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The Scottish Terrier 

Tlie Irisli Terrier 



3 9090 013 412 511 

Webster Family Library of Veterinary IWedicine 
Cummings Scliool of Veterinary [Medicine at 
Tufts University 
200 Westboro Road 
North Grafton, MA 01536 




Their History, Characteristics and Development 
to the present standard, etc. 

Compiled and Published by 



Geo. R. Willis, Printer, 8 Friend St., Boston, 


Copyright, 1S94. 




The compiler of this short essay on the Scottish Terrier 
has given nothing but what has been taken from well-known 
writers upon the breed. . His intention has been to give their 
origin, their use as both house-dogs and field- workers, and, 
in a w^ay, to answer the question so often asked, — What 
claim has the present dog seen at shows to be called a Scot- 
tish terrier ? That he is of old descent seems clearly proven. 
They have remained longer in Scotland than the old Scotch 
terrier so well known in America twenty years ago. Captain 
Mackie, who made, some years ago, a trip through the West- 
ern Highlands, to gain information about these gamey little 
dogs from men who had them for work, says : 

" Knocking about amidst uild scenery, and among Gaelic-speaking 
folks, I have come across those who looked upon me as terrier daft ; 
others fancied I was a blackguard dog-tax collector; while others recip- 
rocated my liking for the wee dog, and gave me all the information they 
possessed. It is this information, along with what I have seen, that I 


desire to convey to the reader. I cannot immor-talize the ' die-hards,' 
as Sir Walter did the Dandies ; but if I describe the types of terriers 
that I have seen, tell who they belong to, and what they are used for, I 
may be doing the breed a service." 

These notes are compiled in the same spirit as Captain 
Mackie wrote his, and with the hope that one of the best 
httle dogs will soon take the highest place among " the 
fancy," the lovers of true sport, and the general public, as 
his worth deserves. 


I ken the terrier o' the North, 

I ken the towsy tyke ; 
Ye'll search fra Tweed to Sussex' shore, 

But never find his like 

For pluck and pith, and jaw and teeth, 

And hair,like heather cowes, 
^Yi' body lang and low and Strang, 

At hame in cairns or knowes. 

He'll face a foumert, draw a brock, 

Kill rats and whiterits by the score ; 
He'll bang tod-lowrie frae his hole, 

Or stay him at his door. 

He'll range for days, and ne'er be tired. 

O'er mountain, moor or fell ; 
Fair play, I'll back the brave wee chap 

To fecht the de'il himsel'. 

And yet beneath his rugged coat 

A heart beats warm and true ; 
He'll help to herd the sheep and kye. 

And mind the lammies, too. 

Then see him at the ingle side, 

^Vith bairnies roond him lauchin' ; 
Was ever dog sae pleased as he, 

Sae fond o' fun and daffin' .'' 

But gie's your hand, my Hielan' man, 

Guid faith ! we maunna sever ; 
Then, " Here's to Scotia's best o' dogs, 

Oor towsy tyke for ever." 

(Gordon Stables, M. I). 


D. I. Thomson Gray writes in "The Dogs of Scotland" : 

"Towards the close of the famous Skye terrier controversy in 
English journals devoted to canine subjects and field sports, and when 
the editors of the various papers through which it was dragged refused 
to print any more letters on the subject, a fresh disciission arose on the 
' Scotch ' terrier. At first the letters attracted little attention beyond 
the small circle of those interested. 

" Scottie's admirers, however, had adopted for their motto, ' Perse- 
vere and succeed,' and stuck doggedly to their purpose, and persistently 
kept writing, till they attracted attention. Although scant justice was 
often done them, and they were sometimes beaten off by editorial 
authority, they returned again and again to the charge, each time secur- 
ing some little encouragement to renew their exertions. With such 
persistency did they pursue this line of action that it was said of them, 
'they would, mite by mite, beg a cheese.' By and by the 'fanciers ' of 
what they called the pure and unadulterated Skye joined the ranks, and 
the discussion became very warm. The writers were far from agreeing 
on the type, and indulged strongly in personalities, which gained for 
them the character of cantankerous grumbling, disputatious, fighting 
Scotsmen, who had nothing to show to prove what they wrote, but 
simply wrote from pure love of argument. To judge from these letters, 
these remarks were partly justified. The writers could not agree as to 
the type ; one held that his dog was the correct type ; another that his 


dog was the only type and original ' Scotch ' terrier, and so on. To the 
uninitiated it was quite impossible, from the multitude of different 
descriptions which were given, to say what a 'Scottish terrier' should 
be. Some were described as • Scotch,' others as pure Skyes, and a third 
as Aberdeen terriers. . . . 

" To the initiated, the whole matter was clear. The dog which the 
Scottish writers were trying to get established as the Scottish was the 
Highland or Cairn terrier, — the terrier of the Highlands of Scotland, — 
known in some parts as the short-coated Skye, a sub-division of which 
is the Aberdeen terrier. 

" For years previous to the commencement of the ' dispute ' in 
question, we had these terriers from Mr. McDonald, Dunvegan, Skye, 
and formed a high opinion of them. Our previous experience, how- 
ever, would not allow us to call them the ^Scottish terrier, which, as 
recognized in the Lowlands of Scotland, was a leggier dog, more 
resembling the present type of Irish terrier. On this account, we 
objected at first to the name Scottish terrier being applied to them ; 
and it was only after we found that the race of terriers described by old 
authors as the Scotch terrier was extinct i/i Scotland that we agreed to 
the Highland or Cairn terrier appropriating the name, as being the 
breed having the strongest claim to the title. 

" We, however, hold that the race of terriers known for many years 
in the Lowlands of Scotland as the Scotch terrier is not extinct, but 
exists under the cognomen of Lish terriers. ' Stonehenge ' was of the 
same opinion ; for he refused at first to insert a description of these 
(Irish) terriers in his book, ' The Dogs of the British Islands,' as he 
believed they in no way differed from the old Scots terrier commonly 
met with in England in the early part of the present century, and about 
which no two seem to agree. 

" ' Stonehenge,' in his early works, describes the ' Scotch ' terrier as 
closely resembling the English terrier in all but his coat, which is wiry 
and rough; and hence he is sometimes called the wire-haired terrier, — 
a name perhaps better suited to a dog which has long been naturalized 
in England, and whose origin is obscure enough. 


'•Beyond this difference in externals, there is little to be said 
distinctive of the one from the other, — the colors being the same, but 
white being more highly prized in the Southern variety, and black-and- 
tan, when more or less mixed with grey, so as to give the dog a pepper- 
and-salt appearance, being characteristic of the true Scotch terrier ; but 
there are numberless varieties in size, and in shape and color." 

Youatt confirms that the old Scots terrier was a leggy 
clog, by saying : 

" There is reason to believe that this dog (the Scotch terrier) is far 
older than the English terrier. There are three varieties : First, the 
common Scotch terrier, twelve or thirteen inches high ; his body mus- 
cular and compact; considerable breadth across the loins; the legs 
shorter and stouter than those of the English terriers. The head large 
in proportion to the size of the body; the muzzle small and pointed ; 
strong marks of intelligence in the countenance ; warm attachment to 
his master,, and the evident devotion of every power to the fulfillment 
of his wishes. The hair is long and tough, and extending over the 
whole frame. In color they are black or fawn ; the white, yellow or 
pied* are always deficient in purity of blood. 

" Another species has nearly the same conformation, but is covered 
with longer, more curly, and stouter hair, — the legs being apparently, 
but not actually, shorter. This kind of dog prevails in the greater part 
of the Western Islands of Scotland : and some of them, when the hair 
has obtained its full development, are much admired. 

" A third species of terrier is of considerably larger bulk, and three 
or four inches taller than either of the others. The hair is shorter than 
that of the other breeds, and is hard and wiry." 

An illustration of a drop-eared, leggy dog, with docked 
tail, and shaggy, curly coat, heads the article just quoted, 
which goes to show that, besides the Dandie and Skye, there 


existed at that time a dog three or four inches taller than 
either of these, and with a short, hard, and wiry coat. 

Brown, in "The Field Book," published in London, by 
Effingham Wilson, in 1833, says: 

"There are two kinds of terriers, — the rough-haired Scotch and 
the smooth English. 

" The Scotch terrier is certainly the purest in point of breed, and 
the English seems to have been produced by a cross from him. The 
Scotch terrier is generally low in stature, seldom more than twelve or 
fourteen inches in height, with a strong, muscular body, and short, stout 
legs ; his ears small, and half -pricked ; his head is rather large in pro- 
portion to the size of his body, and the muzzle considerably pointed ; 
his scent is extremely acute, so that he can trace the footsteps of all 
other animals with certainty ; he is generally of a sandy color or black. 
Dogs of these colors are certainly the most hardy, and more to be 
depended upon ; when white or pied, it is a sure mark of the impurity 
of the breed. The hair of the terrier is long, matted, and hard, over 
almost every part of his body. His bite is extremely keen. There are 
three distinct varieties of the Scotch terrier, viz. : The one above 
described. Another, about the same size and form, but with hair much 
longer, and somewhat flowing, which gives his legs the appearance of 
being very short. This is the prevailing breed of the Westerji Islands 
of Scotland. The third variety is much larger than the former two, 
being generally from fifteen to eighteen inches in height, with the hair 
very hard and wiry, and much shorter than that of the others." 

Mr. Hugh Dalzeil, a Scotchman, born in Kirkcudbridge- 
shire, and author of "British Dogs," writes, at the time 
when the dispute was going on, and before anything definite 
as to type had been agreed upon : 

" . . . . The old hard and short-haired ' terry ' of the West of 
Scotland, as I recollect him when a boy, was much nearer in shape to a 


modern fox-terrier, but with shorter and rounder head; the color of 
their hard, wiry coat, mostly sandy; the face free from long hair, 
although some showing a beard ; and the small ears, carried in most 
instances semi-erect, in some pricked. The true old Scotch terrier 
should be a stoutly-built dog, leggy in comparison with the Skye, 
Dandle or Aberdeen, varying in size, as all breeds little cared for do, 
but easily to be kept near to a standard of fifteen pounds to eighteen 
pounds, which I hold to be the most useful for a working 'varmint' 
dog, even if he is not wanted to go to ground. 

"The head rather short, and the skull somewhat round; the jaws 
being strong, and also short, more or less bearded; a long, lean punish- 
ing jaw, as the phrase goes, is a modern feature in terriers of any variety, 
and the idea is often carried to great excess. 

" The eyes bright and keen, piercing through short, shaggy hair. 

" The ears small, covered with soft, short hair, semi-erect, falling 
over at the tip. 

'• The neek short and strong. 

"The ehest moderately deep; ribs strong, the back ones fairly 
developed; the back short as a fox-terrier's, with strong loins and 
good, muscular, square buttocks. 

" The legs stout, well covered with hard hair; stifles only moderately 
bent; forelegs straight, all covered with hard, short hair; the feet com- 
pact, and hard in the sole, and the claws strong. 

'•The tail, if undocked, eight inches to ten inches long, bush-like, 
not fringed, the covering being hard hair. 

'• The prevailing eolor sandy ; sometimes a dark grizzle ; and I have 
occasionally seen them brindled. 

" The coat hard and very dense, from one inch, or rather less than 
two inches, in length at the greatest. 

" I give the above, written from memory, as a rough description of 
the Scotch terrier, as kept by my father, and such as were commonly 
met with in the West of Scotland some forty years ago." 

Whinstone again quotes Myrick's " House Dogs and 


Sporting Dogs," and says the following ludicrous description 
of a " Scotch 

'• I'he Scotch terrier is a shorter-legged and generally a heavier dog 
than either of the preceding varieties [Bull, English, and Fox-terrier]. 
He is equally plucky and clever, but not so active; and from this, and 
his thicker coat, is not so serviceable in hunting rabbits. His hair is 
long and matted, and often soft and silky. His color is usually a rich 
black and tan, sometimes mixed with grey ; it is impossible to look at 
his coat and color, and not suspect a cross with the collie. 

" In height he is seldom over fourteen inches, but sometimes weighs 
more than sixteen or eighteen pounds. There are innumerable varieties 
of this breed. . . ." 

"We have quoted these authors, — we cannot say authorities, after 
Myrick's description, — to show that the old Scottish terrier was a leggy 
dog; but we do not lean entirely on them for support, knowing how 
unsicker some of their foundations are, but from what we have seen 
with our own eyes, and what we have heard from the lips of old sports- 
men and game-keepers who knew this breed in all its beauty. 

