ninth year of the 
reign of king Henry, son of Matilda the empress, that king 
returned from Normandy into England. And king Malcolm 
recovered at Doncaster from a severe illness ; and a firm 
peace was made between him and the king of England. 

1163, July. 


Malcolm king of Scots, Rhys prince of the south Welsh, 
Audouen of the northern, and all the nobles of Wales did 
homage at Woodstock to the king of the English and to his 
son Henry, on the Kalends of July. 6 

1164 f 


In the same year [1164] was made by king Malcolm the 
abbacy of Cupar. 

1 Daughter and heir of this marriage was Constance, wife of Henry's son 
Geoffrey, and mother of Arthur and Eleanour of Brittany. Cf. R. de D., i, 
332 ; ii, 18. R.W., i, 55. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 244-245. 

2 From Chr. of Melr., 78. 

3 Florence III, count of Holland 1157-1190. L'Art, iv, 309-310. 

4 Chron. of Melr., 78. 

5 Cf. R.W., i, 26. Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 18. M.P., Chr. Maj., 
ii, 222 ; H.A., i, 322. Fl. His., ii, 78. 

Cf., R. de T., in Chr. of Ste.,iv, 218 : " Malcolm, king of Scotland, did 
homage to Henry, son of the king of England ; and gave to the king hostages, 
namely David, his younger brother, and certain of the sons of his barons, in 
surety of preservation of peace and for his castles, which the king wished 
to have." 

6 1st July. 

7 From Chr. of Melr., 78, where it is said that Malcolm founded it on 
.the 12th of July. 




In the same year Somerled, under-king of Argyle, rose 
against his natural lord king Malcolm ; and with a great 
army of Irish landed at Renfrew, and there was slain by a 
few men of his own province. 2 

In the same year died Herbert, bishop of Glasgow ; and 
to him succeeded Engelram, the king's chancellor, and was 
consecrated by Pope Alexander at the city of Sens, 3 although 
the messengers of Roger, archbishop of York, very greatly 
opposed it. 

1165 . 


Of the passing of Malcolm, most pious king of the Scots. 

About this time the most Christian king of the Scots, Mal- 
colm, of whom we have made mention, as was fitting, in the 
preceding book, upon Christ's summons put off the man, to be 
associated with angels .; and lost not his kingship, but changed 
it. A man of angelic sincerity among men, and as it were an 
earthly angel, of whom the world was not worthy, the heavenly 
angels snatched him from the world. A man of wonderful 
gravity in tender years, of astonishing and unexampled purity 
upon the summit and in the delights of the kingdom, he was 
taken from a virgin body to the Lamb, the Virgin's son, to follow 
him wherever he should go. 

1 From Chr. of Melr., 79. 

2 Chr. of Melr. has : " And Somerled, under-king of Argyle, now for 
twelve years in wicked rebellion against his natural lord Malcolm, king of 
Scots, after he had landed at Renfrew bringing with him a numerous army 
from Ireland and various places, was at length slain there by a few fellow- 
provincials, through divine vengeance, along with his son and innumerable 

For the affair of Somerled cf. the Carmen de Morte Sumerledi, written 
by one William in honour of St. Kentigern, in S. of D., ii, 386-388. It is 
headed, " How by a very few was slain Somerled Sicebi ' the king,' with his 
enormous army." 

3 Chr. of Melr. adds : " On the day of the apostles Simon and Jude " 
[28th October.] 

4 Cf. Hoved., i, 231, s.a. 1165 : " In the same year died Malcolm, king, 
of Scots ; and William, his brother, succeeded him." This is abbreviated 
from Chr. of Melr., 80, which gives the date as Thursday, 9th December, at 
Jedburgh, in Malcolm's twenty-fifth year : and the date of William's suc- 
cession as the 24th December. The Durham obituaries place " Malcolm 
II's " death on the 8th of December ; L.V.E.D., 147, 152. (The 9th Decem- 
ber was a Thursday in 1165.) 


Clearly he was taken away by an early death lest the wicked- 
ness of the times should change his marvellous innocence and 
purity, since so many opportunities and incentives drive astray 
a young man on the throne. 

But because among the tokens of virtue were not wanting 
in his admirable soul some small stains resultant from royal 
delights which nevertheless he rather endured than enjoyed, a 
visitation let fall, not sent down, from heaven chastised him 
with paternal lash, and refined him to p urity. For before his 
death he so languished for several years, and besides other suf- 
ferings endured severest pains in his extremities, that is, his 
head and feet, that any repentant sinner would seem capable of 
being cleansed to pellucidity by so great flagellations. 

And hence it is manifest that the child of God had experi- 
enced the severity of his father's lash not only for cleansing, but 
also for trial and increase of virtue or accretion of merit. 

So he slept with his fathers and was buried at Dunfermline, 
a place to wit so called in Scotland, and renowned for sepul- 
tures of kings. 

His brother William succeeded him ; a brother, indeed, as 
it appeared, readier for the uses of the world, but not to be more 
fortunate than he in administration of the kingdom. 

The world which his brother wished to use simply, and for 
that cause piously and laudably, [William] purposed not only 
to use, but to enjoy ; and striving much to exceed his brother's 
measure in temporal excellence, he yet could never equal his 
glory even in temporal felicity. 

The good gift of wedlock, to which his brother had preferred 
the best gift of pious and holy virginity, he for long time de- 
ferred to use, either for offspring or for the remedy of incontin- 
ence. But at length by impulse of more wholesome council he 
took as wife from overseas the daughter of a man of high rank ; 
and thenceforth not only lived more correctly, but also reigned 
more fortunately. 



In the same year king Henry of England after his 
return from Wales 1 sailed over from England into Normandy ; 
and William, king of Scots, followed him. 2 

!Cf. ibid., 240, s.a. 1165. 

2 The Chr. of Melr., 80, has : " In the year 1166 Henry, king of Eng- 
land, sailed across ; and William, king of Scots, followed him in connection 
with his lord's affairs, and after attempting certain knightly feats immedi- 
ately returned." 


In the same year died earl Gospatric in Scotland, and his son 
Waldeve succeeded him. 


ETC., VOL. IV., PP. 228-229, S.A. 1166. 

Thither l came to [king Henry] William, king of Scotland, 
and the bishop 2 of the Isles of Man and other thirty-one, which 
are between Scotland and Ireland and England. 

These thirty-two islands the king of the Isles holds of the 
king of Norway in such tribute that, when a new king succeeds, 
the king of the Isles gives to him ten marks of gold, and does 
naught else for him in his whole life, unless again another king 
is appointed in Norway. 

The bishop aforesaid came to the English king as legate of 
this king of the Isles. 3 For the aforesaid king is the cousin of 
the English king on the side of Matilda the empress, his mother. 



Master Simon, the second abbot, retired from Coggeshall 
and returned to Melrose, his monastery. 

1170, Apr. 

VOL. I, P. 4, S.A. 1170. 4 

In the same year king [Henry] held his court at Windsor in 
the celebration of Easter ; 5 and in this paschal festival were 
present William, king of Scotland, and David his brother, and 
nearly all the noblest and the greatest men of England, as well 
bishops as earls and barons. 

1 I.e. at Genest in Brittany. 

2 Reginald. (Hewlett.) 

3 Godred Olaf's son was king of Man from 1154 (Langebek : in the 
Chr. Reg. Man., 1144) to 1187. His mother was Affrica, daughter of Fergus 
of Galloway. 

From 1156 the kingdom of the Isles was divided between him and Dugal, 
son of Somerled ; and from 1158 to 1164 Godred had been deprived of his 
kingdom by Somerled. Chr. Reg. Man., in Langebek, iii, 221, 223-225. 

4 Cf. J. of T., in Fl. of W., ii, 137-138. 

5 5th April. 


1170, May. 


Thereafter 1 king Henry knighted David, brother of William 
king of Scots. 

1170, June. 

VOL. I, PP. 4, 6. 2 

So when the celebration of Easter was concluded [Henry] 
went thence to London, and there held a great council for the 
coronation of Henry, his eldest son. . . . 

And upon the morrow 3 of this consecration the king caused 
William, king of Scotland, and David his brother, and all the 
earls and barons and freeholders of his realm to become vassals 
of the new king, his son ; and he made them swear to him over 
the relics of saints aUegiance and fealty against all men, saving 
fealty to himself. 

1172, Jan. 


S.A. 1172. 

Ordination of master Simon, 4 formerly abbot of Coggeshall, 
as bishop of Moray, on the tenth 5 before the Kalends of 


VOL. I, P. 45. 6 

Moreover [Henry the younger] made other grants which he 
confirmed with the same [new] seal. 7 For he conceded to Wil- 
liam, king of Scotland, for his homage and service, 8 the whole 
of Northumbria as far as ihe Tyne. 

1 This stands between episodes of the 3rd March and the 5th April. 
But cf. Chr. of Melr., 82 : "in the octaves of Pentecost " [31st May]. 

2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 5. J. of T., in Fl. of W., ii, 138-139. 

3 I.e. upon the 15th June. B. of P., i, 5. J. of T., u.s., 138. (The 
16th according to Hoved., ii, 4.) 

4 " Simon de Thouni," ibid., 16. V. supra, s.a. 1168. 

5 23rd January. 

6 Cf. Hoved., ii, 47. 

For the events of 1173 and 1174 cf. Jordan Fantosme, in Chr. of Ste., 
etc., iv, 224-376. 

7 A seal made for him by king Louis of France ; ibid., 43. 

8 " For his aid," Hoved., u.s. 

Cf. W. of N., ii, 27, in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 171 : " To these [enemies of 
Henry II] was added a fiercer foe, the king of Scots, who was about to send 
into the territories of England liis cruel peoples, to spare neither sex nor age." 


And he conceded to David, brother of the king of Scotland, 
for his homage and service, the earldom of Huntingdon ; and 
in addition he gave him the whole of Cambridgeshire. 


VOL. I, PP. 47-48. 

Now of this wicked treachery in England the authors 
were William, king of Scotland, and David his brother, . . . 
[and twelve others]. 1 

William king of Scotland had and held the castle of Stirling, 
the castle of Maidens, the castle of Jedburgh, the castle of Ber- 
wick, the castle of Roxburgh ; and the castle of Annan and 
the castle of Lochmaben, which were the castles of Robert de 
Bruce. David, brother of the king of Scotland, had the castle 
of Huntingdon. 



William, king of Scots, asked again from the king father that 
which in the province of the Northumbrians 3 had been granted, 
given over and confirmed by charters to his grandfather, king 
David, and which also had been long time possessed by him ; 
but meeting with a refusal he collected an army, 4 with an end- 
less host of Galwegians, men agile, unclothed, remarkable for 
much baldness ; arming their left side with knives formidable 
to any armed men, having a hand most skilful at throwing 
spears, and at directing them from a distance ; raising their 
long lance as a standard when they advance to battle. 

Having a safe journey through the lands of Hugh, bishop of 
Durham, the king of Scotland began to harry England, to burn 
down villages, to collect incalculable spoil, to lead away young 
women ..captive, to take out the half living infants from the 
wombs of the pregnant. 

1 W. of N., H.R.A., II, 31, in Chr.of Ste., etc., i, 180 : " And that they 
might act with the greater confidence through having a prince of great name, 
they chose as their leader and prince David, earl of Huntingdon, brother of 
the king of Scotland." 

For the part played in the campaign by David v. J.F., u.s., 296, 298. 

2 This is placed after the capture of Leicester, 28th July. 
Of. K.W., i, 95. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 289 ; H.A., i, 379-380. 

3 " The province of Northumbria, which ..." R.W., u.s. 

4 " An army both of Welsh " [i.e. Galwegians] " and of Scots." R.W., u.s. 




Moreover the king of Scots, having learned how greatly the 
king of the English laboured in Normandy, entered English 
territory with the hugest forces of his nation, barbarous and 
thirsting for blood ; and surrounded with a siege the city of 
Carlisle, and defiled the whole neighbouring province with 
slaughter and rapine. 

But learning that a great army approached from the south 
of England he left the siege, and after a vast wasting of the 
province which is called Northumbria he retreated into his own 
from before the face of our nobles. 

And they arriving with military forces crossed the river 
Tweed, which divides the English kingdom from the Scottish ; 
and carried retribution into the enemy's land, no one opposing 
them. l 

But presently by the eager representation of messengers 
they were recalled to the south of England ; yet the ferocity 
of the king's enemy was checked through caution for a time 
by necessary truce, since by the cunning dissimulation of our 
men what had been announced was still hid from him. 2 

1173, Oct. 


And when this * was reported to Richard de Lucy and to 
Humfrey de Bohun, the king's constable, who had set out with 
a great army 5 to harry the land of the king of Scotland, and 
who had already burned Berwick, a town of the king of Scot- 
land, and the whole province around it, they took a truce * 

1 Cf. R. de D., i, 376 : " Therefore to repel so great and terrible an 
injury, the nobles of Englanfl took arms with such speed as it could be done, 
and suddenly compelled the king of Scotland to take to flight and retreat 
into Scotland. And they followed his steps and wasted with fire the whole 
of Lothian ; and whatever was found outside of walls was given to the Eng- 
lish as plunder. And so at the request of the king of Scots a truce was given 
till the feast of St. Hilary [13th January], and the nobles returned with 
victory." Cf. R.W., i, 95, " at the instance of the king of Scots." Cf. M.P., 
Chr. Maj., ii, 289 ; H.A., i, 380. 

2 Robert, earl of Leicester, had landed with a fleet from Flanders. 

3 Cf. Hoved., ii, 54. 

4 I.e. the arrival of the earl of Leicester (on the 29th September, R. de D., 
i, 377,) and the capture of Hagenet, (13th October, R. de D., u.s.,) B. of P., 
i, 60. 5 " Into Lothian," Hoved., u.s. 

6 " . . . They were greatly afraid. And they set all other matters 
aside, and gave and took a truce, ..." Hoved., u.s. 

Contrast with this the version of R. de D. and R.W., supra, note. 


from the king of Scotland until the feast of St. Hilary ; l and 
they gave hostages on either side. And thus as quickly as he 
could Humfrey de Bohun proceeded to Bury St. Edmunds, 
awaiting there the arrival of the earl of Leicester. 2 . M J. 



pp. 64-66. 3 

But when the feast of St. Hilary approached, Hugh, bishop 
of Durham, held a conference between himself and the king of 
Scotland at Ravendale , 4 and there took a truce from the king 
of Scotland until the close of Easter. 5 

And for this truce he promised him three hundred marks 
of silver from the lands of the barons of Northumbria. . . . 

And immediately after the close of Easter, having first re- 
ceived the three hundred marks of silver from the lands of the 
barons of Northumbria, the king of Scotland moved forward 6 
his army into Northumbria, and there through his Scots and 
Galwegians acted execrably. 7 . . . 

Meanwhile the king of Scotland sent his brother David to 
Leicester, to be there against the king with the knights of the 
earl of Leicester ; 8 and then with his army besieged Carlisle, 
which Robert de Vaux had in keeping. And when for a few 
days he had tarried there, he left there part of his army around 
the castle and went in person with the remaining part of his 
army through Northumbria, wasting the lands of the king and 
of his barons ; and took with his arms the castle of Liddell, 
which belonged to Nicholas de Estuteville ; and the castle of 

1 13th January, 1174. So Hoved., R.W., u.s. 

2 The battle of Forneham followed, on the 17th October ; K. de D., i, 
377-378 (on the 16th, according to B. of P., i, 62.) 

3 Of. Hoved., ii, 56-57, 60, 63. 

4 apud Revedalam, B. of P. Hoved. has apud Revedene, ii, 57. 

5 31st March. 

6 " Wasted Northumbria with a great army of Welsh and Scots," G. 
of C., i, 247 ; ii, 81. 

W. of N., H.R.A., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 181-182 : " Meanwhile the 
king of Scots with an endless mob of his own nation and no small band of 
mercenary horse and foot summoned from Flanders invaded English terri- 
tories and obtained two royal castles in Westmoreland, namely Brough and 
Appleby, finding them unprepared and without garrisons. And going aside 
thence he again determined to attack the town of Carlisle." 

7 Here follows a passage upon the excesses of the Scottish army, taken 
imperfectly from H. of H., 260-261 ; v. supra, s.a. 1138. So in Hoved., ii, 
57. Cf. also G. of C., i, 247. We may note the stereotyped nature of these 

8 Cf. Hoved., ii, 57, and note. 


Brough, and the castle of Appleby, the king's castles which 
Robert de Estuteville kept ; and the castle of Warkworth, 
which Roger son of Richard kept ; and the castle of Harbottle, 
which Odenel de Umfraville held. 

And afterwards he returned to his army which he had left 
around Carlisle, and tarried there so long that, when food had 
failed the burghers who were inside and himself, Robert de 
Vaux made with him peace in this fashion : that upon the 
following feast of, St. Michael * he would render to him the 
castle and the town of Carlisle, unless meanwhile he should 
have succour from his lord the king of England. And of this 
he assured the king of Scotland by promise and oaths and 
hostages. 2 

And the king of Scotland departed thence with his army, 
and besieged the castle of Prudhoe of Odenel de Umfraville. 
but could not take it. For the army of Yorkshire was pre- 
paring to come against him. 3 . . . 

When this was announced to the king of Scotland he left 
the castle which he had invested ; and fleeing thence he came to 
Alnwick, 4 and besieged it. And he sent thence earl Duncan 
and the earl of Angus and Richard de Moreville, with almost 
his whole army, through the surrounding provinces, to harry 
them. 5 And the king of Scotland remained there with his 
private household. 

But earl Duncan at once divided the army into three parts ; 

1 29th September. 

* W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 182 : " ... He again determined 
to attack the town of Carlisle. But the citizens in terror gave him surety 
that they would give up the city to him on a certain day, unless meanwhile a 
sufficient garrison were sent to them by the king of the English." 

3 W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 182 : " . . . And he turned his army 
to the attack of a certain castle which is called Prudhoe, upon the river Tyne. 

" Then came to him Roger de Mowbray aforesaid, beseeching aid. 
For two of his castles had been boldly stormed and taken by Geoffrey, then 
bishop-elect of Lincoln, the king of England's natural son ; and [de Mow- 
bray] held the third, called Thirsk, with danger. 

" Now this Roger had long ago given his firstborn son as hostage to the 
king of Scots when he meditated an incursion into the province of York, in 
pledge that he would help him and obey him in all things ; and had received 
from him in return the promise that he should by no means be deceived in 
[the king's] help, in whatever necessity he might be. 

" And the king, when he had laboured for several days at Prudhoe with 
useless effort and rather to the hurt of his own men, hearing that the army 
of the province of York was being moved against him, crossed the Tyne and 
invaded the territories of Northumbria." 

4 " The castle of William de Vescy," Hoved. ii, 60. 

5 W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 182-183 : " By the Scots, to whom 
no sort of food comes amiss, was gnawed up whatever could be chewed even 
by dogs. And while they applied themselves to booty, it was the pleasure 
of this inhuman nation, more savage than wild beasts, to slaughter old men, 


one he kept with him, and the remaining two he sent to burn 
the surrounding towns and to slay folk from the greatest to the 
least, and to carry off spoil. 

And he himself with the part of the army which he had 
chosen entered the town of Warkworth, and burned it, and slew 
in it all whom he found there, men and women, great and 
small ; and he made his satellites break into the church of saint 
Laurence which was there, and slay in it and in the house of 
the priest of that town more than a hundred men, besides 
women and children ; oh, sorrow ! Then you might hear the 
screaming of women, the crying of old men ; the groans of the 
dying, the despair of the [living] ! * 

1174, July. 


Of the capture of the king of Scots. 

While things were thus in the northern parts of England 

to butcher children, to disembowel women, and the like ; things which it is 
horrible even to speak of. 

" So having let loose upon the wretched province the army of most cruel 
marauders, while the barbarians raged in inhuman orgies the king himself 
appeared to be idle, surrounded by a bodyguard of knights more honourable 
and milder ; and kept watch around the very strong castle called Alnwick, 
lest perchance a force of knights should break out from it and molest the 
marauders as they pillaged on all sides." 

1 Sic lege. This sentence is from EL of H,, 261 j supra, s.a. 1138. So 
in Hoved., ii, 57, 60. 

2 Cf. B. of P., i, 66-67 (and Hoved., ii, 63) : " But God almighty avenged 
on the same day the wrong and violence inflicted upon the church of his 
martyr. For the leaders of the aforesaid army of Yorkshire, when they heard 
that the king of Scotland had retreated from Prudhoe and had invested 
Alnwick, and had so sent his army from him, followed him in haste ; and 
found him before Alnwick unawares, playing with his knights as if secure 
and fearing nothing. 

" For he, when he saw them coming afar, thought that they were earl 
Duncan and those who were with him. But when they had come near to 
him they fell upon him, and immediately captured him, and his knights left 
him and fled." 

Cf. G. of C., i, 249 : " And upon the same Saturday on which the king 
returned from Canterbury, William, king of Scotland, had sent his soldiers 
to take spoil, keeping but few companions with him in the siege of the castle 
of Alnwick. And when the army of York came upon him unexpectedly, and 
he thought that they whom he had before him were friends returning with 
spoil, he was suddenly hemmed in by them and captured. The rest of his 
men who were present were slaughtered, or slipped away in flight." 

Cf. T.W., Chr., in A.M., iv, 35-36. 

Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 61 : " In this year the king of Scotland was 
captured, in the war which took place between the father and son." 

The capture is mentioned also by Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 240 ; Ann . 
of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 21 ; Ann. of Osn., in A.M., iv, 37. Fl. His., ii, 84, 85. 

R.W., i, 100, gives an ornamental version : " . . . Battle was engaged 


the king's nobles of the province of York were frankly enraged 
that Scots should infest English territories ; x and they gath- 
ered with a strong force of cavalry at Newcastle upon the river 
Tyne. For, as the matter pressed, they could not collect forces 
of infantry. And they came thither on the sixth day of the 
week, wearied by their long and arduous journey. 

Now when they discussed in common there what was to be 
done, the more prudent alleged that much had been done al- 
ready, since the king of Scotland had retired very far, through 
fore-learning their approach ; that for the present this ought 
to suffice for their moderate strength ; it was not safe for them, 
nor of use to the king of the English, that they should advance 
further ; lest perchance they should seem to expose their small 
number like a loaf of bread to be devoured by the endless host 
of the barbarians. They had not more than four hundred 
horsemen, while in the enemy's army were estimated more than 
eighty thousand men-at-arms. 

To this the more eager replied that their most wicked foes 
ought by all means to be attacked ; that they should not 
despair of victory, which without doubt would follow justice. 

At last the opinion of the latter prevailing, because God so 
willed that the event should be ascribed rather to the divine 
will than to the power or prudence of man, the men of valour 
(among whom the leaders were Robert de Estuteville, Ranulf 
de Glanville, Bernard de Balliol, William de Vescy,) somewhat 
refreshed by the night's rest advanced in the earliest morning 
with such speed, as though hastening by propulsion of some 
power, that before the fifth hour 2 they had traversed twenty- 
four miles ; although that seemed scarcely within the 
endurance of men laden witji the weight of their arms. 

And while they went a mist, so it is said, covered them so 

in in the open, and they took him himself and bound him with tightest chains. 
But of the Scottish ants so many are reported to have been slain that they 
were said to exceed all number. And as the king was sent for incarceration 
to the castle of Richmond, the prophecy of Merlin seems to have been ful- 
filled. . . ." Cf. Geoffrey of Monmouth, VII, 3, ed. San-Marte, 95 : " Scot- 
land shall rage, and summoning her allies cease to shed blood. To her jaws 
shall be given a bridle which shall be forged in the Armorican gulf." 

Cf. R. de D., i, 384. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 293-294; H.A., i, 387-388. 

Jordan Fantosme claims to have witnessed the capture ; 11. 1774-1775, in 
Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 350-352. A Jordan of Flanders was among those taken 
with the king ; B. of P., i, 167 ; infra, note. 

1 R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 264 : " For this king [William] had, 
with Roger de Mowbray and his other accomplices, for the whole summer 
wasted the northern parts of England, which pertain to Scotland." 

2 Of their march ? " Before five o'clock," Stevenson. Cf. note by 
Howlett, Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 188. 


densely that they scarcely knew whither they were going. 
Then the more prudent, arguing the journey dangerous, asserted 
that extreme hazard surely threatened them unless they 
immediately turned and went back. 

To this said Bernard de Balliol, a man noble and high- 
spirited : " Let him go back who will, but I will go on even 
if no one follow ; and not brand myself with a perpetual stain." 

So while they proceeded, suddenly the mist cleared away ; 
and they, having the castle of Alnwick before their eyes, joy- 
fully considered that it would be a safe shelter for them if the 
enemy pressed upon them. 

And behold the king of Scots was on the watch, with a troop 
of horse, about sixty or a few more, not far away, in the open 
fields ; as if secure, and fearing nothing less than an attack of 
our men : the host of barbarians with part of the cavalry being 
scattered widely for the spoil. 

And indeed at first when he saw our men he thought they 
were some of his own returning from the spoil. But presently 
noticing carefully the standards of our men, he at last under- 
stood that they had dared what he could not have guessed they 
would dare. 

Nevertheless he was not dismayed, surrounded as he was 
by his army, so vast, although ill concentrated ; and esteemed 
it certain that these few, being surrounded, must be easily 
swallowed up by the host spread out around them. 

Immediately he struck his arms fiercely together, and aroused 
his men both by word and example, saying, " Now it will 
appear who knows how to be a knight." 

And, the rest following, he rushed first upon the enemy, 
and was immediately intercepted by our men ; and, his horse 
being killed, he was thrown to the ground and taken, with 
almost all his troop. 

For even those who were able to escape by flight, when he 
was taken refused to flee ; and, that they might be taken with 
him, yielded themselves voluntarily into the hands of the 

Certain nobles also who chanced to be absent at the time 
but were not far away learned what had happened, and came 
presently at their horses' highest speed ; and throwing them- 
selves rather than falling into the hands of the enemy thought 
it honourable to share in the peril of their lord. l 

1 Cf. B. of P., i, 67 (cf. Hoved., ii, 63) : "And with him were taken 
Richard Cumin, William de Mortimer, William de Insula, Henry Revel, 
Ralph de Vere, Jordan of Flanders, Waldeve son of Baldwin de Bicre, Richard 


But Roger de Mowbray, who was there at the time, slipped 
away and escaped when the king was taken, and fled back into 

And our chief men carried away with rejoicing a noble prey, 
and returned in the evening to Newcastle, whence in the morn- 
ing they had departed ; and caused him to be most carefully 
guarded at Richmond, so as to send him in good time to their 
lord the illustrious king of the English. 

This was happily accomplished, by God's favour, in the year 
from the fulness of time when ihe word was made flesh, 1174, 
on the third l before the Ides of July, on a Saturday. 

And immediately it was published abroad, and thankfully 
heard in all the provinces of the English, with clanging of bells 
for solemn joy. 

1174, July. 


And on the same day, 2 namely the third 3 before the Ides of 
July, the king of Scotland was taken at Alnwick : and on the 
Thursday following, 4 the rumour that the king of Scotland was 
taken reached the king's ears in London, where he abode 
collecting his army. 5 

And when the king heard it, he rejoiced much with great 
joy, and gave thanks for it to God almighty and saint Thomas 
the martyr. And the same day he advanced his army against 
Huntingdon, and invested it. 

And on the Sunday following, namely the twelfth 6 before 

Malluvel." (" And many other nobles," adds MS. B.) " And many others, 
who permitted themselves to be taken of their own accord, that they might 
not seem to consent in the capture of their lord " ; Hoved., ii, 63. 

1 13th July. So B. of P., Hoved. This was a Saturday in 1174. 

2 The day of king Henry's return from pilgrimage to Canterbury. 
Cf. J. of T., in Fl. of W., ii, 154 : " The king father coming to England 

found it in rebellion against him, but while he performed his vows to St. 
Thomas, the king of Scotland was captured : and the king took him with 
him to Normandy." 

Cf. R. de D., i, 384, 385, 399. R.W., i, 98-100. G. of C., i, 248-249 ; 
ii, 80-81. W. of N., ii, 35 ; in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 187-189. M.P., H.A., i, 
387. Fl. His., ii, 84, 85. 

3 13th July. 4 18th July. 

5 W. of N. relates how Henry received the news ; Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 189- 
190. See also Jordan Fantosme, 1956-2029, ibid., iii, 364-372. 

6 21st July. R. de D., i, 384, dates the surrender on the 20th : " Ad- 
vancing from [London] with a strong band he came to Huntingdon on the 
fourteenth before the Kalends of August [19th July], and on the thirteenth 
before the Kalends of August received in surrender the castle, which had 
been invested manfully since the eighth before the Ides of May [8th May], 
and for very long shut in by a protracted siege." R.W., i, 100-101, and 
M>P>, H.A., i, 388, place the reduction of the castle on the 19th July. 


the Kalends of August, the castle of Huntingdon was rendered 
to him, and all the knights and esquires who were within 
rendered themselves to him at his mercy, with safety of life 
and limb. 1 

1174, July. 


. . . On the seventh 2 before the Kalends of August king 
[Henry] returned from Seleham and went to Northampton. 

And when he had come there, William, king of Scots, was 
brought to him, with his feet shackled beneath the belly of his 

1174, Aug. 


And . . . [king Henry] took ship at Portsmouth, and made 
land next day at Barfleur in Normandy ; on the sixth namely 
before the Ides of August, on the fifth day of the week ; 4 . . . 
and he took with him William, king of Scotland, and the earl of 
Leicester, and the earl of Chester, and imprisoned them at Caen, 
and afterwards at Falaise. 5 



What things took place in the army and land of the king of 
Scotland, after he was captured. 

When therefore the king of Scots was given over into the 
hands of the enemy, God's evident vengeance permitted not 

1 Cf. W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 195 : " But earl David, who had 
been their leader, left the castle of Huntingdon (which presently yielded to 
the king,) and went in alarm to Scotland." This passage follows the sur- 
render of the castellans of the earl of Leicester, 31st July 1174. 

Jordan Fantosme says that David was summoned by Henry, and went ; 
11. 2039-2046, 2052 ; in Chr. of Ste., etc., iii, 372, 374. 
The castle was destroyed in 1176 ; R.W., i, 105. 

2 26th July. 

3 Cf. Hoved., ii, 65. R. de D., i, 385. R.W., i, 101. M.P., Chr. Maj., 
ii, 294. Cf. W. of N., in 'Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 195. 

4 Thursday, 8th .August. 

5 G. of C., i, 249, adds to the list the earl [of Derby], de Ferrers. 

R.W., i, 101 : " Thus the glorious king . . . crossed over into Nor- 
mandy, on the seventh before the Ides of August [7th August], taking with 
him the king of Scots, the earl : of Leicester and Hugh'de Castello, [all] whom 
he kept in chains." Cf. M.P., H.A., i, 389. According . to R.W., they landed 
v on .the ,I3th .August.; ibid. 


also his most evil army to go away unhurt. For when they 
learned of the king's capture the barbarians at first were 
stunned, and desisted from the spoil ; and presently, as if driven 
by furies , the sword which they had taken up against their 
enemy and which was now drunken with innocent blood they 
turned against themselves. 

Now there was in the same army a great number of English ; 
for the towns and burghs of the Scottish realm are known to be 
inhabited by English. 

On the occasion therefore of this opportunity the Scots de- 
clared their hatred against them, innate, though masked through 
fear of the king ; and as many as they fell upon they slew, the 
rest who could escape fleeing back to the royal castles. . . . 1 

And the whole kingdom of Scotland was disturbed ; God 
most justly disposing, and measuring again to the wicked in 
the same measure as they themselves had meted : so to wit 
that they who had a little while before disturbed the quiet of a 
harmless nation, and had thirsted for English blood, received 
in the fairest manner retribution from themselves. 



PP. 67-68.2 

But Utred, Fergus' son, and Gilbert his brother, when they 
heard that their lord the king of Scotland was taken, immedi- 
ately returned with their Galwegians to their own lands, and 
at once expelled from Galloway all the bailiffs and guards whom 
the king of Scotland had set over them ; and all the English 
and French whom they could seize they slew ; and all the 
defences and castles which the king of Scotland had established 
in their land they besieged, captured and destroved, and slew 
all whom they took within them. 



And [Utred and Gilbert] very urgently besought the king 
father of England, and offered him very many gifts, that he 
would snatch them from the dominion of the king of Scotland, 
and reduce them to his empire. 

1 Here follows the account of the quarrel between Fergus and Utred of 
Galloway ; v. infra. 

2 Cf'. Hoved., ii, 63. 




pp. 79-80. * 

Meanwhile Utred and Gilbert, Fergus' sons, were at strife 
as to which of them should be lord of the other and have 
dominion over the Galwegians ; and had great hatred between 
them, so that each of them lay in wait for the other to slay him. 

And in process of time Gilbert, Fergus' son, collected his 
men ; and made a plan with them that his brother Utred should 
be taken and slain. And at the appointed time they came 
together to take and slay him. 

And Malcolm, son of Gilbert Fergus' son, came and 
besieged the island of - - in which abode Utred, brother of his 
father, and cousin of Henry, king of England, son of Matilda the 
empress ; and captured him, 2 and sent his butchers, commanding 
them to put out his eyes, and to emasculate him and cut out 
his tongue ; and so it was done. And they went away, leaving 
him half-dead ; and shortly after he ended his life. 

And while these things took place the lord king sent to 
England one of his priests, Roger of Hoveden by name, to 
Robert de Vaux, that they two should meet Utred and Gilbert, 
Fergus' sons, and draw them to [Henry's] service. 

And when about the feast of St. Clement 3 they had come 
to a conference between themselves and Gilbert, Fergus' son, 
Gilbert himself and the rest of the Galwegians offered them for 
the king's benefit two thousand marks of silver, and five hun- 
dred cows and five hundred swine in revenue each year on this 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 69 ; a very short account. (Hoved., ii, 299, in error 
attributes the crime to Gilbert's son Duncan.) 

Cf. W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 186- 187 : " There were also in that 
army two brothers, Gilbert namely and Utred, lords of the province of Gallo- 
way, with a numerous band of their own nation. These were the sons of 
Fergus, former prince of the same province, and had succeeded their father 
when he yielded to fate ; the king of Scotland (who is sovereign lord of that 
land) dividing the heritage between them. 

" But Gilbert, the elder, grieved that he had been defrauded of the 
entirety of his father's right, and ever hated his brother in his heart, although 
fear of the king restrained an outburst of the wrath he had conceived. But 
when the king was taken he was freed from this fear, and presently laid his 
hands upon his brother, who anticipated no evil ; and slew him, not by a 
simple death, but racked by tortures to satiate his execrable hatred. Im- 
mediately he invaded his brother's territories, barbarians raging against 
barbarians, and caused no small slaughter of men. 

" Now his brother, thus basely slain, had a son called Roland, an active 
and vigorous youth, who with help of his father's friends opposed his savage 
uncle with all his strength." 

2 " Treacherously," Hoved., ii, 69. 

3 23rd November. 


condition, that the king should receive them in his hand, and 
remove them from the servitude of the king of Scotland. 

But the aforesaid messengers of the king of England refused 
to make this compact with the Galwegians until they had 
spoken with the king. 

And when it had been shown to the king how Utred Fergus' 
son, his cousin, had been slain, he refused to make any terms 
with those Galwegians. 

1174, Dec. 


William, king of Scots, held in chains in Normandy 2 re- 
ceived some consolation at Falaise, being visited by his friends 
in no small number. Following the counsel, therefore, of 
the bishops and abbots, earls and barons of his kingdom, he 
made peace with the English king in the region of Coutances, 
at Valognes, on the sixth 3 before the Ides of December, in this 
fashion. . . . 4 

1174, Dec. 


S.A. 1175. 5 

William, king of Scotland, gave hostages in Normandy, and 
returned to England 6 on the third 7 before the Ides of Decem- 
ber, being given over into sufficiently free keeping until the 
castles about which agreement had been made, and as agree- 
ment had been made, were according to faithful judgment given 
up to the keeping of the king of the English. 

1 Cf. W. of N., in Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 197, 197-198. R.W., i, 103-104 
(s.a. 1175). 

2 " Held in chains at Falaise," R.W., i, 103. 

3 8th December. Cf. M.P., H.A., i, 392-393, s.a. 1175, Dec. 8. 
William the Lion was excluded from the treaty of peace between Henry 

and his sons, concluded on the 30th September, 1174 ; cf. B. of P., G.H., II, 
i, 78 : " But the prisoners who had made a compact with the lord king 
before peace was made with the lord king, are outside that convention : 
namely the king of Scotland, and the earl of Leicester, arid the earl of Chester, 
and Ralph de Fougeres, and their hostages, and the hostages of other prisoners 
whom he had before." So Hoved., ii, 68. 

4 An abridgment of the treaty follows, pp. 396-397. 
5 Cf. R.W., i, 104 (s.a. 1175). 

8 According to J. of T., in Fl.of W., ii, 154, " William, king of Scotland, 
taken by right of war, gave hostages and so returned from Normandy to 

7 llth December. 


1175, Aug. 


pp. 94-99. * 

And . . . king [Henry] went to York, and came thither on 
the feast of St. Laurence ; 2 and he had there to meet him 
William, king of Scotland, who had brought with him all the 
bishops 3 and earls and barons and knights and freeholders of 
his land, from the greatest even to the least, to do there homage 
and allegiance and fealty to the king of England and his heirs 
for ever, against all men, as had been agreed between them at 
Falaise in Normandy, before the king of Scotland went out 
from his prison. 

When therefore all were assembled in the church of St. 
Peter of York, William king of Scotland commanded the 
bishops and earls and barons of his land to do allegiance and 
fealty and homage to Henry, king of England, son of Matilda 
the empress, and to king Henry, his son ; and so it was done. 

And first the king of Scotland himself and David his brother 
became there the vassals of the aforesaid king for all their hold- 
ings ; and expressly for Scotland and Galloway. And touching 
the sacred Evangels, they swore to him fealty and allegiance 
against all men ; and afterwards became the vassals of the 
king his son, and swore to him fealty, saving fealty to his father. 

Similarly, by command of the king of Scotland, there swore 
to them fealty and allegiance, to be held by them and their 
heirs for ever, Richard, bishop of St. Andrews ; Joscelin, bishop 
of Glasgow ; Richard, bishop of Dunkeld ; Christian, bishop of 
GaUoway ; Andrew, bishop of Caithness ; Simon de Thouni, 
bishop of Moray ; the abbot of Kelso ; Laurence, abbot of 
Melrose ; the abbot of Newbattle ; and besides these all the 
abbots of his land. 4 

1 Cf Hoved., ii, 79-82. R. de D., 396-397. Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., 
iii, 21-22. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 296-297. R.W., i, 103-104. W. of N., in 
Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 198. J. of E., in Fl. of W., ii, 253-257. 

Cf. also M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 296. Fl. His., ii, 86. 
For the treaty v. Rymer, Foed., i, 39-40. 

2 10th August. 

3 " With almost all the bishops and abbots and other magnates of their 
lands," Hoved., ii, 79. " All the bishops of that land, who are ten in 
number," R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 267. 

4 R. de T., in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 267-268 : " But the bishops and 
abbots did not do homage ; but bound themselves by an oath that they 
would observe this, and that they would be subject to the church and arch- 
bishop of York, and would go thither for consecration so often as it should 
be needful. . . . 

" Moreover the king of England shall present the honours in Scotland, 
episcopates, abbacies and other honours ; or, to say less, they shall be pre- 
sented by his advice." 


The aforesaid bishops swore also that if the king of Scotland 
should refuse to hold the agreement and compact which he had 
made with the king of England, they would place under an 
interdict him and his whole land, until he came to the good 
pleasure of the king of England. 

They swore also that they would make the same subjection 
to the church of England as their predecessors were wont to 
make to that church, and which they ought to make. 

Similarly the earls and barons of the land of the king of Scot- 
land by his command became the vassals of the king of Eng- 
land and of Henry, his son, saving fealty to [his father] ; and 
swore to them fealty and allegiance against all men : namely 
earl Duncan, and the earl of Angus, and earl Waldeve. And 
they swore that if the king of Scotland drew back from the 
aforesaid agreement, they would hold with the king of England 
against him, until he came to [give] befitting satisfaction and 
to [do] the will of the king. 

