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Registration Date and Place 
Passed Tenderfoot Test 
Passed Second Class Test 



The First Girl Scout in the New World. From Statue erected by Lord Grey, 

sear t\xe site of Fort Vercheres on the St. Lawrence. 





APRIL, 192 2 



Copyright 1920 by Girl Scouts, Inc. 
All Rights Reserved. 






Juliette Low 


in grateful acknowledgment of all that 
she has done for them, the American 
Girl Scouts dedicate this Handbook. 

>i 550710 


Hoiu Scouting Began 

" Hozv did Scouting come to be used by girls ? ' ' That is what 
I have been asked. Well, it was this way. In the beginning 
I had used Scouting — that is, wood craft, liandiness, and cheery 
helpfulness — as a means for training young soldiers when 
they first joined the army, to help them become handy, capable 
men and able to hold their own xvith anyone -instead of being 
mere drilled machines. 

You have read about the Wars in your country against 
the Red Indians, of the gallantry of your soldiers against 
the cunning of the Red Man, and what is more, of the pluck 
of your women on those dangerous frontiers. 

Well, we have had much the same sort of thing in South 
Africa. Over and over again I have seen there the wonderful 
bravery and resourcefulness of the women when the tribes of 
Zulu or Matabeles have been out on the loar path against the 
white settlers. 

In the Boer war a number of women volunteered to help 
my forces as nurses or otherwise; they were full of pluck 
and energy, but unfortunately they had never been trained 
to do anything, and so with all the good-iuill in the world they 
were of no use. I could not help feeling how splendid it 
would be if one could only train them in peace time in the 
same way one trained the young soldiers — -that is, through 
Scou tcraft. 

I afterwards took to training boys in that way, but I had 
not been long at it before the girls came along, and offered 
to do the very thing I had hoped for, they wanted to take up 
Scouting also. 

They did 7Wt merely ivant to be imitators of the boys; 
they wanted a line of their otvn. 

So I gave them a smart blue uniform and the names of 
"Guides'' and my sister wrote an outline of the scheme. The 
name Guide appealed to the British girls because the pick of 

ovr frontier forces in India is the Corps of Guides. The term 
cavalry or infantry hardly describes it since it is composed 
of all-round handy men ready to take on any job in the 
campaigning line and do it well. 

Then too, a ivoman who can be a good and helpful comrade 
to her brother or husband or son along the path of life is 
really a guide to him. 

The name Guide therefore just describes the members of 
our sisterhood who besides being handy and ready for any 
kind of duty are also a jolly happy family and likely to be 
good, cheery comrades to their mankind. 

The coming of the Great War gave the Girl Guides their 
opportunity, and they quickly showed the value of their 
training by undertaking a variety of duties which made them 
valuable to their country in her time of need. 

My wife. Lady Baden- Powell, was elected by the members 
to be the Chief Guide, and under her the movement has gone 
ahead at an amazing pace, spreading to most foreign countries. 

It is thanks to Mrs. Juliette Loiv, of Savannah, that the 
movement was successfully started in America, and though 
the name Girl Scouts has there been used it is all part of the 
same sisterhood, working to the same ends and living tip to 
the same Laws and Promise. 

If all the branches continue to work together and become 
better acquainted ivith each other as they continue to become 
bigger it will mean not only a grand step for the sisterhood, 
but what is more important it will be a real help toward 
making the new League of Nations a living force. 

How can that be? In this way: 

If the women of the different nations are to a large extent 

members of the same society and therefore in close touch and 

sympathy tvith each other, although belonging to different 

countries, they will make the League a real bond not merely 

between the Governments, but between the Peoples themselves 

and they will see to it that it tneans Peace and that we have 

no more of War. r> i . n j r, u 

Robert Baden Poivell. 

May, 1919 


The present edition of "Scouting for Girls" is the re- 
sult of collaboration on the part of practical workers in 
the organization from everj^ part of the country. The 
endeavor on the part of its compilers has been to combine 
the minimum of standardization necessary for dignified 
and efficient procedure, with the maximum of freedom 
for every local branch in its interpretation and practice 
of the Girl Scout aims and principles. 

Grateful acknowledgments are due to the following: 

' Miss Sarah Louis Arnold, Dean, and Miss Ula M. Dow, 
A.M., and Dr. Alice Blood, of Simmons College for the 
Part of Section XI entitled "Home Economics" ; Sir Rob- 
ert Baden-Powell for frequent references and excerpts 
from "Girl Guiding"; Dr. Samuel Lambert for the Part 
on First Aid, Section XI, and Dr. W. H. Rockwell for 
reading and criticizing this; Miss Marie Johnson with the 
assistance of Miss Isabel Stewart of Teachers College, 
for the Part entitled "Home Nursing" in Section XI ; Dr. 
Herman M. Biggs for reading and criticizing the Parts 
dealing with Public Health and Child Care; Mr. Ernest 
Thompson Seton and The Woodcraft League, and Doub- 
leday,Page& Co. for Section XIII and plates on "Wood- 
craft"; Mr. Joseph Parsons, Mr. James Wilder, Mrs. 
Eloise Roorbach, and Mr. Horace Kephart and the 
Macmillan Company for the material in Section XIV 
"Camping for Girl Scouts"; Mr. George H.Sherwood. 
Curator, and Dr. G. Clyde Fisher, Associate Curator, of 
the Department of Public Education of the American 
Museum of Natural History for the specially prepared 
Section XV and illustrations on "Nature Study," and for 
all proficiencv tests in this subject; Mr. David Hunter 
for Section XVI "The Girl Scout's Own Garden," and 

Mrs. Ellen Shipman for the part on a jicrennial border 
with the specially prepared drawing, in the Section on the 
Garden; Mr. Serene Stetson for material in Section XVII 
"Measurements, Map Making and Knots"; Mr. Austin 
Strong for pictures of knots; Mrs. Raymond Brown for 
the test for Citizen; Miss Edith L. Nichols, Supervisor of 
Drawing in the New York Public Schools, for the test on 
Craftsman; Mr. John Grolle of the Settlement Music 
School, Philadelphia, for assistance in the Music test; 
Miss Eckhart for help in the Farmer test; The Camera 
Club and the Eastman Kodak Company for the test for 
Photographer; Mrs. Frances Hunter Elwyn of the New 
York School of Fine and Applied Arts, for devising and 
drawing certain of the designs for Proficiency Badges 
and the plates for Signalling; Miss L. S. Power, Miss 
Mary Davis and Miss Mabel Williams of the New York 
Public Library, for assistance in the preparation of refer- 
ence reading for Proficiency Tests, and general reading 
for Cirl Scouts. 

It is evident that only a profound conviction of the 
high aims of the Girl Scout movement and the practical 
capacity of the organization for realizing them could 
have induced so many distinguished persons to give so 
generously of their time and talent to this Handbook. 

The National Executive Board, under whose auspices 
it has been compiled, appreciate this and the kindred 
courtesy of the various organizations of similar interests, 
most deeply. We feel that such hearty and friendly co- 
operation on the part of the community at large is the 
greatest proof of the vitality and real worth of this and 
allied movements, based on intelligent study of the young 
people of our country. 

Josephine Daskam Bacon, 
March 1, 1920. Chairman of Publications 


Foreword by Sir Robert Baden-Powell. 
Preface by Josephine Daskam Bacon, Editor. 

Section : 

I. History of the Girl Scouts 1 

II. Principles of the Girl Scouts 3 

III. Organization of the Girl Scouts 13 

IV. Who Are the Scouts? 17 

V. The Out of Door Scout 35 

VI. Forms for Girl Scout Ceremonies 44 

VII. Girl Scout Class Requirements 60 

VIII. What a Girl Scout Should Know 

About the Flag 67 

IX. Girl Scout Drili 84 

X. Sign.\lling for Girl Scouts 97 

XI . The Scout Aide 105 

Part 1. The Home Maker 106 

Part 2. The Child Nurse 157 

Part 3. The First Aide 1 64 

Part 4. The Home Nurse 217 

Part 5. The Health Guardian 254 

Part 6. The Health Winner 257 

XII. Setting-up Exercises 273 

XIII. Woodcraft 280 

XIV. Camping for Girl Scouts 313 

XV. Nature Study for Girl Scouts .373 

XVI. The Girl Scouts' Own Garden 456 

XVII. Measurements, Map-Making and Knots 466 

XVIII. Proficiency Tests and Special Medals 497 

XIX. Rp:ference Reading for Girl Scouts. . .540 

Index 548 


Motto -"Be Prepared'' 


gan— "Do a Good Turn Daily" 





On My Honor, I will Try: 

To do my duty to God and my Country. j 


help other people at all times. 


obey the Scout Laws. 



A Girl Scout's Honor is to be Trusted 


A Girl Scout is Loyal 


A Girl Scout's Duty is to be Useful and 

to Help Others 


A Girl Scout is a Friend to All and a 

Sister to every other Girl Scout 


A Girl Scout is Courteous 


A Girl Scout is a Friend to Animals 


A Girl Scout obeys Orders 


A Girl Scout is Cheerful 


A Girl Scout is Thrifty 


A Girl Scout is Clean in Thought,Word 

and Deed 



When Sir Robert Baden-Powell founded the Boy 
Scout movement in England, it proved too attractive and 
too well adapted to youth to make it possible to limit its 
great opportunities to boys alone. The sister organiza- 
tion, known in England as the Girl Guides, quickly fol- 
lowed and won an equal success. 

Mrs. Juliette Low, an American visitor in England, 
and a personal friend of the Father of Scouting, realized 
the tremendous future of the movement for her own 
country, and with the active and friendly co-operation of 
the Baden-Powells, she founded the Girl Guides in 
America, enrolling the first patrols in Savannah, Georgia, 
in March 1912. In 1915 National Headquarters were 
established in Washington, D. C., and the name was 
changed to Girl Scouts. 

In 1916 National Headquarters were moved to New 
York and the methods and standards of what was plainly 
to be a nation-wide organization became established on 
a broad, practical basis. 

The first National Convention was held in 1915, and 
each succeeding year has shown a larger and more en- 
thusiastic body of delegates and a public more and more 
interested in this steadily growing army of girls and 
young women who are learning in the happiest way how 
to combine patriotism, outdoor activities of every kind, 
skill in every branch of domestic science and high stand- 
ards of community service. 



Every side of the girl's nature is brought out and de- 
veloped by enthusiastic Captains, who direct their games 
and various forms of training, and encourage team-work 
and fair play. For the instruction of the Captains na- 
tional camps and training schools are being established 
all over the country; and schools and churches every- 
where are cooperating eagerly with this great recreational 
movement, which, they realize, adds something to the 
life of the growing girl that they have not been able to 

Colleges are offering training in scouting as a serious 
course for prospective officers, and prominent citizens in 
every part of the country are identifying themselves 
with the Local Councils, in an advisory and helpful 

At the present writing nearly 107,000 girls and more 
than 8,000 Ofificers represent the original little troop 
in Savannah — surely a satisfying sight for our Founder 
and First President, when she realizes what a healthy 
sprig she has transplanted from the Mother Country! 



The Motto: 
Be Prepared 
A Girl Scout learns to swim, not only as an athletic 
accomplishment, but so that she can save life. She passes 
her simple tests in child care and home nursing and 
household efficiency in order to be ready for the big 
duties when they come. She learns the important facts 
about her body, so as to keep it the fine machine it was 
meant to be. And she makes a special point of wood- 
craft and camp lore, not only for the fun and satisfac- 
tion they bring, in themselves, but because they are the 
best emergency course we have today. A (iirl Scout 
who has passed her First Class test is as ready to help 
herself, her home and her Country as any girl of her 
age should be expected to prove. 
The Slogan : 
"Do a Good Turn Daily" 
This simple recipe for making a very little girl per- 
form every day some slight act of kindness for somebody 
else is the seed from which grows the larger plant of 
helping the world along — the steady attitude of the older 
Scout. And this grows later into the great tree of organ- 
ized, practical community service for the grown Scout — 
the ideal of every American woman today. 
The Pledge: 
"I pledge allegiance to my flag, and to the 
Republic for which it stands; one nation in- 
divisible, with liberty and justice for all." 
This pledge, thougii not original with the Girl Scouts, 
expresses in every phrase their principles and practice. 



Practical patriotism, in war and peace, is the corner- 
stone of the organization. A Girl Scout not only knows 
how to make her flag, and how to fly it; she knows how 
to respect it and is taught how to spread its great lesson 
of democracy. Many races, many religions, many classes 
of society have tested the Girl Scout plan and found 
that it has something fascinating and helpful in it for 
every type of young girl. 

This broad democracy is American in every sense of 
the word; and the Patrol System, which is the keynote 
of the organization, by which eight girls of about the 
same age and interests elect their Patrol Leader and 
practice local self-government in every meeting, carries 
out American ideals in practical detail. 

The Promise: 
On My Honor I will try : 
To do my duty to God and my country. 
To help other people at all times. 
To obey the Scout Laws. 

This binds the Scouts together as nothing else could 
do. It is a promise each girl voluntarily makes; it is not 
a rule of her home nor a command from her school nor 
a custom of her church. She is not forced to make it — 
she deliberately chooses to do so. And like all such 
promises, it means a great deal to her. Experience has 
shown that she hesitates to break it. 


L A Girl Scout's Honor Is To Be Trusted 

This means that a Girl Scout's standards of honor 
are so high and sure that no one would dream of doubt- 


ing her simple statement of a fact when she says:"This 
is so, on my honor as a C'.irl Scout." 

She is not satisfied, either, with keeping the letter of 
the law, when she really breaks it in spirit. When she 
answers you, she means what you mean. 

Nor does she take pains to do all this only when she is 
watched, or when somebody stands ready to report on 
her conduct. This may do for some people, but not for 
the Scouts. You can go away and leave her by herself 
at any time; she does not require any guard but her own 
sense of honor, which is always to be trusted. 

II. A Girl Scout Is Loyal 

This means that she is true to her Country, to the 
city or village where she is a citizen, to her family, her 
church, her school, and to those for whom she may work, 
or who may work for her. She is bound to believe the 
best of them and to defend them if they are slandered or 
threatened. Her belief in them may be the very thing 
they need most, and they must feel that whoever may 
fail them, a Girl Scout never will. 

This does not mean that she thinks her friends and 
family and school are perfect; far from it. But there 
is a way of standing up for what is dear to you, even 
though you admit that it has its faults. And if you in- 
sist on what is best in people, behind their backs, they 
will be more likely to take your criticism kindly, when 
you make it to their faces. 

III. A Girl Scout's Duty Is To Be Useful and to Help 


This means that if it is a question of being a help to 
the rest of the world, or a burden on it, a Girl Scout is 


always to be found among the helpers. The simplest 
way of saying this, for very young Scouts, is to tell them 
to do a GOOD TURN to someone every day they live; 
that is, to be a giver and not a taker. Some beginners 
in Scouting, and many strangers, seem to think that any 
simple act of courtesy, such as we all owe to one an- 
other, counts as a good turn, or that one's mere duty to 
one's parents is worthy of Scout notice. But a good 
Scout laughs at this idea, for she knows that these things 
are expected of all decent people. She wants to give 
the world every day, for good measure, something over 
and above what it asks of her. And the more she does, 
the more she sees to do. 

This is the spirit that makes the older Scout into a 
fine, useful, dependable woman, who does so much good 
in her community that she becomes naturally one of its 
leading citizens, on whom everyone relies, and of whom 
everyone is proud. It may end in the saving of a life, or 
in some great herioc deed for one's country. But these 
things are only bigger expressions of the same feeling 
that makes the smallest Tenderfoot try to do at least one 
good turn a day. 

IV. A Girl Scout Is a Friend to All, and a Sister to 
Every Other Girl Scout 

This means that she has a feeling of good will to all 
the world, and is never offish and suspicious nor inclined 
to distrust other people's motives. A Girl Scout should 
never bear a grudge, nor keep up a quarrel from pride, 
but look for the best in everybody, in which case she 
will undoubtedly find it. Women are said to be inclined 
to cliques and snobbishness, and the world looks to great 
organizations like the Girl Scouts to break down their 


petty barriers of race and class and make our sex a great 
power for democracy in the days to come. 

The Girl Scout finds a special comrade in every other 
Girl Scout, it goes without saying, and knows how to 
make her feel that she need never be without a friend, 
or a meal, or a helping hand, as long as there is another 
Girl Scout in the world. 

She feels, too, a special responsibility toward the very 
old, who represent what she may be, some day; toward 
the little children, who remind her of what she used to be ; 
toward the very poor and the unfortunate, either of 
which she may be any day. The sick and helpless she 
has been, as a Scout, especially trained to help, and she is 
proud of her handiness and knowledge in this way. 

V. A Girl Scout Is Courteous 

This means that it is not enough for women to be help- 
ful in this world ; they must do it pleasantly. The great- 
est service is received more gratefully if it is rendered 
graciously. The reason for this is that true courtesy is 
not an affected mannerism, but a sign of real considera- 
tion of the rights of others, a very simple proof that 
you are anxious to "do as you would be done by." It 
is society's way of playing fair and giving everybody 
a chance. In the same way, a gentle voice and manner 
are very fair proofs of a gentle nature; the quiet, self- 
controlled person is not only mistress of herself, but in 
the end, of all the others who cannot control themselves. 

And just as our great statesman, Benjamin Franklin 
pro\"ed that "honesty is the best policy," so many a suc- 
cessful woman has proved that a pleasant, tactful man- 
ner is one of the most valuable assets a girl can possess. 


and should be practised steadily. At home, at school, 
in the office and in the world in general, the girl with the 
courteous manner and pleasant voice rises quickly in 
popularity and power above other girls of equal talent 
but less politeness. Girl Scouts lay great stress on this, 
because, though no girl can make herself beautiful, and 
no girl can learn to be clever, any girl can learn to he 

VI. A Girl Scout Is a Friend to Animals 

All Girl Scouts take particular care of our dumb 
friends, the animals, and are always eager to protect 
them from stupid neglect or hard usage. This often leads 
to a special interest in their ways and habits, so that a 
Girl Scout is likely to know more about these little 
brothers of the human race than an ordinary girl. 

VII. A Girl Scout Obeys Orders 

This means that you should obey those to whom obedi- 
ence is due, through thick and thin. If this were not an 
unbreakable rule, no army could endure for a day. It 
makes no difference whether you are. cleverer, or 
older, or larger, or richer than the person who may be 
elected or appointed for the moment to give you orders; 
once they are given, it is your duty to obey them. And 
the curious thing about it is that the quicker and better 
you obey these orders, the more quickly and certainly 
you will show yourself fitted to give them when your 
time comes. The girl or woman who cannot obey can 
never govern. The reason you obey the orders of your 
Patrol Leader, for instance, in Scout Drill, is not that 
she is better than you, but because she happens to be 


your Patrol Leader, and gives her orders as she would 
obey yours were you in her place. 

A small well trained army can always conquer and 
rule a big, undisciplined mob, and the reason for this is 
simply because the army has been taught to obey and to 
act in units, while the mob is only a crowd of separate 
persons, each doing as he thinks best. The soldier obeys 
by instinct, in a great crisis, only because he has had 
long practice in obeying when it was a question of un- 
important matters. So the army makes a great point of 
having everything ordered in military drill, carried out 
with snap and accuracy; and the habit of this, once fixed, 
may save thousands of lives when the great crisis comes, 
and turn defeat into victory. 

A good Scout must obey instantly, just as a good 
soldier must obey his officer, or a good citizen must 
obey the law, with no question and no grumbling. If 
she considers any order unjust or unreasonable, let her 
make complaint through the proper channels, and she 
may be sure that if she goes about it properly she will 
receive attention. But she must remember to obey first 
and complain afterward. 

VIII. A Girl Scout Is Cheerful 

This means that no matter how courteous or obedient 
or helpful you try to be, if you are sad or depressed 
about it nobody will thank you very much for your 
effort. A laughing face is usually a loved face, and 
nobody likes to work with a gloomy person. Cheerful 
music, cheerful plays and cheerful books have always 
been the world's favorites; and a jolly, good-natured 
girl will find more friends and more openings in the 
world than a sulky beauty or a gloomy genius. 


It has been scientifically prtnctl that if you deliberately 
make your voice and face cheerful and bright you im- 
mediately begin to feel that way; and as cheerfulness is 
one of the most certain signs of good health, a Scout 
who appears cheerful is far more likely to keep well 
than one who lets herself get "down in the mouth." 
There is so much real, unavoidable suffering and sorrow 
in the world that nobody has any right to add to them 
unnecessarily, and "as cheerful as a Girl Scout" ought 
to become a proverb. 

IX. A Girl Scout Is Thrifty 

This means that a Girl Scout is a girl who is wise 
enough to know the value of things and to put them to 
the best use. The most valuable thing we have in this 
life is time, and girls are apt to be stupid about getting 
the most out of it. A Girl Scout may be known by the 
fact that she is either working, playing or resting. All 
are necessary and one is just as important as the other. 

Health is probably a woman's greatest capital, and a 
Girl Scout looks after it and saves it, and doesn't waste 
it by poor diet and lack of exercise and fresh air, so that 
she goes bankrupt before she is thirty. 

Money is a very useful thing to have, and the Girl 
Scout decides how much she can afford to save and 
does it, so as to have it in an emergency. A girl who 
saves more than she spends may be niggardly; a girl 
who spends more than she saves may go in debt. A Girl 
Scout saves, as she spends, on some system. 

Did you ever stop to think that no matter how much 
money a man may earn, the women of the family gen- 
erally have the spending of most of it? And if they 
have not learned to manage their own money sensibly, 



how can they expect to manage other people's? If every 
Girl Scout in America realized that she might make all 
the difference, some day, between a bankrupt family and 
a family with a comfortable margin laid aside for a rainy 
day, she would give a great deal of attention to this Scout 

In every great war all nations have been accustomed 
to pay the costs of the war from loans; that is, money 
raised by the savings of the people. Vast sums were 
raised in our own country during the great war by such 
small units as Thrift Stamps. If the Girl Scouts could 
save such wonderful sums as we know they did in war, 
why can they not keep this up in peace? For one is as 
much to their Country's credit as the other. 



X. A Girl Scout Is Clean in Thought, Word and Deed 

This means that just as she stands for a clean, healthy 
community and a clean, healthy home, so every Girl 
Scout knows the deep and vital need for clean and 
healthy bodies in the mothers of the next generation. 
This not only means keeping her skin fresh and sweet 
and her system free from every impurity, but it goes 
far deeper than this, and requires every Girl Scout to 
respect her body and mind so much that she forces 
everyone else to respect them and keep them free from 
the slightest familiarity or doubtful stain. 

A good housekeeper cannot endure dust and dirt; a 
well cared for body cannot endure grime or soil; a pure 
mind cannot endure doubtful thoughts that cannot be 
freely aired and ventilated. It is a pretty safe rule for 
a Girl Scout not to read things nor discuss things nor do 
things that could not be read nor discussed nor done 
by a Patrol all together. If you will think about this, you 
will see that it does not cut out anything that is really 
necessary, interesting or amusing. Nor does it mean 
that Scouts should never do anything except in Patrols; 
that would be ridiculous. But if they find they could 
not do so, they had better ask themselves why. When 
there is any doubt about this higher kind of cleanliness, 
Captains and Councillors may always be asked for ad- 
vice and explanation. 


Lone Scout 

The basis of the Girl Scout organization is the indi- 
vidual girl. Any one girl anywhere who wishes to enroll 
under our simple pledge of loyalty to God and Country, 
helpfulness to other people and obedience to the Scout 
Laws, and is unable to attach herself to any local group, 
is privileged to become a Lone Scout. The National 
Organization will do its best for her and she is eligible 
for all Merit Badges which do not depend upon group 


But the ideal unit and the keystone of the organiza- 
tion is the Patrol, consisting of eight girls who would 
naturally be associated as friends, neighbors, school fel- 
lows or playmates. They are a self selected and, under 
the regulations and customs of the organization, a self 
governing little body, who learn, through practical ex- 
periment, how to translate into democratic team-play, 
their recreation, patriotic or community work, camp 
life and athletics. Definite mastery of the various sub- 
jects they select to studj' is made more interesting by 
healthy competition and mutual observation. 
Patrol Leader 

Each Patrol elects from its members a Patrol Leader, 
who represents them and is to a certain extent responsible 
for the discipline and dignity of the Patrol. 

The Patrol Leader is assisted by her Corporal, who may 
be either elected or appointed; and she is subject to re- 



election at regular intervals, the office is a practical sym- 
bol of the democratic basis of our American government 
and a constant demonstration of it. 


From one to four of these Patrols constitute a Troop, 
the administrative unit of the organization. Girl Scouts 
are registered and chartered by troops, and the Troop 
meeting is their official gathering. The Troop has the 
privilege of owning a flag and choosing from a list of 
flowers, trees, birds, and so forth, its own personal crest 
and title. 


The leader is called a Captain. She must be twenty-one 
or over, and officially accepted by the National Head-, 
quarters, from whom she receives the ratification of her 
appointment and to whom she is responsible. She may 
be chosen by the girls themselves, suggested by local 
authorities, or be herself the founder of the Troop. She 
represents the guidng, friendly spirit of comradely lead- 
ership, the responsibility and discretion, the maturer 
judgment and the definite training which shapes the pol- 
icy of the organization. 

She may, in a small troop, and should, in a large one, 
be assisted by a Lieutenant, who must be eighteen or over, 
and who must, like herself, be commissioned from Na- 
tional Headquarters; and if desired, by a Second Lieu- 
tenant, who must be at least sixteen. 


The work of the Girl Scouts in any community is made 
many times more effective and stimulating by the co- 


operation of the Council, a group of interested, public 
spirited citizens who are willing to stand behind the girls 
and lend the advantages of their sound judgment, broad 
point of view, social prestige and financial advice. They 
are not expected to be responsible for any teaching, train- 
ing or administrative work; they are simply the organized 
Friends of the Scouts and form the link between the 
Scouts and the community. The Council is at its best 
when it is made up of representatives of the church, 
school, club and civic interests of the nieghborhood, 
and can be of inestimable value in suggesting and afford- 
ing means of co-operation with all other organizations, 
patronizing and advertising Scout entertainments, and so 
forth. One of its chief duties is that of finding interested 
and capable judges for the various Merit Badges, and 
arranging for the suitable conferring of such badges. 
The Council, or a committee selected from its members, 
is known for this purpose as the Court of Awards. 

A Captain who feels that she has such a body behind 
her can go far with her Troop; and citizens who are 
particularly interested in constructive work with young 
people who find endless possibilities in an organized Girl 
Scout Council. The National Headquarters issues 
charters to such Councils and cooperates with them in 
every way. 

National Organization 

The central and final governing body is the National 
Council. This is made up of delegates elected from all 
local groups throughout the country, and works by rep- 
resentation, indirectly through large State and District 
sub-divisions, through the National Executive Board 
which maintains its Headquarters in New York. 


National Director 

The National Director is in charge of these Head- 
quarters and directs the administrative work under the 
general heading of Field. Business, Publication and 


From the youngest Lone Scout up to the National 
Director, the organization is democratic, self-governing 
and flexible, adjusting itself everywhere and always to 
local circumstances and the habits and preferences of 
the different groups. It is not only non-sectarian, but 
is open to all creeds and has the enthusiastic support of 
all of them. It offers no new system of education, but 
co-operates with the schools and extends to them a much 
appreciated recreational plan. It affords the churches a 
most practical outlet for their ideals for their young 
people. Its encouragement of the intelligent domestic 
interests is shown by the stress laid on every aspect of 
home and social life and by the great variety of Merit 
Badges offered along these lines. The growing interest 
in the forming of Girl Scout Troops by schools, churches 
and parents proves as nothing else could, how naturally 
and helpfully this simple organization fits in with the 
three factors of the girl's life; her home, her church, her 
school. And the rapid and never ceasing growth of the 
Girl Scouts means that we are able to offer, every year, 
larger and larger numbers of healthy and efficient young 
citizens to their country. 



In the early days of this great country bf ours, before 
telephones and telegrams, railroads and automobiles made 
communications of all sorts so easy, and help of all kinds 
so quickly secured, men and women — yes, and boys and 
girls, too! — had to depend very much on themselves and 
be very handy and resourceful, if they expected to keep 
safe and well, and even alive. 

Our pioneer grandmothers might have been frightened 
by the sight of one of our big touring cars, for instance, 
or puzzled as to how to send a telegram, but they knew 
an immense number of practical things that have been 
entirely left out of our town-bred lives, and for pluck and 
resourcefulness in a tight place it is to be doubted if we 
could equal them today. 

" You press a button and ive do the rest'" is the slogan 
of a famous camera firm, and really it seems as if this 
might almost be called the slogan of modern times; we 
have only to press a button nowadays, and someone will 
do the rest. 

But in those early pioneer days there was no button to 
press, as we all know, and nobody to "do the rest" : every- 
body had to know a little about everything and he able to 
do that little pretty quickly, as safety and even life might 
depend upon it. 

The men who stood for all this kind of thing in the 
highest degree were probably the old "Scouts," of whom 
Natty Bumpo, in Cooper's famous old Indian tales is the 
great example. They were explorers, hunters, campers, 



builders, fighters, settlers, and in an emergency, nurses 
and doctors combined. They could cook, they could sew, 
they could make and sail a canoe, they could support 
themselves indefinitely in the trackless woods, they knew 
all the animals and the plants for miles around, they could 
guide themselves by the sun, and stars, and finally, they 
were husky and hard as nails and always in the best of 
health and condition. Their adventurous life, always on 
the edge of danger and new, unsuspected things, made 
them as quick as lightning and very clever at reading 
character and adapting themselves to people. 

In a way, too, they had to act as rough and ready 
police (for there were no men in brass buttons in the 
woods!) and be ready to support the right, and deal out 
justice, just as our "cow-boys" of later ranch days had 
to prevent horse-stealing. 

Now, the tales of their exploits have gone all over the 
world, and healthy, active people, and especially young 
people, have always delighted in just this sort of life and 
character. So, when you add the fact that the word 
"scout" has always been used, too, to describe the men 
sent out ahead of an army to gain information in the 
quickest, cleverest way, it is no wonder that the great 
organizations of Boy and Girl Scouts which are spreading 
all over the world today should have chosen the name we 
are so proud of, to describe the kind of thing they want 
to stand for. 

Our British Scout-sisters call themsclves"Girl Guides," 
and here is the thrilling reason for this title given by the 
Chief Scout and Founder of the whole big band that is 
spreading round the world toda}^ as so many of Old 
England's great ideas have spread. 



On the North-Wcst Frontier of India there is a famous Corps 
of soldiers known as the Guides, and their duty is to be always 
ready to turn out at any moment to repel raids by the hostile tribes 
across the Border, and to prevent them from coming down into 
the peaceful plains of India. This body of men must be prepared 
for every kind of fighting. Sometimes on foot, sometimes on horse- 
back, sometimes in the mountains, often with pionoer work wading 
through rivers and making bridges, and so on. But they have to 
be a skilful lot of men, brave and enduring, ready to turn out at 
any time, winter or summer, or to sacrifice themselves if accessary 
in order that peace may reign throughout India while they keep 
down any hostile raids against it. So they are true handymen in 
every sense of the word, and true patriots. 

When people speak of Guides in Europe one naturally thinks 
of those men who are mountaineers in Switzerland and other moun- 
tainous places, who can guide people over the most difficult parts 
by their own bravery and skill in tackling obstacles, by helpfulness 
to those with them, and by their bodily strength of wind and limb. 
They are splendid fellows those guides, and yet if they were told 
to go across the same amount of miles on an open flat plain it would 
be nothing to them, it would not be interesting, and they would 
not be able to display those grand qualities which they show directly 
the country is a bit broken up into mountains. It is no fun to them 
to walk by easy paths, the whole excitement of life is facing difificulties 
and dangers and apparent impossibilities, and in the end getting 
a chance of attaining the summit of the mountain they have wanted 
to reach. 

Well, I think it is the case with most girls nowadays. They do 
not want to sit down and lead an idle life, not to have everything 
done for them, nor to have a very easy time. They don't want 
merely to walk across the plain, they would much rather show 
themselves handy people, able to help others and ready, if necessary 
to sacrifice themselves for others just like the Guides on the North- 
West frontier. And they also want to tackle difficult jobs themselves 
in their life, to face mountains and difficulties and dangers and to 
go at them having prepared themselves to be skilful and brave; 
and also they would like to help other people meet their difficulties 
also. When they attain success after facing difficulties, then they 
feel really happy and triumphant. It is a big satisfaction to them 
to have succeeded and to have made other people succeed also. 
That is what the Girl Guides want to do, just as the mountaineer 
guides do among the mountains. 

Then, too, a woman who can do things is looked uj) to by others, 
both men and women, and they are always ready to follow her 
advice and example, so there she becomes a Guide too. And later 
on if she has children of her own, or if she becomes a teacher of 
children, she can be a really good Guide to them. 


By means of games and activities which the Guides practise they 
are able to learn the different things which will help them to get 
on in life, and show the way to others to go on also. Thus camping 
and signalling, first aid work, camp cooking, and all these things 
that the Guides practise are all going to be helpful to them afterwards 
in making them strong, resourceful women, skilful and helpful to 
others, and strong in body as well as in mind, and what is more it 
makes them a jolly lot of comrades also. 

The motto of the Guides on which they work is "Be Prepared," 
that is, be ready for any kind of duty that may be thrust upon 
them, and what is more, to know what to do by having practised 
it beforehand in the case of any kind of accident or any kind of 
work that they may be asked to take up. 


It is a great piece of luck for us American Scouts that 
we can cliaim the very first Girl Scout for our own great 
continent, if not quite for our own United States. A 
great Englishman calls her "the first Girl Scout," and 
every Scout must feel proud to the core of her heart when 
she thinks that this statue which we have selected for 
the honor of our frontispiece, standing as it does on Brit- 
ish soil, on the American continent, commemorating a 
French girl, the daughter of our Sister Republic, joins 
the three great countries closely together, through the 
Girl Scouts! Magdelaine de Vercheres lived in the French 
colonies around Quebec late in the seventeenth century. 
The colonies were constantly being attacked by the Iro- 
quois Indians. One of these attacks occurred while Mag- 
delaine's father, the Seigneur, was away. Magdelaine 
rallied her younger brothers about her and succeeded in 
holding the fort for eight days, until help arrived from 

The documents relating this bit of history have been 
in the Archives for many years, but when they were 


shown to Lord Grey about twelve years ago he decided 
to erect a monument to Magdelaine de Vercheres on the 
St. Lawrence. It was Lord Grey who called Magdelaine 
"The First Girl Scout," and as such she will be known. 

The following is taken from "A Daughter of New 
France," by Arthur G. Doughty who wrote the book for 
the Red Cross work of the Magdelaine de Vercheres 
Chapter of the Daughters of the Empire, and dedicated 
it to Princess Patricia, whose name was given to the 
famous "Princess Pat" regiment. 

"On Vercheres Point, near the site of the Fort, stands a 
statue in bronze of the girl who adorned the age in which 
she lived and whose memory is dear to posterity. For 
she had learned so to live that her hands were clean and 
her paths were straight. . . . To all future visitors to 
Canada by way of the St. Lawrence, this silent figure of 
the First Girl Scout in the New World conveys a message 
of loyalty, of courage and of devotion." 

Our own early history is sprinkled thickly with brave, 
handy girls, who were certainly Scouts, if ever there were 
any, though they never belonged to a patrol, nor recited 
the Scout Laws. But they lived the Laws, those strong 
young pioneers, and we can stretch out our hands to them 
across the long years, and give them the hearty Scout 
grip of fellowship, when we read of them. 


If we should ever hold an election for honorary member- 
ship in the Girl Scouts, open to all the girls who ought to 
have belonged to us, but who lived too long ago, we should 
surely nominate for first place one of the most remarkable 
young Indian girls who ever found her way through the 
pathless forests, — Sacajawea, "The Bird Woman." 


In 1806 she was brought to Lewis and Clark on 
their expecHtion into the great Northwest, to act as 
interpreter jjetween them and the various Indian tribes 
they had to encounter. From the very beginning, when 
she induced the hostile Shoshones to act as guides, to the 
end of her daring journey, during which, with her papoose 
on her back, she led this band of men through hitherto 
impassible mountain ranges, till she brought them to 
the Pacific Coast, this sixteen-year-old girl never fal- 
tered. No dangers of hunger, thirst, cold or darkness 
were too much for her. From the Jefterson to the Yel- 
lowstone River she was the only guide they had ; on her 
instinct for the right way, her reading of the sun, the 
stars and the trees, depended the lives of all of them. 
When they fell sick she nursed them ; when they lost 
heart at the wildness of their venture, she cheered them. 
Their party grew smaller and smaller, for Lewis and 
Clark had separated early in the expedition, and a part 
of Clark's own party fell off when they discovered a 
natural route over the Continental Divide where wagons 
could not travel. Later, most of those who remained, de- 
cided to go down the JefTerson River in canoes ; but Clark 
still guided by the plucky Indian girl, persisted in fighting 
his way on pony back overland, and after a week of this 
journeying, crowded full of discomforts and dangers, she 
brought him out in triumph at the Yellowstone, where the 
river bursts out from the lower canon, — and the Great 
Northwest was opened up for all time! 

The women of Oregon have raised a statue to this 
young explorer, and there she stands in Portland, facing 
the Coast, pointing to the Columbia River where it reaches 
the sea. 


These great virtues of daring and endurance never die 
out of the race; though tiie conchtions of our Hfe today, 
when most of the exploring has been done, do not de- 
mand them of us in just the form the "Bird Woman" 
needed, still, if they die out of the nation, and especially 
out of the women of the nation, something has been lost 
that no amount of book education can ever replace. Saca- 
jawea, had no maps to study — she made maps, and roads 
have been built oxer her foot steps. And so we Scouts, 
not to lose this great spirit, study the stars and the sun 
and the trees and try to learn a few of the wood secrets 
she knew so well. This out-of-door wisdom and self- 
reliance was the first great principle of Scouting. 


But of course, a country full of "Bird Women" could 
not be said to have advanced very far in civilization. 
Though we should take great pleasure in conferring her 
well earned merit badges on Sacajawea, we should hardly 
have grown into the great organization we are today if 
we had not badges for quite another class of achievements. 

In 1832, not so many years after the famous Lewis and 
Clark expedition, there was born a little New England 
girl who would very early in life have become a First 
Class Scout if she had had the opportunity. Her name 
was Louisa Alcott, and she made that name famous all 
the world over for the book by which the world's girls 
know her — -"Little Women." Her father, though a bril- 
liant man, was a very impractical one, and from her first 
little story to her last popular book, all her work was 
done for the purpose of keeping her mother and sisters, 
in comfort. While she was waiting for the money from 
her stories she turned carpets, trimmed hats, papered the 


rooms, made party dresses for her sisters, nursed anyone 
who was sick (at which she was particularly good) — all 
the homely, helpful things that neighbors and families did 
for each other in New England towns. 

In those days little mothers of families could not tele- 
phone specialists to help them out in emergencies; there 
were neither telephones nor specialists! But there were 
always emergencies, and the Alcott girls had to know 
what to put on a black-and-blue spot, and why the jelly 
failed to jell," and how to hang a skirt, and bake a cake, 
and iron a table cloth. Louisa had to entertain family 
guests and darn the family stockings. Her home had not 
every comfort and convenience, even as people counted 
those things, then, and without a brisk, clever woman, full 
of what the New Englanders called "faculty," her fam- 
ily would have been a very unhappy one. With all our 
modern inventions nobody has yet invented a substitute 
for a good, all-round woman, in a family, and until some- 
body can invent one, we must continue to take off our 
hats to girls like Louisa Alcott. Imagine what her feel- 
ings would have been if someone had told her that she 
had earned half a dozen merit badges by her knowledge 
of home economics and her clever writing! 

And let every Scout who finds housework dull, and 
feels that she is capable of bigger things, remember this: 
the woman whose books for girls are more widely known 
than any such books ever written in America, had to 
drop the pen, often and often, for the needle, the dish- 
cloth and the broom. 

To direct her household has always been a woman's job 
in every century, and girls were learning to do it before 
Columbus ever discovered Sacajawea's great country. To 


be sure, they had no such jolly way of working at it to- 
gether, as the Scouts have, nor did they have the oppor- 
portunity the girl of today has to learn all about these 
things in a scientific, business-like way, in order to get it 
all done with the quickest, most efficient methods, just as 
any clever business man manages his business. 

We no longer believe that housekeeping should take up 
all a woman's time; and many an older woman envies the 
little badges on a Scout's sleeve that show the world she 
has learned how to manage her cleaning and cooking and 
household routine so that she has plenty of time to spend 
on other things that interest her. 


But there was a time in the history of our country when 
men and women went out into the wilderness with no 
nearer neighbors than the Indians, yet with all the ideals 
of the New England they left behind them; girls who 
had to have all the endurance of the young "Bird Wo- 
man" and yet keep up the traditions and the habits of 
the fine old home life of Louisa Alcott. 

One of these pioneer girls, who certainly would have 
been patrol leader of her troop and marched them to vic- 
tory with her, was Anna Shaw. In 1859, a twelve-year 
old girl, with her mother and four other children she trav- 
eled in a rough cart full of bedding and provisions, into 
the Michigan woods where they took up a claim, settling 
down into a log cabin whose only furniture was a fire 
place of wood and stones. 

She and her brothers floored this cabin with lumber 
from a mill, and actually made partitions, an attic door 
and windows. They planted potatoes and corn by chop- 
ping up the sod, putting seed under it and leaving it to 


Nature — who rewarded them by giving them the best 
corn and potatoes Dr. Shaw ever ate, she says in her 

For she became a preacher and a physician, a lecturer 
and organizer, this sturdy Httlc Scout, even though she 
had to educate herself, mostly. They papered the cabin 
walls with the old magazines, after they had read them 
once, and went all over them, in this fashion, later. So 
eagerly did she devour the few books sent them from the 
East, that when she entered college, years later, she 
passed her examinations on what she remembered of 

They lived on w^iat they raised from the land ; the pigs 
they brought in the wagon with them, fish, caught 
with wires out of an old hoop skirt, and corn meal brought 
from the nearest mill, twenty miles away. Ox teams were 
the only means of getting about. 

Anna and her brothers made what furniture they used 
— bunks, tables, stools and a settle. She learned to cut 
trees and "heart" logs like a man. After a trying season 
of carrying all the water used in the household from a 
distant creek, which froze in the winter so that they had 
to melt the ice, they finally dug a well. First they went 
as far as they could with spades, then handed buckets of 
earth to each other, standing on a ledge half way down, 
then, when it w^as deep enough, they lined it with slabs 
of wood. It was so well made that the family used it 
for twelve years. 

Wild beasts prowled around them, Indians terrified 
them by sudden visits, the climate was rigorous, amuse- 
ments and leisure scanty. But this brave, handy girl met 
every job that came to her with a good heart and a smile; 


she learned by doing. The tests and sports for mastering 
which we earn badges were life's ordinary problems to her, 
and very practical ones. She never knew it, but surely 
she was a real Girl Scout! 

It is not surprising to learn that she grew up to be 
one of the women who earned the American girl her 
right to vote. A pioneer in more ways than one, this 
little carpenter and farmer and well-digger worked for 
the cause of woman's political ecjuality as she had worked 
in the Michigan wilderness, and helped on as much as 
any one woman, the great revolution in people's ideas 
which makes it possible for women today to express their 
wishes directly as to how their country shall be governed. 
This seems very simple to the girls of today, and will 
seem even simpler as the years go on, but, like the Yellow- 
stone River, it needed its pioneers! 

In the Great War which we have just passed through, 
the Scouts of all countries gave a magnificent account of 
themselves, and honestly earned the "War Service" 
badges that will be handed down to future generations, 
we may be sure, as the proudest possessions of thousands 
of grandchildren whose grandmothers (think of a Scout 
grandmother!) were among the first to answer their 
Country's call. 

Let us hear what our British sisters accomplished, and 
we must remember that at the time of the war there were 
many Girl Guides well over Scout age and in their twen- 
ties, who had had the advantage, as their book points out, 
of years of training. 

This is what they have done during the Great War. 
In the towns they have helped at the Mihtary Hospitals. 
In the country they have collected eggs for the sick, and on the 
moors have gathered sphagnum moss for the hosjiitals. 

Over in France a great Recreation and Rest Hut for the soldiers 


has been supplied by the Guides with funds earned through their 
woric. It is man,ij2;ecl by Guide olficers, or ex-Guides. Among the 
older Guides there are many who have done noble work as assist- 
ants to the ward-maids, cooks, and launch'y women. In the Govern- 
ment oflices, such as the War Office, the Admiralty, and other great 
departments of the State, they have acted as orderlies and mes- 
sengers. They have taken up work in factories, or as motor-drivers 
or on farms, in order to release men to go to the front. 

At home and in their club-rooms they have made bandages for 
the wounded, and warm clothing for the men at the Front and in 
the Fleet. 

At home in many of the great cities the Guides have turned their 
Headquarters' Club-Rooms into "Hostels." That is, they have 
made them into small hospitals ready for taking in peojjle injured 
in air-raids by the emeny. 

So altogether the Guides have shown themselves to be a pretty 
useful lot in many different kinds of work during the war, and, 
mind you, they are only girls between the ages of 11 and 18. But* 
they have done their bit in the Great War as far as they were able, 
and have done it well. 

There are 100,000 of them, and they are very smart, and ready 
for any job that may be demanded of them. 

They were not raised for this special work during the war for 
they began some years before it, but their motto is "Be Prepared," 
and it was their business to train themselves to be ready for any- 
thing that might happen, even the most unlikely thing. 

So even when war came they were "all there" and ready for it. 
It is not only in Great Britain that they have b^en doing this, 
but all over our great Empire — in Canada and Australia, West, 
East and South Africa, New Zealand, the Falkland Islands, West 
Indies, and India. The Guides are a vast sisterhood of girls, ready 
to do anything they can for their country and Empire. 

Long before there was any idea of the war the Guides had been 
taught to think out and to practise what they should do supposing 
such a thing as war happened in their own country, or that people 
should get injured by bombs or by accidents in their neigborhood. 
Thousands of women have done splendid work in this war, but 
thousands more would have been able to do good work also had 
they only Been Prepared for it beforehand by learning a few 
things that are useful to them outside their mere school work or 
work in their own home. And that is what the Guides are learning 
in all their games and camp work: they mean to be useful in other 
ways besides what they are taught in school. 

As a Guide your first duty is to be helpful to other people, both 
in small everyday matters and also under the worst of circumstances. 
You have to imagine to yourself what sort of things might possibly 
happen, and how you should deal with them when they occur. 
Then you will know what to do. 


I was present when a German aeroplane dropped a bomb on to 
a railway station in London. There was the usual busy scene of 
people seeing to their luggage, saying good-bye and going off by 
train, when with a sudden bang a whole carriage was blown to bits, 
and the adjoining ones were in a blaze; seven or eight of those 
active in getting into the train were flung down — mangled and 
dead; while some thirty more were smashed, broken, and bleeding, 
but still alive. The suddenness of it made it all the more horrifying. 
But one of the first people I noticed as keeping her head was a 
smartly dressed young lady kneeUng by an injured working-man; 
his thigh was smashed and bleeding terribly; she had ripped up his 
trousers with her knife, and with strips of it had bound a pad to 
the wound; she found a cup somehow and filled it with water for 
him from the overhead hose for filling engines. Instead of being 
hysterical and useless, she was as cool and ready to do the right 
thing as if she had been in bomb-raids every day of her life. Well, 
that is what any girl can do if she only prepares herself for it. 

These are things which have to be learnt in peace-time, and 
because they were learnt by the Guides beforehand, these girls 
were able to do their bit so well when war came. 


When you see an accident in the street or people injured in an 
air raid, the sight of the torn limbs, the blood, the broken bones, and 
the sound of the groans and sobbing all make you feel sick and 
horrified and anxious to get away from it — if you're not a Girl 
Guide. But that is cowardice: your business as a Guide is to steel 
yourself to face it and to help the poor victim. As a matter of fact, 
after a trial or two you really get to like such jobs, because with 
coolheadedness and knowledge of what to do you feel you give the 
much-needed help. 

The Value of Nursing. — In this war hundreds and hundreds of 
women have gone to act as nurses in the hospitals for the wounded 
and have done splendid work. They will no doubt be thankful 
all their lives that while they were yet girls they learnt how to 
nurse and how to do hospital work, so that they were useful when 
the call came for them. But there are thousands and thousands 
of others who wanted to do the work when the time came, but they 
had not like Guides, Been Prepared, and they had never learnt how 
to nurse, and so they were perfectly useless and their services were 
not required in the different hospitals. So carry out your motto 
and Be Prepared and learn all you can about hospital and child 
nursing, sick nursing, and every kind, while you are yet a Guide 
and have people ready to instruct you and to help you in learning. 