" The usual color of the old Scottish terrier was sandy. No other 
word is so expressive of the color, and will be readily understood by all 
Scotsmen. There were other colors, such as grizzle and brindle ; sandy 
was the popular one. They were not bred for 'fancy,' but for work ; 
consequently the carriage of ears, and other little 'points of beauty,' so 
greatly insisted upon by ' fanciers,' were ignored, and only the sterling 
qualities of the animal prized. If he could kill rats, draw a badrer, 
and face a cat without flinching, he was termed a terrier; if not, he v. as 
a ' guid-for-naething, useless brute,' looked upon with contempt and 
disgust, and often. I am sorry to say, kicked for his cowardice. Tiiat 
was before the days of dog-shows, and when the worth of a dog \ as 
according to the abilities he displayed at his work, — that of the terriers 
being the extinction of vermin. With the extinction of such vermin as 
the wild-cat, brocks (badgers), etc., in the Lowlands of Scotland, the old 
race of terriers gradually died out. Being leggy, they were not so well 


suited for hunting cairns, or going to ground after vermin, as the High- 
land terrier, and consequently were seldom met with out of the Lowlands. 
While possessing all the good qualities of terriers generally, their one 
great distinguishing character was their undying affection for their 
master. . . . 

" The breed is now extinct in Scotland. wSome years ago we 
endeavored to ascertain whether any of the old breed were still extant ; 
but we only came across two very old dogs, one of which was blind. 
Both have since joined their predecessors. Those who take an interest 
in the old breed, may find their counterpart in the Irish terrier, which is 
very highly spoken of as a sportsman's dog and companion." 

Previous to 1879, the type of terrier now recognized as 
the Scottish terrier was comparatively unknown. This is not 
surprising, when we recollect that they were in the hands of 
sportsmen, fox-hunters, game-keeps and crofters living in 
remote parts of the Highlands and islands of Scotland, far 
removed from the influence of dog show^s, and having little 
communication with the world. Many families in the High- 
lands seem to have had a strain of their own, of which they 
were proud on account of their gameness and pluck. This 
breed was first made prominent and popular over the border 
by Messrs. Ludlow and Blomfield, in 1883. 

Mr. Rawdon B. Lee says, in his book, "Modern Dogs" 
(Terriers), Chap. XL : 

" From what I have been told, and from what I have read, I believe 
that this little dog is the oldest variety of the canine race indigenous to 
North Britain, although but a comparatively recent introduction across 
the border and into fashionable society, — at any rate, under his present 

" For generations he had been a popular dog in the Highlands, 
where, strangely enough, he was always known as the Skye terrier, 


although he is so different from the long-coated, unsporting-like looking 
creature with which that name is now associated. . . . 

" Our little friend has, perhaps, been rather unfortunate so far as 
nomenclature is concerned ; for, after being called a Skye terrier, he 
became known as the Scotch terrier, the Scots terrier, and the Highland 
terrier; then others dubbed him the cairn terrier and the die-hard; 
whilst another move was made to give him the distinguishing appella- 
tion of Aberdeen terrier. Now he has been thoroughly wound up, and 
I suppose to suit those persons of teetotal proclivities who connected 
the word ' Scotch ' with the national liquor called whiskey, has devel- 
oped into the Scottish terrier. As such he is known in the Stud Books, 
and is acknowledged as of that name by the leading Scotch, or Scottish, 
authorities on the variety. Well, he is a game, smart, perky little terrier, 
and I do not think that his general excellence and desirability as a com- 
panion are likely to suffer from the evolutions his name has undergone. 
Years ago, before dog-shows were invented, any cross-bred creature was 
called a Scotch terrier, especially if he appeared to stand rather higher 
on the legs than the ordinary terrier ; if he were on short legs, he was 
an ' otter terrier.' 

" Of the original Scottish terriers, some there were with semi-erect 
ears ; others with prick ears. 

" The prick ears are acknowledged now as the more fashionable? 
though I fancy years ago the semi-prick ear was the more common. 
However, the fact must not be overlooked that, as puppies, the ears are 
usually carried thrown back or forwards, — some even not attaining the 
correct and erect position until six or eight months old. The hard, crisp 
coat, too, does not always appear until the puppy is casting its first set 
of teeth ; and this hard coat is a sine qmi non, and no prize ought to be 
given to any Scottish terrier unless the coat is thoroughly hard and 
strong, and crisp and close, — it is the hard-haired Scottish terrier, 
a fact which some judges have sadly overlooked. Another defect, 
too, common and often overlooked, is to be found in the bat-like 
ears, with round tips, which some breeders consider to point to a 
cross with an impure strain. However, they are very unsightly, and 


ought to act as a very severe handicap on dogs possessmg such aural 

" The Scottish terrier, in character and disposition, is charming ; as 
a companion, most sensible and pleasant. He has no unpleasant smell 
from his coat, nor does he carry so much cUrt into the house from the 
streets of the town and from country lanes as a terrier lower on the 
legs. Another advantage he possesses is, that he is not so quarrelsome 
with other dogs as many terriers are. 

" He will fight, and punish freely, too, when he is attacked and 
really has to defend himself ; but the few that I have owned were slow 
to set about it. But when they did ! I never saw such little dogs with 
such big teeth, and which could make such big holes in the legs and 
ears of a bigger opponent." 

They will go to water well, and to ground likewise. In 
fact, are bred to do all kinds of hard work both above and 

Mr. Thomson Gray says, in " Dogs of Scotland" : 

" The greatest difficulty is to get straight legs and ears tight up. 

" My idea of a first-class specimen is a very game, hardy-looking 
terrier, stoutly built, with great bone and substance ; deep in chest and 
back rib, straight back, powerful quarters, on short, muscular legs; 
and exhibiting, in a marked degree, a great combination of strength and 
activity. Terriers built on such lines are very active in their move- 
ments ; and for going a distance, or taking a standing leap, I do not 
believe there is any short-legged breed of terrier can equal them. 

" The coat should be one and one-half inches long, thick, dense, 
lying close, and very hard, with plenty of soft under coat ; tail straight, 
carried well up, well covered with hair, but not bushy ; the ears should 
be as small and as sharp-pointed as possible, well carried forward, and 
giving the dog a ' varmint ' appearance. The skull should not be too 
narrow, being in proportion to the terribly powerful jaw, but must 
be narrow between the ears, these being carried well up. If carried 


sluggishly, they spoil the appearance of the dog's head. The eyes 
should be small and deep-set ; muzzle long and tapering, and, as already 
stated, very powerful ; teeth extra large for size of dog, and level." 

" The Scottish terrier can be steel or iron gray, brindle or grizzled, 
black or sandy and wheaten. The black-brindle seems to be the most 
fashionable ; but the dark brindles are not seen as clearly in the dark as 
are lighter colors. White markings are most objectionable ; but still, 
some of the best working dogs of this breed have been marked with 
white. Dogs should be of seventeen pounds to eighteen pounds, and 
bitches of fifteen pounds to sixteen pounds in weight. There has been 
a great cry, of late, in regard to straightening the legs of these terriers. 

Mr. Thomson Gray says, in regard to this : 

" While I am in favor of having the legs as straight as possible, I 
would not sacrifice bone and muscle to get this point, or make it a sine 
qua lion in judging, as most, if not all, of the best terriers of this l^reed 
are a little bent, and any really straight-legged specimens I have seen 
have been deficient in bone, inclined to be leggy and shelly in build. 
Now, it must be kept in mind that the Scottish terrier is, first of all, a 
compact, firmly-built terrier, showing extraordinary strength for his size; 
and to lose these attributes is to lose the strongest points in the breed. 
Straight legs may be made a fad as much as any other point, and 
fanciers are apt to run on one point to the detriment of the rest, thus 
spoiling the even balance of the whole dog." 

H. J. Ludlow, one of the oldest admirers of this breed, 
and also, we might say, champion in regard to straight 
fore-legs, gives this description of the Scottish terrier, in 
the catalogue of the dog show held in Toronto, Canada, 
September, 1893 : 

"Head long, with very powerful jaw; eyes small, keen, and dark 
in color; ears prick, set close together, and carried well up; neck short 
and muscular. Body fairly short, well-ribbed back, with plenty of bone; 


upper coat very hard, and not too long ; under coat shorter and softer. 
The tout ensemble should convey universal strength and activity, but 
with no approach to racing lines." 

"During the 'straight-legged' war, a well-known scientist at the 
Natural History Museum, South Kensington, on being asked his opin- 
ion as to the crooked legs now found on many varieties of the dog, 
said: 'The outward curve of the fore limbs (and I suppose of the 
Scottish terrier, although I do not know them so well,) is an inherited 
deformity, unlike anything in nature.' " 

Mr. Ludlow writes : 

" I take it that if Nature thought bent fore-legs were a necessary 
formation for animals that depend upon burrowing for their safety, — 
nay, for their very existence, — she would have produced the requisite 
curve in at least some of them. I am satisfied to have Nature for my 
guide in breeding ; and so long as I produce terriers that have to follow 
and do to death these straight-legged diggers, I shall be content with 
the spades that I find she has supplied her creatures with, rather than 
run after the ' inherited deformities ' that some prejudiced persons go 
rabid over. Looking at the question from a show point of view, there 
can be no doubt that a terrier with straight fore-legs is a more taking 
animal, than one with crooked limbs; and, for that reason alone, 
Scottish terriers are, sooner or later, bound to be bred with fronts as 
straight as those of the animals they are taught to look upon as their 
hereditary foes." 

The Scottish Terrier Club, estabUshed in 1889, has for 
its Secretary Mr. A. McBrayne Irvine, and there is also a 
Scottish Terrier Club for England, — the older establishment 
of the two, — of which Mr. H. J. Ludlow is Secretary. The 
description of the dog, issued by the former, is as follows : 

'' Skull (value 5) — Proportionately long, slightly domed, 
and covered with short, hard hair, about three-quarters of 


an inch long, or less. It should not be quite tiat, as there 
should be a sort of stop, or drop, between the eyes. 

"■Muzzle (value 5) — Very powerful,' and gradually taper- 
ing towards the nose, which should always be black, and of 
good size. The jaws should be perfectly level, and the 
teeth square, though the nose projects somewhat over the 
mouth, which gives the impression of the upper jaw being 
longer than the under one. 

'^ Eyes (value 5) — Set wide apart, of a dark brown or 
hazel color ; small, piercing, very bright, and rather sunken. 

''Ears (value 10) — Very small, prick or half-prick (the 
former is preferable), but never drop ; they should also be 
sharp-pointed, and the hair on them should not be long, but 
velvety, and they should not be cut. The ears should be 
free from any fringe at the top. 

'-'■ N'eck (value 5) — Short, thick, and muscular, strongly 
set on sloping shoulders. 

" Chest (value 5) — Broad in comparison to the size of 
the dog, and proportionately deep. 

''Body (value 10) — Of moderate length, not so long as 
a Skye's, and rather fiat-sided ; but well ribbed up, and 
exceedingly strong in hind quarters. 

"Legs and feet (value 10) — Both fore and hind legs 
should be short, and very heavy in bone, the former being 
straight or slightly bent, and well set on under the body, as 
the Scottish terrier should not be out at the elbows. The 
hocks should be bent, and the thighs very muscular ; and 
the feet strong, small, and thickly covered with short hair. 


the fore-feet being larger than the hind ones, and well let 
down on the ground. 

" Tail (value 2^) — Which is never cut, should be about 
seven inches long ; carried with a slight bend, and often gaily. 

''Coat (value 15) — Should be rather short (about two 
inches), intensely hard and wiry in texture, and very dense 
all over the body. 

'•'Size (value \6\ — ^ About sixteen pounds to eighteen 
pounds for a bitch, eighteen pounds to twenty pounds for 
a dog. 

" Colors (value 2tV) — Steel or iron grey, brindle or 
grizzled, black, sandy and wheaten. White markings are 
objectionable, and can only be allowed on the chest, and 
that to a small extent. 

" General Appearance (value 10) — The face should bear 
a very sharp, bright, and active expression, and the head 
should be carried up. llie dog (owing to the shortness of 
his coat) should appear to be higher on the leg than he 
really is ; but, at the same time, he should look compact, 
and possessed of great muscle in his hind-quarters. In 
fact, a Scottish terrier, though essentially a terrier, cannot 
be too powerfully put together. He should be from nine 
inches to twelve inches in height. 


" Muzzle — Either under or over-hung. 
'■'■ Eyes- — Large or light colored. 

"Ears — Large, round at the points or drop. It is also 
a fault if they are too heavily covered with hair. 