And then, in presence of all, the king of England caused to 
be read, and to be confirmed by the seals of the king of Scotland 
and of David his brother, the following agreement which had 
been made between him and the king of Scotland : 

" This is the agreement and the compact which William, 
king of Scotland, has made with his lord Henry, king of Eng- 
land, son of Matilda the empress. 

" William, king of Scotland, has become the liege man of 
the lord king against every man, for Scotland and for all his 
other lands ; and has done him fealty as to his liege lord, as his 
other vassals are accustomed to do to him. 

11 Similarly he has done homage to king Henry, his son ; 
and fealty, saving his faith to the lord king, his father. 

" And all bishops and abbots, and the clergy of the land of 
the king of Scotland, and their successors, shall do to the lord 
king, as to their liege lord, fealty for all for which he wishes to 
have it, as his other bishops are accustomed to do to him ; and 
to king Henry, his son, and to their heirs. 

" And the king of Scotland and David, his brother, and the 
barons and his other vassals, have conceded to the lord king 
that the church of Scotland shall make to the church of 
England henceforth such subjection as she ought to make to 
her, and used to make in the time of the kings of England, his 

" Similarly Richard, bishop of St. Andrews, and Richard, 
bishop of Dunkeld, and Geoffrey, abbot of Dunfermline, and 
Herbert, prior of Coldingham, have conceded that the church 


also of England shall have that right in the church of Scotland 
which by right she ought to have ; and that they will not oppose 
the right of the church of England. And as 1 they have done 
liege fealty to the lord king and to Henry his son, they have 
confirmed this to them ; and this also shall the other bishops 
do, and the clergy of Scotland, through the agreement there- 
anent made between the lord king and the king of Scotland, 
and David his brother, and his barons. The earls also, and 
the barons, and the other men of the land of the king of Scot- 
land, shall do to the lord king homage against every man for all 
for which he wishes to have it, and fealty as to their liege lord, 
as his other vassals are accustomed to do to him ; and to king 
Henry his son, and to his heirs, saving the faith due to the lord 
king his father. 

" Likewise the heirs of the king of Scotland and of his barons 
and vassals shall do homage and allegiance to the heirs of the 
lord king against every man. 

" Moreover the king of Scotland and his vassals shall hence- 
forth receive no fugitive for felony from the land of the lord 
king, in Scotland or in any land of theirs ; unless he be willing 
to come to justice in the court of the lord king, and to appear 
before the judgment of the court : but the king of Scotland 
and his vassals, so soon as they can, shall seize him and render 
him up to the lord king or his justiciars or his bailiffs in England. 

" And if from the land of the king of Scotland anyone be a 
fugitive for felony in England, unless he be willing to come to 
justice in the court of the king of Scotland, or of the lord king, 
and to stand before the judgment of the court, he shall not 
be received in the land of the lord king, but shall be delivered 
to the vassals of the king of Scotland or to the bailiffs 2 of the 
lord king, wherever he shall be found. 

" Moreover the vassals of the lord king shall hold the lands 
which they had and ought to have, of the lord king, and of the 
king of Scotland, and of his vassals. And the vassals of the 
king of Scotland ghall hold their lands, which they had and 
ought to have, of the lord king and of his vassals. 

" And in token to the lord king, and to Henry, his son, and 
to his heirs, of the sure observance by the king of Scotland and 
his heirs of this agreement and compact, the king of Scotland 
has delivered to the lord king the castle of Roxburgh, and the 
castle of Berwick, and the castle of Jedburgh, and the castle of 

1 In text et desicut ; in Feed., et de hac concessions sicut. 

2 Read " by the bailiffs," as Feed., and MS. B. 


Maidens, 1 and the castle of Stirling, 2 at the mercy of the lord 
king ; and the king of Scotland shall assign of his revenue for 
the keeping of these castles an amount according to the will 
of the lord king. 3 

" Moreover in token of the fulfilment of the aforesaid agree- 
ment and compact, the king of Scotland has delivered up to the 
lord king his brother David as hostage, and earl Duncan, and 
earl Waldeve, and earl Gilbert, and the earl of Angus, and 
Richard de Moreville the constable, and Nes 4 son of William, 
and Richard Cumin, and Walter Corbet, and Walter Olifard, 
and John de Vaux, and William de Lindsey, and Philip de 
Coleville, and Philip de Valognes, and Robert Frenbert, and 
Robert de Burneville, and Hugh Giffard, and Hugh Ridel, and 
Walter de Berkeley, and William de Haye, and William de 

" And when the castles have been rendered, William, king 
of Scotland, and David his brother shall be released. The 
aforesaid earls and barons, too, each one after he has delivered 
his hostage, (namely a legitimate son, if he have one ; and the 
others, their grandsons or nearest heirs,) and, as has been said, 
after the castles have been rendered, shall be set at liberty. 

" Moreover the king of Scotland and his barons aforesaid 
have engaged that they will cause in good faith, and without 
evil intention, and without pretext, that the bishops and barons 
and men of their land who were not present when the king of 
Scotland compacted with the lord king, shall do the same allegi- 
ance and fealty to the lord king and to Henry his son as they 
themselves have done ; and that the barons and vassals who 
were not present 5 shall deliver to the lord king hostages for all 
for which he wishes to have them. 

1 I.e. of Edinburgh. 

Cf. B. of P., Ges. H., II, i, 160 : " And when [at Windsor, about 8th 
May, 1177] they had discussed long about peace and the stability of the 
kingdom, by advice of his bishops and earls and barons [Henry] removed 
the keepers of the castles of England, and gave them over for keeping to the 
knights who were of his own private household : namely to William de 
Estuteville the castle of Roxburgh, which Eoger archbishop "of York had in 
keeping ; and to Roger de Estuteville the castle of Maidens. . . ." Cf. 
Hoved., ii, 133. 

2 Roxburgh, Berwick and Edinburgh only are named by W. of N., in 
Chr. of Ste., etc., i, 198 ; R. de T., ibid., iv, 268. " His three principal 
castles," R. of C., 18. Only Berwick and Roxburgh are named by R. de D., 
397 ; R.W., i, 104. 

3 R. de T., u.s., 268 : " And [the king of England] placed in them his 
keepers ; for whom also the king of Scotland shall find the necessaries." 

4 Niz, Fo3d. 

5 "Who were present," Hoved., ii, 81. So Feed. 


" Moreover the bishops, earls and barons have pledged 
themselves to the lord king and to Henry, his son, that if by 
any chance the king of Scotland should draw back from fealty 
to the lord king and to his son, and from the aforesaid agree- 
ment, they shall hold with the lord king, as with their liege lord, 
against the king of Scotland, and against all men who oppose 
the lord king. 1 And the bishops shall place the land of the 
king of Scotland under an interdict, until he return to fealty to 
the lord king. 

" That therefore the aforesaid agreement shall be firmly 
observed in good faith and without evil intent toward the lord 
king and Henry his son, and his heirs, by William, king of 
Scotland, and David his brother, and by the aforesaid barons 
and by their heirs, the king himself has engaged, and David 
his brother, and all his barons above named, as liege men of 
the lord king against every man, and of king Henry, his son, 
saving fealty to the lord king his father. 

"Witnesses Richard, bishop of Avranches, and John, dean 
of Salisbury ; Robert, abbot of Malmesbury ; R., 2 abbot of 
Muntisburg ; Herbert, archdeacon of Northampton ; Walter of 
Coutances ; Roger, chaplain ; 3 Osbert, clerk of the chamber ; 
Richard, son of the lord king, earl of Poitou ; Geoffrey, son of 
the lord king, earl of Brittany ; William, earl of Essex ; Hugh, 
earl of Chester ; Richard de Humez, constable ; the earl of 
Mellent ; Jordan Thessun ; 4 Humfrey de Bohun ; William 
de Courcy, seneschal ; William Fitz Aldelm, seneschal ; 5 
Alfred de St. Martin, seneschal ; 6 Gilbert Malet, seneschal ; at 
Falaise." 7 

When therefore this had taken place at York, the lord king 
gave and conceded to the king of Scotland permission to ad- 
vance an army into Galloway to subdue Gilbert, Fergus' son, 
because that he had turned aside from his fealty, and had 
wickedly slain Utred his brother. 

And immediately the king of Scotland with his household 
went back from York to Scotland. 

1 Instead of the clause " and against . . . king " the Feed, reads : 
" until he return to fealty to the lord king." 
" Ralph," Hoved., ii, 82. 

3 " The king's chaplain," Hoved., ii, 82 ; Foed. Roger Hoveden had 
already returned (8th December, R. de D., i, 396, 398, supra) and reported 
upon his conference with Gilbert of Galloway (23rd November,, B. of P., i, 
80, supra.) But cf. Stubbs, in Hoved., u.s., note. 4 Cosson, Fred. 

5 "\\illiam . . . seneschal," not in Hoved., Fo3d. 

6 " Alfred . . . seneschal," not in MS. B, Hoved., Feed. 

7 Cf. R. de D.'s date " at Valognes, on the [8th] December," supra, s.a. 




In the year from the Lord's incarnation 1175, in which king 
Henry the elder received allegiance and fealty from the Scots 
at York, Dugal, son of Somerled, and Stephen his chaplain, 
and Adam de Stanford received the brotherhood of our church 
at the feet of St. Cuthbert on the vigil of St. Bartholomew ; 2 
and the same Dugal offered there two golden rings to St. Cuth- 
bert, and promised that every year, so long as he lived, he 
would give one mark to the convent, either in money or in its 



p. 111. 3 

And to the aforesaid council, 4 which was held at North- 
ampton, came William, king of Scotland, by mandate of the 
lord king ; and brought with him Richard, bishop of St. An- 
drews, and Joscelin, bishop of Glasgow, and Richard, bishop of 
Dunkeld, and Christian, bishop of Galloway, and Andrew, 
bishop of Caithness, and Simon de Thouni, bishop of Moray, 
and the abbots and priors of his land, to make subjection to the 
church of England. 

Then the lord king demanded of them that, by the faith 
which they owed him, and by the oath which they had sworn 
to him, they should make to the church of England the same 
subjection as they ought to make, and used to make in the time 
of the kings of England his predecessors. 

And they replied to him that their predecessors never made 
any subjection to the church of England, and that neither ought 
they to make any to her. 

To this replied Roger, archbishop of York, that the bishops 
of Scotland had made subjection to the metropolitan church of 
York, in the time of their predecessors ; and expressly the 
bishop of Glasgow, and certain other bishops of Scotland ; 5 and 

1 In a 12th-century hand. Stevenson. 2 23rd August. 

3 Cf. Hoved., ii, 91-92. 4 25th January, 1176. 

5 " and expressly . . . Scotland," erased in MS. B. 

Cf. Hoved., ii, 92 : " But to this replied Roger, archbishop of York, 
asserting that the bishops of Glasgow and the bishops of Whithorn had been 
subject to the church of York in the time of the archbishop's predecessors. 
And in support of this he showed documents of privilege satisfactorily drawn 


in support of this showed sealed documents * which he had at 
hand concerning it. 2 

Then a great dispute arose between Roger, archbishop of 
York, and Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, about the re- 
ceiving of that subjection For the archbishop of Canterbury 
said that the subjection ought to be made to the church of 
Canterbury ; and the archbishop of York said, to his church. 
And thus ended that conference. 3 

And the aforesaid bishops of Scotland received permission 
from the lord king, and returned. 

And thereafter they sent their ambassadors secretly to 
Alexander, the chief pontiff, requesting that he would receive 
them in his own hand, and protect them from the subjection 
which the English church demanded of them. 4 

1176, May. 

YORK, VOL. Ill, PP. 83-84. 5 

Bishop Alexander, servant of the servants of God, to his 
venerable brother Roger, archbishop of York, legate of the 
apostolic see ; and to his beloved sons the dean and canons of 
York, greeting and apostolic benediction. 

When your messengers had presented to us the letter of our 
dearest son in Christ, William, illustrious king of Scots, they 
begged of us with much persistence to return to them the letter 
of that king to be carried back to you even as they had delivered 
it to us, supported by his seal. But because the seal of this 

1 " And other necessary writings," adds MS. B. 

2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 92 : " And to this Joscelin, bishop of Glasgow, re- 
plied : ' The church of Glasgow is the special daughter of the Roman 
church, and is exempt from all subjection to archbishops or bishops. And 
if the church of York at any time had dominion in the church of Glasgow, 
it is well known that she has ceased henceforth to have any dominion in 
her" (demeruisse . . . habere.) 

3 Cf. Hoved., ii, 92 : " And because Richard, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, strove that the Scottish church should be made subject to the church 
of Canterbury, he contrived, in opposition to the king of England, that [the 
king] himself permitted the bishops of Scotland to return to their own lands 
without having made any subjection to the English church." 

4 Cf. B. of P., G.H. II, i, 117 : " Meanwhile William, king of Scotland, 
and the bishops of his land sent their messengers in secret, fearing the inter- 
ference of the king of England, to the Roman pontiff, and besought of him 
that he would send to them one of his cardinals to learn the cause of the 
controversy which existed between them and the English church concerning 
the making of subjection." 

5 V. also H. & S., ii, 244-245, 43-44. It is scarcely possible to believe 
William's letter at least to be genuine. 


letter had been broken we could not satisfy their request in full ; 
nevertheless bent by their persistence and supplication, and 
wishing with provident care to act for the benefit and profit of 
your church in this matter, we have caused the tenour of the 
letter of the aforesaid king to be written word for word, nothing 
added or left out ; and have thought fit to send it to you under 
our seal, that you may have it as a memorial for ever. And 
the tenour of this letter is as follows : 

' To his most reverend lord and father Alexander, by God's 
grace highest pontiff, William, by the same grace king of Scot- 
land, greeting and devout reverence. 

" May thy Holiness know that by diligently investigating 
the truth concerning the church of Scotland's subjection which 
the church of York claims for herself by ancient right, both in 
authentic documents which I have inspected and in the relation 
and testimony of ancient, trustworthy and truthful men, I have 
learned that from ancient times it pertains of right to the church 
of York, and that she lost possession of it by the hostility and 
influence of the kings my predecessors. But now by the grace 
of God peace being definitively restored between my lord the 
king of England and me I humbly beg that by your authority, 
all pretext and appeal being set aside, you command the afore- 
said possession and subjection to be restored and renewed to 
my lord king and his kingdom, and to the church of York. 
And not without the greatest loss to me and harm to my king- 
dom can it be neglected to be so done ; since it was so agreed 
in the peace restored between my lord king and me ; and I have 
confirmed the same with an oath, knowing that it would re- 
dound to the greatest peril of our souls if that which we surely 
know ought to take place should not be put into effect. 

" May thy Holiness ever flourish." 

Given at Anagni, the third 1 before the Ides of May. 

1176, July. 


p. 118. 2 

Vivian, cardinal priest, was therefore sent to them ; and he 
received the office of legate also in Ireland, Scotland and Nor- 
way, and in the other neighbouring islands. And about the 
feast of St. Mary of Magdalene 3 he came to land in England, 
without the king's permission. 

1 13th May. 2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 98-99. 3 22nd July. 


And a little later, when he had come to Northampton, the 
king sent to him Richard, bishop of Winchester, and Geoffrey, 
bishop of Ely, to inquire of him by whose permission he landed 
in England, and to announce to him that unless he were willing 
to consent to the will of the king, the .king would not permit 
him to proceed farther. 

And [Vivian] feared for himself, and saw danger on either 
side ; and at last agreed to their advice, that he should consent 
to the king's will. 

The king therefore caused him to swear on the word of truth 
that he would do in his legation nothing which was hostile to 
him or to his kingdom. l 

And thus, having done the king's will, the aforesaid cardinal 
proceeded on his way toward Scotland, the king granting him 
safe-conduct. 2 And [the king] gave him letters of his pro- 
tection ; and commanded that the abbacies and bishops of his 
kingdom, where he should pass, should receive him with honour, 
as a cardinal ; and so it was done. 3 

1176, July. 


Bishop Alexander, servant of the servants of God, to his 
venerable brethren and bishops of Scotland, greeting and 
apostolic benediction. 

Regarding the anxieties and difficulties which we know that 
you sustain we sympathize with you with paternal affection 
and condole with you very greatly, and are prepared in these 
things to impart all the aid which with God we can. Naturally 
it distresses you greatly, it distresses us also, that our dearest 
son in Christ, Henry, illustrious king of the English, has com- 
pelled you to swear to obey the. English church ; since this 
reflects injury toward God and contempt for us, and [is] to the 
debasement of ecclesiastical liberty, which it is not for any king, 
or prince, to control with regard to churches or ecclesiastics. 
And we refuse to permit that your liberty be diminished, and 
have straitly enjoined our venerable brother the archbishop of 
the church of York, legate of the apostolic see, not to exercise 

1 " Nothing contrary to his will," Hoved., ii, 99. 

" And so permission was given him to go over into Scotland. And the 
lord king found him safe-conduct and expenses, until he came into the land 
of the king of Scotland." Hoved., ii, 99. 

3 On the 24th December, 1176, he embarked at Whithorn in Galloway 
for Man and Ireland ; B. of P., G.H. II, i, 136-137. 


metropolitan right over you, until it be learned, under examina- 
tion of the Roman pontiff, whether you owe subjection to him 
by metropolitan right. And we have needfully warned the 
aforesaid king, reasoning with him as we ought against the 
reception of the aforesaid oaths, that he should not compel you 
to offer him obedience, nor afford to this his consent or favour. 
We therefore command your Fraternity and enjoin that you 
attempt not to obey by metropolitan right any but the Roman 
pontiff, by pretext of these oaths or for any other reason, until 
in our presence, or in that of our catholic successor, if the afore- 
said archbishop wishes to drag you into court concerning this, 
the controversy between you and him be terminated by the due 

Given at Anagni, the third 1 before the Kalends of August. 

1176, Oct. 


p. 126. 2 

So when the council had been held at Windsor, 3 . . . the 
king came to Feckenham about the feast of St. Dionysius ; 4 
and there came to him William, king of Scotland. 

And he brought with him Gilbert, Fergus' son, who had 
slain his brother Utred, as has been said above. And this 
Gilbert made peace with the lord king for the death of his 
brother, who was a relative of the king ; and became his man, 
and swore to him fealty against all men ; and to have his love 
gave him a thousand marks of silver. 5 

And having thus made his peace he went home, and com- 
manded that all foreigners who had any holding in Galloway 
through the king of Scotland should go into exile ; and that 
those who refused to consent to this decree should undergo 
capital sentence. 

"77, July. 


pp. 177-178. 

. . . [King Henry] 6 commanded the archbishop of Can- 

1 The 30th July, after Vivian had arrived in England. 

2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 105. 

3 About Michaelmas ; ibid., 124. 

4 9th October. 

5 " And Duncan, his son, as hostage for the preservation of peace," 
adds Hoved., ii, 105. 

6 I.e. after the receipt of an unsatisfactory answer from his son Henry 
in Normandy. 


terbury and the bishops of the kingdom that they should be 
with him on the octave x of St. John the Baptist at Winchester ; 
and so it was done. And thither to him came also the earls 
and barons and knights of his kingdom, by his summons, sup- 
plied with horses and arms to cross over with him into Nor- 
mandy. 2 And thither by his mandate came to him William, 
king of Scotland. 

1177, Aug. 


pp. 166-167. 3 

And there the aforesaid Vivian, legate of the apostolic see, 
came to the court of the king of England ; and on the day 4 
after the Lord's Ascension obtained of the lord king letters of 
his protection and safe-conduct, and returned to Scotland to 
perform his legation. 

And on the approach of the feast of saint Peter ad Vincula 5 
the aforesaid Vivian came to the castle of Maidens with the 
bishops and ecclesiastics of the kingdom of Scotland, to hold 
there a council of the statutes of the church. 

And in this council he suspended from episcopal office 
Christian bishop of Whithorn, 6 because he refused to come to 
that council. For he said that his episcopate pertained to the 
legation of Roger, archbishop of York, who had consecrated 
him as bishop, according to the ancient custom of the prede- 
cessors of each ; and Roger himself, archbishop of York, had 
been constituted legate of his province by Alexander, the chief 
pontiff, and he claimed as belonging to his right the subjection 
of the bishopric of Candida Casa, which is also called the 
bishopric of Whithorn in Galloway. 7 

Now when this council had been held, the aforesaid Vivian 
returned to Rome by mandate of Alexander, the chief pontiff, 

1 1st July. 

2 The embarkation was postponed till 17th August ; cf. B. of P. Ges 
H. II, i, 180-181, 190-191. 

3 Cf. Hoved., ii, 135. 4 3rd June, at Winchester. 

5 1st August. 

6 Christian, bishop of Galloway, had been present (13th March, 1177) in 
the council of the Spanish award, and was a witness of the adjudication 
(16th March) ; B. of P., G. H. II, i, 145, 154. Hoved., ii, 121, 131. He was 
consecrated to Whithorn in 1154; Chr. of Hoi., 37. 

7 Cf. Hoved., ii, 135 : " But the bishop of Whithorn did not accept 
this suspension, being protected by the support of Roger, archbishop of 
York, whose suffragan he was." 

York made good its claim to supremacy over the church of Galloway. 
Cf. infra, s.a. 1188. 


because of his great greed, by which he harried and oppressed 
almost all ecclesiastic primates of his legation. 


p. 210, S.A. 1178. 1 

There came to England also a certain other messenger of the 
chief pontiff, one named Peter of St. Agatha. And to him had 
been intrusted the charge of summoning the ecclesiastics of 
Scotland, of Galloway and of the Isle of Man, and also of Ire- 
land, as well archbishops as bishops and abbots and priors, by 
force of obedience to gather at Rome in the beginning of the 
fast to the aforesaid council. 2 

And he, when he sought of Henry king of England per- 
mission to pass through his kingdom, swore that he would re- 
turn through the same, and that he would essay no evil against 
his kingdom, England, in his legation. 

And the archbishops and bishops of Ireland and Scotland, 
when in passing they visited the king of England, setting out 
for Rome, swore touching the sacred Evangels that neither in 
going nor in returning would they seek the injury of the king- 
dom or the king ; and that they would visit the king on their 

1179, Dec. 


p. 244. 3 

In the year from the Lord's Incarnation 1180 Henry, king 
of England, son of Matilda the empress, held his court on the 
day of the birth of the Lord, which was the third day of the 
week, at Nottingham ; and present at this feast was William, 
king of Scotland, 4 and the earls and barons of the kingdom. 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 167. 

2 At the Lateran, in Lent 1179. Ash Wednesday was the 14th February 
in 1179. 

3 Cf. Hoved., ii, 196. 4 " King of Scots," Hoved, 



pp. 250-251, S.A. 1180. 1 

IN the same year died R[ichard], bishop of St. Andrews. 2 

In the same year John, surnamed Scott, the elect to the 
bishopric of St. Andrews in Scotland, returned from Alexander, 
the chief pontiff, to whom he had made complaint that after 
election of himself had been canonically made king William 
of Scotland had intruded Hugh, his chaplain, upon the 
bishopric of St. Andrews ; and had caused him to be conse- 
crated after appeal had been made to the apostolic see. 

To learn therefore the rights of this case Alexander, the 
chief pontiff, sent to Scotland with the aforesaid John a cer- 
tain priest of his, Alexius, subdeacon of the Roman church .; 
commanding that if it should be clear to him that the afore- 
said John had been canonically elected, and that the aforesaid 
Hugh had been consecrated after appeal had been made to 
the apostolic see, thrust in not by zeal for justice but by 
tyranny, he should publish to all that this Hugh was degraded 
by the chief pontiff himself, all right of appeal being at an 

Moreover the chief pontiff granted to the same Alexius 
the office of legate in the whole land of the king of Scotland, 
and in the adjacent islands, and in Ireland, to learn the rights 
of ecclesiastical cases which arose in these lands, and to ter- 
minate them as God should impart to him. 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 208. 

2 Richard's death is placed in 1178 by Chr. of Melr., 88; in 1179 by 
Chr. of Holyr., 44. 

" And on his death there was immediately a schism about the election 
of a bishop. For the canons of the church of St. Andrews chose for them- 
selves as bishop master John, surnamed Scott ; and William king of Scots 
chose Hugh, his chaplain, and caused him to be consecrated by the bishops 
of his kingdom. . . ." Hoved., ii, 208. 

27 1 




pp. 263-266. 

"Bishop Alexander, servant of the servants of God, to 
William, illustrious king of Scots, greeting and apostolic 

" We remember to have laboured with solicitude for thy 
peace and liberty, hoping that from this thou shouldst be 
stronger and shouldst increase in devotion to the apostolic 
see, and shouldst more gladly preserve ecclesiastic liberty. 
But learning of the case of our venerable brother John, bishop 
of St. Andrews of Scotland, (be pleased to be attentive still,) 
we are compelled to think the opposite of the hope which we 
have of the fervour of thy royal devotion. 

; ' Yet wishing still to learn in this if our patience may 
lead thy royal mood to penitence, we warn thy Greatness 
very earnestly by apostolic writings, and command that thou 
bestow peace and security upon the above-mentioned within 
twenty days after the receipt of this, so that he need not fear 
the royal indignation. 

" Otherwise, know that we have commanded our venerable 
brother Roger, archbishop of York, legate in Scotland of 
the apostolic see, to place thy kingdom under interdict, no 
appeal availing ; to pronounce the sentence of excommuni- 
cation upon thy person, if thou refuse to desist. 

" Be certain also that, if thou think in thy violence to be 
obdurate, even as we have laboured that thy kingdom should 
have freedom, so shall we study that it may return into its 
former subjection." 1 

Moreover pope Alexander commanded the aforesaid 
Alexius to summon Roger, archbishop of York, legate in 
Scotland of the apostolic see, and with him to carry out the 
command ; and to instruct urgently lord Henry ; king of 
England, to constrain by his royal authority William, king 
of Scotland, to permit the aforesaid John to possess in peace 
the bishopric of St. Andrews. 2 

And the same pope granted to the aforesaid archbishop 
Roger the office of legate in Scotland, and commanded him 
that he and Hugh, bishop of Durham, should pronounce the 
sentence of excommunication upon William, king of Scots, 

letter is in Hoved., ii, 211-212. It is there placed after that 
given by B. of P. below ; after Roger's being made legate, and the warning 
given to John Scott. 

2 This paragraph is not in Hoved. 


and the sentence of interdict upon his kingdom, unless he 
permitted the aforesaid John to hold the bishopric of St. 
Andrews in peace ; and unless he gave to him surety of pre- 
serving peace with him. 1 

And the same pope strictly charged John, bishop of St. 
Andrews, by force of obedience, that he should not presume 
in rash temerity through love or fear of anyone, or by any 
suggestion or wish, to forsake the church of St. Andrews to 
which he had been- consecrated, or to receive another ; adding 
that, if he attempted it, without any qualification he would 
deprive him of both. 2 

Alexius, therefore, legate of the chief pontiff, and John, 
the elect of St. Andrews, came to England and set out, with 
the safe-conduct of the lord king of England, for Scotland. 
And the aforesaid legate on his arrival assembled the bishops, 
abbots, priors and the other prelates of the churches of the 
kingdom of Scotland ; and holding a conference with them 3 
discussed at great length the elections of John and Hugh, 
and the consecration of Hugh. 

And when he learned that the aforesaid John had been 
canonically elected, and that Hugh had been forcibly intruded 
upon the episcopate of St. Andrews by the king of Scotland 
after appeal had been made to the Roman pontiff, he deposed 
him without delay from the bishopric of St. Andrews, and 
by the authority which he exercised imposed perpetual silence 
upon him. And he confirmed the election which had been 
made of John, and caused him to be consecrated as bishop of 
St. Andrews by the bishops of Scotland ; the king neither 
forbidding nor gainsaying it, nay rather permitting it, by 
advice of the bishops. 4 

When therefore the king of Scotland saw the confusion 
of his bishop, he forbade bishop John 5 to tarry in his land. 
And Hugh conducted himself as bishop no less than before ; 
and taking away with him the episcopal hood, and the staff 
and the ring, and the other things which he had unlawfully 
retained, departed to go to Rome. 6 

But first he had been admonished very often by the afore- 

*Cf. Hoved., ii, 211. 
2 Cf. Hoved., u.s. 
" In presence of the clergy and the people," Hoved., ii, 208. 

4 Cf. Hoved., ii, 208-209. The consecration took place in Edinburgh on 
the octave of Whitsunday, [15th June,] 1180; Chr. of Hoi., 45. So also 
Chr. of Melr., 91, which however gives the date as 8th June [Whitsunday]. 

5 " Immediately after his consecration," Hoved., ii, 209. 

6 Cf. Hoved., u.s. 


said Alexius, subdeacon of the Roman court, to restore the 
aforesaid things which he had removed to the church of St. 
Andrews and to the bishop, John. And upon his refusal he 
pronounced upon him the sentence of excommunication, and 
the lord pope confirmed this sentence. 1 

" Bishop Alexander, servant of the servants of God, to 
his venerable brethren and beloved sons appointed as prelates 
of the churches throughout Scotland, greeting and apostolic 

" It has been reported to us that since Hugh, who had 
invaded the church of St. Andrews of Scotland, retained un- 
lawfully the episcopal hood, the staff and the ring, and the 
other things which he had unjustifiably carried away, and 
since upon repeated admonition he disdained to come to his 
right mind, our discreet son Alexius, our archdeacon, legate 
of the apostolic see, charged with apostolic authority, bound 
him with the chain of excommunication in presence of you 
and many of the clergy and people, unless within fifteen days 
he restored what he had taken away and removed, or made 
suitable compensation. Yet he persisted in the evil way of 
arrogance, and acceded in nothing to the aforesaid legate's 

" We therefore confirm the sentence pronounced by our 
authority, and enjoin upon you all by apostolic writings that 
you lay aside all favour and fear, and publicly, appeal of 
none availing, denounce the aforesaid Hugh as bound by the 
chain of excommunication ; and avoid him scrupulously as 
excommunicate, until he restore to our brother John, bishop 
of St. Andrews, and to his church such of the things above- 
written as he has taken away, or their worth, and offer suitable 
compensation for the others which he has destroyed. 

" Farewell. " 2 

When therefore William, king of Scotland, had heard 
that Hugh, his chaplain, had been thus deposed, he refused 
to receive John, saying that never, so long as he lived, should 
at the same time he and John dwell in the kingdom of Scot- 
land. And he vehemently persecuted him, to such extent 
that he seized in his own hand the episcopate of St. Andrews, 
and all the revenues of the episcopate ; and he drove from 

1 Cf. Hoved., u.s. 

2 This letter, with verbal differences, is in Hoved., ii, 210-211. 


his kingdom John himself, and Matthew, bishop of Aberdeen, 
uncle of John, 1 and all whom he had heard to be of his kin- 
dred ; and the houses of the bishop of Aberdeen he caused 
to be burnt. 

And John himself, namely the bishop of St. Andrews, 
and the bishop of Aberdeen, his uncle, sailed over to the 
king of England in Normandy with Alexius, subdeacon of 
the Roman church, awaiting the correction of the king of 

And the lord king of England was moved by their prayers, 
and sent his messengers to the king of Scotland, requesting 
that, for his love and exhortation, he should wholly lay aside 
the anger which he had conceived against the aforesaid 
bishops ; and either himself sail over to him in Normandy 
to submit to the law in proper person, or send sufficient re- 
presentatives to submit to the law for him. 



Letter of pope Alexander concerning John and Hugh, bishops 
of St. Andrews. 2 

" Bishop Alexander, servant of the servants of God, to all 
the bishops, his venerable brethren, and the abbots, his be- 
loved sons, and to the other prelates of the churches, appointed 
throughout Scotland ; to the prior, canons, clergy and people 
of St. Andrews, greeting and apostolic benediction. 

" It was made known to us that our venerable brother 
John, now bishop of St. Andrews, had long ago been canonically 
elected, and that after his election, although an appeal had 
been interposed, Hugh had presumed with rash temerity to 
be consecrated in that church, thrust in by lay authority ; 
and, annulling his election by apostolic authority, we sent 
to your parts our beloved son Alexius, our subdeacon, as 
legate of the apostolic see, to learn of the election of the 
aforesaid John. 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 212, who adds : " And hence Roger, archbishop of 
York, and Hugh, bishop of Durham, and Alexius, legate of the apostolic see, 
following the mandate of the chief pontiff pronounced the sentence of ex- 
communication upon the person of the king of Scotland, and the sentence 
of interdict upon his kingdom." 

This may be an anticipation of the sentence of 1181, infra ; but cf. at 
the end of the letter quoted from Hoveden the pope's threat to confirm some 
sentence pronounced by bishop Hugh. 

2 This letter is placed by Hoveden before the two quoted above from 
B. of P., but after the excommunication of chaplain Hugh. 


" And when he had proceeded quickly enough, as he has 
informed us by the testimony of many men, and canonically, 
he learned that [John's] election was canonical, and, after 
manifold delays in which he deferred to the royal Majesty, 
he confirmed it by apostolic authority, commanding on our 
behalf all who pertained to the church of St. Andrews that 
they should show obedience and reverence to this John, as 
their elect. 

" And thus, since no one dared to obey him in public, 
through fear of the king, the same legate laid under an inter- 
dict not the kingdom, as he could lawfully have done, but 
the episcopate. 

" When therefore both ecclesiastics and secular princes 
had been very straitly bound by oath by our dearest son in 
Christ, William, illustrious king of Scots, to give true counsel, 
that king firmly promising that he would stand by their 
counsel, they all as one man replied that he should not further 
disturb the consecration of the aforesaid John, since it had 
taken place in presence of our legate and of four bishops, 
the fifth being sick, but consenting by letter ; but should 
permit him to be consecrated in his see in peace. 

" Hence it is that we command you all by apostolic writ- 
ings, and direct you under pain of [losing] office and benefice 
that you put on the spirit of fortitude, and bring back that 
bishop to his see with honour, setting appeal aside, within 
eight days after the receipt of this letter ; and that you 
labour prudently and manfully for the preservation of ecclesi- 
astic justice, and make diligent effort to pacify the royal 
mood ; and that you show to the aforesaid bishop all the 
reverence and honour which you have offered to his prede- 

" And if the king will this otherwise, or else be moved 
by the counsel of wicked men, it is fitting to obey God and 
the holy Roman church rather than men : otherwise the sen- 
tence which our venerable brother Hugh, bishop of Durham, 
pronounced upon the disobedient and [rebellious, we shall 
confirm, by God's authority, and command to be strictly 
observed." 1 

1 Cf. with this threat Hoveden's statement of the excommunication of 
the king and kingdom ; supra, note. 




pp. 276-277. ! 

Meanwhile 2 William, king of Scotland, by command of 
the king of England landed in Normandy at Barfleur, to 
speak with him about Matthew, bishop of Aberdeen, and 
about John, bishop of St. Andrews, whom he had driven out 
from Scotland. 

It was agreed therefore by admonition and counsel of 
the lord king of England between the aforesaid king of Scot- 
land and the above-named bishops in this fashion : that 
the above-named Matthew, bishop of Aberdeen, should return 
to his own see freely and without any opposition, with the safe- 
conduct of the king of Scotland. 3 

And John, who had been consecrated as bishop of St. 
Andrews, in order to have the goodwill of his lord, the king 
of Scotland, conceded that he would give up the episcopate 
of St. Andrews, if he were permitted to choose for himself 
which bishopric he would of the kingdom of Scotland ; and 
if the king of Scotland would give him, in addition to the 
bishopric which he should choose, his chancellorship. 4 

And thus by counsel of the king of England was harmony 
made between them, if the lord pope should grant that this 
change of episcopal sees might take place. . . . 

The king of Scotland therefore sent his messengers to 
Alexander, the chief pontiff, asking that this agreement be- 
tween him and his bishop might be confirmed and permanently 
established. But he could not obtain it from him. . . 

And . . . [king Henry] took ship, and landed in England 
on the seventh 5 before the Kalends of August, at Ports- 
mouth ; likewise also William, king of Scotland. 


We have read of four kings having fallen at the same 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 259-260. 

2 After an episode of the 28th April. 

3 " And whatever had been taken away from it should be restored " 
adds Hoved., ii, 259. 

4 " And all his revenues which he had before his consecration, and forty 
marks of revenue in the church of St. Andrews," adds Hoved., ii, 259. This 
is probably an anticipation ; cf . infra. 

5 26th July. " On Sunday," adds Hoved., ii, 260, rightly. 


time in one battle ; but have very seldom heard of four kings 
having come to one conference in peace, and in peace having 

Philip, king of the French, Henry, king of the English, 
king Henry, son of the English king, William, the king of 
Scots, came together in peace to a conference, and in peace 

Philip, king of the French, by the frequent attestations 
of those who dwelt in his palace, how Henry the English 
king governed peacefully in its remotest parts his king- 
dom, so widely spread, inhabited by so barbarous nations 
as the Scots and Welsh ; that therefore he might follow in 
the administration of his realm the example of so great a 
prince was drawn the more willingly, by the common opinion 
of those of his household, to place himself wholly under the 
counsel of the aforesaid king ; and so it was done. 



pp. 277-278. i 

Meanwhile, while the king of Scotland tarried with his 
lord the king of England in Normandy, the son of William 
Fitz Duncan, 2 Donald, who had very often claimed the king- 
dom of Scotland, and had many a time made insidious in- 
cursions into that kingdom, by a mandate of certain powerful 
men of the kingdom of Scotland landed in Scotland with a 
numerous armed host, wasting and burning as much of the 
land as he reached ; 3 and he put the folk to flight, and slew 
all whom he could take. 



p. 280. 

Meanwhile the lord king came to Nottingham ; and on 
his arrival there gathered to him . . . William, king of 
Scotland, and the earls and barons of his province. . . . 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 263. 

2 Donald would seem to have been an illegitimate son. Cf. Stubbs, in 
Hoved., ii, 263, note. 

3 " And he despoiled it along the sea-coast " ; Hoved., u.s. 




pp. 28 1-282. i 

While therefore these things took place, 2 William, king of 
Scotland, hearing that the above-named Donald and his 
accomplices were wasting his land, received from the lord 
king permission to go home, and returned to his native land. 

And as his return was published, Hugh, bishop of Durham, 
came to meet him in a place called Ravendale, bringing with 
him John, bishop of St. Andrews. 

And when they had discussed long about making peace 
between him and the king, and could not be agreed between 
them, John, bishop of St. Andrews, pronounced the sentence 
of excommunication upon Richard de Moreville, the constable, 
and Richard de Prebenda, and other friends of the king of 
Scotland, because they had disturbed the peace. 

And Hugh, bishop of Durham, by the authority which he 
wielded of Alexander the chief pontiff commanded the prior 
of St. Andrews and the other ecclesiastics holding office in 
the bishopric of St. Andrews to come to John, their bishop, 
and to offer him the reverence of due subjection ; intimating 
to them that he would pronounce the sentence of interdict 
upon the disobedient and rebellious. 

Likewise Roger, archbishop of York, legate in Scotland, 
commanded the bishops and other ecclesiastics holding office 
throughout the kingdom of Scotland to lay all pretext aside 
and come to the aforesaid John, bishop of St. Andrews, and 
offer to him and to his church the accustomed [subjection] 
and obedience. 

And when through fear of interdict certain of the [ecclesi- 
astics] of the kingdom of Scotland 3 attempted the journey 
to offer subjection to the aforesaid John, bishop of St. Andrews, 
William, king of Scotland, persecuted them to such extent 
that he usurped to himself their possessions, and sent them 
with their sons and relatives, and even those who still were 
carried at their mothers' breasts or wailed in the cradle, to 
miserable proscription and exile. 

But when Roger, archbishop of York, and Hugh, bishop 
of Durham, saw the miserable proscription and exile of the 
aforesaid, they proceeded in this affair according to the 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 263-264. 

2 Affairs of September, 1181. 

3 " From the bishopric of St. Andrews," Hoved., ii, 263. 



mandate of Alexander, the chief pontiff. And Roger arch- 
bishop of York pronounced the sentence of excommunication 
upon the person of the aforesaid king of Scotland ; and he 
and Hugh of Durham, by mandate of Alexander, chief pontiff, 
interdicted the whole land of the king of Scotland, on this 
side of the sea and beyond ; commanding the bishops and 
abbots, priors and other ecclesiastics to uphold that sentence 
of interdict firmly and unwaveringly, and scrupulously to 
avoid the king himself as excommunicate. 