In countries not so settled and protected as England 

and America, where the women and girls are taught to 

count upon their men to protect th^m in the field, the 


Girl Souts have sometimes had to cHsplay a courage Hke 
that of tlie early settlers. A Roumanian Scout, Ecaterina 
Teodorroiu actually fought in the war and was taken 
prisoner. She escaped, traced her way back to her com- 
pany, and brought valuable information as to the enemy's 
movements. For these services she was decorated "as a 
reward for devotion and conspicuous bravery" with the 
Order of Merit and a special gold medal of the Scouts, 
only given for services during the war. At the same 
time she was promoted to the rank of Honorary 
Second Lieutenant. 

Can we wonder that she is known as the Joan of Arc 
of Roumania? 

During the Russian Revolution the Girl Scouts were 
used by the Government in many practical ways, as may 
be seen from the following letter from one of them: 

"The Scouts assisted from the beginning, from seven 
in the morning until twelve at night, carrying messages, 
sometimes containing state secrets, letters, etc., from 
the Duma to the different branches of it called com- 
missariats, and back again. They also fed the soldiers 
that were on guard. The Scout uniform was our pro- 
tection, and everywhere that uniform commanded the 
respect of the soldiers, peasants and workingmen. 

"As great numbers of soldiers came from the front, 
food had to be given them. It was contributed by pri- 
vate people, but the Scouts had lots of work dis- 
tributing it. All the little taverns were turned into 
eating houses for the soldiers, and there we helped to 
prepare the food and feed them. As there were not 
enough Boy Scouts, the Girl Scouts helped in the same 
way as the boys. 


"The Scouts also did much First Aid work. In one 
instance I saw an officer whose finger had been shot 
off. I ran up to him and bandaged it up for him. (All 
of us Scouts had First Aid kits hanging from our 

"It was something of a proud day for us Scouts 
when the Premier after a parade, called us all before 
the Duma and publicly thanked us for our aid." 
Indeed it was and we heartily congratulate our Sister 
Scouts! But if we do our duty by our Patrol and the 
Patrols all do their duty by their Troop, that proud mo- 
ment is going to come to every single Scout of us, when 
the town where we live tells us by its smiles and applause, 
when we go by in uniform, what it thinks of us. 

We Scouts shall be more and more interested, as the 
years go on, to remember that in the great hours of one 
of the world's greatest crises we helped to make its 
history. Instances like these are very exceptional; 
they could not occur to one in ten thousand of us; but 
we stay-at-homes can always remind ourselves that it was 
the obedience, the quickness, and the skill learned in quiet, 
every-day Scouting that made these few rise to their 
opportunity when it came. 

War and revolution do not make Scouts either brave 
or useful; they only bring out the bravery and the useful- 
ness that have been learned, as we are all learning them, 
every day! 

All we have to do is to fix Scout habits in our hearts 
and hands, and then when our Country calls us, we shall 
be as ready as these little Russian Scouts were. 

In France the Scouts, known as the Eclaireuses, have 
agreed with us that the "land Army" is the best army 
for women. Rain or shine, in heat and cold, they have 


dug and ploughed and planted, and learned the lesson 

American girls learned long ago — that team work is what 


A bit of one of their reports is translated here: 

"The crops were fine — potatoes, radishes, greens and 
beans were raised. The crop of potatoes, especially, 
was so good that the Eclaireuses were able to supply 
their families with them at a price defying competi- 
tion, and they always had enough besides for their 
own use on excursions. (Our hikes.) 

"Such has been the reward of the care, given so 
perseveringly and intelligently to the gardening. 

"And what an admirable lesson! Not a minute was 
lost in this out-of-door work; chests and muscles filled 
out; and at the same time the girls learned to recognize 
weather signs; rain or sun were the factors which 
determined the success or non-success of the planting. 
And each day, there grew in them also love and grati- 
tude for the earth and its elements, without the assist- 
ance of which we could harvest nothing. 

"Is this not the best method of preparing our youth 
to return to the land, to the healthy and safe life of 

, the beautiful countryside of France; by showing them 
the interest and usefulness that lie in agricultural 

"So the Eclaireuse becomes a model of the new 
women, used to sport, possessing her First Aid 
Diploma, able to cook good simple meals, marching 
under orders, knowing how to obey, ready to accept 
her responsibility, good-natured and lively in rain or 
sun, in public or in her home. . . . They continue 
their courses in sewing, hygiene and gymnastics and 
assist eagerly at conferences arranged for them to dis- 


CUSS the duties of the Eclaireuses and what it is neces- 
sary to do to become a good Captain. 

"To make themselves useful — tiiat is the ideal of 

the Eclaireuses. They know that in order to do this 

it is becoming more and more necessary to acquire a 

broad and complete knowledge." 

It is quite a feather in the cap of this great Scout 
Family of ours that we are teaching the French girl, 
who has not been accustomed to leave her home or to 
work in clubs or troops, what a jolly, wonder-working 
thing a crowd of girls, all forging ahead together, can 

In our own country we were protected from the worst 
sides of the great war, but we had a wonderful oppor- 
tunity to show how we could Be Prepared ourselves by 
seeing that our brave soldiers were prepared. 

Our War Records show an immense amount of Red 
Cross supplies, knitting, comfort kits, food grown and 
conserved in every way, money raised for Liberty Loans 
and Thrift Stamps, war orphans adopted, home replace- 
ment work undertaken and carried through; all these 
to so great an amount that the country recognized 
our existence and services as never before in our history, 
the Government, indeed, employing sixty uniformed 
Scouts as messengers in the Surgeon General's Depart- 

Perhaps it is only the truth to say that the war showed 
our country what we could Be Prepared to do for her! 
And it showed us, too. 

It has been said that women can never be the same 
after the great events of the last few years, and we must 
never forget that the Girl Scouts of today are the women 
of tomorrow. 





Busy as the Girl Scout may be with learning to do in 
a clever, up-to-date way all the things to improve her 
home and town that the old pioneer girls knew how to 
do, she never forgets that the original Scouts were out- 
of-door people. So long as there are bandages to make 
or babies to bathe or meals to get or clothes to make, 
she does them all, quicky and cheerfully, and is very 
rightly proud of the badges she gets for having learned 
to do them all, and the sense of independence that comes 
from all this skill with her hands. It gives her a real 
glow of pleasure to feel that because of her First Aid 
practice she may be able to save a life some day, and 
that the hours of study she put in at her home nursing 
and invalid cooking may make her a valuable asset to the 
community in case of any great disaster or epidemic; 
but the real fun of scouting lies in the great life of out- 
of-doors, and the call of the woods is answered quicker 
by the Scout than by anybody, because the Scout learns 
just how to get the most out of this wild, free life and 
how to enjoy it with the least trouble and the most fun. 

One of our most experienced and best loved Captains 
says that "a camp is as much a necessity for the Girl 
Scouts as an office headquarters," and more and more 
girls are learning to agree with her every year. 

Our British cousins are the greatest lovers of out-of- 
door life in the world, and it is only natural that we 
should look to our Chief Scout to hear what he has to 
say to his Girl Guides on this subject so dear to his heart 
that he founded Scouting, that all boys and girls might 
share his enthusiastic pleasure in going back to Nature 
to study and to love her, and to gain happiness and health 
from her woods and fiekls. 




Last year a man went out into the woods in America to try and 
see if he could live like the prehistoric men used to do; that is to 
say, he took nothing with him in the way of food or equipment or 
even clothing — he went just as he was, and started out to make 
his own living as best he could. Of course the first thing he had to 
do was to make some sort of tool or weapon by which he could 
kill some animals, cut his wood and make his fire and so on. So 
he made a stone axe, and with that was able to cut out branches 
of trees so that he could make a trap in which he eventually caught 
a bear and killed it. He then cut up the bear and used the skin 
for blankets and the flesh for food. He also cut sticks and made a 
little instrument by which he was able to ignite bits of wood and so 
start his fire. He also searched out various roots and berries and 
leaves, which he was able to cook and make into good food, and he 
even went so far as to make charcoal and to cut slips of bark from 
the trees and draw pictures of the scenery and animals around him. 
In this way he lived for over a month in the wild, and came out in 
the end very much better in health and spirits and with a great 
experience of life. For he had learned to shift entirely for himself 
and to be independent of the different things we get in civilization 
to keep us going in comfort. 

That is why we go into camp a good deal in the Boy Scout and 
in the Girl Guide movement, because in camp life we learn to do 
without so many things which while we are in houses we think are 
necessary, and find that we can do for ourselves many things where 
we used to think ourselves helpless. And before going into camp 
it is just as well to learn some of the things that will be most useful 
to you when you get there. And that is what we teach in the Head- 
cjuarters of the Girl Guide Companies before they go out and take 
the field. For instance, you must know how to light your own fire; 
how to collect dry enough wood to make it burn; because you will 
not find gas stoves out in the wild. Then you have to learn how to 
find your own water, and good water that will not make you ill. 
You have not a whole cooking range or a kitchen full of cooking 
pots, and so you have to learn to cook your food in the simplest 
way with the means at your hand, such as a simple cooking pot or 
a roasting stick or an oven made with your own hands out of an 
old tin box or something of that kind. 


It is only while in camp that one can really learn to study Nature 
in the proper way and not as you merely do it inside the school; 
because here you are face to face with Nature at all hours of the 
day and night. For the first time you live under the stars and can 
watch them by the hour and see what they really look like, and 
realize what an enormous expanse of almost endless space they cover. 


You know from your lessons at school that our sun warms and lij^hts 
up a large number of different worlds like ours, all circling round it 
in the Heavens. And when you hold up a shilling at arm's length 
and look at the sky, the shilling covers no less than two hundred of 
those suns, each with their different little worlds circling around 
them. And you then begin to realize what an enormous endless 
space the Heavens comprise. You realize perhaps for the first 
time the enormous work of God. 

Then also in camp you are living among plants of every kind, 
and you can study them in their natural state, how they grow and 
what they look like, instead of merely seeing pictures of them in 
books or dried specimens of them in collections. 

All round you, too, are the birds and animals and insects, and 
the more you know of them the more you begin to like them and to 
take an interest in them; and once you take an interest in them you 
do not want to hurt them in any way. You would not rob a bird's 
nest; you would not bully an animal; you would not kill an insect — 
once you have realized what its life and habits are. In this way, 
therefore, you fulfill the Guide Law of becoming a friend to animals. 

By living in camp you begin to find that though there are many 
discomforts and difficulties to be got over, they can be got over with 
a little trouble and especially if you smile at them and tackle them. 

Then living among other comrades in camp you have to be helpful 
and do good turns at almost every minute, and you have to e.xercise 
a great deal of give and take and good temper, otherwise the camp 
would become unbearable. 

So you carry out the different laws of courteousness, of helpful- 
ness, and friendliness to others that come in the Guide Law. Also 
you pick up the idea of how necessary it is to keep everything in 
its place, and to keep your kit and tent and ground as clean as 
possible; otherwise you get into a htorrible state of dirt, and dirt 
brings flies and other inconveniences. 

You save every particle of food and in this way you learn not 
only cleanliness, but thrift and economy. And you very soon realize 
how cheaply you can live in camp, and how very much enjoyment 
you can get for very little money. And as you live in the fresh, 
pure air of God you find that your own thoughts are clean and pure 
as the air around you. There is hardly one of the Guide Laws that 
is not better carried out after you have been living and practising 
it in camp. 

Habits of Animals. — If you live in the country it is of course 
quite easy to observe and watch the habits of all sorts of animals 
great and small. But if you are in a town there are many difficulties 
to be met with. But at the same time if you can keep pets of any 
kind, rabbits, rats, mice, dogs or ponies you can observe and watch 
their habits and learn to understand them well; but generally for 
Giiides it is more easy to watch birds, because you see them both 


in town and country; and especially when you go into camp or on 
walking tours you can observe and watch their hkbits, especially in 
the springtime. 

Then it is that you see the old birds making their nests, hatching 
out their eggs and bringing up their young; and that is of course 
the most interesting time for watching them. A good observant 
guide will get to know the different kinds of birds by their cry, by 
their appearance, and by their way of ilying. She will also get to 
know where their nests are to be found, what sort of nests they are, 
what are the colors of the eggs and so on. And also how the 
young appear. Some of them come out fluffy, others covered with 
feathers, others with very little on at all. The young pigeon, for 
instance, has no feathers at all, whereas a young moorhen can swim 
about as soon as it comes out of the egg; while chickens run about 
and hunt flies within a few minutes; and 3'et a sparrow is quite 
useless for some days and is blind, and has to be fed and coddled by 
his parents. 

Then it is an interesting sight to see the old birds training their 
young ones to fly, by getting up above them and flapping their wings 
a few times until all the young ones imitate them. Then they hop 
from one twig to another, still flapping their wings, and the young 
ones follow suit and begin to find that their wings help them to 
balance; and finally they jump from one branch to another for some 
distance so that the wings support them in their efi'ort. The young 
ones verj' soon find that they are able to use their wings for flying, 
but it is all done by degrees and by careful instruction. 

Then a large number of our birds do not live all the year round 
in England, but they go off to Southern climes such as Africa when 
the winter comes on; but they generally turn up here at the end of 
March and make their nest during the spring. Nightingales arrive 
early in April; wagtails, turtle doves, and cuckoos come late in 
April; woodcock come in the autumn, and redpolcs and fieldfares 
also come here for the winter. In September you will see the mi- 
grating birds collecting to go away, the starlings in their crowds and 
the swallows for the South, and so do the warblers, the flycatchers, 
and the swifts. And yet about the same time the larks are arriving 
here from the Eastward, so there is a good deal of traveling among 
the birds in the air at all times of the year." 

How many of our American Scouts are able to supply 

from their observation all of our native birds to take 

the places of these mentioned in this lovely paragraph? 

Everyone should be able to. 

Nature in the City. — This noticing of small things, especially in 
animal life, not only gives you great interest, but it also gives you 
great fun and enjoyment in life. Even if you live in a city yoq 


can do a certain amount of ohsfrvation of birds and animals. Vou 
would think there is not much fun to be got out of it in a nuirky 
town Hke London or Sliellield, and yet if you begin to notice and 
know all about the sparrows you begin to find there is a great deal 
of character and amusement to be got out of them, by watching 
their ways and habits, their nesting, and their way of teaching their 
young ones to fly. 


"Stalking. — A Guide has to be sharp at seeing things if she is 
going to be any good as a Guide. She has to notice every little 
track and every little sign, and it is this studying of tracks and 
following them out and finding out their meaning which we include 
under the name of stalking. For instance, if you want to find a 
bird's-nest you have to stalk. That is to say, you watch a bird 
flying into a bush and guess where its nest is, and follow it up and 
find the nest. With some birds it is a most difficult thing to find 
their nests; take, for instance, the skylark or the snipe. But those 
who know the birds, especially the snipe, will recognize their call. 
The snipe when she is alarmed gives quite a different call from when 
she is happy and flying about. She has a particular call when she 
has young ones about. So that those who have watched and listened 
.and know her call when they hear it know pretty well where the 
young ones are or where the nest is and so on. 

" How to Hide Yourself. — When you want to observe wild animals 
you have to stalk them, that is, creep up to them without their 
seeing or smelling you. 

"A hunter when he is stalking wild animals keeps himself entirely 
hidden, so does the war scout when watching or looking for the 
enemy; a policemen does not catch pickpockets by standing about 
in uniform watching for them; he dresses like one of the crowd, and 
as often as not gazes into a shop window and sees all that goes on 
behind him reflected as if in a looking-glass. 

"If a guilty person finds himself being watched, it puts him on 
his guard, while an innocent person becomes annoyed. So, when 
you are observing people, don't do so by openly staring at them, 
but notice the details you want to at one glance or two, and if you 
want to study them more, walk behind them; you can learn just 
as much from a back view, in fact more than you can from a front 
view, and, unless they are scouts and look around frequently, they 
do not know that you are observing them. 

"War scouts and hunters stalking game always carry out two 
important things when they don't want to be seen." 

One is Background. — They take care that the ground behind them. 
QT trees, or kuddings, etc., are of the same colour as their clothes. 


And theother is ''Freezing" — If an enemy or a deer is seen looking for 
them, they remain perfectly still without mmmig so long as he is there. 

Trackinp,. — The native hunters in most wild countries follow their 
game by watching for tracks on the ground, and they become so 
expert at seeing the slightest sign of a footmark on the ground that 
they can follow up their prey when an ordinary civilized man can 
see no sign whatever. But the great reason for looking for signs 
and tracks is that from these 3'ou can read a meaning. It is exactly 
like reading a book. You will see the different letters, each letter 
combining to make a word, and the words then make sense; and there 
are also commas and full-stops and colons; all of these alter the 
meaning of the sense. These are all little signs, which one who is 
practised and has learnt reading, makes into sense at once, whereas 
a savage who has never learned could make no sense of it at all. 
And so it is with tracking. 


"Sign" is the word used by Guides to mean any little details, 
such as footprints, broken twigs, trampled grass, scraps of food, 
old matches, etc. 

Some native Indian trackers were following up the footprints of 
a panther that had killed and carried off a young kid. He had 
crossed a wide bare slab which, of rock, of course, gave no mark 
of his soft feet. The tracker went at once to the far side of the 
rock where it came to a sharp edge; he wetted his finger, and just 
passed it along the edge till he found a few kid's hairs sticking to 
it. This showed him where the panther had passed down off the 
rock, dragging the kid with him. Those few hairs were what Guides 
call "signs." 

This tracker also found bears by noticing small "signs." On one 
occasion he noticed a fresh scratch in the bark of a tree, evidently 
made by a bear's claw, and on the other he found a single black hair 
sticking to the bark of a tree, which told him that a bear had rubbed 
against it. 

Details in the Country. — If you are in the country, you should 
notice landmarks — that is, objects which help you to find your way 
to prevent your getting lost — such as distant hills and church towers; 
and nearer objects, such as peculiar buildings, trees, gates, rocks, etc. 

And remember in noticing such landmarks that you may want 
to use your knowledge of them some day for telling some one else 
how to find his way, so you must notice them pretty closely so as 
to be able to descrilae them unmistakably and in their proper order. 
You must notice and remember every by-road and foot-path. 

Remembrance of these things will help you to find your way by 
night or in fog when other people are losing themselves. 



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Lame Horse Walking : WTiich leg is he lame in ? 
N.B. — The lon^feet art the hitidfeet. 

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^ ^^ ^ ^ V. 

These are the tracks of two birds on the ground. One that 

lives generally on the ground, the other in bushes and 

treijs. Which track belongs to which bird ? 


Using your Eyes. — Let nothing be too small for your notice — 
a button, a match, a hair, a cigar ash, a feather, or a leaf might 
be of great importance, even a finger-print which is almost invisible 
to the naked eye has often been the means of detecting a crime. 

With a little practice in observation you can tell pretty accu- 
rately a man's character from his dress. 

How would you recognize that a gentleman was fond of fishing? 
If you see his left cufT with little tufts of cloth sticking up, you may 
be sure he fishes. When he takes his flies off the line he will either 
stick them into his cap to dry, or hook them into his sleeve. When 
drv he pulls them out, which often tears a thread or two of the 

Remember how "Sherlock Holmes" met a stranger, and noticed 
that he was looking fairly well-to-do, in new clothes with a mourning 
band on his sleeve, with a soldiery bearing and a sailor's way of 
walking, sunburns, with tattoo marks on his hands, and he was 
carrying some children's toys in his hand. What would you have 
supposed that man to be. Well, Sherlock Holmes guessed correctly 
that he had lately retired from the Royal Marines as a sergeant, 
that his wife had died, and that he had some small children at home. 

Practice in Observation. — Instructor can take the fingermarks 
of each girl. Lightly rub the the thumb on hlacklead or on paper that 
is blacked with pencil, then press the thumb on paper and examine 
with magnifying glass. Show that no two persons' prints are alike. 

In Town. — Practice your girls first in walking doivn a street to 
notice the different kinds of shops as they pass, and to remember them 
in their proper sequence at the end. 

Then to notice and remember the names on the shops. 

Then to notice and remember the contents of a shop window after 
two minutes' gaze. Finally, to notice the contents of serveral shop 
ivindoivs in succession with half a minute at each. Give marks for the 
fullest list. 

The Guides must also notice prominent buildings as landmarks, and 
the number of turnings off the street they are using. 

In the Country. — Take the patrol out for a ivalk and teach the 
girls to notice distant prominent features such as hills, church steeples, 
and so on; and as nearer landmarks such things as peculiar buildings, 
trees, rocks, gates, by-roads or paths, nature of fences, crops, different 
kinds of trees, birds, animals, tracks, people, vehicles, etc. Also any 
peculiar smells of plants, animals, manure, etc. ; whether gates or doors 
were open or shut, ivhether any smoke from chimneys, etc. 

Send Guides out in pairs. 

It adds to the value of the practice if the instructor makes a certain 
number of small marks in the ground beforehand, or leaves button? or 


matches, etc., for the airh to voticc or to pick up and bring in as a means 
of making them examine the ground close to them as well as distant 

Practices IN Natural History. — 7'ake oiit Guides to get specimens 
of leaves, fruit, or blossoms of various trees, shrubs, etc., and observe 
the shape and nature of the tree both in summer and in winter. 

Collect leaves of different trees; let Guides make tracings of them and 
write the name of the tree on each. 

In the country make Guides examine crops in all stages of their 
growth, so that they know pretty well by sight what kind of crop is coming 

Start gardens if possible; either a patrol garden or individual Guides' 
gardens. Let them groiv floivers and vegetables for profit to pay for 
their equipment, etc. Shoio all the ivild plants which may be made use 
of for food. Find yew trees ; report if any good branches to make archers' 
bows of. 

Encourage the keeping of live pets, whether birds, animals, reptiles, 
insects. Show how to keep illustrated diary-records of plants, insects, 
birds, etc., giving dates when seen for comparision following year and 
showing their peculiar markings, etc. 

If in a town take your Guides to the Zoological Gardens, menagerie 
or Natural History Museum, and show them particular animals on 
which you are prepared to lecture. Not more than half a dozen for 
one visit. 

If in the country get farmers or shepherd to help with information 
on the habits of farm animals, e. g., how a cow lies down and when. 
How to milk, stalk rabbits, water voles, trout, birds, etc., and luatch 
their habits. 




Before a girl may become enrolled as a regular Girl 
Scout she must be at least ten years old, and must have 
attended the meetings of a Troop for at least a month, 
during which time she must have passed her Tenderfoot 
Test. The Captain must have prepared the candidate 
for enrollment by explaining the meaning of the Promise 
and the Laws and making sure that she fully under- 
stands the meaning of the oath she is about to make, and 
that she also comprehends the meaning of "honor." The 
following is a convenient form for enrollments. 

(1) The Scouts stand in the forni of a horseshoe with the 
officer who is to enroll at the open side, facing Scouts. 

(2) Offtcer addresses troops on the subject of what It 
means to be a Scout. 

(3) Patrol Leader brings candidate to officer and salutes 
and returns to place. 

(4) Officer addresses candidate in low tone: "What 
does your honor mean?" 

Candidate answers. 

Officer: "Will you on your honor, try: To do your 
duty to God and to your Country; to help other 
people at all times; to obey the Scout Laws?" 
Candidate and officer both salute as candidate re- 
peats Promise. Officer: "I trust you on your 
honor to keep this Promise." 

(5) Officer pins Tenderfoot Badge on the new scout, 
explaining what it stands for, that it symbolizes 
her Scout life, and so forth. 

(6) Scout and officer salute each other. Scout turns 
and troop salutes her, scout returning salute, and 
then goes alone to her place. 



(7) All Scouts present repeat Promise and Laws. Troop 
then breaks ranks to take up some Scout activity. 

When many scouts are to be enrolled,. four at a time 
may be presented to the officer, but each should singly 
be asked and should answer the question: "What does 
your honor mean?" All four repeat the Promise together 
and the officer addresses all together in saying: "I trust 
you on your honor to keep this Promise," but speaks 
to each separately as she puts on the pin. 

A Captain may perform this ceremony or she may ask 
some higher Scout officer to do so. 

2. Presentation of Other Badges 

The following form of ceremony was devised for 
special use in the presentation of the highest honor at- 
tainable by a Girl Scout, the Golden Eaglet, but the same 
outline may be followed for giving Merit Badges, and First 
and Second Class Badges, or any other medals or honors. 

Presentation of Golden Eaglet. — As the presentation of 
the Golden Eaglet is an important occasion in the life of 
a Scout and her Troop, it should take place at a public 
Scout function, such as a District or Community Rally, 
a reception to a distinguished guest of the Scouts, or pos- 
sibly at the time of a civic celebration. 

The Court of Awards is responsible for all details of 
the meeting, and it is suggested that it invite parents, 
friends and other persons interested in the Scout move- 
ment to be present. The medal may be presented by the 
Chairman of the Court of Awards, some other member of 
that Committee or by a higher Scout officer. 

Arrangements for the ceremony should be planned so 
that during the presentation of guests, the Court of 
Awards, the Eaglet's troop and the Color Guard form a 
hollow square, with the Captain at her post three paces 


in front of the Troop, the Lieutenant at her post "center 
and rear" of the Troop. The ceremony should be re- 
hearsed wherever possible, so that all action and form 
shall be as smart as possible. 

1. The Court of Awards enters and takes its place 
at right angles to the assembled guests. 

2. The Captain enters, takes post, and gives all com- 

3. The Color Guard (bearer of the American flag, 
bearef of the Troop flag, and two guards) folowed by 
Troop to which the Eaglet belongs, enter and march two 
paces in front of the Court of Awards. The lieutenant is 
at the left of the leading file. The Troop marches in 
single file, by twos or in Squad formation according to 
the number, and the space available. 

When the Troop is very large, or the space restricted, 
the Eaglet's Patrol may take the place of the Troop. As 
the Colors pass, the Court of Awards should rise, stand 
at attention, and if Scouts, salute. 

4. When the Color Guard at the head of the column 
has passed the Court of Awards, the command "Column 
left, MARCH!" is given. When the last file has com- 
pleted the movement, the following commands are given : 

(1) "Scouts, HALT!" 

(2) "Left, FACE," or 

"Squads, left, MARCH, Squads, HALT," ac- 
cording to the formation of the column. 

(3) "Right, DRESS, FRONT!" 

5. At the command "Left, FACE," or "Squads, left, 
MARCH, Squads HALT," the Color Guard makes a left 
turn, marches forward until on a line with the Court of 
Awards, again makes a left turn, immediately halts and 
grounds flags. 


G. When the Troop and Color duard are in position, 
the Captain gives the command "Patrol Leader and 
Eaglet, forward, MARCH!" The Patrol Leader escorts 
the Eaglet to the Captain, salutes the Captain and re- 
turns to her position in line. 

7. The Chairman of the Court of Awards comes for- 
ward, the Captain faces her, salutes, and presents the 
Eaglet to her. 

8. The Chairman after reading the list of Merit 
Badges which the Scout has earned in order to receive 
the Golden Eaglet, pins the medal on to the Eaglet's lilouse, 
over the middle of the right pocket. The Eaglet salutes. 

If desired this is the opportunity for the Official pre- 
senting the badge to say a few words 

9. After the presentation, the Eaglet turns, and fac- 
ing her Captain and Troop, stands at attention as the 
Colors are raised, the Scout flag dipped, and the Troop 
salutes. The Eaglet returns the salute and then marches 
to her position in line. 

10. The Captain gives the command "Color Guard 
forward, MARCH." The Color Guard marches in front 
of the Captain and Troop who salute as the colors pass, 
make a right turn tw^o paces in front of the Court of 
Honor and march out. 

IL After the colors have left the "square" the Lieu- 
tenant takes her position at the left of the leading file. 
The Captain gives the commands: 

"Right, FACE, MARCH!" or "Squads right, 

"Column left, MARCH!" 

and the Troop marches out. The Captain turns, salutes 
the Court of Awards and passes out. 


0000 0000 
Troop — 

^ ^ 0000 0000 
O— Capt. 


Color §[_ c XX Court of 

Guard c x x Awards 


Where there is no Local Council or Court of Awards, 
Captains are asked to communicate with the National 
Headquarters concerning the ceremony of presentation 
of the Golden Eaglet. 


In the case of troops for which this formal procedure 
is not practical, and for the better assistance of Captains 
and Councils who feel the need of a more definite formu- 
lation of the Scout principles on these occasions, the fol- 
lowing ceremonies are suggested. They are designed 
to meet the necessity for expressing at each stage of the 
Scout's progress, recognition of her achievement up to 
that point and appreciation of her future responsibilities. 
1. Tenderfoot Enrollment 

1. The Troop being assembled in any desired forma- 
tion, the Captain calls forward those who have passed 
the test. 

Captain: "Scout , do \'ou tliiiik you know what 


it means to be loyal to God and your Country, to 
help other people at all times, and to obey the 
Scout Laws ?" 

Scout: "I think I do, and I will try mv best not 
to fail in any of them." 
This is repeated to each Tenderfoot. 

Captain: "Are you ready to make your Promise 
with your Troop?" 

New Scouts (together): "Yes." 

Captain : "Scouts of Troop , repeat your 


All salute and repeat the Promise. 

Captain: "1 trust you on your honor to keep this 

(Here, when practicable , investiture of hat, neck- 
erchief, etc., takes place.) • 
Captain then pins on Tenderfoot pin While 
attaching it, she says: 

Captain: "This pin makes you a Girl Scout. It 
is yours, so long as you are worthy of it." 
Captain dismisses recently enrolled Scouts to their 
Troop position. 

(Here the Captain may add, if she wishes, any- 
thing in her judgment applicable to the Troop as 
a whole, or to the new Scouts individually.) 

2. Conferring Second Class Badges 

The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, 
the Captain calls forward those who have passed the test. 

Captain : "Scout , you have learned what is 

necessary for a Second Class Scout to know. 
Do you think you can apply your knowledge, if 
the occasion should arise?" 
Scout: "I think so, and I will always try to Be 


Captain : "Scouts (reciting the candidates' names 
in order), do you think that the discipline and 
training you have gone through have made you 
more capable of doing your duty to God and to 
your Country, of helping other people at all times 
and of obeying the Scout Laws, than you were as 
a Tenderfoot ?" 

Scouts (together) : "Yes." 

Captain (pinning on each badge, and speaking to 
each Scout as she does so): "You are now a 
Second Class Scout, which means that though you 
have learned much, you have still much to learn." 
Captain dismisses Second Class Scouts to their 
Troop position. 

(Here the Captain may address the Troop at her 

3. Conferring First Class Badge 

The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, 
the Captain calls forzvard those zvho have passed the test 
and presents them to the presiding Official. 

Captain : "Commissioner , these Scouts of 

Troop have passed their First Class Tests. 

I recommend them to you for First Class badges." 

Official (to each Scout separately, the Captain giving 

her the name): "Scout , you have passed 

the final Scout test. You should thoroughly un- 
derstand by now the meaning of duty to God and 
Country, the privilege of helpfulness to others, 
and the seriousness of the Scout Laws. Are you 
sure that you do." 

Scout : "I am. And I realize that I must help 
other Scouts to see these things as I see them." 


Official : "Scouts (reading the candidates' 

names in order), it has taken a great deal of 
thought and time and energy on the part of a 
great many people to enable you to wear this 
badge. Are you prepared to pay this back in 
generous service, when and where you can ?" 

Scouts (together): "Yes." 

Official (pinning on each badge and speaking to each 
Scout as she does so): "You are now a First 
Class Scout. Remember that the world will judge 
us by you." 

Official (to Captain) : "I congratulate you, Cap- 
tain , Troop , and the members of 

the Council, on these First Class Scouts, and I 

trust that the Town of will have every 

reason to be proud of them and to feel that it can 
depend upon them as especially good citizens and 
loyal Americans." 

Captain acknowledges this in suitable manner and 
. dismisses First Class Scouts to Troop position. 
(Here tlie Official may address the audience at dis- 

4. Conferring Merit Badges 

The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, 
the Captain calls forward those who have passed the test 
and presents them to the presiding Official. (Note — The 
Merit Badges may be conferred by a member or members 
of the Council, if desired.) 

Captain : "Members of the Girl Scout Council of 

, these Scouts have passed the various 

tests for their Merit Badges, and I recommend 
them to you for decoration accordingly." 
Official : "Scouts (reading the list), you have fairly 
won the right to wear these badges we are about 


to present to you, and we are glad to do so. We 
take this oportunity of reminding you, however, 
that all good Scouts understand that they are far 
from having completely mastered the subjects re- 
presented by these badges. The symbols which 
you wear on your sleeve mean that you have an 
intelligent interest in the subjects you have chosen, 
understand the principles of them, and can give 
reasonable, practical proof of this. Do you realize 
that the Girl Scout Organization credits you with 
a good foundation and trusts to you to continue 
to build upon it intelligently?" 
Scouts (together): "Yes." 

Official (pinning on badges and speaking to each 
girl separately): "We congratulate you on your 
perseverance and wish you all success in your 

Note — When more than one badge is to be pre- 
sented to a Scout, they may be attached, for the 
ceremony, to a piece of ribbon and put on with 
one motion.) 

Captain dismisses Scouts to Troop position. 

(Here the official may address the audience at dis- 

This ceremony being distinctly less formal and 
intimate than the regular class awards, Scout 
songs and cheers are in order. 

5. Golden Eaglet Ceremony 

The Troop being assembled in any desired formation, 
the Captain presents the Golden Eaglet to the Official who 
is to make the award. 

Captain : "Commissioner , Scout , of 

Troop , of , has not only passed the 

twenty-one Merit Badge Tests required for the 


honor of the Golden Eaglet, but is, in the judg- 
ment of her Troop, fully worthy of it. We there- 
fore recommend her to you for .the decoration." 

Official : "What badges does Scout offer ?" 

Captain reads the list Badges earned by the Can- 

Official: "Troop , do you agree that Scout 

has fairly won this decoration and that 

you are willing to have her represent you to your 
National Organization as your Golden Eaglet?" 

Troop (together): "Yes." 

Official : "Members of the Council, do you agree 

that Scout has fairly won this decoration 

and that you are willing to have her represent you 
to your community as your Golden Eaglet?" 

Council (rising if seated) : "Yes." 

Official : "Scout , you have won the highest 

honor in the gift of the Girl Scouts." 

"If the Scout life meant nothing more to you 
than a reasonable understanding of certain sub- 
jects, there would now be nothing more for the 
Girl Scouts to teach you ; but I am sure that your 
training has not failed in this respect, and that 
you understand now, even better than the average 
Girl Scout, that your great principles of duty to 
God and Country, helpfulness to others, and obedi- 
ence to the Scout Laws, are lessons that no Scout 
can fully learn as long as she lives. Do you agree 
to this?" 

Golden Eaglet : "I agree to it thoroughly." 

Official (pinning on badge:) "I have the honor of 
naming you a Golden Eaglet, and in the name of 
the Girl Scouts I congratulate you heartily on 
your fine achievement." 


Scout salutes or shakes the hand of the Official, as 

desired, and returns to her troop position. 
(Here the Official may address the audience at dis- 

The accompanying diagram of suggested relative posi- 
tions in Scout ceremonies lends itself equally to a small 
room, theatre, hall or open field. Whether the Scouts 
form a troop or even one patrol ; whether they make use 
of strict military formation or informal grouping; whether 
the visiting Scout dignitaries are many or limited to one 
member of the local Council, the Scout bodies face each 
other, and the guest or guests of honor, equally with the 
general audience, can observe the Troop and the candi- 
dates easily from the side. 

All Troops who are familiar with military drill can take 
their usual positions in their usual manner and observe 
all details of color guard, salutes, etc., to any desired ex- 
tent. Troops and Captains not familiar with such pro- 
cedure, by accustoming themselves to this general group- 
ing, will always be able to present a dignified appearance. 

Note : These suggestions for the various ceremonials 
assume that the regular opening of the Scout meetings has 
already taken place ; therefore nothing is given but the 
actual matter of the presentations, etc. In the case of 
the Tenderfoot, Second Class and First Class awards, the 
ceremonies constitute the special business of the meeting, 
and opening and closing should proceed as usual. They 
are distinctly Scout business and are not, in general, of- 
fered to the public. 

The awarding of Merit Badges might with advantage 
be connected with any local civic ceremony where interest 
in young people may be created ; and in the case of the 
Golden Eaglet award it is distinctly desirable thus to con- 
nect it. Any visiting dignitary, national or state, may with 



propriety be asked to officiate ; and where diflferent organi- 
zations are taking their various parts in a pubHc func- 
tion, it will not always be possible to claim the time nor 
the space for the regular Scout opening ceremonies, nor 
would this necessarily be advisable. It is, therefore, well 
to be provided with a form like the preceding, where a 
small delegation from the Troop, the Captain and a Coun- 
cillor could, if necessary, represent the essential units of 
the organization among a number of other societies; and 
the words of the ceremony would explain the occasion 
sufficiently without much concerted action, and may be 
inserted at the proper place, preceded and followed by any 
Troop or local customs preferred. 

Ooasta of hoaoi 



• g§ 


D 4 




6. How to Conduct a Scout Meeting 

1. One long whistle blast: Silence, listen for orders. 

2. Three short whistle blasts: "Fall In," or "Assemble." three 
paces in front of Captain, Squad formation. 



12 3 4 12 3 4 
* Captain 
Lieutenant * 

3. "Right Dress," Front." 

4. Inspection. Captain inspects for posture, and for per- 
sonal appearance which should be neat and clean in every particular, 
and uniform, which should be correct as to style, length, placing of 
insignia, etc. All necessary corrections should be made in a low 
tone of voice to the individual Scout. 

5. "Color Bearer, Forward — Center" "March." The Color 
Bearer, appointed to carry flag, upon receiving order to "March," 
takes one step backward, executes "Right Face," marches out of 
rank, executes "Left Face," marches to point on line with flag, 
executes "Right Face," marches to within two steps of flag and comes 
to "Halt." She salutes flag, takes staff in both hands, wheels right, 
and marches to position three paces in front of, and facing troop. 
The Captain and Lieutenant have moved to position at right 
angles to, and at right of troop. If a Color Guard is used instead 
of Color Bearer, two Scouts act as guards, their position being 
on either side of bearer. They leave ranks together, form in line 
at right of troop, march shoulder to shoulder and always wheel 
to the right, the Color Bearer being the pivot and giving all orders 
to Guard. After Bearer has taken flag and turns, the Guards 
salute, take one step forward, about-face, and all march to position 
in front of troop. The Color Guard never takes part in the repeating 
of the Promise, Laws, Pledge of Allegiance or singing of Star Spangled 

6. "Scouts, the flag of your country. Pledge Allegiance." 
The Pledge of Allegiance should be followed by one verse of the 
Star Spangled Banner. 

7. "The Scout Promise," "Salute." 

8. "The Scout Laws, Repeat." 

9. "Color Bearer, Post-March." The Color Bearer, turning 
always to right, returns flag to its post, places it in position, salutes, 
and returns to place, entering ranks from rear of line. The Color 
Guard, wheels right, marches to post; Guards stand at attention 
while the Bearer places flag, salutes, and about-faces. The Guards 
step forward, about-face, and the Color Guard wheels and returns 
to ranks. 

10. "Fall Out." 

11. Business Meeting. 

12. Scout activities, including work for tests and badges, singing, 
games and discussion of Scout principles. 

13. Closing Exercises. 


Closing Exercises 

. 1. "Fall In." 

2. America, or Battle Hymn of the Republic. 

3. "Dismissed." Scouts salute Captain. 

The form for opening and closing exercises suggested 
above takes only 20 minutes and is a practical method of 
ensuring uniformity when groups from diflFerent troops 
come together. Troops may use more elaborate forms, 
depending upon the amount of time which the girls wish 
to spend upon this type of work. For instance : 

(a) In a troop composed of many patrols each Cor- 
poral forms her patrol and reports to the Lieutenant, who 
in turn reports to the Captain, "The company ^s formed," 

(b) In dismissing, troops with a bugler may play 
"Taps" or may sing the same to words locally composed. 

(c) In some troops Corporals give commands. This is 
good because it emphasizes the patrol system. 

But the form outlined is given as the minimum require- 
ment, and troops using it need never feel at a loss in large 
tallies, for every ceremony necessary to express the Scout 
spirit with dignity is there. 

No additions made locally should change the essential 
order of these exercises, all additions which are made 
being merely amplifications of it in detail, which may not 
be possible nor desirable in every community. 

Business Meeting 

The meeting opens with the Chairman, Secretary and 
Treasurer in place, with the Secretary at the right and the 
Treasurer at the left of the Chairman. The idea is to 
have every Scout in the troop learn to be the Chairman so 


that any and all could act in the capacity of a Business 
Chairman at any kind of meeting. 

The meeting is called to order by the Chairman. "Will 
the meeting please come to order?" 

The Chairman asks the Secretary to call the roll. "Will 
the Secretary call the roll ? And will the Treasurer col- 
lect the dues?" 

The Chairman calls for the Secretary's report. "Will 
the Secretary read the minutes of the last meeting?" 

The Chairman calls for corrections of the minutes. "Are 
there any corrections?" 

If there are none she says : "If not, the minutes stand 

If there are corrections the Chairman calls for further 
corrections, "Are there further corrections, etc. If not, 
the minutes stand approved as corrected." 

Form of Secretary's report : "The regular meeting of 
Pansy Troop No. 5, held at the club house, on April 4th, 
was called to order at 3 o'clock. In the absence of the 

Chairman, Scout took the chair. The minutes 

of the previous meeting were read and approved, dues 

collected amounted to . After ■ was discussed 

and voted upon, the meeting adjourned." 

The Chairman calls for the Treasurer's report. "Will 
the Treasurer give her report?" 
Form of Treasurer's report : 

Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1919 $2.50 

Members' dues $1.00 

Fines .30 1.30 

Total $3.80 

Disbursements — 

Janitor $1.00 $1.00 

Balance on hand 2.80 

Total $3.80 


The Chairman calls for corrections as before. 

Then the Chairman calls for a discussion of old busi- 
ness, that is, anything discussed at previous meetings, 
that has been left undone or left to be decided at a later 
date. Any member of the meeting may bring up this old 
business, or the Chairman may start the discussion. "The 

business before the meeting is . What is your 

pleasure in regard to this," or "Will anyone make a mo- 

The member who wishes to make the motion says : 
"Madam Chairman, I move that — " 

Another member who agrees to this says : "I second 
the motion." 

If the motion is not seconded at once, the Chairman 
says : "Will anyone second the motion ?" 

After the motion has been moved and seconded the 
Chairman immediately states the question as, "It has been 
moved and seconded that the troop have a Rally on May 
2. Are you ready for the question?" or "The question 
is now open for discussion." If no one rises, the Chair- 
man proceeds to put the question. "All those in favor 
say aye, opposed no." 

Then the Chairman says, "The motion is carried," or 
"The motion is not carried," as the case may be. 

After the old business has been attended to, the Chair- 
man calls for new business, saying, "Is there any new 
business to be discussed?" 

The Chairman then dismisses the meeting by calling 
for a motion for adjournment. 

xA.djournment : "Will some one move that the meeting 
be adjourned?" 

If this is moved and seconded it is not necessary to put 
it to a vote. 

The Chairman says : "The meeting is adjourned. 



1. Tenderfoot Test 

Before enrolling as a Tenderfoot a girl must be ten 
years old and have attended at least four meetings, cov- 
ering at least one month in time. In addition lo the ma- 
terial covered by the test, the Cajltain must have thoroughly 
explained to her the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance 
to the Flag, the Scout Promise and the Scout Laws, and 
be sure of her general understanding of them as well as 
of her ability to respect them. This test is given by the 
Troop Captain. 

Tenderfoot Test 

1. What are the Scout Promise and the Scout Laws? 
Give them as printed in Handbook. 

2. Demonstrate the Scout Salute. When do Scouts 
use the Salute? 

3. What are the Scout Slogan and the Scout Motto? 

4. How is the respect due the American Flag ex- 
pressed? Give the Pledge of Allegiance. 

5. What are the words of the first and last stanza of 
The Star-Spangled Banner ? 

6. What is the full name of the President of the 
United States? 

What is the full name of the Governor of your 
State ? 

What is the full name of the highest city, town or 
village official where you live? 


7. Make or draw an American Flag, using correct 



8. Tie the Reef, Bowline, Clove-hitch and Sheep-shank 
knots according to instructions given in Handbook, 
and tell use of each. 

Whip the end of a piece of rope. Indicate and 
define the three parts of a rope. 


9. Present record that you have saved or earned 
enough money to buy some part of the Scout uni- 
form or insignia. 

Recommended : Practice Setting-up Exercises, Scout 
positions and Tenderfoot Drill as shown in Handbook. 

II. Second Class Test 

While it is not necessary to devote any specified length 
of time to the training for this test, it is well to remember 
that if too long a time is taken, either because of lack of 
interest on the part of the Troop, or too inflexible stand- 
ards on the part of the Captain, the possibility of winning 
Merit Badges is delayed and the feeling of steady progress 
is likely to be lost. The girls should be urged to keep to- 
gether as a body, and reminded that regular attendance 
and team-work will be fairer to all. Quick learners can 
spend their extra time on private or group preparation 
for their Merit Badges, for which they become eligible 
as soon as they have passed the test, but not before. 

This test may be given by the Troop Captain, or at her 
request by another Captain or competent authority, such 
as a registered nurse for bedmaking, health officer for 
First Aid, fire chief for fire prevention, and so forth. 

Second Class Scout Test 

1. What is the history of the American Flag, and for 
what does it stand? 


2. Describe six animals, six birds, six trees and six 

3. What are the sixteen points of the compass? Show 
how to use a compass. 

4. How may fire be prevented, and what should a 
Scout do in case of fire? 

5. Send and receive the alphabet of the General Ser- 
vice or Semaphore Code. 

6. Demonstrate ability to observe quickly and accurate- 
ly by describing the contents of a room or a shop 
window, or a table with a number of objects upon 
it, after looking a short time, (not more than ten 
seconds) ; or describe a passer-by so that another 
person could identify him ; or prove ability to make 
a quick rough report on the appearance and land- 
marks of a stretch of country, not to exceed one- 
quarter of a mile and to be covered in not more than 
five minutes. Report should include such things as 
ground surface, buildings in sight, trees, animals, 

(Note: This territory must have been gone over by 
person administering the test. The test is not to 
be confused with the First Class requirement for 
map making. It may be made the object of a hike, 
and tested in groups or singly. Artificial hazards 
may be arranged,) 


7. Lay and light a fire in a stove, using not more than 
two matches, or light a gas range, top burner, oven 
and boiler, without having the gas blow or smoke. 
Lay and light a fire in the open, using no artificial 
tinder, such as paper or excelsior, and not more 
than two matches. 

8. Cook so that it may be eaten, seasoning properly. 


one simple dish, such as cereal, vegetables, meat, 
fish or eggs in any other form than boiled. 
9. Set a table correctly for a meal of two courses. 

10. Make ordinary and hospital bed, and show how to 
air them. 

11. Present samples of seaming, hemming, darning, and 
either knitting or crocheting, and press out a Scout 
uniform, as sample of ironing. 


12. Demonstrate the way to stop bleeding, remove speck 
from eye, treat ivy poisoning, bandage a sprained 
ankle, remove a splinter. 

13. What do you consider the main points to remem- 
ber about Health? 

(Note: This is based on a knowledge of the section in 
the Handbook on Personal Health. It is suggested 
that a good way to demonstrate practically a know- 
ledge of the main points is to keep for a month the 
Daily Health Record, This will incidentally com- 
plete one-third of the requirement for Health Win- 
ner's Badge.) 

14. What are your height and weight, and how do they 
compare with the standard ? 


15. Present to Captain or Council the proof of satis- 
factory service to Troop, Church or Community. 

16. Earn or save enough money for some part of per- 
sonal or troop equipment. 

Recommended: Practice Setting-up Exercises and 
Second Class Drill. 

III. First Class Test 

Work on this test should not be hurried. It is purposely 
made more thorough and more difficult, because it is 


designed for the older and longer trained Scout. The 
work for the Merit Badges, which all Scouts enjoy, should 
not be considered as interfering with this period, as such 
work is also the preparation for a possible Golden Eaglet 
degree. As a general rule, girls under fifteen are not 
likely to make thoroughly trained First Class Scouts, nor 
is the community likely to take their technical ability in 
the important subjects very seriously. The First Class 
Scout is the ideal Scout, of whom the organization has 
every right to feel proud ; and ability to grasp a subject 
quickly and memorize details is not so important as prac- 
tical efficiency, reliability and demonstrated usefulness to 
the Troop and the community. While the standard must 
not be set so high as to discourage the average girl, im- 
patience to get through in any given time should not be 
encouraged, as this is not important. 

First Class Scout Test 

1. Draw a simple map of territory seen on hike or 
about camping place, according to directions in 
Handbook, using at least ten conventional map 
signs. Area covered must equal a quarter square 
mile, and if territory along road is used it should 
be at least 2 miles long. 