'■'■ Coat — Any silkiness, wave, or tendency to curl is a 
serious blemish, as is also an open coat, 

''Size — Specimens over eighteen pounds should not be 


Skull . 
Eyes . 
Neck . 
Chest . 
Body . 









Eegs and 

Tail 2\ 

Coat 15 

Size 10 

Colors 24- 

General Appearance . . 10 

50 i 
Grand Total, 100. 

Mr. Lee adds : 

•• I need scarcely say that the teeth must be large, powerful, and 
white ; and being undershot, even in the slightest degree, should ensure 
disqualitication. An overshot or pig-jawed mouth ought to be a severe 
handicap, and, if very pronounced, likewise disqualification." 

The following is from an article or extract from " A 
Paper," published in England, headed "The Scotch Ter- 
rier," and written by Hugh Dalzeil. The whole of Mr. 
DalzeiTs article is not quoted, as the compiler of this short 
sketch of Scottish Terriers does not intend to give any 
especial strain or any particular kennel a boom : 

" Scotland is prolific in terriers, and for the most part these are 
long-backed and short-legged dogs. Such are the Dandie Dinmont, the 
Skye, and the Aberdeen terrier, the last now merged in the class recog- 
nized at our shows as the Scotch terrier; Ijut the old, hard and short- 


haired 'terry' of the West of Scotland, as we recollect him when a boy, 
was much nearer in shape to a modern fox-terrier, though with a shorter 
and rounder head, the color of his hard, wiry coat mostly sandy, the 
face free from long hair, although some showing a beard, and the small 
ears carried in most instances semi-erect ; in some, pricked. 

" The descriptions given by those eininent writers, Youatt, Richard- 
son, and • Stonehenge,' are in practical agreement, and apply to the kind 
of terrier we have spoken of as within our own recollection. There 
has, however, been of late years a re-arrangement of classes of terriers, 
and it is the sorts that have come uppermost, and are now recognized 
by the several clubs and show authorities, with which we have to deal. 

" The dogs now recognized as Scotch terriers are closely allied to 
the Skye terrier, and, by a number of gentlemen of Skye and the South- 
west Highlands, were at one time called Skye terriers. We suggested 
that, as they presented sufficiently distinctive characteristics, they might 
form a distinct class at our shows, under the name of ' Highland ter- 
riers.' The idea, but not the name, has been adopted ; and, indeed, the 
name has given rise to some discussion. ' Cairn terrier' was suggested, 
but not generally adopted, and they have been called the ' Die-hards.' 

" ' WTiinstone ' insists on the breed being called the Scottish 
terrier. This seems to us to be a case of unnecessary hair-splitting. 
Under the words ' Scots ' and • Scottish,' Dr. Ogilvie refers those who 
consult this dictionary to 'Scotch,' which, he says, 'is the established 
word.' As long as we get Scotch collops from Scotch bullocks, and 
.Scotch whiskey from Scotch barley, to aid the digestion of the collops, 
we may surely have Scotch terriers ; and, at all events, the terrier under 
any name will bite as sore. 

"Mr. J. Gordon Murray, in the first edition of 'British Dogs,' 
described three strains of these terriers, according to the localities in 
which they were reared, and, as will be seen, differing only in minor 
points. Of these he says : 

■' ' The Mogstad Skyes were of a dark greyish color, with wiry hair 
from three inches to three and a half inches long, with body low but 
long, and measuring well in girth ; legs stout and short, and well pro- 


vided with very strong claws ; the greater part prick-eared, and all of 
them excellent workers. 

•' ' The Drynocks are another very splendid breed of the original 
pure Skyes, closely resembling the common Scotch seal in color; short, 
wiry hair, with body of a medium size, a good deal like the Mogstads, 
and all of them first-rate workers. 

" ' The Camusennaries are another famous breed of the very real 
and pure Skye terriers, and derive their name from a wild and moun- 
tainous tract of land in Skye, extending from Coirnisk on the west to 
the Spar Cave on the east. The breed was originally reared there by a 
Lieutenant Macmillan, long passed away ; the whole of them short, 
wiry-haired, like the afore-named breeds ; color almost always dark all 
over, middle part of hair in many instances grey, but again dark next 
the skin, no white on feet or chest ; a thin, medium-sized prick ear, and 
very pointed; and in every third or fourth litter a reddish-yellow one.' 

" Among Scotch fanciers Captain Mackie did a great deal towards 
improving the breed, though his first love was for a dog of a type not 
now recognized, namely, the long, low, bat-eared Skye form. He was a 
man of remarkable force and energy, and, as is often the case with such 
men, of a singularly frank and generous disposition. On the subject of 
this terrier he was an enthusiast, and undertook voyages among the 
Hebrides, and long and arduous journeys through the Western High- 
lands, collecting information, and purchasing the best specimens of the 
breed procurable, from the oldest known strains. The story of at least 
one of these journeys of discovery is excellently told in the ' Dogs of 
Scotland,' to which we refer readers for details. The result was, that 
Captain Mackie soon got together a kennel of these Highland terriers 
of acknowledged superiority. 

" As .companion dogs of the terrier Uibe, the Die-hards possess 
qualities that recommend them to many. They are hardy and plucky, 
will stand any weather, and are good for any amount of sport. Dis- 
posed to be impetuous and self-willed, they often require more than 
ordinary care in training ; hut that is well repaid, for the material is 
good to work upon. Another advantage to many people is that. — the 


coat being of a length and quality that does not long hold wet and 
dirt, — they can be allowed a place on the hearth-rug or door-mat ; and 
those who want a dog, of whatever breed, to be really obedient, lovable, 
and well-behaved, cannot have the animal too much with them. 

" With regard to the popularity of the Scotch terrier in this country, 
this is undoubted, and no better proof can be adduced than that afforded 
by their numbers at big canine gatherings of the present day. Take the 
late Kennel Club Show, at which Scottish terriers took sixth on the list 
in the matter of entries ; while amongst the different breeds registered 
at Cleveland Row, during 1893, they occupy a similarly high position in 
the list. One has but to carry one's mind back even a decade ago, to 
fully recognize the headway the compact little tyke has made in the 
fancy. Though in this respect, of course, not to be compared with the 
Fox-terrier and one or two other breeds that might be instanced, yet he 
has made a bold bid for the favor of the dog-fancying public ; and 
the measure of success attained could hardly have been anticipated by 
even the dog's warmest admirers." 


Scattered throughout different mountainous parts of 
Scotland, there are immense cairns of stones, where the 
fox takes up his abode ; and it is to drive Reynard from 
his retreat among these stones that the terriers are em- 

In olden times, each district had its tod-hunter, and, as 
will be seen from Captain Mackie's interesting notes ("Dogs 


of Scotland," Whinstone), that functionary still exists in 
different parts of the Highlands. 

The following graphic description of the tod-hunter and 
his gang, with their modus operandi, was given by a corres- 
pondent in a letter to the " Fanciers' Gazette " : 

" In many districts of Elgin, Aberdeen, and Nairn, foxes were a 
great scourge. Lambs, sheep, and poultry, were frequently taken by 
them in open day, and I have known as many as twenty lambs slaugh- 
tered in one night. I can remember being in a certain church, where, 
after sermon and before the blessing was pronounced, the precenter. — 
/. c, the leader of the singing (Lord love you ' such singing then in the 
auld kirk), — rose up and exclaimed: ' N oo, lads, min', we're gaun tae 
hunt the tod on Tiesday ; be a' up at tae laird's house in guid time^ and 
Johnie Eraser's comin' wi' a' his doogs.' This last was quite a character 
in his way. He hailed from Glenlivet, and well I mind on ould Johnie's 
dogs. He had a few hounds, — large, heavy-headed animals, much 
resembling in appearance the description given of the Irish wolf-hound ; 
they were not so fast as the present race of fox-hounds, but could stick 
to a scent a great deal better, — no losing, once on it, and the deep bay- 
ing they made, when following, was enough to frighten 'Auld Hoofy ' 
himself. In addition to these great dogs, Johnie had a few small Skyes, 
perfect devils to work, and which always kept as near to the hounds as 
possible. Several tods would frequently escape from the coverts and 
take to the hill cairns, in spite of the old. Queen Anne muskets of the 
farmers. On went the hounds, followed by old Johnie and his little 
varmints, and gunners and beaters, till they came to where the tod had 
taken refuge, frequently in some huge cairn, perhaps a quarter of a mile 
in circumference. The big dogs and Queen Annes surrounded the 
cairn, an outer line was composed of the beaters, while old Johnie 
advanced on to the boulders, and at the words, * Hie in, my darlin's 1 ' 
off they were, just like so many ferrets in a rabbit-warren, and the fox 
had either to come out and face death in a gentlemanly sort of way, or 
be killed l:)y these game little dogs." 


A terrier, to go into a fox's earth, must necessarily be 
small, and, besides being small, must be flat in the rib, to 
enable him to work his way into borrows, which he has 
often to do on his side ; and, besides these natural qualifica- 
tions, he must have the necessary pluck to tackle game, and 
force the quarry to bolt, or die in the attempt. This is just 
what the Scottish terrier will do, and it is on that account 
termed a " Die-hard." 

It is said that George, Fourth Earl of Dumbarton, had a 
famous pack of Scottish terriers, which were so noted for 
their pluck and determination, that they were termed " Die- 
hards," and that his regiment, the Royal Scots, was named 
after his favorites, '' Dumbarton's Die-hards." 




The object of this publication is to help in the endeavor 
to preserve and encourage the true type and characteristics 
of the breed of Irish terriers, and to promote its growth 
in public favor. 

Although in this country the interest in it has only just 
begun, it is to-day one of the most popular and fashionable 
breeds of terriers in England and Ireland, where it is more 
widely known and appreciated. In fact, Irish terriers are now 
one of the interesting features of England's greatest shows. 

In offering this little volume to the public, the main 
object has been to bring together, in a concentrated form, 
everything that has been said or published of the genuine 
Irish terrier, worth recording, in order to trace and focus, if 
possible, its origin and early history, as well as its develop- 
ment up to the present standard, its characteristics, utility, 
excellencies and deficiences, and thus to enable any one, and 
especially beginners, to start with some of the knowledge 
bJtherto possessed only by a few breeders and judges, who 


have made a specialty of this breed, which latter, like most 
other breeds of terriers, has to be known to be appreciated 
at its proper value. 

We fully recognize that a publication like this must 
necessarily be, in a great measure, a compilation ; and any 
attempt to prepare a work of this character without taking 
advantage, to the fullest extent, of the labors and knowledge 
of acknowledged authorities, would result in a failure. This 
treatise does not, therefore, claim to have any literary pre- 
tensions, but only to be a collection of reliable and interest- 
ing facts and records, and we take pleasure in acknowledging 
the valuable aid derived from the various authorities quoted. 

We confidently hope and believe that the more thoroughly 
the general character and merits of the different breeds of 
terriers are understood and appreciated, the less danger will 
there be in having these useful dogs degenerate into mere 
ladies' pets, — fit for the show-bench only. 


Early Histjry of the Irish Terrier. 

The early history of the Irish Terrier seems somevvhat 
vague and mixed, and opinions as to its origin seem to differ 
considerably. •' Stonehenge '" at first refused to recognize 
in his book a dog about which, at the time, no two seemed 
to agree, and which it was believed in no way differed from 
the old Scotch Terrier commonly met v;ith in the early part 
of the present century. 

In "Vero Shaw's" "Book of the Dog," Mr. George R. 
Krehl, one of the most enthusiastic admirers of the breed, 
as well as a prominent breeder and authority, is quoted as 
follows : 

•• The Irish terrier is a true and distinct breed indigenous to Ireland, 
and no man can trace its origin, which is lost in antiquity. 

'■ Mr. Ridgway, of Waterford, whose name is familiar in Irish 
terrier circles, from having drawai up the first code of points, states that 
they have been known in Ireland as long as that country has been an 
Island, and I ground my faith in their age and purity on the fact that 
there exists ' old manuscript in Irish ' mentioning the existence of the 
breed at a very remote period. In old pictures representing scenes of 
Irish life, an Irish terrier or two are often to be descried. Ballymena 
and County Wicklow may almost claim to be the birthplace of the breed. 
Most of the best specimens hail from Ballymena and the neighborhood, 
where Mr. Thomas Erwin, of Irish setter fame, boasts an extensive 



experience of this breed, and has always kept a few of the right old 
working sort for sporting purposes ; and in County Wicklow, Mr. Merry 
says it is well known that the pure breed of Irish terriers has been care- 
fully kept distinct, and highly prized for more than a century. Mr. E. F. 
Despard, whose name is well known in Irish terrier circles as a very suc- 
ces-sful breeder and exhibitor, claims an acquaintance of over forty years 
with the breed. 

