(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Scottish nation; or, The surnames, families, literature, honours, and biographical history of the people of Scotland"

J 





THE GIFT OF 

MAY TREAT MORRISON 

IN MEMORY OF 

ALEXANDER F MORRISON 













W A I. Til; SCO 



4fra6(( / / . . 






THE 


SCOTTISH NATION; 


SURNAMES, FAMILIES. LITERATURE, HONOURS, 


BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 


OF THE 


PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 


BY 

WILLIAM ANDERSON, 

1 1 

AUTHOR OF UFK, AND EDITOR OF WORKS, OF LORD BYRON, Ao. <fcC 


VOL. III. 


MAC-ZET 


AND SUPPLEMENT 


A. FULLARTON & CO., 


13 BLAIR STREET, EDINBURGH; AND 


45 LUDGATE HILL, LONDON. 


1878. 



ei 3 



=?f 



V 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



VOLUME III 



ENGRAVED PORTRAITS. 



To fac* 



216 

227 



1. Scott, Sir Walter, From a painting by G. 8. Newton, E.A., Engraved by J. B. Bird, Frontispiece. 

2. Moore, Sir John, „ Lawrence, „ W. Holl, page 196 

3. Munko, Sir Thomas, ,, Shee, ,, ,, 

4. Murray, William, Earl of) ,, ,, 

Mansfield, | " Reynolds, 

5. Ramsay, Allan, „ bis Son, Allan, ,, K. Bell, 324 

6. Watt, James, „ bust by Chantry, „ W. I loll, 613 

ENGRAVED TABLES OF TITULAR GENEALOGIES. 

Ancient Earldoms. 
As arranged by Author and others, 



8. Earldom of Mcnteth, 

9. ,, Strath earn, 

10. „ Moray, 



WOODCUTS (IN LETTERPRESS) 

1. Mackay, Robert, View of Cape) -^ C] , , , T r < \> 

„ r . ■ ' ' y I< roni a Sketch by J. C. Brown, 



2. Mackenzie, Sir George, 

3. Mackenzie, Henry, 



i 



•l. Macintosh, Sir James, -I 

5. Maclaurkn, Co'in, 

6. M iCKABofMacnab, Archibald. ) 

(last of race,) j 

7. Macneill, Hector, -j 

8. Macpiierson, James, -' 

9. Maitland, Sir John, Lord ) 

Thirlestane, j 

10. Malcolm II., View of Ruins \ f 

of lona, J ( 

1 1. Malcolm, Sir Pulteney, 
12 Malcolm, Sir John, 



1 



13. Mark, John Erskine, 9th Earl 

of, 

14. Maxwell, Sir Murray, 

15. Menteitu, William, 18th Earl ) 

of, I 

16. Mii-i.eu, Hugh, 

17. Montgomery. James, (by per-) 

mission of Messrs. Longmans,) j" 



l Engraving published in ) 
1810 by Richardson, London,/ 

Portrait by Colvin Smith, en- > 
graved by Ilorsburgh, f 

Portrait by Lawrence, engraved ) 
by Freeman, j 

Smith's Iconographia Scotiea, 

Photograph from life, 

Portrait by Williams, engraved) 
by Rodgers, ) 

Portrait affixed to Memoir, in (_ 
edition of Ossian, ) 

Pinkerton's Gallery of Portraits, 

Painting from nature by J. C. ) 
Brown, C 

Portrait by Lane, engraved by ) 
Wood, j 

Portrait by G. Ilayter, engraved \ 
on stone by Lane, C 

Pinkerton's Iconographia, (from' 
an original painting in pos- 
session of present earl.) 

Portrait drawn and engraved by' 
T. Wageman, 18.7 (appended 
to vol. of Percy Anecdotes), 



Pinkerton's Gallery of Portraits, 
in- ) 



Photograph by Tunny, 

graved by Bell, 
Portrait prefixed to Memoir of ( 

Life and writings, 1854. j 



14* 

14s 
200 



Engraved by Landells, 17 
W. J. Linton, 22 
25 



n 


33 


„ 


37 


» 


53 


.. 


58 


.. 


65 


Jl 


82 


Orrell Smith, 


86 


W. J. Linton, 


97 


•» 


99 



111 

136 

149 
168 
189 



43. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



18. Mom rose, James Graham. )_ 

1st Duke of, J 

19. Moore, John, M.D.. 



20. Murray, Alexander, D.D., 



21. Napier, Sir Charles, 

22. Napier, J., of Merchiston \ 

(inventor of Logarithms) j 

23. Orkney, George Hamilton,) 

Earl of, | 

24. Park, Mango, 

25. Pikkerton, John, 

2G. Ptttekweem, (Frederick Stew-~l 
art Baron), Coins of James >- 
VI., j 

27. Pi.vyiaii:, John, 

28. Poi.lok, Robert, 

29. Prihoi.E, Sir John, 

30. Qoeensberry, James Douglas, ) 

2,1 Duke of, j 

31. Raebcrn, Sir Henry, 

32. Reid, Thomas, 

33. Robert II.. King of Scotland, 
34 Robert III., „ 

35. Robertson, William, D.D., 



36. RuddisiaK, Thomas, 



37. Ruxci.uan, Alexander, 

38. S »tt, David, 

reorge, 5th Lord, 

40. Sharp, James, Archbishop of !_ 

St. Andrews, (in his youth,) j 

41. Sharp, James, ditto, (in his old ) 

42. Smith, Adam, LL.U., 



43. Smollett, Tobias, 



J „ 



\ 



44. Soutiif.sk, Sir James Carnegie, ) 

Earl of, Seal of Earl James, / 

45. Spottiswood, John, Archbish 

op of St. Andrews, (at age 
of 74,) 

46. Stair, John Dairy mple, 2d ( 

e u-i of, r 

47. Stewart, Dugald, 

48. Strahah, William, 



J ., 
( 

s „ 

s „ 

i 

j „ 



From Portrait by Sir John Medina, 

„ ,, Cochrane of Rome, 

in possession of J. Macintosh, 
Esq., 

„ Portrait from original draw- 
ing by Geddes, from Litho- 
graph of the time, engraved 
by J. W. Hunt for Virtue & 
Co., 1841, 

„ Portrait in possession of the late' 
A. Constable, Esq., engraved 
by Burnett, 
Painting by Mr. Brown in pos- 
session of the Earl of Buchan, 
Print in Universal Magazine, 
after Portrait by Main gaud, 
engraved by Houbraken, 1742, 
Portrait by Edridge, engraved ) 
by Dickenson, j 

Portrait by Harding, engraved i 
by Gardiner, in European > 
Magazine, 1807, j 

Anderson's Diplomata et Nu- ) 
inismata Scotire, j 

an engraved Portrait in New ) 
Monthly Magazine, 1829,_ j" 
Portrait from the only drawing 
ever taken in life, en graved by 
T. A. Dean for Chas. Tilt, 
Portrait by Reynolds, engraved ( 
by Mote, j 

, a rare print after Kneller, in Sir 

M. M. Sykes' collection, \ 

, Portrait by himself, 

, „ in European Magazine, ) 

1814, i 

, Pinkerton's Gallery of Portraits, 



Portrait by Reynolds, prefixed ) 
to early edition of Works, } 

Portrait by De Nune, engraved] 
by Bertholozzi, prefixed to I 
by 



Engraved by W. J. Linton, 192 
105 



Memoir of Life 



G. 



Chalmers, J 

Drawing by J. Brown, engraved ) 
by J. Stewart, j" 

Drawing by his brother, W. B. 1 
Scott, Esq., from portrait in > 
the family, i 

Pinkerton's' Gallery of. Portraits, 

Portrait in possession ot (jene- } 
ral Bethune of Blebo, en- > 
graved by Allard, ) 

Portrait by Laggan, engraved > 
(1819) by Reading, j 

Engraving by Beugo from me- \ 
dallion by Tasso, in Scots V 
Magazine, 1809, j 

Engraving (scarce) by Hollo- > 
way, published 1797 by Ca- v 
dell and Davies. j 

Impression supplied by present ) 
earl, j 

Engraving by W. Holler (1639), ) 
now rare j~ 

Portrait by Sir John Medina, ) 
engraved by Horsman, ) 

Portrait by Raebum, engraved 
by Turner, 

Portrait by Reynolds, engraved 
by Jones, 



232 

242 
245 
265 
27c 

288 

293 
295 

299 

311 

316 

320 

336 

344 
345 

351 

387 

388 

422 
438 
443 

443 

481 

485 

492 

499 

505 
519 
527 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, 



3 



{' 



49. SlRAKUE, Sir Robeit, 

50. Stuabt, Lady Avabella (daugh- 

ter of 5th Earl of Lennox, 
innocent victim of State jeal- 
ousy of Elizabeth andJames,) 

51. Tanxaiiill, Robeit. 



52. Telford, Thomas, 

53. Thom, William, 

54. Thomson, James, •< 

55. Thomson, Thomas, -j 

56. Thomson, Rev. John, < 

57. Traquair, John Stewart, 1st L 

Earl of, i 

58. Tytlek, William, 

59. Tytlek, Alexander Eraser, L 

Lord Woodhouselee, ) 

60. Wilkie, Sir David, 



61. Wilson, John, Christopher) 

North (of Blackwood's Mag.), jT 

62. Witherspoon, John, D.D., ) 

LL.D., j" "J 

63. Aknot, Sir Michael, Shield in ) J 

Arnot Tower, ) ( 

64 Ditto, ditto, Lintel in Arnot [ 
Tower, ( 



om Medallion Portrait (painted and' 
engraved by himself), 
by Grouse, 



ntedamUl 
f), copy > 



Engraved bv VV. J. Linton. 529 



a rare Engraving of the time, 
by Richardson, 

Portrait by Morton, engraved' 

bv J. T. Smith, in collected 

Works, 
Portrait printed and ensraved' 

by II. Meyer for Messrs. 

Fisher, Son"& Co., 1848, 
Lithograph drawn on Stone bv 

G. Yates, 
Portrait by Robinson prefixed \ 

to his Works, Pickering's v 

edition (1830), ) 

Portrait by Lauder, engraved 

(for Bannatyne Club) by 

Shaw, 
Portrait by F. Crodall in Hogg's ' 

Instructor, 

Smith's Iconographia Scotica, 

Portrait by Raebuni, engraved) 
by R. Scott, j 

Painting by Jackson, from ori- ] 
ginal Portrait by Raeburn, [ 
engraved by Picart, publish- ( 
ed 1813, 

Portrait by Sir W. Beechy, en- 
graved by Robinson, for 
Messrs. Fisher, Son & Co., 
1846, 

Portrait drawn on wood by W. 
B. Scott, Esq., U.S.A., after 
others by various artists. 

Engraving in United States, 
(from Portrait in possession 
of his grandsons.) 

Lithograph furnished by present j 
representative of the family, j 

Ditto, ditto, 



533 

549 

553 

557 
558 

562 

."> •',.'> 
580 
587 

588 

642 

655 

666 

681 

Gfil 



the 



SCOTTISH NATION. 



MACINTYRE. 



MACINTYRE. 



Macintyre, the name of a minor sept, called, in Gaelic, 
Hie clan MMc An T'Saoir. They are a branch of the clan 
Donald, and their badge is the same as theirs, the common 
heath. The Gaelic word Saor means a carpenter. Accord- 
ing to tradition one of the Macdonalds being in a boat at sea, 
it sprung a leak, and, finding it sinking, he forced his thumb 
into the hole, and cut it off, so that he might be able to reach 
the land in safety. He was ever afterwards called An T'Saoir, 
and Mac An T'Saoir, in the Gaelic, is very nearly pronounc- 
ed like Macintyre. Another story says that one of the clan 
Donald, named Paul, in Sutherland, in the end of the 13th 
century, built Dun Creich, a vitrified fort in that couuty, 
when he acquired the name of Saoir, and as professions were 
hereditary among the Celts, it descended to his posterity. 

The Macin tyres of Eannoch were famous musicians, and 
after 1680, they became the pipers to Menzies of Weems, 
chief of the clan Menzies, for whom they composed the ap- 
propriate salute. One of them was the author of a fine piece 
of bagpipe music commemorative of the battle of Sheriffmuir 
in 1715. During the rebellion of 1745-6, the Macintyres 
were in the clan regiment of Stewart of Appin, on the side of 
the Pretender. 

MACINTYRE, Duncan, one of the best of the 
modern Gaelic poets, was born of poor parents, in 
Druimliaghart, Glenorchy, Argyleshire, March 20, 
1724. Being in his youth very handsome, he was 
commonly called by his countrymen, Donnacha 
Ban nan bran, that is ' fair Duncan of the Songs.' 
On the breaking out of the rebellion of 1745, he 
engaged on the government side, as the substitute 
of a Mr. Fletcher of Glenorchy, for the sum of 
800 merks Scots, to be paid on his return. He 
fought at the battle of Falkirk, January 17, 1746, 
under the command of Colonel Campbell of Car- 
whin, and in the retreat he either lost or threw 

away his sword. As it belonged to Mr. Fletcher, 
in. 



that gentleman refused to pay him the 300 merks, 
and he, in consequence, composed a song on " the 
battle of Falkirk," in which he has given a minute 
and admirable account of that engagement, and 
especially of everything relating to the sword, 
much to the annoyance of Mr. Fletcher. Macin- 
tyre likewise complained of his conduct to the earl 
of Breadalbane, who obliged him to pay the poet, 
who had risked his life for him, the stipulated re- 
ward. Being an excellent marksman, he was ap- 
pointed forester to the earl of Breadalbane, and 
afterwards to the duke of Argyle. 

On the passing of the act which proscribed the 
Highland dress, he composed an indignant poem, 
called ' The Anathema of the Breeks,' wherein he 
boldly attacked the government for having passed 
a law which was equally obnoxious to the clans 
friendly to the house of Hanover as to those who 
had engaged in the rebellion, and said it was 
enough to make the whole country turn Jacobite 
should Prince Charles Edward return to Scotland. 
He was, in consequence, committed to prison, but 
by the influence of his friends he was soon re- 
leased. When the act was repealed in 1782, he 
commemorated the event in a congratulatory 
poem, which was as popular with the Gael as the 
former one had been. 

In 1793 he became a private in the Breadal- 
bane fencibles, and continued to serve in it till 
1799, when the regiment was disbanded. His 
volume of poems and songs was first published af 

A 



MAI IVOR 



M'KAIL, 



Edinbargh in 1768. He went through the High- 
lands for subscribers to defray the expense. 
Though he never received any education of any 
kind, he excelled in every kind of verse that he 
tried. A clergyman wrote down his poems from 
oral recitation. They were reprinted in 1790, 
ar.d again in 1804, with some additional pieces. 
A fourth edition was printed at Glasgow in 1833. 
The writer of his life iu Reid's 'Bibliotheca-Scoto- 
Celtica,' says that " all good judges of Celtic 
poetry agree that nothing like the purity of his 
Gaelic and the style of his poetry, has appeared 
in the Highlands since the days of Ossian." His 
biographer in Mackenzie's ' Beauties of Gaelic 
Poetry' (Glasgow, 1841), says that when deliver- 
ing the third edition of his poems to his subscrib- 
ers, the Rev. Mr. M'Callum of Arisaig, "saw 
him travelling slowly with his wife. He was 
dressed in the Highland garb, with a checked bon- 
net, over which a large bushy tail of a wild ani- 
mal hung, a badger's skin fastened by a belt in 
front, a hanger by his side, and a soldier's wallet 
was strapped to his shoulders. He had not been 
seen by any present before then, but was imme- 
diately recognised. A forward young mau asked 
him if it was he that made Ben-dourain? 'No,' 
replied the venerable old man, 'Ben-dourain was 
made before you or I was born, but I made a po- 
em in praise of Ben-dourain.' He then inquired 
if any would buy a copy of his book. I told him 
to call upon me, paid him three shillings, and had 
some conversation with him. He spoke slowly ; 
he seemed to have no high opinion of his own 
works ; and said little of Gaelic poetry ; but said, 
that officers in the army used to tell him about 
the Greek poets ; and Pindar was chiefly admired 
by him." Having been appointed bard to the 
Highland Society, he furnished it with many stir- 
ring addresses in Gaelic at its annual meetings. 

On the recommendation of the earl of Breadal- 
bane, who befriended him through life, he was 
appointed in his old age one of the city guard of 
Edinburgh. He subsequently lived retired, and 
died in that city in October 1812. 



SIacivor, the name of a minor sept, a branch of the great 
Siol Diarmid, or race of Campbell, having the same badge, 
the myrtle. The founder of this branch was Ivor, son of 
Duncan, lord of Lochow in the time of Malcolm IV (1153 



— 1165), and his descendants, to distinguish themselves from 
the other brandies of the family of Argyle, assumed the name 
of their ancestor for their surname, and are called Maclvors, 
and sometimes Clan-Ivor. They are also called Clan Glas- 
sary, and Clan Ivor Glassary, from a district in Argyleshire 
of that name, which was principally possessed by them. But 
the chieftain or head of tiie tribe is in Celtic called Maclvor, 
without regard to the Christian name. Their original lands 
were Lergachonzie, Asknish, and others in Cowal, but there 
were also many families of the name in Caithness, Inverness- 
shire, and the Lewis. Those who settled in Lochaber took 
the name of MacGlasrich, from the district of Glassary, and 
became followers of Macdonald of Keppoch. 

In 1564, Archibald, fifth earl of Argyle, by and with the 
concurrence of the tribe of Maclvor and " Clan Glassary," 
made a formal resignation, in presence of a notary public and 
several gentlemen, of the chieftainship there, in favour of his 
cousin Ivor Maclvor, of Lergachonzie and Asknish, and his 
heirs whomsoever, who, by the title-deeds of their estate, 
became bound to use the surname and arms of Maclvor, — the 
mottoes of the house of Argyle and that of Maclvor of Ask- 
nish being typical of their relative positions ; the former, 
"ne obliviscaris ;" and the latter, " nunquam obliviscar." 
When Archibald, ninth earl of Argyle, was employed in 
quelling same civil commotions, in 1679, Maclvor, true ta 
his motto, attended him with one hundred men of his own 
tribe ; and when the earl returned from Holland in 1685, he 
again joined him, and was forfeited with him. 

After the Revolution, when the earl's forfeiture was re- 
scinded, Archibald, tenth earl and afterwards first duke of 
Argyle, gave back Maclvor's estate to his son Duncan, and 
his heirs, on condition that they should bear the surname 
and arms of Campbell and of the family of Maclvor, (anna 
et cognomen de Campbell et Families de Maclver, gerenti- 
bus, &c). 

From the earls of Argyle, the Maclvors held several posts 
of trust and honour, such as the keeping of the castle of In- 
verary, &c. They were also hereditary coroners within a cer- 
tain district. 

In the rebellion of 1745-6, the Maclvors went out with 
the Macdonalds of Keppoch, and at the battle of Culloden, 
they were drawn up as a separate body, with officers of their 
own, as they were anxious to be placed in a position where 
there was no chance of their being opposed to the Argyle mi- 
litia, having the same badge and wearing their tartan. 

In 1853, the lord lyon king of arms, by interlocutor of his 
lordship's depute, on the application of Duncan Maclvor 
Campbell, Esq. of Asknish, — (formerly Duncan Campbell 
Paterson, eldest son of the deceased James Paterson, of 
Clobber Hall, county Clare, Ireland, grandson of Agnes, 
eldest daughter of Angus Campbell of Asknish, and ne- 
phew of Lieutenant - colonel Paterson, assistant - quarter- 
master-general of her majesty's forces,) — recognised him as 
heir of line of the family of Maclvor of Asknish, and under a 
deed of entail, as heir of tailzie, now in possession of said 
estate, and, as such, " to use, bear, and constantly retain tin 
arms and surname of Campbell and of the family of Maclvoi 
and designation of Asknish." 

M'KAIL, Hugh, a martyr of the covenant, was 
born about 1640- He studied, with a view to the 
church, at the university of Edinburgh, under tho 
care of his uncle, one of the ministers of that city, 
and was afterwards, for some time, chaplain to 



M*KA1L, 



HUGH. 



Sir James Stewart of Coltness, then lord provost 
of Edinburgh. In 1661, he was licensed to preach, 
being then in his twenty-first year. On the 1st 
September 1662, when 400 presbyterian ministers 
were about to be driven from their charges for 
non-compliance with episcopacy, he delivered a 
discourse in the High Church of Edinburgh, from 
the Song of Solomon, i. 7, in which, speaking of 
the many persecutions to which the cause of reli- 
gion had been subjected in all ages, he said that 
" the church and people of God had been perse- 
cuted both by an Ahab on the throne, a Ham an 
in the state, and a Judas in the church." In 
those troublous days, such an illustration was sure 
to find an application, whether the preacher meant 
it or not, parallel to the times. Accordingly the 
Ahab on the throne was considered to be Charles 
II., and Middleton and Archbishop Sharp took 
the Haman and Judas to themselves. A few 
days thereafter a party of horse was sent to ap- 
prehend him, but he escaped, and went to his 
father's house in the parish of Liberton. Soon 
after, he took refuge in Holland, where he remain- 
ed four years, during which time he studied at 
one of the Dutch universities. 

In 1666 he returned to Scotland, and imme- 
diately joined the resolute and daring band of 
covenanters who rose in arms in the west, pre- 
vious to the defeat at Rullion Green, and conti- 
nued with them from the 18th to the 27th of 
November, when not being able to endure the 
fatigue of constant marching, he left them near 
Cramond Water. He was on his way to Liberton, 
when he was taken by an officer of dragoons, and 
some countrymen, as he passed through a place 
called Braid's Craigs. He had then a sword or 
rapier, which of itself was a circumstance of sus- 
picion against him. He was conveyed to Edin- 
burgh and searched for letters, but none being 
found, he was committed to the tolbooth. Next 
day, he was brought before the privy council for 
examination, and on the 4th December he was 
subjected to the torture of the boot, with the ob- 
ject of extracting information from him relative to 
a conspiracy, which the government affected to 
believe extensively existed ; but he declared that 
he knew of none, and had nothing to confess. 
The strokes were repeated ten or eleven times, 



when he swooned away, and was carried back to 
prison 

The torture and the close confinement brought 
on a fever, and as he was ordered to prepare for 
trial, for having joined in the insurrection, al- 
though he had left the party the day previous to 
the battle of Pentland, he petitioned the council 
for a delay of a few days, when it was remitted 
to two physicians and two surgeons to inquire 
into his case. His cousin, Mr. Matthew M'Kail, 
an apothecary in Edinburgh, afterwards a doctor 
of medicine, applied to Archbishop Sharp, to in- 
terpose in his behalf, but that treacherous and 
unprincipled prelate only desired him to assure 
the prisoner that he would befriend him, if he 
would reveal the mystery of the plot against the 
government, and as he was not able to do so, he 
was put to the torture. Still the cousin was de- 
termined to persevere in his efforts to save his 
unfortunate relative, and even followed the arch- 
bishop to St. Andrews. A note to M'Crie's edi- 
tion of Veitch's Life (pp. 35 — 37) gives the fol- 
lowing minute particulars of his fruitless journey 
to and from the primate's residence in Fife : 
" Upon the Thursday thereafter, the bishop went 
to St. Andrews, and Mr. Matthew followed him 
on Friday, but reached only Wemyss that night. 
After dinner, he arrived at the bishop's house on 
Saturday, and the servant told that the barber 
was trimming him, and when he was done, Mr. 
Matthew would get access. When Mr. Matthew 
got access, he delivered to the bishop ane letter 
from the marchioness Douglas, in favour of Mr. 
Hew (the prisoner) whose brother Mr. Matthew 
was governor to her son, Lord James Douglas ; 
and another from the bishop's brother, Sir Wil- 
liam Sharp his lady : and when he had read them, 
he said, 'The business is now in the justiciaries' 
hands, and I can do nothing ; but, however, I 
shall have answers ready against the next morn- 
ing;' at which time, when Mr. Matthew came, 
the bishop called his family together, prayed, and 
desired Mr. Matthew to come and dine with him. 
and then he would give the answer ; then he went 
to the church, did preach, and inveigh much 
against the covenant. Immediately after dinner, 
he gave the answers to the letters, and Mr. Mat- 
thew said, that he hoped that his travelling that 



M'KAIL, 



HUGH. 



day about so serious a business would give no of- 
fence ; to which the bishop answered that it would 
give no offence. Then Mr. Matthew went to en- 
quire for his horse, but the stabler's family were 
all gone to church, so that he could not travel till 
Monday morning early, and when he came to 
Buckhaven, the wind being easterly, the fish-boats 
were coming into the harbour, and he hired one 
of them immediately, and arrived at Leith in the 
evening, having sent his horse to Bruntisland. 
He went immediately to Archbishop Burnet of 
Glasgow, and delivered a letter to him, who did 
read it, and then said that the business was in the 
justiciaries' hands." 

Next day, being the 18th December, the pris- 
oner was brought before the court of justiciary, 
with other three. When placed at the bar, 
M'Kail addressed the court, and " spoke of the 
ties and engagements that were upon the land to 
God ; and having commended the institution, dig- 
nity, and blessing of presbyterian government, he 
said that the last words of the national covenant 
had always great weight on his spirit. Where- 
upon the king's advocate interrupted him, and de- 
sired, he would forbear that discourse, since he 
was not called in question for his persuasion, but 
for the crime of rebellion." As a matter of 
course he was found guilty of high treason, and 
condemned to be hanged at the market cross of 
Edinburgh on December 22, four days after. 
The three others who were tried along with him 
were likewise sentenced to death. On his way 
back to the tolbooth he received the greatest sym- 
pathy from the people, and to some women who 
were lamenting his fate, he said : " Weep not : 
though I am but young, and in the budding of my 
hopes and labours in the ministry, I am not to be 
mourned ; for one drop of my blood, through the 
grace of God, may make more hearts contrite, 
than many years' sermons might have done." At 
nis request, his father was allowed to visit him in 
prison, and the interview between them was pecu- 
liarly affecting. He spent the short time allotted 
to him in acts of devotion, and in encouraging and 
supporting those who were to suffer with him. 
He even at times showed considerable cheerful- 
ness. On a friend, who went to see him, express- 
ing his sorrow for his mangled limb, he answered 



that the fear of his neck made him forget his leg. 
On the evening before his execution, while at 
supper with his fellow-prisoners, he said to them 
gaily, " Eat to the full, and cherish your bodies, 
that we may be a fat Christmas pie to the pre- 
lates." After supper he read to them the 16th 
Psalm, and then said, " If there were anything in 
the world sadly and unwillingly to be left, it were 
the reading of the Scriptures," but, he added, it 
was a source of comfort that he would soon be in 
that place where even Scripture is no longer 
necessary. He then wrote his will, bequeathing 
his few books to his friends. He slept sound- 
ly, and on awakening, at five o'clock in the 
morning, one who was to suffer with him, he 
said pleasantly, " Up, John, for you are too 
long in bed ; you and I look not like men go- 
ing to be hanged this day, seeing we lie so long." 
Before proceeding to the scaffold he bade farewell 
to his father, and assured him that his sufferings 
would do more hurt to the prelates, and be more 
edifying to God's people than if he were to conti- 
nue in the ministry for twenty years. On his 
appearance on the scaffold the grief of the specta- 
tors burst forth in loud expressions of wailing, so 
that it is recorded " there was scarce ever seen so 
much sorrow in onlookers ; scarce was there a dry 
cheek in the whole street or windows at the cross 
of Edinburgh." On ascending the ladder he said 
to his friends, " I care no more to go up this lad 
der than if I were going home to my father's 
house. Friends and fellow sufferers, be not 
afraid ; every step of this ladder is a degree nearer 
heaven." 

Previous to being turned off, he addressed the 
spectators at some length, imputing the perse- 
cution of the church to the prelates, and declar- 
ing his readiness to die for the cause of God, 
the covenants, and the work of reformation, 
which had been the glory of Scotland. He con- 
cluded with the following sublime exclamation : 
" And now, I leave off to speak any more to 
creatures, and begin my intercourse with God, 
which shall never be broken off. Farewell, fa- 
ther and mother, friends and relations, farewell 
the world and all delights, farewell meat and 
drink, farewell sun, moon, and stars! Welcome 
God and Father; welcome sweet Jesus Christ, 



MACKAY. 



MACKAY. 



the Mediator of the new covenant ; welcome blessed 
Spirit of Grace, and God of all consolation ; welcome 
glory, welcome eternal life, and welcome death ! " 
Such was the fate of Hugh M'Kail, who was only 
twenty-six years old at the time of his death, 
" one of the brightest, purest, and most sanctified 
spirits," says Hetherington, " that ever animated 
a mere human form ; a victim to prelatic tyranny, 
and a rejoicing martyr for Christ's sole kingly 
dominion over his church. Till the records of 
time shall have melted into those of eternity, the 
name of that young Christian martyr will be held 
in most affectionate remembrance by every true 
Scottish presbyterian." 

Mackay, the name of a numerous and powerful clan in 
the north-west of the county of Sutherland, styled in Gaelic 
the Siol Mhorgan, or race of Morgan ; badge, the bulrush. 
The accounts of its origin are various. In the Celtic MS. of 
1450, there is no reference to it, although mention is made of 
the Mackays of Kintyre, who were called of Ugadale. These, 
however, were vassals of the Isles, and had no connexion with 
(he Mackays of Strathnaver. Pennant assigns to them a 
Celto-Irish descent, in the twelfth century, after King Wil- 
liam the Lion had defeated Harald, earl of Orkney and Caith- 
ness, and taken possession of these districts. Mr. Skene(IIir/h ■ 
lands of Scotland, p. 288) supposes that they were descend- 
ed from the aboriginal Gaelic inhabitants of Caithness. The 
Norse Sagas state that about the beginning of the 12th cen- 
tury, " there lived in the Dolum of Katanesi (or Strathnaver) 
a man named Moddan, a noble and rich man," and that his 
sons were Magnus Orfi and Ottar, the Iarl in Thurso. The 
title of iarl was the same as the Gaelic maormor, and Mr. 
Skene is of opinion that Moddan and his son Ottar were the 
Gaelic maormors of Caithness. 

Sir Robert Gordon, in his voluminous History of Suther- 
land (p. 302), from a similarity of badge and armorial bear- 
ings, accounts the clan Mackay a branch of the Forbeses, but 
this is by no means probable. Alexander, the first of the 
family, aided in driving the Danes from the north. His son 
Walter, chamberlain to Adam, bishop of Caithness, married 
that prelate's daughter, and had a son, Martin, who received 
from his maternal grandfather certain church lands in Strath- 
naver, being the first of the family who obtained possessions 
there. Martin had a son, Magnus or Manus, who fought 
at Bannockburn under Bruce, and had two sons, Morgan 
and Farquhar. From Morgan the clan derived their Gaelic 
name of Clan-wic-Worgan, or Morgan, and from Farquhar 
were descended the Clan-wic-Farquhar in Strathnaver. 

Donald, Morgan's son, married a daughter of Macneill of 
Gigha, who was named lye, and had a son of the same name, 
in Gaelic Aodh, pronounced like Y. The common transla- 
tion of Aodh is Hugh, but amid all the fanciful conjectures 
that have been thrown out as to the derivation of the name, 
it seems to have been forgotten that the lye was borne prima- 
rily by an insular chief, and seems not unlikely to have ori- 
ginated in the Gaelic word I, an island. Aodh had a son, 
another Donald, called Donald Macaodh, or Mackaoi, and it is 
from this son that the clan has acquired the patronymic of 
Mackay. He and his son were killed in the castle of Ding- 
wall, by William, earl of Sutherland, in 1395. It appears 



from Sir Robert Gordon's History (p. 60), that the earl had a 
feud with him and his son, Donald Mackay, in which many 
lives were lost, and great depredations committed on both 
sides. To put an end to it, the earl proposed a meeting with 
them at Dingwall, in presence of the lord of the Isles, his 
father-in-law, and some of the neighbouring barons, the 
friends of both parties. This was acceded to, and in the cas- 
tle of Dingwall a discussion took place between the earl and 
Mackay, regarding the points in dispute, when mutual re- 
proaches passing between them, the earl became so incensed 
as to kill Mackay and his son with his own hands. With 
some difficulty he effected his escaDe. and hastening home, 
preparea for his defence. The Mackays, however, were too 
weak to take revenge, and a reconciliation took place between 
Robert, the next earl, and Angus Mackay, the eldest of Do- 
nald's surviving sons, of whom there were other two, viz. 
Houcheon Dubh, and Neill. 

Angus, the eldest son, married a sister of Malcolm Mac- 
leod of the Lewis, and had by her two sons, Angus Dubh, that 
is, dark complexioned, and Roderick Gald, that is, Lowland. 
On their father's death their uncle, Houcheon Dubh, became 
their tutor, and entered upon the management of their lands. 
Understanding that his sister, the widow of Angus, was ill- 
treated by the uncle, Malcolm Macleod, with a large follow- 
ing, went to visit her, and on his return homewards, he laid 
waste Strathnaver and a great part of the Breachat in Suth- 
erland, carrying off a large booty along with him. As soon 
as Houcheon Dubh and his brother Neill were informed of 
this, they acquainted Robert, earl of Sutherland, who imme- 
diately despatched a large party to assist the Mackays. 
Overtaking Macleod upon the marches between Ross and 
Sutherland, at a place called Tuttim-Tarwach, a desperate 
conflict ensued. It " was long, furious, cruel, and doubtful," 
says Sir Robert Gordon, and " rather desperate than resolute." 
Malcolm Macleod was slain with all his party, save one, and 
the goods and cattle were recovered. 

In 1411, when Donaid, lord of the Isles, in prosecution of 
his claim to the earldom of Ross, burst into Sutherland, he 
was attacked at Dingwall, by Angus Dubh, or Black Angus 
Mackay. The latter, however, was defeated and taken pris- 
oner, and his brother, Roriegald, and many of his men were 
slain. After a short confinement, Angus was released by the 
lord of the Isles, who, desirous of cultivating the alliance of 
so powerful a chief, gave him his daughter, Elizabeth, in 
marriage, and with her bestowed upon him many lands by 
charter in 1415. He was called En?was-ai-Impri$si, or 
" Angus the Absolute," from his great power. At this time, 
we are told, Angus Dubh could bring into the field 4,000 
fighting men. 

In 1426, Angus invaded Caithness, with all the forces he 
could collect, and spoiled and laid waste that district. The 
inhabitants met him at Harpisdell, where a battle was fought, 
in which both sides suffered severely, but the result was not 
decisive, and Mackay continued his depredations. To put a 
stop to the disturbances in the Highlands, James I., early in 
the following year, summoned the principal chiefs to meet 
him and his parliament at Inverness, and among the Dumber 
arrested by the king on this occasion, about forty in all, was 
Angus Dubh, with his four sons. After a short confinement, 
Angus was pardoned and released with three of them, tho 
eldest, Neill Mackay, being kept as a hostage for his good 
behaviour. Being confined in the Bass at the mouth of the 
Frith of Forth, he was ever after called Neill Wasse (or 
Bass) Mackay. During his imprisonment his son, Thomas 
Macneill, proprietor of the lands of Creigh, Spanziedaill, and 
Pulrossie in Sutherland, had a quarrel with Mowat of Fresh- 



MACKAY. 



MA CRAY. 



wick. To avoid his vengeance, Mowat took refuge, with his 
followers, in the chapel of St. Duffus near Tain, hut they 
were followed thither by Thomas, who slew him and his peo- 
ple, and burnt the chapel to the ground. In consequence of 
this outrage the king issued a proclamation against Thomas 
Macneill, promising his lands as a reward to any one who 
would kill or apprehend him. Angus Murray, son of Alex- 
ander Murray of Cubin, with a view to his apprehension, 
offered his brothers, Morgan and Neill Macneill, for their as- 
sistance, his two daughters in marriage, besides promising to 
aid them in getting possession of the lands of Angus Dubh 
in Strathnaver. They accordingly apprehended their bro- 
ther, Thomas, who was delivered up to the king, and 
executed at Inverness. Murray gave his daughters in 
marriage to Neill and Morgan Macneill, as he had promised, 
and thereafter made an incursion into Strathnaver, to seize 
the lands of Angus Dubh Mackay. The latter, being too old 
to lead his clan in person, gave the command of it to John 
Aberigh, his natural son, but to save the effusion of blood, he 
sent a message to his cousins, Neill and Morgan, offering to 
surrender to them all his lands in Strathnaver, if they would 
allow him to retain Kintail. This offer was rejected, and 
a desperate battle took place at Drumnacoub, near Tongue. 
Among the slain were the beginners of the strife, Angus 
Murray and his two sons-in-law, Neill and Morgan Macneill. 
John Aberigh, the victor, lost an arm in the conflict. After 
the battle, Angus Dubh, the chief, caused himself to be car- 
ried to the field, to search for the bodies of his slain cousins, 
when he was killed by an arrow from a Sutherland man, who 
lay concealed near the spot. 

In 1437 Neill Wasse Mackay was released from confine- 
ment in the Bass, and on assuming the chiefship, he bestow- 
ed on John Aberigh, for his attention to his father, the lands 
of Lochnaver in fee simple, which were long possessed by his 
posterity, that particular branch of the Mackays, called the 
Sliochd-ean-Aberigh, or an-Abrach. Neill Wasse, soon after 
his accession, ravaged Caithness, but died the same year, 
leaving two sons, Angus, and John Roy Mackay, the latter 
founder of another branch, called the Sliochd-ean-Roy. 

Angus Mackay, the elder son, assisted the Keiths in in- 
vading Caithness in 1464, when they defeated the inhabitants 
of that district in an engagement at Blaretannie. He was 
burnt to death in the church of Tarbet in 1475, by the men 
of Ross, whom he had often molested. With a daughter, 
married to Sutherland of Dilred, he had three sons, viz., John 
Reawigh, meaning yellowish red, the colour of his hair; 
Y-Roy Mackay ; and Neill Naverigh Mackay. 

To revenge his father's death, John Reawigh Mackay, the 
eldest son, raised a large force, and assisted by Robert 
Sutherland, uncle to the earl of Sutherland, invaded Strath- 
oikell, and laid waste the lands of the Rosses in that district. 
A battle took place, 11th July 1487, at Aldy-Charrish, when 
the Rosses were defeated, and their chief, Alexander Ross of 
Balnagowan, and 17 other principal men of that clan were 
slain. The victims returned home with a large booty. 

It was by forays such as these that the great Highland 
chiefs, and even some of the lowland nobles, contrived, in 
former times, to increase their stores and add to their posses- 
sions, and the Mackays soon obtained a large accession to 
their lands by the following circumstance, which strongly 
marks the manners of the age. The nephew of the Mackay 
chief, Alexander Sutherland of Dilred, having failed to repay 
a sum of money he had borrowed from Sir James Dunbar of 
Cumnock, the latter took legal measures to secure his debt 
by appraising part of his lands. The affront was the more 
galling as the Dunbars had but recently settled in Suther- 



land, and the laird of Dilred "grudged, as it were," (says 
Sir Robert Gordon) " that a stranger should brawe (brave) 
him at his owne doors." Whilst in this humour he happened 
to meet Sir James Dunbar's brother, Alexander, the husband 
of the countess dowager of Sutherland, and after some alter- 
cation, a combat ensued, when Alexander Dunbar was killed. 
Sir James immediately went to Edinburgh, and laid the mat 
ter before the king, who caused Alexander Sutherland to be 
proclaimed a rebel, and promised his lands to any one who 
should apprehend him. After some search, he was taken, 
with ten of his followers, by his uncle, Y-Roy Mackay, who 
had succeeded his brother, John Reawigh Mackay, as chief of 
the Mackays. Sutherland was executed, and his lands be- 
stowed on Y-Roy Mickay. These were Armidall, Strathy, 
Golspietour, Kinnald, Kilcolmkill, and Dilred, the charter of 
which was dated at Inverness, 4th November 1449. "Ava- 
rice," says Sir R. Gordon, " is a strange vyce, which respects 
neither blood nor freindship. This is the first infeftment that 
any of the familie of Macky had from the king, so far as 1 
can perceave by the records of this kingdom ; and they wer 
untill this tym possessors onlie of their lands in Strathnaver, 
not careing much for any charters or infeftments, as most 
pairts of the Highlanders have alwise done." (Hist. p. 80.) 
In February 1512, Sir James Dunbar obtained a decree be- 
fore the court of session, setting aside the right of Y-Roj 
Mackay to that part of the lands of Alexander Sutherland, 
over which his security extended, and ordaining the earl oi 
Sutherland, as superior of the lands, to receive Sir James as 
his vassal. In 1516, Y-Roy Mackay gave his bond of service 
to Adam Gordon of Aboyne, brother of the earl of Huntly, 
who had become earl of Sutherland, by marriage with Eliza- 
beth, sister and heiress of the ninth earl, but died soon after. 
Donald, his youngest son, slain at Morinsh, was ancestor of a 
branch of the Mackays called the Sliochd-Donald-Mackay. 

John, the eldest son, had no sooner taken possession of his 
father's lands, than his uncle, Neill Naverigh Mackay and his 
two sons, assisted by a force furnished them by the earl of 
Caithness, entered Strathnaver, and dispossessed him of his 
inheritance. John hastened to the clan Chattan and the clan 
Kenzie, to crave their aid, and, in his absence, his brother, 
Donald, with a small force, surprised at night Neill Naverigh 's 
party at Dalnaivigh in Strathnaver, and slew both his cousins 
and the greater part of their men. Their father, Neill Nave- 
righ, threw himself upon the generosity of his nephews, but 
they ruthlessly ordered him to be beheaded by the hands of 
his own foster-brother. 

In 1517, in the absence of the earl of Sutherland, who had 
wrested from John Mackay a portion of his lands, he and his 
brother Donald invaded Sutherland with a large force. The) 
were met at a place called Torran-Dubh, near Rogart in 
Strathfleet, by the Sutherland men, under Alexander Suther- 
land, natural brother of the countess, and, after a furious 
battle, defeated, with great slaughter. Sir Robert Gordon 
says that this " was the greatest conflict that hitherto hes 
been foughtin between the inhabitants of these countreyes, or 
within the diocy of Catteynes, to our knowledge." (Page 9t) 
After several reverses, John Mackay submitted to the earl in 
1518, and granted him his bond of service. But such was his 
restless and turbulent disposition that he afterwards prevailed 
upon Alexander Sutherland, the bastard, who had married 
his sister and pretended a claim to the earldom, to raise the 
standard of insurrection against the earl. Alexander Suther- 
land was taken prisoner and beheaded on the spot, but John 
Mackay continued his hostile inroads into the earl's countrv. 
On his way home from one of these excursions, with a large 
quantity of cattle, he was attacked and defeated by the mas- 



MACKAY. 



MACKAY. 



ter of Sutherland, and made his escape with great difficulty. 
After this he again submitted to the earl, and a second time 
gave him his bond of service and ' manrent' in 1522. He died 
in 1529, and was succeeded by his brother, Donald. 

In 1539, Donald Mackay obtained restitution of the greater 
part of the family estates, which had been seized by the 
Sutherland Gordons, and in 1542 he was present in the en- 
gagement at Solway Moss. Soon after, he committed various 
ravages in Sutherland. He began by burning the village 
of Knockartol and plundering Strathbrora, but although 
obliged to retreat by a body of the Sutherland men, under Sir 
Hugh Kennedy, he soon returned with a larger force. He 
was again, however, compelled to retreat, after a skirmish at 
Lochbuy, where he lost several of his men. Shortly there- 
after he was apprehended, and committed a close prisoner to 
the castle of Foulis. After a considerable time he became 
reconciled to the earl of Sutherland, to whom he gave his 
bond of service and ' manrent ' on 8th April 1549. 

In the absence of the bishop of Caithness in England, the 
earl of Caithness and Donald Mackay took possession of his 
lands, and levied the rents, as they pretended, for his behoof. 
When he returned, however, they refused to deliver up any 
part of his property, or to account for the rents which they 
had received in his name. The earls of Huntly and Suther- 
land summoned them, in consequence, to appear before them 
at Helmsdale, to answer for their intromissions with the 
bishop's rents. The earl at once complied with the summons, 
and made a satisfactory arrangement. Mackay, on his part, 
was forced to appear with great reluctance, when he was 
Ince more committed a prisoner to the castle of Foulis, 
whence, however, he escaped. He died in 1550. 

In 1551, in the earl of Sutherland's absence, the Mackays 
again proceeded to plunder and lay waste the country. Y- 
Mackay, the son of Donald, with the Strathnaver men, en- 
tered Sutherland, but was forced back by the earl's brother, 
Alexander Gordon, who, pushing into the district of the 
Mackays, wasted it, and carried off a large booty in goods 
and cattle. /-Mackay, in his turn, retaliated, and this sys- 
tem of mutual aggression and spoliation continued for several 
years. In 1555, Y-Mackay was summoned to appear before 
the queen regent at Inverness, to answer for his depredations, 
but, disobeying the citation, a commission was granted to the 
earl of Sutherland, to bring him to justice. The earl accord- 
ingly entered Strathnaver with a great force, but Mackav 
contrived to elude him, and the earl laid siege to the castle 
of Borwe, the principal strength in Strathnaver, which he 
took and completely demolished. Mackay, on his part, en- 
tered Sutherland secretly, and burnt the church of Loth. He 
was, however, twice defeated by Mackenzie and his country- 
men in Strathbrora, and seeing no chance of escape, he at 
last, in 1556, surrendered himself to the queen-regent, and 
was committed prisoner to the castle of Edinburgh. 

During his imprisonment, his kinsman, John Mor Mackay, 
who took charge of his estates, entered Sutherland, in the 
earl's absence, with a large body of his clan, and spoiled and 
wasted that province, burning the chapel of St. Ninian. At 
the foot of the hill of Benmore in Berricdalo, they were sur- 
prised by a Sutherland force, and, after an obstinate resist- 
ance, defeated with great slaughter. On his release from his 
confinement in Edinburgh castle, Y-Mackay fought for awhile, 
with great bravery, against the English on the borders, and 
on his return to Strathnaver, he submitted himself to the 
earl of Sutherland. 

In 1562, he joined queen Mary at Inverness, and received 
a remission of the crime of having, in 1548, conducted an 
English army to Haddington. On 21st December 1566 the 



queen gifted his lands to Huntly at Stirling. On thi 
deaths, by poison, in 1567, of the earl and countess of 
Sutherland, Y-Mackay, instigated by the earl of Caith- 
ness, taking advantage of the minority of the young earl, 
their son, then only 15 years of age, invaded the county oi 
Sutherland, wasted the barony of Skibo, entered the town of 
Dornoch, and under pretence of a quarrel with the Murrays, 
by whom it was chiefly inhabited, set fire to it. So great 
was his power, and so extensive his spoliations at this time, 
that in the first parliament of James VI., 15th December 
1567, the lords of the articles were required to report, 
" By what means might Mackay be dantoned ?" In 1570, 
he was prevailed upon by Hugh Murray of Aberscors to ac- 
company him to Strathbogie, where the young earl of Suth- 
erland resided with his kinsfolk the Gordons, when he entered 
into an engagement with the earls of Huntly and Sutherland, 
to assist the latter against the carl of Caithness, in consider- 
ation of which, and on payment of £3,000 Scots, he obtained 
from the earl of Huntly, the heritable right and title of the 
lands of Strathnaver. Influenced, however, by Barbara Sin- 
clair, the sister of the earl of Caithness and wife of the young 
earl of Sutherland, with whom he publicly cohabited, ho 
broke his engagement, and continued to oppress the tenants 
and dependents of the latter. He died in 1571, full of re- 
morse, it is said, for the wickedness of his life. 

His son, Houcheon, or Hugh, succeeded him when only 
eleven years old. In 1587, he joined the earl of Caithness, 
when attacked by the earl of Sutherland, although the latter 
was his superior. He was excluded from the temporary 
trace agreed to by the two earls in March of that year, and 
in the following year they came to a resolution to attack him 
together. Having received secret notice of their intention 
from the earl of Caithness, he made his submission to the earl 
of Sutherland, and ever after remained faithful to him. Mr. 
Robert Mackay of Thurso, in his ' History of the Mackays,' (p. 
157) says on this : " If Hugh Mackay was faulty in deserting 
and otherwise acting against Lord Caithness, who had never 
done him any injur)-, he made no profit by it, or by connect- 
ing himself with Sutherland. The Sinclairs, no doubt, had 
their faults, but the Gordons had theirs in no less degree. 
The policy and displeasure of the former were more easily 
discovered, and consequently more readily avoided ; while 
those of the Gordons were more deep and abiding. Each 
had their wide grasp ; but that of the Gordons was excessive 
and gigantic : to which it must be added, that the principal 
cause of the downfall of the Caithness family was their being 
forsaken by Mackay ; and that he was the chief instrument 
in serving and exalting the sinking family of Sutherland, to 
the great detriment of his own, after his time." 

In 1589, Sinclair of Murkle, brother of the earl of Caith- 
ness, marched into Strathully, with an army of 3,000 men, 
and having eluded the Sutherland sentinels, he passed for- 
ward to a place called Crissalligh, on the height of Strath- 
brora. Mackay, who was then at Dunrobin, was sent against 
him by the earl of Sutherland, with five or six hundred men. 
Finding, on coming up to them, that they were in great dis- 
order, and that a party of them were skirmishing with soni6 
of the Sutherland retainers, he resolved, even with his infe- 
rior force, to attack them at once. Crossing, therefore, the 
water which was between them, he rushed, with his men, 
upon Sinclair's army, and after a long and hotly contested 
battle, defeated them. In October 1590, the earl of Caith- 
ness invaded Sutherland with all the forces he could muster. 
In the van of his army were aoout 1,500 archers, under the 
command of Donald Mackay of Scourie, who had, some time 
before, fled from Sutherland for laving despoiled Assynt. 



MACKAY, 



OF SCO UK 1 1-:. 



•uid had placed himself under the protection of the earl of 
Caithness. A furious conflict ensued, which lasted for a con- 
siderable time, but on the approach of night the Caithness 
men were forced to retire from the field. Donald Mnckay 
of Scourie being afterwards apprehended and imprisor.el in 
Dunrobin castle, was, at the request of his brother, Hugh 
Mackay, released by the earl of Satherland, to whom he ever 
afterwards remained faithful. While the Caithness men 
were engaged in their late excursion into Sutherland, Hugh 
Mackay entered into Caithness, and laid waste everything in 
his course, even to the gates of Thurso. He carried off a 
large quantity of booty without opposition, which he divided 
among his countrymen, according to custom. 

Of the army raised by the earl of Sutherland in 1601, to 
oppose the threatened invasion of his territories by the earl 
of Caithness, the advanced guard was commanded by Patrick 
Gordon of Gartayand Donald Mackay of Scourie, and the right 
wing by Hugh Mackay. On its approach, however, the 
Caithness men took to flight. In August 1602, Hugh Mac- 
kay accompanied the earl of Sutherland, and his brother, Sir 
Robert Gordon, on a visit to Patrick Stuart, earl of Orkney. 
In 1610 he and his son, Donald Mackay, afterwards Lord 
Reay, were summoned before the privy council at Edinburgh, 
by the earl of Caithness, for giving succour and protection to 
John Sutherland, an outlaw, the son of Hugh Maekay's sis- 
ter. He had lived in Berriedale, under the earl of Caithness, 
whose oppressions had driven him to acts of vengeance and 
spoliation, and having disregarded a citation to appear at 
Edinburgh, to answer certain charges against him, he had 
oeen proclaimed a rebel. In obedience to the summons Mac- 
kay hastened to the capital, where he met Sir Robert Gor- 
don, who had arrived from England for the purpose of assist- 
ing him on the occasion. Lord Caithness, however, was 
easily induced to settle the matter, and, on his invitation 
subsequently, the Mackay chief and his brother William spent 
the following Christmas with him at Girnigo castle. His de- 
sign in asking them was to separate the Mackays from the 
Sutherland interests, but in this he was unsuccessful. Hugh 
Mackay died at Tongue, 11th September 1614, in his 55th 
year. He was connected with both the rival houses by mar- 
riage ; his first wife being Lady Elizabeth Sinclair, second 
daughter of George, fourth earl of Caithness, and relict of 
Alexander Sutherland of Duffus; and his second, Lady Jean 
Gordon, eldest daughter of Alexander, eleventh earl of Suth- 
erland. The former lady was drowned, and left a daughter. 
By the latter he had two sons, Sir Donald Mackay of Far, 
first Lord Reay, and John, who married in 1619, a daughter 
of James Sinclair of Murkle, by whom he had Hugh Mackay 
and other children. 

Sir Donald Mackay of Far, the elder son, was, by Charles 
I., created a peer of Scotland, by the title of Lord Reay, by 
patent, dated 20th June, 1628, to him and his heirs male 
whatever. See Reay, Lord. From him the land of the 
Mackays in Sutherland acquired the name of " Lord Reay's 
Country," which it has ever since retained. It now belongs 
to the duke of Sutherland. 

The Mackays became very numerous in the northern coun- 
ties, and the descent of their chiefs, in the male line, has 
continued unbroken from their first appearance in the north 
down to the present time. In the county of Sutherland, they 
multiplied greatly also, under other names, such as M'Phail, 
Poison, Bain, Nielson, &c. The names of Mackie and M'Ghie 
are also said to be derived from Mackay. The old family of 
M'Ghie of Balmaghie, which for about 600 years possessed 
estates in Galloway, used the same arms as the chief of the 
Mackays. They continued in possession of their lands till 



1786. Balmaghie means Mackay town. The name M'Cria 
is supposed to be a corruption of M'Ghie. 

At the time of the rebellion of 1745, the Mackays were 
one of the clans that continued faithful to the government, at 
which time its effective force was estimated at 800 men by 
President Forbes. It is said that in the last Sutherland fen- 
cibles, raised in 1793 and disbanded in 1797, there were 33 
John Mackays in one company alone. In 1794 the Reay 
fencibles, 800 strong, were raised in a few weeks, in " Lord 
Reay's country," the residence of the clan Mackay. The 
names of no fewer than 700 of them had the prefix of Mac. 
From 1795 to 1802, when it was disbanded, the regiment 
was employed in Ireland, where it soon acquired the confi- 
dence of Generals Lake and Nugent. The former was par- 
ticularly attached to the Reay fencibles, and after the defeat 
of Castlebar, he frequently exclaimed, '• If I had had my 
brave and honest Reays there, this would not have happen- 
ed." At Tare Hall, 26th May, 1798, three companies of the 
Reays distinguished themselves in an attack upon a large 
body of rebels, whom they drove from a strong position, with 
the loss of about 400 killed and wounded, they themselves 
having only 26 men killed and wounded. 

With regard to the term Siol Mhorgan applied to the clan 
Mackaj, Mr. Robert Mackay of Thurso, the family historian, 
denies that as a clan they were ever known by that designa- 
tion, which rests, he says, only on the affirmation of Sir Ro- 
bert Gordon, without any authority. He adds : " There are, 
indeed, to this day, persons of the surname Morgan and 
Morganach, who are understood to be of the Mackays, but 
that the whole clan, at any period, went under that designa- 
tion, is incorrect ; and those of them who did so, were al- 
ways few and of but small account. The name seems to be 
of Welsh origin ; but how it obtained among the Mackays it 
is impossible now to say." 



Of the branches of the clan Mackay, the family of Scourie 
is the most celebrated. They were descended from Donald 
Mackay of Scourie and Eriboll, elder son of lye Mackay III., 
chief of the clan from 1550 to 1571, by his first wife, a 
daughter of Hugh Macleod of Assynt. With regard to the 
manner in which they became possessed of Scourie, and in- 
deed of the whole parish of Edderachillis, an account is given 
by the Rev. Mr. Falconer in the Old Statistical Account of 
Scotland, which can only be reconciled with the family his- 
tory by considering lye Mackay and the " Sir Hugh Mackay" 
of his narrative as identical, and by rejecting the story about 
his son Donald's mother. Donald and his full brother, John 
Beg Mackay, were considered illegitimate, because their pa- 
rents were cousins. The chief of the clan, styled " Sir Hugh 
Mackay," having occasion, in 1550, to remit some money to 
Edinburgh, was surprised to find his messenger return the 
following day without it, as he had been robbed on the way 
by a party of armed men, with blackened faces. The gene- 
ral suspicion of the country fell upon James Macleod ol 
Edderachillis, who was of a turbulent and factious disposition, 
as the person who had employed them to commit the rob- 
bery. With the Morisons of Durness he had frequent quar- 
rels, and Morison of Ashir, the principal man amongst them, 
having, at that time, in his house, Donald Mackay, a natural 
son of the Mackay chief, he proposed, both to the Mackavs 
and his own friends, that he should be laird of Edderachillis, 
if Macleod could be made away with. A cousin of Jamer 
Macleod, named Donald Macleod, undertook to put him to 
death, on being promised the half of Edderachillis and Donald 
Maekay's mother for his wife. A party of the Morisons, with 
Donald Mackay at their head, marched, in a dark morning, 



MACKAY 



OF SCOURIE. 



towards the residence of James Macleod, and slew several of 
his kinsmen, he himself being killed by a bullet from the 
musket of his cousin, Donald Macleod. The latter, not re- 
ceiving the reward promised him, raised his friends in Assynt, 
and with them returned to Edderachillis, where he found the 
Morisons prepared to meet and fight him, at a place called 
Maldy. An engagement, however, was prevented by " Sir 
Hugh Mackay " presenting himself on the top of a neighbour- 
ing hill, with 300 men, and proposing to Donald Macleod, to 
resign his pretensions to Edderachillis in favour of his son 
Donald, and he himself, on his doing so, would grant him 
other lands on his own estate, called the Davoch of Hope. 
This proposal he acceded to. It was, however, from his 
brother Hugh, who gave him a charter of the lands, that 
Donald Mackay obtained Edderachillis, which afterwards 
formed part of the estate of the Reay family, and that branch 
of the Mackays which sprung from him adopted the designa- 
tion of Scourie. 

Donald Mackay above mentioned, the son of lye III., by 
his wife, Euphemia, daughter of Hugh Munro of Assynt in 
Ross, brother of the laird of Foulis, had three sons and four 
uaughters. The sons were Hugh, Donald, and William. 
Hugh, the eldest, succeeded his father, and by the Scots 
Estates was appointed colonel of the Reay countiymen. He 
married a daughter of James Corbet of Rheims, by whom he 
nad five sons, William, Hector, Hugh, the celebrated General 
Mackay, commander of the government forces at the battle of 
Killiecrankie, a memoir of whom is given next page, in 
larger type, James and Roderick. He had also three daugh- 
ters, Barbara, married to John, Lord Reay ; Elizabeth, to 
Hugh Munro of Eriboll, and Ann, to the Hon. Capt. William 
Mackay of Kinloch. William and Hector, the two eldest 
sons, both unmarried, met with untimely deaths. In Febru- 
ary 1688, the earl of Caithness, whose wife was younger than 
himself, having conceived some jealousy against William, 
caused him to be seized at Dunnet, while on his way to Ork- 
ney, with a party of 30 persons. He was conveyed to Thurso, 
where he was immured in a dungeon, and after long confine- 
ment was sent home in an open boat, and died the day after. 
In August of the same year, his brother Hector, accompanied 
by a servant, having gone to Aberdeenshire, on his way to 
Edinburgh, was waylaid and murdered by William Sinclair of 
Dunbeath and John Sinclair of Murkle, and their two ser- 
vants. A complaint was immediately raised before the jus- 
ticiary, at the instance of John earl of Sutherland and the 
relatives of the deceased against the earl of Caithness and the 
two Sinclairs for these crimes. A counter complaint was 
brought by Caithness against the parties pursuers, for several 
alleged crimes from 1649 downwards, but it was fallen from, 
and a compromise took place between the parties. 

General Mackay's only son, Hugh, major of his father's 
regiment, died at Cambray, in 1708, aged about 28. He left 
two sons, Hugh and Gabriel, and a daughter. Hugh died at 
Breda, a lieutenant-general in the Dutch service, and colonel 
of the Mackay Dutch regiment, which took its name from his 
father. He had an only daughter, the wife of Lieutenant- 
general Prevost, of the British service, who, on the death of 
his father-in-law, without male issue, obtained the king's 
license to bear the name and arms of Mackay of Scourie in 
addition to his own, which his descendants in Holland still 
bear. Gabriel, the younger son, lieutenant-colonel of the 
Mackay regiment, died without issue. James, the next bro- 
ther of General Mackay, a lieutenant-colonel in his regiment, 
was killed at Killiecrankie, and Roderick, the youngest, died 
in the East Indies, both unmarried. 

After General Hugh Mackay's death, the Mackay regiment 



in the Dutch service was commanded by his nephew, Briga- 
dier-general .(Eneas Mackay, who was wounded at Killiecran- 
kie, and after him by his son, Colonel Donald Mackay, who 
was killed at the battle of Fontenoy, May 11, 1745. 

The representative of the family of Scourie, John Mackay, 
Esq. of Rockville, at one period one of the clerks to the com- 
missioners for the affairs of India, which institution he re- 
signed from loss of sight, had two brothers, Hugh and Wil- 
liam. Their father was the Rev. Thomas Mackay, minister 
of the parish of Lairg in Sutherlandshire, son of the Rev. 
John Mackay, minister there from 1714 to 1753, having pre- 
viously been minister of his native parish of Durness on the 
west coast of the same county. Hugh, the second son, en- 
tered the service of the East India Company in 1784, and 
served in the 4th Madras native cavalry. He held the lu- 
crative staff appointment of agent for draught and carriage 
cattle to the army, under General Wellesley, afterwards duke 
of Wellington, but though exempt from regimental duty as a 
staff officer, he solicited permission to lead his company in 
the battle of Assaye, 23d September, 1803, and was refused. 
Rather, however, than remain idly with the baggage in the 
rear, when his brother officers were engaged with the enemy, 
he resolved to disobey, thereby risking his commission, and 
was killed at the muzzle of the enemy's guns, in that despe- 
rate charge of the cavalry which decided the fate of the dav. 
On the spot where he fell his brother officers erected a monu- 
ment to his memory. 

William, the youngest son, after being educated at the 
parish school of Lairg, went to sea at the age of 16. He 
made several voyages to the East and West Indies, and was 
esteemed one of the most skilful navigators in the Indian 
seas. In 1795, the ship Juno of Calcutta, of which he was 
second officer, was sent on a voyage to the coast of Pegu for 
a cargo of teakwood, and on its return was wrecked on the 
coast of Arracan. The ship sprang a leak, and filled so fast 
with water that but for the nature of her cargo, she must in- 
evitably have gone to the bottom. When her hull was under 
water, she settled down, with her masts standing erect. Tc 
lighten her, the main mast was cut away, and the unfortu- 
nate crew, 72 in number, took refuge in the rigging of the 
two remaining masts. In this situation, without food or wa- 
ter to drink, save what the rain supplied, fourteen individu- 
als, including the captain's wife and her servant maid, lived 23 
days, and, when at length the wreck took the ground, were 
saved. The rest perished. The principal survivor was Wil- 
liam Mackay, who published a narrative of his sufferings and 
the escape of himself and his companions. From this narra- 
tive, Lord Byron borrowed some of the most graphic incidents 
and most touching passages in the description of a shipwreck 
in his poem of Don Juan. In reference to these passages, 
Mr. Moore, his biographer, says : " It will be felt, I think, by 
every reader, that this is one of the instances in which poetry 
must be content to yield the palm to prose. There is a pa- 
thos in the last sentence of the seaman's recital (see Narra- 
tive of the Shipwreck of the Juno, page 26) which the artifi- 
ces of metre and rhyme were sure to disturb, and which, in- 
deed, no verses, however beautiful, could half so naturallv 
and powerfully express." 

In 1801, William Mackay, who had resumed his mariner's 
life immediately alter his wonderful preservation, was sent 
up the Red Sea in command of a brig, with stores and pro- 
visions for General Baird's army, destined to co-operate with 
that of Sir Ralph Abercromby in Egypt. On the voyage he 
had another marvellous escape from shipwreck, and by supe- 
rior seamanship not only saved his own but many other ships 
of the fleet, particularly, the Real Fidellissimo, with Colonel 



MACKAY, 



10 



HUGH. 



Ford and a detachment of the 86th regiment, an account of 
which is given in an appendix to a subsequent edition of his 
Narrative of the Loss of the Juno. He died at Calcutta in 
1804, from an affection of the liver, contracted during the 
twenty-three dreadful days he passed on the wreck of the 
Juno. In the churchyard of Calcutta there is a monument 
to his memory, and in that of their native parish of Lairg in 
Sutherland a square monument, with a separate tablet for 
each, commemorates the characters of the Rev. John Mac- 
kay, and his son, and two grandsons. 

General Mackay's cousin-german, Captain William Mac- 
kay of Borley, eldest son of Donald Mackay of Borley, second 
son of Donald, first of Scourie, led a company of the Mac- 
kays at the battle of Worcester in 1651, on the side of Charles 
II. He had three sons : Captain Hugh Mackay of Scourie ; 
Donald ; and the Rev. John Mackay, minister first of Dur- 
ness, and afterwards of Lairg, above mentioned. Donald, 
the second son, was a member of the council of the Darien 
company in 1698, and was sent to Britain from the colony 
with an address to the king, and a pressing request to the 
directors to send out, with all expedition, supplies of provi- 
sions, ammunition, and men. On his return to the colony, 
he found it abandoned. His fate was a melancholy one. 
Being at sea in 1702, he harpooned a shark, and having got 
entangled with the rope, was dragged overboard and drowned. 



The eldest branch of the Mackays was that of the Clan- 
Abrach, descended from John Aberigh Mackay, second son 
of Angus Dubh, who received the lands of Auchness, Breachat, 
and others, from his brother, Neill Wasse (see p. 5 of this 
vol.) Of this family was Robert Mackay, writer, Thurso, his- 
torian of the clan Mackay. According to this gentleman, 
John Aberigh, the first of this branch, gave his name to the 
district of Strathnaver. In the Gaelic language, he says, 
the inhabitants of Strathnaver are called Naverigh, and that 
tribe the Sliochd-nan -Aberigh. John, their founder, some 
say, took his appellation of Aberigh from Lochaber, where 
he resided in his youth with some relatives, and from Strath- 
na-Aberich the transition is natural to Strath-n'-Averich. 
Neill Naverich, above mentioned, was so called from his hav- 
ing belonged to the Reay Country, that is, Strathnaver. 
The Clan-Abrach were the most numerous and powerful 
branch of the Mackays. They acted as wardens of their 
country, and never betrayed their trust. 

The Bighouse branch were descendants of William Mac- 
kay of Far, younger half brother of Donald Mackay of Scourie, 
by his second wife, Christian Sinclair, daughter of the laird 
cf Dun. 

The Strathy branch sprung from John Mackay of Dilred 
and Strathy, brother of the first Lord Reay, and son of Hugh 
Mackay of Far, by his wife, Lady Jane Gordon, eldest daugh- 
ter of Alexander, earl of Sutherland. 

The Melness branch came from the Hon. Colonel iEneas 
Mackay, second son of the first Lord Reay, by his first wife, 
the Hon. Barbara Mackenzie, daughter of Lord Kintail. 

The Kinloch branch descended from the Hon. Captain 
William Mackay, and the Sandwood branch from the Hon. 
Charles Mackay, sons of the first Lord Reay by his last wife, 
Marjory Sinclair, daughter of Francis Sinclair of Stircoke. 

The founder of the Holland branch of the Mackays, Gene- 
ral Hugh Mackay, prior to 1680, when a colonel in the Dutch 
service, and having no prospect of leaving Holland, wrote for 
some of his near relatives to go over and settle in that coun- 
try. Amongst those were his brother, James, and his 
nephews, iEneas and Robert, sons of the first Lord Reay. 
The former he took into his own regiment, in which, in a few 



years, he became lieutenant-colonel. The latter he sent to 
school at Utrecht for a short time, and afterwards obtained 
commissions for them in his own regiment. In the beginning 
of 1687, several British officers in the Dutch service were re- 
called to England by King James, and amongst others was 
iEneas Mackay, then a captain. On his arrival in London, 
the King made him some favourable propositions to enter his 
service, which he declined, and, in consequence, when he 
reached Scotland, he was ordered to be apprehended as a spy. 
He had been imprisoned nearly seven months in Edinburgh 
castle, when the prince of Orange landed at Torbay, and he 
was liberated upon granting his personal bond to appear be- 
fore the privy council when called upon, under a penarty of 
£500 sterling. The Dutch Mackays married among the no- 
bility of Holland, and one of the families of that branch held 
the title of baron. 

MACKAY, Hugh, a distinguished military 
commander, the third son of Colonel Hugh Mac- 
kay of Scourie, was born about 1640. His two 
elder brothers having been murdered in the man- 
ner above shown, he early succeeded to the family 
estate. Soon after the Restoration in 1660, he 
obtained an ensign's commission in the Royal 
Scots, then, from its commanding officer, termed 
Douglas 1 or Dumbarton's regiment, and accompa- 
nied it to France, on that corps being lent by 
Charles II. to the French king. It is now the 
first foot of the British line. Among his bro- 
ther subalterns was young Churchill, afterwards 
the great duke of Marlborough, with whom he 
kept up a friendly correspondence till his death. 
In 1669, with several other officers, he volun- 
teered into the service of Venice, and so greatly 
distinguished himself in several engagements with 
the Turks in the island of Candia, that he receiv- 
ed from the Republic a medal of great value, in 
acknowledgment of his services. 

In 1672 he had the rank conferred on him of 
captain in Dumbarton's regiment, and was em 
ployed with it in the unprincipled expedition of 
Louis against the United Provinces. His regi- 
ment formed part of the division of the army 
which, under Marshal Turenne, overran the pro- 
vince of Gueldres, and captured most of the 
Dutch fortresses on the Meuse and Waal. At 
the small town of Bommel, in Guelderland, he 
was quartered in the house of a Dutch lady, the 
widow of the Chevalier Arnold de Bie, whose eld- 
est daughter, Clara, he married in 1673. 

Previous to this event, not approving of the 
cause in which he was engaged, he had resigned 
his commission in the Royal Scots, and entered 



MACKAY, 



11 



HUGH. 



the service of the States General, being appointed 
captain in the Scottish Dutch brigade. In 1674 
he was present at the battle of Seneff, when the 
army under the prince of Orange was defeated by 
the prince of Conde. He was afterwards pro- 
moted to the rank of major-commandant in the 
same service ; and on the lieutenant-colonelcy of 
one of the regiments forming the Scots brigade 
becoming vacant, the prince bestowed it on Mac- 
kay, in preference to Graham of Claverhouse, 
who, in consequence, quitted the Dutch service in 
disgust. 

About 1680 Mackay was promoted to the com- 
mand of the whole brigade, which, in 1685, was 
called over to England to assist in suppressing 
Monmouth's rebellion ; on which occasion, King 
James, on 4th June of that year, conferred on 
him the rank of major-general, and appointed him 
a member of his privy council in Scotland. He 
proceeded, in consequence, to Edinburgh, where 
he took the oaths, but his public duties did not 
admit of his visiting his estate and relations in 
Sutherland. In the following year, disapproving 
of the arbitrary proceedings of James' govern- 
ment, and preferring the service of his son-in-law, 
the prince of Orange, he resigned his commission, 
and returned to Holland; and in 1688, having, 
along with most of the officers of the Scots bri- 
gade, refused to obey the order of James II. to 
return to England, he and five other persons were 
declared rebels, and specially exempted from par- 
don. 

With the command of the English and Scots 
division of the invading army, General Mackay 
accompanied the prince of Orange to England at 
the Revolution. Soon after his landing he was 
seized with a severe illness, from which he had 
scarcely recovered when by a warrant, signed by 
William and Mary, dated from Kensington, 4th 
January, 1689, he was appointed major-general 
of all forces whatever, "within our ancient king- 
dom of Scotland," and on the 25th March he ar- 
rived at Leith, with part of the Scots brigade, 
which had served in Holland. The assumption 
of the sovereign authority in the above warrant, 
as regarded Scotland, without waiting for the do 
termination of the convention, was guarded against 
by the following entry m the records of that body 



"Edinburgh, 28th March, 1689. The estates of 
this kingdom considering that the king of Eng- 
land, in pursuance of his acceptation of the ad- 
ministration of the public affairs of this kingdom, 
till the meeting of the estates, had sent down 
Major-general Mackay, with some Scots regiments 
under his command, for the security of the estates, 
and general peace of the kingdom ; they do ac- 
knowledge the great kindness and care of the king 
of England ; and do hereby warrant and author- 
ise the said Major-general Mackay to command 
any forces, either standing or to be raised, with 
the militia within this kingdom," &c. 

On Viscount Dundee proceeding to the north, 
to raise the clans for King James, Mackay was 
despatched from Edinburgh with a considerable 
body of troops in pursuit. He had previously 
attempted to open a correspondence with Cameron 
of Lochiel, with the view of inducing him to sub- 
mit to King William's government, but could ob- 
tain no answer, and Macdonell of Glengary, to 
whom he also made a communication, advised 
him, in return, to imitate the conduct of General 
Monk, by restoring James. Appointing tho 
town of Dundee as the rendezvous for his troops, 
with about 500 men, consisting of nearly an equal 
number of horse and foot, Mackay hastened north 
in quest of the viscount, and after in vain attempt- 
ing to meet him, he marched first to Elgin, and 
afterwards to Inverness, where he was joined by 
500 of the Mackays, Grants, and Rosses. Dun- 
dee having entered Badenoch with a large force, 
Mackay, not being joined by a detachment of 
Dutch troops under Colonel Ramsay, which he 
expected, retreated from Inverness through Strath- 
spey. Here he at one time intended to give Dun- 
dee battle, but the latter showed no disposition to 
engage. 

In all probability there would have been a bat- 
tle if Lieutenant-colonel Livingstone and several 
of his officers had not stationed two dragoons near 
the mansion-house of Edinglassie to give Dundee 
warning. The dragoons were found concealed in 
the woods, and their information led to discover- 
ies which completely implicated Livingstone and 
others. General Mackay arrested them and sent 
them to Edinburgh. They confessed their guilt, 
but it is not ascertained in what manner they 



MACKAY, 



12 



HUGH. 



were disposed of. Having thus reason to distrust 
the fidelity of a portion of his force, Mackay con- 
tinued his retreat till he was joined by some rein- 
forcements upon whom he could rely, when he 
turned upon Dundee, and pursued him into Bade- 
noch. He subsequently marched to Inverness, 
whence he wrote to the duke of Hamilton, presi- 
dent of the convention, urging the necessity of 
establishing "a formidable garrison" at Inver- 
lochy, and small ones in other places in the north, 
without which he considered that it would be ut- 
terly impossible to subdue the Highlanders. He 
himself soon after repaired to Edinburgh, to has- 
ten the preparations for carrying such a project 
into effect ; but the plan he proposed, as he him- 
self confesses, "considering the inability, ignor- 
ance, and little forwardness of the government to 
furnish the necessary ingredients for the advance 
of their service, was built upon a sandy founda- 
tion, and much like the building of castles in the 
air." (Mackay's Memoirs, p. 46.) 

After completing his arrangements at Edin- 
burgh, Mackay went to Stirling, to inspect the 
castle. From that place he proceeded to Perth, 
and on the 26th July 1689, he began his march 
into Athol, at the head of an army, as generally 
stated, of 4,500 men, but he tells us himself, in 
his ' Memoirs,' that he had with him only " six 
battalions of foot, making at the most 3,000 men, 
with four troops of horse and as many dragoons." 
Among the foot were two Scottish regiments, 
which, as stated in Mr. Mackay of Rockfield's 
Life of General Mackay, " as well as the horse, 
were not only new levies, but were also command- 
ed by noblemen and gentlemen wholly destitute 
of military experience, and selected for their re- 
spective commands solely on account of their 
power of raising men ; little more, therefore, than 
one half of the whole number could be said to be 
disciplined." At night the general encamped op- 
posite to Dunkeld. Here, at midnight, he re- 
ceived an express from the marquis of Tullibar- 
dine, (often styled Lord Murray,) announcing 
that Viscount Dundee had entered Athol, and in 
consequence he had retreated from before the cas- 
tle of Blair, which he had for some time block- 
aded, and informing him that at the upper end of 
the pass of Killiecrankie, which lay between him 



and Lord Dundee, he had posted a guard to se- 
cure a free passage through it to his troops. 

On receipt of this alarming intelligence, Mac- 
kay despatched orders to Perth, to hasten the 
arrival of six troops of cavalry which he had left 
there, and at daybreak next day, proceeded in di- 
rection of the pass. At ten o'clock in the 
morning he reached its lower extremity, when he 
halted his troops, and allowed them two hours to 
rest and refresh themselves. Receiving notice 
that the pass was clear, he again put his men in 
motion, and they effected their passage through 
this terrific defile, with the loss only of a single 
horseman. In that singularly wild and stupen- 
dous locality, a handful of men, with no other 
ammunition than stones, stationed at intervals on 
the summit of the precipices, could easily impede 
the progress of any troops. If even at the pres- 
ent time, with the advantages of the excellent 
road, formed nearly sixty years afterwards, its 
passage is difficult to the traveller, it must have 
been much more so in General Mackay's time, 
when it was in a state of the most savage desola- 
tion. " When the pass of Killiecrankie," says 
one authority, " is traversed, the country beyond 
is found to open suddenly up into a plain, which 
is expressively called the Blair or field of Athol. 
Immediately beyond the pass this plain is not 
very spacious, but is confined to that description 
of territory which in Scotland is called a haugh, 
or a stripe of level alluvial soil by the brink of a 
river. The road debouches upon this narrow 
plain ; the river runs along under the hills on the 
left ; on the right rise other hills, but not of so 
bold a character. Mackay no sooner arrived at a 
space sufficiently wide for drawing up his army 
than he halted and began to intrench himself. 
He left his baggage at a blacksmith's house near 
the termination of the pass, so as to have the pro- 
tection of the army in front." 

As it was Viscount Dundee's object to prevent 
Mackay from establishing himself in Athol, he did 
not hesitate to meet him with an inferior force, 
amounting to little more than the half of that 
under Mackay. In making his dispositions, the 
latter divided every battalion into two parts, and, 
as he meant to fight three deep, he left a small 
distance between each of these sub-battalions. 



MACKAY, 



13 



HUGH. 



[n the centre of his line, nowever, he left a greater 
interval of space, behind which he placed the two 
troops of horse. Hastings' regiment, which arriv- 
ed after he had taken up his ground, was stationed 
on the right, and, for greater security, a detach- 
ment of fire- locks from each battalion was added. 
On the extreme left, on a hillock covered with 
trees, Lieut.-Colonel Lauder was posted, with 200 
picked men. After his line had been fully formed, 
Mackay rode along the front, from the left wing, 
which he committed to the charge of Brigadier 
Balfour, to the right, and having ascertained that 
everything was in readiness to receive the enemy, 
he addressed the battalions nearest him in a short 
speech. 

Whilst he was occupied on the lower platform, 
his gallant rival was equally busy on the emi- 
nence above, ranging his men in battle array, in 
one line, and neither he nor Mackay placed any 
body of reserve behind their lines. As the evening 
advanced without any appearance on the part of 
Dundee of a desire to commence the action, the 
uneasiness of Mackay increased, as he supposed 
that the design of the Highlanders was to wait 
till nightfall, when, by descending suddenly, and 
setting up their customary loud shout, they ex- 
pected to frighten his men, and throw them into 
disorder. He resolved however to remain in his 
position, whatever were the consequences, " al- 
though with impatience," as he says in his Me- 
moirs, till Dundee should either attack him or 
retire, which he had a better opportunity of doing. 
To provoke the Highlanders to engage, he ordered 
three small leather field -pieces to be discharged, 
but they proved of little use. Towards the close 
of the evening, some of Dundee's sharpshooters 
took possession of some houses upon the ascent 
which lay between the two armies, to obtain a 
more certain aim. This induced the general to 
order his brother, Colonel Mackay, to detach a 
captain with some musqueteers to dislodge them. 
The general's nephew, the Hon. Robert Mackay, 
performed the duty with great gallantry, killing 
and wounding some, and chasing the rest back to 
their main body. 

It was nearly sunset when the Highlanders all 
at once began to move slowly down the hill, bare- 
footed and stripped to their shirts and doublets. 



They advanced, according to their usual practice, 
with their bodies bent forward, so as to present as 
small a surface as possible to the fire of the enemy, 
the upper part of their bodies being covered by 
their targets. They soon rushed forward with 
tremendous fury, uttering a terrific yell. They 
commenced the attack by a discharge of their fire- 
arms and pistols, which made little impression on 
Mackay's men, who reserved their fire until within 
a few paces of the Highlanders, when they poured 
it into them. Discharging in platoons, they were 
enabled to take a steady aim, and their fire told 
Avith dreadful effect on the Highlanders. At that 
time the present plan of fixing the bayonet was 
not known, and before the troops had time to screw 
their side-arms on to the end of their muskets, 
the Highlanders rushed in upon them sword-in- 
hand. It is said that General Mackay invented 
the present plan of firing with the bayonet fixed, 
from the complete defeat which he was now des- 
tined so briefly to experience, for the whole affair 
lasted only a few minutes. The shock of the 
Highlanders was too impetuous to be long resisted 
by soldiers, who, according to their own general, 
"behaved, with the exception of Hastings' and 
Leven's regiments, like the vilest cowards in 
nature." 

While the work of death was thus going on to- 
wards the right, Dundee, at the head of the horse, 
made a furious charge on Mackay's own battalion, 
and broke through it, on which the English horse, 
which were stationed behind, fled, without firing 
a single shot. When Mackay perceived that 
Dundee's chief point of attack was near the centre 
of his line, he resolved to charge the Highlanders 
in flank with two troops of horse which he had 
placed in his rear; and he ordered Lord Belhaven 
to proceed round the left wing with his own troop, 
and attack them on their right flank, ordering the 
other troop to proceed in the contrary direction, 
and assail their left. The general led Belhaven's 
troop in person ; but scarcely had he got in front 
of the line when it was thrown into disorder. 
This disorder was soon communicated to the right 
wing of Lord Kenmure's battalion, which at once 
gave way. 

At this moment the general was surrounded Dy 
a crowd of Highlanders, and he called to his cav- 



MACK AY, 



14 



HUGH. 



airy to follow him, that he might get them again 
formed, but only one person made the attempt, a 
servant, whose horse was shot under him. Put- 
ting spurs to his horse, he galloped through the 
Highlanders, and when he had got sufficiently 
out of immediate danger, he turned round to ob- 
serve the appearance of the field. To his aston- 
ishment he saw none of his troops, but the dead, 
the wounded, and the dying. His army had dis- 
appeared. "In the twinkling of an eye, in a 
manner," he says, " our men were out of sight, 
being got pell mell down to the river-side, where 
our baggage stood." The flight of his men must 
have been truly rapid, for although his left wing, 
which had never been attacked, had taken to flight 
before he rode off, his right wing and centre had 
still kept their ground. But now the whole of 
his line had fled from the field, pursued by the 
Highlanders, till the latter were stopped by the 
baggage, and it was to their desire for plunder that 
those who escaped owed their safety, for had the 
Highlanders continued their pursuit, it is very 
probable that not an individual of Mackay's army 
would have been left to relate the sad disaster of 
their discomfiture and death. 

When the general had recovered from his sur- 
prise, and the smoke had cleared away, he dis- 
covered on the right a small number of his troops. 
He subsequently came upon another portion of 
them. With these, he retired across the Garry, 
without molestation, and contrary to the opinion 
of several of his officers, who advised him to 
march through the pass of Killiecrankie to Perth, 
he proceeded several miles up Athol, with the in- 
tention of crossing over the hills to Stirling. 
About two miles from the field of battle, he came 
up with a party of about 150 fugitives, almost 
without aims, under the command of Colonel 
Ramsay, who was quite at a loss what direction 
to take. Continuing his march along the edge of 
a rivulet which falls into the Garry, he came to a 
little village, where he procured from the inhabit- 
ants such information as enabled him, with the 
assistance of his map, to decide upon his route. 
Early in the morning he reached Weem castle, 
the seat of his friend, the chief of the clan Men- 
sies, whose son had been in the action at the 
head of a company of Highlanders, and here he 



obtained some sleep and refreshment after his fa- 
tigues and harassing march. On Sunday, the 
28th July, the general continued his march with 
very little halting, and on Monday he arrived at 
Stirling with about 400 men. The viscount of 
Dundee fell in the battle, and thus rendered his 
victory a fruitless one to King James. On the 
side of Mackay no fewer than 2,000 men fell, and 
500 were made prisoners. The loss on the side 
of Dundee could never be accurately ascertained. 
It is stated to have been considerable, and General 
Mackay says that " the enemy lost on the field 
six for our one." 

Among the persons of rank and distinction 
slain were his brother Colonel Mackay and Brig- 
adier Balfour. His nephew, the Hon. Captain 
Mackay, had been left for dead on the field of 
battle, and was found by Glengary and his men, 
who, perceiving him still alive, carried him on a 
barn door to the nearest hut, where he remained 
some days till he could be removed in safety to 
Dunkeld. He never completely recovered the 
effect of his wounds at Killiecrankie, and after 
serving, and being repeatedly wounded, in several 
of King William's battles in Flanders, he died at 
Tongue, the seat of his family, in December 1696, 
in the 30th year of his age. 

After concentrating the troops at Stirling, Gen- 
eral Mackay, within a few days after his arrival 
at that place, found himself again at the head of 
a considerable force. He then resolved to march 
direct to Perth, and place a garrison there. On 
coming within half-a-mile of the town, he observ- 
ed a party of the enemy, consisting of about 300 
Athol men, approaching from it. The latter, see- 
ing from the dispositions made by General Mac- 
kay, that their retreat would be intercepted, 
threw themselves into the Tay, whither they were 
followed by Mackay's cavalry, who cut them 
down in the water without mercy. He subse- 
quently followed Colonel Cannan, who, on the 
death of Dundee, had assumed the command of 
James 1 army, to the north, and stayed a night at 
Aberdeen. His arrival there gave great joy, he 
says, (Memoirs, p. 66,) to most of the inhabit- 
ants, as they were in dread of a visit from the 
Highlanders that very night. 

From Aberdeen Mackay proceeded up Deeside, 



MACKAY, 



15 



HUGH. 



having received intelligence that Caiman had ta- 
ken up a position on the Braes of Mar ; but learn- 
ing, on his march, that the Highlanders had gone 
north to the duke of Gordon's territory, he drew 
off his men towards Strathbogie. He reached 
Strathbogie castle before Cannan arrived at the 
castle of Auchindoun, Avhere he intended to fix 
his head-quarters. Here the distance between 
the two armies was only about six miles, and 
both commanders made preparations for a battle, 
but the divisions and strifes among the officers 
and Highland chiefs in Caiman's army prevented 
one from taking place ; and that leader resolved 
to return to Athol. Mackay followed him in the 
direction of Cromar, and having ascertained 
that he had crossed the hills and entered the 
Mearns, he made a rapid movement down the 
Dee to Aberdeen. After the battle of Dunkeld 
he returned to Perth, and spent ten days at the 
castle of Blair, during which time many of the 
Athol people took advantage of an indemnity 
which he offered them, and delivered up their 
arms. 

From the jealousies and dissensions, and per- 
sonal and selfish motives, which actuated all par- 
ties, and the indifference and neglect with which 
his plans for the subjugation of the Highlands had 
been treated by the government, General Mackay 
had, by this time, become heartily tired of his 
command. He was himself of a moderate and 
conciliatory disposition, and the different spirit 
that seemed to influence the conduct of mostly all 
others in power, made him, as he says himself, 
" look upon Scotsmen of those times in general, 
as void of zeal for their religion and natural affec- 
tion, seeing all men hunt after their particular 
advantages, and none minding sincerely and self- 
deniedly the common good, which gave him a 
real distaste of the country and service ; resolving 
from that time forward to disengage himself out 
of it as soon as possible he could get it done, and 
that the service would allow of." (Memoirs, p. 
77.) He failed, however, in obtaining even a 
temporary leave of absence, by the intrigues of 
Lord Melville and Viscount Tarbet, who, as he 
says, suspecting an interview with King William, 
who was then in Holland, to be the object of his 
proposed visit thither, were afraid that he would 



induce his majesty to adopt a system different 
from that which had been followed in the man- 
agement of Scottish affairs. 

He now applied himself, with great persever- 
ance, to accomplish his long cherished project of 
erecting a fort at Inverlochy, capable of containing 
ten or twelve hundred men, to keep the western 
Highlanders in check. As no notice was taken of 
a communication which he made to King William 
in reference thereto, notwithstanding its import- 
ance was urged in repeated letters from him, he 
grew quite impatient, and threatened to throw up 
his commission. At length the privy council hav- 
ing, at his request, written a letter to the king on 
the subject, his majesty ordered three frigates, 
Avhich Mackay had written for, to be sent down, 
with some arms and ammunition and implements 
for commencing the work, but no money was 
forthcoming, without which nothing could be un- 
dertaken. In this emergency he applied to the 
city of Glasgow, the magistrates of which agreed 
to hire vessels for transporting a detachment of 
600 men, which Mackay offered to take with him, 
and to furnish him with the necessary provisions, 
and such articles as he might require for complet- 
ing the fort, in addition to those sent down from 
England. 

After the skirmish of Cromdale, Mackaj r pro- 
ceeded into Lochaber, and thence to Inverlochy, 
and lost no time in commencing the fort at that 
place. The original fort built by General Monk, 
during the time of Cromwell, was chiefly of earth, 
and of a temporary character. Mackay erected 
the present one with stone and lime, on a smaller 
scale, and gave it the name of Fort William in 
honour of the king. It withstood a siege of three 
weeks in 1745. Leaving a thousand men in gar- 
rison there, he returned to the south, but shortly 
afterwards marched north, in all haste, in order to 
disperse the forces under Major-general Buchan. 
before any rising should take place in the northern 
counties. The earl of Seaforth having surrendered 
himself to him, was committed prisoner to the 
castle of Inverness, and afterwards sent to Edin- 
burgh. Having at length succeeded, by the most 
energetic operations, in pacifying the northern 
counties, and fully establishing the authority of 
William and Mary in Scotland, in November 



MACKAY, 16 

1690, he resigned the chief command of the army 
and retired to his family in Holland, his adopted 
country. Of his services in Scotland, he left an 
interesting account in his "Memoirs," printed for 
the first time for the Bannatyne Club in 1833. 

In 1691, he was appointed second in command 
of King William's forces, serving against the ad- 
herents of King James in Ireland. He arrived in 
that country in the beginning of May of that year, 
and signalised himself by his skill and gallantry at 
the capture of Athlone, having led his men on foot 
through a deep and rapid ford on the river Shan- 
non, amid a continued shower of balls, bullets, 
and grenades. Smollett says, " Never was a more 
desperate service, nor was ever exploit performed 
with more valour and intrepidity." At the battle 
of Aughrim, which followed, he commanded the 
right wing of King William's army, and the vic- 
tory, it was acknowledged, was gained chiefly by 
his foresight, good conduct, and courage. 

After the capitulation of Limerick, on the 3d of 
the ensuing October, he returned to Holland, and 
in the succeeding year, when King William took 
the field against Louis XIV. of France, Mackay, 
with the rank of lieutenant-general, was nominat- 
ed to the command of the British division of the 
confederate army in Flanders. He was killed at 
the disastrous battle of Steinkirk, July 24th, 1692. 
He had been ordered to a post which, he saw, 
could not be maintained, and sent back his opinion 
about it, but the former orders were confirmed, so 
he advanced to his death, saying only, "The will 
of the Lord be done." It is stated that in the 
course of that evening, King William frequently 
mentioned with regret the death of one of his 
generals, but said nothing of General Mackay. 
One of the officers present took the liberty of ex- 
pressing his surprise that his majesty had made 
no allusion to his old and faithful servant, Mackay. 
" No," replied the king, " Mackay served a higher 
Master, but the other served me with his soul." 
The king attended Mackay's funeral, and when 
the body was laid in the grave, he said, " There 
he lies, and an honester man the world cannot 
produce." He is still termed in his native coun- 
try, " Shenlar mor," the great general. He was 
to have been rewarded by King William, for his 
services, with the title of earl of Scourie, but the 



ROBERT. 



intrigues of his rival, Mackenzie of Coigach oi 
Cromarty, prevented it. 

The eldest of his three daughters, Margaret, 
became the wife of George, third Lord Reay. 
The two others married Dutchmen, the one a 
minister of Nimeguen, the other, the burgomaster 
of that town. 

Bishop Burnet describes General Mackay as 
one of the most pious soldiers whom he had ever 
known, and highly commends him for the care 
which he took to enforce the observance of strict 
discipline, and attention to religious exercises, 
among both the officers and men under his com- 
mand. It was commonly said of him by the 
Dutch soldiers, that he knew no fear but the fear 
of God. One of his ruling principles was never 
to aid what he considered a bad cause. His Life, 
by John Mackay, Esq. of Rockfield, the represen- 
tative in the male line of the family of Scourie, 
was published in 1836, in one vol. 4to. 

MACKAY, Robert, an eminent Gaelic bard, 
commonly called Rob Donn, that is, Brown Ro- 
bert, the son of a herdsman, was born in 1714, at 
Durness, in Sutherlandshire. He says himself: 

" I was born in the winter, 
'Mongst the wild frowning mountains , 
My first sight of the world 
Was the snow-drift around me." 

His mother, a woman of vigorous understanding, 
was well versed in Highland poetry and music, 
with which she stored his mind in his childhood. 
He never learnt to read. Till he was seven years 
old he tended calves, but at that age he was ta- 
ken into the service of Mr. John Mackay, of the 
family of Skerray, a gentleman who carried on an 
extensive business as a cattle-dealer. As he 
grew to years he was employed as a drover, and 
sometimes went with herds as far as to the Eng- 
lish markets. He was afterwards engaged by 
Donald Lord Reay, the chief of his clan, as his 
cattle-steward or cow-keeper, called in some parts 
of the country a boman. He now married, and 
in course of time became the father of thirteen 
children. 

Unfortunately his fondness for deer-hunting, 
for which he was, on one occasion, summoned be- 
fore the sheriff-substitute of the county, when he 



MAC KAY, 



17 



UOIJERT. 



narrowly escaped transportation, according to the 
statute, and a satirical ballad which he composed 
on some transaction in his noble master's house- 
hold, caused his dismissal from Lord Reay's ser- 
vice. One account, but it seems most unlikely, 
says that the reason of his leaving was his refusal 
to use the flail himself in thrashing out corn for 



fodder to the cattle, employing servants to per- 
form this laborious duty. He was then taken 
into the employment of Colonel Mackay, son of 
the gentleman who had patronised him in his boy- 
hood, when he removed, with his family, to the 
place of Achmore, in that part of the parish oi 
Durness which borders upon Cape Wrath 




CAPE WRATH. 



When the first regiment of Sutherland fencibles 
was raised in 1759, he was prevailed upon by the 
country gentlemen holding commissions in it to 
accompany them. He enlisted as a private sol- 
dier, but was never called on to take any part in 
troublesome duty. On the reduction of the corps 
in May 1763, he returned to his home, when he 
was recalled to his former situation in the em- 
ployment of Lord Reay. Although dreaded as a 
satirist, such was the excellence of his private 
character that he was elected a ruler elder of his 
native parish. His witty sayings and convivial 
qualities made him a welcome guest every where. 
In the sketch of his life inserted in ' Mackenzie's 
Beauties of Gaelic Poetry,' (page 186,) we are 
told that his society was courted not only by his 
equals, but still more by his superiors ; no social 
party almost was esteemed a party without him ; 
no public meeting of the better and the best of 
the land was felt to be a full one without Rob 

Donn being there. Tlie reason of his being thus 
in. 



in such universal requisition was, perhaps, that, 
as subsequently stated in the same sketch, if he 
was not invited to a feast or wedding, next day 
he composed a satire full of mirth and humour, 
on the offending party. He was proud, says his 
biographer, of his own powers of satire, and seem- 
ed to enjoy the dread of those who feared the ex- 
ercise of his wit. 

He died 5th August, 1778, aged 64. A vast 
concourse of his clansmen attended his funeral, 
and a granite monument was erected in 1829, by 
public subscription, over his grave, in the parish 
burying ground of Durness, with inscriptions in 
Gaelic, in English, "n Greek, and Latin. His 
poems consist of humorous, satirical, and descrip- 
tive pieces, with elegies and love songs. Many 
of them are of a local nature. A collection of 
them was published at Inverness in 1830, by the 
Rev. Dr. Mackay, then of Dunoon, author of 
' The Gaelic Dictionary,' with a memoir. In the 
Quarterly Review for July 1831, translations arc 



MACKAY. 



18 



MACKENZIE. 



given of some of them. The memoir which ac- 
companies them was written by Sir Walter Scott. 
MACKAY, John, an eminent botanist, was 
bora at Kirkakly, December 25, 1772. He early 
discovered a strong predilection for botanical 
pursuits, and even at the age of 14, he had formed 
a very considerable collection of the rarer kinds of 
garden and hothouse plants. In the beginning of 
1791 he was placed in Dickson and Company's 
nurseries at Edinburgh ; of which, in 1793, he re- 
ceived the principal charge. Every summer he 
made a botanical excursion to the Highlands ; he 
likewise traversed the Western Isles, and in most 
of these journeys he was successful in adding some 
new species to the British Flora. To the elegant 
work entitled ' English Botany,' then in course of 
publication, under the care of Dr. Smith and Mr. 
Sowerby of London, he contributed various valu- 
able articles and figures of indigenous plants, and 
in February 1796, he was elected an associate of 
the Linnaean Society of London. In 1800, on the 
death of Mr. Menzies, he succeeded him as super- 
intendent of the Royal Botanic Garden of Edin- 
burgh, where he died April 14, 1802. 

Mackenzie, the surname of a clan, (badge, deer grass,) 
which has long cherished a traditionary belief in its descent 
from the Norman family of Fitzgerald settled in Ireland. Its 
pretensions to such an origin are founded upon a fragment of 
the records of Icolmkill, and a charter of the lands of Kin tail 
in Wester Ross, said to have been granted by Alexander III., 
to Colin Fitzgerald, their supposed progenitor. According to 
the Icolmkill fragment, a personage described as " Peregri- 
nus et Hibernus nobilis ex familia Geraldinorum," that is, "a 
noble stranger and Hibernian, of the family of the Geral- 
dines," being driven from Ireland, with a considerable num- 
ber of followers, about 1261, was received graciously by the 
king, and remained thenceforward at the court. Having 
given powerful aid to the Scots at the battle of Largs two 
years afterwards, he was rewarded by a grant of Kintail, 
srected into a free barony by charter dated 9th January, 
1266. No such document, however, as this pretended frag- 
ment of Icolmkill is known to be in existence, at least, as 
Mr. Skene says, nobody has ever seen it, and as for King Al- 
exander's charter, he declares ( Ilitjhlanders, vol. ii. p. 235) 
that "it bears the most palpable marks of having been a for- 
gery of later date, and one by no means happy in the execu- 
tion." Besides, the words " Colino Hiberno," contained in 
it, do not prove the said Colin to have been an Irishman, as 
Hiberni was at that period a common appellation of the Gael 
of Scotland. 

The ancestor of the clan Kenzie was Gilleon-og, or Colin 
the younger, a son of Gilleon na hair'de, that is, Colin of the 
Aird, progenitor of the earls of Ross, and from the MS. of 
1450 their Gaelic descent may be considered established. 
Colin of Kintail is said to have married a daughter of Walter, 
lord high steward of Scotland. He died ii 1278. and his 



son, Kenneth, being, in 1304, succeeded by his son, also call- 
ed Kenneth, with the addition of Mackenneth, the latter, 
softened into Mackenny or Mackenzie, became the name of 
the whole clan. Murdoch, or Murcha, the son of Kenneth, 
received from David II. a charter of the lands of Kintail as 
early as 1362. At the beginning of the 15th century, the 
clan Kenzie appears to have been both numerous and power- 
ful, for its chief, Kenneth More, when arrested, in 1427, with 
his son-in-law, Angus of Moray, and Macmathan, by James 
I. in his parliament at Inverness, was said to be able to mus- 
ter 2,000 men. 

In 1463, Alexander Mackenzie of Kintail received Strath- 
garve and many other lands from John, earl of Ross, the 
same who was forfeited in 1476. The Mackenzie chiefs 
were originally vassals of the earls of Ross, but after their for- 
feiture, they became independent of any superior but the 
crown. They strenuously opposed the Macdonalds in every 
attempt which they made to regain possession of the earl- 
dom. Alexander was succeeded by his son, Kenneth, who 
had taken for his first wife Lady Margaret Macdonald, daugh- 
ter of the forfeited earl, John lord of the Isles, and having, 
about 1480, divorced his wife, he brought upon himself the 
resentment of her family. Her brother, Angas, invaded 
Ross, with a body of his island vassals, and encountering the 
Mackenzies at a place called Lagebread, defeated them with 
considerable loss. In 1491, Alexander of Lochalsh, called 
Alaster Macgillespoc, nephew of the lord of the Isles, made 
his appearance, at the head of a large body of the Islanders, 
in Wester Ross, and proceeded to Strathconnan, for the pur- 
pose of ravaging the lands of the Mackenzies. The latter 
however, under the above-named Kenneth, assembled in 
great force, and after a fierce and obstinate battle, the Mac- 
donalds were defeated with much slaughter, and expelled 
from Ross. This engagement was called the battle of Blair- 
na-Park. The Mackenzies then proceeded to ravage the 
lands of Ardmanach and Foulis, and committed so many ex- 
cesses that the earl of Huntly, lieutenant of the north, wa3 
compelled to act against them as rebels and oppressors of the 
lieges. Kenneth died soon after. 

Kenneth Oig, his son by the divorced wife, was chief in 
1493. Two years afterwards, he and Farquhar Macintosh 
were imprisoned by James V. in the castle of Edinburgh. 
In 1497, the Macdonalds again invaded Ross, but were en- 
countered by the Mackenzies and Munroes, at a place called 
Drumchatt, and after a sharp skirmish, were routed and 
driven out of Ross. The same year he and Macintosh made 
their escape from the castle of Edinburgh, but on their way 
to the Highlands, they were treacherously seized at the 
Torwood, by the laird of Buchanan. Kenneth Oig resisted 
and was slain, and his head presented to the king by Buchan- 
an. His death was avenged by his foster-brother at Flodden. 
This was a man of the district of Kenlochar, named Donald 
Dubh Mac Gillechrist Vic Gillereoch. In the retreat of the 
Scots army he heard some one near him say, " Alas ! laird, 
thou hast fallen." On inquiry he was told that it was the 
laird of Buchanan, who had sunk from wounds or exhaust- 
ion. Rushing forward, he shouted out, " If he hath not 
fallen, he shall fall," and slew Buchanan on the spot. 

Kenneth Oig, having no issue, was succeeded by his 
brother, John, whose mother, Agnes Fraser, was a daughter 
of Lord Lovat. She had other sons, from whom sprung 
numerous branches of this wide-spread family. As he was 
very young, his kinsman, Hector Roy Mackenzie, progenitor 
of the house of Gerloch, assumed the command of the clan, 
as guardian of the young chief. " Under his rule," says Mr. 
Gregory, (Highlands and Isles of Scotland, p. 111.) " the clan 



MACKENZIE 



19 



OF KINTAIL. 



Kenzie became involved in feuds with the Munroes and other 
clans ; and Hector Koy himself hecaine obnoxious to govern- 
ment, as a disturber of the public peace. His intentions to- 
wards the young lord of Kintail were considered very dubious; 
and the apprehensions of the latter and his friends having 
been roused, Hector was compelled by law to yield up the 
estate and the command of the tribe to the proper heir." 
John, at the call of James IV., marched with his clan to the 
fatal field of Flodden, where he was taken prisoner by the 
English. 

Among the measures adopted by government for the sup- 
pression of the rebellion of Sir Dor aid Macdonald of Loch- 
alsh, who had got himself proclaimed lord of the Isles, was 
the appointment, by an act of council, of certain individuals of 
local influence as temporary lieutenants of particular divisions 
of the northern shires. Among others, the chief of the Mac- 
kenzies and Munro of Foulis were constituted guardians of 
Wester Ross. The following year (1515) Mackenzie, without 
legal warrant, seized the royal castle of Dingwall, but pro- 
fessed his readiness to deliver it up to any one appointed by 
the regent, John, Duke of Albany. It was in attempting, in 
the Mackenzie chief's absence, to take his castle of Elandonan, 
in 1539, that Donald Gorme, the claimant of the lordship of 
the Isles, lost his life, having been wounded in the foot by a 
barbed arrow. (See vol. ii. p. 548). 

On King James the Fifth's expedition to the Isles in 1540, 
he was joined at Kintail by John, chief of the Mackenzies, wno 
accompanied him throughout his voyage. He fought at the 
battle of Pinkie at the head of his clan in 1547. On his 
death in 155G, he was succeeded by his son, Kenneth, who, 
by a daughter of the earl of Athol, had Colin and Roderick, 
the latter ancestor of the Mackenzies of Redcastle, Kincraig, 
Rosend, and other branches. 

Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail, had, by accident, obtained 
the custody of Mary Macleod, the heiress of Harris and 
Dunvegan, and refusing to give her up to her lawful guar- 
dian, James Macdonald of Dunyveg and the Glens, was 
compelled to resign her into the hands of Queen Mary, 
with whom sue remained for some years as a maid of honour. 
In the Collectanea de rebus Albanicis, (p. 143) is the act of 
privy council which bears that he had delivered up the said 
heiress to the queen. It is dated " at Edinburgh, the 21st 
May 1562." He died in 1568. 

Colin, eleventh chief, son of Kenneth, fought on the side 
of Queen Mary at the battle of Langside, for which he ob- 
tained a remission. In August 1569 he and Donald Gornie- 
son Macdonald of Skye were forced, in presence of the Regent 
Moray and privy council at Perth, to settle the femls in 
which they had been for some time involved. On this occa- 
sion Moray acted as mediator between them. Colin Mac- 
kenzie, chief of the clan Kenzie, was a privy councillor to 
James VI., and died 14th June 1594. He was twice mar- 
ried. By his first wife, Barbara, a daughter of Grant of 
Grant, he had, with three daughters, four sons, namely, 
Kenneth, his successor; Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Tarb.it, 
ancestor of the earls of Cromarty ; Colin, ancestor of the 
Mackenzies of Kennock and Pitlundie ; and Alexander, of 
the Mackenzies of Kilcoy, and other families of the name. 
By a second wife, Mary, eldest daughter of Roderick Mac- 
kenzie of Davochmaluak, he had a son, Alexander, from 
whom the Mackenzies of Applecross, Coul, Delvin, Assint, 
and other families are sprung. 

Kenneth, the eldest son, twelfth chief of the Mackenzies, 
was also a member of the privy council of James VI. Soon 
after succeeding his father, he was engaged in supporting the 
claims of Torquil Macleod, surnamed Connanach. the disin- 



herited son of Macleod of Lewis, whose mother was the sister 
of John Mackenzie of Kintail, and whose daughter had mar- 
ried Roderick Mackenzie, Kenneth's brother. The barony of 
Lewis he conveyed by writings to the Mackenzie chief, who 
caused the usurper thereof and some of his followers to be 
beheaded in July 1597 (see Macleod). In the following 
year he joined Macleod of Harris and Macdonald of Sleat in 
opposing the project of James VL for the colonization of the 
Lewis, by some Lowland gentlemen, chiefly belonging to 
Fife. As he claimed a property in that island, though, so far 
as he was concerned, it was but nominal, it is not surprising 
that he did all he could to frustrate the expedition. He in- 
cited against the colonists Neill and Murdoch, two bastard 
sons of Ruari Macleod, the last undisputed lord of Lewis. 
After some successes the two brothers quarrelled. For a re- 
ward from government Neill delivered up Murdoch, in 1600, 
to the colonists, and he was hanged at St. Andrews. In 
consequence of some confessions by him and of complaints by 
the colonists, Mackenzie was apprehended and committed 
pnsoner to Edinburgh castle. Through the assistance, how- 
ever, of his friend, the lord-chancellor, he escaped without a 
trial. 

In 1601, Neill Macleod deserted the cause of the colonists, 
and Mackenzie, who had detained in captivity for several 
years Tormod, the only surviving legitimate son of Ruari 
Macleod of the Lewis, set him at liberty, and sent him into 
that island to assist Neill in opposing the settlers. In 1602, 
the feud between the Mackenzies and the Glengarry Macdo- 
nalds, regarding their lands in Wester Ross, was renewed 
with great violence (see Macdonell of Glengarry, vol. ii. 
page 728). Ultimately, after much bloodshed on both sides 
an agreement was entered into, by which Glengarry renounced 
in favour of Mackenzie the castle of Strone, with the lands of 
Lochalsh, Lochcarron, and others, so long the subject of dis 
pute between them. A crown charter of these lands wa» 
granted to Kenneth Mackenzie in 1607. The territories oi 
the clan Kenzie at this time were very extensive. " All the 
Highlands and Isles, from Ardnamurchan to Strathnaver, 
were either the Mackenzies' property, or under their vassal 
age, some few excepted," and all about them were bound to 
them " by very strict bonds of friendship." The same year, 
Kenneth Mackenzie obtained, through the influence of the 
lord-chancellor, a gift, under the great seal, of the Lewis to 
himself, in virtue of the resignation formerly made in his fa- 
vour by Torquil Macleod, but on the complaint to the king 
of those of the colonists who survived, he was forced to re- 
sign it. He was created a peer, by the title of Lord Macken- 
zie of Kintail, by patent, dated 19th November 1609. On 
the abandonment of the scheme for colonizing the Lewis, the 
remaining adventurers, Sir George Hay and Sir James Spens, 
were easily prevailed upon to sell their title to Lord Kintail, 
who likewise succeeded in obtaining from the king a grant of 
the share in the island forfeited by Lord Balmerino, another 
of the grantees. Having thus at length acquired a legal 
right to the Lewis, lie procured from the government a com- 
mission of fire and sword against the Islanders, and landing 
there with a large force, he speedily reduced them to obedi- 
ence, with the exception of Neil Macleod and a few others, 
his kinsmen and followers. The struggle for the Lewis be- 
tween the Mackenzies and the Macleods, continued some 
time longer, but for an account of it the reader is referred to 
the article Macleod. The Mackenzies ultimately succeeded 
in obtaining possession of the island. 

Lord Kintail died in March 1611. He had married, first, 
Anne, daughter of George Ross of Balnagowan, and had, 
with two daughters, two sons, Colin, second Lord Kintai', and 



MACKENZIE 



20 



OF TARBET. 



first earl of Seaforth, and the Hon. John Mackenzie of Loch- 
slin. His second wife was Isabel, daughter of Sir Alexander 
Ogilvie of Powrie, by whom, with a daughter, Sybilla, Mrs. 
Macleod of Macleod, he had four sons, viz., Alexander, 
George, second earl of Seaforth; Thomas, of Pluscardine, and 
Simon of Lochslin, whose eldest son was the celebrated Sir 
George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, lord advocate in the reigns 
of Charles II. and James VII., of whom a memoir is subse- 
quently given in larger type. 

Colin, second Lord Kintail, was created earl of Seaforth, by 
patent dated at Theobald's, 3d December 1623, to him and 
Ins heirs male. (See Sf.aforth, earl of). 

The great-grandson of the third earl of Seaforth, and male 
heir of the family, was Colonel Thomas Frederick Humber- 
ston Mackenzie, who fell at Gheriah in India in 1783, and of 
whom a memoir is given under the head of Seaforth, earl of. 
His brother, Francis Humberston Mackenzie, obtained the 
Seaforth estates, and was created Baron Seaforth in the 
peerage of the United Kingdom in 1796. Dying without 
surviving male issue his title became extinct, and his eldest 
daughter, the Hon. Mary Frederica Elizabeth, having taken 
for her second husband J. A. Stewart of Glasserton, a cadet 
of the house of Galloway, that gentleman assumed the name 
of Stewart Mackenzie of Seaforth. 

The clan Kenzie from small beginnings had increased in 
territory and influence till they became, next to the Camp- 
bells, the greatest clan in the West Highlands. They re- 
mained loyal to the Stuarts, but the forfeiture of the earl of 
Seaforth in 1715, and of the earl of Cromarty in 1745, 
weakened their power greatly. They are still, however, one 
of the most numerous tribes in the Highlands. In 1745 
their effective strength was calculated at 2,500. No fewer 
than seven families of the name possess baronetcies. 

The armorial bearings of the Mackenzies are a stag's head 
and horns. It is said that they were assumed in consequence 
of Kenneth, the ancestor of the family, having rescued the 
king of Scotland from an infuriated stag, which he had 
wounded. " In gratitude for his assistance," says Stewart 
of Garth, " the king gave him a grant of the castle and lands 
of Castle Donnan, and thus laid the foundation of the family 
and clan Mackenneth or Mackenzie." From the stag's head 
in their arms the term Caberfae was applied to the chiefs. 



The progenitor of the Gerloch or Gairloch branch of the 
Mackenzies was, as above shown, Hector, the elder of the two 
sons of Alexander, 7th chief, by his 2d wife, Margaret Mac- 
dowall, daughter of John, lord of Lorn. He lived in the 
reigns of Kings James III. and IV., and was by the High- 
landers called " Eachin Roy," or Red Hector, from the colour 
of his hair. To the assistance of the former of these mon- 
archs, when thi confederated nobles collected in arms against 
him, he raised a considerable body of the clan Kenzie, and 
fought at their head at the battle of Sauchieburn. After the 
defeat of his party, he retreated to the north, and, taking 
possession of Redcastle, put a garrison in it. Thereafter he 
joined the earl of Huntly, and from James IV. he obtained in 
1494 a grant of the lands and barony of Gerloch, or Gairloch, 
in Ross-shire. These lands originally belonged to the Siol- 
Vic-Gilliechallum, or Macleods of Rasay, a branch of the 
family of Lewis, but Hector, by means of a mortgage or wad- 
get, had acquired a small portion of them, and in 1508 he 
got Brachan, the lands of Moy, the royal forest of Glassiter, 
and other lands, united to them. In process of time, his suc- 
cessors came to possess the whole district, but not till after a 
long and bloody feud with the Siol-Vic-Gilliechallum, which 
lasted till 1611, when it was brought to a sudden close by a 



skirmish, in which Gillechallum Oig, laird of Rasay, and 
Murdoch Mackenzie, a younger son of the laird of Gerloch, 
were slain. From that time the Mackenzies possessed Ger- 
loch without interruption from the Macleods. 

Hector, the first of the house of Gerloch, was with the clan 
at Flodden, where most of them were killed ; and he and his 
nephew, John, the chief, to whom he was tutor, narrowly 
escaped. By a daughter of the laird of Grant, to whom he 
was betrothed, but who died before the marriage was cele- 
brated, he had a son, Hector, who got the name of Came, or 
one-eyed. He afterwards married a daughter of Ranald 
Macdonald of Moydart, and, with two daughters, he had 
four sons. 

John, the eldest of these, called by the Highlanders, John 
Glesich, married Agnes, only daughter of James Fraser of 
Foinich, brother of Hugh, Lord Lovat, and died in 1550. 
He had three sons: Hector, his heir; John, who succeeded 
Hector, and carried on the line of the family ; and Alexan- 
der, from whom descended Murdoch Mackenzie, bishop of 
Moray and afterwards of Caithness, in the reigns of Charles 
I. and II. Of this branch, also, was Dr James Mackenzie, 
an eminent physician, author of the 'History of Health.' 

Kenneth Mackenzie, eighth baron of Gerloch, was created 
a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1700. He married Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Findon, and was suc- 
ceeded, in 1704, by his son, Sir Alexander, second baronet, 
who married Janet, daughter of Sir Roy Mackenzie of Scat- 
well, and with three daughters had six sons, most of whom 
died young. He himself died in 1766. His eldest son, Sir 
Alexander, 3d baronet, married, 1st, Margaret, eldest daugh- 
ter of Roderick Mackenzie of Redcastle, issue one son, Hector; 
2dly, Jean, only daughter of John Gorrie, Esq., commissary 
of Ross, issue 2 sons, John, a general officer, and Kenneth, an 
officer in India, and 3 daughters. He died 13th April 1770. 

Sir Hector Mackenzie, his eldest son, 4th baronet of the Ger- 
loch branch, died in April 1826. His son, Sir Francis 
Alexander, 5th baronet, born in 1798, died June 2, 1843. 
The eldest son of Sir Francis, Sir Kenneth Smith Mackenzie, 
6th baronet, born 1832, married in 1860 the 2d daughter of 
Walter Frederick Campbell of Islay. 



The Mackenzies of Portmore, county Peebles, are a branch 
of the Gerloch family. Colin Mackenzie of Portmore, great- 
grandson of Sir Alexander Mackenzie, baronet of Gerloch, 
married in 1803, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Forbes 
of Pitsligo, and died in September 1830. He had three 
brothers, William Mackenzie of Muirtown, Ross-shire; Suther- 
land Mackenzie of Edinburgh, and John, banker in Inverness. 
His son, William Forbes Mackenzie, M.P. for Peebles-shire, 
bom in April 1807, and appointed in 1831 deputy lieutenant 
for that county, was the introducer of the act of parliament 
passed in 1854, for the regulation of public houses in Scotland, 
commonly called " Forbes Mackenzie's Act." 



The first of the Mackenzies of Tarbet and Royston, in the 
county of Cromarty, was Sir Roderick Mackenzie, second son 
of Colin Mackenzie of Kintail, brother of the first Lord Mac 
kenzie of Kintail. Having married Margaret, daughter and 
heiress of Torquil Macleod of the Lewes, he added the armo- 
riol bearings of the Macleods to his own. His son, John 
Mackenzie of Tarbet, was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, 
21st May 1628. He had four sons. The third son, Roderick 
Mackenzie, was on 1st December 1702, appointed justice 
clerk, and an ordinary lord of session 12th January 1703, 
when he took his seat as Lord Prestonhall. He was super- 
seded as justice clerk in October 1704, and resigned his seat 



MACKENZIE, 



21 



OF DELVINE. 



as one of the judges, in favour of his nephew, Sir James 
Mackenzie of Royston, in June 1710. In September of the 
same year he was appointed sheriff of Ross-shire. He died 
Feb. 4, 1712. His son, Sir Alexander, married Amelia, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Hugh, 10th Lord Lovat, and changing his 
name to Fraser, was designated of Fraserdale. Engaging in 
the rebellion of 1715 he was attainted as Lord Prestonhall. 

The eldest son, Sir George Mackenzie, second baronet, was 
the first earl of Cromarty. (See vol. i., page 731). 

The Hon. Kenneth Mackenzie, the second son of the first 
Lord Cromarty, obtained from his father the extensive estate 
of Cromarty, and was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, 29th 
April 1704, with the precedency of his father's patent of 
baronetcy, 21st May, 1628. He was commissioner to the 
Scottish estates for the county of Cromarty, in the reigns of 
King William and Queen Anne, and sat in the first British 
parliament. He died in 1729. His eldest son, Sir George, 
third baronet, was M.P. for the county of Cromarty. Be- 
coming a bankrupt, his estate of Cromarty was sold in 1741 
to William Urquhart of Meldrum. He was succeeded by his 
brother, Sir Kenneth, fourth baronet, at whose death, without 
issue, in 1763, the baronetcy lay dormant until revived in fa- 
vour of Sir Alexander Mackenzie of Tarbet, elder son of 
Robert Mackenzie, lieutenant-colonel in the East India Com- 
pany's service, great-great-grandson of the first baronet. 
Colonel Mackenzie's father was Alexander Mackenzie of 
Ardlock. and his mother the daughter of Robert Sutherland, 
Esq. of Langwell, Caithness, 12th in descent from William 
de Sutherland, 5th earl of Sutherland, and the princess Mar- 
garet Bruce, sister and heiress of David II. Sir Alexander, 
5th baronet, was in the military service of the East India 
Company. On his death, April 28, 1841, he was succeeded 
by his brother, Sir James Sutherland Mackenzie, 6th baronet, 
of Tarbet and Royston. The latter died Nov. 24, 1858. 