2. Demonstrate ability to judge correctly height, 
weight, number and distance, according to direc- 
tions in Handbook. 

3. Demonstrate ability to lind any of the four cardinal 
points of the compass, using the sun or stars as 

4. Send and receive messages in the General Service 
or the Semaphore Code at the rate of sixteen and 
thirty letters a minute respectively. 

5. Present the following Badges : 

Home Nurse 


First Aide 
and any two of the following : 
Child Nurse 
Health Winner 



6. Take an overnight hike carrying all necessary equip- 
ment and rations ; or 

Take a group of younger girls on a day time hike, 
planning the whole trip, including where and how 
to get the food, assigning to each girl her part in 
responsibility, directing transportation and occupa- 
tion, and so forth; or 

Be one of four to construct a practical lean-to; or 
Demonstrate skating backwards, the outer edge, 
and stopping suddenly; or 
Run on skiis ; or 

Show your acquaintance from personal observa- 
tion of the habits of four animals or four birds. 

7. Be able to swim fifty yards, or in case of inaccessi- 
bility to water, be able to shin up ten feet of rope, 
or in case of physical disability, earn any merit 
badge selected that involves out-of-door activity. 


8. Present a Tenderfoot trained by candidate. 

9. Present to Captain or Council some definite proof 
of service to the community. 

10. Earn or save one dollar and start a savings account 

in bank or Postal Savings, or buy Thrift Stamps. 
Recommended: Practice Setting-up Exercises. Prac- 
tice First Class Drill. 




• Words by 
Katharine Lee Bates 


Music by 

Will C. Macfarlane 

Municipal Organist, Portland, Main* 







of grrain, ' ' 

• . O 
a. O 

4- O 

beau ti - ful for spa<iousskies,For am -ber waves 

beau • ti • f ul for pil -grim £eet,Whosestem,im-pas-sion'd stress 

beau- ti - ful for he-roes proved, In lib ■ er - at- ing strife, 

beau ti - ful for pa-triot dream That sees be -yond the years 




X- - X 




For pur -pie mountain majesties A- bove the fruited plaini A-mer 

A thor-oughfare for freedom beat A<ross the wil-der-ness I A- mer 

Who more than self their country loved. And mercy more than life I Amer 

Thine al a-bas-ter cit- ies gleam Undimm"d by human tears I A-mer- 

1-cal A 
i-cal A 
- i - ca I A 
i - ca I A 









mer-i ca ! God shed His grace on thee. And crown thy good with brotherhood,Froin 
mer-i -ca! God mend thine ev'ry flaw. Con-firm tny soul in self-control,Thy 

mer-i -ca! May God thy gold re -fine. Till all success be no-ble-ness,And 

mer-i calGodshed His grace on thee.And crown thy good with brotherhood, From 


u ■* Refrain Molto waestoso^ I I I n "'''^^'^ n^ 


sea to shining seal 
lib er-ty in law I 
ev - 'rygaindi- vinel 

sea To shining seal 


A - mer i - ca i A • mer • i-ca I God shed H is grace on theel 

• Bj pftmlwlnn ol ihe autlior. 

Copjmclit, 191J, b)r Wiu. C. Macvasuui* 



We take the star from Heaven, the red front our mother 
country, separating it by white stripes, thus showing we have 
separated from her, and the white stripes shall go down to pos- 
terity representing liberty. — George Washington. 

The American flag is the symbol of the one-ness of the 
nation : when a Girl .Scout salutes the flag, therefore, she 
salutes the whole country. The American Flag is known 
as "Old Glory," "Stars and Stripes," "Star-Spangled Ban- 
ner," and "The Red, White and Blue." 

The American flag today consists of red and white 
stripes, with the blue field, sometimes known as the Union 
in the upper left-hand corner, with forty-eight white stars. 
The thirteen stripes stand for the thirteen original States — 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connec- 
ticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennyslvania, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and 
Georgia. The stars stand for the States now in the 

The colors of the flag are red, representing valor ; white, 
representing hope, purity and truth; blue, representing 
loyality, sincerity and justice. The five-pointed star, 
which is used, tradition says, at Betsy Ross' suggestion, 
is the sign of infinity. 

History of the American Flag 
We think of "ourselves as a young country, but we 
have one of the oldest written Constitutions under which 
a Nation operates, and our flag is one of the oldest in 

When our forefathers came from Europe to settle in 



this country, which is now the United States, they brought 
with them the flags of their home countries, and planted 
them on the new territory in symbol of taking possession 
of it in the name of their liege kings and lands. Gradually 
the colonies came to belong to England, and the Union 
Jack became the flag of all, with the thirteen colonies re- 
presented by thirteen stripes and the Union Jack in the 
corner. This flag was known as the Grand Union or 
Cambridge Flag, and was displayed when Washington 
first took command of the army at Cambridge. It was 
raised on December 3, 1775, on the Alfred, flagship of the 
new little American Navy, by the senior Lieutenant of the 
ship, John Paul Jones, who later defended it gallantly 
in many battles at sea. 

On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence 
was signed in Philadelphia and the United Colonies dis- 
solved all ties that bound them to England and became 
an independent nation — the United States. It was im- 
mediately necessary to adopt a new flag, as the new nation 
would not use the Union Jack. Tradition says that in the 
latter part of May, 1776, George Washington, Robert 
Morris and Colonel Ross called on Betsy Ross in Philadel- 
phia to make the first flag, which they designed. They 
kept the thirteen stripes of the Colonial flag, but replaced 
the Union Jack by a blue field bearing thirteen stars, ar- 
ranged in a circle. 

The birthday of the flag was June 14, 1777, when 
Congress passed this resolution : Resolved : That the 
flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes; al- 
ternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, 
white on a blue field, representing a constellation. 

The first American unfurling the Stars and Stripes over 
a warship was John Paul Jones when he took command 
of the Ranger in June, 1777. Tradition says that this 


flag was made for John Paul Jones by the young ladies 
of Portsmouth Harbor, and that it was made for him from 
their own and their mothers' gowns. It was this flag, in 
February, 1778, that had the honor of receiving from 
France the first official salute accorded by a foreign nation 
to the Stars and Stripes. 

It was first carried into battle at the Battle of Brandy- 
wine in September, 1777, when Lafayette fought with the 
Colonists and was wounded. This was the famous flag 
made out of a soldier's white shirt, a woman's red petti- 
coat, and an officer's blue cloak. A famous flag now in the 
National Museum in Washington is the Flag of fifteen 
stars and stripes, which floated over Fort McHenry — near 
Baltimore— in the War of 1812, and which Francis 
Scott Key (imprisoned on a British ship) saw "by the 
dawn's early light" after watching through the night "the 
rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air" as proof 
that the fort had not fallen to the enemy. The next day 
he wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner." 

It is said that peace has its victories as well as war, 
and Scouts will want to know that our flag flew from the 
first vessel ever propelled by steam — Robert Fulton's 

It was carried by Wilbur Wright on his first successful 
airplane flight in France. 

It was the flag planted at the North Pole by Robert 

It was the National emblem painted upon the first 
airplane to make the transatlantic flight. May, 1919. 

At first, when states came into the Union, a new stripe 
and a new star were added to the flag, but it was soon evi- 
dent that the added stripes would make it very unwieldly. 
So on April 4, 1818, Congress passed this act to establish 
the flag of the United States : 


"Sec. 1. Be it enacted . . . That from and after 
the 4th of July next, the flag of the United States be 
thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; that 
the union have twenty stars, white on a blue field. 

"Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, that, on admission of 
every new State into the Union, one star be added to the 
union of the flag; and that such addition shall take effect 
on the 4th day of July succeeding such admission." 

In 1917 after the United States entered the World 
War, the Stars and Stripes were placed with the flags 
of the Allies in the great English Cathedral of St. Paul's 
in London, and on April 20, 1917, the flag was hoisted 
beside the English flag over the House of Parliament as 
a symbol that the two great English-speaking nations of 
the world had joined hands in the cause of human brother- 


1. The flag should be raised at sunrise and lowered 
at sunset. It should not be displayed on stormy days 
or left out over night, except during war. Although 
there is no authoritative ruling which compels civilians to 
lower the flag at sundown, good taste should impel them 
to follow the traditions of the Army and Navy in this sun- 
down ceremonial. Primarily, the flag is raised to be seen 
and secondarily, the flag is something to be guarded, 
treasured, and so tradition holds it shall not be menaced by 
the darkness. To leave the flag out at night, unattended, 
is proof of shiftlessness, or at least carelessness. 

2. At retreat, sunset, civilian spectators should stand 
at attention. Girl Scouts, if in uniform, may give their 

When the national colors are passing on parade or in 


review, Scouts should, if walking, halt, and if sitting, rise 
and stand at attention. When the flag is stationary it is 
not saluted. 

An old, torn, or soiled flag should not be thrown away, 
but should be destroyed, preferably by burning. 

The law specifically forbids the use of and the repre- 
sentation of the flag in any manner or in any connection 
with merchandise for sale. 

When the "Star-Spangled Banner" is played or sung, 
stand and remain standing in silence until it is finished. 

The flag should, on being retired, never be allowed to 
touch the ground. 

Regulations for Flying the Flag 

1. The flag should not be raised before sunrise, nor 
be allowed to remain up after sunset. 

2. In placing the flag at half mast, it should be raised 
first to full mast, and then lowered to the half mast po- 
sition, from which it should again be raised to full mast 
before lowering. 

3. The flag should never be draped, 

4. When the flag is hung against a wall, the blue field 
should be in the upper left corner if the stripes are hori- 
zontal ; in the upper right corners if the stripes are vertical. 

5. In the case of flags hung across the street it is ne- 
cessary to hang them by the points of the compass instead 
of right or left, because the right or left naturally varies 
according to whether the spectator is going up or down 
the street. When the flag is hung across a north and 
south street, the blue fields should be toward the east, 
the rising sun, when across an east and west street, the 
field should be toward the north. 

6. The flags of two or more nations displayed together 
should always be hung at the same level, and should be on 
separate statifs or halyards. 


7. In the United States, when the American flag is 
carried with one other flag, it should be at the right. When 
it is carried with two other flags, it should be in the middle. 

8. When the American flag is hung against a wall with 
other flags, it is placed at the spectator's right, if it is 
one of two; and in the middle, if it is one of three. 

9. The flag at half mast is a sign of mourning. 

10. The flag flown upside down is a signal of distress. 

11. On Memorial Day, May 30, the flag is flown at 
half mast during the morning, and is raised at noon to full 
mast for the rest of the day. 

Patriotic Songs for Girl Scouts 

"The Star-spangled Banner" 

Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light. 
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last 
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through 
the perilous fight, 
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly 
streaming ! 
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in 
Gave proof through the night that our flag was 
still there; 
Oh! say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave, 
O'er the land of the free, and the home of the 
brave ? 

On that shore dimly seen through the mists of 
the deep, 
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence 


What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering 
As it fitfully blows, now conceals, now dis- 
closes ? 
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first 
In full glory reflected now shines on the 
stream ; 
'Tis the star-spangled banner; Oh, long may it 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the 
brave ! 

O ! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand 
Between their loved homes and the war's deso- 
Blessed with victory and peace, may the heav'n- 
rescued land 
Praise the power that hath made and preserved 
us a nation. 
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just, 
And this be our motto — "In God is our trust" ; 
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the 

— Francis Scott Key, 1814. 
The Star Spangled Banner was written in 1814 by 
Francis Scott Key at the time of the bombardment of 
Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, by the British. Key 
had been sent to the British squadron to negotiate the 
release of an American prisoner-of-war, and was de- 
tained there by the British during the engagement for 
fear he might reveal their plans. The bombardment 
lasted all through the night. In his joy the following 


morning at seeing the American flag still flying over 
Fort McHenry, Key wrote the first stanza of the Star 
Spangled Banner on the back of an old letter, which he 
drew from his pocket. He finished the poem later in 
the day after he had been allowed to land. The poem 
was first printed as a handbill enclosed in a fancy border; 
but one of Key's friends, Judge Nicholson, of Baltimore, 
saw that the tune of Anacreon in Heaven, an old English 
drinking song, fitted the words, and the two were quickly 
united with astonishing success. The old flag which 
prompted the poem is still in existence; it was made by 
Mrs. Mary Pickersgill. 


My country, 'tis of thee, 
Sweet land of liberty. 

Of thee I sing; 
Land where my fathers died, - 
Land of the Pilgrims' pride. 
From every mountain side 

Let freedom ring. 
My native country, thee, 
Land of the noble free, 

Thy name I love ; 
I love thy rocks and rills. 
Thy woods and templed hills ; 
My heart with rapture thrills 

Like that above. 
Let music swell the breeze, 
And ring from all the trees 

Sweet freedom's song ; 
Let mortal tongues awake, 
Let all that breathe partake, 
Let rocks their silence break, 

The sound prolong! 


Our father's God, to Thee, 
Author of liberty. 

To Thee we sing : 
Long may our land be bright 
With freedom's holy light; 
Protect us by Thy might, 

Great God, our King, 

— Samuel F. Smith, 1832. 

"America" was written in 1832 by Samuel Francis 
Smith, a graduate of Harvard, at that time studying for 
the ministry at Andover, Mass. The circumstances at- 
tending the writing of this hymn are told by the author in 
the following letter : 

Newton Centre. Mass., June 5, 1887. 
Mr. J. H. Johnson : 

Dear Sir: The hymn "America" was not written with 
reference to any special occasion. A friend (Mr. Lowell 
Mason) put into my hands a quantity of music books in 
the German language early in the year 1832 — because, as 
he said, I could read them and he couldn't — with the 
request that I would translate any of the hymns and 
songs which struck my fancy, or, neglecting the German 
words, with hymns or songs of my own, adapted to the 
tunes, so that he could use the music. On a dismal day 
in February, turning over the leaves of one of these 
music books, I fell in with the tune, which pleased me — 
and observing at a glance that the words were patriotic, 
without attempting to imitate them, or even read them 
throughout, I was moved at once to write a song adapted 
to the music — and "America" is the result. I had no 
thought of writing a national hymn, and was surprised 
when it came to be widely used. I gave it to Mr. Mason 
soon after it was written, and have since learned that 
he greatly admired it. It was first publicly used at 3. 


Sabbath school celebration of Independenc in Park Street 
Church, Boston, on the 4th of July, 1832. 

S. F. Smith. 

The tune of "America," which Samuel Smith took 
from a German song book, was originally a French air. 
This French air was borrowed in 1739 by an English- 
man, Henry Carey, who recast it for the British national 
anthem, "God Save the King." Switzerland, Prussia and 
other German States, and the United States have used 
the music for their national hymns. 

Letter and facts from The Encyclopedia Americana. 

"Battle Hymn of the Republic" 

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord : 
He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of 

wrath are stored ; 
He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift 

sword ; 

His truth is marching on. 

I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred circling 

camps ; 
They have builded Him an altar in the evening dews and 

damps ; 
I can read his righteous sentence by the dim and flaring 

lamps : 

His day is marching on. 
I have read a fiery gospel writ in burnish'd rows of steel : 
"As you deal with my contemners, so with you my grace 

shall deal; 
Let the Hero, born of woman, crush the serpent with his 


Since God is marching on." 


He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call 

retreat ; 
He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment- 
Oh, be swift my soul, to answer Him, be jubilant my 
feet ! 

Our God is marching on. 
In the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across the sea, 
With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me ; 
As He died to make men holy, let us die to make them 

While God is marching on. 

— Julia Ward Howe. 

How to Make an American Flag 

The exact proportions of the American Flag have been 
fixed by executive order; that is to say, by order of the 
President, as have other features, such as the arrange- 
ment and position of the stars. The exact size of the 
flag is variable, though the army has several regulation 
sizes. The cut given below shows the dimensions of 
one of the regulation army flags. The proportions fixed 
by executive order on May 26, 1916, are as follows : 

If the width of the flag be taken as the basis and 
called 1, then 

The length will be 1.9, 

Each stripe will be 1/13 of 1, 

The blue field will be .76 long and 7/13 of 1 wide. 

Other features of the ofUcially designed flag are as 
follows: The top and bottom stripes are red. Each state 
is represented by a five-pointed star, one of whose points 
shall be directed toward the top of the flag. 

Beginning with the upper left-hand corner and read- 
ing from left to right the stars indicate the states in order 




The sketch shows the steps in getting a Hag drawn according to 
national requirements. 

1. Draw the outline of your flag, making for convenience, the 
width equal an even 10 units (such as eighths or quarters or half, 
etc.) so that the length can be made 19 units. 

2. Get the 13 stripes outlined as follows: a) Take your ruler and 
find a place marking 13 units, such as '3}4 inches, or 6^^ or even 
9^4 inches, b) Then draw the 2 lines A B and A' B'; marking off 
the 13 points on each. It does not matter where the lines are drawn 
so long as they extend between the top and bottom of the rectangle. 
c) Through these points draw lightly, the lines for the stripes, 
covering the ivhole flag. 

3. Before making the final lines, block in the union in the upper 
left hand corner, making its length equal to 7.6 of the original units 
used for the whole flag. The width of the union is seven stripes. 

4. Place the stars as follows: The lines marking the stripes 
may be used to mark the 6 lines of stars. The eight stars to a line 
may be determined by dividing the length of the union into nine 
parts and dropping eight perpendiculars through the six lines already 
there. In the sketch the line, D F and D' F' are guide lines to make 
the new parallel lines. These are made just as in the case of A B 
and A' B' only containing nine units and extending between the 
two sides of the union. 

5. The stars are made at the intersection of the lines. It is not 
necessary to put in more than one or two, to show the shape and 
direction of points. 

6. The stripes may be colored, or if indicated by cross hatching, 
make the cross hatches vertical (I I I I I) which is the symbol for red 



of their ratification of the Constitution and their ad- 
mission to the Union. Find your State's star in the fol- 
lowing list, and remember its number and line. 

First Row 
1 — Delaware 5 — Connecticut 

2 — Pennsylvania 6 — Massachusetts 

3 — New Jersey 7 — Maryland 

-Georg^ia 8 — South Carolina 

Second Rozv 
9 — New Hampshire 13 — Rhode Island 

10 — Virginia l-I — Vermont 

11 — New York 15 — Kentucky 

12 — North Carolina 16 — Tennessee 

17— Ohio 
18 — Louisiana 
19 — Indiana 
20 — Mississippi 

25 — Arkansas 
26 — Michigan 
27 — Florida 
28 — Texas 

33 — Oregon 

34 — Kansas 

35 — West Virginia 

36 — Nevada 

41 — Montana 
42 — Washington 
43— Idaho 
44 — Wyoming 

Third Row 
21 — Illinois 
22 — Alabama 
23— Maine 
24 — Missouri 

Fourth Row 

29 — Iowa 
30 — Wisconsin 
31 — California 
32 — Minnesota 

Fifth Row 

37 — Nebraska 
38 — Colorado 
39— North Dakota 
40 — South Dakota 

Sixth Row 

46 — Oklahoma 
47 — New Mexico 
48 — Arizona 
45— Utah 




I B A J D ] 

national QjPreeldeat 

■at»l riald 0*pt.*QQQ*HBtionMl Dlreotor 



S t a t aQ Con'tloner 
Stat* Fiald Cfcpt^QOO*State Dlreotor 

State Deputy Ccomisaloner 


L a 1 Q Com'aloaer 
Loeal Field Captain -*'QQO*'^°<^'^^ Deputy Coa'eloaer 
Loeal Director 

Troop Q Capt. 



Color Onard — » * Color Guard 

Council glBfr v^VV^ American ?!■« 

O Lieut. 







Color (Juard->0 O O^^olor Guard 

American Flag 

Officer Q in Charge 

Q Lieut. 

Q Captain 


C U T 



C U T 


Q Lieut . 

O Captain 




C U T S 

Q Lieut . 

Q Captain 






The accompanying Cut 1 indicates a suggested formation 
for patriotic, Civic or Girl Scout parades when Scout oflicials 
take part in the parade. It should be noted that the Scouts 
are represented by a column of four ranks, the Color Guard 
marching in the center of the column. Should a larger num- 
ber of Scouts participate in the parade, the Color Guard must 
be changed to a position in the center of the longer column. 

Cut 2 indicates a more simple form of parade which has 
been found of service and effectiveness. In this formation 
the Color Guard follows the band or Scout buglers. The 
local director or her representative marches directly behind 
the Color Guard and is followed by the Scouts in column 
formation, each double rank commanded by a captain, who 
marches three paces in front of the front rank, and a lieu- 
tenant, who marches at the extreme left of the double rank 
one step ahead of the front rank. Front and rear ranks 
march forty inches apart. 

It is not usually possible, nor is it necessarily advisable, to 
use one troup in forming a double rank. The important 
thing is to have in each line the number of Scouts designated 
by the person in charge of the parade. This nimiber, de- 
termined by the width of the street and the number march- 
ing, will be either four, eight, twelve or sixteen. If girls of 
the same height march together, the shorter preceding the 
taller, the appearance of the column will be more uniform and 

When Scout troop flags are used, they are carried in the 
column at the extreme right. 





Although the simple exercises in opening and closing 
a meeting are the only formal work necessary for Scouts, 
the Scout Drill outlined in this Handbook is added for 
Captains as a suggestion for handling one or more 
Patrols in the club room, or on the street, in an orderly 
dignified manner. 

Where the Troop and Captain are interested in this 
form of activity, it adds a great variety to the Scout meet- 
ings, and its value in giving an erect carriage, alert habit 
of obedience, and ability to think and act quickly are un- 

In case of rallies and parades it is practically the only 
way of handling large bodies of Scouts from different 

Every order and formation here recommended is taken 
from the United States Infantry Drill Regulations, and 
it is now possible for Captains in all localities to secure 
the assistance of some returned soldier glad to give a 
half hour occasionally to drilling the Scouts. 

The simple formations selected have been divided into 
Tenderfoot, Second Class and First Class groups entirely 
for the convenience of the Captain; none of the work is 
too difficult for a Second Class Scout and there is nothing 
to prevent a Tenderfoot from taking all of it, if the troop 
should be particularly interested in drilling. 

Commands are divided into two classes : 

(a) The preparatory, to tell the Scout zuhat to do, and 

(b) The command of execution, to tell Jww to do it. 

Tenderfoot Drill Schedule 
At this command each Scout immediately takes her 



position in the Patrol to which she belongs, (the Captain 
having already assigned to each Scout her exact place, 
and without further order assumes the position of "At- 
tention" three paces in front of Captain. 

The position of Attention is: body and head erect, 
head, shoulders and pelvis in same plane, eyes front, arms 
hanging easily at the sides, feet parallel and about four 
inches apart ; perfect silence to be maintained. 

Patrol formation, two ranks (rows) of four Scouts 
each, forty inches between front and rear ranks. The 
patrol corresponds to the military unit of the squad. 

Other patrols will fall in on the left of patrol No. 1 
and on a line with it, in their numerical order. When 
assembled a troop of four patrols will be in the position 
indicated by the following diagram, and facing the cap- 
tain. 5678 5678 5678 5678 
1234 1234 1234 1234 
Lieut. Capt. 

If the Captain prefers, and where there are only a few 
Scouts to be handled, they may be drawn up in a single 
rank facing the Captain. In either position they are now 
ready for the preliminaries of military drill. 
1. Right (or left) Dress. 2. Front. 

At the command "Dress," whether to right or left, all 
Scouts place the left hand on the hip. Each Scout, ex- 
cept the base file, Scout on right or left end from, whom 
the other take their alignment, when on or near the new 
line, executes "Eyes Right!" and taking steps of two or 
three inches, places herself so that her right arm rests 
lightly against the arm of the Scout on her right, and so 
that her eyes and shoulders are in line with those of the 
Scout on her right; the rear rank Scouts cover in file. 
The instructor verifies the alignment of both ranks from 
the right flank and orders up or back such Scouts as may 


be in rear or in advance of the line: only the Scouts 
designated move.* 

At the command "Front," given when the ranks are 
aligned, each Scout turns her head and eyes to the front 
and drops the hand at her side. 

To march the patrol or troop in column of twos, the 
preliminary commands would be as just given: 1. Fall in. 
2. Right Dress. 3. Front. 

The troop is then drawn up facing the Captain in two 
ranks as described. The Captain then commands : 

1. Right (or left) Face (According to the direction in 
which the column is to proceed.) 

2. Forward. 3. March. 

At the command "March," each Scout steps off smartly 
with the left foot. 

To the flank : "Right (or left) Face." 

Raise slightly the left heel and the right toe; face to 
the right, turning on the right heel, assisted by a slight 
pressure on the ball of the left foot ; place the left foot 
by the side of the right. "Left Face" is executed on the 
left heel in the corresponding manner. Right (or left) 
Half Face is executed similarly, facing forty-five degrees. 
To the rear: About Face. 

Carry the toe of the right foot about half a foot length 
to the rear and slightly to the left of the left heel without 
changing the position of the left foot; face to the rear, 
turning to the right on the left heel and right -toe; place 
the right heel by the side of the left. 

Eyes Right or Left 
1. Eyes Right (or left). 3. Front. 

At the command "Right," turn the head to the right 
oblique, eyes fixed on the line of Scouts in, or supposed 
to be in, the same rank. At the command "Front," turn 
the head and eyes to the front. 

*AU ranks count off beginning with right end: 1, 2, 8, 4. 


The Rests 

Being at halt, the commands for the different rests arc 
as follows : 

Fall Out, Rest, At Ease and I Parade, 2 Rest. 

At the command Fall Out, the Scouts may leave the 
ranks, but are required to remain in the immediate vicin- 
ity. They resume their former places, at attention at 
the command "Fall In." 

At the command "Rest" each Scout keeps one foot in 
place, but is not required to keep silence or immobility. 

At the command "At Ease" each Scout keeps one foot 
in place and is required to keep silence but not immo- 
1 Parade, 2 Rest. 

Carry the right foot six inches straight to the rear, 
left knee slightly bent ; clasp the hands, without con- 
straint, in front of the center of the body, fingers joined, 
right hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the thumb 
and forefinger of the right hand; preserve silence and 
steadiness of position. 

To resume the attention: 1 Squad {or Company) 2 

Steps and Marchings 

All steps and marchings executed from the halt, ex- 
cept right step, begin with the left foot. 

The length of the full step in "Quick Time," for a 
Scout is twenty inches, measured from heel to heel, and 
the cadence is at the rate of one hundred twenty steps 
per minute. 

The length of the full step in "Double Time," for a 
Scout, is about twenty-four inches; the cadence is at the 
rate of one hundred eighty steps per minute. 

The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence 
of the step by calling "One, Two, Three, Four," or "Left, 


Right, Left, Right," the instant the left and right foot, 
respectively, should be planted. 

All steps and marchings and movements involving march 
are executed in "Quick Time" unless the squad (or 
company) be marching in "Dou])le Time." 
Quick Time 
Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time : 1 For- 
ward, 2 March. 

At the command "Forzvard," shift the weight of the 
body to the right leg, left knee straight. 

At the command "March," move the left foot smartly 
straight forward twenty inches from the right, sole near 
the ground, and plant it without shock ; next, in like man- 
ner, advance the right foot and plant it as above ; continue 
the march. The arms swing naturally. 

Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in 
double time ; 1 Double time, 2 March. 

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of 
the body to the right leg. At the command "March" raise 
the forearms, fingers closed to a horizontal position along 
the waist line; take up an easy run with the step and 
cadence of double time, allowing a natural swinging mo- 
tion to the arms. 

If marching in quick time, at the command "March," 
given as either foot strikes the ground, take one step in 
quick time, and then step ofif in double time. 

To resume the quick time : 1 Quick Time, 2 March. 
At the command March, given as either foot strikes 
the ground, advance and plant the other foot in double 
time; resume the quick time, dropping the hands by the 

To Mark Time 
Being in march : 1 Mark Time, 2 March. 
Kt the command March, given as either foot strikes the 


ground, advance and plant the other foot; bring up the 
foot in rear and continue the cadence by alternately rais- 
ing each foot about two inches and planting it on line with 
the other. 

Being at a halt, at the command March, raise and plant 
the feet as described above. 

The Half Step 

1 Half Step, 2 March. 

Take steps of ten inches in quicktime, twelve inches 
in double time. Forzvard, Half Step, Halt and Mark 
Time may be executed one from the other in quick or 
double time. 

To resume the full step from half step or mark time: 
Forward March. 

Side Step 

Being at halt or mark time: 1 Right (or left) Step, 

2 March. Carry and plant the right foot twelve inches 
to the right ; bring the left foot beside it and continue the 
movement in the cadence of quick time. 

The side step is used for short distances only and is 
not executed in double time. 

Back Step 

Being at a halt or mark time: 1 Backward, 2 March. 
Take steps of twelve inches straight to the rear. The 
back step is used for short distances only and is not 
executed in double time. 

To Halt 

To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1 Squad 
(or if the full troop is drilling Company) , 2 Halt. 

At the command Halt, given as either foot strikes the 
ground, plant the other foot as in marching; raise and 
place the first foot by the side of the other. If in double 
time, drop the hands by the sides. 


To March by the Flank 

Being in march: 1 By the Right {or left) Flank, 2 

At the command March, given as the right foot strikes 
the ground, advance and plant the left foot, then face to 
the right in marching and step off in the new direction 
with the right foot. 

To March to the Rear 

Being in march : 1 To the Rear. 2 March. 

At the command March, given as the right foot strikes 
the ground, advance and plant the left foot ; turn to the 
right about on the balls of both feet and immediately step 
off with the left foot. 

If marching in double time, turn to the right about, 
taking four steps in place, keeping the cadence, and then 
step off with the left foot. 

Change Step 

Being in march : 1 Change Step, 2 March. 

At the command March, given as the right foot strikes 
the ground, advance and plant the left foot; plant the 
toe of the right foot near the heel of the left and step off 
with the left foot. 

The change on the right foot is similarly executed, the 
command March being given as the left foot strikes the 


Fall In. {Described in Tenderfoot Drill.) 

Count Off. 

At this command all except the right file execute Eyes 
Right, and beginning on the right, the Scouts in each rank 
count Orie, Two, Three, Four; each turns her head and 
eyes to the front as she counts. 






1 Right (or Left) Dress, 2 Front. (Described in Ten- 
derfoot Drill.) 

To preserve the alignment when marching ; Guide Right 
(or left). The Scouts preserve their intervals from the 
side of the guide, yielding to pressure on that side and 
resisting pressure from the opposite direction; they re- 
cover intervals, if lost, by gradually opening out or closing 
in; they recover alignment by slightly lengthening or 
shortening the step; the rear rank Scouts cover their file 
leaders at forty inches. 

To Take Distance 

(Formation for signalling or for setting-up exercises.) 

Being in line at a halt having counted off: 1 Take 
Distance at four paces, 2 March; 3 Squad (or company), 

At the command March, each Scout in succession start- 
ing at four paces apart and beginning with No. 1 of the 
front rank, followed by 2, 3, 4 and 1, 2, 3, 4 of the rear 
rank, marches straight forward until the order Squad, 
Halt is given. The command Halt is given when all have 
their distances. 

(Word to instructors : Where the floor space is limited 
it is advisable to have the Scouts take the half step in 
executing this formation or move at two paces.) 

If more than one squad is in line, each squad executes 
the movement as above simultaneously. 

Being at distances, to assemble the squad (or com- 
pany) : 
1 Assemble, 2 March. 

At the command March, No. 1 of the front rank 
stands fast; the other members move forward to their 
proper places in the line. 


The Oblique March 

For the instruction of the recruits, the squad being in 
column or correctly aligned, the instructor causes the 
Scouts to face half right and half left, points out to them 
their relative positions, and explains that these are to be 
maintained in the oblique march. 
1 Right {or Left) Oblique, 2 March. 

At the command March, each Scout steps ofif in a direc- 
tion forty-five degrees to the right of her original front. 
She preserves her relative position, keeping her shoulders 
parallel to those of the guide, and so regulates her steps 
that the ranks remain parallel to their original front. 

At the command Halt the Scouts face to the front. 

To resume the original directions : 1 Forward, 2 March. 

The Scouts half face to the left in marching and then 
move straight to the front. 

To Turn on Moving Pivot 

Begin in line: 1 Right {or left) Turn, 2 March. 

(This applies to the single squad ; if the whole troop 
is drilling and is in column of squads, or twos, the com- 
mand would be: 1 Column Right {or left), 2 March.) 

The movement is executed by each rank successively 
and on the same ground. At the second command, the 
pivot Scout of the front rank faces to the right in march- 
ing and takes the half step ; the other Scouts of the rank 
oblique to the right until opposite their places in line, 
then execute a second right oblique and take the half step 
on arriving abreast of the pivot Scout. All glance toward 
the marching flank while at half step and take the full step 
without command as the last Scout arrives on the line. 

Right {or left) Half Turn is executed in a similar 
manner. The pivot Scout makes a half change of direc- 
tion to the right and the other Scouts make quarter 
changes in obliquing. 


To Turn on a Fixed Pivot 

Being in line, to turn and march: 1 Squad Right (or 
left), 2 March. 

At the second command, the right flank Scout in the 
front rank faces to the right in marching and marks 
time; the other front rank Scouts oblique to the right, 
place themselves abreast of the pivot, and mark time. In 
the rear rank the third Scout from the right, followed 
in column by the second and first, moves straight to the 
front until in the rear of her front rank Scout, when all 
face to the right in marching and mark time; the other 
number of the rear rank moves straight to the front four 
paces and places herself abreast of the Scout on her 
right. Scouts on the new line glance toward the marching 
flank while marking time and, as the last Scout arrives on 
the line, both ranks execute Forward March without 
further command. 

Being in line to turn and halt: 1 Squad Right (or left), 
2 March, 3 Squad, 4 Halt. 

The third command is given immediately after the 
second. The turn is executed as prescribed in the pre- 
ceding paragraph except that all Scouts, on arriving on 
the new line mark time until the fourth command is 
given, when all halt. The fourth command should be 
given as the last Scout arrives on the line. 

Being in line to turn about and march: 1 Squad Right 
(or left) About, 2 March. 

At the second command the front rank twice executes 
Squad Right initiating the second Squad Right when 
the Scout on the marching flank has arrived abreast of 
the rank. In the rear rank the third Scout from the 
right, followed by the second and first in column, moves 
straight to the front until on the prolongation of the line 
to be occupied by the rear rank; changes direction to the 
right; moves in the new direction until in the rear of 


her front rank Scout, when all face to the right in 
marching, mark time, and glance toward the marching 
flank. The fourth Scout marches on the left of the 
third to her new position ; as she arrives on the line, both 
ranks execute Fonvard March without command. 


On Right (or left) Into Line. 

Being in columns of squads, to form line on right or 
left; 1 On Right (or left) Into Line, 2 March, 3 Com- 
pany, 4 Halt, 5 Front. 

At the first command the leader of the leading unit 
commands : Right Turn. The leaders of the other units 
command : Forward, if at a halt. At the second com- 
mand the leading unit turns to the right on moving 
pivot. The command Halt is given when the leading unit 
has advanced the desired distance in the new direction; 
it halts ; its leader then commands : Right Dress. 

The units in the rear continue to march straight to 
the front; each, when opposite its place on the line, 
executes Right Turn at the command of its leader; 
each is halted on the line at the command of its leader, 
who then commands: Right Dress. All dress on the 
first unit on the line. 

If executed in double time, the leading squad marches 
in double time until halted. 

Fro tit Into Line. 

Being in columns of squads, to form line to the front: 
Right (or left) Front Into Line, 2 March, 3 Company, 
4 Halt, 5 Front. 

At the first command the leaders of the units in the 
rear of the leading one command : Right Oblique. If at 
a halt, the leader of the leading unit commands : Forzvard, 
At the second command the leading unit moves straight 
forward; the rear units oblique as indicated. The com- 


mand Halt is given when the leading unit has advanced 
the desired distance ; it halts ; its leader then commands : 
Left Dress. Each of the rear units, when opposite its 
place in line, resumes the original direction at the com- 
mand of its leader; each is halted on the line at the 
command of its leader, who then commands : Left Dress. 
All dress on the first unit in line. 

To Diminish the Front of a Column of Squads 

Being in column of squads: 1 Right {or left) By 
Twos, 2 March. At the command March, all files except 
the two right files of the leading squad execute In Place 
Halt; the two right files of the leading squad oblique 
to the right when disengaged and follow the right files at 
the shortest practicable distance. The remaining squads 
follow successively in like manner. 

Being in columns of twos: (1) Right {or left) By File, 
2 March. At the command March, all files execute In 
Place Halt, except the right file of the leading two oblique 
successively to the right when disengaged and each fol- 
lows the file on its right at the shortest practicable dis- 
tance. The remaining twos follow successively in like 

Being in column of files of twos, to form column of 
squads; or being in column of files, to form column of 
twos: 1 Squads {Twos) Right {or left) Front Into Line, 
2 March. 

At the command March, the leading file or files halt. 
The remainder of the squad, or two, obliques to the right 
and halts on line with the leading file or files. The re- 
maining squads or twos close up and successively form 
in the rear of the first in like manner. 

The movement described in this paragraph will be 
ordered Right or Left, so as to restore the files to their 
normal relative positions in the two or squad. 



The General Service Code, given herewith, also called 
the Continental Code and the International Morse Code, 
is used by the Army and Navy, and for cabling and 
wireless telegraphy. It is used for visual signalling by 
hand, flag, Ardois lights, torches, heliograph, lanterns, 
etc., and for sound signalling with buzzer, whistle, etc. 

The American Morse Code is used for commercial pur- 
poses only, and differs from the International Morse in 
a few particulars. A Scout need not concern herself with 
it because it would only be used by the Scout who eventu- 
ally becomes a telegrapher, and for this purpose the 
Western Union Company offers the necessary training. 

Wig Wag Signalling 


The flag used for this signalling is square with a smaller 
square of another color in the center. It may be either 
white with the smaller square red, or red with the smaller 
square white. A good size for Scout use is 24 inches 
square with a center 9 inches square, on a pole 42 inches 
long and one-half inch in diameter. 

There are but three motions with the flag and all 
start from, and are completed by, return to position, 
which means the flag held- perpendicularly and at rest 
directly in front of the signaller. 

Signaller should stand erect, well balanced on the 
arclies of the feet. The butt of the flag stick is held 
lightly in the right hand ; the left hand steadies and 
directs the flag at a distance from six to twelve incljes 
above the right on the stick. The length of the stick will 








determine the position of the left hand ; the longer the 
stick the further apart must the hands be placed in order 
to obtain the best balance. 

DOT : To make the dot, swing the flag down to the 
right until the stick reaches the horizontal and bring it 
back to Position. 

DASH : To make the dash, swing the flag to the left 
until it reaches the horizontal and bring it back to Posi- 

INTERVAL: The third position is made by swinging 
the flag down directly in front and returning to Position. 

In order to keep the flag from "fouling" when making 
these motions, make a sort of figure 8 with the point 
of the stick. A slight turn of the wrist accomplishes 
this result and becomes very easy after a little practice. 
Beginners should master the three motions of the flag, 
exaggerating the figure 8 motion before they attempt 
to make letters. It is also best to learn the code before 



(The International Morse or Continental) 

Uses: Commercial wireless, submarine cables, Army and 
Navy. Methods: flags by day, torches, lanterns, flashlight, 
searchlight, by night, whistle, drum, bugle, tapping. 

A .— 
B — ... 
C — — . 
D— .. 
E . 
F ..— . 

G . 

H .... 
I . 


N — . 


P . . 

Q ^.-. 

R .— . 
S ... 
T — 
U ..— 
V ...— 

Y — . 

Z .. 

4 .'.'.'.— 



8 — .. 

K — .— 

w . 

X — ..— 


Period .. 
Comma .- 


Colon . . . 

Semicolon — . — . — . 
Interrogation .. . . 

A convenient form for learning the letters is as follows: 

E . 
I . 
S . 


T — 



A .— 
B— ... 
D— .. 

_. N G . 

...— V F ..— . 
..— U Y — . 

. W 

.— ..L 

K— .— 

P . . X— ..— 

R.— . 

Z — — . 


C -.-. J .--^ 


attempting to wig wag it, so that the mind zvill be free 
to concentrate upon the technique or correct managing 
of the flag. 

Make no pause between dots and dashes in making a 
letter, but make a continuous swing from right to left, 
or left to right. A pause at Position indicates the com- 
pletion of a letter. 

One Interval (Front) indicates the completion of a 

Two Intervals indicate the completion of a sentence. 
Three Intervals indicate the completion of a message. 
Do not try for speed. In all signalling, accuracy 
is the important thing, for unless the letters are accu- 
rately made they cannot be easily read, and the mes- 
sage will have to be repeated. Fall into a regular easy 
rhythm in sending. Speed comes with practice. 

Signalling with a Flash Light : Use a short flash for 
the dot and a long steady flash for the dash. Pause the 
length of three dots between letters, ami the length of 
five dots between words. A still longer pause marks the 
end of a sentence. 

Signalling by Whistle: Use a short blast for the dot, 
and a long steady blast for the dash. Indicate the end 
of a letter, a word, and a sentence by the same pauses 
as explained in Flash Light Signalling. 

Signalling with a Lantern: The motions used in sig- 
nalling with a lantern are somewhat like those of the 
wig wag flag. For Position hold the lantern directly 
in front of the body; for the dot swing it to the right 
and back to Position; for the dash swing it to the left 
and back to Position; and for Interval move it down and 
up in a vertical line directly in front. A stationary light 
should be placed on the ground before the feet as a point 
of reference for the various motions. 



The semaphore is a machine with two arms which may 
be moved into various positions to make letters. The 
semaphore code shown in the accompanying picture may 
also be employed by a person using two flags. It is the 
quickest method of flag signalling but is available for 
comparatively short distances, seldom over a mile, imless 
extra large flags are employed or there is some extraor- 
dinary condition of background or atmosphere. 

The semaphore code is not adapted to as many uses 
as is the general service code, but for quick signalling 
over comparatively short distances, it is preferable in 
every way. 

The regulation flag is 18 inches square, either divided 
diagonally into two triangles of white and red, or square 
of white with small square of red in the center, or red 
with small square of white. These flags are fastened on 
poles 24 inches long and ^ inch in diameter. 

The flags must be carefully held so that the sticks 
make, as it were, a continuation of the arm bone; a bent 
wrist will cause the flags to make an entirely different 
angle, and consequently a different letter from the one 

Swing the arms smoothly and without hesitation from 
one letter to another. Hold each letter long enough to 
make it clear to the person receiving it. Every word be- 
gins and ends with "intervals," the hands crossed down- 
ward in front -^f the body, arms nearly straight, right 
hand always over the left. 

Indicate the end of a sentence by one "chip-chop" made 
by holding both flags to the right, horizontally, and mov- 
ing them up and down several times; not altogether, but 
one flag going down as the other comes up, making the 
"chopping" motion. 



G jra 7 




6 L 



Note: The extended arm should always make a 
straight line with the flag staff. 


From the very beginning practice reading as zvell as 
sending. It is harder to do and requires more practice. 
Instructors should always face the class in giving a 
lesson ; in this way the pupil learns to read at the same 
time as she is learning to make the letters. This principle 
applies to all visual signalling. 

Whistle Signals 

1. One blast, "Attention;" "Assemble" (if scattered.! 

2. Two short blasts, "All right." 

3. Four short blasts, calls "Patrol Leaders come here." 

4. Alternate long and short blasts, "Mess Call." 

Hand Signals 

These signals are advisable when handling a troop in 
a street where the voice cannot be readily heard, or in 
marching the troop into some church, theatre, or other 
building where a spoken command is undesirable. 
Forzvard, March : 

Carry the hand to the shoulder ; straighten and hold 
the arm horizontally, thrusting it in the direction of the 
march. (This signal is also used to execute quick time 
from double time.) 

Carry the hand to the shoulder ; thrust hand upward 
and hold the arm vertically. 
Double Time, March : 

Carry the hand to the shoulder, rapidly thrust the hand 
upward the full extent of the arm several times. 
Squads Right, March : 

Raise the arm laterally until horizontal ; carry it to 
a vertical position above the head and swing it several 
times between the vertical and horizontal positions. 
Squads Left, March : 

Raise the arm laterallv until horizontal ; carrv it down- 


ward to the side and swing it several times between the 
downward and horizontal positions. 

Change Direction or Column Right {Left) March: 

The hand on the side toward which the change of direc- 
tion is to be made is carried across the body to the oppo- 
site shoulder, forearm horizontal; then swing in a hori- 
zontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new direction. 

Assemble : 

Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and describe 
horizontal circles. 


How To Salute. To salute, a Girl Scout raises the right hand to her 
hat in line with the right temple, the first three fingers extended, and 
the little finger held down by the thumb. This salute is the sign of the 
Girl Scouts. The three extended fingers, like the Trefoil, represent 
the three parts of the Promise. 

When To Salute. When Scouts meet for the first time during the day, 
whether comrades or strangers, of whatever rank, they should salute 
each other. 

If in uniform a Girl Scout stands at attention and salutes the flag 
when it is hoisted or lowered, and as it passes her in parade. If not in 
uniform, she stands at attention, but does not salute. 

When in uniform and in ranks in public demonstration, a Girl Scout 
stands at attention and salutes when the Star Spangled Banner is 
played. But she does not salute when she herself Is singing. 

In ordinary gatherings when the anthem is played, a Girl Scout stands 
at attention but does not salute. 

When Girl iScouts are on parade or marching in troop or patrol forma- 
tion, only the officers salute, at the same time giving the command, 
'^Eyes right," or "Eyes left," as the case may be, at which every Scout 
turns her eyes sharply in the direction ordered till the officer com- 
mands, "Eyes front." 

When repeating the Promise, a Girl Scout stands at salute. 

When in uniform a Girl Soout should salute her officers when speaking 
to them, or when being spoken to by them. 

If in uniform, a Girl Scout should return the salute of a Boy Scout. 
She does not salute the police or military officers unless they salute 
her first. 

Girl Scouts may salute each other whether they are in uniform or not. 

Pledge of Allegiance. "I pledge allegiance to the flag and to the 
republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and jus- 
tice for all." 

Girl Scouts should stand at attention, bring the hand to the full 
salute at the first word of the pledge, and at the word "flag" extend the 
arm, fingers still in the salute position, palm up, pointing to the flag. 

Parades. Girl Scouts may take part in patriotic parades with the 
permission of the Local Council or Commissioner or of the Captain 
where there is no Local Council. 



The six following subjects, Home Economics, Child 
Care, First Aid, Home Nursing, Public Health, and Per- 
sonal Health are grouped together, and for proficiency in 
all of them a special badge called "Scout Aide" is awarded. 

This badge will probably be regarded by the outside 
world as the most important decoration the Girl Scouts 
can win, and all Scouts who will try for it should realize 
that those who wear it will represent the organization in 
a very special sense and will be eager to prove their 
practical knowledge and ability in the important subjects 
it stands for. 

No young child could pretend to represent all this 
medal stands for. Any grown girl or woman should be 
proud to own it. 

Practical knowledge of Personal Health, Public Health 
and Child Care will add to the efficiency and happiness of 
this nation, and the women of today have a better chance 
to control these things than ever before. 

Home Nursing and First Aid will save lives for the 
nation in the two great emergencies of illness and accident. 

Household Economics, the great general business and 
profession of women, if it is raised to the level or the 
other great businesses and professions, and managed 
quickly, efficiently and economically, will cease to be re- 
garded as drudgery and take its real place among the arts 
and sciences. 

When the girls of today have learned to do this, the 
women of tomorrow will be spared the criticism of waste 
and extravagance that our nation has had to bear. If 
Girl Scouts make good as far as this medal is concerned 
and become real "Scout Aides" the Scout reputation is 




By Sarah Louise Arnold 
Formerly Dean of Simmons College 

The Keeper of the House. Every Girl Scout knows 
that good homes make a country great and good; so 
every woman wants to understand home-making. Of 
course that means "keeping" a house ; and of course that 
means that Girl Scouts should try for the Housekeeper 
Merit Badge, the "Home Maker." 

Now "making a home" doesn't mean just having it, 
owning it and holding its key. It means making it a 
good place to live in, or helping to make it so. This 
sounds like the House that Jack built ; but all this belongs 
to the making of a home. 

Planning Your House. When you plan a house of 
your own you must think what it needs most. You would 
choose, first of' all, to have abundant air, fresh and 
clean ; a dry spot where dampness will not stay ; sunshine 
at some time of day in every room of the house, which 
you can have if your house faces southeast; and you 
must be able to get a good supply of pure water. You 
will want to make your house warm in the winter and 


cool in the summer, so you will look out for windows, 
doors and porches. 

Think what must be done in a house : eating, sleeping, 
working, resting, by the whole family. How many rooms 
must you have? Draw a plan of some house in your 
neighborhood that seems good to live in. Make up your 
mind what you like best in that house. 