" Mr. George Jameson, too, has known and kept them many years, 
and up till a little while ago had won more prizes than all the rest of the 
breeders put together. I mention these proofs of the age of the breed 
to show those who have lately come to admire them that it is not a 
made-up, composite or mushroom breed. . . ." 

From the same authority we quote : 

" Now, although they have always been Ireland's national terrier, 
yet it must be admitted, and it is only too patent, that for many years 
the breed had been much neglected, — allowed to ' grow wild,' in fact, 
and left too much in the hands of one class. I cast no reflection on 
' the foinest pisintry in Europe ' when I say that, knowing nothing of 
dog shows, they bred to no standard, and kept their dogs for work ; and 
if they thought that a cross with neighbor Mickey's dog would improve 
their own in that quality, they did not stop to inquire about pedigree. 
In this manner the breed depreciated, and Scotch and other blood crept 
in, to the injury of the pure breed; but, fortunately, when the tide in 
their favor set in, the genuine breeder found plenty of pure, unadulterated 
material to commence upon." 

Mr. R. G. Ridgway, of W'aterford, who was most promi- 
nent in the drawing up of the standard of excellence and 
code of points descriptive of the Irish terrier, claims for this 
dog a long and pure descent. He says : 

"That the Irish terrier is and has been a pure breed of dogs 
indigenous to Ireland, is a fact undoubted, and undisputed by the oldest 
fanciers and breeders still living, who can well remember the dog fifty 


or sixty years ago, and at a time before the introduction to this country 
of the Skye, Yorkshire or English Bull terrier, now so fashionable in 
many parts." 

Mr. Rawdon B. Lee, Kennel Editor of the London 
" Field," has recently published his work entitled " A His- 
tory and Description of the Modern Dogs of Great Britain 
and Ireland," and one of the volumes deals entirely with 
terriers. Here we find the following : 

" Mr. W. J. Cotton, of Blessington, County Wicklow, who has bred 
and kept Irish terriers for a great number of years, writes characteristi- 
cally of their origin as follows : 

" To Sir Walter Raleigh, through potato skins, the Irish cottier, and 
hardships, we owe the Irish terrier. When Ireland was more thickly 
inhabited, there were small parties of cottiers grouped together ; each 
had his cabbage and potato garden badly fenced, and each family spent 
the greater portion of their time round the turf hearth, watching the 
murphies boil. The circle was incomplete, and liable to be disturbed in 
their beloved indolence, without a dog, which was hissed on when the 
neighboring pig or goat invaded the boundary of the estate. A large 
dog required too much support ; one with some spice of pluck was, 
however, required in order to enforce its authority. The combination 
of Pat, pig, and potatoes, was conducive of rats, — and rats of sport and 
rivalry. As such terriers were indiscriminately bred, and all ran wild, 
the dog with the most pluck exercised the largest influence on the breed. 
We can thus imagine the pups bearing the greatest resemblance to any 
particular champion were selected ; hence in this respect the survival of 
the fittest. During the day, as described, these terriers lay at the fire, 
and at night, though the pig might be given a corner of the cabin, the 
terrier was shown the outside of the door, to guard the larder, — which 
was the potato pit, — look after the general safety of the estate, and to 
find a bed in the ditch or butt of the haycock. Generations of this 
treatment developed them into the 'pine knots' they are. 


" Driving along the roads any hour of the night, this state of things 
you Avill find still to exist, and it is a matter of wonder how the inmates 
sleep and quite ignore the choruses of howls on moonlight nights. I 
believe, myself, that the Irish garrisons distributed over the country the 
bull-dog, which was used for crossing. As many native fanciers say, to 
this day, there is nothing like a ' eras ' of the bull, and I think the Irish 
terriers' disposition largely shows it. You find them still of all types, 
long in leg, short on leg, and long in body, and ci"ooked in legs, and of 
all colors, — red, black, blue, brindle, — and those with tan legs often 
have the best coats. I know, at the present time, brindles showing 
more of the modern type, as regards length of leg and general conforma- 
tion, than the other colors. 

" There is a glen (Imaal) in the Wicklow mountains that has always 
been, and still is, justly celebrated for its terriers. It would be hard to 
specify their color in particular, — the wheaten, in all shades, to that of 
bright red. In Kerry, I think the black-blue is most prevalent; quite 
black very uncommon, and I hardly ever saw a good specimen that 
color. Mr. Chas. Galway, of Waterford, the breeder of the celebrated 
greyhound Master McGrath, tor years, long before the Irish terrier came 
into fashion, always kept and bred the variety, and I am told there was 
no getting one from him. I am also informed the coats of his terriers 
were rather inclined to curl, and that the dogs themselves were unde- 
niably game." 

On another page in the same book we find : 

"'Mr. C. J. Barnett, of Hambleden, whose name is a household 
word in connection with Irish terriers, says : ' There is no doubt that 
the Irish terrier was the common terrier of Ireland a century ago, and 
is to this day the friend and companion of the native. IJefore railways 
were introduced, inter-breeding, in certain localities, caused a type which 
might have varied slightly in certain districts. . . . 

Speaking of terriers in general, Mr. Lee says : 
" Since Stonehenge's ' Dogs of the IJritish Isles ' was first published 
(in 1867), which included the same varieties he had given eight years 


earlier, in his ' Rural Sports,' great strides have been made in the 
improvement and classification of our terriers, and the volumes of the 
Stud Book of the Kennel Club contain varieties which, by careful selec- 
tion, no doubt originally came from one stock, with the additions of 
various crosses. Our newest strains have become popularized, and as 
it were, individualized, — including the Welsh terrier, the Airedale terrier, 
the Clydesdale or I'aisley terrier, and perhaps the Scotch and Irish 
terriers (though I fancy that both these varieties are actually much older 
as such than they are usually given credit for)." 

The following notes by Mr. W. C. Bennett, of Dublin, 
will perhaps be interesting, although they go over much the 
same ground as that which we have already traversed : 

" From what I have been a]:)le to gather from those who, like myself, 
are interested in this variety of the canine race, and from what I can 
recall of early specimens. I have come to the conclusion that the present 
show terriers are a more or less ' made-up ' breed, though doubtless a 
variety of terrier existed, resembling the present dogs, somewhat as a 
half-bred filly resembles a thoroughbred mare. 

•' My first recollection of the breed dates back some thirty years, to 
a brace of bitches owned by a relative residing in Parsonstown, who 
procured them from a trainer on the Curragh. They were high on the 
leg, somewhat open in coat, and wheaten in color, and this latter is, I 
have always considered, the proper shade for the jacket of any Irish 
terrier. Most of the earlier specimens exhibited were of this hue, — 
the bright red now, or recently, so fashionable, being almost unknown. 
About the same time, or a few years later perhaps, I made the acquaint- 
ance of a rare old stamp of bitch, which was brought from the North 
of Ireland, and many a day's outing we had together. She was harder 
and closer in coat than those mentioned above, colored bright wheaten, 
and nearer in shape and character, and in all respects, to the present 
show type than anything else I saw at that period. 

" Few people in those early days gave much attention to the appear- 


ance of their terriers, and if they were game, and good at destroying rats 
and other vermin, tlrey would be kept and bred from, and as these terriers 
were principally owned by farmers and cottiers, who kept one or two 
roaming about their houses and farms, they were hardly likely to be very 
select in the matter of breeding. Even to this day, in parts of ihe coun- 
try, one comes across this old breed, as often as not with tails undocked, 
and sometimes, alas ! showing a dash of greyhound blood. Many of 
them, too, are brindled in color, and certainly smart, terrier-like animals. 

" I have several times been assured, by those from whom I sought 
information, that a special strain of Irish terriers was kept in their fam- 
ilies for generations, and they usually described them as wheaten colored, 
open coated, with long, punishing jaws; and I was shown, by a friend 
of mine (lately deceased), a game-looking wheaten-colored bitch, long 
and low on the leg, with a very open coat, long, level head, with little or 
no stop visible. 

" County Wicklow lays claim to a breed of what were so-called Irish 
terriers. They frequently showed a blue shade on the back, were long- 
in body and rather short on leg, and even so recently as the year 1887, 
a class was given at the show held in Limerick, for silver-haired Irish 
terriers, the specimens exhibited being a slate-blue color. They were 
not, to my mind, a distinct variety, nor very terrier-like in appearance ; 
and I believe the difficulty in getting a uniformity of type when breeding 
from the very best blood obtainable is proof positive that more than one 
strain was used in producing the present fashionable dog. 

" In the first collection I saw in the Exhil^ition Palace Show, held 
in Dublin early in the seventies, there were scarcely two of the same 
size or weight exhibited, and with few, very few, exceptions, they were a 
rough lot. 

"The North of Ireland was the stronghold of the Irish terriers for 
many a day, and still holds its own, with Mr. William Graham to aid it. 
Even there I should doubt if a pure descent of Irish terrier could be 
traced back for thirty years, as so long ago no one cared to go to the 
trouble of breeding them to one uniform type ; and those who used 


them for fighting purposes, crossed them with the bull terrier, to 
increase their gameness and punishing power. 

" Wexford, Dublin, and other parts, had strains of their own, and 
when classes were formed at shows, and good prizes offered, fair speci- 
mens of the old sort were to be had, which, with judicious mating, pro- 
duced a level and neat terrier; but these, as before observed, frequently 
threw back to the old stock, and sometimes a rough, open-coated puppy 
still appears in the best bred litters, differing from all his brothers and 
sisters. Strange to say, the freedom from stop, which is one of the 
characteristics of the present dog, was highly thought of in the dogs 
bred in former days, and as the ears were almost invariably cropped, it 
mattered little how they came ; but if uncut, were usually heavy and 
carried low on the head. 

" A glance at the earlier show catalogues confirms what I have 
written above as to the doubtful breeding of the earlier terriers. 

" Take the Exhibition Palace Show at Dublin in 1874. Here classes 
were divided as ' dogs and bitches exceeding nine pounds, and dogs and 
bitches under that weight.' In the former class, ten competed, and half 
that number had no pedigree assigned to them ; in the latter class, only 
three competed, — one of these, the second prize winner, having no pedi- 
gree. The following year, three classes were provided, including a 
champion class ' for winners of a first prize at any show.' Dogs over 
nine pounds and bitches over nine pounds. Four champions (save the 
mark!) competed; two had pedigrees, and the other two had none. In 
dogs over nine pounds, six competed, two only having pedigrees. Four 
bitches over nine pounds were entered, half that number having pedigrees 
and half not. 

" In the Dublin Show, in 1S78, there were even fewer competitors, 
a dog and bitch class being given, with no restrictions as to weight. In 
the former, there were four entries, and in the latter, three, but only two 
of the lot appear to be able to boast of a pedigree. 

" Does not the above prove that pedigrees, in those days, were little 
attended to.? otherwise, surely, they would be stated, if known. Some 
of the entries in these old catalogues are amusing, one entry being 


described as ' Pedigree terrier, well bred ; ' another, appropriately named 
'The Limb, this bitch has jumped off all the highest bridges in and 
about Dublin.' Needless to say, she was entered as -not for sale.' 
' Jack ' appears to have been a favorite name, and three with this cogno- 
men competed in one class ; and, oh ! ' the grumbling ' at the awards, for 
every one thought his tyke the only true and only genuine article, and 
owners were by no means loth to express their opinions in words." 

Vero Shaw gives the following account of the earlier dog 
shows at which Irish terriers appeared : 

"At Belfast, in June, 1875, ^^'' Ii'i^h Terrier Club was for the first 
time spoken of, but nothing came of it. Before this time, a discussion 
upon the points of the breed had been going on in the ' Live Stock 
Journal,' and in July, 1875, ^" illustration was given of two of Dr. Marks' 
dogs. The illustration does not, however, represent the modern type of 
Irish terrier at all ; they look like Scotch terriers with a few drops of 
Irish blood in them. They have long hair all over the head and neck, 
and it actually parts down the centre. What could be more Scotch ? . . . 
The surest sign of Scotch blood in a rough terrier is the length of hair 
on the forehead. Another thing which goes to prove the Scotch cross, 
is the vein or furrow running up the centre of the forehead. This is 
not to be met with in Irish terriers." 