The first of the family of Coul, Ross-shire, was Alexander 
Mackenzie, brother of Kenneth, first Lord Mackenzie of Kin- 
tail, who, before his death, made him a present of his own 
sword, as a testimony of his particular esteem and affection. 
His son, Kenneth Mackenzie of Coul, was created a baronet 
of Nova Scotia, Oct. 16, 1673. His eldest son, Sir Alex., 2d 
baronet, died in 1702. His son, Sir John Mackenzie, 3d 
baronet, for being concerned in the rebellion of 1715, was for- 
feited. He died without male issue, and the attainder not 
extending to collateral branches of the family, the title and 
estates devolved upon his brother, Sir Colin, 4th baronet, 
clerk to the pipe in the exchequer. He died in 1740. His 
eldest son, Sir Alexander, 5th baronet, died in 1792. His 
son, Sir Alexander Mackenzie, 6th baronet, a major-general 
in the Bengal army, and provincial commander-in-chief in 
Bengal, 1790-1792, died in 1796. His son, Sir George 
Steuart Mackenzie, 7th baronet, F.R.S., vice-president of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, born 22d June 1780, was the 
author of An Agricultural and Political Survey of Ross and 
Cromarty shires, of a Treatise on the Diseases of Sheep, and 
of several scientific papers on useful branches of domestic 
economy. He was general in the Royal Scottish archers, the 
queen's body-guard in Scotland, and a deputy-lieutenant of 
Ross-shire. He was twice married: first, to Mary, fifth 
daughter of Donald Macleod, Esq. of Geanies, sheriff of Ross- 
shire, by whom he had 7 sons and 3 daughters. The Rev. 
John Mackenzie, his 5th son, married Eliza, daughter of the 
celebrated Dr. Chalmers. Sir George died Oct. 26, 1848. 
His eldest son, Sir Alexander, 8th baronet, served for 26 years 
in the Bengal army. He was present at the siege and capture 
of Bhurtpore, 182,^-6, for winch he received a medal. He 



was deputy judge advocate general with the army of Gwalior, 
and had a horse killed under him at the battle of Maharajpore, 
Dec. 29, 1843. He was engaged also in the first campaign 
on the Sutlej, 1815. He died Jan. 3, 1856, and was succeeded 
by his brother, Sir William Mackenzie, 9th baronet, born in 
1806, married in 1858, Agnes, 2d daughter of R. T. Smyth, 
Esq. of Ardmore, Ireland. 



The Mackenzies of Scatwell, Ross-shire, who also possess a 
baronetcy, are descended from Sir Roderick Mackenzie, 
knight, of Tarbet and Cogeach, second son of Colin, 11th feudal 
baron of Kintail, father of Sir John Mackenzie, ancestor of 
the earls of Cromarty, and Kenneth Mackenzie of Scatwell, 
whose son, Kenneth, was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, 
Feb. 22, 1703. By his marriage with Lilias, daughter and 
heiress of Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Findon, that branch of 
the Mackenzie family merged in that of Scatwell. He mar- 
ried a 2d time, Christian, eldest daughter of Roderick Mac- 
kenzie, Esq. of Avoch, and 3dly, Abigail, daughter of John 
Urquhart, Esq. of Newhall. Of the first marriage there were 
3 sons and 3 daughters, and of the last, one son, Kennetln 
captain East India Company's service. Sir James Wemyss 
Mackenzie, 5th baronet, lord-lieutenant, and some time M.P. 
for Ross-shire, married Henrietta, only surviving daughter of 
William Mackenzie of Suddy, and sister and sole heiress of Ma- 
jor-general John Randoll Mackenzie of Suddy, who fell at the 
battle of Talavera, in August 1809. His only son, Sir James 
John Randoll, 6th baronet, born in 1814, succeeded his father 
in 1843. He married a daughter of 5th Earl Fitzwilliam. 



The Mackenzies of Kilcoy, Ross-shire, are descended from 
Alexander, 4th son of Colin, 11th baron of Kintail, who in 1618 
acquired the lands of Kilcoy. A baronetcy of the United 
Kingdom was conferred in 1836 on Sir Colin Mackenzie of 
Kilcoy, who died in 1845. He was succeeded by his 2d son, 
Sir Evan Mackenzie, born in 1816; married, with issue. 



The family of Mackenzie of Delvine in Perthshire, whose 
name originally was Muir, also possess a baronetcy, conferred 
in 1805 on Alexander Muir, of Delvine, who assumed the 
name of Mackenzie, on succeeding to the estates of his great 
uncle, John Mackenzie, Esq. of Delvine. On his death in 
1835, he was succeeded by his sou, Sir John William Pitt 
Muir Mackenzie, advocate (admitted 1830), born in 1806, 
married in 1832, 6th daughter of the late James Raymond 
Johnstone, Esq. of Alva, Clackmannanshire, issue 6 sons and 
3 daughters. He died Feb. 1, 1855. His eldest son, Sir Alex- 
ander Muir Mackenzie, born in 1840, became 3d baronet. 



A baronetcy was also held by Mackenzie of Fairburn, also 
in Ross-shire, conferred in 1819, on Sir Ewen Baillie, some 
time provisional commander-in-chief of the forces in Bengal, 
with remainder to the issue of his half sister, who married 
Roderick Mackenzie, Esq. Their eldest son, General Sir 
Alexander Mackenzie, G.C.H., succeeded as 2d baronet, on the 
death of his maternal uncle, in 1820. Enteringyoung into the 
army, he served at the relief of Ostend in 1793, and was 2d in 
command at the capture of the Cape of Good Hope in 1795. 
He also commanded the army in Calabria. Sir Alexander 
died without issue, Oct. 17, 1853, when the title became 
extinct. 



The other principal families of the name are Mackenzie of 
Allangrange, heir male of the earls of Seaforth, of Applecroas, 
also a branch of the house of Seaforth, of OrJ, of Gruiuard 
and of Hilton, all in Ross-shire. 



MACKENZIE, 



SIR GEORGE. 



MACKENZIE, George, first earl of Cromarty, 
an eminent statesman. (See vol. i. p. 731). 

MACKENZIE, Sir George, of Rosehaugh, a 
celebrated lawyer, was born at Dundee in 1636. 
He was the eldest of five sons of Simon Macken- 
zie of Lochslin, brother of the earl of Seaforth, by 
his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Peter Bruce, 
D.D., principal of St. Leonard's College, St. An- 
drews. He studied Greek and philosophy in the 
university of St. Andrews and Aberdeen, and civil 
law in that of Bourges in France, where he re- 
mained three years. On his return to Scotland 
he was admitted, in January 1659, an advocate 
before the supreme courts. In 1660 he published 
his ' Aretina, or Serious Romance,' in which, ac- 
cording to Ruddiman, he gives " a very bright 
specimen of his gay and exuberant genius." Hav- 
ing soon gained a high reputation as a pleader, 
he was in 1661 selected as one of the counsel of 
the marquis of Argyle at his trial for treason 
before a commission of the Estates. Soon af- 
ter he was appointed a justice-depute, or judge 
of the criminal court. In 1669 he represented 
in the estates the county of Ross, and during 
the same year he opposed the proposition con- 
tained in a letter from the king for an incor- 
porating union of England and Scotland. At 
this period he signalized himself by the support 
which he gave to popular measures. In 1674 
he was knighted, for services rendered to the 
court, and August 23, 1677, on the dismissal of 
Sir John Nisbet, he was appointed king's advocate, 
when, to force submission to the government, he 
put the laws in execution with the utmost strict- 
ness and severity. On the trial of the earl of 
Argyle in December 1681, he exerted all his ener- 
gies to obtain a conviction ; and in June 1685, 
when that nobleman was apprehended after his 
unfortunate expedition to the Highlands, Macken- 
zie objected to a new trial, and he was put to 
death on his former iniquitous sentence. The 
state prosecutions, conducted by Sir George Mac- 
kenzie, in some of which he notoriously stretched 
the laws to answer the purposes of the govern- 
ment, were so numerous, that he obtained the un- 
enviable title of "The blood-thirsty advocate," 
and " Bloody Mackenzie." After the Revolution, 
in justification of his acts, he published ' A Vindi- 



cation of the Government of Charles II.' (1691.) 
which, to those who know anything of the scenes 
of persecution and oppression which were enacted 
in Scotland at that period, appears the very re- 
verse of satisfactory. His portrait, taken by Sir 
Godfrey Kneller, was engraved by Beugo, and is 
subjoined . 




Notwithstanding his severity, however, Sii 
George was the means of introducing various 
practical improvements into the criminal jurispru- 
dence of his country ; and in 1686, upon the abro- 
gation of the penal laws against the Papists by 
James VII., he deemed it incumbent on him to 
retire from his post of lord advocate. In Feb. 1688, 
however, lie was restored to that office, which he 
held till the Revolution, when he relinquished all 
his employments. In 1689 he founded the Advo- 
cates' Library at Edinburgh, and the Latin in- 
augural oration pronounced on the occasion is 
recorded in his works. In September of that year 
he retired to England, resolving to spend the re- 
mainder of his days in study at Oxford. In June 
1690 he was admitted a student of that university, 
and subsequently published an Essay on Reason 
in 1690, and ' The Moral History of Frugality, 
and its Opposite Vices,' in 1691. He died at 



MACKENZIE, 



23 



HENRY. 



London, May 2, 1692, and was buried in the 
Greyfriars' Churchyard, Edinburgh, where his 
monument remains to this day. 
His works are : 

Aretina; or, the serious Romance. London, 1661, 8vo. 

Religio Stoica; the Virtuoso, or Stoick. Edinburgh, 
1663, 8vo. 

A Moral Essay, preferring solitude to public Employment. 
Edin., 1665, 8vo. London, 1685, 8vo. 1693, 12mo. An- 
swered by Evelyn, in a Panegyric on Active Life. 

Moral Gallantry ; a Discourse, proving that the Point of 
Honour obliges man to be virtuous. Edin., 1667, 8vo. 

A Moral Paradox, maintaining that it is much easier to be 
virtuous than vicious, and a Consolation against Calumnies. 
Edinburgh, 1667, 1669, 8vo. London, 1685, 8vo. Edin- 
burgh, 1669, fol. 

Pleadings on some Remarkable Cases before the Supreme 
Courts of Scotland, since the year 1661. To which the De- 
cisions are subjoined. Edin., 1672, 4to. 

A Discourse upon the Laws and Customs of Scotland in 
Matters Criminal. Edin., 1674, 1678, 4to. 1699, fol. 

Observations upon the xxviii. Act 23d Pari. King James 
VI. against Bankrupts, &c. Edin., 1675, 8vo. 

Observations upon the Laws and Customs of Nations as to 
Precedency. With the Science of Heraldry, treated as a part 
of the Civil Law of Nations. Edin., 1680, fol. 

Idea Eloquentias Forensis Hodierna, una cum Actione 
Forensi ex unaquaque Juris parte. Edin., 1681, 12mo. In 
English. 1701, 1704, 12mo. The same; translated into 
English by R. Hepburn. Edin., 1711, 8vo. 

Institutions of the Laws of Scotland. Edin., 1684, 12mo. 
London, 1694, 8vo. Edin., 1706, 12mo. With Notes, ex- 
plaining different places, and showing in what points the 
Law has been altered; by John Spottiswood. Edin., 1723, 
8vo. The same, revised and corrected by Alexander Bayne. 
1730, 8vo. 1758, 12mo. 

Jus Reginum ; or, the first and soiid foundation of Mon- 
archy in general, and more particularly of the Monarchy of 
Scotland; against Buchanan, Naphtali, Doleman, Milton, 
&c. London, 1684, 8vo. 1685, 12mo. 

Discovery of the Fanatic Plot. Edin., 1684, fol. 

A Defence of the Antiquity of the Royal Line of Scotland, 
in Answer to William Lloyd, Bishop of St. Asaph ; with a 
true Account when the Scots were governed by the Kings in 
the Isle of Britain. London, 1686, 4to. 

Observations on the Acts of Parliament made by King 
James I. and his successors, to the end of the reign of 
Charles II. Edin., 1686, fol. 

The Antiquity of the Royal Line of Scotland farther 
Cleared and Defended, against the Exceptions lately offered 
Ly Dr. Stillingfleet, in his Vindication of the Bishop of St. 
Asaph. London, 1686, 8vo. In Lat. entitled, Defensio An- 
tiquitatis Regium Scotorum prosapise, contra Episcopum 
Asaphenseum et Stillingfletum, Lat. versa, a P. Sinclaro. 
Trajecti, ad Rhenum. 1689, 12mo. 

Oratio Inauguralis habita Edinlmrgi de Structura Biblio- 
thecse, Juridical, &c. London, 1689, 8vo. 

De Humana; Rationis Imbecillitate, ea unde proveniat et 
illi quomodo possimus mederi, liber singularis editus a Jo. 
Geo. Grawio, Traj. ad Rh. 1690, 8vo. 

Reason ; an Essay. London, 1690, 8vo. 1695, 12mo. 

Caelia's Country-house and Closet ; a Poem. Imitated by 
Pope, in his " Essav on Criticism." 



The Moral History of Frugality, and its opposite Vices. 
London, 1691, 8vo. 

A Vindication of the Government in Scotland, during tin 
reign of King Charles II. ; with several other Treatises re- 
lating to the Affairs of Scotland. London, 1691, 4to. 

Method of Proceeding against Criminals and Fanatical 
Covenanters. 1691, 4to. 

Vindication of the Presbyterians of Scotland, from the 
malicious Aspersions cast upon them. 1692, 4to. 

On a Storm, and some Lakes in Scotland. Phil. Trans. 
Abr. ii. 210. 1679. 

Some Observations made in Scotland, lb. 226. 

Essays upon several Moral subjects. London, 1713, 8vo. 

Works, with his Life. Edin., 1716-22, 2 vols. fol. 

MACKENZIE, George, author of ' The Lives 
and Characters of the most Eminent Writers of 
the Scots nation,' son of the Hon. Colin Macken- 
zie, second son of the second earl of Seaforth, 
was born 10th December 1G69, and practised as a 
physician in Edinburgh at the beginning of the 
18th century. His well-known work, which is 
one of great research, is in 3 vols, folio. The first 
volume, dedicated to the earl of Seaforth, appear- 
ed in 1708 ; the second, inscribed to the earl of 
Mar, in 1711 ; and the third, dedicated to the cel- 
ebrated financier, John Law of Lauriston, in 1722. 

MACKENZIE, Henry, author of 'The Man 
of Feeling,' son of Dr. Joshua Mackenzie, an 
eminent physician in Edinburgh, by his wife Mar- 
garet, eldest daughter of Mr. Rose of Kilravock, 
in Nairnshire, was born in that city, in August 
1745. He was educated at the High School and 
university of Edinburgh, and was afterwards ar- 
ticled to Mr. Inglis of Redhall, in order to acquire 
a knowledge of the business of the Exchequer. 
In 1765 he went to London, to study the modes 
of English Exchequer practice, which, as well as 
the constitution of the courts, are similar in both 
countries. While residing there, he was advised 
by a friend to qualify himself for the English bar; 
but he preferred returning to Edinburgh, where 
he became, first the partner, and afterwards the 
successor, of Mr. Inglis, in the office of attorney 
for the crown. 

He very early displayed a strong attachment to 
literary pursuits, and during his stay in London, 
he sketched part of his first work, 'The Man of 
Feeling,' which was published in 1771, without 
his name, and at once became a favourite with the 
public. A few years afterwards the great popu- 
larity of the work induced a Mr. Eccles of Bath 



MACKENZIE, 



24 



HENRY. 



to claim the authorship. He was at pains to 
transcribe the whole in his own hand, with a 
plentiful introduction of blottings, interlineations, 
and corrections, and he maintained his preten- 
sions with so much plausibility and pertinacity, 
that Messrs. Cadell aud Strahan, the publishers, 
at last found it necessary to undeceive the public 
by a formal contradiction. In 1773 Mr. Macken- 
zie published his ' Man of the World,' which dis- 
played the same tone of exquisite moral delicacy 
and elegance of style as his former work. In 1777 
he produced 'Julia de Roubigne,' a beautiful and 
tragic tale, in a series of letters, exhibiting the re- 
fined sensibility and the delicate perception of 
human character and manners which distinguished 
all his writings. 

Mr. Mackenzie was one of the principal mem- 
bers of the " Mirror Club," and edited the well- 
known periodical of that name. Most of the 
other gentlemen connected with it were after- 
wards judges in the Court of Session — namely, 
Lord Cullen, Lord Abercromby, Lord Craig, and 
Lord Bannatyne. ' The Mirror ' was commenced 
January 23, 1779, and ended May 27, 1780, hav- 
ing latterly been issued twice a-week. Of the 
110 papers to which it extended, forty-two were 
contributed by Mr. Mackenzie, including La 
Roche. The sale never at any time exceeded four 
hundred copies, but when afterwards republished 
in duodecimo volumes, with the names of the 
authors, a considerable sum was obtained for the 
copyright, out of which the proprietors presented 
£10^ to the Orphan Hospital, and purchased a 
hogshead of claret for the use of the club. ' The 
Lounger,' a publication of a similar character, also 
conducted by Mr. Mackenzie, was commenced by 
the same parties, February 6, 1785, and was con- 
tinued weekly till January 6, 1787. Of the 101 
papers which it includes, fifty-seven were written 
by Mr. Mackenzie, who, in one of the latter num- 
bers, reviewed for the first time the Poems of 
Burns, which were just then published. 

On the institution ot the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, Mr. Mackenzie became one of its mem- 
bers; and among the papers with which he en- 
riched its Transactions are an elegant tribute to 
the memory of his friend Lord Abercromby, and 
a Memoir on German Tragedy, in tne latter 



of which he bestows high praise on the ' Emi- 
lia Galotti' of Lessing, and 'The Robbers' of 
Schiller. He took lessons in German from a Dr 
Okely, at that time studying medicine in Edin- 
burgh ; and in 1791 he published a small volume, 
containing translations of ' The Set of Horses,' 
by Lessing, and of two or three other German 
dramatic pieces. He was also an original mem- 
ber of the Highland Society, and by him were 
published the volumes of their Transactions, to 
which he prefixed an account of the institution, 
and the principal proceedings of the Society. In 
these Transactions is also to be found his view of 
the controversy respecting Ossian's Poems, con- 
taining an interesting account of Gaelic poetry. 

At the time of the French revolution he pub- 
lished various political pamphlets, with the view 
of counteracting the progress of democratic princi- 
ples in this country. One of these, entitled ' An 
Account of the Proceedings of the Parliament of 
1784,' introduced him to the notice of Mr. Pitt ; 
and in 1804, on the recommendation of Lord Mel- 
ville and Mr. George Rose, he was appointed to 
the lucrative office of comptroller of taxes for 
Scotland, which he held till his death. 

In 1793 he wrote the Life of Dr. Blacklock, 
prefixed to a quarto edition of the blind poet's 
works, published for the benefit of his widow. In 
1808 he brought out a complete edition of his own 
works, in eight volumes 8vo. In 1812 he read to 
the Royal Society his ' Life of John Home ;' and 
as a sort of supplement to it, he then added some 
Critical Essays, chiefly on dramatic poetry, which 
have not been published, but the Life itself ap- 
peared in 1822. Mr. Mackenzie himself attempt- 
ed dramatic writing, but without success. A 
tragedy, composed in his early youth, entitled 
'The Spanish Father,' was rejected by Garrick, 
and never represented. In 1773 another tragedy 
of his, styled 'The Prince of Tunis,' was per- 
formed with applause for six nights at the Edin- 
burgh theatre. A third tragedy, founded on 
Lilly's ' Fatal Curiosity,' called ' The Shipwreck,' 
and two comedies, ' The Force of Fashion,' and 
' The White Hypocrite,' were produced at Covent 
Garden successively, but they proved complete 
failures. His portrait, from a painting by Sir 
Henry Raebum, will be found on next page. 



MACKENZIE. 



25 



M'KERLIE. 




Mr. Mackenzie was the last of those eminent 
men who shed such a lustre upon the literature of 
their country in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century In his youth he enjoyed the intimacy of 
Robertson and Hume, and Fergusson and Adam 
Smith, all of whom he long survived. He died 
January 14, 1831, after having been confined to 
his room for a considerable period by the general 
decay attending old age. In 1776 he married 
Penuel, daughter of Sir Ludovick Grant of Grant, 
baronet, and Lady Margaret Ogilvy, by whom he 
had eleven children. 

His eldest son, Joshua Henry Mackenzie, an 
eminent judge under the title of Lord Mackenzie, 
was born in 1777 ; admitted advocate in 1799 ; 
appointed sheriff of Linlithgowshire in 1811, and 
a lord of session in 1822. In 1824 he was con- 
stituted a judge in the high court of justiciary, 
and in 1825 a commissioner of the jury court. He 
married in 1821, the fifth daughter of the first 
Lord Seaforth, a title now extinct, and died 17th 
November 1851, aged 74 years. He was interred 
in the Greyfriars burying -ground, Edinburgh, 
where a monument is erected to his memory. 

The youngest son of ' The Man of Feeling,' the 
Right Hon. Holt Mackenzie, fellow of the Asiatic 



Society, was for twenty -four years in the civil ser- 
vice of the East India Company. He left India in 
1831, and retired on the annuity fund in October 
1833. In 1832 he became one of the commissioners 
of the board of control, on his appointment to 
which otfice he was sworn a privy councillor. 

MACKENZIE, Sin Alexander, an enter- 
prising traveller, was a native of Inverness, and 
when a young man, emigrated to Canada. About 
1781 he obtained a situation in the counting-house 
of the North-West Fur Company, at Fort Chip- 
pewyan, at the head of the Athabasca Lake, in 
the country to the west of Hudson's Bay. On 
June 3, 1789, he was sent by his employers on an 
exploring expedition through the regions lying to 
the north-west of that station, conjectured to be 
bounded by the Arctic Ocean. Embarking on the 
Slave River, on the 9th he reached the Slave 
Lake, with which it communicates by a course of 
170 miles, where the party rested for six days. 
On the 15th they again launched their canoes, 
and, skirting the margin of the lake, reached the 
entrance of the river, which flows from its western 
extremity, and is now called the Mackenzie River, 
on the 29th. Pursuing the north-westward 
course, they arrived, July 15, at the great North- 
ern Ocean; and returning by the same route, re- 
gained Fort Chippewyan, Sept. 12. On Oct. 12, 
1792, Mackenzie undertook another adventurous 
journey, the object of which was to penetrate to 
the North Pacific. In this attempt, the first made 
in North America, he was also successful. On 
his return to England, he published in 1801 his 
'Voyages from Montreal on the river St. Law- 
rence, through the Continent of North America 
to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans, in 1789 and 
1793,' preceded by a General History of the Fur 
Trade, and embellished with a portrait of the au- 
thor. In 1802, he received the honour of knight- 
hood. The year of his death has not been ascer- 
tained. He was alive in 1816. 

MACKENZIE, Donald, an enterprising mer- 
chant. Sec Supplement. 

M'Kkrlie, the surname of an ancient family, originally of 
rank in Ireland, and settled for many centuries in Wig- 
townshire, where they held extensive estates. Their early 
history was in the possession of the monks of Crossraguel, 
Carrick, and lost when that monastery was destroyed. A 
Father Stewart, one of the monks iu the 16th century, who, 



M'KERLIE. 



26 



M-KERLIE. 



left some writings, states, "the next great famil} are the 
Kerlies of Cruggleton, who being brave warriors stood boldly 
up for the independence of their country under Wallace, and 
it was one of their forefathers who, at a place called Dunmoir 
in Carriek, was particularly instrumental in giving the Danes 
a notable overthrow. He took Eric the son of Swain pri- 
soner, for which sen-ice the king gave him lands in Carriek." 
They took part in the Crusades, to which their armorial 
bearings, borne for centuries, specially refer, and several tra- 
ditions of adventurous exploits have been banded down. 
The loss of their early history can never be replaced. As 
corroborated by Felix O'Carroll, in his Translation of the 
Chronicles of Tara, and History of the Sennachies, it is that 
the first Carroll (afterwards changed to Kerlie) who came 
from Ireland was a petty king or chief in that country. Flee- 
ing to Scotland, he was hospitably received by the king, and 
had lands assigned to him in Galloway, where he lived in great 
splendour. Henry th8 minstrel, the biographer of Wallace 
about 1470, also states with reference to William Carroll or 
Kerlie, the compatriot of Wallace (with whom the change in 
the name is believed to have first occurred), that his ancestor 
accompanied David I. from Ireland, and having at Dunmoir 
jn Carriek, with 700 Scots, defeated 9,000 Danes, had lands 
in Carriek, then a part of Galloway, now of Ayrshire, given 
to him for that service. Henry, however, is wrong as to the 
period, which is believed to have been either in the 9th of 
10th century, when the Cruithne passed over to Galloway 
from Ireland. 

Carroll was the original name, in Ireland O'Carroll, of 
which once powerful family more than one branch were petty 
kings or chiefs over different districts in the north of that 
country, even extending so far south as Meath, where were 
the hall and Court of Tara, as also Eile or Ely, now called 
King's County, the chief of all being the arch king of Argiall. 
Since then (a peculiarity common with Galloway surnames) 
the name has been variously spelled at different periods, as 
Kerle, Kerlie, M'Carole, M'Carlie, and M'Kerlie. 

The castle and lands of Carleton in Carriek, (now owned 
by the Cathcarts under a charter dated 1324) was the first 
property possessed by the family in Galloway, originally 
called Carolton, the residence of Carroll. It is mentioned 
as a tradition in Ayrshire that Carleton Castle, in remote 
times, previous to the arrival of the Cathcarts in Carriek, be- 
longed to a family of the name of De Kiersly, evidently a cor- 
ruption of Kerlie. They afterwards obtained the castle and 
lands of Cruggleton, &c. This castle (the Black Rock of 
Cree) was built by the Danes about 1098, on the highest sum- 
mit of a range of precipices about 200 feet high, overhanging 
the sea, ;it the mouth of Wigtown Bay. It was considered 
impregnable, being on a small promontory which juts into 
the sea; and bind ward defended with strong battlemented 
walls, with a fosse between them, 42 feet wide and 16 feet 
deep, over which was a drawbridge with gates, portcullis, &c. 
The area within the walls contained an acre and a quarter. 
The castle was ruinous before the year 1684. It is an in- 
teresting, though very greatly dilapidated ruin. Part of an 
unornamented arch, and the lower parts of some walls, alone 
remain to attest its ancient spaciousness and strength. 

Chalmers, in his Caledonia, has some extraordinary errors 
in regard to Cruggleton. At the time he wrote, any peasant 
in the neighbourhood could have told him who the ancient 
owners were, but apparently without troubling himself with 
much inquiry, he seems at once to have concluded that this 
castle must have belonged to the lords of Galloway, and that 
John Comyn the elder inherited it through his mother, from 
finding, in Dugdale's Baronage, mention of his name in con- 



nection with it; in the extract of which short passage he 
omits Galway castle (the royal castle of Wigtown) to adapt it 
to his ideas. As an antiquarian Chalmers ought to have 
known that the castles of the lords of Galloway were in Cen- 
tral Galloway, the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and not in 
Western Galloway. 

From 1282 the vicissitudes attending the possession of this 
castle were many, furnishing a striking example of the inse- 
curity of property in this distracted district of Scotland, 
where charters were unknown until the 14th century, the an- 
cient Celtic proprietors having held their lands under their 
own Celtic laws. In 1282, Wm. Kerlie had as his guest Lord 
Soulis, (a secret adherent of Edward I.,) who took the castle 
by treachery. Kerlie escaped, and in several ineffectual at- 
tempts to retake it, lost his remaining followers. In 1292, 
John Comyn, earl of Buchan, had temporary possession, as 
also of the royal castle of Wigtown. In 1296, Edward I. ap- 
pointed Henry Percy, governor of it and other castles, and in 
1297, Percy was succeeded by John of Hoddleston. In 1296, 
Wm. Kerlie, the real owner, was one of the first to join Sir 
Wm. Wallace at the castle of the earl of Lennox, and from 
that date was his constant friend and companion in arms, in 
the noble and desperate struggle for liberty. 

In 1297, Wallace went to Galloway, and under Kerlie's 
guidance, Cruggleton castle, by a daring scheme, was retaken 
by surprise, and the garrison of 60 men slain, a priest and two 
women only having been spared. Kerlie was then restored 
to his patrimonial property. He however did not leave Wal- 
lace, and at the fatal battle of Falkirk in 1298, he is tradi- 
tionally said to have appeared at the head of 500 men, most 
of whom were slain in an ineffectual attempt to rescue Si! 
John the Grasme. This patriot's career was closed at Robras- 
toun near Glasgow in July 1305, when he accompanied Wal- 
lace there, to await a meeting with Robert the Bruce, and 
were basely betrayed into the hands of their enemies. Whiie 
both were asleep their arms were secretly removed, Kerlie 
slain, and the noble Wallace reserved for a worse fate. 

Wm. Kerlie was one of the few who never swore fealty to 
Edward the Usurper. He left an infant son, also called Wil- 
liam, born in 1298, and therefore 7 years of age at his father's 
death. This boy was treacherously dealt with by the prior 
and monks of the monastery of " Candida Casa," Whithorn, 
near Cruggleton, who in 1309 concealed from Robert tlu 
Brace that he existed, and was owner of the castle and lands, 
but represented that they had belonged to Lord Soulis, all of 
whose property had been directed to be sequestrated, and by 
this means obtained a charter of them for the monastery. 
Again in the disturbed reign of David II., when properties were 
so freely disposed of to his own supporters, Gilbert Kennedy 
(an ancestor of the Ailsa family), who had been one of his 
hostages in England, obtained in 1366, a charter of the castle 
and lands, but it was never put in force, and in 1423 the 
prior and monks of "Candida Casa "got it cancelled. By 
the charter of 1309, the superiority was wrested by " Candida 
Casa" from young Kerlie and his descendants, but this was 
unknown to them for generations, as the family were never 
disturbed in their proprietory rights by the monastery. They 
retained possession until about the end of the 16th century, 
when the Reformation broke up the ancient tenures, and as 
the family held under the Celtic laws without a Crown 
charter, with the ruin of the church, they lost the castle and 
lands. 

The last of the family, from father to son, who possessed 
the castle and lands, was John, who in the " Inquisitiones di 
Tuteh" under date 20th June 1583, is called therein il 'Ca- 
role. 



M'KERLIE. 



MACKINNON. 



His descendant, in direct line, was John M'Carlie or M'Ker- 
lifc, born in 1704, and died in 1796, aged 92. His mother 
was daughter of William Baillie of Dunragget, the first of 
which family, now extinct, was Cuthbert, Commendator of 
Glenluce Abbey, of the family of Baillie of Lamington, said 
to be the descendants of the patriot Wallace's only child, 
heiress of Lamington. He was sometime lord high treasurer 
of Scotland, and died in 1514. 

John M'Kerlie possessed considerable property in the vici- 
nity of Wigtown, part of which remained to his family until 
1834. He was twice married, first to Nicholas M'Keand, of 
an old Galloway family, and had issue, all of whom are ex- 
tinct. In 1694, Alexander Stewart of Tonderghie, a cadet 
of the Galloway family, married Janet, daughter of Hugh 
M'Guffock or M'Guffog of Rusco Castle, a very ancient and 
once powerful Galloway family, for a short account of which 
see the Supplement to this work. James M 'GufFock, of the 
same family, married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Tonder- 
ghie, and their eldest daughter Agnes became the second wife 
of John M'Kerlie. She died in 1822, aged 82. By her he 
had a son and daughter who died in infancy ; also two other 
sons, Robert and John Graham. 

Robert, born November 11, 1778, entered the army in 
1794, and served with his regiment throughout the rebel- 
lion in Ireland. In 1798 he became captain, and retired 
in 1804, having been appointed principal ordnance store- 
keeper in Scotland, an office which he retained for many 
years. He died Dec. 13, 1855. John Graham, born in 
1781, as a young officer served in the army in the Pen- 
insula, and was under Sir John Moore at Corunna. He 
died in 1816. Robert M'Kerlie, the last representative, by 
his marriage with Marion, daughter of Peter Handyside, 
Esq., Greenhall, (uncle of the eminent judge, Lord Handy- 
side) left, with three daughters, three sons. 1. Charles Wil- 
liam Montagu Scott, of the East India company's maritime 
service, author of a Narrative of the loss of the East India 
Company's ship, Duke of York, in which he was one of the 
officers. Edinb. 1834. 2. John Graham, colonel royal en- 
gineers, and a commiss-oner of public works, Ireland, author 
of the Report, dated 11th May, 1846, on musket firing, &c. from 
experiments carried on by him at Chatham, and on which the 
new rifle was introduced, and [he School of Musketry at Hythe 
instituted, with Sir John Burgoyne's Notes on it attached ; 
printed by Government. 3. Peter Handyside, admiralty, 
London, author of a pamphlet, entitled " Statistics of the 
Composition of the Scottish regiments to 1861," compiled 
from the regimental records. The arms of the family are, 
az: a chief arg: and a fret gu. Since quartered with the 
M'Guffog and Stewart arms. — The crest, which refers to a 
knight of the family engaged in the Crusades, is, the sun, or, 
shining on a cross crosslet fitcheje, sa. placed on the dexter 
side of a mount, vert, with the motto, " In hoc Signo Vinces.'' 
Although at one time the name was numerous in Galloway, 
m 1825 there were only three families who bore it, viz., the 
then representative Capt. R. M'Kerlie, Rear-admiral John 
M'Kerlie, and Alexander M'Kerlie, whose family is now merged 
into and represented by Sir John M'Taggart, bait, of Ard- 
well. — Rear-admiral John M'Kerlie served with Sir Edward 
Pellew (afterwards Lord Exmouth) in all his brilliant frigate 
actions, in one of which he lost an arm, and was at Trafalgar, 
&c. He left an only daughter by his marriage with Harriet, 
daughter of the late James Stewart of Cairnsmuir — also a 
nephew John M'Kerlie. 

Originating in the Perth edition of Henry's " Wallace," 
published in 1790, and followed by subsequent writers, the 
T.wnes Ker and Kier have been confused with that of Kerlie, 



which are quite distinct, and so shown in all the ancient edi« 
tions of the patriot's life, commencing with Lekprevik's in 
1570, and also the MS. of 1488. — The names Ker and Kier were 
unknown in Galloway, are of a different origin entirely, and 
only found in other parts of Scotland, several Kers having 
sworn fealty to Edward I. 



M'Kerrell, the surname of an old Ayrshire family which 
possesses the estate of Hillhouse near Irvine, and claims to 
be of Norman origin, as the name Kiriel occurs on the roll of 
Battle Abbey. It is believed, however, that the family is 
from Galloway, and an offshoot from the stock of the M'Ker- 
lies (see previous article). The first of the name on Scottish 
record, Sir John M'Kirel, distinguished himself at the battle of 
Otterburn, 19th August, 1388, by wounding and taking pri- 
soner Rouel de Percie, who held the second command in the 
English host From the circumstance that the Hillhouse 
family carry the same armorial bearings that Sir John Mae- 
kirel acquired by his prowess in that battle, it is conjectured, 
on good grounds, that he was their ancestor. 

According to tradition the M'Kerrells came from Ireland, 
and have possessed the estate of Hillhouse since the days of 
Robert the Bruce. It appears, however, that, at one period, 
that estate belonged to the High Steward of Scotland, and 
afterwards to the Cathcart family, as it was amongst the lands 
(Colynane, Hillhouse and Holmyss in Ayrshire) granted by 
the crown to John, 2d Lord Cathcart, by renewed charter in 
1505, having been forfeited by Alan, Lord Cathcart, his 
grandfather, for the alienation of the greater part of the same, 
without consent of the king. It is likely, therefore, that the 
M'Kerrells held it from the Cathcarts as superiors. 

The first of the family who is known to have been proprie- 
tor of the estate, William M'Kerrell of Hillhouse, sheriff- 
clerk of Ayr, died in October 1629. His great-great-grand- 
son, John M'Kerrell of Hillhouse, married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of William Fairlie of Fairlie, by his wife, Jane, only 
daughter of the last Sir William Mure of Rowallan. Tho 
fourth in descent from him, William M'Kerrell of Hillhouse. 
who died in 1821, raised at Paisley the first volunteer corps 
embodied in Scotland, during the French revolutionary war 
His eldest son, John M'Kerrell, was placed when very young 
in the civil service of the East India Company, and for nine 
years was master of the mint at Madras. On his death, un- 
married, in 1835, he was succeeded by his brother, Henry 
M'Kerrell of Hillhouse, formerly a merchant in Liverpool 



Mackie, a surname, said to be derived from the clan 
name Mackay, which see. 



Mackixnon, the surname of a minor clan, (badge, the 
pine,) a branch of the siol Alpin, sprung from Fingon, bro- 
ther of Anrias or Andrew, ancestor of the Macj 
This Fingon, or Fingum, is mentioned in the MS. of 1 i:,o 
as the founder of the clan Finguin, that is, the Mae- 
kinnons. Their seat was in the islands of Skye and Mull, 
and they formed one of the vassal tribes of the lords of the 
Isles. The first authentic notice of them is to be found in 
an indenture (printed in the Appendix to the second edition 
of Hailes' Annals of Scotland) between the lords of the Isles 
and the lord of Lorn. The latter stipulates, in surrendering 
to the lord of the Isles the island of Mull and other lands, 
that the keeping of the castle of Kerneburg, in the Treshi- 
nish Isles, is not to be given to any of the race of clan 
Finnon. " This," says Mr. Gregory, " proves that the Mac- 
kinnons were then connected with Mull. They originally 
possessed the district of Griban in that island, but exchanged 



MACKINNON 



28 



MACKINNON. 



it for the district of Mishnisb, being that part of Mull imme- 
diately to the north and west of Tobermory. They, likewise, 
possessed the lands of Strathordell in Skye, from which the 
chiefs usually took their style. Lauchlan Macfingon, or 
Mackinnon, chief of his claD, witnessed a charter by Donald, 
lord of the Isles, in 1409. The name of the chief in 1493 is 
uncertain ; but Neil Mackinnon of Mishnish was at the head 
of the tribe in 1515." {Highlands and Isles of Scotland, p. 
80.) Two years afterwards this Neil and several others, de- 
scribed as "kin, men, servants, and part-takers" of Lauch- 
lan Maclean of Dowart, were included in a remission which 
that chief obtained for their share in the rebellion of Sir Do- 
nald Macdonald of Lochalsh. In 1545 the chiefs name was 
Ewin. He was one of the barons and council of the Isles 
who, in that year, swore allegiance to the king of England at 
Knockfergus in Ireland. 

" In consequence," says Mr. Skene, "of their connexion 
with the Macdonalds, the Mackinnons have no history inde- 
pendent of that clan ; and the internal state of these tribes 
during the government of the lords of the Isles is so obscure 
that little can be learned regarding them, until the forfeiture 
of the last of these lords. During their dependence upon the 
Macdonalds there is but one event of any importance in 
which we find the Mackinnons taking a share, for it would 
appear that on the death of John of the Isles, in the four- 
teenth century, Mackinnon, with what object it is impossible 
now to ascertain, stirred up his second son, John Mor, to re- 
bel against his eldest brother, apparently with a view to the 
chiefship, and his faction was joined by the Macleans and the 
Macleods. But Donald, the elder brother, was supported by 
so great a proportion of the tribe, that he drove John Mor 
and his party out of the Isles, and pursued him to Galloway, 
and from thence to Ireland. The rebellion being thus put 
down, John Mor threw himself upon his brother's mercy, and 
received his pardon, but Mackinnon was taken and hanged, 
as having been the instigator of the disturbance." (Skene's 
Highlanders, vol. ii. p. 259.) This appears to have taken 
place after 1380, as John, Lord of the Isles, died that year. 
In the disturbances in the Isles, during the 16th century, Sir 
Lauchlan Mackinnon bore an active part. 

As a proof of the common descent of the Mackinnons, the 
Macgregors, and the Macnabs, although their territories were 
far distant from each other, two bonds of friendship exist, 
which are curious specimens of the manners of the times. 
The one dated 12th July, 1606, was entered into between 
Lauchlan Mackinnon of Strathordell and Finlay Macnab of 
Bowaine, who, as its tenor runs, happened " to forgether to- 
gedder, with certain of the said Finlay's friends, in their 
rooms, in the laird of Glenurchy"s country, and the said 
Lauchlan and Finlay, being come of ane house, and being of 
one surname and lineage, notwithstanding the said Lauchlan 
and Finlay this long time bygane oversaw their awn dueties 
till udderis, in respect of the long distance betwixt their 
dwelling places," agreed, with the consent of their kin and 
friends, to give all assistance and service to each other. And 
are " content to subscribe to the same, until their hands led 
to the pen.™ Maekinnon's signature is characteristic. It is 
" Lauchland, mise (i. e. myself) Mac Fingon." The other 
bond of manrent, dated at Kilmorie in 1671, was between 
Lauchlan Mackinnon of Strathordell and James Macgregor 
of Macgregor, and it is therein stated that " for the special 
love and amitie between these persons, and condescending 
that they are descended lawfully fra twa breethren of auld 
descent, wherefore and for certain onerous causes moving, we 
ivitt ye we to be bound and obleisit, likeas oy t'ne tenor here- 
of we faithfully bind and ooieise us ana our successors, our 



kin. friends and followers, faithfully to serve ane anither in 
all causes with our men and servants, against all who live 
or die.'" 

During the civil wars the Mackinnons joined the standard 
of the marquis of Montrose, and formed part of his force at the 
battle of Inverlochy, Feb. 2, 1645. In 1650, Lauchlan Mac- 
kinnon, the chief, raised a regiment of his clan for the service 
of Charles II., and at the battle of Worcester, in 1646, he was 
made a knight banneret. His son, Daniel Mohr, had 2 sons, 
John, whose great-grandson died in India, unmarried, in 1808, 
and Daniel, who emigrated to Antigua, and died in 1720. His 
eldest son and heir, William Mackinnon of Antigua, an eminent 
member of the legislature of that island, died at Bath in 1767. 
The son of the latter, William Mackinnon of Antigua and 
Binfield, Berkshire, died in 1809. The youngest of bis four 
sons, Henry, Major-general Mackinnon, a distinguished officer, 
was killed by the explosion of a magazine, while leading on 
the main storming party, at Ciudad Rodrigo, Feb. 29, 1812 
A tablet was erected to his memory in St. Paul's cathedral. 

The eldest son, William Mackinnon, died young, leaving, 
with 2 daughters, 2 sons, William Alexander Mackinnon, who 
succeeded his grandfather, and Daniel, colonel of the Cold- 
stream guards, of whom a memoir follows in larger type. 

William Alexander Mackinnon of Mackinnon, M.P., the 
chief magistrate and deputy lieutenant for the counties of 
Middlesex, Hampshire, and Essex, and author of 'The His- 
tory of Civilization,' and other publications (' Public Opinion," 
'Thoughts on the Currency Question,' &c.) born in 1789, 
succeeded in 1809. He married Emma, daughter of Joseph 
Palmer, Esq. of Rush House, County Dublin, with issue, 3 
sons and 3 daughters. The eldest son, William Alexander, 
also M.P., born in 1813, married daughter of F. Willes, Esq. 

Lauchlan Mackinnon of Letterfearn also claims to be the 
heir-male of the family. Although there are many gentlemen 
of the name still resident in Skye, there is no Mackinnon pro- 
prietor of lands now either in that island or in Mull. 

The Mackinnons engaged in both rebellions in favour oi 
the Stuarts. In 1715, 150 of them fought with the Macdo- 
nalds of Sleat at the battle of Sheriffmuir, for which the chief 
was forfeited, but received a pardon, 4th January, 1727. In 
1745, Mackinnon, though then old and infirm, joined Prince 
Charles with a battalion of his clan. President Forbes esti- 
mates their effective force at that period at 200 men. After 
the battle of Culloden, the prince, in his wanderiugs, took 
refuge in the country of the Mackinnons, when travelling 
in disguise through Skye, and was concealed by the chief in 
a cave, where Lady Mackinnon brought him a refreshment of 
cold meat and wine. Afterwards the chief and one of his 
clansmen, John Mackinnon, residing at Ellagol, conducted 
the royal fugitive in his own boat to the mainland, to the 
country of Macdonald of Morar. Xot meeting with that as- 
sistance from the latter which he expected, the prince, in 
great distress, turned round to Mackinnon, and said, "I 
hope, Mr. Mackinnon, you will not desert me too, and leave 
me in the lurch ; but that you will do all for my preserva- 
tion you can." The old chief, thinking that these words 
were meant for him, said, with tears in his eyes, " I never 
will leave your royal highness in the day of danger ; but will, 
under God, do all I can for you, and go with you wherever 
you order me." " Oh, no," rejoined Charles, " that is too 
much for one of your advanced years, Sir ; I heartily thank 
you for your readiness to take care of me, as I am well sat- 
isfied of your zeal for me and my cause ; but one of your age 
cannot well hold out with the fatigues and dangers I must 
undergo. It was to your friend John here, a stout yoing 
man, I was addressing myself." " Well, then," said John 



MACKINNON 



29 



MACKINTOSH. 



4 with the help of God, I will go through the wide world 
with your royal highness, if you desire me." The chief re- 
turned home, and was soon followed by John Mackinnon, 
after he had conducted the prince safely to Borrodale, and 
placed him under the charge of jEneas Macdonald, the laird 
thereof. The chief and his faithful kinsman were soon after 
captured by a party of militia, and carried to London, where 
they were kept in confinement till July 1747. 

MACKINNON, Daniel, a gallant officer, was 
born in 1791. He was the younger son of William 
Mackinnon, eldest son of the chief of the clan of 
that name in the western Highlands, and the ne- 
phew of General Mackinnon, who was killed at 
"the storming of Ciudad Rodrigo. At the age of 
fourteen he entered the army as ensign in the 
Coldstream guards, and shortly after accompanied 
his regiment to Bremen. In 1807 the battalion 
to which he belonged sailed for Copenhagen, and 
after the capture of that place it returned to Eng- 
land. In 1809 the Coldstream guards embarked 
for the Peninsula, and was present in all the great 
battles, beginning with Talavera and ending with 
Toulouse. Young Mackinnon, who had attained 
the rank of lieutenant, was appointed aide-de- 
camp to General Stopford, and distinguished him- 
self throughout the campaign by his cool daring, 
and extraordinary activity. It is related of him, 
that on one occasion, when the army was passing 
a defile, and part of our troops, on debouching 
from it, were exposed to a destructive fire, they 
found Captain Mackinnon coolly shaving himself 
in a spot where the danger was the greatest. 
Encouraged at the sight, the men rushed forward 
and drove the French before them. 

On the conclusion of peace in 181 4 he was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Early in 
June 1815, anxious to join his regiment, then 
quartered near Brussels, Colonel Mackinnon em- 
barked at Ramsgate with a brother officer in an 
open boat, and next morning reached Ostend. 
He was present at the engagements of the 16th 
and 17th, and at Waterloo on the 18th of June. 
In the latter memorable battle he had three horses 
shot under him. In advancing to charge the 
French, leading on a portion of his regiment, he 
received a shot in his knee which killed his horse, 
and in falling he lost his sword. He fell close be- 
side a French officer who was still more severely 
wounded, and in taking the latter's sword, he 
gently told him he hoped they might sup together 



that night. On recovering his legs he again 
mounted, and cheering on his men, advanced at 
their head. 

In the latter part of the day Colonel Mackinnon 
was ordered to occupy the farm of Hougoumcnt, 
where he was placed with about 250 of the Cold- 
stream and the first regiment of the Grenadier 
guards. Aware of the great importance of this 
position, which flanked our army, the duke of 
Wellington sent orders to defend it to the last 
extremity. On this point Napoleon directed his 
great efforts, ordering battalion after battalion to 
the assault, and the carnage was terrific. Not- 
withstanding the pain of his wound, and his being 
disabled in one leg, Colonel Mackinnon continued 
to defend that perilous post till the advance of the 
whole British line, and the subsequent rout of the 
French army, put an end to the struggle of the 
day. When the action was over he became deli- 
rious from loss of blood and fatigue, and was sent 
on a litter to Brussels, where he received every 
attention, and soon recovered his health. 

After the peace he married the eldest daughter 
of John Dent, Esq., M.P. for Pool. In 1826 he 
purchased the majority in the Coldstream guards, 
which gave him the rank of full colonel in the 
army, and the command of the regiment to which 
he had been attached all his military life. In 
consequence of his majesty William IV. having 
expressed a desire that every officer in command of 
a regiment should furnish the Horse Guards with 
some account of it, Colonel Mackinnon wrote his 
well known work, ' The Origin and Services of 
the Coldstream Guards,' which was published in 
1833. He died June 22, 1836, aged 46. 

MACKINTOSH, Sih James, an eminent law- 
yer, statesman, and historian, was born at Aldow- 
rie, on the banks of Loch Ness, within seven miles 
of Inverness, October 24, 1765. He was the son 
of Captain John Mackintosh of Kellachie, who 
during the seven years' war in Germany, served in 
Campbell's Highlanders, and was severely wounded 
at the battle of Felinghausen in July 1761. His 
mother was Marjory, daughter of Mr. Alexander 
Macgillivray of Carolina, by Anne Fraser, sister 
of Brigadier-general Fraser, who was killed in 
General Burgoyne's army in 1777 ; and of Dr. 
Fraser, physician in London, and of Mrs. Fraser 



MACKINTOSH, 



10 



SIR JAMES. 



Tytler, wife of Lord Woodhouselce, one of the 
lords of session. Major Mercer, the friend of 
Beattie and the author of a small volume of 
1 Lyric Poems,' who held a lieutenant's commis- 
sion in the same regiment, (and a memoir of 
whom is given subsequently in its place) in a let- 
ter to Lord Glenbcrvie, thus speaks of Sir James' 
father and uncle: "John Macintosh was one of 
the most lively, good humoured, gallant lads I 
ever knew ; and he had an elder brother of the 
name of Angus, who served in the regiment (Col. 
afterwards Sir R. M. Keith's) that constantly en- 
camped next to ours, who was a most intelligent 
man, and a most accomplished gentleman. Mr. 
M.'s grandfather saw his two sons return home, at 
the end of the seven years' war, one with a shat- 
tered leg, and the other with the loss of an eye." 
His father was afterwards captain in the 68th re- 
giment, in which he served at Gibraltar, during 
the famous siege of that place. 

He received the first part of his education at 
the school of Fortrose, in Ross-shire, to which he 
was sent in the summer of 1775, and he remained 
there till he went to King's College, Old Aber- 
deen, in October 1780. His passion for reading, 
in his boyhood, was so great that his father often 
complained that he would become " a mere ped- 
ant." He read at all times and in all places, and 
would frequently sit up the greater part of the 
night over his books. Whilst at school so great 
was his proficiency that he was employed by the 
usher, whose name was Stalker, to teach the 
younger boys, and "that boy, that Jamie Mack- 
intosh," was known all over the country as a pro- 
digy of learning. He also made some attempts at 
writing verses, which, for the four winters he con- 
tinued at Aberdeen, gained him the name of ' the 
poet.' His companion at King's College was the 
afterwards celebrated Robert Hall of Leicester. 
They lived in the same house, and read and 
studied together. They were both fond of argu- 
ment, and had almost daily discussions on most 
topics of enquiry, particularly in morals and me- 
taphysics. In their joint studies, we are told in 
Gregory's Memoir of Robert Hall, (page 22) they 
read much of Xenophon and Herodotus, and more 
of Plato ; and so well was all this known, exciting 
admiration in some, in others envy, that it was 



not unusual, as they went along, for their class- 
fellows to point at them, and say, ' there go 
Plato and Herodotus!' Under the auspices of 
these two highly gifted young men, a debating 
society was formed in King's College, which was 
jocularly termed ' the Hall and Mackintosh Club.' 

In March 1781, Mr. Mackintosh took his degree 
of master of arts, and the next thing to be consid- 
ered was the choice of a profession. He himself 
wished to become an advocate at the Scottish bar, 
but his friends preferred that he should be a doc- 
tor of medicine, and in October of the same year 
he went to Edinburgh, where for three years he 
attended the medical classes. While at the uni- 
versity of that city, he became a member of the 
Speculative Society, which met for the discussion 
of subjects in general literature and science, and 
at its meetings he soon distinguished himself as a 
keen and eloquent debater. At this time its lead- 
ers were Charles Hope, afterwards lord president 
of the coiirt of session ; Baron Constant de Re- 
becque, the subsequently celebrated Benjamin 
Constant ; Malcolm Laing, the historian ; and 
Thomas Addis Emmett. He attended the lec- 
tures of Dr. Brown, the founder of the Brunonian 
system, and for a time was one of his most enthu- 
siastic disciples. He was also a member of the 
royal medical and royal physical societies. In 
1787 he took his degree of M.D., his thesis on the 
occasion being " De motu musculari." 

In the beginning of the following spring he 
went to London, accompanied by one of his col- 
lege friends, Lewis Grant, the eldest son of Sir 
James Grant of Grant, then M.P. for Morayshire, 
and afterwards earl of Seafield and Findlater. 
His mind had an early bias towards politics, and 
as his principles were of the most liberal kind, he 
soon became a member of the Society for Consti- 
tutiona 1 information, one of the numerous political 
societies of that exciting period. He seems at 
this time to have contemplated settling in St. 
Petersburg as a physician, but the plan was not 
carried into effect. On the death of his father, 
the same year, he succeeded to the family estate 
of Kellachie, in Inverness-shire, worth about £900 
a-year, but burdened by an annuity to the widow 
of a former proprietor, who still survived. In the 
course of a year or two he was compelled to dis- 



MACKINTOSH, 



31 



SIR JAMES. 



pose of it, from pecuniary difficulties, for £9,000. 
The malady which attacked George III., in the 
autumn of 1788, caused Mr. Mackintosli to ad- 
vertise a work on insanity, but though a consid- 
erable portion of it was written, it was never 
published. Early in the following year he issued 
a pamphlet on the Regency Question, in support 
of the claims of the prince of Wales, Avhich at- 
tracted little notice. Subsequently he attempted 
to settle himself in practice as a physician in Bath, 
at Salisbury, and afterwards at Weymouth, but 
without success. He had previously married, at 
the age of 24, Catherine Stewart, sister of the 
Messrs. Stewart, proprietors of the Morning Post, 
and soon after he went on a tour, with his wife, 
through the Low Countries, to Brussels, where he 
resided for some time. On his return to London, he 
became a contributor to the ' Oracle' newspaper, at 
a fixed salary, of articles on the affairs of Belgi- 
um and France. He now relinquished the medi- 
cal profession, and resolved to devote himself to 
the study of the law. 

The publication of Mr. Burke's ' Reflections on 
the French Revolution,' in 1790, called forth nu- 
merous replies, and among other opponents Mi-. 
Mackintosh stepped forth, in the spring of 1791, 
with his ' Vindiciae Gallicse, or a Defence of the 
French Revolution against the Accusations of 
Edmund Burke,' which at once acquired for him a 
high reputation. He had sold the work, when 
only partly written, for £30, but its sale was so 
great, three editions of it having gone off within 
six months, that the publisher, Mr. George Robin- 
son, liberally paid him several times the original 
price. The great talent displayed in it obtained 
for the author the acquaintance of Fox, Grey, 
Sheridan. Whitbread, and other leading whigs. 
On the formation, under their auspices, of the cele- 
brated association of the " Friends of the Peo- 
ple," in the following year, he was appointed its 
honorary secretary, and as such had a principal 
hand in the authorship of their ' Declaration,' 
which exercised so powerful an influence over the 
publio feeling of the time. In answer to a pro- 
clamation of government against such societies, he 
published ' A Letter to the Right Honourable 
William Pitt, London,' 1792, defending the prin- 
ciples of the association, on which" occasion he 



received the public thanks of the association for 
the ability and vigour displayed in its service. 

The same year he entered himself of Lincoln's 
Inn, to study law, and in Michaelmas term, 1795, 
he was called to the bar by that society. At this 
time he contributed various articles to the British 
Critic and Monthly Review, then the only literary 
periodicals of any note. To the latter he sent re- 
views of ' Gibbon's Miscellaneous Works,' Mr. 
Roscoe's ' Life of Lorenzo de Medicis,' and Mr. 
Burke's ' Letter to the Duke of Bedford,' and also 
his ' Thoughts on a Regicide Peace.' His article 
on the latter led to a correspondence with Burke, 
who invited him to his residence at Beaconsfield, 
and he spent a few days with that celebrated 
statesman a short time previous to his death. 

His practice as a barrister was at first extreme- 
ly limited, and with the view of adding to his in- 
come, he delivered, in 1799, a course of lectures 
in Linclon's Inn Hall, on ' the Law of Nature and 
Nations. The use of the hall he had obtained 
with some difficulty, owing to a suspicion enter- 
tained by some, that politics would be introduced 
into his lectures. To indicate precisely his plan 
and the manner in which it was his intention to 
treat it, he published an ' Introductory Discourse,' 
which gained the approbation of the then lord 
chancellor, Lord Loughborough, as well as of both 
Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox, and the whole course was 
attended by large audiences, including some of 
the most distinguished men of the day. The rep 
utation which he acquired from these lectures, 80 
in all, was incidentally of much use to his general 
professional advancement. He was often retained 
as counsel in cases in committees of the House of 
Commons, regarding constitutional law and con- 
tested elections, and in those before the privy 
council. On the Norfolk circuit, which, after try- 
ing the home circuit, he had joined, he soon found 
himself in possession of a considerable share of 
the little business it supplies. In 1801, he was 
asked to assist in a project, then under the consi- 
deration of the emperor Alexander, of digesting 
the ukases which governed Russia into something 
of a code of law. The Russian minister in Lon- 
don, we are informed by his son, was instructed 
to apply, with that view, to "jurisconsults Ang- 
lais qui, comme Mackintosh, jouissent d'une repu- 



MACKINTOSH, 



32 



SIR JAMES. 



tation distinguec." Family ties forbade, what 
otherwise he confessed that he should not have 
been averse from — the means "of giving more 
effectual aid, by a personal residence for some time 
in Russia." It was an odd coincidence that an 
opportunity should now offer of going, as a jurist, 
to the same country for which he was once de- 
signed as a physician. He was also, about the 
same time, invited by a body of London publish- 
ers, to superintend a new edition of Johnson's 
Poets, but the project never came to anything. 

Among the crowds of British subjects who has- 
tened to Paris, on the peace of Amiens in autumn 
1802, were Mr. and Mrs. Mackintosh, who re- 
mained in that capital a month, when he was 
presented to the First Consul. The terrible 
events of the reign of terror in France had long 
ere tliis modified very considerably many of the 
opinions he had expressed in the 'Vindieiae Gal- 
lica3." On the trial, February 21, 1803, of M. 
Peltier, a French refugee, editor of a French jour- 
nal published in London, entitled ' L'Ambigu,' for 
a libel on Napoleon Bonaparte, first consul of 
France, Mr. Mackintosh appeared as sole counsel 
for the defendant, while the case for the prosecu- 
tion was conducted by Mr. Perceval, afterwards 
prime minister, then attorney general, and Mr. 
Abbott, afterwards Lord Tenterden. His address 
to the jury on the occasion was declared by Lord 
Ellenborough, the presiding judge, to be "the 
most eloquent oration he ever had heard in West- 
minster Hall." A translation of this speech 
was made by Madame de Stael, and circulated 
throughout Europe. No less a personage than 
Louis Philippe, due d'Orleans, afterwards king of 
the French, had partly translated his 'Vindiciaj 
Gallicae,' and a speech subsequently delivered by 
him in the cause of Poland received the same 
nonour from the patriotic princess Jablonowska. 

A short time thereafter lie was appointed re- 
corder, or criminal judge of Bombay, when he 
was knighted, December 21, 1803. He arrived 
at Bombay 26th May, 1804, and on the institu- 
tion, in that year, of a court of vice-admiralty 
there, for the trial and adjudication of all prize 
and maritime cases, he was appointed judge of 
that court. He remained in India for seven 
years, distinguishing himself by his fearlessness in 



the discharge of his official duties, and his exer- 
tions in the amelioration of the criminal law. He 
founded the Literary Society of Bombay, and con- 
tributed various valuable communications to the 
Asiatic Register. He left Bombay in November 
1811, retiring from the recordership with a pen- 
sion of £1,200 from the East India Company 
Previous to Ins departure the grand jury present- 
ed a complimentary address, requesting that he 
would sit for his portrait, to be hung in the hall 
of the court. The Literary Society of Bombay 
elected him, on his departure, their honorary 
president, and requested him to sit for a bust to 
be placed in their library ; and with both requests 
he complied. 

On his arrival in England, he received a com- 
munication from Mr. Perceval, then first lord of 
the Treasury, offering him a seat in parliament, 
but he declined it, as he could not agree with 
government on the subject of the Roman Catholic 
disabilities, being in favour of their removal. His 
answer, dated May 11, 1812, was ready to be sent 
the very day that Perceval was shot by Belling- 
ham in the lobby of the House of Commons. 
Lord Liverpool, who succeeded Perceval, offered 
him the office of a commissioner for India, but 
that also he declined. He was elected M.P. for 
the county of Nairn in July 1813. The following 
year, on the restoration of the Bourbons, he again 
visited Paris, and on his return, while the impres- 
sions which the aspect of affairs in the French 
capital had created were still fresh in his memory, 
he communicated to the Edinburgh Review (vol. 
xxiv. p. 505) some Reflections on the subject. 

In 1818, he became, by appointment of the 
court of Directors, professor of law and general 
politics in the East India Company's college at 
Haileybury. The same year, on the death of 
Dr. Thomas Brown, he was offered the professor- 
ship of moral philosophy in the university of Ed 
inburgh, but declined it, a determination which 
he afterwards greatly regretted, as he had always 
been desirous of an academic career. 

Through the influence of the duke of Devon- 
shire, he was elected for Knaresborough, in the 
parliament which met in January 1819, and was 
recnosen for that place at four subsequent elec- 
tions He took a prominent part on all questions 



MACKINTOSH, 



33 



SIR JAMES. 



of foreign policy and international law, and was a 
principal speaker on most of the more important 
measures that came before parliament He chief- 
ly distinguished himself, however, by his efforts 
to improve the criminal code, a task which had 
been commenced by Sir Samuel Roinilly. In 
1819 he was chairman of a committee of the 
House of Commons on the subject, some bills rel- 
ative to which he introduced into parliament. He 
was one of the earliest and most zealous advo- 
cates for the emancipation of the West Indian 
slaves. He rejoiced at the passing of the Roman 
Catholic emancipation bill in 1829 ; and he was 
a warm supporter of the Reform bill, though he 
did not live to see it passed into a law. Subjoin- 
ed is his portrait, from a painting by Sir Tho- 
mas Lawrence . 



It 




In 1822, Sir James was elected lord rector of 
the university of Glasgow, and again in 1823. 
In 1828, he was sworn a member of the privy 
council, and in December 1830, on the formation 
of earl Grey's administration, he was appointed 
one of the commissioners for the affairs of India, 
the office he had refused eighteen years before. 
He died at London, May 30th, 1832, in the 66th 
year of his age, and wa3 buried at Hampstead. 

III. 



He had for some time been declining in strength, 
and a short time previous to his death, whilst at 
dinner, he swallowed a small fragment of a chick- 
en bone, which, though removed, occasioned a 
slight laceration in the trachea, that subsequently 
extended to the vertebrae of the neck, and ulti- 
mately proved fatal. 

He was twice married. His first wife, already 
mentioned, died in 1797. By her he had a son, 
who died in infancy, and three daughters. He 
took for his second wife, in 1798, a daughter of J. 
B. Allen, Esq. of Cressella, Pembrokeshire, and 
by her he had one son, Robert James Mackin- 
tosh, Esq. B.A., fellow of New College, Oxford, 
who published Memoirs of his father, in 2 vols., 
8vo, London, 1835, and a daughter, Frances, 
married to H. Wedgwood, Staffordshire. His 
three eldest daughters were, Mary, the wife of 
Claudius James Rich, Esq., British resident at 
Bagdad ; Maitland, Mrs. Erskine ; and Catherine, 
married to Sir William Wiseman, baronet, but 
divorced in 1825, by act of parliament. Her 
second son, Sir William Saltonstall Wiseman, be- 
came the eighth baronet of that name. 

Sii James Mackintosh's works are : 

The Regency Question, a pamphlet. London, 1789. 

Vindiciaa Gallicas, or a Defence of the French Revolution, 
and its English admirers, against the accusations of the Right 
Hon. Edmund Burke; including some strictures on the late 
production of Monsieur de Calonne. London, 1791, 8vo, Gth 
edition, same year. 

A Letter to the Right Hon. William Pitt. London, 1792. 

Introductory Discourse on the Law of Nature and Nations. 
London, 1799. 

Dissertation on the Progress oi Ethical philosophy, chiefly 
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, with a pre- 
face by the Rev. William Wliewell, M.A. Edin., 1830, 8vo. 

Life of Thomas More, in Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia. 

Abridged History of England, contributed to the Cabinet 
Cyclopedia. 2 vols. 1830-1831. 

History of the Revolution of 1688, with a notice of his 
Life prefixed, 1834. 

Dissertation on Ethics, being a continuation of Dugald 
Stewart's preliminary dissertation, and the >econd prefixed to 
the seventh edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica; consi- 
dered his most finished production. Republished in a volume, 
entitled 'Dissertations on the History of Metaphysical and 
Ethical, and of Mathematical and Physical Science.' Edin. 
1835, 4to. ; containing, besides his dissertation, those of 
Dugald Stewart, John Playfair, and Sir John Leslie. 

His other writings consist chiefly of his published Speeches, 
and of various historical and other articles m the Monthly 
and Edinburgh Reviews. To the latter h« was a constant 
contributor. 

Miscellaneous Works. London, 1845, 3 vols. 8vo, and 
1851, 8vo. 



MACKXIGHT. 



34 



MACLACHLAN. 



MACKXIGHT, James, D.D., a learned bibli- 
cal critic, the son of the Rev. "William Macknight, 
minister of Irvine in Ayrshire, was born Septem- 
ber 17, 1721. He received his academical educa- 
tion at the university of Glasgow, and afterwards 
studied theology at Leyden. On his return to 
Scotland he was licensed to preach by the pres- 
bytery of Irvine, and after officiating for some 
time at the Gorbals, in Glasgow, he acted as 
assistant at Kilwinning. In May 1753 he was 
ordained minister of Maybole in his native coun- 
ty. In 1756 he published a 'Harmony of the 
Gospels,' which met with such a favourable recep- 
tion, that he was induced in 1763 to bring out a 
second edition, with considerable improvements 
and additions. The same year he produced his 
' Truth of the Gospel History,' which still farther 
advanced his reputation as a theologian. From 
the university of Edinburgh he received the de- 
gree of D.D., and he was in 1769 chosen modera- 
tor of the General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland. During the same year he was trans- 
lated to the parochial charge of Jedburgh, and in 
1772 he became minister, first of Lady Yester's, 
Edinburgh, and in 1778 of the Old Church in that 
city, where he had for his colleague Dr. Henry 
the historian. For upwards of thirty years he 
was engaged in the preparation of his last and 
most important work, ' The New Literal Transla- 
tion from the Greek of all the Apostolical Epis- 
tles, with Commentaries and Notes,' which was 
published in 1795, in 4 vols, quarto. He died 
January 13, 1800. — His works are 

Harmony of tne Four Gospe.s, m which the natural order 
of each is preserved ; with a Paraphrase and Notes. Lond. 
1756, 2 vols, in one, 4to. 2d edit.; with six Discourses on 
Jewish Antiquities. Lond. 1763, 4to. 3d. edit. Edin. 
1804, 2 vols. 8vo. This has long been regarded as a standard 
book among Divines. It was translated into Latin, by Pro- 
fessor Ruckersfelder, and published at Bremen and Deventer. 
1772, 3 vols. 8vo. 

The Truth of the Gospel History shewn, in three books. 
London, 1763, 4to 

The Translation of the First and Second Episties to the 
Thessalonians* with a Commentary and Notes London, 
1787, 4to. 

A new Literal Translation, from the original Greek, of all 
the Apostolic Epistles ; with a Commentary and Notes, Phi- 
lological, Critical, Explanatory, and Practical. To which is 
added, A History of the Life of the Apostle Paul. Edin., 
1795. 4 vo.s. 4to. 2d edit. ; with the Greek Text, and an 
account of the Life of the Author. 1807, 6 vols. 8vo. Also 
wituoiv' the Greek Text. 3 vols. 4to. and 4 vols. 8vo. This 



is a work of theological diligence, learning and piety not 
often paralleiea. 



Maclachlan, tne surname of a clan of great antiquity is 
Argyleshire; badge, the mountain ash. They possessed the 
barony of Strathlachlan in Cowal, and other extensive pos- 
sessions in the parishes of Glassrie and Kilmartin, and or. 
Loch Awe side, which were separated from the main seat ot 
the family by the arm of the sea called Loch Fyne. 

The clan Lachlan (in Gaelic Lachuinn) was one of those 
great Argyleshire clans, which, during the existence of the 
Celtic kingdom of Argyle and the Isles, formed by Somerled 
in the 12th century, composed a body of powerful tribes unaer 
his sway, and after the forfeiture of the last Lord of the Isles, 
occupied an independent position. They were one of those 
Gaelic tribes who adopted the oared galley for their special 
device, as indicative of their connexion, either by residence or 
descent, with the Isles. An ancestor of the family, Lachlan 
Mor, who lived in the 13th century, is described in the Gaelic 
MS. of 1467, (the date 1450 usually ascribed to it having been 
found to be wrong,) as " son of Patrick, son of Gilchrist, son ot 
Aida Alain, called the clumsy, son of Henry or Anradan, from 
whom are descended also the clan Niell." From the genealogy 
of the clan Lachlan being given with much greater minute- 
ness than that of any other of the clans, the author of the MS. 
is supposed to have been a Maclachlan, and it seems probable 
that it once formed a part of the well known collection ot 
ancient MSS., so long preserved by the family of Maclachlan 
of Kilbride (see Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, page 60), 
and eventually purchased by the Highland Society of Scotland. 

By tradition the Maclachlans are said to have come from 
Ireland, their original stock being the O'Loughlins of Meath. 

According to the Irish genealogies, the clan Lachlan, the 
Lamonds, and the M'Ewens of Otter, were kindred tribes, 
being descended from brothers who were sons of Aida Alain 
above referred to, and tradition relates that they took posses- 
sion of the greater part of the district of Cowal, from Toward 
Point to Strachur at the same time; the Lamonds being se- 
parated from the M'Ewens by the river of Kilfinan, and the 
M'Ewens from the Maclachlans by the stream which separates 
the parishes of Kilfinan and Strath Lachlan. Aida Alain, the 
common ancestor of these families, is stated in ancient Irish 
genealogies to have been the grandson of Hugh Atlaman, the 
head of the great family of O'Neils, kings of Ireland. 

About 1230, Gilchrist Maclachlan, who is mentioned in the 
manuscript of 1467 as chief of the family of Maclachlan at the 
tune, Is a witness to a charter of Kilfinan granted by Laumanus, 
ancestor of the Lamonds, (see Chartulary of Paisley.") 

In 1292, Gilleskel Maclachlan got a charter of his lauds in 
Ergadia from BalioL (See Thomson's Scott. Acts, vol. L p. 91.) 

In a document preserved in the treasury of her Majesty's 
Exchequer, entitled " Les petitions de terre demandees en 
Escoce," there is the following entry, " Item Gillescop Mao 
loghlan ad demande la Baronie de Molbryde juvene, apelle 
Strath, que fu pns contre le foi de Roi." From this it appears 
that Gillespie Maclachlan was in possession of the lands still 
retained by the family, during the occupation of Scotland by 
Edward I. in 1296. (See Sir Francis Palgrave's Scottish 
Documents, vol l. p. 319.) 

In 1308, Gillespie Maclachlan sat in the first parliament of 
Robert the Bruce at St. Andrews, and his signature and seal 
tag are attached to the roll of that parliament. (See Thom- 
sons Scott. Acts, vol. l. p. 99.) 

In 1314, Archibald Maclachlan in Ergadia, granted to the 
Preaching Friars of Glasgow forty shillings to be paid yearly 



MACLACHLAN, 



35 



EU'EN. 



Jut of his lands of Kilbride, " juxta castram meum quod dici- 
tur Castellaclian." He died before 1322, and was succeeded 
by his brother Patrick. The latter married a daughter of 
James, Steward of Scotland, and had a son, Lachlan, who suc- 
ceeded him. Lachlan's son, Donald, confirmed in 1456, the 
grant by his predecessor Archibald, to the Preaching Friars 
of Glasgow of forty shillings yearly out of the lands of Kil- 
bride, with an additional annuity of six shillings and eight- 
pence "from his lands of Kilbryde near Castellachlan." Mu- 
vimenta Fratrum Predicatorum de Glasgu. {Maithmd Club.) 

Lauchlan, the 15th chief, dating from the time that written 
evidence can be adduced, was served heir to his father, 23d 
September 1719. He married a daughter of Stewart of Ap- 
pin, and was killed at Culloden, fighting on the side of Prince 
Charles. The 18th chief, (1862,) his great-grandson, Robert 
Maclachlan of Maclachlan, convener and one of the deputy- 
lieutenants of Argyleshire, married in 1823, Helen, daugh- 
ter of William A. Carruthers of Dormont, Dumfries-shire, 
without issue. Next heir, his brother, George Maclachlan, 
Esq., married, issue 3 sons and a daughter. The family seat, 
Castle Lachlan, built about 1790, near the old and ruinous 
tower, formerly the residence of the chief's, is situated in the 
centre of the family estate, which is eleven miles in length, 
and, on an average, a mile and a half in breadth, and stretch- 
es in one continued line along the eastern side of Loch Fyne. 
The effective force of the clan previous to the rebellion of 
1745, was estimated at 300 men. 

In Argyleshire also are the families of Maclachlan of Craig- 
witerve, Inchconnell, &c, and in Stirlingshire, of Auchin- 
troig. The Maclachlans of Drumblane in Monteith were of 
the Lochaber branch, 

MACLACHLAN, Ewen, a Gaelic poet and 
scholar, was born in 1775atTorracalltuinn, in Loch- 
aber. His forefathers came originally from Morven. 
He was the 2d youngest son of a weaver, and in his 
youth was engaged as a tutor in several families in 
the Highlands. Several pieces of Gaelic poetry com- 
posed by him were published about 1798, in a vol- 
ume printed at Edinburgh for Allan Macdougall, or 
Ailean Dall, (Blind Allan,) musician at Inverlochy, 
afterwards family bard to Col. Raualdson Macdo- 
nell of Glengarry. In the following year Mac- 
lachlan was introduced by Dr. Ross of Kilmani- 
vaig to that truly Highland chief, by whose as- 
sistance he was enabled to fulfil a long-cherished 
desire of going to college. After a very strict 
competition, he succeeded in obtaining the highest 
bursary at King's college, Old Aberdeen. On 
taking the degree of A.M., he entered the divinity 
hall, having been, through the good offices of his 
friend, Dr. Ross, presented, in 1800, to a royal 
bursary in the gift of the barons of exchequer. 
About the same time he was appointed assistant 
to Mr. Gray, librarian to King's college, and 
teacher of the Grammar school of Old Aberdeen. 
He was subsequently made a free burgess of that 



town, and for some time was custodier of the 
library attached to the divinity hall of Marischal 
college. To add to the scanty income which his 
various offices brought to him, he devoted several 
hours every day to private teaching. 

Besides being an accomplished scholar, Mr. 
Maclachlan was well versed in oriental literature 
and in the languages of modern Europe. Of the 
Iliad of Homer he translated nearly seven books 
into Gaelic heroic verse, which still remain in MS. 
Having begun to collect materials for a Diction- 
ary of the Gaelic language, he was, by the High- 
land Society of Scotland, conjoined with Dr. Mac- 
leod of Dundonald, in carrying on the national 
Dictionary, compiled under their patronage. The 
department assigned to him was the Gaelic-Eng- 
lish, and in the Preface to the work published by 
Drs. Macleod and Dewar, he is thus mentioned : 
" Mr. Maclachlan of Aberdeen especially brought 
to the undertaking great talents, profound learn- 
ing, habits of industry which were almost super- 
human, an intimate acquaintance with the Gaelic 
language, and devoted attachment to the elucida- 
tion of its principles." 

In 1816, Mr. Maclachlan published at Aber- 
deen a volume of poetry, in various languages, 
entitled 'Metrical Effusions.' An ode, in the 
Greek language, ' On the Generation of Light,' 
contained in it, gained the prize given by Dr. 
Buchanan of Bengal to King's college, for the 
best ode on the subject. Among the contents, 
also, were an elegant Latin ode addressed to Dr. 
Beattie the poet, on whose death, in 1810, Mac- 
lachlan had composed an elegy in the Gaelic 
tongue, and an English ode, entitled 'A Dream,' 
being an apotheosis on his deceased friend. 

In 1819, Mr. Maclachlan succeeded Mr. Gray 
as head master of the Grammar school of Old 
Aberdeen, and also principal session clerk and 
treasurer of the parish of Old Machar. He was 
likewise secretary to the Highland Society of 
Aberdeen, and, we are told, wore the full High- 
land garb when officially attending the meetings 
of the Society, and on other particular occasions. 
In 1820 he became a candidate for the office of 
teacher of the classical department of the Inver- 
ness academy, but was unsuccessful, local politics, 
it seems, having ruled the appointment. He died 



MACLAURIN. 



36 



MACLAURIN. 



29th March 1822, aged 47. A Memoir of his 
life and some of his Gaelic pieces are inserted in 
Mackenzie's Beauties of Gaelic Poetry (Glasgow, 
1841). 

Maclaurin, the surname of a clan, commonly spelled 
Maclaren (badge, the laurel,) said to have been derh ed from 
the district of Lorn in Argyleshire, the Gaelic orthography of 
which is Labhrin, pronounced Laurin, hence the Madaurins 
are called t'ne clann Labhrin. That district took its name 
from Lorn, one of the three sons of Ere, who, in 503, arrived in 
Argyleshire from Ireland, and founded there the Scoto-Irish 
kingdom of Dalriada, a word borne by the Maclaurins as a 
motto above their coat of arms. 

From Argyleshire the tribe of Laurin moved into Perth- 
shire, having, it is said, acquired from Kenneth Macalpin, 
after his conquest of the Picts in the 9th century, the dis- 
tricts of Balquhidder and Strathearn, and three brothers are 
mentioned as having got assigned to them in that territory 
the lands of Bruach, Auchleskin, and Stank. In the church- 
yard of Balquhidder, celebrated as containing the grave of 
Rob Roy, the burial places of their different families are 
marked off separately, so as to correspond with the situation 
which these estates bear to each other, a circumstance which 
so far favours the tradition regarding them. 

Among the followers of Malise, earl of Strathearn, at the 
battle of the Standard in 1138, were a tribe called " Laver- 
nani," supposed by Lord Hailes to have been the clan Lau- 
rin. Of those Scottish barons who swore fealty to Ed- 
ward I. in 1296, were Maurice of Tiree, an island in the 
county of Argyle which formerly belonged to the Maclaurins, 
Conan of Balquhidder, and Laurin of Ardveche in Strath- 
earn, all of the clan Laurin. When the earldom of Strath- 
earn became vested in the crown in 1370, the Maclaurins 
were reduced from the condition of proprietors to that of 
"kyndly" or perpetual tenants, which they continued to be 
till 1508, when it was deemed expedient that this Celtic 
holding should be changed, and the lands set in feu, " for in- 
crease of policie and augmentation of the king's rental." The 
Maclaurins were among the loyal clans that fought for James 
III. at Sauchieburn in 1488. They were also at Flodden 
and at Pinkie. In the well-known rolls of the clans pos- 
sessing chiefs, dated in 1587 and 1594, "the clan Lauren" 
are mentioned. 

A sanguinary encounter once took place between the Mac- 
laurins of Auchleskin and the Buchanans of Leny, arising 
out of the following circumstance : At the fair of St. Kessaig 
held at Kilmahog, in the parish of Callander, one of the Bu- 
chanans struck a Maclaurin of weak intellect, on the cheek, 
with a salmon which he was carrying, and knocked off his 
bonnet. The latter said he would not dare to repeat the 
blow at nest St. George's fair at Balquhidder. To that fair 
the Buchanans went in a strong body, and on their appear- 
ance the half witted Maclaurin, who had received the insult, 
for the first time told what had occurred at the fair at Kil- 
mahog. The warning cross was immediately sent through 
the clan, and every man able to bear arms hastened to the 
muster. In their impatience the Maclaurins oegan the bat- 
tle, oefore all their force had collected, and were driven from 
the field, but one of them, seeing his son cut down, turned 
furiously upon the Buchanans, shouting the war-cry of his 
tribe, (" Craig Tuire," the rock of the boar,) and his clans- 
men rallying, became fired with the miri-cath, or madness of 
battle, and rushed after him, fighting desperately. The Bu- 
hanans were siain in great numbers and driven over a 



I small cascade of the Balvaig stream, which retains the 
name of Linan-an-Seicachan, "the cascade of the dead bu- 
I dies." Two only escaped from the field, one of whom w;is 
slain at Gartnafuaran, and the other fell at the point whicn, 
from hnn, was ever afterwards known as Sron Lainie. Tra- 
dition variously fixes this clan battle in the reign of one of 
the Alexanders, that is, between 1106 and 1286, and in tne 
16th century. 

About 1497, some of the clan Laurin having carried off the 
cattle from the Braes of Lochaber, the Macdonalds followed 
the spoilers, and, overtaking them in Glenurchy, after a sharp 
fight, recovered the " lifting." The Maclaurins straightway 
sought the assistance of their kinsman, Dugal Stewart of 
Appin, who at once joined them with his followers, and a 
conflict took place, when both Dugal and Macdonald of Kep- 
poch, the chiefs of their respective clans, were among the 
slain. This Dugal was the first of the Stewarts of Appin. 
He was an illegitimate son of John Stewart, third lord ot 
Lorn, by a lady of the clan Laurin, and in 1469 when he at- 
tempted, by force of arms, to obtain possession of his father's 
lands, he was assisted by the Maclaurins, 130 of whom fell 
in a battle that took place at the foot of BendoraD, a moun- 
tain in Glenurchy. 

The clan Laurin were the strongest sept in Balquhidder 
which was called "the country of the Maclaurins." Although, 
there are few families of the name there now, so numerous 
were they at one period that none dared enter the church, 
until the Maclaurins had taken their seats. This invidious 
right claimed by them often led to unseemly brawls and 
fights at the church door, and lives were sometimes lost in 
consequence. In 1532, Sir John Maclaurin, vicar of Bal- 
quhidder, was killed in one of these quarrels, and several of 
his kinsmen, implicated in the deed, were outlawed. 

A deadly feud existed between the Maclaurins and their 
neighbours, the Macgregors of Rob Roy's tribe. In the 16th 
century, the latter slaughtered no fewer than eighteen house- 
holders of the Maclaurin name, with the whole of their fami- 
lies, and took possession of the farms which had belonged to 
them. The deed was not investigated till 1604, forty-six 
years afterwards, when it was thus described in their trial 
for the slaughter of the Colquhouns: "And siclyk, John 
M'Coull cheire, ffor airt and pairt of the crewall murthonr 
and burning of auchtene houshalders of the clan Lawren. 
thair wyves and baims, committit fourtie sax zeir syne, or 
thairby." The verdict was that he was " clene, innocent, 
and acquit of the said crymes." The hill farm of Invernenty, 
on "The Braes of Balquhidder," was one of the farms thus 
forcibly occupied by the Macgregors, although the property of 
a Maclaurin family, and in the days of Rob Roy, two centu- 
ries afterwards, the aid of Stewart of Appin was called in to 
replace the Maclaurins in their own, which he did at the head 
of 200 of his men. All these farms, however, are now the 
property of the chief of clan Gregor, having been purchased 
about 1798, from the commissioners of the forfeited estates. 

The Maclaurins were out in the rebellion of 1745. Ac- 
cording to President Forbes, they were followers of the Mur- 
rays of Athol, but although some of them might have been 
so, the majority of the clan fought for the Pretender with the 
Stewarts of Appin under Stewart of ArdsheU. Among them 
was Maclaurin of Invernenty, who was taken prisoner after 
the battle of Culloden, but made his escape in a very singu- 
lar manner trom the soldiers who were conducting him to 
Carlisle. The incident has been introduced by Sir Waker 
Scott into ' Redgauntlet,' where " Pate-in-Peril " is the hero of 
it. On the way to England the party had reached the well- 
known " Devil's Beef Stand," otherwise called " Johnstone's 



MACLAURIN, 



37 



COLIN. 



Beef Tub," a deep and gloomy hollow near Moffat, so named 
from its having been employed, in the reiving times of old, as 
a hiding-place for stolen cattle. It was a misty morning, 
and Maclaurin, taking advantage of the opportunity, sud- 
denly threw himself down the sides of the declivity, knowing 
that the soldiers, ignorant of the locality, would not dare to 
follow him. Gaining a morass, he immersed himself up to 
the neck in water, and covering his head with a turf, he re- 
mained there until night. In the disguise of a woman he 
afterwards lived undiscovered in Balquhidder, until the act of 
indemnity was passed in 1747. 

The chiefship was claimed by the family to which belonged 
Colin Maclaurin, the eminent mathematician and philoso- 
pher, and his son, John Maclaurin, Lord Dreghorn, memoirs 
of whom follow. In the application given in for the latter to 
the Lyon court, he proved his descent from a family which 
had long been in possession of the island of Tiree, one of the 
Argyleshire Hebrides. His great-grandfather, Daniel Mac- 
laurin, author of Memoirs of his Own Times, removed from 
Tiree to Inverness, of which he became a very useful citizen. 

MACLAURIN, Colin, an eminent mathema- 
tician, youngest son of the Rev. John Maclaurin, 
minister of Glenderule, author of an Irish version 
of the Psalms, was born in the parish of Kilmo- 
dan, Argyleshire, in February 1698. Having lost 
his father in infancy, and his mother before he 
was nine years old, he was educated under the 
care of his uncle, the Rev. Daniel Maclaurin, min- 
ister of Kilfinnan. He was sent to the university 
of Glasgow in 1709, and took the degree of M.A. 
in his fifteenth year, on which occasion he com- 
posed and defended a thesis on 'The Power of 
Gravity.' In 1717, after a competition which 
lasted for ten days, he was elected professor of 
mathematics in the Marischal college, Aberdeen. 
In the vacations of 1719 and 1721 he went to 
London, where he became acquainted with Sir 
Isaac Newton, Dr. Hoadley, Dr. Samuel Clarke, 
Mr. Martin Folkes, and other eminent philoso- 
phers, and was admitted a member of the Royal 
Society. In 1722, having provided a competent 
person to attend to his class for a time at Aber- 
deen, he travelled on the Continent as tutor to 
the Hon. Mr. Hume, son of Lord Polwarth ; and 
during their residence at Lorraine, he wrote his 
essay on the Percussion of Bodies, which gained 
the priae of the Royal Academy of Sciences in 
1724. On the death of his pupil at Montpelier he 
returned to Aberdeen ; and in 1725 he was chosen 
to succeed Mr. James Gregory as professor of 
mathematics at Edinburgh, where his lectures, 
commenced November 3 of that year, contributed 
much to raise the character of that university as a 



school of science. In 1733 he married Anne, 
daughter of Mr. Walter Stewart, at that time so- 
licitor-general for Scotland, by whom he had seven 
children. A controversy with Bishop Berkeley 
led to the publication, in 1742, of his greatest 
work, the ' Treatise on Fluxions,' in 2 vols. 4to. 

In 1745, having been very active in making 
plans, and superintending the operations neces- 
sary for the defence of the city of Edinburgh 
against the Highland army, Mr. Maclaurin was, 
upon their entering the city, obliged to withdraw 
to the north of England, when he was invited by 
the archbishop of York to reside with him. On 
his journey southward he had a fall from his 
horse, and the fatigue, anxiety, and cold to which 
he was exposed on this occasion, laid the founda- 
tion of a dropsy, of which he died soon after his 
return to Edinburgh, June 14, 1746. His por- 
trait, from an engraving in Smith's Iconograpliia 
Scotica, is subjoined • 




His works are : 

Geometra Organica. sive Descnptio Lineanim Curvarim, 
Universalis. Lond., 1720, 4to. The same, with the Life and 
Writings of the Author, by Pat. Murdoch. Lond., 1748, 4to. 

Piece qui a remporte le Prix de l'Acadeniie Royalc des 
Sciences propose" pour l'ann^e mil sept cens vingt-quatre, 
selon la Foundatione fait par feu M. Rouille de Morlay, An- 
cien Conseiller au Parlement de Paris. Par. 1724. 4to. 



4 



OV/ 



MACLAURIN. 



38 



MACLEAN. 



A complete System of Fluxions ; with their application to 
the most considerable Problems in Geometry and Natural 
Philosophy. Edin. 1742, 2 vols. 4to. 

Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, 
published from his MS. papers ; with an Account of the Life 
and Writings of the Author, by Pat. Murdoch. London, 
1748, 4to. 

Treatise of Algebra, in three Parts. To which is added, 
An Appendix concerning the General Properties of Geometri- 
cal Lines. Lond., 1748, 8vo. 1766, 8vo. 

On the Construction and Measure of Curves; by which 
many infinite series of Curves are either Measured or reduced 
io Simple Curves. Phil. Trans. Abr. vi. 356. 1718. 

A New Universal Method of describing all kinds of Curves, 
Dy means of Right Lines and Angles only. lb. 392. 1719. 

Concerning Equations with impossible Roots. lb. Abr. vii. 
145. 1726. 

On the Description of Curve Lines. lb. viii. 41. 1735. 

Rule for finding the Meridional Parts to any Spheroid, with 
the same exactness as in a Sphere, lb. 515. 1741. 

Of the Basis of the Cells where the Bees deposit their 
Honey. lb. 709. 1743. 

Cause of the Variation of the Obliquity of the Ecliptic. 
Ess. Phys. and Lit. i. 174. 1754. 

Concerning the sudden and surprising Changes observed on 
the Surface of Jupiter's Body. lb. 184. 

MACLAURIN", John, Lord Dreghorn, an 
able lawyer, son of the preceding, was born at 
Edinburgh, December 15, 1734, old style. He 
received the rudiments of his education at the 
High school, and subsequently went through the 
usual academical course at the university of that 
city. On 3d August 1756 he was admitted a 
member of the faculty of advocates at Edinburgh, 
and after practising at the bar for many years 
with much reputation, he was, on 17th January 
1788, raised to the bench, when he took the title 
of Lord Dreghorn. He died December 24, 1796. 
' A Dissertation to prove that Troy was not taken 
by the Greeks,' read by him before the Royal So- 
ciety of Edinburgh, of which he was one of the 
original members, was inserted in the Transac- 
tions of that Society in 1788. He kept a journal 
of the various important events that happened in 
Europe from 1785 to 1792, from which, shortly 
before his death, he made a selection, with the 
view of publication. His works, in a collected 
f orm, were published at Edinburgh in 2 vols, in 
1798. At a very early period, as we learn from 
the Life prefixed, he displayed a natural turn for 
poetical composition, and among his school-fellows 
was distinguished by the name of ' the poet.' His 
poems, however, do not rank very high. Most of 
them were thrown off from a private printing 



press of his own for circulation among his friends 
He was the author of the following works : 

Observations on some Points of Law ; with a System of 
the Judicial Law of Moses. Edin. 1759, 12mo. 

Considerations on the Nature and Origin of Literarv Pro- 
perty. Edin. 1767, 8vo. 

Information for Mungo Campbell, late Officer of Excise at 
Saltcoats, in a Criminal Prosecution before the High Court of 
Justiciary in Scotland, for the alleged Murder of the late 
Alexander Earl of Eglinton. London, 1770, 8vo. 

Arguments and Decisions in Remarkable Cases before the 
High Court of Just? 'iary, and other Supreme Courts in Scot- 
land. Edin. 1774, 4to. 

A Dissertation to prove that Troy was not taken by the 
Greeks. Trans. Edin. Soc. i. 43. 1788. 

Works. Edin. 1798, 2 vols. 8vo. 

He also wrote three dramas of no great merit, entitled 
' Hampden,' ' The Public,' and ' The Philosopher's Opera." 
Several of his pieces will be found in Donaldson's Collection, 
printed at Edinburgh in 1760 



Maclean, the name of a clan (badge, blackberry heath) 
of supposed Irish descent, founded by one of the Fitzgerald 
family, as the clan Kenzie is said to have been by another. 
The Macleans are not mentioned among the native tribes in 
the Gaelic MS. of 1450, and the Norman or Italian origin of 
their chiefs is therefore the more probable, the Fitzgeralds 
having sprung from the Florentine Geraldi, one of whom 
came over with William the Conqueror. Their progenitor, 
according to Celtic tradition, was one Gillean or Gill-eoin, a 
name signifying the young man, or the servant or follower of 
John, who lived so early as the beginning of the 5th century. 
He was called Gillean-na-Tuaidke. that is, Gillean with the 
axe, from the dexterous manner in which he wielded that 
weapon in battle, and his descendants bear a battle-axe in 
their crest, between a laurel and a cypress branch. Maca- 
lane, the Gaelic pronunciation of the name, may mean the 
great stranger, from magnus, great, and alienus, a foreigner. 
(See vol. ii., p. 707, art. Mac.) 

The Macleans have been located in Mull since the 14th 
century. They appear originally to have belonged to Moray. 
Mr. Skene says: " The two oldest genealogies of the Macleans, 
of which one is the production of the Beatons, who were here- 
ditary sennachies of the family, concur in deriving the clan 
Gille-eon from the same race from whom the clans belonging 
to the great Moray tribe are brought by the MS. of 1450. Of 
this clan the oldest seat seems to have been the district of Lorn, 
as they first appear in subjection to the lords of Lorn ; and their 
situation being thus between the Camerons and Macnachtans, 
who were undisputed branches of the Moray tribe, there can 
be little doubt that the Macleans belonged to that tribe also. 
As their oldest seat was thus in Argyle, while they are un- 
questionably a part of the tribe of M )ray, we may infer that 
they were one of those clans transplanted from North Moray 
by Malcolm IV., and it is not unlikely that Glen Urquhart was 
their original residence, as that district is said to have been in 
the possession of the Macleans when the Bissets came in." 

The first of the name on record, Gillean, lived in the reign 
of Alexander III. (1249—1286), and fought against the 
Norsemen at the battle of Largs. In the Ragman Roll we 
find Gilliemore Macilean described as del Counte de Perth, 
among those who swore fealty to Edward I. in 1296. As 
the county of Perth at that period included Lorn, it is proba- 
ble that he was the son of Gillean and ancestor of the Mac- 
leans. In the reign of Robert the Bruce mention is made or 



MACLEAN 



39 



OF DOWART. 



three brothers, John, Nigel, and Dofnall, termed Macgillean 
ot nlii Gillean, who appear to have been sons of Gilliemore, 
for we find John afterwards designated Macgilliemore. The 
latter fought under Bruce at Bannockburn. A dispute hav- 
ing arisen with the lord of Lorn, the brothers left him and 
took refuge in the Isles. Between them and the Mackinnons, 
upon whose lands they appear to have encroached, a bitter 
feud took place, which led to a most daring act on the part 
of the chief of the Macleans. When following, with the chief 
of the Mackinnons, the galley of the lord of the Isles, he at- 
tacked the former and slew him, and immediately after, 
afraid of his vengeance, he seized the Macdonald himself, 
and carried him prisoner to Icolmkill, where he was detained 
until he agreed to vow friendship to the Macleans, " upon 
certain stones where men were used to make solemn vows in 
those superstitious times," and granted them the lands in 
Mull which they have ever since possessed. John Gillie- 
more, surnamed Dim from his dark complexion, appears to 
have settled in Mull about the year 1330. He died in the 
reign of Robert II., leaving two sons, Lachlan Lubanacb, 
ancestor of the Macleans of Dowart, and Eachann or Hector 
Reganach, of the Macleans of Lochbuy. 

Lachlan, the elder son, married in 1366, Margaret, aaugh- 
ter of John L, lord of the Isles, by his wife, the princess 
Margaret Stewart, and had a son, Hector, which became a 
favourite name among the Macleans, as Kenneth was among 
the Mackenzies, Evan among the Camerons, and Hugh 
among the Mackays. Both Lachlan and bis son, Hector, 
received extensive grants of land from John, the fathcr-in- 
'aw of the former, and his successor, Donald. Altogether, 
their possessions consisted of the isles of Mull, Tiree, and 
Coll, with Morvern on the mainland, Kingenoch and Ardgour ; 
and the clan Gillean became one of the most important and 
powerful of the vassal tribes of the lords of the Isles. 

Lachlan's son, Hector, called Eachann Euadh nan Cath, that 
is, Red Hector of the Battles, commanded as lieutenant- 
general under his uncle, Donald, at the battle of Harlaw in 
1411, when he and Sir Alexander Irving of Drum, seeking 
out each other by their armorial bearings, encountered hand 
to hand and slew each other; in commemoration of which 
circumstance, we are told, the Dowart and Drum families were 
long accustomed to exchange swords. Near the field of bat- 
tle is a tomb, built in the form of a malt steep, where, ac- 
cording to local tradition, Donald of the Isles lies buried, and 
it is commonly called Donald's tomb. But Donald was not 
dlain in the battle, and Mr. Tytler conjectures, with much 
probability, that the tomb may be that of the chief of Mac- 
lean, or Macintosh, who was also slain there, and he refers, 
in support of this opinion, to Macfarlane's Genealogical Col- 
.ections (MS. Advocates' Library, Jac. 5. 4. 16. vol. i. p. 
180.) Red Hector of the Battles married a daughter of the 
oarl of Douglas. His eldest son was taken prisoner at the 
battle of Harlaw, and detained in captivity a long time by 
the earl of Mar. His brother, John, at the head of the Mac- 
leans, was in the expedition of Donald Balloch, cousin of the 
hud of the Isles, in 1431, when the Islesmen ravaged Loch- 
aber, and were encountered at Inverlochy, near Fortwilliam, 
by the royal forces under the earls of Caithness and Mar, 
whom they defeated. In the dissensions which arose between 
John, the last lord of the Isles, and his turbulent son, Angus, 
who, with the island chiefs descended from the original family, 
complained that his father had made improvident grants of 
land to the Macleans and other tribes, Hector Maclean, chief 
of the clan, and great-grandson of Red Hector of the Battles, 
took part with the former, and commanded his fleet at the 
battle of the Bloody Bay in 1480. where he was taken pri- 



soner. This Hector was chief of his tribe at the date of the 
forfeiture of the lordship of the Isles in 1493, when the clan 
Gillean, or Clanlean as it came to be called, was divided into 
four independent branches, viz., the Macleans of Dowart, the 
Macleans of Lochbuy, the Macleans of Coll, and the Macleans 
of Ardgour. When King James was on his second expedi- 
tion to the Isles in 1495, Hector Maclean of Dowart was 
among the island chiefs who then made their submission to 
him, and the following year he was one of the five chiefs of 
rank who appeared before the lords of council and bound 
themselves, "by the extension of their hands," to abstain 
from mutual injuries and molestation, each under a penalty 
of £500. Lachlan Maclean was chief of Dowart in 1502, 
and he and his kinsman, Maclean of Lochbuy, were among 
the leading men of the Western Isles whom that energetic 
monarch, James IV., entered into correspondence with, for 
the purpose of breaking up the confederacy of the Islanders, 
" rewarding them by presents in the shape either of money or 
of grants of land, and securing their services in reducing to 
obedience such of their fellow chieftains as proved contuma- 
cious, or actually rose in rebellion." (See Tytler' s Hist, of 
Scotland, vol. iv. p. 368). Nevertheless, on the breaking out 
of the insurrection under Donald Dubh, in 1503, they were 
both implicated in it. Lachlan Maclean was forfeited with 
Cameron of Locliiel, while Maclean of Lochbuy and several 
others were summoned before the parliament, to answer for 
their treasonable support given to the rebels. In 1505 Mae- 
lean of Dowart abandoned the cause of Donald Dubh and 
submitted to the government ; his example was followed by 
Maclean of Lochbuy and other chiefs; and this had the 
effect, soon after, of putting an end to the rebellion. 

The lands of Lochiel had, in 1458, been bestowed by the 
earl of Ross on Maclean, founder of the family of Coll, and 
this caused a quarrel between the Macleans and the Camer- 
ons, in which, in course of time, were involved all of the for- 
mer name. The feud raged, with more or less bitterness, for 
several years, but it, and another, between the Dowart and 
Lochbuy branches of the Macleans, regarding their lands in 
Morvern and the isle of Tiree, appear to have been checked 
for a time, by the prudent measures of James IV., towards 
the end of his reign. 

Lachlan Maclean of Dowart was killed at Flodden. His 
successor, of the same name, was one of the principal sup- 
porters of Sir Donald Macdonald of Lochalsb, when, in No- 
vember 1513, he brought forward his claims to the lordship 
of the Isles. He seized the royal castle of Carneburgh, near 
Mull, and afterwards that of Dunskaich in Sleat. By the 
earl of Argyle, however, he was prevailed upon, with several 
other island chiefs, to submit to the government, alter hav- 
ing, in 1517, with Macleod of Dunvegan, made prisoners of 
Sir Donald's two brothers. In a petition which he presented 
to the council on this occasion he demanded a free remission 
of all offences to himself and certain of his " kin, men, ser- 
vants, and part-takers," whom he named; that Sir Donald 
of Lochalsb, with his associates, should be proceeded against 
as traitors, and their lands forfeited ; and that Sir Donald's 
two brothers, then in his custody, should be executed ac- 
cording to law. The remission he asked for was granted, 
upon hostages being given for future obedience, but when be 
claimed an heritable grant of one hundred mcrk lands in Ti- 
ree and Mull, free of all duties, the council would not give it 
for a longer term than till the king, who was then only in 
his fifth year, should come of age. With this arrangement 
he was forced to be content, and having appeared before the 
council, he gave his solemn oath of allegiance to the king. 

From this time till 1523, there was peace in the Isles, bu*. 



MACLEAN, 



40 



LACHLAN MOR. 



m that year a feud of a most implacable character broke out 
between the Macleans and the Campbells, arising out of an 
occurrence, which forms the subject of Miss Baillie's cele- 
brated tragedy of ' The Family Legend,' and is thus related 
by Mr. Gregory : " Lauchlan Cattanach Maclean of Dowart 
married Lady Elizabeth Campbell, daughter of Archibald, 
second earl of Argyle ; and, either from the circumstance of 
their union being unfruitful, or more probably owing to some 
domestic quarrels, he determined to get rid of his wife. 
Some accounts say that she had twice attempted her hus- 
band's life ; but, whatever the cause may have been, Mac- 
lean, following the advice of two of his vassals, who exercised 
a considerable influence over him from the tie of fosterage. 
caused his lady to be exposed on a rock, which was only vis- 
ible at low water, intending that she should be swept away 
by the return of the tide. This rock lies between the island 
of Lismore and the coast of Mull, and is still known by the 
name of the ' Lady's Rock.' From this perilous situation 
she was rescued by a boat accidentally passing, and conveyed 
to her brother's house. Her relations, although much exas- 
perated against Maclean, smothered their resentment for a 
time, but only to break out afterwards with greater violence ; 
for the laird of Dowart, being in Edinburgh, was surprised, 
when in bed, and assassinated by Sir John Campbell of Cal- 
der, the lady's brother. The Macleans instantly took arms, 
to revenge the death of their chief, and the Campbells were 
not slow in preparing to follow up the feud ; but the gov- 
ernment interfered, and, for the present, an appeal to arms 
was avoided." (Gregory's Highlands and Isles, pp. 127, 
128.) In 1529, however, the Macleans joined the Clandonald 
of Isla against the earl of Argyle, and ravaged with fire and 
sword the lands of Roseneath, Craignish, and others belong- 
ing to the Campbells, killing many of the inhabitants. The 
Campbells, on their part, retaliated by laying waste great 
portion of the isles of Mull and Tiree and the lands of Mor- 
vern, belonging to the Macleans. In May 1530, Maclean of 
Dowart and Alexander of Isla made their personal submis- 
sion to the sovereign at Stirling, and, with the other rebel 
island chiefs who followed their example, were pardoned, 
upon giving security for their after obedience. 

In 1545, Maclean of Dowart acted a very prominent part 
in the intrigues with England, in furtherance of the project 
of Henry VIIL, to force the Scottish nation to consent to a 
marriage between Prince Edward and the young Queen Ma- 
ry. He and Maclean of Lochbuy were among the barons of 
the Isles who accompanied Donald Dubh to Ireland, and at 
the command of the earl of Lennox, claiming to be regent of 
Scotland, swore allegiance to the king of England. One of 
the two plenipotentiaries sent by Donald Dubh to the Eng- 
lish court at this time, was Patrick Maclean, brother of 
Dowart, described as justiciar of the Isles and bailie of Icolm- 
kill. Of the money sent by the English king to pay the 
islesmen engaged in the expedition against the regent Ar- 
ran, Maclean of Dowart seems to have had the charge, but 
not making a proper division of it, the insular chiefs sepa- 
rated in discontent, and the expedition came, in consequence, 
to an end. Macvurich, in a note quoted by Mr. Gregory, 
says : " A ship came from England with a supply of money 
to carry on the war, which landed at Mull ; and the money 
was given to Maclean of Dowart to be distributed among the 
commanders of the army ; which they not receiving in pro- 
portion as it should have been distributed amongst them, 
causjd the army to disperse." 

The clan history subsequently consisted chiefly of a record of 
feuds in which the Dowart family were engaged with the 
Macleans of Coll, and the Macdonalds of Kintyre. The dis- 



pute with the former arose from Dowart, who was generally 
recognised as the head of the Clan-lean, insisting on being 
followed as chief by Maclean of Coll, and the latter, who held 
his lands direct from the crown, declining to acknowledge 
him as such, on the ground that being a free baron, he owed 
no service but to his sovereign as his feudal superior. In con- 
sequence of this refusal, Dowart, in the year 1561, caused 
Coil's lands to be ravaged, and his tenants to be imprisoned. 
With some difficulty, and after the lapse of several years 
Coll succeeded in bringing his case before tne privy council, 
who ordered Dowart to make reparation to him for the injury 
done to his property and tenants, and likewise to refrain 
from molesting him in future. But on a renewal of the feud 
some years after, the Macleans of Coll were expelled from 
that island by the young laird of Dowart. 

The quarrel between the Macleans and the Macdonalds of 
Isla and Kintyre was, at the outset, merely a dispute as to the 
right of occupancy of the crown lands called the Rhinns ot 
Isla, but it soon involved these tribes in a long and bloody 
feud, and eventually led to the destruction nearly of them 
both. The Macleans, who were in possession, claimed to hold 
the lands in dispute as tenants of the crown, but the privy 
council decided that Macdonald of Isla was really the crown 
tenant. In 1562, the Macdonalds of Isla, assisted by those 
of Sleat, invaded the isles of Mull, Tiree, and Coll, and in 
1565 the rival chiefs were compelled to find sureties, to the 
amount of £10,000, that they would abstain from mutual 
hostilities. But even this did not restrain a high spirited 
tribe like the Macleans. On the death of James Macdonald 
of Dunyveg, Hector Maclean of Dowart ravaged with fire and 
sword the isle of Gigha, being part of the jointure lands of 
Lady Agnes Campbell, Macdonald's widow, and in conse- 
quence Queen Mary, then at the castle of Dunbar, granted, 
on 28th April, 1567, a commission of lieutenandry to the earl of 
Argyle against him and his clan. (Analecta Scotica, p. 393.) 

Lachlan Maclean of Dowart, called Lachlan Mor, was chief 
of the Macleans in 1578. He is said to have got the name of 
Mor, from his great stature, but, as we have already shown 
in the article on Campbell (vol. i. p. 544), this term waft 
frequently applied to denote superior rank. Under him the 
feud with the Macdonalds assumed a most sanguinary and 
relentless character. He is described as a young man of an 
active and energetic spirit, and of superior talents improved 
by a good education, but of a cruel and fierce disposition. 
He had succeeded young to the chiefship, and during his 
minority the estates were managed by his kinsman, Hector 
Maclean, whose father, Allan Maclean of Gigha and Torlusk, 
brother of the former Maclean of Dowart, is celebrated in 
tradition as a warrior, by the name of Alein nan Sop. To 
obtain possession of the estates for himself, Hector designed 
to deprive the young chief of his life, but Lachlan Mor dis- 
covered his purpose, and on attaining his majority, had him 
apprehended, and after imprisoning him for a considerable 
time in the castle of Dowart, he was removed to the isle of 
Coll, and beheaded by Lachlan's order. The following year, 
on a renewal of the feud between the Macleans and the Mac- 
donalds of Isla, the king and council commanded the chiefs 
of both tribes to subscribe assurances of indemnity to each 
other, under the penalty of treason. But although Macdon- 
ald of Dunyveg, at this time, married Maclean's sister, hosti- 
lities were only suspended between the clans, to break out no 
long time after, with increased violence. It was in the year 
1585 that this most destructive feud reached its height, and 
that under the following circumstances : 

Macdonald of Sleat, on his way to visit his kinsman. 
Angus Macdonald, was driven bv stress of weather to the 



MACLEAN, 



41 



LACIILAN MOR. 



island of Jura, and landed on that part which belonged to 
Maclean, the other part being the property of Angus Mac- 
donald. Two of the Clandonald, who had a grudge at their 
chief, one of whom was named Macdonald Terreagh, happen- 
ed to arrive on the island at the same time, and that same 
night carried off some of Maclean's cattle, with the object 
that the theft might be imputed to Sleat and his party. 
Under that impression Lachlan Mor Maclean assembled his 
followers, and suddenly attacking them at night, slew about 
sixty of them. The chief of Sleat himself only escaped by 
his having previously gone on board his galley to pass the 
night. After his return to Skye, whither he proceeded vow- 
ing vengeance against the Macleans, he was visited by Angus 
Macdonald, for the purpose of concerting measures of retalia- 
tion. On his homeward voyage to Kintyre, Angus Macdon- 
ald landed in the isle of Mull, and, against the advice of his 
followers, went to visit his brother-in-law at his castle of 
Dowart, in the hope of effecting an amicable arrangement of 
all their disputes. His two brothers, Ranald and Coll, who 
were with him, refused to accompany him, fearing treachery, 
and their fears were realized; for, although well received at 
6rst by Maclean, Angus and all his party were the following 
day arrested by Lachlan M6r and thrown into prison. The 
»nly one who escaped was Reginald Macdonald, the cousin of 
Angus. To preserve his life and recover his freedom Angus 
agreed to renounce his right to the disputed lands in the 
Rhinns of Isla, and for the performance of this engagement 
he was obliged to give his eldest son, James, a young boy, 
and his brother, Ranald, as hostages. In a short time after- 
wards Lachlan M6r sailed to Isla to get the agreement com- 
pleted, taking with him James Macdonald, one of the host- 
ages, leaving the other in fetters in the ca6tle of Dowart. 
On his arrival he encamped at the ruinous fort of Eilan Gorm 
on the Rhinns. Angus Macdonald was then residing at 
Mullintrea, to which place he invited Maclean, who declined 
the invitation. " There wes," says Sir Robert Gordon, " so 
little trust on either syd, that they did not now meit in 
friendship or amitie, hot vpon ther owne guard, or rather bv 
messingers, one from another." Angus, however, pressed his 
invitation, with the strongest assurances of safety and good 
treatment, and Lachlan Mor. thrown off his guard, at length 
complied. With 86 of his followers he went to Mullintrea in 
the month of July 1586, and on his arrival was sumptuously 
entertained the whole day. The night, however, was signal- 
ized by treachery and blood. The event is thus related : 
" At the usual hour for retiring to repose, Maclean and his 
people were lodged in a longhouse, which stood by itself, at 
some distance from the other houses. During the whole day 
Maclean had always kept James Macdonald, the hostage, 
within his reach, as a sort of protection to him in case of an 
attack, and at going to bed he took him along with him. 
About an hour after Maclean and his people had retired, 
Angus assembled his men to the number of 3 or 400, and 
made them ourround tne house in which Maclean and his 
company lay. Then going himself to the door, he called upon 
Maclean, and told him that he had come to give him his re- 
posing drink, which he had forgotten to order him before go- 
ing to bed. Maclean answered that he did not wish to drink 
at that time, but Macdonald insisted that he should rise, it 
being, he said, his will that he should do so. The peremp- 
tory tone of Macdonald made Maclean at once apprehensive 
of danger, and getting up and placing the boy between his 
shoulders, as a sort of shield, he prepared to defend his life as 
long as he could, or to sell it as dearly as possible. As soon 
as the door was forced open, James Macdonald, seeing his 
father with a naked sword in his hand, and a number of his 



men armed in the same manner, cried aloud for mercy to 
Maclean, his uncle, which being granted, Lachlan Mor was 
immediately removed to a secret chamber, where he remained 
till nest morning. After Maclean had surrendered, Angus 
Macdonala announced to those within the house that if they 
would come without, their lives would be spared ; but he ex- 
cepted Macdonald Terreagh and another individual whom 
he named. The whole, with the exception of these two, hav- 
ing complied, the house was immediately set on fire, and con- 
sumed along with Macdonald Terreagh and his companion. 
The former was one of the Clandonald of the western islands, 
and not only had assisted the Macleans against his own tribe, 
but was also the originator of all these disturbances ; and the 
latter was a near kinsman of Maclean, one of the oldest of 
the clan, and celebrated both for his wisdom wnd prowess." 

But this was only the beginning of the tragedy. What 
followed was still more horrible. Allan Maclean, a near 
kinsman of Lachlan M6r, in the hope that the Maedonalds 
would put him to death, in which event he would have suc- 
ceeded to the management of the estate, as guardian to his 
children, who were then very young, caused a report to be 
spread that the hostage left behind at Dowart castle, had 
been killed by the Macleans. Under the impression that it 
was true, Coll Macjames, the brother of the hostage and of 
Angus Macdonald, took a signal vengeance on the unfortu- 
nate prisoners in his hands, two of whom were executed 
every day, until at last Lachlan Mor alone survived. An ac- 
cident that happened to Angus Macdonald, as he was mount- 
ing his horse to witness his execution, saved his life. Infor- 
mation of these atrocities being sent to the king (James VI.), 
he immediately despatched a herald to demand that Lachlan 
Mor should be set at liberty, but the herald was unable to 
procure shipping for Isla. Macdonald was at length pre- 
vailed upon to release him, on his delivering into his hands 
his eldest ton, Hector Maclean, and seven other hostages. 
Soon after Angus Macdonald went on a visit to Ulster, when 
Maclean, regardless of the safety of his hostages, and dream- 
ing only of vengeance, hurried to Isla and laid waste a great 
portion of that island. 

On his return from Ireland, Angus Macdonald, at the head 
of a large force, invaded the isles of Mull and Tiree, which he 
ravaged with fire and sword, slaying many of the inhabitants, 
as well as the domestic animals of every description. " Fi- 
nally," says Sir Robert Gordon, "he came to the very Ren- 
more in Mull, and there killed and chased the clan Lean at 
his pleasure, and so revenged himself fully of the injuries 
done to him and his tribe." Instead of opposing him, Mac- 
lean made an inroad into Kintyre, great part of which he 
ravaged and plundered, and " thus for awhile they did conti- 
nually vex one another with slaughters and outrages, to the 
destruction almost of their countries and people." (iS«r 
Robert Gordon's Hist, of Sutherland, p. 186). An episode 
in this long continued and vindictive feud shows to what 
length the feelings of bitterness and cruelty engendered by it 
could be carried. To gain over to his side John Mac Ian of 
Arilnamurchan, who had been a suitor for the hand of his 
mother, the daughter of the earl of Argyle, Lachlan Mor, in 
1588, invited him to Mull, with the view to the proposed 
alliance. Mac Ian accepted the invitation, and was accom- 
panied by a retinue of the principal gentlemen of his tribe. 
No persuasion, however, could induce him to join against his 
own clan, the Maedonalds. Furious at his refusal, Lachlan 
M(Sr, on the marriage night, caused Mac Ian's attendants, to 
the number of 18, to be massacred ; then, bursting into his 
bed chamber, would have murdered himself, had not his new- 
made wile mteroosed on his behalf, and for her sake his life 



MACLEAN 



42 



OF DOWART. 



was spared. With two of his followers, who had escaped the 
faffe of their companions, he was thrown into a dungeon, and 
not released for a year afterwards, when he and other 
prisoners were exchanged for Maclean's son, and the other 
hostages in the hands of Angns Macdonald. 

Previous to his liberation, however, with the assistance of 
a hundred Spanish soldiers belonging to the Florida, a ship 
of the Spanish Armada driven by a storm into the harbour of 
Tobermory in Mull, Lachlan Mdr had ravaged and plunder- 
ed the isles of Rum and Eig, occupied by the Clanranald, and 
those of Canna and Muck, belonging to the clan Ian. In 
this expedition he is said to have burned the whole inhabi- 
tants of these Isles, sparing neither age nor sex. On the 
mainland he besieged for three days Mac Ian's castle of Min- 
garry in Ardnamurchan. The Macdonalds, on their side, as- 
sisted by a band of English mercenaries, wasted the lands of 
the Macleans with fire and sword. 

The mutual ravages committed by the hostile clans, in 
which the kindred and vassal tribes on both sides were in- 
volved, and the effects of which were felt throughout the 
whole of the Hebrides, attracted, in 1589, the serious atten- 
tion of the king and council, and for the purpose of putting 
an end to them, the rival chiefs, with Macdonald of Sleat, on 
receiving remissions, under the privy seal, for all the crimes 
committed by them, were induced to proceed to Edinburgh. 
On their arrival, they were committed prisoners to the castle, 
and, after some time, Maclean and Angus Macdonald were 
brought to trial, in spite of the remissions granted to them ; 
one of the principal charges against them being their trea- 
sonable hiring of Spanish and English soldiers to fight in 
their private quarrels. Both chiefs submitted themselves to 
the king's mercy, and placed their lives and lands at his dis- 
posal. On payment each of a small fine they were allowed 
to return to the Isles, Macdonald of Sleat being released at 
the same time. Besides certain conditions being imposed 
upon them, they were taken bound to return to their con- 
finement in the castle of Edinburgh, whenever they should 
be summoned, on twenty days' warning. Not fulfilling the 
conditions, they were, on 14th July 1593, cited to appear be- 
fore the privy council, and as they disobeyed the summons, 
both Lachlan Mor and Angus Macdonald were, in 1594, for- 
feited by par iament. 

At the battle of Glenlivat, in that year, fought between 
the Catholic earls of Huntly, Angus, and Errol, on the one 
side, and the king's forces, under the earl of Argyle, on the 
other, Lachlan Mor, at the head of the Macleans, particularly 
distinguished himself. Argyle lost the battle, but, says Mr. 
Gregory, (Highlands and Isles of Scotland, p. 259,) " the 
conduct of Lachlan Maclean of Dowart, who was one of Ar- 
gyle's officers, in this action, would, if imitated by the other 
leaders, have converted the defeat into a victory. That chief 
acted the part of a brave and skilful soldier, keeping his men 
in their ranks, and employing, with good effect, all the ad- 
vantages of his position. It was his division which inflicted 
the principal loss on the rebels, and, at the close of the ac- 
tion, he retired in good order with those under his command, 
it is said that, after the battle, he offered, if Argyle would 
give him five hundred men in addition to his own clan, to 
bring the earl of Huntly prisoner into Argyle's camp. This 
proposal was rejected, but having come to the ears of Huntly, 
incensed him greatly against Maclean, whose son afterwards, 
according to tradition, lost a large estate in Lochaber, through 
the animosity of that powerful nobleman." 

In 1596 Lachlan Mor repaired to court, and on making his 
submission to the king, the act ot forfeiture was removed. 
He also received from the crown a lease of the Rhinns of 



Isla, so long in dispute between him and Macdonald of Duny- 
veg. While thus at the head of favour, however, his unjust 
and oppressive conduct to the family of the Macleans of Coll, 
whose castle and island he had seized some years before, on 
the death of Hector Maclean, proprietor thereof, was brought 
before the privy council by Lachlan Maclean, then of Coll, 
Hector's son, and the same year he was ordered to deliver up 
not only the castle of Coll, but all his own castles and strong- 
holds, to the lieutenant of the Isles, on twenty-four hours 
warning, also, to restore to Coll, within thirty days, all the 
lands of which he had deprived him, under a penalty of 
10,000 merks. In 1598, Lachlan Mor, with the view of ex- 
pelling the Macdonalds from Isla, levied his vassals and pro- 
ceeded to that island, and after an ineffectual attempt at an 
adjustment of their differences, was encountered, on 5th Au- 
gust, at the head of Lochgruinard, by Sir James Macdonald, 
son of Angus, at the head of his clan, when the Macleans 
were defeated, and their chief killed, with 80 of his principal 
men and 200 common soldiers. Lachlan Barrach Maclean, a 
son of Sir Lachlan, was dangerously wounded, but escaped. 
Sir Lachlan, according to Sir Robert Gordon, had consulted 
a witch before he undertook this journey into Isla ; she ad- 
vised him, in the first place, not to land upon the island on 
a Thursday ; secondly, that he should not drink of the water 
of a well near Gruinard ; and lastly, she told him that one 
Maclean should be slain at Gruinard. " The first he trans- 
gressed unwillingly," says Sir Robert, "being driven into the 
island of Isla by a tempest upon a Thursday ; the second he 
transgressed negligei.tlie, haveing drank of that water before 
he wes awair ; and so he was killed ther at Groinard, as wes 
foretold him, bot doubtfullie. Thus endeth all these that 
doe trust in such kynd of responces, or doe hunt after them." 
(Hist. p. 238.) 