Meanwhile pope Alexander III weighed down by age and 
heavy sickness departed to the Lord, [on the 20th September, 
1181.] . . . And to him in the apostolicate succeeded . . . 
pope Lucius III. 



p. 283. ! 

. . . [On Saturday, the 21st of November, Roger, arch- 
bishop of York] departed from the world. And Hugh, bishop 
of Durham, buried his body, . . . William, king of Scotland, 
remaining under the sentence of excommunication which the 
aforesaid archbishop had pronounced upon him. 

And when he heard that Roger, archbishop of York, was 
dead, William king of Scotland rejoiced with great joy ; 
and holding a council with the earls and barons 2 of his land 
he sent to Rome Joscelin, bishop of Glasgow, and Arnold, 3 
abbot of Melrose, and other wise and discreet .ecclesiastics of 
his kingdom, to Lucius, the chief pontiff, that he himself 
should be absolved from the aforesaid sentence of excom- 
munication, and his land from interdict ; and that if by any 
means it could be done, John bishop of St. Andrews should 
be deposed. 



pp. 286-287. 4 

Meanwhile Joscelin, bishop of Glasgow, and Arnold, abbot 
of Melrose, and their associates, 5 whom William king of 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 264. 

2 " With the bishops and earls and nobles of his land," Hoved., ii, 264. 

3 Here and frequently " Arnulf." 

4 Cf. Hoved., ii, 267-268. 

5 " And Osbert, abbot of Kelso, and Walter, prior of St. Columba de 
Insula," Hoved., ii, 267-268. 


Scotland had sent to Rome, returned to England, having 
previously made appeal to the Roman pontiff regarding the 
sentence of excommunication upon the king and of interdict 
upon the kingdom, pronounced upon the aforesaid by Roger, 
archbishop of York, and John, bishop of St. Andrews ; and 
brought with them Hugh, whom the king of Scotland afore- 
said had made bishop in the church of St. Andrews. 

And they had obtained of Lucius, the chief pontiff, that 
Roland, elect of the church of Dol in Brittany, and Silvan, 
abbot of Rievaulx, should go to the region of Scotland to 
hear, and confirm in writing, and transmit to the chief pontiff 
under testimony of their seals, the controversies which existed 
between the aforesaid Hugh and bishop John, about the 
holding of the episcopate of St. Andrews. 

Moreover the aforesaid messengers of the king of Scotland 
had obtained from the chief pontiff letters of absolution for 
the king of Scotland and for his realm. Therefore William 
king of Scotland was absolved, and his whole kingdom, and 
all his subjects, at Rome in the palace of the Lateran by 
pope Lucius in presence of the cardinals, 1 on the fifth before 
the Ides of March. 2 



And afterwards he gave letters of his absolution to the 
aforesaid messengers of the king of Scotland, in this form : 

Letter of pope Lucius [///], concerning the absolution of 
William, king of Scotland. 

" Bishop Lucius, servant of the servants of God, to the 
venerable brethren the bishops, abbots, clergy and people 
in office throughout Scotland, greeting and apostolic bene- 

" Since the apostle has commanded deference to kings 
as supreme it is fitting, and in accord with reason, that we 
honour them as dearest sons, and wait upon their just desires 
with approval, in devotion to St. Peter and to the holy Roman 

" But we have heard that, since our dearest son in Christ, 

Arnold was abbot of Melrose, 1179-1189; of Rievaulx, 1189-1199. 
Osbert was abbot of Kelso, 1180-1203. 

These envoys brought the golden rose from pope Lucius III to William 
the Lion in 1182. Chr. of Melr., 92. Cf. Stubbs, Hoved., ii, 264, 267, notes. 

1 The cardinals are named by Hoved., ii, 268. 

2 llth March. 


William, illustrious king of Scots, inflexibly opposed the 
election and consecration of our venerable brother bishop 
John, by pretext of a letter of our predecessor pope Alexander 
of holy memory Roger, of good memory, archbishop of York, 
and the already mentioned bishop pronounced upon him and 
the kingdom and certain men of the realm the sentence of 
excommunication . 

" But our venerable brother Joscelin, bishop of Glasgow, 
and our beloved sons Arnold of Melrose and Osbert of Kelso, 
abbots, and Walter prior of St. Columba de Insula have 
come because of this to the apostolic see, and have shown 
us by their statements, and have made clear in presence of 
us and of the brethren, that the archbishop, in the sentence 
of excommunication upon the king and of interdict upon the 
kingdom, and the already mentioned bishop in the sentence 
of excommunication upon certain men of the realm, pro- 
nounced a sentence which for manifold reasons may justifiably 
be repealed. 

" Hence indeed it has been that, deferring to the afore- 
said king as to our dearest son in Christ, we have relaxed by 
apostolic authority, and from common counsel of the brethren, 
every sentence of the already named bishop for the aforesaid 
cause, pronounced upon him or his or upon his kingdom ; 
and have pronounced that he and his are not bound by the 
excommunication, nor his kingdom by the interdict, in our 
sentence aforesaid. 

" And we therefore instruct you all by apostolic writings 
and command that you hesitate not at all to associate your- 
selves with him as with a catholic king, and one having the 
communion of the apostolic see ; but that you pay him in all 
things befitting honour. 

" For inasmuch as we are surer of the sincerity of his 
devotion, and that greater profit will most surely accrue to 
the churches and ecclesiastics of his kingdom, so much the 
more fully do we wish, in all things in which by God's will 
we can, to honour him. 

" Given at Velletri, the 16th l before the Kalends of 



pp. 289-290. 2 

Meanwhile Roland, elect of Dol in Brittany, came to 
1 17th March. 2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 270. 


England ; and summoning Silvan, abbot of Rievaulx, his 
colleague, he went to the king of Scotland. 

And after a very long discussion with him about the making 
of peace between him and John bishop of St. Andrews and 
Hugh regarding the episcopate of St. Andrews, it was at last 
arranged in this fashion, that Hugh should renounce the 
bishopric of St. Andrews ; that likewise John also should 
quit-claim the episcopate from his pretension, and in place 
of it should have the bishopric of Dunkeld, and all his revenues 
which he had before the bishopric and his election, and the 
chancellorship of the king of Scotland, and forty marks of 
revenue during his life from the episcopate of St. Andrews ; 
and that the king should permit all his relatives and 
friends who were in exile because of love for him, to re- 
turn to their own, and all their chattels to be returned to 

But when it came to the hearing of bishop Hugh aforesaid 
what had proceeded from the council and will of the king, 
that he should renounce the bishopric of St. Andrews, he 
went to the king and informed him that he would prefer, if 
it pleased the king, to go to the Roman pontiff, and undergo 
sentence according to what should be determined by him, 
rather than lose in this way by intervention of a bargain 
anything of his right. 1 

And upon the king's agreeing to this plan the aforesaid 
Hugh denounced as false the letters which bishop John had 
acquired from the chief pontiff against him, and appealed to 
the audience of the lord pope. 

This being done, the elect of Dol and the abbot of Rievaulx 
fixed a term 2 for the aforesaid bishops to go to the Roman 
pontiff and stand by his judgment. And when this was 
finished, each returned to his own land. 



And hence the aforesaid Roland and abbot Silvan, not 
being able to proceed as they ought, wrote in this form to 
the chief pontiff : 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 270 : " Than thus to renounce a bishopric to which he 
had been consecrated." 

2 1st October ; Hoved., ii, 272, infra. 

3 Not given by MSS. B and C. 


Letter of Roland, elect of Dol, and Silvan, abbot of Rievaulx, 
to the chief pontiff Lucius. 

" To the reverend father and lord, Lucius, by God's grace 
chief and universal pontiff, Roland, by the same grace elect 
of Dol, servant and pupil of his Holiness, least of the sub- 
deacons of the apostolic see, and Silvan, elected abbot of 
Rievaulx, the reverence of due subjection. 

" Since we had given letters to bishop Hugh which the 
same bishop denounced as false ; and since, having received 
permission from the lord king of Scotland, we wished to 
return in haste those in which is contained the process of the 
matter, the lord king asked me, elect of Dol, kindly and 
affectionately, that I would in passing visit lord bishop John, 
and offer him on [the king's] behalf the bishopric of Dunkeld, 
with the revenues which he had had before in the bishopric 
of St. Andrews, and with the addition of forty marks to be 
received yearly ; also the king's royal chancellorship, as a 
mark of affection. And he added that he would restore to 
him and his all that had been taken away, except only what 
he knew had reached his hands ; and that he would receive 
them in the fulness of 'his favour, as had been offered to him 
before. Yet he wished that the same bishop John should 
burn all his documents which had been obtained concerning 
the case of St. Andrews from Alexander of pious memory, 
your predecessor. 

" He permitted also that bishop Hugh should be trans- 
ferred to the bishopric of Glasgow, 1 if otherwise bishop John 
would not consent ; and if it could not be done, he would 
yet grant what he had offered, but he would not love bishop 
John so much, nor restore to him his full favour. 

" And when I had offered all these things to master John 
in presence of master Hugh, bishop of Durham, he kindly 
agreed, saying that he would never permit bishop Hugh -to 
remain in the church of St. Andrews. And he wished the 
aforesaid documents to be deposited somewhere, so that he 
might never use them contrary to the king's will. 

" Thus, therefore, when we returned to the royal presence, 
bishop John awaiting near Roxburgh, the lord king proposed 
to us that it would much please him if bishop Hugh could 
remain in the church of St. Andrews. And he asked me to 
labour to bring the bishop to this. And when I told him 
that I would never henceforth ask him about this, because in 

1 The bishopric of Glasgow was still occupied by Joscelin, who lived till 


this regard I could not profit anything, he said : ' I be- 
lieve well that from the time when master John returns to 
my peace and affection he will permit this by consideration 
of my affection, and from the persistence of my requests ; 
and I would gladly speak with him about it.' And the king 
asked me to advise [John] to come and speak with him. 

" But when the king's clerks were sent to bishop John, 
he replied that he would not come, because he had heard 
from certain of the lord king's counsellors that the lord king 
was ever striving by all means towards this, that Hugh should 
remain in the bishopric of St. Andrews : and if he were willing 
to come, they could not offer him safe conduct. 

" And when they had returned upon these words, the 
lord king sent a certain bishop and abbots, earls and barons 
to the same bishop, asking that he would come to speak with 
him ; and commanded them to offer the same bishop all 

" And they returned and said that master John, because 
foreseeing that the lord king wished bishop Hugh to remain 
.in the church of St. Andrews, replied that he never would 
come to the king unless first they would swear that the lord 
king would observe all things which he had offered him by 
me. But they refused to swear ; and thus master John 
returned to his own. 

" And we have fixed a term on the Kalends l of October 
for the aforesaid bishops, John and Hugh, to go to you and 
obey your judgment. 



pp. 29S-294. 2 

Meanwhile bishops John and Hugh, of whom we have 
made mention above, came to Velletri, to the audience of 
the chief pontiff ; and each of them expounded in presence 
of the lord pope and all the cardinals his right which he had 
in the episcopate of St. Andrews. 

After hearing therefore the writings and allegations on 
either side, the lord pope by common counsel of the brethren 
refused to each of them the bishopric of St. Andrews. And 
they resigned the aforesaid bishopric freely and absolutely into 
the hand of the chief pontiff, and so departed from the court. 

And after a few days, by counsel of all the cardinals, the 

1 1st October. 2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 281-282. 


chief pontiff was moved by mercy and restored to Hugh 
the bishopric of St. Andrews, and confirmed it ; and granted 
to bishop John the bishopric of Dunkeld, with all things 
aforesaid which had been offered to him on the part of the 
king of Scotland ; and he confirmed it, commanding the 
king of Scotland for love of the blessed apostles Peter and 
Paul, and in reverence for the apostolic see, to receive bishop 
John aforesaid and his friends, and grant all that has been 
said above. 1 



pp. 312-313. 2 

And in the same week in which the king landed in England, 3 
a certain fountain of running water changed into blood, near 
the church 6f St. Vinin 4 in the western region of the land 
of the king of Scotland, below Cunningham, not far from the 
castle of Irvine ; and it flowed with pure blood for eight days 
and as many nights without intermission. 

And the inhabitants said that a like portent was wont to 
happen there before the spilling of blood ; but that never 
before had flowed so long the running of blood. 



pp. 313-314. 

Meanwhile, the arrival of the king of England 5 being 
made known, William, king of Scotland, who had just 
collected his army to subdue Gilbert Fergus' son and the 
other Welsh * who had wasted his land and slain his vassals, 
and yet would not make peace with him, allowed his army 
to go home. 

And so quickly as he could he came to speak with his 
lord the king of England, bringing with him Hugh, bishop 
of St. Andrews, and many of the noblest of his land, both 
clergy and laymen. 

And he was received with honour by the lord king Henry, 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 282 : " Now Hugh went home, and received the bishop- 
ric of St. Andrews. And bishop John received the bishopric of Dunkeld ; 
but because the king of Scotland refused to restore to him what had been 
taken away, he again moved against bishop Hugh the question of the bishopric 
of St. Andrews, as is noted below." 

2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 285. 3 10th to 16th June. 
4 I.e. Kilwinning. 5 10th June, 1184. 6 I.e. Galwegians. 


and sought of him to be given him as wife his niece Matilda, 1 
daughter of Matilda duchess of Saxony, although they were 
related in the third degree on the side of the king of Scotland, 
and in the fifth degree on the side of the girl. 

Their consanguinity may be reckoned thus. David, 
king of Scotland, and Matilda, queen of England, wife of 
Henry the elder, king of England, were brother and sister. 
King David begot earl Henry ; earl Henry begot this William, 
king of Scotland, who sought this girl as wife. Behold also 
the other side of the relationship : Matilda, queen of England, 
was mother of Matilda, the empress of Rome. The empress 
was herself mother of Henry II, king of England. And this 
king Henry begot Matilda, duchess of Saxony. And that 
duchess is mother of the girl Matilda whom the king of Scot- 
land sought. 

And to him the king of England replied that, with God's 
will, the matter should go well, but the lord pope must first 
be consulted about it ; and with his consent the affair should 
be fulfilled most gladly. 

1184, Nov. 


p. 322. 

Meanwhile the king of Scotland's messengers whom lie 
had sent to ask permission for his marriage with the daughter 
of the duke of Saxony returned from the lord pope's court ; 
but they could not obtain it, because of the nearness of the 
relationship, as has been set forth above. 

1184, Dec. 2 

1185, Jan. 


p. 336. 3 

In the same year [1185] on the day of the Circumcision 4 
died Gilbert Fergus' son, prince of the Galwegians, the enemy 
of his lord the king of Scotland. 

His son and heir, Duncan, the lord king of England held 
as hostage for the preservation of peace, according to the 

1 Daughter of Henry the Lion. 

2 At Christmas, 1184, David, brother of William the Lion, attended by 
command king Henry's court at Windsor. B. of P., G. H. II, i, 333. 

3 Cf. Hoved., ii, 299, and note. 

4 1st January. 


agreements contracted between them, in custody of Hugh 
de Morwic. 



p. 337. 1 

In the same council 2 the lord king restored 3 the earldom 
of Huntingdon 4 to William, king of Scotland ; 5 although 
many said that they were nearer by right, and had offered 
the king great things and many to have justice. 



pp. 339-340. 6 

Meanwhile 7 Roland, son of Utred Fergus' son, immediately 
after the death of Gilbert, his father's brother, collected to 
his aid a numerous host of horse and foot, and invaded the 
land of Gilbert aforesaid ; and slew all who would oppose 
him, and reduced all that land to himself. Moreover he 
slew also all the most powerful and the richest men in all 
Galloway, and occupied their lands. And in them he built 
castles and very many fortresses, establishing his kingdom. 



pp. 347-348. 

Now while this took place, 8 William, king of Scotland, 
and David his brother came by the king's command to his 
court, bringing with them Joscelin, bishop of Glasgow, and 
abbot Arnold of Melrose, and the earls and barons of the 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 285. R. de D., ii, 35. R.W., i, 136. M.P., H.A., i, 

2 King William and his brother David had been summoned to the council 
on the first Sunday in Lent (10th March) to consider the question of a 
crusade ; B. of P., Ges. H. II, Vol. i, p. 336. Hoved., ii, 302. R. de D., ii, 

3 Cf. R. de D., ii, 35 : " When earl Simon, son of Simon, earl of North- 
ampton, died without children." Cf. R.W., i, 136. Simon, grandson of 
Simon de Senlis, died in 1184. Cf. Dugdale, Baronage, i, 58-59. 

4 " With its appurtenances," R. de D., R.W., u.s. 

5 " And immediately in presence of the king [William] gave that earl- 
dom to David his brother." Hoved., ii, 285. 

6 Cf. Hoved., ii, 299. 

7 After events of November, 1185. 

8 Richard's success over the earl of St. Giles. 


kingdom of Scotland. And the lord king received them with 
honour, and kept them about him for several days and showed 
himself sufficiently kind and friendly to them ; in order that 
in an affair of this kind he might influence their minds to 
his aims. For at last he addressed the king of Scotland 
himself in these words: "The many merits of thy prede- 
cessors urge, and the nearness of our relationship especially 
impels, and the affection of kindness compels me to receive 
thee into fuller favour of love. Hence it is that we spoke 
long ago of my niece, daughter of the duke of Saxony, if she 
might be married to thee. And since the usage of Christian 
law does not permit it, because of the nearness of consan- 
guinity, I will give thee as wife a certain cousin of mine, 
namely Ermengard, daughter of Richard, viscount of Beau- 
mont, the grandson L of my most beloved lord and grand- 
father Henry, king of England, with the fulness of my love 
and friendship." 

Hearing these words of the lord king, William, king of 
Scotland, took counsel with his friends, and at last agreed. 
And thus surety was given on either side regarding these 
agreements, and the lord king of England sent his messengers 
for his cousin aforesaid. 



pp. 34S-349. 2 

And after a few days, after receiving from the aforesaid 
earls and barons of Scotland surety of their preserving faith 
with him, and after taking hostages from them, he sent them 
to their land, and instructed them to subdue Roland, son of 
Utred, unless he would come to his court and stand before 
the law for this, that contrary to [Henry's] prohibition and 
to that of his justiciars he had entered with hostile force the 
land of Gilbert Fergus' son, and of the other barons of Gallo- 
way, and had occupied or conquered it, subjugating it to 

And when the aforesaid Roland had heard this, he col- 
lected a numerous host of horse and foot and obstructed the 
entrances to Galloway and its roads to what extent he could, 
placing along the roads felled and half -hewn trees. 

Without delay Henry, king of England, gathered a great 
army from all provinces of England ; and coming to Carlisle 

1 By an illegitimate daughter, Constance. 2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 309. 



sent thence William, king of Scotland, and David his brother 
to bring Roland to him. 

Of the peace and security made between the king of England 
and the king and kingdom of Scotland, and Roland of Galloway. 

But [Roland] refused to come with them. 

[King Henry] sent for him again the same messengers, 
and with them Hugh, bishop of Durham, and Ranulf de 
Glanville the justiciar. And they gave hostages to Roland 
aforesaid, and the surety was given him of safe-conduct in 
going and coming, and they brought him to the king at 

And he made peace with the lord king in this fashion, 
that the land which belonged to Utred Fergus' son his father 
should remain for him undisturbed, even as [Utred] had it 
on the day when he was alive and dead. And as for the 
land which belonged to Gilbert Fergus' son, his uncle, and 
which Duncan son of Gilbert aforesaid claimed in opposition 
to him, he should come to justice in the court of the lord 
king of England, at his summons. 

And Roland took an oath upon the observation of these 
agreements, and gave his three sons as hostages. He swore 
also fealty to the king of England and to his heirs, by com- 
mand of the king of Scotland, against all men. 

William, king of Scotland, swore also, and David his 
brother, and all the earls and barons of Scotland, that if 
Roland retracted from the aforesaid convention and from 
[fealty to] the king of England, they would hold faithfully 
with the king of England to the confusion of this Roland until 
he made compensation therefor to the lord king of England. 

And Joscelin, bishop of Glasgow, promised before all 
upon the word of truth and the relics of the saints that unless 
Roland upheld the aforesaid convention unaltered he would 
pronounce the sentence of excommunication upon him and 
upon his land. 



Also of Hugh, bishop of St. Andrews, and John, bishop of 

In the same year, when, upon the complaint of John, 
bishop of Dunkeld, pope Urban had heard what was passing 
between John and Hugh, bishop of St. Andrews, he wrote 
in this form to the king of Scotland : x 

1 Omitted in MSS. B and C. 


Letter of pope Urban to William, king of Scotland. 

" Bishop Urban, servant of the servants of God, to William, 
illustrious king of Scots, greeting and apostolic benediction. 

" Since in the office of administration laid upon us by 
God we are bound to extend the sphere of our observation 
to all the churches, close to us and far removed, and if we 
know that anything has been unjustifiably done in them or 
by their ministers, to recall them to befitting action : the 
princes of the world should not be disturbed by this, if ever 
we have thought our hands must be stretched out to the 
correction of the things which have caused a stain ; since 
they too must lend us their aid in this, according to the power, 
which is given to them ; and, when it is necessary upon pro- 
vocation of the obstinacy of any, strongly to oppose the 
wickedness of the disobedient. 

" The royal Excellency indeed is not ignorant how serious 
a quarrel has arisen between our venerable brethren, bishops 
John of Dunkeld and Hugh of St. Andrews. And although 
either side has suffered great labour and expense, and has 
disputed at law for long before the apostolic see, in the time 
of pope Lucius of happy memory, our predecessor ; yet the. 
matter cannot have an end. 

" And hence, since recently the same bishops had come 
to our presence, and had contended about this for some length 
of time in our auditory ; by counsel of our brethren, we have 
assigned to the bishop of Dunkeld aforesaid permission to 
plead his cause concerning the bishopric of St. Andrews against 
[Hugh], and to the same bishop of St. Andrews permission 
to go back to his own, to return sufficiently prepared to our 
presence at the term fixed for him : on the understanding 
that if he comes not then ; our venerable brother Joscelin, 
bishop of Glasgow, and our beloved sons the abbots of Melr 
rose, of Newbattle and of Dunfermline, shall suspend him 
thenceforward from episcopal office ; and if afterwards he. 
be recalcitrant, that they bind him with the chain of ex- 
communication, and relax not the sentence until he present 
himself again before us. 

" For we will not that, through this affair remaining 
longer in suspense, the church of St. Andrews above-named 
should incur serious loss of her substance, but rather that 
the truth should be learned, and that it should receive through 
us, by God's help, a fitting conclusion. 

"We also command the said bishop of Glasgow and his 
colleagues that, charged with our authority, they defend 


our beloved sons Aiulf, dean of Lothian, and Odo, seneschal, 
and Roger de Fedic, and the other clerics and friends of the 
aforesaid bishop of Dunkeld, from every molestation, and 
not to permit their possessions or other goods, or the revenues 
of the bishop himself, to be invaded by anyone. And if 
any presume to encroach upon these in spite of their prohibition, 
let them curb them with canonical censure, no appeal availing. 

" And that what we command may be accomplished 
without any difficulty we warn thy royal Excellence and 
exhort thee in the Lord, and enjoin upon thee for the remission 
of sins, that for the love of justice and through reverence for 
St. Peter and for us, in this matter thou permit proceedings 
to be taken according to the tenour of our command ; and 
that thou defend with thy royal protection the aforesaid 
dean, the seneschal and Roger de Fedic, and the other re- 
latives and friends of the aforesaid bishop of Dunkeld, and 
the bishopric and his other revenues ; and that thou thyself 
also molest them not in any way, nor permit them by others 
to be molested : to the end that without impediment [just] 
cause may prevail, and the ro3^al Magnificence acquire for 
a work of justice the unfailing prize from God, and a good 
name among men. 

" Know also that we have enjoined upon the said bishops 
in virtue of obedience that they receive neither from churches 
nor from clerics placed under them, anything in respect of 
the expenses which they shall have in the prosecution of the 
said affair ; b t of their own revenues solely let them see to 
it that they provide themselves with what is necessary. For 
we will not that, by their deed, churches or other persons of 
thy kingdom should incur loss. 

" Moreover we wish that it should not be concealed from 
the royal Excellence that the aforesaid bishop of Dunkeld 
has so honourably prosecuted his affair and deferred to the 
royal honour that he has brought forward nothing at all 
which could redound to the injury of the royal name, or by 
which thy Serenity should be disturbed against him. And 
hence if anything has been suggested to thy Highness to the 
contrary by his rivals lend not thy royal ear to the words of 
such men. 

" Given at Verona, the second l before the Kalends of 
August." 2 

1 31st July. 

2 This letter is followed (Hoved., ii, 312-314) by another of the same 
date and contents, and, mutatis mutandis, in nearly the same terms, to Jos- 




So by authority of these letters, when the time approached 
which had been fixed by the chief pontiff for the aforesaid 
bishops of Dunkeld and of St. Andrews to go to Rome, Joscelin, 
bishop of Glasgow, and his colleagues summoned the afore- 
said bishops, once, twice, three times, to set out on their 
journey. And the bishop of Dunkeld set out, but the bishop 
of St. Andrews passed the term appointed for him and delayed 
to go. And the aforesaid delegated judges suspended him 
from episcopal office, and thereafter, because of his disobedi- 
ence, excommunicated him according to the form of the 
apostolic mandate. 



pp. 350-351 2 

Meanwhile 3 there came to England Richard, viscount of 
Beaumont, and his wife, bringing with them their daughter, 
whom the king had promised to William king of Scotland 
in marriage. And when their arrival was made known to 
the lord king he received them with honour, and as befits 
royal Excellence. 

And after a few days the king caused to assemble at 
Woodstock Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, and John of 
Norwich, and Geoffrey of Ely, and Reginald bishop of Bath, 
and very many both earls and barons of the kingdom of 
England. Thither came also William, king of Scotland, 
and David his brother ; and Joscelin, bishop of Glasgow, 
and several earls and barons of the kingdom of Scotland. 

And when they were assembled, the lord king came and 

celin, bishop of Glasgow, and the abbots of Melrose, Newbattle and Dun- 
fermline. It contains also this sentence : " Lest therefore the aforesaid 
matter remain longer in suspense, and the church of St. Andrews through 
this incur loss of her substance, we command your Discretion by apostolic 
writings and charge you in virtue of obedience that you be careful to report 
to us, under protection of your seals, all that you can know, either of your- 
selves or through others, of the progress of this affair, so that, instructed by 
your information, we may proceed as we ought to proceed in the matter 
by aid of our brethren's advice." Hoved., ii, 313. 

These letters are given by MSS. A and G only (ibid., 311, n). 

1 Not in MS. C. 

2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 309-310. 

3 This follows the death of count Geoffrey of Brittany (19th August, 
1 186). 


gave to the king of Scotland aforesaid the above-named girl 
as wife. 

And he received her in the holy law of matrimony, and 
bound her to him in alliance of marriage at Woodstock in 
the greater chapel of the king, on the Nones of September ; 1 
Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, celebrating mass, and 
the aforesaid bishops assisting. 

And the king of Scotland, in presence of his lord the king 
of England and the aforesaid bishops and earls and barons 
and clergy and people, gave in dowry to the aforesaid girl 
the castle which is called Of Maidens, which the king of England 
restored on this condition ; and a hundred marks 2 of revenue 
yearly, and forty knights in vassalage. 

So when mass had been celebrated and all things done in 
order, the king of England betook himself to another resi- 
dence, and gave up his palace to the king of Scotland and 
his wife, to celebrate their nuptials there. And the king of 
England supplied them there with all necessaries. 

And when the nuptials had been celebrated for four days, 
the lord king of England went to Marlborough, and the king 
of Scotland with him. And the king of Scotland delivered 
his wife to Joscelin, bishop of Glasgow, and to his earls and 
barons, to conduct her to his own land. 3 



PP. 7-9. 

William, king of Scotland. 

Meanwhile William, king of Scotland, collected a great army, 
and set out for Moray, to subdue a certain enemy of his, who 
was named Mac William ; 4 who also said that he was born of 
the royal stock, and by right of his parents, so he affirmed, 
claimed the kingdom of Scotland, and often did many and 
harmful things to William, king of Scotland, through consent 
and council of the earls and barons of the kingdom of Scotland. 

The aforesaid king William, therefore, considering that he 

1 5th September. 

2 " A hundred pounds of revenue yearly," Hoved., ii, 310. 

3 " David, brother of the king of Scotland, earl of Huntingdon," passed 
Christmas of 1186 in king Henry's court at Guildford : B. of P., G. H. IT, 
ii, 3. 

4 Cf. Hoved., ii, 318 : " In the same year Donald, son of William Fitz 
Duncan, king William of Scotland's enemy, whom the Scots called Mac 
William, was slain in Moray." 

For Donald v. B. of P., i, 277-278 ; supra, s.a. 1181. 


must either lose the kingdom of Scotland or slay Mac William 
aforesaid, or else drive him from the confines of his kingdom, 
set out to go into Moray and appointed over his army tribunes 
and centurions, and said to the people : " I also will go forth 
with you." And the people replied, " Thou shalt not go forth, 
for it is better that thou shouldst be a support to us in the city." 
And the king said to them, " What seemeth to you right, that I 
will do." i 

And the king remained in the castle which is called Inver- 
ness. 2 And he sent his earls and barons with the Scots and 
Galwegians to subdue his enemy aforesaid. 

And when they had set out, treason arose among the chiefs ; 
for certain of them loved the king not at all, and certain of 
them loved him. And the latter wished to proceed, but the 
others did not permit it. And after dissension they agreed 
that the chiefs of the army should remain, and should send 
forward scouts to seize food. 

They chose therefore about three thousand warlike youths, 
whom they sent to seek the king's enemy aforesaid. And 
among these was the household of Roland, Utred's son ; and 
on his nod hung the decision of all. 

And when they approached the army of the aforesaid [Mac] 
William, they made an attack upon them, and slew [Mac] Wil- 
liam himself and many of his army ; and the remainder they 
compelled to flee, and divided their spoils amongst them. And 
the head of [Mac] William aforesaid they cut off, and carried it 
away with them, and presented it to the king of Scotland. 
And thus, when he was laid low, a great peace arose in the 
kingdom of Scotland. 

And because of the evils he had wrought neither grief nor 
lamentation, neither even any sorrow was caused by his death. 

And no wonder ; " For the praise of the wicked is short, 
and the joy of the hypocrite as for a moment ; if his pride ascend 
to the sky, and his head touch the clouds, like a dung-heap 
shall he perish in the end." 3 

1 2 Samuel, XVIII, 2-4. 

2 For evidence of the importance of Inverness cf. M.P.'s account, after 
the death of Hugh de Chatillon, count de St. Pol, at Avignon, in 1249 ; Chr. 
Maj., v, 93 : " This earl Hugh also had prepared a wonderful ship in the 
kingdom of Scotland, in Inverness, that is in Moray ; so that in it he could 
boldly cross the sea with the Boulognians and the Flemings, and with those 
who are commonly called of the Netherlands." 

3 Job, XX. 5-7. 


1188, Feb. 


pp. 4J-43. 1 

In the same year, after the Purification of the blessed virgin 
Mary, 2 John, bishop of Dunkeld, returned from the court of 
the lord pope ; Hugh, bishop of St. Andrews, having been 
deposed. And hence the lord pope wrote in this form 3 : 

" Bishop Clement [III], servant of the servants of God, to 
his venerable brethren bishops Joscelin of Glasgow and 
Matthew of Aberdeen, and his beloved sons Arnold, abbot 
of Melrose, and Bertram, prior of Coldingham, greeting and 
apostolic benediction. 

" Lest the things which are done should fall into the 
suspicion of doubt, it is fitting that they be committed to the 
memorial of letters, and carried to the notice of thefti who seem 
to be concerned by information authoritative and truthful. 

" Now we remember that pope Urban of good memory, our 
predecessor, commanded Hugh, formerly called bishop of St. 
Andrews, under penalty of excommunication, to present him- 
self before the apostolic presence on a day fixed, to answer in 
law concerning the controversy which existed between him and 
our venerable brother John. 

" But because he rebelliously refused to come, being con- 
scious of his actions, and with reason in fear of the result of the 
judgment, we, for this and for many other things which by the 
spread of rumour have created scandal to the church of God, 
have with counsel and assent of the brethren adjudged him by 
authority of the apostolic see for ever removed from the bishop- 
ric of St. Andrews, and suspended from the use of episcopal 
office until such time as the apostolic see shall see fit to decide 
otherwise regarding him, absolving his subordinates from the 
fealty by which they were held bound to him. 

" Indeed since the sanctions of the sacred canons forbid that 
vacant churches should long lack pastoral rule, we command 
your Discretion by apostolic script that on our behalf you 
affectionately admonish our beloved sons the chapter of St. 
Andrews to choose for themselves such a bishop and pastor as 
can worthily possess the dignity of episcopal office. 

" But especially labour to induce them, in so far as is pos- 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 347-349 (MSS. A and G only). 

2 2nd February. 

3 " And [John] brought with him letters of the pope in this form," 
Hoved., ii, 347. 


sible for you, to select the said bishop John, (a man of good 
repute, and acceptable to us and to our brethren for his honour- 
able character,) for the rule and prelacy in that church, without 
scruple of difficulty on the part of anyone. 

" And if you cannot all concern yourselves with attending 
to this, none the less let two of your number attend to it. 

" Given at Pisa, on the twelfth l before the Kalends of 
February, in the sixth indiction." 

Letter of Pope Clement III to William, king of Scots. 

" Bishop Clement, servant of the servants of God, to Wil- 
liam, illustrious king of Scots, greeting and apostolic bene- 

" We consider that we should offend the eyes of divine 
Majesty in no small degree if through heedlessness we should 
leave without due restraint the excesses of prelates whi'ch we 
cannot with good conscience indulge. 

" And hence since pope Urban of good memory, our prede- 
cessor, commanded under pain of excommunication Hugh, 
formerly called bishop of St. Andrews, on a fixed day to present 
himself before the apostolic presence, to answer in law because 
of the controversy which existed between him and our vener- 
able brother bishop John ; and since he from contumacy 
despised to come, being conscious of his actions, and with 
reason fearing the result of the judgment : so we, because of 
this and of many other things which, spread by rumour, caused 
scandal to the church of God, have by authority of the apostolic 
see,- with counsel and assent of the brethren, adjudged him for 
ever removed from the episcopate of St. Andrews, and sus- 
pended from the use of the episcopal office till such time as the 
apostolic see shall think fit to decide otherwise concerning him ; 
absolving his subjects from the fealty by which they were held 
bound to him. 

" For although we have the firm purpose of regarding thy 
honour and benefit, in as far as with God we can, and in the 
case of Hugh aforesaid the Roman court has hitherto deferred 
to thy royal Serenity, not without the carping of many ; yet 
because the noise of it has reached us on indubitable authority, 
we can no longer pass over his misdeeds in dissimulation, with 
closed eyes. And because of this we believe that nothing has 
been done in this regard by which thy royal mind ought to be 
disturbed in any way. 

" But we ask thy Devotion, with prayer and all the affection 

1 21st January, 1188. 


we can, and admonish thee in the Lord, that in reverence for 
the apostolic see and for us thou accept, commended and re- 
ceived in the bowels of charity, the said bishop John, whom 
we and our brethren have chosen with sincere heart, for his 
honourable character ; and that, laying aside any offence there 
may have been of indignation conceived, thou treat him in all 
things with royal clemency and kindness. 

" Indeed we believe that by his industry and uprightness he 
will be able to cause much gain to thee and thy kingdom, the 
Lord favouring. And to us also how gratifying it would be, 
i f our prayers should produce the desired effect upon thy royal 

" Given at Pisa, the seventeenth before the Kalends of 
February, in the sixth indiction." 1 



pp. 43-44. 2 

Hearing this the king of Scots aforesaid, following at last 
the counsel of his friends, received 3 John, bishop of Dunkeld ; 
on this condition, that John himself should quit-claim for ever 
the episcopate of St. Andrews from his pretension ; and so it 
was done by him, and at the king's mercy. 4 

And lastly Hugh, formerly bishop of St. Andrews, now de- 
posed and placed again in the sentence of anathema by the chief 
pontiff, set out for Rome to be absolved. And when he had 
come thither he gave surety of standing before the judgment 
of the church, and was judged worthy of absolution. 

But he survived few days. For in the month of August 
in the Romulean city such became the corruption of the air 
that many cardinals and richer men of the city perished, with 
an innumerable multitude of the people. And Hugh himself 
perished, with nearly all his household. 5 

1 16th January, 1188. MS. Gof Hoveden omits " in the sixth indiction." 

2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 353. 

3 " Received into his favour bishop John aforesaid ; and granted that 
he should possess in peace the bishopric of Dunkeld, and all the revenues 
which he had before his consecration." Hoved., u.s. 

4 " And he, although he had been protected by the aforesaid letters of 
the lord pope, yet in all things obeyed the will of the king, and quit-claimed 
the episcopate of St. Andrews from his pretension, in the mercy of God and 
of the king : knowing that ' better is a morsel of bread with joy, than a 
house full of sacrifices with strife.' " (Proverbs, XV11, 1.) Hoved., u.s. 

5 Cf. B. of P., ii, 60 (resume). 


1 1 88, Mar. 


" Bishop Clement, servant of the servants of God, to his 
dearest son in Christ, William, illustrious king of the Scots, 
greeting and apostolic benediction. 

" While all subjects to the yoke of Christ ought to find in 
the apostolic see patronage, and honour, and favour ; yet it is 
befitting that those should more especially be cherished by the 
defence of protection, whose faith and devotion has been tried 
in many things ; that they may be provoked so much the more 
to the favour of love for it, and be brought under a so much 
devout er affection of reverence for it, as they know that they 
have more surely attained a pledge of its benevolence and grace. 

" For this cause, dearest son in Christ, considering the 
reverence and devotion which we know that thou hast had from 
times long ago for the Roman church, we have thought fit to 
decree in the charter of the present writing that the Scottish 
church owes subjection only to the apostolic see, whose spiritual 
daughter she is, with mediation of none. And in it are known 
to be these episcopal sees, the churches namely of St. Andrews, 
of Glasgow, of Dunkeld, of Dunblane, of Brechin, of Aberdeen, 
of Moray, of Ross, of Caithness. 2 

" And let none pronounce a sentence of interdict or excom- 
munication upon the kingdom of Scotland, except the Roman 
pontiff or a legate sent from his side : and if it be pronounced, 
we decree that it is not valid. 

"We add that it is not permitted for any henceforth who is 
not of the kingdom of Scotland to exercise in it the office of 
legate, except one whom the apostolic see has specially sent 
from its own side for this purpose. 

"And we forbid that controversies which may arise in the 
kingdom about its possessions be carried to the judgment of 
arbiters placed outside the kingdom, unless appeal be made 
to the Roman church. 

1 Cf. Hoved., ii, 360-361 ; (iii, 172-174), MSS. A and G. In Hoved., 
ii, 360, the letter is preceded by this sentence : " In the same year William, 
king of Scots, sent his messengers to Clement, the chief pontiff, and obtained 
from him letters of his protection, in this form." 

This letter is placed by Benedict among events of 1191. Hoveden 
(MSS. A and G), placing it under the same year, ascribes it to Celestine III ; 
but his first 13th of March in the papacy was in 1192 ; and both MSS. refer 
from it to the same letter given by them under 1188, and ascribed to Cle- 
ment III. Cf. the notes in Hoved., iii, 172-173 ; ii, 360 ; B. of P., ii, 234. 
These facts support the authorship of Clement III, and the date 1188. 

2 Galloway is not included. It was ecclesiastically subject to York. 


" And if any writings appear to have been obtained contrary 
to the decree of this liberty, or chance in future to be obtained, 
without mention made of this concession, let nothing to the 
prejudice of the concession of this prerogative result for thee 
or for the kingdom. 

" Moreover the liberties and immunities granted and hitherto 
upheld by the Roman pontiffs our predecessors to thee and to 
the same kingdom, and to the churches established in it, we 
confirm, and decree to endure unimpaired in future times. 