The above, of course, refers to the old-fashioned Scotch 
terriers. Regarding the incompetency of the Judges at the 
Alexandra Palace Show, in December, 1878, Vero Shaw 
says : 

"The pent-up feelings of the Irish Terriers now burst forth, and 
first took shape in a petition, which was to be presented to the Kennel 
Club, praying them in future to appoint them special judges, or. failing 
that, to let the same gentlemen that had wire-haired fox terriers also 
judge Irish terriers. . . . However, seeing the support which the petition 
promised to receive, the question was raised: Why not establish a Clul) 


at once? In a week or two the Club numbered fifty, nearly half of 
which were Englishmen. Even so soon, the Irish Terrier Clul3 was one 
of the greatest successes in the dog clubs on record, and since that time 
the number and interest in it have gone on increasing." 

As will be seen from the foregoing, it is only within the 
past fifteen to twenty years that the popularity of the Irish 
terrier has come about, and, during this time, lovers of the 
breed, — those who know best its inherent good and useful 
qualities, — worked hard and patiently to gain for it public 
recognition as a distinct variety, and. labored long before 
success crowned their efforts. As stated before, previous to 
this period, the breed was much neglected, and allowed to 
degenerate, and undoubtedly Scotch and other blood crept 
in, to the injury of the pure breed. 

Of those who have done so much to popularize this 
hardy terrier, the following may be mentioned as among the 
pioneers : Messrs. Morton, Erwin, Ridgway, Montgomery, 
Jameson, Crosbee Smith and Dr. Marks, and, later, Messrs. 
A. Krehl, G. R. Krehl, Despard, Dr. Carey, Waterhouse, 
and manv others. 


The Modern Terrier and His Recent Development to the 
Present Standard. 

We quote from Mr. Lee's book : 

'•The Irish Terrier Club was estabhshed in 1879, and, proving 
unusually liberal in supporting certain shows, has no doubt done much 
to popularize the variety over which it looks. . . . The popularity of the 
Irish terrier has only come about during the past fifteen years or so. 
Dog shows have been his fortune, and the Club has no doubt assisted 
him to his high position. ... A good one will bring a hundred pounds 
any time you want to sell it. A first-class Irish terrier is worth about 
as much as a fox terrier, and, as a so-called marketable commodity, 
ranks only after the latter, the collie, and the St. Bernard in value. He 
is a favorite dog, hence his worth. ... It was as far back as about 1882 
that I was judging dogs at Belfast, and was then very much struck with 
the extraordinary character possessed by sundry Irish terriers which were 
brought into the ring. They included Mr. J. N. R. Pim's ' Erin,' perhaps 
the best all-round specimen of her race that ever lived, — - her progeny, 
' Poppy' and ' Playboy,' — and there were several other typical terriers, 
whose names do not occur to me. I became enamored of the variety, 
and then prognosticated a popular future for them should they only 
breed fairly true to character and type, and be produced with ears that 
did not recjuire cutting. That I was not far wrong is plainly in evidence, 
as the Irish terrier must certainly be placed as the second terrier in pop- 
ularity at the time I write. 

"The early volumes of the 'Kennel Club .Stud Book' did not 
contain special classes for Irish terriers, they being grouped with the 
wire-haired fox-terriers. However, in 1S76 they had a division for them- 
selves, in which there were nineteen entries, five of which were owned 
by Mr. G. Jameson, of Newtownards. To prove how the variety has 
increased since then, attention need only be called to the two hundred 


and twenty names of Irish terriers that appear in the most recent volume 
of the Stud Book published in 1S93. In 1S78 and 1879, Birmingham 
first arranged classes for Irish terriers, and in the latter year, when there 
were fifteen entries, Messrs. Carey, W. Graham, A. Krehl and G. R. 
Krehl were amongst the exhibitors in the two divisions provided. 

'• Nearly all the best terriers are descended from ' Killiney Boy,' 
bred by Mr. Burke of Queen Street, Dublin, and it is difficult to find 
one that has not some drop of his blood in his veins. This dog passed 
to a Mr. Flannigan, residing at Castlenock, which place was purchased' 
by Mr. Donnegan, Dane Street, Dublin, who found ' Killiney Boy' run- 
ning about, deserted. The dog was duly adopted, and afterward given 
to Mr. Howard Waterhouse, with whom he died a short time ago. Many 
terriers trace their union back to that dog with a bitch named ' Erin,' 
bought by Mr. W. Graham of Belfast, before being shown at Dublin in 
1S79. This bitch was perhaps the best Irish terrier ever seen, and I very 
much doubt if any terrier of to-day is her superior, if her equal. Both 
'Killiney Boy' and 'Erin' were cropped; but in their first litter there 
was a puppy born whose ears were so good that they were allowed to 
remain as Nature made them. This puppy was afterwards named ' Play 
Boy ' ; the others in the litter were ' Poppy,' • Pagan II.," Gerald,' ' Pretty 
Lass,' with ' Peggy,' who, later on, was dam of Ciarryford. This must l)e 
acknowledged as a most extraordinary litter, and such a one has seldom 
been produced at one time. 

•• • Erin ' was afterwards mated with another dog, named ' Paddy II.,' 
and -(larryowen' and 'Glory' were two of their puppies, and a bitch 
named -Jess,' who put to -Killiney Boy,' threw a dog called ' Gripper.' 
The latter was not successful at the Stud, and bitches by him, when put 
to dogs by either Killiney Boy or dogs descended from him, are very apt 
to throw black and tan, brindle or grey. 

•■ Play Boy' was not a success in the Stud, though he has sired a 
dog named ' Bogie Rattler,' who took after him in good looks and good 
ears, but was lower on the legs, more cloddy, and not of ' Play Boy's ' qual- 
ity. ' Bogie ' mated with ' Biddy III.,' by Clripper' and 'Cora' (drop ears), 


produced, first, Champion ' Bachelor,' and in the next litter, • Benedict.' 

"'Benedict' became the most celebrated Stud dog of the day, for 
he is sire or grandsire of more winners than any other Irish terrier. 

" ' Bachelor ' was very successful in the show ring, and took after his 
sire and grandsire in having a good pair of ears. He had also a very 
hard coat, of good color, yellow, tipped with red. a long neck, which 
was very muscular, and a well-shaped head, which never grew too thick. 
His hindquarters were rather short, and his shoulders somewhat coarse, 
the latter no doubt caused by the amount of work he did. ' Benedict ' 
^vas a darker color, with a lot of coat on his forequarters, but little on his 
loin or hindquarters, and of rather a lighter make than ' Bachelor.' It 
may interest my readers to know that in the litter which included ' Bach- 
elor ' there were three red, one grey, and five rough-black and tan-colored 
puppies, and in that in which ' Benedict ' was produced there were three 
red and five rough-black and tan in hue. 

" A noted rival of ' Bachelor's ' on the show was Mr. Graham's 
' Extreme Carelessness (afterwards sold to ^Ir. Graves of Liverpool), a 
bitch that, when a puppy, was almost black, or rather, nearly every hair 
was more black than yellow. At four years of age, the tips of a few 
hairs only were black; and two years ago, just before she died, I saw 
the old bitch in Ireland, looking very fit and well, but of a beautiful 
yellow-red color, and entirely free from any black tinge. She was given 
back to Mr. Graham after she had finished her show career. ' Extreme 
Carelessness ' was cropped, her head rather heavy, and she had a slight 
slackness behind the shoulders ; otherwise she was a charming bitch of 
great character and of good quality. She and 'Bachelor' had many 
hard struggles for 'specials,' their successes being about equal. 

'^ ' Erin,' two years after her celebrated litter, again visited ' Killiney 
Boy,' and threw a bitch, ' Droleen,' who, put to a long-haired dog named 
' Michael,' by ' Pagan II.,' a grandson of both ■ Killiney Boy ' and ' Erin.' 
threw for her owner, Mr. E. A. Wiener, the best dog since ' Bachelor's' 
days, ' Brickbat ' by name, who has had a most successful show career, 
winning the Challenge Cup, given by the Irish Terrier Club, twelve times, 
without once being defeated, and finallv he secured it outright. 


" ' Brickbat ' is unfortunately cropped, and his expression requires 
greater smartness. He is ratlier too big, and has a mere apology of 
a stern ; otherwise this excellent terrier is pretty nearly perfect. . . . 
Although ' Brickbat '' has retired from the show-bench, he is still alive 
and vigorous. . . . 

" Some of the best Irish terriers have already been mentioned, but 
omission should not be made of dogs so good as ' Gripper ' ; Major 
Arnand's ' Fury II. ' ; ^ Phadruig ; Dr. Carey's ' Sting ' ; • Peter Bodger ' 
(Mr. AVaterhouse) ; Mr. H. A. (braves' ' Glory' (the smallest Irish terrier 
that attained champion honors) ; Mr. W. Graham's ' Gilford ' ; Mr. Back- 
house's ' Buster,' ' Bumptious Biddy,' and 'Begum'; ' Nora Tatters,' a 
great favorite of mine, with ' Droleen ' and ' Bencher,' all Mr. Wiener's ; 
Mr. Sumner's 'St. George' and ' B. A.' ; ' Dan'l II.,' Breadenhill ; Mr. 
F. Break ell's ' Bonnet ' ; Mr. Mayell's ' Chaperon ' and Mr. A. E. Clear's 
' Breda Mixer.' Still another youngster that I opine will not be long in 
becoming a champion, is Mr. C. J. Barnett's ' Black Sheep,' — a dog of 
twenty-four pound weight, about the size the best of them have been. 
His dark face may be objectionable, and he is perhaps a mere trifle long 
in back ; but, all round, I have never seen a Ijetter terrier, and I fancy 
that, assisted by his excellent pair of natural ears^ he will be the first dog 
to lower the colors of Mr. Wiener's so long successful ' Brickbat,' if his 
owner has the temerity to place the latter on the bench again. 

" Another favorite Irish terrier of mine is Mr. Barnett's ' Birthright.' 
She weighs eighteen pounds, and has been kept out of many prizes 
because some judges consider her too small. Her character and general 
form are exquisite. Other typical Irish terriers, up to date, are Mrs. 
Butcher's ' Bawnboy ' and ' Ted Malone ' ; Mr. T. Yarr's ' Poor Pat ' ; 
Mr. F. Parkyn's 'Firefly'; Mr. Jowett's ' Crowgill Sportsman'; Mr. C. 
B. Murless's 'Magic'; Mr. Krehl's 'Bishop's Boy"; Mr. Wallace's 
'Treasurer'; whilst from time to time Mr. James Sumner, Mr. J. W. 
Taylor, Dr. Marsh, Mr. F. W. Jowett, Mr. H. Benner, Mr. C R. Norton, 
Mr. C. M. Nicholson and Mr. T. C. Tisdall have all owned Irish terriers 
of more than ordinary excellence." 


More value than ever is now being attached to good ears, 
and a marked improvement is visible. A very strong feel- 
ing has grown up against cropping, which was done very 
extensively in former years. Good ears must now be bred 
for, and breeders will have to produce dogs that do not 
require cropping. Acting on the advice of the Irish Terrier 
Club, the English Kennel Club has passed a rule that no 
cropped Irish terrier, born since December 31, 1889, can 
compete at shov/s under their rules. 

The most preferable and fashionable color is a bright red 
and orange, tipped with red ; but other shades are by no 
means signs of bad breeding. Color is merely a question 
of fashion, and, as red or yellow are now considered the 
" correct " color, the dark puppies are generally destroyed. 
The dam of '' Killiney Boy," — the very pillar of the breed, — 
was a rough black-and-tan, and the type now accepted as the 
Welsh terrier. As already stated, in the litter which included 
that successful dog " Bachelor," there were three red, one 
grey, and five rough black-and-tan colored puppies ; and in 
that in which the celebrated " Benedict " was produced there 
were three red and five rough black-and-tan in hue. 

In Mr. Lee's book we find the following interesting 
remarks regarding color and coat : 

•■ When red puppies are born in the same litter as black-and-tans, 
the former are nearly always a good bright red ; but the black-and-tan 
have the better coats, invariably as hard as pin wire. I am by no means 
certain that, by not using the latter to breed from, we are losing the hard, 
wiry coats, and brighter red color ; and were it not for the art of trim- 


ming, many of our winning terriers would have coats almost as shaggy 
as are found on some mountain sheep.'" 