Hector Maclean, the son and successor of Sir Lachlan, at 
the head of a numerous force, afterwards invaded Isla, and 
attacked and defeated the Macdonalds at a place called Bern 
Bige, and then ravaged the whole island. He was one of 
the principal chiefs of the Isles seized by Lord Ochiltree, the 
king's lieutenant, on his expedition to the Isles in 1608, and 
carried to Edinburgh. The following year he and Macdo- 
nald of Dunyveg were selected to accompany the king's com- 
missioner on his survey of the Isles. With two of his bro- 
thers, and Hector Maclean of Lochbuy, and almost all the 
principal islesmen, he was present at Iona when the ceie^ 
brated " Statutes of Icolmkill " were enacted. He was also 
one of the six principal islanders who met at Edinburgh on 
28th June 1610, to hear his majesty's pleasure declared to 
them, when they were compelled to give sureties to a large 
amount for their reappearance before the council in May 
1611. In the conditions imposed upon the chiefs for the pa- 
cification of the Isles in 1616, we find that Maclean of Dow- 
art was not to use in his house more than four tun of wine, 
and Coll and Lochbuy one tun each. At this time Maclean 
of Dowart and his brother Lachlan, having delayed to find 
the sureties required of them, were committed to ward in 
Edinburgh castle, whence the former was soon liberated, ana 
allowed to live with Acheson of Gosfurd, his father-in-law, 
under his own recognisance of £40,000, and his father-in- 
law's for 5,000 merks, that he should remain there until per- 
mitted by the council to return to the Isles. Dowart's bro- 
ther was not liberated till the following year. 

Sir Lachlan Maclean of Morvem, a younger brother of 

Hector Maclean of Dowart, was in 1631 created a baronet of 

Nova Scotia by Charles I., and on the death of his elder bio- 

| ther he succeeded to the estate of Dowart. In the civil war» 

I the Macleans took arms under Montrose, and fought valiantly 



MACLEAN, 



43 



SIR CHARLES. 



for the royal cause. At the battle of Inverloch), 2d Febru- 
ary 1645, Sir Lachlan commanded his clan. He was also 
engaged in the subsequent battles of the royalist general. 
Sir Hector Maclean, his son, with 800 of his followers, was 
at the battle of Inverkeithing, 20th July 1651, when the roy- 
alists were opposed to the troops of Oliver Cromwell. On 
this occasion an instance of devoted attachment to the chiet 
was shcivn on the part of the Macleans. In the heat of the 
oattle, Sir Hector was covered from the enemy's attacks by 
seven brothers of his clan, all of whom successively sacrificed 
their lives in his defence. Each brother, as he fell, exclaimed, 
" Fear eile air son Eackainn," ' Another for Eachann,' or 
Hector, and a fresh one stepping in, answered, " Bits air son 
Eackainn" ' Death for Eachann.' The former phrase, says 
General Stewart, has continued ever since to be a proverb or 
watchword, when a man encounters any sudden danger that 
requires instant succour. Sir Hector, however, was left among 
the slain, with about 500 of his followers. 

The Dowart estates had become deeply involved in debt, 
and the marquis of Argyle, by purchasing them up, had ac- 
quired a claim against the lands of Maclean, which ultimate- 
ly led to the greater portion of them becoming the property 
of that grasping family. In 1674, after the execution of the 
marquis, payment was insisted upon by his son, the earl. 
The tutor of Maclean, the chief, his nephew, being a minor, 
evaded the demand for a considerable time, and at length 
showed a disposition to resist it by force. Argyle had re- 
course to legal proceedings, and supported by a body of 2,000 
Campbells, he crossed into Mull, where he took possession of 
the castle of Dowart, and placed a garrison in it. The Mac- 
leans, however, refused to pay their rents to the earl, and in 
consequence he prepared for a second invasion of Mull. To 
resist it, the Macdonalds came to the aid of the Macleans, 
out Argyle's ships were driven back by a storm, when he ap- 
plied to government, and even went to London, to ask assist- 
ance from the king. Lord Macdonald and other friends 
of the Macleans followed him, and laid a state of the dispute 
oefore Charles, who, in February 1676, remitted the matter 
to three lords of the Scottish privy council. No decision, 
however, was come to by them, and Argyle was allowed to 
take possession of the island of Mull without resistance in 
1680. 

After the Revolution, a party of Mac.eans, under their 
chief, Sir John Maclean, fourth baronet, on their way to join 
Viscount Dundee, were surprised in Strathspey, by a party 
of Mackay's dragoons, under Sir Thomas Livingston, when 
they threw away their plaids, and formed on an adjoining 
hill. In the skirmish that ensued, they sustained a loss of 
80 or 100 men. At the battle of Killiecrankie, Sir John 
Maclean, with his regiment, was placed on Dundee's right, 
and among the troops on his left was a battalion under Sir 
Alexander Maclean. The Macleans were amongst the High- 
landers surprised and defeated at Cromdale in 1690. The 
following day, a party of Macleans and Camerons, who had 
in the flight separated from their companions in arms, crossed 
the Spey, but being pursued by some of Livingston's mm, 
were overtaken and dispersed on the moor of Granish near 
Aviemore, where some of them were killed. Subsequentlv, 
the earl of Argyle invaded Mull, with 1,900 foot and 60 dra- 
goons, when the inhabitants took the oaths of allegiance to 
the government, and delivered up their arms. Sir John 
Maclean himself, with a few of his friends, took refuge in the 
fort of Carneburgh, one of the Treshnish isles, where a party 
ot Macleans, during the civil wars, had held out, for some 
time, against a detachment of Cromwell's forces. 

In the rebellion of 1715, the Macleans ranged themselves 



under the standard of the earl of Mar, and were present at 
the battle of Sheriffmuir. For his share in the insurrection 
Sir John Maclean, the chief, was forfeited, but the estates 
were afterwards restored to the family. On the breaking out 
of the rebellion of 1745, Sir John's son, Sir Hector Maclean 
the fifth baronet, was apprehended, with his servant, at Ed- 
inburgh, and conveyed to London. He was not set at liberty 
till the passing of the act of indemnity in June 1747. At 
Culloden, however, 500 of his clan fought for Prince Charles, 
under Maclean of Drimnin, who was slain leading them on. 
Sir Hector died, unmarried, at Paris, in 1750, when the title 
devolved upon his third cousin, the remainder being to heirs 
male whatsoever. This third cousin, Sir Allan Maclean, 
was great-grandson of Donald Maclean of Brolas, eldest gon, 
by his second marriage, of Hector Maclean of Dowart, the 
father of the first baronet. Sir Allan married Anne, daugh- 
ter of Hector Maclean of Coll, and had three daughters, the 
eldest of whom, Maria, became the wife of Maclean of Kin- 
lochaline, and the second, Sibella, of Maclean of Inverscadell. 
In 1773, when Dr. Johnson and Mr. Boswell visited the 
Hebrides, Sir Allan was chief of the clan. He resided at that 
time on Inchkenneth, one of his smaller islands, in the dis- 
trict of Mull, where he entertained his visitors very hospita- 
bly. "This island," says Dr. Johnson, "is about a mile 
long, and perhaps half-a-mile broad, remarkable for pleasant- 
ness and fertility. Its only inhabitants were Sir Allan Mac- 
lean and two young ladies, his daughters, with their servants. 
Romance does not often exhibit a scene that strikes the ima- 
gination more than this little desert, in these depths of west- 
ern obscurity, occupied not by a gross herdsman, or amphi- 
bious fisherman, but by a gentleman and two ladies, of high 
birth, polished manners, and elegant conversation, who, in a 
habitation raised not very far above the ground, but furnished 
with unexpected neatness and convenience, practised all the 
kindness of hospitality and refinement of courtesy." From 
the following anecdote it would appear that the feeling ot 
devotion to the chief had survived the heritable abolition act 
of 1747, if indeed the passing of such an act was at all 
generally known in 1773 among the humbler inhabitants of 
the remote Hebrides. " The Macinnises are said to be a 
branch of the clan,of Maclean. Sir Allan had been told that 
one of the name had refused to send him some mm, at which 
the knight was in great indignation. 'You rascal!' said he, 
'don't you know that I can hang yon, if I please? Refuse 
to send rum to me, you rascal ! Don't you know that if I 
order you to go and cut a man's throat, you are to do it?' 
'Yes, an't please your honour, and my own too, and bans: 
myself too ! ' The poor fellow denied that he had refused to 
send the rum. His making these professions was not merely 
a pretence in presence of his chief, for, after he and I were 
out of Sir Allan's hearing, he told me, ' Had he sent his dog 
for the rum, I would have given it: I would cut my bones 
for him.' Sir Allan, by way of upbraiding the fellow, said, 
' I believe you are a Campbell!'" 

Dying without male issue in 1783, Sir Allan was succeeded 
by his kinsman, Sir Hector, 7th baronet ; on whose death, 
Nov. 2, 1818, his brother, Lieut.-general Sir Fitzroy Jeffry 
Grafton Maclean, became the 8th baronet. He died July 5, 
1847, leaving two sons, Sir Charles Fitzroy Maclean of .M<>r- 
vern, and Donald Maclean, of the chancery bar, at one period 
a member of parliament. Sir Charles, 9th baronet, a ooloi I 
in the army, (1816) commanded the 81st foot for some time, 
and was subsequently military secretary at Gibraltar. He 
married a daughter of the Hon. and Rev. Jacob Marsham, 
uncle of the earl of Romney; issue, a son, Charles Donald, 
capt. 13th dragoons, and 4 daughters; one, Fanny, marries? 



MACLEAN, 



44 



OF COLL. 



Capt. Hood, R.N., and another, Louisa, became the wife of 
Hon. Ralph Pelham Neville, son of the earl of Abergavenny. 



The first of the Lochbny branch of the Macleans was Hec- 
tor Reganach, brother of Lachlan Lubanach above mentioned. 
He nad a son named John, or Murchard, whose great-grand- 
son, John Og Maclean of Lochbuy, received from King 
James IV., several charters of confirmation under the great 
seal, of the lands and baronies which had been held by his 
progenitors. He was killed, with his two elder sons, in a 
family fend with the Macleans of Dowart. His only surviv- 
ing son, Murdoch, was obliged, in consequence of the same 
feud, to retire to Ireland, where he remained for several 
years, and married a daughter of the earl of Antrim. By the 
mediation of his father-in-law, his differences with Dowart 
were satisfactorily adjusted, and he returned to the isles, 
where he spent his latter years in peace. His son, John 
Mor Maclean of Lochbuy, was so expert a fencer that, ac- 
cording to a history of the family, he fought on a stage in 
Edinburgh before the king and court, and killed a famous 
Italian swordsman, who had challenged all Scotland. By his 
wife, a daughter of Macdonald of the Isles, he had two sons. 
Hector, who succeeded him, and Charles, progenitor of the 
Macleans of Tapull. From the latter family descended Sir 
Alexander Maclean of Ottar, mentioned in the preceding 
page, who attached himself to the interests of James VII. 
He accompanied the fallen monarch to France, and rose to 
the rank of colonel in the French service. 

The house of Lochbuy has always maintained that of the 
two brothers, Lachlan Lubanach and Hector Reganach, the 
latter was the senior, and that, consequently, the chiefship of 
the Macleans is vested in its head ; " but this," says Mr. 
Gregory, " is a point on which there is no certain evidence." 
The whole clan, at different periods, have followed the head 
of both families to the field, and fought under their command. 
Of this house was Hector Maclean, elected bishop of Argyle 
in 1680. He had in his younger years taken arms for the 
king in the civil wars, but being of a religious disposition he 
ultimately entered the church. The Lochbuy family now 
spells its name Maelaine. 



The Coll branch of the Macleans, like that of Dowart, de- 
scended from Lachlan Lubanach, said to have been grand- 
father of the fourth bird of Dowart and the first laird of 
Coll, who were brothers. John Maclean, surnamed Garbh, 
son of Lachlan of Dowart, obtained the isle of Coll and the 
lands of Quinish in Mull from Alexander, earl of Ross and 
lord of the Isles, and afterwards, on the forfeiture of Cameron, 
the lands of Lochiel. The latter grant engendered, as we 
have seen, a deadly feud between the Camerons and the 
Macleans, which led to much contention and bloodshed be- 
tween them. At one time the son and successor of John 
Garbh occupied Lochiel by force, but was killed in a conflict 
with the Camerons at Corpach, in the reign of James III. 
His infant son would also have been put to death, had the 
boy not been saved by the Macgillonies or Macalonichs, a tribe 
of Lochaber that generally followed the clan Cameron. This 
youth, subsequently known as John Abrach Maclean of Coll, 
was the representative of the family in 1493, and from him 
was adopted by his successors the patronymic appellation of 
Maclean Abrach, by which the lairds of Coll were ever after 
distinguished. 

The tradition concerning this heir of Coll is thus related 
bv Dr. Johnson, in his Tour to the Hebrides: "Very near 
the house of Maclean stands the castle of Coll, which was the 
mansion of the laird till the house was built. On the wall 



was, not long ago, a stone with an inscription, importing 
' That if any man of the clan of Macalonich shall appeal 
before this castle, though he come at midnight with a man's 
head in his hand, he shall there find safety and protection 
against all but the king.' This is an old Highland treaty 
made upon a memorable occasion. Maclean, the son of 
John Garbh, who recovered Coll, and conquered Barra, had 
obtained, it is said, from James II., a grant of the lands of 
Lochiel, forfeited, I suppose, by some offence against the 
state. Forfeited estates were not in those days quietly re- 
signed: Maclean, therefore, went with an armed force to 
seize his new possessions, and, I know not for what reason, 
took his wife with him. The Camerons rose in defence of 
their chief, and a battle was fought at the bead of Lochness, 
near the place where Fort Augustus now stands, in which 
Lochiel obtained the victory, and Maclean, with his follow- 
ers, was defeated and destroyed. The lady fell into the hands 
of the conquerors, and being found pregnant, was placed in 
the custody of Macalonich, one of a tribe or family branched 
from Cameron, with orders, if she brought a boy, to destroy 
him, if a girl, to spare her. Macalonich's wife, who was with 
child likewise, had a girl about the same time at which Lady 
Maclean brought a boy; and Macalonich, with more genero- 
sity to his captive than fidelity to his trust, contrived that 
the children should be changed. Maclean being thus pre- 
served from death, in time recovered his original patrimony, 
and in gratitude to his friend, made his castle a place of re- 
fuge to any of the clan that should think himself in danger, 
and, as a proof of reciprocal confidence, Maclean took upon 
himself and his posterity the care of educating the heir of 
Macalonich. This story, like all other traditions of the High- 
lands, is variously related ; but, though some circumstances 
are uncertain, the principal fact is true. Maclean undoubt- 
edly owed his preservation to Macalonich ; for the treaty be- 
tween the two families has been strictly observed ; it did not 
sink into disuse and oblivion, but continued in its full force 
while the chieftains retained their power. The power of pro- 
tection subsists no longer; but what the law permits is yet 
continued, and Maclean of Coll now educates the heir of 
Macalonich." 

The account of the conversion of the simple islanders of 
Coll from popery to protestantism is curious. The laird had 
imbibed the principles of the Reformation, but found his peo- 
ple reluctant to abandon the religion of their fathers. To 
compel them to do so, he did not trouble himself with argu- 
ment or reasoning of any sort, but took his station one Sun- 
day in the path which led to the Roman Catholic church, 
and as his clansmen approached, he drove them back with 
his cane. They at once made their way to the protestant 
place of worship, and from this persuasive mode ot conver- 
sion, his vassals ever after called it the religion of the gold- 
headed stick. Lachlan, the seventh proprietor of Coll, went 
over to Holland with some of his own men, in the reign of 
Charles II., and obtained the command of a company in 
General Mackay's regiment, in the service of the prince of 
Orange. He afterwards returned to Scotland, and was 
drowned in the water of Lochy in Lochaber in 1687. 

Dr. Johnson seems to have been especially gratified with 
his reception at Coll. " We were at Coll," he says, " under 
the protection of the young laird, and wherever we roved, 
we were pleased to see the reverence with which his subjects 
regarded him. He did not endeavour to dazzle them by any 
magnificence of dress ; his only distinction was a feather in 
his bonnet , but, as soon as he appeared, they forsook their 
work and clustered about him ; he took them by tho hand, 
and they seemed mutually delighted. He has the proper 



MACLEAN. 



45 



MACLENNAN. 



disposition of a chieftain, and seems desirous to continue the 
customs of his house. The bagpiper played regularly when 
dinner was served, whose person and dress made a good ap- 
pearance, and he brought no disgrace upon the family of 
Rankin, which has long supplied the lairds of Coll with here- 
ditary music." As an instance of the expense which attend- 
ed the funeral of persons of distinction in the western isles, 
he states that nineteen years before his visit, thirty cows and 
about fifty sheep were killed at the burial of the laird of Coll, 
so great was the concourse of persons present at it. From 
Coll the travellers were conducted by the young laird to Mull, 
Ulva, and Sir Allan Maclean's at Inch-Kenneth. The young 
laird of Coll, soon after perished in the passage between Ulva 
and Inch-Kenneth. Col. Hugh Maclean, London, the last 
laird of Coll, of that name, was the 15th in regular descent 
from John Garbh, son of Lauchlan Lubanach. 



The Ardgour branch of the Macleans, which held its lands 
directly from the lord of the Isles, descended from Donald, 
another son of Lauchlan, 3d laird of Dowart. The estate of 
Ardgour, which is in Argyleshire, had previously belonged to 
a different tribe (the Macmasters), but it was conferred 
upon Donald, either by Alexander, earl of Ross, or by his son 
and successor, John. In 1463, Ewen or Eugene, son of Donald, 
held the office of seneschal of the household to the latter earl ; 
and in 1493, Lachlan Macewen Maclean was laird of Ardgour. 
Alexander Maclean, Esq., the present laird of Ardgour, is the 
14th from father to son. His numerous brothers are colonels 
m the army. Two of them are in the royal artillery. 



During the 17th and 18th centuries the Macleans of Loch- 
buy, Coll, and Ardgour, more fortunate than the Dowart 
branch of the clan, contrived to preserve their estates nearly 
entire, although compelled by the marquis of Argyle to re- 
nounce their holdings in capite of the crown, and to become 
vassals of that nobleman. They continued zealous partizans 
of the Stuarts, in whose cause they suffered severely. 



of Mac Quarrie of Mac Quarrie, chief of Ulva, after serving 
with distinction in India and the Peninsular war, wa.s knighted 
for his defence of Fort Matagorda for 55 days, with only 155 
men against 8,000 men under Marshal Soult. 



From Lachlan Og Maclean, a younger son of Lachlan Mor 
of Dowart, sprung the family of Torloisk in Mull. Among 
the Highland corps embodied during the latter half of the last 
century was a regiment raised by Captain Allan Maclean of 
Torloisk, which was reduced in 1763. The Highland regi- 
ments in America and Germany were supplied with recruits 
from this corps. The estate ultimately fell to the heiress of 
lins, Mrs. Clephane Maclean, whose grandson, 2d son of the 
marquis of Northampton, came to possess the property. An- 
other grandson was the Baron de Norman, murdered by 
tLo Chinese in Pekin. 



Of the numerous flourishing cadets of the different branches, 
cbr) principal were the Macleans of Kinlochaline, Ardtornish, 
and Drimnin, descended from the family ot Dowart; of Tapul 
and Scallasdale, in the island of Mull, from that of Lochbuy; 
of Isle of Muck, from that of Coll; and of Borrera, in North 
Uist and Treshinish, from that of Ardgour. The family of 
Borrera are represented by Donald Maclean, Esq., and Gen- 
eral Archibald Maclean. From Isle of Muck and Treshinish 
is descended A. C. Maclean of Haremere Hall, Sussex. 

The Macleans of Pennycross, island of Mull, represented 
by Alexander Maclean, Esq., derives from John Dubh, the 
first Maclean of Morvern. General Allan Maclean of Penny- 
cross, colonel of the 13th light dragoons, charged • /ith them 
at Waterloo. 

General Sir Archibald Maclaine, born ra 1783, 2d son of 
Gillian Maclaine, Esq. of Scallasdale, by the eldest daughter 



Maclellan, a surname of considerable antiquity in the 
south of Scotland. The Maclellans of Bombie, a family at 
one period of great power and influence, supposed originally 
to have come from Ireland, were, in ancient times, sheriffs of 
Galloway. Duncan Maclellan is mentioned in a charter of 
Alexander II. in 1217. Among the faithful adherents who 
accompanied Sir William Wallace, when he sailed from Kirk- 
cudbright for France, after his defeat at Falkirk in 1293, was 
Maclellan the then laird of Bombie. The family became so 
flourishing about the beginning of the 15th century that, ac- 
cording to Crawford (Peerage, p. 237), there were no fewer 
than 14 knights of the name in Galloway at the same time. 
The account of the murder of Sir Patrick Maclellan, tutor of 
Bombie, by the 8th earl of Douglas, in Thneve castle, in 
1452, has been already related. (See vol. ii. page 615, art. 
Kirkcudbright, baron.) Local tradition states that when 
James II., in 1455. arrived with an army at Carlinwark, to be- 
siege the castle of Thrieve, the Maclellans presented him with 
the celebrated piece of ordnance, called Mons Meg, wherewith 
to batter down the stronghold of the rebellious chieftain. 

Sir William Maclellan of Bombie. knighted by James IV. 
fell at Flodden with a number of his followers. HU son, 
Thomas Maclellan of Bombie, was killed in a feud with Gor- 
don of Lochinvar at the door of St. Giles' church, Edinburgh, 
11th July, 1526. His great-grandson, Sir Robert Maclellan, 
was created Lord Kirkcudbright, 25th May 1633. See 
Kirkcudbright, baron.) There were also the Maclellans 
of Barclay, descended from the Maclellans of Barmagachen, of 
the original Bombie line. 

Although the crest of the Maclellans was a Moor's head on 
the point of a sword, in allusion to their recovery of the estate 
of Bombie, after being forfeited, by the slaying of a gipsy 
chief who infested Galloway, as already related under the 
article Kirkcudbright, they sometimes used for crest 
a mortar-piece, with the motto, " Superbo frango," having 
reference, we are inclined to suppose, to the great iron gun 
named Mons Meg, which is said to have been made by a local 
smith, one Brawny Kim or M'Kim and his sons. As a re- 
ward for constructing so noble an engine of war, M'Kim is 
stated to have obtained the forfeited lands of Mollance, in 
the neighbourhood of Thrieve castle, hence this gun was 
called Mollance Meg, that being the name of the smith's 
wife, afterwards corrupted into Mons Meg. There is, how- 
ever, an impression on the cannon itself that it was cast at 
the town of Mons in Flanders, whence it took its name. Nis- 
bet thinks that the Maclellans adopted a mortar-piece or 
bomb for their crest, in allusion to their designation of Bom- 
bie, a somewhat fanciful notion certainly. 



Maclennan, the surname of a minor clan, called in Gae- 
lic, the Siol Fhinnan, or race of Finnan. There was a cele- 
brated Highland saint of this name, and the tribe or sept of 
the Maclennans derive their descent from one of his devo- 
tees. According to a tradition of the Sennachies, a chief of 
the Logans of Drumduirfait in Ross-shire, in the beginning of 
the 13th century, called Gilliegorm, had been killed in a clan 
battle with the Frasers, and his widow being carried off, bore 
a son, surnamed Crotach, or humpbacked, from his crooked 
appearance. It is even asserted that he was, in his infancv, 
intentionally injured by those into whose hands his mother 
had fallen, to prevent his ever attempting to avenge his fa- 



MACLEOD 



46 



OF HARRIS. 



ther's death, by leading his clan to hattle, the Highlanders 
having a strong aversion to follow a deformed leader. He 
was therefore designed for the church, and with that view 
was placed with the monks of Beaulieu, to receive the requi- 
site ecclesiastical upbringing. On coming of age, and being 
duly set apart for his holy work, he set out upon a tour to the 
west coast, the isle of Skye, and other places adjacent, where 
he built the churches of Kilmuir in Sleat, in the churchyard 
of which parish the celebrated Flora Macdonald lies huried, 
and Kilchrennan in Glenelg. Disregarding the recent decree 
of Pope Innocent III., strictly enjoining the celibacy of the 
clergy, he married, and had several children. One of his 
sons he called Gillie-Fhinnan, in honour of the renowned St. 
Finnan, and as the Fh is here not pronounced in the Gaelic, 
Ghilli-inan became of course Maclennan. 

The Maclennans inhabited with the Macraes the district of 
Kintail in Ross-shire, the boundary between them being a 
river which runs into Loch Duich. At the battle of Auld- 
earn in 1645, they were intrusted with the standard of Lord 
Seaforth, and they defended it so gallantly, that great num- 
bers of them were cut down around it. Eighteen of the wi- 
dows of the Maclennans slain on this occasion married their 
neighbours the Macraes. Like the latter, the Maclennans 
were subordinate to the Seaforth branch of the Mackenzies, 
and in the different rebellions, fought under the renowned 
" Caber feidh," or Caberfae, as the Mackenzie's banner was 
called, from the deer's head in the centre. 

The old Jacobite ballad of Sheiiffmuir, to the tune of 

" We ran and they ran," 

was written by a clergyman of this name, the Rev. Murdoch 
Maclennan of Crathie in Braemar. He became minister of 
that parish in 1749, and died there 22d July 1783, in the 
8"2d year of his age. An abridged version of it is inserted in 
Motherwell and Hogg's edition of the Works of Burns, vol. ii. 
page 164. 



Macleod, the name of one of the most considerable clans 
of the western isles (badge, the red whortleberry), divided 
into two tribes independent of each other, the Macleods of 
Harris and the Macleods of Lewis. To the progenitors of 
this clan a Norwegian origin has commonly been assigned. 
They are also supposed to be of the same stock as the Camp- 
bells, according to a family history referred to by Mr. Skene, 
which dates no farther back than the early part of the 16th 
century. 

The genealogy claimed for them asserts (see Douglas 1 Bar- 
onage, page 375) that the ancestor of the chiefs of the clan, 
and he who gave it its clan name, was Loyd or Leod, eldest 
son of King Olave the Black, brother of Magnus, the last 
king of Man and the Isles. This Leod is said to have had 
two sons : Tormod, progenitor of the Macleods of Harris, 
hence called the Siol Tormod, or race of Tormod ; and Tor- 
quil, of those of Lewis, called tne Siol Torquil, or race of 
Torqnil. Although, however, Mr. Skene and others are of 
opinion that there is no authority whatever for such a de- 
scent, and " The Chronicle of Man" gives no countenance to 
it, we think the probabilities are in its favour, from the man- 
ifestly Norwegian names borne by the founders of the clan, 
namely, Tormod and Torquil, and from their position in the 
isles, from the very commencement of their known history. 
The clan itself, there can be no doubt, are the descendants of 
the ancient Gaelic inhabitants of the western isles. 

Tormod, the son of the first Tormod, sided with Bruce, m 
the struggle for Scottish independence, and always remained 



faithful and loyal to him. His son, Malcolm, got a 
charter from David II., of two-thirds of Glenelg, on the 
mainland, a portion of the forfeited lands of the Bissets, in 
consideration for which the reddendum was to provide a gal- 
ley of 36 oars, for the king's use whenever required. This is 
the earliest charter in possession of the Macleods. The same 
Malcolm obtained the lands in Skye which were long in pos- 
session of his descendants, by marriage with a daughter of 
MacArailt, said to have been one of the Norwegian nobles of 
the Isles. From the name, however, we would be inclined to 
take this MacArailt for a Celt. The sennachies sometimes 
made sad slips. 

Macleod of Harris, originally designated "de Glenelg," 
that being the first and principal possession of the family, 
seems to have been the proper chief of the clan Leod. The 
island or rather peninsula of Harris, which is adjacent to 
Lewis, belonged, at an early period, to the Macruaries of 
Garmoran and the North Isles, under whom the chief of the 
Siol Tormod appears to have possessed it. From this family, 
the superiority of the North Isles passed to the Macdonalds 
of Isla by marriage, and thus Harris came to form a part of 
the lordship of the Isles. In the isle of Skye the Siol Tor- 
mod possessed the districts of Dunvegan, Duirinish, Braca- 
dale, Lyndale, Trouterness, and Minganish, being about two- 
thirds of the whole island. Their principal seat was Dunvegan, 
hence the chief was often styled of that place. 

The first charter of the Macleods of Lewis, or Siol Torquil, 
is also one by King David II. It is historically known that 
in 1369, the year before his death, that monarch proceeded in 
person, at the head of a formidable expedition, against the 
rebellious lord of the Isles, and compelled him and his vassaJ 
chiefs, at Inverness, to submit to his authority. One of the 
means employed by him on this occasion to effect that pur 
pose, and to keep the rude northern chiefs to the obedience of 
the laws, was the promise of rewards and the bestowal of 
lands, on some of the principal of them. It is even said, 
(Fordun a Goodal, vol. ii. p. 380,) that he used artifice tc 
divide them and induce them to slay or capture one another. 
Certain it is, that it was in this reign that the practice of 
bonds of manrent or friendship among the chiefs and nobles 
hegan. The charter referred to contained a royal grant to 
Torquil Macleod of the barony of Assynt, on the north-western 
coast of Sutherlandshire. This barony, however, he is said 
to have obtained by marriage with the heiress, whose name 
was Macnicol. It was held from the crown. In that char- 
ter he has no designation, hence it is thought that he had 
then no other property. The Lewis Macleods held that island 
as vassals of the Macdonalds of Isla from 1344, and soon 
came to rival the Harris branch of the Macleods in power and 
extent of territory, and even to dispute the chiefship with 
them. Their armorial bearings, however, were different, the 
family of Harris having a castle, while that of Lewis had a 
burning mount. The possessions of the Siol Torquil were 
very extensive, comprehending the isles of Lewis and Rasay, 
the district of Waterness in Skye, and those of Assynt, Co- 
geach, and Gerloch, on the mainland. 

To return to the Harris branch. The grandson of the 
above-mentioned Malcolm, William Macleod, surnamed Ach~ 
lerach, or the clerk, from being in his youth designed for the 
church, was one of the most daring chiefs of his time. To 
avenge an insult which he had received, when young, from 
the Frasers, he had no sooner succeeded to his patrimony, 
than he ravaged the estate of Lovat in the Aird. Having 
afterwards incurred the resentment of his superior, the lord 
of the Isles, that powerful chief invaded his territory with a 
large force, but was defeated at a place called Lochsligachan, 



MACLEOD 



47 



OF HARRIS. 



owing to a stratagem, and the greater military skill of the 
Macleud chief. His son, John, accompanied Donald of the 
Isles to the battle of Harlaw in 1411, and died in the begin- 
ning of the reign of James II. John's eldest son, William, 
in 1640, with Hugh Macdonald of Sleat, and "the young 
gentlemen of the Isles," ravaged the Orkneys. He was one 
of the principal supporters of the last lord of the Isles in his 
disputes with his turbulent and rebellious son, Angus, and 
was killed, in 1481, at the battle of the Bloody Bay, where 
also the eldest son of Roderick Macleod of the Lewis was 
mortally wounded. The son of William of Harris, Alexander 
Macleod, called Allaster Crottach, or the Humpbacked, was 
the head of the Siol Tormod at the time of the forfeiture of 
the lordship of the Isles in 1493, when Roderick, grandson of 
the above-named Roderick, was chief of the Siol Torquil. 
This Roderick's father, Torquil, the second son of the first 
Roderick, was the principal supporter of Donald Dubh, when 
he escaped from prison and raised the banner of insurrection 
in 1501, for the purpose of regaining the lordship of the Isles, 
for which he was forfeited. He married Katherine, daughter 
of the first earl of Argyle, the sister of Donald Dubh's mo- 
ther. The forfeited estate of Lewis was restored in 1511 to 
Malcolm, Torquil's brother. 

Alexander the Humpback got a charter, under the great 
eeal, of all his lands in the Isles, from James IV., dated 15th 
June, 1498, under the condition of keeping in readiness for 
the king's use one ship of 26 oars and two of 16, which ex- 
plains the appearance of the lymphad or oared galley in the 
armorial bearings of the Macleods and other island families. 
The right to the eyries or nests of falcons within his bounds 
was also reserved to the crown. He had also a charter from 
James V. of the lands of Glenelg, dated 13th February, 
1539. The Macleods of Harris and Lewis joined the Mac- 
leans in supporting the claims of Sir Donald Macdonald of 
Lochalsh to the lordship of the Isles, but disgusted with Sir 
Donald's proceedings, they soon submitted to the government, 
and endeavoured to apprehend that chief. Although he 
escaped from them, his two brothers fell into their hands. 
With Maclean of Loch buy, Alexander Macleod of Harris re- 
ceived a remission for himself and his followers, upon giving 
hostages. This was in 1517. In the following year the 
Macleods of Lewis and Rasay were with Sir Donald of Loch- 
alsh when he defeated Macian of Ardnamurchan, at Craigan- 
airgid, (or the Silver Craig,) in Morvern, the latter, with 
two of his sons, and a great number of his followers, being 
slain. With the Macdonalds of Sleat, the Hams Macleods 
had a feud regarding the lands and office of bailiary of Trou- 
terness, now called Trotternish, in the isle of Skye, held by 
them under several crown charters. The feud was embit- 
tered by Macleod having also obtained a heritable grant of 
the lands of Sleat and North Uist ; and the Siol Torquil, who 
had also some claim to the Trouterness bailiary and a portion 
of the lands, siding with the Macdonalds, the two leading 
branches of the Macleods came to be in opposition to each 
other. Under Donald Gruamach (that is, grim-looking) aided 
by the uterine brother of their chief, John MacTorquil Mac- 
leod, son of Torquil Macleod of the Lewis, forfeited in 1506, 
the Macdonalds succeeded in expelling Macleod of Harris or 
Dunvegan from Trouterness, as well as in preventing him 
from taking possession of Sleat and North Uist. The death 
of his uncle, Malcolm Macleod, and the minority of his son, 
enabled Torquil, with the assistance of Donald Gruamach, in 
nis turn, to seize the whole barony of Lewis which, with the 
eadership of the Siol Torquil, he held during his life. His 
daughter and heiress married Donald Gorme of Sleat, a 
claimant for the lordship of the Isles, and tiie son ana suc- 



cessor of Donald Gruamach. An agreement was entered ini* 
between Donald Gorme and Ruari or Roderick Macleod, sou 
of Malcolm, the last lawful possessor of the Lewis, whereby 
Roderick was allowed to enter into possession of that island, 
and in return Roderick became bound to assist in putting 
Donald Gorme in possession of Trouterness, against all the 
efforts of the chief of Harris or Dunvegan, who had again 
obtained possession of that district. In May 1539, accord- 
ingly, Trouterness was invaded and laid waste by Donald 
Gorme and his allies of the Siol Torquil ; but the death soon 
after of Donald Gorme, by an arrow wound in his foot, under 
the walls of Mackenzie of Kintail's castle of Ellandonan, put 
an end to his rebellion and his pretensions together. When 
the powerful fleet of James V. arrived at the isle of Lewis 
the lo'lowing year, Roderick Macleod and his principal kins- 
men met the king, and were made to accompany him in his 
farther progress through the Isles. On its reaching Skye, 
Alexander Macleod of Dunvegan was also constrained to em- 
bark in the royal fleet. With the other captive chiefs they 
were sent to Edinburgh, and only liberated on giving hosta- 
ges for their obedience to the laws. 

Alexander the Humpback, chief of the Harris Macleods, 
died at an advanced age in the reign of Queen Mary. Ho 
had three sons, William, Donald, and Tormod, who all suc- 
ceeded to the estates and authority of their family. He had 
also two daughters, the elder of whom was thrice married, 
and every time to a Macdonald. Her first husband waa 
James, second son of the fourth laird of Sleat. Her second 
was Alan Macian, captain of the Clanranald, whose bad 
usage of her was the cause of a long subsisting feud between 
the Macleods and the Clanranald, which led to a dreadful ca- 
tastrophe in the island of Eig, as afterwards related ; and her 
third husband was Macdonald of Keppoch. The younger 
daughter became the wife of Maclean of Lochbuy. 

William Macleod of Harris had a daughter, Mary, who, on 
his death in 1554, became, under a particular destination, 
his sole heiress in the estates of Harris, Dunvegan, and 
Glenelg. His claim to the properties of Sleat, Trouterness, 
and North Uist, of which he was the nominal proprietor, but 
which were held by the Clandonald, was inherited by his 
next brother and successor, Donald. This state of things 
placed the latter in a very anomalous position, which may be 
explained in Mr. Gregory's words : " The Siol Tormod," he 
says (llistory oftlve Highlands and Tiles, p. 204), " was now 
placed in a position, which, though quite intelligible on the 
principles of feudal law, was totally opposed to the Celtio 
customs that still prevailed, to a great extent, throughout 
the Highlands and Isles. A female and a minor was th« 
legal proprietrix of the ancient possessions of the tribe, 
which, by her marriage, might be conveyed to another and a 
hostile family; whilst her uncle, the natural leader of the 
clan according to ancient custom, was left without any means 
to keep up the dignity of a chief, or to support the clan 
against its enemies. His claims on the estates possessed by 
the Clandonald were worse than nugatory, as they threatened 
to involve him in a feud with that powerful and warlike tribe, 
in case he should take any steps to enforce them. In these 
circumstances, Donald Macleod seized, apparently with the 
consent of his clan, the estates which legally belonged to his 
niece, the heiress; and thus, in practice, tne feudal law was 
made to yield to ancient and inveterate custom. Donald did 
not enjoy these estates long, being murdered in Trouterness, 
by a relation of his own, John Oig Macleod, who, failing 
Tormod, the only remaining brother of Donald, would have 
become the heir male of the family. John Oig next plotted 
the destruction of Tormod, who was at the time a student in 



MACLEOD 



48 



OF LEWIS. 



the university of Glasgow ; but in this he was foiled by the 
interposition of the earl of Argyle. He continued, notwith- 
standing, to retain possession of the estates of the heiress, 
and of the command of the clan, till his death in 1559." 
The heiress of Harris was one of Queen Mary's maids of hon- 
our, and the earl of Argyle, having ultimately become her 
guardian, she was given by him in marriage to his kinsman, 
Duncan Campbell, younger of Auchinbreck. Through the 
previous efforts of the earl, Tormod Macleod, on receiving a 
legal title to Harris and the other estates, renounced in fa- 
vour of Argyle all his claims to the lands of the Clandonald, 
and paid 1,000 merks towards the dowry of his niece. He 
also gave his bond of service to Argyle for himself and his 
clan. Mary Macleod, in consequence, made a complete sur- 
render to her uncle of her title to the lands of Harris, Dun- 
vegan, and Glenelg, and Argyle obtained for him a crown 
charter of these estates, dated 4th August, 1579. Tormod 
adhered firmly to the interests of Queen Mary, and died in 
1584. He was succeeded by his eldest son, William, under 
whom the Harris Macleods assisted the Macleans in their 
feuds with the Macdonalds of Isla and Skye, while the Lewis 
Macleods supported the latter. On his death in 1590, his 
brother, Roderick, the Rory Mor of tradition, became chief of 
the Harris Macleods. In 1595, he went with 500 of his clan 
to Ulster, to assist Red Hugh O'Donnell, at that time in re- 
bellion against the queen of England. In 1601 he had a 
quarrel with Macdonald of Sleat, an account of which, with 
its results, has been already given, (see vol. ii. p. 714). 

In December 1597, an act of the Estates had been passed, 
by which it was made imperative upon all the chieftains and 
landlords in the Highlands and Isles, to produce their title- 
deeds before the lords of Exchequer on the 15th of the fol- 
lowing May, under the pain of forfeiture. The heads of the 
two branches of the Macleods disregarded the act, and a gift 
of their estates was granted to a number of Fife gentlemen, 
for the purposes of colonization. They first began with the 
Lewis, in which the experiment failed, as afterwards narrat- 
ed. Roderick Macleod, on his part, exerted himself to get 
the forfeiture of his lands of Harris, Dunvegan, and Glenelg, 
removed, and ultimately succeeded, having obtained a remis- 
sion from the king, dated 4th May, 1610. He was knighted 
by King James VI., by whom he was much esteemed, and 
had several friendly letters from his majesty ; also, a particu- 
lar license, dated 16th June, 1616, to go to London, to the 
court, at any time he pleased. In the Denmylne MS., in the 
Advocates' Library, there are various letters of Sir Roderick, 
principally concerning the escape of Sir James Macdonald of 
Isla in 1615. To ensure their obedience to the laws, the 
privy council had ordered the chiefs to appear before them 
once a-year, on the 10th July, or oftener if required, on be- 
ing duly cited ; and on the suppression of the rebellion of Sir 
James Macdonald, the same year, still more stringent regula- 
tions were adopted. They were compelled to exhibit 
each a certain number of their principal kinsmen, and were 
only to maintain in household certain proportions of gentle- 
men, according to their rank, Macleod being allowed six; 
they were also to reside at certain specified places on their 
estates. Various other conditions were imposed on them, 
the most important of which was one relating to the educa- 
tion of their children. The chiefs were required to send all 
their children above nine years of age to school in the Low- 
lands, to be instructed in reading, writing, and speaking the 
English language ; and none could be served heirs to their 
fathers, or received as tenants to the king, until they had re- 
ceived that education. The very quantity of wine they were 
to use in their houses was regulated, Macleod's allotment 



being four tuns, and each chief was bound to take strict or- 
der throughout his whole estates that none of his tenants or 
vassals should buy or drink any wine. This last obligation 
proceeded on the narrative that " the great and extraordinary 
excesse in drinking of wyne, commonlie usit among the com- 
monis and tenantis of the Yllis, is not only ane occasioun of 
the beastlie and barbarous cruelties and inhumanities that 
fallis oute amangis thame, to the offens and displeasour of 
God, and contempt of law and justice; but with that it 
drawis nomberis of thame to miserable necessitie and povar- 
tie, sua that they are constrajnit, quhen they want from their 
awne, to tak from thair nichtbours." Finding that this reg- 
ulation, strict as it was, was evaded, the privy council in 
1622 passed an act prohibiting masters of vessels, under the 
penalty of confiscation of the article, from carrying more 
wine to the Isles than the quantity allowed to the chiefs and 
gentlemen. In the preamble of this act the reason of this 
new regulation is thus stated : — " With the insatiable desyre 
quhairof the saidis Islanderis ar so far possesst, that, when 
thair arryvis ony schip or uther veschell there with wines, 
thay spend both dayes and nights in their excesse of drink- 
ing sa lang as thair is anie of the wyne left ; sua that, being 
overcome with drink, thair fallis oute many inconvenientis 
amangis thame, to the breck of his majesteis peace," &c 
Sir Roderick died in the beginning of 1626. By his wife, a 
daughter of Macdonald of Glengarry, he had, with six daugh- 
ters, five sons, viz. John, his heir; Sir Roderick, progenitor 
of the Macleods of Talisker ; Sir Norman, of the Macleods of 
Bernera and Muiravonside ; William, of the Macleods of Ha- 
mer; and Donald, of those of Grisernish. 

The history of the Siol Torquil, or Lewis Macleods, as if 
approached its close, was most disastrous. Roderick, tha 
chief of this branch in 1569, got involved in a deadly feud 
with the Mackenzies, which ended only with the destruction 
of his whole family. He had married a daughter of John 
Mackenzie of Kintail, and a son whom she bore, and who 
was named Torquil Connanach, from his residence among his 
mother's relations in Strathconnan, was disowned by him, on 
account of the alleged adultery of his mother with the brevt 
or Celtic judge of the Lewis. She eloped with John Mac- 
Gillechallum of Rasay, a cousin of Roderick, and was, in 
consequence, divorced. He took for his second wife, in 1541, 
Barbara Stewart, daughter of Andrew Lord Avandale, and 
by this lady had a son, likewise named Torquil, and surnamed 
Oighre, or the Heir, to distinguish him from the other Tor- 
quil. About 1566, the former, with 200 attendants, was 
drowned in a tempest, when sailing from Lewis to Skye, and 
Torquil Connanach immediately took up arms to vindicate 
what he conceived to be his rights. In his pretensions he 
was supported by the Mackenzies. Roderick was appre- 
hended and detained four years a prisoner in the castle of Stor- 
noway. In his extremity that chief had sought the assistance 
of Donald Gorme or Macdonald of Sleat, who, with his sanction, 
took steps to procure his own recognition as heir of the line 
of Lewis, founding his claim on an alleged confession of 
Hugh Macleod, the breve of the island, that Torquil Connan- 
ach was in reality his son. But the feud between the Mac- 
donalds and Mackenzies was put an end to by the mediation 
of the Regent Moray. Before being released from his capti- 
vity, the old chief was brought before the Regent Mar and 
his privy council, and compelled to resign his estate into the 
hands of the crown, taking a new destination of it to himself 
in liferent, and after his death to Torquil Connanach, as his 
son and heir apparent. On regaining his liberty, however, 
he revoked all that he had done when a prisoner, on the 
ground of coercion. This led to new commotions, and m 



MACLEOD 



49 



OF LEWIS. 



157C both Roderick and Torquil were summoned to Edin- 
burgh, and reconciled in presence of the privy council, when 
the latter was again acknowledged as heir apparent to the 
Lewis, and received as such the district of Cogeach and other 
lands. The old chief some time afterwards took for his third 
wife, a sister of Lauchlan Maclean of Dowart, and had by 
her two sons, named Torquil Dubh and Tormod. Having 
again disinherited Torquil Connanach, that young chief once 
more took up arms, and was supported by two illegitimate 
eons of Roderick, named Tormod Uigach and Murdoch, 
while three others, Donald, Rory Oig, and Neill, joined with 
their father. Tormod Uigach was slain by Donald Macleod, 
who was taken prisoner by Torquil Connanach, but he 
escaped and fled to his father in the Lewis. Donald, on his 
part, apprehended Murdoch, and delivered him to his father, 
who imprisoned him in the castle of Stornoway. Torquil 
Connanach immediately laid siege to it, and having taken it, 
released Murdoch. He then apprehended the old chief, Ro- 
derick Macleod, and killed a number of his men. All the 
charters and title deeds of the Lewis were carried off by 
Torquil, and handed over to the Mackenzies. The charge 
of the castle of Stornoway, with the chief a prisoner in it, 
was committed to John Macleod, the son of Torquil Con- 
nanach, but he was attacked by Rory Oig and killed, when 
Roderick Macleod was released, and possessed the island in 
peace during the remainder of his life. 

On his death he was succeeded by his son Torquil Dubh, 
who married a sister of Sir Roderick Macleod of Harris. As 
Torquil Connanach was excluded, although he possessed the 
mainland estates and was acknowledged by government as 
the heir, the Mackenzies formed a design to purchase and 
conquer the Lewis, and assassinate Torquil Dubh, the chief 
in possession of it. Torquil Connanach had married his 
daughter to Roderick Mackenzie, the brother of Kenneth 
Mackenzie, afterwards Lord Kintail, to whom he had con- 
veyed the Lewis by writing. The lands of Cogeach and 
Lochbroom were ravaged by Torquil Dubh, and as he could 
raise 700 or 800 men, he for some time was enabled to set 
his rival and the Mackenzies at defiance. To effect his ruin 
they made a complaint against him to the privy council, styl- 
ing him "the usurper of Lewis," and as he disregarded a 
summons sent to him to appear and answer it, he was de- 
nounced a rebel. The breve of the Lewis having agreed, on 
the promise of a great reward, to put him to death, he went. 
we are told, in a galley, accompanied by the greater part of 
nis tribe, the clan Mhic-Gille-Moir, toward the isle of Rasav, 
and in his course fell in with a Dutch ship partly laden with 
wine, which he compelled to follow him into the Lewis. On 
his arrival there, he invited Torquil Dubh and a party of his 
people to a banquet on board the Dutch vesst,, but they had 
Icarcely seated themselves when they were all apprehended, 
tied with cords, and carried to the country of the Macken- 
zies, into the presence of Lord Kintail, who ordered Torquil 
Dubh and his companions to be beheaded. This took place 
iu July 1597. At the time of their execution, it is said, an 
earthquake happened, which struck terror into the minds of 
the executioners. 

Torquil Dubh left three young sons, and their uncle, Neill, 
a bastard brother of their father, took, in their behalf, the 
command of the isle of Lewis. Their cause was also sup- 
ported by the Macleods of Harris and the Macleans. The 
dissensions in the Lewis, followed by the forfeiture of that 
island, in consequence of the non -production of the title- 
deeds, as required by the act of the Estates of 1597, already 
mentioned afforded the king an opportunity of carrying into 
«fl'ect a project lie entertained for the lrnjrovement and civd- 

III. 



ization of that remote portion of his dominions. Accordingly, 
that island, the largest of the Hebrides, was granted to a 
company of Lowland adventurers, belonging principally to 
Fifeshire, who were led to join in the enterprise chiefly with 
the view to the northern fisheries, a most valuable, though 
then and long after a neglected branch of Scottish industry 
In October 1599, with a force of about 600 soldiers, and arti- 
ficers of all sorts, they landed at Stornoway, and immediately 
began to build. The men of Lewis, under Neill and Mur- 
doch Macleod, the bastard uncles of the young chief, gav« 
them all the opposition in their power, but unable to with- 
stand the colonists, they at last yielded to them ; and they, 
with inconsiderate haste, proceeded to espel the Macleods 
from their possessions. Burning with revenge, Murdoch put 
to sea with a fleet of small vessels peculiar to those islands, 
called berlings, and succeeded in intercepting Leirmonth of 
Balcomy, when on his return from the Lewis to Fife in his 
own vessel. Macleod immediately hanged all on board, but 
Leirmonth himself, who for six months was subjected to a 
very rigorous confinement, but ultimately liberated on pro- 
mise of ransom, and died in the Orkneys on his way home. 

Shortly afterwards, Murdoch Macleod quarrelled with his 
brother Neill, who betrayed him, for a reward, to the govern- 
ment, and he was, in consequence, hanged at St. Andrews. 
In the meantime the adventurersin the Lewis were surround- 
ed and harassed by the people of the island, under Tormod 
Macleod, only surviving legitimate son of Old Roderick Mac- 
leod of the Lewis, assisted by Neill Macleod, who had not 
long continued in alliance with the colonists. At the head of 
a strong force, Tormod attacked and forced the camp of the 
adventurers, burnt the fort, killed many of their men, and at 
length forced the principal gentlemen to capitulate, the latter 
binding themselves to obtain a remission to the Macleods for 
all their past offences, and never to return to the Lewis. 
Two of their number were left as hostages, for the fulfilment 
of these conditions. This took place in 1601, and the pro- 
mised remission being granted, the hostages, after being de- 
tained about eight months, were liberated. In the summer 
of 1605, the Lewis adventurers made another attempt to 
possess the island. On landing, they offered to Tormod Mac- 
leod, if he would submit, to convey him to London, and ob- 
tain his pardon from the king. To these proposals he agreed, 
but after his arrival at court, finding he was making progress 
in his majesty's favour, to prevent his procuring the recall of 
the grant of the Lewis, they obtained an order from the king 
to send Tormod down to Edinburgh, where he was impris- 
oned in the castle for ten years. He was afterwards allowed 
to go into the service of Maurice, prince of Orange, and he 
died in Holland. Neill Macleod, however, still held out, and 
assisted by the Macleods of Harris, the Macneills, and the 
Clanranald, annoyed the colonists so greatly by his attacks 
that they were, at length, induced to abandon the enterprise. 
Two years afterwards, namely, in 1607, the king gave a new 
grant of the island to Lord Balmerino, who, however, waa 
soon after forfeited, Sir George Hay of NetherclifF, and Sir 
James Spens of Wormestoun. The two latter invaded thf 
Lewis with a considerable force, but were soon, from the want 
of provisions, and the continued opposition of Neill Macleod, 
compelled to quit the island and disband their forces. The 
title to the Lewis having been acquired by Kenneth Macken- 
zie, Lord Kintail, (see page 19 of this volume,) he lost no 
time in taking possession of the island, expelling Neill Mac- 
leod, with his nephews, Malcolm, William, and Roderick, 
sons of Rory Oig, who, with about thirty others, took refuge 
on Berrisay, an insulated rock on the west coast of Lewis. 
Here they maintained themselves for nearly three years, but 
D 



MACLEOD 



50 



OF RASAY. 



were at length driven from it by the Mackenzies. Neill sur- 
rendered to Roderick Macleod ot Harris, who, on being 
charged, under pain of treason, to deliver him to the privy 
council at Edinburgh, gave him up, with his son, Donald. 
Neill was brought to trial, convicted, and executed, and is 
said to have died " very Christianlie," in April 1613. Do- 
nald, his son, was banished from Scotland, and died in Hol- 
.and. Roderick and William, two of the sons of Rory Oig, 
"~<*re seized by the tutor of Kintail, and executed. Mal- 
v in, the other son, apprehended at the same time, made his 
tecape, and continued to harass the Mackenzies for years. 
He was prominently engaged in Sir James Macdonald's re- 
bellion in 1615, and afterwards went to Flanders, but in 
1616 was once more in the Lewis, where he killed two gen- 
tlemen of the Mackenzies. He subsequently went to Spain, 
whence he returned with Sir James Macdonald in 1620. In 
1622 and 1626, commissions of fire and sword were granted 
to Lord Kintail and his clan against " Malcolm MacRuari 
Macleod." Nothing more is known of him. 

On the estinction of the main line of the Lewis, the re- 
presentation of the family devolved on the Macleods of Ra- 
«ay, afterwards referred to. The title of Lord Macleod was 
the second title of the Mackenzies, earls of Cromarty. 

In the civil wars, Sir Roderick Macleod of Harris, son of 
John, commonly called John Mor, supported the royal cause, 
and Charles I. was so sensible of his services that he wrote 
him a kind and friendly letter, dated at Durham, 2d May 
1639, promising him his constant favour and protection. His 
eldest son, also named Roderick, acquired, from his humour, 
the surname of Roderick the Witty. Being a minor during 
the usurpation, the whole clan followed his uncles, Sir Rod- 
erick Macleod of Talisker and Sir Norman Macleod of Berne- 
ra. At that time the Macleods could bring into the field 
700 men. At the battle of Worcester in 1651, the Macleods 
fought on the side of Charles II., and so great was the slaugh- 
ter amongst them that it was agreed by the other clans that 
they should not engage in any other conflict until they had 
recovered their losses. The Harris estates were sequestrated 
by Cromwell, but the chief of the Macleods was at last, in 
May 1655, admitted into the protection of the Common- 
wealth by General Monk, on his finding security for his 
peaceable behaviour under the penalty of £6,000 sterling, 
and paying a fine of £2,500. Both his uncles, however, 
were expressly excepted. 

At the Revolution, Macleod of Macleod, which became the 
designation of the laird of Harris, as chief of the clan, was 
favourable to the cause of James VII., and a letter written 
to him by Viscount Dundee, dated Moy, June 23, 1689, giv- 
ing an account of the preparations of the other chiefs, and of 
his own proceedings, and enclosing a letter from the exiled 
monarch to him, is printed in Browne's History of the High- 
lands. In 1715, the effective force of the Macleods was 1,000 
men, and in 1745, 900. The chief, by the advice of Presi- 
dent Forbes, did not join in the rebellion of that year, and so 
saved his estates, but many of his clansmen, burning with 
zeal for the cause of Prince Charles, fought in the ranks of 
the rebel army. 

At page 47 it is mentioned that the bad treatment which 
a daughter of the chief of the Macleods experienced from her 
husband, the captain of the Clanranald, had caused them to 
take the first opportunity of inflicting a signal vengeance on 
the Macdonalds. The merciless act of Macleod, by which 
the entire population of an island was cut off at once, is de- 
scribed by Mr. Skene (llist. of the Highlands, vol. ii. page 
277), and is shortly thus. Towards the close of the 16th 
oontury, a small number of Macleods accidentally landed on 



the island of Eigg, and were hospitably received by the in- 
habitants. Offering, however, some incivilities to the young 
women of the island, they were by the male relatives of the 
latter bound hand and foot, thrown into a boat, and sent 
adrift. Being met and rescued by a party of their own clans- 
men, they were brought to Dunvegan, the residence of their 
chief, to whom they told their story. Instantly manning his 
galleys, Macleod hastened to Eigg. On descrying his ap- 
proach the islanders, with their wives and children, to the 
number of 200 persons, took refuge in a large cave, situated 
in a retired and secret place. Here for two days they re- 
mained undiscovered, but having unfortunately sent out a 
scout to see if the Macleods were gone, their retreat was de- 
tected, but they refused to surrender. A stream of water 
fell over the entrance to the cave, and partly concealed it. 
This Macleod caused to be turned from its course, and then 
ordered all the wood and other combustibles which could be 
found to be piled up around its mouth, and set fire to, when 
all within the cave were suffocated. 

The Siol Tormod continued to possess Harris, Dunvegan, 
and Glenelg till near the close of the 18th century. The 
former and the latter estates have now passed into other 
hands. A considerable portion of Harris is the property of 
the earl of Dunmore, and many of its inhabitants have emi- 
grated to Cape Breton and Canada. The climate of the 
island is said to be favourable to longevity. Martin, in his 
account of the Western Isles, says he knew several in Harris 
of 90 years of age. One Lady Macleod, who passed the most 
of her time here, lived to 103, had then a comely head of 
hair and good teeth, and enjoyed a perfect understanding till 
the week she died. Her son, Sir Norman Macleod, died at 
96; and his grandson, Donald Macleod of Bernera, at 91. 
Glenelg became the property first of Charles Grant, Lord 
Glenelg, and afterwards of Mr. Baillie. From the family oi 
Bernera, one of the principal branches of the Harris Mac- 
leods, sprung the Macleods of Luskinder, of which Sir Wil- 
liam Macleod Bannatyne, a lord of session, was a cadet. For 
a brief memoir of him, see vol. i. p. 236. 



The first of the house of Rasay, the propnetor of which is 
the representative and heir male of the Lewis branch of the 
Macleods, was Malcolm Garbh Macleod, the second son ol 
Malcolm, 8th chief of the Lewis. In the reign of James V. 
he obtained from his father in patrimony the island of Rasay, 
which lies between Skye and the Ross-shire district of Ap- 
plecross. In 1569 the whole of the Rasay family, except one 
infant, were barbarously massacred by one of their own kins- 
men, under the following circumstances. John MacGille- 
challum Macleod of Rasay, called Ian na Tuaidh, or John 
with the axe, who had, as stated on p. 48, carried off Janet 
Mackenzie, the first wife of his chief, Roderick Macleod of 
the Lewis, married her, after her divorce, and had by her 
several sons and one daughter. The latter became the wife 
of Alexander Roy Mackenzie, a grandson 01 Hector or Ea- 
chan Roy, the first of the Mackenzies ot Gerloch, a marriage 
which gave great offence to his clan, the Siol vie Gillechal- 
lum, as the latter had long been at feud with that particular 
branch of the Mackenzies. On Janet Mackenzie's death, he 
of the axe married a sister of a kinsman of his own, Ruan 
Macallan Macleod, who from his venomous disposition was 
sumamed NirrJineach. The latter, to obtain Rasay for his 
nephew, his sister's son, resolved to cut off both his brother- 
in-law and his sons by the first marriage. He accordingly in- 
vited him to a feast in the island of Isay in Skye, and after 
it was over, he left the apartment. Then, causing them to 
be sent for one by one, he had each of them assassinated w 



MACLEOD. 



51 



MACNAB. 



they came out. He was, however, balked in his object, as 
Rasay became the property of Malcolm or Gillechallum 
Garbh Macallaster Macleod, then a child, belonging to the 
direct line of the Rasay branch, who was with his foster- 
father at the time. {Gregory's Highlands and Isles of Scot- 
land, p. 211.) 

The Macleods of Assynt, one of whom betrayed the 
great Montrose in 1G50, were also a branch of the Mac- 
leods of Lewis. That estate, towards the end of the 17th 
century, became the property of the Mackenzies, and the 
family is now represented by Macleod of Geanies. The Mac- 
leods of Cadboll are cadets of those of Assynt. 



There were two Gaelic poetesses of this name, Mary Mac- 
leod, born in Harris in 1569, and Flora Macleod, a native of 
Skye. The former, called Mairi Nighean Alasdair Ruaidh, 
was the daughter of Alexander Macleod, son of Alasdair 
Ruadh, a descendant of the chief of the clan. This woman, 
a nurse in the family of her chief, was totally illiterate, yet 
she is considered the most original of all the Gaelic poets. 
She is said to have nursed five lairds of the Macleods, and 
two of the lairds of Applecross. Her first song was composed 
to please the children under her charge, and most of her po- 
ems are in praise of the Macleods. The chief, however, once 
banished her to the island of Mull, for giving publicity to one 
of her songs. In her exile she composed another poem, on 
which the Macleod sent a boat for her, but she was only al- 
lowed to return to Skye on condition that she made no more 
songs. Soon after, she composed a song on the illness of a 
son of the chief, which nearly caused her to be sent into exile 
again; but she saved herself by saying that "it was not a 
song, it was only a 'croon.'" The poetess of the Isles, as 
Mary Macleod was called, died at the advanced age of 105 
years, and is buried in Harris. Specimens of her poems are 
given in Mackenzie's ' Beauties of Gaelic Poetry.' The Gaelic 
name of the other poetess, Flora Macleod, was Fionaghal 
Nighean Alasdair Ruaidh. She lived in Trotternish, and 
was married. Her only poems appear to be a satire on the 
clan Macmartin and an elegy on Macleod of Dunvegan. 

Hector Macleod, the South Uist bard, lived after 1745, in 
the districts of Arasaig and Morar. 

MACLEOD, John, surgeon of the Alceste, 
was born about 1782 at Bouhill in Dumbarton- 
shire. He entered the navy as a surgeon, and 
after several expeditions he accompanied the em- 
bassy to China under Lord Amherst. On his re- 
turn he published, in 1818, an interesting descrip- 
tion of the 'Voyage of the Alceste, along the 
Coast of the Corea to the Island of Loo Choo ; 
with an Account of her subsequent Shipwreck.' 
He died November 9, 1820. 

Macnab, the name of a clan anciently located in the dis- 
trict of Breadalbane, Perthshire, the badge of which was the 
common heath. The clan Anaba or the Maonabs are errone- 
ously held to belong to the Old Celtic race, or primitive Al- 
bionic stock of Scotland, which were among the clans includ- 
ed under the general denomination of Siol Alpin, of which 
the clan Gregor was the principal. The chief, styled Macnab 
of that ilk, had his residence at Kinnell, on the banks of the 
Dochart, and the family possessions, which originally were 
wmsiderable, lay mainly on the western shores of Loch Tav. 
In the reign of David I. [1124 — 1153], the name was, it is 



said Macnab-Eyre, and signified the son and heir of the ab- 
bot. According, however, to the view taken in this work of 
the prefix Mac, as being no more than a contraction of mag- 
nus, great, this legend cannot be admitted, although it has 
been stated that the founder of this clan held the dignity of 
abbot of Glendochart. 

From the frequent use of the words " of that ilk " in the 
charters of the family of Macnab, it would appear, notwith- 
standing the received tradition as to the derivation of the 
name, that the origin of it is territorial or from land. There 
is not an instance in Scottish history where the words " of 
that ilk" are employed, in which this is not the case. And 
if the form of the name be given correctly as Macnab-Eyre, 
the source of the territorial designation may with great pro- 
bability be conjectured. The Gaelic word for heir is not 
Eyre, but Oighre. It is only an adaptation of its sound to 
the common English word heir, which is from the Latin word 
hares. The word ayre or aire, a term of frequent use in 
early Scottish annals for the site, rather occasional than per- 
manent, of a court of justice, is a corruption of the Nonnan- 
French Oyer, to hear. Macnab-Eyre may, therefore, be held 
j to mean the seat of justice, or justice-place, in the territory 
Macnab, and is so stated in the private histories of the family. 
Tradition points, however, at a priory where the burial place 
now is placed. Whether there ever was an abbot of Glen- 
dochart may well be doubted, yet there is every reason to be- 
lieve that the abbots of Dunkeld held, as abthanes, — (that is, 
abbot-thanes, a secular title, defined by Ducange, as abbates 
qui simul erant Comites, see vol. i. page 16,) — justiciary 
power over this portion of Perthshire. It seems, therefore, 
at least probable that Macbeth-Eyre was the name given to 
the occasional seat of justice of some kind or other. The 
precise site of the lands bearing this particular name is now 
unknown, yet as in early times lands and districts received 
names from conspicuous natural objects lying in or near 
them, as Carrick, in Ayr, from the carrick or craig of Ailsa 
lying in the frith opposite to that district; so Macnab, the 
great Nab or Nob, may not improperly be held to mean the 
district around or near the mountain now called Benmore, (or 
great head,) which is conspicuous all along the glen of the 
Dochart, and very near its source. The occurrence of Nab 
in topography to designate a round-headed height or cone is 
familiar in Scotland and the north of England. 

The Macnabs were a considerable clan before the reign ot 
Alexander III. When Robert the Bruce commenced his 
struggle for the crown, the baron of Macnab, with his clan, 
joined the Macdougals of Lorn, and fought against Bruce at 
the battle of Dalree. Afterwards, when the cause of Bruce 
prevailed, the lands of the Macnabs were ravaged by his vic- 
torious troops, their houses burnt, and all their family writs 
destroyed. Of all their possessions only the barony of Bo- 
wain or Bovain, in Glendochart, remained to them, and of it, 
Gilbert Macnab of that ilk, from whom the line is usually de- 
duced, as the first undoubted laird of Macnab, received from 
David II., on being reconciled to that monarch, a charter, 
under the great seal, to him and his heirs whomsoever, dated 
in 1336. He died in the reign of Robert II. 

His son, Flaky Macnab, styled of Bovain, as well as " ol 
that ilk," died in the reign of James I. He is said to have 
been a famous bard. According to tradition he oomposed one 
of the Gaelic poems which Macpherson attributed to Ossian. 
He was the father of Patrick Macnab of Bovain and of that ilk, 
whose son was named Finlay Macnab, after his grandfather. 
Indeed, Finlay appears to nave oeen, at this time, a favourite 
name of the chief, as the next three lairds were so designated 
Upon his father's resignation, he got a charter, under the gre*> 



MACNAB 



52 



OF MACNAB. 



seal, in the reign of James III., of the hinds of Ardchyle, and 
Wester Duinish, in the barony of Glendochart and county of 
Perth, dated January 1, 1486. He had also a charter from 
James IV., of the lands of Ewir and Leiragan, in the same 
barony, dated January 9, 1502. He died soon thereafter, 
leaving a son, Finlay Macnab, fifth laird of Macnab, who is 
witness in a charter, under the great seal, to Duncan Camp- 
bell of Glenorchy, wherein he is designed " Finlaus Macnab, 
dominus de eodem" &c, Sept. 18, 1511. He died about the 
close of the reign of James V. 

His son, Finlay Macnab of Bovain and of that ilk, 6th chief 
from Gilbert, alienated or mortgaged a great portion of his 
lands to Campbell of Glenorchy, ancestor of the marquis of 
Breadalbane, as appears by a charter to " Colin Campbell of 
Glenorchy, his heirs and assignees whatever, according to the 
deed granted to him by Finlay Macnab of Bovain, 24th No- 
vember, 1552, of all and sundry the lands of Bovain and Ard- 
chyle, &c, confirmed by a charter under the great seal from 
Mary, dated 27th June, 1553." Glenorchy's right of superior- 
ity the Macnabs always refused to acknowledge. 

His son, Finlay Macnab, the seventh laird, who lived in 
the reign of James VI., was the chief who entered into the 
bond of friendship and manrent with his cousin, Lauchlan 
Mackinnon of Strathordell, 12th July, 1606, quoted at page 
28 of this volume. This chief carried on a deadly feud with 
the Neishes or M'llduys, a tribe which possessed the upper 
parts of Strathearn, and inhabited an island in the lower part of 
Loch Earn, called from them Neish island. Many battles were 
fought between them, with various success. The last was at 
Glenboultachan, about two miles north of Loch Earn foot, in 
which the Macnabs were victorious, and the Neishes cut off 
almost to a man. A small remnant of them, however, still 
lived in the island referred to, the head of which was an old 
man, who subsisted by plundering the people in the neigh- 
bourhood. One Christmas, the chief of the Macnabs had 
sent his servant to Crieff for provisions, but, on his return, he 
was waylaid, and robbed of all his purchases. He went 
home, therefore, empty-handed, and told his tale to the laird. 
Macnab had twelve sons, all men of great strength, but one 
in particular exceedingly athletic, who was called for a byname, 
lain mion Mac an Appa, or " Smooth John Macnab." In 
the evening, these men were gloomily meditating some signal 
revenge on their old enemies, when their father entered, and 
said in Gaelic, " The night is the night, if the lads were but 
lads ! " Each man instantly started to his feet, and belted on 
his dirk, his claymore, and his pistols. Led by their brother 
John, they set out, taking a fishing-boat on their shoulders 
from Loch Tay, carrying it over the mountains and gleus 
till they reached Loch Earn, where they launched it, and 
passed over to the island. All was silent in the habitation of 
Neish. Having all the boats at the island secured, they had 
gone to sleep without fear of surprise. Smooth John, with 
his foot dashed open the door of Neish 's house ; and the 
party, rushing in, attacked the unfortunate family, every one 
of whom was put to the sword, with the exception of one 
man and a boy, who concealed themselves under a bed. 
Carrying off the heads of the Neishes, and any plunder they 
could secure, the youths presented themselves to their father, 
while the piper struck up the pibroch of victory. 

The next laird, " Smooth John," the son of this Finlay, 
made a distinguished figure in the reign of Charles I., and 
suffered many hardships on account of his attachment to the 
royal cause. After the battle of Alford in 1645, he joined the 
army of Montrose, with his clan, and was of great service to 
him at the battle of Kilsyth. He was subsequently directed 
by Montrose to garrison his castle of Kincardine, and he con- 



tinued there until besieged by General Leslie, when, their pro- 
visions failing, he endeavoured, with 300 men, to mate his 
escape, during the darkne§§ of the night. Marching out, 
sword in hand, they all got off, except Macnab himself and 
one of his men, who were sent prisoners to Edinburgh. Mac- 
nab was condemned to death, but escaped the night previous 
to the day on which he was ordered for execution. He was 
killed at the battle of Worcester in 1651. During the com- 
monwealth, his castle of Eilan Rowan was burned, his estates 
ravaged and sequestrated, and the family papers again lost. 
Taking advantage of the troubles of the times, his powerful 
neighbour, Campbell of Glenorchy, in the heart of whose pos- 
sessions Macnab's lands were situated, on the pretence that he 
had sustained considerable losses from the clan Macnab, got 
possession of the estates in recompense thereof. 

This chief of the Macnabs married a daughter of Campbell 
of Glenlyon, and with one daughter, had a son, Alexandei 
Macnab, ninth laird, who was only four years old when his 
father was killed on Worcester battle-field. His mother and 
friends applied to General Monk for some relief from the 
family estates for herself and children. That general made a 
favourable report on the application, but it had no effect. It 
was directed to Captain Gascoigne, governor of Finlarig, and 
was in the following terms : " I do hereby declare, that it 
was not intended by my order for repairing the laird of Glen- 
urchy's losses by the Macnabs out of their estates, that the 
same should extend to the molesting or intermeddling with 
the estates of any of the Macnabs who live peaceably. And 
forasmuch as I understand that the widow of the laird of 
Macnab hath lived peaceably, you are hereby authorized, and 
I desire, in case any vexation be offered to the outing or dis- 
possessing of the said widow and her children of the said 
lands, or anything that belongs to them, under colour of the 
said order, to preserve the rights that to them belong, as ii 
the said order had never been made, and to enter and receive 
them into their lands; and this favour also is to be extended 
for Archibald Macnab of Acharne. Given under my hand 
and seal at Dalkeith, 18th January, 1654. (Signed) S. S. 
George Monk." After the Restoration, application was made 
to the Scottish Estates, by the Lady Macnab and her son, 
for redress, and in 1661 they received a considerable portion 
of their lands, which the family enjoyed till the beginning of 
the present century, when they were sold. 

By his wife, Elizabeth, a sister of Sir Alexander Menzies, 
of Weem, baronet, Alexander Macnab of that ilk had a son 
and heir, Robert Macnab, tenth laird, who married Anne 
Campbell, sister of the earl of Breadalbane. Of several chil- 
dren only two survived, John, who succeeded his father, and 
Archibald. The elder son, John, held a commission in the 
Black Watch, and was taken prisoner at the battle of Preston- 
pans, and, with several others, confined in Doune Castle, un- 
der the charge of Macgregor of Glengyle, where he remained 
till after the battle of Culloden. The majority of the clan 
took the side of the house of Stuart, and were led by Allister 
Macnab of Inshewan and Archibald Macnab of Acharne 
They were mostly incorporated in the Duke of Perth's regi- 
ment, of which Alexander Macnab of Dundurn was the 
standard bearer. The others joined a body of Breadalbane 
men under the command of Campbell of Glenlyon. The 
younger son. Archibald, obtained in 1740 a commission ai 
ensign in tne Black Watch (now the42d Highlanders), on its 
embodiment, and served in Germany with that regiment. In 
June 1745 he was appointed captain of Loudoun's High- 
landers, and in 1757 he distinguished himself at the battle o' 
Felliughausen. Under General Wolfe, he was present at the 
r.atUe of Quebec. He served also throughout the American 



MACNAB. 



53 



MACNAGHTON. 



revolutionary war, and on its termination was promoted to 
the rank of lieutenant-general, and appointed Colonel of the 
41st Welsh Regiment. He died in Edinburgh in 1791, and 
was buried at Killin. 

John Macnab, the 11th laird, married the only sister of 
Francis Buchanan, Esq. of Arnprior, and had a son, Francis, 
twelfth laird. 

Francis, 12th laird, died, unmarried, at Callander, Perth- 
shire, May 25, 1816, in his 82d year. One of the most ec- 
centric men of his time, many anecdotes are related of his 
curious sayings and doings. He was a man of gigantic 
height and strong originality of character, and cherished 
many of the manners and ideas of a Highland gentleman, 
having in particular a high notion of the dignity of the chief- 
tainship. He left numerous illegitimate children. There is 
a fine full-length portrait of him, in the uniform of lieutenant- 
colonel of the Breadalbane volunteers, by Sir Henry Raeburn, 
in the Breadalbane collection of paintings at Taymouth-castle. 

The only portion of the property of the Macnabs remain- 
ing is the small islet of Innis-Buie, formed by the parting of 
the water of the Dochart just before it issues into Loch Tay, 
in which is the most ancient burial place of the family; 
and outside there are numerous gravestones of other members 
of the clan. The lands of the town of Callander chiefly be- 
long to a descendant of this laird, not in marriage. 

Archibald Macnab of Macnab, nephew of Francis, succeed- 
ed as 13th chief. The estates being considerably encumber- 
ed, he was obliged to sell the property for behoof of his 
creditors. 

Many of the clan having emigrated to Canada about the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, and being very success- 
ful, 300 of those remaining in Scotland were induced about 
1817 to try their fortunes in America, and in 1821, the chief 
himself, with some more of the clan, took their departure for 
Canada. He returned in 1853, and died at Lannion, Cotes 
du Nord, France, Aug. 12, 1860, aged 83. Subjoined is his 
portrait, from a daguerreotype taken at Saratoga, United 
Statpw of America, in 1848 : 




He left a widow, and one surviving daughter, Sophia 
Frances. 

The next Macnabs by descent entitled to the chiefship are 
believed to be Sir Allan Napier Macnab, Bart., Canada; Dr. 
Robert Macnab, 5th Fusileers, and Mr. John Macnab, Glen- 
mavis, Bathgate. 

The lairds of Macnab, previous to the reign of Charles I., 
intermarried with the families of Lord Gray of Kinfauns. 
Gleneagles, Inchbraco, Robertson of Strowan, &c. 

The chief cadets of the family were the Macnabs of Dundum, 
Acharne, Newton, Cowie, and Inchewen. Of one of the latter 
family the following exploit is related. In 1745, a party ol 
soldiers, sent from the castle of Finlarig, (which means the field 
or plain of Fingal,)to burn the house of Coire Chaorach. near 
Benmore, were watched, on their march, by Macnab of Inch- 
ewen. After setting fire to the mansion, they commenced their 
return to Finlarig, when it was observed that the fire had gone 
out. One of them was ordered back to rekindle it, but was 
shot by Macnab from his place of concealment. On this, the 
rest of the party rushed down to the river, but other three 
fell victims by the way. Macnab then retreated to the rocks 
above, whence he fired, and killed three more of the redcoat*. 
The others then gave up the pursuit. His rifle came into 
the possession of Mr. Sinclair, tenant in Inverchaggerine. It 
is four feet long, and in the stock there is a recess for a 
supply of bullets. It was at one time used by the Gaelic 
poet, Duncan MTntyre, when one of the foresters of Lord 
Breadalbane, and is praised in his classic poem of ' Beinn 
Dourain.' Mr. Sinclair possessed also the celebrated bottle, 
long in use at Kinnell, which could hold nine gallons, and 
was known to many of Macnab's friends as ' the Bachelor.' 
(See New Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. x. page 
1089.) 

Sir Allan Napier Macnab is descended from the Dundurn 
branch. His grandfather, Robert Macnab of Dundurn, Perth- 
shire, was cousin-german of John Macnab of Macnab, capt. 
42d Highlanders. He married Mary Stuart of Ardvoirlich, 
and his eldest son, Allan Macnab, lieutenant 3d dragoons 
and principal aide-de-camp to General Simcoe, 1st governor of 
Upper Canada, married Anne, youngest daughter of Capt. 
William Napier, commissioner of the port of Quebec, of fche 
family of Lord Napier, and had a son, Sir Allan Macnab, 
baronet of Dundurn-castle, Canada West, born Feb. 19, 
1789 ; colonel of militia in Upper Canada, member and some 
time speaker of the legislative assembly of Upper and Lower 
Canada, and prime minister of that province ; knighted July 
14, 1838, for his efforts in putting an end to the rebellion 
there ; created a baronet Feb. 5, 1858. Sir Allan married 
in 1821, Elizabeth, daughter of Lieutenant Daniel Brooke ; 
issue a son, (born in 1822, died in 1824,) and a daughter. 
His wife having died in 1825, he married, 2dly, in 1831, Mary, 
eldest daughter of John Stuart, sheriff of Johnstown district, 
Upper Canada ; issue, two daughters. The elder, Sophia, 
born July 5, 1832, married in 1855, William Coutts, Viscount 
Bury, M.P., eldest son of earl of Albemarle. 

A branch of the family of Macnab settled in Jamaica. 



Macnaghton, or Macnaughton, the name of a clan of 
great antiquity in the West of Scotland (Argyleshire), the 
badge of which was the trailing azalia. The MS. of 1450 
deduces the descent of the heads of this clan from Nachtan 
Mor, who is supposed to have lived in the 10th century. The 
Gaelic name Neachtain is the same as the Pictish Nectan, 
celebrated in the Pictish Chronicle as one of the great Ciltio 
divisions in Scotland, and the appellation is among the most 
ancient in the north of Ireland, the original seat of the Cru- 



MACNAGHTON 



54 



OF MACNAGHTON. 



then Picts. The parish of Dunnichen, in Forfarshire, derived 
its name from the Gaelic dun, a hill, and the word Nechtan, 
the name of a Pictish chief who is traditionally reported to 
have resided in the parish. According to Buchanan of Auch- 
mar, {History of the Origin of the Clans, p. 84,) the heads 
of this clan were for ages thanes of Loch Tay, and possessed 
ail the country between the south side of Loch-Fyne and 
lochawe, parts of which were Glenira, Glenshira, Glenfine, 
and other places, while their principal seat was Dunderraw 
on Loch-Fyne. 

In the reign of Robert III., Maurice or Morice Macnaugh- 
ton had a charter from Colin Campbell of Lochow of sundry 
lands in Over Lochow, but their first settlement in Argyle- 
shire, in the central parts of which their lands latterly wholly 
lay, took place long before this. The Macnaughtons are said 
to have been originally a branch of the tribes of the province 
of Moray, when united under i:s maormors. (Skene's His- 
tory of the Highlands, vol. ii. p. 201.) These maormors 
were the most powerful chiefs in Scotland during the middle 
ages. When Malcolm the Maiden attempted to civilize the 
ancient province of Moray, by introducing Norman and Saxon 
families, such as the Bissets, the Comyns, &c, in the place 
of the nide Celtic natives whom he had expatriated to the 
south, he gave lands in or near Strathtay or Strathspey, to 
Nachtan of Moray, for those he had held in that province. 
He had there a residence called Dunnachtan castle. Nisbet 
(Heraldry, vol. i. p. 419) describes this Nachtan as " an em- 
inent man in the time of Malcolm IV.," and says that he 
" was in great esteem with the family of Lochawe, to whom 
he was very assistant in their wars with the Macdougals, for 
which he was rewarded with sundry lands." The family of 
Lochawe here mentioned were the Campbells. 

The Macnaughtons appear to have been fairly and finally 
settled in Argyleshire previous to the reign of Alexander III., 
as Gilchrist Macnaughton, styled of that ilk, was by that 
monarch appointed in 1287, heritable keeper of his castle and 
island of Frechelan (Fraoch Elian) on Lochatve, on condition 
that he should be properly entertained when he should pass 
that way, whence, a castle embattled was assumed as the 
crest of the family. 

This Gilchrist was father or grandfather of Donald Mac- 
naughton of that ilk, who being nearly connected with the 
Macdougals of Lorn, joined that powerful chief with his clan 
against Robert the Bruce, and fought against the latter at 
the battle of Dalree in 1306, in consequence of which he lost 
a great part of his estates. In Abercromby's ' Martial 
Achievements,' (vol. i. p. 577,) it is related that the extraor- 
dinary courage shown by the king in having, in a narrow 
pass, slain with his own hand several of his pursuers, and 
amongst the rest three brothers, so greatly excited the admi- 
ration of the chief of the Macnaughtons that he became 
thenceforth one of his firmest adherents. 

His son and successor, Duncan Macnaughton of that ilk, 
was a steady and loyal subject to King David II., who, as a 
reward for his fidelity, conferred on his son, Alexander, lands 
in the island of Lewis, a portion of the forfeited possessions 
of John of the Isles, which the chiefs of the clan Naughton 
held for a time. The ruins of their castle of Macnaughton 
are still pointed out on that island. 

Donald Macnaughton, a younger son of the family, was, 
in 1436. elected bishop of Dunkeld, in the reign of James I. 

Alexander Macnaughton of that ilk, who lived in the be- 
ginning of the 16th century, was knighted by James IV., 
whom he accompanied to the disastrous field of Flodden, 
where he was slain with nearly the whole chivalry of Scot- 
land. His son, John, was succeeded by his second son, 



Malcolm Macnaughton of Glenshira, his eldest son having 
predeceased him. Malcolm died in the end of the reign of 
James VI., and was succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander. 
John, the second son of Malcolm, being of a handsome ap- 
pearance, attracted the notice of King James VI., who ap- 
pointed him one of his pages of honour, on his accession to 
the English crown. He became rich, and purchased lands in 
Kintyre. He was also sheriff-depute of Argyleshire. His 
elder brother, Alexander Macnaughton of that ilk, adhered 
firmly to the cause of Charles I., and in his service, like all 
who remained loyal to him, sustained many severe losses. 
At the Restoration, as some sort of compensation, he was 
knighted by Charles II., and, unlike many others, he received 
from that monarch a liberal pension for life. Sir Alexander 
Macnaughton spent his later years in London, where he died. 
His son and successor, John Macnaughton of that ilk, suc- 
ceeded to an estate greatly burdened with debt, but did not 
hesitate in his adherence to the fallen fortunes of the Stuarts. 
At the head of a considerable body of his own clan, he joined 
the viscount Dundee, and was with him at Killiecrankie. 
James VII. signed a deed in his favour, restoring to his fam- 
ily all its old lands and hereditary rights, but, as it never 
passed the seals in Scotland, it was of less value than the pa- 
per on which it was written. His lands were taken from 
him, not by forfeiture, but " the estate," says Buchanan of 
Auchmar, " was evicted by creditors for sums noway equiva- 
lent to its value, and, there being no diligence used for relief 
thereof, it went out of the hands of the family." His son, 
Alexander, a captain in Queen Anne's guards, was killed in 
the expedition to Vigo in 1702. His brother, John, at the 
beginning of the last century was for many years collector oi 
customs at Anstruther in Fife, and subsequently was ap- 
pointed inspector - general in the same department. The 
direct male line of the Macnaughton chiefs became extinct at 
his death. 



The chiefship is now in an Irish family, descended from 
Shane Dim, grandson of Sir Alexander Macnaghton, slain at 
Flodden, who went to Ireland in 1580, as secretary to his kins- 
man, the 1st earl of Antrim, and settled there. His son Daniel 
Macnaghton, Esq., married Catherine, niece of the celebrat- 
ed primate, George Dowdall, and their great-grandson, Ed- 
mund Alexander Macnaghten, Esq. of Beardiville, born Au- 
gust 3, 1762, was M.P. for County Antrim, and a lord of the 
treasury. The clan Macnaghton elected this gentleman and 
his heirs to the chieftainship. At his decease in 1832, it de- 
scended with his family estates to his brother, Sir Francis 
Workman Macnaghten, born August 2, 1763, educated for the 
law, and knighted on being appointed a judge of the supreme 
court of judicature at Madras, in 1809. In 1815 he was 
transferred to that of Bengal, and in 1823 he assumed the 
additional surname and arms of Workman. He retired 
from the bench in 1825, and was created a baronet, Ju?y 16, 
1836. He died Nov. 22, 1843. By his wife, the eldest daugh - 
ter of Sir William Dunkin of Clogher, a judge of the supreme 
court of judicature, Calcutta, he had 6 sons and 10 daugh- 
ters. Of the eldest son, in the following paragraph. The 
2d son, William Hay, of the Bengal Civil Service, was created 
a baronet in 1839, and was assassinated at Cabul, Dec. 25, 
1841. Stuart Macnaghten, the youngest son, born June 20, 
1815, educated at Edinburgh and Trinity College, Dublin, (B. A. 
1835), called to the bar at the Middle Temple, 1839; married 
in 1848, Agnes, daughter of James Eastmont, Esq. of St. 
Berners, near Edinburgh, and widow of Capt. Lewis Shedden. 

The eldest son, Sir Edmund Charles Workman Macnagh- 
ten, of Dunderave. Bushmills, county Antrim, 2d baronet. 



MACNEILL 



55 



OF BARRA. 



born April 1, 1790, M.P. for that county, 1847-1852, married 
in 1827, Mary, only child of Edward Gwatkin, Esq.; issue 
five sons, and two daughters. The sons are 1 . Francis Edmundt 
major, 8th Hnssars, born in 1828 ; 2. Edward, barrister-at-law ; 
3. William Henry, 1st Bengal light cavalry; 4. Fergus ; 5. Ed- 
mund Charles. The family spell their name Macnaghten. 

Macneill, the name of a clan of the Western isles, which, 
like the Macleods, consisted of two independent branches, 
the Macneills of Barra and the Macneills of Gigha, said to 
be descended from brothers. Their badge was the seaware, 
but they had different armorial bearings, and from this cir- 
cumstance, joined to the fact that they were often opposed to 
each other in the clan fights of the period, and that the 
Christian names of the one, with the exception of Neil], were 
not used by the other, Mr. Gregory thinks the tradition of 
their common descent erroneous. Part of their possessions 
were completely separated, and situated at a considerable 
distance from the rest. 

The clan Neill were among the secondary vassal tribes of 
the lords of the Isles, and its heads appear to have been of 
Norse or Danish origin. Buchanan of Auchmar styles them 
Irish Celts of the O'Neil tribe, and they are classed by Skene 
under the Siol Gillevray, or race of Gillebride, surnamed king 
of the Isles, who lived in the 12th century, and derived his de- 
scent from a brother of Suibne, the ancestor of the Macdonalds. 

About the beginning of the loth century, the Macneills 
were a considerable clan in Knapdale, Argyleshire. As this 
district was not then included in the sheriffdom of Argyle, it 
is probable that their ancestor had consented to hold his 
lands of the crown. 

The first of the family on record is Nigellus Og, who 
obtained from Robert Bruce a charter of some lands in 
Kintyre. His great-grandson, Gilleonan Roderick Muchard 
Macneill, in 1427, received from Alexander, lord of the 
Isles, a charter of that island, one of the Hebrides, eight 
miles long and two to four in breadth. In the same 
charter were included the lands of Boisdale in South Uist, 
which lies about eight miles distant from Barra. With 
John Garve Maclean he disputed the possession of that island, 
and was killed by him in Coll. His grandson, Gilleonan, 
took part with John, the old lord of the Isles, against his 
turbulent son, Angus, and fought on his side at the battle of the 
Bloody Bay, where he narrowly escaped falling into the hands 
of the victorious Clandonald. He was chief of this sept or 
division of the Macneills in 1493, at the forfeiture of the 
lordship of the Isles. 

The Gigha Macneills are supposed to have sprung from 
Torquil Macneill, designated in his charter, " filius Nigelli," 
who, in the early part of the 15th century, received from the 
lord of the Isles a charter of the lands of Gigha and Taynish, 
with the constabulary of Castle Sweyn, in Knapdale. He 
had two sons, Neill his heir, and Hector, ancestor of the 
family of Taynish. Malcolm Macneill of Gigha, the son of 
Neill, who is first mentioned in 1478, was chief of this sept 
of the Macneills in 1493. After that period the Gigha branch 
followed the banner of Macdonald of Isla and Kintyre, while 
the Barra Macneills ranged themselves under that of Maclean 
of Dowart. 

On the insurrection of the islanders, under Donald Dubh, 
in the beginning of the 16th century, Gilleonan Macneill of 
Barra was amongst the chiefs who, in 1504, were summoned 
to answer for their treasonable support given to the rebels, 
and the following year, when the Dowart Macleans sent in 
their submission to the government, the Macneills of Barra, 
ns their followers, as a matter of course, did the same. 



In 1545 Gilliganan Macneill of Barra was one of the bar- 
ons and council of the Isles who accompanied Donald Dubh, 
styling himself lord of the Isles and earl of Boss, to Irelacd, 
to swear allegiance to the king of England. His elder s<\n, 
Roderick or Ruari Macneill, was killed at the battle of Glen- 
livet, by a shot from a fieldpiece, on 3d Oct. 1594. He left 
three sons, Roderick, his heir, called Ruari the turbulent, 
John, and Murdo. The two latter were among the eight 
hostages left by Maclean of Dowart, in 1586, in the hands 
of his brother-in-law, Macdonald of Dunyveg. During the 
memorable and most disastrous feud which happened between 
the Macleans and the Macdonalds at this period, and which 
has already been described, (see pp. 40, 41 of this volume,) 
the Barra Macneills and the Gigha branch of the same clan 
fought on different sides. 

The Macneills of Barra were expert seamen, and did 
not scruple to act as pirates upon occasion. An English 
ship having been seized off the island of Barra, by 
Ruari the turbulent, Queen Elizabeth complained of this 
act of piracy. The laird of Barra was in consequence sum- 
moned to appear at Edinburgh, to answer for his conduct, 
but as the haughty and high-spirited chiefs of the remoter 
isles were, in those days, sometimes very apt to do, even with 
the king's citations, he treated the summons with contempt. 
All the attempts made to apprehend him proving unsuccess- 
ful, Mackenzie, tutor of Kintail, undertook to effect his cap- 
ture by a stratagem frequently put in practice against the 
island chiefs when suspecting no hostile design. Under the 
pretence of a friendly visit, he arrived at Macneill's castle of 
Chisamil (pronounced Kisimul), the ruins of which stand on 
an insulated rock in Castlebay, on the south-east end of 
Barra, and invited him and all his attendants on board his 
vessel. There they were well plied with liquor, until they 
were all overpowered with it. The chief's followers were 
then sent on shore, while he himself was carried a prisoner 
to Edinburgh. Being put upon his trial, he confessed his 
seizure of the English ship, but pleaded in excuse that he 
thought himself bound by his loyalty to avenge, by every 
means in his power, the fate of his majesty's mother, so era 
elly put to death by the queen of England. This politic an- 
swer procured his pardon, but his estate was forfeited, and 
given to the tutor of Kintail. The latter restored it to its 
owner, on condition of his holding it of him, and paying him 
sixty merks Scots, as a yearly feu duty. It had previously 
been held of the crown. Some time thereafter, Sir James 
Macdonald of Sleat married a daughter of the tutor of 
Kintail, who made over the superiority to his son-in-law, and 
it is now possessed by Lord Macdonald, the representative of 
the house of Sleat. 

The old chief of Barra, Ruari the turbulent, had several 
sons by a lady of the family of Maclean, with whom, 
according to an ancient practice in the Highlands, he 
had handjasted, instead of marrying her. He afterwards 
married a sister of the captain of the Clanranald, and 
by her also he had sons. To exclude the senior family 
from the succession the captain of the Clanranald took the 
part of his nephews, whom he declared to be the only legiti 
mate sons of the Barra chief. Having apprehended the eld- 
est son of the first family, for having been concerned in the 
piratical seizure of a ship of Bourdeaux, he conveyed him to 
Edinburgh for trial, but he died there soon after. His bro- 
thers-gennan, in revenge, assisted by Maclean of Dowart, 
seized Neill Macneill, the eldest son of the second family, 
and sent him to Edinburgh, to be tried as an actor in the pi- 
racy of the same Bourdeaux ship, and thinking that their 
father was too partial to their half brothers, they also scizi* 



MACNEILL 



56 



OF COLONSAY 



the old chief, and placed him in irons. Neill Macneill, called 
Weyislache, was found innocent and liberated through the 
influence of his uncle. Barra's elder sons, on being charged 
to exhibit their father before the privy council, refused, on 
which thev were proclaimed rebels, and commission was given 
to the captain of the Clanranald against them. In conse- 
quence of these proceedings, which occurred about 1613, 
Clanranald was enabled to secure the peaceable succession of 
his nephew to the estate of Barra, on the death of his father, 
which happened soon after. (Gregory's Highlands and Isles, 
p. 346.) 

The island of Barra and the adjacent isles are still pos- 
sessed by the descendant and representative of the family of 
Macneill. Their feudal castle of Chisamul has been already 
mentioned. It is a building of an hexagonal form, strongly 
built, with a wall above thirty feet high, and anchorage for 
small vessels on every side of it. In one of its angles is a 
high square tower, on the top of which, at the corner imme- 
diately above the gate, is a hole, through which the gock- 
man, or watchman, who sat there all night, threw down 
stones upon any who might attempt to surprise the gate in 
the darkness. Martin, who visited Barra in 1703, in his 
' Description of the Western Islands,' says that the Highland 
Chroniclers or sennachies alleged that the then chief of Bar- 
ra was the 34th lineal descendant from the first Macneill 
who had held it. He relates that the inhabitants of this and 
the other islands belonging to Macneill were in the custom of 
applying to him for wives and husbands, when he named the 
persons most suitable for them, and gave them a bottle of 
strong waters for the marriage feast. 



The chief of the Macneills of Gigha, in the first half of 
the 16th century, was Neill Macneill, who was killed, with 
many gentlemen of his tribe, in 1530, in a feud with 
Allan Maclean of Torlusk, called Alein nan Sop, bro- 
ther of Maclean of Dowart. His only daughter, Anabella, 
made over the lands of Gigha to her natural brother, Neill. 
The latter was present, on the English side, at the battle of 
Ancrum-Moor, in 1544, but it is uncertain whether he was 
there as an ambassador from the lord of the Isles, or fought 
in the English ranks at the head of his clansmen. He sold 
Gigha to James Macdonald of Isla in 1554, and died without 
legitimate issue in the latter part of the reign of Queen Mary. 

On the extinction of the direct male line, Neill Macneill 
vie Eachan, who had obtained the lands of Taynish, became 
heir male of the family. His descendant, Hector Macneill of 
Taynish, purchased in 1590, the island of Gigha from John 
Campbell of Calder, who had acquired it from Macdonald of 
Isla, so that it again became the property of a Macneill. 
The estates of Gigha and Taynish were possessed by his de- 
scendants till 1780, when the former was sold to Macneill of 
Colonsay, a cadet of the family. 

The representative of the male line of the Macneills of 
Taynish and Gigha, Roger Hamilton Macneill of Taynish, 
married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Hamilton Price, 
Esq. of Raploch, Lanarkshire, with whom he got that estate, 
and assumed, in consequence, the name of Hamilton. His 
descendants are now designated of Raploch. 

The principal cadets of the Gigha Macneills, besides the 
Taynish family, were those of Gallochallie, Carskeay, and 
Tirfergus. Torquil, a younger son of Lachlan Macneill Buy 
of Tirfergus, acquired the estate of Ugadale in Argyleshire, 
by marriage with the heiress of the Mackays in the end of 
the 17th century. The present proprietor spells his name 
Macneal. From Malcolm Beg Macneill, celebrated in High- 
land tradition for his extraordinary prowess and great strength, 



son of John Oig Macneill of Gallochallie, in the reign of James 
VI., sprung the Macneills of Arichonan. Malcolm's only 
son, Neill Oig, had two sons, John, who succeeded him, and 
Donald Macneill of Crerar, ancestor of the Macneills of Co- 
lonsay, now the possessors of Gigha. Many cadets of the 
Macneills of Gigha settled in the north of Ireland. 

Both branches of the clan Neill laid claim to the chiefship. 
According to tradition, it has belonged, since the middle of 
the 16th century, to the house of Barra. Under the date of 
1550, a letter appears in the register of the privy council, ad- 
dressed to " Torkill Macneill, chief and principal of the clan 
and surname of Macnelis." Mr. Skene conjectures this Tor- 
kill to have been the hereditary keeper of Castle Sweyn, and 
connected with neither branch of the Macneills. He is said, 
however, to have been the brother of Neill Macneill of Gigha, 
killed in 1530, as above mentioned, and to have, on his bro- 
ther's death, obtained a grant of the non-entries of Gigha as 
representative of the family. If this be correct, according to 
the above designation, the chiefship was in the Gigha line. 
Torquil appears to have died without leaving any direct suc- 
cession. 



The first of the family of Colonsay, Donald Macneill cf 
Crerar in South Knapdale, exchanged that estate in 1700, 
with the duke of Argyle, for the islands of Colonsay and Or- 
onsay. The old possessors of these two islands, which are 
only separated by a narrow sound, dry at low water, were the 
Macduffies or Macphies (see Macphie). Donald's great- 
grandson, Archibald Macneill of Colonsay, sold that island to 
his cousin, John Macneill, who married Hester, daughter of 
Duncan Macneill of Dunmore, and had six sons. His eldest 
son, Alexander, younger of Colonsay, became the purchasei 
of Gigha. Two of his other sons, Duncan and Sir John 
Macneill, have distinguished themselves, the one as a lawyer 
and judge, and the other as a diplomatist. 

Duncan, the second son, born in Colonsay in 1794, after 
being educated at the universities of St. Andrews and Edin- 
burgh, was admitted advocate at the Scottish bar in 1816. 
In 1824 he was appointed sheriff of Perthshire, and in No- 
vember 1834, solicitor-general for Scotland, which office he 
held till the following April, and again from September 1841 
to October 1842. At the latter date he was appointed lord- 
advocate, and continued so till July 1846. He was elected 
dean of the faculty of advocates, and in May 1851 was raised 
to the bench as a lord of session and justiciary, when he as- 
sumed the title of Lord Colonsay. In May 1852 he was ap- 
pointed lord-justice-general and president of the court of 
session, and in the following year was sworn in a privy coun- 
cillor. He was M.P. for Argyleshire from 1843 to 1851. 

Sir John Macneill, G.C.B., and F.R.S.E., the third son, 
was born at Colonsay in 1795, and in his 19th year graduated 
M.D. at the university of Edinburgh. He practised for some 
time in the East, as a physician, and in 1831 was appointed 
assistant envoy at the court of Persia. In 1834 he became 
secretary of the embassy, and received the Persian order of the 
Lion and Sun, and in June 1836 was appointed envoy ex- 
traordinary and minister plenipotentiary to that court. In 
1839 he was created a civil knight grand cross of the order of 
the Bath. During his residence in Persia he became thor- 
oughly acquainted with the habits, policy, and resources of 
the Asiatic nations ; and was enabled, even at that period, to 
point out the aggressive designs of Russia with singular pen- 
etration and ability. In 1844 he returned home, and soon 
after he was placed at the head of the board appointed to 
superintend the working of the new Scottish Poor law act of 
1845. In 1851 he conducted a special inquiry into the ood- 



MACNETL, 



57 



HECTOR. 



dition of the Western Highlands and Islands. Tn February 
1855 he was chosen by the government of Lord Palmerston 
to preside over the commission of Inquiry into the adminis- 
tration of the supplies of the army in the Crimea. In 1857, 
lie was sworn of the privy council, and on April 22, 1861, he 
received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Edinburgh. 
He is also Doctor of Civil Law in the University of Oxford. 

MACNEIL, Hector, a popular poet and song- 
writer, descended from a respectable family in the 
West Highlands, was born October 22, 1746, at 
Rosebank, on the Esk, near Roslin, Mid Lothian, 
where his father, at one period an officer in the 
army, had taken a farm. He was educated at the 
grammar school of Stirling, under Dr. David Doig, 
to whom he dedicated his ' Will and Jean.' He 
subsequently attended some classes at Glasgow, 
in the higher branches of education. At the age 
of 14 he went to Bristol, to a cousin, formerly a 
West Indian captain, who sent him on a voyage to 
the island of St. Christopher's, furnished with a let- 
ter to a mercantile house there. On his arrival, he 
obtained a situation in the counting-house of the 
merchant to whom he had been recommended, 
but having forgot himself so far as to snatch a 
kiss from the wife of his employer, one day while 
reading in the garden with her, he was soon dis- 
missed. He remained for many years in the 
West Indies, but never could rise above subordi- 
nate situations. During this period, it is said, 
he was employed as a negro-driver, and in 1788 
he published a pamphlet in defence of the system 
of slavery in the West Indies, which was for ever 
abolished by the Emancipation act of 1830. 

When upwards of forty years of age, Macneil 
returned to Scotland in bad health and in any- 
thing but prosperous circumstances. He had, 
when a boy of eleven years of age, written a spe- 
cies of drama, in imitation of Gay, but his poetical 
powers seem to have been allowed to remain al- 
most dormant during his long and struggling 
career in the West Indies. He now, however, 
began "to give the world assurance" of his pos- 
sessing "the vision and the faculty divine," by 
publishing, in the spring of 1789, ' The Harp, a 
Legendary Tale, in two parts,' which brought 
him into favourable notice in literary society, but 
added nothing to his income 

Having no prospect of employment in his native 
country, he again quitted it, but this time for the 



East Indies. Disappointed, however, in his ex- 
pectations there, he soon returned to Scotland, 
and took up his abode in a cottage near St. Kin- 
ians, in the immediate neighbourhood of Stirling. 
During his sojourn in the East, he visited the cel- 
ebrated caves of Elephanta, Cannara, and Ambola, 
of which a detailed account written by him, wag 
published in the eighth volume of the Archffiolo- 
gia. He afterwards wrote a number of love songs 
in the Scottish language, which speedily became 
favourites with all classes. Of these, his ' Mary 
of Castlecary,' * I loo'd ne'er a laddie but ane,' 
' Come under my plaidie,' and others, nearly all 
of a dramatic nature and in the dialogue form, are 
familiar to all lovers of Scottish song. 

In 1795 appeared his principal poem, • Scotland's 
Skaith, or the History of Will and Jean, ower 
true a tale,' the object of which was to exhibit the 
evils attendant on an inordinate use of ardent spi- 
rits, in the story of a once industrious rustic and 
his wife reduced through intemperance to poverty 
and distress ; and so great was its popularity that 
in less than twelve months it had passed through 
fourteen editions. It was followed in the ensuing 
year, by a sequel, entitled ' The Waes o' War.' 
All his pieces are in the Scottish dialect. 

In consequence of continued bad health, in 
1796, with the hope of deriving benefit from a 
tropical climate, to which he had been so long 
used, and also of bettering his circumstances, he 
was induced to go out to Jamaica, and on the 
eve of his departure composed his descriptive po- 
em, entitled 'The Links of Forth, or a parting 
Peep at the Carse of Stirling,' which was pub- 
lished in 1799. At Jamaica he remained for a 
year and a half, residing with Mr. John Graham 
of Three-Mile-River, where he wrote 'The Scot- 
tish Muse,' which appeared in 1809. On the 
death of that gentleman he left Macneil an annu- 
ity of £100. 

In 1800 Macneil returned to Scotland, and hav- 
ing now a competence and leisure to attend to 
literary pursuits, he took up his abode at Edin- 
burgh, where he mixed in good society. The 
same year he published, anonymously, a novel, 
entitled 'The Memoirs of Charles Macpherson,' 
which is understood to contain an account of hia 
own early career. Soon after, he set about pre- 



MACXEIL, 



58 



MACNICOL. 



paring a complete collection of his poetical works, 
which appeared in two volumes, in 1801. He 
next published two works in verse, entitled ' Town 
Fashions, or Modern Manners Delineated,' and 
1 Bygane Times and Late-come Changes,' and in 
1812, a novel in two volumes, styled 'The Scot- 
tish Adventurers, or the Way to Rise,' in all of 
which he eulogises the manners and habits of past 
times, in preference to what he deemed modern 
innovations and corruptions. Many minor pieces 
he inserted in the Scots Magazine, of which he 
was at one time editor. He died at Edinburgh of 
jaundice, 15th March 1818. The statement in 
Chambers' ' Biographical Dictionary of Eminent 
Scotsmen,' that he was in such destitute circum- 
stances at the time of his death that he did not 
leave " wherewithal to defray his funeral expen- 
ses," is not correct. 

The portrait of Mr. Macneil is subjoined : 




He ia described, towards the close of his life, as 
having been a tall, fine-looking old man, with a 
very sallow complexion, and a dignified and some- 
what austere expression of countenance. Like all 
persons who have made poetry their profession, 
and felt the struggles and privations attendant on 



the exclusive service of the muses, he invariable 
warned all young aspirants for poetic fame against 
embarking in the precarious occupation of author- 
ship. His works are : 

On the Treatment of the Negroes in Jamaica. 1788, 8vo. 

The Harp; a Legendary Tale. Edin. 1789, 4to. 

Scotland's Skaith, or the History of Will and Jean ; owre 
true a Tale. Together with some additional Poems. Em- 
bellished with elegant engravings. 2d edit. Edin. 1795, 8vo. 
Again, entitled, Politicks, or the History of Will and Jean; a 
Tale for the Times. 1796, 4to. 

The Waes of War; or, The Upshot of the History of Will 
and Jean. Edm. 1796, 8vo. Lond. 1796, 4to. 

The Links o' Forth; or, a Parting Peep at the Carse of 
Stirling. Edin. 1795, 8vo. 

Poetical Works. Lond. 1801, 2 vols. 8vo. 1806, 2 vols 
12mo. 3d. edit. 1812. 

The Pastoral, or Lyric Muse of Scotland ; in 3 cantos. 
1809. 4to. 

Bygane Times and late-come Changes, or a Bridge-Street 
Dialogue in Scottish verse, exhibiting a Picture of the exist- 
ing Manners, Customs, and Morals. 3d edit. 1812. 

Scottish Adventurers, or the Way to Rise ; an Historical 
Tale. 1812, 2 vols. 8vo. 

An Account of the Cives of Cannara, Ambola, and Ele- 
phanta, in the East Inuies ; in a Letter from Hector Mao- 
neill, Esq., then at Bombay, to a friend in England. Archseol. 
viii. 251. 1787. 



Macniccl, the name of a small but ' broken ' tribe or claD 
originally belonging to Ross-shire, but latterly located in the 
island of Skye. They were descended from one Mackrycul, 
(the letter r in the Gaelic being invariably pronounced like n,) 
who, as a reward for having rescued from some Scandinavians 
a great quantity of cattle carried off from Sutherland, received 
from one of the ancient thanes of that province, the district 
of Assynt, then a forest belonging to them. This Mackrycul 
held that part of the coast of Cogeach, which is called Ulla- 
pool. In the MS. of 1450, the descent of the clan Nicail is 
traced in a direct line from a certain Gregall, plainly the 
Krycul here mentioned, who is supposed to have lived in the 
twelfth century. This descent is corroborated by the tradi- 
tion of the country, as stated in the account of the parish of 
Assynt in the New Statistical Account of Scotland (vol. 
xv. p. 109). He is said to have been the ancestor, be- 
sides the Macnicols, of the Nicols, and the Nicholsons. When 
Gregall lived, Sutherland was occupied by Gaelic tribes, and 
the Macnicols may therefore be considered of Gaelic origin. 

About the beginning of the 14th century, the family of the 
chief ended in an heiress, who married Torquil Macleod, a 
younger son of Macleod of Lewis. Macleod obtained a crown 
charter of the district of Assynt and other lands in Wester 
Ross, which had been the property of the Macnicols. That 
sept subsequently removed to the Isle of Skye, and the resi- 
dence of their head or chief was at Scoirebreac, on the mar- 
gin of the loch near Portree. There were fourteen successive 
lairds of Assynt of the name of Macleod. The last of them 
was the one through whose means the great marquis of Mon- 
trose, when apprehended in Assynt, was delivered up to his 
enemies, then at the head of the government in Scotland. 
Montrose offered Macleod a large sum of money for his liberty 
which he refused, and the loss of his property, with the ruin 
of his family, happening soon after, was deemed by the inha- 
| bitants of the district a just judgment upon him for having 



MACNISH. 



59 



MACOXOCHIE. 



been the cause of that chivalrous nobleman's capture and 
execution. 

Even after their removal to Skye the Macnico.s seem to 
have retained their independence, for tradition relates that on 
one occasion when the head of this clan, called Macnicol Mor, 
was engaged in a warm discussion with Macleod of Rasay, 
carried on in the English language, the servant of the latter 
coming into the room, imagined they were quarrelling, and 
drawing his sword mortally wounded Macnicol. To prevent 
a feud between the two septs, a council of chiefs and elders 
was held to determine in what manner the Macnicols could 
be appeased, when, upon some old precedent, it was agreed 
that the meanest person in the clan Nicol should behead the 
laird of Rasay. The individual of least note among them 
was one Lomach, a maker of pannier baskets, and he accord- 
ingly cut off the head of Rasay at Snizort. 

At a Highland banquet, towards the end of the last cen- 
tury, a call was made for the bards to be brought to the upper 
end of the room, on which Macnicol of Scoirebreac exclaimed, 
•' The bards are extinct." " No," quickly replied Alastair 
Buy Mac Ivor, " but those who delighted to patronize them 
are gone." 

In ArgyLeshire there were many Macnicols, but the clan 
may be said to have long been extinct. 

MACNISH, Robert, LL.D., a popular writer, 
known in his lifetime as "The modem Pythago- 
rean," the son of a medical practitioner in Glas- 
gow, was born in Henderson's Court, Jamaica 
Street, of that city, February 15, 1802. He re- 
ceived the elements of his education partly in his 
native town, and partly at a classical academy at 
Hamilton, about eleven miles from it, and after- 
wards studied medicine. He obtained the degree 
of master of surgery at the early age of eighteen, 
when he became assistant to Dr. Henderson of 
Clyth at Caithness. He remained there for about 
eighteen months, and then went to Paris for a 
year, with the view of completing his medical 
studies. On his return to Glasgow in 1825, he 
became assistant to his father, having, the same 
year, obtained his diploma from the faculty of 
physicians and surgeons of Glasgow, when he 
gave in, as his inaugural thesis, ' An Essay on 
the Anatomy of Drunkenness.' Two years after- 
wards, that is, in 1827, this essay, extended and 
improved, was published at Glasgow, when it 
formed a thin octavo of 56 pages. It met with a 
very flattering reception from the public, and 
was still farther enlarged in subsequent editions. 
Translations of it have appeared in the German 
and French languages. 

Dr. Macnish's earliest literary attempts were 
contributed to the ' Inverness Journal,' when he 
was in the north, and afterwards to the ' Literary 



Melange,' and ' The Emmet,' two Glasgow perio- 
dicals of humble pretensions. In 1822 he sent 
two contributions to Constable's Edinburgh Mag- 
azine, the one entitled ' MacVurich the Murder- 
er,' and the other 'The Dream Confirmed,' both 
founded on incidents which he had picked up in 
the Highlands. In 1826 he forwarded his first 
communication to ' Blackwood's Magazine,' being 
a tale, entitled 'The Metempsychosis.' It ap- 
peared with the signature of ' A Modern Pytha- 
gorean,' the name affixed to all his after produc- 
tions in that and other magazines. In 1827 he 
became acquainted with Dr. Moir of Musselburgh, 
afterwards his biographer. 

In 1830, Dr. Macnish published at Glasgow a 
treatise, entitled 'The Philosophy of Sleep,' which 
was equally well received with his former work, 
and also went through several editions. In 1834 
appeared ' The Book of Aphorisms,' some of which 
had originally been contributed to Fraser's Maga- 
zine. The same year he visited the continent, 
and in the following year he made a tour in Bel- 
gium and Holland, France, Switzerland, and Ger- 
many. 

His last puolication was a small treatise in 
1 835, entitled an ' Introduction to Phrenology,' to 
which science he had become a convert. From 
Hamilton college, United States, he, at this time, 
received the degree of LL.D. He died of typhus 
fever, January 16, 1837, in his 35th year. His 
Tales, Essays, and Sketches, were published at 
Edinburgh, in two volumes, in 1838, under tlie 
title of the ' Modern Pythagorean,' with a memoir 
of the author, by his friend, Dr. Moir of Mussel- 
burgh, the Delta of Blackwood's Magazine. 

Maconochie, a surname derived from the Gaelic Macdo- 
nochie, the son of Duncan. The Maconochies of Meadow- 
bank, Mid Lothian, the principal family of the name, are 
descendants of the Campbells of Inverawe, Argyleshire, the 
first of whom was Duncan Campbell, eldest son of Sir Neil 
Campbell of Lochow, ancestor of the ducal house of Argrle, 
by his 2d wife, a daughter of Sir John Cameron of Lochiel. 
The eldest son of that marriage, Duncan Campbell, obtained 
a grant of Inverawe and Cruachan from David II. in 1330. 
His eldest son was named Dougal, after bis mother's farnilv, 
and Dougal's eldest son Duncan was called in the Highlands 
Mac Douill Vic Conochio. He named his son also Duncan, 
who was thus Maconochie Vic Conochie, the son and grand- 
son of Conochie, or Duncan. Maconochie, from that period, be- 
came the patronymic appellation of each succeeding Camp- 
bell of Inverawe. while the cadets of the family still bore the 
name of Campbell. 



MACPHERSON. 



60 



VACrilERSON. 



From the Campbells of Inverawe sprung the Campbells of 
Shir wan. Kilmartin, and Cruachan. 

In 1660, Dougall Campbell, or, as he was called, the Ma- 
conochie of Inveraugh, engaged in the rebellion of the mar- 
quis of Argy»e, in wnose armament of the clan Campbell he 
held the rank of major. He was tried with the marquis in 
1661 and attainted. He was soon afterwards executed at 
Carlisle. 

After the Revolution of 1688, Dougall's son, James Ma- 
conochie, who, at his father's death, was little more than nine 
years old, applied to government for the restoration of the 
Argyleshire property, which had got into the possession of 
an uncle, but was unsuccessful. From King William III., 
however, he obtained a grant in compensation, which he 
invested in the purchase of the lands of Kirknewton, in 
tne muir now called Meadowbank, Mid Lothian, which 
his descendant still possesses, and, adopting Lowland cus- 
toms, all the family took the name of Maconochie. His only 
son, Alexander Maconochie, was a writer in Edinburgh. The 
sou of the latter, Allan Maconochie, a celebrated lawyer, born 
January 26, 1748, died June 14, 1816, was a lord of session 
and justiciary, under the title of Lord Meadowbank, being 
appointed to the former in 1796, and to the latter in 1804. 
While attending the university of Edinburgh, he was one of 
the five students who originated the Speculative Society, and 
was afterwards for some time Professor of the Laws of Na- 
ture and Nations in that university. He was the author of 
a pamphlet entitled ' Considerations on the Introduction of 
Trial by Jury in Scotland,' and in 1815, when the Scottish 
jury court was instituted, he was appointed one of the lords 
commissioners. He is said to have been the inventor of moss 
manure, now extensively employed in various counties of 
Scotland, and printed for private distribution a tract on the 
subject. He married Elizabeth, third daughter of Robert 
Wellwood, Esq., of Garvock, by whom he had issue. 

His eldest son, Alexander Maconochie, passed advocate in 
1799, and after being sheriff-depute of the county of Had- 
dington 1810, solicitor-general 1813, and lord-advocate 1816, 
was appointed a lord of session and justiciary in 1819, when 
he also took the title of Lord Meadowbank. He resigned in 
1841, and died Nov. 30, 1861. On the death of his cousin, 
Robert Scott Wellwood, he succeeded to the entailed estates 
of Garvock and Pitliver, in the county of Fife, and assumed 
the name of Wellwood of Garvock (see Welwood). He mar- 
ried Anne, eldest daughter of Lord-president Blair ; issue, 
with 5 daughters, 4 sons, viz. — 1. Allan Alexander Macono- 
chie, LL.D., born in 1806, passed advocate in 1829, and in 
1842 appointed professor of civil law and the law of Scotland 
in the university of Glasgow. 2. Robert Blair, writer to the 
Bignet. 3. William Maximilian George. 4. Henry Dundas. 



Macpherson, the name of one of the two principal 
branches of the clan Chattau, the badge of which was the 
box evergreen. In the Celtic the Macphersons are called the 
clan Vuirich or Muirich, from an ancestor of that name, who, 
in the Gaelic MS. of 1450, is said to have been the " son of 
Swen, son of Heth, son of Nachtan, son of Gillichattan, from 
whom came the clan Chattan." The word Gillichattan 
means a votary or servant of St. Kattan, a Scottish saint, 
*s Gillicbrist means a servant of Christ; hence Gilchrist. 

The descent of the heads of the Macphersons from the an- 
cient chiefs of the clan Chattan has been unbroken, and tra- 
uition is uniformly in favour of their right to the chiefship of 
the whole clan. The claim of the Macintoshes, the other 
principal branch of the clan Chattan, to the chiefship has 
yeen already disposed of (see vol. ii. p. 744 et seq.~). Their own 



traditional story of their descent from Macduff, thane of Fife, 
is extremely improbable, and if it were true, it would prove 
that they were not a branch of the clan Chattan at all. On 
their own showing, they obtained the chiefship by marriage, 
and that from the head of the Macphersons, whom they ac- 
knowledge to have been at one period chief of the clan Chat- 
tan. The rule of clanship excludes females from the succes- 
sion, and the heir male, not the heir of line, became chief of 
the clan Chattan. 

It was from Muirich or Murdoch, who succeeded to the 
chiefship in 1153, that the Macphersons derive the name of 
the clan Muirich or Vuirich. This Muirich was parson of 
Kingussie, a religious establishment in the lower part of Bad- 
enoch, and the surname, properly Macphersain, was given to 
his descendants from his office. He was the great-grandson 
of Gillichattan Mor, the founder of the clan, who lived in the 
reign of Malcolm Canmore, and having married, on a papal 
dispensation, a daughter of the thane of Calder, he had five 
sons. The eldest, Gillichattan, the third of the name, and 
chief of the clan in the reign of Alexander II., was father of 
Dougal Dall, the chief whose daughter Eva married Angus 
Macintosh of Macintosh. On Dougal D all's death, as he had 
no sons, the representation of the family devolved on his cou- 
sin and heir male, Kenneth, eldest son of Eoghen or Ewen 
Baan, second son of Muirich. Neill Chrom, so called from 
his stooping shoulders, Muirich's third son, was a great arti- 
ficer in iron, and took the name of Smith from his trade. 
Ferquhard Gilliriach, or the swift, the fourth son, is said tc 
have been the progenitor of the MacGillivrays, who followed 
the Macintosh branch of the clan Chattan, and from David 
Dubh, or the Swarthy, the youngest of Muirich's sons, were 
descended the clan Dhai, or Davidsons of Invernahavon. 