" Let no man therefore infringe this page of our ordinance 
and prohibition, or in any way transgress it. But if any pre- 
sume to attempt this, let him know that he shall incur the 
wrath of almighty God and of his blessed apostles, Peter and 

" Given on the third before the Ides of March." l 



pp. 44-45. 2 

Meanwhile Henry, king of England, sent Hugh, bishop of 
Durham, and certain others of his friends both clergy and lay- 
men to William, king of Scots, to collect tithes from his land. 

For [William] had offered to his lord the king of England 
before he sailed across 3 four thousand marks of silver to have 
his castles again. And the king of England replied that the 
matter should go well if he granted him a tithe from his land. 

And the king of Scotland was desirous of satisfying his 
requests, and granted. him the tithe which he asked for, if he 
could induce his vassals to do this. 

When therefore the aforesaid bishop of Durham and the 
other messengers of the lord king of England came to Lothian 
to the place which is called Birgham, to speak with the king of 
Scots about collecting the tithes in his land, the king of Scots 
himself with almost all the bishops and earls and barons of his 

1 13th March. " Given at the Later an, on the third before the Ides of 
March, in the first year of our pontificate," Hoved., ii, 361. 

2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 338-339 : " Then he sent Hugh, bishop of Durham, 
and other clergy and laymen to William, king of Scots, to collect the tithes 
in his land " [i.e.. for the crusade] ; " and hearing this the king of Scotland 
met them between Wark and Birgham in Lothian. And not permitting 
them to enter his land for the collection of the tithes, he offered to give his 
lord the king of England five thousand marks of silver for the aforesaid 
tithes, and to have his castles again ; but the king of England refused to 
do it." 

3 To Barfleur, 10th July, 1188; B. of P., ii, 40. 


land, and with an endless multitude of his vassals, came to the 
place which had been predetermined upon ; and after hearing 
the cause of arrival of the king's messengers, and their request, 
he took counsel with his men, and replied that he could not 
incline their minds to the giving of a tithe. And they for them- 
selves replied that they would never give a tithe ; and even if 
the king of England and their lord the king of Scotland had 
sworn that they would have it, they would never give it. 

Therefore the king of England's messengers who had been 
sent for this purpose saw that they could profit nothing in this 
regard, although they had tried their best now with gentle and 
now with bitter [words] ; and returned to their own land, 
reporting to their lord the king of England, who was then in 
Normandy, the answer of the king of Scotland and his men. 



pp. 57-58. ! 

Letter of pope Clement to Henry, king of England, concerning 
John, bishop of St. Andrews of Scotland. 

" Bishop Clement, servant of the servants of God, to the 
illustrious king of England, greeting and apostolic benediction. 

" When the authority and power of thy royal Excellency 
has received from the apostolic see prayers to give effect to 
which is beneficial for the preservation of the churches in 
their state, and for the well-being of many ; diligently should 
thy royal Sublimity heed them, and strive that the result 
shall follow the wish, so much the more strongly and fer- 
vently as the devout receiving of them and their diligent 
execution redound equally to thy royal glory and well-being. 

" Hence it is that we have thought fit to send with confi- 
dence to your Serenity apostolic letters and prayers on be- 
half of our venerable brother the bishop of St. Andrews, 
asking with all the affection we can the highness of your 
royal Eminence, and admonishing, and enjoining for the 
remission of all sins, that thou admonish very needfully our 
dearest son in Christ, William, illustrious king of Scotland, 
through his reverence for St. Peter and for us, and by reason 
of his persecution which it is certain that [John] has for a 
long time endured ; and induce him, and if it be necessary 
compel him, by the royal control in which thou standest 
over him, and the authority yielded to thy royal Highness, 
to set every pretext aside and relax to [John] the bitterness 

1 Cf . Hoved., 'ii, 349-351, MSS. A and G only. 


of all his displeasure which the wickedness of certain scandal- 
makers has engendered with regard to this bishop, and to 
cultivate royal dignity and the wholesome works of piety ; 
and to permit him henceforth to possess quietly and without 
counter-claim the diocese of St. Andrews, which by common 
counsel and consent of the brethren the chief pontiff has 
confirmed to him for ever ; since [John] also is prepared, 
as is consonant with reason, to be in all things obedient and 

"Farewell." 1 

Letter of lord pope Clement to all the clergy of St. Andrews 
in Scotland, on behalf of bishop John. 

" Bishop Clement, servant of the servants of God, to all 
the clergy of the bishopric of St. Andrews, greeting and 
apostolic benediction. 

" Although in doubtful matters some may be able to 
show forth their cunning or malice ; yet when the difficulty 
and the point of doubt have been removed, and the evidences 
of truth have appeared by manifest testimonies, wholly must 
the by-paths be shunned and the paths of truth be both sought 
out and followed, lest (as Heaven forbid) for those who act 
otherwise, and persist in their obstinacy, after present 
castigations and deserved penalties the destruction of death 
eternal be their meed, and everlasting punishment. 

" Wishing therefore with paternal solicitude to look for- 
ward for your welfare, and to provide for your benefit and 
peace, we command and charge you all by apostolic script, 
and enjoin upon you in virtue of obedience, that within fifteen 
days after the receipt of this you receive our venerable brother 
John, canonically appointed to the episcopal office, as your 
chief father and pastor, humbly and devoutly ; and laying 
aside all animosity by no means neglect to offer henceforward 
due reverence to his wholesome counsels and commands. 

" But knowing that if after Hugh, who was once called 
your bishop, has been removed by the Roman church from 
the dignity of your bishopric, or after his decease, John, now 
called your bishop, surviving, you have perchance elected as 
bishop someone else, we annul that election by apostolic 

1 Hoveden adds a date (in margin of MS. A :) " Given at Pisa, on the 
seventeenth before the Kalends of February, in the sixth indiction " [16th 
January, 1188.] MS. G reads: " in the fifth indiction " [1187]. Hoved. 
places this letter and the next immediately after the two given supra, 1188, 
February. Cf. infra, note upon the next letter. 


" But if (which God forbid) by persuasion of the enemy 
of the human race you have presumed to make any con- 
spiracy against the same bishop John, we will that both you 
and the whole bishopric lie under the sentence of interdict, 
until you acknowledge your sin and return to the mandate 
of bishop John. 

"Farewell." x 



pp. 63-66. a 

Meanwhile William, king of Scots, called together the 
bishops and chief men of his land in the vill of Perth, and 
gave the bishopric of St. Andrews to his chancellor Roger, 3 
son of Robert, earl of Leicester ; John, bishop of Dunkeld, 
being present and not gainsaying it, although the aforesaid 
John had been canonically elected and consecrated to the 
same bishopric, and had been confirmed by three popes, 
namely Alexander [III], Urban [III] and Clement [III] ; 
and although at that time present he had had letters of pope 
Clement in this form : 

Letter of lord pope Clement. 

" Bishop Clement, servant of the servants of God, to his 
venerable brethren bishops Joscelin of Glasgow, and Matthew 
of Aberdeen, and Richard of Moray, and his beloved sons 
abbots Arnold of Melrose, and Hugh of Newbattle, and the 
abbots of Holyrood, of Stirling and of Scone, greeting and 
apostolic benediction. 

" Although without counsel you should regard the things 
which make for uprightness, and achieve the welfare of souls, 
and we believe that you bestow upon them diligent labour 
according to the obligation of your office ; yet we have thought 
fit to exhort your Diligence in apostolic letters to the exhibi- 
tion of greater solicitude in this, that you may persist in 
these same works, worthy of praise, so much the more fer- 
vently as it will be more wholesome for you to apply in them 
an exacter diligence upon apostolic exhortation. 

1 Hoved., ii, 351, adds a date : " Given at Pisa, on the seventeenth 
before the Kalends of February, in the sixth indiction " [16th January, 
1188]. But it was written after the death of Hugh, which took place in 
August of that year ; Hoved., ii, 353. 

2 Cf. Hoved., ii, 353, 351-352, in MSS. A and G only. 

3 For the consecration of Roger, son of earl Robert the justiciar, see 
infra, s.a. 1198. 


"It is well known, then, that certain prelates of churches 
ought according to apostolic law with those who have been 
caused to stumble, to suffer burning ; and with the weak 
to become weak. 1 

" But how great persecutions the church of St. Andrews 
has suffered in these times, how many calamities she has 
sustained, and molestations, indeed how seriously till now 
she has been distressed and shaken under the shadow of the 
indignation of the royal Majesty ; moreover, how great and 
how many perils and labours our venerable brother John, 
bishop of St. Andrews, has sustained for the sake of preserv- 
ing the liberty of the church intrusted to him, and confirmed 
to him by us and by two of our predecessors : since these 
things are all manifest to you, it seems needless to impress 
them upon your ears. 

" Since therefore it is now discerned to be most important 
that, to restore the royal welfare and the state of the afore- 
said church, and to bestow peace upon the bishop, we agree 
to employ befitting solicitude, and rely upon your circum- 
spection to support us fitly : we command your Discretion 
by apostolic script and charge you that, after receipt of our 
letters, you come together, as becomes men of foresight and 
prudence, and go to the presence of our dearest son William, 
illustrious king of Scotland, and admonish him very heed- 
fully, and very urgently induce him to lay aside from the 
said bishop the rancour of his indignation, and not in this 
to spurn the Roman church, which has now for long deferred 
to his royal Serenity : but upon admonition of her and of you, 
as becomes the royal glory and welfare, without delay to 
obey salutarily and humbly to acquiesce ; and to permit this 
bishop to have in peace the diocese of St. Andrews, since it 
is held as of the obligation of royal dignity not to scatter 
but to foster the churches with their pastors, not to despise 
but to love, not to persecute but to protect. 

" And if he should think fit to resist the apostolic ad- 
monitions to the peril of his own safety, (which heaven forbid,) 
proclaim the sentence of interdict upon the kingdom of his 
royal Majesty, and upon his person, and upon all his royal 
supporters, to be pronounced by you, with apostolic authority, 
within twenty days, without obstruction of appeal. And 
smite with a like sentence those also who have been obedient 
to Hugh, and have given him nourishment in his obstinacy, 
after the apostolic see has removed him from the diocese of 

1 2 Corinthians, XI, 29. 



St. Andrews for ever, and has pronounced upon him the 
sentence of excommunication : and publicly proclaiming it 
cause them to be under excommunication, and very strictly 
avoided by the rest, until such time as they return to the 
mandate of the church to seek the benefit of absolution from 
the same bishop. 

" In addition bestow upon the altars and chalices in which 
the already named Hugh celebrated [mass], while he was 
placed under excommunication, purification according to the 
custom of the church. Likewise go also to the church of St. 
Andrews, and calling the brethren together enter the chapter, 
and inquire very needfully of the ordinances and condition of 
the church ; and if you find anything changed or ordained 
in that church by Hugh aforesaid, by our authority bring it 
to proper order. 

" And if anything be to be corrected in that church, study 
effectively to restore it to the better way. And if (which 
heaven forbid) you find any of the canons obdurate and re- 
bellious against receiving humbly and devoutly the aforesaid 
[John] as their pastor, admonish them very urgently that 
they show him the reverence and obedience due to a father, 
and desist from their malign and damnable purpose. But if 
they be contumacious, suspend them alike from their office 
and their benefice, and bind them in the chain of excom- 
munication, and cause them to remain bound therein until 
they acquiesce in the ecclesiastic admonitions and commands. 

" But if you be not all able to employ yourselves in the 
performance of these things, none the less let the rest fulfil 
them." * 

Having given therefore the episcopate of St. Andrews to 
Roger, son of the earl of Leicester, William, king of Scotland, 
gave his chancellorship to Hugh of Roxburgh, his clerk. 2 

1165 x 1189 


Finally this vessel, 3 of an unknown material, unaccus- 

1 Hoveden, ii, 353, adds : " Given at Pisa, the seventeenth before the 
Kalends of February, in the sixth indiction " [16th January, 1188]. This 
is, as before, probably erroneous and without authority. 

2 Hugh of Roxburgh was elected bishop of Glasgow in 1199, but died 
before he was consecrated; v. infra, s.a. 1199, July. 

8 A drinking vessel taken by a drunken peasant from a banquet of the 
hill-folk, near a village in Yorkshire. 


tomed colour, and unusual shape, was offered to Henry the 
elder for a large sum ; and being handed over to David, the 
king of Scots, was preserved for very many years among the 
treasures of Scotland. And a considerable number of years 
ago, as we have learned by truthful information, when Henry 
II desired to see it, it was given up to him by William, king 
Of Scots. 

1189, Sept. 1 


p. 87. 2 

And ... on the seventeenth day of September, John, elect 
of Whi thorn, was consecrated as bishop by John, archbishop 
of Dublin, assisted by Formalis, archbishop of Treves, and 
Concord, bishop of Enaghdun, at the abbey of Pipewell on 
Sunday, the feast of St. Lambert, bishop and martyr, the 
fifteenth 3 before the Kalends of October. 

1189, Nov. 


p. 97. 4 

In the same year, in the month of November, Geoffrey, 
elect of York, with the earls and barons of Yorkshire 5 went 
by command of king Richard, his brother, as far as to the 
river Tweed, to meet William, king of Scotland ; and there 
received him into their conduct, 6 and brought him into England 
as far as to Canterbury, to the king, administering to him 
what was needful, according to the custom of their predecessors. 

1 " David, earl of Huntingdon, brother of the king of Scotland," was 
present at Westminster at the coronation of Richard I on the 3rd September ; 
B. of P., ii, 81 ; Hoved., iii, 9. 

2 Cf. Hoved., iii, 16. 

John, " elect of Whithorn in Galloway," had been present at the coro- 
nation of Richard I, 3rd September, 1189; B. of P., ii, 79. On the 23rd 
September he ordained to the priesthood Geoffrey, elect of York, at South- 
well ; B. of P., ii, 88 ; Hoved., iii, 17. R. de D., ii, 78. R.W., i, 177. 

3 17th September, a Sunday in 1189. 

4 Cf. Hoved., iii, 24-25. 

5 " Along with the barons of Yorkshire and the sheriff of York " ; Hoved., 
iii, 24. 

6 " And offered him due honour, and safe conduct to the king of Eng- 
land " ; Hoved.. iii, 24-25. 


1189, Dec. 


In the same year in the month of December, at Canter- 
bury, on the day after this peace and agreement, 2 William, 
king of Scots, and David his brother and Geoffrey, elect of 
York, came to the king of England. 3 

And the king of Scots did him homage for the holding 
of his dignities in England, 4 as the kings of Scots his prede- 
cessors were accustomed to hold them in the times of the 
kings of England. 

And king Richard of England restored to him the castle 
of Roxburgh and the castle of Berwick, free and untrammelled ; 
and quit-claimed him and all his heirs for ever, on behalf of 
himself and the kings of England, from all allegiance and 
subjection for the kingdom of Scotland. 

And for this redemption of his castles, and the quit-claiming 
of fealty and allegiance for the kingdom of Scotland, and to 
have the king's charter concerning it, William king of Scots 
gave to Richard king of England ten thousand marks sterling. 

1 CL Hoved., iii, 25. R.W., i, 171. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 355; H.A., ii, 
13. Fl. His., ii, 103. J. of E., in Fl. of W., ii, 257-258. W. of N., in Chr. 
of Ste., etc., i, 304 : " By urgent mandates therefore [Richard] summoned 
the king of Scots, who still laboured in his ancient sorrow for his castles, 
taken from him, as has been mentioned above, by the chance of war 
namely Roxburgh and Berwick. (For the third, which is called Maidens' 
castle, he had received again under king Henry, when by his wish and counsel 
he took a wife from foreign parts.) 

" He came therefore to the king of the English, and bargained to give 
him ten thousand marks of silver for his resignation of the castles. And 
returning to his own, he scraped together that sum from his subjects by the 
presence of his royal authority ; and paid it to the king of the English, and 
with much rejoicing took his castles again." 

W. of N. makes no mention of release from subjection. Cf. also R. de D., 
ii, 72 : " William, king of Scotland, came to Canterbury, having as leaders 
of the way the elect of York and the bishop of Durham, and did homage 
to the king ; and found favour in the eyes of the king, [promising] to 
pay ten thousand marks for this, to receive again in his own power all his 
possessions ; also the allegiance of his vassals, which by agreement they had 
bound themselves to make to our king." 

2 Between archbishop Baldwin and the monks of Canterbury ; B. of P., 
ii, 97-98, and notes. The date of this conciliation is given in Epistolse Can- 
tuarienses, 322-323, as the 1st December ; in R. de D., ii, 72, and G. of C. 
i, 475-481, as 29th November. 

3 Cf. G. of C., i, 474. 

4 " As Malcolm his brother held them," Hoved., iii, 2;~>. 


1189, Dec. 


pp. 102-1 04. i 

In the same year, before king Richard went forth from 
England to Jerusalem, he quit-claimed William, king of Scots, 
from all subjection which Henry, king of England, his father, 
had extorted from him through his capture ; and made for 
him his charter in this fashion : 

" Richard, by God's grace king of England, duke of Nor- 
mandy and Aquitaine, earl of Anjou, to the archbishops, 
bishops, abbots, earls and barons, justices, sheriffs and all 
his servants 2 and vassals in all England, 3 greeting. 

" Know that we have restored to our cousin 4 William, 
king of Scots, 5 his castles of Roxburgh and Berwick as his 
[own], 6 to be possessed by him by hereditary right and by 
his heirs for ever. 

" Moreover we have freed him from all conventions and 7 
compacts which my father king Henry of good memory 8 extorted 
from him by new charters, and by his capture : so to wit that 
he do to me 9 fully and entirely what 10 Malcolm, king of Scots, 
his brother, did to our predecessors of right, and of right 
ought to have .done : and we shall do n to him all that our 
predecessors did of right to Malcolm aforesaid, and ought to 
have done ; namely [both in the matter of] 12 conduct when 

1 Cf. Hoved., iii, 25-26, who gives the rubric : " Charter of Richard, 
king of England, concerning the acquisition of the royal liberties of Scot- 

The original charter is printed in Rymer, Fcedera, i, 64-65 (Records 
edition, i, 50.) 

Richard of Devizes, in Chr. of Ste., etc., iv, 386 : " From the under - 
kings of the Welsh and the Scots the king received surety that while he was 
on pilgrimage they would not cross their boundaries to England's hurt." 

Still, according to R.W., i, 172 : " . . . The bishop of Durham had 
the justiciary from the great river Humber to the Scottish sea," i.e. to the 
Firth of Forth. 

ministris, B. of P., HoveJl. ; ballivis, Feed. 

" Of all England." So Hoved. ; not in Feed. 

" Our dearest cousin," Feed. ; Hoved. 

" By the same grace king of Scotland," Feed. Hoved. assimilates the 



propria, Feed., Hoved. 
" Conventions and," not in Feed. 

" Our good father Henry, king of England," Feed. Hoved. assimilates 
the two readings. 

9 " To us," Feed., Hoved. 

10 " All that," Feed. 

11 " And that we do," Feed., Hoved. 

12 in conductu veniendo, B. of P., Hoved. et de conductu in veniendo, 


he comes to court and when he returns from court and while 
he stays at court, and in his provisionings and in all his 
liberties, dignities and honours rightfully due ; according to 
what shall be accepted by four of our nobles appointed by 
king William, and by four of his nobles appointed by us. 

" And if any of our vassals contrary to justice 1 have 
appropriated borders or 2 marches of the kingdom of Scot- 
land after the aforesaid king William was taken by our father, 
we will that they be wholly restored, and brought back to 
the same condition in which they were before his capture. 

" Moreover concerning the lands which he has 3 in Eng- 
land, whether in demesne or in fee, to wit in the county of 
Huntingdon and in all others, let him and his heirs in per- 
petuity possess them in the same liberty and plenitude 4 
as Malcolm 5 possessed or ought to have possessed them ; 
unless the aforesaid 6 Malcolm or his heirs have since en- 
feoffed anything : yet so that whatever has since been en- 
feoff ed, the services of those fiefs shall pertain to him and to 
his heirs. 

" And whatever our father has granted to king William 
aforesaid, we wish to support and confirm it. 7 

" We have restored also 8 the allegiance 9 of his vassals, 
and all the charters which our lord 10 father had of him through 
his capture. And if perchance any others u should be retained 
by oversight or be found, we command that they be wholly 
without validity. 

" And he has become 12 our liegeman for all the lands 
for which his predecessors were liegemen of our predecessors, 
and has sworn fealty to us and to our heirs. 

"Farewell, "is 

4 Unjustly," Feed. 

' Borders or," not in Feed. 3 " Had," Feed. \ 

' Consuetude," Feed. 
' The aforesaid king Malcolm," Feed. 
' Aforesaid king," Feed. 

' We will that he and his heirs for ever possess it in the same liberty 
in which [our father] gave it him." Feed. 

8 To him," Feed. 

9 Which our father had received," Feed. 

10 " Lord" ; not in Fred. 

11 " Others " ; not in Feed. 

12 " And let the oft-named king William become," Feed. 

13 " And that this be decreed and established and eternal, we have 
confirmed it with the present charter and our seal. Witnesses archbishops 
Baldwin of Canterbury, and Walter of Rouen, and J[ohn] of Dublin ; bishops 
Hugh of Durham, Hugh of Lincoln, Geoffrey of Winchester, Hubert of Salis- 
bury, Reginald of Bath ; sir John, our brother ; R[obert], earl of Leicester ; 




p. 146. 1 

In the same year David, brother of William, king of Scot- 
land, took to himself as wife [Matilda], the sister of Ranulf, 
earl of Chester. 

II92 2 


1193, Mar. 

And count John came secretly to England to gather 
satellites from the Welsh and Scots and oppose the men of 
Flanders, so that he might occupy England here and there. 
. . . But the king of Scotland would offer the count no 



And earl David, brother of the king of Scotland, and 
Ranulf, earl of Chester, and the earl of Ferrieres, with a great 
army besieged the castle of Nottingham. 4 

H[amelin], earl of Warenne ; H[ugh] Bardolf ; Stephen de Longchamp, our 
butler ; and many others, on the 5th day of December. 

" Given by the hand of W[illiam de Longchamp], elect of Ely, our 
chancellor, at Canterbury, in the first year of our reign." Feed. 

Hoved., iii, 126, gives the list of witnesses thus : " These being wit- 
nesses : Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, and Walter, archbishop of 
Rouen ; and bishops Hugh of Durham, and John of Norwich, and Hubert 
of Salisbury, and Hugh of Lincoln, and Geoffrey of Winchester, and Gilbert 
of Rochester, and Reginald of Bath, and Hugh of Coventry, and William of 
Worcester ; and Eleanour, mother of the king ; and John, earl of Mortain, 
brother of the king ; and many others." 

1 Of. Hoved., iii, 74. 

2 Under the 13th March, 1192, Hoved., iii, 172-174, repeats the bull 
ascribed above, s.a. 1188, to Clement III, here attributing it to Celestine III : 
v. supra. 

3 To the deathbed of Bartholomew on Fame Island in 1193 " came also 
from Coldingham certain brethren whom he had loved with the preference 
of a special affection, that they might look upon the face of the father whom 
they were no more to see in this world, and receive from him a last exhorta- 
tion and the laying on of holy hands." Vita Bartholomsei, in S. of D., i, 318. 

4 The siege was completed by the arrival of Richard. 

Among those present at Richard's council beginning on the 30th 
March, 1194, at Nottingham, were " John, bishop of Whithorn ; earl David, 
brother of the king of Scots," Hoved., iii, 241. 


1194, April. 


On the same day [2nd April,] the king went to Clipstone 
to meet William, king of Scots. . . . 

On the 3rd day of the month of April, that is, on Palm 
Sunday, 2 the king of England stayed at Clipstone, and the 
king of Scotland at Worksop, because of the solemnity of the 

On the 4th of April the king of England and the king of 
Scotland came to Southwell. 

On the 5th of April the king of England and the king of 
Scotland came to Malton ; and there the king of Scotland 
asked from the king of England the dignities and honours 
which his predecessors had had in England. He asked also 
for the earldom of Northumbria, and Cumberland and West- 
moreland, and the earldom of Lancaster, to be given back 
to him according to the right of his predecessors. And the 
king replied to him that he would satisfy him, by counsel 
of his barons. 

On the 6th of April the aforesaid kings came to the house 
of Peter the forester of Rutland. 

On the 7th of April the aforesaid kings came to Gedding- 
ton. On the 8th of April the said kings made a stay at 
Geddington through reverence for Good Friday. On the 
9th of April, the eve of Easter, the said kings came to North- 
ampton ; and on the 10th and llth of April the said kings 
stayed at Northampton. 

And there the king of England, having held with de- 
liberation a council with his bishops, earls and barons, replied 
to the king of Scotland that he ought by no means to have 
made the petition which he had made concerning Northumbria, 
and especially in these days, in which almost all the princes 
of the kingdom of the French had become [Richard's] enemies. 
For if [Richard] had done this it would seem that he did 
it rather out of fear than by the affection of love. 

Of what manner of conduct shall be offered to the king of 
'Scotland, whensoever he come into England by command of the 
king of England. 

Yet the king of England, in presence of his mother Eleanour 
and Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, and Hugh, bishop of 
Durham, and Joscelin, bishop of Glasgow, and many others 

1 Cf. J. of E., in Fl. of W., ii, 261-263. Fl. His., ii, 111-112. 

2 Palm Sunday was 3rd April in 1194. 


both clergy and lay of either realm, granted and confirmed 
by his charter to William, king of Scots, and to his heirs for 
ever, that whenever they should come by summons of the 
king of England to his court, the bishop of Durham and the 
sheriff of Northumbria shall receive [them] at the water 
of Tweed, and bring them in safe conduct to the water of 
Tees : and there the archbishop of York and the sheriff 
of York shall receive them, and in safe conduct bring them 
to the bounds of the county of York ; and so they shall be 
brought by bishops and sheriffs from county to county, till 
they arrive at the court of the king of England. And from 
the time when the king of Scots enters the land of the king 
of England, he shall have daily from the purse of the king of 
England a hundred shillings l in allowance. And when the 
king of Scotland has come to the court of the king of England, 
so long as he stays in the court of the king of England he shall 
receive daily in allowance thirty shillings, and twelve royal 
wastel-cakes, and twelve royal simnel-loaves ; and four pints 2 
of the king's royal wine, and eight pints of expensive wine ; 
and two pounds of pepper, and four pounds of cumin ; and 
two stones of wax or four wax candles, and forty thick and 
long pieces of the royal candle of the king, and four score 
pieces of other expensive candle. 

And when he wishes to return into his own land, he shall 
be conducted by bishops and sheriffs from county to county, 
till he come to the water of Tweed ; and he shall have like- 
wise daily a hundred shillings from the purse of the king of 
England in allowance. 

And the charter of this concession and confirmation of 
the king of England was given to William, king of Scotland, 
in the vill of Northampton, the second day 3 in the week of 
Easter, by the hand of William, bishop of Ely, the king's 
chancellor ; in the year from the incarnation of our Lord 
Jesus Christ 1194, and in the fifth year of the reign of king 

Discord between William, king of Scots, and bishop Hugh, 
at Brackley. 

On the 12th of April, the third day in Easter week, Richard, 
king of England, returned from Northampton and went to 
Selston. And Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, and Hugh, 

1 Literally " sols." 2 Literally " sextaries." 

3 Monday, llth April.- The charter is printed in Rymer's Foedera, i, 

87-88, (Records edition, i, 62-63,) and is dated on the 17th April, 1194, at 



bishop of Durham, went to Brackley, where had been pre- 
pared for the bishop of Durham the dwelling which he had 
had for thirty years past, by allotment of the marshals of 
king Henry. 

[Ofi| And when his provision had been prepared the servants 
of the king of Scotland supervened, wishing to cast out the 
servants of the bishop ; but they could not. 

Yet they bought the king's foods, and prepared them in 
a certain house of the same parish. 

1 . And when the bishop of Durham had come thither, and 
it had been told him by his men that it had so chanced, he 
refused to retire, but boldly entered his dwelling, and ordered 
the tables to be served. 

And while he dined came Hubert, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and offered him his dwelling ; and counselled him that 
he should leave that dwelling to the king of Scotland, and 

But when the king of Scotland had returned from hunting, 
late, and it had been announced to him that this had so be- 
fallen, he took it ill and refused to go thither, but commanded 
his provision to be given to the poor. And he himself went 
to the king at Selston, and complained to him of the wrong 
which the bishop of Durham had done him. And hence the 
king was much enraged, and reproved the bishop of Durham. 

1194, April. 


On the octave 1 of Easter [Richard] received the diadem 
of the kingdom at Winchester, from the hands of Hubert, 
archbishop of Canterbury. 

William, king of Scotland, was present. 2 

1194, Apr. 


On the 19th April Hugh, bishop of Durham, of his own 
accord, none compelling him, restored to king [Richard] the 
county of Northumbria, with its castles and other appur- 
tenances. And the king commanded him to give them up 
to Hugh Bardolf. 

! , l 17th April. So R.W., i, 232. R. of C., 64. Itinerarium, 447. 

2 Cf. R. of W., i, 232. Itinerarium, 447. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 404. 

William carried before king Richard one of three swords taken from the 
king's treasure, and afterwards took part in the feast ; Hoved., iii, 248. 


And when William king of Scotland heard this, he im- 
mediately offered to the king of England fifteen thousand 
marks of silver for Northumbria and its appurtenances, saying 
that earl Henry, his father, held it by gift of king Henry II, 
and that after him his son king Malcolm possessed it in peace 
for five years. 

And hence the king of England, after holding a council 
with his subjects, replied to the king of Scotland that he would 
give him the whole of Northumbria, excepting the castles, 
for the said money. 

But the king of Scotland refused to take it without the 

1194, Apr. 


On the 21st of April William, king of Scots, again tried 
if by any means he could obtain the county of Northumbria, 
with the castles. But it was not in the plan of the king of 
England to give him any castles ; yet notwithstanding he 
gave him hope of having them in the future, after his return 
from Normandy. 

On the 22nd April, the sixth day of the week, William, 
king of Scotland, left the court of the king of England to 
return to his own country, grieving and downcast because of 
the refusal given him. 

1195, Mar. 

ROGER HOVEDEN, CHRONICA, VOL. Ill, PP. 286-287, S.A. 1195. 

In the same year, on the approach of the Lord's Supper, 1 
when John, bishop of Whi thorn, suffragan and official of 
Geoffrey, archbishop of York, had come to York, to consecrate 
there in the accustomed manner the chrism and oil on the 
Lord's Supper, the dean and clergy of the church of York 
refused to receive him. And hence it happened that he went 
to Southwell, and there on the Lord's Supper consecrated 
chrism and oil, and gave them to the officials of the arch- 
bishop to distribute among the churches of the arch-bishopric. 

It is said also that Geoffrey de Muschamp, archdeacon of 
Cleveland, received the chrism and oil, but immediately cast 
them out on the dunghill. And the other canons of the 
church of St. Peter refused to receive of it ; but sent to Hugh, 
bishop of Lincoln, to receive from him oil and chrism ; but 

1 30th March. 


they were cheated of their desire. For Peter, archdeacon 
of Lincoln, brother of archbishop Geoffrey, forbade the bishop 
to give them oil and chrism, and appealed regarding it to 
the Roman pontiff. 

1195, June. 


In the same year 1 [1195] William king of Scots fell ill 
in his vill which is called Clackmannan, and determined that 
Otto, son of Henry duke of Saxony, and nephew of king 
Richard of England, should succeed him in the kingdom of 
Scotland ; in such wise that this Otto should take with the 
kingdom his first-born daughter to wife. 

And although the king had many who consented in this 
to his will, yet earl Patrick [of Dunbar] and many others 
opposed it, saying that they would not receive his daughter 
as queen ; because it was not the custom of that kingdom 
that a woman should have the kingdom so long as there 
was a brother or nephew in his family who could have the 
kingdom by right. 

And shortly afterwards through God's mercy the king of 
Scots recovered from that infirmity ; continuing in the same 
purpose which he had of marrying his daughter with the 
kingdom to the aforesaid Otto. 

1195, Dec. 


And Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, justiciar of the 
whole of England and legate of the apostolic see, was on that 
day [Christmas] at York, being sent on behalf of the king 
to speak with William, king of Scots, of the contracting of 
marriage between Otto, son of Henry duke of Saxony and 
nephew of Richard king of England, with Margaret, [king 
William's] daughter. 

For it had been agreed between Richard king of England 
and king William of Scotland that the same king of Scotland 
should give to the aforesaid Otto his daughter Margaret as 
wife, with the whole of Lothian ; and that the king of England 
should give to Otto and to the daughter of the king of 
Scotland and their heirs the whole of Northumbria and the 
county of Carlisle : and that the king of England should 

1 Placed among events of June. 


have in keeping the whole of Lothian, with its castles ; and 
the king of Scotland should have in keeping the whole of 
Northumbria and the county of Carlisle, with their castles. 

But because the queen of Scots was at this time pregnant 
the king of Scotland refused to stand by the aforesaid con- 
vention, hoping that the Lord would give him a son. l 


ROGER HOVEDEN, CHRONICA, VOL. IV, PP. 10-12, S.A. 1196. 2 

In the same year 3 William, king of Scots, collected a 
large army, and entered Moray to subdue Harold Macmadit, 4 
who had occupied that land. But before the king entered 
Caithness Harold fled to his ships, refusing to enter into 
battle against the king. 

Then the king of Scots sent his army to Thurso, the vill 
of the aforesaid Harold, and destroyed his castle situated 

And seeing that the king would wholly destroy his land 
Harold came to the feet of the king and placed himself at 
his mercy ; chiefly because a storm raged on the sea, and 
the wind was against him in his wish to go to Orkney island. 
And he swore to the king that he would bring to him all his 
enemies when the king should return another time to Moray, 
and on this condition the king permitted him to hold the 
half of Caithness ; and the other half of Caithness the king 
gave to Harold the younger, the grandson of Ronald, formerly 
earl of Orkney and of Caithness. 

1 Alexander II was not born till August, 1198 ; infra. 

2 Chr. of Melr., 103, s.a. 1197: "A battle took place in Moray near 
the castle of Inverness, between the king's men and Roderic and Torfinn, son 
of earl Harold. But by God's providence the king's enemies were put to 
flight, and the aforesaid Roderic was slain and perished with many others. 
In all things blessed be God, who has betrayed the wicked ! 

" Afterwards the same king William with his army set out for Moray 
and for the other remoter districts of his land ; and there he took earl Harold, 
and caused him to be kept in the castle of Roxburgh until his son Torfinn 
should give himself as a hostage for his father." 

3 This is placed after an event of the 15th June. 

4 I.e., " son of Madad." He is called Maddatharson in the Flatey Jar- 
bok ; Icel. Sagas, ii, 225. Madad (Madadh ?) or Madach was earl of Atholl 
and cousin of king David. Harold had been earl of Orkney from his child- 
hood in 1139, in conjunction with Ronald, mentioned below. 

In L.V.E.D., 100, appears the family of Harold's elder brother : 
" Malcolm, son of Madach," [in text Mai. et ; read Madi., as in Sc. Peer., i, 
417, q.v.] " earl of Atholl ; Hextilda daughter of Utred," [Waldeve's son,] 
" his wife ; Simon, his son ; Henry, his son. Duncan, [Henry's] brother ; 
Bethoc, his sister ; Kelehathonin, her son ; Christina, [Henry's] sister ; 
Margaret, his sister ; Constantin, his nephew." , 


Thereafter the king returned to his own land, and Harold 
to Orkney. 

Thereafter in autumn the king of Scots went back into 
Moray, as far as to Nairn, to receive from Harold his 
enemies ; but when Harold had brought them as far as the 
harbour of Loch Loy, near to Nairn, he allowed them to go 
away ; and late, when the king returned from hunting, 
Harold came to him bringing with him two boys, his grand- 
sons, to give up to the king as hostages. 

And when he was asked by the king where were his enemies 
whom he ought to have given up, and where was Torfinn, 
his son, whom he had promised to give as hostage, he replied : 
" I have allowed them to go away, knowing that if I had 
given them up to you they would not escape your hands ; 
but my son I have not been able to bring, because in that 
land there is no other heir." 

Therefore because he had not kept the agreements which 
he had made with his lord the king, it was adjudged that he 
should remain in captivity of the king until his son should 
come and become a hostage. And because that he had 
allowed the king's enemies to go away, he was judged to have 
been unworthy of the land which he held of the king. 

And the king took Harold with him to the castle of Maidens 
and held him in chains, until his men brought from Orkney 
his son Torfinn, and giving him as hostage to the lord king 
released Harold from the king's prison. 

And Harold returned to Orkney, and dwelt there in peace 
and quiet until Harold the younger received from Swerre 
Birkbein, king of Norway, permission to claim the half of 
Orkney, and brought with him Si ward Murd from Hegland 
and many other warriors, and invaded Orkney. 

And Harold the elder would not enter battle with him, 
but leaving Orkney departed to the island of Man ; and 
there collected a fleet and many men. 

Likewise did Harold the younger, and went to the island 
of Man, wishing to meet with Harold the elder ; but before 
his arrival Harold the elder entered Orkney by another way 
with his fleet, and slew all whom he found in Orkney. 

Hearing this, Harold the younger returned to Caithness 
at Wick, and fought with Harold the elder ; and in that 
battle Harold the younger and all his army were slain. 

Thus when Harold the younger was slain, Harold the 
elder came to the king of Scots by conduct of Roger and 
Ronald bishops of St. Andrews and Rosemarkie, and offered 


the king plenty of gold and of silver to have again Cathania, 
that is to say, Caithness. 

And the king replied to him that he would give him that 
land if he dismissed his wife, the daughter of Malcolm [Mac- 
beth,] x and took again his former spouse, the daughter of 
Duncan, earl of Fife ; and gave to him as hostage Laurence, 
his priest, and Honaver, 2 son of Ingemund. But this Harold 
refused to do. 

Therefore Ronald, 3 son of Somerled and king of Man, 
came to William king of Scots and bought Caithness from 
him, saving the king's yearly revenue. 


In the same year 4 William, king of Scots, taking an example 
of good made the men of his kingdom swear that they would 
preserve peace to the extent of their power, and that they 
would not be robbers nor thieves, nor outlaws, nor receivers 
of them, and that they would not in anything consent with 
them ; and that when they should be able to know of male- 
factors of this kind, they would to the extent of their power 
take and destroy them. 


In the same year Roger, brother of earl Robert of Leicester, 
bishop elect of St. Andrews in Scotland, received the order 
of priesthood and the episcopal consecration from Matthew, 
bishop of Aberdeen. 5 

1198, Aug. 

Of the birth of Alexander, son of William, king of Scotland. 
In the same year, in the month of August, Ermengard 

1 In text Machaz, as if the modern Mackay (mac Aoidh). Eth is the 
spelling of Aed (modern Aodh), in R. de D. ; supra, Introductory. 

For Malcolm Macbeth or Mac Heth v. supra, 1134x 1151, note. 

2 MS. I reads Bonaver. 

3 For Ronald, king of the Isles, see the Chr. Reg. Man., in Langebek, 
iii, 226-230. 

4 Placed at the end of the events of the year. This paragraph is omitted 
by MS. G. 

5 Roger was the second son of Robert III, earl of Leicester. (Cf. Dugd., 
Bar., i, 88.) The Chr. of Melr., 103, places his consecration on the first 
Sunday in Lent, 1198 [15th February.] For his election v. supra, s.a. 1188. 
He lived till 1202. V. infra, s.a. 1200. 


queen of Scots bore her first-born son, and his name was 
called Alexander. And Joscelin, venerable bishop of the 
church of Glasgow, baptized him. 



In the same year [1198], after the death of master Richard 
of Coldingham, Philip, bishop of Durham, and Bertram, 
prior of the church of Durham, disagreed about the presen- 
tation of the churches of Richard aforesaid. 

For the bishop said that the presentation pertained to 
him, as to the bishop and abbot of the church of Durham. 

Against this the prior replied that the presentation per- 
tained to him, because his predecessors and himself had given 
them without opposition of any, as priors and lords of the 
soil, and as those who have all authority of the abbot in the 
choir, and in disposition of his house and revenues, by con- 
cession of the kings and appointment of the bishops of Durham 
and by confirmation of the Roman pontiffs. 