The following we copy from " Whispers," in the " English 
Stock Keeper," probably expressing Mr. Khrel's opinion : 

"Dark shadings in Irish terriers frequently form the subject of 
serious discussion among the breeders of this variety, and by those whose 
knowledge of the breed is superficial, are suspiciously regarded as evi- 
dence of a taint in the pedigree. These wiseacres have as little founda- 
tion for their surmises as a certain all-round judge possesses for calling 
Irish terriers a made-up and fabricated breed, and who, in the same 
breath, would probably be capable of considering bull-terriers to have a 
better claim to purity of strain. The wheaten red is, now-a-days, the 
orthodox Irish terrier color; but people who know this breed in the 
rough, are cognizant of the fact that the national terrier of Ireland is 
to be met with, in different parts of the country, of various shades of 
color. The grey-blue used to be highly esteemed, brindles are to be met 
with, and even black-and-tans, but they are always rough and Irish. 
Any skillful dog breeder could take a few specimens of the old rough 
parent stock, — the big, thirty-pound terriers with shaggy coats and often 
linty heads, — and, by careful selection, breed from them a modern Irish 
terrier. The different colors are undoubtedly in the blood of our modern 
specimens, and the dark colors will occasionally re-assert themselves, 
according to nature's law of atavism. All Irish terrier breeders have 
remarked the grey patch on so many of their dogs' sterns, and the black 
eyelids and muzzle may be attributed to the same cause. But to pre- 
tend that they should be regarded as disqualifying defects is absurd ; 
they are undesirable, and in competition with a dog equal in all other 
points, but even colored all over, they would weigh against their pos- 
sessor. The best dogs before the public throw back to a dark union, 
for ' Killiney Boy,' the very pillar of the breed, was out of a rough black- 
and-tan Irish bitch. A whole colored yellow dog is now orthodox ; but 
even his ears ought to be of a darker shade than the rest of his coat, 
without any linty, straggling hairs. The softer, light-colored topknot. 


which even the best dogs will occasionally show symptom of, is a throw- 
back to their early rough origin. The most unpardonable color in the 
Irish terrier is the deep mahogany-red, which is often associated with ■ 
smooth coats, greyhound heads, and a fatuous, un-terrier-like expression. 
They ought to be tabooed by the judge, but breeders have found that, 
matched with rough-coated sires, they invariably throw hard coats. For 
this purpose they may serve, but they should be guarded in the privacy 
of the brood kennel. The theory respecting these undesirable mahog- 
any ' smooths,' is that they are tell-tales of an early Manchester terrier 
experiment ; and we have little doubt that, when an old-fashioned rough 
and top-knotted bitch was bred to a Manchester, the produce were likely 
to be clean-skulled, and their coats harsher and less abundant." 

Mr. C. J. Barnett, of Hambleden, whose name is a household 
word in connection with Irish terriers, is quoted as follows : 

'■ As in the earlier days, color was of minor consideration, — we so 
often find puppies, even to the present day, black-and-tan, grey or brindle 
in color. This does not show bad breeding, but rather the contrary, to 
continue the color through so many generations, for these dogs, like 
Welsh ponies, no matter whatever they are crossed with, appear to per- 
petuate their peculiar characteristics. I have heard that the pAire Irish- 
man was originally a large terrier, and, to reduce the size, a cross with 
the Manchester terrier was used, hence the black-and-tan puppies that 
are so often produced. I am happy to say that I cannot find the slight- 
est foundation for this statement. I have myself tried such a cross 
carefully, and it quite failed ; and I am convinced it would take years to 
breed out the black-and-tan strain, with its sleek coat, and get back to 
the somewhat rugged outline and waterproof jacket of the Irish terrier. 
At an early show, in 1874, there were classes given for Irish terriers 
under nine pounds weight, clearly showing that small terriers were fash- 
ionable then. In my rambles through Ireland, I generally asked for the 
man who kept the best terriers in the village, and went to see his dogs. 
I have seen good terriers which would get a prize at many of our English 
shows, but which were so kept out of sight. These were owned by cot- 


tiers in the small towns and villages. I noticed that the majority of such 
dogs had a few grey or black hairs on their coats, but as a rule they were 
inclined to be a light red in color and very hard in texture ; the ears are 
also larger, as a rule, than is fashionable in England, but well carried." 

The question of size, before the present standard was 
drawn up, seems to have caused many disputes among the 
different factions. In olden times, certain strains seem to 
have run up to thirty and thirty-five pounds, but as the pres- 
ent standard weight has been fixed at twenty-four pounds or 
under, it is time that more dogs under twenty-four pounds 
should be produced. The fact that the attention of the 
judges has been especially directed to the Club standard 
will probably have a good effect in the direction of lessening 
size during the coming years. 

In issuing his thirteenth report (1893) of the Irish Terrier 
Club, Dr. R. B. Carey, J. P., the Honorable Secretary, men- 
tions that coat seems to him to be the point now requiring 
most attention, many of the dogs seen during the past year 
wanting in hardness and density of jacket. As already 
stated, many of the winning terriers of to-day, were it not 
for the art of trimming, would have shaggy coats. Light 
eyes are too often met with. They are very objectionable, 
besides spoiling the dog's expression ; they ought to be of a 
dark hazel color, small and keen, not prominent. Expression, 
besides type and quality, is one of the essential points, and 
of great importance. The general appearance of the dog 
should be lively, wiry, and graceful ; the lines of the body 
should be speedy, without signs of heaviness or anything 
approaching the cobby and cloddy. 


Characteristics of the Irish Terrier. 

In " Dogs of the British Islands," by '^ Stonehenge," 
Mr. George R. Krehl writes as follows : 

" If I were asked to name the most prominent characteristics in 
the temperament of the Irish terrier, I should reply, ' Courage and good 
temper.'' Their courage is quite national in its quality, being of that 
dashing, reckless, ' dare-devil ' description that is associated with the 
human inhabitants of their native country. The Irish terrier fears 
nothing that ever came on four legs with a furry skin. They have no 
caution in their gameness, but go straight at their enemy with a heedless 
pluck utterly regardless of consequences. They do not always conquer, 
but they do or die unless pulled off. It would occupy too much space 
to relate a few of the many instances of their courage publicly recorded. 
. . . Their other quality is quite as bright a side to their character. 
Their good temper is remarkable in so game a terrier. Terrier men will 
bear me out that a quarrelsome dog is seldom truly game. I question 
whether any of my colleagues in the Irish Terrier Club can give an 
instance of one of the breed biting a human being. They are, there- 
fore, peculiarly fitted for house dogs, where there are women and chil- 
dren. They make the most admirable companions, — faithful, intelligent, 
and always full of high spirits. Whether accompanying their master 
out walking, following a trap or bicycle, their never-tiring liveliness will 
amuse their master and relieve his loneliness. . . . They are a peculiarly 
hardy breed, and seldom succumb to the many ills that puppyhood is heir 
to. Shows have done much for their outward appearance, and without 
that softening effect on temperament which usually follows in its wake." 

Regarding the characteristics of the Irish terrier, we 
quote Mr. Barnett (in Lee's book) : 

" Although so popular on the show bench, it is as a companion that 


the Irish terrier has won his way into the hearts of those who own a 
dog for the house, and to keep down vermin. I am glad to say that the 
show bench has not spoiled their good qualities ; although many are 
' kennel fools,' this is their misfortune, not their fault. I have entered 
my terriers to all kinds of vermin, except otter, — at that they have not 
had the chance ; but one small terrier, bred, by a friend, from my dogs, 
and given to Mr. Harry Clift, when hunting the otter hounds he kept 
at Newbury, Berks, was one of the gamest terriers he ever o\\ ned, — 
almost too keen, and quite fearless. 

" I remember turning out a badger to see if ' Bachelor,' when he 
was under a year old, would seize and hold it. At first, they fought 
until almost tired out ; then the dog got the badger by the cheek, and 
there held him until they were both quite exhausted. ... It is in the 
water that Irish terriers excel, as they take to it as naturally as a duck, 
and as a rule retrieve well therefrom. I have a bitch that will dive 
many yards after a rat, or rather run in shallow water, with her head 
under, trying to grab it. She will also, if about to kill in the river, and 
the rat dives, dive under and kill ; but often she has to leave go and 
come up for breath, when the rat sinks. In clear water I have seen her 
do this, and afterwards get the rat up, so there is no doubt she often 
kills under water. My terriers sometimes spend a day in digging out a 
rat. They go in hammer and tongs, and make a great show of having 
it out at once ; but there is a method in their madness, as they keep an 
eye on the bolt holes, and, after a vigorous scratch, jump up every now 
and then to see if the rat is trying to escape at the holes either above 
ground or those below the water line. . . . 

" I do not know a better companion for the man or woman who 
only keeps one dog, than the Irish terrier, as he is easily trained, and in 
the house is most affectionate and thoroughly cleanly. To see him play 
with children, or guard them, is a pleasure. I have had some scores of 
Irish terriers, and I never yet saw one turn on or snap at a child. I had 
six out with me one day, and called at a friend's house where a children's 
party was being held. The dogs ran on the tennis lawn, and the little 
ones caught them and rolled them over. One dog, recently bought, had 


always been kennelled until he came to me, so I was afraid he might 
resent being pulled about, as he was of rather a quick temper; but, to 
my surprise, he enjoyed the romp, which was more than some of the 
children's mothers did." 

In another place we find : 

" I can also speak personally of the capabilities of the Irish terrier 
as a water dog, for I have seen puppies at four months old swim across 
a strong stream fifty yards wide, follow the older ones hunting, and as 
keen ' on rats ' as the fully grown dogs could possibly be. These juven- 
iles would also kill rabbits, and generally their precocity was quite aston- 
ishing. But it must be borne in mind that these young Irishmen had 
not been reared in kennels, they, on the contrary, having a free range in 
which to play, and where they could hunt either rabbits or rats when so 

This is Dr. Gordon Stables' opinion of the Irish terrier : 

"The Irish terrier, I myself think, can hardly be beaten as an ordinary 
country sportsman's dog. In general appearance he looks a terrier all 
over, — lively, bold, and rough, with a coat that can defy anything." 

In " Hugh Dalzeil "' we find : 

" As so many warm and generous hearts beat under ' cloth of frieze,' 
so under the rough, unkempt coat of the Irish terrier there is a spirit of 
' derring-do,' a strength of affection for his master equal to his pluck, 
and a stamina that carries a little racing-like, wiry form through the 
hardest of days." 

Mr. Ridgway : 

" As a breed, they are peculiarly adapted to the country, being 
particularly hardy, and able to bear any amount of wet, cold and hard- 
ship without showing the .slightest symptoms of fatigue. Their coat 
also being a hard and wiry one, they can hunt the thickest gorse or furze 
cover without the slightest inconvenience. As for the capabilities of 
these dogs taking the water, and hunting in it as well as on land, I may 


mention, as one instance, that a gentleman in the adjoining county of 
Tipperary keeps a pack of these terriers, and has done so for years, with 
which he will hunt otter as successfully as any one can with any pack 
of pure otter hounds." 

Mr. Jameson : 

" The Irish terrier is able to stand much more cold, wet and fatigue 
than most other terriers. The coat is so hard and flat that water cannot 
penetrate it, and not being too long, does not hinder the dog in cover- 

Mr. Vero Shaw, in his book, devotes more space to the 
characteristics of the Irish terrier than any other writer. 
Among other things we find : 

" (Jne's first acquaintance with the ' pre-historic terrier ' is apt to be 
disappointing (except to a really 'doggy' terrier man), that is, because 
there is no meretricious flash about them ; but there is that about them 
which you learn to like, — they grow upon you. They supply the want 
so often expressed for a 'smart looking dog with something in him.' 
There is that about their rough and ready appearance which can only 
be described as genuine terrier, or more emphatically ' tarrier character.' 
They are ' facile princeps ' the sportman's terrier, and having never been 
made fashion's darlings, still retain, in all its purity, their instinctive love 
of hard work. . . . 

" Among those wise old fellows one comes across in the country, 
who like a dog with something in him, and a ' terrier,' of course, the 
Irishman is a prime favorite. And they know what they are about, — 
those old fellows, — and are sportsmen, too, in their own sort of way, 
when the sun has gone down. This reminds me of a discreditable fact 
in the history of Irish terriers, that were not always only ' the poor 
man's sentinel,' but oftentimes something more, when, by the aid of 
their marvelous noses and long legs, they, when the shades of night had 
fallen, provided the pot with that which gave forth the savory smell and 
imparted a flavor to the 'spuds.' This, however, if it affected their 
moral principles, certainly sustained their love and capability for rabbit- 
ing. In olden times, too, the larger sizes were bred and used for fighting, 


and there is still a dash of the old fighting blood in their descendants. 
They dearly love a mill, and though it would be calumny to say they 
are quarrelsome, yet it must be admitted that the male portion of the 
breed is perhaps a little too ready to resent any attempt at interfering 
with their coats ; but are they not Irish, and when did an Irishman shirk 
a shindy ? 