The portion of the clan Chattan who adhered to Kenneth 
settled in Badenoch. Kenneth's son, Duncan Macpherson of 
Cluny, lived in the reign of Robert the Bruce, and fought on 
his side, at the head of his clan, at Bannockburn. He re- 
ceived a commission to expel the Comyns from Badenoch, 
and on their forfeiture he obtained, for his services, a grant 
of their lands. He was also allowed to add a hand holding 
a dagger to his armorial bearings. His grandson, Donald Mor 
Macpherson, was chief in 1386, when a battle took place at 
Invernahavon between the clan Chattan and the Camerons, 
in which a great number of the former were killed, and the 
latter were nearly cut off to a man. The laird of Macintosh 
having carried away the cattle of the Camerons, at different 
times, on account of the nonpayment of their rents, for the 
lands held of him in Lochaber, they marched into Badenoch 
to the number of 400, resolved upon reprisals. To oppose 
them Macintosh collected his followers, and called the Mac- 
phersons and Davidsons to his aid. A dispute about prece- 
I dency greatly weakened his force, and gave the Camerons 
the advantage. The command of the right wing was claim 
ed both by Cluny and Davidson of Invernahavon, the leader 
of the Davidsons, the former as chief of the clan Chattan, 
and the latter as the head of the eldest branch. Macintosh 
decided against Cluny, on which the Macphersons withdrew 
from the field. In the conflict that ensued, many of the 
Macintoshes and nearly all the Davidsons were slain. The 
Macphersons, seeing this, forgot their wounded pride, and 
next day attacking the Camerons, defeated them with 
great loss, their leader being among the killed. It is the 
opinion of some writers, and among the rest of Shaw, the 
historian of Moray, that this quarrel about precedency was 
the origin of the celebrated judicial combat on the North 
Inch of Perth in 1396, which nas already been described un- 
der the head Macintosh, and that the rarties were the 



MACPHERSON. 



(il 



OF CLUXY. 



Macphersons, properly the chin Chattan, and the Davidsons, 
called in the Gaelic Clann Dhaibhidh, or Dhai' (the last syl- 
lable being silent), pronounced Clan Chat. These rival 
tribes, we are told, for a long period bore a deadly enmity at 
one another, which was difficult to be restrained ; but after 
the award by Macintosh, at the battle with the Camerons, 
against the Macphersons, open strife broke out between 
them, and for ten years the Macphersons and the Davidsons 
carried on a war of extermination, which was only put an 
end to by the victory of the Macphersons at Perth. 

The Macphersons were staunch adherents of Queen Mary 
in her troubles. By the intrigues of the earl of Huntly, lord 
of Badenoch, (the crown having bestowed that district on his 
predecessor in 1452,) a final separation took place between 
the two principal branches of the clan Chattan about 1593. 
At their head he had maintained a fierce warfare with the 
western clans and his neighbours of Lochaber, but it was 
now his policy to divide their force and turn the one against 
the other. This he did by courting the Macphersons, who 
readily entered into his views, and by his encouragement and 
influence they declared themselves independent, and asserted 
their right to the chiefship, which the Macintoshes, as the 
nore numerous party, had claimed for centuries. In the fol- 
lowing year the Macphersons joined that nobleman, when the 
youthful earl of Argyle, at the head of the royal army, 
inarched against him and the other two Catholic earls. En- 
tering Badenoch, Argyle laid siege to the castle of Ruthven, 
which was so gallantly defended by the Macphersons that he 
was obliged to abandon the siege. John, chief of the Mac- 
phersons, fought under Huntly's banner at the battle of 
Glenlivet which followed. 

In 1609 the chief of the Macphersons signed a bond, along 
with all the other branches of that extensive tribe, acknow- 
ledging Macintosh as captain of the clan Chattan ; and in all 
the contentions and feuds in which the Macintoshes were 
subsequently involved with the Camerons and other Lochaber 
clans, they were obliged to accept of Macpherson's aid as 
allies rather than vassals. 

Donald Macpherson of Cluny, who succeeded as chief in 
1640, was a steady friend of King Charles I., and suffered 
much on account of his sincere attachment to the king's 
cause. His brother and successor, Andrew, was also a 
staunch royalist. In 1665, under this chief, when Macin- 
tosh went on an expedition against the Camerons, for the 
recovery of the lands of Glenluy and Locharkaig, he solicited 
the assistance of the Macphersons, when, to guard against 
anything which might seem to sanction the pretensions of 
Macintosh to be considered chief of the clan Chattan, a nota- 
rial deed was executed, wherein Macintosh declares that it 
was of their mere good will and pleasure that they did so, 
and on his part it is added, " I bind and oblige myself and 
friends and followers, to assist and fortify and join, with the 
said Andrew, Lachlan, and John Macpherson, all their lawful 
and necessary adoes, being thereunto required." In 1672, Dun- 
can Macpherson of Cluny, Andrew's grandson, made applica- 
tion to the Lyon office to have his arms matriculated as laird 
of Cluny Macpherson and " the only and true representative 
of the ancient and honourable family of the clan Chattan." 
This application was successful, but as soon as Macintosh 
heard of it, he raised a process before the privy council to 
have it determined as to which of them had the right to the 
proper armorial bearings. After a protracted inquiry, and 
the production of evidence on both sides, the council issued 
an order for the two chiefs to give security for the peaceable 
behaviour of their respective clans, thus deciding that thev 
were oach independent. " This process," says Logan, " ex- 



cited great intereot in the north, and Cluny receival the 
hearty congratulations of many friends on his return from 
Edinburgh; Keith, earl Marischal, and others entertaining 
him by the way, and freely accepting him as their chief." 
The same year, Cluny entered into a contract of friendship 
with ^neas, Lord Macdonell, and Aros, " for himself and 
takeing burden upon him for the haill name of Macphersons, 
and some others, called old Clanchatten, as cheeffe and 
principall man thereof." Although Macpherson received a new 
matriculation of his arms as those of Macpherson of Cluny, 
there is nothing in this, or in the designation given to the 
laird of Macintosh, to militate against his right to the chief- 
ship of the clan Chattan, so long in dispute between them. 

On the death, without issue, of Duncan, Andrew's grand- 
son, in 1721 or 1722, the chiefship devolved on Lachlan Mac- 
pherson of Nuid, the next male heir, being lineally descended 
from John, youngest brother of Donald and Andrew, the 
above-named chiefs. One of the descendants of this John ot 
Nuid was James Macpherson, the translator of Ossian's Po- 
ems, a memoir of whom is afterwards given in larger type. 
Lachlan married Jean, daughter of Sir Ewen Cameron of 
Lochiel. His eldest son, Ewen, was the chief at the time ot 
the rebellion of 1745 

In the previous rebellion of 1715, the Macphersons, under 
their then chief, Duncan, had taken a very active part, on 
the side of the Pretender. On the arrival of Prince Charles 
in 1745, Ewen Macpherson of Cluny, who, the same year, had 
been appointed to a company in Lord Loudon's Highlanders, 
and had taken the oaths to government, threw up his com- 
mission, and, with 600 Macphersons, joined the rebel army 
after their victory at Prestonpans. The Macphersons were 
led to take an active part in the rebellion chiefly from a desire 
to revenge the fate of three of their clansmen, who were shot 
on account of the extraordinary mutiny of the Black Watch, 
now the 42d regiment, two years before. That corps, com- 
posed principally of Highlanders, had been marched to the 
neighbourhood of London, preparatory to being sent abroad. 
As it had been formed of independent companies whose du- 
ties were intended to be confined solely to the Highlands, the 
determination to send them on foreign service, was deemed 
by them an infringement of their compact with government, 
and they resolved upon at once returning to Scotland. Ac- 
cordingly, after a review on Finchley Common on 14th May 
1743, they decamped from their quarters, and had reached 
the vicinity of Northampton on their way home, when they 
were discovered and obliged to surrender. The three who 
were made examples of, and suffered for the rest, were Cor- 
porals Malcolm, and Samuel Macpherson of Druminourd, bro- 
ther of General Kenneth Macpherson of the East India 
Company's service, who died in 1815, and Farquhar Shaw, a 
private. These men were remarkable for their great size 
and handsome figure. They were shot upon the parade, 
within the Tower of London, in presence of the other prison- 
ers, and met their death with great courage and composure. 

Ewen Macpherson, the chief, at first hesitated to join the 
prince, and his wife, a daughter of Lord Lovat, although a 
staunch Jacobite, earnestly dissuaded him from breaking his 
oath to government, assuring him that nothing could end 
well that began with perjury. Her friends reproached her for 
interfering, and his clan urging him, Cluny unfortunately 
yielded. In the memorable retreat from Derby, the Mac- 
phersons behaved with great gallantry, distinguishing them- 
selves particularly in the moonlight skirmish with the govern- 
ment troops at Clifton. Lord George Murray, who com- 
manded the Highlanders on that occasion, placed himself at 
the head of the Macphersons, with Cluny at his side. Ai 



MACPHERSON 



62 



OF CLUNY. 



the commencement of the action, the Glengary men, who 
were on the right, kept firing as they advanced, but the 
Macphersons, on the left, came sooner in contact with the 
dragoons, and received the whole of their fire. When the 
b.dls were whizzing about them, Cluny exclaimed, " What 
tlie devil is this?" Lord George told him that they had no 
remedy but to attack the dragoons, sword in hand, before 
they had time to charge again. Then, drawing his sword, he 
cried out, " Claymore," and Cluny doing the same, the Mac- 
phersons rushed down to the bottom ditch of the enclosure, 
Hnd clearing the hedges as they went, fell sword in hand upon 
the king's troops, killing many and putting the rest to flight. 

At the battle of Falkirk, the Macphersons formed a portion 
of the first line. They were too late for the battle of Cullo- 
den, where their assistance might have turned the fortune of 
the day, and they did not come up till after the retreat of 
Charles from that decisive field. In the subsequent devasta- 
tions committed by the English army, Cluny's house was 
plundered and burnt to the ground. Every exertion was made 
by the government troops for his apprehension, but they 
never could lay their hands upon him. At first he lived with 
Lochiel in a retreat at Benalder, a hill on his own property 
on the borders of Eannoch. Towards the end of Prince 
Charles' wanderings, for the purpose of meeting the prince, 
he set out for Auchnacary, where he supposed hiin to be, but 
missing him there, he retraced his steps, and found him in a 
miserable hovel with Lochiel, at a place called Mellenauir or 
Millanuir, on the side of Benalder. On entering the hut, 
Cluny would have kneeled before the prince, but the latter 
prevented him, and, giving him a kiss, said, " I am sorry, 
Cluny, you and your regiment were not at Culloden : I did 
not hear till very lately that you were so near us that day." 
The day following Cluny conducted the prince and his at- 
tendants to a little shieling about two miles farther into Ben- 
alder, and after passing two nights there he took him to a 
more secure retreat called the Cage, which he had fitted up 
for him, and where he lay concealed for several weeks till the 
arrival of the French frigate which conveyed him back to 
France. 

For himself Cluny had several places of concealment on his 
estate. He lived for nine years in a cave at a short distance 
from where his house had stood. " This cave," says General 
Stewart, (Sketches of the Highlanders, vol. i. pp. 60, 61,) 
" was in the front of a woody precipice, the trees and shelv- 
ing rocks completely concealing the entrance. It was dug 
out by his own people, who worked by night, and conveyed 
tne stones and rubbish into a lake in the neighbourhood, that 
no vestige of their labour might betray the retreat of their 
master. In this sanctuary he lived secure, occasionally visit- 
ing his friends by night, or when time slackened the rigour of 
the search. Upwards of a hundred persons knew where he 
was concealed, and a reward of £1,000 was offered to any 
one who should give information against him ; and as it was 
known that he was concealed on his own estate, eighty men 
were constantly stationed there, besides the parties continu- 
ally marching into the country, to intimidate his tenantry, 
and induce them to disclose the place of his concealment." 
But neither the fear of danger nor the hope of reward could 
prevail on any of his people to betray him, or even to discon- 
tinue their faithful services. 

For the purpose of discovering his retreat, Sir Hector 
Monro, at that time a lieutenant in the 34th regiment, at the 
head of a large party, continued two years in Badenoch, yet 
so true were the clan to their chief that not a trace of him 
could be found. On one occasion, while spending a few hours 
at nieht convivially witU bis friends, he escaped by a back 



window of the house they were in, just as the soldiery were 
breaking open the door. He became so cautious that, on 
parting with his wife, or any of his friends, he never told 
them to which of his places of concealment he was going, or 
suffered any one to accompany him, that they might have it 
in their power to answer, when questioned, that they knew 
not where he was. He escaped to France in 1755, and died 
at Dunkirk the following year. 

Frequent mention is made in the Stuart papers of a sum of 
money, amounting to £27,000, which the prince had intrust- 
ed to another person, by whom it was lodged in the hands of 
Cluny. Before quitting Scotland the prince gave Cluny in- 
structions that "not one farthing" was to be assigned away 
without an order from himself. Another note to him, dated 
from on board the French vessel in which he embarked for 
France, directs £750 to be divided among the Macgregors, 
the Stewarts, the Macdonalds of Glengary and Keppoch, and 
the " Lokel clan," as the Camerons of Lochiel are called. He 
likewise directs especial care to be taken of " rings, sels, 
(seals,) and other trifels" belonging to him, and all lying in 
certain " boxks," that is, boxes. The last letter that seems 
to have been written to him by the prince on the subject, 
dated " Ye 4th September, 1754," and addressed " For C. 
M. (that is, Cluny Macpherson) in Scotld," is as follows: 
" Sir, This is to desire you to come as soon as you can con- 
veniently to Paris, bringing over with you all the effects 
whatsoever that I left in your hand when I was in Scotland, 
as also whatever money you can come at, for I happen to ba 
at present in great straits, which makes me wish that you 
should delay as little as possible to meet me for that effect. 
You are to address yourself when arrived at Paris, to Mr. 
John Waters, Banker, &c. He will direct you where to 
find your sincere friend. C. P." This letter is copied from 
the original draught in Charles' own hand, among the Stuart 
papers, in possession of her majesty. In the perilous cir- 
cumstances in which Cluny was then placed, it is not known 
whether he was able to comply with all the directions he re- 
ceived regarding the application of the money, but it is be- 
lieved that when he escaped to France he was enabled to give 
the prince a good account of the same. 

Ewen's son, Duncan, was born in 1750, in a kiln for drying 
corn, in which his mother had taken refuge after the destruc- 
tion of their house. During his minority his uncle, Major 
John Macpherson of the 78th foot, acted as his guardian. 
He received back the estate which had been forfeited, and, 
entering the army, became lieutenant-colonel of the 3d foot- 
guards. He married, 12th June, 1798, Catherine, youngest 
daughter of Sir Evan Cameron of Fassfern, baronet, and on 
his death, 1st August 1817, was succeeded by his eldest son, 
Ewen Macpherson of Cluny, the 23d chief from Gillichattan 
Mor; a captain on halfpay, 42d Highlanders, a magistrate 
and a deputy-lieutenant of Inverness-shire; married 20th 
December 1832, the youngest daughter of Henry Davidson of 
Tulloch Castle, Ross-shire, with issue. 

In Cluny castle are preserved various relics of the rebellion 
of 1745 ; amongst the rest the prince's target and lace wrist 
ruffles, and an autograph letter from Charles, promising an 
ample reward to his devoted friend Cluny. There is also the 
black pipe chanter on which the prosperity of the house of 
Cluny is said to be dependent, and which all true members of 
the clan Vuirich firmly believe fell from heaven, in place of 
the one lost at the conflict on the North Inch of Perth 1 

The war-cry of the Macphersons was " Craig Dhu," the 
name of a rock in the neighbourhood of Cluny Castle. The 
chief is called in the Highlands " Mac Mhurich Chlanaidh,' 
but everywhere else is better known as Cluny Macpherson. 



MACPHERSON, 



63 



JAMES. 



Among the principal cadets of the house of Cluny were 
the Macphersons of Pitmean, Invereshie, Strathmassie, 
Breakachie, Essie, &c. The Invereshie branch were chiefs of 
a large tribe called the Siol Gillies, tho founder of which was 
Gillies or Elias Macpherson, the first of Invereshie, a younger 
son of Ewen Baan or Bane (so called from his fair complex- 
ion) above mentioned. Sir Eneas Macpherson of Invereshie, 
advocate, who lived in the reigns of Charles II. and James VII., 
collected the materials for the history of the clan Macpherson, 
the MS. of which is still preserved in the family. He was 
appointed sheriff of Aberdeen in 1684. 

George Macpherson of Invereshie married Grace, daughter 
of Colonel William Grant of Balliiu, .loch, and his elder son, 
William, dying, unmarried, in 1812, was succeeded by his 
nephew, George, who, on the death of his maternal grand- 
uncle, General James Grant of Ballindalloch, 13th April 1806, 
inherited that estate, and in consequmce assumed the name 
of Grant in addition to his own. He was M.P. for the county 
of Sutherland for seventeen years, and was created a baronet 
25th July 1838. He thus became Sir George Macpherson 
Grant of Invereshie, Inverness-shire, and Ballindalloch, El- 
ginshire. On his death in November 1846, his son, Sir John, 
sometime secretary of legation at Lisbon, succeeded as 2d baro- 
net. SirJohn died Dec. 2, 1850. His eldest son, Sir George Mac- 
pherson-Grant of Invereshie and Ballindalloch, born Aug. 12, 
1839, became the 3d baronet of this family. He married, July 
3, 1861, Frances Elizabeth, younger daughter of the Rev. 
Roger Pocklington, Vicar of Walesby, Nottinghamshire. 

John Macpherson, of Calcutta, younger son of the Rev. 
John Macpherson, D.D., a clergyman of the church of Scot- 
land, was appointed a member of the supreme council of Ben- 
gal in 1780, and governor-general of India, on the return of 
Warren Hastings to England in 1784. He was created a 
baronet Jan. 27, 1786, but the title became extinct on his 
death, unmarried, Jan. 12, 1821. 

The celebrated outlaw, James Macpherson, executed at 
Banff Nov. 16, 1700, was an illegitimate son of one of the 
family of Invereshie, by a gipsy woman. He was one of 
the best violin players of his time, and author of a Lament 
which passes under his name. He performed at the foot of 
the gallows, on his favourite instrument, the Rant and Pibroch 
of his own composition. 

MACPHERSON, James, celebrated for his 
translations of Gaelic poetry, was born in the 
parish of Kingussie, Inverness-shire, in 1738. 
He received the rudiments of his education at the 
grammar school of Inverness, and with the view 
of studying for the church, was sent in 1752 to 
King's college, Aberdeen, and afterwards to the 
university of Edinburgh. On leaving college he 
was for some time schoolmaster of his native vil- 
lage, and subsequently was employed as private 
tutor in Mr. Graham of Balgowan's family. In 
1758 he printed at Edinburgh a poem in six can- 
tos, entitled ' The Highlander,' which shows little 
indication of poetical talent. About the same pe- 
riod, he wrote an ode on the arrival of the Earl 
Mariscbal in Scotland, which he called 4 An At- 
teuiDt in the Manner of Pindar,' with several 



other poetical pieces, some of which were inserted 
in the ' Scots Magazine.' 

He seems early to have directed his attention 
to the subject of Gaelic poetry, and the following 
are the circumstances under which his celebrated 
collection, called the Poems of Ossian — which led 
to a lengthened literary controversy as to tlieir 
genuineness — originated. In the summer of 1759, 
John Home, the author of Douglas, met Mr. 
Macpherson at Moffat, when he learned from him 
that he was possessed of some pieces of ancient 
Gaelic poetry, and he expressed a wish to see an 
English translation of them as a specimen. Ac- 
cordingly Mr. Macpherson furnished him with two 
fragments, which he showed to Dr. Hugh Blair 
and other literary friends, who all greatly admired 
them. Dr. Blair in particular was so much struck 
with them, that he requested an interview with 
Macpherson. From him he learned that poems in 
the same strain as those in his possession were to 
be found in the Highlands, on which Dr. Blair 
urged him to translate all the pieces which he had, 
that they might be published. Dr. Blair informs 
us that Macpherson was extremely reluctant to 
comply with his request, saying that no transla- 
tion of his could do justice to the spirit and force 
of the original, and that they were so different 
from the style of modern poetry that he was 
afraid they would not take with the taste of the 
public. Macpherson, however, was at length 
prevailed upon to translate and bring to Dr. Blair 
the several poetical pieces which he had then in 
his possession. These were published in a small 
volume at Edinburgh in the year 1760, under the 
title of ' Fragments of Ancient Poetry collected in 
the Highlands of Scotland, and translated from 
the Gaelic or Erse language ;' to which Dr. Blair 
prefixed an introduction. "These ' Fragments,'" 
says Dr. Blair in a Letter to Henry Mackenzie, 
the author of ' The Man of Feeling,' " drew much 
attention, and excited, among all persons of taste 
and letters, an earnest desire to recover, if possi- 
ble, all those considerable remains of Gaelic poetry 
which were said still to exist in the Highlands." 

To encourage Macpherson to undertake the col- 
lection of the ancient poetry of the Highlands, 
many of the first persons of rank and taste in Ed- 
inburgh met together at a dinner, to which Mac- 



MACPHERSON, 



64 



JAMES. 



oherson was invited, and Dr. Blair, from whom 
this account is taken, says that he had a chief 
hand in convoking the meeting. Among those 
present were Patrick, Lord Elibank, Principal 
Robertson, the historian, Mr. John Home, Dr. 
Adam Ferguson, Dr. Blair himself, and many 
others. After much conversation with Macpher- 
son, it was agreed that he should, without delay, 
go through the Highlands for the purpose of col- 
lecting all the Gaelic poetry he could find, the ex- 
pense to be defrayed by a subscription raised 
from the meeting, with the aid of such other 
friends as they might apply to with that object. 

The same year (1760) Macpherson set off to 
the Highlands ; and, during his tour, he from time 
to time transmitted to Dr. Blair and his other 
literary friends, accounts of his progress in col- 
lecting, from many different and remote parts, all 
the remains he could find of ancient Gaelic poetry, 
either in writing or preserved by oral tradition. 
Tu the course of his journey he wrote two letters 
to the Rev. James M'Lagan, at one period mini- 
ster of Amubie, and afterwards of Blah- in Athol, 
in the first of which, dated from Ruthven (in 
Badenoch), 27th October, 1760, he says, " I have 
met with a number of old manuscripts in my tra- 
vels ; the poetical part of them I have endeavour- 
ed to secure." The second, dated from Edin- 
burgh, 16th January, 1761, contains this passage: 
" I have been lucky enough to lay my hands on a 
pretty complete poem, and truly epic, concerning 
Fingal." This is the first intimation of that re- 
markable work which was soon to create a most 
extraordinary sensation in the literary world. 

The districts through which Macpherson travel- 
led, in the prosecution of his undertaking, were 
chiefly the north-western parts of Inverness-shire, 
the Isle of Skye, and some of the adjoining islands; 
"places," says the Report of the Committee of 
the Highland Society, afterwards published, "from 
their remoteness and state of manners at that pe- 
riod, most likely to afford, in a pure and genuine 
state, the ancient traditionary tales and poems, of 
which the recital then formed the favourite amuse- 
ment of the long and idle winter evenings of the 
Highlanders." 

On his return to Edinburgh, Macpherson im- 
mediately set about translating the Gaelic poems 



which he had collected into English. Soon after, 
he published the fruits of his mission, in 2 vols. 
4to, the first in 1762, under the patronage of Lord 
Bute, containing ' Fingal, an ancient Epic Poem 
in six books, with other lesser Poems ;' and the 
second in 1763, with the title of ' Temora, an Epic 
Poem, in eight books, with other poems.' Both 
professed to have been composed by Ossian, the 
son of Fingal, a Gaelic prince of the fourth cen- 
tury, and translated from the Gaelic language. 

From the first the genuineness of these poems 
became a matter of dispute, and for some years 
a violent controversy raged upon the subject. 
Among those who believed in their authenticity 
were Dr. Blair, Dr. Gregory, Lord Kames, the 
Rev. Dr. Graham of Aberfoyle, and Sir John Sin- 
clair, baronet ; and amongst the most distinguish- 
ed of those who denied their genuineness were 
Mr. Hume the historian, Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
Dr. Smith of Canipbelltown, and Mr. Laing, au- 
thor of 'Notes and Illustrations' introduced into 
an edition of Ossian's Poems, published in Edin- 
burgh in 1805. The latter were replied to by 
Mr. Alexander Macdonald in a work entitled 
' Some of Ossian's lesser Poems rendered into 
verse, with a preliminary discourse in answer to 
Mr. Laing's Critical and Historical Dissertations 
on the antiquity of Ossian's Poems,' Liverpool, 
1805, 8vo. They were also condemned as spuri- 
ous in a work entitled ' An Inquiry into the Au- 
thenticity of the Poems of Ossian.' By W. Shaw, 
A.M. London, 1781. So strong was Dr. John- 
son's prejudice against them, that in his ' Journey 
to the Western Islands,' he declared that " the 
poems of Ossian never existed in any other form 
than that which we have seen," meaning in Mac- 
pherson's translation, and "that the editor or au- 
thor never could show the original, nor can it be 
shown by any other." Sir James Macintosh, too, 
in his ' History of England,' expresses himself 
very strongly against their authenticity. At the 
close of a long and eloquent passage concerning 
them he says : " Since the keen and searching 
publication of Mr. Laing, these poems have fallen 
in reputation, as they lost the character of genu- 
ineness. They had been admired by all the na- 
tions, and by all the men of genius in Europe. 
The last incident in their storj- is perhaps the 



MACPHERSON, 



65 



JAMES. 



most remarkable. Iu an Italian version, which 
Boftened their defects, and rendered their charac- 
teristic qualities faint, they formed almost the 
whole poetical library of Napoleon, a man who, 
whatever may be finally thought of him in other 
respects, must be owned to be, by the transcen- 
dent vigour of his powers, entitled to a place in 
the first class of human minds. No other impos- 
ture in literary history approaches them in the 
splendour of their course. " 

To one of the books or divisions of Temora, 
Macpherson annexed the original Gaelic, but 
though often called upon to publish the originals 
of the remainder of the poems stated to be by Os- 
sian and genuine relics of antiquity, as the only 
means of setting all the cavil or controversy at 
rest, this was the only specimen of them ever 
printed by himself. At his death, however, he 
left to John Mackenzie of Figtree court, London, 
£1,000, to defray the expense of the publication of 
the originals of the whole of his translations, with 
directions to his executors for carrying that pur- 
pose into effect. Various causes contributed to 
delay their appearance till 1807, when they were 
published under the sanction of the Highland So- 
ciety of London. 

The investigations that were set on foot by Sir 
John Sinclair and others sufficiently establish the 
fact that, long before the name of Macpherson was 
known to the literary world, a collection of poems 
in Gaelic did exist which passed as the poems of 
Ossian, and the publication of the Gaelic manu- 
scripts at length settled the question of their au- 
thenticity in the minds of all unprejudiced persons. 
At the same time, it must be confessed that, in 
the present advanced state of literature, the ' Po- 
ems of Ossian' are no longer looked upon as the 
wonderful productions which they were esteemed 
to be when they first appeared, and that their po- 
pularity has long been on the wane. 

That Macpherson, with the poetical fragments 
which he translated, took the liberty of adding to, 
transposing, or completing where he deemed it 
necessary, there can be no reason to doubt. On 
this point the Committee of the Highland Society 
reported that they were inclined to believe that he 
" was in use to supply chasms, and to give con- 
nexion, by inserting passages which he did not 

ill. 



find, and to add what he conceived to be dignitv 
and delicacy to the original composition, by strik- 
ing out passages, by softening incidents, by refin- 
ing the language, in short, by changing what he 
considered as too simple or too rude for a modem 
ear, and elevating what in his opinion was below 
the standard of good poetry. To what degree, 
however, he exercised these liberties it is impos- 
sible for the committee to determine." And this 
is all that can now be said on the subject. The 
following is his portrait . 




In 1764 Macpnerson obtained the situation of 
private secretary to Captain Johnstone, on the 
appointment of the latter as governor of Pensa 
cola, in which capacity he went out to America, 
but a difference arising between him and the gov- 
ernor, he relinquished his post, and after visiting 
the West India islands he returned to England in 
1766, with a pension of £200 a-year for life. 
Taking up his residence in London, he resumed hia 
literary labours, and in 1771 published a disqui- 
sition on the antiquities of the Scottish Gael or 
Celtic race, in one volume 4to, under the title of 
'An Introduction to the History of Great Britain 
and Ireland,' which was very bitterly attacked on 
its appearance, and brought neither profit nor 
reputation to the author. 



MACPHERSON 



60 



MACPHTE 



In 1773, he issued a prose translation in two 
volumes, of the ' Iliad of Homer,' which was re- 
ceived with ridicule and abuse, and universally 
considered a failure. The same year he wrote a 
threatening letter to Dr. Johnson, in consequence 
of his remarks on Ossian in his celebrated ' Tour 
to the Hebrides.' The latter returned a most 
sarcastic reply, wherein he told him, with the 
most cutting contempt, that his " abilities since 
his Homer, were not so formidable." In 1775, 
Macpherson published ' A History of Great Brit- 
ain, from the Restoration to the Accession of the 
House of Hanover,' in 2 vols. 4to : and, along 
with it, the data on which his statements were 
founded, in two additional volumes of ' Original 
Papers,' for which last work he is said to have 
received the sum of £3,000. 

About this time he was employed by the go- 
vernment to write two pamphlets in vindication 
and support of the measures which led to the 
American war, and to the ultimate independence 
of the colonies of North America, now the United 
States. He was also appointed agent to the nabob 
of Arcot, in behalf of whom he also published 
two works. As it was thought requisite that he 
should have a seat in parliament, in order the more 
effectually to attend to the nabob's interests, in 
1780 he -was elected member for Camelford, for 
which place he was rechosen in 1784, and again in 
1790. Declining health induced him to retire to 
an elegant mansion, named Belleville, which he 
had built in the parish of Alvie, Inverness-shire, 
where he died February 17, 1796. 

Mr. Macpherson died wealthy. By his will, 
besides the £1,000 for the publication of the ori- 
ginals of Ossian, and the bequest of several large 
legacies to his friends, he left £300 for a monu- 
ment to be erected to his memory at Belleville. 
He also directed that his body should be conveyed 
to Westminster abbey, and it was accordingly in- 
terred at Poet's corner. 

His works are 

The Highlander; an Heroic Poem, in 6 cantos. 1758, 12mo. 

Fragments of Ancient Poetry: collected in the Highlands 
of Scotland, and translated from the Gaelic or Erse Language. 
1760. 8vo. 

Fingal : an ancient Epic Poem, in six books , together 
with several other Poems composed by Ossian, the son of 
Fingal. Translated from the Gaelic Language. London, 
1762. 4to 



Temora; an ancient Epic Poem, in eight books; together j 
with several other Poems composed by Ossian, son of Fingal. : 
Translated from the Gaelic Language. London, 1763, 4to. 

Introduction to the History of Great Britain and Ireland. | 
London, 1771, 4to. 2d edition revised and greatly enlarged. 
London, 1773, 4to. 

The Iliad of Homer. Translated into Prose. 1773, 2 
vols. 4to. 2d edit. London, 1773, 4 to. 

The History of Great Britain from the Restoration to the 
Ascension of the House of Hanover. London, 1775, 2 vols. 
4to. Dublin, 4 vols. 8vo. 

Original Papers; containing the Secret History of Great 
Britain, from the Restoration to the Accession of the House 
of Hanover. To which are prefixed, Extracts from the Life 
of James II., as written by himself. Lond., 1775, 2 vols. 4to 

The Rights of Great Britain asserted against the Claims of 
the Colonies; being an Answer to the Declaration of the 
General Congress. 1776, 8vo. 

A Short History of the Opposition during the last Sessio* 
of Parliament. 1779, 8vo. 

Letters from Mohammed Ah Chan, Nabob of Arcot, to 
the Court of Directors. To which is annexed, a State of 
Facts relative to Tanjore ; with an Appendix of Original 
Papers. 1777, 4to. 

The History and Management of the East India Company, 
from its origin in 1600 to the Present. Time : vol. 1. contain- 
ing the Affairs of the Carnatic; in which the Rights of the 
Nabob are explained, and the Injustice of the Company 
proved. 1779, 4to. 

Ode on the Arrival of the Earl Marischal in Scotland. 
Published in the European Magazine for 1796. 

MACPHERSON, David, an industrious histo 
rical writer and compiler, was born in Scotland in 
1747, and died August 1, 1816. During the latter 
part of his life he was one of the deputy keepers 
of the public records. All his works display labo- 
rious research, and contain much valuable informa- 
tion. They are 

De Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, be Andrew Wyntown, 
Priour of Sanct Sersis, yuche in Loch Levyn. Now first 
published, with Notes and a Glossary. Lond. 1795, 2 vols. 
4to. The same. Lond. 1795, 8vo. 

Geographical Illustrations of Scottish History; containing 
the Names of Places mentioned in Chronicles, Histories, Re- 
cords, &c. ; with Corrections of the corrupted Names, and 
Explanations of the difficult and disputed points in the His- 
torical Geography of Scotland. With a Compendious Chro- 
nology of the Battles, to 1603. Lond. 1796, 4to. 

Annals of Commerce, Manufactures, Fisheries, and Navi- 
gation ; with brief Notices of the Arts and Sciences connected 
with them; containing the Commercial Transactions of the 
British and other countries, from the earliest accounts to the 
meeting of the Union Parliament in 1801. Comprehending 
the valuable part of the late Mr. Anderson's History of Com- 
merce, &c. Lond. 1805, 4 vols. 4to. 

The History of European Commerce with India. To which 
is subjoined, a Review of the Arguments for and against the 
Trade with India, and the management of it by a Chartered 
Company ; with an Appendix of authentic accounts. Lond. 
1812, 4to 



Macphie, or Macfie, a contraction of Macduftie. the 



MACQUARRIE 



67 



OF ULVA. 



name of a clan (in the Gaelic the Clann Dhiihhie, or the dark 
coloured tribe,) which held the island of Colonsay in Argyle- 
shire, till the middle of the 17th century, when they were 
dispossessed of it by the Macdonalds. They were a branch 
of the ancient Albionic race of Scotland, and like all the 
tribes that claimed to be so, adopted the pine for their badge. 
On the south side of the church of the monastery of St. 
Augustine in Colonsay, according to Martin (writing in 1703), 
" lie the tombs of Macduffie, and of the cadets of his family; 
there is a ship under sail, and a two-handed sword engraven on 
the principal tombstone, and this inscription : ' Hie jacet Mal- 
columbus Macduffie de Collonsay ;' his coat of arms and colour- 
staff is fixed in a stone, through which a hole is made to hold 
it. About a quarter of a mile on the south side of the church 
there is a cairn, in which there is a stone cross fixed, called 
Macduffie's cross ; for when any of the heads of this family 
were to be interred, their corpses were laid on this cross for 
some moments, in their way toward the church." 

Donald Macduffie is witness to a charter by John, earl of 
Ross, and lord of the Isles, dated at the earl's castle of Ding- 
wall, 12th April 1463 {Register of the Great Seal, lib. vi. No. 
17.) After the forfeiture of the lordship of the Isles in 1493, 
the clan Duffie followed the Macdonalds of Isla. The name 
of the Macduffie chief in 1531 was Murroch. In 1G09 Donald 
Macfie in Colonsay was one of the twelve chiefs and gentle- 
men who met the bishop of the Isles, the king's representa- 
tive, at Iona, when, with their consent, the nine celebrated 
"Statutes of Icolmkill" were enacted. In 1615, Malcolm 
Macfie of Colonsay joined Sir James Macdonald of Isla, after 
nis escape from the castle of Edinburgh, and was one of the 
principal leaders in his subsequent rebellion. He and 18 
others were delivered up by Coll Macgillespick Macdonald, 
the celebrated Colkitto (left-handed) to the earl of Argyle, 
by whom he was brought before the privy council. He ap- 
pears afterwards to have been slain by Colkitto, as by the 
Council Records for 1623 we learn that the latter was accused, 
with several of his followers, of being " art and pairt guilty of 
the felonie and cruell slaughter of umquhill Malcolm Macphie 
of Collonsay." 

A branch of the clan Duffie, after they had lost their in- 
neritance, followed Cameron of Lochiel, and settled in Loch- 
aber. At the battle of Culloden several of them were slain. 

Collonsay was acquired by the Argyle family after they 
had expelled the Macdonalds, and in 1700 it came into the 
possession of the Macneills, by whom it is now held. 

Several gentlemen of the name of Macfie have distinguished 
themselves as merchants, particularly in Greenock and Liver- 
pool. William Macfie, Esq., of Langhouse. who died in Not. 
1854, was for sometime Provost of Greenock. 



Macquarrie {Claim Guarie), the name of a minor clan 
which possessed the small island of Ulva, one of the Argvle- 
Bhire Hebrides, with a portion of Mull, and the badge of which 
was the pine. The Gaelic MS. of 1450 deduces their descent 
from Guarie or Godfrey, called by the Highland Sennachies, 
Gor or Gorbred, said to have been "a brother of Fingon, an- 
cestor of the Mackinnons, and Anrias or Andrew, ancestor of 
the Macgregors." This is the belief of Mr. Skene, who adds, 
" The history of the Macquarries resembles that of the Mac- 
kinnons in many respects ; like them they had migrated far 
from the head-quarters of their race, they became dependent 
on the lords of the Isles, and followed them as if they had 
become a branch of the clan." 

According to a history of the family, by one of its mem- 
bers, in 1249 Cormac Mhor, then "chief of Ulva's isle," 
joined Alexander II., with his followers and three galleys of 



sixteen oars each, in his expedition against the westen. 
islands, and after that monarch's death in the island of Ker- 
rera, was attacked by Haco of Norway, defeated and slain 
His two sons, Allan and Gregor, were compelled to take re- 
fuge in Ireland, where the latter, surnamed Garbh or the 
rough, is said to have founded the powerful tribe of the Mac- 
Guires, the chief of which at one time possessed the title ol 
Lord Inniskillen. Allan returned to Scotland, and his de- 
scendant, Hector Macquarrie of Ulva, chief in the time ol 
Robert the Bruce, fought with his clan at Bannockburn. 

The first chief of whom there is any notice in the public 
records was John Macquarrie of Ulva, who died in 1473. 
{Reg. of Great Seal, 31, No. 159.) His son, Dunslaff, was 
chief when the last lord of the Isles was forfeited twenty 
years afterwards. After that event, the Macquarries, like 
the other vassal trioes of the Macdonalds, became indepen- 
dent. In war, however, they followed the banner of their 
neighbour Maclean of Dowart. With the latter, Dunslaff 
supported the claims of Donald Dubh to the lordship of the 
Isles, in the beginning of the 16th century, and in 1504, 
" MacGorry of Ullowaa ' was summoned, with some other 
chief's, before the Estates of the kingdom, to answer for his 
share in Donald Dubh's rebellion. The submission of Maclean 
of Dowart, in the following year, implied also that of Mac- 
quarrie, and in 1517, when the former chief obtained his own 
remission, he stipulated for that of the chief of Ulva and two 
other chiefs. Dunslaff married a daughter of Macneill of 
Taynish, the bride's tocher or dower consisting of a piebald 
horse, with two men and two women. 

His son, John Macquarrie of Ulva, was one of the barons 
and council of the Isles who in 1545 supported the preten- 
sions of Donald Dubh, on his second escape from his forty 
years' imprisonment. He was also one of the thirteen chiefs, 
who were denounced the same year for carrying on a traitor- 
ous correspondence with the king of England, with the view 
of transferring their allegiance to him. In 1609 Gillespock 
Macquarrie of Ulva was one of the island chiefs present in 
the island of Iona when the nine " Statutes of Icolmkill" 
were passed. Allan Macquarrie of Ulva was slain, with most 
of his followers, at the battle of Inverkeithing against the 
English parliamentary troops, 20th July 1651, when the 
Scots army was defeated, and a free passage opened to Crom- 
well to the whole north of Scotland. 

According to tradition one of the chiefs of Ulva preserved 
his life and estate by the exercise of a timely hospitality 
under the following circumstances : Maclean of Dowart had 
a natural son by a beautiful young woman of his own clan, 
and the boy having been born in a barn was named, from his 
birth-place, Allan-a-Sop, or Allan of the straw. The girl 
afterwards became the wife of Maclean of Torloisk, residing 
in Mull, but though he loved the mother he cared nothing for 
her boy, and when the latter came to see her, he was very 
unkind to him. One morning the lady saw from her window 
her son approaching and hastened to put a cake on the fire 
for his breakfast. Her husband noticed this, and snatching 
the cake hot from the girdle, thrust it into his stepson's 
hands, forcibly clasping them on the burning bread. The 
lad's hands were severely burnt, and in consequence he re- 
frained from going again to Torloisk. As he grew up Allan 
became a mariner, and joined the Danish pirates who infested 
the western isles. From his courage he soon got the com- 
mand of one galley, and subsequently of a flotilla, and made hia 
name both feared and famous. Of him it may be said that — 

" Sir Ralph the Rover sailed away. 
He scoured the seas for many a day, 



MACQUARRIE. 



68 



MACQUEKN. 



And now, grown rich with plunder'd store, 
lie steers his way for Scotland's shore." 

The thought of his mother brought him back once more to 
the island of Mull, and one morning he anchored his galleys 
in front of the house of Torloisk. His mother had been long 
dead, but his stepfather hastened to the shore, and welcomed 
him with apparent kindness. The crafty old man had a feud 
with Macquarrie of Ulva, and thought this a favourable op- 
portunity to execute his vengeance on that chief. With this 
object he suggested to Allan that it was time he should settle 
on land, and said that he could easily get possession of the 
island of Ulva, by only putting to death the laird, who was 
old and useless. Allan agreed to the proposal, and, setting 
sail next morning, appeared before Maequarrie's house. The 
chief of Ulva was greatly alarmed when he saw the pirate 
galleys, but he resolved to receive their commander hospi- 
tably, in the hope that good treatment would induce him to 
go away, without plundering his house or doing him any in- 
jury. He caused a splendid feast to be prepared, and wel- 
comed Allan to Ulva with every appearance of sincerity. 
After feasting together the whole day, in the evening the 
pirate-chief, when about to retire to his ships, thanked the 
chief for his entertainment, remarking, at the same time, that 
it had cost him dear. " How so ? " said Macquarrie, " when I 
bestowed this entertainment upon you in free good will." 
" It is true," said Allan, who, notwithstanding his being a 
pirate, seems to have been of a frank and generous disposi- 
tion, " but it has disarranged all my plans, and quite altered 
the purpose for which I came hither, which was to put you 
to death, seize your castle and lands, and settle myself here 
in your stead." Macquarrie replied that he was sure such a 
suggestion was not his own, but must have originated with his 
stepfather, old Torloisk, who was his personal enemy. He 
then reminded him that he had made but an indifferent hus- 
band to his mother, and was a cruel stepfather to himself, 
adding, " Consider this matter better, Allan, and you will see 
that the estate and harbour of Torloisk lie as conveniently 
for you as those of Ulva, and if you must make a settlement 
by force, it is much better you should do so at the expense of 
the old churl, who never showed you kindness, than of a friend 
like me who always loved and honoured you." 

Allan-a-Sop, remembering his scorched fingers, straight- 
way sailed back to Torloisk, and meeting his stepfather, who 
came eagerly expecting to hear of Maequarrie's death, thus 
accosted him : " You hoary old villain, you instigated me to 
murder a better man than yourself. Have you forgotten 
how you scorched my fingers twenty years ago with a burn- 
ing cake ? The day has come when that breakfast must be 
paid for." So saying, with one stroke of his battle-axe he 
cut down his stepfather, took possession of his castle and 
property, and established there that branch of the clan Mac- 
lean afterwards represented by Mr. Clephane Maclean. 

Hector, brother of Allan Macquarrie of Ulva, and second 
son of Donald the 12th chief of the Macquarries, by his wife, 
a daughter of Lauchlan Oig Maclean, founder of the Macleans 
of Torloisk, obtained from his father the lands of Ormaig in 
Ulva, and was the first of the Macquarries of Ormaig. This 
family frequently intermarried with the Macleans, both of 
Lochbuy and Dowart. Lauchlan, Donald's third son, was 
ancestor of the Macquarries of Laggan, and John, the fourth 
son, of those of Ballighartan. 

Lauchlan Macquarrie of Ulva, the 16th chief in regular 
succession, was compelled to dispose of his lands for behoof 
of his creditors, and in 1778, at the age of 63, he entered the 
army. He served in the American war, and died in 1818, at 



the age of 103, without male issue. He was the last chief ot 
the Macquarries, and the proprietor of Ulva when Dr. Sam- 
uel Johnson and Mr. Boswell visited that island in 1773. 

The room where the Doctor spent the night is yet shown 
in the old mansion of the Macquarries. Dr. Johnson and 
the chief, whom he was surprised to find a person of great 
politeness and intelligence, had a conversation about the 
usage known by the name of Mercheta mulierum, which for- 
merly existed in Ulva, and was a fine paid to the chief by his 
vassals on the marriage of a virgin. Iu answer to the Doc- 
tor's reference to Blackstone, who has expressed his disbelief 
that any such claim on the part of landlords ever existed, 
Macquarrie informed the English sage that the eldest chil- 
dren of marriages were not esteemed amongst the Gael as 
among other nations, most of whom adhered to distinct laws 
of primogeniture, on account of the parentage of the eldest 
child, from the above-mentioned custom, being rendered 
doubtful , hence, brothers were very commonly preferred to 
the proper heirs apparent. He likewise told him that he 
himself had been in the habit of demanding a sheep, on occa- 
sion of every marriage in Ulva, for which he had substituted 
a fine of five shillings in money. Dr. Johnson was very for- 
cibly impressed with the following instance of second sight 
related to him by the Macquarrie chief. He said that once 
when he was in Edinburgh, an old female domestic of the 
family in Ulva foretold that he would return home on a cer- 
tain day, with a new servant in a livery of red and green, 
which he accordingly did ; but he declared that the idea ot 
the servant and the livery occurred to him only when he was 
in Edinburgh, and that the woman could know nothing of his 
intentions at the time. 

A large portion of the ancient patrimonial property was 
repurchased by General Macquarrie, long governor of New 
South Wales, and from whom Macquarrie county, Macquar- 
rie river, and Port Macquarrie in that colony, Maequarrie's 
harbour, and Macquarrie island in the South Pacific, derive 
their name. He was the eldest cadet of his family, and was 
twice married, first, to Miss Baillie of Jerviswood, and sec- 
ondly, to a daughter of Sir John Campbell of Airds, by whom 
he had an only son, Lachlan, who died without issue. 

The island of Ulva is about two miles long, averaging a 
mile and a quarter in breadth, and contains about 600 inhab- 
itants. The name is derived from the Scandinavian Ulffur, 
and means the island of wolves, these animals having an- 
ciently abounded there. 



Macqueen, the surname of one of the subordinate tribes ot 
the clan Chattan, the head of which is Macqueen of Corry- 
brough, Inverness-shire. The founder of this tribe is said to 
have been Roderick Dhu Revan MacSweyn or MacQueen, who, 
about the beginning of the 15th century, received a grant of 
territory in the county of Inverness. He belonged to the 
family of the lord of the Isles, and his descendants from him 
were called the clan Revan. 

The Macqueens fought, under the standard of Macintosh, 
captain of the clan Chattan, at the battle of Harlaw in 1411. 
On 4th April 1609, Donald Macqueen of Corrybrough signed 
the bond of manrent, with the chiefs of the other tribes com- 
posing the clan Chattan, whereby they bound themselves to 
support Angus Macintosh of that ilk as their captain and 
leader. At this period, we are told, the tribe of Macqueen 
comprehended twelve distinct families, all landowners in the 
counties of Inverness and Naime. 

In 1778, Lord Macdonald of Sleat, who had been created 
an Irish peer by that title two years before, having raised a 
Highland regiment, conferred a lieutenancy in it on a son o/ 



MACQUEEN. 



69 



MACRAE. 



Donald Macqueen, then of Corrybrough, and in the letter, 
dated 26th January of that year, in which he intimated the 
appointment, he says, " It does me great honour to have the 
sons of chieftains in the regiment, and as the Macqueens 
have been invariably attached to our family, to whom we 
believe we owe our existence, I am proud of the nomination." 
Thus were the Macqueens acknowledged to have been of 
Macdonald origin, although they ranged themselves among 
the tribes of the clan Chattan. 

MACQUEEN, Robert, of Braxfield, an emi- 
nent lawyer and judge, was born May 4, 1722. 
He was the eldest son of John Macqueen, Esq. of 
Braxfield, Lanarkshire, for some time sheriff sub- 
stitute of the upper ward of that county. After 
receiving the rudiments of education at the gram- 
mar school of Lanark, he was sent to the univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, and apprenticed to a writer to 
the signet in that city. In 1744 he was admitted 
advocate. The many intricate and important 
feudal questions arising out of the rebellion of 
1745, respecting the forfeited estates, in which he 
had the good fortune to be appointed counsel for 
the crown, first brought him into notice, and for 
many years he had a larger practice than any 
other member of the bar at that period. As a 
feudal lawyer he was considered the first in Scot- 
land in his time, and he has been known to plead 
from fifteen to twenty causes in one day. 

In November 1776, he was appointed a judge 
of the court of session, when he assumed the title 
of Lord Braxfield. In February 1780 he was ap- 
pointed a lord of justiciary, and in December 1787 
was promoted to be lord-justice-clerk. This last 
office he held during a most interesting and criti- 
cal period— that between 1793 and 1795. He 
presided at the memorable political trials of Muir, 
Palmer, Skirving, Margarot, &c, in 1793-4, con- 
ducting himself with great firmness and intrepi- 
dity, but is considered to have treated the pris- 
oners with unnecessary harshness. He failed, 
however, in all his attempts to intimidate them. 
" It is altogether unavailing," said Skirving to 
him, " for your lordship to menace me ; for I have 
long learned to fear not the face of man." Even 
on the bench he spoke the broadest Scottish dia- 
lect. " Hae ye ony counsel, man?" he said to 
Maurice Margarot, when placed at the bar on a 
charge of sedition. " No," was the answer. 
"Do you want to hae ony appointit?" "No," 
replied Margarot, " I only wa*nt an interpreter 



to make me understand what your lordshij 
says ! " 

Lord Braxfield died May 30th, 1799, in his 78th 
year. He was twice married, first to Mary Ag- 
new, niece of Sir Andrew Agnew, baronet, by 
whom he had two sons and two daughters ; and 
secondly, to Elizabeth, daughter of the lord chief 
baron Ord, without issue. The elder son, Robert 
Dtradas Macqueen, inherited the estate of Brax- 
field, and married Lady Lilias Montgomery, 
daughter of the earl of Eglinton. The second en • 
tered the army. The elder daughter, Mary, be- 
came the wife of William Honyman, Esq., advo- 
cate, afterwards Lord Armadale, a lord of session, 
created a baronet in 1804. The younger married 
John Macdonald of Clanronald. 

Macrae, a minor clan of Ross-shire, which has from time 
immemorial been subordinate to the Seaforth branch of the 
Mackenzies. The badge of the Macraes was the fir-club 
moss, and they are generally considered of the pure Gaelic 
stock, although they have also been stated to be of Irish on 
gin, and to have come over to Scotland about the middle o. 
the 13th century. They are said to have fought under Fitz- 
gerald, the supposed founder of the clan Mackenzie at the 
battle of Largs in 1263. They settled first in the Aird of 
Lovat, but subsequently emigrated into Glensheil in the dis- 
trict of Kintail, Ross-shire. Dr. Johnson has inserted in his 
' Tour to the Western Isles,' a story which he says he heard 
in the Hebrides, that the Macraes " were originally an indigent 
and subordinate clan, servants to the Maclennans, who, in 
the wars of Charles I., took arms at the call of the heroic 
Montrose, and were, in one of his battles, almost destroyed. 
The women that were left at home, being thus deprived of 
their husbands, like the Scythian ladies of old, married theii 
servants, and the Macraes became i considerable race." The 
writer of the account of the parisn of Glensheil, in the New 
Statistical Account of Scotland, pronounces this an unwor- 
thy invention, "destitute of all foundation, and contradicted 
by ample evidence, written and traditional." Some one had 
imposed on the credulity of the great lexicographer. At the 
battle of Auldearn, in May 1615, the Macraes fought undei 
the Mackenzie chief in the ranks of Montrose, and more of 
their number fell than of the Maclennans. They were de- 
feated at the battle of Glensheil, under William earl of Sea- 
forth in 1719, when a body of 400 Spaniards attempted to 
make a landing in the Stuart interest. When that nobleman, 
for his share in the troubles of 1715 and 1719, was obliged 
to retire to the Continent, and his lands were forfeited, so 
strong was the attachment of the Macraes and Maclennans 
to him, that, during the time the forfeiture lasted it baffled 
all the efforts of government and its commissioner, Ross of 
Fearne, to penetrate into his territory, or to collect any rents 
in Kintail. On one occasion Ross and his son with a party of 
men set off to collect the rents, and fearing some attack on 
the way, he sent his son forward, on his own horse, when a 
shot from a rifle laid him dead. The father and his party 
immediately abandoned their intentions, and returned home 
in haste. Seaforth's tenants were aided in their resistance by 
the advice of Donald Murchison of Auchtertvre, who rejju- 



MACRAE. 



70 



MACRAE. 



larly collected the rents, and found means to remit them to 
Se:iforth, then in France. 

The chief or head of the Clann Ic Rath Mholach, or 
"Hairy Macraes," called by Nisbet the " Macrachs," and 
pronounced MacCraws, was Macrae of Inverinate in Kintail. 
A MS. genealogical account of the Macraes, written by the 
Rev. John Macrae, minister in Dingwall, who died in 1704, 
was in possession of the late Lieutenant-colonel Sir John 
Macrae of Ardintoul. This secluded and primitive tribe were 
remarkable for their great size and courage, and it is recorded 
that one Duncan Macrae, who lived in the beginning of the 
18th century, had such amazing strength, that he carried for 
some distance a stone of immense size, and laid it down on 
the farm of Achnangart, where it is yet to be seen. He ren- 
dered himself famous by recovering stolen cattle from the 
reivers of Lochaber, either belonging to himself or his neigh- 
bours. He was the author of several poetical pieces, and was 
killed, with many of his clan, at Sheriffmuir in 1715. His 
claymore, long preserved in the Tower of London, was shown 
as ''the great Highlander's sword." 

A great number of the elan Macrae enlisted in the Seaforth 
Highlanders, when that regiment was raised in 1778, and 
their mutiny at Leith soon after their enrolment gave rise to 
a memorable occurrence which was called " the affair of the 
wild Macraws." The regiment had been raised chiefly from 
among his own tenantry, by the restored earl of Seaforth, 
grandson of the earl who had been attainted for his partici- 
pation in the rebellion of 1715. It formed a corps of 1,130 
men. Of these, about 900 were Highlanders, 500 of whom 
were Mackenzies and Macraes, from his lordship's own estate, 
and the remainder were obtained from the estates of Scat- 
well, Kilcoy, Applecross, Redcastle, and others belonging 
to gentlemen of the name of Mackenzie, all of whom had 
sons or brothers among the officers. Embodied at Elgin in 
May of the year mentioned, the regiment was inspected by 
General Skene, when it was found so effective that not one 
man was rejected. In the month of August the regiment 
proceeded to Edinburgh, and in September marched to Leith 
for embarkation to the East Indies ; but it had not been long 
quartered in that town when the men showed signs of dis- 
content, and murmurs began to be expressed amongst them 
that "they had been sold to the East India Company." 
They had enlisted to serve only for a limited period, and 
not out of Great Britain, and they complained of an infringe- 
ment of their agreement, and that part of their pay and 
bounty money was in arrear, kept back from them, as they 
alleged, by their officers. 

As they could obtain neither satisfaction nor redress, on 
Tuesday, 22d September, when the regiment was drawn up 
on Leith Links, preparatory to entering the boats which were 
to convey them to the transports lying in Leith roads, about 
600 of the men refused to embark, and marching out of Leith, 
with pipes playing and two plaids fixed on poles instead of 
colours, took up a position on Arthur's Seat, an eminence 
800 feet high, in the immediate neighbourhood of Edinburgh. 
There they remained for three nights, amply supplied in the 
meantime with provisions by the inhabitants of the capital. 
Two days were spent, in negotiations with them, in which the 
earls of Dunmore and Seaforth, Lord Macdonald, Sir James 
Grant of Grant, and other gentlemen connected with the 
Highlands, took an active and prominent part, and on Friday 
morning a bond was signed by the duke of Buccleuch, the 
earl of Dunmore, Sir Adolphus Oughton, and General Skene, 
the latter two the officers first and second in command of the 
forces in Scotland, containing the following conditions : A 
pardon to the Highlanders for all past offences; all lew mo- 



ney and arrears due to them to be paid before embarkation, 
and that they should not be sent to the East Indies. The 
soldiers being satisfied, marched down the hill with pipes 
playing, the earls of Seaforth and Dunmore at their head, 
and returned to their quarters at Leith. The result of an 
inquiry which was afterwards made was, that there was no 
foundation for complaints against the officers on the ground 
of pay or arrear, and that " the cause of the retiring to Ar- 
thur's Seat was from an idle and ill-founded report that the 
regiment was sold to the East India Company, and that the 
officers were to leave them on their being embarked on board 
the transports." The regiment subsequently embarked with 
the greatest cheerfulness, accompanied by their colonel, the 
earl of Seaforth, one-half of the men being sent to Guernsey, 
and the other half to Jersey. In May 1781, having express- 
ed their willingness to go to the East Indies, the regiment 
embarked at Portsmouth for Madras. The colonel, the earl of 
Seaforth, died before they reached St. Helena, when his ccusin, 
Lieutenant-colonel Humberston Mackenzie, succeeded to the 
command. The regiment was first called the 78th, but the 
number was subsequently altered to the 72d, and in 1823 it 
got the name of " the duke of Albany's Highlanders." 

When the second battalion of the Ross-shire Highlanders, 
or 78th regiment, was raised in 1804, one gentleman of this 
name, Christopher Macrae, brought eighteen of his own clan 
as part of his portion of recruits for an ensigncy. This regi- 
ment served in Egypt in 1807, and at El Hamet, a village on 
the Nile, nearly six miles above Rosetta, a desperate affair 
took place, the British being attacked by a strong body of Turks, 
Albanians, and Arabs, and a great number of officers and men 
were killed. On this occasion, says General Stewart of Garth, 
in his ' Sketches of the Highlanders,' " Sergeant John Mac- 
rae, a young man about twenty-two years of age, but of good 
size and strength of arm, showed that the broadsword, in a 
firm hand, is as good a weapon in close fighting as the bay- 
onet. Macrae killed six men, cutting them down with his 
broadsword, (of the kind usually worn by sergeants of High- 
land corps,) when at last he made a dash out of the ranks m 
a Turk, whom he cut down ; but as he was returning to the 
square he was killed by a blow from behind, his head being 
nearly split in two by the stroke of a sabre. Lieutenant 
Christopher Macrae, already mentioned as having brought 
eighteen men of his own name to the regiment as part of hi? 
quota of recruits, for an ensigncy, was killed in this affair, 
with six of his followers and namesakes, besides the sergeant. 
On the passage to Lisbon in October 1805, the same ser- 
geant came to me one evening (General Stewart was a majoi 
in the regiment) crying like a child, and complaining that 
the ship's cook had called him English names, which he did 
not understand, and thrown some fat in his face. Thus a 
lad who in 1805 was so soft and so childish, displayed in 
1807 a courage and vigour worthy a hero of Ossian." 

Both males and females of the Macraes are said to have 
evinced an extraordinary taste for poetry and music. John 
Macrae, better known among his countrymen as Mac Uirtsi, 
whose family are said to have possessed the gift of poetry for 
some generations, emigrated to America, in consequence 
of the innovations on the ancient habits of the Highlanders, 
and feelingly regretted, in Gaelic verse, his having left his 
native country. A poem composed by him on a heavy loss 
of cattle is considered by many equal to anything in the 
language. 

One of this clan was an able governor of Madras, in com- 
memoration of whom a monument is erected on a rising 
ground in the parish of Prestwick, Ayrshire. 

Captain James Macrae of Holmains in April 1790 bud thf 



MACRIMMON. 



71 



MACVUmiCH. 



misfortune to shoot Sir James Ramsay of Bamff, baronet, in 
a duel at Musselburgh, and was obliged in consequence to 
leave Scotland. He was cited before the high court of justi- 
ciary upon criminal letters to take his trial for murder, in the 
following July, and outlawed for non-appearance. He had 
Dreviously conveyed his estate to trustees, who, in conformity 
with his instructions, executed an entail of it. He died 
abroad 16th January 1820, leaving a son and a daughter. 



Macrimmox, the surname of a minor sept, (the Siol 
Chmiminn,) who were the hereditary pipers of Macieod of 
Macleod. They had a sort of seminary for the instruction of 
learners in bagpipe music, and were the most celebrated bag- 
pipe players in the Highlands. The first of whom there is 
any notice was Ian Odhar, or dun-coloured John, who lived 
about 1600. About the middle of the 17th century, Patrick 
Mor MacRimmon, having lost seven sons, (he had eight in 
all,) within a year, composed for the bagpipe a touching ' La- 
ment for the children,' called in Gaelic Cumhadh na Cloinne. 
In 1745 Macleod's piper, esteemed the best in Scotland, was 
called Donald Ban MacRimmon. When that chief, who was 
opposed to Prince Charles, with Munro of Culcairn, at the 
head of 700 men, were defeated by Lord Lewis Gordon, and 
the Farquharsons, at Inverury, 12 miles from Aberdeen, Do- 
nald Ban was taken prisoner. On this occasion, a striking 
mark of respect was paid to him by his brethren of the bag- 
pipe, which at once obtained bis release. The pipers in Lord 
Lewis' following did not play the next morning, as was their 
wont, and on inquiry as to this unusual circumstance, it was 
found by his lordship and his officers that the pipes were si- 
lent because MacRimmon was a prisoner, when he was im- 
mediately set at liberty. He was, however, shortly after- 
wards killed in the night attempt, led by the laird of Macleod, 
to capture the prince at Moyhall, the seat of Lady Macintosh 
near Inverness. 

On the passing of the heritable jurisdiction abolition bill in 
1747, the occupation of the hereditary bagpipers was gone. 
Donald Dubh MacRimmon, the last of them, died in 1822, 
aged 91. The affecting lament, Tha til, tha til, tlia til, Mhic 
Chruimin, "MacRimmon shall never, shall never, shall never 
return," was composed on his departure for Canada. 



Mac Rory, a surname derived from the name Roderick, 
called Ruari in the Highlands. The clan Rory were so styled 
from Roderick, the eldest of the three sons of Reginald, second 
son of Somerled of the Isles by his second marriage. This 
Roderick was lord of Kintyre and one of the most noted pi- 
rates of his day. His descendants became extinct in the 
third generation. The clan Donald and clan Dougall sprung 
from Roderick's brothers. 



MacSorley, a surname derived from the Norse Somerled, 
which means Samuel. In the Gaelic it is Somhairle. The 
Camerons of Glennevis were called MacSorley, while those of 
Strone were MacGillonies, and those of Letterfinlay were 
MacMartins. These septs, says Gregory, (Highlands and 
Isles, p. 77,) were all ancient families in Lochaber, and seem 
to have adopted the surname of Cameron, although not de- 
scended of the family. 



MacVuirich, the surname of a family which for several 
generations held the office of bard and genealogist to the 
Macdonalds of Clanranald. Niel MacVuirich, the last of the 
bardie race, lived to a great age in South Uist, and died in 
1726. He wrote in the Gaelic language the history of the 
Clanranald, as well as collected some ancient poetrv, and the 



annals of past times. All his own compositions have been 
lost, excepting three pieces which are given in Mackenzie's 
' Beauties of Gaelic Poetry,' pp. 65 — 67. 

The following curious and interesting declaration of Lach 
Ian MacVuirich, son of Niel, taken by desire of the Commit- 
tee of the Highland Society of Scotland, appointed to inquire 
into the nature and authenticity of the poems of Ossian, wil. 
throw much light on the bardic office, as well as furnish some 
information regarding the celebrated Red Book of Clanran- 
ald. It is a translation of the original written in Gaelic, and 
addressed to Henry Mackenzie, Esq., at the time he was 
writing the Society's report of Ossian. " In the house of 
Patrick Nicolson, at Torlum, near Castle Burgh, in the shire 
of Inverness, on the ninth day of August, compeared, in the 
fifty-ninth year of his age, Lachlan, son of Niel, son of Lach- 
lan, son of Niel, son of Donald, son of Lachlan, son of Niel 
Mor, son of Lachlan, son of Donald, of the surname of Mac- 
Vuirich, before Roderick M'Neil, Esq. of Barra, and declared, 
That, according to the best of his knowledge, he is the eight- 
eenth in descent from Muireach, whose posterity had offici- 
ated as bards to the family of Clanranald ; and that they had 
from that time, as the salary of their office, the farm of Sta- 
oiligary, and four pennies of Drimisdale, during fifteen gene- 
rations ; that the sixteenth descendant lost the four pennies 
of Drimisdale, but that the seventeenth descendant retained 
the farm of Staoiligary for nineteen years of his life. That 
there was a right given them over these lands, as long as 
there should be any of the posterity of Muireach to preserve 
and continue the genealogy and history of the Macdonalds, 
on condition that the bard, failing of male issue, was to edu- 
cate his brother's son, or representative, in order to preserve 
their title to the lands; and that it was in pursuance of this 
custom that his own father, Niel, had been taught to read 
and write history and poetry by Donald, son of Niel, son of 
Donald, his father's brother. 

" He remembers well that works of Ossian written or. 
parchment, were in the custody of his father, as received 
from his predecessors; that some of the parchments were 
made up in the form of books, and that others were loose and 
separate, which contained the works of other bards besides 
those of Ossian. 

" He remembers that his father had a book, which was 
called the Bed Book, made of paper, which he had from his 
predecessors, and which, as his father informed him, contain- 
ed a good deal of the history of the Highland clans, together 
with part of the works of Ossian. That none of those books 
are to be found at this day, because when they (his family) 
were deprived of their lands, they lost their alacrity and zeal. 
That he is not certain what became of the parchments, but 
thinks that some of them were carried away by Alexander, 
son of the Rev. Alexander Macdonald, and others by Ronald 
his son ; and he saw two or three of them cut down by tai- 
lors for measures. That he remembers well that Clanranald 
made his father give up the Red Rook to James Macpherson 
from Badenoch : that it was near as thick as a Bible, but 
that it was longer and broader, though not so thick in the 
cover. That the parchments and the Red Book were written 
in the hand in which the Gaelic used to be so written of old 
both in Scotland and Ireland, before people began to use the 
English hand in writing Gaelic; and that his father knew 
well how to read the old hand. That he himself had some 
of the parchments after bis father's death, but that because 
he had not been taught to read them, and had no reason to 
set any value on them, they were lost. He says that none 
of his forefathers had the name of Paul, but there were tiro 
of them who were called Cathal. He savs that the Kid 



MAIR, 



72 



JOHN. 



Book was not written by one man, but that it was written, 
n-ora age to age, by the family of Clan Mhuirich, who were 
preserving and continuing the history of the Macdonalds, and 
of other heads of Highland clans. 

" After the above declaration was taken down, it was read 
to him, and he acknowledged it was right, in presence of Do- 
nald M'Donald of Balronald, James M'Donald of Garyhe- 
lich, Ewan M'Donald of Griminish, Alexander M'Lean of 
Hoster, Mr. Alexander Nicolson, minister of Benbecula, and 
Mr. Allan M'Queen, minister of North Uist, who wrote this 
declaration." The last Lachlan above mentioned as father 
of Neil Mbr and son of Donald, was called for distinction's 
sake, Lachunn Mor Mac Mhuirich Albannaich, or Lachlan 
Mor Mac Vuirich of Scotland. He lived in the loth centu- 
ry, and was the author of a remarkable war-song, composed 
wholly of epithets arranged in alphabetical order, to rouse 
the clan Donald previous to the battle of Harlaw. (See Mac- 
kenzie's Beauties of Gaelic Poetry, p. 62, Note.) 

Every great Highland family had their bard, whose busi- 
ness it was to recite at entertainments the immense stores of 
poetrv which he had hoarded up in his memory, and to pre- 
serve the genealogy and commemorate the military actions of 
the heroes or chief's. When Neil MacVuirich, the last of the 
bards, died in 1726, the bardic order became extinct in Scot- 
land. 



Madderty. Baron. See Strathallan, Viscount of. 

MAIR, or Major, John, a scholastic divine and 
historian, was bora at the village of Gleghornie, 
parish of North Berwick, in 1469. He went to 
the university of Paris in 1493, and studied at the 
colleges of St. Barbe and Montacute. In 1496 he 
became M.A., and 2 years after removed to the 
college of Navarre. In 1508 he was created D.D. 
It appears from some passages in his writings 
that in the early part of the 16th century he was 
a member of Christ's college, Cambridge. He 
returned to Scotland in 1518, in which year he 
became a member of the university of Glasgow, 
being then styled canon of the chapel royal and 
vicar of Dunlop. In 1521 he was professor of 
theology in the university of Glasgow. He sub- 
sequently held also the office of treasurer of the 
royal chapel of Stirling, and about 1523 he became 
professor of divinity in the college of St, Salvator, 
St. Andrews, where he remained five years. He 
was certainly there in 1528. when, at the dawn of 
the Reformation in Scotland, a friar who had 
preached a sermon at Dundee against the licenti- 
ous lives of the bishops, and against the abuse of 
cursing from the altar and false miracles, being 
accused of heresy, "went," says Calderwood, "to 
Sanct Andrewes, and communicated the heads of 
his sermoun with Mr. Johne Maior, whose word 
wis then holdin as an oracle in maters of relifi- 



oun. Mr - . Johne said, his doctrine might weUl be 
defended, and conteaned no heresie." The friar 
ultimately was compelled to fly to England, where 
he was cast into prison by command of Henry the 
Eighth. 

Mail himself, although he remained a church- 
man, in consequence of the religious distractions 
of the times, went back to Paris, when he resumed 
his lectures in the college of Montacute. While 
in France he had among his pupils several who 
were afterwards eminent for their learning. One 
of the most distinguished of them was his coun- 
tryman, George Buchanan, who had studied logic 
under him at St. Salvator's college, and had fol- 
lowed him to Paris. In 1530 he returned once 
more to Scotland, and resumed his lectures as pro- 
fessor of theology in the university of St. An- 
drews. He was present, with the other heads ol 
the university, in the parish church of that city, 
when John Knox, who had been one of his stu- 
dents, preached his first sermon in public in 1547. 
Mr. Tytler, in his History of Scotland, (vol. v. p. 
211) referring to Patrick Hamilton the martyr, 
speaks of him as having been •' educated at St. 
Andrews, in what Avas then esteemed the too lib- 
eral philosophy of John Mair, the master of Knox 
and Buchanan." It was no small honour to have 
infused into the minds of these three men, the fore- 
most, in their respective provinces, of their age, 
ideas and principles far in advance of the narrow 
and bigoted tenets of the churchmen. He was 
thus, perhaps unconsciously to himself, a not un- 
important instrument in helping forward the great 
work of the Reformation in Scotland, and in pro- 
moting the sacred cause of civil and religious lib- 
erty. 

He is said to have died about 1549, at "a great 
age, for," says Dr. Mackenzie, in his ' Lives of 
Eminent Scots Writers,' " in the year 1547, at 
the national council of the Church of Scotland at 
Linlithgow, he subscribed by proxy, in quality of 
dean of theology of St. Andrews, not being able to 
come himself by reason of his age, which was then 
seventy-eight, and shortly after he died." 

His works were all written in Latin. His Lo- 
gical Treatises form one immense folio. His 
Commentary on the Physics of Aristotle makes 
another. His Theological works, among which is 



MAITLAND 



73 



OF TIIIRLESTAXE. 



*fi Exposition of St. Matthew's Gospel, amount 
to several volumes of the same size. He is best 
known, however, by his history, ' De Gentis Sco- 
torum,' in which he gives an account of the Scots 
nation from the earliest antiquity, and rejects 
many of the fables and fictions of previous histo- 
rians, such as Wyntoun and Fordoun. 
The titles of his works are as follows : 

Introductorium in Aristotehcam Dialecticen, totamque Lo- 
gicam. Par. apud Joannem Lambert. — Quasstio de Com- 
plexo Significabili. — Primus Liber Terminorum, cum figura. 
— Secundus Liber Terminorum. — Summula:, cum figura qua- 
tuor Propositionum et earum Conversionum. — Praedicabilia, 
cum Arbore Porphyriana. — Praedicamenta, sua, cum figura. 
— Syllogismi. — Posteriora, cum textu Aristotelis primi et 
secunda Capitis, libri primi. — Tractatus de Locis. — Tractatus 
Elenchorum. — Tractatus Consequentiarum. — Abbreviationes 
Parvorum Logicalium. — Parva Logicalia. — Exponibilia. — In- 
solubilia. — Obligationes. — Argumenta Sophistica. — Proposi- 
lum de Infinito. — Analogus inter duos Logicos et Magistrum. 
The above were all printed in one volume at Lyons, 1514, 
folio. 

In quartum Sententiarum. Commentarius. Par. apud 
Joannem Granjonium, 1509. Par. 1516. Again, apud 
Jodocum Badium Ascensium. 

In Primum et Secundum Sententiarum totidem Commen- 
tarii. Par. apud Jod. Bad. Ascensium, 1510. 

Commentarius in Tertium. Paris, 1517. 

Commentarius in Secundum. Paris, apud Joannem Gran- 
jonium, 1519. 

Literalis in Matthasum Expositio, una cum Trecentis et 
Octo Dubiis et Difficultatibus ad ejus Elucidationem admo- 
dum Conducentibus passim insertis ; quibus Prelectis, pervia 
erit quatuor Evangelistarum Series. Paris, apud Joan. 
Granjonium, 1518. 

De Auctoritate Concilii supra Pontificem Maximum liber, 
Rxcerptus ex ejus Commentariis in S. Matthseum. Paris, 
1518, folio. 

De Historia Gentis Scotorum, libri sex, seu Histona Ma- 
joris Britannia?, tarn Anglia? quam Scotia?, k Veterum Moni- 
mentis Concinnata. Paris, apud Jod. Badium, 1521. Edin. 
apud Rob. Freebairn, 1740, 4to. 

Commentarius in Physica Aristotelis. Paris, 1526. 

Luculentae in quatuor Evangelia Expositiones, Disquisi- 
tiones, et Disputationes, contra Haareticosj ad Calcem liu- 
jusce Operis. Par. 1529, fol. 

Catalogus Episcoporum Lucionensium. Apud Antonium 
Democharem. 



Maitland, a surname of Norman origin, in early times 
written Matulant., Mautalent, or Matalan. Nisbet, in men- 
tioning the name, (Heraldry, vol. i. p. 292,) adds, quasi mu- 
tilatus in Bella, as if it had been first given to one maimed 
or mutilated in war. There can be no doubt that among the 
followers of William the Conqueror when he came into Eng- 
land, was one bearing this name, whatever may have been its 
derivation. 

The first on record in Scotland was Thomas de Matulant, 
of Anglo-Norman lineage, the ancestor of the noble family of 
Lauderdale. He flourished in the reign of William the Lion, 
and died in 1228. The early history of the family, like that 
•f most of the Anglo-Norman incomers, relates chiefly to the 



acquirement of lands and donations to some particular abl*-j 
or religious house, for they were all great benefactors to the 
church, and the 'Matulants' formed no exception. Like 
many Anglo-Norman and Anglo-Saxon families, they settled 
in Berwickshire. Thomas' son, William de Matulant, was 
witness to several of the charters of King Alexander II., 
which proves that he must have been much about the court 
of that monarch. He died about 1250, leaving a son, Sir 
Richard Matulant, who, in the reign of Alexander III., was one 
of the most considerable barons in Scotland, being the owner 
of the lands and baronies of Thirlestane, Blythe, Tollus, Hed- 
derwick and other properties, all in the shire of Berwick. 
To Dryburgh abbey, which had been founded little more than 
a century before, he gifted several lands, " for the welfare of 
his soul, and the souls of Avicia his wife, his predecessors 
and successors." His son, William de Mautlant of Thirl- 
stane, confirmed these gifts. He was one of the patriots who 
joined King Robert the Bruce as soon as he began to assert 
his right to the crown, and died about 1315. 

The son of this baron, Sir Robert Maitland, possessed the 
lands of Thirlestane in his father's lifetime. Among other 
charters he had one of the lands of Lethington from Sir John 
Gilford of Yester, confirmed by King David II., 17th Octo- 
ber, in the 17th year of his reign (1345). Just a year after- 
wards, on the same day of the month, he fell at the battle of 
Durham, with a brother of his, whose Christian name is not 
given. By his wife, a sister of Sir Robert Keith, great mar- 
ischal of Scotland, who was killed in the same battle, he had 
three sons, John, William, and Robert. The latter married 
the heiress of Gight, Aberdeenshire, and was ancestor of the 
Maitlands of Pitrichie. 

The eldest son, John, got a safe-conduct to go to England 
in 1363. He obtained from William, earl of Douglas, upon 
his own resignation, a charter of the lands of Thirlestane and 
Tollus, to himself and his son, Robert, by his wife, the Ladv 
Agnes Dunbar, daughter of Patrick, earl of March, and died 
about 1395. His said son, Sir Robert Maitland, got the 
charge of the castle of Dunbar, from his uncle, George, ear] 
of March, when that rebellious nobleman withdrew into 
England, in 1398, in consequence of the contract of marriage 
between his daughter, Lady Elizabeth Dunbar and David, 
duke of Rothesay, being cancelled, through the intrigues of 
Archibald, earl of Douglas, surnamed the Grim. In conjunc- 
tion with Hotspur and Lord Talbot, the earl soon after re- 
turned across the border, and laid waste the lands which, 
having been forfeited, he could no longer call his own. His 
nephew, Sir Robert Maitland, having surrendered the castle 
of Dunbar to the earl of Douglas, escaped being involved in 
his ruin. He and his family were afterwards designed of 
Lethington. He died about 1434, leaving three sons. Robert, 
the eldest, was one of the hostages for James I., on his 
liberation from England in 1424, when his annual revenue 
was estimated at 400 merks. As he predeceased his father, 
without issue, William, the second son, succeeded to the 
family estates. James, the third son, married Egidia, daugh- 
ter of James Scrymgeour of Dudhope, constable of Dundee, 
and from his grandson, John, descended the Maitlands of 
Eccles and other families of the name. 

The second but elder surviving son, William Maitland of 
Lethington and Thirlestane, was the first to change the spell- 
ing of his name to its present form. He had a charter from 
Archibald, duke of Turenne and earl of Douglas, to himself 
and Margaret Wardlaw, his wife, of the lands of Blythe, 
Hedderwick, Tollus, and Bumcleugh, dated at Linlithgow 
23d March, 1432, his father being then alive. His only son, 
John, died before 1471. His successor, William Maitland at 



MATTLAND, 



74 



SIR RICHARD 



Lethington, was father of William Maitland of Lethington, 
described as a man of great bravery and resolution, who was 
killed at Flodden, with his sovereign, James IV., with whom 
he was in high favour. By his wife, Martha, daughter of 
George Lord Seton, he had a son, Sir Richard Maitland, the 
celebrated collector of the early Scottish poetry, after whom 
the Maitland Club has been called, and a memoir of whom is 
given afterwards in larger type. Sir Richard marrie 1 Mary, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Cranstoun of Crosbie, and with four 
daughters, had three sons, the eldest being William, the per- 
sonage so well known in the history of the reign of the unfor- 
tunate Mary, as " Secretary Lethington." Sir John, the 
second son, was lord high chancellor of Scotland and first 
lord Maitland of Thirlestane. Of both these brothers me- 
moirs are given subsequently m larger type. Thomas, 
Sir Richard's third son, was prolocutor with George Buchanan, 
in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos. The daughters, 
named Helen, Isabella, Mary, and Elizabeth, all married 
Berwickshire barons. 

Secretary Lethington was twice married. By his first 
wife, Janet Monteith, he had no issue. By his second wife, 
Mary, a daughter of Malcolm Lord Fleming, he had, with a 
laughter, Mary, the wife of the first earl of Roxburgh, a son, 
James, who, being a Roman Catholic, went to the continent, 
and died there, without issue. He sold his estate of Leth- 
ington, which had been restored to him by a rehabilitation 
under the great seal, 19th February 1583-4, to his uncle, Sir 
John Maitland, who carried on the line of the family. A 
letter from this James Maitland to the learned Camden, is 
dated from Brussels in 1620. 

Sir John, first Lord Maitland of Thirlestane, married Jean, 
only daughter and heiress of James, lord Fleming, lord high 
chamberlain of Scotland in the reign of Queen Mary, and by 
her had a son, John, second Lord Maitland and first earl of 
Lauderdale (see Lauderdale, earl of) and a daughter, 
Anne, married to Robert, Lord Seton, son of the first earl of 
Winton. 

Connected thus, by frequent intermarriages, with the Seton 
and Fleming families, who were the most distinguished among 
the nobles of Scotland for their unswerving attachment to the 
beautiful and ill-fated Mary, it was no wonder that the Main- 
lands also signalised themselves by their faithful adherence to 
her interests, even when her fortunes were at the lowest, and 
when at last they did transfer their allegiance to her son, 
they served him with equal truth and loyalty. 



The family of Gibson Maitland of Clifton Hall, Mid Lothi- 
an, possesses a baronetcy, first conferred, 30th November, 
1818, on the Hon. General Alexander Maitland, fifth son of 
the sixth earl of Lauderdale. Sir Alexander died 14th Feb- 
ruary 1820. He had, with two daughters, four sons, viz., 
Alexander Charles, second baronet ; William, a midshipman 
on board the Portsmouth East Indiaman, drowned in the 
Bay of Bengal in 1781; Augustus, an officer in the army, 
mortally wounded at Egmont op-Zee, 6th October, 1797; 
and Frederick, of Hollywich, Sussex, a general in the army, 
a member of the board of general officers, a commissioner of 
the Royal military college, and colonel of the 58th regiment. 
General Frederick Maitland was married and left a family. 

Sir Alexander Charles Maitland, second baronet, born 21st 
November 1755, married Helen daughter and heiress of Al- 
exander Gibson Wright, Esq. of Clifton Hall, a scion of the 
Gibsons of Durie in Fifeshire, and with her obtained that 
estate, and assumed in consequence the name of Gibson. He 
Lad, by her, six sons and five daughters. Alexander Mait- 
land Gibson Maitland. the eldest sit\ an advocate at the 



Scottish bar, died in September 1828, leaving, by his WS& 
Susan, eldest daughter of George Ramsay, Esq. of Barctoa 
four sons and two daughters. 

On the death of the second baronet, 7th February 1848, 
his grandson, Sir Alexander Charles Maitlanrt Gibson Mait. 
land, 6. Jan. 7, 1820, s. as 3d bart. He m. Feb. 3, 1841, Thomasina 
Agnes, dr. of James Hunt, Esq. of Pittencrieff, Fifeshire, and has 
had 3 sons and 3 drs. He was M.P. for Edinburghshire. 1868-1874. 



The Maitlands of Dundrennan Abbey and Compstone, in 
the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and Hermand, in Mid Lo- 
thian, are descended from an early branch of the Lauderdale 
family. Their immediate ancestor was William Maitland, % 
distinguished Scots ecclesiastic during the latter part of the 
17th century, who acquired considerable estates in the stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright. 

Thomas Maitland, a lord of session by the judicial title of 
Lord Dundrennan, born 9th October 1792, passed advocate 
in 1813, and was solicitor-general for Scotland, under the 
whig administration in 1840 and 1841, and again from 1846 
till the beginning of 1 850, when he was appointed a lord of ses- 
aion. In 1845 he was chosen M.P. for Kirkcudbrightshire, 
and died 10th June, 1851. He married, in 1815, Isabella 
Graham, 4th daughter of James Macdowall, Esq. of Garthland, 
with issue. His brother, Edward Forbes Maitland, Esq., ad- 
vocate, was appointed in 1855, and again in 1859, solicitor- 
general for Scotland. He had previously been depute advocate. 



Of the name of Maitland there have been many distin- 
guished naval and military officers. Rear-admiral John 
Maitland, second son of Colonel the Hon. Sir Richard Mait- 
land, third son of the sixth earl of Lauderdale and uncle of 
Rear-admiral Sir Frederick Lewis Maitland, first saw active 
service in the West Indies, when he was midshipman on 
board the Boyne of 98 guns, the flagship of Sir John Jervis, 
and distinguished himself by his gallantry at Martinique, 
Guadaloup, &c. He was afterwards lieutenant of the Win- 
chelsea frigate; from which he removed into the Lively, and 
was in that ship when in 1795 it captured, after an action of 
three hours, the French ship La Tourterelle. In 1797 he 
was appointed to the Kingfisher, and on the 1st July suc- 
ceeded in quelling a mutiny on board his ship, by, with his 
officers, attacking the mutineers sword in hand, and killing 
and wounding several of them. This spirited conduct was 
called " Doctor Maitland's recipe," by the earl of St. Vincent, 
who recommended its adoption to the fleet on similar emer- 
gencies. In command of the B^adicea, he saw much service 
in the Channel, and on board the Barfleur of 98 guns he 
served with the Mediterranean fleet until the conclusion of 
the war with France in 1815. In 1821 he attained the rank 
of rear-admiral, and died in 1836. 

For a memoir of his cousin, Rear-admiral Sir Frederick 
Lewis Maitland, to whom the emperor Napoleon surrendered 
on board the Bellerophon after the battle of Waterloo in 
1815, see page 637 of volume II. of this work, under the 
head Laudekdai.e, Earl of. 

MAITLAND, Sir Richard, a distinguished 
poet, Lawyer, and statesman, the collector of the 
early poetry of Scotland, was the son of William 
Maitland of Lethington, and Martha, daughter oi 
George, second Lord Seton, as already mentioned. 
He was born in 1496, and having finished the 
usual course of academical education at the uni- 



MAITLAND, 



75 



WILLIAM. 



versify of St. Andrews, he went to France to 
study the law. After his return to Scotland, he 
recommended himself to the favour of James V., 
and was employed in various public commissions 
oy that monarch, and afterwards by the regent 
Arran and Mary of Guise. In March 1551 we 
find him taking his seat on the bench as an extra- 
ordinary lord of session, and soon after he was 
knighted. He was frequently sent as commis- 
sioner to settle matters on the borders, and in 
1559 concluded the treaty of Upsettlington, after- 
wards confirmed by Francis and Mary. 

As early as October 15G0, Sir Richard had the 
misfortune to lose his sight, but his blindness did 
not incapacitate him for business. In November 
1561 he was admitted an ordinary lord of ses- 
sion, when he took the title of Lord Lethington. 
Shortly after he was sworn a member of the privy 
council, and on 20th December 1562 he was no- 
minated lord privy seal. He continued a lord of 
session during the troublous times of Queen 
Mary and the regents, in the minority of James 
VI. His advice to Queen Mary was that of a 
iudicious and faithful counsellor, that she must see 
her laws kept, or else she would get no obedience. 
{Douglas 1 Peerage, vol. ii. p. 67). 

In 1563 he was appointed one of the commis- 
sioners to whom the rights of individuals to the 
act of oblivion were to be referred, and on 28th 
December of that year he was one of the com- 
mittee chosen to frame regulations for the com- 
missaries then about to be established for the dis- 
cussion of consistorial causes. In 1567 he resigned 
the office of lord privy seal, in favour of his second 
son, John, prior of Coldingham, afterwards created 
Lord Maitland of Thirlestane. On the 1st July 
1584, his great age compelled him to resign his 
seat on the bench, in favour of Sir Lewis Bellen- 
den of Auchnoull, being allowed the privilege of 
naming his successor. He had been more than 
seventy years employed in the public service, and 
the letter from the king to the court of session on 
occasion of his retirement from the bench, recorded 
in the Books of Sederunt, states that he " lies dew- 
lie and faithfully servit our grandshir, gud sir, gud 
dam, muder, and ourself, being oftentymes em- 
ployit in public charges, qunereof he dewtifullie 
and honestlie acquit himself, and being ane of you 



ordinal 1 number thir mony yeiris, lies diligentlifl 
with all sincerity and integrity servit therein, and 
now being of werry greit age, and altho' in spreit 
and jugement able anew to serve as appertenis: 
be the great age, and being unwell, is sa dibilitat 
that he is not able to mak sic continual residens 
as he wald give, and being movit in conscience 
that be his absence for laik of number, justice may 
be retardit and parties frustrat, hes willinglie de- 
mittit," &c. Sir Richard died March 20, 1586, at 
the advanced age of 90. For his marriage and 
children see previous page. 

With the single exception of a passage in 
Knox's History, which imputes to him the having 
taken bribes to assist Cardinal Bethune to escape 
from his imprisonment at Seton, but for which it 
would appear there was no good ground, Sir 
Richard Maitland is uniformly mentioned by con- 
temporary writers with respect. He collected the 
"Decisions of the Court of Session from Decem- 
ber 15, 1550, to the penult July, 1565," the 
manuscript of which is preserved in the Advo- 
cates' Library. His Collections of Early Scottish 
Poetry, in two volumes, a folio and a quarto, 
were, with other MSS., presented by the duke of 
Lauderdale to Samuel Pep} - s, Esq., secretary of 
the admiralty to Charles II. and James II., and 
the founder of the Pepysian Library at Magdalene 
College, Cambridge, in which they now remain. 
A selection from these will be found in Pinkerton's 
valuable collection of ' Ancient Scottish Poems,' 
published in 1786. Sir Richard's own Poems 
were for the first time printed in 1830, in a quarto 
volume, for the Maitland Club, which takes its 
name from him. The best of his poetical pieces 
are his ' Satyres,' ' The Blind Baron's Comfort, 
and a ' Ballat of the Creatiouu of the World,' the 
latter of which was inserted in Allan Ramsay's 
' Evergreen.' Sir Richard's ' Cronicle and His- 
toric of the House and Siinanie of Seaton unto 
the moneth of November ane thousand five hun- 
dred and fifty aught yeires,' with a continuation 
by Alexander, Viscount Kingston, was printed for 
the Maitland Club in 1829. 

MAITLAND, William, accounted the ablest 
statesman of his age, historically known as " Se- 
cretary Lethington," eldest son of the preceding, 
i was one of the principal characters of his time hi 



MAITLAND, 



76 



WILLIAM. 



Scotland. He was born about 1525, and after 
being educated at the college of St. Andrews, lie 
travelled on the Continent, where he studied civil 
law. In his youth, instead of following the usual 
pursuits and amusements of young men of his 
rank, he applied himself to politics, and became 
early initiated into all the craft and mystery of 
statesmanship. Though his political career was 
vacillating and unsteady, his enterprising spirit, 
great penetration, and subtle genius are mentioned 
with admiration by contemporary writers of every 
party. 

He was one of tlie first to attend the private 
preaching of John Knox at Edinburgh, about the 
end of 1555, when he became a convert to the re- 
formed doctrines. AVhen Knox began to reason 
against the mass, Erskine of Dun invited the 
Reformer to supper, to resolve some doubts on the 
subject, " where were assembled," says Calder- 
wood, (v. i. p. 305) " David Forresse, Mr. Robert 
Lokhart, John Willocke, and William Matlane of 
Lethington, younger." All their objections against 
giving up the mass were so fully answered by 
Knox that Maitland said, " I see perfytely that 
thir shifts will serve for nothing before God, seing 
they stand us in so small stead before men." So 
the mass, which had been attended by many from 
custom, and " the eschewing of slander," was dis- 
owned by the Reformed party from that time. 

On 4th December 1558, during the regency of 
Mary of Guise, Maitland was, by that princess, 
appointed secretary of state. The violent pro- 
ceedings of the queen regent against the Reform- 
ers, and fears for his life, from his being known to 
favour the reformed doctrines, induced him, in 
October of the following year, to join the lords of 
the congregation, who had taken possession of 
Edinburgh. The queen regent and the Romish 
party withdrew to Leith, but within a month the 
lords fled to Stirling, and the regent re-entered 
the capital in triumph. Calderwood says, " Wil- 
liam Matlane of Lethington, younger, secretaire to 
the queen, perceaving himself to be suspected as 
one that favoured the congregatioun, and to stand 
in danger of his life if he sould remaine at Leith, 
becaus he spaired not to utter his minde in con- 
troversies of religioun, conveyed himself out of 
Leith, a little before Allliallow Eve, and randered 



himself to Mr. Kirkaldie, Laird of Grange. lis 
assured the lords there was nothing but craft and 
falshood in the queene." (Hist, of the Kirk of 
Scotland, vol. i. p. 553). He was gladly received 
by the lords, who marked their sense of this his open 
adhesion to their cause, by sending him to England 
to lay their position and prospects before Queen 
Elizabeth, and to crave her aid. She at once 
sent a fleet to the frith of Forth, to prevent farther 
assistance being sent from France to the regent, 
and gave secret instructions to the duke of Norfolk 
to meet with the Scots commissioners at Berwick, 
to arrange the conditions on which her assistance 
was to be given. The commissioners appointed by 
the lords of the congregation to represent them at 
Berwick on this occasion were, lord James Stewart, 
afterwards the Regent Moray, Lord Ruthven, the 
masters of Maxwell and Lindsay, the laird of 
Pitarrow, Henry Balnaves of Hallhill, and the 
secretary Maitland. After a great deal of nego- 
tiation, a treaty was concluded between Elizabeth 
and the leaders of the congregation, called the 
treaty of Berwick, in consequence of which, on 
the 28th March, an English force under Lord 
Grey marched into Scotland, and joined the army 
of the congregation. 

Maitland acted as speaker of the parliament in 
August 1560 which abolished the power and su- 
premacy of the Pope in Scotland, Huntly the 
chancellor having declined to attend. It is well 
known that when Queen Mary in the folloAving year 
was about to sail direct from France to Scotland 
Elizabeth despatched a fleet into the Channel 
with the avowed purpose of clearing the sea fron 
pirates, but really with the view of intercepting 
Mary and carrying her prisoner to England. Se- 
cretary Maitland and the queen's brother, Lord 
James Stewart, are charged with recommending 
this measure to the English minister. On Mary's 
arrival, however, they were chosen her principal 
advisers, and on 12th November of the same year 
(1561) Maitland was made an extraordinary lore 
of session. According to Calderwood (vol. ii. p. 
160), the ratification of the Book of Discipline by 
the queen met with strong objections from Mait- 
land, who, when it was proposed, sneered, and 
asked " how many of those who had subscribed it 
would be subject to it." Tt was answered, " AU 



MAITLANI), 



77 



WILLIAM. 



the godly." "Will the duke?" (Chatelherault), 
said Maitland. " If he will not," said Ochiltry, " I 
wish he were scraped out, not only out of that 
book, but also out of our number and company ; 
for to what purpose shall travail be taken to set 
the church in order, if it be not kept, or to what 
end shall men subscribe, if they never mean to 
perform ?" Maitland answered, " Many subscribed 
them, in fide parentum, as the bairns are baptized." 
"Ye think that stuff proper," said Knox, "but it 
is as untrue as unproper. That book was read in 
public audience ; and the heads thereof reasoned 
upon diverse days, as all that sit here know very 
well, and yourself cannot deny. No man, there- 
fore, was desired to subscribe that which he un- 
derstood not." The ratification, however, was 
refused. 

Soon after Maitland was sent as Mary's ambas- 
sador to the court of Elizabeth, to salute the lat- 
ter in his mistress' name, and to make known her 
good will towards her. After his return to Scot- 
land, he accompanied the queen, in August 1562, 
in her expedition to the north against the earl of 
Huntly and the Gordons. On their arrival at 
Old Aberdeen, we are told there was such a scar- 
city of accommodation that he and Randolph, the 
English ambassador, were obliged to sleep toge- 
ther in the same bed. He was present at the bat- 
tle of Corrichie where Huntly was defeated. On 
this occasion he exhorted every man to call upon 
God, to remember his duty, and not to fear the 
multitude, and made the following prayer: "O 
Lord, thou that ruleth the heaven and the earth, 
look upon thy servants whose blood this day is 
sought, and to man's judgment is sold and be- 
trayed. Our refuge is now unto thee, and our 
hope is in thee. Judge then, O Lord, this day 
betwixt us and the earl of Huntly. If ever we 
have sought unjustly his or their destruction and 
blood, let us fall on the edge of the sword. If we 
be innocent, maintain and preserve us, for thy 
great mercy's sake." 

A short time after this Maitland was again sent 
ambassador to England, and in his absence the 
nobility blamed him for serving the queen to the 
prejudice of the commonwealth. On his return 
therefore he deemed it necessary to strengthen 
his hands by making friends to himself, and by 



endeavouring to shake the credit of the earl o. 
Moray at court. In 1563, when Knox appeared 
before the queen and council to answer a charge 
of treason, for writing a circular letter to the prin- 
cipal protestant gentlemen, requesting them to 
meet at Edinburgh, to be present at the trial of 
two men for a riot at the popish chapel at Holy- 
rood, Mr. Secretary Maitland conducted the pro- 
secution against him. On this occasion he showed 
himself bitterly hostile to the reformer. When 
Knox was acquitted by the council, Maitland, 
who had assured the queen of his condemnation, 
was enraged at the decision. He brought her 
majesty, who had retired before the vote, again 
into the room, and proceeded to call the votes a 
second time in her presence. This attempt to 
overawe them incensed the nobility. "What!" 
said they, "shall the laird of Lethington have 
power to command us? Shall the presence of a 
woman cause us offend God ? Shall we condemn 
an innocent man against our conscience, for the 
pleasure of any creature ? " And greatly to the 
mortification of the queen and the discomfiture of 
the secretary, they indignantly repeated their for- 
mer votes, absolving Knox from the charge. 

He seems after this to have thought that the re- 
formed clergy assumed too muoh in their public 
rebukes, and after a sermon of Knox's colleague, 
Mr. Craig, against the corruptions of the times, 
Lethington, says Calderwood, " in the presence of 
many, gave himself to the devil, if after that day 
he should regard what should become of ministers, 
but should do what he might that his companions 
have a skaire with him, let them bark and blow as 
much as they list." Knox declaimed against him 
from the pulpit, on which Maitland mockingly 
said, " We must recant, and burn our bill, for the 
preachers are angry." 

At a conference with the leading members of 
the General Assembly, held in June 156-4, a long 
debate ensued between Maitland and Knox, on 
those points of the reformed doctrines which gave 
offence to the court, but chiefly as legards the 
Reformer's mode of prayer for the Queen, and on 
obedience to her authority. In this memorable 
disputation, although Maitland had the worst of 
the argument, he is acknowledged to have acquit- 
ted himself with all the acuteness and ingenuity oJ 



MAITLAND, 



78 



WILLIAM. 



a practised disputant. An account of this confer- 
ence will be found at length in Calderwood's His- 
tory of the Kirk of Scotland, vol ii. pp. 252—280. 

In January 1565, Maitland was appointed an 
ordinary lord of session, and in April the same 
year he was despatched to England, to intimate 
to Elizabeth the intention of Mary to marry the 
Lord Darnley. In 1566 he joined the conspiracy 
against Rizzio, " partly finding himself prejudged 
by this Savoyard in the affairs of his office as secre- 
tary, and partly for the favour he then carried to 
the earl of Moray, then in exile." After Puzzio's 
murder, he was, for his participation in it, de- 
prived of his office of secretary, and obliged to 
retire into concealment in Lauderdale, while the 
other conspirators fled to England, but, before the 
end of the year, he was restored to favour and 
allowed to return to court. 

On the night of Sunday, February 9, 1567, 
occurred the murder of Darnley, by the blowing 
up of the house of the Kirk of Field, which had 
been procured by Maitland for the King's accom- 
modation, he having been won over by the earl of 
Bothwell to his designs. With the earl of Morton 
he solicited and obtained from several lords of 
Moray's faction, and from eight bishops a declara- 
tion in writing, avowing their belief of Bothwell's 
innocence of the murder, and recommending him 
as a proper husband for the queen. It is alleged 
that the queen had previously consented to this 
marriage; but her defenders deny this, and aver 
that the writing which she was said to have 
signed was a forgery of the secretary Maitland. 
He joined the confederacy of the nobles for the 
removal of Bothwell, and after the surrender of 
the queen at Carberry Hill, and her imprisonment 
in the castle of Lochleven, he wrote to her, offer- 
ing his service, and using as an argument the apo- 
logue of the mouse delivering the lion taken in the 
net. He also proposed that, after providing for 
the safety of the young prince and the security of 
the protestant religion, the queen should be re- 
established in her authority. He, however, at- 
tended the coronation of King James VI., on 29th 
July 1567, and although he was one of the secret 
advisers of the escape of the queen from Lochleven 
castle, he yet fought against her on the field of 
Langside 



In September 1568, when the regent Moray 
was called to the conferences at York, Maitland 
was one of the nine commissioners chosen to ac- 
company him. The regent, says Spottiswood, 
(Hist. p. 218,) was unwilling to take him, but 
more afraid to leave him in Scotland. On the 
other hand, Calderwood says, (vol. ii. p. 429,) 
Secretary Lethington wa3 very reluctant to go, 
but he was induced by fair promises of lands and 
money, " for it was not expedient to leave behind 
them a factious man, that inclined secretly to the 
queen." While in England so great was his du- 
plicity that, we are told, almost every night he 
had secret communication with Mary's chief com- 
missioners, and forewarned them of the regent's 
intentions. He went out to the fields with the 
duke of Norfolk, under the pretence of hunting, 
but in reality to consult with him as to the best 
means of forwarding the queen's interests, and he 
it was who first conceived the fatal project of a 
marriage between Mary and the duke, as a pro- 
bable means of restoring her to liberty, if not of 
replacing her on the throne. 

He was one of the two commissioners selected 
by Moray, about the end of October, to proceed 
to London to Queen Elizabeth, Mr. James Mack- 
gill of Raukeillour being the other, and he was 
sent with him not so much to assist him as to 
watch his proceedings. After his return to Scot- 
land, by his secret intrigues he prevailed upon 
Lord Home, Kirkaldy of Grange, and several of 
his former associates, to join the queen's faction, 
and retired to Perth for a time with his friend the 
earl of Athol. The regent, suspecting him to be 
the contriver of all the plots and conspiracies, in 
favour of Mary, in England and Scotland, sent to 
hiin to attend a council at Stirling, and while sit- 
ting in council he was arrested, on 3d September 
1569, by Captain Thomas Crawford, a retainer of 
the earl of Lennox, on the charge of being acces- 
sory to the murder of the king's father, Lord 
Darnley. Security to answer the charge having 
been offered and refused, he was committed a pri- 
soner to the castle of Stirling, whence he was re 
moved to Edinburgh, and given into the custody 
of Alexander Hume of North Berwick. Kirkaldj 
of Grange, governor of the castle, went to Hume's 
house at night, and by pretending a warrant from 



MAITLAND, 



79 



WILLIAM. 



the regent, induced him to deliver Maitland to 
him, when he was carried to the castle. 

On the 21st November, the day appointed for 
Maitland's trial, a great number of his friends 
came to Edinburgh, and he not being forthcoming, 
the regent found himself compelled to postpone 
his trial. Kirkaldy offered to produce him, if 
there were any one present to accuse him, and, as 
none appeared, the secretary's brother, John, af- 
terwards Lord Maitland of Thirlestane, protested 
that as there was no prosecutor he was entitled to 
his liberty. 

After the murder of the regent Moray in Janu- 
ary 1570, the lords assembled to consult upon the 
affairs of the country, when Maitland had the ad- 
dress to obtain from them a declaration acquitting 
him of all the charges against him. The Lord 
Ochiltree desired him to give his oath for their 
greater satisfaction, which he did. He and Kirk- 
aldy now exerted themselves to effect a compro- 
mise between the rival factions, but all their en- 
deavours were unavailing. He was the author of 
the letter sent by the queen's lords to Elizabeth, 
towards the end of March, in behalf of Mary, and 
among the signatures appears his as " William 
Matlane, Comptroller." At this time he was the 
life and soul of the queen's party, and there was 
great resort to him of all who favoured her cause. 
His house was, therefore, called the school, and 
himself the schoolmaster, and such as repaired to 
him his disciples. 

Retiring into Athol, he attended the council 
of the queen's friends held there, which was called 
the council of Balloch. He and two of his bro- 
thers were summoned to take their trial at Edin- 
burgh, but as they did not appear, they were de- 
nounced rebels. He was deprived of his office of 
secretary by the regent Lennox, who sent troops 
to ravage his lands as well as those of his father, 
Sir Richard Maitland. At this time he himself 
was corresponding with Mary, sending her letters 
to be subscribed by her and forwarded to the 
kings of France and Spain, the emperor of Ger- 
many and the Guises, that they might exert 
themselves on her behalf. He now resolved to 
join Kirkaldy in Edinburgh castle. He therefore 
arrived at Leith, the 10th April 1571, and was 
carried up to the castle by six workmen, says 



Bannatyne in his Journal, (p. 130,) " with sting 
and ling, (that is, by poles like a litter,) and Mr. 
Robert Maitland (dean of Aberdeen and a lord of 
session) holding up his head ; and when they had 
put him in at the castell yeat, ilk ane of the work- 
men gat iii shil : which they recevit grudginglie, 
hoping to have gottin mair for their labouris.'-" 

In a parliament held at the head of the Canon- 
gate, May 14, 1571, Maitland was proclaimed 
a traitor to his country, and attainted, with his 
two brothers, John and Thomas. Ht> was the 
principal speaker on the queen's side in the dis- 
cussion which, soon after, took place with certain 
of the king's party, who had gone to the castle 
with the view, if possible, of bringing the two 
factions to an agreement, but which came to no- 
thing. It was by his fatal counsels that Kirkaldy 
of Grange resolutely held out that fortress for 
Queen Mary, in the hope of receiving succours 
from France, even after the Hamiltons, with 
Huntly, and the other nobles friendly to her cause, 
had submitted to the regent. lie, also, like the 
deluded but chivalrous knight of Grange, brought 
"a railing accusation" against Knox, as a short 
time before the Reformer's death, he sent to the kirk 
session of Edinburgh, a complaint against him, for 
having publicly in his sermons and otherwise, 
slandered him as an atheist and enemy to all reli- 
gion ; in that he had charged him with saying in 
the castle that there was neither heaven nor hell, 
which were only devised to frighten children, 
" with other such language, tending to the like 
effect." His letter thus continues : 

" Which words, before God, never at anie time proceeded 
from my mouth ; nor yitt anie other sounding to the like 
purpose, nor whereof anie suche sentence might be gathered. 
For, praised be God, I have beene brought up from my youth, 
and instructed in the feare of God ; and to know that he hath 
appointed heaven for the habitation of the elect, and hell for 
the everlasting dwelling place of the reprobat. Seing he hath 
thus ungentlie used me, and neglected his duetie, vocntioun, 
the rule of Christian charitie, and all good order, maliciouslie 
and untruelie leing on me, I crave redresse therot at your 
hands : and that yee will take suche order therewith, that he 
may be compelled to nominat his authors, and pro*a b.i« 
alledgance (or allegation); to the end that, if it be found 
true, as I am weill assured he sail not be able to verifie it in 
anie sort, I may worthilie be reputed the man he painteth 
me out to be. And if (whereof I have no doubt) the contra- 
rie fall out, yee may use him accordingly: at least, that 
heereafter ye receave not everie word proceeding from his 
mouth as oracles : and know that he is but a man subject to 
vanitie, and manie tunes doeth utter his owne passiouns and 



MAITLAND, 



80 



SIR JOHN. 



flaw men's inordinate affections, in place of time doctrine. 
It is convenient that, according to the Scriptures, yee beleeve 
jot everie spirit, but that yee trie the spirits whether they 
are of God or not. (Signed) William Matlane." 

In his reply, given literally from his deathbed, 
and verbally, Knox declared that the works of 
Maitland and those who acted with him testified 
that they denied there was any God, or heaven or 
hell, wherein virtue should be rewarded or vice 
punished. He declined to name his authors, as 
required by Maitland, and referring to that part 
of his complaint which affirmed that he was " a 
man subject to vanity," and that the words from 
his mouth should not be received as oracles, &c, 
he said that the words which he had spoken would 
be found as true as the oracles which had been 
uttered by any of the servants of God before ; for 
he had said nothing but that wnereof he had a 
warrant out of the word, namely, that the justice 
of God should never be satisfied till the blood of 
the shedders of innocent blood were shed again, or 
God moved them to unfeigned repentance. He 
added that Maitland was the chief author of all 
the troubles raised both in England and Scotland. 
When Mr. David Lindsay went to the castle, by 
Knox's request, to communicate the Reformer's 
memorable dying prediction to Kirkaldy, Maitland 
sent, out the sneering message to him, " Go, tell 
Mr. Knox he is but a dirty prophet." Lindsay 
reported this to Knox, who said, " I have been 
earnest with my God anent the two men. For 
the one (meaning Kirkaldy) I am sorry that so 
shall befall him, yet God assureth me that there is 
mercy for his soul. For the other (meaning Mait- 
land) I have no warrant that ever he shall be 
weill." Just a week thereafter, Knox died. 

At length, the castle being closely besieged by 
die regent Morton, and an English force under Sir 
William Drury, marshal of Berwick, surrendered 
to the latter, after a mouth's obstinate resistance, 
May 29th, 1573. Kirkaldy and his brother were 
hanged at the cross of Edinburgh, but Maitland 
escaped this ignominious fate by dying in prison 
in Leith, June 9th, 1573. Calderwood (vol, iii. 
p. 285) says he "poisoned himself, as was re- 
ported," and Melville (p. 256) " that he died at 
Leith befor that the rest wer delyuerit to the 
shamles; some supposing he took a drink, and 
died as the auld Romans wer wont to do." lie is 



said to have lain so long unburied that the vermin 
came from his corpse, creeping out under the door 
of the house where he was lying. 

Calderwood (vol. iii. page 285) thus sums up 
his character: "This man was of a rare witt, but 
sett upon wrong courses, which were contrived 
and followed out with falsehood. He could con- 
forme himself to the times, and therefore was 
compared by one, who was not ignorant of his 
courses, to the chameleon. A discourse went 
from hand to hand, before the siege of the castell, 
intituled, The Chameleon, wdierein all his wyles 
and tricks were described." He thus concludes, 
after showing that he had trafficked with all par- 
ties : " At the parliament holdin after the taking 
of the queene, he, with some others, partakers of 
the murther (of Darnley), would have had her 
putt to death. When that purpose wrought not, 
he solicited some private men to hang her in 
her owne bed, with her belt, that he, and his 
partners in the murther, might be out of feare 
of suche a witnesse. When this counsell was 
not heard, then he turned himself to flatter the 
queene, and sent to Lochlevin the apologue of 
the lyoun delivered by the mouse out of the 
snare." 

Buchanan it was who portrayed the character of 
Secretary Lethington in his tract called ' The 
Chameleon.' Bannatyne calls him " the father of 
traitors," and designates him "Mitchell Wylie," a 
corruption doubtless of Macchiavelli. 

MAITLAND, Sir John, a distinguished states- 
man, the first Lord Maitland of Thirlestane, sec- 
ond son of Sir Richard Maitland, the poet, and 
younger brother of the preceding, was born in 
1537. After being educated at home by his fa- 
ther, he was sent, as was the custom in those 
days, to France, where he studied the law. On 
his return, through the influence of his brother 
the secretary, he obtained the abbacy of Kelso in 
commendam, which he soon exchanged with Fran- 
cis Stewart, afterwards earl of Bothwell, the 
queen's nephew, for the priory of Coldingham. 
The queen's ratification of this transaction took 
place in February 1567. On the 20th April of 
the same year, he was appointed lord privy seal, 
on his father's resignation of that office in his fa- 
vour, and he was confirmed in it by the regent 



MAITLAND 



81 



SIR JOHN. 



Moray on the 26th of the following August. On 
the 2d June 1568, he was constituted one of the 
spiritual lords of session. 

Like his brother, Secretary Lethington, the 
prior of Coldingham ranged himself on the regent's 
side, on the dethronement of Queen Mary, but 
after Moray's assassination he joined the lords 
who met on the queen's behalf at Linlithgow, and 
thereafter remained steady in his attachment to 
her cause. He was denounced rebel by the king's 
faction in the end of 1570, and forfeited, with his 
two brothers, in the parliament which met in the 
Canongate in the following May. He was de- 
prived of the office of lord privy seal, which was 
given to George Buchanan, while the priory of 
Coldingham was bestowed on George Home of 
Manderston. He then retired to the castle of Ed- 
inburgh, then held by Kirkaldy of Grange for the 
queen, and continued with him till its surrender 
on 29th May 1573. The regent Morton sent him 
prisoner to Tantallan castle, on the sea-coast of 
Haddingtonshire, where he was confined for nine 
months. His ward was then enlarged, and he 
was allowed to reside at Lord Somerville's house 
of Cowthally, with the liberty of two miles around 
It, under a penalty of £10,000, if he Avent beyond 
these bounds. He was subsequently permitted 
the range of the counties of Ayr and Renfrew. 

On the fall of Morton, he was set at full liberty 
by an act of council in 1578. He then went to 
court, and soon obtained the favour of the king. 
On 26th April, 1581, he was restored to his seat 
on the bench. He was shortly afterwards knight- 
ed and sworn a privy councillor, and 18th May 
1584 made secretary of state. His forfeiture was 
rescinded in the parliament which met on the 22d 
of that month, and in the following year, he suc- 
ceeded, greatly to the satisfaction of the king, in 
effecting a reconciliation with the exiled nobles, 
on their return to Scotland. On 31st May 1586 
he was appointed vice-chancellor of the kingdom. 

In 1587, Sir John Maitland was accused by 
Captain Stewart, some time earl of Arran, and 
then chancellor, to whom he had at one time ad- 
hered, but had latterly deserted, of being accessory 
to the execution of Queen Mary and of intending 
to betray the king into the hands of Elizabeth. 
Stewart vas ordered to enter within the palace of 
III. 



Linlithgow, there to abide the issue of his accusa- 
tion, but disobeyed the command. He was, in 
consequence, deprived of the office of lord high 
chancellor, which was immediately conferred upon 
Maitland. 

Two years afterwards, the earls of Huntly, 
Crawford, and Bothwell, personal enemies of the 
chancellor, formed a design to march, with their 
followers, to Holyrood-house, make themselves 
masters of the king's person, and put the chancel- 
lor to death. On the night in which it was to be 
carried into effect, however, the king remained in 
the same house with the chancellor, and thus 
frustrated their intentions. All their subsequent 
plots against him were likewise defeated. On the 
22d October of the same year (1589) Sir John 
Maitland, as chancellor, embarked with the king 
at Leith on his voyage to Norway, to bring home 
his bride, the princess Anne of Denmark, who had 
been driven in there by contrary winds. The 
royal party spent the ensuing winter at Copenha- 
gen, where Maitland became intimately acquaint- 
ed with Tycho Brahe, the celebrated Danish 
astronomer, to whom he addressed several com- 
plimentary verses. While in Denmark, he wrote 
some letters on state affairs to Mr. Robert Bruce 
at home, to whom had been intrusted the care of 
the country in the king's absence. These letters, 
as well as those of James to the same faithful and 
energetic minister, were dated from the castle of 
Cronenburgh, and the last of Maitland's from El- 
sinore. 

He returned with the king and queen on the 
1st of May 1590, and on the 17th of the same 
month, the coronation day of the latter, he was 
created a peer, by the title of Lord Maitland of 
Thirlestane. In the procession to the abbey kirk, 
where the ceremony took place, he carried the 
queen's matrimonial crown. The title was grant- 
ed to him and the heirs male of his body, by let- 
ters patent, dated 18th May 1590. The following 
year he resigned his office of secretary of state, 
which was conferred on his nephew, Sir Richard 
Cockburn of Clerkington. In February 1592 oc- 
curred the murder at Donibristle in Fife of the 
"bonny carl of Moray" by the earl of Huntly. 
The king and the chancellor were suspected of 
having been previously aware of Huntly's inten 



MAITLAND, 



82 



SIR JOHN. 



tioa, and Maitland is said to have " hounded on" 
ihat nobleman to the cruel deed. " Camden in 
his annals," says Calderwood, (vol. iv. p. 145,) 
" layeth the whole burden upon the chancellor to 
clear the king ; but it is known that these his an- 
nals were composed at the king's direction and 
pleasure." So great was the murmuring of the 
citizens of Edinburgh on the occasion that the 
king and the chancellor found themselves obliged 
to go, for a time, to Lord Hamilton's house of 
Kinneil in Linlithgowshire, and it was with great 
difficulty that the provost and magistrates re- 
strained the crafts of the city from taking arms to 
prevent their departure. The pay of the soldiers 
of the king's guard being in arrear, they seized 
the chancellor's trunks and coffers, which had 
been placed on horseback, and did not restore 
them till a solemn promise was made that they 
should be duly paid all that was due to them. 

The turbulent earl of Bothwell, who kept the 
king and court in constant fear and turmoil, 
and whose bitter hostility had frequently been 
directed against the chancellor, had favourers even 
in the palace, and the queen herself was brought 
to lend her powerful influence against Maitland. 
On the penult day of March 1592, he was com- 
manded to remove from court, on which he retired 
to Lethington, but was soon restored to favour. 
It was principally by his advice that the king was 
induced to consent to the act of parliament, passed 
in June of the same year, for the ratification of 
the liberty of the presbyterian church, in other 
words, for its legal establishment. His object in 
persuading the king to this measure is said to have 
been to ingratiate himself with the ministers and 
people, and to strengthen himself against his ene- 
my Bothwell. With the queen he had a dispute 
relative to the lands of Musselburgh, which caused 
his retirement from court for a whole year. On 
her coming to Scotland, the abbey of Dunfermline, 
with its lands and privileges, had been conferred 
upon her by the king. Among these was the manor 
of Musselburgh, a grant of which had been made to 
the abbey of Dunfermline by David I., that " sair 
saunt to the croon." The regality of Musselburgh 
and the property connected with it had, some 
years before the queen's marriage, come into the 
possession of Chancellor Maitland, and as he re- 



fused to resign them to the queen, her animosity 
was but the more increased against him. By ihe 
king's advice he passed the following year in 
the country, but in May 1593 he returned to court, 
and was restored to the exercise of his office. 
The vast estate, it may be stated, of the lordship 
of Musselburgh, or of the whole of the ancient 
Great Inveresk and Little Inveresk, continued in 
the family till 1709, when it was purchased by 
Anne, duchess of Buccleuch, the widow of the 
duke of Monmouth, from John, fifth earl of Lau- 
derdale, who died the following year. Subjoined 
is the chancellor's portrait, from an engraving in 
Smith's Iconographia Scotica. 




The keeping of the young prince Henry had 
been intrusted by the king to the earl of Mar, but 
as the queen wished to remove him from Mar's 
charge, the chancellor, willing to make a friend of 
her majesty, entered into her plans. This roused 
the anger of James, who reproved him very 
sharply for his interference in a matter with which 
he had nothing to do. Deeply mortified, he re- 
tired to Lauder, where, after two months' illness, 
he died, October 3d, 1595. He was visited on his 
deathbed by Andrew Melville and his nephew, 
Robert Bruce, and had he lived it is thought that 



MAITLAND. 



83 



MALCOLM 



the evils with which, soon after, the national 
church was assailed, would have been averted. 
The king regretted him much, and composed an 
epitaph to his memory. 

Lord Thirlestane, like his father, has obtained 
a high character from his contemporaries, for his 
eminent abilities and amiable disposition. Spots- 
wood says: "He was a man of rare parts and of 
a deep wit, learned, full of courage, and most 
faithful to his king and master. No man lid ever 
carry himself in his place more wisely, noi sustain 
it more courageously against his enemies." 

Besides a satire ' Against Slanderis Tongues,' 
and ' An Admonition to the Earl of Mar,' pub- 
lished by Pinkerton, and described by him as the 
best state poem which he had ever read, he wrote 
several Latin epigrams, inserted in the second 
volume of the ' Delitiae Poetarum Scotorum.' The 
poems attributed to him have been printed with 
those of his father, Sir Richard Maitland, by the 
Maitland Club, in a volume issued in 1829. 

MAITLAND, John, second earl and only duke 
of Lauderdale, see vol. ii. page 634. 

MAITLAND, William, an historical and an- 
tiquarian writer, was born at Brechin about 1693. 
His original occupation was that of a hair mer- 
chant, in which character he travelled in Sweden, 
Denmark, and Germany, and by his business he 
appears to have acquired some wealth. At length, 
settling in London, he turned his attention to the 
study of antiquities, and produced several compi- 
lations, which were well received at the time, but 
are now of small repute. In 1733, he was elected 
a member of the Royal Society, and in 1735 a 
fellow of the Antiquarian Society, but resigned the 
latter honour in 1740, on his return to Scotland. 
He died at Montrose, July 16, 1757. His works 
are • 

The History of London, from its foundation by tne Ro- 
mans, to the year 1739. Also Westminster, Middlesex, 
Southwark, and other parts within the Bills of Mortality. 
Illustrated with numerous plates. London, 1739, fol. The 
same, continued to the year 1760. Lond. 1760, 2 vols. fol. 
An edition considerably enlarged and improved, was publish- 
ed in 1765, 2 vols. fol. by Mr. Entick. 