But not thus was that controversy stilled ; but rose in- 
deed to such height that, by command of the bishop, Aimeric 
archdeacon of Durham besieged the church of St. Oswald 
in Elvet, in which the monks had taken refuge ; and permitted 
not provisions to be brought to them. 

And on a certain day, after appeal- had been made by the 
monks to the chief pontiff, the same Aimeric caused fire to 
be applied to the door of the church, in order thus by smoke 
and fumes of the fire to drive out the monks. When therefore 
the door was half-burnt, his evil satellites entered the church, 
and drove out the monks with force and an armed hand. 

But God turned the mind of the bishop to a better way ; 
and through reverence for the most holy Cuthbert he granted 
the same church for the proper uses of the monks, and con- 
firmed it with his charter. He also yielded to them the free 
disposition of their churches, although with his modified 

1199, Mar. 


In the same year [1199], on the day of St. Patrick, namely 
the sixteenth 2 before the Kalends of April, the fourth day 

1 Cf. supra, 1127, July. 

2 17th March, a Wednesday in 1199. 


of the week, Joscelin, venerable bishop of the church of Glas- 
gow, died at Melrose, where he had been a venerated abbot ; 
and there he was buried, in the choir of the monks, in the 
north side of the church. 

1199, Apr. 


Under this agreement 2 the above-named earls and barons 3 
swore to John, duke of Normandy, fealty and faithful service 
against all men. 

And William, king of Scots, sent his messengers to John, 
duke of Normandy, asking for his patrimony to be restored 
to him, namely Northumbria and Cumbria, with their appur- 
tenances ; and he would swear fealty to him, and serve him 
faithfully against all men. 

But [Hubert], archbishop of Canterbury, and William 
Marshal and Geoffrey Fitz Peter did not permit the messengers 
of the king of Scotland to sail over to the duke ; but 
announced to [William] by earl David, his brother, that he 
should wait patiently till the duke came to England. 

Likewise John duke of Normandy announced to William 
king of Scots by Eustace de Vescy, his brother-in-law, 4 that 
on his return to England he would satisfy him regarding all 
his petitions, if meanwhile he preserved peace with him. 5 

1199, May. 


Meanwhile William, prior of [the isle of] May, and Walter, 
prior of the Island of St. Columba, 6 and William de Haye, 
sent on behalf of William king of Scotland, came to king 
John of England ; and by them the king of Scots asked from 

1 Cf. R.W., i, 285. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 453. 

2 " That the aforesaid John, duke of Normandy, should give to each 
of them his right, if they themselves kept faith and peace with him." Hoved., 
iv, 88. Cf. R.W., i, 285. 

3 " Those of whom [Hubert of Canterbury, William Marshal and Geoffrey 
Fitz Peter] had the greatest doubt," Hoved., iv, 88. First in the list is 
" David, brother of the king of Scots." (So Ann. of Burt., in A.M., i, 199.) 

4 Cf. R.W., ii, 194 : " For the said Eustace had a sister of the king of 
Scotland to wife." Cf. infra, s.a. 1216. 

5 Cf. R.W., i, 285 : " And [Hubert of Canterbury and William Mar- 
shall] announced to William, king of Scots, by Eustace de Vescy that upon 
[John's] return to England he would satisfy him of his right in England, if 
meanwhile he kept faith and peace with him." (R.W. omits mention of 
William's messengers to John.) Cf. M.P., H.A., ii, 78. 

6 Inchcolm. 


the king of England Northumbria and Cumbria with their 
appurtenances, by right of his patrimony. And he promised 
that, if the king gave them back to him, he would faithfully 
serve him with all his strength ; but if not, he would acquire 
his whole right, if he could. 

And to this king John replied : " When your lord the 
king of Scots, my dearest cousin, comes to me, I shall do for 
him what is just, in this and the rest of his petitions." 

Then John, king of England, sent Philip, bishop of Dur- 
ham, to meet the king of Scots, hoping that he would come 
at his command ; and he himself meanwhile came to Notting- 
ham, and was there on the day of Pentecost ; 1 and tarried 
in those parts awaiting the arrival of the king of Scots. 

But the king of Scots refused to come ; but sent again to 
the king of England Roger, bishop of St. Andrews, and Hugh 
Malebysse, whom the king of England had sent for him, and 
asked that the king of England would give him back North- 
umbria and Cumbria ; but if not, let him know for certain 
that according to his power he would acquire them : and to 
have the king of England's answer about this he fixed a truce 
of forty days, and himself meanwhile gathered a large army. 
And the bishop of St. Andrews and Richard Malebysse followed 
the king of England, as he hastened to the sea. 

Meanwhile king John of England gave in keeping to William 
de Estuteville Northumbria and Cumbria, with their castles 
and counties, which Hugh Bardolf had kept ; and restored 
to Roger de Lacy, constable of Chester, his castle of Pomfret, 
taking from him first his son and heir as hostage. 

1199, July. 


In the same year died Hugh, elect of the church of Glasgow 
on the sixth 2 before the Ides of July ; and he was buried 
at Jedburgh. 

1199, Oct. 


In the same year, in the month of October, William 
Malvoisin was elected as bishop of the church of Glasgow. 

1 6tti June, 2 JOth July. 




In the same year there was in England and in its terri- 
tories such an inundation of waters that bridges and mills 
and houses were carried away. 

And as the bridge of Berwick had been carried away, 
when by command of William king of . Scots earl Patrick, 
warden of Berwick, and at that time chief justiciar of the 
whole kingdom of the Scots, wished to rebuild the bridge of 
Berwick, it was forbidden him on the part of Philip, bishop 
of Durham, to plant the bridge upon his land. 

But that bridge could not be made, unless it were planted 
upon the land of the bishop of Durham as it had been before. 

But at last the aforesaid bishop of Durham by counsel of 
William de Estuteville permitted the bridge to be made, and 
to be planted upon his land ; preserving the agreement which 
had been made between the king of Scotland and Hugh, bishop 
of Durham, his predecessor. 



In the same year [1199] when William, king of Scots, was 
in the purpose of coming into England with an army, he went 
to the tomb (which is at Dunfermline l ) of St. Margaret, 
formerly queen of the Scots, and passed the night there. 

And being warned in his dreams by a divine oracle not 
to invade England with an army, he allowed his army to 
return home. 

1 200 


III, P. 106. 

[Akarius] 2 received the abbacy [of Peterborough] at 
Rogation time, 3 and found not fodder, nor food, nor substance 
of any kind wherewith he might maintain his house for one 
day. For the bishop 4 of St. Andrews of Scotland, to whom 

1 For an agreement between the monks of Dunfermline and of Durham 
v. L.V.E.D., obituary, 137. 

2 Abbot 1200-1210; ibid., 105; 104, 107, notes. (Cf. Hoved., iv, 116, 
who names him Zacharias.) 

3 Rogation Sunday was the 14th May in 1200. The abbacy had been 
vacant since 1199 ; marginal note, ibid., 104. 

4 Roger died in 1202. Chr. of Melr., 104. 


king [John] had given the guardianship, had left nothing, 
but had carried away everything, as much as he could. 

1200, Sept. 

In the same year, on the ninth 1 before the Kalends of 
October, namely on a Saturday of the Four Seasons, the 
next before the feast of St. Michael, William, surnamed 
Malvoisin, elect of the church of Glasgow, was ordained as 
priest at Lyons, by - , 2 archbishop of that city. And 
there on the morrow, Sunday to wit. the eighth before the 
Kalends of October, he was consecrated as bishop of Glasgow 
by the same archbishop, by mandate of the lord pope Innocent 

1200, Oct. 


And king John of England immediately after his coro- 
nation 4 sent Philip, bishop of Durham, and Roger Bigot, 
earl of Norfolk, and Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford, nephew 
of king William of Scotland, and David, earl of Huntingdon, 
brother of the same king of Scotland, and Roger de Lacy, 
constable of Chester ; and William de Vescy , and Robert de Ross, 
sons-in-law of the same king of Scotland, and Robert Fitz 
Roger, sheriff of Northumberland, to William king of Scots 
with royal letters patent of safe-conduct to bring the king of 
Scots to the king of England ; and fixed for him a day for 
coming to him at Lincoln, 5 on the morrow 6 of St. Edmund's 

1200, Nov. 

And on the day following, namely, on the first Wednes- 
day 7 after the feast of St. Edmund, king John held his 
conference with lord William, king of Scotland, who had 

1 23rd September. 

2 Reginald de Forez, archbishop 1195-1226. (Stubbs.) 

3 Cf. R.W., i, 302. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 467 ; H.A., ii, 88. Feed., i, 121. 

4 Of the 8th October ; ibid., 139. 

8 R.W., i, 302 : " That he might there satisfy him of his right." So 
M.P., Chr. Maj., H.A., u.s. 

6 21st November. So R.W., u.s. ; M.P., H.A., u.s, 

7 22nd November. 


arrived with Roland prince of Galloway and with many other 
nobles with great pomp at Lincoln, to do his homage, which 
he had deferred till that time, to the king of England. l 

1200, Nov. 


In the same month of November, the eleventh 3 before the 
Kalends of December, king John of England and William 
king of Scotland met at Lincoln. 

And on the morrow 4 ... he and William, king of 
Scots, met for a conference outside of the city of Lincoln, upon 
a high mountain, and there in the sight of all the people 
William king of Scots became the vassal of John, king of 
England, for his right, 5 and swore to him over the cross of 
Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, fealty in life and limbs 
and his earthly honour against all men,* and in the preser- 
vation of peace for him and his kingdom, saving his own 
right ; with these witnesses : Hubert of Canterbury, John 
of Dublin, Bernard of Ragusa, archbishops ; and Philip of 
Durham, William of London, Gilbert of Rochester, Eustace 
of Ely, Savaric of Bath, Herbert of Salisbury, and Geoffrey 
of Winchester, and Giles of Hereford, and John of Norwich, 
and Roger of St. Andrews in Scotland, and Henry of Llandaff, 
and [Robert of Shrewsbury] of Bangor, and [Simon Rochford] 
of Meath, bishops ; and Geoffrey Fitz Peter, justiciar of 
England, earl of Essex, and Roger Bigot, earl of Norfolk, 
and Hamelin, earl of Warenne, and Baldwin de Bethune, 
earl of Albemarle, and William, earl of Salisbury, and Henry 

1 " And there at that time three archbishops and nearly all the nobles 
of either realm had assembled," R. of C., 110. 

At the time of their conference bishop Hugh of Lincoln's body was 
brought to Lincoln ; and the two kings with the archbishops and tHe others 
went out to meet it. R. of C., 110-111. Cf.Hoved., iv, 141. R. de D., ii, 171. 
Ann. of Burt., in A.M., i, 202. This took place on Thursday, 23rd Novem- 
ber, 1200 ; v. Magna Vita S. Hugonis, 370,. 353, Ixvii. 

2 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 472. 

Cf. Ann. of Marg., in A.M., i, 25 : " About the feast of St. Edmund a 
council assembled at Lincoln, and the king of Scotland did homage to the 
king of England." 

Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 74 : " There came together at Lincoln 
John, king of England, and William, king of Scotland, and almost all the 
magnates of the whole of England, to treat of the state of the kingdom." 

3 21st November. 

4 22nd November. R.W. places the conference upon the 21st ; i, 307. 
So M.P., u.s. 

5 I.e. " for his possessions " ; in England naturally. But he " did 
homage to king John for all his right," according to R.W., i, 308 ; M.P. ; u.s. 

So far cf. R.W., i, 307-308. 


de Bohun, earl of Hereford, and [Richard,] earl of Clare, and 
[William,] earl of Ferrieres, and David, brother of William 
king of Scots, earl of Huntingdon, and Roland, son of Utred 
Fergus' son, prince of the Galwegians, and Patrick, earl of 
Lothian, and Griffin son of Rhys, king of South Wales, and 
many others from the kingdom of Scotland ; and in presence 
of the barons of England and Normandy, namely : Roger, 
constable of Chester, and Eustace de Vescy, and Robert de 
Ross, and William de Estuteville, and Ralph chamberlain 
of Tanker ville, and Warin Fitz Gerald, and Stephen de Turn- 
ham, and Robert his brother, and Gilbert Basset, and Thomas 
and Alan his brothers, and Roger de Huntingfield, and Saer 
de Quincy, and William de Hastings, and Jollan de Neville, 
and Simon de Chancy, and Gerard de Cam ville, and many 
others of the barons of England and Normandy. 
' And thus having performed his homage king William of 
Scotland asked of his lord John, king of England, the whole 
of Northumbria and Cumberland and Westmoreland, as his 
right and heritage. And when there had been long discussion 
about this, and no agreement could be come to between them, 
the king of England asked from the king of Scotland a truce 
for deliberation until Whitsunday next to come. 1 

And granting this, William king of Scotland in the earliest 
morning on the morrow (to wit the ninth 2 before the Kalends 
of December, the fifth day of the week,) returned to his own 
district under conduct of the aforesaid who had conducted 
him to the king of England. 

1200, Nov. 


In the same year Duncan, son of Gilbert Fergus' son, 
carried off Avelina, daughter of Alan Fitz Walter, lord of 
Renfrew, before William king of Scotland returned from 
England into his own land. 

And hence that king was exceeding wroth ; and he took 
from Alan Fitz Walter twenty-four pledges that he would 
preserve peace with him and with his land, and take the law 
about this claim. 

1200, Dec. 


In the same year, in the month of December, Roland 

1 13th May, 1201. 2 23rd November, a Thursday in 1200. 


prince of Galloway died in England at Northampton, on the 
fourteenth 1 before the Kalends of January, the third day of 
the week. And there he was buried, at the abbey of St. 

1200, Dec. 


On the same day [of Christmas] William, king of Scots, 
was in his land at Lanark. 

1 20 1, Feb. 


In the same year, on the vigil 3 of the Purification of St. 
Mary, William bishop of Glasgow landed in England at Dover, 
returning from his consecration. 

1 20 1, Mar. 


On the same day [of Easter, 1201] 5 William, king of Scots, 
was in Scotland at Carlisle. 6 

1 20 1, May. 


Then the king of England sent Geoffrey, bishop of Chester, 
and Richard Malebysse, and Henry de Puteaco to William, 
king of Scots, and asked that in the petition which he had 
made regarding the county of Northumbria the term for reply, 
which the king of [Scotland] 7 had fixed for him at Whitsun- 
tide, should be postponed until the feast of St. Michael. 8 



In the same year [1201] died Constance, mother of Arthur, 
duke of Brittany. 

In the same year died Margaret, mother of the aforesaid 
Constance, sister of William king of Scotland, and mother 
of Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford. 

1 19th December, a Tuesday in 1200. 

2 Omitted by MSS. G and D. 3 1st February. 
4 Not in MSS. G and D. 5 25th March. 

6 Karel ; Grail ? (Carel is Carlisle in Chr. of Melr., 60 ; cf. S. of D., H.R., 
ii, 220.) 

7 Hoved. : " of England." 8 29th September. 
9 Cf. Ann. of Burt., in A.M., i, 208-209. 


ca. 1207 


442. ! 

In Lothian, of the king of Scotland, [are] : 
The abbacy of Newbattle, St. Mary's ; white monks. 
The abbacy of Melrose, St. Mary's; white monks. 
The abbacy of Dryburgh ; white canons. 
The abbacy of Kelso, St. Mary's ; grey monks. 
The abbacy of Coldstream ; black nuns. 
The priory of Coldingham ; black monks. 
The abbacy of Jedburgh ; black canons. 
The priory of Haddington ; white nuns. 
The abbacy of Edinburgh ; black canons. 
The priory of South Berwick ; white monks. 
The priory of North Berwick ; black nuns. 
The priory of Eccles ; white nuns. 

In the earldom of Fife in Scotland : 

The bishopric of St. Andrews ; black canons and culdees. 
The abbacy of holy Trinity, of Dunfermline ; black monks. 
The abbacy of Stirling ; black canons. 
The priory of May ; black monks, of Reading. 
In the isle of St. Columba, 2 black canons. 
The abbacy of Lindores ; monks of Tiron. 
The priory of Perth ; black monks. 
The abbacy of Scone ; black canons. 
The abbacy of Cupar ; white monks. 
The priory of Roslin ; black canons. 
The abbacy of Arbroath ; monks of Tiron. 
The bishopric of Dunkeld, of St. Columba ; black canons 
and culdees. 

1 The Mappa Mundi was written " in this time of our king John " ; ibid., 
ii, 414. Cf. the list given by H. de S., ca. 1272, in H. & S., ii, 181-182, and 

Cf. G. of C., M.M., ii, 448 : " Of Scotland. In the kingdom of Scotland 
the bishops, who have no archbishop, are these : the bishop of St. Andrews, 
the bishop of Brechin, the bishop of Aberdeen, the bishop of Caithness, the 
bishop of Ross, the bishop of Dunkeld, the bishop of Dunblane, the bishop of 
Glasgow, the bishop of Galloway, the bishop of Argyle." 

Gervase of Tilbury adds the bishopric of Moray ; Otia Imperialia, in 
R. of C., 422-423 : " Under the bishop of York are the bishops of Durham 
and of Carlisle, and all the bishops of Scotland. . . . 

" The bishops of Scotland, in our times exempted, are assigned to the 
lord pope. And they are these : the episcopates of St. Andrews, of Glas- 
gow, the episcopates of Whithorn, Dunkeld, Dunblane, [Rosemarkie,]" (in 
text Ardmarchiensis ; read Rosmarchiensis ?) "Brechin, Aberdeen, Moray 
(or Moravia,) Caithness ; the episcopate of Argyle." This work was com- 
posed about 1214 ; Stevenson, ibid., p. xxiv, note. 

2 Inchcolm, previously called ^Emonia ; Fordun, V, 37. 


The bishopric of Brechin ; culdees. 

The bishopric of Aberdeen. 

The bishopric of Moray. 

The priory of Urquhart ; black monks of Dunfermline. 

The abbacy of Kinloss ; white monks. 

The bishopric of Ross ; culdees. 

The bishopric of Glasgow ; secular canons. 

The abbacy of St. Kinewin ; l monks of Tiron. 

The bishopric of Galloway : the abbacy of Whithorn, white 


The bishopric of Dunblane ; culdees. 
In lona, an abbacy ; culdees. 
Total, twenty-two. 



S.A. 1209.2 

How the king of the English made a treaty of friendship with 
the king of Scots. 

About these days John, king of the English, collected a 
great army and directed his standards and arms against 
Scotland. And coming into the province of the Northumbrians 

1 Kilwinning (the church of St. Vinin.) 

2 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 525; H.A., ii, 118-119. Fl. His., ii, 137-138. 

G. of C., G.R., ii, 102-103 : " And [John] sent letters and messengers 
to the king of Scotland, a man of distinguished sanctity, commanding him 
to restore to him three castles which he held of him in the borders of England 
and Scotland, or to send him his son as hostage. 

" And when the king of Scotland refused to carry out this command the 
king of England wished with a great army to snatch from him what he could 
not obtain by request, and to restore the castles aforesaid to his own domain. 

" When therefore the king of England advanced with a numerous army to 
Scotland, the knights who were in the army murmured, saying, ' Whither go 
we ? What do we ? We are as pagans, without Christianity, without the 
law of God. How then shall we be able to assail the holy man, that king of 
Scotland ? Assuredly God will fight against us for him, for whom he has 
done several miracles.' 

" So when these and other murmurings of his soldiers had been reported 
to the English king, lest haply the army should wholly forsake him, and for- 
sake him in the hour of combat, he commanded Geoffrey Fitz Peter prefect 
of England and certain other earls to apply their whole minds to the peace 
of Canterbury and of the English church, and to recall in peace to England 
both the archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops and monks. For the 
lord pope had given mandates to the bishops aforesaid to pronounce the 
sentence of excommunication upon the person of the king. . . . 

" And when the bishops aforesaid prepared their return to England, and 
the king of England advanced with a great army to Scotland, providing for 
the safety of his realm the king of Scotland wished rather to have peace than 
war, and to make provision for himself and his subjects by discretion rather 
than by war. So he sent his two daughters by trusty messengers to the 


to the castle which is called Norham, he there arrayed his 
ranks for battle against the king of Scots. 

And when this was announced to the king aforesaid he 
greatly feared [John's] attack, for he knew him to be eager 
for every cruelty. And he came to meet him, determining 
to treat for peace. 

But the English king was moved to rage and taunted him 
bitterly, accusing him of having received in his kingdom his 
fugitives and public enemies and of having afforded them 
aid and support, to his prejudice. 

But when the English king had charged the king afore- 
said with these and many other things at last through the 
efforts of friends of either king they made an agreement in 
this wise, to wit that the king of Scots should give to the 
king of the English for the benefit of peace twelve thousand 1 
marks of silver ; and moreover for greater security should 
give up to him his two daughters as hostages, that thereby 
a firmer peace should exist between them. 


The peace which had been initiated between the kings of 
English and of Scots was confirmed by means of a formal 

king of England, one, to wit, to be given by law of wedlock to his son, and 
the other to some one of the nobles of England. 

" He also sent him his son ; not however as a hostage, but to do the 
homage due for the aforesaid castles and other lands which he held. 

" Thus therefore peace was restored between the kings, and all returned 
to their own." 

Of. Ann. of Wav. in A.M., ii, 262 ; Ann. of Marg., ibid., i, 29. Ann. of 
St. Edm., in Mem. of St. Edm. Abb., ii, 17 ; J. of T., s.a. 1208, in Fl. of W.', 
ii, 168. Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 80. Ann. of Dunst., ibid., iii, 33, s.a. 

W. of C., ii, 200 : " King John led an expedition against William, 
king of Scotland ; and very quickly returned, after making peace and 
receiving as many hostages as he would." 

Ann. of Tewkesb., in A.M., i, 59 : " A quarrel arose between the king 
of England and the king of Scotland ; but they were pacified. Hostages 
also must be given for ever from Scotland according to the will of the kings 
of England." 

Cf. the Chr. of Melr., 108 ; Chr. of Lan., 7 ; the insertion in W. of C., 
Gale MS., ii, 200, note. 

John returned from Norham on the 28th of June ; R.W., ii, 2'09. M.P., 


1 M.P., H.A., ii, 119, has "eleven thousand" (in three MSS. ;) in one 
MS. " twelve," in another " nine." Fl. His., ii, 138, has " eleven." A pro- 
clamation of William to his subjects (Rymer, Fcedera, i, 103,) says " fifteen 
thousand." The Chr. of Lan., 7 ; Chr. of Melr., 108 ; and an insertion in 
Gale MS., W. of C., ii, 200, n., say " thirteen thousand." 


121 2, Mar. 


How the English king presented the king of Scotland's son, 
Alexander by name, with the belt of knighthood. 

In the year of the Lord 1212 king John was in Windsor 
at Christmas ; 2 and in the following Lent, on the Sunday 3 
when Lcetare Jerusalem is sung, the same king presented with 
the belt of knighthood Alexander, 4 the son and lawful heir 
of the king of Scots, in London, at St. Bride's. 5 


ABBEY, VOL. II, p. 20. 6 

A certain relative of the king of Scotland, by name Mac 
William, with a great host landed in Scotland and harried 
the chief part of the land, putting to death many of either 
sex, [and of every] condition and age : and this, as it is said, 
by the assent of certain magnates of Scotland. 

King John sent many Brabantines to the aid of the king 
of Scotland, their leader being a certain English noble. 

1 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 533. Fl. His., ii, 141. Ann. of St. Edm., in 
Mem. of St. Edm. Abb., ii, 20. J. of T., in Fl.of W., ii, 169 (s.a. 1211). R. 
of C., 164. W. of C., ii, 206, infra. Ann. of Wore., in A.M., iv, 400. 

2 25th December, 1211. 

3 I.e. 4th March, the fourth Sunday in Lent. So Ann. of St. Edm., u.s. ; 
and M.P., H.A., ii, 126. " In Easter," say the Ann. of Wore., u.s. 

4 " In the fourteenth year of his age," W. of C., ii, 207-208, n. (Cf. 
Chr. of Lan., 10; Chr. of Melr., 113.) 

Ann. of St. Edm., ii, 20 : " although small of stature, yet dignified 
[procerus] and of amiable appearance." 

5 " At London," R. of C., u.s. 

M.P., u.s., adds : " At St. Bride's, a hostel of Clerkenwell ; at table, 
while holding the feast." Ann. of St. Edm., u.s. : " at the house of the 
hostel ; . . . and [Alexander] knighted twelve nobles of Scotland upon the 
same day." 

6 Cf. W. of C., ii, 206, s.a. 1212 : " Since William, king of Scots, who 
was now of advanced age, was not able to pacify the interior districts of his 
kingdom, disturbed by revolt, he fled to the king of the English and in- 
trusted to his care himself, and his kingdom, and the only son whom he had. 

" And [John] presented [the son] who was commended to him with the 
belt of knighthood, and set out with an army to those parts ; and sending 
his men through the interior of the kingdom he seized the leader of the revolt, 
Cuthred, surnamed Mac William, and hanged him on the gallows. 

" [Cuthred] was of the ancient line of Scottish kings ; and, supported 
by the aid of Scots and Irish, had practised long hostility against the modern 
kings, now in secret, now openly, as had also his father Donald. 

" For the more recent kings of Scots profess themselves to be rather 
Frenchmen, both in race and in manners, language and culture ; and after 
reducing the Scots to utter servitude, they admit only Frenchmen to their 
friendship and service." 




Thereafter, 2 when [John] had sat down to table and was 
putting out his hands for food and drink, a messenger came 
to the king on behalf of the king of Scotland, who offered him 
letters regarding treason foreseen against him. After this 
came another messenger, on behalf of the daughter 3 of the 
king, the wife to wit of Llewellyn, king of Wales. . . . 

But the letters, although coming from different districts, 
had yet one and the same import, namely that if the king 
went to the war that had begun he would either be slain by 
his own nobles or given up for destruction to the enemy. . . . 4 

1 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 534. A different account is in W. of C., ii, 207. 

2 After causing the Welsh hostages to be hanged, on his way to subdue 
a rising of the Welsh. 

3 John's illegitimate daughter Joanna. 

4 John demanded hostages from the barons : Eustace de Vescy took 
refuge in Scotland, R.W., ii, 62. Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii. 534. Ann. of Wore., 
in A.M., iv, 400. 




1214. 1 

THE lord of pious memory William, king of Scotland, died 
after reigning more than fifty years. And his son Alexander 
succeeded him in the kingdom. 



And it was said that both the hand of Alexander, king of 
Scots, and that of Llewellyn, prince of North Wales, were with 
[the barons.] 2 



Then king [John] fired by vehement anger advanced toward 
the districts of Scotland to this side of the sea ; and after taking 
the castle of Berwick and others which seemed impregnable, 
he taunted king Alexander, and because he was red-haired 
sent word to him, saying, " so shall we hunt the red fox-cub 
from his lairs." 

He would thus have wrought much slaughter and destruc- 
tion there, had not great need recalled him, brooking no delay. 4 

1 Cf. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 281. W. of C., ii, 217. The day of 
William's death is given in an obituary of Durham as the 8th of December ; 
L.V.E.D., 152. He died on the 4th ; Sc. Peer., i, 4. 

2 I.e. against king John. So earl David opposed John, W. of C., ii, 
225. But Alan of Galloway (constable of Scotland, M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 590) 
was on John's side, (15th June, 1215 ;) R. of W., ii, 119;-M.P., u.s., ii, 589. 
For the section of Magna Carta concerning Alexander II v. Stubbs, Select 
Charters, 296. 

3 Cf. M.P., H.A., ii, 172. 

4 R. of C., 178, says that John advanced to the Forth. Cf. R.W., ii, 
166 : " But while [the barons] slept the king slept not, but recovered into 
his power all their lands and possessions, their fortresses and castles, from 
the southern sea to the Scottish sea." So M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 641. V. Chr. 
of Lan., 17-18. 



King [John] advancing further came to the castle of Ber- 
wick ; and after taking the fortress and harrying the land he 
returned to his own. And in going and returning he wasted 
lands and took castles, and there was none to oppose him. For 
the king of Scots was still a youth, as also were some of his 
associates ; and he had hidden himself in the remoter districts. 



[Louis] wrote 2 also to the king of Scots and to all the chief 
men of England who had not yet done him homage, bidding 
them come to fealty to him or in haste depart from the realm 
of England. 



The king of Scots subdued to Louis the whole province of 
the Northumbrians, excepting the castles which Hugh de Balliol 
and Philip de Hulecotes 4 defended most vigorously against the 
enemy's attacks. 




At the same time, in the month of August, Alexander king 
of Scots came with a large army, through fear of king John, 

1 So M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 654 ; H.A., ii, 180. 

2 After the 14th June. 

3 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 663 ; H.A., ii, 183. 

4 To them John had intrusted " the whole land between the river Tees 
and Scotland," R.W., ii, 166; M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 641. M.P., H.A., ii, 172. 

5 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., ii, 666; H.A., ii, 186-187. Abbr. Chr., in M.P., 
H.A., iii, 236. 

R. of C., 183 (after an episode of the -16th July) : " Alexander, king 
of Scots, and the barons of Northumbria came to Canterbury to sir Louis." 
W. of C., ii, 230 : "And the northern [barons] along with the king of Scots 
went to sir Louis ; and they too did him fealty and homage." 

Cf. Chr. of Melr., 123-124 ; Chr. of Lan., 19 ; W. of C., Gale MS., ii, 
231, note. 

B.C., 104, s.a. 1216 : " In that year Alexander, king of Scotland, did 
homage to Louis, but feignedly, as it has been said ; and returned in sorrow 
to his own." 

Alexander was included in the terms of peace between Henry III and 
Louis in September, 1217 ; Feed., i, 221, 


to Louis at Dover, and did him homage for the possessions 
which he must hold of the king of England. 

But on the way to Louis, while he passed by Barnard Castle, l 
which was of the land of Hugh de Balliol, and situated in the 
province of Haliwercfolc, the said king went round the castle 
with the chief men of that district, to see if it were assailable 
on any side, [and] a certain ballistary who was in the castle shot 
a dart and struck in the forehead Eustace de Vescy, a noble 
and powerful man ; and his brain being pierced as well as his 
head, he immediately expired. 2 

Now the said Eustace had to wife the sister 3 of the king of 
Scotland ; and hence the king and the whole assembly of barons 
were greatly distressed in mind. 

The king also, after doing homage as has been said above, 
returned to his own. 4 



p. 291. 5 

Earl David, 6 brother of king William of Scotland, died. 



Thereafter 8 in the festival of St. Barnabas the apostle 9 
the English king Henry and the Scottish king Alexander met 
for a conference at York. And there was discussed between 
them the contracting of marriage between the king of Scotland 
and the sister 10 of the king of England. And there a treaty 
was confirmed, and the king of Scots returned to his own. 

1 Named after Bernard de Balliol; cf. supra, a. 1138. 

2 Cf. W. of C., ii, 234. 

3 Margaret, an illegitimate daughter of William the Lion by the daughter 
of Adam de Hythus ; Chr. of Melr., s.a. 1193. 

4 Cf. W. of C., ii, 233. 

5 Cf. W. of C., ii, 241. 

6 " Namely the earl of Huntingdon," W. of C., u.s. 

T Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., iii, 58 ; H.A., ii, 241. Fl. His., ii, 170-171. 

8 After the coronation of Henry III on the 17th May, 1220 ; R.W., ii, 
253 ; R. of C., 187. 

9 llth June. 

1 " Joanna," M.P., Chr. Maj., H.A. ; FL His., u.s. 

Hoved., iv, 138, states that Philip of France had promised to Alexander 
his daughter by Agnes of Meran, his marriage with whom was pronounced 
(7th September, 1200) to be illegal. His daughter was then five years old. 
Cf. also Hoved., iv, 173-174. 


1 220 


In the same year [1220], in the month of June, 1 the king of 
Scotland betrothed himself at York to the sister of King Henry 
of England. And for this reason the same king of England 
conceded to him five thousand marks, and promised to marry 
his two sisters (whom he had in keeping) within a year, without 
mesalliance, or to restore them to him in freedom. 2 



1221. 3 

King Henry gave Joanna his eldest 4 sister as wife to Alex- 
ander, king of Scotland ; and she was married at York on the 
morrow 5 of St. John the Baptist ; and the nuptials were 
solemnly celebrated in presence of the kings. 6 

Hubert de Burgh also in the same city took to wife the sister 
of the said king of Scotland. 7 

1 Cf. the announcements of both kings on the 15th June, 1220 ; Feed., 
i, 240-241. 

2 For the marriage of Margaret v. infra, s.a. 1221 ; of Isabella (in 1225 
to the earl of Norfolk) v. Feed., i, 278. 

3 Cf. G. of C., ii, 112, s.a. 1221. R. of C., 190. M.P., H.A., ii, 248. 
Fl. His., ii, 173. W. of C., ii, 249. Ann. of Tewkesb., in A.M., i, 65. Ann. 
of Winch., ibid., ii, 84. Ann. of Wav., ibid., ii, 294-295. Ann. of Wore., 
ibid., iv, 413. 

Cf. Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 69, s.a. 1221 : " Coming therefore to 
York [Henry] gave his sister [Joanna] as queen to the king of Scotland, who 
was then present there. She was then said to be eleven years old, and had 
been previously betrothed to Hugh le Brun. And they celebrated nuptials 
with great ceremony." 

Joanna was born on the 22nd July, 1210 ; Ann. of Tewkesb., in A.M., 
i, 59. Ann. of Wore., ibid., iv, 399. 

For le Brun, Hugh de Lusignan, count de la Marche, cf. M.P., Chr. 
Maj., ii, 573. He married Joanna's mother Isabella instead ; Ann. of Dunst., 
in A.M., iii, 57, s.a. 1220. 

4 So Ann. of Tewkesb., u.s. ; Ann. of Wore., u.s. " The eldest daughter 
of John," W. of C., ii, 249. 

6 25th June. "On Whitsunday," R. of C., 196: i.e., the 30th May. 
Cf. the charter of Alexander's gifts to the queen on 18th June, 1221 ; Feed., 
i, 252. 

6 " Walter de Gray, archbishop of the aforesaid city [of York], performing 
the ceremony in the presence of very many magnates of either [realm]." 
W. of C., ii, 249. 

7 Cf. s.a. 1222, Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 76 : " Hubert de Burgh, 
justiciar of the lord king, took to wife the daughter of the king [of Scotland] " ; 
" Margaret by name," M.P., H.A., ii, 248. " Margaret, eldest daughter of 
William, king of Scotland, and sister of king Alexander," W. of C., ii, 250. 

Fl. His., ii, 173, s.a. 1221 : " In the same year Hubert de Burgh, (then 
justiciar of England,) took to wife (and married in the city of London) the 
sister of the said king of Scotland, namely Margaret ; (the lord king being 
present, with master Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, and other mas- 




PP. 77-78. 1 
In the same year [1222] a certain bishop 2 of the kingdom 

nates of the land: the said archbishop conducting the ceremony of 
marriage.") The parts in brackets are omitted by MS. E, which places the 
marriage (rightly) " in the same city " of York. 

In 1231 Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, accused Hubert de Burgh 
before the pope of having as wife the cousin of his former wife. M.P., Chr. 
Maj., iii, 205. 

In R.W., iii, 33, one of the charges ("false charges," M.P., Chr. Maj., 
iii, 221) brought by Henry III against Hubert de Burgh in 1232 is that John 
had intrusted to him the care of Margaret, intending Henry to marry her, but 
that Hubert had seduced her, and afterwards married her " hoping for the 
kingdom of the Scots, if she should survive her brother." Cf. M.P., Chr. 
Maj., iii, 222. So again in 1239 ; ibid., iii, 618. But cf. infra, s.a. 1234. 

Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., vi, 70-72 : " Also that he should answer for this, 
that when on one occasion the lord king William of Scotland gave his two 
daughters to the lord king John, and whereas the elder ought to have been 
married to the lord king [Henry] or to earl Richard, if the lord king should 
die, for which marriage also the same king William quit-claimed to king 
John all his right which he had in the lands of Cumberland, Westmoreland 
and Northumbria, and moreover gave him fifteen thousand marks of silver : 
[Hubert de Burgh] had married her before the lord king was of such age as 
to be able to decide whether he wished to have her as wife or not. And so, 
that when the lord king came to age he had to give the king of Scotland who 
is now two hundred librates of land for the quit-claiming of the aforesaid lands, 
because the former conventions had not been adhered to. And this not- 
withstanding that [Hubert] had previously married the countess of Glou- 
cester, who had formerly been wedded to the lord king John while he was an 
earl, and whom king John had intrusted to his guardianship, and marriage 
with whom [John] had previously sold to Geoffrey de Mandeville for twenty 
thousand marks ; and whereas either of them was bound to the other by 
relationship in a certain degree. 

" To this [Laurence of St. Albans] replies that he never knew of the con- 
vention made between the two kings, namely of marriage to be contracted 
with the lord king or with earl Richard ; but that she was to be given in 
marriage by the lord king with the advice of his magnates, and was given in 
marriage with their advice, is clear both from letters of lord Pandulf, then 
legate of England, and by letters of the archbishop of Canterbury, of bishops, 
of earls and of barons. Nor indeed could that convention have been an 
impediment if it had been made : for when she was married the king was of 
such age as to have been able to have contracted with her or with another if 
he had wished. 

" Concerning the relationship between the countess of Gloucester and the 
daughter of the king of Scotland he knows nothing. Concerning the two 
hundred librates of land offered to the king of Scotland, nothing was done by 
the earl of Kent. Concerning the countess of Gloucester he says that she 
was not in the guardianship of Hubert, but was her own mistress, and could 
marry whom she wished after the death of Geoffrey de Mandeville ; since 
the lord king John had previously sold marriage with the same countess to 
the said Geoffrey. 

" And if this does not suffice, he will say move ; and concerning this he 
is prepared [to do what his peers shall decide]." (The conclusion is supplied 
from ibid., 65.) 

1 For this affair cf. Chr. of Melr., 139, s.a. 1222 ; and the Flatey Book, 
in Icel. Sag., i, 229-230 ; ii, 232-233. 

2 Adam, previously abbot of Melrose ; he became bishop of Caithness in 


of Scotland, of the diocese of Caithness, sought from his sub- 
jects the tithes of hay concerning which both he and the earl of 
Caithness l had made promise to the king of Scotland. And 
while decreeing as bishop he caused his decree to be fortified 
by both the royal seal and the seal of the earl. 

But afterwards the earl was wroth about this, and went to 
the bishop in his county and, moved by rage, asked from him 
that the charter of the decree should be returned to him. 

And because the bishop refused to do this, [the earl] slew 
[the bishop's] chaplain, a monk to wit, in his presence ; and 
wounded to death in his sight a nephew of the bishop. And 
seeing this, the bishop said : " Even if thou slay me, I will 
never resign to thee the instruments of my church." 

Then the earl was roused to anger, and ordered the said 
bishop to be bound to the door-post in the kitchen ; and 
shutting the [outer] door, ordered the house to be set on fire. 

And when it had been wholly fired the bishop's chains were 
loosened, and he came to the [outer] door, as if unhurt, to go 
out ; but the earl, waiting outside to see the end, when he saw 
this caused the bishop to be cast into the fire, and ordered the 
two bodies of those previously slain to be thrown upon him. 
And so the three said martyrs for the defence of the right of the 
church departed to the Lord. 2 

And the most Christian king of the Scots would not leave 
so great sacrilege unpunished, but set out with an army to take 
the earl. 

But the earl heard this, and fled from the king's realm ; 
and in the manner of Cain wandering and in exile roamed about 
among the isles of the sea. And at last he made these terms 
with the king : first, that he and his heirs and his men would 
pay the tithes of hay ; and that within six months he would 
bring to the king's feet the cut-off heads of all those who had 
taken part in the said crime. He resigned also the half of 
his earldom into the king's hands. He also bestowed certain 
lands upon that church whose bishop he had slain. Moreover 
also he promised to go on foot to Rome, and to obey the 
mandate of the chief pontiff concerning these things. 

1213, August 5th. Chr. of Melr. He went to Rome in 1218, returning in 
1219, " in order to seek [Honorius Ill's] absolution " ; ibid., 135. 