" The Irish terrier is a very intelligent dog, and most lively and 
amusing companion. He is equally suitable for town and country. He 
is a mine of fun for a country ramble, putting up everything he comes 
across ; and there is no better terrier than a well-broken Irish for a quiet 
ramble round the fields with your gun. 

" Mr. Despart aptly describes him as the 'poor man's sentinel, the 
farmer's friend, and generally the gentleman's favorite ; ' they are such 
merry, rough-and-ready looking fellows, and the dash of the ' devil ' they 
all carry in their bearing makes them very attractive to terrier lovers. 

" Mr. Erwin says : There are some strains of them that will hunt 
stubble, or, indeed, any kind of field or marsh, quartering their ground 
like a setter or pointer, and, moreover, standing on their game in their 
own style. When a lad, I had a dog of this breed, over which I have 
shot as many as nine couple of snipe, and have been home in good time 
for school at ten o'clock a. m. There was little tinie for missing on the 
part of either of us, and the dog did not make a single mistake. 

" Irish terriers are not quarrelsome, but can and will take their own 
part if set upon, — the size of the aggressor no object. Kallymena hav- 
ing sent more terriers to the bench-show than any other locality that I 
know of, and this breed of dogs having been a favorite here since 
I remember dogs, I have had a good opportunity of studying them, and 
think more highly of them the longer I know them. 

" Their great merit lies in the following qualities : 

" PLUCK. — Irish terriers are remarkably good tempered, and can 
be implicitly relied upon with children ; they have this peculiarity, that 
they often appear shy and timid, but their true nature soon flashes out 
on occasion. Some of the pluckiest I have owned have had this pecu- 
liarity of appearing often timid, such as the late ' Tanner,' ' Sporter,' 



' Banshee,' ' Belle,' etc. It is almost superfluous to speak of Irish tei'riers' 
pluck ; they are the bull-terriers of the sister Isle ; fea^- is unknown to 
them ; they are not only plucky as a breed, but individually. 

'* It is their fear-nothing nature that makes them so suitable for use 
against the larger vermin. There are too many instances of their pluck 
on record to enumerate them. Mr. W. Graham, v.riting in the • Live 
Stock Journal,' says : In disposition, the Irish terrier is very tractable, 
steady at work, and easily kept under command, compared with other 
breeds possessing the same amount of courage. I am sorry to say they 
are kept by some parties for fighting purposes. I once went to pur- 
chase pups, where the man insisted upon my seeing the dam, a champion 
bitch, dxaw the badger before taking away my purchase; and I knew a 
prize dog lately killed a badger before his hold could be removed. 
Again, I know a bitch puppy, under nine months, that killed the first 
cat she ever saw, and in a very short time. 

" Mr. Galloway writes : My Irish terrier bitch (' Eily O'Connor,' 
by 'Sporter') jumped into the river Logan to retrieve in the month of 
January last, at which time the river was half frozen over, when my 
' Retriever' refused point blank to go, although he saw the duck drop, 
and the retriever boasts of England's best blood. 

" RABBITING.- — Looking at them as workmen, rabbiting must first 
be mentioned. This is their special function, and there are few things 
I can imagine so enjoyable as a day's ferreting with a couple of Irish 
terriers. Rely upon it, their quick noses never make a mistake ; they 
never pass a burrow where a bunny lies, nor do they stop a second at 
an empty one ; and once the ferret in, bolt the rabbit ever so rapidly, 
he'll not escape the attention of the wild Irishman waiting outside for 
him. It is marvelous the pace these dogs go ; their action represents 
the level sweep of a thoroughbred, and their powerful hind legs propel 
them forward at an enormous rate. It is only when one sees them at 
full speed that one can understand the necessity for insisting upon their 
peculiar build. Hunting in the furze, they fear nothing, but boldly push 
in through brambles, pricks, etc., that would make a thin-skinned dog 
yell out with pain. At this work they are superior to the conventional 
spaniel, who works too slowly and carefully, and his long, thick coat 



holds him often enough; but the short, hard jacket of the red Paddies 
is no impediment, and they work about with a dash and fervor enjoyable 
to witness. Again, see them working hedgerows ; how assiduously and 
well. You would never want to use another breed. 

" STAMINA. — They will bear any amount of hard work and rough 
usage ; constitution appears to never trouble them ; they can give most 
breeds points for stamina. Mr. Graham says : ' As I work all my ter- 
riers with ferrets, and require a good, game dog, — -also a constitutionally 
strong one, to work in winter for a whole day, and probably sit for hours 
in frost and cold, should the ferrets lodge, — I find no breed suits me 
nearly so well as Irish terriers. They are more hardy, require less care, 
and are more free from disease than any other terrier with which I am 

"BADGER. — At badger, the Irish terrier is not to be touched. 
No punishment frightens them off ; they will hold on till death. 

" FOXES. — With regard to foxes, a well-known breeder writes : 
' I have experience of five packs of fox-hounds, and not one terrier of 
any breed is kept in either kennel. When the varmint is earthed, some 
persons detatch themselves from the crowd, and run to the nearest house 
where lives an Irish terrier. -They need not to be trained, nor especially 
bred; they will do the work if Jrish terriers proper, without tuition. In 
the winter of 1874, in the County Louth, I was at the killing of five 
foxes. From the meet, at nine A. m. until three p. m., there were three 
of them earthed, and these were unearthed by two different Irish ter- 
riers — one ten pounds and the other twenty-seven pounds weight. The 
pack was owned by Viscount Massareene and Ferrard. I prefer to give 
these quotations, as they contain facts and not general remarks.' 

" OTTERS. — Here the Irish terrier is in his element, and all his 
quahties are brought into play, — love of the water, nose, pluck and 
stamina. I quote an authority on this subject — Mr. Robert Dunscombe 
of Mount Desert — who says : ' I have had the pleasure of hunting two 
different packs of otter hounds, the former belonging to Mr. Johnson of 
Hermitage, and the latter to the Earl of Bandon of Castle Bernard, with 
both of which packs pure bred Irish terriers were used. I owned one, 
called ' Dandy,' who would go to ground, challenge and bolt the largest 



otter out of any se^\ er. no matter how long or how wet. He, poor fellow, 
was poisoned by accident. This dog ran with Mr. Johnson's hounds, 
which were sold some years since. My present terrier ' Jessie,' a pure 
Irish bred one, of a light yellow color, was given to me by a poor coun- 
tryman, and her equal I never saw anywhere. She has bolted otters 
innumerable, and has always shown extraordinary gameness. I may 
mention, as a proof of her pluck, that during a capital hunt with Lord 
i)andon's hounds, some weeks since, while the otter was being pressed 
from place to place by the hounds, ' Jessie,' winding him under a bush, 
dived under water and laid hold of him ; after a severe struggle, she 
came to the surface, half drowned, being badly bitten across the loins. 
The otter, when killed, weighed twenty pounds. 

"WATER. — I had ' Sporter ' and ' Moya Doolan ' hunting the 
creeks in the marshland in Essex for water rats ; and it was a pretty 
sight to see them, one on each side, working the banks, uttering no 
sound, only showing their excitement by their agitated sterns. As the 
rats dropped into the water, the dogs dived in after them. The Irish 
terrier is as fond of the water, and takes to it as readily, as a Newfound" 
land, and one enthusiastic owner claims a forty-five minutes' swim for a 
dog of this breed belonging to him. 

" RATS. — Irish terriers deserve no praise for their ratting qualities. 
It is pure instinct with them ; they cannot help it; they rat as naturally 
as a bird flies. My ' Banshee II.' killed her first rat with her milk teeth 
when she was only twelve weeks old.. The following extract of a letter 
from Mr. Ridgway speaks for their ratting capabilities and intelligence : 
' An incident, which I think speaks volumes for the sagacity and wisdom 
of the old Irish terrier breed, was written to me lately by a gentleman 
residing in the County Antrim (north of Ireland, where, I may add, I 
believe some very fine specimens exist, from all I hear), and it \\ as regard- 
ing the performance of a bitch of this breed, named ' Jess,' in his pos- 
session. On one occasion we were boring a bank for the purpose of 
bolting rats, and at one place a rat bolted. ' Jess,' as usual, had him 
almost before he cleared his hole. Then came another and another, so 
fast that the work was getting too hot for ' Jess,' when a happy thought 
seemed to strike her ; and, while in the act of killing a very big one, she 


leaned down her shoulder against the hole, and let them out one by one, 
until she had killed eighteen rats. That Irish terriers kill neatly I can- 
not say; they kill not wisely, but too well. Vour little black-and-tan 
shakes the life out of the rat; but the Irish terrier's jaw is so powerful 
he does not need to shake, but crunches them into purgatory. They 
always impress me with the idea that the game is not big enough for 
them, and they put too much energy in it." 

Mr. Lee states that there exists considerable difference of 
opinion regarding the description of the Irish terrier, as issued 
by the Irish Terrier Club, it evidently being modeled on that 
of the fox-terrier ; and, in his book, Mr. Lee publishes a 
description, compiled by an '• up-to-date " admirer and suc- 
cessful breeder of the variety, which will give an idea of the 
" points " of an Irish terrier. Undoubtedly the ''Club descrip- 
tion " has given rise to a considerable amount of controversy ; 
but it was drawn up by the leading admirers of the Irish 
terriers a few years ago, and if fault may be found with one 
or two of the items, such are of little importance so far as the 
general delineation of the dog is concerned. Nevertheless, it 
will be interesting to hear both sides, and we therefore give 
both. * • 

Description as given in Mr. Lee's book : 

Head. — Long and flat, not pinched or lumpy, and not too 
full in the cheek ; showing but a very slight stop in profile. 
Jaw strong, of a punishing length, and of good depth. A 
thin, weak jaw is objectionable, as is a short, thick head. 

Teeth. — Level, white, and sound ; both over or undershot 
objectionable and disqualifying. 

Nose. — Black. 

Eyes. — Brown, dark hazel, or black ; the latter, however, 


are apt to give the dog a curious expression. They should 
be small, keen, and more almond-shaped than round, set in 
the head and not on the head. Light eyes very objectionable. 

Ears. — Fairly thick, V-shaped, and set on to fall to the 
corner of the eye and close to the cheeks, but not at a right 
angle to the head ; they should not be set on too high or 
point to the nose. 

TV^rX'. — Long, clean, and muscular, slightly arched, free 
from throatiness, and nicely placed in the shoulders, not set 
on the top of them. 

Shoulders. — Strong and fine, nicely sloping to the back 
and firm to the hand, the dog should feel strong when 
pressed on the shoulders, the withers narrow, and gracefully 
joining the neck and back. 

Chest. — Of- good depth, wide enough to give the heart 
and lungs free play, but not wide when viewed in front. 

Back. — Straight and strong. 

Loin. — A^ery slightly arched. 

Stern. — Docked or shortened, set rather high ; must be 
gaily carried, but not curled. The stern should be placed 
on in a line with the back ; if too low, it gives the dog a 
mean and unsymmetrical appearance behind. 

Body. — Of good depth, w^ell ribbed up, but not too far 
back, or it will make him seem too thick-set and cobby, and 
detract from his appearance of liberty ; flank slightly tucked 
up, but not enough to make the dog look shelly or light. Ribs 
inclined to flatness, and not too much arched or sprung. 

Legs and Feet.—T\\^ legs should be strong, straight, and 
muscular, but not too upright in the pasterns, which should 


be slightly springy; elbows set strongly to the shoulders, 
moving freely, not tied too closely under him ; the feet thick 
and hard, toes arched ; open, long or thin feet most objec- 

Hijidqiiarters. — Very strong and muscular, long from hip 
to hock ; not too wide, but thick through, with no appearance 
of weakness ; legs fairly under the dog ; the hocks must move 
straight ; cow-hocks or hind legs bent outwards most objec- 

Coat. — Hard, straight, and wiry, free from silkiness any- 
where ; about 2y inches long on body, shorter on the head 
and ears, save a beard on the chin, short and hard on the legs, 
on no account curly ; a soft, curly or open coat objectionable. 

Color. — Red-yellow, wheaten or light brown, inclining to 
grey ; the best color is orange, tipped with red, — the head 
slightly darker than the body, and the ears slightly darker 
than the head. The color should not run on the legs a dirty 
or dull, dark red ; a mahogany shade is objectionable. 

Size. — Height, dogs, 16 inches to 16^ inches; bitches, 
15^ inches to 16 inches. Length from shoulder to set on 
of stern, dogs, i4f inches to 15I- inches; bitches, 14 inches 
to 15 inches. Girth of chest, 20^ inches to 21^ inches. 
Weight for dogs, 20 pounds to 24 pounds; bitches, 18 
pounds to 22 pounds. 