Furnishings. Then houses must be furnished with the 
things that the family needs. The furniture will be for 
use. You must ask every piece what it is good for. 
What will you do with it? Could you get along without 
it? Some things you would use constantly, others once 
in a while. Which would you get first if you were 
planning carefully? How much would it cost to furnish 
the house for which you have drawn the plans : to furnish 
the kitchen, the living room, the bed rooms? Make a 
list of the furniture needed (not just wanted) for each 
room with the cost of each piece. 

It is worth while for you to go to look at furniture in 
stores and to think about buying it. Then you will dis- 
cover that a piece of furniture that looks well in the store 
might not look at all well in your house, for furniture 
must "suit" the house and the room into which it goes. 
It must "fit," we say. No other furniture will do. So 
the Girl Scout will make up her mind what will fit her 
house; and of course this means also what will fit the 
family purse. For the keeper of the house must not 
let into her house one single thing that she cannot afford 
to buy. She will take pride in that. 

So when you make a list of furniture— with its price — 
make sure that everything you choose, suits, or fits, your 

The Cellar. Most houses are built over cellars, for 
purposes of sanitation, heating and water supply, as well 
as for storage. 


The Girl Scout who lives in the country probably 
knows all about cellars for they are much needed there. 
The city girl may live in an apartment and may never 
think of a cellar. 

Look at the cellars of two or three houses. How are 
they built ? Did you plan for one in your house ? 

The cellar should be well ventilated, having light as 
well as air. Its windows should be screened ; the floor 
should be dry and if possible made of cement; the walls 
should be whitewashed. Ashes should be kept in a gal- 
vanized iron barrel, to prevent fire. 

A cellar should be a clean place, corners and all. 

The Kitchen. The kitchen is a work-shop; it should 
be sunny and airy. 

Look out for windows to let in the fresh air and sun- 
shine. And while you are thinking of windows, be sure 
that they can open at the top and bottom to let sweetness 
in, and drive bad odors out. 

Your kitchen should hold things that are necessary, and 
nothing else. It should be easy to keep clean, having 
painted walls, and the floor should be of hard pine or 
else covered with linoleum. When a Girl Scout takes 
care of the kitchen she is in honor bound to keep all the 
corners clean and to leave no dust nor crumbs of food 
anywhere about. She will take great pains to keep flies 
out of the kitchen and so will have her windows screened. 

A good kitchen is provided with a sink and if possible 
with running water; and it must have a good stove, with 
a place for keeping wood or coal if either is used. 

The Kitchen Floor. The floor of the kitchen should be 
made of hard wood. Maple or hard pine will make a 
good floor. A hard-wood floor can be dressed with shellac 
or with oil. The wood absorbs this dressing so that 
water will not soak in. A floor which has been shellacked 
should be wiped with warm water. Not much water 


will be needed. The oiled floor can be wiped and dried, 
then oiled lightly from time to time. 

Linoleum or oilcloth may be used to cover an old floor. 
If the floor is rough it should be made even by planing 
before the linoleum is put down and the cracks should be 
filled. If you can't get linoleum you can paint your floor 
with a hard floor paint. Be sure to get a paint that dries 
hard. The linoleum should be frequently washed with 
warm water and soap and then rinsed carefully before 
it is dried. 

The Kitchen Stove. The chief business of the kitchen 
stove is to provide heat for cooking. It must hold a fire, 
and so must be made of something which will not burn. 
Stoves are usually made of iron. Fire will not burn 
without air, so a place must be arranged to let air into 
the stove, and just enough to make the fire burn clearly 
and furnish the right amount of heat. That is what the 
front dampers or slides are for. The fuel, wood or 
coal, is held in the fire-box. The heated air makes the 
top of the stove hot for frying, broiling or boiling, and 
the oven hot for baking. 

The smoke and gases from the fire must not come out 
into the room to blind our eyes or suffocate us; the 
chimney is built to take care of the smoke and gases, and 
there must be a way for them to get into the chimney; 
the stove pipe is for this. But the game you have to 
play with your stove is to let the smoke and gases run 
up chimney, but to save all the heat you can for the 
work to be done So your stove is supplied with dampers. 
When the fire is new, and there is much smoke or gas, 
you open the damper into the stove pipe, and in the 
stove pipe. Try to get a picture of the way the heated 
air goes from the fire-box up into the chimney. We call 
this direct draft. Of course a great deal of heat runs 
away through the chimney, and so your fuel is wasted. 


Now if you want to save heat, and particularly if you 
want to bake, and must have a hot oven, you will close the 
oven damper that has made the short easy way into the 
stovepipe. Then the heated air must find another way to 
get to the chimney, and it has to go around the oven to do 
this. While the hot air is finding its way around the oven, 
it heats it, ready for your baking. We call this the "in- 
direct draft." Look over your kitchen stove and see how 
this happens. Take ofif the covers, open every door, and 
examine every part. 

Stoves must be carefully managed. The fires must 
burn readily and the cooking must be done with the least 
possible amount of wood or coal. This means a clean 
stove, free from ashes and with a clear draft. Wood or 
coal will burn freely in the air. They will stop burning 
if there is no draft. 

Learn to manage your draft. Remember that stoves 
are made with a damper, in order to control the current 
of hot air. If the oven damper is closed this heated air 
must pass over and around the oven before it gets to the 
chimney and so heat the oven. If it is open the hot air 
can immediately escape up the chimney. 

When starting the fire leave the damper open. As 
soon as it is burning well, close it so that the oven will be 
heated. Your stove should also have a damper in the 
pipe, to save the heat which would otherwise run up the 
chimney. If there is none, have one put in. There are 
also dampers or slides in front of the stove to control the 
amount of air going in. 

The housekeeper must learn how to manage her stove; 
she must get acquainted with it, for every stove has its 
own way. Draw a picture or plan of the stove that you 
know best. See if you can tell plainly how to build a 
fire in your stove. If you use natural gas or a kerosene 
stove tell how that should be managed. 


Gas and Oil Stoves. Cooking may be done on an iron 
stove with either coal or wood as fuel, or the stove may 
be planned for 1)urning" gas or kerosene. The coal fire 
must be fed several times a day with coal and the ashes 
must be removed to keep the fire burning clearly. Wood 
burns out quickly and must be replaced often. Both 
wood and coal stoves mean almost constant care for the 

Gas gives less trouble. It comes in pipes from out- 
side the house. This means that somebody else — the 
gas company — provides the supply. You turn on the 
gas when you want to use it and turn it off, if you are 
wise and thoughtful, the moment it is not needed. The 
gas company measures the amount of gas that you use 
by its meter, and you pay for every bit that you burn or 
waste. The important thing, then, is to use as little 
gas as possible in order to pay for as little as possible. 
You would rather pay twenty-five cents for a thrift 
stamp, than for gas that had burned simply because you 
had forgotten to turn it off. Be sure that gas is turned 
completely off at all places and never have a low light 
burning, as the flame may be blown out and the unburned 
gas escape. This would be dangerous and might even 
kill persons in the house. 

The kerosene stove may be used instead of a gas stove 
in houses which are not piped for a gas supply. If wicks 
are used they must be carefully trimmed, so that they will 
be clean and even. A kerosene stove needs frequent 
cleaning. It should be kept free from dust and from 
drippings of oil. 

The Fireless Cooker 

When a Girl Scout gets to thinking about all the work 
to be done in a kitchen she will ask some very important 
questions. How much work is to be done? How long 
does it take to do it? Can time be saved by doing it in 


a better way ? How can I save labor ? Save time ? Save 

The Girl Scout will find the answers one at a time, 
if she does her own work. And if you do your own work 
you will at once call for a fireless cooker. The name 
sounds impossible, for you have always cooked with a 
stove, and, of course, a fire. How can you cook without 
a fire? 

The women of Norway taught us how. When they 
went out to work in the fields or on the farm they took 
the hot kettle of soup off the stove and hid it away 
in a hay box. The hay kept the heat in the kettle instead 
of letting it escape; so the soup kept on cooking, and 
when the women came home from their work in the 
fields there it was, all steaming hot and ready for dinner. 

Everyone has noticed how some things carry or con- 
duct heat and other things don't. That's why we use a 
"holder," when handling a hot dish or stove lifter or 
tea-pot. The "holder" does not carry the heat to the 
hand ; it keeps it away. So the hay packed around the 
hot kettle kept the heat in the kettle, refusing to "con- 
duct" it away. Therefore the soup went on cooking. 

Your English cousins use a "cosy" to cover the hot 
tea-pot or coffee pot. This "cosy" is made of quilted 
cotton; and looks like the quilted hood that your great- 
grandmother used to have. This keeps the heat in the 
tea or coffee, so that you can have a second cup for the 

America was slow to learn from her thrifty cousins, 
but at last she adopted the fireless cooker; and this is 
what it does: 

The fireless cooker, a case packed with some material 
which refuses to conduct heat, is used to continue the 
cooking of foods after they have been made hot on 
the stove. When securely covered in the cooker they 


will go on cooking for several hours because the heat is 
retained by the protecting case, A Girl Scout may buy 
a fireless cooker, paying from $5 to $25 for it, or she 
may make one, which will cost less than one dollar. Of 
course this is a challenge to make one. You may be 
very sure that if you make a fireless cooker you will un- 
derstand all about it. To make a fireless cooker you 
will need : 

(1) A cooker or container, which should be an agate 
pail with a close fitting cover. The sides should be 
straight up and down, the bottom just as big as the top. 
You can choose a small one holding two quarts, or a gal- 
lon pail which would be large enough for anything an 
ordinary family would be likely to cook. 

(2) A case, which must be at least eight inches wider 
than your container, for the packing must extend at least 
four inches around the pail on every side. You may 
use a round case like a big wooden candy pail, which 
you can usually get at the ten cent store for ten cents ; or 
it may be a galvanized iron can with a cover like the one 
ordinarily used for garbage; or it may be a box shaped 
like a cube. 

(3) For packing you may use crumpled newspapers 
tightly packed in; or ground cork, which is used in pack- 
ing Malaga grapes, is fine, and you may be able to get 
it from a fruit store. Excelsior is good, and perhaps 
you will find that in the shed in some packing case ; while, 
if you live in the country, you may be able to get Spanish 
moss. This should be dried, of course. And then there 
is hay — which our Norwegian cousins use. 

Let us try paper. Pack the box or can four inches 
deep, with crumpled paper, making a very even layer. 
Put a piece of pasteboard much larger than the bottom of 
your pail upon this layer and set your pail in the middle 
of it. Now pack the paper tightly around the pail up 


to the very top, using a stick of wood or mallet to press it 

Now you must make a cloth cover for your pail in the 
shape of a tall hat. The rim of the hat must reach out 
to the edges of your case and be tacked there. Take out 
your pail, fit this cloth cover into the hole and tack the 
edge evenly to the box. 

You must now make a cushion to fill the rest of the 
box, packing it full of the crumpled paper. Make hinges 
for the lid of your box and put some sort of fastener 
on the front to keep the lid down tight. 

Now you have your fireless cooker. When your oat- 
meal or your stew, or your chicken, or your vegetables 
have boiled ten or fifteen minutes on the stove in your 
agate pail, clap on its cover, set it into the nest, push the 
cushion into the top of the cooker, clamp down the lid, 
and your work is done, for the cooking will go merrily on 
all alone by itself in your fireless cooker. 

While you are making your fireless cooker, remember 
that the thermos bottle is made on the same principle. 
And remember, too, that your non-conducting packing 
material will keep heat out just as well as it keeps heat in. 
In the summer time you may wish to keep your ice cream 
cold for a while in your fireless cooker. Perhaps you 
will see how this might help in a hot summer's day and 
what a comfort a fireless cooker might prove in a sick 

The Ice Chest. How If Is Made 

In taking care of food we must be provided with a cool 
place, for the storage of milk, butter, cream, and all 
cooked food that may spoil. In summer this is especially 
important ; in an apartment, and in most city houses the 
ice chest is needed all the year around; in the country, 
it is needed only in the warm months. 

The ice chest is built much as the fireless cooker is 



made. Its case is usually made of wood, its packing 
material must be non-conducting, and its lining must be 
some smooth surface through which water cannot pass. 
Some ice chests are lined with zinc and some with porce- 
lain tiles. In some ice chests, food and ice are kept in 
the same box, which usually opens at the top; in other 
chests there is a separate chamber for the ice. From the 
ice chamber a drain pipe carries away the water which 
drips from the melting ice. 

Every ice chest must be kept clean and sweet. It 
should be looked over every day and washed carefully 
at least once a week. No crumbs of food should be left 
on the shelves. If you spill anything, wipe it up clean 
at once. 

The drain pipe must be kept clean. A long wire brush 
is used for this. If you are buying an ice box, get one 
with removable pipes, which are easily cleaned. If there 
is any odor from the chest, scald with water and soda, 
a teaspoonful of soda to a quart of water. Rinse with 
fresh cold water. 

If your ice chest drips into a pan which must be 
emptied daily, have a regular time for emptying it. An 
overflowing pan in an apartment may damage the ceiling 
below. If it drips into a pan which drains itself, be 
sure that the drain is kept clean and the entrance to the 
pipe unclogged. Clean the drip pan whenever you clean 
the ice chest. 

It is a good plan to keep food in closed containers like 
fruit jars. Wide dishes take up too much space. Con- 
tainers should be tall rather than broad. 

Put no hot dishes in the ice box ; it wastes the ice. 
The Iceless Refrigerator 

An "iceless refrigerator" sounds like a "fireless cooker." 
This is an arrangement made to keep food cool in the 
summer when there is no ice. A wooden cage with 


shelves is covered with a cloth cover and placed near a 
window or out of doors. If in the house it should stand 
in a large pan to prevent the dripping of water on the 
shelf or floor. 

A piece of the cloth cover should rest in a pan of 
water. If this is not convenient a strip of cloth can be 
sewed to the cover endwise and this piece should be 
placed in a pan or bowl of water which should be set on 
top of the cage. This water will be sucked throughout the 
cloth cover of the refrigerator until it is wholly wet. As 
the water evaporates from the cover the air inside the 
refrigerator is cooled. 

The iceless refrigerator works well on days when 
dry air is moving about. It does not do well on damp, 
quiet days. 

Another simple refrigerator which does very well for 
a little milk or a pat of butter is a clean, earthen flower 
pot, turned upside down in a shallow pan of water. This 
will keep very cool the food which it covers. 
The Kitchen Sink 

Next to the stove, the sink is the most important piece 
of kitchen furniture. 

The best sinks are of enamel or are made of porce- 
lain. They have a fine wire drainer so that nothing 
solid will go into the trap and plug the pipes. The Girl 
Scout uses boiling water, and plenty of it, to flush the 
sink. She takes pains that no grease gets into the drain 
to harden' there. When grease is accidentally collected, 
soda and hot water will wash it away, but it should never 
collect in the pipes. 

The Keeper of the House takes pride in a perfectly 
clean sink. 

Taking Care of the House and the Things in It 

Taking care of a house and its furniture means keep- 
ing the house clean, neat, and orderly, and keeping every- 



thing in good repair. This means a great deal of thought 
on the part of the Keeper of the House. For there are 
many sorts of work to be done, and there is a right way 
of doing every bit of it. By paying attention a Girl 
Scout may learn very fast, and become very helpful and 

First, there's the Dish Washing. 
Dish Washing 

In making ready for dish washing scrape every plate 
carefully to remove crumbs that would get into the dish 
water. Try using crumpled tissue paper to remove milk, 
grease, or crumbs before the dishes are put into the pan. 
Save tissue paper, and paper napkins for this. 

Pile in separate piles, all dishes of each sort; wash 
first glass, then silver, then cups, saucers, plates, then 
the rest; do not put bone, ivory or wooden handles of 
knives into the water. Use hot water and soap for dish 
M^ashing, then rinse with clean hot water. 

Dish towels should be cleansed after every dish wash- 
ing; wash clean in hot soapy water, then rinse all the 
soap away in clean water. Cooking utensils should soak 
in cold water until time for dish washing, unless they 
can be washed as soon as used. 

Use a tray for carrying dishes to the closet or pantry 
instead of travelling with a handful back and forth. Strain 
the dish water before pouring it down the sink. Be sure 
that no greasy water is put into the sink. Let the grease 
rise and cool ; skim it off and dispose of it after the 
dishes are washed. 

Taking Care of Rooms 

Keeping a house in order means having everything in 
its place in every room. It means sweet, fresh air in 
every room ; it means removal of dust and litter. A good 
housekeeper "tidies" her rooms as she goes along, always 





— ^ 












picking up anything that is out of place and putting it 
where it belongs. But she also has an order for doing 
things. Perhaps she sweeps the entire house every day 
or every other day, or perhaps she puts one room in 
order on one day and another on another and so on. The 
important thing is to have a regular plan. 
The Living Room 

Taking care of a living room means cleaning the floor 
and the rugs; dusting the walls, the pictures; cleaning, 
dusting, and sometimes polishing the furniture. Open 
the windows top and bottom, dust and brush them inside 
and out; use a soft brush or a dust mop to take the dust 
from the floor. Use a carpet sweeper for the rugs unless 
you have electricity and can use a vacuum cleaner; collect 
the sweepings and burn them. 

Dampen one quarter of your cheese-cloth duster and 
roll it inside the rest of the duster, then wring. This 
makes a dampish cloth for dusting the base-boards, win- 
dow sills, and other woodwork as well as the furniture. 


Where the furniture is highly poHshed, or would be in- 
jured by water, use oil on the duster instead Dust after 
the dust has settled, not when it has been stirr'^d into the 
air. Shake and replace doilies or covers. 

Be sure that the pictures hang straight after dusting 
and that every piece of furniture is put in its right place. 
See how long it takes to clean the room ; tb.en study to 
find out how the time can be shortened. 

Do not keep useless furniture nor have too many things 
in your room. 

The Bathroom and the bath tub require daily cleans- 
ing. In the ordinary family every one who uses the tub 
should leave it perfectly clean for the next one who needs 
it. All the furnishings of the bathroom should be kept 
sweet and clean. Use a flush closet brush daily, scalding 
it after using it. And remember that fresh air and sun- 
shine are cleansing agents. Get them to work for you. 

The Bedroom. Your bedroom needs all the fresh air 
it can get. The Girl Scout sleeps with her windows 
open. As soon as you have dressed in the morning throw 
the windows wide open again, if they have been closed. 
Open the bed, so that both sheets may be reached by 
the fresh air. Shake up your pillows and put them on a 
chair near the window. Leave your night clothing spread 
or hung where it will be well aired. Let your room have 
a fresh air bath ! 

You know already how to make a bed. You will re- 
member that all the bedclothing must be smooth and 
even, when the bed is made. You are lucky if you have 
a sister to help you make your bed, for this piece of work 
is easier for two than for one. You will see that the 
mattress is lying straight. Once a week you (the two of 
you) will turn the mattress, end over end one week, and 
side over side the next week. Then your mattress will 
wear evenly, and not have a hollow in the middle where 


you sleep all the time. Then you two will lay the mat- 
tress cover straight, and tuck it in firmly, so that you will 
have no hard wrinkles to sleep on. The under sheet, 
smooth and straight, must be tucked in all around. You 
will make the bed as smooth as the table. Now the upper 
sheet, which is the hardest thing to manage in bed making, 
must be neatly tucked in at the foot. But you must allow 
eight inches at the top to be turned over the blankets and 
spread. Now the blankets, straight and smooth, and 
evenly tucked in at the foot. Then you may choose be- 
tween tucking in the sides after folding the top sheet 
down over the blankets, and afterwards covering the 
whole bed with the spread, letting the sides and ends 
hang down ; and laying the spread even with the blankets, 
tucking in the sides, and turning down the sheet over all. 
Try both ways. 

Now, shake and pat the pillows, making them very 
smooth and quite square-cornered ; then lay them or stand 
them neatly at the head of the bed, meeting exactly in 
the middle ; and your bed is fit for a queen, or a tired 
Girl Scout after a tramp! 

With the bed neatly made, everything must be put in 
its proper place. The furniture and window sills must 
be dusted with a clean cheese-cloth duster ; and the bare 
floors must be nicely dusted with a dry floor-mop, or 
a cloth pinned over a broom. If there are rugs, use 
a carpet sweeper, if you have one, or a broom. If you 
do any broom sweeping, however, you will do it before 
you dust. 

Now a last look to see that the room is tidy, every 
chair in place and the shades even at the windows, and 
your room is ready for the day. Of course any Girl 
Scout who wants a Homemaker's badge will do all these 
things ; — not guess or suppose how others do them and 
how long it takes. That is the honest way to learn. So 


find out how long it takes to put your room in order. 
There is only one way to find out. 

Fighting Germs 

Keeping clean in these days means keeping free from 
troublesome germs as well as visible dirt. Germs thrive 
in dampness and darkness. They can be overcome by 
sunshine. For thorough cleanness, the house needs fresh 
air and sunshine as well as sweeping and dusting. The 
Girl Scout must remember to let the fresh air blow 
through every room in the house every day. She should 
sleep with her windows open. She is fortunate if she 
can sleep out of doors. 

Of course she is in honor bound to have no dark, damp, 
hidden, dirt-filled corners in any part of her house", not 
even in shed or cellar. Let in the light and clean out 
the dirt. 

Fighting the House Fly and Mosquito 

House flies carry disease. They breed in filth, human 
waste, animal droppings, decayed animal or vegetable 
matter, and are so made that they carry filth wherever 
they go. Since the fly alights wherever it pleases, it 
carries dirt from outside and distributes it wherever it 

Clean up all heaps of rubbish where flies may breed. 
Keep your garbage pail absolutely clean. Disinfect out- 
door water-closets and cover with gravel or slacked lime. 
Get fly traps to set on your porches. Kill all flies that 
come into the house, especially the early ones, in the 
spring. Keep your windows and doors screened. 

Fight mosquitoes just as you fight flies. Leave no 
still water even in an old tin can, for the eggs of mos- 
quitoes are deposited in still water and hatch there. The 
mosquito, like many other insects, has an intermediate 
stage between the egg and the grown mosquito. During 


this stage it swims about in quiet water. Mosquitoes in 
great numbers may be growing in old cans or bottles, rain- 
filled and hidden away under the bushes in your yard. 
Watch for such breeding places ; clean up your yard and 
banish the mosquito. 

Taking Care of Waste 

All waste must be carefully disposed of. It should 
never accumulate in the kitchen ; but the important thing 
is to have no real ivaste. See that everything is put to 
the utmost use. If you live in the country, chickens and 
pigs will take the parings, the outer leaves of vegetables,*" 
etc., and you can bury or burn waste. If you live in 
the city the garbage man will collect all waste. 

The garbage can must be kept thoroughly clean. It 
should be rinsed and scalded whenever it is empty, so 
that there will be no bad odors about the kitchen. Find 
out how garbage is taken care of in your town. How 
can you help to keep your neighborhood clean? What 
sliould be done if there is carelessness about garbage? 

Taking Care of Woolen Things 

Housekeepers must fight moths as well as flies. The 
clothes moth loves to lay its eggs in wool. It is very 
keen in searching out bits of wool and finding a place 
for its baby to thrive. Unless you have a care it will 
lay its eggs in your best winter dress which you forgot 
and left hanging in the hot summer days. 

When the baby worm pokes its head out of the t^gg, 
it begins to feed upon the wool ; and when some cold 
winter morning you get your dress you will find holes 
neatly cut where the little worm has gnawed, and be- 
side the holes the little woven cradle which the tiny 
creature spun for itself, and in which the crawling worm 
changed to the flying, silvery moth. 

The housekeeper must therefore, carefully brush and 


pack away all woolen things before the moths arrive. 
After the garment is cleansed and brushed it may be 
folded in newspapers carefully pinned at the ends, so 
that no crack is left for the moth to get in it, or it may be 
laid in a cedar box; or in any plain box with moth balls 
or camphor. Every box should be labelled so that you 
know without opening it what is in it. 

Watch edges of carpets and rugs for the carpet bettle 
and the "Buffalo bug." The last bothersome creature 
may eat your cotton dresses in your closet. All clothing 
must have care. 

Make a list of the woolen things that must be taken 
care of if the house is closed in summer and what per- 
sonal clothing must be packed away for the summer 
even if the house is not closed. 

Storage of Food 

Taking care of food so that it will "keep" well is just 
as important as the careful buying of food. Much waste, 
and therefore loss of money and labor, comes from 
carelessness in the storage of food. The bright Girl 
Scout will keep her eyes open to see how foods are taken 
care of in the house ; which foods must be kept in the 
cellar ; which ones must be stored on the shelves of dry 
closets ; which ones come in sealed parcels ; which in 
paper bags; which in boxes; which in barrels. There 
must be a place in the house for keeping all these things. 
So you need to think which foods must be kept in the 
house and which must be lx)ught from day to day. And 
in the house which you plan there must be ample space for 
closets and shelves, for keeping properly all that must 
be stored. No one can say which things must be kept in 
the house by every family. If the Girl Scout happens to 
live in a crowded city where rents are high, she will have 
little storage space, and will not keep so many things on 
hand. If she lives in the country, miles from a store, she 


iDust have a "store" of her own. So keep your eyes open, 
Girl Scout, and see what is being done in your part of 
the world. That is what eyes are made for. 
Heating the House 

A house may be heated by a furnace, by stoves, or 
even by open fires in the fireplace, as in old days Heat- 
ing the house makes the chimney necessary. This must 
be carefully arranged for in planning your house. Heat- 
ing by stoves is the most common arrangement. In the 
large city or town, the furnace is used. This is merely 
a big stove in the cellar or basement, so planned that its 
heat is distributed through the house. By this means 
one big stove does the work of many little ones, and 
warms the whole house. 

The furnace may use its heat to turn water into hot 
steam, which is sent through all the house through the 
n-on pipes and radiators. Or the water in the boiler 
may be made quite hot, though not turned into steam, and 
sent through the house in the same way, by means of 
pipes. Or hot air from around this big stove or furnace 
may be sent through big pipes directly to the various 
rooms. This means dust and dirt, and we are learning 
to use steam and hot water instead of the hot air system. 

The fireplace is almost a luxury. It is found oftenest 
in country houses where wood can easily be 'got and 
stored. The town or city home may have its open fire, 
however. Everyone loves an open fire; and when you 
plan your own house, you must manage to get one if 
you can. The hearth is the heart of the house. 
Labor Saving 

The housekeeper must learn how to do her work in 
tlie least possible time ; she must save steps. Look at the 
house that you have planned and see whether everything 
}0U need to use is within easy reach. Look carefully at 



the closets where you keep things. Are they big enough? 
Are they in the right place? Suppose your water comes 
from a well which is a long way from the house What 
difference will it make ? What would you do about it ? 

The Water Supply 

The water supply of every home should be carefully 
guarded. If the water is defiled or contaminated by germs 
of typhoid fever, diphtheria, or other diseases, whose bac- 
teria may be carried by water, the disease mav be spread 
v/herever the water is used. 

No earth closets or human or animal waste should be 
in the neighborhood of the well. Water should come 
from high ground and clean places with no possibility 
of gathering infection on the way to the house. Great 
pains should be taken to keep drinking water absolutely 
clean. All drinking vessels should be washed and scalded 
and the rims should never be handled. 

In the country every home has a private water supply 
and takes pains to guard it. In the city there is a common 
water supply and everyone is responsible for keeping it 
pure. Where does the water come from that supplies 
your city or town? How is it kept clean? Who takes 
care of it? 

Whenever there is any question about the purity of 
common drinking water, the table supply should be boiled, 
for safety. Boiling will destroy any bacteria that could 
produce disease. This boiled water should be used for 
rinsing dishes as well as for drinking. 

Girl Scouts will interest themselves in municipal or 
neighborhod housekeeping, for that is a responsibility 
which all share together. 

Learning to take care of one's own home is a good 
beginning, if one is to share in providing good condi- 
tions for the neighborhood. 


Little Things Worth Remembering 

The stove should be cleaned with crumpled newspaper 
whenever the kitchen is put in order. All ashes should 
be neatly brushed off. 

In lifting ashes from the ash pan with a shovel use a 
newspaper to cover the pail into which th^" ashes are 
poured, so that the dust will not scatter over the room. 
Don't dump them and raise dust ; and never put hot ashes 
into a wooden box or barrel. 

Watch the floor of closets and see that no dv.sty corners 
are hidden out of sight. 

Air and dry soiled clothing before puttinc^ it in the 
laundry basket. If damp clothes are hidden away they 
will mildew. 

Learn to make out a laundry list and to check it when 
the laundry comes home. 

Save the soap chips and use a soap shaker. 

Get all the help you can from older housekeepers in 
ycur neighborhood. Ask them how they do things and 
why. Your mother may know something better than any- 
body else does. 

The Girl Scout asks questions and learns why things 
are done as they are. She may think out a better way 
some day, but first she must pay attention to the old 

Sing at your work; it goes better so. Besides, joy 
belongs with housekeeping and your song helps to keep 
her there. Always sing if the work drags, but let it be 
a lively song ! 

Making Things Clean and Keeping Clean 

Making things clean is a most important duty of the 
Keeper of the House. But don't forget, Girl Scout, that 
keeping things clean is a constant duty. You know many 
a body who "cleans up" with a lot of stir once in a 


while, but who htters and spills and spreads dirt and lets 
dust collect in corners all the rest of the time 

"Keeping clean" is the housekeeper's regular business, 
and "cleaning up" never need stir up the whole house. 

For keeping clean, soap and water must always be 
had. The soap loves to wrestle with grease. The water 
softens and rinses away both dirt and soap. You will 
use a scouring soap or powder to clean stain^'d or dirty 
luetal or glass; and you should cover water-closets and 
other out-of-door places for refuse with clean slaked lime 
now and then to keep them clean. 

Ten Ways of Removing Stains 

1. When you have raspberry or blueberry or straw- 
berry stains on your white handkerchief or blouse or 
skirt, do not be too much disturbed. Hold the stained 
part firmly over an empty bowl, with the spot well in 
the centre, and ask some one to pour boiling hot water 
over the spot and into the bowl. The stains will disappear 
like magic. Then the wet spot may be dried and pressed 
with a hot iron, and the damage is repaired. 

2. Peach stains are much harder to remove, but they 
should be treated just as the others were treated. Often 
several applications of hot water are necessary for these 
stubborn stains. But you must not lose patience. And 
you must not use soap. The stain will fade out at last 
under the hot water. 

3. Ink stains are a great bother, especially to the 
school girl who carries a leaky fountain pen. Do not let 
them get dry. They will be much harder to remove. 
Sometimes cold water, applied immediately, will remove 
the ink, if the spot is rinsed carefully. Use the cold 
water just as the hot water is used for the peach stain. 
If that does not remove it try milk. If the milk fails, 
let the spot soak in sour milk. Sometimes it must soak 


a day or two ; but it will disappear in the end, w'th rinsing 
and a little rubbing. 

4. Ink stains on a carpet are a serious matter. Let 
us hope that no Girl Scout will be so unlucky as to upset 
an ink bottle on a friend's carpet or rug. If she does, 
she should know the best way to set about removing it. 
This should be done as quickly as possible before the 
ink dries, or "sets." Take cotton, or soft tissue paper or 
blotting paper, and absorb all that has not soaked in. You 
will see that the "sooner" is the "better" in this case. 
Try not to increase the size of the spot, for you must keep 
the ink from spreading. Then dip fresh cotton in milk, 
and carefully sop the spot. Do not use the cotton when 
it is inky ; that will smear the carpet and spread the stain. 
Use fresh bits of cotton, dipped in clean milk, until the 
stain has disappeared. Then rinse with clean water in 
the same way, and dry with dry cotton. 

5. The spots made on silk or woolen by acids may be 
removed by touching with ammonia or baking soda, dis- 
solved in a little water. The bright yellow spot on a 
black dress will sometimes run away light lightning when 
touched by the wet cork of the ammonia bottle 

6. Egg stains on the napkin, or sometime', unfortu- 
nately, on a dress front, must be removed before washing. 
Use cold water alone. The egg will dissolve and can be 
rinsed out. Hot water will cook the tgg and it will be 
hard to remove. 

7. Liquid shoe blacking is almost worse than ink. It 
must be treated in the same way, and at once. 

8. Coffee and tea stains will wash out with either 
v;arm water or soap and water. A black coffee stain on 
a fresh tablecloth may be removed like the berry stains, 
by the teakettle and bowl method. 

9. Grease spots may be removed from washable 
fabrics by soap and water. For silk and woolen, gaso- 


line should be used. Use gasoline in daytime only, to 
avoid lamps or gas in the neightorhood ; and never near 
a fire. Use carbona instead of gasoline or benzine when 
possible, as it cannot burn. Remember that all grease or 
sugar spots should be removed before putting a woolen 
garment away. Moths always seek them out, and they 
will find them if you don't. 

10. Paint can be removed by soaking the spot in tur- 
pentine. This dissolves it, and a bit of rubbing shakes 
it out. A brush helps, when the paint spot is on a woolen 
garment, after the turpentine has done its work. 

Remember: All spots and stains should be removed 
before washing the garment. 


It is easier to meet people socially if we are aquainted 
with the simple forms of introductions, meeting and part- 
ing, and so forth. A girl who is entertaining her friends 
will be more successful in doing so if she plans ahead 
how she can welcome them and has all the necessary 
preparations for a substantial good time, at hand. This 
planning also makes it possible for her to be less occu- 
pied when the time comes, and to have a good time her- 

Stand where guests can see you at once when they 

Always introduce a younger person to an older one, 
a.< "Mrs. Smith, may I present Miss Jones, or Mr. 
Blown?" A man is always presented to a woman, or a 
girl, as "Miss Brewster, may I present Mr. Duncan?" 

If you have many guests, ask some of your friends to 
join you in watching to be sure that no one is left out, 
so that the evening may be a success for every one. It 
is sometimes difficult for a hostess to do this alone. 

If you ask other girls to help you ask each to do a 


definite thing, as to arrange for wraps, sing or play, pay 
special attention to some older person, etc This saves 
confusion, as the Pine Tree patrol does in camp. 

A few intimate friends need no plan to make them 
have a good time, but with a large number it is usually 
better to plan games, music, charades, or some other 
form of entertainment. 

When invited to a house at a certain time, be prompt. 
Promptness is always a mark of courtesy, as it means 
consideration for the time and convenience of others. One 
should also watch carefully the time of leaving, and not 
stay about unless specially detained. 


Accept what is offered or placed before vou, with a 
quiet "Thank you." If you are asked what you prefer, 
it is proper to name it. 

Do not drink while food is in the mouth. 

Take soup quietly from the side of the spoon, dipping 
it into the plate frotn instead of towards you, to avoid 
dripping the soup. 

Break bread or roll, and spread with butter only the 
piece which you are about to eat. 

Use knife only as a divider, the fork to take food to 
the mouth. Where one can dispense with a knife, and 
use only the fork to divide food, do so. When not 
using either, lay them together across the side of the 
plate, not resting on the table cloth. 

A spoon should never be allowed to rest in a tall re- 
ceptacle such as a cup or glass, as it is likely to overturn 
the receptacle. Place the spoon on plate or ^-aucer. 

At close of meal, fold napkin, that table may be left 
in orderly condition. When napkins are to be washed 
at once, or when they are paper napkins, they need not 
be folded. 


Do not begin a course until all are served. 

Sometimes it is better to serve the hostess first, and 
sometimes it is the custom to serve the guest first, that is 
the guest of honor who sits on the hostess' right. When 
the host or hostess does the serving, the guest is served 

Do not be troubled if you use the wrong spoon or fork, 
and never call attention to anyone else's doing so. No 
njatter how you feel, or what the blunder or accident may 
be, such as spilling something or dropping a plate, never 
show displeasure to either servant or guest. Good bred- 
ing and pleasant atmosphere are essential to all enter- 

Good breeding means first of all thoughtfulness of 
others, and nothing shows lack of breeding so quickly as 
a lack of such politeness to those who happen to be 
serving us in hotels, at home, in shops, or when travelling, 
or anywhere else. 

When acting as waitress, stand at the left of the per- 
son to be served, so that the portion may be taken with 
the right hand. 

Preparing the Meal 

Plan the cooking so that the food that is to be served 
may be kept hot; for instance, soup may be kept hot on 
the back of the stove or where there is less heat, while the 
meat or vegetables are being cooked. Food that is to be 
served cold, should be kept in the ice-box or standing in 
water until the last moment and served in chilled dishes. 
In placing the food on the dishes and platters care should 
be taken to make it look attractive. 

Setting the Table 

When setting the table keep in mind how many courses 
there will be, and therefore, how many knives, forks, and 
spoons are needed. Have everything clean, and lay every- 



thing straight. Air room well. Wipe table, and if a 
tablecloth is used, cover table with a felt s'lence cloth. 
If a tablecloth is used, it should be laid with the fold 
in the center of the table. If a centerpiece and doilies 
are used, they should be laid at even distances. Clean 
v/hite oil cloth and paper napkins make an attractive 
looking table. At each cover the knife, edge in, is placed 
at the right with the spoon, and the glass is placed at 
the right in line with the end of the knife. The fork is 
at the left and bread and butter plate and small knife 
are at the left opposite the glass. Put the napkin between 
the knife and fork. 

Salt, pepper, water, bread and butter should be on the 
table, and if necessary, vinegar, mustard, sugar, pickles, 

When possible a few flowers add to the appearance of 
the table. 

Have as much ready as possible before sitting down 
at the table. See at least that (1), glasses are filled; 
(2), butter portioned; (3), chairs placed. 


Hard and fast rules as to table setting do not exist. 
Local customs, the amount of service at hand, and com- 
mon sense must govern this. The captain, assisted by 
the council, must be the judges. 


By Ula M. Dow, A. M. 

In charge of Division of Food, Simmons College 
The Girl Scout who has earned the Cookmg Badge 
may be a great help at home is she has learned to work 
quickly and neatly and may get much amuFement both 
at home and on camping parties. If the first trial of a 
process is not a success, the Scout should have patience 
to try again and again until her result is satisfactory. 
H she has learned to prepare a few simple dishes well 
she should have courage to try unfamiliar recipes which 
are found in any good cook book. If she is to be ready 
to take responsibility when it is necessary, she should 
be able to plan the meals in such a way that nothing is 
wasted and that the family is satisfied and well-nour- 

When working in the kitchen the Scout should wear 
a clean, washable dress, or a washable apron Avhich covers 
her dress. She should be sure that her hair is tidy, 
and she should remember to wash her hands before be- 
ginning work. She should try to use as few dishes as 
possible and not to spill or spatter. She should re- 
member that her cooking is not finished until she has 
cleaned up after herself, has washed and put away the 
dishes, washed the dish towels and left the kitchen in 

What to Have for Breakfast — Breakfast is in most 
families the simplest meal of the day and the easiest 
to prepare. Some people are satisfied with fruit, cereal, 
toast or muffins, coffee for the adults, and milk for the 


children. Many families, however, like the addition of 
a heartier dish, such as boiled or poached eggs, fish hash, 
or minced meat on toast. If a hearty dish is served at 
breakfast this is a good time to use up such left-overs 
as potato, fish, or meat. 
Simple Breakfast 

Apple sauce or sliced peaches. 

Oatmeal or cornmeal mush. 

Toast or muffins. 

Coffee (for adults). 

Milk (for children). 
Hearty Breakfast 

Apple sauce or sliced peaches. 

Oatmeal or cornmeal mush. 

Toast or muffins. 

Coffee (for adults). 

Milk (for children). 

Poached eggs or minced lamb on toast. 

Fruit — Raw fruit should be carefully washed and 
prepared in such a way that it can be easily v^aten. Ber- 
ries may be cooked with no other preparation than wash- 
ing. Fruits, such as apples and pears, should be washed, 
pared, quartered, and cored before cooking Any fruit 
which becomes dark on standing after it is cut may be 
kept light colored by dropping the pieces into a pan of 
water until they are ready to be cooked. If this is done 
most of the water should be drained off before they are 

Dried fruits, such as prunes, which have a wrinkled 
skin should be soaked for a short time in cold water 
before they are washed. Otherwise it is impossible to 
get them clean. After washing they should be covered 
with cold water and soaked over night, or until they are 
plump. They should be put on to cook in the water in 
which they are soaked and cooked until tender. Sugar 


should then be added if they are not sweet enough. 

The most common method of cooking fresh fruit is 
to boil it gently with just enough water to prevent it 
from burning. Sugar should be added just before the 
cooking is finished, the amount depending on ,he acidity 
of the fruit and the taste of the family. 

In sampling food, the cook should remember that the 
rest of the food is to be eaten by other people. She 
should never taste from the cooking spoon, but should 
transfer her sample to a tasting spoon which is not re- 
turned to the kettle. 

Cereal — Cereals, such as oatmeal, cornmeal, and 
cracked wheat, should be cooked in a double boiler. A 
double boiler can be improvised by setting a pail or pan 
into a kettle of boiling water. Cereals for breakfast 
may be cooked the day before and reheated in the 
double boiler, but should not be stirred while reheating. 
A tablespoonful or two of cold water on too will pre- 
vent a hard skin from forming while standing. All 
prepared cereals are better if cooked for a longer time 
than the package directions indicate. It is hardly pos- 
sible to cook any grain too long. The fireless cooker is 
especially valuable for cooking cereals, but a longer 
period of time must be allowed than for cooking in a 
c.ouble boiler. A home-made fireless cooker, described 
in another place, is interesting to make. Ready-to-serve 
cereals are very expensive compared with those cooked 
at home. 

Cracked wheat, J4 cup to 1 cup water; 3-12 hours. 

Rolled oats, y^ cup to 1 cup water; 5^-3 hours 

Cornmeal, 3 tablespoonfuls to 1 cup water ; 1-4 hours. 

Use Yt. teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water. 
Have the water boiling rapidly. Add the cereal gradually. 
Let the mixture cook directly over the fire 5 minutes. 
Place over boiling water or in the fireles<= cooker to 


cook slowly for a long time. Keep covered and do not 
stir. The time of cooking given in the table means 
that the cereal is eatable after the shorter time men- 
tioned, but is better if cooked the longer time. 

Toast — Good toast is v^orth knowing how to make. 
The cook should not be satisfied with toast which is either 
white or burned. 

Toast is most easily made from stale bread, which 
should be cut in one-third to one-half inch slices. A 
single slice of toast may be made by holding it over 
the fire on a fork. In camp a forked stick answers 
every purpose. The easiest way to make several slices 
is to put them in a wire toaster and hold them over hot 
coals. Begin carefully and hold the bread some dis- 
tance away from the fire, turning it often until it dries. 
Then hold it nearer the coals until it a golden brown on 
both sides. With a new coal fire or wood fire toast 
must be made on a toaster on the top of the stove to 
prevent the bread from being smoked. If the top of 
the stove is being used for other things, the drying may 
be done in the oven. 

Muffins — Any good cook book has numerous recipes 
for muffins, most of which can be made easily if the 
directions are followed exactly. 

Cornmeal Muffins (for four persons) : 

Four tablespoonfuls butter or oleomargarine 3 table- 
spoonfuls sugar, 1 egg, 1 cup milk, lys cups flour, ^ 
cup cornmeal, 3 teaspoonfuls baking powder. 

Cream the butter, add the sugar and the egg well 
beaten. Sift the baking powder with the flour and corn- 
meal and add to the first mixture, alternating with milk. 
Bake in buttered muffin pan 25 to 30 minutes. This 
mixture makes good corn bread if baked in a shallow 
buttered pan. 

Coffee — If the family drink coffee, they will want 


coffee for breakfast, no matter what other i'-ems of the 
nienu may be varied. It should be served only to the 
grown-up members of the family. Coffee of average 
Strength is made as follows: 

One-half cup coffee finely ground, 4 cups cold water, 
2 eggshells. 

Mix the coffee, the crushed eggshell, and Yz cupful 
of cold water in a scalded coffee pot. Add the remain- 
der of the water and allow the mixture to come gradu- 
ally to the boiling point. Boil 3 minutes. Draw to the 
back of the range and keep hot for 5 minutes. Add 
y^ cupful of cold water and let stand 1 minute to settle. 
Strain into a heated coffee pot in which the coffee is 
to be served at the table. 

A method for making coffee used by the guides in 
the White Mountains is as follows : 

Boil the water in an ordinary pail, remove the pail 
fiom the fire, pour the dry coffee gently on the top of 
the water, cover tightly and move it near the fire where 
it will keep warm but will not boil again. In about 
thirty minutes the coffee will have become moistened 
and sunk to the bottom of the pail. If the coffee is slow 
in becoming moist, time may be saved by removing the 
cover for a moment and pressing gently with a spoon 
on the top of the coffee, but the mixture must not be 
stirred. It is essential that the water be boiling when 
the coffee is added, that the cover be absolutely tight, 
and that the coffee be kept hot without bo'ling Half 
a cup of coffee to four cups of water makes coffee of 
average strength. 

Milk — The little children of the family should have 
whole milk at every meal. The older children should 
have milk at breakfast and supper time. There is no 
food so good for children who want to be well and strong. 
A part of the family supply of milk is sometimes skimmed 


to give cream for use in coffee and on desserts. The 
cream contains most of the fat in the milk, but the 
skimmed milk which is left is still a very valuable food, 
containing the substances w^hich make muscV and bone, 
and every bit of it should be used in the cocking or for 
making cottage cheese. The waste of milk is the worst 
possible extravagance. 

Eggs — Eggs may be prepared in countless ways, and 
the ambitious cook will find much amusement in trying 
some of the suggestions in the cook books. Eggs are 
an entirely satisfactory substitute for meat and fish, 
and are therefore often served for the main dish at 
dinner or supper. Many people like an egg every morn- 
ing for breakfast, but this is a rather extravagant 
habit. If eggs are served for breakfast thev are usually 
cooked in the shell, poached or scrambled. The men of 
the family sometimes prefer their eggs fried, but this is 
not a good method for the children. Only fresh eggs 
can be poached successfully, so that this is a good test 
for freshness. 

Poached Eggs — Oil the skillet and fill it to within a half 
inch of the top with water. Break each egg into a saucer 
and let the water boil after the egg is placed in it. The 
egg is done when the white is jelly-like and o slight film 
is formed over the yolk. Remove the egg with a griddle 
cake turner to a piece of buttered toast. Sprinkle light- 
Iv with salt. If the eggs are not absolutely fresh, the 
white will, scatter in the water. If the first egg to be 
cooked shows this tendency oiled mufiin rings may be 
put in the pan to keep the rest of them in shape. 

Soft Boiled Eggs — A soft boiled egg hn^ much the 
same consistency as a poached egg. It is easier to man- 
age because the shell is unbroken, but it is harder to get 
it of just the right consistency because the contents of 
the egg are invisible. Most people are very particular 


to have the egg just hard or soft enough to suit them, 
and it is necessary for the cook to practice to be sure 
of uniform results. Drop the eggs carefully into a kettle 
of boiling water, draw the kettle back on the stove so 
that the water does not boil again and (for a soft egg) 
allow the eggs to remain for five minutes If the eggs 
are very cold they should remain longer. 

Use of Left-overs for Breakfast — If the family 
like a hearty breakfast this is a good meal at which to 
use bits of left-over meat which might otherwise be 
wasted. Meat may be chopped or ground, reheated in 
the gravy which was served with it, and served on toast. 
Lamb is especially good minced on toast. To make hash 
mix equal quantities of meat and chopped potato and 
brown nicely in a greased frying pan. Such mixtures 
should be tasted to make sure that they are salt enough. 
Some people like a very small amount of onion with any 
of these made-over meat dishes. 


What to Have for Dinner — If all the members of 
the family are at home at noontime it is usually more 
convenient to have dinner then, but if members of the 
family are away or hurried at noontime it may be bet- 
ter to have dinner at night. Dinner may consist of sev- 
eral courses, but if the mother or the daughter of the 
f'imily prepares the meal, the family is usuallv perfectly 
satisfied with two courses. 

The main course of a simple family dinner consists 
of meat, fish, eggs or a cheese dish served with potato, 
rice or macaroni, and a vegetable such as string beans, 
green peas, carrots, cabbage, tomatoes or corn. If the 
family like salad, the vegetables are often se^^ved as a 
salad. This is a very good way to use up small amounts 
of vegetables which are left from the day before. Often 


little remainders of two or more vegetables may be very 
iittractively combined in this way. 

Some families like hot bread at dinner, and hot breads, 
such as baking powder biscuit (described under supper), 
or corn bread (described under breakfast), are particu- 
larly good with some combinations. Examples are baking 
powder biscuit with meat stew or fricasseed chicken and 
corn bread with bacon and eggs or ham. If fish is served 
in a chowder, buttered and toasted crackers are usually 
served. An occasional chowder for dinner is an excellent 
way to use up any surplus of skimmed milk which may 
be on hand. 