The History of Edinburgh, from its foundation to the pre- 
sent time ; containing a faithful relation of the public trans- 
actions of the citizens; accounts of the several Parishes; its 
Government, Civil, Ecclesiastical, and Military; Incorpora- 
tions of Trades and Manufactures ; Courts of Justice ; state 
of Learning ; Charitable Foundations. &c. ; with the several 



Accounts of the Parishes of the Canongate, St. Cutbbert, 
&c. ; and the ancient and present state of Leith. In nine 
books, with plates. Edin. 1753, fol. 

The History and Antiquities of Scotland. Lond. 1757, 2 
vols. fol. 

Of the Number of Inhabitants in London. Phil. Trans. 
Abr vii 257. 1738. 



Malcolm, a surname originally Gillecolane or Gillechal- 
lum, derived from two Gaelic words signifying the servant of 
St. Columba. Somerled, thane of Argyle, had a son of this 
name, who was slain with him near Renfrew in 1164. 

The chief of the clan Challum or the MacCallums, an Ar- 
grleshire sept, originally styled the clan Challum of Ariskeod- 
nigh, is Malcolm of Poltalloch, whose family has been settled 
from a very early period in that county. One of this house, 
called Zacbarv Uad Donald Mor of Poltalloch, was killed 
May 25, 1647, at Ederline, in South Argyle, in single combat 
with Sir Alexander Macdonald, called Allaster Mac Collkit- 
toch, or left-banded. He was in the force of the marquis of 
Argyle when General David Leslie advanced into Kintyre to 
drive out the royalists, and was renowned in his day for his 
great strength. It is alleged that he slew seven of his as- 
sailants before he was himself slain. He was getting the 
better of Colkitto, when a Maclean came behind him with a 
scythe and hamstrung him ; he was then easily overpowered. 

In 1414, Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow granted tc 
Reginald Malcolm of Corbarron, certain lands of Gaignish, 
and on the banks of Loch Avich, in Nether Lorn; with the 
office of hereditary constable of his castles of Lochaffy and 
Craignish. This branch became extinct towards the end of 
the 17th century, as Corbarron or Corran is said to have been 
bequeathed by the last of the family to Zachary MacCallum 
of Poltalloch, who succeeded his father in 1686. 

Dugald MacCallum of Poltalloch, who inherited the estate 
in 1779, appears to have been the first to adopt permanently 
the name of Malcolm as the family patronymic. Besides 
Poltalloch, the family possesses Kilmartin house and Dun- 
troon castle, in the same county. 

John Malcolm, Esq., of Poltalloch, born in 1805, a magis- 
trate and deputy-lieutenant for Argylesbire and Kent, suc- 
ceeded his brother, Neill, in 1857. Educated at Harrow 
and Oxford, he became B.A. in 1827 and M.A. in 1830. He 
married 2d daughter of the Hon. John Wingfield, Strat- 
ford, son of 3d Viscount Powerscourt, with issue. Heir, bis 
son, John Wingfield. 



The Malcolms of Balbeadie and Grange, Fifeshire, possess a 
baronetcy of Nova Scotia, conferred in 1665. In the reign of 
Charles L, Sir John Malcolm, eldest son of John Malcolm of 
Balbeadie, acquired the lands of Lochore in the same county. 
A branch of the Malcolms of Lochore and Innertiel settled in 
Dumfries-shire. 

In 1746, Sir Michael Malcolm, Daronet, being related to the 
last Lord Balmerino, was sent for to be present at his execu- 
tion on Tower-hill. A daughter of Lord Chancellor Bathurst 
saw him on the scaffold, and fell in love with him. He sub- 
sequently married her. 

Sir Michael sold the estate of Lochore, which subsequently 
came into the possession of Mr. Jobson, whose daughter mar- 
ried the 2d Sir Walter Scott, baronet. 

On Sir Michael's death, the title devolved upon James 
Malcolm of Grange, and at the death of the latter in 1795, 
upon John Malcolm of Balbeadie, descended from the youngest 
brother of the first baronet. Sir John's son, Sit Micbaal 



MALCOLM II. 



84 



MALCOLM II. 



Malcolm, married in 1824, Mary, youngest daughter of John 
Forbes, Esq., of Bridgend, Perth, and with three daughters, 
had one son, Sir John Malcolm, born April 1, 1828, who suc- 
ceeded to the baronetcy, on the death of his father in 1833. 

MALCOLM L, King of Scots, was the son of 
Donal IV., who reigned from 893 to 904. On 
the abdication of Constantine III., Malcolm suc- 
ceeded to the throne in 944. In 945, Edmund, 
the Saxon king of England, ceded Cumberland 
and part of Westmoreland to him, on condition 
that he would defend that northern territory, and 
become the ally of England. Edred, the brother 
and successor of Edmund, accordingly applied for, 
and obtained the aid of Malcolm against Anlaf, 
king of Northumberland, which latter country he 
wasted, and carried off the inhabitants with their 
cattle. 

In the time of Malcolm I., the people of the 
province of Moray, in the north-east of Scotland, 
were a mixed race, formed of Scandinavian set- 
tlers, with Scottish and Pictish Celts. Turbulent 
and rebellious, they were continually at war with 
the sovereign, and an insurrection having occur- 
red under Cellach, maormor of Garmoran, Malcolm 
marched north to reduce them to obedience. He 
slew Cellach, but was, some time thereafter, as- 
sassinated in 953 at Ulurn, supposed by Shaw to 
be Auldearn, after a reign of nine years. Other 
accounts state his death to have taken place at 
Fodresach or Forres. He was succeeded by In- 
dulph, the son of Constantine II., and Indulph 
had for his successor, Duff, the son of Malcolm, 
who mounted the throne in 961. Another son of 
Malcolm L, Kenneth III., succeeded in 971, after 
an intermediate possessor of the throne named 
Cnlen, the son of Indulph. 

MALCOLM II., King of Scots, the son of 
Kenneth III., succeeded to the throne in 1003, 
and had a troublous reign of about thirty years. 
He defeated and slew Kenneth IV. at Monzievaird 
in Strathearn, and in consequence became king. 
His first annoyance came from the Danes who, in 
previous reigns, had made several attempts to ef- 
fect a settlement in Scotland, but had been de- 
feated in them all. They had secured a firm 
footing in England, and the year after Malcolm's 
accession to the throne, they commenced the most 
formidable preparations, under their celebrated 



king, Sweyn, fur a new expedition to the Scottish 
coasts. He ordered Olaus, his viceroy in Norway, 
and Enet in Denmark, to raise a powerful army, 
and to fit out a suitable fleet for the enterprise. 

The coast of Moray was chosen as the scene of 
the menaced invasion. Effecting a descent near 
Speymouth, the Danes carried fire and sword 
through that province, and laid siege to the fortress 
of Nairn, then one of the strongest castles in the 
north of Scotland. They were forced to raise the 
siege for a time by Malcolm, who hastening against 
them with an army, encamped in a plain near 
Kilflos or Kinlos. In this position he was at- 
tacked by the Danes, and forced to retreat, after 
being seriously wounded. The fortress of Nairn 
then capitulated to the invaders, but in violation 
of an express condition that their lives should 
be saved, the whole garrison were immediately 
hanged. 

To expel the Danes from Moray, Malcolm mus- 
tered all his forces, and in the spring of 1010, witli 
a powerful army he encamped at Mortlach. The 
Danes advanced to give him battle, and a fierce 
and sanguinary conflict ensued, the result of 
which was long doubtful. Three of the Scottish 
commanders fell at the very commencement of the 
engagement, when a panic seized their followers, 
and the king was borne along with them in their 
retreat till he was opposite the church of Mort- 
lach, then a chapel dedicated to St. Molach. 
There, while his army were partially pent up in 
then- flight by the contraction of the vale and the 
narrowness of the pass, he made a vow to endow 
a religious house on the field of battle should he 
obtain the victory. Then, rallying and rousing 
his troops by an animated appeal to their patriot- 
ism, and placing himself at their head, he wheeled 
round upon the Danes, threw Enotus, one of the 
Danish generals, from his horse, and killed him 
with his own hand. The Scots, catching his spi- 
rit, made an impetuous onset on the enemy, whom 
they drove from the field, thickly strewing the 
ground with their corpses. In gratitude to God 
for this signal victory, Malcolm got the church of 
Mortlach converted into a cathedral, and the vil- 
lage into the seat of a diocese, said to have been 
the earliest bishopric in Scotland. His endowment 
of it was confirmed by Pope Benedict, but in 1139 



MALCOLM 11. 



MALCOLM 11. 



the bishopric was removed to Aberdeen. In the 
order of precedence, while this see lasted, it rank- 
ed next to that of St. Andrews. It was long 
thonglit that, during their occupation of Moray, 
the Danes had fortified Burgh Head, but the re- 
mains there found are now believed to be either 
of Roman or Pictish construction. 

To revenge this defeat and other disasters which, 
at this time, the invaders experienced on the coasts 
of Angus and Buchan, Sweyn, the Danish king, 
despatched Camus, one of the ablest of his gene- 
rals, to the Scottish shores. He had scarcely, 
however, effected a landing on the coast of Angus, 
in the neighbourhood of Carnoustie, when he was 
attacked in the plains of Barrie by Malcolm, at 
the head of a considerable army, and, after a 
bloody contest, defeated witli great loss. He 
sought safety in flight, but was closely pursued, 
and killed. The place of his overthrow is indi- 
cated by a monumental stone, called the Cross of 
Camus, which stands on a small tumulus at Ca- 
mustown, a village which has been named after 
him, in the parish of Monikie. The tumulus, 
according to tradition, contains the remains of 
Camus, and the story of the old chroniclers is 
that, after his defeat, he fled northwards, with a 
view to escape to Moray, where were some of his 
ships, but was pursued and overtaken here by 
llobert, the remote ancestor of the earls Marischal, 
who killed him by cleaving Lis skull with his bat- 
tle-axe. About the year 1620, the tumulus was 
opened by order of Sir Patrick Maule, afterwards 
first earl of Panmure, when a skeleton of large 
dimensions in good preservation was discovered, 
with part of the skull wanting. 

The Danes, however, were not to be deterred 
even by the repeated defeats which they had sus- 
tained, from their long cherished but often baffled 
scheme of the conquest of North Britain. And as 
for the Scots, the spirit which animated them has 
been well expressed in the lines of Home : 

*' The Danes have landed, we must beat them back, 
Or live the slaves of Denmark. 

In 1014, another Danish force landed on the 
coast of Buchan, about a mile west from Slaines 
castle, in the parish of Cruden. The Danes on 
this occasion were led by Sweyn's celebrated son, 



Canute, afterwards king of England and Denmark, 
and again they experienced a signal overthrow. 
The site of the field of battle has been ascertained 
by the discovery of human bones left exposed bj 
the shifting or blowing of the sand. Some writers 
assert that a treaty was entered into with the 
Danes, by which it was stipulated that the field of 
battle should be consecrated by a bishop as a 
burying-place for those of their countrymen who 
had fallen, and that a church should be there built 
and priests appointed in all time coming, to say 
masses for the souls of the slain. It is certain 
that a chapel was erected in this neighbourhood, 
dedicated to St. Olaus, the site of which has be- 
come invisible by being covered with sand. An- 
other and far more important stipulation, it is said, 
was made by which the Danes agreed to quit 
every part of the Scottish coasts, and this was fol- 
lowed by the final departure, the same year, of 
these ruthless invaders from Scotland. 

Malcolm was next engaged in war with the 
Northumbrians, and having, in 1018, led his army 
to Carham, near "\Verk, on the southern bank of 
the Tweed, he was met there by Uchtred earl of 
Northumberland, when a desperate battle took 
place. The victory was claimed by Uchtred, who 
Avas, soon after, assassinated, when on his way to 
pay his obeisance to the great Canute. To prevent 
an invasion of his territories, Eadulph, his brother 
and successor, in the year 1020, ceded to Malcolm 
the fertile region of Lodonia, or Lothian. That 
extensive and beautiful district had formerly been 
a part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northum- 
bria, which in the time of Edwin, from whom 
Edinburgh derives its name, and who began his 
reign in 617, had extended from the Humber to 
the Avon; but ever after it had thus been ac- 
quired by Malcolm II., it formed an integral por- 
tion of the Scottish dominions. On this occasion, 
Malcolm gave oblations to the churches and gifts 
to the clergy, who, in return, bestowed on him the 
proud designation of trir victoriostssimus. 

In 1031, Canute, the Danish king of England, 
the most powerful monarch of his time, invaded 
Scotland, to compel Malcolm to do homage for 
Cambria, which he had refused, on the ground 
that Canute was a usurper ; but, after some nego- 
tiations, Duncan, Malcolm's grandson, afterwards 



MALCOLM EL 



86 



MALCOLM EL 



king, agreed to fulfil the conditions on which that 
territory had been granted to the Scots, and 
Canute immediately returned to England 



Malcolm died in 1033, and was buried at Iona. 
the usual place of sepulchre, for many centuries, ol 

the Scottish kings 





IONA. 



Both Boece and Fordun assert that Malcolm II. 
was murdered in the central tower of the castle of 
Glammis in Forfarshire, which seems to have been 
his usual place of residence. Wyntonn states that 
the cause of the insurrection which led to his as- 
sassination was that he had ravished a virgin. 
His words are : 



he had rewrist a favre Mav 



Of the land there lvand by." 

Tradition still pretends <"0 point out a passage in 
the castle, with blood-stains on the floor, where 
tne fatal act was perpetrated. It avers also that 
the ground being covered with snow, the assassins, 
in their flight, mistook their way, and uncon- 
sciously entered on the loch of Forfar, when the 
ice broke, and they were drowned ; a very conve- 
nient method of getting rid of imaginary mur- 
derers. The whole story is a fiction of that fertile 
inventor of Scottisli history, Hector Boece. and is 



totally incredible, even although no less than tftree 
obelisks, with symbolic characters, representative 
of the conspiracy and the pursuit of the fancied 
regicides, have for centuries stood in different 
parts of the parish of Glammis, to commemorate 
it. Pinkerton (Enquiry, vol. ii. p. 192) contends 
that Malcolm died a natural death, which is more 
likely than the fabulous account of his assassination 

The authenticity of the pretended laws of Mal- 
colm, called the Leges Malcohni, has been denied 
by Lord Hailes. He, however, introduced many 
improvements into the internal policy of his king- 
dom, and in him the church always found a guar- 
dian and benefactor. 

Malcolm's daughter, Bethoc, married Crinan, 
abbot of Dunkeld, and this marriage gave a long 
line of kings to Scotland, ending with Alexandei 
III. Their son, Duncan, succeeded his maternal 
grandfather on the throne, and was " the gracious 
Duncan," murdered bv Macbeth. Crinan is styled 



MALCOLM II. 



87 



MALCOLM n. 



by Fordun, Abthanus de Dull ac Seneschallus In- 
suiarnm. The title of abthane appears to have 
oelonged to an abbot who possessed a thanedom. 
It was peculiar to Scotland, and only three ab- 
tlianeries are named in ancient records, namely, 
those of Dull in Athol, Kirkmichael in Strathardle, 
and Madderty in Strathearn. The title of thane, 
previously known in England, was not used in 
Scotland till the introduction of the Saxon policy 
into the latter kingdom by Edgar, who began his 
reign in 1097. The three thanedoms mentioned 
under the name of abthaneries appear to have 
been vested in the crown, and were conferred by 
Edgar on his younger brother, Ethelred, who was 
abbot of Dunkeld. On Ethelred's death they re- 
verted to the crown. 

In the time of Crinan, "there was certainly," 
says Mr. Skene, " no such title in Scotland, but it 
is equally certain that there were no charters, and 
although Crinan had not the name, he may have 
been in fact the same thing. He was certainly 
abbot of Dunkeld, and he may have likewise pos- 
sessed that extensive territory which, from the 
same circumstance, was afterwards called the ab- 
thanedom of Dull. Fordun certainly inspected 
the records of Dunkeld, and the circumstance can 
only be explained by supposing that Fordun may 
have there seen the deed granting the abthanedom 
of Dull to Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld, which 
would naturally state that it had been possessed 
by his proavus Crinan, and from which Fordr.n 
would conclude that as Crinan possessed *he 
thing, he was also known by the name of Abtha- 
nus de Dull. From this, therefore, we learn the 
very singular fact that the race which gave a long 
line of kings to Scotland, were originally lords of 
that district in Athol lying between Strathtay 
and Rannoch, which was afterwards termed the 
Abthania de Dull. 11 (Skene's Highlands of Scot- 
land, vol. ii. pp. 137, 138.) 

Departing from the generally received history 
of Scotland at this remote and confused period of 
our annals, Mr. Skene is of opinion, from the re- 
markable coincidence which he found between the 
Irish annals and the Norse Sagas, that two Mal- 
colms of different families reigned in Scotland 
during the thirty years allotted to one, the second 
of these Malcolms being in possession of the 



throne the last four years of that time. From his 
account of the second Norwegian kingdom in th# 
north of Scotland, which lasted only seven yean, 
that is, from 986 to 993, (vol. i. p. 108,) we learn 
that Sigurd, the 14th iarl of Orkney, after having 
defeated a Celtic army under Kenneth and Mels- 
nechtan, maormors of Dala (Argyle) and Ross, in 
an attempt on their part to recover Caithness, in 
Which Melsnechtan was slain, was obliged to re- 
tire to the Orkneys, by the approach of Malcolm, 
maormor of Moray, with a large Scottish force, and 
he was never afterwards able to regain a footing 
on the mainland of Scotland. He had previously 
made himself master of the districts of Ross, Mo- 
ray, Sutherland, and Argyle, but had been driven 
out of thern by a sudden rising of their maormors. 
These districts were left in possession of Malcolm, 
who was enabled, by his increased power and in- 
fluence, and great personal talents, even to seat 
himself on the throne itself. In what his title to 
the crown consisted is not known, but whatever it 
was, he was supported in it by the Celtic inhabi- 
tants of the whole of the north of Scotland. His 
descendants, for many generations afterwards, 
constantly asserted their right to the throne, and 
as invariably received the assistance of the Celtic 
portion of its inhabitants. " In all probability," 
says Mr. Skene, " the Highlanders were attempt- 
ing to oppose the hereditary succession in the 
family of Kenneth M'Alpin, and to introduce the 
more ancient Pictish law." Kenneth III. is said to 
have got a law passed b) r his chiefs, on the moot- 
hill of Scone, that the son, or nearest male heir of 
the king, should always succeed to the throne, 
and when not of age, that a regent should be ap- 
pointed to rule the kingdom in his name until he 
attained his fourteenth year, when he should as- 
sume the reins of government. As the sovereign- 
ty was not transmitted by the strict line of here- 
ditary descent, brothers, by the law of tanistry, 
being preferred to sons in the succession, rival 
contests and civil wars for the crown were fre- 
quent. Kenneth's law, if passed at all. of which 
there is no evidence, seems not to have been acted 
upon, as two princes, Constantino IV., the son of 
Culen, (mentioned on page 84,) and Kenneth IV. 
the son of Duff, succeeded to the crown beforo 
Malcolm ; that is, on the hitherto received suppo- 



MALCOLM II. 



88 



MALCOLM n. 



sition that Malcolm II. was the son of Kenneth 
III., and grandson of Malcolm I. If such was the 
case, Kenneth IV., the son of Duff, was his cou- 
sin, and, during his reign, Malcolm stood in the 
position of heir presumptive to the crown, and 
was regulus or prince of Cumberland. 

According to Skene, however, he was maormor 
of Moray, and so far as appears, not allied to the 
royal family at all. He seems to have made war 
on Kenneth IV., but by the interposition of Fo- 
thad, one of the Scottish bishops, a treaty was 
agreed to between them, by which it was stipu- 
lated that Kenneth should remain king for life, 
and that Malcolm and his heirs should succeed 
after him. Impatient to possess the crown, how- 
ever, Malcolm again took the field, and in a 
bloody battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn, Ken- 
neth, after a brave resistance, was killed. Ac- 
cording to the register of St. Andrews, Kenneth 
was slain "at Moieghvard," in 1001. Other ac- 
counts make it 1003. 

Soon after becoming king of Scotland, to conci- 
liate Sigurd, earl of Orkney, called the Stout, and 
described as " a great chieftain and wide-landed," 
Malcolm gave him his daughter for his second 
wife. The issue of this marriage was four sons. 
The eldest, Thorfinn, is said in the Orkneyinga 
Saga, to have been "a great chieftain, one of the 
largest men in point of stature, ugly of aspect, 
black haired, sharp featured, and somewhat taw- 
ny, and the most martial looking man ; he was a 
contentious man, and covetous both of money and 
dignity ; victorious and clever in battle, and a 
bold attacker. He was then five winters old 
when Malcolm, king of the Scots, his mother's 
father, gave him an iarl's title, and Caithness to 
rule over, but he was fourteen winters when he 
prepared maritime expeditions from his country, 
and made war on the domains of other princes." 
He thus early began his career as a Vikingr. It 
was on the death of his father Sigurd, who was 
slain in 1014, at the battle of Clontarf in Ireland, 
fighting against the renowned Brian Borohime, 
that King Malcolm bestowed on him the district 
of Caithness, his eldest half-brother, Einar, hav- 
ing succeeded to the iarldom of the Orkneys. 

In the Irish annals, under the year 1029, it is 
recorded that " Malcolm, son of Maelbrigde, son 



of Rory, King of Alban, died." His reign would 
thus appear to have lasted only twenty-six, in- 
stead of thirty years. On his death, the Scottish 
portion of the nation succeeded in placing upon 
the throne the son of Kenneth IV., also named 
Malcolm, for whom, according to Mr. Skene's 
view, he has been mistaken. In the Orkneyinga 
Saga he is known by the name of Kali Hundason, 
and in the history of Scotland, of Malcolm II. 

This third Malcolm commenced his reign by 
attempts to reduce the power of the Norwegians 
in Scotland, but found them too strong for him. 
Thorfinn having refused to pay him tribute for the 
territories on the Scottish mainland, which he 
had received from his grandfather, Malcolm gave 
Caithness to Moddan, his nephew, with the title 
of iarl. To enable him to take possession of his 
new territory, Moddan raised an army in Suther- 
land, but Thorfinn collected his followers, and 
having been joined by Thorkell Fostri, with a 
large force from the Orkneys, presented such a 
strong front, that Moddan found himself obliged 
to retire without hazarding a battle. On this 
Thorfinn subjected to himself Sutherland and 
Ross, and carried his arms far and wide in Scot- 
land. He then returned to Caithness. 

Malcolm, on his part, with a fleet of eleven 
ships, sailed towards the north, but was attacked 
and defeated in the Pentland Frith by Thorfinn, 
and his fleet completely dispersed. This sea-fight 
took place a little way east of Durness. Mal- 
colm fled to the Moray Frith, followed by Thor- 
finn and Thorkell. The latter, however, was soon 
despatched to Thurso, to attack Moddan, who 
had arrived there with a large army. He reached 
Thurso at night, and having set fire to the house 
in which Moddan slept, that chieftain leapt down 
from the beams of an upper story, and was slain 
by Thorkell, who cut off his head. After a brief 
fight, during which a great number were killed, 
his army surrendered to Thorkell, who, with ad- 
ditional forces, then rejoined Thorfinn in Moray. 

In the meantime, Malcolm had levied forces 
both in the east and west of Scotland, and having 
been joined by a number of Irish auxiliaries, he 
marched to give battle to Thorfinn. The opposing 
armies met in 1033, on the southern shore of the 
Beauly Frith, when Malcolm was totally defeated, 



MALCOLM III. 



89 



MALCOLM III. 



and, according to some accounts, slain. Others 
state that he escaped by flight, and died the fol- 
lowing year. Thorfinn thereafter conquered the 
whole of Scotland, all the way south to Fife. He 
then returned to his ships. 

The only portion of the territory of the northern 
Picts that had not been subjected to his power 
was the district of Athole and the greater part of 
Argyle, and here the Scots, on the death of Mal- 
colm, sought for a king; Duncan, (see vol. ii., 
page 82,) the son of Crinan, abbot of Dunkeld, 
and grandson of Malcolm II., being raised to the 
vacant throne. 

MALCOLM III., better known in history by 
the name of Malcolm Cean Mor, or great head, 
was the elder of the two sons of Duncan, king of 
Scots, by his queen, a sister of Siward, earl of 
Northumberland. He was born about 1024, be- 
fore his father was called to the throne, and, 
when the latter in 1039, after a reign of six years, 
was assassinated by Macbeth, Malcolm, then only 
fifteen years of age, fled to Cumberland, whilst 
his brother, Donald Bane, took refuge in the He- 
brides. 

On the accession of Edward the Confessor to 
the throne of England in 1043, Malcolm was 
placed by his father-in-law Siward, under his 
protection, when he became a resident at the 
English court. In his absence various attempts 
were made by his adherents in Scotland to dis- 
possess Macbeth of the throne, in one of which 
Malcolm's grandfather, the aged Crinan, abbot of 
Dunkeld, was slain in 1045. Nine years there- 
after, namely in 1054, Malcolm obtained from Ed- 
ward the assistance of an Anglo-Saxon army, 
under the command of Earl Siward, to support his 
claims to the crown. This force he accompanied 
into Scotland, and a furious battle is said to have 
ensued, in which Macbeth lost 3,000 men, and 
the Anglo-Saxons 1,500, including Osbert, the 
son of Siward. Macbeth fled northwards, leaving 
Lothian in possession of Siward, who placed Mal- 
colm as king over that district, where the Saxon 
influence prevailed. Supported, however, by the 
Celtic inhabitants of the north of Scotland, and 
by the Norwegians of the districts under the sway 
of Thorfinn, the powerful earl of Orkney, Macbeth 
was still enabled to retain possession of the throne. 



In 1056, another English army was sent to the 
assistance of Malcolm. At this time Thorfinn, 
and the son of the king of Norway, had gone to 
the south, with the strength of the Norwegian 
power in Scotland, to attempt the subjugation of 
England, but, according to the Irish annals, " God 
was against them in that affair," and their fleet 
was dispersed in a storm. Macbeth, deprived of 
Thorfinn's aid, was not able to withstand this new 
array against him. He was driven north to 
Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire, where he was over- 
taken and slain, December 5th, 1056. The at- 
tempt of his stepson, Lulach, to succeed him on 
the throne, was, after a struggle of four months, 
put an end to by his defeat and death at Essie in 
Strathbogie, on the 25th of the following April. 

Malcolm was soon after crowned at Scone. 
Except the territories possessed by Thorfinn, con- 
sisting, besides Orkney and the Hebrides, of the 
nine districts or earldoms of Caithness, Ness, 
Sutherland, Ross, Moray, Garmoran, Buchan, 
Mar, and Angus, he was master of all the rest of 
Scotland. His first care was to recompense those 
who had supported him in his struggle for the 
crown. His next, to recover those northern dis- 
tricts which still remained under Norwegian rule. 
The most remarkable reward which he bestowed 
was on Macduff, maormor of Fife (see art. Fifk, 
page 209, vol. ii. of this work.) The titles of 
earl and thane which Malcolm is said to have in- 
troduced, were not known in Scotland till after 
the Saxon colonization in Edgar's time, the Nor- 
wegian title iarl being confined to the Orkneys 
and to Caithness. 

Shakspere's immortal tragedy of Macbeth, 
founded on the fables of Boece and the traditions 
of the times, has thrown an interest round the 
character of the principal personages concerned in 
it, which could never have been created by the 
facts of sober history ; but there is sufficient in 
the events of Malcolm's reign to render it cne of 
the most important in our annals. Gratitude to 
the king of England, as well as the unsettled state 
of his own kingdom, led Malcolm to cultivate the 
alliance of Edward the Confessor, and he paid 
that monarch a visit in 1059. He had contracted 
an intimate friendship with Tostig, who had been 
created carl of Northumberland. He was the sod 



MALCOLM III. 



90 



MALCOLM III. 



of the celebrated Earl Godwin and brother of Ha- 
rold, the last king of Saxon England. They 
were for a time esteemed " sworn brothers," bnt a 
quarrel having taken place between them in 1061, 
Malcolm made a hostile incursion into Northum- 
berland, and after laying that country waste, he 
even violated the peace of St. Cuthbert, in Holy 
Island. 

On the death of Thorfinn in 1064, his Norwe- 
gian kingdom in Scotland, which had lasted thirty 
years, fell to pieces, and the different districts he 
had conquered reverted to their native chiefs, 
"who were territorially born to rule over them, 1 ' 
(Orkneyinga Saga). Malcolm married Thorfinn's 
widow, Ingioborge, and by her he had a son, Dun- 
can II. (see vol. ii. p. 83.) This marriage, how- 
ever, does not seem in the slightest to have ad- 
vanced his interests in the north. The chiefs of 
the districts formerly in subjection to the Norwe- 
gians refused to acknowledge his sovereignty, and 
chose a king for themselves, Donald, the son of 
Malcolm, maormor of Moray, and king of Scot- 
land (see page 87 of this volume). It took Mal- 
colm twenty-one years to reduce the northern 
districts under his dominion. In 1070, he is 
said to have obtained a victory over his op- 
ponents, but it was not decisive. In 1077, 
as the Saxon Chronicle informs us, he over- 
threw Maolsnechtan, maormor of Moray, the 
son of Lulach, and in 1085 he got rid of both 
his rivals by death. The Irish annals say 
that in thai year, " Malsnectai, son of Lu- 
lach, king of Moray, died peacefully. Donald, 
son of Malcolm, king of Alban, died a violent 
death." 

Long previous to this, however, events in 
connexion with England had occurred which exer- 
cised an important influence on his reign, and 
which may now be briefly detailed. Edward the 
Confessor died 5th January 1066, and was suc- 
ceeded by Harold. Tostig, the brother of the 
latter, had, from his extortions and his vio- 
lence, so irritated the people of Northumberland, 
that they rose against him and drove him from 
his earldom. This happened a few years previous 
to the death of Edward the English king. Har- 
old found it prudent to abandon his brother's 
cause, on which Tostig became his bitterest ene- 



my. He first took refuge in Flanders, with Bald- 
win, his father-in-law, and afterwards visited 
William, duke of Normandy. On Harold's acces- 
sion, he collected about sixty vessels in the ports 
of Flanders, and committed some depredations on 
the south and east coasts of England. He next 
sailed to Northumberland, and was there joined 
by Harold Halfager, by some called Hadrada, 
king of Norway, with 300 sail. Entering the 
Humber, they disembarked the troops, but were 
defeated and put to flight, wiien Tostig proceeded 
into Scotland. It is not known whether Malcolm 
received him at his court, or aided, or counte- 
nanced in any way, his projects against his bro- 
ther, the new king of England. Lord Hailes 
thinks it probable that he was not received by 
Malcolm, but only remained at anchor in some 
Scottish bay, with the remains of his fleet, till 
joined by reinforcements from Norway. On re- 
ceiving these he and Hadrada again invaded Eng- 
land, and were both slain at the battle of Stam- 
ford Bridge, 25th September 1066. The battle of 
Hastings took place on the 14th of the following 
October, when Harold was killed and William the 
Conqueror became king of England. 

Two years thereafter, Edgar Atheling, grand- 
son of Edmund Ironside, and the heir of the Sax- 
on line, with his mother, the princess Agatha, 
and his two sisters, Margaret and Christina, ar- 
rived in Scotland. In their train came many 
Anglo-Saxons, and among them Gospatrick and 
other nobles of Northumberland. Some authors 
say that it was their intention to proceed to Hun- 
gary, the native country of Edgar and his two 
sisters, when they were driven by a storm into 
the Frith of Forth. Malcolm then resided at the 
tower which still bears his name, on the small 
peninsular mount, in the glen of Pittencrieff, near 
Dunfermline, in Fifeshire. On hearing of the 
arrival of the illustrious strangers, he hastened to 
invite them to his royal tower. There they were 
hospitably entertained, and as he was at this time 
a widower, there his nuptials with the princess 
Margaret were, soon after, celebrated with un- 
wonted splendour. 

Margaret was one of the most pious and accom- 
plished princesses of her day, and her character 
and influence tended much to improve and refine 



MALCOLM III. 



91 



MALCOLM III. 



the rude manners of her husband's subjects. On 
her husband himself her virtues and gentleness 
exercised a most salutary power. We learn from 
Turgot, her confessor and biographer, that Malcolm 
liked and disliked whatever she did, and that such 
was his veneration for her worth and piety, that 
being unable to read, he was in the habit of kiss- 
ing her missals and prayer-books, which, in token 
of his devotion, he caused to be splendidly bound 
and adorned with gold and precious stones. She 
persuaded him to pass the night in fervent prayer, 
much to the astonishment of his courtiers. "I 
must acknowledge," adds Turgot, "that I often 
admired the works of the divine mercy, when I 
saw a king so religious, and such signs of deep 
compunction in a laic." 

Into the court of Malcolm she introduced un- 
usual splendour. She encouraged the importation 
of rich dresses of various colours for himself and 
his nobles, which led to the commencement of a 
trading intercourse Avith foreign countries, and to 
this reign may be assigned the introduction of the 
wearing of tartan, which came afterwards to dis- 
tinguish the clans. In her own attire she was 
magnificent, and she increased the number of at- 
tendants on the person of the king. Under her 
guidance the public appearances of the sovereign 
were attended with more parade and ceremony 
than had ever previously been the case. She also 
caused the king to be served at table in gold and 
silver plate ; " at least," says Turgot, afraid of 
going beyond the truth, " the dishes and vessels 
were gilt or silvered over." 

Malcolm seems to have intrusted the care of 
matters respecting religion and the internal polity 
of the kingdom, entirely to her. Anxious for the 
reformation of the church, she held frequent con- 
ferences with the clergy. On one of these occa- 
sions the proper season for celebrating Lent was 
the subject of discussion between them. The 
clergy knew no language but the Gaelic, and the 
king, who had spent fifteen years in England, and 
understood the Saxon as well as his own native 
language, acted as interpreter. " Three days," 
says Turgot, " did she employ the sword of the 
Spirit in combating their errors. She seemed an- 
other St. Helena out of the Scriptures convincing 
the Jews." At last the clergy yielded to her 



views. She was also the means of inducing them 
to restore the celebration of the Lord's supper, 
which had fallen into disuse, and to keep sacred 
the Sabbath, which was scarcely distinguishable 
from any other day of the week. 

Malcolm espoused the cause of his brother-in- 
laAV with great ardour. In September 1069, with 
the assistance of the Danes, and accompanied b, 
Edgar Atheling, the Anglo-Saxon and Northum- 
brian nobles, led by Gospatrick, invaded England, 
and having taken the castle of York by storm, 
they put the Norman garrison to the sword. In- 
stead, however of following up their success, th8 
Northumbrians departed to their own territory, 
while the Danes retired to then- ships. The secret 
of this change in their proceedings was that Wil- 
liam had gained over Gospatrick, by conferring on 
him the earldom of Northumberland, and had 
bribed Osberne the Danish commander, to quit 
the English shores. Edgar Atheling and his few 
remaining adherents were, in consequence, obliged 
to retreat to Scotland. 

The following year, Malcolm led a numerous 
army into England, by the western borders, 
through Cumberland. If it had been intended 
that he was to support the movements of Edgar, 
and his Danish and Northumbrian allies, he came 
too late. Nevertheless, his operations were ener- 
getic enough. After wasting Teesdale, he defeat- 
ed an Anglo-Norman army that attempted to op- 
pose his progress, at a place called Hinderskell, 
penetrated into Cleveland, and thence advanced 
into the eastern parts of the diocese of Durham, 
spreading desolation and dismay wherever he ap- 
peared. He spared neither age nor sex, and even 
the churches, with those who had taken refuge in 
them, were burnt to the ground. While thus en- 
gaged, he received intelligence that his own terri- 
tory of Cumberland was laid waste by Gospa- 
trick, who, as already stated, had gone over to 
King William's interest. 

On his return, Malcolm led captive into Scot 
land such a multitude of young men and women, 
that, says the English historian, Simeon of Dur- 
ham, " for many years they were to be found in 
every Scottish village, nay, even in every Scot- 
tish hovel." In 1072, William retaliated by in- 
vading Scotland both by land and sea. He pene 



MALCOLM III. 



92 



MALCOLM ni. 



trated as far as the Frith of Forth, but finding the 
conquest of Scotland not so easy a task as had 
been that of England, a peace was concluded at 
Abernethy, the old Pictish capital, when Malcolm 
consented, in accordance with the feudal custom 
of the Normans, to do homage for the lands which 
he held in England. Among the hostages which 
he gave on this occasion was his eldest son, Dun- 
can, who thus had the benefit of living many 
years under the Norman monarchs of England. 
By this peace, Malcolm, in a manner, abandoned 
the cause of his weak-minded brother-in-law, Ed- 
gar Atheling, and that personage, after making 
his peace with the English monarch, received 
from him a handsome pension, and went to reside 
at Rouen in Normandy. 

With Edgar Atheling, Malcolm had refused to 
give up to the English king, the exiled nobles and 
others who had taken refuge in Scotland. With 
the double view of strengthening his power by the 
influx of so many brave and skilful strangers, and 
of benefiting his subjects by the introduction 
among them of those who possessed a higher civ- 
ilization than, in their rude and unsettled state, 
they had ever known, he even encouraged them to 
come into his kingdom. Among them were per- 
sons of Norman as well as of Anglo-Saxon line- 
age, who had fled from the exactions and tyranny 
of the Conqueror, or had been refused promised 
rewards for their services. Malcolm received and 
welcomed them all, and to these Norman knights 
and' adventurers who thus came flocking across 
the border, he gave lands and heritages, to induce 
them to remain. They thus became the progeni- 
tors of many of our noble families. Thousands of 
the poorer English, too, to escape the grinding 
oppressions of their Norman rulers, sought a re- 
fuge in Scotland, some even selling themselves for 
slaves, to obtain a subsistence. 

Gospatrick, having incurred the suspicions of 
William, was deprived of the earldom of North- 
umberland, and returning into Scotland, succeeded 
in being reconciled to Malcolm, from whom he 
obtained the manor of Dunbar, and other lands in 
the Merse and Lothian. He was the ancestor of 
the earls of Dunbar and March. In 1079, in the 
absence of William in Normandy, Malcolm again 
invaded Northumberland, and wasted the countrv 



as far as the river Tyne. The following year, 
Robert, the eldest son of William, entered Scot- 
land, but was obliged to retreat. To check the 
incursions of the Scots into England, he erected a 
fortress near the Tyne, at a place called Moncas- 
ter or Monkchester, from its being the residence 
of monks, but the name of which was thereafter 
in consequence changed to Newcastle. 

At the request of his queen, who has been can- 
onized in the Romish Calendar as St. Margaret, 
and of her confessor, Turgot, Malcolm founded 
and endowed a monastery, in the vicinity of his 
residence, for thirteen Culdees, which, with its 
church or chapel, was dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity. This was the origin of the abbey of 
Dunfermline. 

The latter portion of Malcolm's reign was occu- 
pied in a struggle with William Rufus, the son 
and successor of the Conqueror on the throne of 
England. Cumberland and his other English 
possessions having been withheld from him by 
the English king, Malcolm, assembling his forces, 
broke across the borders, in May 1091, when 
he penetrated as far as Chester, on the Wear ; 
but on the approach of the English, with a 
superior force, he prudently retreated without 
hazarding a battle, and thus secured his booty 
and his captives. In the autumn of the same year, 
Rufus led a numerous army into Scotland. Mal- 
colm advanced to meet him. By the intercession, 
however, of Edgar Atheling, who accompanied the 
Scottish army, and of Robert, duke of Normandy, 
the eldest brother of the English king, a peace was 
concluded, without the risk of a battle, Rufus con- 
senting to restore to Malcolm twelve manors in 
England which he had held under the Conqueror, 
and to make an annual payment to him of twelve 
marks of gold, and Malcolm, on his part, agreeing 
to do homage for the same, under the same tenure 
of feudal service as before. 

In 1092, William Rufus began to fortify the 
city of Carlisle and to build a castle there. As 
this was an encroachment on Malcolm's territory 
of Cumberland he remonstrated against it, when 
the English king proposed a personal interview on 
the subject. Malcolm, in consequence, proceeded 
to Gloucester, 24th August 1093. As a prelimi- 
nary measure Rufus required him again to do 



MALCOLM III. 



93 



MALCOLM III. 



nomage to him there, in presence of the English 
barons. This Malcolm absolutely refused, but al- 
though he had done homage to Rufus for his Eng- 
lish lands not much above a year before at Aber- 
nethy, he now offered to do it, as formerly had 
beei the custom, on the frontiers of the two king- 
doms, and in presence of the chief men of both. 
Some of his councillors advised Rufus to detain 
the Scottish king, now that he had him in his 
power, till he had complied with his request ; but 
although he had the grace to reject this base pro- 
posal, it was with the most unkingly contumely 
that he dismissed him from his court. Malcolm 
returned home, burning with indignation and 
vowing revenge, and hastily assembling a tumul- 
tuous and undisciplined army, he burst into North - 
jmberland, which he wasted, then, sweeping on- 
wards to Alnwick, he laid siege to the castle. He 
had not been many days there, however, before 
he was surprised by Robert de Moubray, at the 
head of a strong Norman and English force. A 
fierce engagement ensued, when Malcolm was 
slain, with his eldest son. This fatal fight took 
place 13th November 1093. Malcolm's fourth 
son, Edgar, who was also in the battle, escaped, and 
three days after reached the castle of Edinburgh, 
where his mother lay dying. On his appearance, 
she in a faint voice eagerly enquired, " How fares 
it with your father, and your brother, Edward?" 
The youth was silent. "I know all," she cried; 
" I adjure you by this holy cross, and by your filial 
affection, that you tell me the truth." He an- 
swered, " your husband and your son are both 
slain." Raising her eyes and hands to heaven, 
the dying queen said, " Praise and blessing be to 
thee, Almighty God, that thou hast been pleased 
to make me endure so bitter anguish in the hour 
of my departure, thereby, as I trust, to purify me, 
in some measure, from the corruption of my sins. 
And thou, Lord Jesus Christ, who, through the 
will of the Father, hast enlivened the world by 
thy death, O deliver me!" and straightway ex- 
pired. So great was the benevolence of this truly 
excellent princess that she secretly paid the ran- 
som of many of her Saxon countrymen in bondage 
in Scotland, when she found their condition too 
grievous to be borne. 
The character of Malcolm Canmore is that of 



an able, wise, and energetic monarch, who, after 
subjecting to his sovereignty the various rude and 
discordant tribes that inhabited his kingdom, was 
successful in maintaining its independence unim- 
paired during a long reign of 37 years, and that 
against two such formidable opponents as William 
the Conqueror and his son, William Rufus. As 
an instance of his personal intrepidity the follow- 
ing incident is related : Having received intelli- 
gence that one of his nobles had formed a design 
against his life, he took an opportunity, when out 
hunting, of leading him into a solitary place, 
then, unsheathing his sword, he said, " Here we 
are alone, and armed alike. You seek my life. 
Take it." The astonished noble, overcome by 
this address, threw himself at the feet of the king, 
and implored his clemency, which was readily 
granted. 

The removal of his court from Abernethy to 
Dunfermline, about the year 1063, and the en- 
couragement which, after the Norman conquest of 
England and his marriage with Queen Margaret, 
he gave to the immigration of Anglo-Saxons and 
Norman adventurers into the kingdom, had the 
effect of causing the Gaelic population to retire 
inland from the plains, and to divide themselves 
into clans and tribes, with the institution of sepa- 
rate chiefs, and the preservation of all those feelings 
and usages which long kept them a peculiar and 
distinct race from the other inhabitants of Scot- 
land. In the reign of Malcolm Canmore, the 
whole of the country south of the Forth was pos- 
sessed by the Scots, and those who spoke the 
Saxon language, while the Celtic portion of the 
nation occupied the remaining districts. Tena- 
cious of their native language and ancient customs, 
the latter viewed with equal scorn and disgust tho 
introduction of foreign manners and races into the 
kingdom, and hence began that long struggle be- 
tween the Scottish and Celtic communities which 
lasted for nearly seven hundred years, and was 
only terminated on the field of Culloden in 1746. 
" The people," says General Stewart of Garth, 
referring to the Gaelic inhabitants {Sketches, vol. 
i. p. 20), " now beyond the reach of the laws, 
became turbulent and fierce, revenging in person 
those wrongs for which the administrators of the 
laws were too distant and too feeble to afford ra- 



MALCOLM IV. 



94 



MALCOLM IV 



dress. Thence arose the institution of chiefs, who 
naturally became the judges and arbiters in the 
quarrels of their clansmen and followers, and who 
were surrounded by men devoted to the defence of 
their rights, their property, and their power ; and 
accordingly the chiefs established within their own 
territories a jurisdiction almost wholly indepen- 
dent of their liege lord." 

Malcolm had by his queen, Margaret, six sons 
and two daughters. The sons were, Edward, 
who was slain with his father near Alnwick ; 
Ethelred, who was bred a churchman and became 
Culdee abbot of Dunkeld ; Edmund ; Edgar, Alex- 
ander, and David. The three last were succes- 
sively kings of Scotland. The elder daughter, 
Maud, married Henry I. of England, a marriage 
which united the Saxon and the Norman dynas- 
ties, and Mary, the younger, became the wife of 
Eustace, count of Boulogne. 

MALCOLM IV., King of Scots, born in 1141, 
was the son of Prince Henry, son of David I., and 
succeeded his grandfather, May 24, 1153, a year 
after his father's death, being then only twelve 
years old. The same year he was crowned at 
Scone. He acquired the name of Malcolm the 
Maiden, either from the effeminate expression of 
his features, or from the softness of his disposition. 
In the following November Somerled, thane of 
Argyle, invaded the Scottish coasts, at the head of 
all the fierce tribes of the isles. The accession of 
a new king, and he a mere boy, appears to have 
been deemed by this formidable chief a favourable 
time to endeavour to advance the cause of his 
grandsons, the sons of the monk Wimond (see 
vol. ii. p. 24) otherwise Malcolm MacHeth, who 
claimed the earldom of Moray, and who had been 
imprisoned in Roxburgh castle by David I. as an 
impostor. In 1156, Donald, a son of Wimond, 
was discovered skulking at Whithorn in Galloway, 
and sent to share the captivity of his father. 
After harassing the country for some years, So- 
merled waa at last forced back to his own territo- 
ries, by Gilchrist, earl of Angus, and a treaty of 
peace was concluded with him in 1157, which was 
considered of so much importance at the time as 
to form an epoch in the dating of Scottish charters. 

Malcolm had no sooner accommodated matters 
with Somerled, than a demand was made upon 



him by Henry I. of England, for those parts ol 
the English territory which the Scottish kings 
held in that kingdom. On this account Malcolm 
had an interview with Henry at Chester, when he 
did homage to him for the same, as his prede- 
cessors had done, " reserving all his dignities." 
Malcolm was then only sixteen years of age, and 
Henry, taking advantage of his inexperience, 
easily prevailed upon the youthful monarch, to 
surrender to him Cumberland and Northumber- 
land, at the same time bestowing upon him the 
earldom of Huntington. Fordun saj T s that the 
English king had, on this occasion, corrupted his 
councillors. 

In 1158, desirous of obtaining the honour of 
knighthood from the king of England, Malcolm 
repaired to Henry's court at Carlisle, for the pur- 
pose, but Henry refused to bestow upon him an 
honour, probably on account of his youth, which 
was highly prized in that age, and Malcolm re- 
turned home greatly disappointed. In the follow- 
ing year, Malcolm passed over to France, where 
the English monarch then was, and after serving 
under his banner he was at length knighted by 
him. The Scots, indignant at his subserviency to 
Henry, and apprehensive that he would become 
the mere vassal of England, sent a deputation to 
remonstrate with Malcolm on his conduct. " We 
will not," said they, " have Henry to rule over 
us." Malcolm, in consequence, hastened back to 
Scotland, and on his arrival assembled a parlia- 
ment at Perth. 

The fierce nobles wno, as governors of their re- 
spective provinces, were bound to maintain the 
independence of the kingdom, availed themselves 
of this opportunity to attempt to seize the king's 
person. Accordingly, Ferquhard, earl of Strath- 
ern, and five other earls assaulted the tower in 
which Malcolm had taken refuge, but were re- 
pulsed. On the interference of the clergy, a re- 
conciliation took place between the young king 
and his offended nobles. 

Fortunately for Malcolm an occasion almost 
immediately occurred to give employment to them 
and their followers. Fergus, lord of Galloway, 
the most potent feudatory of the Scottish crown, 
and the son-in-law of Henry I., threw off his al- 
legiance, and stirred up an insurrection agnins* 



MALCOLM IV. 



95 



SIR PULTEXEY. 



Malcolm. At the head of a powerful army, the 
king entered Galloway, and though twice driven 
back, he at length succeeded, in 1160, in over- 
powering its rebellious lord. He then compelled 
Fergus to resign his lordship, and to give his son, 
Uchtred, as an hostage for the peace concluded 
between them ; after which Fergus retired to the 
abbey of Holyrood, where he died of a broken 
heart. 

In 1161, a still more formidable insurrection 
broke out among the inhabitants of the province 
of Moray, which comprehended all what is now 
Elginshire, all Nairnshire, a considerable part of 
Banffshire, and the half of continental Inverness- 
shire. The pretext was the attempt on Malcolm's 
part to intrude the Anglo-Norman jurisdiction 
upon their Celtic customs, and the settling of 
Flemish colonists among them. The men of Mo- 
ray were never wanting in an excuse for rising in 
arms They were the most unruly and rebellious 
of all the subjects of the sovereigns of Scotland. 
According to Fordun, "no solatiums or largesses 
could allure, or treaties or oaths bind them to 
their duty." On this occasion the insurgents laid 
waste the neighbouring counties, and so regard- 
less were they of the royal authority that they 
actually hanged the heralds who were sent to 
summon them to lay down their arms. Malcolm 
despatched against them a strong force under that 
Earl Gilchrist who had been sent against Somer- 
led, but he was routed, and forced to recross the 
Grampians. 

This defeat roused all the energy of Malcolm's 
character, and with the whole array of the king- 
dom he marched against them. He found them 
assembled on the muir of Urquhart, near the Spey, 
ready to give him battle. After crossing that 
river, Malcolm's nobles, seeing their strength, ad- 
vised him to negotiate with the rebels, and to pro- 
mise them that if they submitted, their lives would 
be spared. The Moraymen accepted the offer, 
the king kept his word, and now occurred the ex- 
traordinary circumstance of different parts of the 
country exchanging their populations. To put an 
end, at once and for ever, to the frequent insur- 
rections which occurred in the province, Malcolm 
ordained that all who had been engaged in the 
rebellion should remove out of Moray, and that 



their places should be supplied with people from 
other parts of the kingdom. In consequence, 
some transplanted themselves into the northern, 
but the greater number into the southern districts, 
as far as Galloway. The older historians say that 
the Moraymen were almost totally cut off in an 
obstinate battle, and strangers put in their place, 
but this statement is at variance with the register 
of Paisley. Among the new families brought in 
to replace those who were removed, the principal 
were the powerful earls of Fife and Strathern, 
with the Comyns and Bissets, and among those 
who remained were the Inneses, the Calders and 
others. After thus removing the rebels, and colo- 
nizing the province with a quieter race, Malcolm, 
as well as his successor, William the Lion, appear 
to have frequently resided in Moray, for from In- 
verness, Elgin, and various other of its localities, 
several of their charters are dated. 

In July 1163, Malcolm did homage to the king 
of England and his infant son at Woodstock. 
The following year he founded and richly endow- 
ed an abbey for Cistertian monks at Coupar- 
Angus. He had previously, in 1156, founded the 
priory of Emanuel near Linlithgow, for nuns of 
the same order. 

In 1164, Somerled, the ambitious and powerful 
lord of the Isles, made another and a last attempt 
to overthrow the king's authority. Assembling a 
numerous army from Argyle, Ireland, and the 
Isles, he sailed up the Clyde with 160 galleys, and 
landed his forces near Renfrew, threatening, as 
some of the old chroniclers inform us, to make a 
conquest of the whole of Scotland. Here, accord- 
ing to the usual accounts, he was slain, with his 
son, Gillecolane, after a battle, in which he was 
defeated by an inferior force of the Scots. Tradi- 
tion, however, states that he was assassinated in 
his tent by an individual in whom he placed con- 
fidence, and that his followers, deprived of their 
leader, hastened back to the Isles, without haz- 
arding an engagement. 

Malcolm died at Jedburgh, of a lingering dis- 
ease, December 9, 1165, at the early age of 24, 
and was succeeded by his brother William, styled 
William the Lion. 

MALCOLM, Sir Pulteney, a distinguished 
naval officer, an elder brother of Sir John Mai- 



MALCOLM, 



96 



SIR PULTENEY. 



ocim, the subject of the following notice, was born 
at Douglan, near Langholm, Dumfries-shire, Feb- 
ruary 20, 1768. His father, George Malcolm, 
farmer, Burnfoot, had, by his wife, the daughter of 
James Pasley, Esq. of Craig and Burn, 17 children. 
Robert, the eldest son, at his death was high in the 
civil service of the East India Company ; James, 
Pulteney, and John, the next three sons, were 
honoured with the insignia of knights commanders 
of the Bath at the same time, the first for his 
distinguished services in Spain and North America, 
when commanding a battalion of royal marines, 
and Sir John, for his military and diplomatic ser- 
vices in India. The younger sons were Gilbert, 
rector of Todenham ; David, in a commercial 
house in India ; and Admiral Sir Charles Mal- 
colm, of whom a memoir is given at page 99. 

Pulteney entered the navy, October 20, 1778, 
as a midshipman on board the Sybille frigate, com- 
manded by his maternal uncle, Captain Pasley, 
with whom he sailed to the Cape of Good Hope ; 
and on his return thence, removed with him into 
the Jupiter, of which he was appointed lieutenant 
in March 1783. At the commencement of the 
French revolutionary war, he was first lieutenant 
of the Penelope at Jamaica ; in which ship he as- 
sisted at the capture of the Inconstante frigate, 
and Gaelon corvette, both of which he conducted 
to Port Royal in safety. He also commanded the 
boats of the Penelope in several severe conflicts, 
and succeeded in cutting out many vessels from 
the ports of St. Domingo. In April 1791 he was 
made a commander, when he joined the Jack Tar; 
and upon Cape Nichola Mole being taken posses- 
sion of by the British, he had the direction of the 
seamen and marines landed to garrison that place. 
In October 1791 he was promoted to the rank of 
post captain, and the following month was ap- 
pointed to the Fox frigate, with which he subse- 
quently served in the North Sea. Having pro- 
ceeded with a convoy to the East Indies, he cap- 
tured on that station La Modeste, of 20 guns. In 
1797 the duke of Wellington, then Colonel Wel- 
lesley, of the 33d regiment, took a passage with 
Captain Malcolm, in the Fox, from the Cape of 
Good Hope to Bengal. He afterwards served in 
the Suffolk, the Victorious, and the Royal Sover- 
eign ; and in March 1S05 was appointed to the 



Donegal, in which he accompanied Lord Nelson 
in the memorable pursuit of the combined squa- 
drons of France and Spain to the West Indies. 

On his return to the Channel, Captain Mal- 
colm was sent to reinforce Admiral Collingwood 
off Cadiz. Four days previous to the battle of 
Trafalgar, the Donegal, being short of water, and 
greatly in need of a refit, was ordered to Gibral- 
tar. On the 20th October Captain Malcolm re- 
ceived information that the enemy's fleets were 
quitting Cadiz. His ship was then in the Mole 
nearly dismantled, but by the greatest exertions 
he succeeded in getting her out before night, and 
on the 23d joined Admiral Collingwood in time to 
capture El Rayo, a Spanish three-decker. To- 
wards the close of 1805 the Donegal accompanied 
Sir John Duckworth to the West Indies, in quest 
of a French squadron that had sailed for that 
quarter ; and in the battle fought off St. Domingo, 
February 6, 1806, Captain Malcolm greatly dis- 
tinguished himself. On his return to England, 
he was honoured with a gold medal for his con- 
duct in the action, and, in common with the other 
officers of the squadron, received the thanks of 
both houses of parliament. 

In the summer of 1808 he escorted the army 
under General Wellesley from Cork to Portugal, 
and for his exertions in disembarking the troops, 
he received the thanks of Sir John Moore and Sir 
Arthur Wellesley. The Donegal was subsequent- 
ly attached to the Channel fleet under the orders 
of Sir John Gambler ; and after the discomfiture 
of the French ships in Aix Roads in April 1809, 
Captain Malcolm was sent with a squadron on A 
cruise. He next commanded the blockade of 
Cherbourg, on which station the ships under his 
orders captured a number of privateers, and on 
one occasion drove two frigates on shore near 
Cape La Hogue. In 1811 the Donegal was paid 
off, when Captain Malcolm was appointed to the 
Royal Oak, a new 74, in which he continued off 
Cherbourg until March 1812, when he removed 
into the San Josef, 110 guns, as captain of the 
Channel fleet under Lord Keith. In the subse- 
quent August he was promoted to the rank of col- 
onel of marines, and December 4, 1813, was ap- 
pointed rear-admiral. In June 1814 he hoisted 
his flag in the Royal Oak, and proceeded to Nortb 



MALCOLM, 



07 



SIR JOHN. 



America with a body of troops, under Brigadier- 
general Ross. Soon after his arrival, he accom- 
panied Sir Alexander Cochrane on an expedition 
up the Chesapeake, when the duty of regulating 
the collection, embarkation, and re-embarkation 
of the troops employed against Washington, Bal- 
timore, and New Orleans, devolving upon him, 
he performed it in a manner that obtained the 
warmest acknowledgments of the commander-in- 
chief. He was afterwards employed at the siege 
of Fort Boyer, on Mobile Point, the surrender of 
which, by capitulation, on February 14, termi- 
nated the war between Great Britain and the 
United States. 

At the extension of the order of the Bath into 
three classes, January 2, 1815, Admiral Malcolm 
was nominated, with his two brothers, a knight 
commander. After his arrival in England, on the 
renewal of hostilities with France, in consequence 
of the return of Napoleon from Elba, he was ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of the naval force 
ordered to co-operate with the duke of Welling- 
ton and the allied armies, on which service he 
continued until after the restoration of the Bour- 
bons. His last appointment was to the important 
office of commander-in-chief on the St. Helena 
station, where he continued from the spring of 
1816 until the end of 1817. By the cordiality of 
his disposition and manners, he not only obtained 
the confidence, but won the regard of the emperor 
Napoleon. "Ah! there is a man," he exclaimed 
in reference to Sir Pulteney Malcolm, "with a 
countenance really pleasing : open, frank, and sin- 
cere. There is the face of an Englishman — his 
countenance bespeaks his heart; and I am sure 
he is a good man. I never yet beheld a man of 
whom I so immediately formed a good opinion as 
of that fine soldier-like old man. He carries his 
head erect, and speaks out openly and boldly 
what he thinks, without being afraid to look you 
in the face at the time. His physiognomy would 
make every person desirous of a further acquaint- 
ance, and render the most suspicious confident in 
him." One day when fretting at the unjust treat- 
ment he received, he exclaimed to he admiral, 
" Does your government mean to detail me upon 
this rock until my death's day ? " Sir Pulteney 

replied, " Such I apprehend is their purpose." | 
ill. 



" Then the term of my life will soon arrive," said 
Napoleon." "I hope not, Sir," answered Sir 
Pulteney, " I hope you will survive to record youi 
great actions, which are so numerous, and the 
task will insure you a term of long life." Napo- 
leon felt the compliment and acknowledged it by a 
bow, and soon recovered his good humour. On 
his deathbed he paid a well-merited tribute to the 
generosity and benevolence of Sir Pulteney, whose 
conduct at St. Helena is described by Sir Walter 
Scott in his 'Life of Napoleon,' in a manner 
highly honourable to him. He was advanced to 
the rank of vice-admiral July 19, 1821, and of 
admiral January 10, 1837. He died July 20, 
1838. A monument has been erected to his mem- 
ory. Subjoined is his portrait : 




^r 



Sir Pulteney Malcolm married, January 18, 
1809, Clementina, eldest daughter of the Hon. \V. 
F. Elphinstone. 

MALCOLM, Sir John, a distinguished soldier 
and diplomatist, a younger brother of the subject 
of the foregoing memoir, was born May 2, 1769, 
on the farm of Burnfoot, near Langholm, in Dum- 
fries-shire. In 1782 he went out to the East In- 
dies as a cadet in the Company's service. On his 
arrival he was placed under the care of his uncle. 



MALCOLM, 



98 



SIR JOHN. 



Dr. Gilbert Pasley, and assiduously applied him- 
self to the study of the manners and languages of 
the East. The abilities which he displayed at the 
siege of Seringapatam, in 1792, attracted the notice 
of Lord Cornwallis, who appointed him Persian 
interpreter to a body of British troops in the ser- 
vice of one of the native princes. In 1794, in 
consequeuce of bad health, he revisited his native 
country; but the following year lie returned to 
India on the staff of Field-marshal Sir Alured 
Clarke ; and for his conduct at the taking of the 
Cape of Good Hope, he received the public thanks 
of that officer. In 1797 he obtained a captain's 
commission. In 1799 he was ordered to join the 
Nizam's contingent force in the war against Tip- 
poo Saib, with the chief command of the infantry, 
in which post he continued till the surrender of 
Seringapatam, where he highly distinguished him- 
self. He was then appointed joint secretary, with 
Captain, afterwards Sir Thomas Munro, to the 
commissioners for settling the new government of 
Mysore. In the same year he was sent by Lord 
Wellesley on a diplomatic mission to Persia, a 
country which no British ambassador had visited 
since the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Captain Malcolm returned to Bombay in 1801, 
when he was appointed private secretary to the 
governor-general, who stated to the secret com- 
mittee that "he had succeeded in establishing a 
connection with the actual government of the Per- 
sian empire, which promised to British natives in 
India political and commercial advantages of the 
most important description." In January 1802 
he was promoted to the rank of major ; and on 
the death of the Persian ambassador, who was 
accidentally shot at Bombay, he was again sent 
to Persia to make the necessary arrangements for 
the renewal of the embassy. In February 1803 
he was appointed Resident with the rajah of My- 
sore ; and in December 1801 he attained the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel. In June 1805 he was no- 
minated chief agent of the governor-general, in 
which capacity he continued to act till March 
1806, during which period he concluded several 
important treaties with native princes. 

On the arrival in India, in April 1808, of the 
new governor-general, Lord Minto, he dispatched 
Colonel Malcolm on a mission to Persia, with the 



view of endeavouring to counteract the designs of 
Napoleon, who then threatened an invasion of 
India from that quarter. In this difficult embassy, 
however, he did not wholly succeed. He returned 
in the following August, and soon after proceeded 
to his residency at Mysore. Early in 1810, owing 
to a change in the policy of the Persian court, he 
was again appointed ambassador to Persia, where 
he remained till the nomination of Sir Gore Ouse- 
ley as minister plenipotentiary. On his departure 
the shah conferred upon him the order of the Sun 
and Lion, presented him with a valuable sword, 
and made him a khan and sepahdar of the 
empire. 

In 1812 Colonel Malcolm again visited England, 
and soon after his arrival received the honour of 
knighthood. The same year he published, in one 
volume, ' A Sketch of the Sikhs, a singular Na- 
tion in the province of the Pnnjaub, in India.' 
In 1815 appeared his ' History of Persia,' in 2 
vols. 4to, which is valuable from the information 
it contains, taken from oriental sources, regarding 
the religion, government, manners, and customs of 
the inhabitants of that country, in ancient as well 
as in modern times. He returned to India in 
1817, and on his arrival was attached, as political 
agent of the governor-general, to the force under 
Sir Thomas Hislop in the Deccan. With the 
rank of brigadier-general, he was appointed to the 
command of the third division of the army, and 
greatly distinguished himself in the decisive battle 
of Mehidpoor, when the army under Mulhar Rao 
Holkar was completely routed. For his skill and 
valour on this occasion he received the thanks of 
the house of commons, on the motion of Mr. 
Canning, who declared that " the name of this 
gallant officer will be remembered in India as long 
as the British flag is hoisted in that country." 
His conduct Avas also noticed by the prince regent, 
who expressed his regret that the circumstance of 
bis not having attained the rank of major-general 
prevented his being then created a knight grand 
cross, which honour, however, was conferred ou 
him in 1821. 

After the termination of the Avar with the Mali 
rattas and Pindarries, he received the military and 
political command of Malwa, and succeeded in 
establishing the Company's authority, both in 



MALCOLM, 



99 



SIR CHARLES. 



that province and the other territories adjacent, 
which had been ceded to them. 

In April 1822 he returned once more to Britain 
with the rank of major-general. Shortly after, he 
was presented by the officers who had acted under 
him in the late war with a superb vase, valued at 
£1,500. The court of directors of the East India 
Company likewise testified their sense of his 
merits by a grant to him of £1,000 a-year. In 
July 1827 he was appointed governor of Bombay, 
which important post he resigned in 1831, and 
finally returned to Britain. On quitting India, he 
received many gratifying instances of the esteem 
and high consideration in which he was held. 
The principal European gentlemen of Bombay re- 
quested him to sit for his statue, which was exe- 
cuted by Chautrey, and erected in that city ; the 
members of the Asiatic Society requested a bust 
of him for their library ; the native gentlemen of 
Bombay solicited his portrait, to be placed in the 
public room ; the East India Amelioration Society 
voted him a service of plate ; and the United So- 
ciety of Missionaries, including English, Scots, 
and Americans, acknowledged with gratitude the 
assistance they had received from him in the pro- 
secution of their pious labours. 

Subjoined is Sir John Malcolm's portrait : 




Soon after his arrival in England in 1831, he 
was elected M.P. for Launceston, and took an ac- 
tive part in the proceedings in the house of com- 
mons upon several important questions, particu- 
larly the Scottish reform bill, which he warmly 
opposed. After the dissolution of parliament in 
1832 he offered himself for Carlisle, but being un- 
successful, he retired to his seat near Windsor 
and employed himself in writing a Treatise upon 
' The Government of India,' with the view of elu- 
cidating the difficult questions relating to the re- 
newal of the East India Company's charter, which 
was published only a few weeks previous to his 
death. His last address in public was at a meet- 
ing in the Thatched House Tavern, London, for 
the purpose of forming a subscription to buy up 
the mansion of Abbotsford for the family of the 
great novelist ; and on that occasion his conclud- 
ing sentiment was " that when he was gone, his 
son might be proud to say that his father had 
been among the contributors to that shrine of 
genius." On the day following he was struck 
with paralysis, and died at London, May 31, 1833. 
A monument has been erected to his memory in 
Westminster Abbey, and also an obelisk, 100 feet 
high, on Langholm hill, in his native parish of 
Westerkirk. He married, in June 1807, Char- 
lotte, daughter of Sir Alexander Campbell, Bart., 
by whom he had five children. 

Sir John Malcolm's works are : 

Sketch of the Political History of India, from the Intro- 
duction of Mr. Pitt's Bill, a. d. 1784, to the present date. 
London, 1811, 8vo. 

Sketch of the Sikhs, a nation who inhabit the provinces of 
the Punjaub, situated between the rivers Jumna and Indus 
in India. London, 1812, 8vo. 

Observations on the Disturbances in the Madias Army in 
1809 : in 2 parts. London, 1812, 8vo. 

History of Persia, from the most early period to the pre- 
sent time, containing an account of the religion, government, 
usages, and character of the inhabitants of that kingdom. 
London, 1815, 2 vols. 4to. 

A memoir of Central India, including Malwa and adjoining 
Provinces, with the history and copious illustrations of the 
past and present condition of that country. London, 1822, 

2 vols. 8vo. 

The Political History of India from 1784 to 1823. Lond., 
1826, 2 vols. 8vo. 

The Government of India. London, 1833, 8vo. 

The Life of Robert, Lord Clive. collected from the Family 
Papers, communicated by the earl of Powis. London, 183C, 

3 vols. 8vo. Posthumous. 

| MALCOLM, Sir Charles, an eminent naval 



MALCOLM. 



100 



MALLET. 



officer, the tenth son of George Malcolm of Burn- 
foot, and youngest brother of the preceding, was 
boru at Burnfoot, Dumfries -shire, in 1782, and 
entered the navy in 1791, when only nine years 
old. In 1798, he was master's mate of the Fox, 
of 32 guns, commanded by his brother, Pulteney, 
when, with the Sybille, of 38 guns, that ship en- 
tered the Spanish harbour of Manilla, the capital 
of the Philippines, under French colours, and in 
the face of three ships of the line and three frig- 
ates, succeeded in capturing seven boats, taking 
prisoner 200 men, and carrying off a large quan- 
tity of ammunition and materials of war. In 
i.807, he got the command of the Narcissus, 32. 
On board this ship he attacked a convoy of 30 
sail in the Conquet Roads, on which occasion he 
was slightly wounded. In 1809, he assisted in the 
capture of Les Saintes, islands in the West Indies. 
In June of the same year he was appointed to 
the Rhine, 38, in which he actively co-operated 
with the patriots on the north coast of Spain. 

Subsequently he served in the West Indies, and 
on the coast of Brazil. On July 18, 1815, he 
landed and stormed a fort at Corrigion near Aber- 
vack, which was the last exploit of the kind 
achieved during the war. In July 1822, he was 
nominated to the command of the William and 
Mary, royal yacht, lying at Dublin, in attendance 
on the lord-lieutenant ; and in 1826, to the Royal 
Charlotte, yacht, on the same service. In 1827 
he was knighted by the Marquis Wellesley, then 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland. Soon after he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Bombay marine. 

During the ten years that he held that office, he 
effected a complete reform in the administration 
of the service, and converted its previous system 
into that of the Indian navy. He also instituted 
many extensive and important surveys, and was 
prominently concerned in the establishment of 
steam navigation in the Red Sea. In 1837 he 
was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral, and 
in 1847 to that of vice-admiral. He died at 
Brighton, June 14, 1851, aged 69. He married 
first in 1808, his cousin, Magdalene, daughter of 
Charles Pasley, Esq., issue, one daughter; and, 
2dly, in 1829, Elmira Riddell, youngest daughter 
of Major-general Shaw, and by her had three sons, 
two of whom entered the navy. 



MALLET, David, a poet and miscellaneous 
writer, was born at Crieff, in Perthshire, about 
1700. His father, said to have been a descendant 
of the proscribed clan Gregor, was named James 
Malloch, and kept a small public-house in that 
town. It is uncertain where he got his early edu- 
cation, but he appears to have studied for some 
time under a professor Ker in Aberdeen, and dur- 
ing his resilience in that city, he wrote a pastoral 
and a few other short pieces, which attracted 
some notice. He afterwards removed to Edin- 
burgh, and in 1720 was employed as a tutor in 
the family of a Mr. Home of that city. At the 
same time he attended the university, and in 1723 
he was recommended by the professors as tutor 
to the two sons of the duke of Montrose, with 
whom he made the tour of Europe. 

On their return to London, he continued to re- 
side in the family of the duke, through whom he 
got introduced to the best society of the day. He 
now began to cultivate his poetical talents with 
great assiduity. In July 1724 he published in 
Aaron Hill's ' Plain Dealer,' No. 36, his beautiful 
ballad of ' William and Margaret,' which at once 
procured him a high poetical reputation. On set- 
tling in London he had Anglicised his name to 
Mallet. Having, says Dr. Johnson, " by degrees 
cleared his tongue from his native pronunciation, 
so as to be no longer distinguished as a Scot, he 
seemed inclined to disencumber himself from all 
adherences of his original, and took upon him 
to change his name from Scotch Malloch to Eng- 
lish Mallet, without any imaginable reason of pre- 
ference which the eye or ear can discover." Den- 
nis, the Critic, used in derision to call him Moloch, 
which was possibly one reason for the change. 
In 1728 he published a poem, entitled ' The Ex- 
cursion,' being a series of landscape descriptions 
in blank verse, in the style of Thomson's Seasons, 
but greatly inferior to that noble poem. In 1731 
he produced a tragedy, entitled ' Eurydice,' which 
was acted at Drury Lane theatre, but without 
success. 

His employment as tutor in the family of the 
duke of Montrose having come to an end, he went 
to reside with a Mr. Knight at Gosfield, it is sup- 
posed, as a teacher. About this time he formed an 
acquaintance with Pope, and to court the favoui 



MALLET, 



101 



DAVID. 



of that eminent poet, he published his poem on 
'Verbal Criticism.' Pope introduced him to Lord 
Bolingbrokc, and he was soon after appointed un- 
der secretary to Frederick, prince of Wales, at 
that time at variance with his father, with a sal- 
ary of £200 a-year. In 1739, his tragedy of 
'Mustapha' was produced, and owed its tempo- 
rary success to some political allusions in it to the 
king and Sir Robert Walpole. To serve and gra- 
tify his patron, the prince, he exhibited Sir Robert 
under the character of Rustan the vizier, and the 
king as Solyman the Magnificent. On the first 
night of its representation the heads of the oppo- 
sition attended, and by their plaudits sustained 
the performance throughout. In the following year, 
in conjunction with Thomson, he wrote, by com- 
mand of the prince, the masque of 'Alfred,' in 
honour of the birthday of his royal highness' eldest 
daughter. The same year (1740) he wrote a life 
of Bacon, prefixed to an edition of his works, 
which was of veiy little merit, and is now forgotten. 
In 1747 he published his ' Hermit, or Amyntor 
and Theodora,' a poem which has been praised by 
Johnson for copiousness of language and vigour 
of sentiment, and censured by Warton for nause- 
ous affectation. 

On the death of Pope in 1744, Mallet, who was 
indebted to him for his introduction to Lord 
Bolingbrokc, was by the latter employed to de- 
fame the character of his former friend, who, in a 
letter to Mr. Knight had once thus kindly spoken of 
him: "To prove to you how little essential to 
friendship I hold letter-writing, I have not yet 
written to Mr. Mallet, whom I love and esteem 
greatly, nay, whom I know to have as tender a 
heart, and that feels a friendly remembrance as 
long as any man." Mallet performed his ungra- 
cious task with the utmost malignity, in his pre- 
face to the revised edition of Bolingbroke's ' Pa- 
triot King,' Pope's offence being that he had 
allowed the first version of that work to be sur- 
reptitiously printed. Bolingbrokc rewarded him 
with a bequest of all his writings, published and 
unpublished, and Mallet immediately began to 
prepare them for the press. " His ".onduct," 
says Chalmers, "at the very outset of Jlis busi- 
ness affords another illustration of his character. 
Francklin, the printer, to whom many of the poli- 



tical pieces written during the opposition to Wal- 
pole, had been given, as he supposed, in perpe- 
tuity, laid claim to some compensation for those. 
Mallet allowed his claim, and the question waa 
referred to arbitrators, who were empowered to 
decide upon it, by an instrument signed by the 
parties; but when they decided unfavourable to 
Mr. Mallet, he refused to yield to the decision, 
and the printer was thus deprived of the benefit 
of the award, by not having insisted upon bonds 
of arbitration, to which Mallet had objection as 
degrading to a man of honour. He then pro- 
ceeded, with the help of Millar, the bookseller, to 
publish all he could find ; and so sanguine was he 
in his expectations that he rejected the offer of 
£3,000 which Millar offered him for the copyright, 
although he was, at this time, so distressed for 
money that he was forced to borrow some of Mil- 
lar to pay the stationer and printer. The work at 
last appeared in 5 vols. 4to, and Mallet had soon 
reason to repent his refusal of the bookseller's 
offer, as this edition was not sold off in twenty 
years. As these volumes contained many bold 
attacks on revealed religion, they brought much 
obloquy on the editor, and even a presentment 
was made of them by the grand jury of West- 
minster." 

In the beginning of 1757 Mallet was hired by 
the Newcastle administration to assist in directing 
the public indignation, for the disgrace brought on 
the British arms in the affair of Minorca, towards 
the unfortunate Admiral Byng ; and, accordingly, 
while that officer was on his trial, he wrote a let- 
ter of accusation, under the character of " A Plain 
Man," which, printed on a large sheet, was circu- 
lated with great industry. "The price of blood," 
says Dr. Johnson, "was a pension which he re- 
tained till his death." Mallet was unprincipled 
enough to accept of a legacy of £1,000, left by 
Sarah duchess of Marlborough at her death in 
1744, as the price of a Life of her illustrious hus- 
band, of which he never wrote a line. Besides 
this bequest, he received also an annual sum from 
the second duke, to encourage him to proceed with 
it, but he never even commenced the work. 

On Lord Bute becoming premier, Mallet wrote 
his ' Truth in Rhyme.' He also wrote ' Edwin 
and Emma,' a ballad. His tragedy of 'Elvira, 



MAN. 



102 



MARCH. 



produced at Drury Lane in 1763, was written 
with the design of promoting the political views of 
the new administration. As a recompense, he 
was appointed keeper of the Book of Entries for 
ships in the port of London. He died April 21, 
1765. A collected edition of his poems was pub- 
lished by himself in three vols, in 1759 ; but most 
of his writings are now only known by name. He 
was an avowed infidel, and a venal writer of the 
very worst description. He was twice married. 
Of his first wife, by whom he had several children, 
nothing is known. One daughter, named Cilesia, 
who married an Italian of rank, and died at Ge- 
noa in 1790, wrote a tragedy called ' Almida,' 
which was acted at Drury Lane. His second wife 
was a Lucy Elstob, a freethinker like himself, the 
daughter of Lord Carlisle's steward, with whom 
ne received a considerable fortune. 

MAX. James, an antagonist of Ruddiman, was 
born at "Whiteu-reath, in Elginshire, about 1700. 
He studied at King's College, Aberdeen, where he 
obtained the degree of M.A. in 1721. Soon after 
leaving college he became schoolmaster of the 
parish of Tough in Aberdeenshire, but though 
licensed to preach, it never was his fortune to ob- 
tain a church. In 1742 he was appointed Master 
of the Poor's Hospital in Aberdeen. In 1751 he 
published at Aberdeen an octavo work, entitled 
'A Censure and Examination ot Mr. Thomas 
Ruddiman's Philological Notes on the Works of 
the Great Buchanan, more particularly on the 
History of Scotland ; in which also most of the 
Chronological and Geographical, and many of the 
Historical and Political Notes are taken into con- 
sideration. In a Letter to a Friend. Necessary for 
restoring the true readings, the graces, and beauties, 
and for understanding the true meaning of a vast 
number of passages of Buchanan's writings, which 
have been so foully corrupted, so miserably de- 
faced, so grossly perverted and misunderstood. 
Containing many curious particulars of his life, 
and a Vindication of his Character from many 
gross calumnies.' This work was answered by 
Ruddiman the following year, in a publication en- 
titled ' Anticrisis, or a Discussion of the Scurrilous 
and Malicious Libel, published by one James Man 
of Aberdeen.' Among other literary projects, Mr. 
Man made collections for an edition of Dr. Arthur 



Johnston's Poems, and contemplated a ' History 
of the Church of Scotland,' which he was pre- 
vented from accomplishing by his death in Octo- 
ber 1761. He had some time previous sent his 
edition of Buchanan's History to the press, the 
last sheets of which were corrected by Professor 
Gerard, and it was published in 1762. By fruga- 
lity he had saved about £155, of which he be- 
queathed £60 to his relations, and settled the re- 
mainder on the Poor's Hospital for apprentice fees 
to the boys educated in that useful institution. 

Mansfield, earl of, a title in the peerage of the United 
Kingdom possessed by the viscount Stormont, (see Stor- 
sioxt, Viscount.) and first conferred, in 1776. on the cele- 
brated lawyer and statesman, William Murray (see Murray 
William, first earl of Mansfield). 



Maormor, the highest title of honour amongst the High- 
landers of Scotland, in the 10th, 11th, and 12th centuries, 
the persons bearing it having been the patriarchal chiefs oi 
the great tribes into which the Celtic population was then 
divided. They had jurisdiction and authority over extensive 
districts, as Athole, Moray. Ross, Garmoran, Mar, and Buch- 
an. The word seems to have been derived from the Gaelic 
maor, steward, and mhor, great, and its office and dignity 
appear to have been next to that of the king. So great in- 
deed was the power of the maormors and so extensive the 
territories which they ruled over, that they sometimes were 
enabled to wage independent war even against ths sovereign 
himself. The succession to the maordom was srrictiy heredi- 
tary in the male line. In proof of this, Mr. Skene (High- 
landers, vol. i. p. 79) instances the succession of the maor- 
mors of Moray. In 1032, the Annals of Ulster mention the 
death of Gilcomgain Mac Maolbride, maormor of Mureve. 
In 1058, they record the death of Lulach Mac Gilcomgain, 
king of Scotland, and in 1085, that of Maolsnechtan Mac- 
Lulach, king or maormor of Mureve. Thus showing, that 
although Lulach had been driven from the throne, his son 
succeeded to the maordom of Moray in his place. 

The title of maormor was peculiar to the Scottish Gael, 
and was altogether unknown among the Irish, although they 
too were a Celtic race. It was exclusively confined to the 
north of Scotland, and was never held by any ot those Saxon 
or Norman barons who obtained extensive territories by grant, 
or succeeded, as they sometimes did, by marriage to the pos- 
sessions and power of the maormors. When the line of the 
ancient maormors gradually sank under the ascendant influ- 
ence of the feudal system, the clans forming the great tribes 
became independent, and their leaders or chiefs were held to 
represent each the common ancestor or founder of his clan, 
and derived all their dignity and power from the belief in 
such representation. The chief possessed his office by right 
of blood alone, as that right was understood in the High- 
lands ; neither election nor marriage could constitute any title 
to this distinction; it was purely hereditary, nor could descend 
to any person, except to him who, according to the Highland 
rule of succession, was the nearest male heir to the dignity. 



Mar, Earl of. See Mark. 



March, Earl of, a title which, with that of earl of Dun- 



MARCHMONT, 



103 



THIRD EARL OF. 



bar, was long enjoyed by the descendants of Cospatrick, earl 
of Northumberland, who came into Scotland in the reign of 
Maicoim Canmore (see art. Dunbar, vol. ii. p. 73). On the 
forfeiture of George, 11th earl of Dunbar and March, in 1434, 
it was vested in the crown. In 1478, the earldom of March 
was conferred by King James III. on his brother, Alexander, 
duke of Albany, on whose forfeiture it was again annexed 
to the crown by act of the estates, 1st October, 1487. It 
continued in the crown till 1582, when, with the lordship of 
Dunbar, it was conferred on Robert Stuart, granduncle of 
James VI., on his relinquishing the earldom of Lennox to 
his nephew, Esme Stuart of Aubigny (see vol. ii. p. 651). 
On his death, without legitimate issue, in 1586, the title 
once more reverted to the crown. 

Lord William Douglas, second son of the first duke of 
Queensberry, was created earl of March, 20th April 1G97. 
He succeeded as second duke, and on the death, without is- 
sue, of his grandson, William, fourth duke of Queensberry 
and third earl of March, in December 1810 (see Queens- 
berry, duke of), the latter title, with the great estates of 
the Queensberry family in the county of Peebles, devolved on 
the sixth earl of Wemyss, whose great-grandfather married, 
for his first wife, Lady Ann Douglas, eldest daughter of the 
first duke of Queensberry, and sister of the first earl of March 
(see Wemyss, earl of). 

The word March or Merse, signifying boundary or limit, 
anciently more particularly applied to the eastern part of 
the Scottish border, is now confined to Berwickshire. Chal- 
mers, however, thinks it more probable that the frontier 
province got its name from the Anglo-Saxon merse, a marsh, 
or from iimriscus, a naked plain. 



Marchmont, earl of, a title (dormant since 1794) in the 
peerage of Scotland, conferred by William III. on Sir Patrick 
Hume of Polwarth (a memoir of whom is given at page 502 
of vol. ii.) He was descended from Sir Patrick Home of 
Polwarth, comptroller of Scotland from 1499. when he was 
knighted, to 1502, second son of David Home, younger of 
Wedderburn. The comptroller's great-grandson, Patrick 
Home of Polwarth, was a chief promoter of the Reformation 
in Scotland, and one of those who in 1560 entered into an 
association to protect the preachers of the gospel. The eld- 
est son of this gentleman, Sir Patrick Home of Polwarth, 
was, in 1591, appointed master of the household to King 
James VI., one of the gentlemen of his bedchamber, and 
warden of the marches. He died 10th June 1609. Sir Pa- 
trick Home, his son, had a pension of £100 sterling from 
James VI., from whom he received several other marks of 
favour. By Charles I. he was created a baronet in 1625, 
soon after his accession to the throne. He died in April 
1648. His eldst son was the first earl of Marchmont, so 
created 23d Apiil 1697. He had previously, 26th December 
1690, been raised to the peerage by the title of Lord Pol- 
warth. The patent of the earldom was to him and his heirs 
male whatsoever, and the secondary titles were viscount of 
Blasonberrie and Lord Polwarth of Polwarth, Redbraes and 
Greenlaw. This nobleman, it is well known, when Sir Pa- 
trick Home, suffered much for his patriotism, during the per- 
secution in Scotland in the reigns of Charles II. and James 
VII., and had many narrow escapes of being taken. When 
he had decided upon leaving his place of concealment (see 
vol. ii. p. 503) for the continent, he set out during night ac- 
companied by a trustworthy servant named John Allan, who 
was to conduct him part of his way to London. In travel- 
ing towards the Tweed, they unconsciously separated, Sir 



Patrick having somehow quitted the proper road without be- 
ing aware of it till he reached the banks of the river. This 
mistake proved his safety ; for his servant Allan was over- 
taken by those very soldiers who were in pursuit of him. In 
the assumed capacity of a surgeon Sir Patrick got safely to 
London. Thence he proceeded to Holland, and returned to 
Scotland at the Revolution. He had four sons and five 
daughters. His eldest daughter, Grizel, afterwards Lady 
Grizel Baillie (see vol. ii. p. 486) was the heroine who, when 
only twelve years of age, supplied her father with food and 
other necessaries, at the time he was under concealment in 
the family burial-vault, beneath the parish church of Pol- 
warth. His eldest son, Lord Polwarth, predeceased him ir. 
1710. His second son, the Hon. Captain Iiobert Hume, also 
died young, without issue. 

The third son, Alexander, was the second earl of March- 
mont. Bom in 1675, he was admitted advocate 25th July 
1696. He married in July 1697, Margaret, daughter and 
heiress of Sir George Campbell of Cessnock, Ayrshire, and 
having been knighted, he assumed the name of Sir Alexander 
Campbell. He was elected member in the Scots parliament 
for Berwickshire, and on 16th October 1704, appointed a 
lord of session, taking his seat as Lord Cessnock. He was at 
the same time made a commissioner of the court of exchequer, 
and sworn a privy councillor. He supported the Union in 
parliament, and in November 1714 he resigned his seat in 
the court of session in favour of his younger brother, the 
Hon. Sir Andrew Home of Kimmerghame, Berwickshire. On 
the breaking out of the rebellion of 1715, he raised 400 of the 
Berwickshire militia, on the side of the government, and 
marched with three battalions to join the duke of Argyle at 
Stirling. The same year he was appointed envoy extraordi- 
nary to the courts of Denmark and Prussia. In December 
1716, he became lord-clerk-register. In 1721 he was ap- 
pointed first ambassador to the congress at Cambrav. and in 
March of that year made his public entry into that city in a style 
of splendour and magnificence becoming the representative of 
the British nation. He succeeded his father as earl of March- 
mont, August 1, 1724, and the following year was invested 
with the order of the Thistle. In 1726 he was sworn a privy 
councillor, and in 1727 chosen one of the sixteen representa- 
tive Scots peers. In 1733 he joined the opposition against 
Sir Robert Walpole, and in consequence he was, in May 
of that year, dismissed from his office of lord-clerk-regis 
ter. He died at London February 27, 1740, in his 65th 
year, and was buried in Canongate churchyard, Edinburgh. 
In the Scots Magazine for March 1740, is a high character of 
this nobleman. He had four sons and four daughters. The 
two eldest sons died young. The two youngest, Hugh, third 
earl, and the Hon. Alexander Home, were twins, born at 
Edinburgh loth February 1708. At the general election of 
1734 the latter was chosen M.P. for Berwickshire, and con- 
stantly rechosen till his death 19th July 1760. He took an 
active part in parliamentary business, and was an eminent 
barrister in London. In 1741 he was appointed solicitor to 
the prince of Wales, and 27th January 1756, lord-clerk- re- 
gister of Scotland. 

Hugh, third earl of Marchmont, became eminent for his 
learning and brilliant genius. At the general election of 
1734, he was chosen M.P. for Berwick, and in the House of 
Commons he made himself so formidable to the government 
as one of the leaders of the opposition, that Sir Robert Wal- 
pole, then prime minister, declared that there were few 
things he more ardently desired than to see that young man 
at the head of his family ; which would have had the effect 
of removing him from parliament altogether. On the death 



MARISCHAL, 



104 



FOURTH EARL. 



»f his father in February 1740, he became third earl of 
Marchmont. 

By Ills contemporaries his lordship was held in high esti- 
mation. He formed an intimate friendship with Lord Cob- 
ham, who gave his bust a place in the Temple of Worthies at 
Stow, and with Pope, who introduced his name into the 
well-known inscription in his grotto at Twickenham : 

" There the bright flame was shot through Marchmont's soul." 

He was one of the executors of Pope, and also of Sarah, 
duchess of Marlborough, both of whom died in 1744. The 
latter left him a legacy of £2,500. In 1750 he was elected 
one of the sixteen representative peers of Scotland, and re- 
chosen at every general election till 1784. During the 34 
years that he sat in the house of Lords, he took an active 
part in the business of the house, few of their lordships pos- 
sessing a greater amount of parliamentary information and 
experience. In 1747 he had been appointed first lord of 
police, a department long since abolished, and on 28th Janu- 
ary 1764, keeper of the great seal of Scotland. He died at 
Hemel-Hempstead, Hertfordshire, 10th January 1794, in his 
86th year, when the earldom of Marchmont became dor- 
mant. He built Marchmont House, in the parish of Pol- 
warth, Berwickshire, and on his death Sir Hugh Purves, 
sixth baronet of Purves Hall, great-grandson of Lady Anne 
Purves, eldest sister of the third earl of Marchmont, assumed 
the names of Hume and Campbell on succeeding to the 
estates. 

His lordship married, first, in May 1731, Miss Anne Wes- 
tern, London, by whom he had a son, Patrick, Lord Pol- 
warth, who died young, and three daughters. The youngest 
daughter, Lady Diana Home, married, 18th April, 1754, 
Walter Scott of Harden, Berwickshire, M.P., who died at 
Tonbridge, 25th January, 1793, and had one son, Hugh Scott 
of Harden, who, in 1835, made good his claim to the title of 
Lord Polwarth in the Scottish peerage (see Polwarth, 
lord). Lady Diana was the only one of the earl's daughters 
who left surviving issue, and the Polwarth peerage, when 
conferred on the first earl of Marchmont, was with remain- 
der to the heirs male of his body, and failing these to the 
heirs general of such heirs male. His countess having died 
9th May 1747, the earl married, secondly, at London, 30th 
January 1748, Miss Elizabeth Crompton, daughter of a linen- 
draper in Cheapside. By this lady he had one son, Alexan- 
der, Lord Polwarth, born in 1750, married 16th July 1772, 
Lady Annabella Yorke, eldest daughter of Philip, second earl 
of Hardwicke. He was created a peer of the United King- 
dom by the title of Baron Hume of Berwick, 14th May, 
1776. He died, without issue, 9th March 1781, in his 31st 
vear, when his British title became extinct. 

Lord Marchmont bequeathed his library, consisting of one 
of the most curious and valuable collections of books and 
manuscripts in Great Britain, to his sole executor, the Right 
Hon. George Rose, whose son, Sir George Henry Rose, pub- 
lished in 1831, ' A Selection from the papers of the Earls of 
Marchmont, illustrative of Events from 1685 to 1750,' in 3 
vols. 8vo. 



Marischal, Earl, a title (attainted in 1716) in the Scot- 
tish peerage, conferred by James II., before 4th July 1458, 
on Sir William Keith, great marischal of Scotland (see vol. 
ii. p. 587). The first earl died before 1476. His son, Wil- 
liam, second earl, joined the confederacy against King James 
III., in 1488, and sat in the first parliament of King James 
IV., the same vear. He had four sons. From John, the 



youngest son, descended the Keiths of Craig, to which family 
belonged Sir Robert Murray Keith, K.B., British ambassador 
to Vienna, St. Petersburgh, and Copenhagen ; his brother, 
Sir Basil Keith, governor of Jamaica; and their sister, Mrs. 
Murray Keith, the well-known Mrs. Bethune Baliol of Sir 
Walter Scott, notices of whom are given at page 587 of vol. 
ii. of this work. 

William, the eldest son, succeeded as third earl Marischal. 
In 1515, when the castle of Stirling was surrendered by the 
queen-mother to the regent Albany, the young king, James 
V., and his infant brother, the duke of Ross, were committed 
to the keeping of the earl Marischal, with the lords Fleming 
and Borthwick, whose fidelity to the crown was unsuspected; 
and in 1517, when Albany went to France, the young king 
was conveyed to the castle of Edinburgh, and intrusted to the 
charge of Lord Marischal and Lord Erskine. The earl died 
about. 1530. With four daughters he had four sons. Robert, 
Lord Keith, and his brother, William, the two eldest sons, 
fell at the battle of Flodden, 13th September 1513. The 
pennon of the earl Marischal borne in that fatal battle, hav- 
ing on it three stags' heads, and the motto, " Veritas Vin- 
cit," is preserved in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 
Lord Keith had, with three daughters, two sons ; William, 
fourth earl Marischal, and Robert, commendator of Deer, 
whose son, Andrew Keith, was created Lord Dingwall, in 
1587, but died without issue (see vol. ii. p. 38). From the 
earl's youngest son, Alexander Keith, descended Bishop Ro- 
bert Keith, author of the Catalogue of Scottish Bishops, a 
memoir of whom is given at page 591 of vol. ii. 

William, fourth earl, the elder of the two sons of Lora 
Keith, succeeded his grandfather in 1530. He accompanied 
King James V., on his matrimonial expedition to France in 
1536, and was appointed an extraordinary lord of session, 2d 
July 1541. At the meeting of the Estates, 12th March 1543, 
he was selected, with the earl of Montrose, and the lords 
Erskine, Ruthven, Lindsay, Livingston, and Seton, to be 
keepers of the young Queen Mary's person, and nominated 
one of the secret council to the regent Arran. Sir Ralph 
Sadler, the English ambassador in Scotland, describes him at 
this time, in a letter to his sovereign, as " a goodly young 
gentleman," and as well inclined to the project of the mar- 
riage of Queen Mary with Prince Edward. He also mentions 
him as one " who hath ever borne a singular good affection " 
to Henry. In the list of the English king's pensioners in 
Scotland, we find the earl Marischal, John Charteris and the 
Lord Gray's friends in the North, set down at 300 marks. 
On the 18th December of the same year (1543), his place in 
the council, with that of the earls of Angus, Lennox, and 
Glencairn, was filled up, on the ground that they were ab- 
sent and would not attend. He was one of the principal 
nobles who signed the agreement in the following June, to 
support the authority of the queen-mother as regent of Scot- 
land, against the earl of Arran, declared by that instrument 
to be deprived of his office. (Tytler's Hist, of Scotland, vol. 
v. p. 369, Note.) 

The earl seems early to have been well inclined towards 
the doctrines of the Reformation, and he was doubtless in- 
duced, with the other nobles favourable to the proposed ma- 
trimonial alliance with England, to give it his support, in the 
belief that it would tend to the introduction into Scotland of 
a purer faith and a more simple form of worship, than the 
Roman Catholic. In 1544, when George Wishart, the mar- 
tyr, preached in Dundee, and denounced from the pulpit the 
judgments of heaven against that town for having been in- 
terdicted by the civic authorities from preaching there any 
more, lord Marischal and several other noblemen were present 



MARISCHAL, 



105 



SEVENTH EARL. 



and endeavoured to induce him to remain, or go with them, 
feut he preferred proceeding to Edinburgh. Tytler mentions 
the earl Marischal as one of the persons associated with the 
earl of Cassillis in his conspiracy to assassinate Cardinal 
Bethune, by the hands of one Forster, an Englishman, com- 
missioned thereto by Henry VIII. The plot, he says, he 
discovered during his researches in the secret correspondence 
of the State Paper office, and that it was previously unknown 
to any Scottish or English historian. {Hist, of Scotland, 
vol. v., p. 387). His lordship fought at Pinkie in 1547, 
when several of his followers were slain. In September 1550 
he accompanied the queen dowager to France. 

In May 1556, when Knox was summoned to appear before 
the bishops in the church of the Blackfriars at Edinburgh, 
" the earl of Glencairn," says Calderwood, " allured the earl 
Marischal, with his counseller, Harie Drummond, to hear his 
exhortation in the night;" when they were so well pleased 
with what they heard that they induced the Reformer to 
write a letter to the queen regent, in the hope that she might 
be persuaded to listen to his preaching. He accordingly sent 
by Glencairn a long epistle to her majesty, which is printed 
in Calderwood's History, (vol. i. pages 308 — 316) and is the 
same which called from her the sneering remark, on delivering 
it to Bethune, bishop of Glasgow, " Please you, my lord, to 
read a pasquil ! " Lord Marischal was one of the noblemen 
in the suite of the queen regent when she made her entry into 
Perth, 29th May 1559 ; and with the earls of Argyle and 
Glencairn, and the lord James Stuart, afterwards the regent 
Moray, he was called to the deathbed of that princess in June 

1560, when she expressed her sorrow for the calamities under 
which Scotland was at that time suffering, and earnestly ex- 
horted them to send both the French and English armies out 
of the country, and to continue their allegiance to their lawful 
sovereign. 

When the Confession of Faith was ratified by the three 
estates of the kingdom at Edinburgh, 17th July 1560, the 
earl Marischal made the following remarkable speech : " It is 
long since I had some favour into the truth, and was some- 
what jealous of the Roman religion ; but, praised be God, I 
am this day fully resolved ; for seeing my lords the bishops 
who by their learning can, and for the zeal they owe to the 
truth, would, as I suppose, gainsay anything repugnant to 
the same, yet speak nothing against the doctrine proponed, I 
cannot but hold it the very truth of God, and the contrary of 
it false and deceavable doctrine. Therefore, so far as in me 
lyeth, I approve the one, and condemn the other, and do 
farther ask of God, that not only I, but also my posterity, 
may enjoy the comfort of the doctrine that this day our ears 
have heard. Farther, I protest if any persons ecclesiastical 
shall hereafter oppose themselves to this our confession, that 
they have no place nor credit, considering that time of ad- 
visement being granted to them, and they having full know- 
ledge of this our confession, none is now found in lawful, free, 
and quiet parliament to oppose themselves to that which we 
profess. And, therefore, if any of this generation pretend to 
do after this, I protest he be reputed rather one that loveth 
his own commodity and the glory of the world, than the 
glory of God, and salvation of men's souls." {Calderwood's 
Hist, vol. ii. p. 37). He was one of the twenty-four lords 
selected by the estates, from among whom the crown was to 
choose eight and the estates six, for the government of the 
country. He also subscribed the Book of Discipline. 

On the return of Queen Mary from France in August, 

1561, he was sworn one of the lords of her privy council. 
He took an active part in all questions respecting religion, 
and in the General Assembly which met at Edinburgh in 



December 1563, he was one of the committee nypufc'Sod to 
revise the Book of Discipline. He did not, kswvnr, iBtttfen 

much in political matters, and when tie nation cvr.e to be 
divided against itself, on the death of D&rniey and tic in*- 
prisonment of the queen, he retired to his cistle of Dosnoitar, 
on the seacoast of Kincardineshire, whence ho so scliom 
stirred that he acquired the name of William of the T" ex. 
So extensive was his landed property at that time that his 
yearly rental amounted to 270,000 marks. It was situated 
in so many different counties that it is said he could travel 
from Berwick to the northern extremity of Scotland, eating 
his meals and sleeping every night on his own estates. 
{Douglas 1 Peerage, vol. ii. p. 192.) He died 7th October 
1581. By his countess, Margaret, daughter and co-heiress 
of Sir William Keith of Inverugie, Banffshire, he had, with 
seven daughters, two sons, William, Lord Keith, and Robert, 
Lord Altrie. (See vol. i. p. 122.) 

William, Lord Keith, the elder son, was taken prisoner, in 
an inroad into England in 1558, and placed in the custody of 
the earl of Northumberland, but allowed to go home in De- 
cember 1559 on bond. The exorbitant sum of £2,000 was 
demanded for his ransom. He died 10th August 1580, leav- 
ing four sons and four daughters. 

His eldest son, George, fifth earl Marischal, the founder of 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, succeeded his grandfather in 
October 1581. Of this nobleman a memoir is given at page 
588 of vol. ii. His eldest son, William, succeeded as sixth 
earl on his death, April 2, 1623. The latter was a member 
of the Scottish privy council, under Charles I., and in 1634, 
he fitted out a fleet which he sent to Uladislaus VII., king of 
Poland. He died 28th October 1635, leaving four sons and 
three daughters. The two eldest sons, William and George, 
succeeded as seventh and eighth earls. John, the fourth son, 
was the first earl of Kintore. (See Kintore, earl of, vol. ii. 
page 611.) 

William, seventh earl, was a staunch Covenanter. When 
the earl of Montrose, in March 1639, went to Aberdeen to 
force the covenant on the inhabitants of that city, the earl 
Marischal, according to Spalding, had one of the five colours 
carried by his well appointed army on that occasion. Some- 
time after its departure to the south, the Covenanters of the 
north appointed a committee meeting to be held at Turriff, a 
small town in Aberdeenshire, on the 24th April, consisting of 
the earls Marischal and Seaforth, the Lord Fraser, the Mas- 
ter of Forbes, and some others. The meeting was afterwards 
postponed till the 26th of April, and subsequently adjourned 
to Aberdeen, to be held on the 20th of May. A body of 
about 2,000 Covenanters having assembled at Turriff as early 
as the 13th, the Gordons resolved to attack them before they 
should be joined by more, and having surprised them on the 
morning of the 14th, they were soon dispersed, and a few 
taken prisoners. The loss on either side in killed and 
wounded was very trifling. This skirmish is called by the 
writers of the period, "the Trot of Turray," and is distin- 
guished as the place where blood was first shed in the civil 
wars. 

Marching to Aberdeen, the Gordons expefled the Cove- 
nanters from the town, and being joined there by a larger 
force, they sent John Leith of Harthill and William Lums- 
den, advocate in Aberdeen, to Dunnottar, for the purpose of 
ascertaining the sentiments of the earl Marischal, in relation 
to their proceedings, and whether they might reckon on his 
friendship. The earl intimated that he would require eight 
days to advise with his friends. This answer was considered 
quite unsatisfactory, and the chiefs of the army were at a loss 
how to act. Robert Gordon of Straloch and James Burnet of 



MARISCHAL, 



106 



EIGHTH EARL. 



Craigmile, a brother of the laird of Leys, proposed to enter 
into a negotiation with the earl, but Sir George Ogilvy of 
Banff would not listen to such a proceeding, and, addressing 
Straloch, he said, " Go, if you will go ; but prythee, let it be 
its quarter-master, to inform the earl that we are coming." 
After having had an interview with the earl, Straloch and 
Burnet returned with the answer that his lordship had no 
intention to take up arms, without an order from the Tables, 
as the boards of representatives, chosen respectively by the 
nobility, country gentry, clergy, and inhabitants of the burghs, 
were called, that if the Gordons would disperse he would 
give them early notice to re-assemble, if necessary, for their 
own defence, but that if they should attack him, he would 
certainly defend himself. 

On receiving this answer the Gordons disbanded their army 
on the 21st May. The depredations of the Highlanders upon 
the properties of the Covenanters were thereafter carried on 
to such an extent that the latter complained to the earl, who 
immediately assembled a body of men out of Angus and the 
Mearns, with which he entered Aberdeen on the 23d May. 
Two days afterwards he was joined by Montrose, at the head 
of 4,000 men, an addition which, with other accessions, 
made the whole force assembled at Aberdeen exceed 6,000. 
This army was soon after marched into the Mearns by Mon- 
trose. 

On the approach to Stonehaven from Aberdeen of a royal- 
ist force under the viscount of Aboyne, on the 14th June, the 
earl Marischal posted himself with 1,200 men and some pieces 
of ordnance from Dunnottar castle, on the direct road which 
Aboyne had to pass. As the latter descended the Meagre 
hill, on the morning of the loth, the earl opened a heavy fire 
upon him, which threw his men into complete disorder, and 
in a short time his whole army gave way. This affair was 
called "the Raid of Stonehaven." 

The earl Marischal and Montrose now advanced towards 
the Dee with all their strength, and as Aboyne was anxious 
to prevent their passage of that river, a battle took place at 
the Bridge of Dee, in which the royalists were defeated and 
their army obliged to fly. The next day, the 20th June, 
1639, the tidings arrived of the pacification of Berwick, con- 
cluded two days before, when both parties disbanded their 
forces. 

The earl was one of the association which Montrose had 
formed at Cumbernauld in January 1641, for supporting the 
royal authority. In September 1644, however, he joined the 
army of the earl of Argyle, on its route to the north, to op- 
pose the royalist forces under Montrose, after the battle of 
Aberdeen. In the following October he was one of the com- 
mittee of the Estates sitting in that city, when Montrose en- 
tered Angus, and on hearing of his approach, they issued, on 
the 10th of that month, a printed order, to which the earl 
Marischal's name was attached, ordaining all persons, of 
whatever age, sex, or condition, having horses of the value of 
forty pounds Scots or upwards, to send them to the Bridge of 
Dee, the appointed place of rendezvous, on the 14th October, 
with riders fully equipped and armed; with certification, in 
case of failure, that each landed proprietor should be fined 
£1,000 ; every gentleman not a landed proprietor, £500 
Scots ; and each husbandman 100 merks, besides confiscation 
of their horses. With the exception, however, of Lord Gor- 
don, eldest son of the marquis of Huntly, who brought three 
troops of horse, and Captain Alexander Keith, brother of the 
earl Marischal, who appeared with one troop at the appointed 
place, no attention was paid to the order of the committee 
by the people, who had no desire to expose themselves again 
to the vengeance of Montrose and his troops. In the battle 



of Fyvie which followed, the only person of note who was 
killed was the above-named Captain Keith. 

The earl was now to find a bitter opponent in his formet 
associate and friend, the marquis of Montrose. The latter 
took up his quarters at Stonehaven on 19th March 1645, and 
the following day he wrote a letter to Lord Marischal, who 
with sixteen ministers and some persons of distinction, had 
shut himself up in his castle of Dunnottar. The bearer ol 
the letter, however, without being suffered to enter within 
the gate, was sent away without an answer. It is said that 
he was advised to this line of conduct by his countess and 
the ministers who had taken refuge in Dunnottar. Highly 
incensed at the earl's silence, Montrose desired Lord Gordor 
to write to George Keith, the earl's brother, who had an in- 
terview with Montrose at Stonehaven, when the latter in 
formed him that all he wanted from the earl was that he 
should serve the king his master against his rebellious sub- 
jects, and that if he failed to do so, he would feel his ven 
geance. But the earl declined to comply, as he said " h« 
would not be against the country." (Spalding, vol. ii. p. 306.) 

In consequence of this refusal, Montrose at once subjected 
his property to military execution. On the 21st of March 
he set fire to the houses adjuining the castle of Dunnottar 
and burnt the grain stacked in the barn-yards. He next set 
fire to the town of Stonehaven. The lands and houses o' 
Cowie shared the same fate. The woods of Fetteresso wer» 
also burnt, and the whole of the lands in the vicinity ravaged 
A ship in the harbour of Stonehaven, after being plundered, 
was also set fire to, with all the fishing boats. The vassab 
and dependents of the earl crowded before the castle of Dun- 
nottar, and with loud cries of pity, implored him to save 
them from rain. No attention was paid to their supplica- 
tions, and the earl witnessed from his stronghold the tota, 
destruction of the properties of his tenants without making 
any effort to prevent it. He is said, however, deeply to have 
regretted his rejection of Montrose's proposals, when he be- 
held the smoke ascending all around him ; " but the famous 
Andrew Cant, who was among the number of his ghostly 
company, edified his resolution at once to its original pitch of 
firmness, by assuring him that that reek would be a sweet 
smelling incense in the nostrils of the Lord, rising, as it did, 
from property which had been sacrificed to the holy cause of 
the covenant." 

In 1648, the earl raised a troop of horse for the "Engage- 
ment," formed by the duke of Hamilton for the release of the 
king from his captivity, and was present at the rout of Pres- 
ton, but escaped. In 1650, he entertained King Charles II., 
in the castle of Dunnottar, and on 6th June 1651, his castle 
of Dunnottar was selected by the Scots Estates and privy 
council, as the fittest place for the preservation of the regalia 
of Scotland (see Kixtore, earl of, vol. ii. p. 611). He was 
one of the committee of the Estates arrested by a detachment 
of English horse from Dundee, on 28th August, 1651, when 
sitting at Alyth in Angus. Carried prisoner to the Tower ot 
London, he remained there till the Restoration, having been 
excepted from Cromwell's act of grace and pardon, 12th 
April, 1654. He was sworn one of the privy councillors ot 
Charles II., and appointed keeper of the privy seal of Scot- 
land. He died in 1661. 

His brother, George, succeeded as eighth earl. In his 
yonnger years this nobleman served in the French army, and 
rose to the rank of colonel. At the commencement of the 
civil wars in Scotland, he returned home, and at the battle of 
Preston in 1648, he commanded a regiment of foot under the 
duke of Hamilton. At the battle of Worcester in 1651, he 
had the charge of three regiments appointed to guard a par- 



MARISCIIAL, 



107 



TENTH EARL 



fcicular post, when, being overpowered by numbers, lie was 
made prisoner. At the Kevolution he seems to have taken no 
part on either side. In a letter from Viscount Dundee to the 
earl of Melfort, dated June 27, 1689, giving an account of 
the position and views of several of the Scots nobility and 
gentry in regard to the struggle for the throne, Dundee says 
of him, " Earl Marshall is at Edinburgh, but does not med- 
dle." The earl died in 1694. 

His only son, William, ninth earl, took the oaths and his 
seat in the Estates, 19th July 1098, and always opposed the 
measures of King William's reign. In the parliament of 6th 
May 1703, he protested against the calling of any of the earls 
before himself. He voted against the Union on every occa- 
sion when any question regarding it was before the house, 
and when the treaty was agreed to, he entered a solemn pro- 
test against it. As heritable keeper of the regalia of Scot- 
land, he ordered the same to be delivered up to the earl of 
Glasgow, treasurer-depute, to be lodged in the castle of Edin- 
burgh, protesting, at the same time, that this should not in- 
validate his right as keeper thereof, and that if it should be 
found necessary, at any future time, to transport the regalia 
to any other place within the kingdom, this should not be 
done till intimation be made to him or his successors. The 
principal instrument, attested by seven notaries public, in 
the hands of Alexander Keith of Dunnottar, is printed in the 
second volume of Nisbet's System of Heraldry. At the gene- 
ral election, 10th November 1710, the earl was chosen one of 
the sixteen Scots representative peers. He died 27th May 
1712. By his countess, Lady Mary Drummond, eldest 
daughter of the fourth earl of Perth, high chancellor of Scot- 
land at the Revolution, he had two sons and two daughters. 
George, the elder son, succeeded as tenth earl Marischal. 
James Francis Edward, the younger son, was the celebrated 
Marshal Keith, a memoir of whom is given at page 576 of 
vol. ii. Lady Mary Keith, the elder daughter, married the 
sixth earl of Wigton, and was the mother of Lady Clementina 
Fleming, wife of the tenth Lord Elphinstone, one of whose 
sons, Admiral Sir George Keith Elphinstone, K.B., was cre- 
ated Viscount Keith. (See vol. ii. p. 139.) Lady Anne, the 
younger daughter, became countess of Galloway. 

George, tenth earl, was born about 1693. Of the once 
vast property of his family all that he inherited were the 
estates of Dunnottar, Fetteresso, and Innerugie, the remain- 
der having been dilapidated in the time of Cromwell, or given 
as provision to the younger branches. From Queen Anne, 
his lordship received the command of a troop of horse, and on 
the death of lieutenant-general the earl of Crawford (see vol. 
i. p. 716) he was appointed, 3d February 1714, captain of the 
Scottish troop of horse grenadier guards. He signed the pro- 
clamation of George I., August 1, the same year; but not 
being acceptable to the duke of Argyle, he was deprived of his 
command, at the same time that his cousin the earl of Mar 
was dismissed from his office of secretary of state. Lord 
Marischal, on his way back to Scotland, met his brother 
James, the future Marshal Keith, at York, hastening to Lon- 
don, to apply for promotion in the army. They returned 
home together, and instigated by their mother, who was a 
Jacobite and a Roman Catholic, they at once engaged in the 
rebellion of 1715. 

The earl was one of the disaffected nobles who attended 
the pretended hunting match, summoned by the earl of Mar 
at Aboyne in Aberdeenshire, when he unfolded his plans in 
favour of the Chevalier to those assembled, and he afterwards 
proclaimed "King James VIII." at Aberdeen. At the battle 
of Sheriffinuir he had the command of two squadrons of 
horse. On his arrival in Scotland 22d December, the Cheva- 



lier passed the next night at Newburgh, a seat of the ear; 
Marischal, and at Fetteresso, the principal seat of the earl, 
he remained several days, suffering from ague. Here he held 
a reception, when the earl of Mar, the earl Marischal, and 
about thirty other noblemen and gentlemen, were introduced 
to him, and had the honour of kissing his hand. When thi 
Chevalier made his public entry into Dundee, on 6th January 
1716, the earl of Mar rode on his right hand and the earl 
Marischal on his left. After the failure of the enterprize, the 
earl escaped to the continent, but bis titles, with the here- 
ditary office of Marischal of Scotland, which had been in the 
family since the days of Malcolm Canmore, were attainted, 
and his estates forfeited to the crown. 

In 1719, the earl returned to Scotland, with the Spanish 
troops sent by Cardinal Alberoni, prime minister of the king 
of Spain, to make another attempt in the Pretender's favour. 
This small force landed in the western Highlands, and was 
joined by some Highlanders, chiefly Seaf'orth's men. A dif- 
ference arose between the earl Marischal and the marquis of 
Tullibardine about the command, but this dispute was put 
an end to by the advance of General Wightman from Inver- 
ness, with a body of regular troops. The Highlanders and 
their allies had taken possession of the pass at Glenshiel ; 
but, on the approach of the government troops, they retired 
to the pass at Strachell, which they resolved to defend. Gen- 
eral Wightman attacked and drove them from one eminence 
to another, when, seeing no chance of making a successful 
resistance, the Highlanders dispersed during the night, and 
the Spaniards on the following day surrendered themselves 
prisoners of war. Marischal, Seaforth, and Tullibardine, 
with the other officers, retired to the western isles, and there- 
after escaped to the continent. 

On the rupture between Great Britain and Spain in 1740, 
the Chevalier despatched Lord Marischal to Madrid to in- 
duce the Spanish court to adopt measures for his restoration. 
Alluding to his expectations of assistance from France, the 
Chevalier, in a letter written to Lord Marischal on 11th Jan- 
uary 1740, while his lordship was on his way to the Spanish 
capital, says, " I am betwixt hopes and fears, tho' I think 
there is more room for the first than the last, as you will 
have perceived by what Lord Sempil (so an active agent of 
James was called) has, I suppose, writ to you. I conclude I 
shall some time next month see clearer into these great af- 
fairs." The original is among the Stuart papers in her Ma- 
jesty's possession. In 1743, the earl was at Boulogne, and 
in the following year, when the French government were 
meditating an invasion of Great Britain in support of the 
Pretender, a small force in connection with it was to be 
landed in Scotland under his lordship's command. In a let- 
ter, however to the Chevalier from Lord Marischal, dated 
Avignon, 5th September 1744, his lordship insinuates that 
there existed a design, on the part of the French ministry, 
or of the Chevalier's agents at Paris, to exclude both the 
duke of Ormond and himself from any share in the expedi- 
tion. 

The earl took no part in the attempt of Prince Charles in 
1745. Having gone to reside in Prussia, he gained the con- 
fidence of Frederick the Great, who, in 1750, appointed him 
his ambassador extraordinary to France. He also invested 
him with the Prussian order of the Black Eagle, and bestow- 
ed on him the government of Neufchatel. In 1759, the earl 
was ambassador from Prussia to Spain, and discovering, 
while at the court of Madrid, the secret of the " Family 
Compact," by which the different branches of the house of 
Bourbon had bound themselves to assist each other, he com- 
municated that important intelligence to Mr. Pitt, then 



MARK, 



108 



EARL OF. 



prime mkjiitac ;-f England, afterwards the first earl of Chat- 
ham. The L-ittti tfiTlng represented his case to George II., 
a pardon was grsstod to him 29th May 1759. The earl 
thereupon quitted Madrid, bat had not been gone 36 hours 
before mtllligQnsti 'sras received of the communication he had 
made to England. 

Arnviag in London he was introduced to George II., loth 
June 1760, and most graciously received. An act of parlia- 
ment passed the same year - , to enable him to inherit any estate 
that might descend to him, notwithstanding his attainder, 
and he was thus enabled to possess the entailed estates of the 
earl of Kintore, on his death in 1761 (see Klntore, earl of, 
vol. ii. p. 611). He took the oaths to the government in the 
court of king's bench 26th January, 1761. His own estates 
had been sold in 1720 to the York Building Company for 
£41,172, and his castle of Dunnottar dismantled, but in 
1761 an act of parliament was passed to enable his majesty, 
George III. to grant to him out of the principal sum and in- 
terest remaining due on his forfeited estate, the sum of 
£3,618, with interest from Whitsunday 1721. In 1761. 
Lord Marischal purchased back part of the family estates, 
with the intention of taking up his residence in Scotland. 
The king of Prussia, however, was urgent for his return to 
Berlin. In one of his letters he said, " If I had a fleet, I 
would come and carry you off by force." The earl, in conse- 
quence, went back to Prussia, where he spent the remainder 
of his days. A traveller, who visited Berlin about 1777, thus 
writes • " We dined almost every day with the Lord Maris- 
chal, who was then 85 years old, and was still as vigorous as 
ever both in body and mind. The king had given him a 
house adjoining the gardens of Sans Souci, and frequently 
went thither to see him. He had excused himself from dining 
with him, having found that his health would not allow him 
to sit long at table, and he was of all those who had enjoyed 
the favour of the king the only one who could truly be called 
his friend, and who was sincerely attached to his person. 
Of course, every body paid court to him. He was called the 
king's friend, and was the only one who had merited that 
title, for he had always stood well with him without flatter- 
ing him." His lordship died, unmarried, at Potsdam, 28th 
May 1778, in his 86th year. An 'Eloge de My lord Mare- 
chal ' by D'Alembert, was published at Berlin in 1779. 



Marjoribanks, a territorial surname, from the lands of 
Ratho-Murjorie, Renfrewshire. See p. 114 of this volume. 



Marr, or Mar, earl of, a title in the Scots peerage, now 
possessed by the family of Erskine. The ancient district of 
Aberdeenshire of this name, ly'ng chiefly between the Don and 
the Dee, was one of the old maormordoms into which the north 
of Scotland was divided, whose origin is lost in antiquity. The 
first mention of it is in 1065, when Martachus, maormor of 
Marr, was witness to a charter of Malcolm Canmore in favour 
of the Culdees of Lochleven. His son, Gratnach, witnessed in 
1114 the foundation charter of the monastery of Scone by 
Alexander I. Properly, Gratnach may be considered the 
first earl of Marr, and not Martachus, as stated by Douglas 
in his Peerage the Saxon title of earl not being known in 
Scotland in Malcolm Canmore's days. He had a son, Mor- 
gundus, who witnessed a grant of lands by David I., to the 
monks of Dunfermline, and w»as father of Gillocher, witness 
to a charter of the same monarch in 1093. Gillocher's son, 
Morgund, received from King William the Lion in 1171, a 
grant of the renewal of the investitures of the earldom of 
Marr. He had five sons, the three eldest of whom, Gilbert, 
Gilchrist, and Duncan according to Douglas, were succes- 



sively earls of Marr, but the succession, as given in the Indea 
to Anderson's Diplomata Scotia, runs as follows : 1. Grat- 
nach; 2. Morgund; 3. Gilchrist; 4. Duncan, his brother, 
5. William : 6. Donald ; 7. Gratney ; 8. Donald II. ; 9. Tho- 
mas, &c. Earl Duncan died before 1234. 