1 John, earl of Orkney, son of Harold Madad's son by Hvarflada, the 
daughter of Malcolm, earl of Moray. Orkneyinga Saga, in Icel. Sag., i, 

2 The burning took place at Halkirk, on the 1 1th September, according 
to the Chr. of Melr., 139, 




p. 415. 

King Henry held a great parliament at Worcester with 
the magnates of England, among whom was the king of 
Scotland with his barons. 



382. 1 

In the year of the Lord 1230 at Christmas the English king 
Henry held his court at York with the king of Scots, whom he 
had invited to that festival ; the archbishop of the city being 
present, with earls, barons, knights, and an exceedingly large 
household. And there the said kings distributed much festive 
raiment to their knights. 

And the king of the English with sumptuous liberality 
bestowed upon the king of Scots valuable horses, along with 
many rings and jewels. 2 And the festival lasted for three days ; 
and they feasted each day magnificently, celebrating so great 
an occasion with exultation and rejoicing. 

But on the fourth day the assemblage was dismissed, and the 
king of Scots returned to his own district. The English king 
hastened to London. 



How the king of the English was restrained from wedding the 
sister of the Icing of Scots. 

At the same time ... in the month of October the king 
of the English returned to England, 

Indeed at that time the king purposed to take to wife . the 
sister of the king of Scots, to the indignation of all his earls and 
barons. 4 For, as they say, it was not fitting that the king 
should marry the younger sister when Hubert the justiciar 
had the elder united to him in wedlock. 

1 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., iii, 193 ; H.A., ii, 320. Fl. His., ii, 197. Abbr. 
Chr., in M.P., H.A., iii, 261. 

About Michaelmas of 1229 Scots and Galwegians had formed part of 
Henry Ill's army at Portsmouth : R.W., ii, 379; M.P., Chr. Maj., iii, 190. 

2 " And various gifts," adds M.P., u.s. 

3 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., iii, 206 ; H.A., ii, 336. FL His., ii, 201. 

4 " The marshal especially," adds M.P., u.s. This was Richard Marshal., 
fifth earl of Pembroke. 


But when the king was unwillingly restrained from this 
purpose by the earl of Brittany, 1 he gave to the earl of Brittany 
five thousand marks of silver, and so returned to his own 



pp. 128-129. 

And [Hubert de Burgh] having agreed upon the divorce of 
his third wife, to wit the daughter of the king of Scotland, 2 
for this cause that she was related to his second wife, namely 
the countess of Gloucester, 8 extended his wickedness by guileful 
machinations, by refusing the audience of good judges, and 
maliciously obtaining letters to three judges appointed in three 
corners of England. 

1232, Oct. 


At the same time Ranulf, earl of Chester and Lincoln, 
closed his last day at Wallingf ord on the fifth 5 before the 
Kalends of November. . . . 

In the earldom of Chester he was succeeded by John, 6 his 
nephew by his sister, and son of earl David, the brother of 
William king of Scots. 



S.A. 1234. 7 

. . . [King Henry] passed through St. Edmundsbury, 
and there, moved by pity, he granted to the wife of Hubert de 
Burgh 8 eight manors of the lands acquired from her husband, 

1 " By the marshal and the earl of Brittany," M.P., u.s. Peter Mauclerc 
was duke of Brittany from 1213 to 1237 : L'Art. iv, 71-72. 

2 At this time Margaret was in St. Edmundsbury, where Hubert de 
Burgh had joined her after a truce had been granted to him till the octave of 
Epiphany [13th January, 1232]; M.P., Chr. Maj., iii, 226. 

3 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., iii, 205. 

4 Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., iii, 229-230 ; H.A., ii, 349. 

5 28th October. 

6 For the death of John le Scot in 1237 (alleged to be of poison) v. M.P., 
Chr. Maj., iii, 394 ; H.A., ii, 398. Fl. His., ii, 400. 

7 After 2nd February. Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., iii, 271. 

Cf. Ann. of Tewkesb., in A.M., i, 92, s.a. 1233 : " Meanwhile the lord 
king went to St. Edmunds, and the countess of Kent was pacified with him ; 
and her daughter afterwards went to Bromholm for prayer." 

M.P., u.s., says that Margaret " completely humbled herself to him." 


which were then in the keeping of Robert Passelewe, by the 
mandate of the king. 



p. 143. 

In the same year [1235] the lord of Galloway died, and his 
four [daughters] l succeeded him. But because the people of 
the land refused to permit a division of the fief, a great slaughter 
took place. But at length through the valour of the king of 
Scotland the husbands 2 of the said [daughters] obtained their 
heritage, and the intruder was sent into exile. 

1235, Aug. 


p. 143.3 

In the same year, after the death of Richard Marshal, 4 
Gilbert Marshal 5 took to wife Margaret the sister of the king of 
Scotland, and received with her a noble dowry in Scotland, as 
well as ten thousand marks and more. 

1 In the text, " sisters." 

2 Roger de Quincy, John de Balliol, and William, son of the earl of 
Albemarle ; M.P., s.a. 1236, infra. 

3 Cf. Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 87. 

Ann. of Tewkesb., in A.M., i, 98 : " Margaret, sister of the king of 
Scotland, wedded Gilbert Marshal about the Assumption of the blessed 
Virgin " [15th August.] 

4 For Richard Marshal cf. R.W., iii, 68-69, a. 1233 : " Also the king's 
councillors alleged against the marshal that he was allied with [the king's] 
chief enemies, namely the French, the Scots and Welsh ; and it seemed 
to them that he had done this for hatred of and injury to the lord king and 
the kingdom. 

" To this said the marshal, ' What has been said concerning the French is 
simply false ; what has been said concerning the Scots and Welsh is likewise false : 
except concerning the king of Scotland and Llewellyn, prince of North Wales, 
who were not his enemies but his vassals, until by injuries inflicted upon 
them by the king and his councillors they were estranged from fealty, even as 
I, unwillingly and under compulsion. And because of this I am allied with 
them, that we may better together than separately seek and defend our 
rights, of which we have been unjustly deprived and in great part despoiled.' " 

Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., iii, 261. 

The earl marshal's treaty with Llewellyn and others was to the effect 
that " none of them would come to an agreement with the king without the 
other." R.W., iii, 54. (M.P., Chr. Maj., iii, 248.) 

5 Gilbert Marshal died of injuries sustained in tourney at Hertford on 
the 27th June, 1241 ; M.P., Chr. Maj., iv, 135-136. Cf. Ann. of Tewk., in 
A.M.,'i,*119; Ann. of Winch., ibid., ii, 88; Ann. of Wav., ibid., ii, 328. 


1236, Apr. 

And the king of Scotland had sent thither formal messen- 
gers, who urgently demanded from the king in that conference 2 
the rights which pertained to their lord the king of Scots, and 
concerning which they asserted that they had a charter and 
the testimony of many magnates. But the decision of this 
affair for that time was postponed. 



S.A. 1236. 

Of a certain warlike conflict in the regions of Scotland. 

Also during the same time many noble and bold men from 
the different regions of the western provinces, namely Galloway, 
and the island which is called Man, and the regions of Ireland, 
came together at the instance of Hugh de Lacy, whose daugh- 
ter Alan of Galloway, now deceased, had united to himself in 
wedlock, on purpose to unite with one accord and to restore 
Galloway to the baseborn son of Alan aforesaid ; crushing with 
the strong hand the just disposal of the king of Scots, who had 
divided the inheritance among the three daughters, to whom 
belonged the hereditary right. 

That therefore the aforesaid rebels might reduce this divi- 
sion to naught, restoring the land to the aforesaid Thomas, or 
to the son 3 of Thomas, Alan's brother, or at least to someone 
of that family, they gathered to arms and breaking out in 
rebellion desired to withdraw themselves from under the king's 

And that in attempting this they might more surely attain 
to their desire they made an unheard-of covenant, inventing a 
kind of sorcery, in accord nevertheless with a certain abomin- 
able custom of their ancient forefathers. For all those bar- 
barians, and their leaders and magistrates, shed blood from the 
precordial vein into a large vessel by blood-letting ; and more- 
over stirred and mixed the blood after it was drawn ; and after- 
wards they offered it, mixed, to one another in turn, and drank 

1 Cf. M.P., H.A., ii, 389. 

On the 4th January, 1235, Pope Gregory IX had commanded Alexander 
to renew fealty to Henry in accordance with the treaty of Falaise ; Foed., 
i, 335. On the 27th April, 1237, Gregory rebuked Alexander for not com- 
plying ; Foad., i, 371. 

2 A conference held at London on the 28th April, 1236 ; M.P., u.s., 362. 

3 Patrick. Cf. infra, s.a. 1242. 


it as a sign that they were thenceforth bound in a hitherto 
indissoluble and as it were consanguineal covenant, 1 and united 
in good fortune and ill even to the sacrifice of. their lives. 

So they challenged the king and the kingdom to battle, and 
burned their own and their neighbours' houses, that the king 
when he arrived with his army might not find lodging or food. 
And they applied themselves to plundering and burning, 
heaping injury upon injury. 

And the king of Scotland hearing this collected his forces 
from all sides, and advanced against them ; and arraying his 
warlike troops he attacked them in a struggle in the open. 
And the balance of battle turned against the Galwegians, and 
they were compelled to take to flight ; and the king's men 
pursuing them slew many thousands of them by the edge of 
the sword. And those whom the king or his supporters took 
alive, he punished without ransom by an ignominious death. 
But those who threw themselves upon his mercy he gave up to 
chains and strict imprisonment until it should be discussed in 
court what should be done with them ; but all, not without 
reason, he disinherited with their posterity. 

After obtaining this victory, the king magnified God, the 
Lord of hosts. And following sound counsel he granted in 
mandates to Roger de Quincy, earl of Winchester, and John de 
Balliol, and William, son of the earl of Albemarle, that whereas 
they had united to themselves in wedlock the three sisters, 
namely the daughters of Alan of Galloway, 2 they should now 
possess in peace the rights pertaining to them, the disturbance 
being stilled. 

Now this conflict of battle took place in the month of April, 
the favour of Mars more nearly supporting the king of Scots. 



S.A. 1236. 

Of a council between the king of England and the king of Scot- 

Also in the same year king [Henry] following the advice of his 

1 I.e. wed-brotherhood. 

2 Helen, the eldest, wife of Roger de Quincy, had no son. She was buried 
at Brackley ; M.P., Chr. Maj., v, 341. Her mother was perhaps daughter 
of Ronald, king of the Isles. (Cf. Sc. Peer., iv, 141.) 

Alan's elder daughter by prince David's eldest daughter was Christina, 
the wife of William de Fortibus : they had no children (cf. infra, s.a. 1246) : 
his younger was Devorgilla, wife of John de Balliol, the founder of a college 
in Oxford. Their son was the king John Balliol. 


magnates hastened his journey to York, that, supported by 
the counsel of the greatest of the kingdom, he should devise 
how the quarrel, which had now grown to hatred, between him 
and Alexander king of Scotland might be wholly allayed. For 
it seemed inadvisable to the wise who weighed future events 
in the balance of reason that the "kingdom of England, sur- 
rounded on all sides by foreign enemies, should secretly breed 
internal hate. 

Now the following cause, as is said, produced the ground of 
this quarrel. The king of Scotland urgently demanded, and 
he asserted that he had charters concerning it, and the testi- 
mony of many men, as well of bishops and high clerics as of 
earls and barons, the land of Northumbria, which king John 
had bestowed upon him as a marriage gift with his daughter 
Joanna ; and asserted that it was unworthy and despicable 
to make void words which proceed from royal lips, and to annul 
a contract made between so noble personages. 

He added that unless [Henry] granted him peacefully what 
so clear a claim proved to be his right, he would demand it by 
the edge of the sword. He was given confidence by the shadowy 
and ever suspected friendship of Llewellyn ; also by his coven- 
ant and alliance with the marshal Gilbert, who had united to 
himself in wedlock [Alexander's] sister Margaret, a most beauti- 
ful girl ; moreover by the hostility of foreigners, constantly 
manifested in treachery : and, what is more important, by his 
just cause, certified by royal documents. 

At last, after much discussion on either side, the king of 
England offered to the king of Scots, for the benefit of peace 
and the defence of the English realm, according to his power, 
revenues of eighty marks in another part of England, that 
the territories of his kingdom might not be mutilated in the 
northern region. 

But since the matter required consideration and delay until 
this should be devised and every one satisfied on either side the 
conference was broken up, all remaining for the time at peace. 

1237, Sept. 


S.A. 1237. 1 

Of a conference held at York between the king of England and 
the king of Scotland. 

Also in the same year the king wrote to all his magnates, 

1 Cf. M.P., H.A., ii, 401. Abbr. Chr., ibid., iii, 275. Feed., i, 374-377. 


summoning them to assemble to him and the lord legate 
[cardinal Otto] on the festival of the exaltation of the holy 
cross, 1 to discuss serious affairs relating to the kingdom. 

And the king of Scotland came to meet them at York, sum- 
moned by the king of England and the legate, that there deli- 
beration might be held in common and an agreement might be 
come to between them concerning the restoration of peace, 
and, God's favour granting it, the former claim being removed, 
all altercation should be stilled, and both should be satisfied 
of their just due. 

And at last when they came there, it was thus worked out 
that the king of Scotland should receive of the realm of England 
three hundred librates of land, without the erection of a castle, 
and should do homage to the king of England, and that a treaty 
of friendship should be ratified between them ; and that the 
king of England should swear that he would faithfully perform 
and uphold this, and that thus all complaint and prosecution 
on behalf of the king of Scotland should subside. 2 

But when the lord legate wished to enter the kingdom of 
Scotland, there as in England to treat of ecclesiastical matters, 
the king of Scotland replied : " I do not remember that I have 
ever seen a [papal] legate in my land, nor, thanks be to God, 
that there was ever any need for one to be called. Nor is there 
yet any need : everything goes well. Indeed, neither in the 
time of my father or of any of my predecessors has any 
legate been seen to have entrance, nor will I suffer it, while I 
have control of my actions. Nevertheless, because rumour 
pronounces thee to be a holy man, I warn thee to proceed 
cautiously, if perchance thou shouldst enter my land, lest 
any evil befal thee. For untamed and wild men dwell there, 
thirsting for human blood ; and not even I myself have power 
to subdue them, and, even if they should attack you, I cannot 
restrain them. 

" Recently, as perhaps you have heard, they wished to assail 
me also, and to drive me disinherited from the kingdom." 

Hearing this the legate modified his eager desire to enter 
Scotland, and forsook not the side of his king, namely the king 
of England, who obeyed him in* all things. 

1 14th September. 

2 Cf . Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 146: "In the same year [1237] a 
conference was held at York between the kings of England and of Scotland, 
in presence of Otto, legate of the apostolic see ; and there peace was estab- 
lished between the kings, on such terms that the king of Scotland resigned 
to the king of England the ten thousand marks promised to him with his 
wife ; and the king of England gave him three hundred librates of land for 
his homage, and for the annual service of one corody." 


But with the king of Scotland remained a certain Italian, a 
relative of the legate ; and the king ennobled him with the belt 
of knighthood, bestowing upon him land also, not to appear 
wholly recalcitrant. 

And thus the council was dismissed, and the king of England 
returned to the south with his legate. 

1238. i 

1238, Mar. 


And at that time Joanna, queen of Scotland and the king of 
England's sister, who had come to England to visit her brother 
the king, closed her last day on the fourth 3 before the Nones of 
March. And she was buried at Tarrant, 4 to wit the house of 
the nuns. . . . 

1239, May. 



During the same time Alexander, king of Scotland, united 
to himself in marriage a beautiful maiden, Mary by name, 
daughter of a noble baron 6 of the realm of France, Engelram 
de Coucy ; and celebrated his nuptials with ceremony 7 at 
Roxburgh on the day of Pentecost. 8 

1 In this year Ralph of Orpington fled to Melrose to take the habit of 
the white monks there ; G. of C., Contin., ii, 131. 

2 Cf. Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 147. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 318. 
Fl. His., ii, 225. Abbr. Chr., in M.P., H.A., iii, 276. 

M.P., H.A., ii, 405, adds : " And although her death was lamentable, 
yet she deserved the less to be mourned for because she disdained to return 
[to Scotland,] although very often called back by her husband. And thus 
she remained, even against her will." 

3 4th March. 

4 In Dorsetshire. A later marginal note in M.P., H.A., u.s., n., says 
" at Havering." According to the Ann. of Tewkesb., in A.M., i, 106, s.a. 
1237, she " died at Havering on the third before the Nones of March [5th 
March], and was buried at Tarrant of the nuns." Ann. of Wav., in A.M., 
ii, 318 : " and was buried in the nuns' church of Tarrant." 

Joanna had been present at the enthronization of Walter de Cantelupe 
as bishop of Worcester; llth October, 1237. Ann. of Wore., in A.M., iv, 428. 

6 Cf. Fl. His., ii, 234 ; and again in error s.a. 1242, ibid., 253. 

M.P., H.A., ii, 419, adds : " And this was by no means acceptable to 
the English king ; for it is well known that France is a molester of England." 

Cf. infra, s.a. 1244. 

6 Fl. His., ii, 253, " a powerful and cruel baron. . . ." 

7 " With exceeding ceremony," M.P., H.A., u.s. 

8 15th May. 




Of the entrance of a legate in the time of king Alexander into 
Scotland, where no legate had entered before. 

In the same time the legate [Otto] hastened to enter into 
Scotland ; and after arranging the necessary matters and that 
the English aldermen should spy out treachery by the way, if 
haply any were prepared, he set out upon the journey, choosing 
sumptuous lodgings in the abbeys and cathedral churches. 

And before he entered the realm of Scotland the king of 
Scotland met him, denying him entrance. For he said that 
never had any [papal] legate excepting him alone entered 
into Scotland. For there was no need, as he asserted ; Chris- 
tianity flourished there, the church did prosperously. 

And after many speeches, when the king was almost aroused 
to refusal, a written agreement was prepared by the intercession 
between them of the magnates of either realm : the tenour of 
which agreement was that never by reason of his arrival should 
such a custom arise ; moreover that upon his return he should 
resign that written agreement. And this was contrived that 
he might not return as if repulsed in confusion to England. 

Nevertheless he did not -cross the sea ; but staying in the 
good cities on this side of the sea he summoned the bishops 
and noble vassals of the land, and disposed there according to 
his will concerning ecclesiastical matters, collecting no small 
amount of money. x 

And while the king remained in the interior of the land, the 
legate returning secretly and suddenly, without the king's 
permission, carried a,way the agreement aforesaid. 



And about the 3 feast of AJ 1 Saints 2 Peter the Red and Ruf- 
finus came from the regions of Scotland, carrying with them 
three thousand pounds for tl le needs of the lord pope. . . . 

But the kinfj of Scotland, closed his eyes and allowed the 
injury to pass which had be en inflicted upon him, and which 
none of his predecessors had endured, 

1 Cf. Fl. His.., ii, 233, s.a. 123 9: " In the same year the legate entered 
the land of the Icing of Scotland ; yet he did not cross the sea. But no one 
forbade him, and he collected fi tssm all prelates and beneficed clergy the 
thirteenth part cf their revenues, and sent it to the lord pope." 

2 1st Noveuaber. 




p. 118. 

Master Gilbert, bishop of Galloway, 1 consecrated the altar 

1 For the dispute concerning Gilbert's election to the bishopric of Whit- 
horn in 1235 v. the document in Raine's York, iii, 144-145 : " To all vassals 
of Christ to whom the present writing may come, the prior and convent of 
the cathedral church of Whithorn, greeting in the Lord. 

" When our church aforesaid was deprived of a pastor we wished to 
provide for our church, that the wolf should no longer invade the Lord's 
desolated flock ; and at last after asking consent of the lord king of Scot- 
land, who now holds Galloway, and invoking the favour of the holy Spirit, 
after the greatest deliberation we have unanimously and with one accord 
canonically, according to custom, elected as pastor master Odo of Ydon- 
c[hester], our fellow canon, a man literate, honourable, modest and religious : 
all those having been summoned who ought to have been summoned. 

" And although it seemed to us, guided by the counsel of prudent men, 
that the form of his election had been sufficiently expressed in the similar 
document signed by our signs," [ibid., 146-148 ; with twenty-two signa- 
tures,] " to wit when we had elected him canonically and unanimously and 
with one accord, according to custom ; yet that nothing may be able to 
oppose the election aforesaid, taking nothing away from the previous docu- 
ment, which described somewhat generally the form of the aforesaid election, 
we give particulars in this manner. 

" When the see of our cathedral church of Whithorn was vacant we 
entered our chapter-house, immediately after the third Sunday of Lent " 
[llth March, in 1235,] " was past, to discuss the election of a pastor ; and in 
presence of all who rightfully should, and would, and conveniently could be 
present, we unanimously and with one accord chose three trustworthy men 
of our collegiate chapter, namely master Paulinus, master Bricius and master 
Cristinus, our fellow- canons. And they secretly and separately inquired 
with care the wishes of all ; and when all had agreed unanimously and with 
one accord for the said Odo, our canon, as has been said, and after the wishes 
of all had been reduced to writing, we entered our cathedral church of Whit 
horn ; and when the said document had been made public in presence of all, 
we all unanimously and with one accord granted to the said Odo, as the said 
document testified, to rule as pastor our cathedral church of Whithorn. 
And in witness of his election we have caused faithfully to be appended the 
seal of our chapter, along with the seal of our prior, whom we have appointed 
our proctor in the foregoing, both to act and to protect, and if need be to 
appeal " [in text, apparendum ; read appellandum] " on behalf of the right 
of our cathedral church of Whithorn. 

" May you all flourish in the Lord." 

Alexander II to the clergy of Galloway. In Raine's York, iii, 148- 
149 : " Alexander, king of Scotland, to the archdeacon and clergy of Gallo- 
way, greeting. 

" Know all of you that we have afforded our assent to the election made 
of brother Gilbert, monk of Melrose, whom you have unanimously chosen 
for yourselves as pastor, because it was known to us that the said election 
had been held canonically. ' 

" Witness W. Oliford, justiciar of Lothian. At Newbattle, the twenty- 
third day of April, in the twenty-first year of the reign of the lord king." 

Alexander II to Walter Gray of York. In Raine's York, iii, 148 : 
" To his most reverend brother and dearest friend in Christ, by God's grace 
archbishop of York, primate of England, Alexander by the same grace king 
of Scotland, greeting and the fulness of sincere affection. 

" Since, as we have heard, Odo, formerly abbot of Dercungal, who pro- 


of St. Wulstan in his honour and St. Martin's, and conferred 
thirty days of relaxation [upon it] ; and upon the altars 'of St. 
Nicholas and St. James fifty days, as is contained more fully in 
their charters. 



S.A. 1242. 

Marriage was inaugurated between Alexander, son of the 
king of Scotland, and Margaret, daughter of the king of England. 

And while these things took place l . . . and good-will 
was restored both on the part of the king of England and on 
the part of the king of Scotland, betrothal was celebrated 

nounces himself elected as bishop of Galloway by the canons of Whithorn, 
without asking permission from us, nor requesting our consent, and it is 
not the custom, strives to obtain the said bishopric, we have appointed as 
our proctor our beloved cleric, master P. de Alint[on], bearer of the present 
letter, to see that the award of confirmation and consecration be not granted 
by the apostolic see to this Odo, to the detriment of your dignity ; and to 
renew our appeal with you. 

" Witnesses P[atrick] earl of Dunbar ; Alan, justiciar of Scotland, son 
of Walter Seneschal ; at Cadzow, on the nineteenth day of May." 

Walter Gray, archbishop of York, to the dean and canons of York. In 
Raine's York, iii, 146: "Walter, by God's grace archbishop of York, pri- 
mate of England, to his beloved sons in Christ, G., the dean, and masters 
Laurence of Lincoln, and Robert Haget, canons of York, greeting, grace 
and benediction. 

" In the affair of elections to the episcopate of Galloway, turning be- 
tween master Odo, canon of Whithorn, and his electors, on one side, and 
master [Gilbert], monk of Melrose, and his electors, on the other, and in all 
things howsoever pertaining to the said affair, we intrust to you to represent 
us on the morrow of Holy Trinity [4th June] in the greater church of York, 
and for days to be continued by you, fully to discuss the said affair, and to 
terminate it, if it can be done. And if you cannot all be present, none the 
less let two of you see to it. 

" We announce the same to the partisans. Farewell." 

The prior, etc., of Whithorn to Walter Gray, archbishop of York. In 
Raine's York, iii, 145 : " To their reverend lord and dearest father in Christ, 
Walter, by God's grace archbishop of York, primate of England, his and 
your humble and devoted [subjects], the prior and convent of Whithorn, 
due greeting and in all things honour and obedience. 

" Hindered by the great difficulties of our church, and chiefly by reason 
of the war of the lord king of Scotland against Galloway, we cannot be pre- 
sent with you in the greater church of York on the morrow of the translation 
of St. Martin [5th July] for the confirmation and consecration of master Odo, 
our canon and bishop-elect. We have appointed brother Gregory, our 
fellow canon, both to act as our proctor in everything concerning us in the 
matter aforesaid, at the aforesaid time and place, with the intention of gladly 
ratifying all that he does by the mediation of justice ; and especially to 
appeal, if need be, for the right of our church. 

" In witness whereof we have caused to be appended to this writing our 
seal of the chapter of Whithorn, along with the seal of the prior. Fare- 

1 Henry's crossing into Gascony on the 19th May. 


between Alexander, first-born son of the king of Scotland, 
and Margaret, daughter of the king of the English, by inter- 
mediation of the lord [bishop] of Durham, that in the king's 
absence the kingdom might be more firmly established. 

And the side of England which borders upon Scotland 
was intrusted to the same king of Scotland for keeping while 
king [Henry] was engaged abroad. 



[William Marsh's] father, one of the most powerful men 
of Ireland, Geoffrey Marsh by name, hearing this l fled to 
Scotland, to find there scarcely safe retreat ; and wasting 
away through confusion and grief soon after ended in wished- 
for death his miserable life. 2 



S.A. 1242. 

Of a cruel crime perpetrated by Walter Bisset in the regions 
of Scotland. 

At this same time, while tournaments were practised 
calamitously in the northern regions, a certain knight called 
Walter Bisset, vigorous in arms, but crafty, received a 
fall in the jousting, (which was held in the borders of England 
and Scotland,) through the superiority of a certain noble, 
namely Patrick, son of Thomas of Galloway ; and conceived 
the wickedness of taking unrighteous revenge and performing 
an unheard-of crime. 

While the said Patrick lodged on the following night at 
Haddington along with some other nobles who were with 
him, and rested securely sleeping in a barn, this Walter Bisset 
aforesaid blocked the doors outside with barricades of tree- 
trunks, and applying fire secretly in very many places in 
the wall of the barn, wattled with thorn, burned almost all 
who were there. 

So there died the said Patrick with some of his companions, 
vigorous and distinguished men. 

And when this came to the knowledge of earl Patrick 
[of Dunbar] and of other magnates of Scotland they made 

1 I.e. hearing of the execution of his son for piracy, on the 24th July, 
according to M.P., Chr. Maj., iv, 196; H.A., ii, 462-463. 

2 Geoffrey Marsh, " expelled from Scotland," died in misery and exile 
in 1245, according to M.P., Chr. Maj., iv, 422. 


ready to avenge so great a crime, and pursued this Walter 
in enmity, wishing to cut him to pieces. But [Walter] fled 
to the protection of the king of Scotland, and demanded that 
mercy and justice should be granted him. For he denied the 
crime laid to his charge, offering his body to prove his inno- 
cence judicially before the king and his court against any man 
excelling in arms and strength. 

But his pursuers opposed this, asserting that the evident 
enormity of the deed needed no proof. They therefore de- 
manded of the king vehemently and with great insistence 
and bitterness of mind the public enemy, bloody from re- 
cent slaughter and polluted by unheard-of crime. And the 
king with difficulty curbed their fury, and to such extent 
tempered their vengeance that [they permitted that] this 
Walter should abjure Scotland and go disinherited into per- 
petual exile. 

But they granted this to the king with grudging, believing 
that they should entrap [Walter] when separated from the 
king's protection and slaughter him by a deserved death. But 
after learning this the king, being a just man and merciful, 
hid him cautiously for three months in places which were 
inaccessible to his enemies. And afterwards in the evening 
of a dark night this Walter escaped, making a secret flight, 
as an exile never to return, and judicially outlawed and dis- 
inherited ; the very many nobles of Scotland who sought his 
life not knowing of his flight. 

But he, who had sworn to take the road to the holy land 
and never to return, for the redemption of his soul and those 
of the aforesaid who were destroyed in the burning, although 
not, as he said, through him, turned his course and hastened 
to the king of the English, to make serious complaint before 
him of so great an injury inflicted upon him. 

For he asserted that the king of Scotland had disinherited 
him unjustly, and could not otherwise allay the presumption 
of some of his rebels who rose in fury against him : although 
he was ready and prepared to repel the charge brought against 
him in judicial duel, and to clear and prove his innocence. 

He added moreover that since the king of Scotland was 
the liege-man of the -lord king of England he could not 
disinherit or irrevocably exile from his land one so noble, 
especially unconvicted, without the king of England's assent. 

He added moreover that the said king of Scotland, in 
violation of the vassalage and fealty by which he is bound 
to the king of England, had received in his land Geoffrey 


Marsh when he fled from Ireland, hurt in his mind by the 
betrayal of his son William, recently judicially condemned 
and hanged at London ; and having received him had pro- 
tected him, and was still protecting him. 

And hence the lord king of England was violently pro- 
voked against the king of Scotland, but reserved his anger 
for a fitting time of retribution, as the sequel shall declare. 



Moreover the lord king [Henry] heard other news 2 in 
addition to the foregoing : 3 that the king of Scotland had 
impudently written to the king saying that not even a particle 
of the kingdom of Scotland did he hold, or wished he or ought 
he to hold, of the king of England. 

Now friendship between the kings was exceedingly strained, 
to wit since the king of Scotland had allied himself by con- 
tract of marriage with the daughter of Engelram de Coucy, who, 
as also all the French, was discerned to have been the chief, 
or one chief, enemy of the king of England. . . . 

And not to reply lukewarmly to the announcement and 
insolence of the king of Scotland [Henry] wrote confidently 
to the count of Flanders, 4 as his vassal and one in many ways 
obliged to him, to come with an armed band to his aid against 
the king of Scotland. 5 

And to this [the count] kindly consented. 


S.A. 1244. 

Engelram de Coucy dying miraculously, his son John was 
asked by the king of Scotland for military aid. 

During the same time, when August was approaching, 
Engelram de Coucy, father of the queen of Scotland, died 
miraculously, and John his son sent a force of knights across 

1 Cf. M.P., H.A., ii, 488-489 : ' Abbr. Chr., ibid., iii, 290-291. Fl. His., 
ii, 278, 279. 

2 " New and unheard of," M.P., H.A., u.s. 

3 I.e. reports of an insurrection of the Welsh, and of the rejection of 
Robert Passelewe from the bishopric of Chichester. 

4 Thomas of Savoy, husband of Jeanne, countess of Flanders and Hain- 
ault, who died 5th December, 1244. L'Art, iv, 108. 

5 Henry summoned aid from Ireland also (7th July, 1244 ;) v. Feed., i, 

6 Cf. Fl. His,, ii, 279-280. Abbr. Chr., in M.P., H.A., iii, 291. 


the sea to the king of Scotland ; but the king of England 
forcibly repelled all whom the same John had sent. 1 

Miraculously, I say, died the said Engelram, ancient 
persecutor of the church, but of that church especially, to 
wit of Clairvaux, which his glorious ancestors had gloriously 
founded upon their land ; he perished by a two-fold death. 
For when he, a too zealous builder while he lived in temporal 
things, but in spiritual things a prodigal, one day on a journey 
had to cross a certain ford, his horse's foot struck upon some 
obstacle ; and he fell backwards into the depths, [into which 
however he was dragged by his own stirrup with violence and 
disastrous result.] 2 And as he fell headlong his sword slipped 
from the sheath and transfixed his body. And so submerged 
and pierced and torn by the sword he departed from this 
temporal light to gather the fruit of his ways. 

So John, his son and sole heir, 3 for love of the queen of 
Scotland his sister afforded aid, as was said above, and counsel 
to the king of Scotland. 

The same king also fortified the castles which border 
upon England, and urgently demanded aid from the nobles 
of his kindred and territory 4 against the king of England, 
who was planning evil against him. 5 

And the aid demanded in time of need was granted him 
with willing mind by many nobles and potentates, so that 
the number of fighting men promised rose to an incalculable 



The count of Flanders arrives to aid the king. 

During the same days the count of Flanders landed at 

1 Fl. His., ii, 280 : " . . . But the king of England, hearing this, com- 
manded those parts of the sea .to be most strictly guarded by the keepers of 
the Five Ports." Cf. MS. E, ibid., note : " . . . and by them they who 
were sailing toward Scotland were terrified, and returned by the way by 
which they had come." 

M.P., H.A., ii, 490 : " And he would have sent by sea what was asked, 
had he not been prevented by the pirates of the lord king of England." 

2 The part in brackets is from the margin of the MS. 

3 John was not Engelram de Coucy's heir ; the eldest son, Raoul, suc- 
ceeded his father. Cf. Madden, M.P., H.A., iii, 561 ; L'Art de Ver. les Dates, 
iii, 255. 

4 affinibus et confinibus. 

5 At a council in Westminster king Henry asked for " monetary aid to 
be given him, passing over in silence his purpose of subduing the king of 
Scotland in force " ; M.P., Chr. Maj., iv, 362. 


Dover, coming to aid the king in his purpose to subdue 

And his arrival aroused indignation and mockery in the 
minds of the magnates of England, for England was sufficient 
without him even to depopulate Scotland. 

But the said count brought with him sixty l knights and 
a hundred esquires, sufficiently provided with arms, and 
greedily thirsting for the king's pence. 



S.A. 1244. 2 

Of the controversy roused between the lord king of England, 
and the king of Scotland. 

And while the year's orbit was revolving in these times 
the king, publishing an edict and giving a general summons, 
caused it to be announced through all England that every 
baron holding of the king in person should have ready for 
the king's commands all the military service which was due to 
him. ready and prepared ; as well bishops and abbots as lay 

And he set out with a numerous army towards Newcastle 
upon the river Tyne, feigning this reason chiefly, that Walter 
Cumin, a noble and prominent baron of Scotland, and certain 
others of the kingdom of Scotland had fortified two castles 
in Galloway and Lothian suspiciously to the prejudice of the 
king of England, and contrary to the charters of [Alexander's] 

The king's exiles also and fugitive enemies [Alexander] 
had received, being in league with the French, as though 
wishing by connivance to withdraw to himself the homage 
by which they were bound to the [king] ; such as at present 
Geoffrey Marsh, and others at another time. 

Thus all the nobles of the whole of England assembled 
at the said castle and diligently discussed so serious a matter, 
taking most heedful counsel, about the Assumption of St. 
Mary ; 3 and there an agreement was made between the 
kings by the efforts of earl Richard and by the prudent and 
profitable intermediation of other magnates on either side. 

For the king of Scotland, a good man, just, pious and 
generous, was beloved by all, as well by English as by his 

1 " Forty," MS. C. 

2 Cf. M.P., H.A., ii, 494-495, Fl. His., ii, 278-279, 280-281. 

3 15th August, 



own subjects ; and deservedly. He had therefore a very 
numerous army, and strong ; to wit a thousand armed men, 
upon horses sufficiently good, although not Spanish, nor 
Italian, nor of other valuable kinds ; and satisfactorily pro- 
tected by iron and linen armour. But the foot-soldiers were 
about a hundred thousand, who all with one accord feared 
not at all to die, having confessed and being inspired by the 
consolation of men who preached that they were about to 
fight justly for their fatherland. 

But fortunately peace was restored, as the following 
charter testifies ; so that the spilt blood of so many Christians 
should not cry to the Lord for vengeance, and offend Him 
into whose hands it is dreadful to fall. 



p. 164. 1 

In the same year [1244], on the festival of St. Peter ? ad 
Vincula, 2 the lord king was at Newcastle upon Tyne with all 
his army and with the count of Flanders, who had come with 
fourscore knights to reinforce him against the king of Scotland. 

But [Alexander] sent messengers and offered peace and 
obtained it in this fashion, that his son and heir should re- 
ceive the daughter of our king as wife, and retain for ever 
the land which our king had before given to his father with 
his sister in marriage. 

And this being done, our king returned to London. 3 

1 Cf. Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 333-334 : " In this year lord Henry III, 
king of England, led his army against the king of Scotland. And he came 
to Scotland, and each faced each with a large army ; but when the king of 
England had made many and various inquiries of the king of Scotland, at 
last peace was re-established between them, so that the king of Scotland's 
son should take to wife the daughter of the king of England." 

Very brief accounts are in J. of T.', in Fl. of W., ii, 179. Ann. of Winch., 
in A.M., ii, 89-90. Fitz-Thedmar. 10. 

2 1st August. 

3 Cf. M.P., H.A., ii, 488-489, note (a passage inserted in the wrong 
place, and erased) : " but because they were still children the nuptials were 
not yet celebrated, [nor] marriage contracted." Cf. Abbr. Chr., ibid., iii, 

Margaret visited Dunstable on the 9th August, 1247 ; Ann. of Dunst., 
in A.M., iii, 173 : " In the same year, on the vigil of St. Laurence, the king 
came to Dunstable, with the queen and Edward and Margaret, his daughter. 
And we gave jewelry to them all ; to wit, to the king a gilded cup, and 
another to the queen ; to Edward a golden brooch, and another to Margaret. 
The price of the jewels was twenty-two marks, besides other expenses." 



S.A. 1244. i 

" Alexander [II], by God's grace king of Scotland, to all 
Christ's vassals who shall see or hear this writing, greeting. 

" We wish it to come to your knowledge that we have 
conceded, in our own name and in that of our heirs, and have 
faithfully promised to our dearest and liege-lord Henry III, by 
God's grace illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke 
of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, and to 
his heirs, that we will for ever preserve good faith to him^\ 
and also love for him : and that we will never enter into* 
any treaty, either directly or through any others on our behalf, 
with the enemies of the king of England or of his heirs, to stir 
up or to make war by which harm would result, or could to 
some extent result, to them or their kingdoms of England and 
Ireland, or to their other lands, unless they should unjustly 
oppress us : the agreements entered upon between us and 
the said lord king of England recently at York, in presence 
of master Otto, dean of St. Nicholas-in-carcere-Tulliano, at 
that time legate in England of the apostolic see, to continue 
in full force : and saving the agreements made concerning 
the contract of marriage between our son and the daughter 
of the said lord king of England. 

" And that this our concession and promise in our name 
and in that of our heirs may have the confirmation of validity 
we have caused Alan Durward, Henry de Balliol, David de 
Lindsey, William Giffard, to swear by our soul that we will 
observe all the foregoing in good faith, firmly and faithfully. 

" And likewise we have caused to swear the venerable 
fathers David, William, Geoffrey and Clement, bishops of 
St. Andrews, Glasgow, Dunkeld and Dunblane : and more- 
over our vassals Patrick, earl of Dunbar, Malcolm, earl of 
Fife, Malisse, earl of Strathearn, Walter Cumin of Menteith, 
William, earl of Mar, Alexander, earl of Buchan, David de 
Hastings, earl of Atholl, Robert de Bruce, Alan Durward, 
Henry de Balliol, Roger de Mowbray, Laurence de Abernethy, 
Richard Cumin, David de Lindsey, Richard Si ward, William 
de Lindsey, Walter de Moray, William Giffard, Nicholas de 
Sully, William de Veteri Ponte, William de Beiure, 2 Auleus 
de Mesne, 3 David de Graham, and Stephen de Smingham, 


1 For the charter and letter to the pope cf. J. of E., in Fl. of W., ii, 259- 

2 Read Bervie ? 3 Read Merne, " Mearns " ? 


that if we or our heirs transgress (which heaven forbid) the con- 
cession and promise aforesaid, they and their heirs will afford us 
and our heirs no aid or counsel against the concession and promise 
aforesaid nor allow them, to the extent of their power, to be 
afforded by others ; on the contrary they will endeavour in 
good faith toward us and our heirs that all the foregoing be 
upheld for ever firmly and faithfully by us and our heirs, 
and by themselves also and their heirs. 