The kind of dessert served at dinner, besides depend- 
ing on the taste of the family, depends on the amount 
of money which is spent for food and whether there 
are young children in the family. Pie and ice cream, 
which are favorite desserts in many families, are ex- 
pensive. Little children should not have desserts which 
contain a good deal of fat, such as pie or doughnuts, or 
which are the least big soggy, as some steamed puddings 
are inclined to be. The most economical desserts and 
those best suited to the children are baked puddings 
made with milk and cereal, such as Indian pudding, 
rice pudding, and those made with cereal and fruit, 
such as Apple- Betty or peach tapioca. If there is 
skimmed milk on hand the possibility of using it in a 
milk pudding should be considered. Chocolate bread 
pudding and Apple Betty made a very at*-ractive use 
of left-over bread. Dessert should always be chosen 
with reference to the heartiness of the first course. A 
main dish which is not very filling can be balanced by 
a more substantial dessert. 
Simple Dinners: 

1. Hamburg steak. 
Baked potato. 


Squash or baked tomatoes. 

Apple Betty. 
2. Roast chicken or roast lamb with dressing and 
currant jelly. 

Mashed potato and gravy. 

Peas or string beans. 

Orange jelly and whipped cream. 
Meat — The best way to learn about cuts o£ meat is 
to go often to market and talk to the butcher whenever 
he has a minute to spare. Some cuts of meat are tough 
with coarse fibers and much connective tibzue. They 
should be ground if, like Hamburg steak, they are to 
be cooked by a short process, such as broiling. If not 
ground, the tougher meats are usually cooked a long 
time with water and made into a stew, a pot roast, a 
meat pie, or a meat loaf. These cuts are cheaper, but 
require more care in preparation than the more expen- 
sive cuts. Examples are the bottom of the round, the 
shin, and the flank of beef. The more expensive cuts, 
such as the top of the round, tenderloin and sirloin, are 
more tender, more delicately flavored, and are used for 
broiling and roasting. Some cuts which seem inexpen- 
sive really cost more than they appear to because they 
contain large amounts of bone or waste fat. The dif- 
ference between lamb and mutton is a question of the 
age at which the animal was slaughtered. Lamb is much 
more tender than mutton, is more delicately flavored 
and more expensive. There is a similar difference be- 
tween chicken and fowl. Fowl is much tougher than 
chicken and requires careful and long cooking to make 
it tender. 

Pan Broiled Hamburg Steak — Hamburg steak may 
be bought already ground at the butcher's, or one of 
the cheap cuts of beef, such as bottom of the round or 
shin, may be bought and ground at home. Many people 


like a little salt pork or onion ground with the meat. 

Make the meat into small, flat cakes and cook in a 
smoking hot frying pan which has been thoroughly 
rubbed over with a piece of fat. When one side is 
seared over nicely turn the cakes (a griddle cake turner 
or spatula is helpful) and broil on the other side. Place 
on a hot platter, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dot 
with bits of butter and garnish with a little parsley or 

A rump or sirloin steak may be broiled in a hot frying 
pan in a similar way. Wipe and trim the steak, place 
in a smoking hot frying pan and sear both sides. Re- 
duce the heat and turn the steak occasionally (about 
every 2 minutes) until it is cooked, allowing 8 minutes 
for a rare steak, 10 minutes for medium cooked steak, 
and 12 minutes for well done steak, for a steak 1 inch 
thick. Avoid puncturing the meat with a fork while 

Many people prefer to broil a steak on a broiler. This 
is practical with gas or electricity or over a wood or 
coal fire which is reduced to clear coals without smoke 
or flame. It is very difficult indeed to cook Hamburg 
steak on a broiler. 

Lamb chops may be broiled in either way. 

Roast Leg of Lamb — Wash the leg of lamb, place it 
on the rack in a roasting pan and put in a hot oven 
with the roaster uncovered. When the roast is well 
seared (15 to 30 minutes), draw from the oven, sprinkle 
with salt, pour a little water into the pan, and put on 
the cover. Finish cooking at a lowered temperature, 
allowing 20 or 25 minutes for each pound. 

A dripping pan may be used in place of a roaster, 
using a pan of similar size for a cover. A rack may 
be improvised from a broiler, a toaster or a cake rack. 

Beef is roasted in the same way, but is usually cooked 


for a shorter time (15 to 20 minutes for each pound). 
Beef Stew (for four) : 

23^ pounds beef shoulder or shin. 

2 cups diced potato. 
Yz cup turnip cut in half inch cubes. 
Yi cup carrot cut in half inch cubes. 
34 onion chopped. 

2 tablespoons flour. 

Salt and pepper. 

Wash the meat, remove from the bone and fat and 
cut m lyi inch cubes. Sprinkle with salt and pepper 
and dredge with flour. Sear the pieces of meat in the 
frying pan in the fat cooked out from the trimmings 
of fat. Put the meat in a kettle, and rinse the frying 
pan with boiling water, so that none of the juices will 
be lost. Add the bone, cover with boiling water and 
boil five minutes. Lower the temperature and cook un- 
til the meat is tender (about three hours). Add the 
carrots, turnips, onions, pepper and salt in an hour, and 
the potato in 15 minutes before the steak is to be served. 
Remove the bone and any large pieces of fat. Stir 
two tablespoons of flour to a smooth paste with a little 
water and thicken the stew. 

Such a stew may also be made with lamb, mutton, or 
veal, using other vegetables as desired. Celery and onion 
are better than turnip and carrot with veal. 

Chicken — If a chicken is purchased at the market 
it is usually delivered dressed. This means that the head 
has been cut off, the entrails removed, and the coarser 
pinfeathers pulled out. Many times, however, it is neces- 
sary to know how to do this oneself. 

To Dress and Clean a Chicken — Cut off the head and 
draw out the pinfeathers. Remove hair and down by 
holding the fowl over a flame (a gas flame, an alcohol 
flame, or a piece of paper flaming in the wood or coal 


range), constantly changing the position until all parts 
of the surface have been exposed to the flame. Cut 
off the feet. Wash the fowl thoroughly, using a small 
brush, in water to which a little soda has been added. 
Rinse and dry. Make a slit down the back of the neck. 
Remove the crop and windpipe. Draw down the neck 
skin long enough to fasten under the back. Make a 
straight cut from Yi inch below the tip of the breast- 
bone to the vent. Cut around the vent. Slip fingers 
in carefully around and fully loosen the entrails. Care- 
fully draw out the entrails. The lungs, lying in the 
cavities under the breast, and the kidneys, in the hol- 
low near the end of the backbone, must be taken out 
separately. Remove the oil sack and wash the chicken 
by allowing cold water to run through it. 

To clean giblets (the gizzard, the heart, and the liver) 
proceed as follows : Separate the gall bladder from 
the liver, cutting off any portion of the liver that may 
have a greenish tinge. Remove the thin membrane, the 
arteries, the veins and the clotted blood around the 
heart. Cut the fat and the membranes from the giz- 
zard. Make a gash through the thickest part of the 
gizzard as far as the inner lining, being careful not to 
pierce it. Remove the inner sack and discard. Wash 
the gizzard carefully and boil in water to use for giblet 

If the chicken comes from the market dressed it should 
be washed carefully and any pinfeathers removed which 
were overlooked by the market man. 

To Stuff, Truss and Roast a Chicken — When the 
chicken is clean and prepared as directed, fill it with 
stuffing (described later), a little in the opening at the 
neck, the rest in the body cavity. Sew up the opening 
with a few long stitches. Draw the skin of the neck 
smoothly down and under the back, press the wings 


close against the body and fold the pinions under, so 
that they will cross the back and hold down the skin 
of the neck. Press the legs close to the body. Thread 
the trussing needle with white twine, using it double. 
Press the needle through the wing at the middle joint, 
pass it through the skin of the neck and back, 
and out again at the middle joint of the other wing. 
Return the needle through the bend of the leg at the 
second joint, through the body, and out at the same 
point on the other side ; draw the cord tight and tie it 
with the end at the wing joint. Thread the needle 
again and run it through the legs and body at the thigh 
bone and back at the ends of the drumsticks. Draw 
the drumstick bones close together, covering the open- 
ing made for drawing the chicken and tie the ends. Have 
both knots on the same side of the chicken. When cooked, 
cut the cord on the opposite side and draw out by the 

Lay the stuffed and trussed chicken on its back on 
a rack in a roasting pan. Lay a strip of salt pork on 
breast. Place in a hot oven until the chicken begins 
to brown, then lower the temperature and cook the 
chicken until very tender. Baste often with the drip- 
pings in the pan. From 3 to 4 hours will be required 
for a five-pound chicken. If a fowl is used it should 
be steamed for 3 or 4 hours and then .roasted for J/< 

Stuffing — For a large chicken mix thoroughly 4 cups 
of finely broken stale bread, 1^ teaspoon of salt, y% 
teaspoon of pepper, 1 teaspoon of poultry dressing and 
4 tablespoons of fat. Pour over the mixture hot milk 
or water, stirring lightly until the mixture is moist. 

Giblct Gravy — If the chicken was properly roasted 
the drippings in the pan should be nicely browned, but 
tiot burned. Make a gravy from these drippings and 


the water in which the giblets were boiled. To do this 
pour the water into the pan, set the pan over the fire 
and stir until the contents of the pan are dissolved. 
Thicken with a smooth paste of flour and water, using 
two tablespoons of flour for every cup of liquid. Boil 
until the flour tastes cooked. Strain. Add the giblets 
cut in small pieces. 

Vegetables — All vegetables should be clean, crisp 
and firm when ready for cooking. Vegetables are pre- 
pared and cooked in a variety of ways, but almost all 
vegetables should be carefuly washed as the first 
process. It is convenient to keep a small brush for 
washing the vegetables, like potatoes, sweet potatoes, 
and beets, which must be scrubbed to get them clean. 
Vegetables which are to be eaten raw, such as lettuce 
and celery, should be washed with special care, wrapped 
in a clean, wet cloth and put in the ice box to keep them 

Baked Potato — Select smooth potatoes of even size. 
Scrub them carefully and bake them in a hot oven. The 
time required is from 45 to 60 minutes, depending on 
the size of the potatoes and the temperature of the oven. 
When the potatoes are done, slash each one with a knife 
to let the steam escape, and serve immediately. 

MasJied Potato — Wash the potatoes, pare, cover with 
boiling salted water (1 level teaspoon of salt to a pint 
of water), and cook until tender (30 to 45 minutes). 
Drain off the water and return to the fire a moment to 
dry. Mash the potatoes, add butter, salt, pepper and 
hot milk, and beat vigorously until light and creamy. 
For three cups of potato use 2 tablespoons of butter 
and 4 tablespoons of hot milk. Pile lightly in a hot 
dish and serve immediately. 

Steamed Squash — Wash and cut in one-inch slices. 
Steam until tender, scrape from the shell, mash thor- 


oughly, season with salt, pepper and butter, and serve. 
String Beans — Snap the ends from the beans, remove 
any strings, cut into short pieces, wash, cover and boil- 
ing salted water (1 level teaspoon to a pint) and cook 
until tender. The time required will vary from one 
hour to three hours, depending on the age and kind of 
bean. Drain the beans, season with salt and butter, 
and serve. 

Canned string beans should be rinsed, reheated in as 
little water as possible, drained, and seasoned. 

Baked Tomatoes — Select smooth tomatoes of even 
size. Wash the tomatoes, remove the thin slice from 
the stem end and remove a spoonful of pulp. Sprinkle 
with salt, pepper and scraped onion, fill the cavity with 
buttered crumbs, place in a pan (preferably one which 
can be used as a serving dish at the table), and bake in 
a moderate oven until the tomatoes are tender. Serve 
in the dish in which they were cooked or remove them 
carefully to the platter on which the Hamburg steak 
is being served, arranging them in a ring around the 

The buttered crumbs are prepared by melting a table- 
spoon of butter or oleomargarine and stirring in six 
tablespoonfuls of dry bread crumbs. 

Desserts — Most desserts are easy to make if the 
directions given in the cook books are followed exactly. 
Many people take pride in making beautiful cake or 
pie, who are careless about making good toast or bak- 
ing a potato well. 

Apple Betty — Prepare well sweetened apple sauce 
and thin slices of lightly buttered bread cut in small 
triangles. Fill a shallow baking dish with alternate 
layers of apple sauce and toast, beginning with apple 
sauce and ending with" toast. Sprinkle lightly with 



sugar and cinnamon and heat in the oven. Serve Mrith 

Orange Jelly — Swell 1^ tablespoons of powdered 
gelatin in half cupful of cold water. Mix 1 cupful 
of orange juice, ^4 cupful of lemon juice, J/2 cupful of 
sugar and 1^ cupfuls of boiling water. Add the gela- 
tin and stir carefully until it is dissolved. Strain into 
a wet mould and chill until the jelly is firm. Unmould 
the jelly and serve with whipped cream or a custard 
sauce. To unmould the jelly, run the point of a knife 
around the edge of the mould, dip the mould quickly 
in warm water, place an inverted serving plate on top 
of the mould, turn both over and lift the mould care- 


What To Have for Supper. — Supper shows more 
variation between families than other meals of the day. 
Some men insist upon meat, even though meat is served 
for their dinner, but this is rather extravagant unless 
there is left-over meat which should be used. Hash and 
minced lamb on toast, which were suggested for the 
hearty breakfast, would be equally well liked by most 
families for supper. Many families prefer for supper 
some milk dish such as macaroni and cheese or a cream 
soup served with either stewed or fresh fruit or followed 
by a fruit or vegetable salad. Hot rolls or baking powder 
biscuits are a very attractive substitute for plain bread 
if someone has time to make them at the last minute. H 
the mother and daughter do all the work of the family, 
they usually like to have on hand cookies or cake, which 
can be used for supper rather than to have to prepare 
some special dessert. Cold meat has the advantage that 
it is ready to serve with little preparation, but many 
other dishes such as the macaroni and cheese and the 
creamed soup, suggested in the menus, may be made 


when dinner is being prepared and simply reheated for 

A hot drink at night usually seems desirable except on 
hot days in the summer. If tea is served for adults, the 
children should have cocoa or milk. 

If dinner is served at night, luncheon is served in the 
middle of the day. The suggestions made in regard to 
supper apply equally well to luncheon. 

Little children should have their hearty meal in the 
middle of the day and a light meal at night no matter 
what arrangement of meals the rest of the family may 

Simple Suppers 

1. Macaroni and cheese or cold meat 
Stewed or fresh fruit 

Bread and butter 

Tea (for adults) 

Milk or cocoa (for children) 

2. Cream of potato soup 

Vegetable or fruit salad 

Baking powder biscuit 

Tea (for adults) 

Milk or cocoa (for children). 
Macaroni and Cheese. — For macaroni and cheese the 
macaroni must be cooked and white sauce prepared. 
Break three-quarters of a cup of macaroni in inch pieces 
and cook in two quarts of boiling water to which a table- 
spoon of salt has been added. The water must be boil- 
ing rapidly when the macaroni is added and must be kept 
boiling constantly. When the macaroni is tender, drain 
it in a strainer and run enough cold water through it t6 
prevent the pieces from sticking together. To prepare 
the sauce, melt two table spoons of butter or oleomar- 
garine in the top of a double boiler, stir in two tablespoons 


of flour and a half teaspoon of salt and pour over the 
mixture a cup and a half of cold milk. Cook this mix- 
ture directly over the heat, stirring constantly until it 
begins to thicken. Then place the dish over the lower 
part of the double boiler, containing boiling water, and 
let it continue cooking for fifteen minutes. Put a layer 
of the boiled macaroni in a buttered baking dish and 
sprinkle with cheese, either grated or cut into small 
pieces. Pour on a layer of the sauce. Follow this by 
layers of macaroni, cheese and sauce until the dish is 
full. Cover with buttered crumbs and bake until the 
crumbs are brown. To make the buttered crumbs, melt 
one table spoon of butter or oleomargarine and stir in six 
tablespoons of crumbs. 

The macaroni and cheese may be prepared in the morn- 
ing if desired and baked at supper time in a moderate 
oven. It should be left in the oven long enough to be- 
come thoroughly hot. If there are little children in the 
family a dish of creamed mararoni should be made for 
them without the cheese. 

Cream of Potato Soup — 

3 potatoes 1^ teaspoons salt 

1 quart milk j4 teaspoon celery salt 

2 slices of onion }i teaspoon pepper 

3 tablespoons flour 2 tbsp. butter or oleomargerine 
Cook the potatoes in boiling salted water. When soft 

rub through a sieve. Scald the milk with the onion in a 
double boiler, remove the onion, unless the family likes it 
left in, add the salt, celery salt and pepper. Melt the 
butter in a small sauce pan, stir the flour into it and then 
add this mixture to the hot milk, stirring briskly. Cook 
for ten minutes over boiling water in the double boiler. 
A good creamed soup may be made from almost any 
vegetable, substituting vegetable pulp for the potato. 
Celery soup and corn soup are very good. With these 


and most other vegetables, the celery salt should be 
omitted. Onion salt is very useful. 

Creamed soups are very good made from skimmed 
milk if there is a supply in the house which should be 

Salad — The pleasure in a salad is in its crispness, at- 
tractiveness or arangement, and pleasant combination of 
flavors. A salad may be arranged in a large dish and 
served at the table if it is the chief dish of the meal, such 
as chicken salad or fish salad, but it is usually arranged 
in individual portions and made to look as dainty and 
pretty as possible. All fresh vegetables and fruits used 
should be crisp and cold and thoroughly washed. Canned 
or leftover vegetables or fruit may often be used. 

To wash lettuce. — Handle delicately. Remove leaf by 
leaf from the stalk, examining for insects. Pass the 
leaves backwards and forwards through clean water un- 
til all sand is removed. Fold in a wet cloth and keep in 
the ice-box until it is used. The lettuce leaves should be 
dried when they are used. 

French Dressing. — Mix ^4 teaspoon of sugar, 1 tea- 
spoon of salt and ^ teaspoon of paprika. Add oil and 
vinegar alternately, beating constantly with a fork until 
5 tablespoons of vinegar and 10 tablespoons of oil have 
been used. A quick way to make French dressing is to 
mix all the ingredients in a bottle with a tightly fitting 
stopper and shake vigorously until the ingredients are 
blended. Some persons prefer less vinegar, and reduce 
the amount to 2}^ tablespoons vinegar to 10 of oil. 

Cooked Salad Dressing. — 

^ tablespoon sugar ^4 tablespoon flour 

^ tablespoon butter ^ teaspoon mustard 

1 egg yolk ^ teaspoon salt 

54 cup vinegar Dash of red pepper. 


Heat the vinegar in the upper part of double boiler 
over direct heat. Sift the flour, mustard, salt and pepper 
thoroughly. Pour the boiling vinegar gradually upon the 
mixture, stirring constantly. Return to the upper part 
of the double boiler and cook over hot water until the 
mixture thickens, stirring constantly. Add the butter and 
remove from the fire. Chill before using. 

Mayonnaise. — 

1 egg yolk 

2 tablespoons lemon juice or 2 tablespoons vinegar 
J/2 teaspoon mustard 

% teaspoon salt 

Dash of cayenne pepper 

% cup of oil (olive oil, cotton seed oil or other edible 


Have the ingredients chilled, Place the mixing bowl 
in crushed ice. Mix the egg yolk, mustard, salt and 
cayenne pepper. Add a few drops of vinegar or lemon 
juice, then a teaspoon of oil, drop by drop, until all the 
ingredients are used. Constant beating is necessary 

Fruit and Vegetable Salads. — Good combinations for 
salad are (1) potato and beet, (2) carrot and green peas, 
(3) tomato and celery, (4) asparagus and pimento. Com- 
binations of fruit and vegetables are, (1) apple and 
celery, (2) orange and green pepper. Combinations of 
different kinds of fruit and nuts or cheese are especially 
good. Examples are, (1) pineapple and orange, (2) 
white cherries stuffed with nuts, (3) banana rolled in 
chopped nuts or (4) half pears (cooked or raw) with a 
ball of cream cheese and chopped nuts in the cavity made 
by the removal of the core. 

Magazines which devote a page to cooking usually have 
in their summer numbers pictures of salads from which 
suggestions in regard to arrangement may be taken. 


Baking Powder Biscuit. — 

2 cups flour 

4 teaspoons baking powder 
1 teaspoon salt 

3 tablespoons shortening 

■ ^ to 1 cup milk or milk and water. 

Sift the flour, baking powder and salt, twice. Put in 
the shortening, then add the milk gradually, mixing with 
a knife. The dough should be as soft as can be handled 
without sticking. Turn onto a lightly floured board, roll 
lightly }i inch thick and cut with a floured cutter. Bake 
in a hot oven 12 or 15 minutes. 

Tea. — People who like tea have very decided ideas 
about how strong is should be and how long it should be 
steeped. The following gives tea of moderate strength. 

Scald the teapot and put in 4 teaspoonfuls of tea 
leaves. Pour over them four cups of boiling water, cover 
and steep 3 minutes. Strain into a tea pot and serve at 

Cocoa. — The children of the family should never have 
tea. On a cold night cocoa is a very pleasant variant 
from the usual glass of milk. 

Mix 4 tablespoons of cocoa with 3 tablespoons of sugar 
and a little salt. Add 1 cup of boiling water and 
cook until the mixture is smooth and glossy. Add a 
quart of milk and heat to boiling. This may be done 
more safely in a double boiler. Just before serving beat 
with an tgg beater. 

General Suggestions 

If the Girl Scout who is preparing for her ex- 
amination will look back over the menus which have 
been suggested, she will notice that milk is emphasized. 
It is absolutely essential that the children in the family 
shall have milk. If the family do not like milk to drink, 


it should be remembered that every bit which is used in 
cooking serves the same purpose as if it were taken from 
a glass, but little children do not ordinarily get enough 
milk unless they drink some. Fruit should be served at 
least once a day and better twice, and some vegetable 
other than potato should be not only served but eaten 
by the family. Children who are not taught to like vege- 
tables when they are little sometimes never learn to like 
them, and it is really important to eat vegetables, not only 
because they contain important substances for growth, 
but because it is only good manners to learn to like all 
the ordinary foods which are served. Anyone who has 
cooked knows how discouraging it is to feel that some 
member of the family does not like the food. There is 
a temptation in the city where fruit, vegetables and milk 
are high, to use too much meat and but little of these 
foods. It has been suggested recently that in forming 
an idea as to whether the money is being spent to the 
most advantage, the money spent for fruit and vegetables, 
for milk and cheese, and for meat and fish should be 
compared. In a well-balanced diet these amounts should 
be nearly equal. An increasing number of people are 
becoming lacto- vegetarians, which means that they eat no 
meat or fish, but balance their absence by using more 
milk, eggs and cheese. 

Before starting to prepare a meal the Scout should not 
only have her menu in mind, but should have an idea 
how long it will take to prepare each dish so that every- 
thing will be ready to serve at the same time with all the 
hot dishes very hot and all the cold dishes very cold. If 
all the dishes of the meal require about the same length 
of time in their preparation the ones should be started 
first which can be most easily kept in good condition. 

Enjoyment of a meal depends quite as much on neat 
and comfortable service as it does upon good food. The 


table cloth, napkins, dishes and silver should be clean 
and the dishes should be arranged so that there is as 
little danger as possible of accident. This is the reason, 
for example, for the rule that a spoon should never be 
left in a coffee or tea cup. This arrangement is usually 
more comfortable if nothing is placed on the table which 
is not going to be actually used at the meal, except that 
a few flowers or a little dish of ferns in the center of the 
table is very much liked by most people, if there is room 
for it. It often happens that the family see more of each 
other at meal times than at any other time in the day 
and everyone should try to make meal time a pleasant, 
restful, good humored time. 

Household Weights and Measures 
The careful housewife soon becomes skilled in weigh- 
ing and measuring the various goods she buys and uses. 
At the store she is on guard against short measures, and 
if she does not market in person, she has machines at 
home to test what is delivered. The following table is 
given for frequent reference use by the Girl Scout while 
earning her badges in Homecraft. She will also find it 
useful in learning to judge weights and distances for her 
First Class test. 

Table of Household Weights and Measures 
(Reprinted by permission of publisher from "House- 
wifery," by L. Ray Balderston, M. A. 
J. B. Lippincott, 1919) 

Linear Measure : 

12 inches 

= 1 foot 

3 feet 

=z 1 yard 

5^ yards 

= 1 rod 

320 rods 

=z 1 mile 

1760 yards 

= 1 mile 

5280 feet 

= 1 mile 





Square Measure : 

144 square inches 


1 square foot 

9 square feet 


1 square yard 

30^ square yards 


1 square rod 

160 square rods 


1 acre 

1 square mile 


1 section 

36 square miles 


1 township 

Avoirdupois Weight : 

27.3 grains 


1 dram 

16 drams 


1 ounce (oz.) 

16 ounces 


1 pound (lb.) 

100 pounds 


1 cwt. (hundredweight) 

2,000 pounds 


1 ton 

Liquid Measure : 

4 gills 


1 pint 

2 pints 


1 quart 

4 quarts 


1 gallon 

31J/2 gallons 


1 bbl. 

Dry Measure: 

2 pints 


1 quart 

8 quarts 


1 peck 

4 pecks 


1 bushel 

105 dry quarts 


1 bbl. (fruit, vegetables, 

Miscellaneous Household 

Measures : 

4 saltspoonfuls 


1 teaspoonful 

3 teaspoonfuls 


1 tablespoon ful 

16 tablespoonfuls 


1 cupful 

2 gills 


1 cupful 

2 cupfuls 


1 pint 

1 cupful 


8 fluid ounces 

32 tablespoonfuls 


1 lb. butter 

2 cups of butter 


1 lb. 

1 lb. butter 

=40 butter balls 

4 cups flour 


1 lb. 



2 cups sugar := 1 lb. 

5 cups coffee = 1 lb. 
1 lb. coffee = 40 cups of liquid coffee 
l}i cups rice =: 1 lb. 
2% cups oatmeal =: 1 lb. 
2^ cups cornmeal = 1 lb. 
1 cup of liquid to 3 cups of flour :^ a dough 
1 cup of liquid to 2 cups of flour = a thick batter 
1 cup of liquid to 1 cup of flour = a thin batter 
1 teaspoonful soda to 1 pint sour milk 
1 teaspoonful soda to one cup of molasses 
1 teaspoonful cream of tartar plus J^ teaspoonful 
soda = 2 teaspoon fuls baking powder 


There always are and always will be children to be 
taken care of. There is no way in which a girl can 
help her country better than by fitting herself to under- 
take the care of children. A Girl Scout thinks for her- 
self, and knowing the Health Laws, she knows the im- 
portant things to consider in caring for children : 

1. The care necessary for the child's bones. 

2. When it should exercise its muscles. 

3. Its rest. 

4. The air, sun and food and water which it needs. 

5. How to keep it clean. 

Bones — Great care must be taken in handling a baby. 
Its bones are soft and easily injured, and for this reason 
a baby should not be handled more than necessary. When 
very young its entire spine should be supported, and no 
undue pressure made upon the chest, as often happens 
if the baby is grasped under the arms. In lifting a young 


baby from its bed, the right hand should grasp the 
clothing below the feet, and the left hand should be 
slipped beneath the infant's body to its head. It is then 
raised upon the left arm. An older child should be 
lifted by placing the hands under the child's arms, and 
never by the wrists. If children are jerked or lifted 
by the arms, serious injury may be done to the bones. 
The bones, when a child is growing, are partly composed 
of soft tissue which is easily destroyed, and further 
growth is prevented. Many children are brought to the 
hospitals with injuries done to their arms from being 
jerked across the street. Do not let a child walk too 
soon, especially a heavy child. Bow legs and knock knees 
come from standing and walking when the bones are 

Exercise — At least twice a day an infant should be 
allowed for fifteen or twenty minutes the free use of 
its limbs by permitting it to lie upon a bed in a warm 
room, with all clothing except the shirt and diaper re- 
moved. In cold weather leave on the stockings. Later, 
when in short clothes, the baby may be put upon a thick 
blanket or quilt, laid upon the floor, and be allowed to 
tumble at will. 

Rest — Healthy children never sleep too much, A new 
born baby should sleep nine-tenths of the day. A child 
should have a nap during the day until four years old, 
and, if possible, until seven or eight years old. It should 
go to bed before six. It should have a crib or bed to 
itself, placed where it will have fresh air, but protected 
from draughts, and its eyes protected from direct rays 
of light. 

Air and Sun — A little child is in its room so much it 
is very important that fresh air and sunlight should be 
brought to it there. Rooms may be well aired twice or 
three times a day, removing the baby to another room 


while the windows are open. The child may be placed 
in its crib or carriage before on open window, dressed 
as if for the street. After children are three months 
old they may be taken out, but the sunny part of the 
day should be chosen, between 10 a. m. and 3 p. m. in 
cold weather. At night the windows should be partly 
opened, but care should be taken that the infant does not 
become chilled. Be careful that sheet and blankets do 
not get over a baby's head. The clothes may be pinned 
to the side of the bed. 

Food and Water — Even little babies should be given 
water twice a day. The water should be boiled, cooled 
and kept covered. It is hardly possible, for children or 
older persons to drink too much water. During hot 
weather a child needs more water than during cold 

Mother's milk is the only perfect food for an infant 
during the first nine or ten months. If it is necessary 
to give artificial food from a bottle, the greatest possible 
care must be taken. The milk used should be the best 
obtainable. To obtain clean milk it is necessary that 
everything that touches it be clean, sterilized when pos- 
sible, and that the cows, and men who handle the milk 
be healthy. In New York City all milk is classified 
according to its cleanliness and butter fat content. The 
cleanest and richest milk is called "certified milk" and 
is sold raw. The other milks are classified according to 
cleanliness. Grade A, B and C are all pasteurized. Only 
certified and Grade A should be used for infant feeding. 
You know that sterile means free from germs or bac- 
teria. Milk or water may be made comparatively sterile 
by boiling. Pasteurized milk is milk which has been 
heated to 155° Fahrenheit, kept at that temperature for 
thirty minutes and cooled quickly by placing the bottles 
in cold running water. 



Punctual feeding makes good digestion, and even if 
the baby takes an extra nap it is better to wake a healthy 
baby to give him his meals at regular hours than to let 
his digestion get out of order. Between meals a little 
water which has been boiled and cooled and kept cov- 
ered will wash out its mouth as well as refresh the child. 
The average infant is fed every three hours until it is 
five months old. After that it fed every four hours 
until it is fifteen or sixteen months old, when it is shifted 
to three meals a day with perhaps a cup of milk in long 
intervals. Solid food, such as zweil^ach and milk or 
cereal, is begun at seven months, and by thirteen or four- 
teen months the child will be eating cereal, bread, broth, 
beef juice, potato, rice, vegetables, etc. Candy is harm- 
ful for children, and even older children should eat candy 
only after meals. Raw fruit, except orange juice, is apt 
to be upsetting in summer. 

Keep the baby and everything around him clean. The 
baby's food is the most important thing to keep clean. 
The cleanliness of the bottle, when it is necessary to feed 
the baby from one, is very important. Choose a bottle 
of fairly heavy glass with rounded bottom and wide 
mouth, so that it may be easily cleaned. Short rubber 
nipples which clip over the neck of the bottle and which 
can be easily turned inside out, should be selected, and 
discarded when they become soft, or when the openings 
become large enough for the milk to run in a stream 
instead of drop by drop. Remove the bottle from the 
baby's mouth as soon as empty, rinse at once in cold 
water and then fill with a solution of bicarbonate of 
soda (baking soda), about one teaspoonful to a pint 
of water. Before rinsing wash in hot soapsuds, using 
a bottle brush, rinse well in plain water, and boil for 
twenty minutes, placing a clean cloth in the bottom of 
the basin to protect the bottle from breaking. Before 



using new nipples they should be scrubbed inside and 
out and boiled for at least five minutes. After using 
they should be carefully rinsed in cold water and kept 
in a covered glass containing a solution of boric acid 
(one teaspoonful dissolved in a pint of l)oiIing water), 
and at least once a day be turned inside out and thor- 
oughly washed with soap and water, then rinsed. Nip- 
ples should be boiled twice a week. 

BatJi — A baby should have a bath every day, not 
sooner than one hour after feeding. The room should 
be warm; if possible there should be an open fire in 
the room. The temperature of the water for a baby 
up to six months old should be 98°. Then it should 
gradually decrease, next temperature being 95°, until 
at the age of two it should range between 85° to 
90°. Before a baby is undressed the person who is 
bathing the baby must be sure that everything needed 
for the bath and dressing is at hand. The hand basin 
or small tub of warm water, a pitcher of hot water 
in case it is needed, castile or ivory soap, soft wash 
cloths, towels, brush, powder, fresh absorbent cotton, 
boric acid solution, and the baby's clothes laid out in 
the order in which they will be needed in dressing the 
child, the soft flannel bandage, the diapers, the shirt, 
flannel petticoat, dress and shawl. 

For some people it is easier to handle a baby when 
laid on a bed or table than on one's lap, having under 
the child a soft bath towel or canton flannel large enough 
to be wrapped around it. Its nose may be cleaned with 
a bit of absorbent cotton rolled to a point, using a fresh 
piece for each nostril. To bathe the eyes use fresh 
pieces of absorbent cotton dipped in boric acid solution. 
Wash the baby's face carefully so that the water does 
not drip into its ears. Dry the face carefully. Wash 
the head gently and thoroughly with soap, being careful 


to rinse completely. Soap the baby's body before putting 
it into the hath. As a soapy little baby is difficult to hold, 
support him firmly all the time he is kicking and splash- 
ing, by placing the arm or hand at the baby's back be- 
tween its shoulders. Wash particularly, under the arms, 
the creases in the back of the neck, between the legs, 
fingers and toes. The bath should be given quickly 
and the baby lifted out in the bath towel or flannel, 
covered and dried quickly, using a soft towel. Rub 
the baby very slightly. All the folds of the skin should 
be dried and well powdered : under the arms, behind 
the ears, about the neck, legs, etc. Do not put too much 
powder on, as it forms a paste. Dress the infant and 
lay it on its crilj while putting away all the things used 
for its bath. It is perfectly proper for a baby to exer- 
cise its lungs by crying, so do not be alarmed, but be 
sure that its clothing is comfortable and that the child 
is clean. Garments worn at night should always be 
different from those worn during the day. The gar- 
ments next to the skin should be of wool or part wool, 
except the diaper, which should be soft cotton, and 
when new, washed several times before using. Wet 
diapers should be rinsed in cold water and dried before 
using a second time; about every twenty-four hours 
diapers should be washed, scalded, rinsed in cold water 
and hung in the air to dry. 

Daily Routine — Child Under Two Years of Age 

6.00 A.M. Feed warm milk. 

7.30 A.M. Seat on chair or hold over chamber not 

more than ten minutes. If the child has 

no movement of the bowels at this time, 

try later. 
9.00 A.M. Give bath, and immediately after, feed, then 

put to bed in a well ventilated room, dark- 


ened, or out of doors in carriage or crib. 
Be sure no strong light is in the child's eyes. 
Child should sleep until one o'clock. 
1.00 P.M. Take up, make comfortable, and feed. 
2.00 P.M. Take child out of doors again, but do not 
stay after 3 P.M. in winter time. Later in 
summer. Stormy days keep in house in 
crib or carriage, well wrapped up in room 
with window open. 
3 to 5 P.M. Hold child, or let it stav in crib and play or 

6.00 P.M. Undress, rub with soft, dry towel, put on 
nightclothes, feed and put to bed in well 
ventilated room. 
10.00 P.M. A young baby should be fed at this time, 
dried, and not fed again until 6. A.M. 
A baby needs to be kept quiet. Do not make loud 
noises near it. Do not play with infant too much. 
Leave it to itself to grow. Keep the baby clean, every- 
thing about it tidy. Do not give a child pointed toys 
or playthings small enough to go into the infant's mouth 
Tie toys to the crib or carriage so that they do not fall 
on the floor. 

Things to Remember 
Emphasize "tidy as you go," sleep, water, bowel move- 
ments, exercise for older children, especially in cold 
weather, nothing in mouth, do not use pacifiers, tying 
toys to crib or carriage, a baby over two years of age 
should not be fed oftener than every four hours. 
Bov^el Movements 
At least once a day. 

Should be medium soft, not loose, smooth, and when 
on milk diet, light in color. 

If child is constipated, give one teaspoonful of milk 
of magnesia clear, at night. 


See doctor if child is not well. 

Cliiklren from birth to five months should be fed every 
three hours. 

Children over one and a half years old need three 
meals a day, dinner in the middle of the day. 

Little children need to be kept very quiet. No con- 
fusion or loud noises around them. They will then 
grow better and stronger. 


Never neglect a cold. Do not "pass it on" to a child 
by coughing, sneezing, talking or breathing into its face. 
Do not kiss anyone when you have a cold. Never allow 
the handkerchief used by a person with a cold to touch 
a child. If you must handle a child when you have a 
cold, wear a piece of gauze over your mouth and nose, 
and be sure to keep your hands clean. Be very careful 
with the handkerchiefs used ; see that no one touches 
or uses them. It is preferable to use gauze or soft 
paper for handkerchiefs and burn them. When a child 
has a cold put it to bed. Keep quiet as long as there 
is any fever. Give a cathartic, such as castor- oil, as 
soon as cold appears. Reduce the child's diet and give 
plenty of drinking water. Consult a doctor. Do not let 
the child go out until thoroughly well. 



General Rules 

The sorrow and unhappiness of the world is .increased 
enormously every year by injury and loss from 


accidents, more than half of which might be prevented 
if someone had not been careless, or if someone else 
had taken a little trouble to co'-ect the results of that 
carelessness before (hey caused an accident. 

It therefore becomes the plain duty of Girl Scouts 
not only to be careful but to repair, if possible, the 
carelessness of others which may result in accident. 

Let us review briefly some of the many small things 
in our daily lives which cause accidents, and therefore 
sufifering and loss. 

1. Carelessness in the Street. As, for example, tak- 
ing chances in getting across in front of a car or auto- 
mobile ; running from behind a car without looking to 
see of some vehicle is coming from another direction; 
catching a ride by hanging on to the rear end of cars 
or wagons : getting ofif cars before they stop ; getting on 
or off cars in the wrong way ; being too interested to 
watch for open manholes, cellarways, sewers, etc. ; reck- 
less roller skating in the street, throwing things like 
banana peels on the street or sidewalk where people 
are likely to slip on them ; teasing dogs, or trying to 
catch strange ones ; many dogs resent a stranger petting 
them and use their only means of defense — biting. 
Other examples will occur to you of carelessness in the 
streets which space does not allow us to mention here. 

Wait until the car stops before trying to get off. In 
getting off cars you should face in the direction in which 
the car is going. A simple rule is to get off by holding 
a rod with the left hand and putting the right foot 
down first. This brings you facing the front of the 
car and prevents your being swept off your feet by 
the momentum of the car. 

If you see any refuse in the street which is likely 
to cause an accident, either remove it yourself or report 
it to the proper authorities to have it removed at once. 


2. Carelessness at Home. As for example, starting the 
fire with kerosene; leaving gas jets burning where cur- 
tains of clothing may be 1)lown into the flame; leaving 
clothing or paper too near a fire ; throwing matches you 
thought had been put out into paper or other material 
which will catch fire easily ; leaving oily or greasy rags 
where they will easily overheat or take fire spontane- 
ously; leaving objects on stairs and in hallways which 
will cause others to fall ; leaving scalding water where a 
child may fall into it or pull it down, spilling the scalding 
water over himself ; leaving rags or linoleum with up- 
turned edges for someone to fall over ; and innumerable 
other careless things which will occur to you. 

3. Disobedience, playing with matches; building fires 
in improper places ; playing with guns ; trying the "med- 
icines" in the closet ; throwing stones ; playing with the 
electric wires or lights ; playing around railroad tracks 
and bridges : We could multiply the accidents from dis- 
obedience indefinitely. Remember, a caution given you 
not to do something means there is danger in doing 
it, which may bring much sorrow and suffering to your- 
self and others. 

It is a very old saying that "An ounce of prevention 
is worth a pound of cure," but it is as true today 
as it was hundreds of years ago. 

After the Accident 

When the time for prevention is past, and the acci- 
dent has happened, then you want to know what is 
the best thing to do, and how best to do it in order to 
give the most help and relief immediately, before ex- 
pert help can arrive, and to have the victim in the best 
condition possible for the doctor when he comes, in 
order that he may not have to undo whatever has been 
done before he can begin to give the patient relief from 
his suffering. 


1. Keep cool. The only way to do this effectually 
is to learn beforehand what to do and how to do it. 
Then you are not frightened and can do readily and 
with coolness whatever is necessary to be done. 

2. Send at once for a doctor, if you have a messen- 
ger, in all except the minor accidents. This book will 
help you learn to judge of whether a doctor will be 
necessary. If in doubt send for a doctor anyway. 

3. Prevent panic and keep the crowd, if there is 
one, at a distance. The patient needs fresh air to breathe, 
and space around him. 

4. Loosen the clothing, especially any band around 
the neck, tight corsets or anything else that may inter- 
fere with breathing. 

5. Keep the patient flat on Jiis back if the accident 
is at all serious, with the head slightly down if his face 
is pale and he is faint, or slightly raised if his face is 
flushed and he is breathing heavily, as though snoring. 

6. // tJicre is vomiting, turn the head to one side in 
order that the vomited material may easily run out of 
the mouth and not be drawn into the windpipe and pro- 
duce choking to add to the difficulties already present. 

7. Remove clothing, if necessary, gently and in such 
manner as to give the patient the least amount of suf- 
fering. Move any injured part as little as possible. At 
the same time, as a secondary consideration, injure the 
clothing as little as possible. If, as often, it becomes 
necessary to cut off the clothing, it may be possible to 
rip up a seam quickly instead of cutting the cloth, but 
saving the clothing is always secondary to the welfare 
of the patient. Little or no consideration should be 
shown for clothing where it is necessary to keep the 
patient motionless, or where quick action is needed. 

8. Transportation. There are three methods for 


emergency transportation of accident victims which can 
be used according to the degree of the injury: 

(a) Fireman's Lift. If it is necessary for one per- 
son to carry a patient, it is easily possible to lift and 
carry quite a weight in the following manner : 

First, turn the patient on his face, then step astride 
his body, facing toward his head, and, with hands un- 
der his armpits, lift him to his knees, then clasp your 
hands over the patient's abdomen and lift him to his 
feet; then draw his left arm around your neck and 
hold it against the left side of your chest, the patient's 
left side resting against your body, and supporting him 
with your right arm about the waist. Then drop the 
patient's left hand and grasp his right wrist with your 
left hand and draw the right arm over your head and 
down upon your left chest; then stooping, clasp his 
right thigh with your right arm passed between the 
legs (or around both legs) and with a quick heave lift 
the patient to your shoulders and seize his right wrist 
with your right hand, and lastly, grasp the patient's 
left hand with your left hand to steady him against your 
body. (Work this out with a companion as you read it.) 

(b) A seat made of four arms and hands (which 
you have no doubt used in your play), may be used for 
the lesser injuries. If the patient can, he supports him- 
self by putting his arms around the necks of his carriers, 
each of whom in the meantime grasps one of his own 
wrists and one of his partners. This makes a comfort- 
able seat for carrying. If the patient needs supporting, 
a back may be improvised by each carrier grasping the 
other's arm below the shoulder to form the back and their 
other hands clasped to form the seat. A better seat may 
be made with three hands clasping the wrists, while the 
fourth arm is used as a back, by one clasping the other's 
arm below the shoulder. This does not provide a very 


secure back, however, as it is not easy to hold the arm 
against much of a weight from the patient's body. 

(c) Improvised Stretcher. When the patient shows 
any sign of shock, is unconscious, has a serious frac- 
ture of some bone or bones, has a serious injury to any 
part of the body, or is- bleeding excessively, he must be 
carried lying down. It may be that there will be no 
regular stretcher at hand. In that case one must be 
improvised. A serviceable one can be made from ordi- 
nary grain or flour bags by cutting the two corners at 
the bottom and running two poles inside the mouth of 
the bags and through the holes. 

A workable stretcher can be made from coats by turn- 
ing the sleeves inside out, passing the poles through the 
sleeves and buttoning the coat over the poles. This brings 
the turned sleeves on the inside. A five-bar gate or a door, 
if it can be gotten without delay, also make satisfactory 
emergency stretchers. 

A stretcher may also be made out of dress skirts, 
with or without poles.' Put the skirts together, bottoms 
slipped past each other, and slip the poles through, as 
with the bags. If no poles are available, roll the edges 
of the skirts over several times to form a firm edge, 
and carry with two or four bearers, as the size and 
weight of the patient make necessary. 

Minor Injuries and Emergencies 

Minor injuries may or may not need the aid of a 
doctor, and you must learn to use judgment as to the 
necessity of sending for one. We will consider these 
minor injuries in groups to remember them more easily. 
(a) A Bruise is produced by a blow which does not 
break the skin, but does break the delicate walls of the 
capillaries and smaller veins, thus permitting the blood 


to flow into the surrounding tissues, producing the dis- 
coloration known as "black and blue." 

(b) A Strain is produced by the overstretching of 
muscles or ligaments, or both, but not tearing them. It 
may or may not be accompanied by breaking of capillary 
walls with discoloration. Any muscle or ligament may be 

(c) A Sprain is produced by the overstretching of 
the muscles or ligaments or both about a joint. There 
may also be some tearing of the fibres or tearing loose 
from their attachments. This always breaks capillaries 
or small veins, making the surface black and blue. This 
discoloration usually appears some time after the acci- 
dent, because the broken blood vessels are far below 
the surface. 

Treatment — For bruises and strains it is seldom neces- 
sary to call a doctor. Apply cold, either by wringing 
cloths out of cold water and applying, or by holding the 
injured part under the cold water tap. Do this at 
intervals of several hours, until the pain is lessened. 
The cold may be alternated with hot water which must, 
however, be quite hot, just enough not to burn, as luke- 
warm water is almost useless. Some patients will prefer 
to use only hot water. The water followed by applications 
of tincture of arnica, witch hazel, or alcohol and water, 
half and half, and bandaging will be sufficient. 

If, however, there has been no black and blue at first, 
as in a bruise, but it begins to show later, and the pain 
continues severe, and there is a good deal of swelling, 
then you should send for a doctor, as more than first 
aid is needed. 

In case of sprain, send for a doctor, and in the mean- 
time elevate the joint and apply hot or cold water, or 
alternate hot and cold, as patient prefers. This will 
give relief by contracting the blood vessels. 


2. (a) BURNS; (b) SCALDS; (c) SUNBURN; 

(a) Burns are produced by dry heat, as a fire, acids, 
alkalis, etc., and may be of all degrees, from a super- 
ficial reddening of the skin to a burning of the tissues 
to the bone. 

(b) Scalds are produced by moist heat, and may be 
of the same degrees as those produced by dry heat. 

(c) Sunburn is produced by the sun, and is usually 
superficial, but may be quite severe. 

(d) Frostbite is produced by freezing the tissues and 
is usually not dangerous. The more severe types will be 
treated later under Freezing. 

Treatment — (a) Burns; (b) Scalds 

1. Except in the minor burns and scalds, send for 
tbe doctor at once. 

2. The first thing to do is allay pain by protecting 
the injured part from the air, 

3. For a burn produced by fire, cover with a paste 
made of baking soda and water, or smear with grease 
— as lard, carron oil (mixture of linseed oil and lime 
water — half and half) or vaseline or calendula cerate. 
Cover with a piece of clean cloth or absorbent gauze and 
bandage loosely or tie in place. Gauze prepared with 
picric acid, if at hand, is a most satisfactory dressing. It 
can be purchased and kept on hand for emergencies. 

4. In burns from alkalis or acids, wash oflf as quickly 
as possible and neutralize (make inactive the acids with 
baking soda, weak ammonia or soapsuds ; the alkalis 
with vinegar or lemon juice. Afterward treat like other 

(c) Sunburn is an inflammation of the skin produced 
by the action of the sun's rays and may be prevented 


by gradually accustoming the skin to exposure to the 
sun. It is treated as are other minor burns, 

(d) Frostbite — Prevention — 1. Wear sufficient cloth- 
ing in cold weather and keep exposed parts, such as 
ears and fingers, covered, 

2. Rub vigorously any part that has become cold. 
This brings the warm blood to the surface and prevents 

3. Keep in action when exposed to the cold for any 
length of time. The signs of danger are sudden lack 
of feeling in an exposed part, and a noticeably white 
area. Chilblain is an example of frostbite. 

Treatment — The circulation of the blood through the 
frozen part must be restored gradually. This must be 
done by rubbing the part first with cold water, which 
will be slightly warmer than the frozen part, and 
gradually warming the water until the circulation and 
warmth is fully restored. Then treat as a minor burn. 
If heat is applied suddenly it causes death of frozen parts. 


None of these injuries will usually require a doctor 
if properly treated in the beginning. The bleeding from 
any of them is not sufficient to be dangerous. But 
whenever there is a break in the skin or mucous mem- 
brane there is danger of infection by germs, and this is 
what makes the first aid treatment in these cases so 
important. A tiny scratch is sometimes converted into 
a bad case of blood poisoning by not being properly 
treated at first. 