His son, William, fifth earl, according to the above enu- 
meration, was, in 1258, during the minority of Alexander 
III., appointed one of the regents of Scotland. In 1264 he 
obtained the office of great chamberlain, and in 1270 he was 
sent on a special mission to Henry III. of England. He died 
the same year. By his countess, Elizabeth, daughter or Wil- 
liam Comyn. earl of Buchan, he had two sons, Donald and 
Duncan. 

Donald, the sixth, usually called the tenth earl of Marr, 
was knighted at Scone, by Alexander III., 29th September 
1270, and witnessed a charter of that monarch to the fourth 
earl of Lennox in 1272. He was also a witness to the mar- 
riage contract of the princess Margaret of Scotland with 
Eric, king of Norway, in 1281, and one of the Scots nobles 
who, in the parliament of Scone, 5th February 1283-4, swore 
to acknowledge the Maiden of Norway as their sovereign in 
the event of the death of Alexander III. He was present in 
the assembly at Brigham 12th July 1290, when the treaty 
for the marriage of the Maiden of Norway, Alexander's 
grand-daughter and successor, with the prince of Wales, af- 
terwards Edward II. of England, was concluded, but her 
death at Orkney, on her passage from Norway, put an end tc 
that project for the union of the two kingdoms. 

Donald, earl of Man - , was one of the nominees chosen on 
the part of Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick, in his competition 
for the Scottish crown in 1190. He died in 1294, leaving a 
son, Gratney, who succeeded him, and two daughters. Isa- 
bella, the elder, as the wife of Robert the Brace, was queen 
of Scotland. Mary, the younger, married Kenneth, third 
earl of Sutherland. 

Gratney, 7th, called 11th earl, married the lady Christian 
Brace, sister of Robert I., the Bruce and Marr families being 
thus doubly united. With a son, Donald, his successor, he 
had a daughter, Lady Elyne Marr, the wife of Sir John Men- 
teith, and mother of a daughter, Christian, married to Sir 
Edward Keith. Lady Keith's daughter, Janet, married Sit 
Thomas Erskine, and her son by him, Sir Robert Erskine, in 
her right, claimed half the landsof Marr. The Lady Christian 
Bruce brought to the family of Marr the magnificent castle of 
Kildrammie, in Aberdeenshire, which, at an early period, was 
royal property. In 1335, when besieged by the earl of Athole, 
whom the Baliol faction had made governor of the kingdom, 
it was under her charge. After Earl Gratney's death, the 
countess married Sir Christopher Seton of Seton, and after- 
wards Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell. 

Donald, 8th, called 12th earl, was very young at his father's 
death. On the defeat of his uncle, Robert the Bruce, at Meth- 
ven in 1306, the earl of Mar was taken prisoner by the Eng- 
lish. During the long and arduous struggle for Scotland's in- 
dependence, he remained a captive in England. When, how- 
ever, it had at last been achieved on the field of Bannockburn, 
he obtained his liberty, being, with the wife, sister, and daugh- 
ter of Brace, and the bishop of Glasgow, exchanged for the 
earl of Hereford. He was present in the parliament of Scone 
in 1318, but as he appears to have chiefly resided in England 
during the uneasy reign of Edward II., his name does not 
appear at the famous letter of the Scottish nobles to the Pope 
in 1320. He was appointed by King Edward guardian of 
the castle of Bristol, and in September 1326, when the Eng- 
lish queen Isabella, with her paramour, Lord Mortimer, 
landed in England from France, with an army, against her 



MARR, 



109 



EARL OF. 



husband and his favourites the Despensers, he delivered up 
the castle to her, and returned to Scotland. In the following 
year he held a subordinate command in the Scottish army 
which, under Randolph and Douglas, invaded England. 

On the death of Randolph, July 30, 1332, the earl of Marr, 
on 2d August, was chosen regent in his stead, his principal 
recommendation being that he was the nephew of the late 
king, as he was every way unfitted for an office so arduous. 
He held the appointment, however, only for ten days. On 
the very day of his election he received notice that Edward 
Baliol, accompanied by the lords Beaumont and Wake, had 
appeared with a fleet in the Frith of Forth. After defeating 
a small force which had hastily collected to oppose his land- 
ing at Kinghorn, Baliol marched to Perth, and encamped 
near Forteviot, having the river Earn in his front. The earl of 
Marr drew up his army, of 30,000 men, upon Dupplin moor, 
on the opposite bank of the river. Baliol's force did not ex- 
ceed 3,000 men, but he had friends in the Scottish camp. 
Many of the Scots nobles, whose relatives had been disinher- 
ited by Bruce, secretly favoured his pretensions, as offering a 
chance of their being restored to their estates. Despising so 
small a force as Baliol commanded, the Scots abandoned 
themselves to careless security, and after spending the day in 
drunkenness, went to rest, without taking the common pre- 
caution even of placing sentinels. During the night of the 
12th of August, the English crossed the river by a ford 
pointed out to them by Andrew Murray of Tullibardine, one 
of the disaffected Scottish barons, and attacking the Scots 
army in their sleep, put them to complete rout. Among the 
killed was the earl of Marr. He left a son, Thomas, ninth 
earl, and a daughter, Lady Margaret, who succeeded her 
brother. 

Thomas, ninth called thirteenth earl, was one of the am- 
bassadors sent to treat witli England, for the temporary re- 
lease in 1351 of David II., from his English captivity; and 
in 1357, when that weak king was at length set at liberty, he 
was one of the seven great lords from whom three were to be 
selected as hostages for the payment of his ransom. In 13.58, 
the earl of Marr was appointed great chamberlain of Scotland. 
In 1362, he was named an ambassador to treat with England, 
and in 1369 he was one of the guarantees of a truce with 
that nation. He appears to have favoured the English in- 
terest, as he had a pension from King Edward III. of 600 
merks yearly. He died in 1377, leaving no issue. In him 
ended the direct male line of the old earls of Marr. 

His sister, Margaret, succeeded as countess of Marr. She 
married, first, William, first earl of Douglas, who, in her 
right, became earl of Marr, and is designed earl of Douglas 
and Marr in several charters. Having been divorced from 
him, she took for her second husband Sir John Swinton of 
Swinton, killed at Hoinildon hill in 1402. By the earl of 
Douglas she had a son, James, Earl of Douglas and Marr, and 
a daughter, Isabella After liis divorce, Wil i mi, 1st earl ox 
Douglas ceased to be styled earl of Man - . After her se ond 
maninge, Margaret eems to have surrendered the lands a- d 
title of Man - , to her son Jam s, who thus appears to have been 
latterly styled earl i f Douglas and Marr, in his mother's 1 fetime. 
James, 2d earl of Douglas and Marr, is the f imous earl Douglas 
who comma ded and fell at Otterburn, July 31, 1388, (see vol ii. 
p. 43). His title of earl of Douglas passed by some unknown 
entail ultimately to a Sir Arjhibal I Douglas, but it may be in- 
ferred he left a daughter, w ho died in minority, for we find 
Isabella in possession of the Douglas property, as tutrix, al- 
though she did not 1 ecome countess of Marr, till 1403, after the 
death of her first husband. 
In 14U4, she was residing tranquilly at her castle of Kildrummie, 



and Alexander Stewart, a natural son of the earl of Buchan, 
called the wolf of Badenoch, deeming her and her broad landa 
a prize worth the having, at the head of a formidable band of 
outlaws and robbers, stormed the castle, and either by vio- 
lence or persuasion, obtained her in marriage. The father of 
this lawless young man was the fourth son of King Robert 
II., and as his father's brother, the duke of Albany, governor 
of the kingdom, for his own purposes, winked at the feuds 
and excesses of the nobles, he took advantage of the disturbed 
state of the country and the unprotected condition of the 
countess, to commit an act, which was attended with com- 
plete success. On 12th August, 1404, the countess made 
over her earldom of Marr and Garioch, with all her other 
lands, to the said Alexander Stewart, " and the heirs to be 
procreated between him and her, whom failing, to his heirs 
and assignees whatsoever." To give a legal aspect to the 
whole transaction, on the 19th September, he presented him- 
self at the castle gate of Kildrummie, and surrendered to the 
countess not only the castle, but all within it. and the title 
deeds therein kept ; in testimony of which he delivered to her 
the keys to dispose of as she pleased. The countess, holding 
them in her hand, deliberately and of her own free will, chose 
him for her husband, and conferred upon him the castle, per- 
tinents, &c, as a free marriage gift, of which he took instru- 
ments. This, however, was not deemed sufficient, for, on the 
9th December following, the countess, standing in the fields, 
outside the castle of Kildrummie, in presence of Alexander, 
bishop of Ross, and the whole tenants, that it might appear to 
have been conferred without force on his part or fear on hers, 
granted a charter of the same to him, duly signed and sealed. 
After this the said Alexander Stewart was usually styled earl 
of Marr and lord of Garioch. 

In 1406, he was one of the ambassadors sent to England, 
to treat of peace. The following year he was again in Eng- 
land, when he engaged in a tournament with the earl of Kent 
at London. In 1408, he went to France and Flanders, with a 
splendid retinue, and, according to Wyntoun (Chvonykil, vol. 
ii. pp. 421 — 440) gained great distinction in the service of the 
duke of Burgundy, by whom he was sent to assist in quelling 
a rebellion at Liege, of the inhabitants against John of Bava- 
ria, their bishop. It is said that, on this occasion, although 
his wife the countess of Marr was then alive, he married the 
lady of Duffyl in Brabant. In a charter to his brother, An- 
drew Stewart, with his other acquired titles, he is styled 
" dominus de Dufle." This was the earl of Man - who com- 
manded the royal army against Donald, lord of the Isles, at 
the battle of Harlaw in 1411. The ostensible cause of the 
battle was the earldom of Ross, which had been held by his 
father, the Wolf of Badenoch, in right of his wife, the countess 
of Ross, and was claimed by his uncle, the regent Albany, for 
his second son, the earl of Buchan, as well as by Donald ol 
the Isles in right of his wife. (See vol. i. p. 37.) The strug- 
gle, however, was only a part of that long contest which took 
place betwixt the Saxon and the Celtic portions of the nation 
for the sovereignty of the country, which lasted till the latter 
were finally obliged to succumb. The lord of the Isles, with 
an army of 10,000 men, had advanced as far as the district of 
Marr, intending to plunder the city of Aberdeen, and to 
ravage the country to the borders of the Tay, but was stopped 
in his progress by the earl of Man - , as thus related in tho old 
historical ballad called ' The Battle of Harlaw : ' 

" To hinder this proud enterprize. 
The stout and mighty earl of Mat, 
With all his men in arms did rise, 
Even frae Curgarf to Craigievar. 



MARE, 



llu 



SEVENTH EARL OE. 



And doun the -ide of Don richt far, 
Angus and Mearns did all convene 
To fecht, or Donald came sae near, 
The royal burgh of Aberdeen. 

'And thus the martial ear of Mar 

Marcht with his men in richt array, 

Before the enemy was aware, 
His banner bauldly did display, 
For weel eneuch they knew the way. 

And all their semblance weel they saw 
Without all danger or delay, 

Came hastily to the Harlaw." 



In 1416 the earl was appointed ambassador extraordinary to 
England, and soon after warden of the marches. His uncle, the 
duke of Albany, being at this time governor of the kingdom, 
may partly account for his being preferred to such high offices, 
especially after the signal service he had done him in defeating 
his formidable rival, Donald of the Isles. 

The countess of Marr died in 1419, but the title and lands of 
the earldom of Marr continued in possession of her husband, 
under the deed of gift of 1404. Apprehensive, however, of ques- 
tions being raised as to its validity, and to that of a surrender and 
re-grant of the lands by the Regent Albany, he again resigned it 
Into the hands of the king, James I., on which a charter of the 
earldom, dated 2Sth May 142'i, was granted by the king, to 
himself for life, and to his natural son, Sir Thomas Stewart, after 
him, and the lawful heirs male of his body, and on their failure 
to revert to the crown. Earl Alexander died, without legitimate 
issue, in August 1435, and his natural son, Sir Thomas Stewart, 
having predeceased him, the earldom, according to the charter, 
became vested in the crown. 

Sir Robert Erskine, only son of Sir Thomas Erskine and Lady 
Janet Keith, great-granddaughter of Gratney, 7th, called the 
11th earl, (see page 108) claimed one half of the lands of the 
earldom, in right of his mother, (see vol. ii. p. 144.) On 22d 
April 143S, he was, by means of a fraudulent plot, served heir to 
the countess Isabel, and in the following November infefte 1 in 
the estates. Assuming the title of earl of Marr, he granted 
various charters to vassals of the earldom. He was not, however, 
allowed to retain possession of it. In 1437, immediately after 
the assassination of James I. an act of parliament was passed 
that no lands or possessions belonging to the king should be 
given to any man without the Gonsent of the three Estates, till 
the young king (James IL, then only seven years old) should be 
twenty-one years of age, and in 1440, it was agreed "for the 
good and quiet of the land, that the king should deliver up to 
Si Robert Erskine, calling himself earl of Marr, the castle of 
Kildrummie, to be kept by him till the king's majority, when 
the said Sir Robert should come before the king and the three 
Estates, and show his rights and claims, aa far as law will." At 
the same time Sir Robert delivered up to the king the castles of 
Marr and Dumbarton held by him. In 1442 Sir Robert Erskine 
took a protest at Stirling, in presence of the king and council, 
complaining against the chancellor, for refusing to retour him to 
the lordship of Garioch, and put him in possession of the castle 
of Kildrummie. He afterwards besieged and took the cujtie, 
whereupon the castle of Alloa, belonging to him, was taken 
possession of in the king's name. In 1448, in consequence of a 
neir indenture, Sir Robert Erskine obliged himself to deliver up 
\e castle of Kildrummie to the king. 

On Sir Robert's death, after 1449, the king, on various grounds, 
obtained a reduction of his service before an assize of error, 
held, in his presence, at Aberdeen, loth May 1457. 

The earldom, being thus properly restored to the estate of the 



crown, was never long enjoyed by any of the various personages 
on whom it was subsequently i-onf erred, the fate of all of whom 
was singularly unfortunate. The first of these was John, 3d son 
of James IL, a young prince of great accomplishments, and ex- 
pert in all the knightly exercises and pastimes of the age. Having 
rendered himself obnoxious to the favourites of his brother, James 
ILL, he was in 1479 by them accused of plotting against his life 
by spells and incantations, and by the king's command imprisoned 
in Craigmillar castle. Being condemned to die by the king's 
domestic council, he was removed to the Canongate, Edinburgh, 
and bled to death by having a vein opened. The earldom was 
next bestowed, or rather the revenues of it, on Cochrane, the 
principal favourite of the king, who styled himself earl of Marr, 
hanged at Lauder Bridge in 1482. 

The next possessor was Alexande Stewart, duke of Ross, third 
son of James III., who had a charter of the same, 2d March, 14S6. 
After his death, the date of which is unknown, it returned to the 
crown, and in February 15G1-2, it was conferred by Queen Mary 
on her natural brother, the lord James Stewart, afterwards 
legent, who resigned .t in order to be created earl of Moray, a 
title w.iich he preferred to th t of Marr, the latter being claimed 
by the Eiskine family. 

On the 23d June 1755, the queen gifted the lands of Marr to 
her kinsman lord Erskine as heir general of Isabella, and some- 
time betwixt the 28th July and the 1st August, most likely on 
the occasion of her marriage, created him earl of Marr. 

On 25th February 1875, in a contested claim for the earldom, 
when it became a question before the committee of privileges 
whether this were a new creation or a restoration, it was resolved 
by the House of Lords that it was a new creation, descendible to 
male heirs only, according to the ordinary rule. 

John, fifth Lord Erskine, heir general and first earl of Marr of 
that family, was elected regent of the kingdom, on the death of 
the regent Lennox, in 1571. A notice and portrait of him 
are given at page 144 of vol. ii. From Queen Mary and King 
Henry (Lord Darnley) he received a charter, 18th July 15G6, 
Slanting to him, heritably and irredeemably, and his heirs, bear- 
ing the surname and arms of Erskine, the office of sheriff of 
Stirlingshire, and the captainship and custody of the castle of 
Stirling, with the office of bailiary and chamberlainry of the 
lands and lordship of Stirling and of the water of Forth. The 
Erskines had been hereditary keepers of Stirling castle from the 
time of Sir Robert Erskine, who received the appointment from 
David II. (see vol. ii. p. 144). The earl was by far too honest 
and patriotic for the post of regent, to which he h;id been elected 
at a time when a civil war of unexampled ferocity raged in the 
kingdom, and being unable to prevent the scenes of blood and 
disorder which were continually occurring, or to bring about any 
union of parties, he sank beneath the burden of anxiety and grief 
which the distracted state of the kingdom occasioned him, and 
died 29th October 1572. By his wife, Annabella, daughter of 
Sir William Murray of Tullibardine, he had a son. John and a 
daughter, Mary, countess of Angus. 

John, his only son, 2d earl of Marr of the name of Erskine, born 
about 1558, was, though eight years older than the prince, edu- 
cated with King James VI. at Stirling castle, by George Bu- 
chanan, under the eyes of the countess of Marr, his mother, and 
Sir Alexander Erskine of Gogar, his uncle, ancestor of the earls 
of Kellie. (See Kellie, earl of.) He was only 14 years of age 
when he succeeded his father in 1572. In April 1578 the earl of 
Morton prevailed upon him to remove his uncle, Sir Alexander, 
from Stirling castle, and to take the keeping of the castle and of 
the king's person into his own hand. Morton then obtained 
admission to the castle, with his friends and followers iu small 
parties, and after that the young earl durst do nothing but what 
he commanded. 



MARR, 



111 



EARL OF. 



In August 1582, Mar was one of the nooies engaged in 
the Raid of Ruthven, the object of which was to get rid of 
the favourites, Lennox and Arran. The following year, Arran 
being recalled to court, Mar was committed to the custody of 
the earl of Argyle, and ordered to deliver up the castle of 
Stirling to the king and council, on pain of treason. On his 
doing so, the king gave the keeping of Stirling castle to Ar- 
ran, and also appointed him provost of Stirling. Mar, in the 
meantime, with the others concerned in the Ruthven affair, 
had taken refuge in Ireland. Returning to Scotland, they, 
on the 17th April 1584, surprised Stirling castle, but were 
forced hurriedly to leave it, on the 27th, on the approach of 
the king with a large force, and to take shelter in England. 
In the parliament which met 22d August of that year, the earl 
was attainted, with the others. In November 1585, however, 
he and the other banished lords re-entered Scotland, and as- 
sembling their retainers, at the head of 8,000 men, took pos- 
session of Stirling castle and the king's person, the unprincipled 
Arran, stripped of all his titles and estates, being allowed to 
drop into his original obscurity. In the parliament which 
met in December of the same year, the pardons of the con- 
federated lords were ratified, and their honours and estates 
restored. 

On the arrival of the king with Queen Anne from Den- 
mark 1st May 1590, they were received at the top of the 
stairs at the pier of Leith, by the duke of Lennox, the earls 
of Mar and Bothwell, and others ; the countesses of Mar and 
Marischal standing first in order amongst the sixteen noble 
women and ladies selected to receive the queen. In 1592 he 
was appointed governor of the castle of Edinburgh. At this 
time he was in high credit at court, and held the office of 
great master of the household. In March 1594 he was one 
of the noblemen who subscribed the bond at Aberdeen, where 
the king then was, for the security of the protestant religion, 
against the Popish earls, Huntly, Angus, and Errol, and 
others. After the baptism of Prince Henry on the penult 
day of August that year, the king dubbed the royal infant 
a knight, when he was " touched with the spur by the earl of" 
Mar." At the banquet which followed, " the king and queen, 
with the ambassadors, sat at table in the great hall, at eight 
hours at even ; the office men to the king, the earl of M ar, 
great master household ; the lord Fleming,, great usher; the 
earl of Montrose, carver; the earl of Glencairn, cupper; the 
earl of Orkney, sewer; to the queen, the lord Seton, carver; 
the lord Hume, cupper ; the lord Sempill, sewer. The table 
was so served that every one might see another." 

In the spring of 1595, the queen insisted that the young 
prince should be removed from Stirling to Edinburgh castle, 
with Buccleuch as governor of the latter fortress, but the earl 
of Mar, who had charge of the infant, would not allow her to 
come near him, except with a small retinue, lest he should be 
carried off. In July of that year the king formally intrusted 
the keeping and education of the prince to the earl, by a war- 
rant under his own hand, being the fifth generation of the 
royal family which had been put under the charge of an Ers- 
kine. At a convention held at Holyrood palace, Dec. 10, 
1598, the earl of Mar was sworn one of the council appointed 
to meet twice a-week to assist the king with their advice. 

In the mysterious business of the Gowrie conspiracy the 
earl of Mar was one of the king's principal attendants (see 
vol. ii. p. 559). In 1601 he was sent to England, as ambas- 
sador, and to his excellent management on this occasion is 
in part attributed the smooth accession of King James to 
the English throne. When in London, Robert Bruce 
the celebrated preacher, then in banishment for his disbelief 
of the guilt of the Gowrie brothers, had an interview with 



him, and through the earl's influence with the king, ha 
subsequently received a license to return to Scotland. In 
1603, the earl was one of the Scots nobles who accompanied 
the king on his departure for London to take possession of 
the throne of England. Before reaching York, however, he 
was compelled to return, as the queen had taken advantage 
of his absence to go to Stirling with a large retinue of noble- 
men and others, and demand that prince Henry should be 
delivered up to her. The countess of Mar, the earl's mother, 
refused to give him up, without an order under the earl's 
own hand. The queen, enraged at the refusal, took to her 
bed, and, says Calderwood, " parted with child the 10th of 
May, as was constantly reported." He refused to give to 
any one but herself the letters he had brought from 
the king to her majesty, and both the queen and the earl 
wrote to James express regarding this business. The duke 
of Lennox was, in consequence, sent from court to have the 
affair adjusted. He arrived at Stirling the 19th May, with 
the king's approval of the proceedings of the earl and his 
mother, and with commission to transport both the queen 
and prince to England. The earl of Mar then repaired to 
London, and on his arrival at court, he was sworn a member 
of the English privy council, and installed a knight of the 
Garter, 27th July the same year. In 1604 he was created 
Lord Cardross (see vol. i. p. 587), at the same time obtain- 
ing the barony of that name, with the power of assigning the 
barony and title to any of his male heirs. The king's reason 
for conferring this unusual privilege upon him, as stated in 
the grant, was that he " might be in a better condition to 
provide for his younger sons, by Lady Mary Stewart, daughter 
of the duke of Lennox, and a relation of his majesty." His 
portrait is subjoined. 




In the beginning of 1606, he returned to Scotland from 
London, to assist at the trial of Mr. John Welch and five 
other ministers at Linlithgow, on a charge of treason, fox 



MARK, 



112 



'ENTH EARL OF. 



having declined the jurisdiction of the privy council in a mat- 
ter purely ecclesiastical. He was rather favourable than 
otherwise to the prisoners, for when the justice-depute, on a 
preliminary objection being taken to the relevancy of the in- 
dictment, declared that by the uniform votes of the whole 
council and lords there present, the trial should proceed, the 
earl of Mar and two others interposed, and said, " Say not 
all, for there are here that are not, nor ever will be, of that 
judgment." They were, however, overruled. He was a 
member of the court of high commission erected in 1610 for 
the trial of ecclesiastical offences, and also on its renewal in 
1619. In December 1616, he was appointed lord-high- 
treasurer of Scotland, an office which he held till 1630. At 
the opening of the parliament at Edinburgh, 25th July 1621, 
he carried the sceptre, as he had often done on similar occa- 
sions before. It was at this parliament that the obnoxious 
five articles of Perth were ratified, the earl of Mar being 
among those who voted for them. As a corn-tier and favour- 
ite of King James he could not have done otherwise. In 
1623 he was one of the noblemen named in a commission to 
sit at Edinburgh twice a-week for the redress of grievances, 
but which never took effect. He was at the proclamation of 
Charles I. as king at the Cross of Edinburgh, betwixt six 
and seven o'clock in the evening of the last day of March 
1625. 

The earl died at Stirling castle 14th December 1634, aged 
77, and was buried at Alloa. He was twice married, first, to 
Anne, second daughter of David, second Lord Drummond, 
by whom he had a son, John, his successor; and secondly, 
to Lady Mary Stewart, second daughter of Esme, duke of 
Lennox, already mentioned. By this lady he had five sons 
and four daughters. The eldest of these sons, Sir James 
Erskine, married Mary Douglas, countess of Buchan, in her 
own right, and was created earl of Buchan (see Buchan, 
earl of, vol. i. p. 454, where his portrait is given). The sec- 
ond son, Henry, received from his father the barony of Car- 
dross, and was known as the first Lord Cardross. The third 
son, Colonel the Hon. Sir Alexander Erskine, was blown up 
at Dunglas-house, in East Lothian, with his brother-in-law, 
the earl of Haddington, in 1640. He was a man of elegant 
person, and the hero of the beautiful and pathetic Scottish 
song, beginning " Baloo, my boy," the heroine of which was 
Anna Bothwell, daughter of Lord Holyroodhouse, the victim 
of an unfortunate passion (see vol. i. p. 361). The Hon. Sir 
Charles Erskine of Alva, knight, the 4th son, was ancestor of 
the Erskines of Alva (see vol. ii. p. 145), a family now re- 
presented by the earls of Rosslyn ; and the Hon. William Ers- 
kine, the youngest son, was cupbearer to Charles II., and master 
of the Charter House, London. All the lord-treasurer's four 
daughters were married to earls, namely, Marischal, Rothes, 
Kinghorn, and Haddington. The earl himself was familiar- 
ly called by his classfellow, James VI., "Jocky o' Sclait- 
tis," that is, slates ; and this name he continued to 
give him even after he had become lord-treasurer. When 
a widower, the earl had fallen deeply in love with Lady 
Mary Stewart, the daughter of Lennox and cousin of the 
king. As his lordship was twice her age, and had already a 
son and heir, she at first positively refused to take him. The 
king, however, took his part, and in his own homely way, 
said, " I say, Jock, ye sanna die for ony lass in a' the land." 
He is said to have prevailed on the lady to marry him by 
promising to make a peer of her eldest son. 

John, the third earl, was invested with the order of the 
Bath at the creation of Henry prince of Wales, 30th May 
1610; sworn a privy councillor, 20th July 1G15, and ap- 
pointel governor of Edinburgh castle. On 1st February 



1620, while still Lord Erskine, he was nam^d one of the ex- 
traordinary lords of session, and in 1626 was superseded with 
the rest of the extraordinary lords. Reappointed 18th June 
1628, he again sat on the bench till 1630. He succeeded his 
father in 1634, and in 1638 was deprived of his command of 
Edinburgh castle, General Ruthven, afterwards earl of Forth 
(see Forth, earl of, vol. ii. p. 254), having been recalled 
from the Swedish service and by the king appointed governor 
of the castle, at the commencement of the civil commotions in 
Scotland, when the infatuated Charles resolved to suppress 
the covenant by force. He got security, however, for a com- 
pensation of £3,000. The same year, he was prevailed upon 
to sell to the king the sheriffship of Stirling and bailiary of 
the Forth, for £8,000 sterling, for which he obtained a bond, 
1st November 1641. (Douglas 1 Peerage, vol. ii. p. 216.) 
He was one of the noblemen proposed by the king to the 
Scots Estates to be a privy councillor, and was accordingly 
sworn one for life on the 13th of the same month. Being a 
great projector, he obtained a patent for the tanning of lea- 
ther, but in consequence of its having been complained of as 
a monopoly, it was discharged by parliament, on 16th No- 
vember the same year. A remit was, however, made to the 
council to consider his expenses, that reparation might be 
made to him for the same. 

The earl of Mar at first favoured the Covenanters, but 
soon joined the Cumbernauld association to support the king. 
In consequence, his property was forfeited by the Estates. He 
is said to have sold several lands in Scotland, and with the 
money received for them, purchased an estate in Ireland, 
which he lost by the Irish rebellion. He died in 1654. By 
his countess, Lady Christian Hay, daughter of Francis, ninth 
earl of Errol, he had three sons and two daughters. 

The elder son, John, fourth earl of Mar of the name of 
Erskine, had, when still called Lord Erskinei the command 
of the Stirlingshire regiment in the Scots army which, in 
1640, marched to England. The following year, with his 
father, he acceded to the Cumbernauld association to sup- 
port the royal cause. In 1645, on the approach of Montrose's 
army to Alloa, the Irish in his service plundered that town 
and the adjoining lordship which belonged to the earl of 
Mar. Notwithstanding this unprovoked outrage, however, 
the earl and Lord Erskine his son, gave the royalist leader 
and his principal officers an elegant entertainment, and for 
doing so, the marquis of Argyle subsequently threatened to 
burn his castle of Alloa. (Guthrifs ^^emoirs, p. 153.) After 
the battle of Kilsyth, 15th August 1645, Lord Erskine joined 
Montrose, and was at the rout of Philiphaugh, on 13th Sep- 
tember following, but escaped, and was sent by Montrose 
into the district of Mar, to raise forces to recruit his discom- 
fited army. He was fined by the Estates 24,000 merks, and 
his houses of Erskine and Alloa were plundered by their or- 
der. On succeeding his father in 1654, his whole estates 
were sequestrated, and till the Restoration he lived privately 
in a small cottage at the gate of Alloa house. To add to his 
misfortunes, he was struck with blindness. In his portrait 
he is represented as a fair-haired, mild-looking old man 
When King Charles got " his own again," the earl was re- 
stored to his estates. He died in September 1668. He was 
twice married. His first wife, Lady Mary Scott, eldest 
daughter of the first earl of Buccleuch, had surviving issue. 
By his second countess, Lady Mary Mackenzie, eldest daugh- 
ter of the second earl of Seaforth, he had two sons and three 
daughters. 

The elder son, Charles, fifth earl of the Erskine name, 
born 19th October 1650, succeeded to the earldom in his 14th 
year. In 1G79 he raised the 21st regiment of foot, or Royal 



MARR, 



113 



EARL OF. 



Scots Fusileers, of which he was appointed colonel. In 1682 
he was sworn a lord of the Scots privy council, and continued 
one in the reign of James VII., but not approving of that 
monarch's arbitrary measures, he had left his house to retire 
to the continent, when tidings of the landing of the prince of 
Orange arrived in Scotland. (Douglas 1 Peerage, vol. ii. p. 
217.) He appeared in the convention of Estates held at Ed- 
inburgh, 14th March 1689, but gave the viscount Dundee a 
promise that he would accompany him to a proposed conven- 
tion of the king's friends to be held at Stirling. After Dun- 
dee's abrupt departure, with his troopers, from Edinburgh, 
the earl was apprehended, not unwillingly it is supposed, in 
a feigned attempt to escape from the capital, but was re- 
leased on giving his parole that he would not leave the city 
without the permission of the convention. He died on the 
23d of the following month. In Douglas' Peerage, and in 
Swan's Views on the Clyde, p. 65, it is erroneously stated 
that he was obliged, from the heavy incumbrances on his 
estates, to sell, " shortly previous to the year 1689," his lands 
of Erskine in Renfrewshire, the most ancient possession of 
the family. They were, however, disposed of fifty years pre- 
viously, having been bought, in 1638, by Sir John Hamilton of 
Orbiston, from John, third earl. In 1703, they became the 
property of the noble family of Blantyre. 

By his countess, Lady Mary Maule, eldest daughter of the 
second earl of Panmure, Earl Charles had eight sons and one 
daughter, Lady Jean, married to Sir Hugh Paterson of Ban- 
nockburn, baronet, a zealous Jacobite, in whose house near 
Stirling, Prince Charles slept in 1745, on his advance from 
the north to Edinburgh, with the Highland army, and who 
was afterwards forfeited for his share in the rebellion. Of 
the sons, five died young. The others were, John, sixth earl ; 
the Hon. James Erskine of Grange, lord- justice-clerk ; and lieut.- 
colonel the Hon. Henry Erskine, killed at the battle of Almanza, 
in 1707, aged 25, unmarried. 

Of the eldest son, John, sixth earl of the Erskine fam- 
ily, the leader of the rebellion of 1715, a memoir has been 
already given (see vol. ii. p. 155). Thomas, Lord Erskine, 
his only surviving son, by his countess, Lady Margaret Hay, 
daughter of Thomas, earl of Kinnoul, was commissary of 
stores at Gibraltar, and was elected M.P. for Stirlingshire, on 
a vacancy in 1747, and for the county of Clackmannan at 
the general election the same year. He died 16th March 
1766. The Mar estate which, with the titles, had been for- 
feited, was purchased for him from government, by his uncle, 
the Hon. James Erskine of Grange. 

This gentleman, whose name has been rendered conspicu- 
ous by the proceedings in relation to his wife, passed advo- 
cate 28th July 1705, and was appointed a lord of session 
fifteen months afterwards, namely, on 18th October 1706, 
when he assumed the title of Lord Grange. His brother, the 
earl of Mar, was at that time secretary of state for Scotland, 
which accounts for his speedy promotion. On 6th June 
1707, he was constituted a lord of justiciary, and on 27th 
July 1710, appointed lord-justice-clerk. From a wish to 
join the opposition against Sir Robert Walpole, he was anx- 
ious to enter parliament, and in 1734, offered himself as a 
candidate for the county of Stirling. With the view to ex- 
clude him from the house of commons, Walpole got the act 
of that year passed, which incapacitates judges from being 
members of parliament. Lord Grange, thereupon, resigned 
his seat on the bench, both of the court of session and justi- 
ciary, and was elected M.P. for Stirlingshire. He took an 
active share in the debates, but, as the Walpole administra- 
tion continued in office, he was disappointed in being made 
secretary of state for Scotland, the great object of bin ambi- 
Ul. 



tion, in the event of their overthrow. He is said to have 
held the office of secretary to the prince of Wales, but soon 
retired from political life, and again appeared ir. the court of 
session as an advocate ; but in a short time relinquished his 
practice and left the bar. He died at London 24th January 
1754, in his 75th year. 

He married Rachel Chiesley, the daughter of that Chiesley 
of Dairy who, on 31st March 1689, shot Lord-president 
Lockhart in the Old Bank close, Lawnmarket, Edinburgh, in 
consequence of a decision given by him that he was bound to 
support his wife. The story of Lady Grange is one of the 
most romantic and extraordinary that occurred in real life in 
the 18th century. There can be no doubt there was madness 
in her family, and the unfortunate lady herself was unfortu 
nately a confirmed drunkard. Becoming jealous of her hus- 
band, she employed spies to watch him when he was in Eng- 
land, and is said to have often boasted of the blond from 
which she had sprung, alluding to her father's murder of the 
president, as a significant intimation of what she might be 
able to accomplish, if driven to extremities. Wodrow (Ana- 
lecta, vol. iv. p. 166. Maitland Club,) thus describes her con- 
duct, in July 1730, just before her celebrated abduction, an 
account of which and her confinement in the Western Isles, 
is given in the Edinburgh Magazine for 1817: " She inter- 
cepted her husband's letters in the post-office, and would 
have palmed treason upon them, and took them to the justice 
clerk, as is said, and alleged that some phrases in some of her 
lord's letters to Lord Dun, related to the Pretender, without 
the least shadow for the inference. Last month it seems his 
lady, being for her drunkenness palpable and open, and hei 
violent unhappy temper and mismanagement, inhibited by 
my lord, left the family. This was pleasing to her lord, and 
he did not use any endeavours to have her back, since some- 
times she attempted to murder him, and was innumerable 
ways uneasy. Upon this, my lady gave in a bill to the lord 
for a maintenance, and containing the grounds of her separ.i 
tion. But the matter was taken up, and my lord entered 
into a concert with her friends, allowed her £100 a-year, and 
she declared she would be satisfied with that : and so they 
live separately." On the evening of 22d January 1732, 
Lady Grange, as she was commonly called, who then lived 
in lodgings next door to the house of her husband, was 
seized and gagged by several Highlanders, who had been se- 
cretly admitted into the house. The celebrated Simon, Lord 
Lovat, one of Lord Grange's most intimate friends, was 
charged with being the main instrument in her abduction, 
and she herself declared that those who carried her off woro 
Lovat's livery, by which, it is supposed, she meant his tartan. 
She also mentions that Lovat had an interview with her 
principal gaoler near Stirling, to arrange as to her journey 
She is said to have possessed herself of a dangerous letter by 
her husband, and had even taken her place in the coach to 
London to deliver it to the king. Lord Lovat, in the strong- 
est language, denied all share in the transaction. "As to 
that story about my Lord Grange," he says, " it is a much 
less surprise to me, because they said ten times worse of me, 
when that damned woman went from Edinburgh than they 
can say now ; for they said it was all my contrivance, and 
that it was my servants that took her away ; but I defied 
them then, as I do now, and do declare to you upon honour, 
that I do not know what has become of that woman, where 
she is, or who takes care of her, but if I had contrived, and 
assisted, and saved my Lord Grange from that devil, who 
threatened every day to murder him and his children, I 
would not think shame of it before God or man." By this 
lady, Lord Grange had four sons and four daughters. He £ 
H 



MARJORIBANKS 



114 



OF MARJORIBANKS. 



»aid to have been the great lay head of the ultra-presbyte- 
nan party in Scotland, and Wodrow records that on one 
occasion " he complains much of preaching up of mere mo- 
rality, and very little of Christ and grace." (Wodroic, An- 
alecta, vol. li. p. 207.) His lordship left a diary, very full ot 
earnest piety, which, under the name of the Diary of a Mem- 
ber of the College of Justice, was privately printed in 1843. 

Lord Grange's two eldest sons died young. James, the 
third son (advocate, 1734, appointed knight marischal of 
Scotland, 175S), married his cousin, Lady Francis Erskine, 
only daughter of the sixth earl of Mar, and died 27th February 
1785, aged 75. He had two sons, John Francis Erskine of Mar, 
and James Francis Erskine, a colonel in the army, died 5th 
April 1806, aged 63. 

John Francis Erskine of Mar, the elder son, was an officer 
of dragoons, and in 1762 obtained a captain's commission in the 
first regiment of horse. He quitted the army in 1770, and 
succeeded to the estate of Alloa, on the death of his mother in 
1776. On 17th June 1S24, the attainder was reversed by act of 
parliament in his favour, when he became seventh, but w»s 
styled ninth earl of Mar of the name of Erskine. He died 20th 
August 1825. By his wife, Frances, only daughter of Charles 
Floyer, Esq., governor of Madras, he had four sons and five 
daughters. John Thomas, the eldest son, succeeded his father. 
The second son died without issue, Henry David, the youngest 
son, married in 1805, Mary .Anne, daughter of John Cooksey, 
Esq., and died 31st December 1846. Henry David's second son, 
Walter Coningsby Erskine, succeeded, in 1866, the ninth earl of 
Mar as twelth earl of KeUie, and dying in 1S72, on the continued 
claim of his son, Walter Henry Erskine, was declared, in 1875, 
to have become at same time heir to the earldom of Mar. 

John Thomas Erskine, the eldest son, tenth, properly eighth earl 
of Mar, born in 1772, died 20th September 1828. He married, 
17th March 1795, Janet, daughter of Patrick Miller of Dalswinton, 
Dumfries-shire, the well-known steamboat projector, and, with 
two daughters, had a son, John Francis Miller Erskine, the ninth 
earl, bom 2Sth December 1795, who, on the death of Methven 
Erskine, tenth earl of KeUie, in 1S29, claimed that title, as heir 
male general, and his right was allowed by the house of lords. 
(See Eellie, earl of, vol. ii. p. 595.) His lordship married, in 
1827, the eldest daughter of Sir Charles Granville Stewart 
Menteath, baronet of Closeburn, without issue. 

The earl's elder sister, Lady Frances Diana, married William 
James Goodeve, Esq. of Clifton, and had an only son, John 
Francis Erskine Goodeve, born at Clifton, 29th March 1836, who 
on the death of the ninth earl, in 1866, assumed the title of earl 
of Mar as heir general of eighth earl. But after a prolonged 
enquiry it was decided in the House of Lords. February 25, 1875, 
that this earldom, as created in 1565, was limited to heirs male, 
and Walter Henry Erskine, earl of KeUie, above referred to, 
successor of his father Walter Coningsby Erskine, earl of Eellie, 
was declared to be earl of Mar. He was bom December 17, 
1639, and succeeded his father in 1872; he married, in 1863, 
Mary Anne, eldest daughter of William Forbes, Esq. of MedwyQj 
and has 2 sons and 4 daughters. 



Marjoribanks, a surname, derived from the lands of 
Ratho-Marjorie, in Renfrewshire, so named from their hav- 
ing been bestowed on the princess Marjorie, only daughter of 
Robert the Brace, on her nuptials in 1316 with Walter, high 
steward of Scotland, ancestor ot" the royal line of Stuart. 
These lands, subsequently called "Terre de Ratbo-Marjori- 
banks," came into the possession of a family of the name of 
Johnston, who, from them, assumed the name of Marjori- 
Danks, though they continue to bear in part the Johnston 



arms. Several of this family were members of the ScoMish 
Estates. On the institution of the court of session in 1532. 
bj" James V., Thomas Marjoribanks wa6 one of the ten ad- 
vocates selected to " procure "or plead before the lords. On 
March 2, 1535, he was appointed advocate for the poor, jointly 
with Dr. Gladstanes. the salary of £10 a-year, with his con- 
sent, being given to the latter. He acquired the lands of 
Ratho in September 1540. The same year he was provost of 
Edinburgh and commissioner for that city in the Estates, and 
again represented it in parliament in 1546. He was admitted 
a lord of session and appointed clerk-register 8th February 
1549, but was deprived of the latter office in 1554, on an ac- 
cusation of having falsified a warrant of the court. 

In 1539, Thomas Marjoribanks had a charter as followb. 
" Magister Thomaj Marjoribanks, 36 Bovatas terrarum de 
Ratho." 

In 1544, there appears a crown charter in favour of 
"Thomas Marjoribanks dividistat. terrarum de Mains of Spotts 
et terrarum de Handarewood." 

In 1.552, there is an entry in the records, "Unam terram 
in Edinburgh, Jacobi Marjoribanks." 

Christian Marjoribanks. believed to be the grand -daughter 
of the above-named Thomas Marjoribanks, married in 1586, 
George Heriot, the founder of the magnificent Hospital at 
Edinburgh. She was his first wife, and is described as " the 
daughter of a respectable burgess." 

In 1604, Thomas Marjoribanks of Ratho, held these lands, 
as appears from the following : — " Thomas Marjoribanks de 
Ratho et Marise Douglas, ejus conjugi villa et terrarum de 
Ratho extendendam ad triginta sexta bovatas cum mansior.e 
lacu et pratu." 

In 1610, John Marjoribanks of Ratho got a charter as fol- 
lows: — " Johannis Marjoribanks de Ratho, triginta sex bo- 
vatas terrarum de Ratho." 

In 1645, Andrew Marjoribanks possessed certain property 
at Salt Prestons, now Preston Pans, thus described : — "Magis- 
ter Andrae Marjoribanks, quorundam tenementarium et acra- 
rum in Salt Prestons." 

James Marjoribanks of Marjoribanks and Bowbardie or Bal 
bardie, had two sons, Andrew, and George, surgeon, Edinburgh. 
The latter went to Waterford, in Ireland, and married the 
daughter of the Bishop of Waterford, by whom he had several 
daughters. The eldest married Mr. Moneypenny of Pitmilly, 
Fifeshire, and was grandmother of Lord Pitmilly, a judge of 
the court of session, who retired from the bench in 1831. 

The elder son, Andrew Marjoribanks of Marjoribanks, mar 
ried in 1744. Mary Chalmers, and had 3 sons and 2 daugh- 
ters. Christian, one of his daughters, married Mr. Wardrop 
of Torbanehill. and was mother of James Wardrop, Esq., the 
celebrated oculist and surgeon in ordinary to George IV. 

The eldest son, Alexander Marjoribanks of Marjoribanks, 
born in 1750, was convener of Linlithgowshire for more than 
30 years. He was proprietor and superior of the barony of 
Bathgate, which was part of the extensive possessions giver 
by King Robert the Bruce, to his daughter Marjorie, on hei 
mamage with Walter, the high steward of Scotland, bat ir. 
1824 he voluntarily relinquished the superiority, that Bath- 
gate might be created a burgh of barony, of which he was 
chosen the first provost. He sold the estate of Marjoribanks. 
He died Sept. 8, 1830. He married in 1790, Katherine, 
daughter of Gilbert Laurie of Polmont, lord provost of Edin- 
burgh, and had, besides other children, who died in infancy 
8 sons and 4 daughters. 

Sons: 1. Alexander. 2. Andrew, bora in 1797, died in 
1824. 3. William, bora in 1800, lieutenant, R.N., lost it tin 
ship Confiance, off the coast of Cork, April 21, 1822. 4 



MARSHALL. 



115 



MARTIN. 



James, born in 1801, lieutenant, East India Company's ser- 
vice, died Nov. 28, 1825. 5. Gilbert, born in 1802, went to 
Sidney, New South Wales, and died there. 6. George, born in 
1806, surgeon, died in 1828. 7. Thomas, born in 1809, or- 
dained in 1834, minister of Lochmaben, Dumfries-shire, and 
in 1849 translated to Stenton, Haddingtonshire, married in 
1835, Mary, only daughter of Rev. Dr. Cook, Professor of 
Moral Philosophy in the university of St. Andrews; issue, 3 
sons and a daughter. 8. Erskine. 

Daughters : 1. Katherine Erskine, wife of William Balfour, 
merchant, of the family of Balfour of Pilrig, who died in 1859 
without issue. 2. Mary, married Robert Horsburgh, Esq., 
factor at Tongue to the Duke of Sutherland. 3. Christian, 
wife of John Scott Moncrieff, Esq., Accountant, Edinburgh- 
4. Sarah, wife of William Turnbull, Esq., died without issue. 

The eldest son, Alexander Marjoribanks, born Oct. 31, 1792i 
was a magistrate for Linlithgowshire. The estates of Balbardie 
and Bathgate, which had been for several centuries in the 
family, were at Whitsunday 1861 sold to the Trustees of 
Stewart's Hospital, Edinburgh, for £48,000. 



The descendant of a younger branch of this family, Edward 
Marjoribanks, a native of Linlithgowshire and proprietor of 
the estate of Hallyards, Mid Lothian, married a daughter of 
Archibald Stewart, Esq., lord provost of Edinburgh when 
Prince Charles had possession of that city in 1745, and was 
for many years a wine merchant at Bordeaux in France. 
On succeeding to the estate of Lees in Berwickshire, in 
1770, as heir of entail, he returned with his family to Scot- 
land. His eldest son, John, born at Bordeaux in 1762, 
at one period a captain in tlie Coldstream guards, became 
a partner in a banking house at Edinburgh. In 1814, he was 
elected lord provost of that city, and the following year created 
a baronet. In 1811, he was chosen M.P. for Buteshire, and 
in 1818 for Berwickshire. While chief magistrate of Edin- 
burgh he distinguished himself by carrying forward the im- 
provements of the city, and was the chief promoter of the erec- 
tion of the new gaol and the Regent's bridge. In 1825, he was 
again lord provost of Edinburgh. Sir John died Feb. 5, 1833, 
in his 71st year. He had married in 1790 Alison, eldest daugh- 
ter of William Ramsay, Esq., of Barnton. His eldest surviv- 
ing son, Sir William Marjoribanks, 2d baronet, born Dec. 
15, 1792, died Sept. 22, 1834. Sir William's son, John, born 
May 4, 1830, became 3<1 bait. Sept. 22, 1834; m. July 27, 1858. 



Marshall, a surname derived from the ancient and hon- 
ourable office of marischal, and not confined to Scotland. 

There was a painter of tliisname, George Marshall, a scholar 
of the younger Scougal (see Scougal, Gkokoe) and there- 
after of Sir Godfrey Kneller, whose paintings are remarkable 
for good colouring, although there is a flatness in them which 
is displeasing to the eye. After a long practice in Scotland, 
he went to Italy, but this produced no visible improvement on 
his works. He died about 1732. 

MARSHALL, William, a celebrated composer 
of Scottish airs and melodies, was born at Foch- 
abers, Morayshire, Dec. 27, 1748, old style, 
In his 12th year he became employed under the 
house steward at Gordon castle, Banffshire, the 
seat of the Duke of Gordon, but was soon ap- 
poined butler and house steward, a situation 
which he held for nearly 30 years. " The 



correctness of Marshall's ear," says a MS. me 
moir of him quoted in Steuhouse's Johnson's 
Scots Musical Museum, (vol. iv. p. 413,) to 
which we are indebted for this notice, " was 
unrivalled, and his style of playing strathspeys 
and reels lively and inspiring, while his fine taste 
and peculiarly touching manner of executing the 
slow and more plaintive Scottish airs and melo- 
dies, delighted all who heard him." He is styled 
by Burns " the first composer of strathspeys of 
the age." 

About the beginning of 1790, the delicate state 
of his health obliged him to relinquish his situa- 
tion at Gordon castle, when he retired for a short 
time to a small farm in the neighbourhood of 
Fochabers. The same year he removed to the 
larger farm of Keithmore, belonging to the duke 
of Gordon, in the lordship of Auchendown and 
parish of Mortlach, where he became a keen agri- 
culturist. Shortly thereafter he was appointed 
factor or land steward to the duke, over a very 
extensive range of his estates in the counties of 
Banff and Aberdeen, comprehending the districts 
of Cabrach, Auchendown, Glenlivet, Strathaven. 
Strathdown, &c. This situation he filled with 
fidelity and honour till 1817. He died at New- 
field cottage, 29th May 1833, aged 85. He had 
married, at the age of 25, Jane Giles, who prede- 
ceased him, on 12th December 1825, and by 
whom he had five sons and a daughter. 

A collection of Marshall's 'Airs and Melodies' 
was published, by subscription, in May 1822, con- 
taining 176 tunes. It was followed by a supple- 
ment of about 74 additional tunes. Many of 
them had appeared separately, before the close of 
the 18th century, and were well known. 

MARTIN, David, an eminent artist, the prin- 
cipal portrait painter in Edinburgh of his day, wee 
born in Scotland, and studied under Allan Ram- 
say, the celebrated painter, the son of the poet, 
whom he accompanied to Rome, but at a time 
when he was too young to receive much advantage 
from the visit. On his return to England, he at- 
tended the drawing academy in St. Martin's Lane, 
London, and obtained some premiums for draw- 
ings after life. He subsequently practised both as 
a painter and an engraver, and also scraped some 
portraits in mezzotinto. In the latter department 



MARTIN. 



116 



MARY STUART. 



he finished a very good print of Ronbilliac the 
sculptor. Among his engraved portraits there is 
& whole length of Lord Bath, from the original 
picture which he painted of his lordship ; also, a 
whole length of Lord Mansfield, from another of 
his own pictures. His best portrait is a half 
length of Dr. Franklin, said to be the truest like- 
ness of that remarkable person, from which a 
mezzotinto print was published in 1775. Mr. 
Martin married a lady of some fortune, and lived 
for some years in Dean Street, Soho, but after her 
death, which was very sudden, he went to reside 
at Edinburgh. {Edwards' Anecdotes of Painting). 
The Surgeon's Hall, Advocates' Library, and 
Heriot's Hospital, of that city, possess many fine 
portraits by Martin, of the most eminent men of 
his time, in the several departments of physic, law, 
and philosophy. After succeeding his brother, a 
General Martin, he lived principally at No. 4, St. 
James' Square, Edinburgh, where he died 13th 
December 1797. Some time previous to his death 
he had been appointed limner to his royal high- 
ness the prince of Wales. According to his obi- 
tuary notice in the local papers, he was "very 
extensively known, not only in his own but in 
other countries, for his eminence in his profession, 
his knowledge of, and exquisite taste in, the fine 
arts, in general. He will long be remembered 
and much regretted by his numerous acquaint- 
ances, but more particularly by his friends, not 
more for his genius and taste than for his genero- 
sity and spirit, warmth of heart and other amiable 
qualities." So little was this flattering notice re- 
alized that, within sixty years of his death, he was 
so absolutely forgotten in the city in which he 
lived and died, that, with the exception of an old 
artist or two, who had known him in their youth, 
and his own descendants, few had ever heard of 
his existence, and scarcely any knew that he was 
a Scotsman. His reputation was completely 
eclipsed by the more brilliant talent of Sir Henry 
llaeburn (see Raebukn, Sir Henry), who had 
his attention first directed by David Martin 
from miniature to the more powerful and facile 
process of oil painting, in which he gave him 
some instructions and advice in a friendly way, 
although, not being a pupil of his, he refused to 
•how him how to prepare his colours. The iden- 



tity of style of the early works of Raeburn with 
those of Martin, is very remarkable, and the dif- 
ference of the two masters only begins as Raeburn 
became more confirmed in that style in which lie 
ultimately distinguished himself, and which be- 
came so peculiarly his own. 

The following is a list of most of the plates 
which Martin engraved: La Muchela Gabriela, 
after P. Bottom; Lady Frances Manners; Earl of 
Mansfield ; David Hume ; Rousseau ; The Earl of 
Bath ; Roubilliac ; a portrait of Rembrandt ; Pro- 
fessor Fergusson ; Summer Evening, after Cuyp ; 
and the Ruins of ancient Bath, after Gasper 
Poussin. 

MARTINE, George, a physician, was born in 
Scotland in 1702. After studying at Edinburgh, 
he went to Le)'den, where he took the degree of 
M.D. in 1725, and on his return home commenced 
practice at St. Andrews. In 1740 he accompa- 
nied Lord Cathcart on his expedition to America, 
as physician of the forces under his command ; 
and died there of a bilious fever in 1743. — His 
works are 

Essays, Medical and Philosophical. Lond. 1740, 8vo. 

De Similibus Animalibus et de Animalium Calore, libn 
duo. Lond. 1740. 

In Bartholomsei Eustachii Tabulas Anatomicas Commen- 
tarii. Edin. 1755, 8vo. Published by Dr. Monro. 

Account of the Operation of Bronchotome, as performed at 
St. Andrews. Phil. Trans. 1730. 

An Essay on the alternate motions ot the Thorax and 
Lungs, in Respiration. Ed. Med. Ess. i. 158. 1731. 

An Essay concerning the Analysis of Human Blood. lb. 
ii. 66. 

Some Thoughts concerning the Production of Mineral 
Heat, and the Divarication of the Vascular System, lb 
iii. 334. 

Experiment of Cutting the Recurrent Nerves, earned far- 
ther than has hitherto been done. lb. 114. 

Reflections and Observations on the Seminal Blood Ves- 
sels, lb. v. 227. 1736. 

MARY STUART, Queen of Scots, celebrat 
ed for her beauty, her accomplishments, her err- 
ors, and her misfortunes, was born at the palace 
of Linlithgow, December 8, 1542. She was the 
daughter of James V., by his queen, Maiy of 
Lorraine, of the family of Guise. Her father dy- 
ing when she was only eight days old, she became 
queen, and was crowned at Stirling, September 9, 
1543. After an ineffectual attempt on the part of 
Cardinal Bethune to obtain the regency, the gov- 
ernment of the kingdom was, during her infancy, 



MARY STUART, 



117 



QUEEN OF SCOTS. 



vested in the earl of Arran. The two first years 
of her childhood were spent at Linlithgow, under 
the care of her mother ; aud the following three 
years at Stirling, under the charge of the Lords 
Erskine and Livingstone. Owing to the distract- 
ed state of the country, she was subsequently 
removed, for a few months, to the priory of Inch- 
mahome, a small island in the beautiful lake of 
Menteith, Perthshire, where she had for her at- 
tendants and companions four young ladies of no- 
ble rank, all named like herself, Mary ; namely, 
Mary Bethune, niece of the cardinal ; Mary Flem- 
ing, daughter of Lord Fleming ; Mary Living- 
stone, daughter of one of her guardians ; and 
Mary Seton, daughter of the lord of that name. 
At the age of six she embarked at Dumbarton for 
Frasce, where she was instructed in every branch 
of learning and polite accomplishment. Besides 
making herself mistress of the dead languages, she 
spoke the French, Italian, and Spanish tongues 
fluently, and devoted much of her time to the 
study of history. Through the influence of the 
French king and her uncles, the Guises, she was 
married, April 20, 1558, to the dauphin, after- 
wards Francis II. of France, who died in 1560, 
about sixteen months after his accession to the 
throne. On her marriage she had been induced, 
by the persuasion of the French court, to assume, 
with her own, the style and arms of queen of Eng- 
land and Ireland, an offence which Elizabeth never 
forgave, although, as soon as Mary became her 
own mistress, she discontinued the title. 

The widowed queen soon found it necessary to 
return to Scotland, whither she was invited by 
her own subjects, and arriving at Leith, August 
19, 1561, she was received by all ranks with every 
demonstration of welcome and regard. At first 
the committed the administration of affairs to 
Protestants, her principal advisers being her na- 
tural brother, the Lord James Stuart, prior of St. 
Andrews, and Maitland of Lethington, and so 
long as she abided by their counsels her reign was 
mild, prudent, and satisfactory to her people. In 
August 1562 she made a progress into the north, 
where, by the aid of her brother, recently cre- 
ated earl of Moray, she crushed the formidable 
rebellion of the earl of Huntly. In February 
1563 occurred at St. Andrews th°. execution of 



the young and accomplished French poet Chate- 
lard, who, having fallen deeply in love with his 
beautiful mistress, had twice intruded himself into 
her bed-chamber, for the purpose of urging his 
passion. It was the wish of her subjects that the 
queen should many, that the crown might descend 
in the right line from their ancient monarchs, and 
she had already received matrimonial overtures 
from various foreign princes. The ardour of 
youthful inclination, however, rather than the dic- 
tates of prudence, led her to prefer her cousin, 
Henry Lord Darnley, to all her suitors. This 
young man, whose only recommendation was the 
elegance of his person and manners, was the eldest 
son of the earl of Lennox, who had been forced to 
seek refuge in England, in the reign of James V., 
and Lady Margaret Douglas, daughter of the earl 
of Angus and the queen dowager Margaret, sister 
of Henry VIII. ; and after Mary herself, he was 
the nearest heir to the crown of England, and 
next to the earl of Arran in succession to the 
crown of Scotland. The royal nuptials were eel 
ebrated July 29, 1565, in conformity to the rites 
of the church of Rome, of which Mary was » 
zealous adherent, while the majority of her sub- 
jects were Protestants. 

With this ill-fated marriage began the long series 
of her misfortunes, which were terminated only 
by her melancholy death upon the scaffold. The 
marriage had been disapproved of by the earl of 
Moray and the leaders of the protestant part}-, 
who, having taken up arms, were opposed by the 
queen in person, with remarkable energy and 
promptitude. At the head of a superior force, she 
pursued the insurgents from place to place, and 
compelled them at last to quit the kingdom. 
Mary now not only joined the league of the popish 
princes of Europe, but evinced her full determina- 
tion to re-establish the Romish religion in Scot- 
land. But all her plans were frustrated by an 
unexpected event which took place on the evening 
of March 9, 1566. Darnley, upon whom she had 
conferred the title of king, and whose weak and 
licentious conduct very soon changed the extrava- 
gant love she had entertained for him into equally 
violent hatred, excited by jealousy of David Riz- 
zio, her foreign secretary, and favourite, had or- 
ganized a conspiracy for his destruction ; and on 



MART STUART, 



118 



QUEEN OF SCOTS. 



the evening mentioned, while the queen was at 
supper with Rizzio and the countess of Argyle, he 
suddenly entered her chamber, followed by Lord 
Ruthven and some other factious nobles, and 
caused the unfortunate secretary to be dragged 
from her presence and murdered. This atrocious 
deed, aggravated as it was by the situation of his 
wife, then six months advanced in pregnancy, 
could not fail to increase the queen's aversion for 
tier husband. Dissembling her feelings, however, 
she prevailed upon Darnley to withdraw from his 
new associates, to dismiss the guards which had 
been placed on her person, and to accompany her 
in her flight to Dunbar. In the course of a few 
days, at the head of a powerful army, she returned 
to Edinburgh, when Ruthven, Morton, Maitland, 
and Lindsay, the chief of the conspirators, were 
forced to take refuge in Newcastle, and Moray 
and his friends, who had in the meantime arrived 
from England, were again received into favour, and 
intrusted with the chief management of affairs. 

The birth of a son, afterwards James VI. , 
on June 19, 1566, had no effect in producing a 
reconciliation between Mary and the king, and, 
enraged at his exclusion from power, the latter 
sullenly retired from court, declared his intention 
to quit the kingdom, and refused to be present at 
the baptism of the infant prince. He took up his 
residence with his father at Glasgow, where, in 
the beginning of 1567, he was seized with the 
small-pox, or some other dangerous disease. On 
hearing of his illness, Mary sent her own physi- 
cian to attend him, and, after the lapse of a fort- 
night, she visited him herself. When he was able 
to be removed, she accompanied him to Edin- 
burgh, and lodged him in a house in the south- 
ern suburbs, called Kirk-of-Field, near to where 
the university of that city now stands. Here she 
attended him with the most assiduous care, and 
slept for two nights in the chamber under his 
apartment. On the evening of the 9th of Febru- 
ary she took leave of him with many embraces, to 
be present at the marriage of one of her servants 
at Holyrood. During the same night the house 
in which Darnley slept was blown up with gun- 
powder, and his dead body and that of his page 
were next morning found lying in the adjoining 
garden 



Of this atrocious deed, the earl of Bothwell, the 
new favourite of the queen, was openly accused of 
being the perpetrator, and Mary herself did not 
escape the suspicion of being accessory to the crime. 
At the instigation of the earl of Lennox, the father 
of Darnley, Bothwell was brought to trial, but he 
was attended to the court by a formidable array 
of armed followers, and neither accuser nor wit- 
ness appearing against him, he was formally ac- 
quitted by the jury. On the 20th of April, Both- 
well prevailed upon a number of the nobles to 
subscribe a bond, in which they not only declared 
him innocent of Darnley's murder, but recom- 
mended him as a fit husband for the queen. Four 
days afterwards, at the head of a thousand horse, 
he intercepted Mary on her return from Stirling 
to Edinburgh, and dispersing her slender suite, 
conducted her to the castle of Dunbar, of which 
he was governor. Having proposed marriage, on 
the queen's refusal, he produced the bond signed 
by the nobles, and, as is affirmed by Mary's par- 
tizans, compelled her by force to yield to his de- 
sires, when the unhappy princess consented to 
become his wife. Mary's accusers, on the other 
hand, say that, in the whole of this transaction, 
the queen was a willing actor. Her marriage to 
Bothwell took place May 15, 1567, only three 
months after the death of Darnley, and it is a 
prominent point in her history, for which it is im- 
possible to find any justification. That act of 
folly virtually discrowned her. A confederacy 
of the nobles was immediately formed for the pro- 
tection of the infant prince, and for bringing to 
punishment the murderers of the late king. As 
the people generally shared their indignation, they 
soon collected an army, at the head of which they 
advanced to Edinburgh, Bothwell and the queen 
retiring before them to Dunbar, where they as- 
sembled a force of about 2,000 men. At Carberry 
Hill, near Musselburgh, the two hostile armies 
confronted each other, June 15 ; but, to avoid a 
battle, Mary, after a brief communication with 
Kirkaldy of Grange, agreed to dismiss Bothwell, 
and to join the confederates, by whose councils 
she declared herself willing to be guided in future, 
on condition of their respecting her " as their bora 
priucess and queen." Taking a hurried farewell 
of Bothwell, who, with a few followers, slowly 



MARY STUART, 



119 



QUEEN OF SCOTS. 



rode off the field, and whom she never saw again, 
ghe gave her hand to Grange, and surrendered to 
the associated lords, by whom she was conducted 
in triumph to the capital. As she passed along, 
she was assailed by the insults and reproaches of 
the populace, and a banner was displayed before 
her, on which was painted the dead body of 
Darnley, with the infant prince kneeling beside it, 
saying — " Judge and revenge my cause, O Lord!" 
Next day, she was conveyed a prisoner to Loch- 
leven castle in Kinross-shire, situated in the mid- 
dle of a lake, and committed to the charge of 
Lady Douglas, mother of the Regent Moray by 
James V., and widow of Sir Robert Douglas, who 
fell at the battle of Pinkie. On July 24, 1567, 
she was compelled to sign a formal renunciation 
of the crown in favour of her son, and to appoint 
as regent, during the king's minority, her brother, 
the earl of Moray, commonly called the Regent 
Murray, who soon after arrived from France, and 
entered upon the government. 

Mary now emplo3 r ed all her art to recover her 
liberty, and having gained over George Douglas, 
youngest son of the lady of Lochleven, on March 
25, 1568, she attempted to escape in the disguise 
of a laundress, but the whiteness of her hands be- 
trayed her to the boatmen, by whom she was 
conducted back to the castle. Her beauty and 
misfortunes, however, had made a deep impression 
on William Douglas, an orphan youth of sixteen, 
a relative of the family, and he was easily pre- 
vailed upon to assist in a project for her escape. 
Accordingly, on Sunday, May 2, 1568, at the hour 
of supper, he found means to steal the keys, and 
opening the gates to the queen and one of her 
maids, locked them behind her, and then threw 
She keys into the lake. Mary entered a boat 
which had been prepared for her, and, on reaching 
the opposite shore, she was received by Lord 
Seton, Sir James Hamilton, and others of her 
friends. Instantly mounting on horseback, she 
rode first to Niddrie, Lord Seton's house in West 
Lothian, and next day to Hamilton, where she 
was joined by a number of the nobility, and in a 
tew days found herself at the head of about 6,000 
men. On May 13 her forces were defeated by 
the regent at the battle of Langside, and the un- 
happy queen, who had anxiously beheld the en- 



gagement from a hill at a short distance, to avoid 
falling again into the hands of her enemies, fled 
from the field of battle, accompanied by Lord 
Hemes and a few other attached friends, and 
rode, without stopping, to the abbey of Dundren- 
nan, in Galloway, full sixty miles distant. After 
resting there for two days, with about twenty at- 
tendants, she embarked in a fisher boat at Kirk- 
cudbright on the 16th, and crossing the Sol way, 
landed at Workington, in Cumberland, where she 
claimed the protection of her kinswoman, the 
queen of England. " As well might the hunted 
deer have sought refuge in the den of the 
tiger." By Elizabeth's orders, she was conducted 
to Carlisle, from whence, on the 16th of June, 
she was removed to Bolton castle. But though 
treated on all occasions with the honours due to 
her rank, Elizabeth refused to admit her to a per- 
sonal interview. To adjust the differences be- 
tween Mary and her subjects, a conference was 
held at York in October 1568, and afterwards re- 
moved to Westminster, but without leading to 
any decisive result. Under various pretences, 
and in direct violation of public faith and hospita- 
lity, Elizabeth detained her a prisoner for nine- 
teen years ; and after having encouraged the 
Scots commissioners to accuse her publicly of the 
murder of her husband, denied her an opportunity 
of vindicating herself from the revolting charge. 

In the beginning of 1569, Mary was transferred 
to Tutbury castle, in Staffordshire, and placed 
under the care of the earl of Shrewsbury, who dis- 
charged the important trust committed to him 
with great fidelity for fifteen years. She was sub- 
sequently removed from castle to castle, and at 
last consigned to the custody of Sir Amias Pawlet 
and Sir Drue Drury, by whom she was finally 
conveyed to Fotheringay, in Northamptonshire. 
Throughout all the sufferings and persecutions to 
which she was subjected by the jealousy and per- 
fidy of Elizabeth, she preserved, till the closing 
scene of all, the magnanimity of a queen of Scot- 
land. She made many attempts to procure her 
liberty, and, for this purpose, carried on a con- 
stant correspondence with foreign powers. Being 
the object of successive plots, on the part of the 
English Roman Catholics, who made use of her 
name to justify their insurrections and censpira- 



MARY STUART. 



120 



MASTERTON. 



?.ies, Elizabeth at length resobed upon her death, 
and caused her to be arraigned on a charge of 
being accessary to the conspiracy of Anthony 
Babington. A commission was appointed to con- 
duct her trial, and though no certain proof ap- 
peared of her connection with the conspirators, 
she was found guilty of having compassed divers 
matters tending to the death of the queen of Eng- 
land. Although Elizabeth affected great reluGr 
tance to put Mary to death, she disregarded the 
entreaties of the ambassadors from Scotland and 
France on her behalf, and signed the warrant for 
a mandate to be made out under the great seal for 
her execution. A commission was given to the 
earls of Shrewsbury, Kent, Cumberland, Derby, 
and others, to see it carried into effect, and the two 
former lost no time in proceeding to Fotheringay. 
The sentence was read to Mary in presence of her 
own domestics, and she was desired to prepare her- 
self for death the next day. She crossed her 
breast, in the name of the Father, the Son, and 
the Holy Ghost, and said she was ready to die in 
the Catholic faith, which her forefathers professed. 
She forgave them that were the procurers of her 
death, yet, she said, she doubted not but God 
would execute vengeance upon them. Mary then 
prepared for her fate with the utmost serenity, 
fortitude, and resignation. She was attended to 
the hall of Fotheringay castle, where her head was 
to be struck off, by Robert Melville, her master of 
the household, her physician, chirurgeon, and apo- 
thecary. At the foot of the stairs leading into the 
hall, she desired Mr. Melville to commend her to 
her son. To the executioners she said that she- 
pardoned them, and she desired Jane Kennedy, 
one of her attendants, to bind her eyes with a hand- 
kerchief. She was beheaded Feb. 8, 1587, in the 
45th year of her age. " The admirable and saintly 
fortitude with which she suffered," it has been well 
remarked, "formed a striking contrast to the 
despair and agony which not long afterwards 
darkened the deathbed of the English queen. 11 
Mary's body was embalmed and interred, August 
1, with royal pomp, in the cathedral of Peter- 
borough. Her funeral was also celebrated with 
great pomp at Paris at the charge of the Guises. 
Twenty years afterwards, her son, James I., or- 
dered her remains to be removed to Westminster, 



and deposited among those of the kings of Eng- 
land, in Henry the Seventh's chapel, where a mag- 
nificent monument was erected to her memory. 

The portraits of Mary are numerous, but many 
of them are fictitious. In some of them, says 
Pinkerton, she is confounded with Mary of Guise, 
her mother, with Mary queen of France, sister ol 
Henry VIII., and even with Maria de' Medici. 

While the conduct and character of Queen 
Mary have been the subject of much controversy 
with historians, her learning and accomplishments 
are universally acknowledged. She wrote with 
elegance and force in the Latin and French, as 
well as in the English language. Among her 
compositions are : 

Royal Advice to her Son ; in two books : the Consolation 
of her long Imprisonment. 

Eleven Letters to James Earl of Bothwell. Translated from 
the French originals, by Edward Simmonds, of Oxford. 
Westminster, 1726, 8vo. 

Ten Letters, with her Answer to the Articles exhibited 
against her were published in Haynes' State Papers. 

Six Letters ; printed in Anderson's Collections. 

A Letter, published in the Appendix to her Life, by Dr. 
Jebb. 

Many of her letters to Queen Elizabeth, Cecil, and others, 
are preserved in the Cottonian and Ashmolean libraries, and 
in the Imperial library of France. 

Besides the above, she wrote " Poems on Various Occa- 
sions," in the Latin, Italian, French, and Scotch languages. 



Masterton, a local surname of great antiquity in Scot- 
land, derived from lands of that name in Fifeshire. Accord- 
ing to tradition, one of the principal architects at the building 
of the abbey of Dunfermline, obtained from Malcolm Can- 
more the estate of Masterton, in that neighbourhood, and 
was the founder of a family of the name. Among the barons 
recorded in the Ragman Roll as having sworn a compulsory 
fealty to Edward I. of England in 1296, appears William de 
Masterton. A female descendant of this family, Margaret, 
daughter of Alexander Masterton of the lands of Bad in 
Perthshire and Parkmill in Fifeshire, and wife of Mr. James 
Primrose, was nurse to Henry, prince of Scotland, eldest son 
of James VI., for which she and her husband had a pension 
during their lives. 

Mr. Allan Masterton, teacher of writing and arithmetic in 
Edinburgh, is known to all the admirers of Burns the poet, 
as one of his most intimate companions and the composer ot 
the airs to many of his songs. He is said to have possessed a 
good ear and a fine taste for music, and, as an amateur, 
played the violin remarkably well. Among the tunes com- 
posed by him for Burns' pieces were those to ' Strathallan's 
Lament,' ' Beware of Bonnie Ann,' ' The Braes of Balloch- 
myle,' ' The Bonnie Banks of Ayr,' ' Willie brewed a peck 
o'Maut,' and ' On hearing a Young Lady Sing.' On Aug. 26, 
1795, Dugald and Allan Masterton, and Dugald Masterton, 
jun., were elected writing masters in the High School of Edin- 
burgh. The verses beginning, " Ye gallants bright, I rede you 
right," were written, in 1788, by Burns, in compliment tc 
Miss Ann Masterton, the daughter of the composer. 



MATHESON. 



121 



MAULE. 



Matheson, the name of a clan (Clann Mhathahi), from 
the Gaelic Mathaineach, heroes, or rather, from Mathan, pro- 
nounced Mahan, a bear. The name is not the same as the 
English Mathison, which is a corruption of Matthewson. The 
MacMathans were settled in Loclialsh, a district of Wester 
Ross, from an early period. They are derived by ancient 
genealogies from the same stock as the Earls of Ross. Ken- 
neth MacMathan, who was constable of the castle of Ellen 
Donan, is mentioned both in the Norse account of the expe- 
dition of the king of Norway against Scotland in 1263, and 
in the Chamberlain's Rolls for that year, in connection with 
that expedition. He is said to have married a sister of the 
Earl of Ross. The chief of the clan was engaged in the 
rebellion of Donald, lord of the Isles, in 1411 (see vol. ii. 
p. 546), and was one of the chiefs arrested at Inverness 
by James I., in 1427, when he is said to have been able 
to muster 2,000 men. The possessions of the Mathesons, 
at one time very extensive, were greatly reduced, in the 
course of the 16th century, by feuds with their turbulent 
neighbours, the Macdonalds of Glengarry. 

The clan Matheson was divided into two great branches, 
namely of Lochalsh, from which descended the Mathesons of 
Attadale, now Ardross, and of Shinness, Sutherlandshire. 
The former is descended from John Matheson of Lochalsh, con- 
stable under Mackenzie, the 9th laird of Kintail, of the castle 
of Ellen Donan, who was killed in defending that fortress 
ngainst the MacDonalds of Sleat in 1547. His son, Dugald 
Roy, was succeeded by his son, Murdoch. The latter had 2 
sons, Roderick, ancestor of the Mathesons of Bennetsfield, 
and Dugald, who inherited Balmacarra, and had 3 sons. 

John Matheson of Attadale, the 6th from this last Dugald, 
married Margaret, eldest daughter of Donald Matheson, Esq. 
of Shinness, and died in 1826. He had 5 sons and 2 daugh- 
ters. The sons were, 1. Alexander of Ardross. 2. Hugh, 
merchant, Liverpool. 3. Farquhar, minister of Lairg. 4. 
Donald, settled in America. 5. John, deceased. 

The eldest son, Alexander Matheson, Esq. of Ardross 
and Attadale, born in 1805, is a merchant in London, (for- 
merly of Canton, in China,) a Director of the Bank of Eng- 
land, a magistrate and deputy lieutenant of the counties of 
Ross, Cromarty, and Inverness; has been M. P. forthe Inver- 
ness burghs since 1847. In 1851, he purchased the estate of 
Lochalsh, forfeited by his ancestors in 1427. He married, first, 
in 1840, Mary, only daughterof J. C. MacLeod, Esq. of'Geanies. 
2dly, in 1853, Lavinia Mary, sister of Lord Beaumont; issue, 
a son and a daughter 3dly, in 1860, Eleanor, daughter of 
Spencer Perceval, Esq., by whom he has two sons. 

The representative of the family of Shinness is Donald Ma- 
theson, Esq. of Grandon Lodge, Surrey, eldest son of Duncan 
Matheson, Esq., Advocate, Edinburgh. His uncle, Sir James 
Matheson of Achany and the Lews, Bart., 2d son of Capt. 
Donald Matheson of Shinness, was born in 1796, at Lairg, Suth- 
erlandshire. He was at one period a partner iu the house of Jar- 
dine, Matheson, and Co., and resided many years in India 
and China. On his return to England, he received from the 
merchants of Bombay a service of plate, with an address, re- 
cording their sense of his conduct during the opium disputes 
with China. Owner of the estate of Achany in Sutherland- 
shire, and, jointly with Lord Clinton, lord of the borough 
and manor of Ashburton, Devonshire, he purchased the island 
of Lewis, which is about 40 miles long by about 20 broad, 
and, with his other property, he has an extent of territery as 
great as that possessed by the ancient chiefs of Lochalsh ; 
a deputy lieutenant of the counties of Ross and Sutherland ; 
member of the board of trustees for manufactures and of the 



fishery board in Scotland ; a vice-president of the Caledonian 
Asylum, London; F.R.S. ; was M.P. for Ashburton from 
1843 to 1847, and in the latter year was elected for the 
counties of Ross and Cromarty. He was created a baronet 
in 1850, on account of his benevolent and untiring efforts in 
alleviating the sufferings of the inhabitants of the Lewis at 
the period of the famine; author of a pamphlet on the China 
trade. He married, in 1843, Mary Jane, 4th daughter of M. H. 
Perceval, Esq. of Quebec, without issue. See Supplkmk.vi 



Maule, a surname of Norman origin, assumed from the 
town and lordship of Maule in France, which, for four cen- 
turies, belonged to the lords of that name. In the army ot 
William the Conqueror, on his invasion of England in 1066, 
was Guarin de Maule, a younger son of Arnold, lord of Maule. 
From the Conqueror, besides other lands, he obtained the 
lordship of Hatton, in Cleveland, Yorkshire. One of his 
sons, Robert de Maule, attached himself to David, earl of 
Cumberland, afterwards David I., who was educated at the 
English court, and accompanying him into Scotland, received 
a grant of lands in Mid Lothian. He died about 1130. The 
eldest of his three sons, William de Maule of Fowlis in Perth- 
shire, was at the battle of the Standard in 1138, but died 
without male issue. The second son, Roger de Maule, was 
the progenitor of the Maules of Pan mure. The marriage ol 
his daughter Cecilia to Walter de Ruthven brought the bar- 
ony of Fowlis into the Gowrie family, of which her husband 
was the ancestor. 

Roger de Maule's grandson, Sir Peter de Maule, married, 
about 1224, Christian, only daughter and heiress of William 
de Valoniis of Pannomor, or Panmure, and got with her the 
baronies of that name and Benvie, in Forfarshire, as well as 
other lands both in England and Scotland. He had two 
sons, Sir William and Sir Thomas. The latter was governor 
of the castle of Brechin in 1303, when it sustained a siege 
for twenty days by the English, under Edward I. ; and it was 
not till the governor, Sir Thomas Maule, was killed, by a 
stone thrown from an engine, that the garrison surrendered. 

The elder son, Sir William de Maule of Panmure, was sher- 
iff of Forfar at the death of Alexander III., and was among 
the barons who swore fealty to Edward I. at St. Andrews, 
10th July 1292. 

His son, Sir Henry de Maule of Panmure, was knighted 
by King Robert the Bruce, on account of his services. Sir 
Henry's eldest son, Sir Walter de Maule of Panmure, was 
governor of the castle of Kildrummy, Aberdeenshire, in the 
reign of David II. He had two sons, Sir William and Hen- 
ry, the latter the first of the Maules of Glaster. 

Sir William's son, Sir Thomas de Maule of Panmure, led 
a strong body of his name to the assistance of the earl of 
Mar at the battle of Harlaw, against Donald, lord of the 
Isles, in August 1411. As the old ballad says: 

" Panmure with all his men did cum." 

The Forfarshire clans mustered strong on the occasion , be- 
sides the Maules, the Lyons, Ogilvies, Carnegies, Lindsays, and 
others belonging to Angus, hastened to range themselves under 
the banner of Mar. Sir Thomas Maule was among the slain, 

" The knight of Panmure, as was sene, 
A mortal man in armour bright." 

His posthumous son, afterwards Sir Thomas de Maule ol 
1'anmure, was, notwithstanding his infancy, served heir to 
his father in 1412, an act of parliament having been passed 



MAXTOXE. 



122 



MAXWELL. 



to allow this in all cases of heirs in nonage, where the fathers 
had fallen in the king's service. The lordship of Brechin 
held bv the earl of Athol by courtesy since the death of his 
wife, Elizabeth Barclay, belonged by right to Sir Thomas 
Maule, the grandson of her aunt, Jean Barclay, but although 
that nobleman, previous to his execution for being concerned 
in the conspiracy which led to the assassination of James I., 
in 1437, declared this to be the case, Sir Thomas received 
but a small portion of it, as it was annexed to the crown by 
act of parliament. His great-grandson. Sir Thomas Manle 
of Panmure, fell at the battle of Flodden. With a daughter, 
married to Ramsay of Panbride, he had two sons, Robert and 
William, the latter ancestor of the Maules of Boath. 

The elder son, Robert Manle of Panmure. joined the earl 
)f Lennox in his unsuccessful attempt to rescue James V. 
out of the hands of the Douglases in 15*26, for which he got 
a remission. Two years afterwards, the king granted him a 
dispensation for life, from all public duties and attendance, 
on account of the true, good, and faithful services done by 
him to his majesty. He was one of those who opposed the 
projected marriage between the young Queen Mary and Ed- 
ward prince of Wales in 1543. In 1547 he bravely defended 
his house of Panmure against the English till he was severely 
wounded, when he was taken prisoner, and sent to London. 
He remained in the Tower till 1549, when, at the solicitation 
of the marquis d'Elboeuf, French ambassador to Scotland, he 
was released. One of his sons, Henry Maule of Melgum, a 
learned antiquarian, was author of a history of the Picts, 
published after his death. 

Thomas Maule of Panmure, his eldest son, in his father's 
lifetime accompanied David Bethune, abbot of Aberbroth- 
wick, afterwards archbishop of St. Andrews, when he went 
to France as ambassador in 1538. He was taken prisoner in 
the engagement with the English at Hadden Rig. 25th Au- 
gust 1542, when the Scots were commanded by the earl of 
Huntlv, and sent to Morpeth, where he remained till after 
the death of James V., when he was released by order of 
Henry VIII. He fought also at the battle of Pinkie in 1547. 
and in 1567, he joined the association for the safety of the 
infant Prince James, on the marriage of his mother, Queen 
Mary, to Bothwell. He died 17th March 1600. With three 
daughters, he had seven sons. Robert Maule, the fourth son, 
commissary of St. Andrews, a learned and judicious anti- 
quarv, was the author of several treatises, particularly Periodi 
Gentis Scotorum, a history of his own family, and a tract on 
the Antiquity of the Scots nation. A branch of the Maules, 
descended from Thomas Maule, lieutenant-colonel of the 
marquis of Ormond's regiment, son of Thomas, the fifth son, 
settled in Ireland. One of this family, Henry Maule, dean 
of Cloyne, was consecrated bishop of Cloyne in 1720, trans- 
lated to Dromore in 1731, and to Meath in 1744. 

Patrick Maule of Panmure, the eldest son, married Marga- 
ret, daughter of John Erskine of Dun, superintendent of 
Angus and Mearns, and died 21st May 1605. With two 
daughters he had a son, Patrick Maule of Panmure, who 
was one of the select few that accompanied James VI. to 
F.ngland in April 1603, when he went to take possession of 
the English throne. On 3d August 1646, he was by Charles 
I. created Baron Maule of Brechin and Navar and earl of 
Panmure, in the Scottish peerage (see Paxmcre, earl of). 



Maxtone, a surname derived from the lands of Maxton 
in Roxburghshire. A family of this name has for centuries 
owned the estate of Cultoquey, Perthshire, which, during the 
lime that it has been in their possession, has never, it is said, 
Wen larger or smaller than when they got it. They had the 



same common ancestor as the Maxwells, the one name being 
derived from Maccus-tan, a Saxon termination, and the other 
from Maccus-!/-e#, (in course of time shortened into Maxton 
and Maxwell,) to denote the manor and well of Maccus, a 
Saxon baron who came into Scotland at an early period, 
(see next article,) and received a grant of lands upon the 
Tweed. 

Robert de Maxtone had a charter of the lands of Cultoquey 
dated 1410, but that the family possessed the estate previous 
to that time is proved by mention being made of them in 
charters of other houses of older date. His descendant, Ro- 
bert Mastone o! Cultoquey, who had a charter of the lands of 
Ardoch in 14S7. was s'ain at Flodden in 1513. Anthony 
Maxtone of the same family, was, in the reign of Charles I., 
prebendary of Durham. The succession in the male line has 
been uninterrupted from father to son from the first. The 
13th proprietor, James Maxtone Graham, Esq. of Cultoquey, 
born June 20, 1819. succeeded his father in 1846. 

One of the proprietors of this house is celebrated for hav- 
ing repeated the following curious addition to his litany every 
morning at a well near his residence : 

" From the greed of the Campbells, 

From the pride of the Grahams, 

From the ire of the Drummonds, 

And the wind of the Murrays, 

Good Lord deliver us." 

His estate was surrounded by the Breadalbane, Montrose, 
Perth, and Athol families, and he thus showed his appre- 
hensions of his more powerful neighbours. 

James Maxtone Graham of Cultoquey, married in 1851, 
the daughter of George E. Russell, Esq., East India Com- 
pany's Service. In 1859 he succeeded to the estate ot 
Redgorton, Perthshire, on the death of his uncle, Robert 
Graham, Esq., cousin of the celebrated Lord Lynedoch, and 
in consequence assumed the name and arms of Graham under 
letters patent of the Lord Lyon. 



Maxwell, a surname of ancient standing in Scotland, 
originally Maccus- well, so called from the territory of that 
name on the Tweed, near Kelso. In the history of the Anglo- 
Saxons mention is made of Maccus, the son of Anlaf, king of 
Northumbria, (949 — 952.) Anlaf was surnamed Cwiran, 
and appears to be identical with the Amlaf Cuarran whose 
name occurs in the Annals of Ulster, (944 — 946.) On the 
expulsion of Anlaf by the treachery of his people, King Eric, 
a son of the Danish king, Harald Blataud, was set on the 
Northumbrian throne, but, with his son Henry and his brother 
Regnald, was slain in the wilds of Stanmore, by the hand of 
Maccus, the son of Anlaf. (Lappenberg's History of England 
under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. Thorpe's Translation, voL 
i. p. 125, London, 1845.) A potentate of the same name, 
" Maccus of Man and the Hebrides," is also mentioned some- 
what later in the same century. The following is from Lap- 
penberg (Jbid. vol. ii. p. 143). " On making his annual sea- 
voyage round the island, King Edgar found, on his arrival at 
Chester, eight sub-kings awaiting him, in obedience to the 
commands they had received, who swore to be faithful to him, 
and to be his fellow-workers by sea and land." These were 
Kenneth of Scotland, Malcolm of Cumbria, Maccus of Man 
and the Etbrides, Dyfhwall or Dunwallon of Strat Clyde, 
Siferth, Iago, (Jacob) and Howell of Wales, and Inchill of 
Westmoreland. All these vassals rowed the proud Basileus 
on the river Dee in a barge, of which Edgar waj the steers- 
man, to the monastery of St John the B.npt.st, where they 



MAXWELL, 



123 



AYMKR. 



offered up their orisons, and then returned in the same order 
to the palace." 

The same in substance is mentioned in the Chronica de 
Melros, which styles Maccus the " King of many Isles." 
Roger of Wendover and William of Malmesbury also relate 
the same, the latter of whom calls Maccus " that Prince of 
pirates," thus identifying him with Mascusius Archipirata, 
who about the same time (973) was a witness to a charter by 
King Edgar of England, and who signs immediately after 
•' Kinadius rex Albanie" and the rqyal family, and before all 
the bishops, "Ego Mascusius Archipirata confortavi." {I 'tig- 
dale Monast. vol. i. p. 17.) This Maccus would therefore ap- 
pear to have been a friend or ally of Kenneth king of the 
Scots, and may have held lands under him. 

The name of Maks or Max, in nvdiaval Latin Macus, is 
found in Domesday Book as being that of a baron holding 
several manors in England before the conquest ; and Mex- 
borough in Yorkshire, and Maxstoke in Warwickshire, still 
preserve the memorial of his residence and possessions. 
The latter, Maxstoke, is said to have belonged to Almundus, 
or Ailwynd, the same name, no doubt, as Undewyn, as the 
father of Maccus, hereafter mentioned, was called. The sal- 
tire cognizance of the Maxwells appears on the ceiling of the 
ancient priory of Maxstoke, along with many others of Nor- 
man descent, but without name. 

At an early period extensive possessions on the Tweed had 
oeen held by a person of the name of Maccus, from whom 
Maccuston (Maxton) and Maccus-well (Maxwell) were de- 
signated. Maccus-well has been supposed originally to have 
been called Maccus-ville, but the old chartulanes give no 
countenance to this supposition. Maccuswel or Maccus well 
means evidently the pool, well, or well of Maccus, (Saxon, u-yl/e, 
see charters in Saxon in Dugdale, where the word is trans- 
lated Jons, a well), probably from his having aright of fishing 
there ; in the same way as other fishings on the Tweed, as 
the fishings of Schipwell or Sipwell {Lib. de Melros, Tom. 
i. pp. 16, 17), and of Blackwell, {Reg. Cart, de Kelso, pp. 33, 
44, &c.) Probably long before the time of David I., the name 
came to be given to the adjoining territory and church, in the 
same way that it was afterwards called Maxwell-heugh, from 
another natural characteristic, probably coincident with the 
well or pool of former times. 

The origin of the family who held the lands of Maccus- 
well, in or before the time of David I., is doubtful. The opin- 
ion generally entertained at the present time is that they were 
directly descended from Maccus, from whom the lands got 
their name, but this opinion is far from certain. 

A Macchus was witness to a charter of foundation of the 
monastery of Selkirk in 11 13, afterwards transferred to Kelso, 
{Reg. Cart, de Kelso, p. 4.) 

Maccus filius Unwein is a witness to the Inquisition by 
Earl David, afterwards David I., into the possessions of the 
Church of Glasgow, about 1117. 

Maccus filius Undwain is also witness to charter by David 
I. in the life of Prince Henry; which charter mentions a Per- 
ambulation of the lands which took place " Anno scilicet se- 
cundo, quo Stephanus Rex Anglk captus est." Stephen was 
taken prisoner in 1141, so that the charter must have been 
between 1113 and 1152, when Prince Henry died, and there- 
fore the Maccus here mentioned is evidently not the ancestor 
of the Maxwells, {Liber de Melros, Tom. i. p. 4.) 

Old writers say that the family came from England. The 
history of the Maxwell family, printed in the Uerries Peerage 
Case, (page 294) gives the same account. The manuscript 
was got in a monastery iu Flanders, probably Douay, and 
6ent to Terreeles in 1709. It seems to have been written 



chiefly before 1660. and although inaccurate in many particu- 
lars, shows that the writer must have had means of informa- 
tion which probably do not now exist. 

Other copies of this manuscript are extant, but all, as well 
as the printed one, seem to have been carelessly copied from an 
older and not very legible manuscript, and added to in the 
transcription. A more correct copy is in the possession of 
the Kirkconnel family, but only brought down to 1580, about 
which time it seems to have been originally compiled. — The 
chronicles and chartularies of the monasteries in Dumfries- 
shire and Galloway may have at that time been extant, and 
furnished materials for family history which do not now exist. 
Captain Grose must have seen a copy of this genealogical 
history as authority for the facts he relates. He mentions 
that there was a tradition that the first of the Maxwell name 
in Scotland was a Norwegian in the suite of Edgar Atheling 
and his sisters, on their arrival in the Frith of Forth two years 
after the Norman conquest. 

Ewin Maccuswel of Carlaverock was at the siege of Alnwick 
with Malcolm Canmore in 1093. {Hist Family of Maxwell, 
printed as mentioned above.") This seems the same name as 
Eugene or Hugh. 

Herbert de Maccuswel made a grant of the church of 
Maccuswel to the monastery of Kelso, probably in the time of 
David I., as it is among the earlier grants to that monaster}-. 
{Reg. Cart, de Kelso, pp. 7 and 14.) He is said to have 
died in 1143. (Family Tree at Terregles.) 

Edmund de Macheswel, probably a brother of Herbert, was 
witness to a charter before 1152, {Cart, de Kelso, p. 145.) 
Cither witnesses to the same charter are Hugo de Morvile, 
William de Sumervile, and William de Morvile, whose sur- 
names have all the Norman termination t'i'/e — differing in a 
marked manner in this from Edmund de Machesirt/. 

Eugene de Maxwell was taken prisoner with King William 
in 1174. He assisted Roland, lord of Galloway, and married 
his daughter, {Hist. Family of Maxwell.') 

Herbert de Maccuswel makes a grant to a chapel in the 
church of St. Michael of Maccuswel, in honour of St. Thomas 
the Martyr, circa 1180, {Reg. Cart, de Kelso, p. 325.) He 
was sheriff of Tevidale, and witness to various charters from 
1180 to 1198. (See Lib. de Kelso, and Chartulary .J 
Paisley.) 

Sir John de Maccuswel was sheriff of P>oxburgh and Tevi- 
dale in 1207, and in 1215 was ambassador to King John. 
{Rymer's Fadera, v. i. part i. p. 135.) In 1220, he was one 
of the guarantees of the marriage of King Alexander II. with 
the princess Joan, sister of Henry 111. of England, and he 
was one of the witnesses to the grant of dowry to her on 
June 18, 1221. He was chamberlain of Scotland from 1231 
to 1233, and died in 1241. 

His son Eumerus or Aymer de Maxwell, under the desig- 
nation of Homer Maxwell, is witness in the reign of Alexandei 
II., in a donation of the kirks of Dundonald and Sanquhar to 
Paisley, by Walter the Great Steward. By his marriage with 
Mary, daughter and heiress of Roland de Meatus, he obtained 
the lands and baronies of Mearns and Nether Pollock, in 
Renfrewshire, and Dryps and Calderwood in Lanarkshire. 
He was one of the councillors or in the household of the 
young king, and in 1255, he and Mary his wife, with the 
Coinyns, John de Baliol, Robert de Ros, and others, were re- 
moved by Henry, king of England, to make way for Neill, 
earl of Carrick, Robert de Brus, William de Duneglas, and 
others of the English party. He was sheriff of Dumfries- 
shire, and great-chamberlain of Scotland. In 1258, with 
other barons he engaged that the Scots should not make peace 
with the English without the consent of the Welsh. In 



MAXWELL, 



124 



SIR JOHN. 



1265, he was justiciary of Galloway, (Lib. de Melrose, Tom. 
i. p. 274.) He had three sons : Sir Herbert, his successor ; 
Sir John, to whom he gave the lands of Nether Pollock in 
Renfrewshire, and who was the founder of the family of that 
designation, baronets of 1682 ; and Alexander, of whom no- 
thing is Known. 

Sir Herbert, the eldest son, sat in the parliament at Scone, 
5th February, 1283-4, when the nobles agreed to acknow- 
ledge the Maiden of Norway as queen of Scotland, on the 
death of her grandfather, Alexander III. He is witness to 
in agreement between the Convent of Passelet and John de 
Aldhus, in 1284, (Chartulary of Paisley, p. 66.) In 1289, 
he was one of the barons who subscribed the letter to Edward 
I., from Brigham, as to the marriage of the Maiden of Nor- 
way with his son Edward. On June 6, 1292, he was one of 
those named on the part of John Baliol to discuss before Ed- 
ward the right to the throne of Scotland, and in the same 
year he swore fealty to Edward. He died before 1300. Of 
three sons which he had, the eldest predeceased him. 

Sir Herbert, the second son, succeeded him, and soon after 
his castle of Carlaverock sustained a siege from the English, 
a singularly curious and minute description of which has 
been preserved in a poem, in Norman- French, supposed to 
have been written by Walter of Exeter, a celebrated Francis- 
can friar, who is also said to have been the author of the ro- 
mantic history of Guy, earl of Warwick. This description of 
the siege of Carlaverock castle suggested to Sir Walter Scott 
the idea of the siege of the castle of Front de Boeuf in 
"Ivanhoe." About the 1st of July, 1300, the English army 
left Carlisle commanded by Edward I. in person, attended by 
the prince of Wales, afterwards Edward II., and the whole 
chivalry of England. At this time Edward was in possession 
of almost every stronghold in Scotland between Berwick and 
the Moray frith. The strong castle of Carlaverock alone held 
out. The assaults of the English were made by every de- 
scription of engine then in use, while the besieged showered 
upon their assailants such " huge stones, quarrels, and 
arrows, and with wounds and bruises they were so hurt and 
exhausted, that it was with very great difficulty they were 
able to retire." Indeed, the courage of the garrison, which 
amounted only to sixty men, was most conspicuous. We are 
told that as one of them became fatigued another supplied his 
place, and they defended the fortress gallantly the whole of 
one day and night, but the numerous stones thrown by the 
besiegers, and the erection of three large battering engines of 
great power, caused them to surrender. To obtain a cessa- 
tion of hostilities, they hung out a pennon, but the soldier 
who exhibited it, was shot through the hand to his face by 
in arrow. The rest demanded quarter, surrendered the castle, 
ind submitted to the mercy of the king of England. 

Sir Herbert's son, Sir Eustace Maxwell, succeeded his 
father before 1312. Entertaining the hereditary feelings of 
his family in favour of the Baliols and Comyns, in opposition 
to Robert the Bruce, he regained possession of the castle of 
Carlaverock, and on April 30, 1312, he received from Ed- 
ward II., an allowance of £20 for its more secure keeping. 
He afterwards joined the party of Robert the Bruce. His castle 
of Carlaverock was again in consequence besieged by the Eng- 
lish, and defended for several weeks, when the assailants 
were compelled to retire. Fearing that it might again fall 
into the hands of the English, Sir Eustace demolished a part 
of the fortifications, for which he was rewarded by King Ro- 
bert Bruce. Sir Eustace was one of the barons who signed 
the letter to the Pope, asserting the independence of Scot- 
land, in 1320, and in the same year was tried for being ac- 
cessory to a conspiracy against the king, but was acquitted. 



In 1332, Edward Baliol landed in Scotland, and was crowned 
at Scone. He was afterwards besieged in Perth, when the 
men of Galloway, under Sir Eustace de Maxwell, invaded the 
lands of the besiegers, and caused them to raise the siege, 
(Chron. de Lanercost, p. 269,) On Dec. 13, 1333, Sir Eustace, 
with others, was chosen by Edward III., to ascertain the 
value of the castle, county, and city of Berwick upon Tweed, 
(Rotuli Scotice, vol. i. p. 260.) January 26, 1335-6, he was 
appointed one of the conservators of the truce with the Scots, 
on the part of Edward, and on August 23, following, a letter 
was sent to him as sheriff of Dumfries, as well as to the other 
sheriffs of Scotland, rebuking them for their tardiness in giv- 
ing in their accounts, (Ibid. vol. i. p. 441.) In 1337, he 
made a temporary defection from Baliol, and caused the men 
of Galloway on his own side of the Cree, to rise against the 
English, although he had only immediately before received 
from Edward III , money and provisions for the more secure 
keeping of Carlaverock castle, (Chronicon de Lanercost, p. 
290.) The castles of Dumbarton and Carlaverock are said 
to have been the only strong castles then in possession of the 
Scots. The latter had therefore been repaired after its de- 
molition. On August 20, 1339, Sir Eustace de Maxwell, 
Duncan Makduel, aud Michael Mageth, of Scotland, received 
from Edward III. letters of pardon, and admitting them to 
the king's peace, for having joined with his enemies, (Rotulx 
Scotice, vol. i. p. 571.) Sir Eustace was a witness to a 
charter of confirmation by Edward III., in 1340. He died 
at Carlaverock, March 3, 1342-3. 

Sir John de Maxwell, knight, " son of the deceased Sir 
John Maxwell of Pencateland, and heir of Sir Eustace de 
Maxwell, his brother," succeeded, as appears by charter 
granted by him to the Abbey of Dryburgh, confirmed by 
William, Prior of St. Andrews in 1343, being " the patronage 
of the church of Pencateland, which John de Maxwell of 
Pencateland, and Sir John Maxwell, knight, dominus de 
Maxwell, granted to the abbot and convent of Dryburgh.' 1 
Sir John Maxwell was taken prisoner, with David II., at the 
battle of Durham, in 1346, and died shortly after. 

Sir John Maxwell, Lord (dominus) of Maxwell, his son, 
probably did not for a time regain possession of Carlaverock. 
Roger de Kirkpatrick had in the end of 1356 taken the castle 
of Carlaverock and levelled it with the ground, and when re- 
siding in the neighbourhood, was, in June following, assassinat 
ed by Sir James Lindsay. Sir John Maxwell sat in the meeting 
of the Estates at Edinburgh, 26th September 1357, when 
the terms proposed by Edward III. relative to the release of 
David II. were agreed to, and he was engaged in the nego- 
tiations relating thereto. A charter was granted by Robert II. 
to Robert de Maxwell, son and heir of John Maxwell of Car- 
laverock, knight, on the resignation by his father of the lands 
he held of the king, under reservation of his liferent, and of 
the terce, to Christian his spouse, in case she survived him, 
dated Sept. 19, 1371. He is supposed to have died in 1373. 

His son, Sir Robert Maxwell of Carlaverock, succeeded. In 
the charter of resignation mentioned above, he is called by 
King Robert II., dilectus con&anguinew noster, which would 
infer that his mother Christian was related to the king. He 
is supposed to have erected the castle of Carlaverock on its 
present site, the former one having been in a lower situation 
more to the east. He made a grant to the monastery of Dry- 
burgh, for the welfare of his soul and of the soul of Sir Her- 
bert de Maxwell, his son and heir, before 1400, (Liber d« 
Dryburgh, p. 273.) He seems to have been alive in 1407, but 
was dead before Nov. 23, 1413. The Sir Robert Maxwell 
who was then sent as ambassador to the English court must 
have been Sir Robert Maxwell of Calderwood 



MAXWELL, 



125 



FIFTH LORD. 



Sir Herbert Maxwell of Carlaverock, his son, succeeded. 
He married in 1385 or 1386, Katherine, daughter of Sir 
John Stuart of Dalswinton, under a dispensation from the 
pope. From his kinsman, Archibald, earl of Douglas, he had 
received a charter of the stewardship of Annandale, dated 
8th February 14U9-10. He was probably dead before Oct. 
20, 1420, but certainly so before March 16, 1421. Besides 
Herbert, his successor, he left another son, Aymer, who mar- 
ried the heiress of Kirkconnel of that ilk (see Maxwell ot 
Kirkconnel). 

The elder son, Sir Herbert Maxwell of Carlaverock, suc- 
ceeded. In his father's lifetime he had a safe conduct, Nov. 
3, 1413, with others, to go to England as hostages. On 
March 16, 1421, he was retoured heir to his father in the 
lands of Mekill Dripps. He was knighted at the coronation 
of James I., May 21, 1424, and some years afterwards was 
;r»J*ted a lord of parliament, a dignity established by King 
James under the Act, March 1, 1427. His ancestors, from 
an early period, ranked among the magnates or proceres reg- 
ni; and in several charters in the vernacular yet extant are 
styled lords of Carlaverock, in the same way as the lords of 
Galloway and others. In 1425 he was arrested with Murdoch, 
duke of Albany, but soon liberated. Albany was at first sent 
to Carlaverock castle, but soon taken back to Stirling, where 
he was executed. The tower at Carlaverock, in which he 
was confined, was from him called Murdoch's tower In 
the parliament held at Perth, March 10, 1429, Maxwell is 
entered as one of the lords of parliament who adjudicated on 
the plea between Margaret, lady of Craigy, and Philip de Mow- 
bray. {Acts of Scots Pari., vol. iL, p. 28). In 1430 and 
1438 he was warden of the west marches, and on 20th March 
Df the latter year he was one of the conservators of the truce 
with England. He was one of the lords of parliament preseut 
in parliament, June 28, 1445. He is again named a conserva- 
tor of the truce, April 29, 1450, April 16, 1451, and May 30, 
1453. (Rotuli Scotice.) On Aug. 8, 1440, he had a charter 
under the great seal authorising him to build a tower on the 
crag of the Mearns, and on May 15, 1444, he had a letter from 
the king empowering him to build the castle of the Mearns. 
He died before Feb. 14, 1453. He was twice married : first, 
to a daughter of Sir Herbert Herries of Terregles, by whom he 
had two sons, Robert his successor, and Sir Edward Max- 
well, of whom descended the Maxwells of Tinwald and 
Monreith ; and secondly, to Katherine, daughter of Sir 
William Seton of Seton, widow of Sir Allan Stewart of Der- 
nely, and mother of the first earl of Lennox. By this lady, he 
had, with other issue, George, ancestor of the Maxwells of 
Comsalloch, and Adam, of the Maxwells of Southbar. 

The eldest son, Robert, 2d Lord Maxwell, was retoured 
heir to his father February 14, 1453^1. On the forfeiture of 
the Douglases in 1455, the extensive lordship of Eskdale was 
acquired by him, and remained with the Maxwell family 
throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. He was a guarantee 
to a treaty with the English in 1457, and again in 1459. 
He had, before January 20, 1424, married Janet, daughter of 
Sir John Forstar (Forrester) of Corstorphine. On March 6, 
1457, he was appointed one of the visitors of hospitals in Gal- 
loway. On Feb. 10, 1477, he executed a resignation of the 
baronies of Maxwell, Carlaverock, and Mearns, in favour of 
John Maxwell, his eldest son, on which the latter had char- 
ter from the king on the 14th of the same month. He died 
before May 8, 1485. He had three sons, John, his succes- 
sor, Thomas, who married the heiress of Maxwell of Kirk- 
connel, and David. An illegitimate son, also named John, 
was killed in a quarrel with the Murrays. 

The eldest son, John, 3d Lord Maxwell, as he was called 



in his latter years, although he predeceased his father ii 
1454, married Katherine Crichton, daughter of George Ear 
of Caithness. He was appointed steward of Annandale 
That he was called Lord Maxwell in his father's lifetime. 
after the resignation of the baronies of Maxwell, Carlaverock, 
and Mearns, to him as already mentioned, appears from the 
Acta Auditorum. On March 27, 1482, " John Lord Max- 
well " is mentioned. On December 12, 1482, John Maxwell, 
son and apparent heir of " Robert Lord Maxwell ; " and in a 
mutual grant of certain lands to endow a chapel in Car- 
laverock, " Robert Lord Maxwell," and " John Lord Maxwell," 
his son, are mentioned by these titles, and as then alive, June 
5, 1483. John Lord Maxwell, or the Master of Maxwell 
was treacherously slain by one of his own countrymen at the 
close of a battle in Annandale with a party of English and 
some rebel Scots, July 22, 1484. Besides John, his succes- 
sor, he left numerous sons, from whom descended the Max- 
wells of Cowhill and Killylung, of Cavens, of Portrack, ot 
Hills, and Druincoltran, &c. 

John, 4th Lord Maxwell, his eldest son, was one of the 
commissioners nominated to settle border differences by the 
treaty of Nottingham, Sept. 23, 1484. He fell at Flodden, 
9th September 1513. By his wife, Agnes, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Stewart of Garlies, ancestor of the earls of Gallo- 
way, he had, with three daughters, three sons, viz., Robert, 
fourth Lord Maxwell; Herbert, ancestor of the Maxwells of 
Clowdcn ; and Edward, taken prisoner with his brother at 
the rout of Solway in 1543, but released the following year, 
on payment of a ransom of .£100 sterling. 

Robert, fifth Lord Maxwell, the eldest son, was a conspicu- 
ous character in Scottish history in the first half of the 16th 
century. On the 10th June, preceding the battle of Flodden 
Field, he had been knighted by James IV., and, at the 
same time, on the resignation of his father, he was ap- 
pointed steward of Annandale. In 1516 he acquired part of 
the lands forfeited by Lord Home, and in the following year 
he was appointed warden of the western marches. In 1524 
he was lord provost of Edinburgh, and in that capacity cho- 
sen one of the lords of the articles for the commissioners ot 
burghs. On 21st June 1526, on James V. being declared ot 
age to assume the government of the realm, Lord Maxwell 
was sworn a member of the secret council, formed to assist 
the earl of Angus with their advice and support as guardian 
of the king's person. Soon after, he was with the young 
monarch, on his return from his expedition against the Arm- 
strongs, when, at Melrose bridge, Angus' party was attacked 
by Walter Scott of Buccleuch, with the design of rescuing 
his majesty from the hands of the Douglases. In 1526 he 
was infeft as steward of Kirkcudbright and keeper of Threave 
castle, offices afterwards made hereditary. On the escape of 
James from Falkland castle to Stirling in 1528, Lord Maxwell 
was one of the first of the lords who attended the council 
summoned by the king. In the distribution of offices which 
took place when the king soon after proceeded to Edinburgh, 
a free monarch, to his lordship was intrusted the command of 
the capital with the provostship of the city. Angus' brother, 
Sir George Douglas, the late master of the king's household, 
and his uncle, Archibald Douglas of Kilspindy, the late trea- 
surer, having made an attempt to raise the inhabitants, were 
attacked by Lord Maxwell, and driven from the capital. He 
was rewarded with a portion of the lands of the forfeited An- 
gus. (Douglas 1 Peerage, vol. ii. p. 317). 

The same year, his lordship and other principal border- 
chiefs were arrested and placed in Edinburgh castle, prepa- 
ratory to the king's celebrated journey into Eusdale and 
Teviotdale for the punishment of the border thieves, whose 



MAXWELL, 



126 



SEVENTH LORD. 



disorders they had overlooked, if not encouraged, during the 
time that Angus had usurped the government. In a few 
months, however, they were released, after delivering pledges 
for their allegiance. On 17th November 1533, his lordship 
was appointed an extraordinary lord of session. In 1536 he 
made a hostile incursion into England, and burnt Penrith. In 
August of the same year he was appointed one of the mem- 
bers of the regency, to whom the government of the kingdom 
was intrusted during the absence of James V., on his matri- 
monial expedition to France ; and in the following December 
he was one of the ambassadors sent to that country to ne- 
gotiate the marriage of James with Mary of Guise, widow 
of the duke of Longueville, whom he espoused as proxy for 
the king. 

In 1542, after the discontented nobles had refused to in- 
vade England, and James was obliged to disband his army 
encamped on Fala muir, Lord Maxwell offered his services 
for a new expedition. A force of 10,000 men having been 
speedily collected, it advanced, under his command, into 
England, by the western marches, and reached the Solway 
Moss, whilst the king awaited at Carlaverock castle the re- 
sult of the invasion. The appointment of the king's favour- 
ite, Oliver Sinclair, to the chief command, gave so much 
offence to the nobles in the Scots army, that they refused to 
serve under him, and on the approach of Sir Thomas Dacre 
and Sir John Musgrave, two English leaders, with 300 horse, 
they yielded themselves prisoners. Lord Maxwell on foot 
was endeavouring to restore some degree of order, and being 
urged to mount his horse and fly, he replied, " Nay, I will 
rather abide here the chance that it shall please God to send 
me than to go home and there be hanged." 

On the death of James V., which hapDened soon after, his 
lordship, with the other captive lords, was allowed to return 
to Scotland, his ransom being 1,000 marks. They were pre- 
viously compelled, however, to enter into a bond or obligation 
to promote the designs of the English monarch on their native 
country. He zealously promoted the fruitless projects of 
Henry VIIL, relative to a marriage betwixt the infant Queen 
Mary and his son, Prince Edward. 

While in England he is supposed to have become a convert 
to the doctrines of the Reformation, and in the first parliament 
of the young queen, which met March 13, 1543, he presented 
an act that all should have liberty to read the Bible in the 
Scottish or English tongue, but under the proviso, not very 
consistent with his reformed views, that " na man dispute or 
hald opinions Tinder the pains conteinit in the actis of parlia- 
ment." This act was passed into a law, and publicly ratified 
by the regent Arran, notwithstanding the protest of the lord- 
chancellor and the prelates. Towards the end of the same 
year he was apprehended at Edinburgh, with Lord Somer- 
ville, on a charge of entering into a treasonable agreement 
with England, but on the arrival of an English fleet in Leith 
Roads on 3d May following, he was set at liberty. On 16th 
September, 1545, witli the lairds of Lochinvar and Johnston, 
aided by some French troops, he invaded England by the 
western borders, but was taken prisoner. As his conduct 
towards King Henry had been suspicious and vacillating, he 
was threatened to be sent to the Tower by that imperious 
monarch, when he offered to serve under the earl of Hertford, 
on his invasion of Scotland, with a red cross on his armour, 
to show that he was true to the English interests. By de- 
livering up Carlaverock to the English, he was allowed to 
return to Scotland, but early in November of the same year, 
the regent and Cardinal Bethune attacked and stormed that 
fortress, whilst Lochmaben and Threave, held by his sons, 
experienced 9 similar fate. Maxwell himself, being taken 



with his English confederates, was imprisoned in Dumfries. 
He died 9th July 1546. He was twice married, but had only 
issue by his first wife, Janet, daughter of Sir William Douglas 
of Drumlanrig, namely, a daughter, Margaret, countess of 
Angus, and afterwards Lady Baillie of Lamington, and two 
sons, Robert, 6th Lord Maxwell, and Sir John Maxwell of 
Terregles, who married Agnes, daughter of the third Loud 
Hemes, and as the 4th Lord Hemes, but first of the Maxwell 
family, distinguished himself by his faithful adherence to 
Queen Mary. (See vol. ii. p. 473.) 

Robert, sixth Lord Maxwell, was one of the commissioners 
to treat with the English, 8th May, 1551, and died 14th Sep- 
tember, 1552. By his wife, Lady Beatrix Douglas, the 2d of 
3 daughters of James, 3d earl of Morton, he had Robert, who 
died young, and a posthumous son. John, 7th Lord Max- 
well. 

John, seventh lord, was not born till the spring following his 
father's decease. His uncle, the Master of Maxwell, was his 
tutor and governor; afterwards William Douglas of Whitting 
ham, John Mure of Rowallan, and Robert Maxwell of Cow 
hill, were appointed his curators, until he attained his majority 
in 1574. He was a zealous supporter of Queen Mary, and in 
1570, when the earl of Sussex was sent by Queen Elizabeth 
into Scotland, with an army of 15,000 men, to support King 
James VI., after the assassination of the regent Moray, the 
English commander "took and cast down the castles of Car- 
laverock, Hoddam, Dumfries, Tinwald, Cowhill, and sundry 
other gentlemen's houses, dependers on the house of Max- 
well, and having burnt the town of Dumfries, returned with 
great spoil to England." Lord Maxwell and Lord Hemes 
attended the parliament held in Queen Mary's name at Edin- 
burgh, 12th June. 1571. In right of his mother he was heir 
of one-third of the earldom of Morton ; he had acquired right 
to another third from Margaret, her elder sister, with consent 
of her husband, the duke of Chatelherault, and he was heir 
apparent of the youngest sister, who died childless. He, 
therefore, considered that the earldom of Morton was his by 
right, and that all the entails executed by James, 3d earl, 
were illegal. The earl of Morton, appointed regent of the 
kingdom Nov. 24, 1672, seemed himself to doubt their legal- 
ity, for he " pressed by all means that the Lord Maxwell 
should renounce his title thereto, quilk he refusing he com- 
manded him to prison in the castle of Edinburgh, where 
lykwayes refusing to renounce, he was sent to Blackness, and 
from thence to St. Andrews, where he and the Lord Ogilvie 
abode till the March thereafter." {Hist. Family of Maxwell.) 
In 1579, Morton caused Lords John and Claud Hamilton to fly 
the country, and delivered the Duchess of Chatelherault, their 
mother and Lord Maxwell's aunt, and the earl of Arran, then 
insane, into the charge of the notorious Captain Lammie, and 
in order to injure, as much as in his power, every descendant 
of the 3d earl of Morton, to whom he was indebted for his 
honours and estates, he deprived Lord Maxwell of the warden- 
ship, and conferred the office on the laird of Johnston, the 
hereditary enemy of the house of Maxwell. On the execution 
and attainder of the regent Morton, Lord Maxwell obtained, 
as representative of his mother, a charter of the earldom ol 
Morton, erected of new in his favour, June 5, 1581, and rati- 
fied with consent of the Estates, Nov. 19 thereafter. He seems 
to have been, about the same time, reponed as warden of the 
west marches, which office he held till the conspiracy of the 
earl of Gowrie in 1582, when the duke of Lennox was driven 
from the government, He adhered to the duke, and accom- 
panied him to Glasgow on his way to Dumbarton castle. On 
Nov. 30 of that year, when Lennox meditated the seizure of 
the capital, Lord Maxwell and others of his supporters arrived 



MAXWELL, 



127 



EIGHTH LORD. 



in that city, with their followers, to assist him, but departed 
without carrying their design into effect. 

The attainder of the earldom of Morton was rescinded by the 
king's letters under the great seal, in January 1585, in favour 
of Archibald earl of Angus, the heir of entail, (ratified by act 
)f parliament of 29th July 1587,) who thereby succeeded to 
the old title of earl of Morton, but not affecting Lord Maxwell's 
title of earl of Morton created in 1581 (see Morton, earl of). 
Having incurred Arran's displeasure for refusing to exchange 
his lands of Pollok and Maxwellhaugh, which lay contiguous to 
Arran's estate, for others of equal value, Lord Maxwell pro- 
ceeded to collect a force in his own defence, when he was de- 
nounced rebel, and put to the horn, through the malice of the 
earl of Arran, on which the lieges were commanded by pro- 
clamation to meet the king on Cruwfordmuir, on Oct. 24, to 
proceed against him. He joined the banished nobles in their 
conspiracy for the removal of Arran, whom they considered the 
cause of all the evils that afflicted the country, and was with 
them when, on Nov. 1, they took the castle of Stirling On 
sins occasion his followers availed themselves of the op- 
portunity to do a little bit of business on their own account, 
while in effect assisting in the overthrow of the court fa- 
vourite, for, we are told, they carried off by force all the horses 
they could find, " not respecting friend or foe." A general 
act of indemnity was passed in favour of the lords who had 
driven Arran from court, and on December 10, 1585, a special 
Act of Parliament granted Lord Maxwell, his friends and 
servants, entire indemnity for all their unlawful doings within 
the realm, from April 1569 to the date thereof. Of the men 
named in the act, there were about 600 from Lord Maxwell's own 
estates in Nithsdale and Galloway, 600 from Eskdale, Ewes- 
ilale, and Wauchopedale, mostly Beatties, Littles, and Arm- 
strongs, 340 from Lower Annandale, chiefly Carruthers, Bells, 
and Irvings, and about 450 better organized soldiers, in three 
companies of infantry, and two troops of cavalry, one troop 
being from Galloway and Nithsdale, commanded by John 
Maxwell ol Newlaw and Alexander Maxwell of Logan ; and 
the other from Annandale, commanded by George Carruth- 
ers of Holmends, and Charles Carruthers, his son. 

Having, contrary to law, caused mass to be celebrated 
openly in the college of Lincluden, near Dumfries, on 24th, 
25th, and 26th Dec. of the same year, his lordship, and the 
rest of the hearers, were charged to appear before the secret 
council. On his appearance he offered himself to trial, but 
was committed to the castle of Edinburgh. It does not 
Appear how long he remained a prisoner. Tytler says (Jlist of 
Scotland, vol. ix.. p. 4), that when the king received the news 
of his mother's execution, he sent for Lord Maxwell, and others 
of the more warlike of the border leaders, to consult as to 
what should be done. He was not, however, employed in the 
matter, for on April 12, 1687, he gave bond, with John, Lord 
Hamilton, William, Lord Herries, and Sir John Gordon of 
Lochinvar, as cautioners, that he would leave the realm and 
go beyond sea in a month, and in the meantime should not 
trouble the country, nor, when abroad, do anything to injure 
the religion then professed, or the peace of the realm, and 
snould not return without his Majesty's special license. Lord 
Herries, also, on May 29 following, gave bond that Sir Robert 
Maxwell of Dinwiddie, John Maxwell of Conheath, and Ed- 
ward Maxwell of the Hills— probably imprisoned at the same 
time as Lord Maxwell — should not do or attempt anything 
to the prejudice of the religion then professed. Soon after, 
Lord Maxwell went to Spain, and when there he did what he 
could to promote the success of the invasion of England by 
the Armada, and, with that view, to produce a diversion in 
Scotland, where a powerful body of the nobility was ready to 



assist (Ibid. vol. ix., p. 17.) In the month of April 1588, h« 
returned to Scotland without the king's license. He at once 
began to assemble his followers, that he might be ready to 
assist the Spaniards on the arrival of their much-vaunted 
Armada. He fortified the castle of Lochmaben, the command 
of which he gave to Mr. David Maxwell, brother of the laird 
of Cowhill, while he himself took refuge on board a ship. 
With a large force James marched to Dumfries, and sum- 
moned Lord Maxwell's various castles to surrender. They 
all obeyed, except Lochmaben, but after two days' firing it 
also was given up, when the governor and five of his officers 
were hanged before the castle gate. In the meantime, Sir 
William Stewart, brother of Captain Stewart, the quondam 
earl of Arran, was sent after Lord Maxwell. Finding himself 
pursued, his lordship, quitting the ship, took to the boat, and 
had no sooner landed than he was apprehended. He was at 
first conveyed to Dumfries, but afterwards removed to the 
castle of Edinburgh, and deprived of his office of warden ol 
the western marches, which was conferred on the laird of 
Johnston. 