" In witness whereof both we and the prelates aforesaid, 
and our earls and barons have confirmed the present writing 
by appending their seals. Witnesses the prelates, earls and 
barons above-named, in the . . . * year of our reign." 

Seals are appended. 

These signs were appended to the document, namely 
those of Alexander, king of Scotland, of William de Beiure, 
William de Veteri Ponte, William de Lindsey, Stephen dc 
Smingham. The seals of others were appended after- 
wards, and the writing was sent to the king of the English 
at the next Christmas following by the lord prior of Tyne- 
mouth, 2 who had laboured much in that affair, faithfully and 
diligently, for the honour of either side. 

The papal confirmation of the foregoing. 

Therefore that these writings might for ever obtain greater 
authority they were sent to the lord pope, that he might 
confirm all these things ; and with them the others noted 
below, in this wise : 

" To the most holy father in Christ, Ifnnocent IV], by 
God's grace chief pontiff, Alexander, by the same grace king 
of Scotland ; earl Patrick ; the earl of Strathearn ; the earl 
of Lennox ; the earl of Angus ; the earl of Mar ; the earl of 
Atholl ; the earl of Ross ; the earl of Caithness ; the earl of 
Buchan ; Roger de Mowbray ; Laurence de Abernethy ; 
Peter de Mauver ; Richard Cumin ; William de Veteri Ponte ; 
Robert de Bruce ; Roger Avenel ; Nicholas de Sully ; Walter 
de Moray of Dunphail ; William de Moray of Petty ; John 
Bisset, younger ; William de Lindsey ; John de Vaux ; David 
de Lindsey ; William Giffard ; Duncan de Argyll ; John de 
Motherwell ; Eymer his son ; Roger, earl of Winchester ; 
Hugh, earl of Oxford ; William de Vescy ; Richard Siward ; 
William de Ross ; Roger de Clare ; Henry, son of the earl 
of Brechin ; Eustace de Estuteville ; earl Malcolm of Fife ; 
the earl of Menteith ; Walter Fitz Alan ; Walter Olifard ; 

1 The date is omitted by J. of E. also, u.s. 

2 Richard de Parco. (Luard.) 


Bernard Fraser ; Henry de Balliol ; David Cumin ; David 
Marshal ; Thomas Fitz Ranulf ; William de Fortibus ; John 
de Balliol ; and Robert de Ross, greeting, and due reverence 
with all honour. 

" We announce to your Holiness that we have in person 
given an oath in presence of the venerable father Otto, dean 
cardinal of St. Nicholas-in-Carcere-Tulliano, then legate of 
the apostolic see in England, Scotland and Ireland ; and 
have given our charter, which thus begins : Know present 
and to come that it was so agreed in presence of master Otto 
of St. Nicholas, etc.,' which charter remains in writing with 
the lord king of England and with us. 

" Also another which begins thus : ' We wish it to come 
to the knowledge of you all.' 

" Since from the nature of the foregoing is plain [the 
nature] of our obligations, we have submitted ourselves to 
your jurisdiction, that you may be able to constrain us or our 
heirs by ecclesiastical censure, if we should at any time transgress 
the said peace. 

" And if it sometimes happens that some of us, or all, or 
one, rashly presume, or strive or shall strive to presume, to 
contravene it, and by this might arise grave peril both to 
our souls and to those of our heirs ; and no small loss might 
threaten our bodies and possessions, we implore your holy 
Paternity to give commands to some one of the suffragans of 
the archbishop of Canterbury to compel us and our heirs to 
the preservation of the aforesaid peace, even as is more fully 
contained in the documents drawn up concerning it : other- 
wise that you appoint by your authority as is canonical 
contradictors concerning that peace, etc. 

" And for the consummation of this our petition we have 
appended to the present document our seals." J 

And when this had been concluded the lord king of England 
and the lord king of Scotland became, as is to be hoped, 
indissoluble friends, without pretence and minute contention 
about words. 

And when they had said farewell one to the other, the 
lord king of England came to the southern parts of England. 
And the king of Scotland betook himself to the farther parts 
of his own land. 

And the army of the king of England upon its return 

1 This document is placed s.a. 1237 in Feed., i, 377. But Innocent IV 
was pope from 1243 to 1254. 


from Newcastle-upon-Tyne was reckoned at about five thou- 
sand knights, most elegantly equipped with arms, besides 
a very powerful and numerous band of foot-soldiers. 1 

1244, Nov. 


1 244. 2 

Margaret, sister of the king of Scotland, died. 

And on the day of St. Hugh 3 died Margaret, sister of 
the king of Scotland, to wit the widow of Gilbert, earl 
Marshal, in London. And she was buried reverently beside 
the preaching friars, in their church. 

1245 4 




The countess of Albemarle, daughter of Alan of Galloway, 
died. 5 

The countess [Christina] also of Albemarle, daughter of 
Alan of Galloway and sister of the countess [Helen] of 
Winchester, at the same time was removed from earthly things. 

And hence, because she died without children, the large 
part of Galloway which pertained to her was transferred to 
the lot of the earl of Winchester, Roger de Quincy, who had 
taken the eldest sister to wife. 

1 Cf. an insertion in margin of MS. C of M.P., in Chr. Maj., vi, 518, note : : 
" Note that king Henry III, when he went as an enemy against Alexander, 
king of Scotland, had a thousand and two hundred knights armed elegantly 
and to the teeth. And the king of Scotland had five hundred knights and 
sixty thousand foot-soldiers. But the foot-soldiers were light-armed and 
fittingly supplied with weapons, namely with axes sharpened to a point, with 
lances and bows. And they were very courageous, ready in constancy to 
live or die for their lord, to conquer or be conquered, reckoning death as 
martyrdom and salvation." 

2 Cf. M.P., H.A., ii, 497-498. Fl. His., ii, 283, 284. 

3 17th November. 

4 Henry III among his reasons for discountenancing the crusade in 1245 
says, according to M.P., Chr. Maj., iv, 489: "I suspect the king of the 
French ; I suspect more the king of Scots : clearly prince [David] of Wales 
opposes me. The pope protects insurgents against me." 

5 Her death is mentioned in M.P., H.A., iii, 15. 




1247. 1 

Godfrey, son of the prefect of Rome, bishop elect of Bethlehem, 
is sent as legate to Scotland. 

Also in those days Godfrey, son of the prefect of Rome, 
bishop elect of Bethlehem, was sent by the lord pope as legate 
to Scotland ; it is not known wherefore. For there catholic 
faith throve undefiled, and peace both of clergy and of people 
flourished invigorated. 

It was believed therefore that according to the custom 
of the Romans, even as adamant draws iron so did greed 
of silver draw the aforesaid Godfrey, and rich and longed-for 
revenues from the Scots. 




Of the peril of the earl of Winchester. 

During the same days also Roger, earl of Winchester, 
being in his land of Galloway, which [belonged to] him by 
reason of his wife, the daughter of Alan of Galloway, since 
he oppressed by tyranny the nobler vassals of that land more 
than was customary and otherwise than he ought, was sud- 
denly besieged in one of his castles, unprepared. And being 
exposed to an ignominious death the earl chose rather to die 
by the sword than to waste away through hunger ; and armed 
to the teeth mounted a valuable horse. And but few daring 
to follow him he opened suddenly the castle gates, and hurling 
himself upon them cut a way for himself with the sword 
through the midst of his enemies, of whom there was an endless 
multitude. And they fell to either side from him ; and so 
he cleft and scattered the whole army, and narrowly escaped 
from danger of death. 

And he ceased not to ride till he came complaining to 
his lord the king of Scotland, who punished the rebels and 
established the earl peacefully in his possession. 

1 Cf. Fl. His., ii, 329. 




Moreover earl Patrick died, who was held to be the most 
powerful among the magnates of Scotland. 

And he died signed by the cross, on pilgrimage in the 
company of the lord king of the French, being believed to 
have taken the cross to be reconciled with God and St. Oswin. 
For he had unjustly distressed and injured the house of Tyne- 
mouth, a cell of St. Albans, and the special domicile of that 
blessed king and martyr Oswin, whose body also is known 
to lie there. 



1249. 2 

Of the lamentable death of Alexander, king of Scots. 

During the cycle of the same year, on the fifth 3 before the 
Nones of July, died Alexander, king of Scots ; a man wise 
and modest, who, after reigning many years justly, success- 
fully and in peace, in his last days prompted by greed is said 
to have swerved from the path of justice. 

For, seeking an opportunity of oppression, he kindled 
gratuitous wrath against one of the noblest of his realm, by 
name Owen 4 of Argyle, a vigorous and very handsome 
knight. And purposing to disinherit him he laid against 
him a charge of treason, because in the last preceding year 
he had done homage to the king of Norway for the possession 
of a certain island which the father of this Owen had held of 
the same king, and for homage to him had possessed for many 
years in peace. The island is situated between Orkney and 
Scotland. 5 

So Owen, fearing the threats of his lord the king of Scot- 
land, wrote to him, saying that he should render entire the 

1 Cf. M.P., H.A., iii, 40 ; Madden, note, ibid., iii, 562. Abbr. Chr., 
ibid., iii, 305. 

2 Cf. Fl. His., ii, 362. For Alexander's death and shield cf. M.P., H.A., 
iii, 65. 

His death is mentioned by Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 179, s.a. 1249. 
Ann. of Tewk., ibid., i, 140, s.a. 1250. Ann. of Furn., in Chr. of Ste., etc., 
ii, 535, s.a. 1249. 

3 3rd July. Alexander died on the 8th of July ; Sc. Peer., i, 6. " Be- 
fore the harvest," Ann. of Dunst., u.s. " About the nativity of St. John," 
T.W., Chr., in A.M., iv, 98 [24th June]. 

4 Oenum ; Angus ? 

5 The island in the Pentland Firth is Stroma. 


service due both to the king of Scots and to the king of the 

But when the king of Scots still enraged had replied that 
no one could serve two masters, and had received the answer 
that one could quite well serve two masters, provided the 
masters were not enemies, the king prepared an army to 
attack him hostilely. 

Owen therefore being loth to offend his lord the king of 
Scotland, besought him that a truce might be granted him, 
so that he should resign to the king of Norway his homage 
along with the island spoken of. 

And when the king of Scots had refused him this the 
king's perversity was apparent, whereby he incurred the dis- 
pleasure of God and of St. Columba, who lies in those regions 
and is honoured there ; and of many nobles. 

The king therefore declared Owen unfaithful and pur- 
sued him hostilely by ship to near Argyle ; urged, as is said, 
by the vehement promptings of a certain indiscreet bishop 
of Strathearn, 1 a friar to wit of the order of the Preachers. 

The king therefore leaving his ship, before he could mount 
his horse, as if in retribution was struck by a sudden and 
mortal disease. And while wishing to disinherit an innocent 
man, he unexpectedly breathed out with that ambition the 
breath of life, in the hands of his nobles. 2 

1 Clement, bishop of Dunblane ; cf. also supra, s.a. 1244. 

2 Cf. the Chr. Reg. Man., 233, s.a. 1249 : " At that time king Alexander 
assembled many ships, to subdue to himself the Isles ; and died, seized with 
a fever, in the island of Kerrera." 




IV, P. 102. i 

ABOUT the same time [1st May, 1251] Alexander [III], king 
of Scots, began to occupy the king of England's lands next 
to his kingdom. 

Learning this, the king of England gathered a countless 
army and betook himself to the northern districts, sending 
in front John Mansel into Scotland to treat of peace : and 
by his mediation betrothal was contracted between the king 
of Scots and Margaret, daughter of the king of the English ; 
and immediately, peace being assured, the king and his whole 
army returned into England. 

1251, Aug. 


IV, P. 103. 

On the feast of the nativity of St. Mary 2 the king of Scots 
came to Woodstock, and confirmed the betrothal formerly 
initiated there. 

1251, Sep. 



The queen of Scotland returns to her native land. 

And about the festival of St. Michael 4 the queen of Scot- 

1 Ann. of Osn., in A.M., iv, 102-103 : " In this year Margaret, the 
daughter of king Henry IV, was betrothed to the king of Scotland." Cf. 
supra, s.a. 1244. 

The weakness of Scotland's policy at this time was due to the youth of 
the king, according to M.P., Chr. Maj., v, 266; H.A., iii, 117. 

Pope Innocent IV had on 6th April, 1251, refused Henry's claim that 
the king of Scotland could not be crowned without the king of England's con- 
sent, and also his claim to a tithe of the Scottish churches. Feed., i., 463. 
(Cf. Henry's letter to the archbishop of York, 6th May, 1233, in Foed.,i, 328.) 

2 8th September. 

3 Cf. M.P., H.A., iii, 116; Abbr. Chr., ibid., iii, 321. Fl. His., iii, 378. 
4 29th September. 



land, to wit the widow of king Alexander and daughter of 
Engelram de Coucy, departed from Scotland to return to 
her own land, for the sake of visiting her country and her 
relatives ; after assignation to her of the part which pertained 
to her of the kingdom of Scotland, to wit seven thousand 
marks in revenue. 1 

And when, taking her way through the midst, she came 
to the lord king to salute him, he enriched her with many 
honours and gifts, even as it is the king's custom to afford 
to all foreigners gifts and honour ; and requested her to 
return without interval of delay when she should be called 
to the wedding of her son Alexander the second, 2 whom the 
nobles of Scotland had raised to the throne. 

1251, Dec. 


The lord king was at York at Christmas. 

In the year of the Lord 1252, which is the thirty-fifth 
year of the kingdom of lord king Henry III, the lord king 
was at York at Christmas for the union in marriage of his 
daughter Margaret, now in her . . . 4 year, with Alexander, 

1 Cf. however M.P., infra, " four thousand marks and more." 

2 filii sui Alexandri secundi : perhaps " her second son." Alexander III 
was eight years old, according to Ann. of Burt., infra, note : nevertheless he 
was born on the 4th September, 1241 ; Sc. Peer., i, 6. His parents were 
married in May, 1239. 

3 Cf. M.P., H.A., iii, 117-118; Abbr. Chr., ibid., iii, 321-322; Fl. His., 
ii, 378. 

4 The year of her age is omitted; so also in H.A., iii, 118. Margaret 
was born in Gascony in 1243, according to Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 89. 
In 1242, according to Ann. of Osn., and T.W., in A.M., iv, 90. In 1241, 
Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 156. In 1240, M.P., Chr. Maj., iv, 48, and H.A., 
ii, 438, (after the 29th September ; on the 29th, according to Abbr. Chr.. in 
M.P., H.A., iii, 281 ;) Ann. of Tewk., in A.M., i, 116 (where she is called 
Matilda, and the day is given as the 1st October ;) Ann. of Wore., in A.M., 
iv, 432. In 1240, October 2nd, according to Fl. His., ii, 239-240. 

Cf. Ann. of Burt., in A.M., i, 296, s.a. 1251 : " In this year the king of 
Scotland, son of king Alexander, a small boy of eight years, married at York 
on the day of Christmas Margaret, the daughter of king Henry of England, 
a little girl of the same age ; king Henry being present there, and queen 
Eleanour, his wife, and the queen of Scotland, mother of the king, and nearly 
all the nobles and magnates of England and of Scotland. And she was 
taken with them to Scotland." 

Margaret was Henry Ill's eldest daughter. (Ann. of Tewkesb., in 
A.M., i, 146.) 

Ann. of Wore., in A.M., iv, 436, s.a. 1245 : " The lord king sought aid 
from the religious houses throughout England for the marrying of his first- 
born daughter, and we gave him a hundred shillings " (sols) " and a silver 
cup of price." 

Ann. of Tewkesb., u.s., i, 145 : " The king exacted tallage from all 


king of Scotland, and for the celebration of the nuptials as 
was fitting between so great personages. 

Now there had come together there an exceedingly numer- 
ous host both of the clergy and of the knighthood of either 
realm, that the serenity of so important nuptials might shine 
with greater lustre and extent. 

For there were present the lord king of England and the 
queen, with their magnates, whom it would be over-long to 
enumerate by name. There were moreover the king of Scot- 
land and the queen, his mother, called for this from foreign 
parts ; and many nobles accompanied her, not of Scotland only, 
but also many from France, whence she took her origin. For 
she had obtained, as is the custom for widows, the third part 
of the revenues of the kingdom of Scotland, amounting to 
four thousand marks and more, besides other possessions 
which she had received from the gift of her father Engelram ; 
and she proceeded exceedingly loftily with a magnificent 
and numerous retinue. 

But when they had all come to York those who had come 
with the king of Scots were for precaution lodged in one street 
without admixture of others. 

And while certain of the nobles' officials whom we call 
marshals were providing lodgings for their lords, they came 
to blows, fist to fist, then with their nails, 1 finally with their 
cudgels. And some of them were seriously hurt ; one fell 
slain, others wounded never afterwards recovered. 

But the kings through the guardians whom they had 
there, discreet and moderate, prudently restrained the dis- 
sensions of both lords and servants. 

The archbishop's men, moreover, provided accommodation 
sufficient, considering the times, for all, although they exceeded 
number, lest the scarcity of lodgings should provoke strife. 

The king of Scotland is presented with the belt of knighthood. 

Therefore on the day of Christmas the lord king of England 
presented the king of Scotland with the belt of knighthood 
at York ; 2 and with him made twenty new knights, who 

England for the marriage of his daughter, on the eighteenth before the 
Kalends of September," i.e. 15th August, 1251. 

Henry promised to give with her a dowry of 5,000 marks, to be paid 
[yearly] " from the next following Easter for four years " (in quatuor annos ;) 
Feed., i, 467. The document is dated on the 27th December. Cf. Alex- 
ander's letter concerning part payment of the dowry, 17th February, 1259 ; 
in Foad., i, 671. 

1 clams ; read clavibus ? 

2 " And received homage from him," Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 93. 


were all decorated with choice and costly robes, as was fitting 
in a so renowned noviciate. 

The king of Scotland married Margaret, the daughter of the 
king of England. 

And on the morrow of Christmas, that is on the day of 
St. Stephen, 1 the king of Scotland married the daughter of 
the king of England. 2 

And because the people hurrying in troops and masses 
crushed one another inordinately that they might be present 
and see the celebration of such nuptials, the celebration of 
marriage was performed in the earliest morning, secretly and 
before the expected time. 

There were there indeed so many diversities of people, so 
many numerous hosts of nobles of English, French and Scots, so 
many large troops also of knights, adorned with wanton robes, 
vain in their silks and changing adornments, that their pro- 
fane and wanton vanity, if it were described to the full, would 
produce in the hearers' ears wonder and disgust. 

For a thousand knights and more appeared there on behalf 
of the English king at the wedding clothed in silk and, to 
speak in the vulgar tongue, in cointises. And on the morrow 
they threw all those aside, and presented themselves at court 
in new robes. 

And on behalf of the king of Scotland sixty knights and 
more, and many the equivalent of knights, adorned with 
sufficient appropriateness, presented themselves there to the 
gaze of all. 

The king of Scotland did homage to the lord king of the English, 
by reason of the holding which he holds of the kingdom of England. 

So the king of Scotland did homage to the king of the 
English, by reason of the possessions which he holds of the 
lord king of the English, to wit in the kingdom of England : 
namely for Lothian and the other lands. 

And when in addition to this the king of Scotland was 
required to do homage and fealty with allegiance to his lord 
the king of the English by reason of the kingdom of Scotland, 
as his predecessors had done to the English kings, according 
as it is clearly written in the chronicles in many places, the 
king of Scotland replied that he had come thither in peace J 

1 26th December. So G. of C., contin., G.R., ii, 203. Fitz-Thedmar, 
18. J. of T., in Fl. of W., ii, 183. Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 93. Ann. 
of Wore., ibid., iv, 441. T.W., Chr., ibid., iv, 103. 

Cf. Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 183. Ann. of Tewkesb., ibid., i, 146. 

2 " The nuptials were celebrated at York by the archbishop [Walter de 
Gray] of that place," Ann. of Tewkesb., u.s, 


and for the honour of the king of England, and by his com- 
mand, to wit to be allied to him by mediation of a matrimonial 
alliance, and not to reply to him about so difficult a question. 
For he had not held full deliberation or suitable counsel 
concerning this with his chief men, as so difficult a matter 

And when the lord king heard this he refused to becloud 
with any commotion so placid a festival, or to distress a king 
so young, and his younger spouse, especially as he had come 
when summoned as with the greatest joy to wed his daughter ; 
but dissembled everything, passing it over for the time in 

Concerning the right of the earl marshal on this occasion. 

And in this novitiate and wedding the earl marshal l 
urgently demanded his right and ancestral custom to be 
granted him, namely the king of Scotland's palfrey, which 
he claimed as by right should be given to him to be saddled ; 
not for a price or for greed, but for the ancient custom in 
similar cases, lest it should be lost in his time through his 

And he was answered that the king of Scotland lay under 
no such exaction, because if it pleased him he could even 
receive arms from any catholic prince or from any one of his 
nobles : but he chose to be presented with the belt of knight- 
hood by the king of England rather than by any other, through 
reverence and honour for so great a prince, his lord and 
neighbour, and so great a father-in-law. 

And thus by the lord king's commands all strife disappeared 
entirely from the feast. 

Of the nuptial banquet. 

So the kings and their magnates and households feasted 
pleasantly together, and passed the days of Chris tmastide 
with the greatest joy. 

And if I should expound more fully the abounding diver- 
sity of the banquets, the variety of changed robes, the pleasure 
of the applauders of jesters, the great numbers of those at 
table together, the extravagant narrative would arouse derision 
in the ears and minds of those who were not there. 

But that by apt comparison the rest may be understood 
from one thing, in that banquet by the archbishop's gift 
more than sixty pasture cows supplied one first and universal 

They feasted all in turn now with this, now with the other 

1 Roger Bigod ; cf. infra, s.a. 1253. 


king, who emulously prepared for the guests in plenty volup- 
tuous repasts, that the world's theatrical vanity might offer 
to mortals whatever it could of its brief and transient happiness. 
They all dined for some days with the archbishop, who 
was as a northern prince and cheerful host of all. And in every 
lack or need he afforded to all the shelter of his aid ; now in 
guesting wanderers, again in feeding horses ; now in various 
dishes, now in fuel for fires ; now with the gift of money, 
again by authority he supplied the needs of all : so that in 
that Lord's Advent he sowed in a barren shore in gifts of 
gold and silver and of silk four thousand marks, which he 
never afterwards reaped. But this he had to do for the occa- 
sion, to preserve the entirety of his repute ; and to close the 
mouths of them that speak lies. 



Philip Luvel is reconciled [with Henry III]. 

While still the festivity of nuptial joy endured, and the 
remaining devices and plans celebrated a feast-day to Hymen, 
the cleric Philip Luvel, a man crafty and eloquent, humbly 
besought the new king of Scotland and his more newly-made 
spouse to make supplication for him, thereby to incline the 
king towards him and render him kind and placable. 

For this Philip formerly knew the king of Scotland well, 
and at one time was on very friendly terms with his father 
and mother. For while he was seneschal of the earl of 
Winchester, and abode at one time in Galloway, which is known 
to belong to the earl's right, he favoured the said king of 
Scotland, and the queen, and his friends, very often with 
honourable gifts. 

Seeing therefore that the occasion was fitting, the new 
king favouring Philip's requests bowed his knees and joined 
his palms before the lord king of England, and pronounced 
these introductory words, which were able to move the heart 
of the king of England, for he wished to raise him, but the 
suppliant refused, and which seemed to rouse tears of com- 
passion and pleasure in many who sat by. 

He spoke therefore : " My lord king, your Serenity knows 
that, although I am a king and have of your generosity been 
made a knight, I am a child, without age or knowledge ; 
moreover also an orphan, because my father is dead, and my 
mother returning to her native country, distant and foreign, 


has left me in my tender age, and has not even yet returned 
except upon your summons. 

" Therefore from this time now and henceforth I adopt 
you as my father ; that indeed you may supply to me the 
loss of both father and mother, and afford to my insufficiency 
counsel and fatherly protection." 

And when the lord king, checking a sob and scarce re- 
fraining from tears, had answered " Gladly," the child speaking 
not childishly added, saying, " In this then I shall test and 
know by trial that you have in your favour hearkened to me, 
if you give effect to the inception of my desire and remit all 
offences to Philip Luvel, who formerly bestowed many honours 
upon my father and mother and me ; and also restore him 
to former friendship. For I have learned from men worthy 
of trust that he has been unjustly accused ; indeed he was 
long ago found faithful, and, in the difficulties of the earl of 
Winchester, indispensable ; submissive also to your counsels 
and service." 

And when those who sat there had applied the spur of 
their approval, the king kindly granted it. Now in this 
affair John Mansel was an efficient helper and the chief 
preceptor. x 

Upon the king's return, an influential guardianship is 
assigned to the queen of Scotland, namely Robert de Ross. 2 

So when the wedding celebration was completed the king 
of Scotland asked for permission courteously, and departed, 
to return with the new queen, his wife, to his own. And the 
surest guardianship was assigned to the queen for her in- 
struction in every way, namely the knights sir Robert le 
Noreis the lord king's marshal of guests, and sir Stephen 
Bauzan. And with them a certain noble dame endowed 
with all honour, Matilda, the widow of William the second 
de Cantelupe ; and certain other prudent and courteous 

And the lord king of England promised to send to the 

1 Cf. ib., v, 261. Philip Luvel became Henry Ill's treasurer after 
23rd August, 1252 ; ib., v, 320. 

2 " Namely . . . Ross " is added in the margin. 

M.P., H.A., iii, 118 : " So the queen of Scotland was intrusted to the 
guardianship of Robert, also the kingdom of Scotland and the king, by 
counsel of the magnates of either realm, because [Robert] was held to be 
of stainless and blameless repute. And he was bidden and instructed not 
to permit the king and queen of Scotland to sleep together, because of their 
tender youth." 

Abbr. Chr., in M.P., H.A., iii, 322 : " The guardianship of the king of 
Scots and of the queen and of the kingdom was intrusted to Robert de Ross 
and John de Balliol." 


king of Scotland a prudent and faithful counsellor, providently 
to examine with the nobles of his kingdom into the affairs 
pertaining to the interest both of the queen and of the king. 



And about the same time master Ralph, canon of the 
church of Lincoln, was elected bishop of Moray in Scotland. 


During the same time Geoffrey de Langley, a knight who 
had oppressed beyond measure those whom he had been able 
to entangle in any suits, was removed from the guardianship 
of the forests, and sent to Scotland as counsellor of the queen 
of Scotland, daughter of the lord king. . . . 

The same Geoffrey, by command of the king of England, 
[was made] one of the guardians of the queen of Scots. But 
the magnates of Scotland refused long to endure his oppressions., 
and removed him. 3 . . . 



S.A. 1253. 4 

Roger Bigod, earl marshal, receives again his wife. 

About the same time earl Roger Bigod, marshal of Eng- 
land, having been instructed and assured of the truth by the 
judgment of the church, salutarily received again [Isabella], 
the king of Scotland's daughter, whom previously he had put 
away, misled by evil counsel; and he said, "Since such is 
the judgment of the church I assent gladly and safely to the 
marriage which I had formerly in doubt and suspicion." 
For it had been instilled into his ears that they were related 
to each other by consanguinity. 

1 CL M.R, H.A., iii, 119. 

2 Cf. Fl. His., ii, 379. Abbr. Chr., in M.P., H.A., iii, 322. 

3 This second paragraph is written at the foot of the page. 

4 Cf. Fl. His., ii, 387. 





S.A. 1255. 1 

Robert de Ross and John de Balliol are seriously accused to 
the king of unfaithfully and dishonourably treating the kingdom 
of Scotland and the queen. 

And during the same times Robert de Ross and John de 
Balliol were seriously accused on the charge that they had 
unfaithfully and dishonourably controlled the kingdom of 
Scotland and the king and queen , whose tutelage had been 
intrusted to them. And the king was at that time in the 
northern parts of England, to wit at Nottingham. 

The source of the accusation and disagreement. 

There was a certain physician well skilled and experienced 
in the art of medicine, namely Reginald of Bath, sent by the 
queen of England, who eagerly desired the welfare and 
prosperity of her daughter the queen of Scots and of the king 
of Scots her husband, whom she loved as her adopted son, 
to watch over the health of the queen of Scotland, and of the 
king, and of their friends. 

And when this master Reginald came to Maidens' Castle, 
which is called Edinburgh in the common tongue, and ex- 
plained the cause of his coming, and showed letters both of 
the king and of the queen of the English bearing witness to this 
cause, he was received kindly. 

And when he visited the queen in private, as is the custom 
of physicians, and inquired the cause of her distress and pallor, 
for he had found her sorrowful, she replied, " It is fitting 
to disclose to a physician the secrets of the body, even as to 
a priest are revealed the hidden things of the mind." 

And when master Reginald had learned the troubles of 
her mind and body he severely reproved her guardians and 
magistrates. And after disputes and words of bitter alter- 
cation and even of threatening, he accused all the nobles of 
the king and queen and the guardians of the kingdom as 
being guilty of treason, convicted and menaced them. So 
this physician Reginald after not many days fell mortally 
sick and took to his bed ; and there were some who insinuated 
and said that he had been poisoned. 

But when 2 he saw that he was irrevocably approaching 

1 Cf. Fl. His., ii, 410. Abbr. Chr., in M.P., H.A., iii, 346. B.C., 132. 

2 " Fleeing to Oxford " is added in the margin, written with a style. 


to the gates of death he wrote both to the king and to the 
queen, saying that he had come thither under an inauspicious 
star ; for he had seen that their daughter was unfaithfully 
and inhumanly treated among those unworthy Scots, and 
because he had blamed them the Northerns had prepared 
for him snares of death. 

And when the king heard this he was much enraged, and 
silently planned vengeance for so great an offence. 

But master physician, after vomiting forth this poison 
of strife and great future evil and irrevocable loss, breathed 
out his wretched life. 



The king marches towards Scotland. 

At the same time, while the king was daily more and 
more moved by complaints and importuned by communications 
from the queen of Scotland and her friends, he called together 
an army and turned his reins and standards toward Scotland, 
intending to bring a serious charge against Robert de Ross 
and John Balliol, knights and men of great power and authority. 
For he was assured, so he asserted, by frequent secret com- 
munications from his vassals, that they had treated both 

1 Of. Fl. His., ii, 410-411. Abbr. Chr., in M.P., H.A., iii, 347. 

Cf. Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 198, s.a. 1255 : " In the same year the 
king- of England was angered against the council of the king of Scotland, 
because they treated his daughter ill ; and he sent before him Richard earl 
of Gloucester and John Mansel, to inquire the truth of the matter. And 
when they arrived in those parts and came to the castle of Edinburgh, in 
which the king and queen were kept, finding it badly guarded they entered 
the castle ; and greeting the king and queen they learned for certain that, 
hindered by Robert de Ross (who had been appointed their guardian by the 
council of the kingdom) the king could not come to the queen, even as the 
queen had before stated to her father. 

" But the earl of Gloucester and John Mansel aforesaid removed the 
guardians, and put the king and queen together in bed ; and so that night 
with their servants retired to distant parts, and reported all that had been 
done to the king, who followed close behind. 

" And he conceived the greatest wrath and indignation against the 
guardians, to wit against Robert le Ross and John de Balliol, insomuch that 
he summoned them to London, and accused them of many transgressions." 

Ann. of Burt., in A.M., i, 337, s.a. 1255 : " King Henry and the queen 
were at York on the day of the Assumption of the blessed Virgin [15th Aug- 
ust], and set out thence for Scotland, to speak with the king of Scotland, 
their son-in-law, and with the queen, their daughter ; both because of some 
dissension which had arisen between them, and because of Robert de Ross, 
who treated them not according to their wish, in that he did not permit them 
to have carnal intercourse together : for which cause the king dispossessed 
this Robert of the castle of Wark " [in text Wreck ; read Werch ?] " and of 
certain other of his lands." 


the king and queen and the kingdom of Scotland otherwise 
than as was fitting and expedient. 

And when he came near to the kingdom of Scotland he 
sent before his face Richard, earl of Gloucester, and John 
Hansel, the lord king's special clerk and counsellor, to learn 
discreetly whether Robert de Ross had carried his protest into 
action, and whether perchance he presumed . rebelliously to 
defend his fault and the charge brought against him, and to 
kick against the pricks. 

So the earl and John went in front, according to the king's 
command, accompanied by a chosen suite and a numerous 
retinue ; and being assured that the king and queen of Scots 
abode at that time in Maidens' Castle, they suddenly arrived 
there without any noise. And leaving their company behind, 
to follow, that is, at some distance, the earl and John entered 
cautiously, as though they had been humble knights of the 
household of Robert de Ross, deceiving the doorkeeper and the 
other warders. Thereafter their company and suite followed 
ijiem a few at a time, and united suddenly into a great army, 
so that if those who were in the castle to defend it should 
dare to rise, those who had now entered in should have 
no fear of them. 

So the Scots' queen went to them with confidence, and 
complained grievously that she was unfitly guarded or rather 
imprisoned in that castle, a dreary and solitary place, wholly 
lacking wholesome air or verdure, as being near the sea. Nor 
was she permitted, so she said, to go about in her realm, or 
to keep a special household, or even the girls whom she desired 
to have, as attendants and chambermaids. Nor was the 
king her husband permitted to have conjugal access to her, 
or to rejoice in mutual embraces. And whether anything 
secret was added to her complaints is unknown. 

But the earl and sir John, as men most eloquent and 
discreet, soothed her and checked her tears and sobs, and 
consoled her courteously and temperately, promising her 
certain amendment of these abuses. And they caused them 
without restraint to sleep together in one bed, the king to wit 
and queen of Scots, as husband and wife. And Robert 
de Ross was strictly summoned to come prepared to answer 
in the court of his lord the English king to the charges laid 
against him. And Robert in trepidation at first absented 
himself, but afterwards was humbled and came. 

And there were some of the nobles who were wroth that 
the earl and John had so suddenly and unhindered by op- 


position of any [come into] their castle, which is in the entrance 
to their land, and is a protection and bar for the whole king- 
dom : and desiring vengeance they came and with a great 
host surrounded the castle. 

But when they understood that they were foolish and 
misled, in that they had hostilely besieged their king and 
queen, they retired. And so everything was arranged and 
left in peace. 

And Robert de Ross promised in specified form to come 
to the court of the king of England, his lord, to answer for 
everything. None the less by counsel of friends of fortune 
the king caused Robert's lands to be seized and committed 
to strict keeping. 



John de Balliol prudently made peace for himself by money 
which he had in abundance. 

During the same time also John de Balliol, -a rich and 
powerful knight, whose father, vigorous in arms, had been of 
great service to king John in a strait, and had often afforded 
him assistance in critical circumstances, being like Robert 
seriously accused, prudently made peace for himself by 
satisfying the king's needs with money, which he had in 
abundance. 2 

The king planned thereupon to return from the districts of 
the north. 

So everything being pacified and arranged to his wish, 
when the lord king of the English and the queen had had 
sufficient mutual conference with the king of Scots and the 
queen their daughter the king hastened his return to the 
southern parts of England. 3 . . . 

*Cf. Fl. His., ii, 411. Abbr. Chr., in M.P., H.A., iii, 347. 

2 See also M.P., Chr. Maj., v, 528 : " And the lord king, knowing that 
this John had abundance of much money, brought a serious charge against 
him, as has been said above ; hoping to diminish the pile of his treasure in 
the repurchase of peace. 

" And Robert de Ross, entrapped in a similar noose, in many ways was 
impoverished through losses inflicted upon him." 
Cf. M.P., Chr. Maj., v, 569; infra, s.a. 1256. 

3 The Scottish king and queen were allowed to accompany them to the 
border, upon Henry's giving assurance not to detain them longer than the 
29th September (Feed., i, 562-563.) Upon the 20th September Alexander 
appears to have made an announcement at Roxburgh ; Henry publiahed it 
on the same day at Sprouston ; Feed., i, 565-567. On the same day at 
Wark Henry announced that he had detained the queen of Scotland on 
account of the English queen's ill-health (Feed., i, 565.) 


, Nov. 1 




The property of Robert de Ross was plundered. 

The possessions of Robert de Ross were despoiled, 
cows, sheep, his utensils, everything which he had in the realm 
of England was mercilessly plundered, and sold on good terms 
at the will of the buyers. And of no benefit to him was 
the humble justification which he offered, or which he obtained 
from the king, namely that he did not permit the king and 
queen to sleep together because of their youth, until a certain 
time should come which was not yet proved to have arrived. 

And he followed the king, soliciting and awaiting his 
favour ; but he could not yet obtain it. It was instilled 
into the ears of most men that the deprivation of royal 
favour [arose] from [Henry Ill's] inveterate hatred of the 
Normans, who formerly strove to bring to justice z his father : 
the king persecuted him like other Normans. For besides 
this Robert and John de Balliol, whom the king now strove 
with utmost endeavour to ensnare, he deprived all Normans 
of their former prosperity, and transferred their possessions 
to foreigners. strange king, with whom services rendered 
pass as the morning mist, but offences are treasured for such 
length of time ! 

But the oft-mentioned Robert's unwary answer when he 
wished to defend himself by bodily strength from the charge 
brought against him and to clear himself in the judgment 
of his enemies or of the friends of fortune who cast down the 
falling and prop him who is lifted up, put him in the 

1256, Aug. 


Of the arrival in England of the king and queen of Scotland. 

Now in the beginning of the month of August, by the kind 
command of the lord king of England and the queen, the 
king and queen of Scotland came to England with the great 

1 About November, 1255, pope Alexander IV sent Rustand as legate to 
England, empowering him and the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop 
of & Hereford to collect the tithe in England, Scotland and Ireland. M.P., 
Chr. Maj., v, 519-520. 
t 2 justificare. 


and numerous retinue of an honourable household, so that 
they were believed to have with them about three hundred 
horses, for the sake of visiting the lord king and the queen of 
England ; that the queen of Scots might see her father and 
mother, the king and queen, and that the king of Scots might 
see his lord and father-in-law the king, who also by the prompt- 
ing of affection had adopted him as his son : also to see the 
English queen. For they thirstily longed to see and behold 
the English king and queen, and the realm of England ; the 
manners and customs of the English, the churches, cities 
and castles, the rivers and meadows, woods and fields, which 
are appraised most highly among the delights of all realms. 

The, king of England meets the king and queen of Scotland 
on their arrival. 

And when the lord king of the English learned this, with 
the greatest joy he met them on their arrival ; and falling 
into their embraces he exchanged with them pleasant and 
friendly conversation. And by the lord king's command 
innumerable nobles assembled there. 1 . . . 

1256, Sept. 

The king granted Huntingdon to the king of Scotland. 

And on the morrow 2 of St. Giles' day the lord king of 
England granted and chartered Huntingdon to the king of 
Scotland, to hold and to have it and the honour pertaining 
to it, as some of his predecessors had had and held it. 

And thus the king decreed, although daily impoverished. 

1 According to Fl. His., ii, 414, the feast was held at Woodstock on the 
15th August : so Fitz-Thedmar, 23 ; so also Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 95, 
where it is said that the feast was held because of the arrival of the king and 
queen of Scots. 

M.P., Chr. Maj., v, 574, says that on the 15th August the king and queen 
left Woodstock for London, with the whole company. On the 29th August 
they were entertained in a large and magnificent banquet by John Mansel ; 
ibid., 575. Cf. Fitz-Thedmar, 23 : " For afterwards the king of Scotland 
and his queen came to London, on the Sunday [27th August] before the 
Beheading of John the Baptist, the city being adorned and draped." 

The king and queen of Scotland interposed in favour of William de 
Insula, sheriff of Northampton, who was condemned to be hanged ; M.P., 
Chr. Maj., v, 580. 

2 2nd September. 



The nobles of Scotland direct the ways of their king. 