Splinters should be removed by using a needle (not 
a pin) which has been sterilized by passing it through 
a flame (the flame of a match will do if nothing better 


is at hand). After the spHnter is out, the wound is 
treated like a cut or scratch. 

The germs which produce poisoning do not float 
in the air, but may be conveyed by any thing which is 
not sterile, as, for instance, the spHnter or the instru- 
ment that did the cutting, scratching or pricking. They 
may be carried to the scratch by our hands, by water, 
or cloth used for dressings. , 

Treatment — Wash your own hands thoroughly with 
soap and water, using a nail brush. Clean the injured 
part well with disinfectant, as, for instance, alcohol and 
water, half and half, or peroxide of hydrogen — paint 
the spot with iodine, and cover with sterile gauze (if 
this is not to be had, use a piece of clean cloth that 
has been recently ironed), and bandage in place. If 
the bleeding is severe, a little pressure with the bandage 
over the dressing will stop it. Use the same precau- 
tions if the wound has to be re-dressed. 


The poison injected by the sting or bite of an insect 
is usually acid, and the part should be washed at once 
with a solution of ammonia or soda (washing soda) to 
neutralize the poison. Then apply a paste of soda bi- 
carbonate (baking soda) or wet salt and bandage in 
place. If the sting is left in the wound it must be pulled 
out before beginning treatment. 

(b) EAR (Insect), (c) NOSE (Button) 

(a) Eye — If a cinder, eyelash, or any tiny speck gets 
into the eye it causes acute pain, and in a few minutes 
considerable redness. 

Treatment — Do not rub the eye, as this may press 
the object into the tender cornea so that is can be re- 
moved only with difficulty and by a physician. First 


close the eye gently, pull the eyelid free of the ball, 
and the tears may wash out the speck. If this is not 
successful, close the eye, hold the lid free, and blow 
the nose hard. You may then be able to see the speck 
and remove it Vith a bit of clean cotton or the corner 
of a clean handkerchief. If the object is lodged under 
the lid, and the foregoing efforts do not dislodge it, 
proceed to turn the lid up as follows : 

Ask the patient to look at the floor, keeping the 
eyeball as stationary as possible. Take a clean wood- 
en toothpick or slender pencil, wrapped with cotton, 
place on the upper lid about one-fourth of an inch 
from the edge, grasp the eyelashes with the other hand, 
give a slight push downward toward the cheek with the 
toothpick, a slight pull upward on the lashes and turn 
the lid over the toothpick. Remove the speck and slip 
the lid back in position. Wash the eye with boric acid 

If you are still unable to dislodge the body, discon- 
tinue any further efforts, apply a cloth wet in cold boric 
acid solution and send for the doctor. Anything done 
to the eyes must be done with the greatest gentleness. 

If an acid has entered the eye, neutralize it with a 
weak solution of soda bicarbonate in water. If an alkali 
(lime) is the offending substance, neutralize by a weak 
vinegar solution. Follow in each case with a wash of 
boric acid solution. 

(b) Ear (Insect) ; (c) Button in Nose — Foreign 
bodies in the ear and nose are not very common. 

But sometimes a child slips a button or other small 
object into these cavities, or an insect may crawl in. 
Drop in a few drops of sweet oil and if the object 
comes out easily, well and good. If not, do not keep 
on trying to extract it, for fear of greater injury. Send 
for the doctor. 



There is a poison ivy (or poison oak) which is 
very poisonous to some people, and more or less so to 
all people. The poison ivy has a leaf similar to the 
harmless woodbine, but the leaves are grouped in threes 
instead of fives. The poison given off by these plants 
produces a severe inflammation of the skin. In the 
early stages it may be spread from one part of the body 
to another by scratching. 

Treatment — Wash the irritated surface gently with 
soap and water, and then apply a paste of soda bicar- 
bonate or cover quickly with carbolated vaseline. An- 
other remedy is fluid extract grindeUa robusta, one 
dram to four ounces of water. Sugar of lead and alco- 
hol have also been found useful. For severe cases con- 
sult a doctor, especially if the face or neck or hands 
are affected. 
(a) Fainting is caused by lack of blood in the brain, 
and usually occurs in overheated, crowded places, from 
fright or from overfatigue. 

Symptoms — 1. The patient is very pale and partially 
or completely unconscious. 

2. The pulse is weak and rapid. 

3. The pupils of the eyes are normal. 

Treatment — 1. If possible put the patient flat on his 
back, with the head slightly lower than the rest of the 

2. If there is not room to do this, bend the patient 
over with his head between the knees until sufficient 
blood has returned to the brain to restore consciousness 

3. Then get the patient into the fresh air as soon as 

4. Keep the crowd back. 


5. Loosen the clothing about the neck. 

6. Apply smelling salts to the nose. 

7. When the patient has recovered sufficiently to 
swallow, give him a glass of cold water, with one-half 
teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia if necessary. 

(b) Heat Exhaustion is exhaustion or collapse due 
to overheating where there is not sufficient evaporation 
from the surface of the body to keep the temperature 

Symptoms — 1. The patient is usually very weak. 

2. The face is pale and covered with a clammy sweat. 

3. The pulse is weak and rapid. 

4. The patient is usually not. unconscious. 
Treatment — 1. Remove the patient to a cool place and 

have him lie down. 

2. Loosen the clothing. 

3. Give him a cold drink to sip. 

4. Put cold cloths on his head. 

5. Send for the doctor. 

6. If necessary, give stimulant as in fainting. 

8. (a) CHOKING : (b) HICCOUGH 
(a) Choking — Choking is produced by something 
lodged in the throat, does not require artificial respira- 
tion, but a smart slap on the back to aid in dislodging 
whatever is blocking the air passage. It may be neces- 
sary to have the patient upside down, head lower than 
feet, to aid in getting out the foreign body. This is a 
comparatively simple matter with a child, but is not 
so easy with an adult. When the object is not too 
far down the throat it may be necessary for someone 
to use his fingers to pull out the offending substance to 
keep the patient alive until the doctor can arrive. In 
this case wedge the teeth apart with something to pre- 
vent biting before trying to grasp the object. 

(b) Hiccough — This is usually due to indigestion or 


overloading of the stomach. Holding the breath for 
one-half minute will usually cure it, as it holds quiet 
the diaphragm (the large muscular and fibrous parti- 
tion between the chest and abdomen), and overcomes 
its involuntary contractions which are causing the hic- 
coughs, A scare has the same efifect sometimes. If 
the hiccoughs still continue troublesome after these sim- 
ple remedies try to cause vomiting by drinking luke- 
warm water, which will get rid of the offending ma- 
terial causing the hiccough, and relieve the distress. 

The ordinary nose bleed will soon stop from the 
normal clotting of the blood and does not require treat- 

(a) Keep head elevated, with patient sitting up if 
possible. Do not blow the nose, as this will dislodge 
any clot which may have formed, and the bleeding will 
begin again. Any tight collar around the neck should 
be loosened. 

■ (b) If the bleeding seems excessive, apply cloths 
wrung out of ice water to the back of the neck and over 
the nose. 

(e) If the bleeding still continues and is abundant, 
pack the nostril with a cotton or gauze plug. Pack 
tightly (with a blunt end of a pencil if nothing else is 
at hand) and send for the doctor at once. 

Major Injuries and Emergencies 


(a) Dislocations — In a dislocation the head of a bone 
is pushed or pulled out of its socket. A person may 
be falling and in trying to save himself catch hold of 
something in such a way that he feels a sharp, sudden, 
severe pain, and may even feel the head of the bone 
slip out at the shoulder or elbow. 


Symptoms — 1. When you looked at the injured part it 
does not look like the other side. 

2. If you attempt to move it you find it will no longer 
move as a joint does, but is stiff. 

3. There is great pain and rapid swelling usually. 

4. There may or may not be black and blue spots 
around the joint. 

Treatment — Send for a doctor at once. While wait- 
ing for the doctor, place the patient in the easiest posi- 
tion possible, and apply hot or cold cloths, frequently 
changed, to the injured part. 

In dislocation of the jaw it may be necessary for some- 
one to try to replace it before the doctor arrives. The 
mouth is open and the jaw fixed. The patient may even 
tell you he has felt the jaw slip out of its socket. Wrap 
your thumbs in cloth to prevent biting when the jaw 
snaps back in place. Place the thumbs on the tops of the 
lower teeth on each side, with the fingers outside, and 
push firmly down until the head of the bone can slip 
over the edge of the socket into place. As you feel the 
bone slipping into place, slide your thumbs out to the inner 
side of the cheek to prevent biting when the jaws snap 
together with the reducing of the dislocation. 

(b) Fractures — Broken bones — There are two classes 
of fractures: 

1. Simple — In a simple fracture the bone is broken, 
but the skin is not broken; that is, there is no outward 

2. Compound — In a compound fracture not only is the 
bone broken, but the jagged ends pierce through the skin 
and form an open wound. This makes it more danger- 
ous as the possibility of infection by germs at the time 
of the accident, or afterward, is added to the difficulty of 
the fracture. 


Sympioms-— As in dislocation, you should be famil- 
iar with the main symptoms of a broken bone. 

1. When you look at the injured part it may or may 
not look like its mate on the other side. In the more 
severe fractures it usually does not. 

2. When you try to move it you find more motion 
than there should be, if the bone has broken clear through ; 
that is, there will seem to be a joint where no joint 
should be. 

3. The least movement causes great pain. 

4. The swelling is usually rapid. 

5. The discoloration (black and blue) appears later; 
not at once, unless there is also a superficial bruise. 

6. The patient is unable to move the injured part. 

7. You may hear the grate of the ends of the bone 
when the part is moved, but you should not move the 
injured bone enough to hear this, especially if the limb 
is nearly straight ; the detection of this sound should 
be left for the doctor. 

Treatment — Send for a doctor at once, and if it will 
be possible for him to arrive soon, make the patient as 
comfortable as possible and wait for him. However, 
if it will be some time before the doctor can arrive you 
should try to give such aid as will do no harm and will 
help the sufferer. 

You must handle the part injured and the patient 
with the utmost gentleness to avoid making a simple 
fracture into a compound one, or doing other injury, 
and also to give him as little additional suffering as 
possible. You will need to get the clothing off the part 
to be sure of what you are doing. Rip the clothing in 
a seam if possible when the fracture is in an arm or 
leg, but if this cannot be done, you will have to cut the 
material. Do not try to move the broken bone trying 
to get off a sleeve or other part of the clothing. 


With the greatest gentleness put the injured part, for 
instance, the arm or leg, as nearly as possible in the 
same position as the sound part, and hold it in that posi- 
tion by splints. Do not use force to do this. There is 
no great hurry needed to set a broken bone. The im- 
portant point is to get it set right, and this may better 
be done after complete rest of several days, allowing for 
the passing of the inflammation. 

The Most Important "What Not to Do Points" for 
Fractures Are: 

1. If there is reason to think a bone may be broken 
try in all ways to prevent motion at point of fracture 
lest it be made compound. 

2. Do not go hunting for symptoms of fracture (such 
as the false point of motion or the sound "crepitus") 
just to be sure. 

3. The best treatment is to try to immobilize the part 
till the doctor comes. 

Splints — Anything that is stiff and rigid may be used 
for splints. Shingles, boards, limbs of trees, umbrellas, 
heavy wire netting, etc. Flat splints are best, however. 
All splints should be padded, especially where they lie 
against a bony prominence, as for instance, the ankle or 
elbow joint. 

If the patient is wearing heavy winter clothing this may 
form sufficient padding. If not, then other cloth, straw 
or leaves may be used. Cotton batting makes excellent 
padding but if this is not to be had quickly, other 
things can be made to do to pad the first rough splints 
which are applied until the patient can reach a doctor or 
the doctor arrives on the scene of the accident. 

In applying splints remember they must extend beyond 
the next joint below and the next joint above, otherwise 


movement of the joint will cause movement of the 
broken part. 

The splints are tied firmly in place with handker- 
chiefs, strips of cloth, or bandages, tied over splints, 
padding and limb. Do not tie tight enough to increase 
the pain, but just enough to hold the splints firmly. 
Do not tie directly over the break. There must be an 
inner and outer splint for both the arms and the legs. 


Send for the doctor at once, and then stop the bleed- 
ing and keep as clean as possible till he arrives. 

Dangers — 1. In any wound with a Lreak in the skin, 
there is the danger of infection or blood poisoning, as 
you have already learned. 

2. In serious wounds through the skin, flesh and blood 
vessels there is also the danger of severe bleeding, with 
the possibility of the patient's bleeding to death. 

Infection — You already know how the germs which 
can cause the blood poisoning get into the wound. 

(a) by the object that makes the wound 

(b) from the clothing of the patient through which 
the wound is made 

(c) from the rescuer's hands 

(d) from the water which has not been sterilized used 
in washing the wound 

(e) from dirty dressings, that is, dirty in the sense 
that they have on them germs which can get into 
the wound and cause infection or blood poisoning. 

The first two of these chances the Girl Scout will 
not be able to control. The last three she can to some 
extent prevent. Do not ivash, toucJi or put anything into 
a serious ivound unless a doctor cannot be found. Only 
this sort of thing justifies running risk of infection. 


Otherwise just put on a sterile dressing and bandaj^e. 
In reality washing wounds only satisfies the aesthetic 
sense of the operator without real benefit to the patient 
in many cases. If a wound has to be cleansed before 
the doctor comes use boiled water ; if this cannot be had 
at once, use water and alcohol half and half. 

1. Always wash your hands thoroughly with water, 
soap and a nail brush, unless there is necessity for 
immediate help to stop bleeding which admits of no 
time to clean one's hands. Be sure your nails are 

2. Try not to touch the wound with your hands un- 
less it is absolutely necessary. 

3. Many wounds do not have to be washed, but dressing 
may be applied directly. 

4. Apply sterile cloth for dressing, having cleansed 
the wound as best you can, or all that is necessary. 
This may be gotten at a drug store in a sterile package 
ready for use immediately, and is very satifactory. If, 
however, these cannot be had, remember any cloth like 
a folded handkerchief that has been recently washed and 
ironed is practically sterile, especially if you unfold it 
carefully and apply the inside which you have not touched, 
to the wound. Bind the dressing on with a bandage to 
keep in place until the doctor arrives. 

(b) Serious Bleeding: 

It is important that you should learn what is serious 
bleeding and this will often help you to be cool under 
trying circumstances. 

As you learned in your work in minor emergencies, 
the bleeding from the small veins and capillaries is not 
usually sufficient to be dangerous, and the pressure of 
the dressing when put on and bandaged in place will 
soon stop it. It may sometimes be necessary to put 
more dressing outside of that already on (called re-in- 



where s 
por bressin^ 

aiptery is 

oop bhrouejfj 
s msephed 

forcing it) and bandage again snugly. But if you have 
made sure first that there is no large vein or artery 
cut, you need not be troubled for fear there will be 
serious bleeding before the doctor arrives. 

Bleeding from an Artery: If an artery is cut the blood 
spurts out, the size of the stream depending on the size 
of the artery cut. This is the most serious bleeding 


because the heart is directly behind, pumping the blood 
through the artery with all its power. If it is a small 
artery the pressure with the finger between the cut and 
the heart for a few minutes will give the blood time to clot 
behind the finger and form a plug. This will stop the 
bleeding aided by pressure of the bandage. If it is a 
larger vessel the force in the heart muscle pumping the 
blood will force out any plug formed by the finger there, 
as the finger tires too easily. 

Tourniquet: In this case it will be necessary to put 
on a tourniquet to take the place of the finger until 
a clot can form in the vessel big enough and strong 
enough to prevent the force of the blood current from 
pushing it out. This of course can be used only on 
the legs or arms. 

A tourniquet is something put on to make pressure 
on a blood vessel to stop serious bleeding. There are 
five points to remember about a tourniquet : 

1. It must be long enough to tie around the limb — 
a big handkerchief, towel or wide bandage. 

2. There must be a pad to make the pressure over 
the artery greater than on the rest of the limb — a smooth 
stone, a darning ball, a large cork, cloth folded into a 
large pad or a rolled bandage. 

3. The pad must be so placed that the artery lies be- 
tween pad and the bone on the limb, in order that the 
pressure may stop the flow of blood by forcing the walls 
of the artery togetlier between the pad and the bone. 

4. Unless the tourniquet is put on tight enough, its 
application increases bleeding. It is extremely rare to 
find a tourniquet put on tight enough. In almost every 
such case removing the tourniquet will stop or partly 
lessen bleeding. A short stick or handle is needed, 
about a foot long, with which to twist the tourniquet 


sufficiently to cut the flow of blood. Usually it cannot 
be twisted tightly enough by hand alone. Tie the twisted 
part firmly so it will not slip, after it has been made tight 
enough to stop bleeding. 

5. Remember, a tourniquet stops most of the circu- 
lation below it as well as in the cut artery, and must not 
be left in place too long for fear of injury to the rest 
of the hmb by cutting off the circulation. Usually it 
should not he left on for more than an hour. 

Bleeding from Veins — Bleeding from the veins is not 
so dangerous as from an artery. The blood from the 
heart has to go through the little capillaries before it 
gets into the veins, and therefore the force of the heart 
muscle on the blood in the veins is not so great as in the 
arteries. The blood does not spurt out, but flows out as 
it would from a bottle tipped on its side. 

You have already learned what to do to stop the bleed- 
ing from the smaller veins, and that it is not serious. 
From the larger veins, however, it can be very serious, 
and it may be necessary for you to put on a tourniquet 
before the doctor arrives in order to save the patient's 

Almost always bleeding from a vein can be controlled 
by clean gauze or handkerchief pad and pressure by hand 
directly over the bleeding wound. Tourniquets are almost 
never needed in bleeding from a vein. If necessary, it 
is wisest to apply them in the same way as for arterial 
hemorrhage and stop the circulation in the whole limb. 

It is important to know in a general way where the 
blood vessels are in order to put the pad over them to 
stop the bleeding. Roughly speaking, the artery of the 
arm runs down aljout in a line with the inner seam of the 
coat. The large vein lies close beside it, carrying the 
blood back to the heart. The artery and vein of the leg 


run about in a line with the inside seam of a man's 

Stimulants — In serious bleeding of any kind do not 
give stimulants until the bleeding has been stopped, as 
the stimulants increase the force of the heart and so 
increase the flow of blood. After the tourniquet is 
on and bleeding is stopped, if the patient is very weak, 
he may have a teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of am- 
monia in half a glass of, water. 


(a) Shocks — In any injury, except the slight ones, 
the ends of the nerves in the skin are bruised or jarred. 
They send this jar along the nerves to the very delicate 
brain. The blood is drawn from the brain into the 
larger blood vessels, and the result produced is called 
shock. If you have jammed your finger in a door some- 
time, perhaps you have felt a queer sick feeling and 
had to sit down. A cold sweat broke out all over you, 
and you were hardly conscious for a moment or two. 
This was a mild case of shock. In more severe in- 
juries a shock to the brain may be very serious. 

Symptoms of Shock — 1. The patient may or may not 
be unconscious, but he may take no notice of what is 
going on around him. 

2. The face is pale and clammy. 

3. The skin is cold. 

4. The pulse is weak. 

5. The breathing is shallow. 

In any serious injury the shock is liable to be severe 
and will need to be treated before the doctor arrives. 

Treatment — Send for the doctor if serious. 

1. Lay the patient flat on his back with head low, so 
that the heart can more easily pump the blood back into 
the brain. 


2. Cover warmly; if they can be gotten, put around 
him several hot water bottles or bricks, being extremely 
careful to have them covered so that they will not burn 
him. Persons suffering from shock are more easily 
burnt than usual. Do not put anything hot next him 
unless it can be held against your own face for a minute 
without feeling too hot. 

3. Rub the arms and legs, toward the body, but under 
the covers. 

4. Give stimulants only after the patient has recovered 
enough to swallow, and when there is no serious bleeding. 

Stimulants — Strong, hot coffee, or a half teaspoonful 
of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a half glass of warm 
water. The latter may be given if the coffee is not ready. 

(b) Apoplexy — When a person has a "stroke" of 
apoplexy send for the doctor at once. 

This condition resembles shock only in that the patient 
is unconscious. The blow to the delicate brain does not 
come from the outside along the nerves, but from the 
inside by the breaking of a blood vessel in the brain, 
letting the blood out into the brain tissue and forming a 
clot inside of the brain, and thus making pressure which 
produces the unconsciousness. 

Symptoms of Apoplexy — 1. The patient is unconscious. 

2. The face is usually flushed — red. 

3. The skin is not cold and clammy. 

4. The pulse is slow and full. 

5. The breathing is snoring instead of shallow. 

6. The pupils of the eye are usually unequally dilated. 
Treatment — 1. Lay the patient flat on his back with 

head slightly raised. 

2. Do not give any stimulants. 

3. Wait for the doctor. 

(c) Convulsions — This condition resembles the fore- 
going shock and apoplexy in that the patient is unconcious. 


Symptoms of Convulsions — 1. The patient is unconscious. 

2. The face is usually pale at first, hut not so white 
as in shock, and later is flushed, often even purplish. 

3. The skin is not usually cold. 

4. The breathing may be shallow or snoring. 

5. There are twitchings of the muscles of the face 
and body or a twisting motion of the body. 

6. The pulse may be rapid, but is usually regular. 

7. The mouth may be flecked with foam. 

8. The pupils of the eye may be contracted or equally 

Treatment — Convulsions come from various causes, 
and are always serious, therefore send for the doctor 
at once. 

1. Put a wedge of some kind between the teeth if 
possible, the handle of a spoon protected by a cloth 
cover, or a rolled napkin does well. This is to prevent 
biting the tongue, which the patient is apt to do in un- 
consciousness with convulsive movements. 

2. Lay the patient flat on his back, and prevent him 
from hurting himself in his twisting, but do not try to 
stop convulsive movement. It will do no good. 

3. No stimulant is needed. 

(a) Sunstroke — Sunstroke is caused by too long ex- 
posure to excessive heat, or to the direct rays of the 
sun, and is much more serious than heat exhaustion, 
which you have already studied. 

Prevention — Do not stay out in the direct sunlight too 
long on a hot summer day. Wear a large hat which 
shades the head and face well, if obliged to be in the 
hot sun for any length of time. Do not wear too heavy 
clothing in the hot weather. Leaves or a wet sponge 
in the top of the hat will help to prevent sunstroke. 


Drink plenty of cool water between meals. 

Symptoms of Sunstroke — 1. The patient is uncon- 

2. The face is red. 

3. The pupils large. 

4. The skin very hot and dry, with no perspiration. 

5. The pulse is full and slow. 

6. The breathing is sighing. 

Treatment — 1. Get the patient into the shade where 
it is as cool as possible. 

2. Send for the doctor. 

3. Remove the greater part of the clothing. 

4. Apply cold water or ice to the head, face, chest 
and armpits. 

Often the patient recovers consciousness before the 
doctor arrives ; give cold water to drink ; never stimulants. 

(b) Freezing — This is a much more serious condition 
than frostbite, which you have studied, but only because 
more of the body is frozen and the tissues are frozen 
deeper. Much more care must therefore be taken to pre- 
vent bad effects after the thawing-out process. 

Symptoms of Freezing — 1. The patient may or may 
not be unconscious. 

2. The frozen parts are an intense white and are 
without any feeling or motion. 

Treatment — Send for the doctor at once. 

1. Take the patient into a cold room. 

2. Remove the clothing. 

3. Rub the body with rough cloths wet in cold water. 

4. Very gradually increase the warmth of the water 
used for rubbing. 

5. Increase the temperature of the room gradually. 

6. When the patient can swallow, give him stimulants. 

7. When the skin becomes more normal in color and 
the tissues are soft, showing that the blood is once more 


circulating properly through the frozen flesh, cover the 
patient warmly with hot bottles or bricks outside of the 
bed clothing, or wraps, and give hot drinks. In using 
hot water be sure it is not too hot. 
Dog Bite* 

In the case of the dog bite we have a more or less 
extensive break in the skin and sometimes a deep wound in 
the flesh, through which the poison of hydrophobia, which 
is a living virus or animal poison, may be introduced, to be 
taken up slowly by the nerves themselves, reaching the 
central nervous system in about forty days. The slowness 
and method of this absorption renders the use of a liga- 
ture useless and unsafe. The treatment for dog bite is 
therefore as follows : 

Immediate. Send for a physician, telling him the reason. 
While waiting, treat as any similar wound from any 
cause. If the skin is not penetrated, but scratched only, 
apply iodine and a sterile or wet dressing. If the skin 
is penetrated, the treatment should be the same as for a 
wound made by a dirty nail : that is, a small stick, such 
as a match, whittled to a point, with a little cotton twisted 
on the point, should be dipped into tincture of iodine, 
and twisted down into the full depth of the wound, and 
then done a second time. 

Subsequent. A physician should be consulted immedi- 
ately, and if there is any suspicion of the dog being sick 
it should be kept under observation. The body of a dog 
that has been killed under suspicion of rabies or hydro- 
phobia, should be sent as soon as possible to the proper 

One of the greatest discoveries in medical science is 
the Pasteur treatment for the prevention of hydrophobia 
after mad dog bite, and fortunately, provision for this 
treatment is so widespread that practically every one in 
civilized regions needing it, can have it, as is well known 

* Courtesy of William C. Deming, M.D. 


to all physicians. The fact that the period of development 
of the disease is so long makes the possibility of preven- 
tion greater. 

It is never proper to suck a dog bite, because the merest 
scratch or break in the surface, even if too small to notice, 
will serve as a portal of entry for the living virus of 

Snake Bite. For treatment of snake bite see page 297. 

When it is possible, Girl Scouts should learn to swim 
well. It is fear when suddenly thrown into the water 
that causes so many of the deaths by drowning, and learn- 
ing to swim well takes away this fear. A Girl Scout 
should also learn how to prevent accidents, and how 
best to help the victims of accidents in the water. 

Below are five rules for preventing drowning accidents. 

1. Do not change seats in a canoe or rowboat. 

2. Do not rock the boat. 

3. Do not go out alone in a canoe, rowboat or sailboat 
unless you are thoroughly competent to manage such a 
boat, even in a sudden squall or storm. 

4. Very cold water exhausts a swimmer much quicker 
than warm water, therefore do not take any chances on 
a long swim in cold water unless a boat accompanies you 
to pick you up in case of necessity. 

5. Be careful not to go too far out when there is a 
strong undertow ; that is, a strong current below the 
surface of the water flowing relentlessly out to sea. 

6. Always wade upstream. 


When a person gives up the struggle in the water, the 

body goes down, and then because of its bouyancy it 

comes to the surface and some air is expelled from the 

lungs, making the body less bouyant. It immediately 


sci)i;ting for giri.s 



sinks again, this time a little lower, and again comes 
to the surface, and more air is expelled. This process 
may be repeated several times, until sufficient water is 
taken into the stomach and lungs to overcome the buoy- 
ance of the body and it no longer appears at the surface; 
but the buoyancy is barely overcome, and therefore the 
body will float easily. This can easily be utilized in 
saving the drowning person by making the water carry 
most of the weight of the body. 

To do this, place the hands on either side of the drown- 
ing person's head, and tow him floating on his back 
with the face above the surface of the water, while you 
swim on your back and keep the body away from you. 
Remember, if possible, to go with the current and thus 
save necessary strength. In some cases it may be easier 
and safer to grasp the drowning person by the hair 
instead of trying to clasp the head. 

Grips — A drowning person is always a frightened per- 
son, and is governed by a mad instinct to grab anything 
which subconsciously he thinks may save his life. Usu- 
ally he is past any reasoning. He grabs his would-be 
rescuer with a death grip that is hard to break, but re- 
member he instinctively grabs what is above the sur- 
face and will not try to grab below the shoulders. 

Wrist Grip — If the drowning person grasps the res- 
cuer's wrists, the rescuer throws both hands above his 
head, which forces both low in the water, and then turns 
the leverage of his arms against the other's thumbs and 
breaks the grip. 

Neck Grip — To release a grip around the neck and 
shoulders from the front, immediately cover the mouth 
of the other with the palm of the hand, holding the nose 
between the first two fingers, and at the same time pull 
the other body toward you with the other hand, mean- 


while treading water. Then take a full breath and apply 
your knee to the other's stomach quickly, thus forcing 
him to expel any air in his lungs and preventing him 
from getting more air by the hand on mouth and nostrils. 

If the grip of the drowning person does not allow 
use of the arms, then try to raise your arms to the 
level of the shoulder, thus slipping his arms to the neck 
and leaving your own arms free to use, as described. 

Back Grip — This strangle hold is perhaps the most 
difficult to break, and it is necessary to break it instantly 
if the rescuer is not also to be in the rescued class. 

Grasp the wrists of the other and push sharply back with 
the buttocks against the abdomen of the other, and thus 
make room to slip suddenly out of the encircling arms. 

If this is not successful, do not despair, but throw 
the head suddenly against the nose of the drowning 
person and then slip out of the grip before he recovers 
from his daze. 

It is often necessary to dive from the surface in res- 
cuing a drowning person, and this requires practice, and 
should be learned thoroughly before the necessity for 
saving a life is presented. Remember that to dive from 
the surface to a depth of more than ten feet will usually 
require a weight in addition to the weight of the body. 
Carry a stone or other heavy object in diving. Then 
when wishing to rise to the surface, drop it and push 
against the bottom with the feet. This will send the 
swimmer to the surface in short order. 

In carrying a weight in the water, carry it low on the 
body, close to the waist line, leaving one hand and both 
feet free for swimming. Or if for any reason it is neces- 
sary to swim on the back, it leaves both feet free to use as 

Artificial Respiration 

If the apparently drowned person is to be saved, no 



time must be lost in the rescue from the water or in 
getting the water out of him, and breathing re-estabhshed 
after he is brought to land. 

If there is a messenger handy send for a doctor at 
once, but in the meantime lose no time in attempting 

The best method for getting the water out of the lungs 
and breathing re-established is the Schaefer Method, be- 
cause it is the simplest, requiring only one operator and 
no equipment. It can be kept up alone for a long 

1. Every moment is precious. Immediately lay the 
patient face downwards, with the arms extended above 
the head and the face to one side. h\ this position the 
water will run out and the tongue will fall forward by 
its own weight, and not give trouble by falling back and 
closing the entrance to the windpipe. Be sure there is 
nothing in the mouth, such as false teeth, gum, tobacco, 
etc. Do not put anything under the chest. Be sure there 
is no tight collar around the neck. 

2. Kneel astride of the patient facing toward his head. 


3. Place your hands on the small n{ the patient's back, 
with thumbs nearly touching and the hands on the spaces 
between the short ribs. 

4. Bend slightly forward with arnis rigid so that the 
weight of your body falls on the wrists, and makes a hrm 
steady pressure downward on the patient while you count 
one, two, three, thus forcing any waier and air out of 
the lungs. 

5. Then relax the pressure v^ery quickly, snatching 
the hand away, and counting one -two — the chest cavity 
enlarges and fresh air is drawn into the lungs. 

6. Continue the alternate pressing and relaxing about 
twelve to fifteen times a minute, which empties and fills 
the lungs with fresh air approximately as often as be 
would do it naturally. 

It may be necessary to work for an hour of two before 
a gasp shows the return of natural breathing. Even then 
the rescuer's work is not over, as it will be necessary 
to fill in any gaps with artificial breathing. When natura? 
breathing is established, aid circulation by rubbing and 
by wrapping him in hot blankets and putting hot bottles 
around him, being careful that they are protected to pre- 
vent burning the patient. 

If at any time it is necessary to pull the tongue for- 
ward and to hold it to prevent choking, remember to put 
a wedge between the teeth to prevent biting. Do not 
give anything liquid by mouth until the patient is con- 
scious and can swallow readily. Aromatic Spirits of 
Ammonia or Spirits of Camphor may be used on a hand- 
kerchief for the patient to smell. The patient should be 
watched carefully for an hour or two even after he is 
considered out of danger. 


Prevention: Below are two rules for preventing ice 
accidents : 


1, Do not skate or walk on thin ice. 

2. Watch for air holes. 

Rescue : In trying to rescue a person who has broken 
through the ice, always tie a rope around your own body 
and have this tied to some firm object on shore. Do 
not try to walk out to the rescue as the ice will probably 
break again under the weight of your body on so small 
an area as the size of your feet. Always get a long 
board, ladder, rail or limb of a tree, and either crawl 
out on this, which will distribute the weigiiL of your 
body over a larger surface of ice, or lie flat on your 
stomach and crawl out, pushing the board ahead of you 
so that the person in the water may reach it. If you 
yourself break through the ice in attempting a rescue, 
remember that trying to pull yourself up over the edge 
of the ice only breaks it more. If rescuers are near it is 
much wiser to support yourself on the edge of the ice 
and wait for rescue. 

After getting the person out of the water use artificial 
respiration if necessary and bend every effort to get the 
patient warm and breathing properly. 

Prevention: Below are seven rules for preventing 
asphyxiation : 

1. When coal stoves and furnaces are freshly filled 
with coal, coal gas may escape if the dampers are not 
properly regulated. See that all dampers in cvtal stoves 
and furnaces are correctly arranged before leading them 
for any long time, as for the night. 

2. Do not go to sleep in a house or roc-m with a gas 
jet or gas stove turned low. The pressure in the pipes 
may change and the flame go out, or a breeze may blow 
out the flame leaving the gas leaking into the room. 

3. Do not blow out a gas jet. 

4. Be careful to turn off gas jet completely. 


5. Report gas leaks promptly. 

6. Charcoal stoves and braziers are especially dangerous 
from escaping gas and should not be used in sleeping rooms. 

7. Do not go into unused wells or underground sew- 
ers without first lowering a lighted candle which will go 
out at once if the air is very impure, because of lack of 
oxygen to keep it burning. 

Rescue: 1. Remove the patient at once to the fresh 
air. Gas is lighter than air, and therefore will not be 
found close to the floor and it will often be possible to 
crawl out when one would be overcome by the gas if he 
tried to walk out. For this reason it is sometimes best 
in trying to rescue anyone already unconscious from gas 
to tie the wrists together with a handkerchief, put his 
arms around your neck, and crawl out on all fours, drag- 
ging the insensible body with you, under your own body. 
.If you attempt to walk out and carry the patient, cover 
your mouth and nose with a wet handkerchief, go very 
quickly, do not breath until you reach the fresh air. 

2. If there is a messenger handy, send for the doctor 
at once, but in the meantime if necessary, perform ar- 
tificial respiration as outlined under the Schaefer System 
in the preceding paragraphs, until the patient is restored 
to normal breathing. 


This is caused by some part of the body coming in 


contact with a live electric wire. The seriousness of the 
shock depends on how heavy a charge of electricity the 
wire is carrying at the time. 

The patient is usually unable to release himself from 
the wire. The first thing to be done, if possible, is to 
turn off the current by means of the switch, but if this 
cannot be done at once, the patient must be rescued by 
pulling him away from the wire. 

Remember his body will easily carry the charge to 
yours while he is against the wire. Therefore you must 
"insulate" yourself — that is, put on your hands some- 
thing that will not let the electricity into your body — or 
stand on something that will "insulate" you; for instance, 
rubber gloves or rubber tobacco pouches, dry silk hand- 
kerchiefs, other silk garments or newspapers used in 
place of gloves if necessary. Stand on a rubber mat or 
on dry boards, or glass, or in dire necessity dry clothes 
can be used to stand on. They must not be wet as then 
they will carry the electric current through your body 
and you must also l)e rescued instead of rescuing. 

Prevention: 1. Do not touch the "third rail" of elec- 
tric railways. 

2. Do not catch hold of swing wires, they may be 
"live wires." 

3. Report broken wires to the right authorities. 
Treatment : 

1. Get patient loose from the current. 

2. Send for the doctor. 

3. Lay the patient fiat on his back. 

4. Loosen the clothing, and perform artificial respira- 
tion according to Schaefer method if necessary. 

5. Give first aid treatment to the burns. 

The first thought about a fire is to get it put out before 
it spreads any further. There are methods which wil' 


do this work effectually and Girl Scouts should learn 
these methods beforehand thoroughly, in order that when 
the emergency arises they may act quickly, coolly and 

Fire in Clothing 

If this happens in your own clothing, do not run for 
help, as the draft made by the motion of your body will 
only fan the flames to burn fiercely. 

Grab the nearest thing that will cover you; overcoat, 
blanket, rug, wrap it tightly around you at the neck first 
to prevent flames from burning the face and lie down 
and roll over and over. This will smother the flames 
quickly. If you can get nothing to wrap around you, lie 
down and roll slowly over and beat the fire with your 
hands covered by some part of your clothing not on 

If the fire is in the clothing of another, wrap him in 
the nearest thing available, lay him on the floor and roll 
him over, smothering the flames as described before. 

Woolen material will not catch fire as easily as cotton, 
therefore, if you have a chance to choose, take woolen 
material for smothering the flames. 

Results of fire in the clothing are sure to be more 
or less serious burns. 

When you have discovered the extent of the burn, if 
it is at all serious, send for the doctor at once, and in the 
meantime treat the burn as you have already learned 
to do in minor burns. 

Fire in Buildings 

Keep cool, in order to. remember what to do, and do it 

Turn in a fire alarm at once. Send some one else if 
possible who may not know what to do to the fire. The 
quickest way is by telephone call, "Fire Department." 


and tell them the exact address of the building where 
the fire is. Or you may go to the nearest alarm box, 
smash the glass, open the door, and pull down the hook 
that sounds the alarm, (Generally the directions are 
printed on the box.) If you cannot sound the alarm 
alone, call upon the nearest person to help you. Wait 
there until the firemen arrive and direct them to the fire. 
When the firemen come do just as they tell you, for they 
know exactly what to do. 

People trying to escape from a burning building often 
get frightened and then there is a panic. Panic kills more 
people than fire. Keep cool, and others will follow your 

Never jump from a window unless the flames are 50 
close that it is your only means of escape. If outside a 
burning building put mattresses and bedding piled high 
to break the jumper's fall and get a strong hold on a rug 
to catch the jumper, and let many people hold the rug. 

If the fire is just beginning, it can easily be put out 
by smothering it with a rug or blanket; sand, ashes, salt, 
or a few pails of water will answer the same purpose. 

Keep the doors and windows closed if possible to pre- 
vent draughts from fanning the flames to fiercer effort. 

Remember this point when you go into a burning 
building,, and leave some responsible person guarding the 
door, in order that it may not be left open by some one 
in excitement and the flames fanned beyond control. 

If you need fresh air in your search for people in a 
burning building, open a window, put out your head and 
draw your lungs full of fresh air and then close the win- 
dow again. In any case it is best to tie a wet handker- 
chief or towel over the nose and mouth while in a burn- 
ing building, as this will prevent you from breathing a 
good deal of smoke. 

In searching for persons remember always to begin 


at the top of the building if possible, and search every 
room. . When on stairs keep to wall side, where air is 
relatively free from flames and smoke. If a room is 
locked, try to rouse the people by pounding and calling 
and then break in the door if unsuccessful in rousing 
them, and you suspect there is some one there. 

Remember, the air within six inches from the floor is 
usually free from smoke, and if the smoke makes breath- 
ing too difficult, you can still accomplish your end by 
crawling along the floor and dragging the rescued one 
with you as you learned to do in gas rescue. 

Form a bucket brigade from the fire to the nearest 
water supply; passing the filled pails from one to another 
rapidly, the last throwing the water on the fire and pass- 
ing the empty pails back along another line to be filled 
again and passed on as before. 

Fires from Kerosene, Gasoline, Benzine 

Prevention. — 1. Do not light a fire with kerosene. 

2. Do not clean gloves or clothing with gasoline or 
benzine in a room with a lamp or gas jet lighted. 

3. Do not try to dry clothing that has been cleaned 
with gasoline or benzine near a hot stove or lighted gas 

Extinction. — Do not use water to put out a fire of kero- 
sene, benzine, or gasoline, as that only scatters the flames. 
Smother with blankets, rugs, sand, ashes, salt, or any- 
thing which is at hand and can be used; remember that 
woolen will not catch fire as easily as cotton, 

Poisoning — Cases of poisoning happen most often be- 
cause people do not examine the bottles before taking 
medicines from them. 

Prevention — Disinfectants, liniments and medicines 


in bottles and boxes should be correctly and plainly 

Bottles containing a poisonous substance should be 
rough outside, or with notched corks or marked with 
something beside the label stating that their contents are 

Treatment — 1. Send for the doctor at once, telling 
him what kind of poison you think the patient has taken 
in order that he may bring the right antidote and the 
right implements to give the quickest and most effective 

2. Give demulcent or mucilaginous drinks, as for 
example, milk, raw egg, one or two tablespoonfuls of 
salad oil, sweet oil, or barley water — which can be 
obtained most readily. 

3. Give something to produce vomiting, provided the 
lips are not burned or stained as they are with an acid 
or alkali. A simple but effectual emetic can be made by 
mixing two teaspoonful of salt or a tablespoon of mus- 
tard in a glass of lukewarm water. This may be re- 
peated if necessary. 

4. If the patient seems drowsy, suspect opium and 
keep patient awake at all costs till the doctor arrives. 

5. If delirium threatens, dash cold water on the 
patient's head and face to try to prevent the fit from 
coming on. 

6. When the poison taken has been acid, the anti- 
dote should be an alkali, but different poisons require 
different antidotes, and it would be unwise to trust to 
one's memory as to the proper one to take in each case. 
It would be well to have a list of the more common 
poisons and their antidotes attached to the First Aid Kit, 
but do not trust to the memory. If a Girl Scout does 
not know, and if the patient's lips are not stained or 
burned, gjive an emetic. 



Bandages form the most convenient way of keeping 
dressings on wounds and for making pressure when 
necessary. They are also used to correct some de- 
formities, but you will not need to concern yourselves 
with the latter, as this is in the province of doctors. 

There are three varieties of bandages which you will 
need to use and with which you should be familiar: the 
roller, triangular and four-tailed. The materials used 
for bandages are al^sorbent gauze, muslins or flannels. 
The kind you will use most will be gauze and muslin. 
The gauze is best to use in dressing wounds because 
it is pliable and absorbent, and muslin, if you may 
choose, in applying pressure, because it is firm. In an 
emergency there will usually be little chance to choose. 
Anything at hand, as underclothing, sheets, blankets, 
etc., may be torn into strips or triangles and used. Have 
the material which is used clean if possible. 

The width of the roller bandage depends on the part 
of the body to be bandaged, from one inch for the little 
finger to four inches for the body. They can be rolled 
very well by hand with a little practice, and every Girl 
Scout should learn to do this or to improvise a bandage 
roller by running a very stiff wire through a small 
W^ooden box and then bending one end on the outside 
of the box like a handle. 

A bandage must be rolled sufficiently tight so that 
the center will not fall out. By folding one end back 
and forth a few times to make a core, and then laying 
the bandaging over one's knees lengthwise of the thigh 
with the core uppermost, it can be rolled quite tightly 
and answer every purpose for emergencies. 

Learn to put on all bandages smoothly and securely, 
but not too tightly. 



Triangular Bandages — These bandages have advan- 
tages for first aid work. They can be quickly made, 
easily applied and are not apt to be put on too tightly 
even by a beginner. 

The size of the piece of cloth varies with the part 
to be bandaged. Take a square piece of cloth (it should 
not be less than 34 to 38 inches), fold it diagonally 
from corner to corner and cut across the fold, making 
two bandages. 

The bandage may be applied unfolded or folded into 
a narrow strip, called cravat bandage. 

To fold the cravat bandage, the point of the triangle 
is brought to the middle of the diagonal side and the 
bandage folded lengthwise to the desired width. 

The cravat bandage is convenient to use in bandaging 
the hand, foot, head, eyes, throat and jaw; for trying on 
splints; for tying around the limb in case of snake bite, 
and in making a tourniquet. 

Always tie the bandage with a square knot to prevent 
slipping. Care must be used in applying the triangular 



bandage to have it smooth and firm, folding the loose 
ends into pleats evenly. 

Bandage for Hand — For wound of the palm, lay 
cravat in straight line, place palm across it at the mid- 
dle. P'old ends over the back of hand, carry around 
wrist and tie. Reverse the order for injury to the 
back of the hand. 

To cover entire hand, unfold cravat, lay flat with 
point of triangle beyond the fingers. Fold the point 
of the bandage over the fingers, cross the ends, and 
pass around wrist and tie at the back. 

Bandage for Foot — Place foot on the smooth triangle 
with the point extending beyond the toes several inches. 
Fold the point back over the instep, cross the ends, 
carry around the ankle and tie. 

Bandage for the Head — The bandage may be used 
flat or as a cravat, according to the nature of the in- 
jury and the part to be bandaged. 

For a cap bandage, fold over the edge of the diagonal 
edge, place on the head with the folded edge just above 
the eyes ; pleat the edges hanging down over the ears 


into small folds so that the bandage lies smoothly; 
carry the ends around the head; cross at the back, and 
tie in a square knot in front. The cravat bandage may 
be used to hold on small dressings where the whole 
head does not need to be covered. 

For the eyes, jaw mid throat the triangular bandage 
is used by folding smoothly into a cravat and tying 
securely over the part to be covered. 

Arm Sling. — The triangular bandage makes the best 
arm sling to support the forearm or for supporting 
injuries to the elbow or shoulder. 

An arm sling is firmer and more satisfactory if the 
triangle is double; that is, simply fold over the square 
diagonally, but do not cut it along the fold. An arm 
sling will need to be about a yard square before folding. 

To adjust the arm sling, put one end over the shoul- 
der on the uninjured side; slip the point of the triangle 
under the injured arm, so that it will extend beyond 
the elbow a few inches; then take the end of the ban- 
dage over the arm, carry around the back of the neck 
on the injured side, meeting the other end; and tie 
securely. To prevent slipping, pin the point of the 
bandage around the arm just above the elbow. 

A temporary sling can be made by pinning the sleeve 
of the injured arm to the dress or coat in such a way 
as to support the arm. 

The Four-tailed Bandage — This bandage is useful for 
bandaging the head, and especially in fracture of the 
jaw. Use a piece of cloth about six or eight inches 
wide and a yard long. Cut each end into two equal 
parts, leaving about three or four inches in the middle 

When the bandage is applied, the split ends are 
crossed so that they may be tied over different parts 
of the head and thus hold the bandage more securely 




in place. For instance, in the jaw bandage the uncut 
middle part is placed over and under the chin, the ends 
crossed, and two ends tied at the back of the neck and 
two over the top of the head. 

Roller Bandages— Rolltv bandages are a little more 
difficult to put on so that they will stay on, and at the 
same time be smooth and have a uniform pressure on 
the part of the body bandaged. This last point is most 

Rules for applying roller bandages : 

1. Lay external surface of bandage against the part 
to be bandaged, holding the roll in the right hand, 
unless you are left-handed, unrolling it as a roll of 
carpet unrolls to show you a pattern in the shops. 

2. Hold the loose end with the left hand and catch 
it with two or three turns of the bandage before be- 
ginning to put on the bandage. Never have more than 
four or five inches of the bandage unrolled at once. 

3. Be careful to have the same pressure from every 
turn of the bandage. This is most important if the 
bandage is to stay on and be comfortable and not inter- 
fere with the circulation of the blood. Judgment of 
the pressure is only acquired by practice, and there- 
fore you should practise enough to acquire this before 
the real emergency happens, 

4. Do not bandage too tightly. Blueness of the skin 
above or below the bandage always means the bandage 
must be loosened. Remember in applying a bandage 
immediately after an injury that considerable swelling 
may occur later, and apply your bandage more loosely 
than if bandaging after the swelling has gone down. 
Always loosen a bandage that is tight enough to cause 
pain or blueness. 

5. Bandage from below upward. That is, from the 
tip of a finger or toe toward the hand or foot. From 


the hand or foot toward the shoulder or groin. This 
is in the general direction of the return of the circulation. 

6. Bandage over a splint and not under it. 

7. Bandage arms, legs, fingers, etc., in the position 
the patient is to keep the part in when the bandaging 
is completed. For instance, bend the elbow to a right 
angle before putting on the arm bandage. This will 
be more comfortable for the patient, allowing him to 
carry the arm easily in a sling and also permit him to 
use the hand to some extent if the nature of the injury 
will permit. In bandaging a leg both above and below 
the knee, the bandage must be put on with a view to 
to the necessary bending of the knee in walking and 
sitting, if the patient is expected to use the leg. 

8. Never apply a wet bandage, as you cannot judge 
of just how much pressure will be exerted when the 
bandage dries, because of the shrinkage of cloth with 
drying; much greater in some cloth than in others. 