With other imprisoned nobles, Lord Maxwell was released 
from his confinement on 12th September, 1589, to do honour, 
by their attendance, to the queen of James VI. on her arrival 
in Scotland from Denmark. He had become, from policy or 
otherwise, a convert to Protestantism, and on 26th January 
1593, subscribed the Confession of Faith before the presbytery 
of Edinburgh, under the name of Morton. On the 2d Feb 
ruary following he and the new earl of Morton, striving foi 
precedency in the church at Edinburgh, were parted by the 
provost before they had time to draw their swords, and con- 
veyed under a guard to their lodging, as was also Lord Ham- 
ilton, for having assisted Maxwell. 

He had been restored to the wardenship of the we&terii 
marches, but in consequence of its having been held for a 
time by the laird of Johnston, the old feud was renewed be- 
tween the two families. On the 7th December, 1593, at the 
head of about 2,000 men, Lord Maxwell, having a commission 
of lieutenantcy, went to demolish some houses belonging to the 
Johnstons, when he was resisted by the chief of that name, 
with his allies, the Scotts, Elliots, and other border clans, to 
the number of 500 men, and " being a tall man and heavy in 
armour," was slain. This affair was called the battle of Dryfe 
sands. The Maxwells, though much superior in numbers, 
were routed and pursued ; and lost, on the field and in the 
retreat, about 700 men, besides their commander. Many of 
those who were killed or wounded in the retreat were 
cut down in the streets of Lockerby, and hence the phrase, 
currently used in Annandale to denote a severe wound, " A 
Lockerby Lick." By his wife, Lady Elizabeth Douglas, 
second daughter of the 7th earl of Angus, Ixird Maxwell 
had, with three daughters, three sons, John and Robert, 8th 
and 9th Lord Maxwell, and James Maxwell of Kirkconnel 
and Springkell, who left no issue. 

John, 8th Lord Maxwell, the eldest son, was put to the 
horn for various act3 of disobedience to the king's authority, 
and by the laws then in force as to religion, before the year 
1600. The old feud between the Maxwells and the Johnstons 
was kept up by the appointment of Sir James Johnston 
to the wardenship, June 17, 1600. Lord Maxwell was 
in March 1602 imprisoned in the castle of Edinburgh on 
account of his favouring popery. He afterwards broke out of 
ward, and was proclaimed a traitor. A sort of reconciliation 
had taken place between the Maxwells and the Johnstons, in 
testimony whereof Lord Maxwell executed " Letters of Sla\ ns," 
June 11, 1605. 

In 1607 Lord Maxwell, asserting still Ins right* a* i url of 



MAXWELL, 



128 



OF POLLOK. 



Morton, got into disputes with the other earl of Morton about 
holding courts in Eskdalemuir, in consequence whereof he 
was committed to the castle of Edinburgh. He escaped from 
the castle Dec. 4 of that year, along with Robert Max- 
well of Dinwiddie. He was then put to the horn, and diligent 
search made for him. On Feb. 2, 1608, King James wrote 
to the privy council, complaining that, in contempt of his 
authority, Lord Maxwell travelled openly through the country 
with 20 horse, and even appeared at Dumfries, and directed 
that he be sought for, and either taken or put out of the 
bounds. In answer, the privy council informed the king that 
they had used all diligence in searching for Lord Maxwell, 
and punishing his resetters, and asked to have designed a 
certain cave to which he used to resort. The cave inquired 
about was probably what is now called " Lord Maxwell's 
c.ive," in Clawbelly Hill, parish of Kirkgunzeon. Tired of 
this uncomfortable life, Lord Maxwell desired to be restored to 
the king's favour, and for that purpose, in April, 1608, sent a 
message by his cousin, Sir Robert Maxwell of Orchardton, to Sir 
James Johnston of Johnston, the brother-in-law of the latter, 
who had expressed a wish for a reconciliation, that a friendly 
meeting might take place between them. Accordingly, they 
met on horseback on the 6th of that month, Lord Maxwell at- 
tended by Charles Maxwell of Kirkhouse, and Sir James John- 
ston by William Johnston of Lockerby, Sir Robert Maxwell being 
also present. With Sir Robert Maxwell, the two chiefs rode 
apart to confer together, but, a quarrel taking place between 
the attendants, Johnston's friend was shot at by a pistol fired 
by the other. The laird of Johnston, crying out " treason," rode 
forward to see what was the matter. Lord Maxwell, at that 
moment, shot him in the back, and he fell off his horse dead. 
His lordship immediately fled to the continent. His title and 
estates were forfeited, and all his offices vested in the crown. 
In March 1612 he ventured to return to Scotland, and being 
closely pursued, retired to Caithness, intending to take ship- 
ping there for Sweden, but was betrayed by his kinsman, 
George, 5th earl of Caithness, conveyed by sea to Leith, and 
imprisoned in the jail of Edinburgh. For the " treasonable 
murder," as slaughter under trust was then termed, of Sir 
James Johnston, (who had married Sarah Maxwell, sister of 
John, 7th Lord Herries, and was ancestor of the marquises of 
Annandale,) he was, on 21st May following, beheaded at the 
cross of Edinburgh. He married Lady Margaret Hamilton, 
only daughter of John, first marquis of Hamilton, without 
issue. 

His brother, Robert, 9th Lord Maxwell, was restored to the 
title and estates of the family, 13th Oct., 1618, and on 29th 
August, 1620, the title of earl of Morton, at one time held by 
this family, was changed to earl of Nithsdale, with the pre- 
cedency of the former title. (See Nithsdale. earl of.) 



There are five baronetcies held by families of the name of 
Maxwell — namely, of Pollok, Renfrewshire; of Calderwood, 
Lanarkshire; of Cardoness, Kirkcudbrightshire; of Monreith, 
Wigtownshire ; and of Springkell, Dumfries-shire. 



The baronetcy of Orchardton, extinct or dormant, was 
about to be claimed by the heir in 1S05, but the estates hav- 
ing been sold the idea was given up. 



The Pollok branch was allied by marriage to royalty. 
This family, descended from Sir John Maxwell, 2d son of 
Eumerus or Aymer de Maxwell (see page 123), were usually 
styled " Domini de Pollok," or " Nether Pollok." Besides 
the lands of that name in Renfrewshire, which he received 
from his father, Sir John got a grant of the lands of Lvon- 



croce, in the same county, from Robert the Brace. Towaid* 
the close of the reign of that monarch he was governor of the 
castle of Dumbarton. He was succeeded by Sir Robert Max- 
well of Pollok. 

The next possessor of Pollok was Sir John Maxwell, who 
married, 1st. Isabel de Lindsay, daughter of Sir James Lind- 
say of Crawford, by Lady Egidia Stewart, sister-in-law of 
Robert II., and daughter of Walter the high steward, and by 
her he had 2 sons, John, his successor, and Robert, ancestor of 
the Maxwells of Calderwood; 2dly, Elizabeth de St, Michel, 
heiress of Whitchesten, Roxburghshire, supposed without issue. 

His elder son, Sir John Maxwell, knight, early distinguished 
himself in arms, especially at the battle of Otterburn in 1388. 
According to Froissart, he there made prisoner Sir Ralph 
Percy, brother of Hotspur, an exploit that drew from John 
Dunbar, earl of Moray, under whom he served and graduated 
in chivalry, the encomiastic exclamation of " Well, Maxwell, 
hast thou earned thy spurs to-day ! " With his relatives the 
Lindsays, Montgomeries, and others, all emulous of military 
glory, he readily joined the renowned and gallant James, earl 
of Douglas, in that enterprize. He married a daughter ot 
the Sieur de Montgomery, who also fought at Otterbourne. 
Thomas Maxwell of Pollok, succeeded. He was alive in 
1440. His son, John Maxwell of Pollok, was living in 1452. 

His male heir, before and after 1500, Sir John Maxwell of 
Pollok, married Lady Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of John, 
earl of Lennox, and had by her four sons. 1. Sir John, his 
heir. 2. Robert, bishop of Orkney, a distinguished prelate. 3. 
George, of Cowglen, whose son, Sir John Maxwell, acquired 
the estates by marriage. 4. Thcmas, whose descendants car- 
ried on the line of the family. 

The eldest son, Sir John Maxwell of Pollok, had a son ; 
John Maxwell, who predeceased him in 1536. The lattel 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Patrick Houston of Hous- 
ton, and had a daughter, Elizabeth, sole heiress of Pollok. 

This Elizabeth succeeded hor grandfather, and married Sir 
John Maxwell, son of the above-mentioned George Maxwell 
of Cowglen, the collateral heir male. He was knighted by 
Queen Mary, and fought at Langside. 

Their son, Sir John Maxwell of Pollok, succeeded. He fell 
at the battle of Lockerby, in 1593. He married, 1st, Marga- 
ret, daughter of William Cunningham of Caprington, by 
whom he had a son, John, and a daughter, Agnes, wife of 
John Boyle of Kelburn, ancestor of the earls of Glasgow ; 
2dly, Marjory, daughter of Sir William Edmonston of Dun- 
treath, and widow of Mungo Graham of Urchill. a cadet of 
the house of Montrose. 

The son, Sir John Maxwell of Pollok, who figured after 
1593 and in the reign of Charles I., married, 1st, Isabel 
Campbell, daughter of Hugh, Lord Loudoun, by whom he 
had a daughter; and, 2dly, Grizel, daughter of John Blair of 
Blair, without issue. To fix and secure the inheritance in 
the male line, Sir John settled his whole estates, heritable 
and moveable, upon his cousin, George, afterwards Sir George 
Maxwell of Auldhouse, descended from Thomas, youngest 
son of Sir John Maxwell, his great-great-grandfather. Sir 
John died in 1647. 

George Maxwell of Auldhouse, afterwards Sir George, suc- 
ceeded, according to the settlement made in his favour, and hv 
descendants continued to enjoy the estates, notwithstanding 
of two attempts made by the Calderwood branch to disturb 
the succession. He was knighted by Charles II., and is de- 
scribed as having been a gentleman of singular accomplish- 
ments, and justly esteemed for his piety, learning, and other 
good qualifications. He married in 1646, Annabella, daugh- 
ter of Sir Archibald Stewart of Blackhall and Ardgowan 



MAXWELL, 



129 



OF CALDERWOOD. 



descended from Robert 111., and had a son and 3 daughters. 
He died in 1677. 

Sir George Maxwell's name is associated with one of the 
RiOst extraordinary causes Celebris in witchcraft which oc- 
curred in Renfrewshire. Having been taken suddenly ill, 
while in Glasgow, on the night of Oct. 14, 1677., he was, on 
nis return home, confined to bed with severe bodily pains. 
A vagrant girl, named Janet Douglas, who pretended to 
be dumb, and was considered a clever witch-finder, and who 
owed some of his tenants a grudge, accused several of them 
of bewitching Sir George, and, to confirm her assertions, she 
contrived, in one or two instances, to secrete small wax fig- 
ures of the suffering knight, stuck with pins, in the dwell- 
ings of the accused persons. A special commission was 
issued for the trial of the case on the spot, and after a long 
investigation, at which were present, besides some of the 
lords of justiciary, most of the leading men of Renfrewshire, 
the following unfortunate creatures, namely, Janet Mathie, 
widow of John Stewart, under miller in Shaw mill, John 
Stewart, her son, and three old women, the parties accused, 
were condemned to be strangled and burned, and Annabil 
Stewart, a girl 14 years old, the daughter of Mathie, or- 
dered to be imprisoned ! The case is recorded in Crawford's 
' History of Renfrewshire.' A ballad has also been written 
on the subject. The accused confessed their guilt ! 

The son, Sir John Maxwell of Pollok, was created a baronet 
of Nova Scotia by Charles II., April 12, 1682, with extension 
of the title, in virtue of another patent, March 27, 1707, to 
his heirs male whatsoever. In July 1683, Sir John Maxwell 
was imprisoned for refusing to take the test, and December 2, 
1684, he was fined £8,000 by the privy council, for allowing 
recusants to live on his lands, and refusing the bond and test. 
The council, however, declared that if paid before the end of 
the month, the fine would be reduced to £2,000. In 1689, 
Sir John was sworn a privy councillor to King William. The 
same year lie represented the county of Renfrew at the con- 
vention of estates. He was afterwards commissioner for the 
same county in the Scots parliament. In 1696 he was ap- 
pointed one of the lords of the treasuiy and exchequer. On 
the 6th February 1699 he was admitted an ordinary lord of 
session, and on the 14th of the same month nominated lord- 
justice-clerk. In the latter office he was superseded in 1702. 
He died July 4, 1732, in his 90th year, without issue. 

His cousin, Sir John Maxwell, previously styled of Blawert- 
hill, succeeded as 2d baronet of Pollok. He was the son 
of Zecharias Maxwell of Blawerthill, younger brother of Sir 
George Maxwell of Auldhouse and Pollok. He married, 1st, 
Lady Ann Carmichael, daughter of John, earl of Hyndford, 
and had a son, John, and 2 daughters; 2dly, Barbara, daughter 
of Walter Stewart of Blairhall, issue, 3 sons; 1, George, of 
Blawerthill, who died unmarried; 2, Walter; 3, James; and 
2 daughters ; 3dly, Margaret, of the family of Caldwell of 
Caldwell, without issue. He died in 1753. 

His eldest son, Sir John Maxwell, became 3d baronet. On 
his death, his half brother, Sir Walter, succeeded as 4th 
baronet, and died in 1761. 

Sir Walter's only son, Sir John, became 5th baronet, but 
died nine weeks after his father. 

The title and estates reverted to his father's youngest 
brother, Sir James, 6th baronet. This gentleman married 
Frances, 2d daughter of Robert Colquhoun, Esq. of St. 
Christopher's, of the family of Kenmure; issue, 2 sons; 1, 
John, his successor; 2, Robert, a captain in the army, died 
without issue; and 2 daughters, 1, Frances, wife of John 
Cunningham of Craigends; 2, Barbara, married Rev. Greville 
Ewing. Sir James died in 1785. 

HI. 



His elder son, Sir John, 7th baronet, was M.P. for tha 
Paisley Burghs. He married Hannah Anne, daughter of 
Richard Gardiner of Aldborough, Suffolk; issue, a son, Sir 
John, and 2 daughters, Harriet, who died in 1842, and Eliza* 
beth, wife of Archibald Stirling, Esq. of Keir. 

The son, Sir John Maxwell of Pollok, 8th baronet, suc- 
ceeded July 30, 1844; F.R.S. ; was educated at Westminstei 
and Christ Church, Oxford; M.P. for the county of Ren- 
frew from 1826 to 1831, and for Lanarkshire from 1832 to 
1837; deputy lieutenant for counties of Lanark and Renfrew. 
He married in 1839 Lady Matilda Harriet Bruce, daughter 
of Thomas, earl of Elgin and Kincardine. This lady died Aug. 
31, 1857. 

The family of Maxwell of Pollok are in possession of sev- 
eral original writings of considerable interest. One of these 
is the letter written by Queen Mary, after her escape from 
Lochleven, to Sir John Maxwell, whom she had knighted, 
requiring him to hasten to her aid with all his people, " bod- 
in in fear of weir," that is, equipped for war. He obeyed 
the call, and as stated above, fought at the battle of Lang- 
side, on the very border of his own domains. 



The Maxwells of Calderwood are descended from Sir John 
Maxwell of Pollok, knight (see page 128). He got from his 
father the lands and baronies of Nether Pollok, Renfrewshire, 
and of Dryps and Calderwood, Lanarkshire. By his first 
wife, Isabel de Lindsay, Sir John had 2 sons, Sir John, his 
successor, and Sir Robert, ancestor of the Maxwells of Calder- 
wood. He died in the beginning of the reign of David II. 

The younger son, Sir Robert Maxwell, who inherited Pol- 
lok and Calderwood, died in 1363. 

Sir Robert's eldest son and successor, Sir John Maxwell of 
Pollok and Calderwood, had 2 sons, John, to whom he gave 
the lands of Nether Pollok, and Robert. 

The latter, Sir Robert Maxwell, got the barony of Cal - 
derwood and other lands. A mutual indenture was entered 
into by the two brothers, dated at Dumbarton, Dec. 18, 1400, 
in which all their lands were enumerated, and under the au- 
thority of their father — the principal party — this deed allo- 
cated or partitioned certain lands to the sons and their respec- 
tive heirs at law. Sir Robert married in 1402, Elisabeth, 
daughter and co-heir of Sir Robert Denniston of Denniston, bj 
whom he obtained the barony of Newark, in Renfrewshire. 
From this marriage lineally descended Sir James Maxwell 
of Calderwood, who died in 1622. He was thrice married, 
and had issue by all his wives. His third wife, Lady Marga- 
ret Cunningham, daughter of James, 7th earl of Glencairn, 
and widow of Sir James Hamilton of Evandale, was sister 
of Ann, marchioness of Hamilton. By her he had 4 daugh- 
ters and 2 sons; 1, John, lineal ancestor of the present baro- 
net, and 2, Alexander. 

His son, Sir James Maxwell of Calderwood, who suc- 
ceeded him, was by his 2d wife, Isobel, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Hamilton of Innerwick. He was created a bar- 
onet of Scotland and Nova Scotia, with remainder to his heirs 
male whatsoever, March 28, 1627. On the death of Sir John 
Maxwell of Pollok without surviving issue, in 1647, Sir 
James attempted to set aside a disposition of the Pollok es- 
tates, made some time before his death, by Sir John Max- 
well in favour of George Maxwell of Auldhouse, but without 
effect. His son, Sir William, also prosecuted his claim to thb 
Pollok estates, founding, like his father, on the deed of in- 
denture of 1400, above mentioned, but he was equally unsuc- 
cessful. Sir James died in 1667. His half brother, Colonel 
John Maxwell, has an historical name as having attended hit 
cousin, the duke of Hamilton, on his unfortunate expeditioa 



MAXWELL, 



130 



OF SPRING KELL 



mto England in 1648 for the rescue of Charles I. On his 
return he was obliged to do penance for his share in the " en- 
gagement," as it was called, before the congregation in the 
parish church of Carluke, in which parish the family at that 
time resided. He served as colonel in the Scots army which 
opposed Cromwell on his entering Scotland in 1650, and was 
killed at the battle of Dunbar that year. 

Sir James' eldest son, Sir William, 2d baronet, married 
Jean, daughter of Sir Alexander Maxwell of Saughton Hall, 
and had two sons, and one daughter, who predeceased him. 

His first cousin, Sir John, son of Colonel Maxwell, half 
brother of the first baronet, succeeded as 3d baronet. He 
was first designed of Abington, but afterwards of Calderwood. 

His only surviving son, Sir William, 4th baronet, died in 
1750. He married Christian, daughter of Alexander Stew- 
art, Esq. of Torrence, and had, with 4 daughters, 3 sons. 1. 
William. 2. John, a colonel in the army, who had the com- 
mand of a regiment of grenadiers, and served with great rep- 
utation in the German war, under Prince Ferdinand.' 3. 
Alexander, a merchant in Leith, who married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Hugh Clerk, Esq., of the family of Penicuik. Their 
son, Captain Sir Murray Maxwell, distinguished himself as 
a naval officer. A memoir of him is given at page 134. Sir 
William's eldest son, Sir William, 5th baronet, d. Jan. 2, 1789. 
The only surviving son of the latter, Sir William, 6th baronet, 
6. in 1748, d. without issue, August 12, 1829, and was succeeded 
by his cousin. Sir William Maxwell, 7th baronet, a distinguished 
general in the army, d. March 16, 1837. He had four sons. 
The eldest son, Sir William Alexander Maxwell, 8th baronet, 
born in 1793, became a colonel in the army in 1851, and retired 
in 1853 ; m. without issue. He d. April 4, 1865, and was s. by 
flis brother, Sir Hugh Bates, 6. Feb. 14, 1797, 9th bait. Sir Hugh 
d. Feb. 9, 1870, when his son, Sir William, 6. Aug. 11, 1828, 
became 10th bait. 



The Maxwells of Cardoness, Kirkcudbrightsmre, descend 
from William Maxwell of Newlands, younger son of Gavin 
Maxwell, Esq., whose eldest son, Sir Robert Maxwell, knight, 
was grandfather of the first baronet of Calderwood. 

David Maxwell of Cardoness, son of Major John Maxwell, 
by his wife, a daughter of Irving of Bonshaw, was created a 
baronet, June 9, 1804. He married in 1770, his cousin, Hen- 
rietta, daughter of David Maxwell, Esq. of Cairnsmore, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, and had 4 sons and 4 daughters. He died 
in 1825. 

His 2d son, David, succeeded; his eldestson, William, having 
been drowned on his passage to Minorca, Feb. 17, 1801. Sir 
David, 2d baronet, born in 1773, vice-lieutenant of Kirkcud- 
brightshire, and honorary colonel of Galloway Rifles, married 
Georgina, eldest daughter of Samuel Martin, Esq. of Anti- 
gua, and had 3 sons and 3 daughters. Sir David died Nov. 
13, 1860, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son. 

Sir William, 3d baronet, born 1809, married 1st, 1841, 
Mary, daughter of J. Sprot, Esq., by whom (who died 1846) 
he had 2 sons and 1 daughter. Sir William married, 2dly, 
1851, Louisa Maria, eldest daughter of Geoffrey J. Shakerley, 
Esq., and by her also (who died 1856) has issue 4 daughters. 



His 2d son, Sir Alexander, succeeded as 2d baronet, and 
Sir William, the eldest son of Sir Alexander, became 3d bar- 
onet. Sir William died Aug. 22, 1771. By his wife, Mag- 
dalene, daughter of William Blair, Esq. of Blair, Ayrshire, lis 
had, with 3 daughters, 3 sons. 1, William; 2, Hamilton, 
lieutenant-colonel, 74th regiment, who commanded the gren- 
adiers of the army under Lord Comwallis, in the war against 
Tippoo Sultaun. He died in India, unmarried, in 1800 ; 3, 
Dunbar, R. N., died young in 1775. 

Sir William, the eldest son, succeeded as 4th baronet. He 
married his cousin, Katherine, daughter and heiress of Da- 
vid Blair, Esq. of Adamton, and had 3 sons and 6 daughteis 
He died in 1812. 

The eldest son, Sir William 5th baronet, served as lieuten- 
ant-colonel in the 26th foot under Sir John Moore in Spain, 
and lost an arm at Corunna. He died Aug. 22, 1838. 

His eldest son, Sir William Maxwell, 6th baronet, born Oct. 
2, 1805, succeeded. He was a captain in the army, hut re- 
tired from the service in 1844; lieutenant-colonel of militia; 
married Helenora, youngest daughter of Sir Michael Shaw 
Stewart, bart., of Greenock and Blackball; issue, Herbert 
Eustace, born Jan. 8, 1845, another son and 4 daughters. 



The Maxwells of Monreith, Wigtownshire, are descended 
from Herbert of Carlaverock, first Lord Maxwell. His 2d 
son, Sir Edward Maxwell, obtained a charter of the barony of 
Mureith, now Monreith, Jan. 15, 1481. He was lineal an- 
cestor of William Maxwell of Monreith, created a baronet of 
Nova Scotia, January 8, 1681. He died in 1709. His eldest 
son, William, was drowned in the Nith, in 1707 



The Maxwells of Springkell, in Annandale, baronets, are a 
branch of the family of Auldhouse, of which Maxwell of Pol- 
lok is the senior representative. They are second in succes- 
sion from Pollok. George Maxwell, Esq. of Auldhouse, 
married, 1st, Janet, daughter of John Miller, Esq. of New- 
ton, and had one son, John, whose son, George, succeeded to 
the Pollok estates; 2dly, Jean, daughter of William Muir 
Esq. of Glanderstone, issue, a son, William; 3dly, Janet, 
daughter of Douglas of Waterside, issue, a son, Hugh. 

William Maxwell, the 2d son, acquired in 1609, the bar- 
ony of Kirkconnel and Springkell, in Annandale. 

His son, Patrick Maxwell of Springkell, was created a 
baronet of Nova Scotia in 1683. He died in 1720, leaving a 
son, and 4 daughters. 

His son, Sir William, 2d baronet, died in 1760, and was 
succeeded by his only son, Sir William, 3d baronet, who died 
March 4, 1804. The latter bad, with 3 daughters, 4 sons, 
namely, 1. William, a lieutenant 36th regiment, who died, 
unmarried, in 1784. 2. Michael-Stewart, colonel of Dum- 
fries-shire light dragoons, who died, unmarried, in 1830. 3. 
Patrick, an officer in the army, drowned by the upsetting of 
a boat in a river in Nova Scotia, in 1790. 4. John. The 
youngest son succeeded his father. 

Lieutenant-general Sir John Maxwell, 4th baronet, who 
succeeded March 4, 1804, married Mary, only surviving child 
and heiress of Patrick Heron, Esq. of Heron, in the stewart- 
ry of Galloway, M.P., and on the death of his father-in-law, 
assumed the surname and arms of Heron, in addition to hia 
own. He died January 29, 1830. 

His eldest son, Sir Patrick Heron Maxwell, died, unmar- 
ried, August 27, 1844. 

His next brother, Sir John Heron Maxwell became 6th 
i«it; 4. Mar. 7, 1808; an officer R.N.; m., issue 4 sons and 5 drs. 



The Maxwells of Parkhill ; and other families of the name, 
sprung from the same common ancestor as the Calderwood 
family. The Rev. Robert Maxwell, 2d son of Sir John Max- 
well of Calderwood, knight, in the end of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth was sent over to Ireland, by James VI., to secure 
an interest for his majesty in that kingdom. He was ap- 
pointed dean of Armagh, and was ancestor of the earls of 
Farnham peerage of Ireland, and of the Waring-Maxwells of 
Finnibrogue, county Down. 



MAXWELL, 



131 



OF KIRKCONNEL. 



The Maxwells of Dargavel are an old family in Renfrew- 
shire. .John Hall Maxwell, Esq., present proprietor of Dar- 
gavel, is also the representative of another ancient family in 
the same county, the Halls of Fulbar, the reputed chiefs of 
the name, which in the charters of the time is given in the 
Latin form of de Aula. The ancestor of the latter obtained 
a charter of the lands of Fulbar from James, high steward of 
Scotland, grandfather of King Robert II., confirmed by that 
monarch in 1370. One of the descendants of this family fell 
at Flodden. 

The Dargavel branch of the family of Maxwell was a cadet 
of the house of Newark, an offshoot of the family of Calder- 
wood (see page 129). Of the Maxwells of Newark, Mr. 
Hall Maxwell is now also the representative. 

John, eldest son, by his 2d wife, of Patrick Maxwell of 
Newark, obtained from his father in 1516, a charter of the 
lands of Dargavel, in the parish of Erskine, with those of 
Rashielee and Haltonridge, in the adjacent parishes of Incb- 
innan and Kilmalcolm. One of his descendants was slain in 
the desperate conflict at Lockerby in 1593, between the rival 
clans of Maxwell and Johnston. 

John Maxwell, the proprietor of Dargavel in 1710, entailed 
that estate, and died without issue. He was succeeded by 
his brother, William Maxwell of Freeland, who also died 
childless. 

Their sister, Margaret Maxwell, had married Robert Hall 
of Fulbar, and the 2d son of this marriage, John Hall, suc- 
ceeded to Dargavel, as next heir of entail, when he took the 
name of Maxwell. By the death of his elder brother, lie be- 
came proprietor of Fulbar and male representative of the 
family of Hall. 

His grandson, John Maxwell of Dargavel, died in 1830. 

His brother, William Maxwell, succeeded. He married 
Mary, daughter of John Campbell, Esq. of Possil, Dumbar- 
tonshire, and had by her a numerous family. He died in 
1846. 

His eldest son, John Hall Maxwell, Esq. of Dargavel, C.B., 
born in 1812, passed advocate at the Scottish bar in 1835, 
and in 1846 was appointed secretary to the Highland and 
Agricultural Society of Scotland. In 1856 he was made a 
companion of the Bath ; a magistrate and deputy lieutenant 
of Renfrewshire. He married in 1843, Anne, daughter of 
Thomas Williams, Esq. of Burwood House, with issue. His 
son and heir, William Hall, was born in 1847. 



The Maxwells of Kirkconnel descend from one of the older 
cadets of the Maxwell family. Representing the family 
of Kirkconnel of Kirkconnel, it is one of the oldest families 
in Galloway, and has been settled in the parish of Troqueer 
for centuries. The Maxwells spell the name Kirkconnell. 

The first of the house of Kirkconnel of that ilk is supposed 
to have been a person of Saxon origin, who had come from 
the north of England and settled at Kirkconnel, near the 
mouth of the Nith, in the time of Earl David, afterwards 
David I., or in that of King Malcolm his father. The 
names, John, William, and Thomas, which the Kirkconnel 
family used, indicate their north of England extraction ; 
while the surname of the family being the same as the name 
of their lands, gives right to infer that they held these lands 
from the time of Malcolm Canmore (1057 — 1093) when 
family surnames derived from territorial possessions began 
to be used in Scotland. 

The arms of the Kirkconnels, azure, two croziers, or, placed 
in saltire ardoss&s, with a mitre of the last placed in chief 
(Nisbet's Heraldry, Part 2, ch. 10) being the same as those 
of the bishops of Argyle or Iismore in the 12th century, ; 



might be thought to show that the one was derived from tht 
other, but was probably assumed from the name of the terri- 
tory and its connexion with the church. 

The first of the name on record is John, "dominus de 
Kirkconnel, fundavit Sacrum Boscum." (Dugdale's Monas- 
ticon (1661) Coenobia Scotica, vol. ii. p. 1057.) He founded 
the abbey of Holywood some time in the 12th century, in 
the place of a former religious house. He was probably the 
father of Michael de Kirkconnel, whose son, William Fitz- 
Michael de Kirkconnel, about the year 1200 made a grant of 
lands in Kirkconnel, in favour of the abbey of Holmcultrain 
in Cumberland (Jlutcheson's Cumberland, vol. ii. p. 331). 

Gilchrist, the son of Gilcunil, is witness to a charter of 
lands in Dunscore near Dercongall or Holywood, granted bv 
Affrica, daughter of Edgar, to the monks of Melrose, in the 
reign of William the Lion or of Alexander II. {Liber de Mel- 
rose, vol. i. p. 182). 

There is no farther account of any one of the name until 
the contest arose for the throne of Scotland between John 
Baliol, lord of Galloway, and Robert Bruce, lord of Annan- 
dale. Among those who swore fealty to Edward I. in 1296, 
we find Thomas de Kirkconnel of the county of Dumfries, 
which then included both sides of the Nith. There can be 
little doubt that Thomas de Kirkconnel and his immediate 
successors, like the rest of the men of Nithsdale and Gal- 
loway, supported the cause of Baliol. In 1324 mention is 
made of " Dominus de Kirkconnell in valle de Nith" (Chalm- 
ers' Caledonia'). 

Owing to the wars and confusion of the times little is 
known of the Kirkconnels for two or three generations, but 
it is probable that they generally supported and shared the 
fortunes of their greater neighbours on the other side of the 
Nith, the Maxwells of Carlaverock. The connexion between 
the families of Maxwell of Carlaverock and the Kirkconnels 
was drawn closer by the marriage of Aymer de Maxwell 
2d son of Sir Herbert de Maxwell of Carlaverock and brother 
of Sir Herbert de Maxwell of Carlaverock, 1st Lord Max- 
well, with Janet de Kirkconnel, the heiress of the ancient 
family of Kirkconnel, when the name de Kirkconnel was 
merged in that of Maxwell, and the property went to theii 
descendants of that name. The date of the marriage is un- 
known, but it may have taken place before the year 1410. 

On 11th July 1448, there was a perambulation of tlm 
marches of Little Airds, belonging to the abbey of Sweet- 
heart, and Meikle Airds, belonging to Kirkconnel, to which 
Aymer de Maxwell was a party. (Original Papers and 
Deeds at Kirkconnel") On 20th March 1456, Aymer de 
Maxwell and Janet de Kirkconnel, his spouse, had a chart** 
of resignation and confirmation of their lands of Kirkconnel 
in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright. On 13th November 1461, 
Aymer de Maxwell of Kirkconnel, superior of the estate of 
Kelton, which probably was his own, and not acquired by his 
wife, granted a feu to George Ncilson of part thereof. 

Aymer's son, Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel, succeeded 
him. He left two sons, and probably others. 

The elder son, whose Christian name is not known, is sup- 
posed to have predeceased his father. His brother's name 
was John. The former had a daughter, Elizabeth, who suc- 
ceeded her grandfather, and another daughter, probably 
named Agnes Maxwell. 

Elizabeth Maxwell of Kirkconnel had precept from the 
Crown directing sasine to be given to her as heir cf the late 
Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel and Kelton, her grandfather, 
in virtue whereof she was infeft in the lands of Kelton in the 
sheriffdom of Dumfries on 5th November 1492. Among thd 
witnesses of the infcl'tment were "John Maxwell uncle o I 



MAXWELL, 



132 



OF KIRKCONNEL. 



the said Elizabeth, Harbert Maxwell, son of the said John," 
fcc Dying without issue, Elizabeth was succeeded by her 
nephew, Herbert. 

Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel, under precept from the 
crown, had sasine given to him, as " heir of the late Eliza- 
beth Maxwell, his aunt," (aruncitla — mother's sister,) of the 
lands of Kirkconnel and Kelton, on 12th April 1495. All 
accounts of the Kirkconnel and Maxwell families, and gene- 
alogists generally, concur in stating that Thomas Maxwell, 
2d son of Robert, 2d Lord Maxwell, married Agnes Max- 
well, the heiress of Maxwell of Kirkconnel, and that from 
them the present Kirkconnel family are descended. It is 
more than probable that Elizabeth's married sister, whose 
son Herbert succeeded his aunt, was the Agnes who became 
the wife of the said Thomas Maxwell, probably between 
1450 and 1470, and that it was their son Herbert who was 
heir to his aunt Elizabeth. This might be inferred from the 
seal of Herbert attached to a charter granted by him on July 
4, 1517, being a saltire, between two small chevrons. The 
chevron being often used as a mark of cadency, (Nisbet's 
Heraldry, vol. i. p. 151,) it would seem that the two chev- 
rons were intended to show his descent from two cadets of 
the Maxwell family; Aymer, who married Janet de Kirkcon- 
nel, and Thomas, thought to have been the father of Her- 
bert. As a follower of the chief of his name, Herbert Max- 
well of Kirkconnel was present at the affray, on July 30, 
1508, on the sands of Dumfries, between John Lord Max- 
well, and Lord Crichton of Sanquhar, and their respective 
followers, when the latter nobleman was driven from the 
town, and many of his friends slain. {Balfour 's Annals, 
1508.) For this and other lawless doings Herbert Maxwell 
received a general remission from the crown on 17th Octo- 
ber the same year. He was twice married. By his first 
wife, whose name is not ascertained, he had four sons : Ro- 
bert, John, William, and Edward. His 2d wife was Euphe- 
mia Lindsay, issue unknown. William, the third son, was 
in the household of Mary of Guise, and afterwards for a time 
in a regiment of Scots men at arms in the service of the king 
of France (.IfS. on Scottish Guard History). On the 16th 
February, 1557, he had a grant of the lands of Little Airds. 
His son, William, succeeded him in Little Airds. The latter 
had a son, James, who wrote his Autobiography, and was 
author also of several polemical works. 

Herbert died before 28th Dec. 1548. His eldest son, Ro- 
bert, on July 4, 1517, had a charter from his father of the 
lands of Kelton. He married Janet Crichton, and on Aug- 
ust 16, 1519, had a grant ot Auchenfad. He predeceased 
his father, leaving 2 sons, Herbert and John. 

The elder son, Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel, had sasine 
in the lands of Kirkconnel and Kelton as heir to his grandfa- 
ther, Dec. 28, 1548, and had charter of Auchenfad, January 
22, 1548-9. He married a Janet Maxwell, and had a son, 
Bernard, and three daughters, Agnes, Catherine, and Mar- 
garet. He died before 1560. 

Bernard Maxwell of Kirkconnel succeeded his father in his 
minority. On May 6, 1571, with consent of his curators, he 
executed a disposition of the lands of Kirkconnel and Kelton, 
in favour of his uncle, John Maxwell, and his heirs male, 
whom failing, to his own heirs general, and reserving his 
liferent, with power of redemption, in the event of having 
heirs male himself, and the lands to be held of himself, for 
£1,000 Scots, on which deed sasine was taken on the follow- 
ing day ; also, another deed of the same date, in nearly the 
«ame terms, the lands to be held of the crown, on which sa- 
sine was taken. He was alive and collecting the feu duties 
of Airds in 1574 and 1577 



John Maxwell, tutor of Kirkconnel, during the minority 
of Bernard, his nephew, was infeft, as above stated, in th« 
property, May 7, 1571. He died before his nephew, and be- 
fore August 1573. 

His son, John Maxwell of Kirkconnel, succeeded him, and 
to his right to the estate in his minority, his tutors or cu- 
rators being James Crichton of Carco and William Somer- 
ville, vicar of Kirkbean. On July 8, 1574, he was retoured 
heir male to John Maxwell of Kirkconnel, his father, in the 
lands of Kirkconnel, reserving the liferent therein of Bernard 
Maxwell and of Janet Maxwell, relict of Herbert Maxwell, 
in a part thereof; in virtue whereof John Maxwell was in- 
felt therein, Oct. 8, 1574, Bernard Maxwell, the liferenter, 
be'ng a witness to the infeftment. In April and May, 1593, 
he took part in the slaughterings and feud between the Max- 
wells and Johnstons. On Nov. 26, 1601, John Maxwell ol 
Kirkconnel and several others were summoned before the 
privy council, for contravening the Acts of Parliament against 
saying and hearing of mass, and entertaining priests, espe- 
cially Dr. John Hamilton and Abbot Gilbert Brown, and 
having children baptized .y them {Chambers' Domestic An- 
nals, vol. i., pp. 358, 359). John Spottiswoode, archbishop 
of Glasgow, having, with a party of soldiers, invaded New 
Abbey, in search of priests, broke into the house of the exiled 
abbot, Gilbert Brown, and plundered it of whatever savoured 
of popery. The books found there were given into the care 
of John Maxwell of Kirkconnel, who afterwards, being un- 
willing to part with them, was served with letters of horning 
on ten days' charge, ordering him to deliver the same over to 
Spottiswoode (Original Letters as to Ecclesiastical Affairs, 
Bannatijne Club, pp. 409-411). John Maxwell of Kirkcon- 
nel died after June 29, 1614. He had five sons — 1. Herbert, 
his successor. 2. John, of Whitehill and Millhill, supposed 
to have been the father of John Maxwell of Barncleugh, town- 
clerk of Dumfries. 3. James. 4. Thomas. 5. George. 

The eldest son, Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel, was esquire 
in ordinary to the body in the household of James VI., when 
he succeeded to Kirkconnel. Preferring to continue his attend- 
ance on royalty, the king granted him a pension for life of 
£200 out of the escheats of Scotland. He received charter 
of confirmation of the lands of Kirkconnel and others, Aug. 
28, 1616, and was infeft therein 25th Sept. following. He 
got into some dispute with James Maxwell of Innerwick, 
a lord of the bedchamber, afterwards earl of Dirlton, the son 
of John Maxwell of Kirkhouse. The dispute came before the 
Court of Session, and four days after the hearing of the case 
(March 11, 1628), and as if at the instigation of his opponent, 
Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel, Charles Brown in New 
Abbey, Barbara Maxwell, Lady Mabie, and others, were 
charged by the privy council with contemning " excommuni- 
cation and horning," persisting in " obdured and papish opi- 
nions and errors," and visiting all parts of the country, " aa 
if they were free and lawful subjects." Sir William Grierson 
of Lag, and Sir John Charteris of Amisfield, were commis- 
sioned to apprehend those thus denounced, as well as their " re- 
setters," or harbourers. How it fared with Herbert Maxwell 
does not appear, but the commissioners were successful in 
capturing in New Abbey Charles Brown of Clachan, and 
Gilbert Brown of Shamb' We (Domestic Annals, vol. ii. pp. 
18 and 19); whereupon . anet Johnston of Newbie, Lady 
Lochhill, spouse of John Brown, assembling the women of 
the parish, attacked the minister and schoolmaster, their 
wives and servants, with sticks and stones. For this ener- 
getic defence of her faith Lady Lochhill was banished tiie 
realm, under a penalty of 1,000 merks if she dared to return. 
Herbert Maxwell of Kirkconnel died in Oct. 1637, leaving 



MAXWELL, 



133 



OF EIRECOXXEL. 



issue— 1. John, his successor. 2. Edward. 3. George. 4. 
Robert. 5. Barbara (Lady Mabie, March 1623). 6. Ma- 
rion, and an illegitimate son, Herbert. 

The eldest son, John Maxwell of Kiikconnel, was retoured 
heir to his father, Dec. 19, 1638, in the lands of Kirkconnel, 
with salmon fishings in the water of Nith, &c, and had 
sasine therein, Jan. 31, 1639. James Maxwell of Innerwick 
had received from Charles I. a gift of the non-entry of the lands. 
In 1642, John Maxwell of Kirkconnel married Agnes, daughter 
of Stephen Laurie of Maxwellton, and Marion Corsone, his 
spouse. John Maxwell of Kirkconnel got into difficulties 
soon after his marriage, but the estate was preserved by 
the prudent management of his lady, liberally assisted by 
Lady Maxwellton, her mother. He died in or before the 
year 1679, his wife surviving him. They had 4 sons and 
3 daughters. 1. James. 2. William. 3. Herbert, a Jesuit 
priest. 4. Stephen, a Jesuit priest. 5. Euphemia, m. the 
laird of Corbeath. 6. Marion. 7. Agnes, m. Edmund, eldest 
son of William Brown of Nunton. 

The eldest son, James Maxwell of Kirkconnel, married, in 
1672, Elizabeth, only daughter of Alexander Durham of Ber- 
wick, son of Sir John Durham of Duntarvie and Lady Mar- 
garet Abercromby, probably of Birkenbog. Herbert Max- 
well, Jesuit priest, was, in Oct. 1686, appointed chaplain to 
the earl of Melfort, secretary of James VII., and about the 
same time, his brother, James Maxwell of Kiikconnel, was 
appointed one of the receivers-general of the Customs, &c. 
(commission dated at Whitehall, Oct. 22, 1686). When, on 
Dec. 10, 1687, King James, by his royal writ, reduced the 
number of the receivers-general from four to two, he granted 
to Kirkconnel the office of superintendent of the customs, 
foreign excise, rents, casualties of royal property, and funds 
allocated for the payment of fees and pensions. The salary 
was at first £200 but afterwards £300 yearly. The Revo- 
lution soon deprived him of all place and pension. He died 
in or before the year 1699. He had 4 sons and 2 daughters, 
Viz. — 1. James, his successor. 2. William, who succeeded 
James. 3. Alexander. 4. Stephen, Jesuit priest. 5. Agnes. 
6. Elizabeth. 

The eldest son, James Maxwell of Kirkconnel, was edu- 
cated at Douay, and served heir general to his father Dec. 
21, 1699, but never otherwise made up his titles. The Lord 
Advocate cited him and the earl of Nithsdaleto appear before 
the Justiciary Court in Edinburgh, Feb. 2, 1704, to answer 
for contravening the acts of parliament against hearing mass 
and harbouring and concealing Jesuits and priests, and of 
which " shaking off all fear of God," it was alleged, they 
were guilty. This did not prevent him from petitioning the 
government, in that very year, for payment of a balance due 
to his father as receiver-general. The books of the kirk ses- 
sion of New Abbey in 1705 stigmatised the Maxwells of Kirk- 
connel as " a popish family," and warned Protestants not to 
take domestic servioe with them. James Maxwell died, 
without issue, about 1705. 

His next brother, William Maxwell, succeeded to Kirk- 
connel. Like James, he was educated at Douay, whence he 
returned to Scotland in 1696. In the inquest by the pres- 
bytery into the number of papists in each parish in 1704, 
William is mentioned as brother of the laird of Kirkconnel. 
He was served heir general to his brother James, Feb. 14, 
1706, in which year he was called on as an heritor to pay his 
proportion of j£137 6s. Scots money for building of the manse 
of Troqueer. He married, April 29, 1706, Janet, eldest 
daughter of George Maxwell of Carnsalloch, widow of Colonel 
John Douglas of Stenhouse, and eventually heiress of Carn- 
salloch, under the disposition and deed of entail executed by 



James Maxwell of Carnsalloch, her brother, March 11, 
1745. On May 6, 1708, William Maxwell executed a dis- 
position, settling the successii in to his estates. On June 15, 
1733, he agreed to dispone heritably to William and Robert 
Birnie 3 merklands of the 151 merklands of Kelton, James 
Maxwell of Barncleugh, as nest Protestant heir to Kirkcon- 
nel, giving his assent thereto, which was probably considered 
necessary by the purchasers, owing to the penal laws then 
in force against Roman Catholics. John Maxwell of 
Barncleugh, and Margaret Young, his spouse, the father 
and mother of the James Maxwell here mentioned, are both 
entered as " papists " in the lists made out for the privy 
council in 1704. William Maxwell of Kirkconnel died April 
13, 1746. John Rigg, sometime tenant in Meikle Knox, and 
formerly in Townhead, near Kirkconnel, used to relate that 
when James Maxwell, his son and heir, went off in 1745 to 
join Prince Charles, the old man, his father, rejoiced, saying 
that his son was going in a good cause, and that if he lost his 
life it would be well spent. He had issue — 1. Elizabeth 
married, before 1730, to William Maxwell of Munches. 2. 
James, his successor. 3. Agnes. 4. Janet. 5. Mary. 6. 
George, Jesuit priest. 7. Margaret. 8. William, Jesuit priest. 
9. Marion, married John Menzies of Pitfoddels. 10. Halbert. 
The eldest son, James Maxwell of Kirkconnel, commenced 
grammar at Douay college, August 21, 1721, and was dis- 
tinguished as a student of great genius and persevering dili- 
gence. After concluding his course of philosophy, he re- 
turned to Scotland in 1728. In 1745, James Maxwell, then 
younger of Kirkconnel, took part in the insurrection, and be- 
came an officer in the Pretender's service, and of such rank 
as to have had access to know the most material things that 
were transacted " in the council, though not a member of it." 
He was, moreover, an " eyewitness of the greatest part of what 
happened in the field." After the battle of Culloden he 
escaped to France, and while residing at St. Germains for 
several years, drew up a " Narrative of Charles, Prince of 
Wales' Expedition to Scotland in the year 1745" (printed by 
the Maitland Club, 1841), which he evidently intended for 
publication. While he thus resided abroad, his mother, Janet 
Maxwell of Carnsalloch, managed the Kirkconnel estate to 
the best advantage, and protected her son's interests as far 
as in her power. In June 1746, the whole troop horses of 
St. George's regiment of dragoons were put into the Kirkcon- 
nel policies, besides 40 or 50 galloways belonging to the offi- 
cers or soldiers; and the tacksmen petitioned Lieutenant- 
General Bland, commander-in-chief in Scotland, for compen- 
sation in consequence. In 1750, James Maxwell of Kirkconnel 
ventured to return to Scotland, and built, with bricks madb 
on the property, the modern portion of the front of Kirkcon- 
nel-house. He sold the estate of Carnsalloch, derived from 
his mother (who died in 1755), to Mr. Alexander Johnston, 
merchant in London, ancestor of Major-General Johnston of 
Carnsalloch (1862), and purchased the estate of Mabie. He 
was a witness in 1755 to the marriage of his sister Marion 
with John Menzies of Pitfoddels. In 1758 he married Mary, 
youngest daughter of Thomas Riddell of Swinburne Castle. 
He died July 23, 1762, aged 54 years, " His Narrative," the 
Maitland Club editor says, "is composed with a remarkable 
degree of precision and taste, inasmuch as rather to appear 
the production of a practised litterateur than the work of a 
private gentleman who merely aimed at giving memoranda 
of a series of remarkable events which he had chanced to wit- 
ness." He left 3 sons — 1. James. 2. William. 3. Thomas, 
who died June 1, 1792. The two younger son» were edu- 
cated at the New College of the Jesuits at Dinant, in France, 
arriving there Sept. 3, 1771. During his attendance at th* 



MAXWELL, 



134 



SIR MURRAY. 



medical schools in Fiance, William, the 2d son, imbibed the 
French revolutionary ideas of the time, and was one of the na- 
tional guards present at the execution of Louis XVI., Jan. 
21, 1793. He afterwards settled as a physician in Dumfries, 
and was for many years one of the most eminent in Scotland 
of his profession. He died at Edinburgh, at the house of his 
relative, John Menzies of Pitfoddels, Oct. 13, 1834. 

The eldest son, James Maxwell of Kirkconnel, when very 
young, was, Nov. 16, 1764, served heir in special to his fa- 
ther, and infeft, under a precept from the crown, April 19, 
1765, in the lands and barony of Kirkconnel. He was twice 
married, 1st, to Clementina Elizabeth Frances, daughter of Si- 
mon Scroope of Danby, Yorkshire, without issue; and, 2dly, 
to Dorothy, daughter of William Witham, Esq., solicitor of 
Gray's Inn, London, grandson of William Witham of Cliffe, 
Yorkshire, the marriage contract signed Aug. 29, 1817. He 
died Feb. 5, 1827, leaving an only daughter, Dorothy Mary 
Maxwell. 

This lady, heiress of Kirkconnel, was on July 27, 1827, 
served as nearest and lawful heir of tailzie and provision of 
the deceased James Maxwell of Kirkconnel, her father. She 
married at Southampton, April 17, 1844, her cousin, Robert 
Shawe James Witham, eldest surviving son of William Wi- 
tham, solicitor, Gray's Inn, London, and great-grandson of 
William Witham, Esq. of Cliffe, Yorkshire. The Witham 
pedigree is given in Burke's Commoners of England, vol. ii. 
p. 5. This gentleman, as Robert Maxwell Witham, was, 
with his spouse, duly infeft, under a precept of sasine, dated 
Oct. 29, 1846, contained in a charter of Resignation granted 
by the crown, in the lands, barony, and fishings of Kirkcon- 
nel, to be holden by them of the crown, in conjunct fee and 
liferent, and to the heirs of the marriage. The sasine was 
registered at Edinburgh, Nov. 16, 1846. They had also sa- 
sine of the lands of Gillfoot, recorded Feb. 11, 1852. They 
had 6 sons and 3 daughters. 1. James Robert, died, an in- 
fant, May 5, 1845. 2 Frances Mary. 3. and 4. James and 
Thomas, twins. 5. William Herbert. 6. Janet, died, an 
infant, May 15, 1853. 7. Maud. 8. Robert Bernard. 9. 
Aymer Richard. 



The Maxwells of Brediland are a branch of the ancient 
family of the Maxwells of Carlaverock. Crawford, in his 
History of Renfrewshire, says, "A little towards the north of 
the castle of Stainley lie the house and lands of Brediland, 
which have been possessed by the Maxwells of this race 
for upwards of two hundred years. Their original charter, 
which I have seen, is granted by Robert, abbot of Paisley, 
to Thomas Maxwell, designed son of Arthour Maxwell, an- 
no 1488, in the reign of James IV., of whom John Maxwell, 
now of Brediland, is the lineal heir." This family has fur- 
nished some considerable cadets, as the Maxwells of Castle- 
head, the Maxwells of Merksworth, and the Maxwells of 
Dalswinton. 

Gavin Maxwell of Castlehead, the son of Hugh Maxwell of 
Brediland, married Janet, a daughter of Cochran of Clip- 
pens, a cadet of the family of Dundonald. Of this family the 
second son (on the failure of the eldest) succeeded to Bredi- 
land, which estate is now in that line. 

The third son was James Maxwell of Merksworth. He 
married Janet Leckie, of Croy Leckie, who (through Wil- 
liam Campbell of Glenfalloch) was lineally descended from 
Archibald, 2d earl of Argyll, and from John, 4th earl of 
Athole. He had a son, Charles, and a daughter, Ann. The 
son married Anna Maxwell, the heiress of Williamwood. 
She was lineally descended from James Maxwell of William- 
wood, whose sufferings in the cause of the Reformation are 



so fully and graphically described by Wodrow in his His- 
tory of the Church. She sold the estate of Williamwood 
in 1812, and, on her death in 1815, she was succeeded in 
the representation of both the families of Williamwood and 
Merksworth by her next sister, Janet, who married James 
Graham, Esq., merchant, Glasgow, and the two families 
came thus to be represented by her eldest son, James Max- 
well-Graham, Esq. On his death the estate of Merksworth 
was inherited by his eldest sister, Agnes, whose daughter 
(by her marriage with James Smith, Esq of Craigend) mar- 
ried David Stuart, 8th, properly 13th, earl of Buchan. 

Ann, the daughter of James Maxwell of Merksworth, 
married James Black, Esq. of Paisley, the father of the late 
Mr. Black of Clairmont, near Glasgow, and of others of that 
name in Glasgow. (See Leckie, surname.) 

MAXWELL, Sir Murray, a gallant and dis- 
tinguished naval officer, was the son of Alexander 
Maxwell, Esq., merchant in Leith, and grandson 
of Sir William Maxwell, baronet, of Calderwood. 
He commenced his career at sea under the aus- 
pices of Admiral Sir Samuel Hood, and in 1796 
was appointed a lieutenant. He obtained his 
commission as post-captain in 1803, when he be- 
came commander of the Centaur, a third-rate. 
After serving with distinction in the West Indies, 
and in the expedition against Surinam, he ex- 
changed, in the summer of 1805, to the Galatea 
frigate ; and was next nominated to the Alceste, 
46, in which, with two other ships under his or- 
ders, he greatly signalized himself in an attack 
on a Spanish fleet near Cadiz. In the spring of 
1811, when cruising on the coast of Istria, he as- 
sisted in the destruction of a French 18-gun brig, 
in the harbour of Parenza ; and towards the close 
of the same year, after an engagement of two 
hours and twenty minutes, he captured the French 
frigate La Pomone, of 44 guns and 322 men. In 
October 1815, Captain Maxwell, at the particular 
request of Lord Amherst, who was then about to 
proceed on his celebrated embassy to China, was 
appointed to convey him in the Alceste, which 
sailed from Spithead February 9, 1816, and land- 
ed his lordship at the mouth of the Peiho river, 
on the 9th of August. During Lord Amherst's 
absence at Pekin, the Alceste, accompanied by 
the Lyra brig and General Hewitt, East India- 
man, was employed in a survey of the coasts, in 
the course of which cruise considerable accessions 
were made to the knowledge of the hydrographer. 
Captain Basil Hall, who commanded the Lyra, 
published, on his return to England, a very inter- 
esting narrative of the 'Voyage to Corea and 



MAXWELL, 



135 



SIR MURRAY. 



the Island of Loo Choo,' dedicating the volume to 
Sir Murray Maxwell, " to whose ability in con- 
ducting the voyage, zeal in giving encouragement 
to every inquiry, sagacity in discovering the dis- 
position of the natives, and address in gaining 
their confidence and good-will," he attributes 
whatever may be found interesting in his pages. 

From this survey Captain Maxwell returned at 
the beginning of November, and immediately ap- 
plied to the Chinese authorities for a pass for the 
Alceste to proceed up the Tigris, to undergo some 
needful repairs. His request was treated with 
evasion and delay, and on his attempt to sail 
without the requisite permission, an inferior 
mandarin went on board, and desired the ship 
to be brought to anchor, or the batteries would 
fire and sink her. Instead of complying with 
this insolent demand, Captain Maxwell at once 
detained the mandarin as his prisoner, and 
issued orders that the Alceste should be steered 
under the principal fort of the Bocca. On her 
approach, the batteries, and about eighteen war- 
junks, opened upon her a heavy, though ill-direct- 
ed fire ; but the return of a single shot silenced 
the flotilla, and one determined broadside put an 
end to the ineffectual attack from the batteries. 
The Alceste proceeded without farther molesta- 
tion to Whampoa, where she remained until the 
return of Lord Amherst in January 1817. In 
consequence of Captain Maxwell's spirited con- 
duct, it was publicly announced by the Chinese, 
with their usual dissimulation, that the affair at 
the Bocca Tigris was nothing more than a friend- 
ly salute ! 

On her homeward bound voyage, the Alceste 
had proceeded as far as the Straits of Gaspar, 
when, on the 18th February, she struck on a 
sunken and unknown rock, three miles distant 
from Pulo Leat. A landing having been effected 
on that barren island, Lord Amherst and his suite 
proceeded in the barge and cutter to Batavia, a 
distance of 200 miles ; and after a passage of four 
nights and three days, in which they suffered 
much from the scarcity of water and provisions, 
they happily arrived at their destination. The 
Company's cruiser Ternate was immediately dis- 
patched to Captain Maxwell, and those who re- 
mained with him ; but in consequence of contrary 



currents, she did not arrive for a fortnight. Their 
situation in the meantime had attracted the notice 
of the Malay proas, or pirate boats, who had 
obliged Lieutenant Hinckman and his detachment 
to quit the wreck, which they had burnt to the 
water's edge. These boats having increased to 
about sixty in number, each containing from 
eight to twelve men, completely blockaded the 
shipwrecked crew; but on the approach of the 
Ternate they speedily disappeared. For some 
days Captain Maxwell had been actively employ- 
ed in fortifying a hill, and providing his party 
with ammunition ; and so well prepared were they 
for an attack, that at length they rather wished 
than dreaded it. Mr. Ellis, the third commissioner 
of the embassy, who had returned from Batavia in 
the Ternate, in his published 'Journal,' says, 
"My expectations of the security of the position 
were more than realized when I ascended the bill ; 
and many an assailant must have fallen before an 
entrance could have been effected. Participation 
of privation, and equal distribution of comfort, 
had lightened the weight of suffering to all ; and 
I found the universal sentiment to be, an enthu- 
siastic admiration of the temper, energy, and ar- 
rangements of Captain Maxwell." 

On his return to England he was tried by a 
court-martial at Portsmouth in August 1817, for the 
loss of the Alceste, but was most honourably ac- 
quitted, the court at the same time declaring that 
" his coolness, self-collection, and exertions, were 
highly conspicuous." He received the honour of 
knighthood May 27, 1818; and May 20, 1819, he 
was presented by the East India Company with 
the sum of £1,500 for the services rendered by 
him to the embassy, and as a remuneration for 
the loss he had sustained on his return from Chi- 
na. He was appointed to the Bulwark, a third- 
rate, in June 1821, was removed to the Briton 
frigate, November 28, 1822, and was afterwards 
employed on the South American station. In 
May 1831 he was appointed lieutenant-governor 
of Prince Edward's Island, and was preparing for 
his departure, when he died, after a short illness, 
June 26 of that year. 

His portrait, which formed the frontispiece to 
one of the ■ olumes of the once celebrated Percy 
Anecdotes, is given on the following page : 



MAYXE. 



136 



MELFORT. 




MAYNE, John, author of 'The Siller Gun,' 
and other poems, was born in Dumfries, 26th 
March 1759, and received his education at the 
Grammar school of that town, under the learned 
Dr. Chapman, whose memory he has eulogised in 
the third canto of his principal poem. On 
leaving school, he was sent at an early age 
to learn the business of a printer, and was for 
some time in th.3 office of the Dumfries Jour- 
nal. He afterwards removed to Glasgow, with 
his father's family, who went to reside on a pro- 
perty they had acquired at the head of the Green, 
near that city. While yet a mere youth, " ere 
care was born," he began to court the muses, and 
he had earned a poetical reputation before the 
publication of the poems of Burns, who, to a little 
piece of Mayne's, entitled 'Hallow-een,' is under- 
stood to have been indebted for the subject of his 
inimitable poem under the same name. 

In 1777 the original of 'The Siller Gun' was 
written, with the object of describing the celebra- 
tion of an ancient custom, revived in that year, of 
shooting for a small silver gun at Dumfries on the 
king's birth- day. The poem consisted at first of 
only twelve stanzas, printed at Dumfries on a 
email quarto page. It was shortly after extended 



to two cantos, and then to three, and became so 
popular that it was several times reprinted. In 
1808 it was published in four cantos, with notes 
and a glossary. Another elegant edition, enlarged 
to five cantos, was published by subscription in 
1836. It exhibits many exquisitely painted scenes 
and sketches of character, drawn from life, and 
described with the ease and vigour of a true poet. 
For some time after its first publication, Mr 
Mayne contributed various pieces to Ruddiman's 
Weekly Magazine, among the chief of which was 
his ' Hallow-een.' He also exchanged verses in 
print with Telford, the celebrated engineer, like 
himself a native of Dumfries, who, in his youth, 
was much attached to the rustic muse. 

While he resided at Glasgow, he passed through 
a regular term of service with the Messrs. Foulis, 
the printers, of the Glasgow University pres3, 
with whom he remained from 1782 to 1787 ; on 
the expiry of which he proceeded to London, 
where he was for many years the printer, editor, 
and joint proprietor of the Star evening paper, in 
which not a few of his beautiful ballads were first 
published. He also contributed lyrical pieces to 
various of the Magazines, particularly to the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine, from 1807 to 1817. His only 
other poem of any length is one of considerable 
merit, entitled ' Glasgow,' illustrated with notes, 
which appeared in 1803, and has gone through 
several editions. In the same year he printed 
' English, Scots, and Irishmen,' a patriotic ad- 
dress to the inhabitants of the united kingdom. 
He excelled principally in ballad poetry, and his 
' Logan Braes,' and ' Helen of Kirkconnel Lea,' 
are inferior to no poems of their kind in the lan- 
guage. In private life Mr. Mayne was very un- 
assuming. Allan Cunningham says of him, that 
" a better or warmer-hearted man never existed." 
He died in London, at an advanced age, March 
14, 1836. He left a son, W. H. Mayne, who 
held an official situation in the India house. 

Melfort, earl ot, a title in the Scottish peerage, conferred 
in 1686, on the Hon. John Drummond, second son of the 
third earl of Perth. In 1680 he had been appointed general 
of the ordnance, and deputy governer of Edinburgh castle, in 
1682 treasurer depute, and in September 1684 one of the 
principal secretaries of state for Scotland, an office which he 
held during the last persecuting years of the Stuarts. On 
the accession of James VII., he was, 14th April 1685, cre- 
ated viscount of Melfort in Argyleshire, part of the forfeit^ 



MELFORT. 



137 



MELVILLE. 



estate of the earl of Argyle, with the secondary title of Lord 
Drummond of Gilstoun. He had married, first, 30th April, 
1G70, Sophia, daughter and heiress of Margaret Lundin of 
Lundin, Fifeshire, by the Hon. Robert Maitland, brother of 
the duke of Lauderdale, and by her had three sons and three 
daughters. He married, secondly, Euphemia, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Wallace of Craigie, a lord of session and lord- 
justice-clerk, and by her had six sons and five daughters. 
He was created earl of Melfort, viscount of Forth, Lord 
Drummond of Rickertoun, Castlemains, and Gilstoun, 12th 
August 1686, the patents of his honours being taken to him 
and the heirs male of his body of his second marriage, which 
failing, to the heirs male whatever of his body. The reason 
of the issue of his first marriage being thus passed over was 
that he was frustrated by the Lundin family, who were zeal- 
ous protestants, in his attempt to educate his sons by that 
marriage in the Romish faith, to which he had become a 
convert. 

On the revival of the order of the Thistle in 1687, Lord 
Melfort was constituted one of the knights companions 
thereof. At the Revolution he repaired to the abdicated 
king in France, and in 1690 attended him to Ireland. By 
the fallen monarch he was invested with the order of the 
Garter. Not returning to Scotland within the time limited 
by law, he was outlawed by the high court of justiciary, 23d 
July, 1694, and attainted by act of parliament, 2d July 1695. 
A special clause, however, provided that his forfeiture should 
in noways affect or taint the blood of the children of his first 
marriage with Sophia Lundin. He was created duke de 
Melfort and count de Lussan in France in 1701, and had the 
chief administration at St. Germains for several years. He 
died there in January 1714. His second wife lived to be 
above 90 years of age, and supported herself in her latter 
years by keeping one of the two faro tables authorized by 
Louis XIV. 

The eldest son of the second marriage, John, second duke 
of Melfort, died in 1752. Thomas, the second son, an officer 
in the service of Charles VI., emperor of Germany, died 
unmarried, in 1715 ; William, the third son, abbe-prirol of 
Liege, died in Spain in 1742 ; Andrew, the fourth son, a col- 
onel of horse in the French service, married a lady named 
Magdalene Silvia de St. Herniione, described as a lieutenant- 
general in the French army. (Douglas' Peerage, vol. i. p. 
221, Wood's edition.) By her he had a son, designed Count 
de Melfort, a major-general in the same service. The sixth 
son, Philip, also an officer in the French army, died of wounds 
received in the wars of Louis XIV. 

The second duke of Melfort married the widow of Henry 
Fitzjames, duke of Albemarle, natural son of James VII., 
and had three sons: Thomas, his heir; Lewis, major-general 
in the French service and colonel of the regiment of royal 
Scots, on the reduction of which corps he got a pension from 
the court of France ; and John, lieutenant of the guards of 
the king of Poland, elector of Saxony, with the rank of ma- 
jor-general. 

Thomas, the eldest son, third duke of Melfort, had a con- 
siderable estate in Lower Languedoc. By a lady of the name 
of Mary de Berenger, he had four sons and two daughters, 
but he seems not to have married her till after some of them 
were born. In 1805, Charles Edward Drummond, styling 
himself duke of Melfort, the second but eldest surviving son, 
entered a claim for the estate of Perth. He stated himself 
to have been born 1st January 1752, although his father was 
not married to Mary de Berenger till 26th July 1755. His 
youngest brother, Leon Maurice Drummond, residing in Lon- 
don, fourth son of the third duke, took a protest that he was | 



I great-grandson and lawful heir of John duke of Melfort. He 
married Luce Elizabeth de Longuemarre, and with two daugh- 
ters had a son, George, born in London, 6th May 1807. 
This George, duke of Melfort, succeeded his uncle in the 
French honours in 1840, and in 1841 petitioned the queen 
for the restoration of the Scottish attainted titles of Perth. 
In 1848 he proved his descent before the committee of privi- 
leges of tne house of lords, and was restored in blood by act 
of parliament in 1853. The same year he was re-invested in 
the earldom of Perth. (See Perth, earl of.) 



Melgum, viscount of, a title, now extinct, in the peerage 
of Scotland, conferred on Lord John Gordon, second son of 
the first marquis of Huntly, by Charles I. in 1627, with the 
secondary title of Lord Aboyne. He was burnt to death in 
the castle of Frendraught, 18th October, 1630 (see vol. ii. p. 
271). He had married Lady Sophia Hay, fifth daughter ot 
Francis, ninth earl of Errol, and had an only daughter. The 
ballad called ' The Burning of Frendraught,' thus describes 
her anguish on receiving, by his servant, the intelligence of 
her lord's fate : 

" O wae be to you, George Gordon ; 
An ill death may you dee, 
Sae safe and sound as ye stand there, 
And my lord bereaved from me. 

' I bade him loup, I bade him come, 
I bade him loup to me ; 
I'd catch him in my armis two, 
A foot I should not flee. 

He threw me rings from his white fingers, 

Which were so long and small, 
To give to you his lady fair, 

Where you sat in your hall.' 

Sophia Hay, Sophia Hay, 

O bonnie Sophie was her name ; 
Her waiting maid put on her clothes, 

But I wat she tore them off again." 

The courtesy title of Viscount Melgum is held by the eld- 
est son of the earl of Minto, a peerage of the united kingdom, 
of the creation of 1813, (see vol. ii. p. 132). 



Melrose, earl of, a title in the peerage of Scotland, con 
ferred, 20th March 1619, on Sir Thomas Hamilton of Drum 
cairn, an eminent advocate and lord of session. After hold- 
ing it for eight years he exchanged it for that of earl of 
Haddington, (see vol. ii. p. 394). Baron Melros, in the peer- 
age of the united kingdom, is the title by which the earls of 
Haddington have sat in the house of lords since 1827. 



Melville, a surname of ancient standing in Scotland, 
derived from lands of that name in Mid Lothian. Before the 
middle of the 12th century, a baron of Anglo-Norman line- 
age, named Male, settled, under David I., on the lands refer- 
red to, and called his manor, after himself, Maleville, 
whence the surname of Melville. Galfrid de Maleville, the 
first of the family, was vicecomes of Edinburgh castle under 
Malcolm IV., and justiciar)- under William the Lion. The 
family remained in possession of their anoient maaor 
till the reign of Robert II. The original stock then 
terminating in an heiress, Agnes, she married Sir John 
Ross of Halkhead, and their descendant was, by Jamei 



MELVILLE, 



138 



EARL OF. 



IV., created Lord Ross, in whose family the barony of Mel- 
ville remained till 1705. 



Melville, earl of, a title in the peerage of Scotland, con- 
joined since 1704 with that of earl of Leven, and conferred, 
in 1690, on George, fourth Lord Melville, descended from Sir 
John de Melville of Raith, in Fife, who swore fealty to Ed- 
ward I. in 1296. Sir John Melville of Raith, the ninth in 
descent from this baron, was a 'avourite with James V., by 
whom he was appointed master-general of the ordnance and 
captain of the castle of Dunbar. In 1536, and again in 1542, 
he obtained charters to himself and Helen Napier his wife, of 
the king's lands of Murdocairnie in Fife. He early joined the 
party of the Reformation in Scotland, and after suffering 
from the animosity of Cardinal Bethune, at length fell a vic- 
tim to his successor in the primacy, Archbishop Hamilton. 
In 1550 ha was tried for high treason, and executed. Cal- 
derwood {Hist, of Kirk of Scotland, p. 262) says, " Johnc 
Melville, laird of Raith in Fife, an aged man, and of great 
accompt with King James the Fyft, was beheaded for writing 
a letter to an Englishman, in favour of a captive, his friend, 
with whome he was keeped as prisoner. Although there was 
not the least suspicioun of anie fault, yitt lost he his head, 
becaus he was knowne to be one that unfainedlie favoured 
the truthe, and was a great friend to those that were in the 
castle of Sanct Andrews, (the conspirators against Cardinal 
Bethune). The letter, as was alledged, was found in the 
house of Ormiston. Howsoever it was, the cruel beasts, the 
bishop of Sanct Andrews and the abbot of Dunfermline, 
ceased not till his head was strickin frome him. They were 
not content of his death, till he was forfaulted also, and his 
patrimonie bestowed upon Hamiltoun, the governor's young- 
est son." With a daughter, Janet, married to Sir James 
Kirkaldy of Grange, knight, he had sis sons, five of whom 
were eminent during the reign of Queen Man- and the regen- 
cies which followed her resignation of the crown. 

The eldest son, John Melville of Raith, was restored to his 
father's estate by the queen regent about 1553, at the special 
request of Henry II. of France. He was one of the barons 
who, in July 1567, subscribed the articles passed in the Gen- 
eral Assembly for the support of the Reformed religion and 
the putting down of popery. The second son, Sir Robert 
Melville of Murdocairnie, was the first Lord Melville, of whom 
afterwards. Of Sir James Melville of Hallhill, the third son, 
an eminent courtier and statesman, a memoir is subsequently 
given in larger type. William Melville, the fourth son, com- 
mendator of Tongland and Kilwinning, was appointed an or- 
dinary lord of session, 14th August, 1587, when he took the 
title of Lord Tongland. Soon after, he was sent by James 
VI. to the court of Navarre, to see and report upon the prin- 
cess, as a wife for the king, and returned with a portrait of 
the lady, and " a good report of her rare qualities." The 
marriage, however, did not take place. He was frequently 
employed as one of the lords commissioners for opening the 
Scots parliament, and is supposed to have died in the autumn 
of 1613. He is said, by his brother, in his Memoirs (p. 365), 
to have been a good scholar, and to have been able to speak 
perfectly " the Latin, the Dutche, the Flemyn, and the 
Frenche tongue." Sir Andrew Melville of Garvock, the fifth 
son, was master of the household to Queen Mary, and at- 
tended her in her last moments at Fotheringay. He was 
also master of the household to James VI. David Melville 
of Newmill, the sixth son, was a captain in the army. 

To return to the second son, Sir Robert Melville, first Lord 
Melville, — he was a very eminent character during the reigns 
of Mary and James. Having gone abroad in his vouth. he 



was much noticed at the court of France, and obtained an 
honourable employment under Henry II. In 1559 he re- 
turned to Scotland, and was sent to England with Maitland 
of Lethington, to solicit the assistance of Queen Elizabeth for 
the lords of the congregation. In 1562 he was sworn a privy 
councillor. After the " Chase-about Raid," in 1565, he wag 
employed by the earl of Moray, one of the principal nobles 
who opposed Mary's marriage to Darnley, to intercede for his 
pardon with the queen. Shortly after he was sent to Eng- 
land as ambassador, and on his return he skilfully unravelled 
to his mistress the crooked policy of Elizabeth and her mini- 
sters. {Melville's Memoirs.') After the assassination of 
Darnley he was reappointed ambassador to England, and 
again after the marriage of Mary to Bothwell. 

When Mary was confined in Lochleven castle, he was sent 
to her by the earl of Athole and the lairds of Tullibardin and 
Lethington, her principal councillors, with a ring which she 
knew to be theirs, advising her to subscribe the resignation 
of the crown, as it would be held null, being extorted from 
her by fears of her fife. He also conveyed to her a writing 
from Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, the English ambassador, de- 
siring her to subscribe whatever they required, as what she 
signed in her captivity could not be held valid, and assuring 
her of Queen Elizabeth's protection. This afterwards formed 
the chief ground of Mary's ill-founded reliance on her cou- 
sin's promises. On Mary's escape from Lochleven he joined 
her at Hamilton, and publicly avowed the restraint under 
which she had acted in resigning the crown. 

In the civil war which followed the assassination of the re- 
gent Moray, he adhered to the queen's party, and with Kirk- 
aldy of Grange and Maitland of Lethington held out the 
castle of Edinburgh till its surrender in 1573. He would 
have shared the fate of Kirkaldy but for the intercession of 
Killigrew, the English ambassador. During the remainder of 
the earl of Morton's regency, he appears to have lived in re- 
tirement, and in 1579 the benefit of the pacification of Perth 
was extended to him. 

In August 1582, he was appointed treasurer-depute, anc 
in October of the same year knighted. In December 1586, 
he was sent by James VI., with the master of Gray, to Eng- 
land to entreat Queen Elizabeth for his mother's life. This 
duty he performed with fidelity and zeal. According to his 
brother's account, "he spak brave and stout language to the 
consaill of England, sa that the quen herself boisted him of his 
lyf ;" and he would have been afterwards detained prisoner, 
but for the interest of the master of Gray. {Melville's Me- 
moirs, p. 357.) In 1589, when James sailed for Norway, to 
bring over his queen, Sir Robert Melville was made vice- 
chancellor of the kingdom, and he received the grateful 
thanks of his majesty, on his return, for the way in which he 
had managed matters in his absence. On 7th June 1593, he 
was again sent ambassador to England. On 11th June 1594, 
he was admitted an extraordinary lord of session, and took 
his seat on the bench as Lord Murdocairnie. The king's 
letter of nomination states that his majesty had " experience 
of the faithful service done to us at all tymes" by Sir Robert, 
" and how willing he is to discharge his dewtie therein to our 
honour and wiell of our realm and lieges thereof." {Books oj 
Sederunt.) He resigned his office of treasurer- depute in Jan- 
uary 1596, in consequence of the appointment of the Octavi- 
ans, as the eight commissioners of the treasury were called, 
at which time the king was largely in his debt. In 1597, an 
act was passed by which his majesty, with advice of thu 
Estates, promised to pay the balance due, and prohibited any 
diligence being executed at the instance of his creditors 
against him, until he should be so paid. {Act. Pari. vol. i/ 



MELVILLE, 



139 



THIRD VISCOUNT. 



p. 147.) On 26th February 1601, he resigned his seat on 
the bench in favour of his son, and in 1604 he was appointed 
one of the commissioners for the projected union between the 
two kingdoms. He was raised to the peerage by the title of 
Lord Melville of Monimail, 30th April 1616, and died in 
1621, at the advanced age of 94. 

His only son, Robert, second Lord Melville, was a privy 
councillor to King James, by whom he was knighted, and in 
February 1601, on the resignation of his father, he was ap- 
pointed an extraordinary lord of session, by the title of Lord 
Burntisland. He was removed in February 1626, when an 
entire change of the extraordinary lords took place. He was 
also a privy councillor to Charles I., and one of the royal 
commissioners to open the parliament of Scotland, 18th June 
1633. In that assembly he energetically, though unsuccess- 
fully, opposed the act for conferring on the king the power 
of regulating ecclesiastical habits, and addressing the king, 
then present, he exclaimed aloud, " I have sworn with your 
father and the whole kingdom to the Confession of Faith, in 
which the innovations intended by these articles were so- 
lemnly abjured." He died at Edinburgh, without issue, 9th 
March 1635, and was succeeded by his cousin, John Melville 
of Raith, third Lord Melville, whose brother, Thomas Mel- 
ville, acquired from him the lands of Murdocairnie, and was 
ancestor of the Melvilles of Murdocairnie. 

The third Lord Melville died in 1643. His elder son 
George, fourth lord, and first earl of Melville, in consequence 
af his known liberal principles, found it necessary to retire to 
the continent on the detection of the Ryehouse plot in 1683, 
although he had no connexion with that conspiracy. In 
June 1685, he accompanied the duke of Monmouth when he 
landed at Lyme from Holland, and on the failure of his at- 
tempt to overturn the government of his uncle James VII., 
Lord Melville again escaped to the continent. His estates 
were forfeited by act of attainder the same year. 

In 1688 he came over to England with William, prince of 
Orange, and, immediately after, his forfeiture was rescinded. 
On 8th April 1690, he was created earl of Melville, viscount 
of Kirkcaldy, Lord Raith, Monimail, and Ralwearie. The 
same year he was appointed sole secretary of state for Scot- 
land, and constituted high commissioner to the Scots parlia- 
ment. As high commissioner also to the parliament which 
met in September following, he gave the royal assent to the 
act for abolishing patronage. In 1691 he resigned the office 
of secretary of state, and was appointed keeper of the privy 
seal, an office which he held till 1696, when he became presi- 
dent of the council. He died in 1707. By his countess, 
Catherine, daughter of Alexander, Lord Balgonie, son of the 
renowned military commander, Alexander Leslie, first earl of 
Leven, he had three sons and one daughter. His eldest son, 
Alexander, Lord Raith, a nobleman of considerable talent, 
was appointed treasurer depute of Scotland in 1689, and died, 
without issue, before his father in 1698. 

The second son, David, second earl of Melville, succeeded, 
on the death of his mother in 1713, to the earldom of Leven. 
(See Lkven, earl of.) The titles were thenceforth conjoined. 



Met.vii.i.e, viscount of, a title in the peerage of the united 
Kingdom, conferred, with the secondary title of baron Datura, 
in the county of Perth, December 21st, 1802, on the Right 
Hon. Henry Dnndas, a distinguished statesman, a memoir of 
whom is given at vol. ii. page 97. By his first wife, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of David Rennie, Esq., who had purchased 
Melville Castle, Mid Lothian, which he bestowed, with his 
daughter, on his son-in-law, he had one son and three daugh- 
ters. A second marriage was without issue. 



His son, Robert, second Viscount Melville, was born in 1771, 
He was educated at the High school of Edinburgh, and Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge. One of his school companion! 
at the former was Sir Walter Scott, neither of them being 
then titled, his friendship with whom was strengthened by 
their subsequent service together in the Mid Lothian yeo- 
manry. In 1802 he was chosen M.P. for Mid Lothian, for 
which he was subsequently five times re-elected. The ques- 
tion of his father's impeachment caused him to take a fre- 
quent part in the debates in parliament in 1805 and 1806. 
On the change of ministry in March 1807, when the duke of 
Portland became premier, Mr. Dundas entered office as presi- 
dent of the board of control, and was sworn a member of the 
privy council. In 1809, when Sir Arthur Wellesley, after- 
wards the duke of Wellington, was called from the Irish chief 
secretaryship to take the command of the British armies in 
Spain, Mr. Dundas was appointed his successor, and was en- 
rolled in the privy council of Ireland. In January 1810, soon 
after the formation of Mr. Spencer Percival's administration, 
he returned to the presidency of the board of control. 

The sudden death of his father, on 29th May 1811, gave 
him a place in the house of peers. The same year he was 
appointed keeper of the privy seal of Scotland, a sinecure 
office which expired with him. On the formation of a new 
ministry, having the earl of Liverpool at its head, in the sum- 
mer of 1812, the office of first lord of the admiralty, with a 
seat in the cabinet, was assigned to Viscount Melville, and he 
continued at the head of that department for fifteen years. 
In 1814 he was elected chancellor of the university of St. 
Andrews. Nominated in 1821 one of the four extra knights 
of the Thistle, on the enlargement of the order in 1827 he 
was enrolled one of the ordinary knights. On the accession 
of Mr. Canning to power in the latter year, his lordship re- 
tired from office, declining a seat in the cabinet. When the 
duke of Wellington formed his administration in January 
1828, Viscount Melville resumed his place at the head of the 
admiralty. With the dissolution of the Wellington ministry 
in November 1830, his lordship's official career terminated. 
He was a member of the royal commission of 1826-30 for the 
visitation of the Scottish universities ; in 18 13-4, of the royal 
commission for inquiry into the operation of the poor-law in 
Scotland, and in 1847, of the prison board for Scotland. He 
was also keeper of the signet, a deputy-lieutenant of the 
counties of Edinburgh and Linlithgow, one of the commis- 
sioners of the board of trustees for manufactures in Scotland, 
one of the commissioners for the custody of the Scottish re- 
galia, a lieutenant-general of the royal company of archers in 
Scotland, an elder brother of the Trinity house, governor of 
the Bank of Scotland, &c. He died at Melville castle, Mid 
Lothian, 10th June, 1851, in his 80th year. 

His lordship married, in August 1796, Anne, daughter and 
co-heiress of Richard Huck Saunders, M.D., grand-niece of 
Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, K. B. On his marriage he 
assumed the name of Saunders before his own. He had four 
sons andtwj daughters, d. 10 June, 1851, and was*, by his eldest 
son Henry, 3d viscount, b. Feb. .'-3, 1801. Entered the army in 
1819, and became a major-general in 1854. He commanded tho 
83d foot during the insurrection in Upper Canada in 1837-8, and 
was for a short time aide-de-camp to the queen; for his services 
i»t the battle of Gujerat in India, he received the order of the 
Bath ami the thanks of Parliament and of the East India Com- 
pany. In 1839 he was made a C.B.; in 1849, a K.C.B.; in 18G5, a 
G.C.B.; and in 18G8, a genera] in the army. 

In 1853 he was appointed to command the Sirhiml divi- 
sion of the Indian army, and from 1854 to 18G0 was commander, 
in-chief of tho forces In Scotland; colonel of 100th regiment of 
foot; unmarried. 



MELVILLE, 



140 



ANDREW. 



The 2d son, Vice-admiral the Hon. Richard Saunders Dun- 
das, C.B., succeeded Admiral Sir Charles Napier in the com- 
mand of the Baltic fleet, in the war with Russia, in 1855; 
and commanded at the bombardment of Sweaborg, Aug. 9 of 
that year. Born June 11, 1802, he entered the navy June 
15, 1817, as a volunteer on board the Ganymede, 26 guns, 
and remained midshipman of that ship and of the Owen 
Glendower until Dec. 1820, on the Mediterranean and South 
American stations. He became lieutenant 18th June, 1821, 
and post-captain 17th July, 1824. In the Melville, 72, he 
took part in the campaign in China. During this service he 
received the warm thanks of Sir Gordon Bremer for his con- 
duct at the capture of Ty-cock-tow, as well as at that of the 
forts of the Bocca Tigris. In 1828-29-30 he was private 
secretary to his father, then first lord of the admiralty. In 1845 
he held the same office under the earl of Haddington, the first 
lord of that period. In 1841 the military companionship of 
the Bath was conferred upon him for his services in China. 
In 1851 he was appointed superintendent of Deptford dock- 
yard. Rear-admiral of the blue 1853 ; rear-admiral of the 
white 1855 ; in 1858 he became vice-admiral of the blue ; one 
of the lords of the admiralty from 1852 to 1855. He died 
suddenly, June 3, 1861. The 3d son, the Hon. Robert Dun- 
das, born in 1803, storekeeper -general of the navy. The 4th 
son, the Hon. and Rev. Charles Dundas, rector of Epworth, 
born Sept. 10, 1806, married, in 1833, Louisa Maria, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Boothby, issue, 3 sons and 7 daughters. 

MELVILLE, Sir James, an eminent courtier, 
son of Sir John Melville of Raith, was born in 
Fifeshire about 1535. At the age of 14 he was sent 
to Paris by the queen-mother, under the protec- 
tion of the French ambassador, to be a page of 
nonour to the youthful Mary, queen of Scots, then 
the consort of the dauphin of France. In May 
1553, by the permission of his royal mistress, he 
entered the service of the constable of France, and 
was present at the siege of St. Quentin, where the 
constable was wounded and taken prisoner, and 
he seems to have attended him in his captivity. 
After the peace he visited his native country in 
1559, on a sort of secret mission, to ascertain the 
state of parties in Scotland. He afterwards tra- 
velled on the continent, and remained three years 
at the court of the elector palatine, who employed 
him in various negotiations with the German 
princes. In May 1564 he returned to Scotland, 
having been reoalled by Mary, by whom he was 
appointed gentleman of the bedchamber, and no- 
minated one of her privy councillors. Soon after 
he was sent on an embassy to Elizabeth, relative 
to Mary's proposed marriage with Darnley, and 
in June 1566 he was again dispatched to the Eng- 
lish court with the intelligence of the birth of the 
prince, afterwards James VI. He maintained a 
torrespopdence in England in favour of Mary's 



succession to the crown of that kingdom ; but ven- 
turing to remonstrate with her on her unhappy 
partiality for Bothwell, the queen communicated 
his admonitions to the latter, and the faithful 
Melville was, in consequence, obliged for some 
time to retire from court. He was, however, pre- 
sent at the ill-starred nuptials of Mary to that 
nobleman, and he continued her confidential ser- 
vant as long as she remained in Scotland. He 
appears to have had a high idea of his own im- 
portance, and occasionally in his Memoirs blames 
himself for the unfortunate propensity, which he 
says he possessed, of finding fault with the pro- 
ceedings of the great. 

By James VI., to whom he was recommended 
by his unfortunate mother, and who continued 
him in his offices of privy councillor and gentle- 
man of the bedchamber to his queen, Anne of 
Denmark, he was intrusted with various honoura- 
ble employments. On the accession of King 
James to the English throne, he declined to ac- 
company him to England, but afterwards paid his 
majesty a visit of duty, when he was graciously 
received. On account of his age he retired from 
the public service, and occupied his remaining 
years in writing the 'Memoirs' of his life for the 
use of his son. He died November 1, 1607. His 
manuscript, accidentally found in the castle of 
Edinburgh in 1660, and which affords minute and 
curious descriptions of the manners of the times, 
was published in 1683, by Mr. George Scott, un- 
der the title of ' Memoirs of Sir James Melvil of 
Hallhill, containing au impartial Account of the 
most remarkable Affairs of State during the last 
Age, not mentioned by other Historians ;' repub- 
lished in 1735. He had acquired the estate of 
Hallhill, in the parish of Collessie, Fifeshire, from 
the celebrated Henry Balnaves, (see vol. i. page 
229). It remained the property of his descend- 
ants till the reign of Charles II., when it was pur- 
chased by Lord Melville. 

MELVILLE, Anpbew, one of the most illus- 
trious of the Scottish Reformers, whose name is 
second only to that of John Knox, was the young- 
est of nine sons of Richard Melville of Baldovy, 
near Montrose, where he was born August 1, 
1545. His father lost his life in the battle of Pin- 
kie, when Andrew was only two years old, and 



MELVILLE, 



HI 



ANDREW. 



his mother dying soon after, he was brought up 
nnder the care of his eldest brother, afterwards 
minister of Mary ton, who, at a proper age, sent 
him to the grammar school of Montrose. Having 
acquired there a thorough knowledge of the clas- 
sics, he was, in 1559, removed to the university 
of St. Andrews, where his great proficiency, espe- 
cially in the Greek language, excited the aston- 
ishment of his teachers. On completing the usual 
academical course he left college with the charac- 
ter of being "the best philosopher, poet, and Gre- 
cian, of any young master in the land." In 1564 
he went to France, and remained for two years at 
the university of Paris. He next proceeded to 
Poictiers, for the purpose of studying the civil 
law, and was elected regent or professor in the 
college of St. Marceon. After continuing there 
for three years, he repaired to Geneva on foot, 
carrying only a Hebrew Bible at his belt, and the 
fame of his great attainments having preceded 
him, by the influence of Beza he obtained the hu- 
manity chair in the academy, at that time vacant. 
In July 1574 he returned to Scotland, after an 
absence of ten years. Beza, in his letter to the 
General Assembly, wrote that the greatest token of 
affection the kirk of Geneva could show to Scot- 
land was that they had suffered themselves to be 
spoiled of Mr. Andrew Melville, that thereby the 
kirk of Scotland might be enriched. On his ar- 
rival in Edinburgh, he was invited by the Regent 
Morton to enter his family as a domestic tutor, 
but he preferred an academic life to a residence at 
court, and declined the invitation. Shortly after- 
wards he was appointed by the General Assembly 
principal of the university of Glasgow, which, un- 
der his charge, from the improved plan of study 
and discipline introduced by him, speedily acquired 
a high reputation as a seat of learning. Besides 
his duties in the university, he officiated as minis- 
ter of the church of Govan, in the vicinity. As a 
member of the General Assembly, he took a pro- 
minent part in all the measures of that body 
against episcopacy ; and as he was unflinching in 
his opposition to that form of church government, 
he received the name of " Episcopomastix," or 
'The Scourge of Bishops.' A remarkable in- 
stance of his intrepidity occurred at an interview, 
which took place in October 1577, between him 



and the Regent Morton, when the latter, irritated 
at the proceedings of the Assembly, exclaimed, 
" There will never be quietness in this country 
till half a dozen of you be hanged or banished ! " 
" Hark ! Sir," said Melville, " threaten your 
courtiers after that manner! It is the same to 
me whether I rot in the air, or in the ground. 
The earth is the Lord's. Patria est ubicunque est 
bene. I have been ready to give up my life where 
it would not have been half so well wared, at the 
pleasure of my God. I have lived out of your 
country ten years, as well as in it. Let God be 
glorified, it will not be in your power to hang or 
exile his truth." This bold language Morton did 
not venture to resent. 

Melville was moderator of the General Assem- 
bly which met at Edinburgh 24th April 1578, in 
which the second Book of Discipline was approved 
of. The attention of the Assembly was about this 
time directed to the reformation and improvement 
of the universities, and Melville was, in December 
1580, removed from Glasgow, and installed prin- 
cipal of St. Mary's college, St. Andrews. Here, 
besides giving lectures in divinity, he taught the 
Hebrew, Clialdee, Syriac, and Rabbinical lan- 
guages, and his prelections were attended, not 
only by young students in unusual numbers, but 
also by some of the masters of the other colleges. 
He was moderator of the Assembly which met at 
St. Andrews 24th April 1582, and also of an ex- 
traordinary meeting of the Assembly, convened at 
Edinburgh 27th June thereafter, in consequence 
of the arbitrary measures of the court, in relation 
particularly to the case of Robert Montgomery, 
the excommunicated archbishop of Glasgow. He 
opened the proceedings with a sermon, in which 
he boldly inveighed against the absolute authority 
claimed by the government in ecclesiastical mat- 
ters. A spirited remonstrance being agreed to by 
the Assembly, Melville and others were appointed 
to present it to the king, then with the court at 
Perth. When the remonstrance was read before 
his majesty in council, the king's unworthy favour- 
ite, the earl of Arran, menacingly exclaimed, 
"Who dare subscribe these treasonable articles?' 
" We dare," said the undaunted Melville, and tak- 
ing a pen, immediately signed his name. His 
example was followed by the other commission- 



MELV T ILLE, 



142 



ANDREW. 



ers, and so much were Lennox and Arran over- 
awed by their intrepidity, that they dismissed 
them peaceably. 

For about three years Melville had preached, 
assisted by his nephew, in the parish church of 
St. Andrews. In February 1584 he was cited 
before the privy council, to answer a charge of 
treason, founded on some seditious expressions, 
which it was alleged he had made use of in a ser- 
mon on the 4th chapter of Daniel, on the occasion 
of a fast kept during the preceding month ; par- 
ticularly that he had compared the king's mother 
to Nebuchadnezzar, who was banished from the 
kingdom, and would be restored again. At his ap- 
pearance, he denied using these words, entered in- 
to a full defence of those he had actually used, and 
presented a protest and declinature, claiming to be 
tried by the ecclesiastical court. When brought be- 
fore the king and council, he boldly told them that 
they had exceeded their jurisdiction in judging of 
the doctrine, or calling to account any of the ambas- 
sadors or messengers of a king and council greater 
than they, and far above them. Then loosing a 
little Hebrew bible from his belt, and throwing it 
on the table before them, he said, "That you may 
see your weakness, oversight, and rashness, in 
taking upon you that which neither you ought nor 
can do, there are my instructions and warrant. Let 
me see which of you can judge of them or control 
me therein, that I have passed by my injunc- 
tions." Arran, finding the book in Hebrew, put 
it into the king's hands, saying, " Sir, he scorns 
your majesty and council." " No, my lord, " re- 
plied Melville, " I scorn not, but with all earnest- 
ness, zeal, and gravity, I stand for the cause of 
Jesus Christ and his church." Not being able to 
prove the charge against him, and unwilling to 
let him go, the council declared him guilty of de- 
clining their jurisdiction, and of behaving irrever- 
ently before them, and sentenced him to be impri- 
soned in the castle of Edinburgh, and to be further 
punished in his person and goods at the pleasure 
of the king. Before, however, being charged to 
enter himself in ward, his place of confinement 
was ordered to be changed to Blackness castle, 
which was kept by a dependant of Arran. While 
at dinner the king's macer was admitted and gave 
IriiE the charge to enter within 24 hours: but he 



avoided being sent there by secretly withdrawing 
from Edinburgh. After staying some time ai 
Berwick, he proceeded to London, and in the en- 
suing July visited the universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge, at both of which he was received in a 
manner becoming his learning and reputation. 

On the disgrace of the earl of Arran, Melvillo 
returned to Scotland with the banished lords, in 
November 1585. Having assisted in re-organiz- 
ing the college of Glasgow, he resumed, in the 
following March, his duties at St. Andrews. The 
synod of Fife, which met in April, proceeded to 
excommunicate Adamson, archbishop of St. An- 
drews, for his attempts to overturn the presbyte- 
rian form of government in the church ; and, in 
return, that prelate issued a sentence of excom- 
munication against Melville, and his nephew, 
James Melville, with others of their brethren. In 
consequence of this difference with the archbishop, 
Melville received a written mandate from the 
king to confine his residence to the north of the 
Tay, and he was not restored to his office in the 
university till the following August. Some time 
after, when Adamson had been deprived of his 
archbishopric, and was reduced to great poverty, 
finding himself deserted by the king, he addressed 
a letter to his former antagonist, Melville, expres- 
sing regret for his past conduct, and soliciting his 
assistance. Melville hastened to visit him, and 
not only procured contributions for his relief 
among his friends, but continued for several 
months to support him from his own resources. 

Iii June 1587, Melville was again elected mode- 
rator of the Assembly, and nominated one of the 
commissioners for attending to the proceedings in 
parliament. He was present at the coronation of 
the queen, May 17, 1590, and recited a Latin po- 
em composed for the occasion, which was imme- 
diately published at the desire of the king. In 
the same year he was elected rector of the univer- 
sity of St. Andrews, an office which, for a series 
of years, he continued to hold by re-election. In 
May 1594 he was again elected moderator of the 
Assembly. Shortly after, he appeared on behalf 
of the church before the lords of the articles, and 
urged the forfeiture of the popish lords, and along 
with his nephew and two other ministers, he ac- 
companied the king, at his express request, on his 



MELVILLE, 



H3 



ANDREW. 



expedition against them. In the following year, 
when it was proposed to recall the popish nobles 
from exile, he went with some other ministers to 
the convention of estates at St. Andrews, to re- 
monstrate against the design, but was ordered by 
the king to withdraw, which he did, after a most 
resolute reply. The commission of the Assembly 
having met at Cupar in Fife, they sent Melville 
and some other members to expostulate with the 
king. Being admitted to a private audience, 
James Melville began to address his majesty with 
great mildness and respect ; but the king becom- 
ing impatient, charged them with sedition, on 
which Andrew took him by the sleeve, and calling 
him "God's silly vassal," said, "This is not a 
time to flatter, but to speak plainly, for our com- 
mission is from the living God, to whom the king 
is subject. We will always humbly reverence 
your majesty in public, but having opportunity of 
being with your majesty in private, we must dis- 
charge our duty, or else be enemies to Christ : 
And now, Sire, I must tell you that there are two 
kingdoms — the kingdom of Christ, which is the 
church, whose subject King James VI. is, and of 
whose kingdom he is not a head, nor a lord, but a 
member ; and they whom Christ hath called, and 
commanded to watch over his church, and govern 
his spiritual kingdom, have sufficient power and 
authority from him so to do, which no Christian 
king nor prince should control or discharge, but 
assist and support, otherwise they are. not faithful 
subjects to Christ." The king listened patiently 
to this bold admonition, and dismissed them with 
many fair promises which he never intended to 
fulfil. For several years following King James 
made repeated attempts to control the church, ac- 
cording to his own arbitrary notions, but he inva- 
riably encountered a strenuous opponent in An- 
drew Melville ; and he had recourse at last to one 
of those stratagems which he thought the very 
essence of "king-craft," to secure the removal of 
this champion of presbyterianism from Scotland 
altogether. In May 1606, Melville, with his ne- 
phew, and six of their brethren, were called to 
London by a letter from the king, on the specious 
pretext that his majesty wished to consult them 
as to the affairs of the church. Soon after their 
arrival they attended the famous conference held 



September 23, in presence of the king at Hamp- 
ton Court, at which Melville spoke at great length, 
and with a boldness which astonished the English 
nobility and clergy. On St. Michael's day, Mel- 
ville and his brethren were commanded to attend 
the royal chapel, when, scandalized at the popish 
character of the service, on his return to his lodg- 
ing he vented his indignation in a Latin epigram,* 
for which, a copy having been conveyed to the 
king, he was brought before the council at White- 
hall. Being by them found guilty of " scandalum 
magnatum," he was committed first to the custody 
of the dean of St. Paul's, and afterwards to the 
charge of the bishop of Winchester ; but was ulti- 
mately sent to the Tower, where he remained a 
prisoner for four years. 

At first he was treated with the utmost rigour, 
and denied even the use of pen, ink, and paper; 
but his spirit remained unsubdued, and he be- 
guiled his solitary hours by composing Latin ver- 
ses, which, with the tongue of his shoe buckle, he 
engraved on his prison walls. By the interference 
of some friends at court, his confinement was, af- 
ter the lapse of nearly ten months, rendered less 
severe. About the end of 1607 the protestants of 
llochelle endeavoured to obtain his services as 
professor of divinity in their college, but the king 
would not consent to his liberation. At length, 
in February 1611, at the intercession of the duke 
of Bouillon, he was released from confinement, on 
condition of his becoming professor of theology in 
the protestant university of Sedan, in France, 
where he spent the remainder of his life, and died 
there in 1622, at the advanced age of 77 

* The following is the epigram : 

Cur stant clausi Anglis libri duo regia in ara, 

Lumina casca duo, pollubra sicca duo? 
Num sensum cultumque Dei tenet Anglia clausum, 

Luniine exca suo, sorde sepulta sua? 
Romano an ritu, dum regalem instruit aram, 

Turpuream pingit religiosa lupam ? 

Thus rendered in an old translation : 

Why stand there on the altar high 
Two closed books, blind lights, two basins dry? 
Doth England hold God's mind and worship close. 
Blind of her sight, and buried in her dross? 
Doth she, with chapel put in Romish dress, 
The purple whore religiously express? 

And for this Melville was sent to the lower 



MELVILLE, 



144 



JAMES. 



His biographer, Dr. M'Crie, says that Andrew 
Melville " was the first Scotsman who added a 
taste for elegant literature to an extensive ac- 
quaintance with theology." Although he sustain- 
ed a conspicuous part in all the important public 
transactions of his time, he neither was nor af- 
fected to be the leader of a party. In private he 
was an agreeable companion, remarkable for his 
cheerfulness and kindliness of disposition. He 
was never married. Beyond the statement that 
he was of low stature there is no description of his 
personal appearance extant, nor is there any 
known portrait of him. 

The greater part of his writings consists of Lat- 
in poems. Dr. M'Crie, whose Life of Andrew 
Melville was published in 1824, in 2 vols. 8vo, has 
given the names of all his works, printed and left 
in manuscript, and there is none of any great ex- 
tent among them. The subjoined list has been 
made up from his account. 

Carmen Mosis. — Andrea Melvino Scoto Avotore. Basil- 
ex. 1573, 8vo. This, his earliest publication, consisted of 
a poetical paraphrase of the Song of Moses, and a chapter of 
the Book of Job, with several small poems, all in Latin. 

iTE'i'ANISKION. Ad Scotiae Regem, habitum in Coro- 
natione Reginae. Edinbvrgi, 1590. 4to. 

Carolina ex Doctissimis Poe'tis Selecta, inter guos, qua- 
darn Geo. Buckanani et And. Melvini inseruntur. 1590. 8vo. 

PrincipisScoti-Britannorvm Natalia. Edinbvrgi. 1594. 4to. 

Theses Theologicaj de libero arbitrio. Edinburgi, 1597. 4to. 
These, Dr. M'Crie thinks, might be the Theses of some of his 
students. 

Scholastica Diatriba de Rebvs Divinis ad Anquirendam et 
mveniendam veritatem, k candidatis S. Theol. habenda (Deo 
volente) ad d. xxvi. et xxvii. Julij in Scholis Theologicis 
Acad. Andreanse, Spiritu Sancto Praeside. D. And. Melvino 
S. Theol. D. et illivs facultatis Decano a-v^yima-iv moderante. 
Edinbvrgi, Excudebat Robertus Waldegraue Typographus 
Regius 1599. 4to. pp. 16. 

Gathelus, seu Fragmentum de origine Gentis Scotorum. 
This poem was first printed along with ' Jonstoni Inscriptio- 
nes Historical Regum Scotorum.' Amstel. 1602. 

Pro supplici Evangelicorum Ministrorum in Anglia — Apo- 
logia, sive Anti-Tami-Cami-Categoria. 1604. A petition 
had been presented to the king by the English Puritans, 
commonly called, from the number of names attached to it, 
the millenary petition, for redress of their grievances, which 
was opposed by the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. 
This satirical poem, attacking the resolutions of the universi- 
ties, was written by Melville, in defence of the petitioners, and 
circulated extensively in England. 

Select Psalms turned into Latin verse, and printed (pro- 
bably at London while he was in the Tower) in 1609. 

Nescimus Qvid Vesper Servs Vehat. Satyra Menippaea 
Vincentii Liberii Hollandii. 1619. 4to. Another edition 
1G20. Ascribed to Melville. 

Viri Clarissimi A. Melvini Mvsae et P. Adamsoni Vita et 
I'alinodia et Celsa3 commissions — descriptio. 1620, 4to, pp. 



67. John Adamson, afterwards principal of the college ol 
Edinburgh, was employed in collecting Melville's fugitive 
poems, but it is uncertain whether he or Calderwood was the 
publisher of the Musas. Melville himself was not consulted 
in the publication of them, nor was he, says Dr. M'Crie, the 
author, as has often been inaccurately stated, of the tracts 
added to them. 

De Adiaphoris. Scoti rov rv%tvrot Aphorismi. Anno 
Domini 1622. 12mo, pp. 20. 

Andreas Melvini Scotiae Topographia. This poem is pre- 
fixed to the Theatrum Scoiim in Bleau'e Atlas. 

Melville contributed largely to a collection of poems, by 
Scotchmen and Zealanders, ' In Obitvm Johannis Wallasii 
Scoto Belgae. Ludg. Batav. 1603.' 4to. There are two 
poems by him in John Johnston's ' Sidera Veteris ^vi,' p. 
33. Salmurii, 1611. He has also verses prefixed to ' Com- 
ment, in Apost. Acta M. Joannis Malcolmi Scoti. — Middleb.' 
1615. 

Among his works in MS. Dr. M'Crie enumerates the fol- 
lowing : 

D. Andreae Melvini epistolae Londino e turn carceris ad 
Jacobum Melvinum Kouocastri exulantem scriptse, cum ejus- 
dem Jacobi nonnullis ad eundem. Annis supra millesimu sex- 
centessimo octavo, nono, decimo, undecimo. Item EcclesiaB 
Scoticanae Oratio Apologetica ad Regem An. 1610, mense 
Aprilis. This volume is in the library of the university ol 
Edinburgh. It brings down the correspondence between 
Melville and his nephew, Mr. James Melville, till the end of 
the year 1613. 

Six Letters from Andrew Melville to Robert Dury at Ley- 
den. In Bibl. Jurid. Edin. M. 6. 9. num. 42. 

Floretum Archiepiscopale ; id est, errores Pontificii, as- 
sertiones temerarise, et hyperbolicae interpretationes. Ibid, 
num. 47. They are extracted from Archbishop Adamson'a 
academical prelections at St. Andrews, in Melville's hand- 
writing, and subscribed by him. 

Paraphrasis Epistolae ad Hebrseos Andrea? Melvini (Harl 
MSS. num. 6947-9); a metrical paraphrase of the epistle to 
the Hebrews. 

A. Melvinus in cap. 4 Danielis. In Bibl. Col. S. Trinit. 
Dublin. 

There are verses by him, in his own handwriting, among 
the Sempill papers, and in a collection of Letters from Learn- 
ed Men to James VI. His biographer says that copies of 
Melville's large 'Answer to Downham's Sermon' were at one 
time not uncommon. Four letters from Melville to David 
Hume of Godscroft are prefixed to the ' Lusus Poetici' of the 
latter. 

The manuscript of ' Commeiitarius m Divinam Pauli Epis- 
tolam ad Romanos, auctore Andrea Melvino Scoto,' in posses- 
sion of Mr. David Laing, Librarian to the Writers to the 
Signet, was published for the first time, with an English 
translation, in one of the volumes issued by the Wodrow 
Society, under the editorial care of the Rev. David Dickson. 
D.D., minister of St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh. 

MELVILLE, James, an eminent divine and 
scholar, nephew of the preceding, was the son of 
Richard Melville of Baldovy, minister of Mary- 
ton, Forfarshire, by his spouse, Isabel Scrimgeour, 
and was born July 25, 1556. After receiving bin 
school education at Logic and Montrose, he was, 
in November 1571, sent to St. Leonard's college, 



MELVILLE, 



145 



JAMES. 



St. Andrews, where he studied for four years. It 
is recorded of him that, first when he attended the 
lectures, which were delivered in Latin, he was so 
mortified at not being able to understand them, 
that he burst into tears before the whole class ; 
which induced his regent, or professor, William 
Collace, to give him private instructions in the 
Latin language. His father intended him for the 
law, but James had a strong predilection for the 
church, and as a practical intimation of his de- 
sires, he composed a sermon, and placed it care- 
fully in one of the Commentaries which his father 
was in the habit of consulting. The stratagem 
succeeded ; and on the arrival of his uncle, Mr. 
Andrew Melville, from the continent, he was put 
under his charge, when he revised, under his di- 
rections, both his classical and philosophical edu- 
cation. He accompanied his uncle to Glasgow, 
in October 1574, on his becoming principal of that 
university, and in the following year James Mel- 
ville was elected one of the regents, as the profes- 
sors were then called. He was the first regent in 
Scotland who read the Greek authors to his class 
in the original language In 1577 he was ap- 
pointed teacher of mathematics, logic, and moral 
philosophy, at Glasgow; and while he continued 
in this capacity, having strictly admonished the 
afterwards celebrated Mark Alexander Boyd for 
his irregularities, he was assaulted by him and his 
cousin, Alexander Cunninghame, a relation of the 
earl of Glencairn, for which Cunninghame was 
obliged, bareheaded and barefooted, to crave par- 
don publicly. 

When Andrew Melville was translated to the 
New College of St. Andrews in December 1580, 
he took along with him his nephew, who was ad- 
mitted professor of the oriental languages there. 
He also divided with his uncle the duty of preach- 
ing in the town during the vacancy in the parish 
church. Amid all the difficulties which Andrew 
Melville had to encounter, he found an able and 
useful coadjutor in his nephew, upon whom, when 
the former, in 1584, fled to England, the manage- 
ment of the affairs of the college chiefly devolved. 
He taught theology from his uncle's chair, besides 
continuing his own lectures, and undertaking the 
management of the revenues of the college and the 
board of the students. In May of that year, after 
ill. 



the parliament had decreed the overthrow of the 
presbyteriau form of church government, Arch- 
bishop Adamson of St. Andrews obtained a war- 
rant for James Melville's apprehension, for cor- 
responding with his uncle, of which being apprised 
in time, he escaped to Dundee, whence he pro- 
ceeded, in the disguise of a shipwrecked seaman, 
in an open boat to Berwick. He was soon after 
joined by his wife, who was a daughter of John 
Dury, minister of Edinburgh. Being invited by 
the earls of Angus and Mar, then in exile at New- 
castle, to go and preach to them, he at first refus- 
ed, because, as he says himself, he was not entered 
in the ministry, neither was he of any experience 
of knowledge in their matters, being but a young 
man brought up in the schools, and therefore had 
resolved to keep his own calling. The truth was, 
however, that he was afraid to have anything to 
do with them, being the king's rebels, and not 
knowing their cause well and disposition of heart. 
{Diary, p. 120). On reaching Newcastle, on his 
way to London, he was persuaded to remain, and 
accordingly entered on his ministerial labours. 
While with the banished lords he drew up a letter 
and order of discipline for their guidance, and at 
their request an account of the abuses and corrup- 
tion of the kirk and commonweal of Scotland; also 
a letter to the ministers in Scotland who had sub- 
scribed to the supremacy of the king and the bish- 
ops, all of which will be found in Calderwood (vol. 
iv.) In February 1585, on the exiled lords proceed- 
ing to London, he returned to Berwick, where he 
had left his wife, who had there borne a son, and 
soon after followed the former to the capital. After 
the taking of the castle of Stirling, he returned, in 
the ensuing November, to Scotland, and in March 
1586, resumed the duties of his professorship at 
St. Andrews, when he occupied himself in setting 
the college affairs in order. 

James Melville's zeal in behalf of the church, 
though less impetuous than that of his uncle, was 
equally uniform and consistent ; and he could, 
when occasion required, evince similar intrepidity 
In tlie beginning of April 1586, he preached the 
opening sermon at the meeting of the synod oi 
Fife, in the course of which, turning towards 
Archbishop Adamson, who was present, he charg- 
ed him with attempting the overthrow of the 

K 



MELVILLE. 



146 



JAMES. 



Presbyterian church, and exhorted the brethren 
to cut off so corrupt a member from among them. 
The archbishop was in consequence excommuni- 
cated, but he retaliated by excommunicating botli 
Andrew and James Melville, and other obnoxious 
ministers, in return. For their share in this 
transaction, uncle and nephew were summoned 
before the king, who commanded the former to 
confine himself beyond the Tay, and the latter to 
remain within his college. 

In July 1586, James Melville became, at the 
solicitation of the people, minister of Anstruther, 
to which were conjoined the adjoining parishes of 
Pittenweem, Abercrombie, and Kilrenny. Hav- 
ing some time after succeeded in procuring a dis- 
junction of these parishes, and provided a minister 
for each of them, he undertook the charge of Kil- 
renny alone, where, besides building a manse, he 
purchased the right to the vicarage and tithe-fish, 
for the support of himself and his successors, and 
paid the salary of a schoolmaster. He likewise 
maintained an assistant to perform the duties of 
the parish, as he was frequently engaged in the 
public affairs of the church. Some years after- 
wards he printed for the use of his people a cate- 
chism, which cost him five hundred merks. 

In 1588 he was the means of affording shelter 
and relief to a number of distressed Spaniards who 
had belonged to the Armada destined for the in- 
vasion of England, but whose division of the 
squadron, after being driven to the northward, 
had been wrecked on the Fair Isle, where they 
had suffered the extremities of hunger and fatigue, 
and had at last taken refuge off the harbour of 
Anstruther 

At the opening of the General Assembly at 
Edinburgh, in August 1590, he preached a sermon 
from 1 Thess. v. 12, 13. in which, after insisting 
on the necessity of maintaining the strictest disci- 
pline, he exhorted his hearers to a more zealous 
support of the presbyterian establishment, and re- 
commended a supplication to the king for a full 
and free assembly. 

In the spring of 1594 he was unjustly suspected 
at court of having furnished the turbulent earl of 
Bothwell with money collected for the protestants 
of Geneva, and at the meeting of the Assembly in 
May of that year, some of the brethren thought that 



as he was a suspected person he should not be sent 
as one of the commissioners from the church to the 
king as usual ; on which he stood up and said that 
he had often been employed on commissions against 
his will, but now, even for the reason alleged, he 
would request it as a benefit from the brethren 
that his name should be on the list, that he might 
have an opportunity of clearing himself, and if 
they declined sending him, he was determined to 
go to court himself, to see if any one had aught to 
say against him. He was accordingly included 
among the commissioners. On their arrival at 
Stirling, where the king was, they were most gra- 
ciously received. After they had executed their 
business with the king, James Melville stepped 
forward and requested to be informed if his ma- 
jesty had anything to lay to his charge? The 
king replied that he had nothing to say against 
him more than against the rest, except that ho 
found his name on every commission. He an- 
swered that he thanked God that this was the 
case, for therein he was serving God, his kirk, and 
the king publicly, and as for any private, unlaw- 
ful, or undutiful practice, if there were any that 
had traduced him to his majesty as being guilty of 
such, he requested that they should be made to 
show their faces when he was there to answer for 
himself. But no reply was made. After this the 
king took him into his cabinet, and having dis- 
missed his attendants, conversed with him alone 
on a variety of topics with the greatest affability 
and familiarity. He sent his special commenda- 
tions to his uncle, Mr. Andrew Melville, and de- 
clared that he looked upon both of them as faith- 
ful and trusty subjects. " So," says James Mel- 
ville, " of the strange working of God, I that came 
to Stirling the traitor, returned to Edinburgh a 
great courtier, yea, a cabinet councillor." {Diary 
p. 212.) 

With his uncle and two other ministers he ac- 
companied the king, in October 1594, in his expe- 
dition to the north, against the popish lords, and 
when the royal forces were about to disperse, for 
want of pay, James Melville was sent to Edin- 
burgh and other principal towns, with letters from 
the king and the ministers, to raise contributions for 
their aid. In this service he was successful. For 
ten years subsequently, the life of James Melvillo 



MELVILLE, 



147 



ROBERT. 



was principally distinguished by his zealous and 
unwearied opposition to the designs of the court 
for the re-establishment of episcopacy, which he 
early had the discernment to detect. 

He went with his uncle to London in September 
1606, when, with six other ministers, they were 
invited thither to confer with the king, as was the 
pretext, as to the measures best calculated to pro- 
mote the tranquillity of the church. After the 
committal of Andrew Melville to the tower, (see 
page 125,) James was ordered to leave London 
in six days and confine himself to Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, and ten miles round it. Previous to 
his departure he made an unsuccessful attempt to 
obtain some relaxation of his uncle's confinement. 
He left London 2d July 1607, and went by sea to 
Newcastle, and during his residence in that town 
several attempts were made to gain him over to 
the support of the king's views ; but neither pro- 
mises nor threats could shake his attachment to 
presbyterianism. He even rejected a bishopric, 
which was offered to him by Sir William, or, as 
Dr. M'Crie calls him, Sir John Anstruther, in the 
name of the king. Having been a widower for 
about two years, he took for his second wife, 
while in exile at Newcastle, the daughter of the 
vicar of Berwick. He was afterwards ordered to 
remove to Carlisle, and subsequently to Berwick, 
where he wrote his 'Apology for the Church of 
Scotland,' which was not published till thirty- one 
years after his death, under the title of ' Ecclesiae 
Scoticana} libellus supplex Apologeticus.' 

Although many efforts were made for his re- 
lease, it was not till 1614 that he obtained leave 
to return to Scotland, but he had not proceeded 
far on his way home when he was taken suddenly 
ill, and he was with difficulty conveyed back to 
Berwick, where he died the same year. 

His works, a list of which is given in one of the 
notes to Dr. M'Crie's Life of Andrew Melville, 
may be mentioned as follows : 

In 1592, as he says himself, he " first put in print sum of 
his poesie ; to wit, the Description of the Spainyarts Natu- 
ral!, out of Julius Scaliger, with sum Exhortationes for warn- 
ing of kirk and countrey." 

His Catechism was published unaer tne title ot ' A Spir- 
itvall Piopine of a Pastour to his People. Heb. 5. 12." Ed- 
inburgh, 1598, 4to. Pp. 127 

A Poem, called ' The Black Bastill, or a Lamentation of 
..he Kirk of Scotland, compiled by Mr. James Melville some- 



time minister at Anstruther, and now confyned in England, 
was printed in 1611. 

Ecclesiae Scoticanae libellus supplex airokoynrixot *.-«. 
l\o<pi>£riKot Auctore Jacobo Melvino Verbi Dei Mini.stro, Do- 
mini Andreae Melvini rou Taw nepote. Londini, 1G45, 8vo 

His ' Diary,' printed for the Bannatyne Club in 1829, one 
vol. 4to, contains much curious information relative to the 
ecclesiastical and literary history of Scotland between the 
years 1555 and 1600. The MS. is preserved in the Advo- 
cates' Liorary. New and improved edition, published by the 
Wodrow Society, with Supplement, &c. 

A MS. volume in the Advocates' Library, deposited by the 
Kev. William BlacKie. minister of Yetholm, contains poems 
in the Scottish language by James Melville, in the handwrit- 
ing of the author. They appear, says Dr. M'Crie, to have 
been all written during his banishment. Tho greater part of 
them are expressive of his feelings on the overthrow of the 
liberties of the church of Scotland, and the imprisonment and 
banishment of his uncle. 

Dr. M'Crie thinks that another MS. in the same library, 
entitled 'History of the Declining Age of the Church of 
Scotland.' bringing down the history of that period till 1610, 
was aiso composed by James Melville. 

The letters which passed between Andrew Melville and his 
nephew, from 1608 to 1613, as stated in the account of the 
MSS. of the former, are preserved in the Library of the Col- 
lege of Edinburgh. 

MELVILLE, Robert, an eminent military 
officer and antiquarian, was the son of the mini- 
ster of the parish of Monimail, Fifeshire, where ne 
was born October 12, 1723. In 1744 he entered 
the army, and served in Flanders till the peace of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748. In 1756 he obtained 
the rank of major in the 38th regiment, then in 
Antigua, and soon after he was employed in ac- 
tive service, particularly in the invasion of Gua- 
daloupe, for which he was created lieutenant- 
colonel ; and in 1760 was appointed governor of 
that island. Shortly after, he proceeded as sec- 
ond in command with Lord Rollo to the capture 
of Dominica. In 1762 he contributed much to 
the taking of Martinique, which was followed by 
the surrender of the other French islands ; and 
Colonel Melville, now promoted to the rank of 
brigadier-general, was made govemor-in-ehief of 
all the captured possessions in the West Indies. 
After the general peace he travelled over Europe, 
and made numerous observations to ascertain 
the route of Hannibal over the Alps. He also 
traced the sites of many Roman camps in Britain, 
and applied his antiquarian knowledge to the im- 
provement of the modern art of war in several in- 
ventions. He was a fellow of the royal and anti- 
quarian societies, and had the degree of LL.D. 
conferred on him by the university of Edinburgh. 



MENTEITH, 



148 



NINTH EARL OF. 