Gene7\-il Appearance. — The Irish terrier should appear to be 
of good constitution, somewhat rough in outlook, but thor- 
oughly symmetrical. As the stern is high set on, it gives the 
hindquarters a somewhat jumped-up look ; the movements are 
rather jerky behind, as if the hindquarters possessed the 



power of moving quicker than the fore-end, — ahnost a hare- 
like movement ; the expression should be wicked, but intelli- 
gent, although a rough, merry, but game-looking terrier, not 
cobby nor too coarse. 

Te7nperai7iejit. — Temper very good, often shy, but always 
game. When at work, utterly without fear, and rather head- 
strong ; when in the house, quiet, affectionate, and loving. 
It is a characteristic of the Irish terrier to thrust his nose 
into his master's hand, or rest the head on his foot, or against 

his legs. 



Teeth and Eyes 




. 10 
. lO 

• 5 

Ne(;ative Points. Value. 

White on Toes or Feet . . 5 
Mouth undershot or over- 

- shot 20 

Very much white on Chest . 5 
Cgat curly or soft .... 20 

Legs and Feet 15 

Chest and Shoulders ... 10 
Back and Loin and Hind- 
quarters 15 

Coat 10 

Color 5 

General Outline 10 

100 50 

Disqualifying Points. — Brindled in color; nose cherry or flesh- 
colored ; white legs— indeed, any white, either on the feet, chest or else- 
where — is objectionable. At four or five years old, a few white hairs, 
giving a grizzly appearance about the muzzle, is not detrimental. 



Positive Points. Value. Negative Points. Value. 

Head, Jaw, Teeth and Eyes 15 While Nails, Toes and Feet 

Ears 5 minus 10 

Legs and Feet 10 Much white on Chest . . 10 

Neck 5 Ears cropped 5 

Shoulders and Chest ... 10 Mouth undershot or can- 
Back and Loin 10 kered 10 

Hindquarters and Stern . . 10 Coat shaggy, curly or soft . 10 

Coat 13 Uneven in color .... 5 

Color 10 

Size and symmetry ... 10 

100 50 
I)LSQUALIFVIN(; PuixTS. — Nose, cherry or red. iJrindle color. 



-Long ; skull llat, and rather narrow between ears. 

getting slightly narrower towards the eye ; free from wrinkle : 
stop hardly visible, except in profile. The jaw must be 
strong and muscular, but not too full in the cheek, and of a 
good punishing length, but not so fine as a white English 
terrier's. There should be a slight falling away below the 



eye, so as not to have a greyhound appearance. Hair on 
face of same description as on body, but short (about a quar- 
ter of an inch long), in appearance ahiiost smooth and 
straight: a slight beard is the only longish hair (and it is 
only long in comparison with the rest) that is permissible, 
and that is characteristic. 

Teeth. — Should be strong and level. 

Lips. — Not so tight as a bull-terrier's, but well-fitting, 
showing through the hair their black lining. 

Nose. — Must be black. 

Eyes. — A dark hazel color, small, not prominent, and full 
of life, fire, and intelligence. 

Ears. — When uncut, small and V-shaped, of moderate 
thickness, set well up on the head, and dropping forward 
closely to the cheek. The ear must be free of fringe, and the 
hair thereon shorter and generally darker in color than the 

Keck. — Should be of a fair length, and gradually widening 
towards the shoulders, well carried, and free from throati- 
ness. There is generally a slight sort of frill visible at each 
side of the neck, running nearly to the corner of the ear, 
which is looked on as very characteristic. 

Shoulders and Chest. — Shoulders must be fine, long, and 
sloping well into the back ; the chest deep and muscular, but 
neither full nor wide. 

Back and Loin. — Body moderately long ; back should be 
strong and straight, with no appearance of slackness behind 
the shoulders ; the loin broad and powerful, and slightly 


arched ; ribs fairly sprung, rather deep than round, and well 
ribbed back. 

Hindquarters. — Well under the dog ; should be strong 
and muscular, the thighs powerful, hocks near the ground, 
stifles not much bent. 

Stem. — Generally docked ; should be free of fringe or 
feather, set on pretty high, carried gaily, but not over the 
back, or curled. 

Feet and Legs. — Feet should be strong, tolerably round, 
and moderately small ; toes arched, and neither turned out 
nor in ; black toe-nails are preferable and most desirable. 
Legs moderately long, well set from the shoulders, perfectly 
straight, with plenty of bone and muscle ; the elbows work- 
ing freely clear of the sides, pasterns short and straight, 
hardly noticeable. Both fore and hind legs should be moved 
straight forward when travelling, the stifles not turned out- 
wards, the legs free of feather, and covered, like the head, 
with as hard a texture of coat as body, but not so long. 

Coat. — Hard and wiry, free of softness or silkiness, not 
so long as to hide the outlines of the body, particularly in 
the hindquarters, straight and flat, no shagginess, and free 
of lock or curl. 

Color. — Should be "whole-colored," the most preferable 
being bright red ; next wheaten, yellow, and grey, brindle 
disqualifying. White sometimes appears on chest and feet ; 
it is more objectionable on the latter than on the chest, as a 
speck of white on chest is frequently to be seen in all self- 
colored breeds. 


Size and Syvimeiry. — Weight, in show-condition, from i6 
pounds to 24 pounds, — say i6 pounds to 22 pounds for 
bitches, and 18 pounds to 24 pounds for dogs. The most 
desirable weight is 2 2 pounds, or under, — which is a nice, 
styhsh, and useful size. The dog must present an active, 
lively, lithe and wiry appear*ance ; lots of substance, at the 
same time free of clumsiness, as speed and endurance, as 
well as power, are very essential. They must be neither 
" cloddy " nor '' cobby,"" but should be framed on the " lines 
of speed," showing a graceful "racing outline." 

Tc7npera7?ient. — Dogs that are very game are usually surly 
or snappish. The Irish terrier, as a breed, is an exception, 
being remarkably good tempered, notably so with mankind, 
it being admitted, however, that he is, perhaps, a little too 
ready to resent interference on the part of other dogs. There 
is a heedless, reckless pluck about the Irish terrier which is 
characteristic, and, coupled with the headlong dash, blind to 
all consequences, with which he rushes at his adversary, has 
eajrned for the breed the proud epithet of the " Dare-devils." 
When "off duty," they are characterized by a quiet, caress- 
inviting appearance, and when one sees them endearingly, 
timidly pushing their heads into their masters' hands, it is 
difficult to realize that on occasion, at the "set-on," they can 
prove they have the courage of a lion, and will fight on to 
the last breath in their bodies. They develop an extraordi- 
nary devotion to, and have been known to track their masters 
almost incredible distances. 



FOUNDED 1879 -- REVISED 1893. 


Rule I. — That this Club shall be called the Irish Terrier 
Club. That its objects be — (a) To promote the breeding 
of pure Irish terriers ; {/?) To define precisely and publish 
a description of the true type, and to urge the adoption of 
such type on breeders, judges, dog-show committees, etc., as 
the only recognized and unvarying standard by which Irish 
terriers are to be judged, and which may in future be uni- 
formly accepted as the sole standard of excellence in breed- 
ing and awarding prizes of merit to Irish terriers ; (r) To do 
all in its power to protect and advance the interest of the 
breed, by offering prizes, supporting certain shows, and 
taking any other steps that may be deemed advisable. 



Rule II. — That this Club consist of a President, two 
Vice-Presidents (one residing in Ireland, the other in Eng- 
land), a Committee, Honorable Secretary in Ireland, Hon- 
orable Secretary for England, Honorable Treasurer, and an 
unhmited number of members, whose names and addresses 
shall be kept by the Honorable Secretaries. That any 
respectable person, favorable to the objects of the Club, 
shall be eligible for admission as a member, and that each 
candidate shall be proposed by one member of the Club and 
seconded by another. The election of members to be made 
by the Committee by voting papers, and one negative in five 
votes to exclude. That, prior to any name being put up for 
election, thirty shillings (the amount of entrance fee and 
subscription) shall be deposited with the Honorable Secre- 
tary, to be returned in the event of non-election. 

Rule III. — That the annual subscription for each mem- 
ber shall be one pound, due on ist of January in each year, 
and that there be an entrance fee of ten shillings for all but 
"original members" of the Club. That no one be deemed 
a member, or entitled to the privileges of membership, until 
his annual subscription shall have been paid. That any 
member failing to pay his subscription by ist February, 
shall be reminded of his omission by the Honorable Secre- 
tary ; and should it remain unpaid on ist March, he shall 
cease to be a member of the Club. 



Rule IV. — That the affairs of the Ckib shall be con- 
ducted by a Committee consisting of fourteen members (half 
residing in Ireland), including the two Vice-Presidents, Sec- 
retaries and Treasurer, to be elected annually by voting 
papers. The name of any member or members put forward 
for election on the Committee must be sent, with their pro- 
poser's and seconder's names, to the Honorable Secretary, 
prior to the 30th November in each year. The existing 
Committee, together with the new candidates, to be then 
submitted to each member of the Club for election. In the 
event of their being no such candidate, the Committee to 
continue in office. The voting papers to be returned to the 
Honorable Secretary, with votes recorded, on or before a 
fixed date. 


Rule V. — That the property of the Club shall be vested 
in the Committee, which shall have the power to make neces- 
sary by-laws, arbitrate in disputed matters, or expel any 
member who, in their opinion, has been proved guilty of 
dishonorable conduct, or a breach of the Rules. That the 
Committee shall also have power to deal with any question 
not provided for by the Rules, and also to fill up, if thought 
necessary, any vacancy occurring in their numbers ; but their 
selection must receive the approval of the General Meeting 
next ensuing. 



Rule VL — That two General Meetings of the Ckib 
shall be held each year, at such place as the Committee 
think desirable. 


Rule VII. — That, inasmuch as it is scarcely possible 
for the Committee to meet more than once or twice a year, 
it shall be competent for the Honorable Secretaries to transact 
all such business as might be done at a meeting of the Com- 
mittee by letter ; but the replies, in writing, of the majority 
of the members of the Committee must be obtained before 
such business shall be considered as having the sanction of 
the Committee, and binding accordingly. 


Rule VIII. — That, for the guidance of Dog-Show 
Societies, a list of gentlemen, in the opinion of the Club 
competent to officiate as Judges of Irish Terriers, be drawn 
up annually. The name or names must be sent in to the 
Honorable Secretary, with proposer's and seconder's names, 
prior to 30th November in each year. The existing list of 
Judges, v>'ith ?ieu> candidates, to be then submitted to each 
member of the Club for election ; those having over fifty per 
cent, of recorded votes to be considered elected. The voting 
papers to be returned to the Honorable Secretary, with votes 
recorded, on or before a hxed date. 



Rule IX. — That no expense be incurred by the Hon- 
orable Secretaries, Honorable Treasurer, or by any member 
of the Committee, beyond the funds in hand. That an 
Annual Report, together with the Rules of the Club, the 
names and addresses of the Members, Committee, Officers, 
etc., shall be printed and supplied to all members ; and that 
the Annual Abstract of Accounts (duly audited by two 
members elected a General Meeting) shall be open to the 
inspection of members. 


Rule X. — That two grand Challenge Cups, one for 
either sex, entitled " The Irish Terrier Club Challenge 
Cups," be offered by the Club, for competition by Jiienibcrs 
o}ih\ at two shows in Ireland, two in England, and one in 
Scotland, each year, held under Kennel Club Rules, and 
approved of by the Committee. The Cups to become the 
absolute property of any manber winning them twelve times. 
That the Club's prizes shall only be offered at such Shows 
as appoint a Judge on the Club's list of Judges ; but when 
a Show Committee is unable to procure the services of one 
of the Club's approved Judges, they will be satisfied with 
the appointment of the ''\\'ire-hair Fox Terrier Judge." 
The Club medals or other prizes may be offered, at the dis- 
cretion of the Committee. That the Committee be enabled 
to demand solvent security from the holder of the Challenge 


Cup, that he will undertake to forward it to the Secretary of 
any Show where it is to be competed for, one week prior to 
the date of Show, on receiving notice from the Honorable 
Secretary of the Irish Terrier Club to do so. 


Rule XI. — That at all General Meetings of the Irish 
Terrier Club, each member be entitled to vote on any 
question by proxy at the meeting. 


Rule XII. — That all dogs competing for Irish Terrier 
Club Prizes must be entered according to t/ic latest Revised 
Rules of the Kennel Club. 


Rule XIII. — That none of the foregoing Rules be 
altered, except at an Annual Meeting of the Club convened 
for the purpose. 



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