Kinds of roller bandages : 

1. Circular for parts uniform in size, as the body. 

2. Spiral for conical surfaces, as fingers or toes. 

3. Reverse for more conical surfaces, as arms and 

Circular Bandages — Any part of the body which is 
of uniform size may be covered with a circular bandage. 
Each turn covers about two-thirds of the previous turn. 
This holds each turn firmly and prevents slipping and 
exposing the dressing or wound underneath. Bandage 
in general direction of the return of the blood to the 
heart. Fasten the bandage with a strip of adhesive 
plaster or safety pin. If there is possibility of restless- 
ness or much activity on the part of the patient, it is 
best to run several narrow strips of adhesive plaster 
along the whole width of the bandage when finished to 
prevent possible slipping of the turns of the bandage 


when the muscles move under it with the activity of 
the patient. This is especially true of a hody bandage. 

Spiral Bandage — A conical part, if not too conical, 
may be covered with a spiral bandage. Each turn 
ascends at a slight angle, with one edge of the bandage 
a little tighter than the other. In putting on this kind 
of bandage it is necessary to learn to have the tight 
edges all of a uniform pressure and each turn overlap 
the turn below in such a way that these tight edges 
make the uniform pressure without regard to the upper 
edge underneath, which is covered in each turn by the 
tighter edge of the turn above it. 

Reverse Bandages — The reverse bandage is a modi- 
fication of the spiral one, in order to cover the gapping 
between spirals which occurs when the surface is very 
conical, as, for instance, on the leg. 

In putting on this bandage the loose end is caught 
by two or three turns first as in other bandages. Then 
start to make a spiral turn, but at the mid point of the 
front of the part being bandaged place the thumb of 
the left hand, and fold the bandage down so that it 
lies smoothly and continue the turn around to that same 
point. Repeat the process with each turn. (See illus- 
tration.) Each turn covers two-thirds of the one below 
in order to hold firmly. The pressure must be uniform 
when the bandage is finished. Fasten the ends as de- 
scribed under circular bandages, or divide the end of 
the bandage into two parts for, several inches — long 
enough to wind around the part bandaged. Tie a single 
knot at the base to prevent further dividing, and wrap 
the ends around the part in different directions ; tie in a 
hard knot to hold firmly. 

Bandaging Fingers and Toes — In bandaging fingers 
and toes it is usually best to bandage the whole of the 
injured member. Cover the end of the finger, for in- 



stance, by passing the end of the half inch or one inch 
bandage several times the whole length of the finger, 
over the end and to the base of the other side. Hold 
this in place with one hand, start the spiral at the end 
of the finger, and bandage smoothly toward the hand. 
The spiral or the reverse spiral may be used. 

Bandaging Two or More Fingers or Toes — It is some- 
times necessary to bandage two or more fingers, for 
instance, at once, as in case of a burn, where it is neces- 
sary always to have the burned fingers separated while 
healing to prevent the raw places from growing to- 

Pass a finger bandage twice around the wrist and 
pass obliquely to the base of the thumb. Carry to the 
end of the thumb and bandage as described above. 
When the thumb is bandaged, carry the bandage back 
to the wrist; pass around the wrist in one or two cir- 
cular turns, and carry the bandage to tlie first finger 



and bandage as before. Repeat this until all the fingers 
are bandaged. Carry the bandage back to the wrist, 
after the last finger you wish to bandage is done; make 
one or two turns around the wrist and fasten. 

In bandaging the foot, carry the bandage to the ankle 
to make secure and hold in place. 

Bandaging Arms and Legs — The reverse spiral is 
usually best for bandaging these, because of the conical 
shape. Practice alone can teach you to put this on 
smoothly, firmly, not too tightly, and at the same time 
quickly. A reverse bandage will not stay in place on 
the leg of the person walking around unless pinned in 


many places or stuck by sizing in the cloth (which has 
been wet), plaster, etc. Only a figure eight caught 
over, the top of the calf, in each alternate loop, will do so. 

The figure Eight Bandage — The figure eight is a 
modification of the spiral used in Ijandaging over joints 
in such a way as to permit some motion and at the 
same time keep the bandage firm and in place. 

The bandage is carried first below and then above 
the joint; then below and then above, the turns over- 
lapping the usual two-thirds of the width of the bandage, 
leaving the joint free until the last. Then it may be 
covered with two or three circular turns of the bandage. 
This admits of considerable motion without disturbing 
the bandage to any extent. 

The National Red Cross and Girl Scout Instruction 
in First Aid 

By special arrangement with the National Red Cross, 
it is possible for a Girl Scout completing satisfactorily 


the requirements for the First Aid Proficiency Badge 
to secure with sHght additional work the Red Cross cer- 
tificate in First Aid. Or the course may be taken en- 
tirely under Red Cross auspices, though arranged by 
Scout officials, in which case the Scout may receive both 
the Proficiency Badge and the Red Cross certificate. The 
conditions of this co-operation between the Girl Scouts 
and the National Red Cross are as follows : 

Classes are to be organized with not less than four or 
more than twenty-five in a class. The best size is ten to 
fifteen. Scouts must be at least sixteen years of age to 
be admitted to these classes. 

The instructor must be a physician appointed by the 
Chairman of the First Aid Committee of the local 
chapter of the Red Cross. He or she may be supplied 
upon request by the Chapter, or chosen by the class and 
the name submitted to the Chapter for appointment. 

The Red Cross class roll must be sent in to the local 
Chapter early in the course. 

A Secretary to handle the records should be chosen, 
and where the class is made up of Scouts, the officials 
should be preferably a Scout Captain or Scout Official. 

The examiner must be a physician appointed by the 
local Red Cross chapter and is preferably some one other 
than the instructor, but this is not necessary. Like the 
instructor, the examiner may be supplied by the Chapter 
or chosen by the class. 

The Red Cross examination roll, which may be ob- 
tained from the Chapter, should be used in giving exam- 
inations and then returned to the Chapter, who will issue 
the certificates. Follow the directions on the roll care- 

If a Scout holds a First Aide Proficiency Badge she 
may complete the course in seven and one-half hours. 
If she does not hold a Proficiency Badge in First Aid 


then fifteen hours will be required. A Girl Scout hold- 
ing a Proficiency Badge in First Aid and taking a school 
course held under Red Cross auspices which she passes 
with a mark of at least seventy-five per cent, can, when 
the school principal certifies to this, get the Red Cross 
certificate without further examination by applying to 
the local Red Cross Chapter. 

Advanced Courses 

Advanced courses are open to those who have the 
Red Cross certificate. There must be an interval of at 
least six months after the elementary course before an 
advanced course can be taken, and the same interval be- 
tween repetitions of it. The course of instruction is 
seven and one-half hours, mainly practical demonstra- 
tions. A Red Cross medal is given on completion of 
this course. Each time it is repeated, up to three times, 
a bar (engraved with year) is given to be added to the 


A fee of fifty cents is required for the elementary 
course. The local Red Cross Chapter has the right to 
reduce this fee. 

The fee for the advanced course is one dollar, which 
covers the cost of certificate, examination and medal. 
The fee for bar and engraving is fifty cents. These fees 
cannot be reduced. 

These fees cover the cost to the Red Cross of postage, 
certificates, medals, bars, and so forth, but do not cover 
that of instructor, examiner, or classroom supplies, which 
the Red Cross requires the cLss to take care of. 

Where there is no local Girl Scout organization refer 
to the local Red Cross Chapter; or if there is none, either 
to the Girl Scout National Headquarters, 189 Lexington 


Avenue, New York, N. Y., or to the Department of 
First Aid, American Red Cross National Headquarters, 
Washington, D. C. 


The Girl Scout who has earned the Home Nurse 
Badge may be of great help where there is illness. But, 
she should remember that only such people as doctors 
and trained nurses who have knowledge and skill gained 
by special training and thorough practice are fitted to 
care properly for those who are very ill. 

If the Scout with the badge keeps her head and shows 
herself steady, reliable and willing, when called upon 
for help in illness or emergencies, she proves herself a 
true Scout who is living up to the Scout motto of "BE 

To earn the badge she should know : 

How to keep the sick room clean and comfortable. 

How to make a bed properly. 

How to prepare for and help a sick person in taking 
a bath. 

How to make a sick person comfortable in bed, chang- 
ing position, etc. 

How to take temperature, pulse and respiration. 

How to prepare and serve simple, nourishing food for 
the sick. 

How to feed a helpless person. 

How to prepare and use simple remedies for slight ail- 

How to occupy and amuse the sick. 

When helping about the sick, the Scout should wear a 
wash dress or an apron which covers her dress. She 
should be very neat and clean. She should wash her 


hands frequently, always before her own meals, and 
after coming into contact with the sick person and after 
handling utensils, dishes, linen, etc., used in the sick 
room. Great cleanliness is necessary not only for her 
own protection but to prevent illness spreading. 

She should move quickly and quietly, but without 
bustle or hurry, taking care not to let things fall, not to 
bump against the furniture, not to jar the bed, not to 
slam doors, in fact not to make any unnecessary noises, 
as sick people are not only disturbed but may be made 
worse by noises and confusion. If a door is squeaky the 
hinges should be oiled. Too much talking, loud talking 
and whispering are to be avoided. Only cheerful and 
pleasant subjects should be talked of, never illnesses 
either that of the patient nor of others. 

The best nursing aims not only to bring relief and com- 
fort to those already sick, but to guard against spreading 

We know, now, that many diseases are spread by 
means of germs which are carried from person to person 
by various means, such as air, water, milk, and other 
food ; discharges from the mouth, nose, bowels, bladder, 
wounds ; clothing ; the hands ; the breath, and so forth. 

It has been found that great heat, intense cold, sun- 
shine and some powerful drugs called disinfectants kill 
germs. Germs thrive and multiply in dirt, dampness and 
darkness. That is why it is important to have fresh 
air, sunshine and cleanliness in order to keep well, and 
to help in curing those who get sick. 

The Room, Its Order and Arrangement 

The hangings and furniture of a sick room should be 
of a kind that can be washed and easily kept clean. Plain 
wooden furniture is better than upholstered furniture 
which collects and holds the dust. If there is a rocking 


chair it should be for the use of the sick person only. 
Seeing and hearing other people rock may be very dis- 

If carpets are movable, so much the better, as they can 
be taken out to be cleaned. 

The room should be bright and attractive. Sick people 
like flowers and pretty things, but the flowers should not 
have a strong perfume, and there should not be too 
many ornaments around to collect dust and to take up 
too much room. Flowers should be taken out of the 
room every night and the water changed before returned 
to the room in the morning. Never have faded flowers 

The room should be kept neat — a place for everything 
and everything in its place. 

Neatness and attractiveness are not only pleasing to 
the sick person and those who come into the room but 
may really make the sick person feel better. 

Medicines should not be kept in sight. All dishes and 
utensils not in use should be taken away and should be 
washed immediately after use. 

Ventilating and Lighting the Rootn 

The room of a sick person should be so situated that 
it will get plenty of sunlight and be easily aired. A room 
that has two or more windows can be better ventilated 
than a room with only one. When there is only one win- 
dow, it should be opened both top and bottom. If there 
is not a screen, one can be made by hanging a shawl or 
a blanket over a clothes horse or a high-backed chair, or 
over a line stretched across the lower part of the window. 
A fire place or a stove keeps the air circulating — the air 
being constantly drawn up the chimney — and so helps in 
ventilating a room. 

When "airing" the room great care must be taken to 
keep the sick person free from draughts. 


Unless special orders have been given to the contrary 
there should be plenty of sunshine let in. The eyes of 
the sick person should be protected from the glare by a 

If possible there should be a thermometer in the room. 
The proper heat is between 65 and 70 degrees. If the 
temperature of the room is as high as 70 degrees and the 
sick person is cold, it is better to give her a hot water bag 
and to put on more covers than to shut the windows, thus 
keeping out the fresh air. Cool air acts as a tonic for 
the sick. 

Cleaning the Room 

The carpet should be gone over every day to remove 
the surface dust. Use the carpets sweeper, being care- 
ful not to knock the furniture nor to jar the bed. Raise 
as little dust and make as little noise as possible. Torn- 
up wet paper scattered on a small part of the carpet at 
3 time and lightly brushed up into a dustpan with a whisk 
broom, or a broom, cleans the carpet very well without 
raising dust. 

If the carpet cannot be taken out to be swept or beaten 
but requires thorough sweeping, an umbrella with a sheet 
over it may be hoisted over the head of the sick person 
to keep the dust from her nose and nostrils. The bare 
parts of the floor should be gone over with a damp duster 
or a damp mop. 

The dusting should be done with a damp or oiled duster 
also, so that the dust may not be scattered. A basin of 
soapy water should be at hand and the duster washed in 
it frequently while dusting, so that the dust collected on 
it from one surface will not be carried to another. While 
dusting special attention should be paid to the door- 
knobs and that part of the door around them. 

When the dusting is finished the dusters should be 



thoroughly washed and scalded and hung out of doors 
to dry. 

The Bed 

A metal bedstead is better than a wooden one, as wood 
holds odors and moisture, and is apt to have more cracks 
and crevices for germs or bugs to lodge in. It should be 
white, for then it shows when it needs cleaning and bed 
bugs keep away from white surfaces which show them 
up easily. 

If possible, have the bed in a part of the room, where 
the drafts will not strike the patient every time a door 
or window is opened, and where the light does not shine 
in the eyes. If it can be placed so that the patient can 
see from the window so much the better. 
To Make an Unoccupied Bed 

Remove pillows and bedclothes, one at a time, being 
careful not to let corners drag on the floor, and put to 
air. Turn the mattress over from end to end one day, 
and from side to side next day. If the patient does not 
have to return to bed at once leave to air for at least half 
an hour. 

An old blanket, old spread or a quilted pad, spread over 
the mattress not only protects the mattress but prevents 
the sheets from wearing out, and may make the bed more 
comfortable. These should be kept clean. 

The bed for a sick person is frequently made with a 
rubber sheet and a draw sheet. The draw sheet is so 
called because its proper use is to be drawn through under 
the patient without greatly disturbing her and give her 
a cool fresh place to lie on. Therefore it should be long 
enough to tuck in sufficiently under one side to allow 
of this being done. An ordinary sheet folded in two 
from top to bottom and placed with folded edge toward 
the head of the bed may be used. It should entirely 



cover the rubber sheet, which is usually put on between 
the bottom and the draw sheet. 

When the mattress is sufficiently aired, put on the pro- 
tective covering. Over this spread the lower sheet so 
that the middle fold of the sheet lies up and down the 
centre of the mattress from head to foot. Keep per- 
fectly straight. The sheet should be long enough to 
have at least fourteen inches over at ends and sides to 
tuck in. Tuck ends under mattress at head and foot 
drawing tightly so that it will be smooth and firm. Now 
tuck under at one side, folding neatly at corners, so that 
they will be mitred when finished. If there is no rubber 
nor draw sheet to put on, go to the other side of the bed 
and tuck in firmly at corners. Then, pulling the middle of 
the sheet very tightly with one hand, push the mattress 


with the other and tuck the sheet under. This under 
sheet should be very smooth without a wrinkle in it. If 
it is not long enough to tuck in well at both head and 
foot, leave plenty at the head to tuck in securely and 
tuck in at the sides tightly rather than risk having it 
come loose at the head. Be sure, however, that the mat- 
tress is entirely covered. 

When Rubber and Draw Sheets Are Used 

Before going around to the other side, lay the rubber 
sheet over the becj, so that the top edge will be well above 
where the lower edge of the pillow will come. Put the 
draw sheet over it. Tuck both well under the mattress on 
that side. Then, go to the other side and tuck in the 
corners of the lower sheet as directed, then stretching 
draw, rubber, and under sheet very tightly, tuck in 

Next spread the upper sheet, wrong side up, leaving as 
much at the head to turn back over the blankets as you 
left in the under sheet to tuck in. Have the middle fold 
over that of the lower sheet. Spread the blankets so 
that their upper edges will be even with the upper edge 
of the mattress. If the blankets are not long enough to 
reach as far up as they should, and yet tuck under firmly 
at the foot, place the lower one as directed, and the upper 
one so that there will be enough to tuck under at the foot, 
and hold the others in place. Tuck all in at once the foot 
and lower corners, mitring the corners as you did those 
of the lower sheet. Pull and straighten the sheet at the 
top and turn back smoothly over the blankets. If the bed 
is not to be occupied right away, tuck in both sides, 
stretching well so that it will have a smooth surface. Put 
on the spread, having the top edge even with the top of 
the covers. Tuck in neatly at foot and lower corners. 


letting the sides hang. Shake and beat the pillows thor- 
oughly, make smooth and even, and put in place. 
To Change the Under Sheet When the Patient Is 
in Bed 

Loosen the bedclothes, without jarring the bed. Take 
off covers one at a time, until only one blanket and sheet 
remain. (If the patient feels cold, leave as many blankets 
as necessary to keep her warm.) Holding blankets with 
one hand or having patient hold it by the top, draw off 
the upper sheet, being careful not to uncover the patient. 
Remove the pillows. Have the patient as near the 
side of the bed as is safe, on her side, and facing the 
side on which she is lying. Roll the under sheets on the 
side of the bed close to the patient's back, making them 
as flat as possible. Pleat al)out half of the fresh under 
sheet lengthwise, and place close to the soiled sheets. 
Tuck in the other half, at the head, foot and side, draw 
the rubber sheet back over this fresh sheet, arrange the 
fresh draw sheet in place, tuck both in at that side and 
roll the free part close up to the patient's back. Now 
lift the patient's feet over the roll of fresh and soiled 
linen to the freshly made part, then have her roll her body 
over that side. Going to the other side of the bed, re- 
move all the soiled linen and tuck the fresh sheets in, 
pulling tightly, being sure that there are no wrinkles under 
the patient. All the time keep the patient well covered. 
Now, spread the upper sheet and blankets over the cover- 
ing the patient has had on while the lower sheets were 
being changed and, having the patient hold the coverings 
you have just put on, draw off the others, just as you 
took oft' the top sheet at first. Finish making the bed 
as you would an unoccupied one. 

If the Bed Is to Be Occupied at Once 

If the bed is to be occupied at once the coverings should 


be tucked in only at foot, corners and one side, then 
turned back diagonally from the head to foot. 

The bed clothes should never be drawn too tightly over 
a person in bed, or they may irritate the skin, especially 
at the knees and toes. Bed sores may be started in this 
way. Perhaps the commonest cause of bedsores is from 
wrinkles in the under sheets. If the spread is heavy it 
should not be used over a patient. Use a sheet instead to 
protect the blankets. 


Bathing is more important for the sick than for the 
well. It not only keeps the skin clean and in condition 
to do its work, but it is soothing to the nerves, makes 
the sick person rest better and is refreshing. 

If the room is the right temperature and the bath is 
carefully taken there is no danger of a sick person taking 
cold. On the other hand bathing helps to keep people in 
condition to avoid taking colds. (See Red Cross Text 
Book on Home Hygiene and Care of the Sick, page 156.) 

When a patient is very sick or helpless, the bath should 
be given by someone who is able to do it deftly and quick- 
ly, with the least exertion to the patient. 

Very often, however, a person in bed is quite able to 
bathe herself, with a little help, if the necessary things 
are brought to her. 

To Prepare For a Bath in Bed 

Have the room warm and free from draught^s. A good 
temperature is 70 degrees. An old person or a bab/ may 
have it warmer. 

Bring into the room everything needed. This will in- 
clude : 

An extra blanket to wrap around the sick person. 

Two or more bath towels. 


Two wash cloths — one for the face and another for the 
rest of the body. 

Soap — Ivory or castile are good. 

Pitcher of good hot water, and slop jar. 

Alcohol and toilet powder if you have it. 

Nail file and scissors. 

Comb and brush. 

Clean bed linen and nightgown. In cold weather these 
may be hung near the fire or radiator to warm. 

A basin of water of a temperature that the sick person 
finds comfortable. 

When everything is ready the Scout can help by loosen- 
ing the bedclothes, arranging the extra blanket, removing 
the nightgown, and in holding the basin and towels, in 
changing the water or in any way that will make the bath 
easier for the sick person, perhaps washing the feet 
and back, being careful to keep all the rest of the body 
covered and warm, and in protecting the bed by bath' 
towels spread under the part being washed. When doing 
this the wash cloth should not be so wet that it will drip 
and wet the bed. It should be held so that the corners do 
not touch against the bedclothes. There should not be 
too much soap used as it makes the skin feel sticky. 
Every part should be rinsed and dried thoroughly. Warm 
towels are a great help in this. 

When the bath is finished alcohol or witch hazel may 
be used to rub the parts where there is most pressure 
as the back, shoulder blades, hips, buttocks, elbows, knees 
and ankles. This not only gives comfort but it prevents 

If a sick person gets a bath, so that it does not disturb 
nor tire her nor make her chilly she will usually enjoy it. 
By getting everything ready, by helping where needed, 
and by clearing up nicely the Girl Scout may make the 
bath a pleasure instead of something to be dreaded. 


Sometimes sick people are able to go to the bath room 
to take their own baths, if everything is gotten ready for 
them beforehand, so that they will not get tired doing so. 
People who are not well should never be allowed to lock 
themselves in the bathroom alone. 

Getting Ready a Tub Bath 

The bathroom should be well aired but warm. The 
water in the bath tub helps to warm it up. A bath towel 
or bath mat should be spread beside the tub on the floor 
and a chair with a blanket and a bath towel on it for 
the person to sit on while she is drying herself. The 
water should be about 105 degrees or a temperature that 
the person finds comfortable. Always let a patient try it 
herself with her hand and arm before getting in. Five 
to ten minutes is long enough to stay in the water. The 
towels should be within easy reach and the bathrobe, 
night gown and slippers placed ready to put on. 

The bed should be put to air and left as long as possi- 
ble, but if the patient has to get back in it immediately 
after her bath, it should be made— care being taken that 
it is warm enough. If necessary put in hot water bags 
and spread a blanket over the under sheet to wrap around 
her if she needs it. People chill easily after a bath if 
they are exposed to sudden cold. 

Foot Baths 

Foot baths are often used in the home as remedies 
for colds, headaches, sleeplessness and to give relief at 
the monthly period. 

If there is not a regular foot tub a pail that is large 
enough to put the foot in is better than a basin as it 
lets the water come up around the ankles. A person may 
sit in a chair or on the side of the bed. Have tub about 
half full of water and at first of a heat that feels com- 


fortable, putting more hot water in from time to time, 
until it is as hot as it can be stood. When adding hot 
water the feet should be away from the part of the tub 
where the water is poured in, and it should be added 
slowly to prevent possibility of burning. A person get- 
ting" a foot bath should be kept very warm. Wrap a 
blanket around the knees so that the legs will be pro- 
tected front and back. After fifteen or twenty minutes 
the feet should be removed from the water and dried 
without rubbing. They should be kept well covered for 
an hour or more. No one should go out immediately after 
a foot bath. 

If mustard is to be added, mix it first in a cup and mix 
it gradually so that it does not lump. Two tablespoonfuls 
of mustard to a foot bath is about enough. 

Changing of position, and supporting different parts of 
the body, give both rest and comfort to anyone in bed. 
This may be done by turning a patient and by the proper 
arrangement of pillows and other supports. 

To turn a patient toward you place one hand over her 
shoulder and the other hand over her hip and draw to- 
ward you. Bend her knees, go to the other side of the 
bed, put both hands under her hips and draw toward you. 
Place a pillow lengthwise at her back, from her shoulder 
to waist for support. 

A pillow, placed under or between the knees, often 
gives much relief and comfort. Small air pillows that 
can be placed under or against the small of the back 
relieve strain and rest the muscles. Anyone lying on 
her back will be rested by arranging pillows lengthwise 
at the sides to support arms. Rubber rings and air 
cushions are also used to relieve pressure and give sup- 
port. They should always be covered, using towel or 
pillow case, if they have not their own fitted covers. 

Rings of any size may be made of cotton wound with 



bandage. These are frequently needed under the heels, 
particularly for a patient lying on her back. 
Sitting Up in Bed 

When a patient is allowed to sit up in bed and a bed- 
rest is not available a straight chair placed bottom-up be- 
hind the patient makes a good support for the pillows. 
If there is no other support, at least six pillows are 
needed to make a patient comfortable. The pillows 
should be so arranged that the head is not thrown for- 
ward and that there is proper support for the back, and 
the arms. 
Raising a Patient Who Has Slipped Down in Bed 

Have the patient draw up the knees until the soles of 
the feet are firmly on the bed. Place your right arm un- 
der the far shoulder in such a way that the patient's head 
rests in your bent elbow. Place the left arm under the 
thighs. Hold your back stiff. Have the patient clasp her 


hands around your waist. Lift without jerking. When 
two persons are doing the Hfting, one should stand on 
either side of the bed. The person on the left side of the 
bed should place the right arm as though she were doing 
the lifting alone. Place the other arm under the small 
of the patient's back. 

The person on the right side will place her left arm 
beside her companion's, and her right arm under the 
thighs. If able, the patient may place a hand on the 
shoulder of each lifter. 

Lift in unison without jerking. 

A pillow rolled in a sheet, placed under the body and 
tied to the head or sides of the bed will prevent slipping 
down in bed. 

It is usually better to shake up and rearrange the 
pillows after raising the patient as the moving disar- 
ranges them somewhat. 

To Change the Pillows 

Slip the right arm under the shoulders in such a way 
that the neck and head are supported in your bent elbow ; 
with the left hand gently draw out one pillow at a time, 
from above. In replacing, stand the pillows on the side 
at the head of the bed, lift the shoulders, and grasping the 
pillow by the middle draw down under the patient's 

Another way is to have the patient near one side of 
the bed and lifting in the same way draw the pillows one 
at a time away from you. In replacing put the fresh pil- 
lows on the far side and again lifting the head pull them 
toward you. 

The pillow should support the neck and shoulders. A 
small down or hair pillow placed under the back of thp 
neck from time to time, rests and supports. 


To Change the Nightgown 

The nightgown should be loose enough to change easily. 
If there is an opening in the front, this may be made 
larger or the gown may be split up the back. 

These openings may be sewn up again without in any 
way damaging the gown. 

Have the gown well drawn up around the shoulders 
and neck. 

Slip one hand through the arm hole of the gown, and 
bend the patient's arm. With the other hand draw off 
the sleeve. 

Draw the hand through the corresponding sleeve of 
the fresh gown and lifting the head just as for changing 
the pillow, slip the soiled and fresh gown over the head 
at the same time. Pull away the soiled gown. Put your 
hand through the sleeve and draw the patient's hand 
through, then raising again draw the gown down under 
the back and hips. 

Combing the Hair 

The hair should be combed at least once a day. If 
this is done from the very beginning of an illness it will 
not get badly tangled. 

Spread a towel over the pillow. Have the patient turn 
head on one side so that the back of the head is exposed. 
Part the hair in the middle from the forehead to the 
nape of the neck. Comb only a small strand at a time. 
If there are tangles, comb from ends toward the scalp 
Avoid pulling by twisting the strand around the finger 
and holding loosely between the comb and the scalp. 
When the hair on one side has been combed, braid it, 
having the top of the braid near the ear. Do the other 
side the same way. If very much tangled a little oil or 
alcohol rubbed in makes it easier to comb. 

Wash the comb and brush in soap and water once 3 


Wash the hands after combing the hair. 
Be careful in removing the towel not to scatter the 
loose hairs and dandruff it may hold. 

Getting Patient Up in Chair 

If possible have a chair with arms. 

Place beside the bed. 

Put cushions on seat and fresh pillow at back. 

Throw a blanket over all corner-wise, to wrap around 
the patient when she sits down. 

While in bed put on stockings, slippers, bath robe (and 
under-drawers or flannel petticoat in winter). 

Have the patient sit up in bed, and help her to swing 
her feet over the edge. 

Stand in front of her, and have her place her hands on 
your shoulders. Place your hands under her arm pits, 
and let her slip off the bed with her feet firmly on the 
floor. Turn and let her sit down slowly. 

Place a stool for her feet. 

Place the chair so that she will be out of drafts and 
so that the light does not shine directly into her face. 

When patients become restless and nervous they may 
often be made more comfortable by rearranging the 
bed clothes, by fanning, by changing position, by rubbing 
the back and legs, by putting hot water bags at the feet, 
back and neck, or small of back. In summer try very 
cold water instead of hot water in the bags. Cold com- 
presses may be applied to the back of the neck, the spine, 
the forehead, or wherever they may give comfort. A 
foot bath, a hot or cool sponging will not only quiet rest- 
lessness but will often make a patient sleepy. In using 
any wet application be sure not to get the pillows or bed 
clothes wet. Continued rubbing at the back of the neck 
or stroking of the forehead gently is soothing and quiet- 



Temperature, Pulse, Respiration 

The temperature of the average person in health is 
98.6° Fahrenheit. This is called the normal temperature. 

A temperature below 98.0 degrees is said to be sub- 
normal. A healthy person may have a sub-normal tem- 
perature in the early morning. People with a continuous 
low temperature, say around 97 (this is often the case 
with old people and those who are recovering from ill- 
ness) need careful attention. If in bed, they should be 
kept warmly covered and supplied with hot water bags. 
If up, they should be warmly clothed, and protected 
from drafts, and sudden changes of temperature. 
Usually, in the early morning before daylight, the tem- 
perature is at the lowest. That is why it is important to 
watch sick people and babies and to put an extra cover 
over them at that time. 

Any temperature above 100 degrees, if it continues, is 
serious. A temperature above 101 degrees is a fairly 
high one, and 103 degrees or above is very high. 

The temperature is taken with a clinical thermometer 
placed in the mouth or in the armpit. For babies, and 
people who might break the thermometer if it were 
placed in the mouth, place the thermometer in the armpit. 
Temperatures of babies and very ill people are taken in 
rectum, but the Girl Scout should not attempt this. Al- 
ways wash the thermometer in cold water before using. 
Wash in cold water and disinfect by wiping off with alco- 
hol or ether after using. Hot water will break it When 
the thermometer is being used every day it may be kept in 
disinfectant. Never lay down a thermometer that has 
been used until after it has been washed and disinfected. 
To Take the Temperature in the Mouth 

Cleanse the thermometer. 

vShake down so that the mercury is below 96 degrees. 

Have patient moisten lips. 


Place the thermometer with bulb under tongue. Lips 
must be closed while holding it. 

Hold two or three minutes, in this position. 

Be sure that nothing hot or cold has been in the mouth 
for at least five minutes before taking temperature. 
To Take Temperature in the Armpits 

Wipe out armpit. 

Insert the thermometer. 

Place arm across the chest so that the thermometer is 
held securely. It should remain so for four or five 


The pulse may be counted on the thumb side of the 
inside of the wrist, at the temples, the ankles, and other 
parts of the body where the arteries are near the surface. 

The pulse shows the number of times per minute which 
the heart beats or pumps. 

A normal pulse rate for a man is around 72, for a 
woman 80, for a child 90, and for a baby 100 beats. 

A very rapid or a very slow pulse shows that there is 
something wrong that should be reported. It takes a 
good deal of practice to learn to count the pulse. 

Place two or three fingers on the beating artery, just 
touching firmly enough to feel the beats, and count for 
a half minute, then multiply by two to find the number 
of beats per minute. Be sure that the patient's hand is 
in a comfortable position while counting. 

Respiration is another word for breathing. An aver- 
age normal person when sitting or lying still, breathes 
from twelve to twenty times per minute, and when mov- 
ing about 24 times. We all know that quick moving 
makes quick breathing. 

Respiration above 40 or below 8 is a danger sign. If 



the respiration is very fast, or difficult, or wheezy, or in 
any way very unusual, we can tell it at a glance. People 
who are breathing hard are frequently relieved by being 
propped up in bed. 

To count the respiration. It is better to do this with- 
out the person's knowledge. It may be counted by watch- 
ing the rise and fall of the chest or of the shoulders. An- 
other way is to hold the person's hand as though taking 
the pulse, having her rest her hand and fore-arm lightly 
on the chest and count the rise and fall. 


Dishes used by patients with any of the contagious 
diseases, and this includes colds and sore throats, should 
be kept separate, and washed separately from the family 
dishes. They should be scalded after washing and have 
special dish cloths. Using separate utensils, and separate 
room for the sick person are two of the surest ways to 
prevent the spread of the disease. 

In such diseases as measles, scarlet fever, colds, mumps, 
influenza, dishes should be boiled every day. Put them 
in a large kettle in cold water and let them come to a 
boil. Even the thinnest glass will not break if treated 
in this way. Let the dishes stay in the water until cool 
enough to handle. 

Dish cloths and dish mops should be thoroughly washed 
in good hot water and soap, and put in the sun to dry. 
They should be boiled regularly. 

If it is necessai'y to disinfect linen put it all in a bag 
and leave in cold water to soak for some hours before 
putting it on to boil. Put a little washing soda in the 
water. After boiling hard for fifteen or twenty minutes 
it may be washed with the other garments. 

Stains should be washed out before putting linen in 
the wash, 


Utensils and Their Care 

All utensils should be kept clean and ready for instant 
use. The bedpan should always be warmed before be- 
ing used. Running warm water in and on it is usually 
the easiest way to do this. It should be thoroughly dried 
on the outside so that it will not wet the bed. It is a 
good plan to have a piece of rubber sheet or several 
thicknesses of old newspapers covered with a bath towel 
to put under the bedpan in bed. When carrying away, 
keep covered. Use cold water first, and after washing 
with soapy water, rinse and dry before putting away. 

Basins in constant use, especially if they are used to 
hold disinfectant, need to be well scoured with sapolio 
from time to time. Nothing is more shiftless looking 
than a dark rim of dirt or stain around a basin. 

Hot water bags should be emptied when not in use 
and hung upside down. The stoppers should be kept 
fastened to them. 

Ice caps should be dried inside and out and stuiTed with 
cotton or tissue paper to keep the sides from sticking 

Hot and Cold Applications 

Hot applications are used to relieve pain, to supply 
heat, and to bring down temperature. Both moist and 
dry heat are used. Hot water bags, metal heaters, electric 
pads, hot flannels are the commonest froms of dry heat. 
Fomentations, poultices, and baths are the simplest forms 
of moist heat. 

In applying heat, one should be ever on the watch 
to avoid burning a patient. The skin of babies, children, 
old people, and of those who have been ill a long time, is 
very easily burned. Again, the same heat that is easily 
tolerated by one person, may burn another. 

Hot water hags or their substitute, electric pads or 
metal heaters should always be wrapped in towels or 



have their own coverings. Never fill a hot water bag- 
more than two-thirds full. The water should not be 
hot enough to scald a patient if the bag should spring a 
leak. Before putting in the cork, expel the air by twist- 
ing the upper part between the neck and the level of the 
water before putting in the cork. Be sure to cork tightly. 
If the bag is to be where the patient will bear the weight, 
put in a very little water and renew from time to time. 
Where there is no hot water bag, stone bottles may be 
used, or bags of salt or sand may be heated in the oven. 
The practice of using ordinary glass bottles is an un- 
safe one, as the corks are not always to be depended on 
to stay tight and the glass breaks easily. When bags 
of salt or sand are used the coverings should be thick 
enough to prevent the particles from sifting through. 
Pieces of flannel the right size may in some cases supply 
all the heat that is necessary. They should be covered 
with another flannel to keep in the warmth. 

To make a mustard plaster. Have ready a piece of 
old muslin (a piece of an old nightgown will do) two 
inches wide and two inches longer than twice the length 
of the poultice required. On one end of it, with a margin 
of an inch on three sides, place a piece of oiled paper 
or shelf paper or a piece of clean paper bag, the size you 
wish the poultice to be. Mix one tablespoonful of mus- 
tard with 8 tablespoonfuls of flour, before wetting. 
Have water about as hot as the hand can stand. Do not 
use boiling water. Stir the water into the mustard and 
flour gradually so that it will not lump. Make the paste 
stiff enough to spread thinly on the paper, about a quarter 
of an inch thick. Turn the margins of the cloth over 
the paste. Fold the long end over so that all the paste is 
covered and tuck the end under the turned-in edges of 
the sides. Fold it and take it to the patient in a hot towel 
or between hot plates. The skin where it is to be placed 




should be oiled. Test the heat by holding it against the 
back of your own hand. Put on slowly and leave for two 
minutes. Watch and remove sooner if the skin becomes 
reddened or if it is uncomfortable. After removing wipe 
away the moisture from the skin and cover with a soft 
piece of muslin, and place a piece of flannel over that, 
A blister after a mustard paste shows very careless nurs- 
ing. Never let a patient go to sleep with a mustard 
plaster on. 

Fomentation or stupes are pieces of flannel wrung 
out of very hot water and placed on the skin. They 
should be two or three times as large as the part to be 
treated, and should be applied as hot as the patient can 
bear them, without burning the skin. Have two sets, 
so that one set will be ready to put on when the other 
is taken off. The stupes should be wrung as dry as 
possible and as they must be very hot to do any good, 
a fomentation wringer is a great protection for the 
hands. One may be made by putting halves of a broom 
handle through the ends of a short roller towel in the 



middle of which the fomentation has been placed. By 
twisting the sticks in the opposite direction the fomenta- 
tion can be wrung very dry. Take it to the bed in the 
wringer and do not open until ready to place on the 
skin, as it will lose its heat very quickly. Put a little oil 
or vaseline on the skin and apply the fomentation gradu- 
ally. Cover with a dry flannel and put wadding over 
that. A piece of oiled skin or oiled paper between the 
wadding and the dry flannel helps to keep in the heat and 
moisture. Hold in place with a towel or binder pinned 

Cold is applied by means of ice bags and by cold 
compresses. In filling an ice bag the ice should be in 
small pieces, and the bag not too full. Expel the air 
as from a hot water bag. Cover with a towel or a 
cover for the purpose. Never put the rubber near the 
skin, it may freeze if so left. Besides, the cover ab- 
sorbs the moisture that collects on the outside as the 
ice melts. 

Cold compresses are a common remedy for headache, 
Old handkerchiefs are excellent for this purpose. Fold 
in frayed edges, two or three thicknesses will be heavy 
enough, and have two, large enough to cover the fore- 
head. Wring one out of ice water so that it will not 
drip, and put on the forehead. Keep the other on a 
piece of ice and change the two applications frequently. 
When applied to the neck a dry cloth should be placed 
outside to protect the pillow or the patient's clothing. 
Cold compresses for inflamed eyes should be of one 
thickness only, and a little larger than the eye. Have a 
number and change very often. Use a separate com- 
press for each eye. If there is a discharge a compress 
should not be used a second time. The discarded com- 
presses should be collected in a paper bag or wrapped in 
newspapers and burned. 


When cold compresses are applied to the head there 
should be a hot water bag at the feet. 

Gargles, sprays, and inhalations are often ordered for 
sore throats and colds. 

Salt or soda added to water in the proportion of a tea- 
spoonful to a pint makes an excellent gargle. 

A very cold gargle or one as hot as can be held with- 
out burning is better than a tepid one. 

Do not go out in the cold air directly after using a 
hot gargle. 

Use at least six separate mouthfuls each time you 
gargle, and hold long enough at the back of the throat 
for the gargle to reach every part. 

A spray should not be used for the nose without a 
special order from the doctor. The liquid sometimes 
gets into the passage leading to the ear and causes ear- 

Always wipe the nozzle of the atomizer before using. 
It should be cleaned after each use and boiled, if an- 
other patient is to use it. Always boil the nozzle and 
clean out the bottle when the atomizer is to be put away. 
Keep it in a box where dust will not reach it. 

Inhalations are useful to relieve difficult breathing 
and for loss of voice or hoarseness. Fill a pitcher, bowl, 
or basin, two-thirds full of boiling water. Wrap with 
a towel to prevent burning if it should touch a patient. 
Usually drugs such as peppermint spirits, oil of eucalyp- 
tus, or tincture of benzoin, in dose of a teaspoonful to 
the hot water contained in the receptable, is enough. If 
no drug is at hand, the steam itself may be depended upon 
to do some good. Pin one end of a bath towel around the 
face below the eyes and spread the other over the pitcher 
inhaling the steam as it rises. It may not be possible 
to induce a child to do this, in which case make a tent 
of an open umbrella with a sheet thrown over it at the 



head of the bed, leaving the front a Httle open. Place 
the pitcher so that the child will get the steam and hold 
the pitcher carefully all the time. Do not let the pitcher 
touch the patient. 

Another means of inhalation is to hold a funnel, made 
of a piece of folded paper in the nose of a kettle of very 
hot water, near the patient so that the steam can be in- 
haled. Be very careful not to scald the patient. After 
a steam inhalation one should not go out in the cold 
air nor have the windows opened for an hour or more. 
Common Medicines and Other Remedies 

It is a very safe rule never to take medicines oneself 
without a doctor's orders. Above all, never advise others, 
even when you know from experience that certain medi- 
cines have helped yourself and others. Medicines should 
be taken upon prescription from the physician, should 
be measured accurately, and given at the exact hour 

Read carefully the label or box from which you take 
the medicine before and after opening or uncorking, 
and read the name again when putting back in its place. 
Many people have been poisoned by not reading the 
label. Have all glasses and spoons, etc., thoroughly 
cleansed before and after using. 

Accuracy, attention, cleanliness, regularity should be 

In giving either food or medicine, the following meas- 
ures are helpful : 

1 teaspoonful measures 50 grains. 

2 teaspoonfuls make 1 dessertspoonful. 
2 dessertspoonfuls make 1 tablespoonful. 
2 tablespoonfuls make 1 ounce. 

8 ounces make 1 cupful or glassful. 
16 ounces make one pint, or pound. 

(This applies to either liquid or dry measure.) 


In giving pills, capsules, tablets give a drink of water 
first to moisten the tongue and throat. This helps them 
to slip down more easily. 

If there is danger of a pill or tablet choking the patient, 
crush the pill or tablet between two spoons. 

When medicines are taken l)y spoon, the spoon should 
be licked by the patient in order to get the full amount. 

Nearly all medicines should be mixed with water, and 
should be followed with a drink of water unless orders 
are given to the contrary. 

Keep all medicines tightly corked. 

Buy medicines only in small quantities, as most of 
them lose their strength in time. 

In buying vaseline or cold cream it is better to have 
it in a tube than in jars. Being opened and dipped into 
constantly soon makes the contents of a jar unclean. 
Common Remedies 

Such remedies as the following are to be found in 
many homes. 

Castor oil, clove oil, vaseHne, baking soda (this is 
the same thing as bi-carbonate of soda or saleratus), salt, 
lime water, alcohol, camphorated oil, spirits of camphor, 
flaxseed, aromatic spirits of ammonia. Do not confuse 
this latter remedy with ammonia water used for cleans- 
ing things. 

Castor oil should be taken in these doses : 

Baby, 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls. 

Older children: 1 tablespoonful. 

Adult: 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls. 

There are many ways of taking castor oil. Heat the 
glass or spoon, put in some orange or lemon juice, then 
the oil, then more juice. Open the mouth wide and put 
the oil far back. Have more juice at hand to swallow im- 
mediately after. Chilling the mouth by holding a piece 
of ice in it for a few minutes also helps to disguise the 


taste. A couple of tablespoonfuls of lemon or orange 
juice with a quarter of a teaspoonful of soda mixed 
thoroughly with the oil will make it effervesce so that 
it is not unpleasant to take. 

If the dose is vomited, wait a little while, then give 
another. Do not give directly before nor directly after 
a meal. 

Olive oil is often taken in doses of one or two teaspoon- 
fuls after meals to regulate the bowels or to help people 
gain weight or when the appetite is small. It is also used 
to rub into the skin of under-nourished babies and to rub 
sick people, especially if the skin is very dry. After 
rubbing with oil always wipe the skin with a towel. 

Vaseline is used to grease sore and chafed parts. A 
little may be inserted into the nostrils for a cold. Cam- 
phorated vaseline is especially good for this. In case of 
an irritating cough that keeps a child from sleeping, a 
little plain pure vaseline may be put in the mouth, and 
it will be found very soothing. 

Vaseline is also used to grease such utensils as nozzles 
and to put on the parts to which poultices or fomenta- 
tions are to be applied. 

Soda may be used for burns (moisten and apply as a 
paste), as a gargle (one teaspoonful to a pint of water), 
as an enema (the same proportion), for colds (a tea- 
spoonful in a quart of water to be taken internally in the 
course of each day), and in bilious attacks, water with 
this amount of soda may be given. Also to get a person 
to vomit, in which case the water should be slightly warm. 

Salt may be used as a gargle in the same way as soda, 
and even mixed with soda, also for enemas. Coarse 
salt, when heated and put into bags, may be used when 
there is no hot water bag. 

Lime water is used in mixing the baby's milk and is 
put in the milk for sick people when they cannot take 


full Strength milk. The usual proportion is two table- 
spoons of lime water to a half glass of milk, which makes 
about 1 part of lime water to 3 parts of milk. 

Alcohol may be used to disinfect the more delicate 
utensils as the thermometer. Most alcohol now obtain- 
able is tvood alcohol or dcnaturated; that is, mixed with 
powerful poisons, so that it should never touch the 
mouth. Never place a bottle of alcohol near a flame. 
If it is ever necessary to use an alcohol lamp, use the 
solid alcohol. It is much safer. 

Camphorated oil is often used to rub the chest and 
neck with in case of colds. It should be warmed and 
rubbed in thoroughly. Protect the bedclothes and the 
patient's clothes with towels. After rubbing, wipe and 
cover the part with a flannel, to prevent chill. 

Spirits of camphor or aromatic spirits of ammonia, 
a few drops on a handkerchief or piece of cotton, held 
five or six inches from the nose, relieves faintness. In- 
haling the camphor in this way will often make it easier 
to breathe through the nose in case of a head cold. Fif- 
teen drops of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a table- 
spoonful of water may be given to anyone recovering 
from a faint or to relieve nausea. 

Flaxseed tea is an old-fashioned remedy for coughs. 
Pour a quart of boiling water over two tablespoonfuls 
of flaxseed and let it simmer for two or three hours, 
or until reduced to about a pint of tea. Strain through a 
fine strainer several times so that it will not be stringy, 
flavor with lemon, and add honey or sugar. Put in a 
covered jar, and take a teaspoonful at a time to relieve 
irritation in the throat. 

The Daily Clean-Out. — People, sick or well, should 
have a bowel movement once or twice a day. Taking 
medicine for this purpose is a very bad habit. If healthy 
people have the proper exercise and food, and drink 



plenty of good water, medicine is not necessary. Eating 
coarse grained food, as bran muffins, corn meal porridge, 
fruits, and vegetables, drinking plenty of water, exercis- 
ing in the open air, and having a regular time for going 
to the lavatory (immediately after breakfast and the last 
thing at night before retiring are suggested times) are 
habits that are usually sufficient to keep the bowels in 
good order. 

If the waste matter is not carried ofif by the bowel 
movements, the body will in time become poisoned by the 
decayed substance in the intestines, and illness follows. 
Many headaches, "tired feelings," "blues," and even ap- 
pendicitis may be caused by constipation. 

People who are sick and therefore deprived of taking 
exercise to help in keeping their bowels regular, need to 
have very special attention paid to their diet and to have 
plenty of drinking water always at hand. Also they 
should have bed-pan or whatever other attention they 
need regularly, and when asked for, immediately. 

Chill, if due to exposure, may be treated by giving a 
warm bath or a foot bath, and putting to bed between 
warm blankets and with hot water bags. Rub briskly 
under the covers and give a warm drink such as tea, 
coffee, milk, etc. 

Some Common Ills and Their Treatment 

When a chill is not merely due to being cold, give 
the same treatment except the rubbing, take the tempera- 
ture, and if there is fever, send for the doctor, as it 
may be the beginning of an illness. 

Colds or cramps, or pain in the bowels may be caused 
by constipation, by gas, by undigested food, by the 
monthly period or more serious causes. Apply heat (hot 
water bag or fomentation), sip hot water in which is a 
little baking soda (one-half teaspoonful to a cup), or a 
few drops of peppermint. Try a hot foot bath. Lie 


down and keep very quiet with a hot water bag at feet. 
If pain continues, except in the case of the monthly ill- 
ness, empty the stomach either by putting the finger 
down the throat or by drinking warm water and soda 
until vomiting starts. Take an enema or a dose of castor 
oil. If the pain still continues, send for a doctor. 

Convulsions. Send for a doctor at once. Loosen all 
clothing, undress if possible. Watch and prevent patient 
from hurting herself. Do not try to restrain. Try to 
force a spoonhandle wound with a bandage between the 
teeth, to prevent biting of tongue. Keep lying down 
with head slightly raised. As soon as possible, ad- 
minister enema or dose of castor oil. Put ice bag on 
head and hot water bottle to feet. Keep warm. A child 
may be put into a warm bath and held until convulsions 
subside. Keep very quiet and handle as little as possible 
when the convulsion is over, as handling may cause a 
repetition of the twitching. 

Croup. Give steam inhalation. Keep a kettle of very 
warm water in the room. If this is not possible, fill the 
bathroom with steam by turning on the hot water, and 
take the patient there. Put hot fomentations to neck, 
chest, and abdomen. Send for doctor, who will usually 
order medicine to make the child vomit, which brings 
some relief. 