A treatise of his, ' On an Ancient Sword,' is in- 
serted in the 7th volume of the Archrcologia. In 
1798 he was appointed a full general, and died, 
unmarried, in 1809. 

Menteith, the proper spelling of which is Menteth, a 
local surname, derived from the district of Monteith, in the 
south-west of Perthshire, through which the river Teith runs, 
and is compounded of mene, a valley, and Teith. 



Menteith, earl of, a title of very ancient date in Scotland. 
Murdoch, the first recorded earl of Menteith, is mentioned in 
the chartulary of Dunfermline, in the beginning of the reign 
of David I., who ascended the throne in 1124. Gilchrist, 
second earl of Menteith, mentioned in a charter of donation 
to the monastery of Scone by Malcolm IV., was witness to 
several charters of William the Lion. His successor, Mauri- 
tius, third earl, vicecomes of Stirling, lived in the end of the 
reign of the latter monarch and beginning of the reign of 
Alexander II. He had two daughters, but their names have 
not been transmitted. The elder married, before 3d Febru- 
ary, 1231, Walter Comyn, second son of William, earl of 
Buchan (see vol. i. p. 453). In his wife's right, Comyn be- 
came 4th earl of Menteith. He first appeared, with his father 
and other nobles, at the marriage of the princess Joan of 
England to Alexander II. at York in 1221, and in 1230 he 
acquired from that monarch a grant of the extensive district 
of Badenoch, in Inverness-shire, then in the crown (see vol. 
i. p. 738). He was one of the Scots nobles who swore to 
maintain the agreement betwixt his own sovereign and Hen- 
ry III. at York in September 1237. On the death of his 
father he became the most influential man in Scotland, and 
acted a conspicuous part in the early part of the reign of Al- 
exander III. (see vol. i. p. 79), being at the head of the na- 
tional party, in opposition to the English faction. He was 
one of the regents of the kingdom at the time of his death in 
1258. His only child, a daughter, married his grand-nephew, 
William Comyn. His widow married Sir John Russell, an 
English knight, and they were both imprisoned on suspicion 
of having poisoned her first husband (see vol. i. p. 86), but 
afterwards allowed to leave the kingdom. 

Walter Stewart, called Baillock, or the freckled, third son 
of the third high steward of Scotland, having married the 
countess' younger sister, laid claim to the earldom in right of 
his wife, and by favour of the Estates of the realm, obtained 
it in 1258, and kept it. He distinguished himself at the 
battle of Largs in 1263, under his brother Alexander, the 
high steward. He witnessed the marriage contract of 
the princess Margaret with Eric, king of Norway, in 1281, 
and, with his countess, accompanied her to her husband's 
kingdom. He was one of the nobles who, in the parliament 
of Scone, Feb. 5, 1283-4, swore to acknowledge Mar- 
garet, the Maiden of Norway, as their sovereign, in the 
event of the death of Alexander III. He was also one of 
the assembly at Brigham in March 1260, where the mar- 
riage of Queen Margaret to Prince Edward of England was 
agreed upon. In 1292 he was one of the nominees on the 
part of Bruce, the competitor for the Scottish crown. He 
swore fealty to Edward I., 13th June that year, and was 
present when Baliol did homage to Edward, 20th Nov. fol- 
lowing. He was summoned to attend the English king into 
France, Sept. 1, 1294, and died soon after. He had 2 sons, 
who assumed the name of Menteith, although they retained 
the Stewart arms ; Alexander, 6th earl, and Sir John de 
Menteith of Ruskie, whose name appears in history as the i 



betrayer of Sir William Wallace. He altered the Stewart 
/esse into a bend, and the colours to sable and argent. 

On 9th August, 1297, Sir John Menteith was released 
from an English prison, on condition of serving with the Eng- 
lish against the French. In 1305 he was, by King Edward, 
appointed keeper of Dumbarton castle, and, the same year, 
according to tradition, he treacherously delivered over the 
heroic Wallace into the hands of the English. From this 
charge, however, he has been vindicated by Lord Hailes. He 
held the castle of Dumbarton for the English till 1309, and 
is said, but upon very doubtful authority, to have fought 
valiantly at the battle of Bannockburn on the side of Bruce, 
notwithstanding that Edward II. had caused his banner to be 
displayed in the English army. (Fordun, b. ii. p. 243.) He 
was custos comitatus of Menteith in 1320. when he signed 
the famous letter of the Scots nobles to the Pope, asserting 
the independence of Scotland. In June 1323, he was one of 
the commissioners and conservators of the treaty of Berwick, 
and died soon after. He had three sons and three daughters, 
one of whom, Joanna, married Malise, earl of Strathearn; 
another became the wife of Sir Archibald Campbell of Loch- 
ow, and a third was the wife of Maurice Buchanan of Bu- 
chanan. His eldest son, Sir Walter Menteith, was killed 
in one of the feuds of the period, by John and Maurice Drum- 
mond, and his eldest son, Sir Alexander Menteith of Ruskie, 
was father of Sir Robert Menteith of Ruskie, who married, in 
1392, Lady Margaret Lennox, a younger daughter of Dun- 
can, eighth earl of Lennox (see vol. ii. pp. 647, 648). 

Sir John Menteith of Arran, 2d son of Sir John Menteith, 
the supposed betrayer of Wallace, married the Lady Elyne, 
daughter of Gratney, seventh earl of Mar (see p. 108 of this 
volume), and through his granddaughter, the wife of Sir 
Thomas Erskine, the earldom of Mar ultimately came into 
the Erskine family (see p. 110). 

Alexander, 6th earl of Menteith, elder son of Walter Stew- 
art, Bailloch, was one of the magnates Scotia who, in the par- 
liament of Scone, Feb. 5, 1283-84, engaged to support the 
succession of Margaret of Norway to the throne of Scotland, 
He swore fealty to Edward I. at Norham, June 12, 1292, and 
appeal's to have succeeded his father in 1295. He was one 
of the leaders of the Scottish army which invaded Cumber- 
land in March 1296. Taken prisoner by the English at the 
battle of Dunbar, 28th April following, he was released on 
engaging to serve Edward in his foreign wars. He died be- 
fore 1320, in which year the earldom of Menteith was under 
the charge of his brother, Sir John, during the minority ot 
his son, Alan, 7th earl. 

The latter joined Robert the Brace when he asserted his 
title to the throne of Scotland in 1306. Taken prisoner the 
same year, he was forfeited, and died in England, leaving a 
son, who died without issue, and a daughter, Mary, countess 
of Menteith in her own right. The eighth earl of Menteith, 
Murdoch by name, is supposed to have been the brother of 
Earl Alan, but this is uncertain. It would seem that, in 
1330, he made an agreement with Mary, daughter of Earl 
Alan, for the possession of the earldom. He was killed 19th 
July, 1333, at the battle of Halidonhill, where he was one of 
the commanders of the second division of the Scots armv. 

Mary, countess of Menteith, married Sir John Graham, 
who, in her right, became 9th earl of Menteith. He was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Durham, 17th October, 1346, and 
having renounced the fealty which he had formerly sworn to 
Edward III., he was put to death as a traitor in Februarv 
1347 By his countess he had one daughter, Margaret, 
countess of Menteith, who married Robert Stewart, third son 
of Robert II., earl of Menteith in his wife's right, duke ot 



Inzimi ©Hxlirxnnns 0f Bxrfbinb. 



viii. fofoom of |HntM{j. 

I. ^.ttritrtt &toitis|j $m. 
1 2 & 3 4 



IX. (£arIbomo{,Jtr;tt!)rrn. 



I. ginmnt Scottish Jfiiic. 
J &2 3&4 



5. 6, 7 




1. Malise. present 
at battle of 
Standard 1 188. 
2 Ferquhard or 
Kerteth. hia ton, 
reign Malcolm 
XV., died 1171. 



II. $mt of gtttoart 

6. 7, & 8 



6. 


Walter, sur- 


nj 


neil Bailloch.. i 


3d 


itnn ol 3d Jlijrh J 


Stewurd of Scot- jj 


toml, in right of lj 


nia 


wile, younger > 


d 


i<ghterof3d i 


earl. Died noon 11 


\ 


after 1294. § 



6. Alexander, el- 
der son of 5th earl, 
died before i:'20. 

7. Alan. his son 
died below 1330. 

8. Murdoch, hi* 
supposed brother, 
killed at Hallidon- 

hill. 1333. 




3. Gilbert, »on of 

Ferquhard. 
founder of Inch- 
affray monastery, 
1196. 
4 Robert, hit 
•on, died before 




fi. Malise. eon oi 
Kobe.l. died 1770. 

6. Mails' 

died before 1284. 

7. Malis*. liia aon, 
(e. of C. and Ork- 
ney bv marriage.) 

Forfeited 
1344. 



III. Stetoart, $ogal £iiu, 1st. 




In male lute. 
1. Robert. Stew- 
ard ot Scotland. 
nepiiew of l)a\id 
II., afterward* 
Kjmk Robert II, 



8. David, hit aon; 
(E PaLati^s 
1871.) Title re- 
■irrd M 1631 in 
/■wow Of "William, 
"th tart of Men- 
teth, but cancelled 
1633. 




III. $ogal ^int of gtefcrart. 
io a 



IT. 3Thu of (graham. V. SStttoart, & £., 2d. 



Robert, duke of 
Albany, 3d son 
of King Robert 
II.. in rijflit of bis 
wife, Margaret, 
dr of 9lh earl. 
Died 1411. 




Murdoch, dnke 
ot Albany, ihtdr- 
son. executed 
by James I., 
1425 Title for- 
feited ami vested 
in crown 




Euphame, dr. of 

Earl David, m. 

Sir Pat. Graham 

0) Dundaff. who 

assumed earldom 

in her right. 

Killed at Crieff, 

1413. 




Malise, their 

son. deprived of 

earldom by James 

I. Instead, earl of 

Menteth. 1427. 

See line of 
Graham, earl of 
Menteth, below. 




Walter, earl of 
Athoie, uncle and 

murderer of 

James I. Created 

earl ol Strathern 

1427. Executed 

1*37 Earldom 

annexed to 

Crowu, 1466. 



vill. (Barfoom of Utnttetj) cortthratb.- 



2 &3 



•4&S 



IV. |Tiiu of *3rabam, 6arl of ^trHt^ern, 
6 7 



1 M.ilisc Graham, 
deprived earl of 
Stralhern. created 
earl of Menteth, 

1427. Died 

before May 17, 

1491. 



3. Alexander, 
grandson of 1st 

earl. 

S. William, elder 

son of 2d earL 

Died 1637. 







V. (garlbom of §^rt{{ anb P*nt«t|j. Jine of ^ra^am, <garl of Stra^tm, coniiniub. 



William. 7th eart 
of Mentelh, per fa- 
vour of Charles I., 
obtained, hi 1631, 
patent of" EaKi.of 
BtiiATHKKN and 
MkNTKTH "lis heir 

female of David, 
earl palatine of 
Btratherii. but (as 

was then suppos- 
ed to he the ease), 
be claimed to be 
nearer iu blood to 



the crown than 
the king, and in 
consequence his 
patent whs can- 
celled in 1632. in- 
stead he was cre- 
ated KiRr. of 
Aik-th, 1633, but 
with precedence of 
Menteth. which 
latter was thereby 
virtually extin- 
guished us an an- 
cient Scottish title. 





William, grand- 
son ot 1st earl 
Dieil about 1694. 
Titles dormant. 



Titles claimed by 

the late Roltert 

Barclay Allardiee 

jf Trie. Esq. 




Aims op EAin.noM ok aiicth. 
Quarteriags:— 1 find 4. for Graham. 2 and 3. lor Stew.irl of Strathein 



AFullsrtmi C London JcEimfcurgh 



MENTEITII. 



149 



EIGHTEENTH EARL OF. 



Albar.j and regent of Scotland. In 1371 he became earl of 
Fife, by resignation of Isabella, countess of Fife, widow of his 
brother, Walter Stewart, second son of Robert II. (See vol. 
i. p. 33). On the execution and forfeiture in 1425, of Mur- 
dac, duke of Albany, their son, the earldom of Menteith be- 
came vested in the crown, and was granted, 6th September 
1427, to Malise Graham, earl of Strathern. (See Strathern, 
earl of.) 



Malise Graham, under the designation of earl of Menteith, 
went to England, 9th December, 1427, three months after 
obtaining the earldom, as a supplementary hostage for James 
I., in room of Robert Erskine. He was not released till 17th 
June 1453, when Alexander, master of Menteith, his son, 
surrendered himself as a hostage in his stead. He was dead 
before May 17, 1491. He had three sons. 1. Alexander, 
who predeceased him, leaving a son of his own name, the 
successor of his grandfather. 2. Sir John Graham of Kil- 
bride, called Sir John with the bright sword, from whom de- 
scended the Grahams of Gartmore, the Grahams of West 
Preston, the Grahams of Netherby, near Carlisle, baronets, 
the Grahams of Norton Conyers. Yorkshire, baronets, and 
other families of the name. 3. Walter. 

Alexander, 13th earl of Menteith, had two sons, William, 
14th earl, who died in 1537, and Walter, ancestor of the 
Grahams of Gartur. The eldest son of the 14th earl, John, 
15th earl of Menteith, was one of the prisoners taken at the 
rout of Solway in 1452. He was ransomed for 200 marks, 
being designed in Rymer's Foedera, Lord Monkereth. He 
was killed in a scuffle with the tutor of Appin in October 
1547. 

His son, William, 16th earl, had a son, John, 17th earl, 
who was one of the lords of the congregation, and took a pro- 
minent part in their proceedings against the queen regent in 
1559 and 1560. His name appears in the letters of demis- 
sion and constitution of procurators forced from Queen Mary 
in 1567 at Lochleven castle, as one of the noblemen author- 
ized to transfer the crown to her son, Prince James. With 
the Regent Moray he fought against the queen at the bat- 
tle of Langside. He died in 1598. His son William, 18th 
earl, born in 1589, was served heir of his father in the earl- 
dom of Menteith, 7th August, 1610. He voted against the 
five articles of Perth in 1621, and on 18th November, 1628, 
he was appointed an extraordinary lord of session, being 
at that time president of the privy council and justice 
general. On 25th August 1630, he was served heir to 
David, earl of Strathern, eldest son of Robert II. by Eu- 
phemia Ross, and was allowed by Charles I. to assume 
the style of earl of Strathern and Menteith. This service, 
however, was objected to by Drummond of Hawthornden, 
who informed his majesty that " the restoring the earl Men- 
teith in blood, and allowing his descent and title to the earl- 
dom of Strathern, is thought to be disadvantageous to the 
king's majesty." The earl on his part is said to have re- 
nounced his claim to the crown, with a reservation of the 
rights of his blood, and to have boasted that he had " the 
reddest blood in Scotland." The power of Robert II. to le- 
gitimatize his children by Elizabeth Mure being disputed, 
David, earl of Strathern, was considered the eldest legitimate 
son. His retour and patent were set aside March 22, 1633, 
but on 28th of same month he was created earl of Airth, 
with the precedency of Menteith. In 1641 he was one of the 
noblemen proposed by King Charles I. to be chosen privy 
councillors, but was rejected by the Estates. He did not 
appear in the parliament of that year, but was present on 
17th January, 1644, when ne " did sueare and subscrive so- 



lemnly the covenant, bande, and othe of pail." The same 
year he was nominated one of the committee of war for the 
county of Perth. His portrait, from an engraving in Pink- 
erton's Gallery is subjoined 




His eldest son, John, Lord Kilpont, joineo. tne marquis ol 
Montrose in 1644, witn a ooay of 500 men, and at the battle 
of Tippermuir commanded the left wing of the royal army. 
He was assassinated on the morning of the 5th September in 
Montrose's camp, by one of his own vassals, James Stewart of 
Ardvoirlich, who had long enjoyed his confidence. His lord- 
ship's father, the earl of Airth, had frequently warned him 
against continuing his intimacy with Stewart, whom he always 
suspected, but, disregarding his father's injunctions, he put 
himself entirely under his guidance. It is asserted that it 
was by his advice that Lord Kilpont joined the royal army, 
and that wishing to ingratiate himself with the Covenanters, 
he formed a design to assassinate Montrose, or his major- 
general, Macdonald; but as he thought that he could not 
carry his design into execution without the assistance of his 
lordship, he endeavoured to prevail upon him to assist in the 
execution of his wicked project. On the night in question 
they slept together, and having prevailed upon Lord Kilpont 
to rise and take a walk in the fields before daylight, he there 
disclosed his horrid purpose, and entreated his lordship to 
concur therein. On Lord Kilpont rejecting the base propo- 
sal with indignation, Stewart, alarmed lest he might discover 
the matter, suddenly drew bis dirk, and mortally wounded 
him in several places. He then fled, and killed, in passing, 
a sentinel who stood in his way. Aided by the darkness of 
the morning, he escaped, and thereafter joined the forces of 
the earl of Argyle. 

Lord Kilpont left a son, William, who succeeded his grand- 
father as second earl of Airth and Menteith, and two daugh- 
ters, Mary and Elizabeth. The second earl, after disposing 
of his whole landed property to the marquis of Montrose and 
Sir John Graham of Gartmore, died without issue, 12th Sep- 
tember, 1694, when his titles became dormant, (see vol. i. p. 



MENZIES 



150 



CLAN MENZIES. 



$2). The parish of Aberfoyle in Perthshire, Rob Roy's coun- 
try, formerly the property of the earls of Menteith, came 
thus into the possession of the Montrose family. The earl's 
elder sister, Mary, styled Lady Mary Graham, married, 8th 
October, 1662, Sir John Allardice of Allardice, baronet. 
Their descendant, James Allardice of Allardice, born 29th 
January 1727, married in 1756, Anne, daughter of James 
Barclay, banker, London, and by her had an only child, Sa- 
rah Anne Allardice, his sole heiress, who married in 1776, 
Robert Barclav of Urie, Kincardineshire, and their son, Ro- 
bert Barclay Allardice of Urie, well known in his day as Cap- 
tain Barclay, the pedestrian, claimed the titles of Airth. 
Menteith, and Strathem, but died in 1855, when his claim 
was before the House of Lords. TTe was s. by his oi.ly child, 
Margaret Barclay Allardice, b. July 4, 1816, who, in Feb. 1870, 
renewed the claim to these titles which had not been decided 
during the life of her father. Mrs Barclay Allardice has been 
twice »«., and has 2 sons and 1 daughter. (See vol. i. p. 241.) 

The second earl's younger sister, Elizabeth, wife of Sir 
William Graham of Gartmore, Perthshire, baronet, had a 
son, Sir John Graham, and a daughter. The former died 
12th July 1708, without issue. The latter, by her husband, 
James Hodge of Gladsmuir, advocate, had one daughter, 
Mary Hodge, married, in her 14th year, to William Graham, 
son of John Graham of Callingad. They had a son, William 
Graham, bom in 1720, who assumed the title of earl of Men- 
toith, and voted as such at the general election of the sixteen 
Scots representative peers, 5th May 1761, but his vote was 
disallowed by the house of peeis, 2d March, 1762. He died 
without issue in 1787. This branch of the family was, in 1839, 
proved to be extinct by the decision in the House of Lords. 



feldy, and Durrisdeer, whilst his second son, Thomas, obtain- 
ed the lands of Fortingal. 

From the former of these is descended the family of Men- 
zies of Castle Menzies, but that of Menzies of Fortingal ter- 
minated in an heiress, by whose marriage with James Stewart, 
a natural son of the Wolf of Badenoch, the property was 
transferred to the Stewarts. 

In 1487, Sir Robert de Mengues. knight, obtained from the 
crown, in consequence of the destruction of his mansion-house 
by fire, a grant of the whole lands and estate erected into a free 
barony, under the title of the barony of Menzies. From this 
Sir Robert lineally descended Sir Alexander Menzies of Cas- 
tle Menzies, who was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, 'la 
September 1&65. 

Sir Robert Menzies, the seventh baronet, wno succeeded 
his father 20th August 1844, was bom Sept. 26, 1817, and is the 
27th of the family in regular descent; m. June 10, 1846, and 
has 2 sons and 2 drt. Seats: Castle Menzies, Rannoch Lodge, 
and Foss House, Perthshire. The ancient designation of the 
family was Menzies of Weem, their common style in old writings. 
In 1423 "David Menzies of Weem (de Wimo)" was appointed 
governor of Orkney and Shetland, "under the most clement 
lord and lady, Eric and Philippa, king and queen of Denmark, 
Swedland, and Norway " 



The family of Stuart Menteth of Closeburn, Dumfries- 
shire, an estate which they purchased from its old posses- 
sors, the Kirkpatricks, descend from Sir John Menteth, first 
of the Menteths of Karss, living in the reign of David II., 
second son of Sir Walter Menteth of Rusky, slain by the 
Drummonds, (see p 148 of this volume). A baronetcy of 
Nova Scotia was conferred in 1838 on Sir Charles Granville 
Stuart Menteth of Closeburn, who died in December 1847. 
He was s. by his eldest son, Sir James Stuart Menteth, 2d bait. 
b. 1792, m. 1S46, Jane dau. of Sir Joseph Bailey, Bart.; d. 27 
Feb., 1870, and was s. by his nephew, Sir James Stuart Menteth, 
3d bait. Menteth of Closeburn claims to be chief of the 
ancient house of Menteth, but this is disputed by Dalyell of 
Binns, as descended from Magdalen, elder daughter of Sir 
Thomas Dalyell, the second baronet of that family. This lady 
married, in 168S, James Menteith of Auldcathy, heir-male and 
representative of the earls of Menteith. Their eldest son, James 
Menteith, succeeding as the third baronet of Binns, assumed the 
name of Dalyell (see voL ii. p. 15). 



Menzies, a surname originally Mengues, or Mingies (pro- 
nounced Meenies,) was one of the first adopted in Scotland, 
about the time of Malcolm Canmore. From the armorial 
bearings of the Menzieses it has been conjectured that the 
first who settled in Scotland of this surname was a branch of 
the Anglo-Norman family of Meyners, by corruption Man- 
ners. But this supposition does not seem to be well-founded. 

The family of Menzies obtained a footing in Athol a* a 
very early period, as appears from a charter granted by Robert 
de Meyners in the reign of Alexander II. This Robert de 
Meyners, knight, on the accession of Alexander III. (1249) 
was appointed lord high chamberlain of Scotland. His son, 
Alexander de Meyners, possessed the lands of Weem and 
Aberfeldy in Athol, and Glendochart in Breadalbane, besides 
his original seat of Durrisdeer in Nithsdaie, and was succeed- 
ed by his eldest son, Rolert, m the estates of Weem, Aber- 



The Cian Menzies, the badge of which is a species of heath 
called the Menzies heath, like the Frasers, the Stewarts, and 
the Chisholms, is not originally Celtic, though long estab- 
lished in the Highlands. The Gaelic appellation of the clan 
is .}feinnarich, a term, by way of distinction, also applied to 
the chief. Of the eighteen clans who fought under Robert 
Bruce at Bannockburn, the Menzieses were one. 

The "Menyesses" of Athol and Appin Dull are named in 
the parliamentary rolls of 1587, as among " the clans that 
have captains, chiefs, and chieftains." Castle Menzies, the 
principal modem oeat of the chief, stands to the east of Loch 
Tay, in the parish and near to the church of Weem, in Perth- 
shire. Weem castle, the old mansion, is picturesquely situated, 
under a rock called Craig Uamh. hence its name. In 1502, 
it was burnt by Kiel Stuart of Fortingal, in consequence of a 
dispute respecting the lands of Rannoch. 

In 1644, when the marquis of Montrose appeared in arms 
for Charles I., and had commenced his march from Athol to- 
wards Strathem, he sent forward a trumpeter, with a friend- 
ly notice, to the Menzieses, that it was his intention to pas< 
through their country. His messenger, unhappily, was mal- 
treated, and as some writers say, slain by them. They also 
harassed the rear of his army, which so exasperated Mon- 
trose that he ordered his men to plunder and lay waste their 
lands and burn their houses. 

During the rebellion of 1715, several gentlemen of the clan 
Menzies were taken prisoners at the battle of Dunblane. One 
of them, Menzies of Culdares, having been pardoned for his 
share in the rebellion, felt himself bound not to join in that of 
1745. He sent, however, a valuable horse as a present to 
Prince Charles, but his servant who had it in charge, was 
seized and executed, nobly refusing to divulge his master's 
name, though offered his life if he would do so. In the lat- 
ter rebellion, Menzies of Shian took out the clan, and held 
the rank of colonel, though the chief remained at home. The 
effective force of the clan in 1745 was 300. 

The old family of Menzies of Pitfoddels in Aberdeenshire, 
is now extinct. Gilbert Menzies of this family, carrying the 
royal standard at the last battle of Montrose, in 1650, re- 
peatedly refused quarter, and fell rather than give up his charge 
The last laird, John Menzies of Pitfoddels, never married, and 



MERCER, 



151 



JAMES. 



devoted the greater part of his large estate to the endowment 
of a Roman Catholic college. He died in 1843. 

MERCER, Hugh, brigadier - general in the 
American Revolutionary army, was born in Scot- 
land in 1721. Having studied medicine, he acted 
as a surgeon's assistant in the memorable battle 
of Culloden, but on which side he served is not 
mentioned. Not long after he emigrated to Penn- 
sylvania, but removed to Virginia, where he set- 
tled and married. He was engaged with Wash- 
ington in the Indian wars of 1755 and following 
years, and for his good conduct in an expedition 
against an Indian settlement, conducted by Colonel 
Armstrong, in September 1756, he was presented 
with a medal by the corporation of the city of 
Philadelphia. In one of the engagements with 
the Indians he was wounded in the right wrist, 
and being separated from his party, on the ap- 
proach of some hostile Indians, he took refuge in 
the hollow trunk of a large tree, where he remain- 
ed till they disappeared. He then pursued his 
course through a trackless wild of about one hun- 
dred miles, until he reached Fort Cumberland, 
subsisting by the way on the body of a rattlesnake 
which he met and killed. When the war broke 
cat between the colonists and the mother country, 
he relinquished an extensive medical practice, and 
immediately joined the standard of Independence. 
Under Washington he soon reached the rank of 
brigadier-general, and particularly distinguished 
himself in the battles of Trenton and Princeton, 
in the winter of 1776-7. In the latter engage- 
ment he commanded the van of the American 
army, and after exerting the utmost valour and 
activity, had his horse killed under him. Being 
thus dismounted, he was surrounded by some 
British soldiers, with whom, on being refused 
quarter, he fought desperately, until he was com- 
pletely overpowered, and after being severely 
wounded, was left for dead on the field of battle. 
He died about a week after in the arms of Major 
George Lewis, the nephew of General Washing- 
ton, whom his uncle had commissioned to attend 
Into. Another American officer, General Wilkin- 
son, in his 'Memoirs,' observes, "In General 
Mercer Ave lost, at Princeton, a chief who, for 
education, talents, disposition, integrity, and pa- 
'riotism, was second to no man but the com- 



mander-in-chief, and was qualified to fill the 
highest trusts in the country." 

MERCER, James, the friend of Beattie, and 
himself a poet of some consideration, was born at 
Aberdeen, February 27, 1734, and received hie 
education at the grammar school and Marischal 
college of that city. He was the eldest of two 
sons of Thomas Mercer, a gentleman of fortune in 
Aberdeenshire, who, in 1745, took arms for the 
Pretender, and for his share in the rebellion was 
obliged to retire to France. At the commence- 
ment of the Seven Years' war, James Mercer, 
who had resided with his father for several years 
in Paris, came to England, and joined the expedi- 
tion against Cherbourg as a volunteer. He after- 
wards proceeded to Germany, and in a short time 
was promoted to an ensigncy in one of the English 
regiments serving with the allied army. He sub- 
sequently received a lieutenant's commission in a 
battalion of Highlanders, then newly raised by 
Lieutenant - colonel Campbell. During several 
years arduous service in the field, he distinguished 
himself by his bravery and skill, and at the battle 
of Minden in 1759, his regiment was one of the 
six whose gallantry on that occasion saved the 
reputation of the allied arms. 

Shortly before the peace of 1763, General 
Grseme, a relation of Mr. Mercer, presented him 
with a company in a regiment which he had un- 
dertaken to raise, and which was afterwards called 
the Queen's. On his return to Britain he took up 
his residence at Aberdeen, where he enjoyed the 
society of Dr. Beattie, Dr. Reid, Dr. Campbell, 
and other eminent men, and where, in the summer 
of 1763, he married a daughter of Mr. Douglas 
of Fechil, the sister of Lord Glenbervie. The 
" Queen's," with other new corps, being reduced 
at the peace, Captain Mercer purchased a com- 
pany in the 49th regiment, and removed with it 
to Ireland, where he served for nearly ten years. 
The majority of his regiment becoming vacant, he 
succeeded to it by purchase. In 1772 he conclud- 
ed a treaty with the lieutenant-colonel for becom- 
ing his successor; but the commission being given 
to another, induced him to sell out of the army 
when he retired with his family to a small cottage 
in the vicinity of Aberdeen. In 1776-7 the duke 
of Gordon raised a regiment of Fencibles, the ma 



MESTOX. 



152 



MET 1 1 VEX. 



jority of which he conferred on Mercer, who held 
it during the American war. On the return of 
peace, the major again settled with his family in 
the neighbourhood of Aberdeen, where he died 
Xovember 18, 1803. In 1797 a small volume of 
his ' Lyric Poems' was published anonymously. A 
second edition, with seven new pieces, appeared 
early in 1804 with his name. To a third edition 
an account of his life was prefixed, by Lord Glen- 
bervie. Major Mercer was not only an elegant 
and accomplished scholar, but possessed much 
original genius as a poet, conjoined with a high 
feeling of refined modesty, which led him to con- 
ceal, even from his intimate friends, the poems 
which he wrote for his own amusement. There 
are some interesting notices of him in Sir William 
Forbes' Life of Dr. Beattie. He left two daugh- 
ters. 1. Catherine, who married Charles Gor- 
don of Wardhouse, Aberdeenshire, issue, 3 sons, 
Admiral Sir James Alexander Gordon, R.N., gov- 
ernor of Greenwich Hospital; Charles; and Syl- 
vester. 2. Margaret, wife of Major "William 
West, with issue. 

MESTOX, William, a burlesque poet, the son 
of a blacksmith, was born in the parish of Mid- 
mar, in Aberdeenshire, in 1688. After completing 
his studies at the Marischal college of Aberdeen, 
he became one of the teachers in the grammar 
school of that city. He was subsequently for 
some time tutor to the young Earl Marischal and 
his brother, afterwards Marshal Keith ; and in 

1714, by the interest of the countess, was ap- 
pointed professor of philosophy in the Marischal 
college. On the breaking out of the rebellion in 

1715, he espoused the cause of the Pretender, and 
was by the Earl Marischal made governor of 
Dunottar castle. After the defeat of the rebels at 
SherifFmuir, he was forced to flee for refuge to the 
mountains, where, till the passing of the act of 
indemnity, he lurked with a few fugitives like 
himself, for whose amusement he composed seve- 
ral pieces in rhyme, which he styled ' Mother 
Grim's Tales.' He subsequently chiefly resided 
in the family of the countess of Marischal, till the 
death of that lady ; and some years afterwards, in 
conjunction with his brother Samuel, he com- 
menced an academy in Elgin, which, however, did 
not ultimately succeed He then successively 



settled at Turriff, Montrose, and Perth, and finally 
became preceptor in the family of Mr. Oliphant of 
Gask. His health beginning to decline, for the 
benefit of the mineral waters, he removed to 
Peterhead, where he was principally supported 
by the bounty of the countess of Errol. Subse- 
quently he removed to Aberdeen, where he died 
in the spring of 1745. He is said to have been a 
superior classical scholar, and by no means a con- 
temptible philosopher and mathematician. He 
was much addicted to conviviality, and is stated 
to have had a lively wit, and no small share of 
humour. His poems, however, are very coarse 
productions. The first of them printed, called 
' The Knight,' appeared in 1723. It is a scur- 
rilous description of Presbyterianism, after the 
manner of Butler, of whom he was a professed 
imitator. Afterwards was published the first de- 
cade of ' Mother Grim's Tales ; ' and next the 
second decade, by Iodocus, her grandson ; and 
some years after, the piece called ' Mob contra 
Mob.' The whole, collected into a small volume, 
appeared at Edinburgh in 1767, with a short ac- 
count of his life prefixed. Some Latin poems are 
included in the second decade, but these are oi 
inferior merit. 

Methven, Lord, a title in the peerage of Scotland, con- 
ferred in 1528, by James V., on Henry Stewart, second son 
of Andrew, Lord Evandale, afterwards Lord Ochiltree, a de- 
scendant of Eobert, duke of Albany, son of King Robert II. 
He owed bis peerage and success in life to the favour of the 
queen-mother, Margaret, sister of Henry VIII. of England, 
and widow of James IV. In 1524, previous to her divorce 
from the earl of Angus, her second husband, she raised Stewart 
first to the office of treasurer, and afterwards to that of chan- 
cellor, intrusting to his inexperienced hands the chief guid- 
ance of public affairs. In the following year, on the divorce 
being granted, she married him. The lordship of Methven, 
in Perthshire, was part of the dowry lands usually appropri- 
ated for the maintenance of the queen-dowager of Scotland, 
together with the lordship and castle of Stirling and the lands 
of Balquhidder, &c, and when Margaret procured the peer- 
age for her third husband, the barony of Methven was dis- 
solved from the crown, and erected into a lordship, in favour 
of Henry Stewart, and his heirs male, on the queen's resign- 
ing her jointure of the lordship of Stirling. 

Subsequently, when Angus held the supreme power, an 
attempt on his part to obtain forcible possession of the 
queen's dowry lands, so alarmed Margaret and Methven, 
that, in their terror, they took refuge in the castle of Edin- 
burgh. That fortress, however, was soon delivered np to 
Angus, when he ordered Mnthven to a temporary imprison- 
ment. The queen afterwards endeavoured to obtain a divorce 
from Methven, but her son, the young king, put a stop to 
the proceedings. By Lord Methven the queen had a daugh- 
ter who died in infancy. Her own death took place at tha 



MICKLE, 



153 



WILLIAM JULIUS. 



castle of Methven in 1540. Lord Methven afterwards married 
Janet Stewart, daughter of the earl of Athol, by whom he 
had a son, Henry, second Lord Methven. 

The second Lord Methven married Jean, daughter or Pa- 
trick Lord Ruthven, and was killed at Broughton, in the vi- 
cinity of Edinburgh, by a cannon-ball shot from the castle of 
hat city during the siege thereof, 3d March 1572. He left 
a son, Henry, third Lord Methven, who died without heirs 
male in 1584, when the title became extinct. 

The lordship of Methven was purchased in 1G64, by Patrick 
Smythe of Braco, whose great-grandson, David Smythe of 
Methven, was a lord of session from 1793 to 1806, under 
the title of Lord Methven. 

MICKLE, William Julius, translator of 'The 
Lusiad,' was born at Langholm, Dumfries-shire, 
September 29, 1734. He was the third son of the 
Rev. Alexander Mickle or Meikle, minister of 
Langholm, who, during his residence in London, 
previous to his obtaining that living, superintend- 
ed the translation of Bayle's Dictionary, to which 
he is said to have contributed the greater part of 
the additional notes. His son William, received 
the early part of his education at the grammar 
school of his native parish, and on the removal of 
his father, in his old age, to Edinburgh, was sent 
to the High school of that city, where he acquired 
a competent knowledge of the Latin and Greek 
languages. His father having, on the death of 
Mi. Myrtle, his brother-in-law, a brewer in the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh, purchased the busi- 
ness for his eldest son, the poet was, in his six- 
teenth year, taken from school to be employed as 
a clerk in the counting-house, and five years af- 
terwards the brewery was transferred to him. 
Before he was eighteen he had written several 
pieces, and some of his poems appeared in the 
' Scots Magazine ;' two of which, one 'On passing 
through the Parliament Close at Midnight ;' and 
the other, entitled ' Knowledge, an Ode,' were 
reprinted in Donaldson's Collection. In 1762 he 
sent to London an ethic poem, entitled ' Provi- 
dence,' which was published anonymously, but did 
not meet with much success. Having sustained 
considerable losses in business, which led to his 
bankruptcy, he quitted Edinburgh hastily, in April 
1763, and on the 8th of May arrived in London. 
He had previously written a letter to Lord Lyt- 
tleton, to whom he submitted some of his pieces, 
but without producing any other result than a 
complimentary correspondence. He had hoped to 
have obtained through his lordship's interest some 



civil or commercial appointment, either in t lie 
West Indies or at home ; but in this he was dis- 
appointed, and hearing that the humble situation 
of corrector to the Clarendon press, at Oxford, 
was vacant, he offered himself as a candidate, and 
being successful in his application, he entered up- 
on his duties in 1765. During the same year he 
published ' Pollio, an Elegiac Ode,' and in 1767 
appeared 'The Concubine,' a poem, in two cantos, 
in the manner of Spenser. The former did not 
attract much notice, but the latter was most fa- 
vourably received, and after it had gone through 
three editions, the title, to prevent misapprehen- 
sion, was changed to ' Sir Martyn.' 

In 1771 Mickle issued proposals for printing by 
subscription a translation of the ' Lusiad,' by 
Camoens, to qualify himself for which he learnt 
the Portuguese language. He published the first 
book as a specimen, and from the encouragement 
he received, he was induced to resign his situation 
at the Clarendon press, with the view of devoting 
his whole time to the work, when he took up his 
residence at a farm-house at Forest-hill, about five 
miles from Oxford. During the progress of the 
translation he edited Pearch's Collection of Poems, 
in which he inserted several of his own, particu- 
larly ' Hengist and Mey,' a ballad, an ' Elegy on 
Mary Queen of Scots.' To Evans' Collection he also 
contributed his beautiful ballad of ' Cumnor Hall,' 
founded on the tragic story of the lady of the earl 
of Leicester, the favourite of Queen Elizabeth. 
His translation was finished in 1775, and publish- 
ed in a quarto volume, under the title of ' The 
Lusiad, or the Discovery of India,' to which he 
prefixed an Introduction, containing a defence of 
commerce and civilization, in reply to the misre- 
presentations of Rousseau, and other visionary 
philosophers ; a History of the Portuguese con- 
quests in India ; a Life of Camoens ; and a Dis 
sertation on the Lusiad, and Observations on 
Epic Poetry. The work obtained for him a high 
reputation, and so rapid was its sale, that a second 
edition was called for in June 1778. By the two 
editions he is said to have realized about £1,000. 
Previously to its publication he had written a 
Tragedy, entitled the 'Siege of Marseilles," which 
was rejected by Garrick, and afterwards by Mr 
Harris, and was never acted. 



MICKLE. 



154 



MIDDLETON. 



In May 1779 he was, by Commodore John- 
stone, a distant relation of his own, appointed his 
secretary, and he sailed on board of the Romney, 
man-of-war, with a small squadron, destined for 
the Tagns. In the ensuing November he arrived 
at Lisbon, where, as the translator of the national 
poet of Portugal, he received many flattering 
marks of attention from the nobility, gentry, and 
literati of that country, and was admitted a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy, at its opening. While 
in that capital he wrote his poem of ' Armada Hill, 
an Epistle from Lisbon,' published in 1781, but 
without adding to his reputation. In 1780 the 
squadron returned to England, and Mickle re- 
mained for a time at London, as joint agent for 
the disposal of some valuable prizes taken during 
the expedition. He had acquired considerable 
wealth, and in 1783 he married Miss Mary Tom- 
kins, the daughter of the farmer with whom he 
had resided at Foresthill, and with this lady he 
received a handsome dower. He now went to re- 
side at Wheatley, near Oxford, where he employ- 
ed his leisure in writing some occasional pieces, in 
revising his published poems, and in contributing 
a series of Essays, entitled 'The Fragments of 
Leo,' and some other articles, to the European 
Magazine. He died, after a short illness, October 
28, 1788. He left one son, for whose benefit a 
volume of his collected poems was published by 
subscription in 1795. — His works are* 

Providence, or Arandus and Emile'e ; a Poem. London, 
1762. 

The Concubine. 1765. 2d edition, under the title of Sir 
Martyn ; a Poem, in the manner of Spenser. London, 1778, 
4to. 

The first book of the Lusiad , published as a specimen of 
a Translation of that celebrated Epic Poem. Oxf. 1771, 8vo. 

The Lusiad, or the Discovery of India ; an Epic Poem. 
From the original Portuguese of Camoens. Osf. 1775, 4to. 
2d edit. 1778, 4to. Also in 2 vols. 8vo. 

A Candid Examination of the Reasons for depriving the 
East India Company of its Charter. 1779, 4to. This pam- 
phlet is written in defence of the Company. 

The Siege of Marseilles ; a Tragedy. 

Almada Hill; an Epistle from Lisbon. Lond. 1781, 4to. 

The Prophecy of Queen Emma; a Ballad. 1782. 

A Letter to Dr. Harwood, whereby some of his evasive 
glosses, false translations, and blundering criticisms, in sup- 
port of the Arian Heresy, contained in his liberal translation 
of the New Testament, are pointed out and confuted. 

Voltaire in the Shades; or, Dialogues on the Deistical 
Controversy 

Poems, and a Tragedy. Lond. 1794, 4to. This contains 
an account of his life, by Mr. Ireland. 



A more full and correct collection of his poems appeared in 
1807, with a Life, by the Rev. John Sim. 



Middle-ton, earl of, a title, now extinct, in the peerage of 
Scotland, conferred in 1660, on John Middleton, the elder 
son of John Middleton of Caldhame, Kincardineshire, who 
was killed sitting in his chair, by Montrose's soldiers in 1645 
He was a descendant of Malcolm the son of Kenneth, who 
got a charter from William the Lion of the lands of Middle- 
ton in that county, confirming a donation of King Duncan of 
the same, and in consequence assumed the name. 

The first earl was from his youth bred to arms. He at 
first "trailed a pike" in Hepburn's regiment in France, but 
in the civil wars of 1642, he entered into the service of the 
parliament of England as commander of a troop of horse, and 
lieutenant-general under Sir William Waller. He afterwards 
returned to Scotland, and got a command in General Leslie's 
army. At the battle of Philiphaugh, 13th September 1645, 
he contributed so much to the defeat of Montrose, that the 
Estates voted him a gift of 25,000 marks. When Montrose, 
soon after, sat down before Inverness, General Middleton, 
with a small brigade, was detached from General Leslie's 
army and sent north to watch his motions. In the beginning 
of May 1646, he left Aberdeen, with a force of 600 horse and 
800 foot, and arrived in the neighbourhood of Inverness, on 
the 9th of that month. Montrose immediately withdrew to 
a position at some distance from the town, but soon quitted 
it. Two regiments of cavalry, despatched by Middleton 
after him, attacked his rear, cut off some of his men, and 
captured two pieces of cannon, and part of his baggage. 
Retreating into Ross-shire, he was pursued by Middleton, 
who, as Montrose avoided an engagement, laid siege to the 
castle of the earl of Seaforth in the chanonry of Ross. After 
a siege of four days he took it, but immediately restored it to 
the countess of Seaforth, who was within the castle at the 
time. 

Learning that the marquis of Huntly had seized upon 
Aberdeen, Middleton retraced his steps, and re-crossing the 
Spey, made him retire into Mar. He then returned to Aber- 
deen. When Montrose received orders from the king to dis- 
band his forces, Middleton was intrusted by the committee 
of Estates with ample powers to negotiate with him, and in 
order to discuss the conditions offered to the former, a con- 
ference was held between them on 22d July 1646, on a mea- 
dow, near the river Hay in Angus, where they " conferred 
for the space of two hours, there being none near them but 
one man for each of them to hold his horso." (Guthrifs 
Memoirs, p. 179). The conditions were that his followers, 
on making their submission, should be pardoned, and that 
Montrose and a few others of the principal leaders should 
leave the kingdom. 

The following year, Middleton was occupied in pursuing 
the marquis of Huntly, who had appeared in arms for the 
king, through Glenmoriston, Badenoch, and other places in 
the north, till he was captured by Lieutenant-colonel Men- 
zies in Strathdon. Some Irish taken at the same time were 
shot by Middkton's orders in Strathbogie. In 1648, when 
the "Engagement" was formed for the rescue of the king, 
he was appointed lieutenant-general of the cavalry in the 
army ordered to be levied by the Scots Estates for that pur- 
pose. The levy being opposed by a large body of Covenant- 
ers and others at Mauchline in Ayrshire, on the 12th June, 
Middleton charged them, and put the whole to the rout, with 
the loss of eighty killed and a great many taken prisoners, 
among whom were some ministers. He also dispersed some 
gatherings of the western Covenanters at Carsphairn and 



MIDDLETON, 



155 



FIRST EARL OF. 



ether places. He behaved with great gallantly at the battle 
of Preston in England, 17th August the same year, but his 
horse being shot under him, he was taken prisoner and sent 
to Newcastle. He soon made his escape, however, and with 
Lord Ogilvy attempted a rising in Athol in favour of the 
king. The party being dispersed by a force under the orders 
of General David Leslie, Middleton was allowed, on giving 
security to keep the peace, to return to his home. 

When Charles II., in 1650, arrived in Scotland, General 
Middleton immediately repaired to him. Many small bodies 
of men were raised for the defence of the king in the north, 
and it was at one time proposed to have placed General Mid- 
dleton, who commanded a small division of the army, at the 
head of all the loyal forces that could be collected for the 
purpose of opposing Cromwell, but this was never earned 
into effect. For his conduct in support of the king the com- 
mission of the church summarily excommunicated him on 
the motion of James Guthrie, who pronounced the sentence 
from his pulpit at Stirling. 

To compel the northern royalists to lay down their arms, 
General Leslie, by order of the committee of Estates, crossed 
the Tay on the 24th October with a force of 3,000 cavalry, 
with the intention of proceeding to Dundee and scouring An- 
gus. At this time Middleton was lying at Forfar, and, on 
hearing of Leslie's advance, he sent him a letter, enclosing a 
copy of a " bond and oath of engagement " which had been 
entered into by Huntly, Athol, Seaforth, and himself, with 
others, by which they pledged themselves not to lay down 
their arms without a general consent, and promised and swore 
that they would maintain the true religion as then estab- 
lished in Scotland, the national covenant, and the solemn 
league and covenant ; and defend the person of the king, his 
prerogative, greatness and authority, the privileges of parlia- 
ment, and the freedom of the subject. Middleton stated 
that Leslie would perceive, from the terms of the document 
sent, that the only aim of himself and friends was to unite 
Scotsmen in defence of their common rights, and he proposed 
to join Leslie, and put himself under his command, as their 
objects appeared to be precisely the same. The negotiation 
was finally concluded on 4th November at Strathbogie, when 
a treaty was agreed to between Leslie and the chief royalists, 
by which the latter accepted an indemnity and laid down 
their arms. 

On the 12th January 1651, Middleton was relaxed from 
his excommunication, and did penance in sackcloth in the 
parish church of Dundee. He commanded the horse in the 
royal army that marched into England on the 31st July; and 
at the battle of Worcester, 3d September, the chief resistance 
was made by him. He charged the enemy so vigorously that 
he forced them to recoil, but being severely wounded, he was 
taken prisoner after the battle, and sent to the Tower of 
London. Cromwell was so incensed against him that he de- 
signed to get him tried for his life, as having formerly served 
in the parliamentary army, but he contrived to make his 
escape. After remaining for some time concealed in London 
he retired to France, and joined Charles II. at Paris. In 
1653 he was sent home with a commission from the king, 
appointing him generalissimo of all the royal forces in Scot- 
land, and took the command of the troops at Dornoch. 
Middleton soon found himself sorely pressed by General 
Monk, who had advanced into the Highlands with a large 
army. In an attempt to elude his pursuers he was surprised 
in a defile near Lochgarry, 26th July 1654, when his men 
were either slain or dispersed, and he himself escaped with 
great difficulty. After lurking for some months in the coun- 
try, Middleton again got over to the king, who was then at 



Cologne, and was excepted by Cromwell from pardon in his 
act of grace and indemnity the same year. 

At the Restoration, he accompanied King Charles II. to 
England, and was created earl of Middleton and Lord Cler- 
mont and Fettercairn, by patent, dated 1st October 1660, to 
him and his heirs male, having the name and arms of Mid- 
dleton. He was also appointed commander-in-chief of the 
forces in Scotland, governor of Edinburgh castle, and lord 
high commissioner to the Scots parliament. On the 31st 
December he arrived at Holvrood-house, having been escort- 
ed from Musselburgh by the nobility and gentry then in the 
capital, attended by a thousand horse. He was allowed 900 
merks per day fur his table, and he lived in a style of great 
magnificence. He opened parliament 1st January 1661, with 
a splendour to which the Scots people had long been unac- 
customed. In this " terrible parliament," as it is well named 
by Kirkton, the king's prerogative was restored in its fullest 
extent, and a general act rescissory of the parliaments from 
1633 was passed. Various other acts of a most unconstitu- 
tional nature also became law. On the rising of parliament 
in the following July, Middleton hastened to London, to lay 
an account of its proceedings before the king. On his arrival 
at court, he assured his majesty and the Scottish privy coun- 
cil in London, that the majority of the Scottish nation de- 
sired the establishment of episcopacy, and it was accordingly 
agreed that " as the government of the state was monarchy, 
so that of the church should be prelacy." Middleton's ob- 
ject in thus recommending the establishment of the episcopal 
church in Scotland was that he might strengthen his own 
authority by that of the bishops, and thwart Lauderdale 
whom he hated, and who at that time was favourable to pres- 
byterianism. 

He was again appointed lord high commissioner to the 
Scots parliament, which met 6th May 1662, and on 15th 
July following, ho was nominated an extraordinary lord of 
session. In September of the same year, Middleton and the 
privy council made a progress through the west of Scotland 
and when at Glasgow, under the influence of drink, as Bur- 
net says, passed the act for depriving the covenanting minis- 
ters of their benefices, by which more than 200 were thrown 
out. After proceeding through Ayrshire to Dumfries, they 
returned to Edinburgh. Having procured the passing of the 
famous act of billeting, by which Lauderdale and his friends 
were incapacitated, that unprincipled nobleman resolved upon 
his overthrow. He misrepresented all his actions to the king, 
and so prejudiced the royal mind against him that Middleton 
in 1663 was ordered up to London to give an account of his 
administration in Scotland. When the council met, Lauder- 
dale accused him of many miscarriages in his great office, 
and particularly ot having accepted bribes from many of the 
presbyterians, to exclude them from the list of fines. Mid- 
dleton was defended by Clarendon, Archbishop Sheldon, and 
Monk, duke of Albemarle. The Scottish prelates also wrote 
in his favour, and in vindication of his general policy. Their 
interposition, however, was in vain. He was declared guilty 
of arbitrary conduct as commissioner, and deprived of all his 
offices, to the great joy of the Scottish people, whom he had 
disgusted by the oppressive character of his measures, as well 
as by his open debauchery and intemperance, being, accord- 
ing to Burnet and Wodrow, most ostentatious in his vices. 
The former says that he was " perpetually drunk." 

After his disgrace he retired to the friary near Guildford, to 
the house of a Scotsman named Dalmahoy, who had been 
gentleman of the horse to William duke of Hamilton, killed 
at the battle of Worcester, and wno had married that noble- 
man's widow. There he built a bridge over the river whicli 



MILL, 



156 



JAMES. 



ran through Dalmahoy's estate, and was called Middleton's 
Bridge after him. He afterwards, as a kind of decent exile, 
received the appointment of governor of Tangier, a seaport 
town of Fez In Africa, which made part of the dowry of the 
princess Catherine of Portugal, whom Charles II. married 
soon after the Restoration. He died there in 1673, having 
fallen in going down stairs, which in that hot climate pro- 
duced inflammation. 

His only son, Charles, second and last earl of Middleton, 
was M.P. for Winchelsea, in the long parliament. He was 
bred in the court of Charles II., by whom he was appointed 
envoy extraordinary to the court of Vienna. On his return 
home he was constituted one of the principal secretaries of 
state for Scotland, 26th September 1682. On 11th July 
1684 he was sworn a privy councillor of England, on the 15th 
of the same month was admitted an extraordinary lord of 
session in Scotland, and on 25th August same year appoint- 
ed one of the principal secretaries of state for England. His 
seat on the bench, however, he resigned in February 1686, 
in favour of his brother-in-law, the earl of Strathmore. 

At the Revolution, though he had opposed the violent 
measures of King James, he adhered to him steadily. He 
refused all the offers made to him by King William, and af- 
ter being frequently imprisoned in England, he followed James 
to France, and was, in consequence, outlawed by the high 
court of justiciary, 23d July 1694, and forfeited by act of 
parliament, 2d July 1695. Before the Revolution, we are told, 
he firmly stood in the gap, to stop the torrent of some priests 
who were driving King James to his ruin, and had so mean 
an opinion of converts that he used to say a new light never 
came into the house but by a crack in the tilting. Yet this 
man, who had withstood all the temptations of James' reign, 
and all the endeavours of that prince to bring him over, to 
the surprise of all who knew him declared himself a Roman 
Catholic on the king's death, and obtained the entire man- 
agement of the exiled court at St. Germains. (J/acfo/'s 
Memoirs, p. 238.) He is described as having been a black 
man, of middle stature, with a sanguine complexion. He 
had two sons and three daughters. Lady Elizabeth, the eld- 
est daughter, was the wife of Edward Drummond, son of 
James, earl of Perth, high-chancellor of Scotland. She was 
styled duchess of Perth, and died at Paris after 1773. The 
sons, Lord Clermont and the Hon. Charles Middleton, were 
taken at sea by Admiral Byng, coming with French troops 
to invade Scotland, in 1708, and committed to the Tower of 
London. They were soon released, when they returned to 
France 

MILL, James, the historian of British India, 
was born in the parish of Logie-Pert, Forfarshire, 
April 6, 1773. The early part of his education he 
received at the grammar school of Montrose, on 
leaving which, through the patronage of Sir John 
Stuart, baronet, of Fettercairn, one of the barons 
of the exchequer in Scotland, on whose estate his 
father occupied a small farm, he was sent to the 
university of Edinburgh to study for the church. 
In 1800, after being licensed as a preacher, he 
went to London as tutor in Sir John Stuart's fam- 
ily, and, settling in the metropolis, he devoted 
himseif to literary and philosophical pursuits. By 



his powerful and original productions, as well ag 
by the force of his personal character, he soon 
earned for himself a high reputation as a writer 
During the first years of the Edinburgh Review 
he contributed to it many articles on Jurispru- 
dence and Education, and he was also the author 
of a number of masterly papers in the Westmin- 
ster, the London, the British, the Eclectic, and 
Monthly Reviews. In politics he belonged to the 
Radical party, and among other articles which he 
wrote for the Westminster Review were the cele- 
brated ones ' On the Formation of Opinions,' in 
No. 11, and ' On the Ballot,' in No. 25. 

About 1806 he commenced his ' History of 
British India,' which occupied a considerable por- 
tion of his time for more than ten years, and was 
published about the end of 1817, in three volumes 
4to. The information contained in this valuable 
work, with the author's enlarged views on all 
matters connected with India, tended greatly to 
the improvement of the administration of our em- 
pire in the East, and induced the East India Com- 
pany to appoint him in 1819 to the second situa- 
tion in the examiner's office, or land revenue 
branch of the administration, at the India House. 
On the retirement of Mr. William M'Culloch, he 
became head of the department of correspondence 
with India. In 1821 Mr. Mill published his 'Ele- 
ments of Political Economy,' containing a cleai 
summary of the leading principles of that science. 
In 1829 appeared, in two vols. 8vo, his ' Analysis 
of the Phenomena of the Human Mind,' a work 
on which he bestowed extraordinary labour, and 
which displayed much philosophical acuteness. 
Besides these works he contributed various valua- 
ble articles to the Supplement of the Encyclopae- 
dia Britannica, principally on Government, Legis- 
lation, Education, Jurisprudence, Law of Nations, 
Liberty of the Press, Colonies, and Prison Disci- 
pline, which were also published as separate trea- 
tises. In 1835 he produced, without his name, 
his 'Fragment on Mackintosh,' in which he se- 
verely criticises Sir James Mackintosh's ' Disser- 
tation on the History of Ethical Philosophy.' Mr 
Mill died of consumption, June 23, 1836, and was 
buried at Kensington, where he had resided foi 
the last five years of his life. He left a widow 
and nine children 



MILLAR. 



157 



MILLER 



MILLAR, James, M.D., a learned and indus- 
trious compiler, was educated chiefly at the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, where he acquired an exten- 
sive and accurate knowledge of the classics, and 
early evinced a taste for the varied departments 
of natural history. He took his medical degree 
at Edinburgh, where he settled. In 1807 he pub- 
lished, in connection with William Vazie, Esq., 
an 8vo pamphlet, entitled ' Observations on the 
Advantages and Practicability of making Tunnels 
under Navigable Rivers, particularly applicable to 
the proposed Tunnel under the Forth.' He was 
the original projector and editor of the 'Encyclo- 
paedia Edinensis, or Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, 
and Miscellaneous Literature.' He was also cho- 
sen to superintend the fourth edition of the Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica, to the improvement and in- 
terests of which he devoted a large portion of his 
time. Some of his essays and larger treatises 
written for these works, when published sepa- 
rately, were very favourably received by the pub- 
lic. He likewise contributed largely to several of 
the periodical journals both of London and Edin- 
burgh. In 1819 he published, in 12mo, with col- 
oured engravings, ' A Guide to Botany, or a Fa- 
miliar Illustration of the Linnaean Classification 
of Plants.' Dr. Millar was one of the physicians 
to the Dispensary at Edinburgh, and in that ca- 
pacity, while attending to the usual duties, he 
caught a fever, of which he died in July 1827. 

MILLAR, John, an eminent lecturer on law, 
was born June 22, 1735, at the manse of Shotts, 
Lanarkshire, of which parish his father, who was 
afterwards translated to Hamilton, was minister. 
He studied at the university of Glasgow, and was 
at first intended for the church, but subsequently 
preferred the bar. On leaving college he was for 
two years tutor to the eldest sou of Lord Kames, 
during which time he became acquainted with 
David Hume, whose metaphysical opinions he 
adopted. He was admitted advocate in 1760, and, 
in the following year, was appointed to the chair 
of civil law in the university of Glasgow, which 
he filled for nearly forty years with signal success. 
His lectures on the different branches of jurispru- 
dence, and on the general principles of govern- 
ment, excited much interest at the period ; they 
were attended by many who afterwards distin- 



guished themselves in public life, and from him 
Lord Brougham, Lord Jeffrey, Lord Chief Com- 
missioner Adam, the earl of Lauderdale, and some 
other eminent Whigs, received their first lessons 
in political science. In 1771 he published ' Ob- 
servations concerning the Distinction of Ranks in 
Society,' which passed through several editions, 
and was translated into French. In 1787 he pub- 
lished ' Elements of the Law relating to Insur- 
ances.' The same year appeared his more 
elaborate work, entitled, ' An Historical View 
of the English Government, from the Settle- 
ment of the Saxons in Britain to the Acces- 
sion of the House of Stuart,' in which he follows 
the path of philosophical speculation, as to the 
origin of the laws and institutions of nations, 
which had been previously traced out by Lord 
Kames and Dr. Adam Smith. He afterwards 
brought down the History of the Constitution to 
the Revolution, and the work, with this addition, 
was published in 4 vols. 8vo in 1803. Professor 
Millar died May 30, 1801, leaving four sons and 
six daughters. A fourth edition of his ' Origin of 
the Distinction of Ranks' appeared in 1808, with a 
memoir of his life, by his nephew, Mr. John Craig. 

Miller, the name of a family possessing a baronetcy o! 
Great Britain, conferred in 1788 on Sir Thomas Miller of 
Barskimming in Ayrshire, and Glenlee in Galloway, a distin- 
guished lawyer and judge, second son of Mr. William Miller, 
writer to the signet. He was born 3d November 1717, and 
admitted advocate at the Scottish bar, 21st February 1742. 
In 1748 he was nominated sheriff of the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, and the same year was elected joint principal clerk 
of the city of Glasgow. These offices he resigned in 1755 on 
being appointed solicitor to the excise in Scotland. On 17th 
March 1759 he became solicitor-general, and on 30th April 
17G0, he was constituted lord-advocate. The following year 
lie was chosen M.P. for Dumfries. In November 17C2 lie 
was elected rector of the university of Glasgow, and on 14th 
June 1766, on the death of Sir Gilbert Elliot of Minto, ap- 
pointed lord-justice-clerk. On 15th January 1788, he suc- 
ceeded Robert Dundas of Arniston as president of the court 
of session, and on February 19 of the same year was created 
a baronet. He died at his seat of Barskimming September 
27, 1789. He was twice married, and by his first wife, a 
daughter of John Murdoch, Ksq. of Rosebank, lord provost 
of Glasgow, he had a son and a daughter. Bums, in his 
'Vision, alludes to Sir Thomas Miller as "An aged judge 
dispensing good." 

The son, Sir William Miller, second baronet, also an emi- 
nent judge, was admitted advocate, 9th August 1777. At 
the keenly contested election in 1780, lie was returned M.P 
for the city of Edinburgh, in opposition to Sir Lawrence 
Dundas, and took his seat in parliament ; but was unseated 
upon a petition, and his opponent declared duly elected. Op 



MILLER, 



158 



HUGH. 



23d May, 1795, he was appointed a lord of session, when lie 
took the title of Lord Glenlee. He resigned his seat in 1840, 
having been a judge for above forty-five years. Besides 
being an accomplished scholar, he was esteemed one of the 
best lawyers of his time on the Scottish bench. He died in 
1846. He was the senior vice-president of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, and was frequently vice-president of the So- 
ciety of Scottish Antiquaries, of which he was the first ad- 
mitted fellow (of date 1781), and oldest member. He mar- 
ried Grizel, daughter of George Chalmers, Esq., by whom he 
had 6 sons and 3 daughters. 

His eldest son, Thomas Miller, Esq., predeceased his father 
in 1827. By his wife, the youngest daughter of Sir Alexan- 
der Penrose-Gordon-Cumming, baronet, he had five sons. 
The eldest son, Sir William Miller, third baronet, born in Ed- 
inburgh in 1815, married in 1839 the eldest daughter of 
I.ieutenant-General Sir Thomas M'Mahon, baronet, K.C.B., 
issue, 2 sons and 2 daughters. He was educated at Eton, 
and was for some years an officer in the 12th Lancers; ap- 
puinted a magistrate for Ayrshire in 1838, succeeded his 
grandfather as 3d baronet, May 9, 1846, made a knight com- 
mander of the order of the Temple in January the same year. 

The second son of the second baronet, Lieutenant-Colonel 
William Miller, 1st Foot Guards, was mortally wounded at 
Quatre Bras, June 16, 1815, and died at Brussels the follow- 
ing day. " In his last mortal scene," says a letter dated 
BrusseU, June 23, 1815, published at the time, " he displayed 
the 9ju1 and the spirit of a hero. On finding himself wounded, 
he sent for Colonel Thomas (who was killed two days after- 
wards, at Waterloo) — 'Thomas,' said he, 'I feel I am 
mortally wounded ; I am pleased to think that it is my fate 
rather than yours, whose life is involved in that of your young 
wife.' After a pause, he said faintly, ' I should like to see 
the colours of the regiment once more before I quit them for 
ever.' They were brought to him, and waved round his 
wounded body. His countenance brightened, he smiled; and 
declaring himself satisfied, he was carried from the field. In 
all this you will see the falling of a hero — a delicacy of senti- 
ment, a self-devotion, and a resignation, which have never 
been surpassed." His remains were interred at Brussels, in 
a cemetery where lie many of the more distinguished of the 
heroes who fell at Quatre Bras and Waterloo. On a monu- 
mental stone erected to his memory, with a suitable inscrip- 
tion, it is stated that he was thirty-one years old at the time 
of his death. 



MILLER, Hugh, the first of Scottish geologists, 
was born in Cromarty, in the north of Scotland, 
October 10th, 1802. His father, the owner and 
commander of a sloop in the coasting trade, who 
had served in the British navy, perished in a storm 
in November 1807, when Hugh was just five years 
of age. He was descended from a long line of 
seafaring men, and he mentions two uncles of his 
father, sailors, one of whom had sailed round the 
world with Anson, and the other, like himself, 
perished at sea. The paternal grandfather of 
Hugh, when entering the frith of Cromarty, was 
struck overboard during a sudden gust, by the 
boom of his vessel, and never rose again. His 



great-grandfather, whose name was John Feddes, 
was one of the last of the buccaneers. 

Previous to his father's death Hugh had been 
sent to a dame's school, where he remained a year, 
and was taught to pronounce his letters in the old 
Scottish mode, a peculiarity which he could never 
get quit of. He was subsequently transferred to 
the parish grammar school, where he made some 
progress in the rudiments of the Latin language. 
He was a great reader, and as he read every book 
that came in his way, he thus came to acquire, 
in course of time, a vast fund of information. 

Even at this early period his turn for geological 
enquiries began to develop itself. " The shores 
of Cromarty," he says, in his ' Schools and School- 
masters,' " are strewed over with water-rolled 
fragments of the primary rocks, derived chiefly 
from the west during the ages of the boulder clay; 
and I soon learned to take a deep interest in 
sauntering over the various pebble-beds when 
shaken up by recent storms, and in learning to 
distinguish their numerous components." From 
his uncle Sandy, whom he used frequently to ac- 
company in his evening walks along the seashore, 
he derived some insight into natural history, and 
especially conchology. He subsequently extend- 
ed his researches to the Hill of Cromarty and the 
caves in the Cromarty Sutors, and began to make 
collections. Even in his school days he set about 
writing poetry, so that he soon came to be looked 
upon as a sort of village prodigy. He was after- 
wards sent to a subscription school which had 
been opened in his native place, where he only 
remained a few months. On quitting it, which 
he did abruptly, in consequence of a severe drub- 
bing which he had received from the schoolmaster, 
he revenged himself by writing a satirical poem, 
which he styled ' The Pedagogue.' 

At the age of 17 he was bound apprentice to an 
uncle-in-law, a stone mason, to serve for the space 
of three years. He was set to work in the quar- 
ries of Cromarty. " The quarry," he says, " in 
which I commenced my life of labour was a sand- 
stone one, and exhibited in the section of the 
furze-covered bank which it presented, a bar of 
deep red stone beneath, and a bar of pale red clay 
above. Both deposits belonged to formations, 
equally unknown at the time to the geologist. 



MILLER, 



159 



HUGH. 



Save for the wholesome restraint that confined me 
for day after day to this spot, I should perhaps have 
paid little attention to either. It was the necessity 
which made me a quarrier that taught me to be a 
geologist." Though both a skilful and vigorous 
workman, he never seems to have taken kindly 
to his trade ; nor did he either associate or 
sympathize with his fellow-masons. He waa 
seldom with them, except when at work, and he 
spent the hours, which they usually devoted to 
jollity and drinking, in a close and enthusiastic 
study of poetry and science. 

After working for some years as a country ma- 
son, storing his mind all the time, by reading and 
observation, with a knowledge of the facts and 
processes of nature, Mr. Miller, on reaching the 
age of twenty-one, resolved upon going to Edin- 
burgh, and making his way as a mechanic among 
the stone-cutters of the Scottish capital, perhaps, 
as he says, the most skilful in their profession in 
the world. He soon got employment from a mas- 
ter-builder, and was engaged to work at a manor 
house near the village of Niddry Mill, a few miles 
to the south of Edinburgh, at twenty-four shil- 
lings a-week wages. On a reduction of the wages 
if the men to fifteen shillings, a strike took place, 
in which, however, he took no part. 

In 1824 occurred the memorable fires in the 
parliament close and High Street of Edinburgh, 
and a building mania having thereafter set in, 
which ended disastrously in a year or two, mason- 
work was for a time exceedingly plentiful in that 
city. Mr. Miller, however, finding his lungs af- 
fected, from the dust of the stone which he had 
been hewing for the previous two years lodging in 
them, instead of taking employment in Edinburgh, 
returned to Cromarty to recruit his health. "I 
was," he says, " too palpably sinking in flesh and 
strength to render it safe for me to encounter the 
consequences of another season of hard work as a 
stone-cutter. From the stage of the malady at 
which I had already arrived, poor workmen, una- 
ble to do what I did, throw themselves loose from 
their employment, and sink in six or eight months 
into the grave — some at an earlier, some at a later 
period of life ; but so general is the affection, that 
few of our Edinburgh stone-cutters pass their for- 
tieth year unscathed, and not one out of every 



fifty of their number ever reaches his forty -fifth 
year." 

On recovering from a long and depressing ill- 
ness, he resolved upon following a higher branch 
of the art than ordinary stone-cutting. This was 
the hewing of ornate dial stones, sculptured ta- 
blets and tombstone inscriptions. It was an ad- 
vantage to him that his new branch of employ- 
ment brought him sometimes for a few days into 
country districts, and among solitary churchyards, 
which presented new fields of observation, and 
opened up new tracts of inquiry. But of this sort 
of work there was not a superabundance, at least 
in that locality, and about the end of June 1828, 
Mr. Miller found that he had nothing to do, and 
acting on the advice of a friend, who believed that 
his style of cutting inscriptions could not fail to 
secure for him a good many little jobs in the 
churchyards of Inverness, he visited that place, 
and inserted a brief advertisement in one of the 
newspapers, soliciting employment. While wait- 
ing for it, he was accosted one day in the street 
by the recruiting sergeant of a Highland regiment, 
who asked him if he did not belong to the Aird. 
" No, not to the Aird, to Cromarty," he replied. 
" Ah ! to Cromarty — very fine place ! But would 
you not better bid adieu to Cromarty, and come 
along with me? We have a capital grenadier 
company ; and in our regiment a stout steady man 
is always sure to get on." Mr. Miller thanked 
him, but of course declined the invitation. 

While at Inverness he first "rushed into print." 
Selecting some of his best pieces in verse, he got 
them printed in a volume in the office of the In- 
verness Courier, the editor of that paper, Mr. 
Robert Carruthers, inserting from time to time 
some of them in his "poet's corner." The volume 
was published without his name. On the title-page 
it was simply intimated that the poems had been 
" written in the leisure hours of a journeyman 
mason," and, thus modestly announced, the book, 
for a first effort, was very favourably received. 
On his return to Cromarty he began to contribute 
a series of letters, on the herring fishery, to the 
newspaper above mentioned. These letters at- 
tracted attention, and were republished, on his 
behalf, by the proprietors of the paper, " in con- 
sequence of the interest they had excited in the 



MILLER, 



160 



HUGH. 



northern counties." His Verses and his Letters 
soon enlarged the circle of his friends, and amongst 
others, Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, baronet, author 
of the 'Wolf of Badenoch,' and other works, Miss 
Dunbar of Boath, and Principal Baird of Edin- 
burgh, showed him much kindness. The latter 
urged him to quit the north and proceed to Edin- 
burgh, as the proper field for a literary man in 
Scotland, but as lie did not think that he could 
enjoy equal opportunities of acquainting himself 
with the occult and the new in natural science, as 
when plying his labours in the provinces as a me- 
chanic, he determined to continue for some years 
more in the country. At the principal's desire, 
however, he wrote for him an autobiographic 
sketch of his life, to his return from Edinburgh to 
Cromarty in 1825. 

Mr. Miller next set himself to record, in his 
leisure hours, the traditions of his native place and 
the surrounding district, and a bulky manuscript 
volume soon grew up under his hands. All this 
time he lost no opportunity of continuing his geo- 
logical researches, and, gradually advancing in 
discoveries, in course of time he came to have a 
thorough knowledge of the extinct organisms of 
the primitive world. Many of his friends wished 
to fix him down to literature as his proper walk, 
but he himself thought that his special vocation 
was science, and he accordingly devoted his mind 
to it with an ardour that soon enabled him to at- 
tain to surpassing excellence even as a literary 
man. After the passing of the Reform Bill, he 
was elected a member of the town council of Cro- 
marty, but he never attended but one meeting of 
the council. 

It was in his working attire that he first met 
the lady who was destined to become his wife. 
He had been hewing, he tells us, in the upper 
part of his uncle's garden, and had just closed his 
work for the evening, when three ladies made 
their appearance to see a curious old dial stone 
which he had dug out of the earth long before. 
With the youngest of the three he afterwards had 
many opportunities of meeting, and at length they 
came to a mutual understanding. It was agreed 
between them that if in the course of three years 
no suitable field of exertion should open for him 
sit home, they should niarrv and emigrate to the 



United States. Two years of the time agreed 
upon had passed, and he was still an operative 
mason, when in 1834 a branch of the Commercial 
Bank of Scotland being established in Cromarty, 
the office of accountant was offered to him by Mr. 
Ross the agent. He was at this time thirty-two 
years of age, and although afraid that he would 
make but an indifferent accountant, never having 
had any experience in figures, he was yet induced 
to accept the appointment. He was accordingly 
sent to the parent bank at Edinburgh, to acquire 
the necessary instructions to fit him for his new 
situation 

On his arrival, he was ordered to the Commei- 
cial Bank branch at Linlithgow, to be initiated 
into the proper system of book-keeping. Being, 
as he says himself, " altogether deficient in the 
cleverness that can promptly master isolated de- 
tails, when in ignorance of their bearing on the 
general scheme to which they belong," he was at 
first rather at a loss, and was looked upon by the 
local agent as particularly stupid. But as soon 
as he came to comprehend the central principle 
by which the system was governed, he at once 
showed his competence to manage the business ol 
the bank. In the arena of science this law ruled 
his genius with a necessity not less inexorable 
than in the commercial field. From the centre of 
any science, when once he was able to master it, 
he could proceed with the utmost ease, but he in- 
variably found that when he attempted to ap- 
proach as if from the outside, the details baffled 
and repulsed him. 

After two months' probation in the branch bank 
at Linlithgow, he returned to Cromarty, and 
straightway commenced his new course as an ac- 
countant, at a salary of £80 a-year. When fairly 
seated at the desk he felt, he says, as if his latter 
days were destined to differ from his earlier ones, 
well nigh as much as those of Peter of old, who, 
when he was "young, girded himself, and walked 
whither he would, but who, when old, was girded 
by others, and carried whither he would not." A 
sedentary life had at first a depressing effect on 
his intellectual pursuits, and for a time he inter- 
mitted them almost entirely, but as he became 
inured to it, his mind recovered its spring, and, as 
before, he began to occupy his leisure hours iu 



MILLER, 



161 



iiugii 



literary and scientific exertions. The publication, 
in 1835, of his 'Scenes and Legends of the North 
of Scotland,' made his name known in literary 
circles. With a few exceptions, the book was 
highly commended by the critics. He relates, with 
a very natural feeling of satisfaction, that " Leigh 
Hunt gave it a kind and genial notice in his Jour- 
nal; it was characterized by Robert Chambers 
not less favourably in his; and Dr. Hetherington, 
the future historian of the Church of Scotland and 
of the Westminster Assembly of Divines — at that 
time a licentiate of the church — made it the sub- 
ject of an elaborate and very friendly critique in 
the ' Presbyterian Review.' Nor was I less grat- 
ified," he continues, " by the terms in which it 
was spoken of by the late Baron Hume, the ne- 
phew and residuary legatee of the historian — him- 
self very much a critic of the old school — in a 
note to a north country friend. He described it 
as a work ' written in an English style which ' he 
' had begun to regard as one of the lost arts.' " 
The work, however, from the local nature of the 
subjects, attained to no great popularity, but as 
the author's reputation increased, its later editions 
have sold better than the first. 

After a courtship of five years, he married the 
young lady formerly mentioned, Lydia Fraser, 
who was then residing with her mother in Cro- 
marty, engaged in teaching. After their mar- 
riage, his wife continued to take a few pupils, and 
at this time, he tells us, the united earnings of the 
household did not much exceed a hundred pounds 
a-year. He, therefore, began to add to his in- 
come by writing for the periodicals. To Wilson's 
1 Border Tales,' commenced in 1835, he contri- 
buted, after the death of Mr. John Mackay Wil- 
son of Berwick-upon-Tweed, their originator, 
several stories, for which he got £25 in all, being 
at the rate of three guineas a-piece, the stipulated 
wages for filling a weekly number. For supplying 
the same space with a tale weekly, which he did 
for three or four weeks, the writer of this got five 
pounds each story from the proprietors of the 
new 'Tales of the Borders,' published in Glasgow 
in 1848. 

Finding that some of his stories were rejected 
by the editor, Mr. Miller ceased to write for the 
* Border Tales.' He then made an offer of his 
m. 



services to Mr. Robert Chambers, by whom thej 
were accepted, and for the two following years he 
occasionally contributed papers to Chambers' 
Journal, with his name attached to his several 
articles. 

He still continued his researches among the 
rocks in the neighbourhood of Cromarty, in deter- 
mining the true relations of their various beds and 
the character of their organisms. To enable him 
to examine the best sections of the Sutors and 
the adjacent hills, with their associated deposits, 
which cannot be reached without a boat, he pur- 
chased a light little yawl, furnished with mast and 
sail, and that rowed four oars, to enable him to 
carry out his explorations. At this time a letter 
of his on a local subject, inserted in one of the dis- 
trict papers, procured him the offer of a newspa- 
per editorship, which, not deeming himself quali- 
fied for it, he at once declined. 

Amongst his other occupations at this busy 
period of his life was writing the memoir of a 
deceased townsman, Mr. William Forsyth of Cro- 
marty, at the request of his relative and son-in- 
law, Mr. Isaac Forsyth, bookseller, Elgin. This 
little work was not intended for publication, being 
printed for private circulation among Mr. For- 
syth's friends. His career hitherto had been pros- 
perous for a person in his condition in life. From 
the humble and obscure position of a journeyman 
stone-mason he had attained to that of an ac- 
countant in a bank. He was known as an author 
and respected as an explorer in geological science. 
In private he had made " troops of friends," and 
altogether he had " got on " in the world better 
than in his early days he could have had any rea- 
son to expect. He was now to be removed to a 
higher sphere, and to be placed in circumstances 
more favourable for the full development of his 
genius, and the complete display of his extraordi- 
nary attainments, than any that even his wildest 
ambition could have hoped for a few years before. 

He had taken very little interest in the Volun- 
tary controversy, but when the Non-intrusion 
question came to be agitated, he deemed it time 
to buckle on his armour, in other words, to take 
up his pen manfully in behalf of the rights of the 
church when assailed by the civil courts. The 
famous Auchterarder case was the occasion of hit" 



MILLER, 



162 



HUGH. 



first appearance as a writer in the field of ecclesi- 
astical controversy, in which he was destined to 
take such a prominent and influential part. The 
campaign was a prolonged one, and ended, as 
every body knows, in the disruption of the Estab- 
lished Church of Scotland. At no time of his life 
did he exhibit greater energy of intellect than as 
the champion of the non- intrusion and Free church 
party in the church, although it must be confessed 
that, sometimes led away alike by prejudice and 
zeal, he proved himself less the judicious and dis- 
criminating advocate than the bitter and uncom- 
promising ecclesiastical partizan. 

The struggle began in 1834, with the passing of 
the celebrated " Veto Act," founded on the early 
principle of the church, that ministers should not 
be intruded on parishes contrary to the consent of 
the parishioners. As the church thus considered 
the acceptability of a presentee a necessary quali- 
fication, the object of the act was to instruct all 
presbyteries to reject presentees to whom a majo- 
rity of male heads of families, communicants, ob- 
jected. In the case of the Auchterarder presen- 
tation, when this was acted upon, the presentee 
brought an action in the court of session, to de- 
clave it an undue interference with his civil rights. 
The church, in reply, contended that the matter 
was purely ecclesiastical, and altogether beyond 
the jurisdiction of the civil courts. The court of 
session thought otherwise, and, in March 1838, 
decided that as patronage had been constituted 
property by act of parliament, the obnoxious pre- 
sentee, Mr. Young, was entitled to be " intruded 
upon " the reclaiming parish, as the rights of the 
patron must be maintained. The church appealed 
to the House of Lords, who, in May 1839, con- 
firmed the judgment of the court of session. The 
General Assembly declined to implement the de- 
cision of the civil tribunals, holding itself irrespon- 
sible to any civil court for its obedience to the 
laws of Christ. 

On reading Lord Brougham's speech, and the 
decision of the House of Lords, in the Auchterar- 
der case, Mr. Miller felt deeply the peril of the 
church. That night, he tells us, he slept none, 
and in the morning, determined upon taking the 
popular view of the question, he commenced his 
famous ' Letter from one of the Scottish People to 



the Right Hon. Lord Brougham and Vaux, on tne 
opinions expressed by his Lordship in the Auch- 
terarder case.' That letter had an important ana 
decisive effect on his after life. On finishing it, 
he despatched the manuscript to the manager of 
the Commercial Bank at Edinburgh, Mr. Robert 
Paul, from whom he had already experienced 
some kindness, and who, in the great ecclesiasti- 
cal struggle, took a decided part with the church. 
That gentleman, after reading it, hastened with 
it to his minister, the Rev. Mr. afterwards Dr. 
Candlish of St. George's, who, recognising the 
ability it displayed and its popular character, 
urged its immediate publication. It was accord- 
ingly put into the hands of Mr. John Johnstone, 
the then well-known Church bookseller. The 
evangelical party in the church had been for some 
time anxious to establish an ecclesiastical news- 
paper in Edinburgh for the support of their prin- 
ciples, and a meeting of ministers and elders had 
been held in that city, shortly before, to take 
measures for the purpose. A properly qualified 
editor was wanted, and on reading the manuscript 
of Mr. Miller's ' Letter to Lord Brougham,' Dr. 
Candlish instantly fixed upon its writer as the 
very person they had been looking for to fill that 
office. 

Meanwhile the ' Letter ' was published in the 
form of a pamphlet, and was at once successful. 
It ran rapidly through four editions of a thousand 
copies each, and was read pretty extensively by 
men who were not Non-intrusionists. " Among 
these," says its author, "there were several mem- 
bers of the ministry of the time, including Lord 
Melbourne, who at first regarded it, as I have 
been informed, as the composition, under a popu- 
lar form and a nom-de- guerre, of some of theNon- 
intrusionist leaders in Edinburgh ; and by Mr. 
Daniel O'Connell, who had no such suspicions, 
and who, though he lacked sympathy, as he said, 
with the ecclesiastical views which it advocated, 
enjoyed what he termed its ' racy English,' and 
the position in which it placed the noble lord to 
whom it was addressed." Mi*. W. E. Gladstone, too, 
in his elaborate work on ' Church Principles Con 
sidered in their Results,' noticed it very favoura- 
bly. His words are : " Over and above the judi- 
cial arguments in the reports of the Auchterarder 



MILLER, 



163 



HUGH. 



and Lethendy cases, the Church question has been 
discussed in a great variety of pamphlets, some of 
them very long and very able, others of them very 
long without being particularly able, and one of 
them particularly able without being long ; I mean 
the elegant and masculine production of Hugh 
Miller, entitled ' A Letter to Lord Brougham.' " 

Almost immediately after its publication, Mr. 
Miller received a letter from Edinburgh, request- 
ing him to meet there with the leading non-intru- 
sionists. He accordingly proceeded to the capital, 
and agreed to undertake the editorship of their 
projected newspaper, the Witness. He then re- 
turned to Cromarty to make arrangements for 
finally quitting that place. He closed his con- 
nexion with the bank, and devoted a few weeks 
very sedulously to geology, and was fortunate 
enough to find specimens on which Agassiz found- 
ed two of his fossil species. On leaving his native 
town he was presented with an elegant breakfast 
service of plate from a numerous circle of friends, 
of all shades of politics and both sides of the 
church, and was entertained at a public dinner. 
After being fifteen years a journeyman stone-ma- 
son, and five years a bank accountant, he was now 
at last placed in his true position, and was ena- 
bled to give those wonderful works to the press 
which have procured for him a world-wide repu- 
tation. 

The Witness commenced at the beginning of 
1840. During the first twelvemonth, he wrote for 
its columns a series of geological chapters, Avhich 
attracted the notice of the geologists of the British 
Association, assembled that year at Glasgow. In 
the collected form they were afterwards published, 
under the title of ' The Old Red Sandstone ; or, 
New Walks in an Old field.' Of this work the 
Westminster Review said : "The geological for- 
mation known as the Old Red Sandstone was long 
supposed to be peculiarly barren of fossils. The 
researches of geologists, especially those of Mr. 
Miller, have, however, shown that formation to 
be as rich in organic remains as any that has been 
explored. Mr. Miller's exceedingly interesting 
book on this formation is just the sort of work to 
render any subject popular. It is written in a 
remarkably pleasing style, and contains a wonder- 
til amount of information." The Witness, in the 



meantime, under his editorship rose rapidly in 
circulation. That paper, indeed, owed its success 
to his able articles, literary, ecclesiastical, and geo- 
logical, and during the course of the first three 
years his employers raised his salary to £400. He 
had published another pamphlet on the church 
question, entitled ' The Whiggism of the Old 
School, as exemplified by the past history and 
present condition of the Church of Scotland,' 
which soon reached a second edition. 

As the crisis of the church's fate approached, 
Mr. Miller's consummately able articles in the 
Witness greatly aided in enlightening the public 
mind on those principles on which the Free church 
was formed, and he may be said to have exercised 
an influence among the supporters of the spiritual 
independence of the church as great as that even 
of Dr. Chalmers himself. His mastery of the 
English language was complete, and to this he 
added a singular felicity of reasoning and a won- 
derful vividness of imagination not usually com- 
bined. In originality and appropriateness of illus- 
tration, and graphic force and telling significancy 
of diction, no contemporary could compete with 
him. In the early years of the Witness, a twice- 
a-week paper, his was indeed a life of strife and 
toil. In the circumstances of the time, when po- 
lemical feeling was carried beyond due bounds on 
both sides, as the editor of the principal, and for 
a while the only, non-intrusion paper in the king- 
dom, it was impossible but that his combative 
spirit would be exerted to the utmost. He had 
to contend with many fierce and unscrupulous 
enemies, as almost the entire newspaper press 
was against him and the principles for which he 
so ably and fearlessly contended. " For full 
twenty years," he says, " I had never been en- 
gaged in a quarrel on my own account : all my 
quarrels, either directly or indirectly, were eccle- 
siastical ones ; — I had fought for my minister, or 
for my brother parishioners : and fain now would 
I have lived at peace with all men ; but the edi- 
torship of a non-intrusion paper involved, as a 
portion of its duties, war with all the world." 
This truth he experienced to its fullest extent, 
but he was a match for all opponents, and at 
length few indeed were the antagonists willing to 
cope with him. From Dr. Chalmers, himself" the 



MILLER, 



164 



HUGH. 



greatest living Scotsman " of his day, he obtained 
that proud title, and while in public this self-edu- 
cated and self-reliant working-man showed no 
mercy to those who entered the lists against him, 
or assailed the principles of the Free church, in 
private he was a singularly manly, modest, and 
sensitive being, whose demeanour, in itself invari- 
ably respectful, was at all times calculated to win 
the respect of those who came personally in contact 
with him. With his retiring and unassuming 
manners, his life was, for his position, as editor of 
such a paper as the Witness, a remarkably seclud- 
ed one. Besides furnishing those splendid arti- 
cles to its columns which were the admiration of 
all who read them, and most of which have been 
republished in some one or other of his works, he 
continued to devote himself, with characteristic 
ardour, to the prosecution of scientific inquiries, 
and made frequent pedestrian excursions, for geo- 
logical purposes, to different parts of the country. 
Being now in circumstances to follow the natural 
bent of his genius and inclination, and develop 
that power of observation and research which he 
had cultivated from his early boyhood, whenever 
opportunity enabled him to put it in practice, he 
became known over the empire as a discoverer in 
science, and as one of the best and most effective 
writers of his time. 

His celebrated work on the ' Old Red Sand- 
stone' was published in 1841. While it placed 
him in the very front rank of geologists, it charm- 
ed non-scientific readers by its marvellous powers 
of description and the fascinating graces of its 
style. A succeeding work, ' First Impressions of 
England and its People,' was written after a visit to 
England, which he made in 1847. The principal 
characteristic of this small book was earnest and 
vigorous thought. In 1849 he produced another 
geological work of even a more profound character 
than his former publications, entitled 'Footprints 
of the Creator, or the Asterolepis of Stromness,' 
which Dr. Buckland, who said that he "would 
give his left hand to possess such powers of de- 
scription as this man had," made one of the text- 
books for his geological lectures at Oxford. Other 
teachers of geology in our universities followed 
his example. It was written chiefly with the 
view of exposing the flimsy sophistries and athe- 



istical tendency of a work published anonymously 
shortly before, with the specious title of ' Vestiges 
of the Natural History of Creation,' and was well 
described as a contribution to natural theology of 
inestimable importance. 

In 1845, on the retirement of Mr. Johnstone 
from the joint proprietorship of the Witness, Mr. 
Miller purchased his share of that prosperous 
and influential journal. Subsequently he and hig 
co-partner, Mr. Fairley, were enabled to pay up 
the sum of one thousand pounds which had been 
advanced at its starting, by a committee of Non- 
intrusion ministers and elders, and which gave 
them a certain control over its management. 
This being at last satisfactorily got quit of 
thenceforward, in the eyes of the public, who were 
ignorant of what took place behind the scenes, 
the paper assumed a more independent and com- 
manding tone than formerly. 

Mr. Miller's habits of composition were pecu- 
liar. His mind, with all its weight and force, and 
in spite of the rich intellectual stores which he 
possessed, wanted elasticity, and he was in gen 
eral a slow and cautious writer. Before putting 
pen to paper on any subject, he spent a long time 
in deep thought, arranging, as it were, all its de- 
tails within himself, meanwhile balancing the 
poker or the tongs in his hands, or gazing mu- 
singly into the fire. The author of this work was 
associated with him for some time as sub-editor of 
the Witness, and had many opportunities of ob- 
serving his characteristics. He was fond of ath- 
letic exercises, and took delight in such acts as 
leaping upon the table, poising a chair by one of 
its hind legs in his right hand, and doing other 
feats of strength, in which no one present could 
compete with him. He also took a pride in snuff- 
ing a candle by the mere wave of his arm, when 
no other arm, though half-a-yard nearer, could 
do it. 

In 1855, he published an autobiographical work, 
entitled ' My Schools and Schoolmasters,' giving 
an account of his own self-education and the 
means by which he overcame the difficulties of his 
position. Although necessarily somewhat egotis- 
tical, it furnishes a very interesting as well a* 
most instructive history of his youth and early 
manhood, and describes, in his own characteristi- 



MILLER, 



165 



HUGH. 



cally attractive style, the progress of his unassist- 
ed intellectual training. 

Recognised as the most eloquent living exposi- 
tor of the profoundest truths of geology, in the lat- 
ter years of his life he was induced to give a series 
of lectures on his favourite science. As a lecturer, 
however, he did not make the same distinguished 
appearance that he did as a writer. His accent 
was against him, being that of the Cromarty Scot- 
tish, which, with his natural bashfulness and not 
very graceful address, rendered his delivery bad 
as a lecturer. His lectures were, therefore, not 
unfrequently read for him by others. Neverthe- 
less, his high reputation as a geologist and the 
peculiar prestige of his name, rendered them 
highly popular. Whenever he made his appear- 
ance as a lecturer, the lecture-room was crowded. 
He began, we think, in Portobello, where, at a 
place called Shrub Mount, he latterly resided. He 
subsequently lectured in the Edinburgh Philoso- 
phical Institution, and of the eminent men whom 
that association has engaged to deliver lectures, 
no one commanded such audiences as assembled in 
their hall to listen to his prelections. His lectures 
were also most acceptably and even enthusiasti- 
cally received by crowded audiences when he ap- 
peared before the Christian Institutes of London 
and Glasgow. But, as we have said, from the un- 
couthness of his pronunciation, and his want of flu- 
ency, his carefully written and elaborately prepared 
lectures were, in these cities, read by others, he 
himself sitting by. His services were always 
cheerfully and readily given, as far as time and 
strength would allow, often, indeed, beyond his 
strength, solely from the desire to do good. With 
characteristic generosity his lectures were given 
gratuitously, as he invariably refused payment for 
them, being only anxious to be serviceable to the 
cause of popular education. 

His latest work, l The Testimony of the Rocks,' 
embodies his lectures, twelve in number, on geo- 
logical science. A prefatory note informs the 
reader that four of them were delivered before the 
members of the Edinburgh Philosophical Institu- 
tion, one in Exeter Hall, London, and two in 
Glasgow ; while two others were read before the 
Geological Section of the British Association in 
1 855. Of the five others, written mainly to com- 



plete, and impart a character of unity to the 
volume into which they have been introduced, 
three were addressed, viva voce, to popular audi- 
ences. The third was published both in this coun- 
try and in America, and translated into some of 
the continental languages. The rest appeared in 
the volume for the first time. 

This, the greatest effort of his genius, proved 
fatal to him. In the preparation of it for the 
press, Ills intellect exhausted itself. So great was 
the intensity with which he wrote upon it that his 
brain gave way, and he fell a victim to mental 
overwork. The circumstances of his death are 
mournful in the extreme. The statement pub- 
lished by his friends in the Witness, when that 
event took place, relates them so minutely, and 
describes the state of his mind for some time pre- 
viously so fully, that it cannot fail to be adopted, 
in its main points, by every one who narrates the 
story of his life. For months his overtasked in- 
tellect had given evidence of disorder. He be- 
came the prey of false or exaggerated alarms, and 
fancied that, occasionally, for brief intervals, his 
faculties quite failed him. He laboured too close- 
ly on his treatise on the ' Testimony of the Rocks,' 
devoting to it all the day, and often half the night. 
This overtoiling of the brain told so fearfully on 
his mental powers that there can be no doubt that, 
latterly, his understanding was completely shat- 
tered. To guard against the apprehended attacks 
of robbers he was accustomed, when ont of doors 
after nightfall, to carry a loaded pistol with him. 
He also followed the same practice when travel- 
ling, or when on his pedestrian excursions. It 
was mentioned in one of the local newspapers 
that, once being touched on the shoulder by one 
of his oldest friends from the country in a woll- 
frequentcd street in Edinburgh, that gentleman 
was amazed by his suddenly turning round and 
presenting a pistol at him. This dangerous habit 
of carrying loaded fire-arms he is supposed to 
have acquired when he was accountant in the 
Cromarty branch of the Commercial bank, and 
employed occasionally to convey specie to the other 
branches. 

In July, 1855, when residing at Portobello, 
about three miles from Edinburgh, he had fur- 
nished himself with a revolver. An impression 



MILLER, 



166 



HUGH. 



took possession of his mind that his house would 
some night be broken into, and robbed. His mu- 
seum, situated in a separate outer building, was 
especially, he thought, exposed to the depredations 
of burglars. Connected with this morbid fear of 
thieves was the strange fascination which descrip- 
tions of house robberies in the newspapers had for 
him, and he was haunted with the idea that rob- 
bers and other desperate characters were continu- 
ally prowling about his premises. To guard against 
their assaults, he nightly placed his revolver within 
his reach on going to bed, beside it lay a broad- 
bladed dagger, whilst behind him, at his bedhead, 
stood a ready claymore. 

A week or two before his death, the most alarm- 
ing indication of his mental malady presented itself, 
in sudden and singular sensations in his head. It 
was only, however, in lengthened intervals that 
they came, and mostly at night, but during the 
short time that they lasted, they were extremely 
violent. Up to Monday, the 22d December, 1856, 
two days before his death, he had spoken of them 
to no one, but about ten o'clock of that day he 
called on Dr. Balfour in Portobello, to consult him 
in regard to them. That gentleman, in a commu- 
nication which he afterwards drew up, thus de- 
scribes what took place: — "On my asking him 
what was the matter with him, he replied, 'My 
brain is giving way. I cannot put two thoughts 
together to-day: I have had a dreadful night of it. 
I cannot face another such. I was impressed with 
the idea that my museum was attacked by robbers, 
and that I had got up, put on my clothes, and 
gone out with a loaded pistol to shoot them. Im- 
mediately after that I became unconscious. How 
long that continued I cannot say; but when I 
awoke in the morning I was trembling all over, 
and quite confused in my brain. On rising, I felt 
as if a stiletto was suddenly, and as quickly as an 
electric shock, passed through my brain from front 
to back, and left a burning sensation on the top 
of the brain, just below the bone. So thoroughly 
convinced was I that I must have been out through 
the night, that I examined my trousers to see if 
they were wet or covered with mud, but could 
find none.' He further said, ' I may state that I 
was somewhat similarly affected through the night 
twice last week, and I examined my trousers in 



the morning, to see if I had been out. Still, the 
terrible sensations were not nearly so bad as they 
were last night; and I may further inform you 
that, towards the end of last week, while passing 
through the Exchange in Edinburgh, I was seized 
with such a giddiness that I staggered, and would, 
I think, have fallen, had I not got into an entry, 
where I leaned against the wall, and became quite 
unconscious for some seconds.'" Dr. Balfour told 
him that he was overworking his brain, and agreed 
to call on him on the following day, to make a 
fuller examination. Mrs. Miller, that same fore- 
noon, went to Edinburgh to consult Professor 
Miller, one of the most eminent surgeons of that 
city, as to her husband's health. What follows 
may be given almost in the words of the narrative 
of his melancholy fate which appeared in the Wit- 
ness newspaper: — " I arranged," says that gentle- 
man, " to meet Dr. Balfour at Shrub Mount, (Mr. 
Hugh Miller's house,) on the afternoon of next 
day. We met accordingly at half-past three on 
Tuesday. He was a little annoyed at Mrs. Mil- 
ler's having given me the trouble, as he called it, 
but received me quite in his ordinary kind, friendly 
manner. We examined his chest, and found that 
unusually well ; but soon we discovered that it 
was head symptoms that made him uneasy. He 
acknowledged having been night after night up till 
very late in the morning, working hard and con- 
tinuously at his new book, ' which,' with much 
satisfaction, he said, 'I have finished this day.' 
He was sensible that his head had suffered in con- 
sequence, as evidenced in two ways: first, occa- 
sionally, he felt as if a very fine poignard had been 
suddenly passed through and through his brain. 
The pain was intense, and momentarily followed 
by confusion and giddiness, and the sense of being 
'very drunk' — unable to stand or walk. He 
thought that a period of unconsciousness must 
have followed this — a kind of swoon, but he had 
never fallen. Second, what annoyed him most, 
however, was a kind of nightmare, which for some 
nights past had rendered sleep most miserable. It 
was no dream, he said ; he saw no distinct vision, 
and could remember nothing of what had passed 
accurately. It was a sense of vague and yet in- 
tense horror, with a conviction of being abroad in 
the night wind, and dragged through places as U 



MILLER, 



167 



HUGH. 



by some invisible power. ' Last night,' he said, 
1 1 felt as if I had been ridden by a witch for fifty 
miles, and rose far more wearied in mind and body 
than when I lay down.' So strong was his con- 
viction of having been out, that he had difficulty 
in persuading himself to the contrary, by carefully 
examining his clothes in the morning, to see if they 
were not wet or dirty ; and he looked inquiringly 
and anxiously to his wife, asking if she was sure 
he had not been out last night, and walking in this 
disturbed trance or dream. His pulse was quiet, 
but tongue foul. The head was not hot, but he 
could not say it was free from pain. But I need 
not enter into professional details. Suffice it to 
say, that we came to the conclusion that he was 
suffering from an overworked mind disordering his 
digestive organs, enervating his whole frame, and 
threatening serious head affection. We told him 
this, and enjoined absolute discontinuance of work 
— bed at eleven, light supper (he had all his life 
made that a principal meal), thinning the hair of 
the head, a warm sponging-bath at bed-time, &c. 
To all our commands he readily promised obedience, 
not forgetting the discontinuance of neck-rubbing, 
to which he had unfortunately been prevailed to 
submit some days before. For fully an hour we 
talked together on these and other subjects, and I 
left him with no apprehension of impending evil, 
and little doubting but that a short time of rest 
and regimen would restore him to his wonted 
vigour." 

After the professor's departure, as it was near 
the dinner hour, the servant entered the room to 
lay the cloth. She found Mr. Miller in the room 
alone. Another of the paroxysms was on him. 
His face was such a picture of horror, that she 
shrunk in terror from the sight. He flung himself 
on the sofa, and buried his head, as if in agony, 
upon the cushion. Again, however, the vision 
flitted by, and left him in perfect health. The 
evening was spent quietly with his family. Dur- 
ing tea he employed himself in reading aloud 
Cowper's ' Castaway,' the ' Sonnet on Mary Un- 
win,' and one of his more playful pieces, for the 
special pleasure of his children. Having corrected 
some proofs of the forthcoming volume, he went 
up stairs to his study. At the appointed hour he 
had taken the bath, but unfortunately, his natural 



and peculiar repugnance to physic had induced him 
to leave untaken the medicine that had been pre- 
scribed. He had retired into a sleeping-room — a 
small apartment opening out of his study, and 
which for some time past, in consideration of the 
delicate state of his wife's health, and the irregu- 
larity of his own hours of study, he occupied at 
night alone — and lain sometime upon the bed. 
The horrible trance, more horrible than ever, must 
have returned. All that can now be known of 
what followed is to be gathered from the facts, 
that next morning his body, half-dressed, was 
found lying lifeless on the floor — the feet upon the 
study rug, the chest pierced with the ball of the 
revolver pistol, which was found lying in the batli 
that stood close by. The deadly bullet had per- 
forated the left lung, grazed the heart, cut through 
the pulmonary artery at its root, and lodged in the 
rib in the right side. Death must have been in- 
stantaneous. 

On looking round the room in which the body 
had been discovered, a folio sheet of paper was 
seen lying on the table. On the centre of the page 
the following lines were Avritten — the last which 
that pen was ever to trace:— 

" Dearest Lyd:a, 

" My brain burns. I must have walked; and a fear- 
ful dream rises upon me. I cannot bear the horrible thought. 
God and Father of the Lord Jesus Christ have mercy upon 
me. Dearest Lydia, dear children, farewell. My brain burns 
as the recollection grows. My dear dear wife, farewell. 

" Hugh Miller." 

A post-mortem examination of the body was 
made by Professor Miller, and Drs. A. H. Balfour, 
W. T. Gairdner, and A. M. Edwards. The fol- 
lowing is the conclusion to which they came: — 

" Edinburgh, December 26, 1856. 

" We hereby certify on soul and conscience, that we have 
this day examined the body of Mr. Hugh Miller, at Shrub 
Mount, Portobello. 

" The cause of death we found to be a pistol-shot through 
the left side of the chest ; and this, we are satisfied, was in- 
flicted by his own hand. 

" From the diseased appearances found in the brain, taken 
in connection with the history of the case, we have no doubt 
that the act was suicidal, under the impulse of insanity." 

It is impossible to convey any adequate idea of 
the gloom which pervaded Edinburgh on the par- 
ticulars of Hugh Miller's lamentable death being 
known. And this gloom was deepened by the oc- 
currence of another sad tragedy in connexion witf 



MILLER, 



168 



HUGH. 



the fatal revolver with which he had terminated 
nis life. After the medical inquiry into the cause 
of his death had been completed, Professor Miller 
took, the revolver to the gunsmith in Edinburgh 
from whom it had been purchased by Mr. Miller, 
to ascertain how many shots had been fired, and how 
many still remained in the chamber. In the mas- 
ter's absence, the foreman, Thomas Leslie, received 
the weapon from the professor, and looked into the 
muzzle, holding the hammer with his fingers, while 
he turned the chamber round to count the charges. 
The hammer slipped from his fingers, struck the 
cap, and the charge in the barrel exploded. The 
charge entered his right eye and penetrated the 
brain, and he fell dead on the floor. — Subjoined is 
Mr. Miller's portrait 




i.y 



Mr. Miller was buried in the Grange cemetery, 
on the south side of Edinburgh, his grave being 
on the same line, and a few paces distant, from that 
of Dr. Chalmers. The attendance of mourners 
at the funeral was veiy great, and the concourse of 
spectators equally so. At one part of the route 
the procession was joined by the kirk session of 
Free St. John's church, of which Mr. Miller was a 
deacon, by the members of the Royal Physical 
Society, by the compositors in the Witness office, 



and by several hundreds of gentlemen. Along 
all the streets through which the procession passed, 
the shops were shut at the request of the magis- 
trates. 

In person Mr. Miller was large and muscular. 
He had a stalwart form, and a broad and massy 
forehead, with a singular conformation of head. 
No one could see him without being convinced 
that there was something remarkable about him, 
and the individuality of his appearance was ren- 
dered the more striking by the homely dress, in- 
cluding the plaid thrown across the shoulder, in 
which he was accustomed to attire himself. It 
was emphatically said of him by the duke of Ar- 
gyle, that " Hugh Miller was not a learned man. 
He knew no language but his own. He could 
read nothing but English ; and yet, by careful 
and industrious habits, by spending his spare 
hours on the writings of the greatest authors to 
whom he could get access, he was enabled to 
write books which have attained a classical rank 
in the literature of the English language." 

His townsmen have erected a statue of him at 
Cromarty. His much-cherished geological collec- 
tion was, in 1858, purchased by government for 
£500, to be preserved in the Museum of the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. An additional sum of £600, 
subscribed by various persons, with a view to its 
private purchase, was paid over to his widow, mak- 
ing in all £1,100, which the family received for 
this memento of her husband's scientific labours. 

The 'Testimony of the Rocks' was published 
soon after his death, and from the peculiar circum- 
stances in which it appeared, as well as from its 
own extraordinary merits, it attracted an unusual 
share of public attention. Its object is to demon- 
strate the bearing which geology has on both na- 
tural and revealed religion, and whatever may be 
the opinions entertained of the author's peculiar 
and thoroughly original views as to the creation 
and deluge, the work must certainly be considered 
one of the most remarkable contributions to science 
of the present century. He had long projected a 
great work on 'The Geology of Scotland,' as the 
completion of his scientific labours, and one on 
which his reputation was permanently to rest, but 
his strong intellect had run its course, and it never 
shone clearer, as appears conspicuous on evei - } 



MILLER. 



169 



MILNE, WILLIAM. 



page of his final volume, than just before it sud- 
denly sank in darkness, to be relumed no more in 
this world. 

Mr. Miller left a family of two sons and a 
daughter. The eldest son was fourteen years old 
at the time of his father's death. He himself was 
54 years of age when that event took place. 

The works of Hugh Miller are : 

Poems written in the Leisure Hours of a Journeyman 
Mason. Inverness, 1829. 12mo. 

On the Herring Fishery. A pamphlet. Inverness, 1829. 
Contributed originally in a series of letters to the Inverness 
Courier. 

Letter from one of the Scottish People to the Right Hon. 
Lord Brougham and Vaux, on the opinions expressed by his 
Lordship on the Auchterarder case. Edinburgh, 1839. 
Fourth edition, 1857. 

The Whiggism of the Old School, as exemplified by the 
past history and present condition of the Church of Scotland. 
Edinburgh, 1839. 8vo. Second edition. 

Scenes and Legends of the North of Scotland. Edinburgh, 
1835. Fifth edition, crown 8vo, 1857. 

The Old Red Sandstone ; or New Walks in an Old Field. 
Edinburgh, 1841, crown 8vo, with plates. 7th edition, 1857. 

The Fossiliferous Deposits of Scotland ; being an address 
to the Royal Physical Society, delivered 22d November 1854. 
Edinburgh, 12mo, 1854. 

The Sites Bill and the Toleration Laws. Being an Ex- 
amination of the Resolutions of the Rev. Dr. Alexander of 
Argyle Square Chapel Congregation. Edinburgh, 1848, 12mo. 

First Impressions of England and its People. Edinburgh, 
1847. Fourth edition, 1857, crown 8vo. 

Footprints of the Creator; or, The Asterolepis of Strom- 
ness. London, 1849, 16mo. Sixth edition, foolscap 8vo, 
1857, with numerous woodcut illustrations. 

The Two Parties in the Church of Scotland Exhibited as 
Missionary and Anti- Missionary. Their contendings in these 
opposite characters in the Past and their Statistics now. 
Edinburgh, 1842, 8vo. Second edition. 

Words of Warning to the People of Scotland on Sir Robert 
Peel's Scottish Currency Bill. Edinburgh, 1844, 8vo. 

My Schools and Schoolmasters ; or, The Story of my Edu- 
cation. Edinburgh, 1854. 8th edition, crown 8vo, 1857. 

The Testimony of the Rocks; or, Geology in its bearing on 
the Two Theologies — Natural and Revealed. Posthumous. 
Edinburgh, 1857, post 8vo, profusely illustrated. 

The Cruise of the Betsey ; or, A Summer Ramble among the 
Fossiliferous Deposits of the Hebrides. With Rambles of a 
Geologist; or, Ten Thousand miles over the Fossiliferous 
Deposits of Scotland. Edinburgh, 1858. 8vo. Posthumous. 

He also contributed an account of the geology of the Bass 
Rock to a work, published in 1850, having for its object a 
full description of that once celebrated state prison. 

A Sketch Book of Popular Geology. Posthumous. Edited 
oy his widow. Being Lectures delivered before the Philoso- 
phical Institution of Edinburgh. With an Introductory Pre- 
face. By Mrs. Miller. Edinburgh, 1859, 8vo. 

On Mr. Miller's widow government settled a 
pension of £70, and on his aged mother at Crom- 
arty, one of £30 



MILNE, Colin, LL.D., a writer on botany, 
born at Aberdeen in 1744. He became tutor to 
Lord Algernon Percy, younger son of the duke 
of Northumberland, and entered into holy orders. 
He was afterwards rector of North Chapel, in 
Essex, and also obtained the lectureship of Dept- 
ford. He received the degree of LL.D. from Mar- 
ischal college, Aberdeen, and was likewise D.D. 
and F.L.S. He died in 1815. His works are : 

Botanical Dictionary ; or, Elements of Systematic and 
Philosophical Botany. London, 1770, 8vo. 2d edit. 1777, 
8vo. A Supplement. 1778, 8vo. 3d edit, revised, corrected, 
and enlarged, 25 plates. London, 1805, 8vo. 

Institutes of Botany. In two parts. London, 1770-72, 
4to. Supplement to the same. 1778, 4to. 

The Boldness and Freedom of Apostolic Evidence ; a Ser- 
mon. 1775, 8vo. 

Sermon preached at the Anniversary Meeting of the Royal 
Linna;an Society. 1779, 8vo. 

Sermons. London, 1780, 8vo. 

Indigenous Botany, or Habitations of English Plants. 
Vol. i. Lond. 1793, 8vo. In conjunction with Alex. Gordon. 

MILNE, William, D.D., a distinguished mis- 
sionary to the Chinese, was born of poor parents, 
in the parish of Kinnethmont, Aberdeenshire, in 
April 1785. He received his education at the 
parish school, and afterwards resided in one or 
two families in the capacity of a servant. He 
early began to entertain religious impressions, and 
having read the Transactions of the London Mis- 
sionary Society, and the Life of David Brainerd 
and of Samuel Pearce, he was induced to offer 
himself to that society as a missionary. In con- 
sequence he was called up to England, and put 
under the care of the Rev. David Bogne at Gos- 
port, with whom, having gone through a regular 
course of study, and made great progress both in 
classical and theological knowledge, he was or- 
dained at Portsea, July 16, 1812. 

Soon after he was appointed colleague to Mr. 
Morrison in China, and having married a young 
lady in his native county, he sailed with his wife 
from Portsmouth, September 4, 1812, and arrived 
at Macao, July 4, 1813. He immediately com- 
menced the study of the Chinese language, but 
was soon compelled by the Portuguese authorities 
to proceed to Canton. After remaining there a 
short time, he made a tour through the chief set- 
tlements of the Malay Archipelago for the purpose 
of distributing tracts and New Testaments, and 
afterwards returned to China. In April 1815 he 



MINTO. 



170 



MITCHELL. 



embarked with his family for Malacca to take 
charge of the missionary establishment at that 
place, where he also preached once a- week to the 
Dutch protestants. On application to the gover- 
nor at Penang, a grant was made of ground for 
the erection of missionary buildings, and a free 
press was allowed at Malacca. Having esta- 
blished a school for the instruction of the children 
of the poor, he composed for his Chinese scholars 
the Youth's Catechism, and printed various tracts 
for their use. He also translated into the Chinese 
language a part of the Old Testament, of which 
the Book of Deuteronomy, after being revised by 
Mr. Morrison, was printed in 1816. In May 1817 
Mr. Milne commenced ' The Chinese Gleaner,' a 
periodical work containing extracts from the cor- 
respondence of the Eastern missionaries, with 
miscellaneous notices relative to the philosophy 
and mythology of the Indo-Chinese nations. In 
September 1818 Malacca was by treaty restored 
to the Dutch government, and on November 10 of 
the same year the foundation stone was laid of the 
Anglo-Chinese college, on which occasion both 
the English and Dutch authorities attended. 

Previous to this period, Mr. Milne, along with 
Mr. Morrison, had received from the university of 
Glasgow the degree of D.D., which had been 
granted them December 24, 1817. In March 
1819 he had to mourn the loss of his wife. In 
November of the same year the whole of the Old 
Testament, translated by him and his colleague, 
was completed, Dr. Milne having undertaken the 
historical portions, and Dr. Morrison the books of 
Solomon and the Prophets. In 1820 Dr. Milne 
published ' A Retrospect of the First Ten Years 
of the Protestant Mission to China,' in which he 
gives an interesting account of the history of that 
country, its manners, its morals, and its religion, 
and of the various attempts to introduce the know- 
ledge of the gospel into that benighted land. Af- 
ter suffering much from the effects of the climate, 
Dr. Milne died at Malacca, 1822, at the age of 
37, leaving four children. 

Mesto, earl of, a title in the peerage of Great Britain con- 
nected with Scotland, see vol. ii. p. 132, article Elliot. 



Mitchell, a surname from the Anglo-Saxon Michel, sig- 
nifying great ; or it may be from the German Mil schuler, a 
disciple, literally " with a school." The Danish Mod-schiold. 



means courage-shield. The crest of the Mitchells is a hand 
holding a pen ; motto, Favente deo supero. 

MITCHELL, Sir David, an eminent naval 
commander, in the reign of William III., was de- 
scended from a respectable family in Scotland, 
where he was born about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. He early entered the navy, and 
after the intermediate steps he was promoted to 
the command of the Elizabeth, of 70 guns. At 
the battle of Beachy-head he behaved with great 
gallantry; and in 1693 he was appointed rear- 
admiral of the blue. In 1694 he was knighted, 
and about the same time attained the rank of 
rear-admiral of the red. In 1698, when Peter the 
Great was invited by King William to visit Lon- 
don, Admiral Mitchell was commissioned to bring 
him over to England, and after a stay of three 
months he conveyed him back to the Continent. 
He was subsequently sent to Holland, on a diplo- 
matic commission. He died soon after his return 
to England, June 1, 1710. 

MITCHELL, Sir Andrew, an able diploma- 
tist, was the only son of the Rev. William Mit- 
chell, originally of Aberdeen, and latterly one of 
the ministers of the High Church of Edinburgh. 
The date of his birth is not specified, but he is 
said to have been married in 1715, when very 
young, to a lady, who died four years after in 
childbirth, and whose loss he felt so deeply as to 
be obliged to discontinue the study of the law, foi 
which his father had designed him, and divert his 
grief by travelling. In 1741 he was appointed 
secretary to the marquis of Tweeddale, minister 
for the affairs of Scotland, and in 1747 was elect- 
ed M.P. for the Banff district of burghs. On the 
death of Thomson the poet in 1748, he and Lord 
Lyttleton were named his executors. 

In 1751 he was nominated his majesty's repre- 
sentative at Brussels, where he resided for two 
years. Soon after his return to London in 1753 
he was created a knight of the Bath, and appoint- 
ed ambassador extraordinary to the court of Prus- 
sia, where, by his abilities and address, he suc- 
ceeded in detaching his Prussian majesty from the 
French interest. At Berlin he was much cele- 
brated for the liveliness of his conversation and 
the readiness of his repartees, and he became so 
much a favourite with the Great Frederick that 



MITCHELL, 



171 



SIR THOMAS LIVINGSTONE. 



he usually accompanied him in his campaigns-. In 
consequence of bad health he returned to England 
in 1765, and spent some time at Tunbridge Wells. 
In the following year he resumed the duties of his 
office at Berlin, where he died, January 28, 1771. 
The court of Prussia honoured his funeral with 
their presence, and the king himself, from a bal- 
cony, is said to have beheld the procession with 
cears. 

MITCHELL, Joseph, a dramatist and third- 
rate poet, was the son of a stone-cutter, and was 
born about 1684. He received a university edu- 
cation, and is described as " one of a club of small 
wits who, about 1719, published at Edinburgh, a 
very poor miscellany, to which Dr. Young, the 
well-known author of the 'Night Thoughts,' pre- 
fixed a Copy of Verses." He afterwards repaired 
to London, where he was fortunate enough to ob- 
tain the patronage of the earl of Stair and Sir 
Robert Walpole : on the latter of whom he was 
for a great part of his life almost entirely depend- 
ent, and was styled " Sir Robert Walpole's Poet." 
His dissipation and extravagance, however, kept 
him constantly in a state of distress ; and having 
on one occasion applied to Aaron Hill for some 
pecuniary assistance, that gentleman made him a 
present of his tragedy of ' The Fatal Extrava- 
gance,' which was acted and published in Mit- 
chell's name, and produced him a considerable 
sum. He was candid enough, however, to inform 
the public who was the real author of the piece, 
and ever after gratefully acknowledged his obli- 
gations to Mr. Hill. A collection of Mitchell's 
Miscellaneous Poems, in two volumes 8vo, was 
published in 1729 ; and in 1731 he brought out 
4 The Highland Fair, a Ballad Opera,' which was 
his own composition. He died 6th February, 
1738. 

He was the author of several popular Scottish 
songs, inserted in Johnson's Musical Museum, 
particularly • Leave Kindred and Friends, sweet 
Betty,' adapted to the tune of ' Blink over the 
Burn, sweet Betty,' and ' By Pinkie House oft let 
me walk,' also ' As Sylvia in a Forest lay.' To 
the air of Pinkie House he also wrote another 
6ong, beginning ' As lovesick Croydon beside a 
murmuring rivulet lay,' which is printed in Watt's 
Musical Miscellany, vol. v. London, 1731. The 



ballad called the ' Duke of Argyle's Levee,' usu- 
ally ascribed to Lord Binning, was written by 
Mitchell. 

MITCHELL, Sir Andrew, a gallant admiral, 
was born in Scotland about 1757, and received his 
education at Edinburgh. In 1776 he accompanied 
Admiral Sir Edward Vernon to India as a mid- 
shipman, and during his services in the East, he 
was rapidly advanced to the rank of post-captain 
At the conclusion of the war, he returned to Eng- 
land with a convoy, and on the breaking out of 
hostilities with the French republic, he was ap- 
pointed to the command, first of the Asia, 64, and 
then of the Impregnable, 90. In 1795 he became 
a rear-admiral; and in 1799, on being promoted 
to the rank of vice-admiral of the White, he 
hoisted his flag on board the Zealand, 64, from 
which ship he removed to the Isis, 50, in which 
he joined Lord Duncan off the coast of Holland. 
At the end of August he entered the Texel, where 
the Dutch fleet surrendered to him without firing 
a shot. For this service he was made a knight ot 
the Bath. In 1802 he was appointed commander- 
in-chief on the coast of America. He died at 
Bermuda, February 26, 1806. 

MITCHELL, Sir Thomas Livingstone, 
D.C.L., a distinguished Australian explorer, was 
born in 1792. He was the eldest son of John Mit- 
chell, Esq., of Grangemouth, descended from the 
Mitchells of Craigend, one of the oldest families in 
Stirlingshire, which took the additional name of 
Livingstone. Entering the army as lieutenant of 
the 95th Rifles, now the Rifle Brigade, at an early 
age, he passed through the most active period of 
the Peninsular War. After 1815 he was sent into 
Spain and Portugal to survey the different fields 
of battle in those countries. This service he suc- 
cessfully accomplished, and several of his models 
may be seen in the United Service Institution, 
London. About 1827 he was, by George IV., 
appointed surveyor-general of New South Wales. 
To this arduous service he devoted the remaining 
twenty-eight years of his life. He cut all the 
passes which lead through the mountains to the 
interior of the Australian continent; laid out up- 
wards of 200 towns and villages ; and conducted 
four expeditions of discovery, during one of which 
he conauered from the aborigines, and surveyed, 



MITCHELL, 



172 



SIR THOMAS. 



at the same time, Australia Felix, afterwards cel- 
ebrated for its gold fields. He has been deserv- 
edly called "the Cook of the Australian conti- 
nent." In 1839 he was knighted by Queen Vic- 
toria, on presenting her Majesty with a map of 
his surveys and discoveries. 

In 1838 he published, in 2 vols. 8vo, his ad- 
mirable work, entitled ' Three Expeditions into 
the Interior of Eastern Australia,' and in