About the period of those days 1 since the king of Scot- 
land, Alexander, from whose youth the greatest benefit was 
hoped for the kingdom of Scotland, misgoverned too un- 
becomingly, promoting and following foreigners and exalting 
and appointing them over his native subjects, the in- 
habitants and natives were indignant, and to prevent his 
breaking out in worse ways they placed the king himself and 
the queen under custody again ; and the queen they removed 
and guarded carefully, lest she should take after her father ; 2 
until, after the example of the Germans, 3 they should have 
removed to a distance all the foreigners. And thenceforward 
the nobles of Scotland held the reins of their kingdom with 
greater freedom and safety. 4 

They upbraided the queen moreover in that she had in- 
cited and summoned her father to come upon them as an 
enemy with his army, and do lamentable destruction. And 
thus Robert de Ross, most eminent of all the northern 
barons, was pitilessly and irrevocably ruined. For all his 
goods which seemed saleable had for confiscation been exposed 
for sale. 

I258, 5 Nov. 



And while [Henry] stayed [at St. Albans] 6 messengers 
arrived, asserting that Walter Cumin, 7 a most powerful earl 
in Scotland, had yielded to fate, having fallen from his horse, 
which had stumbled upon some obstacle ; and thus he had 
broken his legs, and expired. 

1 The last event recorded is dated about the 29fch September ; ibid., 655! 

2 ne patrissaret : read patriaret, " lest she should return to her country ? ' 
3 V. M.P., Chr. Maj., iii, 325. 

4 Henry III now afforded favour to the Cumin party ; 6th November, 
1258, in Feed., i, 670. For his previous opposition to it cf. Feed., i, 565-567 
(20th September, 1255); 567 (21st September, 1255); 605, 606 (13th Sep- 
tember, 1256). 

5 In 1258 the Welsh rose against the English, " trusting however in 
this, that the king was taking action against the nobles of Scotland, who had 
raised themselves against him, . . ." M.P., Chr. Maj., v, 675. There was 
a definite agreement in 1258 between the princes and barons of Wales and 
the Scottish barons ; Feed., i, 653-654. 

6 22nd to 25th November ; M.P., v, 724. 

7 The earl of Menteith. 




S.A. 1259. 1 

How master William de Horton conducted king [Henry's] 
affairs in Scotland. 

And in the same year about the Kalends of March 2 master 
William de Horton, monk and treasurer of the church of St. 
Albans, returned from the remotest parts of Scotland. He 
had long before undertaken the laborious journey thither, 
in the same year about the festival of St. Catherine, 3 by 
command of the lord king and by provision of his counsellors, 
moreover also by the benevolence of his abbot. For difficult 
but secret affairs had been intrusted to him on behalf of the 
king and queen and magnates of England, to announce to 
the king and queen and magnates of Scotland. 

And when he came thither he found, as he wished, the 
king and queen and magnates of the realm there assembled 
for parliament. And explaining the cause of his journey 
he asked submissively, showing letters of credence and favour, 
on behalf of the lord king of the English and the queen and 
the barons, that the lord king of Scotland and the queen 
should not omit to come into England to listen and discuss 
concerning these things which they urged emphatically were 
a difficult and private matter. 

And after [the Scots] had put in the way much opposition 
and obstruction of difficulties he at last, after various disputes, 
by persisting in diligent petition persuaded them prudently 
to this, so that he obtained their consent according to his desire. 
For they wrote for him their letters patent, sealed in common 
both with the king's seal and with that of all the magnates 
of Scotland, to the king of England and the whole community, 
and gladly agreed to do their will, provided only that the 
king of England and his magnates would assure them of the 
document which had before been faithfully promised to them. 
And they wrote moreover to the lord king of England, and 
to the queen and the nobles of the land, their letters of high 
commendation of the said William's prudent and unwearied 
diligence in the matter laid upon him ; and, immediately 
after his return, sent to England their messengers of state, 
to wit the earl of Buchan, 4 master William the chancellor 5 

1 Cf. Fl. His., ii, 422. 2 1st March. 

3 25th November, 1258. 

4 Alexander Cumin. , 

5 William Wishart, afterwards bishop of St. Andrews. 


and sir Alan Durward, 1 to treat more fully with the king of 
England and his council concerning the affair aforesaid. 
And when they had come and spoken with the said William, 
who had preceded them, they returned, leaving no testimony 
in public concerning the success of their affair with the king 
and the community of the realm. 

1260, Oct. 
FLOBES HISTORIARUM, VOL. II, PP. 459-460, S.A. 1260. 3 

Of the arrival in London of the king of Scotland. 

Also in these days and this month [of October] 3 the king 
of Scotland came to London, led by various causes ; namely 
to visit the king of England and the queen, and to exercise 
lordship and dominion over his earldom of Huntingdon. 
Moreover he declared the more especial cause of his arrival, 
and asked from the king four thousand marks to be given him, 
as he said had been previously promised him by the same 
king in the espousal of his wife ; also the whole land between 
Tyne and Tweed, which he asserted had been formerly given 
to his predecessors ; also aid of men from the king and 
the magnates of the land against his enemies, even as he had 
formerly promised them and the nobles of Scotland by his 
signed document, taken charge of and sent by brother 
William de Horton. 

And there were then present in London the kings of 
England and of Germany ; and therefore there was there, 
and ought to have been, so great display that the whole 
surrounding country endured insufferable expense. 

And after a few days [Alexander's] queen followed him, very 
near to her confinement, coming for the sake of visiting the king 
and the queen and England, and, God willing, to be delivered 
there near to them. And she was conducted by the venerable 
man bishop [Henry] of Whithorn. And her younger brother 
Edmund met her ; and she was received in formal procession 
at St. Albans in the hour of vespers, and honourably enter- 

1 Alan Durward had married Marjory, an illegitimate daughter of Alex- 
ander II. Sc. Peer., i, 6. 

2 Of, Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 217, s.a. 1260 : " In the same year 
the king of Scotland came to London with his wife, who was pregnant, the 
daughter of the king of England. And when he had stayed there for some 
days he sought permission from the lord king and returned, leaving his wife 
with her mother until she should be confined. And she bore a daughter at 
Windsor." V. infra, s.a. 1261. 

3 They arrived on the 30th of October, according to Fitz-Thedmar, 45. 
On the 16th NovemberlHenry'made an announcement concerning the 

Scottish queen's approaching confinement ; Feed., i, 715-716. 


tained. In the morning she set out for London. And when 
she was received, there were there at the same time three 
kings and as many queens : and who could without admir- 
ation think of their splendour and nobility ? And when the 
queen had been presented to her parents the bishop, loaded 
with precious and diverse gifts, returned to Scotland as quickly 
as he could. After him returned the king also, affairs being 
completed on either side ; and being guested on his return 
at St. Albans, he made there the gift of a pall. 

And it was related that that king then received a 
hundred shillings daily while on this side of the Humber from 
the royal purse, both in coming and in going, as his prede- 
cessors also had been accustomed to ask when summoned 
by royal command. But although this was very often asked 
as a right, yet, according to the statement of very many men, 
it was never afforded except out of generosity. 

1260, Dec. 


In the 1261st year of the Lord, and the forty-fifth of king 
Henry the Third, that king kept Christmas at Windsor along 
with his queen and his daughter the queen of Scotland, who 
delayed there awaiting her confinement. 

1261, Feb. 


jQf the confinement of the queen of Scotland at Windsor. 
\ During the same days 1 queen Margaret of Scotland bore 
herfirstborn daughter 2 in the castle of Windsor, where she 
had made a prolonged stay with her mother. 
\ And learning this the Scots took it very ill that their queen 
U#Kbuld have been delivered outside of her own realm ; for 
they had been altogether ignorant-^when she departed that 
she was so near to her confinementj For she had carefully 
hidden this from them and from tlieking, 3 that thus regaining 
her native soil she might the more gladly fulfil the desire of 

1 The episode preceding is of the 13th February. 

2 Margaret, who married king Eric Magnusson of Norway in August, 
1281. She died on the 9th April, 1283. Sc. Peer., i, 6. 

3 Cf. the agreement given by Henry on 30th September, 1260, before she 
left Scotland, in the event of her becoming pregnant while in England ; 
Fosd., i, 714. 




Nottingham Castle was taken by king [Henry HI], and the 
Scots came to the king's aid. 

Thereafter 1 [Henry went] to Nottingham. . . . And 
nobles from the northern parts came there to the king in aid ; 
namely John de Balliol, and Robert de Bruce, and Peter de 
Bruce, and many other barons, with many thousand soldiers ; 
and there also the lord king held the feast of Easter. 2 

1264, Ma y- 


. . . Many others also were captured : 3 namely John 
de Balliol, Robert de Bruce, John Cumin, and the other 
barons of Scotland ; almost all the foot-soldiers whom they 
had brought with them from Scotland being slain, to a great 
number. 4 . . . 

1265 5 

II, P. 549, S.A. 1265. 

In the same year died the king of Man ; 6 and after his 
death [Man] was made tributary to the kii\g of Scotland, 7 
who paid for it definite tribute yearly to the king of Norway. 

And kings ceased to reign in Man. 

1267 8 

1 After " the first sabbath of the Lord's passion," ibid. ; Saturday, 
8th March. 

2 20th April. 

3 At the battle of Lewes, 14th May. The Scots were on the king's side 
against the barons. 

4 Ann. of Furn., in Chr. of Ste., etc., ii, 544 : " The rest who fell in this 
battle [of Lewes] were unimportant men of the common people, and especially 
of Scots." Of. Rishanger, 27. 

5 Under this year Fitz-Thedmar, 83, includes Scotland among the " lands 
which pertain to the dignity of the lord king." 

8 Magnus Olafson. (He was knighted by Henry III at Easter, 1256 ; 
M.P., Chr. Maj., v, 549.) His death is placed in 1265 by the Chr. of Man ; 
in Langebek, Scriptores, iii, 236. 

7 Cf. Chr. of Man, u.s., s.a. 1266 ; " The kingship of the Isles was given 
over to Alexander, king of Scots." 

8 The ecclesiastics of all Scotland were present or represented at car- 
dinal Ottobon's council in St. Paul's " about the festival of St. Mark the 
Evangelist," Fitz-Thedmar, 102. [25th April.] 


1274, Aug. 

VOL. II, P. 278, S.A. 1274. * 

Also in the same year lord Edward . . . was crowned 
at Westminster ... in the month of August, on the 
day of St. Magnus the martyr. 2 And at this coronation was 
the king of Scotland, 3 and all the magnates both of England 
and of France, Burgundy, Picardy and Flanders. 


VOL. II, P. 279, S.A. 1274. 

Also in the same year died Margaret, queen of Scotland, 
sister of lord Edward, king of England ; and her sister Beatrice, 
countess of Brittany. 4 


II, P. 569, S.A. 1275. 

Meanwhile 5 the abbot of Furness 6 went to the king of 
Scotland, and claimed his right concerning the election to the 
bishopric of Man. 7 And the king of Scotland received the 
abbot with courtesy, and deceived him with false promises ; 

1 Cf. Fl. His., iii, 44. Ann. of Furn., in Chr. of Ste., etc., ii, 566, s.a. 
1274. Ann. of Winch., in A.M., ii, 118. (Ann. of Wav., in A.M., ii, 383.) 
Cf. Ann. of Wore., in A.M., iv, 465. 

2 19th August. Cf. Ann. of Furn., u.s., " on the Sunday within the 
octave of the Assumption of the glorious Virgin " [Sunday, 19th August.] 

3 Ann. of Furn., u.s. : " In presence of Alexander, king of Scotland, 
and his wife, to wit the sister of king Edward, etc." 

H. de S., Chr., 106, s.a. 1274 : " the king of Scotland being there, and 
doing homage. . . ." 

4 Fl. His., iii, 44-45, after the coronation of Edward I : : " And a short 
space of time afterwards they died, and so left to the nobles great sorrow 
after the great joy of the coronation. For they were ladies of greatly 
renowned and very beauteous youth." 

Cf. also Ann. of Wore., in A.M., iv. 497. Ann. of Furn., in Chr. of Ste., 
etc., ii, 568, s.a. 1274. 

T.W., Chr., in A.M., iv, 262 : " The same year being scarce elapsed, 
about the middle of Lent " [24th March, 1275] " died the serenest queen 
Margaret of the Scots, and her sister ..." They both died " about the 
same time," according to Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 265. Margaret died in 
February, 1275 ; Sc. Peer., i, 6. 

5 While pope Gregory X levied money for a crusade. 

8 H. Brun was appointed abbot of Furness in 1267 ; Ann. of Furn., u.s. 

7 Cf. Ann. of Furn., u.s., 568, s.a. 1274 : " Also [died] Richard, bishop 
of Man and the isles ; and he was buried in the abbey of Furness, on the day 
of the annunciation of the blessed Virgin " [25th March, 1275.] 


but with guile and treachery positively commanded the 
clergy and people of Man on pain of grave peril not to dare 
to receive anyone elected by the abbot and convent of Furness. 
Meanwhile the clergy and people of Man agreed upon the 
election of a bishop and unitedly appointed master Gilbert, 
abbot of Rushen ; but the king of Scotland contrary to the 
canons annulled his election, and intruded one master Mark 
by name, brother of the bailiff of Man ; and immediately 
sent him with letters from himself and letters extorted from 
the clergy and people, with their seals, to Norway to his 
metropolitan, the archbishop of Trondhjem, to be consecrated. 
But what has been done about it is not yet known. 1 


II, PP. 570-571. 

At that time 8 Godfrey, the son (but not legitimate) of 
Magnus the former king of Man, landed in Man with some 

...- But after the death of Magnus aforesaid, who reigned 
last in Man and in the other islands, the king of Norway had 
now sold Man with the islands in perpetuity to the king of 
Scotland and his heirs. 

So when Godfrey came to Man some of the people rejoiced 
at his arrival and received him, and some turned round and 
were grieved ; but in a short time he subdued all to him- 
self in fear and affection, and finally they universally and 
unanimously appointed him their prince. 

So he came to the fortress and took it, for the keepers 
had fled ; and staying there disposed of the kingdom at his 

But the king of Scotland heard that the people of Man 
had conspired with Godfrey, and that [Godfrey] ruled in the 
land as king ; and he was very angry, and caused more than 
ninety ships to be collected, with a great army, from Galloway 
and the islands. And the leaders of the army were John de 
Vescy, a great baron of England ; John Cumin, justiciar of 
Galloway ; Alan Fitz Count ; Alexander Fitz John, of 
Argyle ; and Alan Fitz Rother. 

The aforesaid therefore landed in Man with their ships 

1 These Annals of Furness were copied about 1290 from contemporary 
jottings of events ; cf. Hewlett, in Chr. of Ste., etc., ii, p. Ixxxviii. 

2 The preceding sentence (pp. 568-569) mentions an ordination at 
Alverton in September. 


and armies, to destroy the island ; but the Manxmen also, 
although inferior in strength and arms, now prepared them- 
selves for defence. So a battle was fought ; and the Manxmen, 
unarmed and naked, could not resist the slingers, ballistaries, 
archers and armed men, and fled with Godfrey their king. 
And the others pursuing them cut down and slew man and 
beast, as many as they could catch, sparing not for sex or 
place. But Godfrey with his wife and some of his followers 
escaped, fleeing to Wales. 

And the enemy aforesaid despoiled the abbey of Rushen 
and the monks, and sent them away almost naked. And at 
that time perished miserably all the nobles and the captains, 
and also the rest of the people, whose exact number no one 

And thus was the land destroyed and despoiled ; and the 
armies retired, returning to their own. 



Also in the middle of the month of October the lord king 
Edward held a great parliament at Westminster ; and there 
the lord king of Scotland came and did homage to the said 
lord king of England. 1 


IV, PP. 277-278. 

When this was done, 2 the king of Scots was charged and 
summoned by the king of the English to renew in his presence 
the homage which he had done to king Henry for lands which 
he owes to hold of him, neighbouring upon the kingdom of 
Scotland ; and this king of Scots, willingly or unwillingly, I 
know not, left his realm and came into England, and coming 
to our king adapted himself to his good pleasure in all things. 
And that the triumph of so great a surrender should not be 
hid from our countrymen for the future, the king of Scots 
did homage to our king ; obtaining this, however, that hence- 

1 " And did his homage to the lord king of England for the lands which 
he holds in Tynedale and Westmoreland, saving to the king of England 
however his right which he says that he has in the land of Scotland and 
Lothian," Ann. of Wore., Vespasian MS., (written at Winchester,) in A.M., 
iv, 474 ; cf. ibid., pp. xxxvi, ff. 

2 After the marriage of Llewellyn and Eleanour de Montfort, 13th 
October. MS. B has instead,, " in the same year." 


forth wherever he could be found in the kingdom of England, 
there the king and his descendants should not defer to receive 
his homage and that of his descendants. Agreements also 
concerning this were most firmly established on both sides, 
and the king of Scots returned to his own. 

1286, May. 


p. 492. i 

In this year died Alexander, king of Scotland, on the 
fifteenth 2 before the Kalends of April. 

IV, PP. 305-306, s.A. 1285. 

Alexander also, king of the Scots, died ; and of his death 
diverse men thought diversely. 

This king left no heir born of his body ; and for this cause 
diverse men for diverse reasons claimed the succession to the 
kingdom. Nevertheless because his wife 3 whom he had 
recently married seemed to be pregnant, the claims to that 
kingdom lay dormant. 4 

1 From the Vespasian MS. Cf. s.a. 1285, Ann. of Dunst., in A.M., iii, 
323 ; s.a. 1291, Fl. His., iii, 74, 72. 

2 18th March. 

3 Yolande, countess de Montfort, daughter of the count de Dreux. 

4 The heir was however Margaret, acknowledged successor to the throne 
when less than two years old on the 5th February, 1284. She was the only 
child of Margaret, queen of Norway ; (cf. supra, 1261, February ;) and died 
in September, 1290, at Orkney. 


Abbacies, etc., in Scotland, 327-8 
Abercorn, 5n, 38n, 44, 60n 
Aberdeen, 299, 327n, 328 
Abernethy, 95n, 197 
Abernethy, Laurence de, 355, 356 
Acca, bishop of Hexham, 53, 102, 

Acha, daughter of king Elle, 13n, 

Ada, wife of prince Henry, 215, 

216, 228, 229, 237 
Ada, daughter of prince Henry, 

Adam, bishop of Caithness, 336- 

Adamnan, abbot of lona, 43n, 45- 

Adamnan, monk of Coldingham, 


Adrian ,1V, pope, 233 
Adulf, 49n 

Adulf, alderman, 58n 
Adulf, priest, 164 
Adulf, prince, 64, 65 
Adulf, prior of Crowland, 166 
Adulf Cudel, earl of Northumbria, 

77n, 81 

Adulf Rus, 97n 

Adulf Yvelcild, earl of Bernicia, 77 
^Edgils, priest, 41 
JEliet ee, 58 
^Emonia, 327n 
Affrica, daughter of Fergus of 

Galloway, 24 5n 
Agatha, wife of Edward Etheling, 

88, 91, 94n, 95n 
Agatho, priest, 31 
Agnes de Meran, 334n 
Aidan, bishop of Lindisfarne, 13- 

21, 23n, 30, 31n, 33, 51 
Aidan, son of Gabran, king of 
Dalriada, 1, 11 

Aiulf, dean of Lothian, 292 
Akarius, abbot of Peterborough, 


Alan, earl of Richmond, 218n 
Alan, lord of Galloway, 332n, 340, 

341, 342 

Alan Rufus, count of Brittany, 116 
Alan the Black, count of Brittany, 

116n, 122 
Alberic, papal legate, bishop of 

Ostia, 210, 211, 213, 214 
Alchfrid, king of Deira, 30, 31 
Alchred, king of Northumbria, 58 
Alcmund, bishop of Hexham, 183 
Aldehamstoc, 164 
Alden, son of Athelwold, 166 
Aldfrid, king of Northumbria, 40n, 

43n, 44, 45, 47, 49n 
Aldgitha, wife of Maldred son of 

Crinan, 81, 96 
Aldham, 60n 
Aldhelm, bishop of Sherborne, 48- 

49n, 53n 
Aldhun, bishop of Durham, 80, 

81n, 82 
Aldred, archbishop of York, 86, 


Aldred Adulfing, 64, 65, 66 
Aldulf, bishop of Carlisle, 169, 210, 

211, 228n 

Aldwin, monk, 97, 135 
Alexander, earl of Buchan, 355, 


Alexander I, king of Scotland. 3, 
112, 114n, 117, 128, 129, 132, 
136, 138-148, 150-155, 158, 193, 


Alexander II, king of Scotland, 3, 
318-319, 329n, 330, 332-338, 
340-361, 367-368 
Alexander III, king of Scotland, 3, 
354, 355, 362-384 

5 C C 



Alexander III, pope, 240, 243, 

265-267, 269, 271-275, 277, 279, 

280, 284, 303 
Alexander IV, pope, 374n 
Alexius, sub-deacon, papal legate, 

271, 273-6 

Alfred, king of Wessex, 64, 75 
Alfred of Durham, 39n, 56n 
Alfwin, son of Norman, 91 
Algar, prior of Durham, 163 
Allmar, knight, 166 
Unwick, 170n, 189, 208n, 250, 

251n, 254 
Alveston, 109n 
Anaeletus II, anti-pope, 21 In 
Aimgni, 241, 266, 268 
Anatolius, 14, 31n 
Anbald I, archbishop of York, 60 
Anbald II, archbishop of York, 

Andrew, bishop of Caithness, 238, 

259, 264 
Anfled, daughter of king Edwin, 


Anfrid, king of Bernicia, 13 
Angles and Saxons, 73, 198n 
Angus, earl of Moray, 166, 225 
Angus, king of the Picts, 56, 57 
Angus, Gilbert earl of, 250, 260, 

Angus, Gilbert Umfraville earl of, 


Annan, 247 
Annandale, 192n 
Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, 

121, 122-125, 128n, 130, 131n, 

139, 151 

Appleby, 249n, 250 
Arbroath, 327 

Arcwulf, bishop of Gaul, 46 
Ardulf, king of Northumbria, 59n 
Argyle, 327n 
Argyll, Duncan de, 356 
Arnold, abbot of Melrose, 280, 

281n, 282, 288, 291, 293n, 296, 


Arnulf, v. Arnold 
Aroensian monks, 233 
Arthur, king, vii 
Arthur of Brittany, 242n 
Artwil, son of a king of Scots, 49n 
Asceticism in the Scottish church, 

17, 40 
Aschetin de Bulmer, 166 

Athelstane, v. Ethelstan 

Audouen, prince of North Wales, 

Augustine, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 9n, 15n, 133n 

Augustinians (black canons), 327 

Auxerre, 168, 221 

Avelina, daughter of Alan Fitz 
Walter, 325 

Avenel, Roger, 356 

Avon, 50 

Bagmoor, 204 

Baldred, anchorite, 56, 61n, 73 

Baldsan, 164 

Baldulf, bishop of Whithorn, 59 

Baldwin, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 293, 294, 307n, 309n, 310n 

Balliol, Bernard de, 191-192, 
201n, 217n, 218n, 252 

Balliol, Henry de, 355, 357 

Balliol, Hugh de, 333, 334 

Balliol, John de, 340n, 342, 357, 
368n, 370, 371, 373, 374, 380 

Balliol, v. John 

Bamborough, 15n, 19, 58, 66, 
80, 92, 170, 185n, 189, 214, 

Banner, Scottish Royal, 206 

Bardolf, Hugh, 310n, 313, 321 

Barfleur, 239n, 255, 277, 300n 

Barnard Castle, 334 

Bartholomew, 31 On 

Basset, Alan, 325 

Basset, Gilbert, 325 

Basset, Thomas, 325 

Bath, 75 

Bathampton, 174 

Bauzan, Stephen, 368 

Beatrice, countess of Brittany, 381 

Beauvais, 137n, 138 

Bedford, 176, 185n 

Beiure, William de, 355, 356 

Belvacensian monks, 233 

Benedict Biscop, abbot of Wear- 
mouth and Jarrow, 48 

Benedictines (black monks), 327, 

Beornheth, under-king in North- 
umbria, 36, 37, 47n 

Berctred, alderman, 47, 49n 

Berkeley, Walter de, 262 

Bernard, archbishop of Ragusa, 



Bernard, bishop of St. Davids, 


Bernicia, 5n, 6, 70n 
Bert, alderman, 42n, 47n, 49n, 50n 
Bertfrid, alderman, 59, 50 
Bertram, prior of Coldingham, 296 
Bertram, prior of Durham, 319 
Bertram, William, 189 
Berwick, 95n, 163n, 247, 248, 261, 

262n, 307, 308, 322, 327, 332, 333 
Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm II, 

wife of Crinan, 1, 83n 
Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm 

Madad's son, 316n 
Bethune, Baldwin de, earl of 

Albemarle, 324 
Bicre, Baldwin de, 253n 
Bigod, Roger, earl marshal, 366, 

Bigot, Roger, earl of Norfolk, 

323, 324 

Bilfrid, anchorite, 53n 
Birgham, 60n 300 
Bishoprics in Scotland, 327-8 
Bisset, John, 356 
Bisset, Robert, prior of Hexham, 

210, 212 

Bisset, Walter, 349-351 
Black Rood, the, 233 
Blahan, priest, 164 
Blugedent, 166 
Bohun, Henry de, earl of Hereford, 

Bohun, Humfrey de, 248, 249, 

Boisil, prior of Melrose, 16n, 22- 

24, 26-27, 28, 51n 
Boniface of Savoy, archbishop of 

Canterbury, 374n 
Bosa, bishop of York, 38 
Bowmont, river, 6 In 
Braban tines, 330 
Brackley, 312-313, 342n 
Brechin, 299, 327n, 328 
Brechin, Henry lord of, 356 
Breteuil, 196n 

Bricius, canon of Whithorn, 347n 
Bromholm, 339n 

Brotherhood by wed, 341-342 
Brough, 249n, 250 
Bruce, Adam de, 20 In 
Bruce, Peter de, 380 
Bruce, Robert de, 191-195, 201, 

21 7n 

Bruce, Robert de, 247 
Bruce, Robert de, 355, 356, 380 
Brude, king of Fortrenn, 58n 
Brude, son of Maelchon, king of 

the Picts, 8, 116 
Brude mac Bili, king of the Picts, 

Brude mac Derilli, king of the 

Picts, 47n 

Brun, H., abbot of Furness, 381 
Brunefeld, 70 
B runnanbur gh , 69-73 
Burford, 56n 
Burgh, Hubert de, earl of Kent, 

335, 336n, 338, 339 
Burneville, Robert de, 262 
Burnswark, 70 
Bury St Edmunds, 249, 339 
Byland, abbey, 226, 230 
Bywell, 59n 

Cadzow, 348n 

Caithness, 68, 299, 316, 317, 318, 

Caithness, Gilbert earl of, 356 

Calang', 163n 

Calatria, viii, 197 

Calixtus II, pope, 137, 148-150, 
160, 161, 163, 164n, 168 

Cambridgeshire, 247 

Camville, Gerard de, 325 

Cantelupe, Walter de, bishop .of 
Worcester, 345n 

Cantelupe, William II de, 368 

Canterbury, 254n, 306, 307, 310n, 

Canterbury, Boniface archbishop 
of, 374n 

Canterbury, claims of the arch- 
bishop of, 99n, 133n, 137-8n, 
141-2, 143, 153, 161, 265 

Carham, v. Wark 

Carlisle, 96n, 108, 109, 110, 129n, 
168n, 169-173, 178n, 190, 194, 
207. 210, 211n, 212, 216, 221, 
222, 223, 227, 228, 231, 239n, 
240, 248, 249, 250, 289, 290, 315, 
316, 326 

Carnham, 60n 

Carron, 50 

Castello, Hugh de, 255n 

Ceadda (St. Chad),' 7, 31n 

Cedd, bishop of the East Saxons, 
31, 32, 34n 



Celestine III, pope, 296-9, 301-3, 

Ceolfrid, abbot of Wearmouth and 

Jarrow, 46n, 47, 48 
Ceollach, bishop of Mercia, etc., 

Ceolwulf, king of Northumbria, 

52, 55n 

Ceolwulf, king of Wessex, 10-11 
Chancy, Simon de, 325 
Chatillon, Hugh de, count de St. 

Pol, 295n 

Chester, 55n, 58, 77n, 79, 239 
Chester-le Street, 77n, 105n, 112 
Christian, bishop of Whithorn, 

238, 259, 264, 269 
Christina, daughter of Malcolm 

Madad's son; 316n 
Christina, sister of queen Margaret, 

88, 91, 93n, 95n 
Christina of Albemarle, daughter 

of Alan of Galloway, 342n, 

Christinus, canon of Whithorn, 


Church architecture, 8, 21, 48 
Cistercians (white monks), 132, 

201n, 218n, 224n, 233, 327, 328, 


Clackmannan, 50n, 315 
Clairvaux, 352 
Clare, Roger de, 356 
Clarice, daughter of king David, 

Clement, bishop of Dunblane, 355, 

Clement. Ill, pope, 296-9, 301-3, 


Cleveland, 91, 112 
Clinton, Geoffrey de, 167 
Clipstone, 311 
Clitheroe, 187, 198-199 
Cluniac monks, 233 
Cnut, king of England, 81, 82, 83, 


Coenred, king of Northumbria, 50 
Coldingham, 38-41, 60n, 61-62, 

163, 319, 327 
Coldric, fort, 222n 
Coldstream, 164, 327 
Coleville, Philip de,*262 
Colman, bishop of_# Lindisfarne, 

30-33, 35 
Columba, 6-9, 13, 3 In, 116, 361 

Conan, count of Brittany, 162, 


Concord, bishop of Enaghdun, 306 
Constance, daughter of William I, 

Constance, illegitimate daughter 

of Henry I, 298n 
Constance of Brittany, 326 
Constantin II, king of Scotland, 2 
Constantin III, king of Scotland, 

2, 64-72 

Constantin IV, king of Scotland, 3 
Constantin, ? grand-nephew of 

Malcolm Madad's son, 316n 
Conyers, Roger, 106 
Corbet, Walter, 262 
Corbridge, 63n, 64, 182 
Coucy, Engelram de, 345, 351, 352, 

363, 364 

Coucy, John de, 351-2 
Coucy, Raoul de, 352n 
Courcy, Richard de, 191, 201n 
Courcy, William de, 263 
Coutances, 258 
Coutances, Walter of, 263 , 
Cowton moor,' 195, 197n 
Crail, 326n 
Craven, 186, 227 
Crinan, lay abbot of Dunkeld, 81 
Culdees, 327, 328 
Culen, king of Scotland, 3 
Cumberland, 66n, 74n, 78n, 91, 

92, 169, 170, 210, 216, 239, 311, 

325, 336n 
Cumbria, 74, 78, 101, 181, 190, 

199, 206, 320, 321 
Cumin, v. Robert de Commines 
Cumin, Alexander, earl of Buchan, 


Cumin, David, 357 
Cumin, John, 380 
Cumin, John, justiciar of Gallo- 
way, 382 

Cumin, Richard, 253n, 262 
Cumin, Richard, 355, 356 
Cumin, Walter, earl of Menteith, 

353, 355, 356, 376 
Cumin, William, 210, 217-221 
Cunningham, 40n 
Cupar, 242, 327 
Cuthbert, prior of Melrose, bishop 

of Lindisfarne, 16n, 22-29, 32- 

33n, 39n, 42, 52-53n, 60-63, 

68n, 71, 73, 89, 103n, 106, 128n 



Cutherd, bishop of Lindisfarne, 64 
Cuthred, king of Wessex, 56 
Cuthred mac William, son of 

Donald mac William, 330 
Cynewulf, bishop of Lindisfarne, 


Dacre, 66n, 67n 

Dalmeny, 24n, 50n 

Dalriada, In, 4 

David, bishop of St. Andrews, 355 

David, earl of Huntingdon, 215, 
242n, 245-248, 255n, 259-263, 
287-290, 293, 294n, 306n, 307 

David, king of Scotland, 3, 113, 
114n, 117, 119, 126-127, 128n, 
132-134, 155-159, 161-165, 167, 
169-179, 181-236, 316n 

David, prince of Wales, 358n 

David Scotus, 156n, 167n 

Dee, river, procession on the, 76- 

Degsastan, 11-12 

Deira, 6, 190n 

Denisesburn, 13n 

Denmark, 83n 

Dercungal, 347n 

Deusdedit, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 32n 

Devorgilla de Balliol, 342n 

Dissington, 209 

Diuma, bishop of Mercia, etc., 

Dolfin, son of earl Gospatric, 81, 
96, 108 

Dominicans (Preaching Friars), 

Donald, king of Strathclyde, 65n, 

Donald mac Alpin, king of Scot- 
land, 2 

Donald II, king of Scotland, 2 

Donald Bane, king of Scotland, 3, 
117-118, 119, 193 

Donald mac William, son of 
William Fitz Duncan, 278, 279, 

Doncaster, 172, 242 

Dover, 326, 334 

Dryburgh, 323, 327 

Drythelm, monk of Melrose, 40n 

Dublin, 72 

Duf, king of Scotland, 3 

Dufnal, mythical king, 76, 77n 
Dugal, son of Somerled, 245n, 

251n, 264 

Dumbarton, vii, 4, 5, 57 
Duna, 60n 
Dunbar, 69n, 96 
Dunblane, 299, 327n, 328 
Duncan, abbot of lona, 51 
Duncan, 4th earl of Fife, 228 
Duncan, 5th earl of Fife, 250, 

260, 262, 318 
Duncan I, king of Strathclyde, 

king of Scotland, 3, 8 In, 82n, 

83, 84, 86 
Duncan II, king of Scotland, 3, 

95n, 104, 118, 119, 193 
Duncan, son of Gilbert Fergus' 

son, 257n, 287, 290, 325 
Duncan, son of Malcolm Madad's 

son, 316n 
Dunfermline, 112, 166, 244, 322, 

327, 328 

Dunkeld, 81n, 299, 327 
Dunmail, king of Cumbria, sons 

of, 74n 

Dunnichen, 43n 
Dunnottar, 68 
Dunphail, 356 
Dunstable, 354n 
Durham, 83, 96, 105, 106, HOn, 

112, 128n, 129n, 133n, 135, 170, 

171, 172, 186, 188, 190 
Durward, Alan, 348n, 355, 378 

Eadhaed, bishop of Lindsey, 38 

Eamot, 67 
Easter, time of, 10, 14, 20-21, 

29-32, 45-54 
Eata, abbot of Melrose, abbot and 

bishop of Lindisfarne, 9n, 2227, 

32-33, 38, 183 
Eata, father of King Edbert, 55- 

Ebba, abbess of Coldingham, 13n, 

39n, 40 

Ebba, mythical abbess of Colding- 
ham, 61-62 
Ebchester, 39n 
Eccles, 327 

Edbert, bishop of Lindisfarne, 21 
Edbert, king of Northumbria, 55, 

56, 57 
Edfrid, bishop of Lindisfarne, 52n, 




Edgar, king of Scotland, 3, 114n, 

117, 119, 120, 128, 193 
Edgar, king of Wessex, 75-78, 94 
Edgar, son of earl Gospatric, 209, 

Edgar Etheling, 88-99, 104, 108, 

109, 119 
Edinburgh, 60n, 239n, 247, 262, 

269, 273n, 294, 307n, 317, 327, 

370, 371n, 372 
Edith, v. Matilda 
Edmer, bishop of St. Andrews, 

76n, 139-147, 151-154 
Edmund, bishop of Durham, 83 
Edmund, king of Wessex, 65n, 69, 

71, 72, 74, 76n, 94 
Edmund, son of Henry III, 378 
Edmund, son of Malcolm III, 

Edmund Ironside, king of Wessex, 

94, 95n, 126 
Ednam, 164 

Edred, king of Wessex, 74, 75, 77 
Edred, son of Rixing, 64n 
Edric the Wild, 95n 
Edward I, king of England, 354n, 

381, 383-384 
Edward, monk of Coldingham, 


Edward, Siward's son, 167 
Edward, son of Malcolm III, 1 lOn, 

111, 112n, 113 
Edward Etheling, 94, 95n 
Edward the Confessor, king of 

England, 84n, 86, 94n, 107n, 

112, 128, 167 

Edward the Elder, king of Wessex 

64, 65, 68n, 74n, 75n 
Edwin, brother of Ethelstan, 67n 
Edwin, earl of Mercia, 87, 93n 
Edwin, king of Northumbria, 12, 


Edwy, king of Wessex, 76n 
Egbert, abbot of lona, 10, 43, 

Egbert, archbishop of York, 53n, 

Egbert II, bishop of Lindisfarne, 


Egbert, king of Wessex, 60n 
Egelric, Egelwin v. Ethelric, Ethel- 
Egfrid, king of Northumbria, 36, 

37, 38, 42, 47, 50n 

Egfrida, wife of Utred Waldeve's 

son, 81, 96 
Egred, bishop of Lindisfarne, 2 In, 


Eildon, 57 

Eistein, king of Norway, 165n 
Eleanour, queen of Henry II, 

310n, 311 
Eleanour, queen of Henry III, 

354n, 363n, 370, 371n, 373-375, 

378, 379 
Eleanour de Montfort, wife of 

Llewellyn ap Griffith, 383n 
Eleanour of Brittany, 242n 
Elfred, son of Brihtulfing, 64 
Elf si, bishop of Lindisfarne, 77 
Elle, king of Deira, 12n 
Elvet, 319 
Ely, 93n, 130n 
Emmet, 67 

Engelram, bishop of Glasgow, 243 
England, 375 

English in Scotland, 90, 118, 256 
Enred, 56 
Eogan v. Owen 
Eormenburg, queen of Egfrid, 

39n, 43n 

Eric, earl of Northumbria, 8 In 
Eric, king of Northumbria, 75n, 

Eric Magnusson, king of Norway, 

Ermengard, queen of William the 

Lion, 244, 289, 293, 294, 307n, 

316, 318-319 
Errington, 209 
Eskmouth, 61n 
Espec, v. Walter 
Estuteville, Eustace de, 356 
Estuteville, Nicholas de, 249 
Estuteville, Robert de, 191, 20 In 
Estuteville, Robert de, 250, 252 
Estuteville, Roger de, 262n 
Estuteville, William de, 262n, 

321, 322, 325 
Eth, 1, 318n 

Ethelbald, king of Mercia, 55, 56 
Ethelbert, bishop of Wessex, 31 
Ethelbert, bishop of Whithorn, 

59, 60 
Etheldreda, queen of Egfrid. 37, 

Ethelfrid, king of Northumbria, 

11, 12, 13 



Ethelhelm, abbot of Abingdon, 

Ethelred, king of Northumbria, 

Ethelred II, king of Wessex, 78-81, 

Ethelric, bishop of Durham, 91n, 


Ethelric, king of Bernicia, 12n 
Ethelstan, king of Wessex, 66-73, 


Ethelstan, cousins of, 7 In 
Ethelwald, bishop of Lindisfarne, 


Ethelwald Moll, king of North- 
umbria, 57, 58 
Ethelwin, bishop of Durham, 86, 

88, 89, 91, 93, 112n 
Ethelwold, bishop of Carlisle, 216 
Eugenius III, pope, 221 
Eustace, bishop of Ely, 324 
Eustace, count of Boulogne, 117, 

Eustace, son of king Stephen, 117, 

Eustace Fitz John, 166, 177, 

185n, 189, 199-200, 208, 217n 

Palaise, 258, 259, 263 
Falaise, treaty of, 260-263 ; re- 
nounced, 308-309 ; reclaimed, 


Falkirk, 104 
Fame island, 32n 
Feckenham, 268 
Fedic, Roger de, 292 
Felix, bishop of the East Angles, 


Feradach, lord of Strathearn, 241 
Ferchard, earl of Ross, 356 
Fergus, lord of Galloway, 215, 

254n, 257n 

Fergus Mor, king of Dalriada, 4n 
Ferrers, Robert de, 20 In 
Ferrers, William de, 3rd earl of 

Derby, 225n 
Ferrers, William de, 5th earl of 

Derby, 310, 325 
Fife, 327 

Fina, mother of king Aldfrid, 43n 
Finan, bishop of Lindisfarne, 19- 

21, 25n, 29-30 
Fitz Alan, Walter, 356 
Fitz Count, Alan, 382 

Fitz Duncan, v. William 

Fitz Gerald, W^arin, 325 

Fitz John, Alexander, 382 

Fitz Peter, Geoffrey, 320, 324, 


Fitz Ranulf, Thomas, 357 
Fitz Richard, Roger, 250 
Fitz Rother, Alan,