Earache. Use hot applications against the ear. A 
heated glass or a cup in which there is a cloth wrung 
in very hot water, held against the ear may be found 
very comforting. Never put drops nor anything else 
into the ear canal. Either send for the doctor or take 
the patient to him, as there may be a developing abscess 
which needs to be opened. 

Fever. Patient should go to bed in a well ventilated 
room and keep quiet. The bowels should move freely 
.and plenty of water be taken. Bathing the hands, face 
and neck or rubbing with alcohol gives relief, especially 


if there is restlessness. Only liquid food should be 
given, and even that should not be urged. 

Headaches. The commonest causes of frequent head- 
aches are eye-strain and indigestion. The cure is being 
fitted with glasses and taking a proper diet. Rest and 
quiet, careful eating, cold compresses to the head, a hot 
water bag to the feet, or a foot bath will usually relieve 
an ordinary headache. Sometimes, as when there is 
constipation, a dose of castor oil is necessary. An enema 
will often give instant relief. Never take headache 
medicines unless a doctor has specially ordered it. These 
medicines may contain powerful poisons. The danger 
of taking them is that while for the time being they may 
relieve the headache, the cause of the headache remains, 
and the headache returns unless the cause, such as eye- 
strain or indigestion, is removed. 

Hiccoughs can be usually stopped by drinking a glass 
of water in sips while holding the breath. They are 
usually caused by eating too fast or by some form of 

Colds, Their Prevention and Care 

Everybody knows that colds are "catching." People 
who are over-tired or under- fed, who stay too much in 
either under-heated or over-heated rooms, or who do not 
bathe regularly, or who do not get exercise enough in 
the open air, are those most likely to catch cold. 

If you have a cold yourself, stay away from others 
if possible, and do all in your power to prevent others 
coming close to you. Cover the mouth when coughing 
or sneezing, use paper or old rags instead of handker- 
chiefs and then burn them; wash your hands before 
touching things others are to use, and use separate dishes, 
which should be kept entirely apart from the family 
dishes and washed separately. If such precautions are 


taken by the first member of the family to take cold, it 
would seldom spread through the family. 

When people around you have colds, avoid getting 
close to them, gargle often, take deep breaths of fresh 
air whenever possible, wash your hands often and keep 
them away from your nose and mouth. 

You do not need to be told that the handkerchief used 
by anyone with a cold is full of germs. It should be 
kept from touching other things and should never be 
left lying around. 

If, at the first signs of a cold, a good dose of castor 
oil is taken, a glass of hot lemonade and a hot bath be- 
fore going to bed, a cold may be "broken up," as we say. 
In mild weather, the windows may be left open, but if 
the weather is very cold it is better to air the room from 
another room, in order to keep an even temperature, but 
there should be good ventilation. 

If the throat is sore, gargling and a cold compress to 
the neck will bring relief. If there is fever and head- 
ache, you have already been told what to do. Anyone 
with a cold should eat very lightly and drink plenty of 
water. They should be as quiet as possible and get all 
the rest and sleep possible. 

Camphorated or plain vaseline may be put in the nos- 
trils, and if there is a cough, plain vaseline may be taken 
internally — placed on the tongue at the back of the 
mouth. A spoonful of flaxseed tea taken as often as 
necessary to relieve irritation may bring relief. Inhala- 
tions are helpful in hoarseness. Never give any cough 
medicines except what are ordered by a doctor. 

If the symptoms continue after the first night it is 
advisable to call a doctor, as what seems a slight cold 
may be the beginning of a serious illness, as measles, 
scarlet fever, pneumonia, etc. If there is earache, rapid 



breathing, great weakness or sleepiness the doctor should 
be called at once. 

Any symptom that lasts after a cold, as pain in one 
part, weakness, or high temperature, needs a doctor's 

Food for the Sick 

Food for the sick should be light and easily digested. 
Generally the doctor says what may be eaten. Such 
foods as the following are included in so-called invalid 
foods : Milk, milk soups, eggs, raw and soft-cooked, 
rennet, custards, ice creams, albumin water, well cooked 
cereals, gruels, broths, toasts, milk toast, jellies made 
with gelatine, such as lemon and wine jelly; macaroni, 
spaghetti, well-cooked bread (never fresh bread), tea, 
coffee, cocoa. 

Sick people should have their meals as regularly as 
possible, at regular hours and promptly and attractively 
served. The tray, the dishes, the tray-cloth, should be 
spotlessly clean, and the tray should not be over-loaded 
with dishes or food. If it is necessary to bring all the 
food for a meal to the room on the tray at once in order 
to save steps, remove some of it, perhaps the dessert, 
until the patient is ready for it. 

Before leaving the room to prepare the tray, arrange 
everything so that the patient may eat the food as soon 
as it is brought. As a rule it is better for the sick mem- 
ber of the family to have her meals served before the 
family sits down to the table, so that she may have her 
food fresh and hot, and not get tired waiting. 

Try to have food that the patient likes, if possible. If 
she does not like what may be served her, it may be 
served so attractively that her appetite may be tempted. 

All food should be tasted before sei"ving. Serve hot 
food hot, and cold food cold. 

Milk is the most nourishing of liquid foods. If it is 



to be heated, do not let it boil. Always take the chill 
off milk served to children. 

Generally speaking, cooked food is better than un- 
cooked, even fruits. Baked apples or apple sauce, for 
example, are safer to give the sick than raw apples. 

Toast is better than bread. Toast upon which the 
butter has melted should not be given to a sick person. 
Have the toast hot, and butter each mouthful as eaten. 
Bread should be at least one day old before given to a 
sick person. Hot breads, such as fresh rolls and biscuits, 
are not good foods for ill people. Fried foods should 
be kept from invalids and children. 

The best way to prepare a potato for an invalid is to 
bake it. It should be served when it is light and mealy, 
and never after it has become soggy. 

The best way of cooking meat is to broil it, having 
the outside well browned, and the inside soft and juicy, 
never dry and hard. 

A Tray for Liquid and Soft Food 

The tray should be large enough to hold two glasses 
or a cup and saucer and a glass, as well as salt or sugar. 
Put two spoons on the tray, and if the patient is using 
a tube or a feeder, put that on the tray. One of the 
glasses should contain fresh water. Offer a glass of 
water before and after the nourishment. 

The tray for soft solids. Suppose the meal is to be 
boiled rice, or other cereal, and toast. The tray should 
have a fresh doilie, salt, sugar (covered), a glass of 
water, two teaspoons, a knife, if butter is allowed on the 
toast, and a small pitcher of milk or cream for the rice. 
Put the cereal in a deep saucer or small bowl, cover 
with a plate or saucer and rest on another plate. Spread 
a small napkin on another plate. Put the toast on it, 
then wrap the napkin around it to keep hot. 

Sick people should have plenty of water to drink. 



Besides having a pitcher of fresh water and a glass where 
it may be easily reached, always put a glass of fresh 
cool water on the tray when food or medicine are brought. 
While ice water is bad for both sick and well people, 
the water should be cool enough to be agreeable and 
refreshing. Water that is chilled to the right temperature 
by being kept in the ice chest, bottled, is preferable. 
It should be drunk slowly and not gulped down. Water 
standing in the room should be kept covered at all times. 
Feeding Helpless Patients 

A patient is often so weak that she cannot lift her 
head in order to eat. In this case she would be given 
liquids through straws or by spoon or "feeder." Some- 
times by putting a small quantity of liquid in a glass, two 
tablespoonfuls, a patient is enabled to drink without 
spilling a drop. 

If necessary, slip one hand under the pillow, raise 
the head a little, holding the glass to the lips with the 
other. Anyone lying down should take food very slowly. 
If solid, it should be cooked, especially well, as there is 
danger of choking. 

Tubes should be washed immediately after using. If 
used continuously they should be cleaned with a tube 
brush made for that purpose. Straws should be burned 
or destroyed. If feeding with a spoon, be careful that 
neither the food nor the spoon burns the lips or mouth. 
Feed slowly and a little at a time, allowing plenty of 
time between mouthfuls. 

Occupying and Amusing the Sick 

When people are recovering from an illness, or when 
they are what we call chronic invalids, they often enjoy 
and are helped by being amused or occupied. At this 
time a Girl Scout may be very helpful. First of all, she 
should be cheerful herself. Then she should be able to 


play two or three quiet games, such as cards, dominoes, 
checkers, and be able to read aloud and to tell cheerful 
and amusing stories. Children may often l)e kept quiet 
and happy by hearing little rhymes recited. It might 
be a good idea for every Girl Scout to l)e able to tell 
three short stories and three funny stories, know three 
conundrums and three short poems, play three quiet 
games of cards, play checkers, play dominoes and know 
three puzzles. 

Excitement is always bad for sick people and they 
become tired easily, so they should not be read to, talked 
to, nor played with for too long an interval, even if 
they seem to wish it themselves. The Scout must always 
remelnber that these things are being done for the pleas- 
ure of the sick person, and she must be very patient, to 
let the games or stories be of their own choosing if they 
wish it, and to avoid being noisy herself. 
Daily Routine 

There should be a regular daily routine. Have regular 
hours for feeding, bathing, giving treatment and medi- 
cines, giving the bedpan, etc. Be punctual. 

Usually the first thing to do in the morning is to close 
or open the window as necessary, and to give the patient 
a bedpan. Have it warm. Take temperature, pulse and 
respiration and record them. Bring a basin of warm 
water, soap, towel, etc., to wash hands and face, and a 
glass of water to brush teeth. Tidy the hair. Straighten 
up the room a little. Prepare and serve patient's break- 
fast. After an hour the bed bath may be taken, but a tub 
bath should not be taken until two hours after breakfast. 

Make the bed. Clean up the room. If the patient is 
well enough, let her read or see visitors after this. Serve 
the dinner. After dinner, open the windows, lower the 
shades, and let the patient rest and sleep if possible for 
at least an hour. Sick people need more rest than well 


people and should have a regular hour for rest in the 
daytime. If they sleep, so much the better, as it has 
been proved that patients who take a nap during the day 
sleep better at night. After four o'clock give a drink of 
some kind of hot or cold substance, as needed or desired 
— broth, milk, lemonade. In the late afternoon sick 
people are often tired and restless. Change of position, 
rearrangement of the pillows or a good rub give comfort 
and relieve the restlessness. Diversion of some kind, 
nothing noisy or exciting, may serve the same purpose. 
It may be found wise to delay the bath until this time of 
day as bathing has a soothing effect. 

Between supper and bedtime the sick person should 
be kept from excitement. This is a good time for read- 
ing aloud or allowing them to read for themselves, but 
a very poor time to see visitors. 

Preparations for the Night. Bring in all the necessi- 
ties for washing the hands and face and brushing the 
teeth and combing the hair, and help where needed. 
Change the nightgown (it is better to have a gown for 
the day and one for the night), brush the crumbs from 
the bed, make the sheet smooth, shake up the pillows 
and straighten out the bedclothes, having extra covers 
handy in case of need. Fill the hot water bag, attend 
to the fire, if there is one, and arrange everything in 
the room just as it will be needed for the night. Give 
a warm drink, and allow the patient to rinse the mouth 
(or, if wished, the brushing of the teeth may be delayed 
until this time). The last thing to do for the sick person 
is to give a good rub, paying special atetntion to the bony 
parts (lower end of spine, shoulder-blades, hips, knees, 
ankles). Then arrange the ventilation. 

Before settling a sick person for the night, be sure 
that everything about the room is done, as any moving 
about after she is prepared to sleep may tend to disturb 
her and prevent her from going to sleep. 



Has the town you live in a free swimming pool with 
instructors and well arranged hours for little children, 
older girls and boys and grown-ups? Can you step out 
after school and have a couple of hours on a well kept 
tennis court? Is there a good golf course reasonably 
near, with convenient trolley service? Are there plenty 
of playgrounds, so that the children are off the streets? 
And, since grounds are not enough, are there friendly 
young play-leaders connected with them, to get the chil- 
dren together and teach them all sorts of games and 
sports ? 

If none of these things are to be found, or not enough 
of them, wouldn't you like to have them? 

"Of course I should," you reply, "but what can I do 
about it ? I am only a girl, and I can't get all these things 
by just wishing for them !" 

But that's just what you can do. 

All these things in a town mean that the town is 
looking out for the health of its young people. Exercise 
is one of the most important means of preserving health, 
and most of the large cities nowadays are working hard 
to see that no child shall be out of reach of a good park, 
a good swimming pool and a good playground. 

This all comes under the city government and as this 
is a democratic form of government, these things are all 
arranged by vote. That is, the citizens vote to use the 
public money for such things and vote for the officials 
who shall spend the money for them. Do you see that 
if you make up your mind now about the village improve- 
ments you want, you can vote for them later and get 

Women are naturally interested in all that happens 


to children, and if all the women of a community should 
get together and vote for everything that concerned the 
health and happiness and good education of children, 
can't you see what happy days their school-days would 

If you saw "Public Health" at the head of a chapter, 
you might not think it looked very interesting ; but when 
you once get the idea that if your mother had had her 
say on the Public Health Board you would have had a 
fine skating pond with a good skate-house, last winter, 
and sunny, well-aired school rooms to study in, with a 
big gymnasium for basket ball in bad weather, you may 
be more interested in the merit badge for Public Health 
called "Health Guardian !" 

Remember that Public Health is simply good house- 
keeping, applied to the community. 

It is a subject which women are sure to take up more 
and more, and a Girl Scout who has given the matter a 
little thought and study is going to make a good citizen 
later on, and will be certain to have her advice asked — 
and taken — in the matter of making her town healthy and 

For instance, if the desks in the public schools are not 
of the right height and shape, the children are bound to 
suffer in their health and hygiene. 

It is the business of the state to see that all public 
buildings, schools, theatres, factories, etc., have a cer- 
tain amount of light and air to the cubic foot, because 
so much is necessaiy for health. 

It is the business of the state to see that only a certain 
number of hours a day should constitute a day's work. 
This is because a certain amount of rest is a necessity 
for all citizens. 

It is the business of the state to see that food and 
water can be brought into the community. Also that they 


be kept pure, both in transportation and after they reach 
the community. This includes the policing of all reser- 
voirs and the filtering of the water; the refrigerating of 
meat and milk ; the condemning of rotten fruit and vege- 
tables; the collecting and disposal of all garbage and 

It is the business of the state to prevent spitting in 
public places, (one of the greatest sources of public 
infection) ; to prevent the use of common drinking 
utensils, towels, etc. ; to insist on the isolation of con- 
tagious diseases and the placarding of the houses where 
they occur. 

In order to carry on these great wise policies the state 
should offer free clinics where citizens can find out what 
is the matter with them and how to prevent it, and trained 
community nurses for the sick. 

Do you see what a wonderful power an intelligent 
woman can be in the community she lives in? Women 
ought to be much better, really, in this public house- 
keeping than men, because most of them have had to 
learn to do it on a small scale, and know how necessary 
light, air, rest, exercise and cleanliness are. 

But, you may say, as yet, I am too young to vote, any- 
way; what can I do? 

The answer is very simple: every citizen, whether she 
is young or old, whether she has a vote or not, can find 
out the laws of the town she lives in and help to enforce 

And the most important of these laws are those which 
affect the public safety and the public health. Whether 
there is a Public Health Commissioner or a Town Board 
or a Village Superintendent or only a District Nurse to 
appeal to, there is sure to be somebody whose business 
it is to listen to violation of the law. 

If every troop of Girl Scouts knew the health laws of 



their town, and helped to get them obeyed, there would 
be a wonderful lessening of epidemics and a wonderful 
advance in the health and beauty of our towns. 

If the Girl Scouts stood, all over the country, for the 
intelligent guardianship of the public health and recrea- 
tion, they would rapidly become one of the greatest and 
most respected organizations in America, for this reason 


". . . For since a little self-control, since 
a clean and elementary diet, pure water, openness 
of the body to sun and air, a share of honest 
work, and some degree of mental peace and lar- 
gesse, are the simple conditions of health, and are 
or ought to be, accessible to everybody — 

"To neglect these is sheer treason." 

— Toward Democracy, by Edward Carpenter. 

Five Points of Health for Girl Scouts 

A cheerful Scout, a clean Scout, a helpful Scout, is a 
well Scout. She is the only Scout that really is pre- 
pared. She not only knows the laws of health, she lives 
them: she stands tall, she plays daily in the open air, 
she rests and sleeps at night, and conserves her energy 
at all times, she is careful to get the right amount of air, 
water, sun and food each day, and perhaps most impor- 
tant of all, she keeps clean. 

1. Stand Tall — Every Scout should be recognized a 
long way ofif, not only by her uniform, but by her erect 
carriage. In sitting, the lower back should be against 
the back of the chair. In bending forward to read or 


write, bend straight from the hips. At Scout meetings 
practice sitting without support for the back. When "at 
ease" during drill, stand with feet apart and parallel and 
with hands hanging free. When resting, lie flat on the 
back without pillows. Correct posture is obtained by 
balancing the different parts of the body — hips, head, 
chest in a straight line, so that the bony framework bears 
the weight. The muscles and ligaments will not then be 
strained, and the bones will not be forced into an a1)- 
normal position. Two rules to remember are : "Stand 
tall" and "Keep your spine long." 

2. Take Exercise — If you have watched soldiers obey 
commands in drill you know how quickly their joints 
and muscles work. The setting-up exercises given in 
the Handbook have been planned to preserve the power 
of joints and muscles, and to prevent them from becom- 
ing like rusty machines. These exercises should be taken 
with windows open, if not out of doors. Clothing should 
be light and loose, and corsets removed. These exercises 
are not to be considered a substitute for vigorous outdoor 
work or play, but only as supplementary to or when 
these are impossible. The day should be planned to 
include at least an hour and a half of vigorous activity 
in the open air. This will take different forms, accord- 
ing to the place and season, so that in the summer one 
may swim, row or paddle, or play tennis or any other 
game outdoors, and in the winter skate, coast or snow- 
shoe. However, the best all year round exercise, and 
the simplest and easiest to get is walking. Five miles 
a day is an adequate average. Even walking alone is 
good exercise, but walking in a group or two and two is 
better, because keeping step, singing, whistling and talk- 
ing and laughing together add enormously to the exhil- 
aration of motion and of sun, wind or rain in the face. 

A Girl Scout should avoid unusual exercise before. 


during and immediately following menstruation. How- 
ever, she should remember that a reasonable amount of 
exercise at this time is quite normal and beneficial, ex- 
cept where there is an actual disorder of some sort. 
In this case a physician should be consulted. 

3. Rest and Conserve Energy — Go to bed early and 
sleep from eight to eleven hours, according to age. Sleep 
with windows open all the year round. Rest sometime 
during the day, flat on the back if possible, but even 
five minutes sitting quietly with hands in the lap and 
eyes closed is better than nothing. The following table 
shows the number of hours of sleep that are needed at 
different ages : 

Age Hours of Sleep 

10 and 11 years 9>^ to 11 

12 and 13 years 9 to 10^^ 

14 and 15 years 8>^ to 10 

16 and 17 years 8 to 9/2 

18 and 19 years 8 to 9 

20 and over at least 8 

Save Your Eyes 

The reason it is important to rest and to sleep enough 
is because it is while at rest that the body regains energy 
lost during activity, and stores it up for future work and 
play. There are other ways of saving energy, and one 
of them is by keeping the body in such good repair that 
like a good machine it does its work with a minimum 
expenditure of force and heat. This is the main reason 
for the setting-up exercises, or indeed for any sort of 
exercises. Perhaps the single best way to save energy 
is by saving your eyes. There is almost no work or play 
that does not involve the use of our eyes. If people are 
blind they can learn to do many things without vision, 
but it is infinitely harder than with it. Modern life, 


especially in cities, makes a constant demand on our eyes, 
and more than this, the demand is on one part of the 
eyes — the muscles concerned in near work. The best 
way to rest the eyes, and one which not only rests the 
tired parts but exercises the parts that are not used, is 
by doing things that will involve distant vision. Walking 
and looking far ahead and far away on every side rests 
the eyes best of all, and this is one reason why a good 
walk will often clear up a headache. Another way to in- 
sure distant vision is by riding backward in a car. Then 
as the landscape flows past you, your eye muscles relax 
to the position needed for distant vision. If you cannot 
walk or ride and are doing close work, like sewing or 
reading, look up and "at nothing" every once in a while. 

The following are some important rules to remember 
in saving your eyes : 

Rest your "near" eye muscles by looking at distant 
objects and places. 

Do not work facing a light or where the rays from a 
light cross your field of vision directly. 

Work so far as possible by indirect or reflected light. 

If you must work near uncovered artificial lights, wear 
an eye-shade. 

When sewing or writing have the light at your left, 
unless you are left-handed. This is to keep the shadow 
of your hands from the work. 

Avoid a glare or light that is in streaks or bars of 
alternate dark and bright. Diffused, even light is best. 

Have your eyes examined by a competent ocuHst im- 
mediately : 

If you have headaches. 

If the eyes sting or burn after using. 

If print or other objects dance or blur. 

If you must get close to your work to see it. 

If near work tires your eyes or you. 


If there is the slightest irritation or soreness about the 
lids or other parts. 

How to Avoid Muscle Strain 

Girls and women in attempting to live an outdoor life 
or indeed when trying to do many of the things num- 
bered among the Scout activities, such as First Aid, 
Home Nursing and Hiking, often give themselves quite 
unnecessary pain and fatigue from lifting, pulling and 
carrying weghts in the wrong way. Ability to carry 
and lift or move is not so much dependent upon absolute 
strength as it is on knowing how. The whole body, so 
far as it is a physical mechanism, may be thought of as 
a series of levers, of which the muscles, bones, and 
joints make up the parts and are fulcrum, power arm 
or weight arm as the case may be. Without going into 
the details of bodily structure or even knowing the names 
of the different bones and muscles, it is possible to learn 
A few simple things about the right use of these levers 
that will be useful at all times. 

Certain parts of the body are more able to do heavy 
work than others, and the first thing to remember is that 
the upper part of the back, the shoulders and the upper 
arms are stronger than the lower back, the abdomen 
and the lower arms. Therefore, whenever you are try- 
ing to lift or move an object, see if you cannot use 
these stronger parts. H the arms are held away from 
the body when lifting, pulling, throwing or pushing, the 
muscles of the upper arm, the shoulders and the upper 
back will be brought into play. If the arms are held 
close to the body, the lower-arm muscles are unduly 
taxed and in trying to help them out, pressure is made 
on the abdominal and pelvic muscles, which are not 
fitted to bear this sort of strain. Therefore, in carrying 
a bag or suitcase, where this is absolutely unavoidable, 


try to swinfi^ the arm free from the l)ody, so as to use 
the U])per arm and back muscles for the weight. 

Another important way to save strain is by pushing 
instead of puHing. It is ahnost impossible to push any- 
thing so hard as to injure your back or abdominal mus- 
cles. It is almost impossible, on the other hand, to pull 
even a relatively light weight without some strain. If 
you will think of how a horse in harness actually exerts 
his strength in drawing a wagon, you will see that what 
he does is to push against the straps, and it is the strap 
that pull the wagon. Even the strongest horse could 
not pull a wagon with his teeth very far, or pull some- 
thing tied only to the back leg muscles. Get behind and 
push is the rule to remember, and never resort to pulling 
until you have tried every device for pushing instead. 

If you must pull, ti'y to use heavy muscles, such as leg 
muscles, to do it with. Often a weight may be lifted or 
pulled by getting the foot under or in back and using 
the arms only to steer with. This applies particularly to 
objects like trunks or bureaus. 

Always take advantage of any natural leverage that 
you can and if you must move something heavy, do not 
lift it at once and attempt to carry it, but lift one end 
and swing or shove it and then lift the other end and 
shove it. If you will watch expressmen at work you will 
notice that they roll boxes and trunks, holding them 
almost on end and tipping them just enough to turn 
them along their shortest axis. In this way the boxes 
carry themselves, so far as their main weight is con- 

Carrying a weight on the head or shoulders is another 
way of converting a pull into a push, and this is taken 
advantage of by peasant women in Europe, who often 
are seen carrying heavy weights to market in baskets 
perched on their heads, while they stride along arm-free. 


A knapsack strapped on to the shoulders is not only 
more convenient because it leaves the arms and hands 
free to swing naturally or use for other purposes, but 
because the weight is distributed and is carried by means 
of heavy muscles pushing up under the strap. A weight 
should be distributed over a set of muscles as evenly as 
possible, and this is the reason for suspending a knapsack 
from two shoulders instead of one, when possible. 

Finally, in doing any sort of lifting or pulling, if the 
muscles that are to be used are contracted before grasp- 
ing the weight they will be able to do their work with 
far less effort. Try lifting a small weight like a book in 
two ways — first, have your hand and fingers relaxed 
and limp when you grasp it, and see how heavy it seems 
and how hard it is to contract your muscles properly 
while lifting it. Then drop the book and go at It again, 
this time anticipating its weight and contractmg your 
hand and finger muscles before grasping it. See how 
easily it comes up. Try this same thing with heavier 
weights, and learn ahvays to contract the muscle before 
taking the load. In carrying a weight for any distance 
it is well to shift it from one arm to another, always 
preparing the muscles by contracting them before the 
weight is assumed. 

Using the muscles so as to take advantage of their 
lever-like qualities in the best way, contracting them be- 
fore loading, and pushing instead of pulling, go to make 
up what is sometimes called "getting a purchase." 

4. Supply Daily Need for Air, Sun, Water and Food 
— Besides exercise and rest there are other controllable 
factors upon which health depends. These are air, heat 
and light of the sun, water and food. To grow and work 
properly the body needs plenty of each of these. 

Air — If you cannot work or play outdoors you can 
still bring out of doors in by opening your windows at 


frequent intervals. You will find that work goes better, 
and that you do not tire so easily if you make it a rule 
to open the windows and doors and move al3out the room 
for five minutes every hour or two. Sleep with win- 
dows open or out-of-doors. Camp and hike as often as 
possible. Work in the garden. Play out-of-door games. 

Heat — The proper temperature of the body is between 
98 and 99 degrees Fahrenheit. Human life depends upon 
the maintenance of this temperature at all times, and very 
slight changes either up or down interfere seriously with 
all the other life processes. The main source of heat is 
from food consumed, or really burned, in the body. 
Artificial heating in houses helps conserve the body heat, 
as does clothing. But clothes and shelter may make you 
overheated, which is nearly as bad as being cold ; they 
may also shut out fresh air. Clothes should not be too 
heavy nor too tight. Shoes should have soles straight 
on the inner side, and be broad enough to allow the toes 
full play, and have low heels. Shoes that are comfort- 
able to hike in are apt to be the best for all the time wear. 

At night the clothes worn during the day should be 
aired and dried thoroughly. This will help much in main- 
taining the right body temperature, because clothes be- 
come damp from wearing, and dampness uses up body 

Sunlight — Sunlight is one of the best health bringers 
known. Little children — and grown people, too — suffer- 
ing from the most serious forms of tuberculosis, that of 
the bones, get well if they are kept in the sunlight. In 
one of the finest hospitals for children in the world, in 
Switzerland, the main treatment is to have the children 
play outdoors without clothes in the sunlight, and they 
do this even when there is heavy winter snow on the 
ground. Human beings droop and die without the sun, 
just as plants do, though it takes longer to kill them. It 



is a gloomy person who does not feel happier in the sun, 
and a happy and cheerful person is generally healthy. 
So get into the sun whenever you can. Walk on the 
sunny side of the street, and open your windows to the 
sun whenever you can. However, in hot climates and 
in the warmest summer days, remember that the sun can 
injure as well as help, and do not expose^ the head or 
body unnecessarily. 

Wafer — As about three-quarters of our body weight is 
water, the solid portions of bone, muscle, and so forth, 
constituting only one-quarter, and as considerable water 
is given off each day by evaporation from skin and lungs 
and with excreta, the loss must be made up. In addition 
to the water taken with meals and contained in the food 
a Girl Scout should drink at least six tumblers of 
water daily. This is a quart and a half. One glass 
should be taken on arising and before breakfast, two 
between breakfast and lunch, two between lunch and 
dinner, and one before going to bed. Be sure the water 
is pure, and boil any water the purity of which is doubted 
in the slightest. Water kept cool in the ice chest, or in 
a jar with a moist cover, is better than ice water, both 
because cool water actually quenches thirst more easily, 
being more readily absorbed than ice cold water, and 
because it is difficult to control the purity of ice. 

Food — Food should be clean and kept clean. Grow- 
ing girls can tell whether they are eating enough of the 
right sort of food, and if they are getting the best out 
of it, by seeing whether they are up to the right weight 
for their height and age. A chart is given at the end of 
this section showing the standard weight for each height 
at each age. The following are good rules to follow in 
making your daily food habits : 

Do not eat between meals. 

Eat slowly and chew food thoroughly. 


Eat freely of coarse cereals and breads. 

Eat meat only once a day. 

Have green vegetables, salad or fruit every day. 

Drink as nnicli milk as possible, but no coflFee or tea. 

If you do not have at least one bowel movement a 
day it is a sign of constipation, w^hich means tTie accumu- 
lation of waste material from food in the intestine. Ex- 
ercise, especially walking, eating coarse vegetables, 
coarse breads and coarse cereals, and fruit, and drinking 
enough water will help the bowels to move properly. 
Constipation is not only an unclean habit of the body, 
but it is dangerous, because the waste matter decays 
and poison is carried all over the body. Headaches, 
indigestion, bad breath and chronic fatigue are some of 
the resulis. 

5. Keep Clean — A Girl Scout should be sure that 
the air, water and food that she allows to enter her body 
are clean. Be sure that they are pure when they reach 
her, and keep them so by keeping her body, clothes and 
room clean with the help of sun, soap and water. You 
have probably heard of germs, microbes and bacteria. 
These are names for the same organisms, which are 
tiny forms of plant life unseen by the eye, and of which 
our unaided senses give us no knowledge. They exist 
everywhere and in many forms. Most of them are 
harmless to human life, and many of them are useful, 
as, for example, one that grows on the roots of peas 
and beans and helps the plants to extract nitrogen from 
the air. Some bacteria, however, are harmful, and these 
are known as disease germs, as they are active in pro- 
ducing diseases, especially those diseases which we know 
as contagious. The dangerous germs nearly all live in 
dust and dirt and in dark places. When we clean house 
and dispose of waste material and bring air and sunlight 
into dark and dirty places we are doing more than re- 


moving unpleasant sights and smells, we are destroying 
the breeding places of disease. 

Every girl wants a clear skin. Proper food, water 
and exercise give this ; but it is also necessary to keep 
the surface clean by taking a hot bath with soap at least 
twice a week, and a cold or tepid sponge and rubdown 
the other days. Besides the loose dirt which comes on 
the body from the outside, perspiration and oil come 
from the inside through the skin pores, and when ac- 
cumulated give a disagreeable odor. Special attention is 
needed to guard against this odor, particularly under the 
armpits, and soap and water should be used daily. A 
hot bath is relaxing and opens the pores. A cold bath 
is stimulating and closes the pores. A hot bath is best 
taken at night, or if taken in the morning, follow by a 
cool sponge or shower. Do not take a cold plunge bath 
unless advised to do so by a physician. 

Always wash the hands immediately before handling 
or preparing food and before eating. Always wash 
hands after going to the bathroom. Keep nails short, 
and clean with nail brush each time the hands are washed 
and with orange stick when necessary. 

During menstruation it is particularly important to 
keep the body and clothes scrupulously clean, by bathing 
or washing with plenty of water. 

Hair — Air and a good brushing every day will keep 
the hair in good condition. It should be washed once 
in two weeks. Wash with hot soapsuds and rinse thor- 
oughly, using first hot, then cooler, and finally cold 
water. Keep the hair brush clean by washing in cold 
water and soap and a little ammonia at least once a 
week. The brush should be dried in the sun, not by 
artificial heat. 

Ears — Keep the outer surfaces of the ears clean, but 



leave the inner part alone. Do not poke for wax or 
put oil in the ear. 

Feet— Bathe, the feet in hot water at night, wnen tired. 
In the morning bathe with cold water after hot, to harden 
them for walking. Keep the toenails clean, and cut evenly. 

Teeth — Next to a fresh, sweet skin the most beautiful 
feature of a truly beautiful woman is her teeth. The 
basis of beautiful teeth is a clean mouth. Teeth should 
be brushed at least twice a day. The best times are after 
breakfast and the last thing before going to bed. A brush 
with medium soft bristles should be used. Clean a new 
brush thoroughly with soap and water and soak in cold 
water to set the bristles. A toothbrush should be cleansed 
and aired and if possible sunned every day. Never use 
a brush that has begun to lose its bristles, or which has 
become caked or yellow. Paste or powder that is not 
gritty should be used. Always brush away from the 
gums ; that is, brush the upper teeth down, and the lower 
teeth up. Clean the roof of the mouth and the tongue. 

It is a good plan to have the teeth examined at least 
every six months. Then any repairs or cleaning that 
may be needed can be easily attended to and much future 
pain, trouble and expense saved. 

Eyes — Wash eyes carefully for "sleepers" in the morn- 
ing. Bathing with alternate hot and cold will rest and 
strengthen the muscles. 

General Safeguards — Do not use public towels or 
drinking cups. 

Do not use towels, handkerchiefs or other toilet articles 
or glasses or cups or table utensils used by others. 

Avoid sneezing or coughing into another person's 


Every Girl Scout should know her measurements, in- 
cluding her height, her weight, her waist measure, her 
chest girth and her chest expansion. Not only are these 


things convenient to know when ordering uniforms and 
buying clothes, but any physical director, gymnasium 
teacher or doctor can tell her if these are in good propor- 
tion for her age and general development and advise her 
as to how she may go about to improve them if they 
need it. 

The accompanying table (given in the last section of 
the Health Record) shows the right height and weight 
for girls at dififerent ages. The way to consult it is as 
follows : 

First, find your height by measuring yourself without 
shoes against a wall. The best way to do is to have 
someone lay a ruler on top of your head so that it ex- 
tends to the wall and touches it at right angles. Then 
the place should be marked and the distance measured 
with a yard stick or tape. Count a half inch as the next 
highest inch; thus if you measure 59^ inches call this 
60. If you measure 59^4 count it as an even 59. Stand 
with heels against the wall, and head high: "Stand 

Second, find your weight with only indoor clothes on. 
Take the weight to the nearest pound, counting as be- 
fore a half pound or three-quarters as the next highest 
and disregard the amounts less than one-half. 

Then take your card and look along the top row for 
the age to which you are nearest, counting six months 
past one year mark as the next year. Thus, if you are 
within six months of being 13, count yourself 13. 

Then look at the left-hand upright row of figures and 
find your height in inches. 

Then with a rule or paper find the corresponding num- 
ber of pounds for your height and age. 

You will see that a girl may be any number of inches 
tall within wide limits, but her weight mugt correspond 
to her height rather than simply to her age. 


A girl should be within ten per cent of the proper 
v/eight for her age and height. If you find that you 
are underweight, do not be frightened or discouraged, 
as it is quite easy to get up to normal by following the 
health rules, particularly those relating to food, water 
and sleep. Drink as much milk as possible, and eat fresh 
vegetables and don't spoil your appetite by eating too 
many sweets or nibbling between meals. If you find 
that after a month you are still more than ten per cent 
underweight, then ask your parents if you can see the 
doctor or consult the school physician. 

A Health Record Chart for Girl Scouts 

Girl Scouts who are working for the "The Health 
Winner" badge should keep an account of their progress 
for three months, and a good way to do it is to Iiave a 
Health Chart to fill out daily and bring the record for 
each week to their Captain, at troop meeting. The chart 
given below is suggested as a model, and copies will be 
obtainable from National Headquarters, but troops can 
make up their own. 

Every Scout is naturally a Health Crusader, and she 
can use the blanks provided by the National Modern 
Health Crusade if she so desires. 

In this case the first two points can be combined, 
which relate to washing hands and face, and an addi- 
tional point inserted in place of the second, to the 
effect that "I ate no sweets, candy, cake or ice cream 
between meals today." 
































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Our bodies are like machines that need frequent oiling 
and testing to see that all parts are working right. 

Or they are like instruments that must be tuned before 
they are played. 

If this is not done, the machinery gets rusty and 
clogged, or the instrument gets out of tune and makes 
horrid noises. 

That is the way it is with our bodies ; our muscles and 
joints should be bent and stretched every day to take the 
kinks out, and keep them strong and flexible. 

The best way is to tune up every morning for just a 
few minutes before you put on your clothes, and then 
again at night to rest the tired parts and exercise the 
parts that have not been used, so you can even things 

The Right Position 

First of all try to stand in the right position. 

Stand with the feet side by side, a few inches apart 
and pointed straight ahead. Many people think you 
should turn out your toes because they think it looks 
better. This is not natural. If you stand on a step 
with one foot even with the edge, and let the other foot 
hang over the step below, it will hang parallel with the 
foot you are standing on. That is the way it is meant 
to go, and people who turn out their toes do so much 

< I, " .^ ^ 

walking sideways that they have to travel much farther 
than if they kept their feet pointed in the direction they 
want to go. 




Then your legs should come up straight from your 
ankles; don't stand either on your heels or your toes, but 
right over the highest part of the arch, which i"^ the 
strongest part, and best fitted to bear your weight when 
you are standing still, and brings your hips up to just 
the right place to hold your body. 

In the lower part of your body are some big heavy 
bones shaped somewhat like a bowl. This bowl is bal- 
anced on the top of your legs, and holds most of your 
organs. If this bowl is balanced just right, the organs 
remain in place, the way they are meant to be, but if it 
is not balanced right, the contents are tipped so that they 
would come tumbling out if the muscles intended for other 
work did not hold them in. This is hard on these muscles 
which have their own work to do, and if they are used 
to hold up things that should keep their own balance, 
sooner or later they give way, and there is a sad accident, 
or a general slump. Then instead of saying, "That foolish 
person always stood in the wrong position and of course 
her insides got out of place," we say, "Poor dear so-and- 
so has given out from overwork and has acute indigestion, 
or a 'floating kidney,' or 'a. bad liver,' How could it 
have happened?" 

If your underpinning is all right it is not difficult to be 
straight above. 

Let your shoulders hang easily in a straight line under 
your ears, in the position they will naturally take if from 
side stretch (fig. 3) the arms drop easily to the side. 
Don't arch your chest and throw your shoulders back! 
This is not a slump and does not mean to let your back 
bow out. If your shoulders are easy you can straighten 
your back and your head will balance itself, and there 
you are : a straight upstanding Scout, ready for what 
comes next. 

Remember : a) Feet pointing straight ahead. 



b) Body balanced on legs coming up 

straight from ankles. 

c) Shoulders easy under ears. 

This gives a straight line from top of head through 
shoulders and hips to between ankles. 
General Rules 

Stretch to the very tips of your middle fingers — stretch- 
ing makes your muscles flexible. 

Breathe in as arms rise and out as they fall. 

Stand tall. 

Sit tall. 

Remember the straight line that comes from the top 
of your head down to between your ankles. 

Keep limber, don't let your knees grow stiff. 

Sit crosslegged on the floor. Sit on your heels. 

Rise without help from your hands. 
The Exercises 

Now tune up ; begin by repeating each exercise four 
times; then increase to 8, 12, or 16; never more than 16. 

1. Stretch arms down (fig. 1). Swing them forward 
and stretch up and slightly forward (fig. 2), breath- 
ing deep. Let them fall breathing out. Do this 
slowly counting, up 1 down 3. 

2. From (fig. 1) swing arms forward and up (fig. 2) 
and out to side stretch (fig. 3) coming to full deep 
breath and stretch as far as you can — count 3. Up 
1 — side 2 — down 3 — breathing out. Don't hurry, 
take time to breathe deep. 

3. Stretch arms down, without bending anywhere. Two 
counts ; down 1 — relax 2. 

4. From arms down (fig. 1) to side stretch (fig. 3). 
Two counts ; to side 1 — down 2. This may be done 
quickly with vigor. 

5. From side stretch palms up to upward stretch (fig. 
2)— two counts — up 1 — side 2. 


6. From arms down roll shoulders and arms out and 
back, stretching arms back and down (fig. 4). Two 
counts out and down 1 — back to position 2. 

7. Hands palms down, tips of middle fingers touching, 
thumb touching chest, elbows level with shoulders 
(fig. 5) ; jerk elbows back keeping them up even 
with shoulders (fig. 6). Two counts, — jerk 1 — 
back to place 2. 

8. From side stretch (fig. 3) twist body from waist 
up, without moving hips (fig. 7). Twist from side 
to side. Two counts — twist 1 — front 2 — twist 1 — 
front 2. 

9. From side stretch (fig. 3) bend body from side to 
side keeping straight line from tip of one middle 
finger to tip of other (fig. 8). Two counts — bend 
1 — back to position 2 — alternate sides. 

10. Bend right knee and kick yourself (fig. 9) ; left 
knee same. Two counts — kick right 1 — kick left 

2. Repeat slowly then double quick (running in 
place) . 

11. Bend right knee and hip, bringing knee nearly up 
to chest without bending body (fig. 10) ; left same — 
slowly. Then double quick bringing knee only as 
high as hip. 

12. Place hands at back of neck (fig. 11) and rise on 
toes, bend knees (fig. 12) and rise keeping body up- 
right (do not spread knees or touch heels. If this 
exercise is too difficult balance with arms side 
stretch, bring arms down to touch floor as you bend, 
and to upward stretch as you rise). Count 4: — on 
toes 1 — bend 2 — up on toes 3 — standing position 4. 

13. From upward stretch (fig. 2) bend and touch floor 
in front of toes (fig. 13). Count two slowly: down 



1 — up 2. Breathe out as you come down — in as 
you come up. 

14. Neck Exercises. Sit crosslegged on floor — hands on 
knees : head up — chin parallel with the floor. 

a) turn head to right and then to left — 4 counts — 
right 1— front 2— left 3— front 4. 

b) droop head from side to side (fig. 14) ; four 
counts — right 1 — up 2 — left 3 — up 4. 

c) drop chin forward (fig. 15) ; straighten and 
drop head back (fig. 16). Count A — down 1 — 
up 2 — back 3 — up 4. 

d) turn head and face right (fig. 17) drop chin 1 — 
up 2 — back 3 (fig. 18) up 4; keep looking in 
same direction only up and down; same to left. 

e) goose-neck; facing front stretch chin out as far 
as possible (fig. 19) ; then down and in and up. 
Count A — out 1 — down 2 — in 3 — to straight posi- 
tion 4. 

15. Lie down on your back and raise first one foot and 
then the other without bending the knee, two counts 
— up 1 — down 2. 

16. Raise both feet without bending knees and touch 
the floor over your head (fig. 20). Lower slowly. 

17. Raise body without bending back, and (if you can) 
without helping yourself with your hand, and touch 
your toes with your hands, and your knees with 
your forehead, without bending your knee^ (fig. 










The following section is made up of excerpts from the Wood- 
craft Manual for Girls, 1918, by Ernest Thompson Seton, copy- 
right by Ernest Thompson Seton, and the Woodcraft League of 
America, Inc. ; used by the kind permission of the author, the 
Woodcraft League of America, and the publishers, Doubleday, 
Page & Company. 


Do you know the twelve secrets of the woods? 

Do you know the umbrella that stands up spread to 
show that there is a restaurant in the cellar? 

Do you know the "manna-food" that grows on the 
rocks, summer and winter, and holds up its hands in the 
Indian sign of "innocence," so all who need may know 
how good it is? 

Do you know the vine that climbs above the sedge to 
whisper on the wind "There are cocoanuts in my base- 
ment" ? 

Can you tell why the rabbit puts his hind feet down 
ahead of his front ones as he runs? 

Can you tell why the squirrel buries every other nut 
and who it was that planted those shag-barks along the 
fence ? 

Can you tell what the woodchuck does in midwinter 
and on what day? 

Have you learned to know the pale villain of the 
open woods — the deadly amanita, for whose fearful 
poison no remedy is known? 

Have you learned to overcome the poison ivy that was 
once so feared — now so lightly held by those who know? 

Have you proved the balsam fir in all its fourfold gifts 
— as Christmas tree, as healing balm, as consecrated bed, 
as wood of friction fire? 

Do you know the wonderful medicine that is in the 

Have you tasted the bread of wisdom, the treasure that 





^"^"^x, use. 

^ V 5- 

, IE3 


cures much igorance, that is buried in the aisle of Jack- 
o-Pulpit's Church? 

Can you tell what walked around your tent on the 
thirtieth night of your camp-out? 

Then are you wise. You have learned the twelve 
secrets of the woods. But if you have not, come and 
let us teach you. 


When the dew is on the grass, 

Rain will never come to pass. 

When the grass is dry at night. 

Look for rain before the light. 

When grass is dry at morning light, 

Look for rain before the night. 

Three days' rain will empty any sky. 

A deep, clear sky of Reckless blue 

Breeds storms within a day or two. 

When the wind is in the east. 

It's good for neither man nor beast. 

When the wind is in the north, 

The old folk should not venture forth. 

When the wind is in the south, 

It blows the bait in the fishes' mouth. 

When the wind is in the west. 

It is of all the winds the best. 

An opening and a shetting 

Is a sure sign of a wetting. 
(Another version) 

Open and shet. 

Sure sign of wet. 
(Still another) 

It's lighting up to see to rain. 


Evening red and morning gray 
Sends the traveler on his way. 
Evening gray and morning red 
Sends the traveler home to bed. 
Red sky at morning, the shepherd takes warning; 
Red sky at night is the shepherd's delight. 
If the sun goes down cloudy Friday, sure of a clear 

If a rooster crows standing on a fence or high place, 
it will clear. If on the ground, it doesn't count. 
Between eleven and two 

You can tell what the weather is going to do. 
Rain before seven, clear before eleven. 
Fog in the morning, bright sunny day. 
If it rains, and the sun is shining at the same time, 
the devil is whipping his wife and it will surely rain 

If it clears ofif during the night, it will rain again 

Sun drawing water, sure sign of rain. 
A circle round the moon means "storm." As many 
stars as are in circle, so many days before it will rain. 
Sudden heat brings thunder. 

A storm that comes against the wind is always a 

East wind brings rain. 

West wind brings clear, bright, cool weather. 
North wind brings cold. 

South wind brings heat. (On Atlantic coast.) 
The rain-crow or cuckoo (both species) is supposed by 
all hunters to foretell rain, when its "Kow, kow, kow" is 
long and hard. 

So, also, the tree-frog cries before rain. 


Swallows flying low is a sign of rain; high, of clearing 

The rain follows the wind, and the heavy blast is just 
before the shower, 


What weighs an ounce in the morning, weighs a pound 
at night. 

A pint is a pound the whole world round. 

Allah reckons not against a man's allotted time the 
days he spends in the chase. 

If there's only one, it isn't a track, it's an accident. 

Better safe than sorry. 

No smoke without fire. 

The blue jay doesn't scream without reason. 

The worm don't see nuffin pretty 'bout de robin's song. 
— ( Darkey. ) 

Ducks flying over head in the woods are generally 
pointed for water. 

If the turtles on a log are dry, they have been there 
half an hour or more, which means no one has been near 
to alarm them. 

Cobwebs across a hole mean "nothing inside." 

Whenever you are trying to be smart, you are going 
wrong. Smart Aleck always comes to grief. 

You are safe and winning, when you are trying to be 


If you should miss your way, the first thing to remem- 
ber is like the Indian, "You are not lost; it is the teepee 
that is lost." It isn't serious. It cannot be so, unless 
you do something foolish. 

The first and most natural thing to do is to get on a 
hill, up a tree, or other high lookout, and seek for some 


landmark near the camp. You may be sure of these 
things : 

You are not nearly as far from camp as you think you 

Your friends will soon find you. 

You can help them best by signalling. 

The worst thing you can do is to get frightened. The 
truly dangerous enemy is not the cold or the hunger, so 
much as the fear. It is fear that robs the wanderer of 
his judgment and of his limb power ; it is fear that turns 
the passing experience into a final tragedy. Only keep 
cool and all will be well. 

If there is snow on the ground, you can follow your 
back track. 

If you see no landmark, look for the smoke of the fire. 
Shout from time to time, and wait ; for though you have 
been away for hours it is quite possible you are within 
earshot of your friends. If you happen to have a gun, 
fire it off twice in quick succession on your high lookout, 
then wait and listen. Do this several times and wait 
plenty long enough, perhaps an hour. If this brings no 
help, send up a distress signal — that is, make two smoke 
fires by smothering two bright fires with green leaves and 
rotten wood, and keep them at least fifty feet apart, or 
the wind will confuse them. Two shots or two smokes 
are usually understood to mean "I am in trouble." Those 
in camp on seeing this should send up one smoke, which 
means "Camp is here." 

In a word, "keep cool, make yourself comfortable, 
leave a record of your travels, and help your friends to 
find you." 


No one truly knows the woods until he can find with 
certainty a number of wild plants that furnish good food 


for man in the season when food is scarce ; that is, in the 
winter or early spring. 

During summer and autumn there is always an ahund- 
ance of familiar nuts and herries, so that we may rule 
them out, and seek only for edible plants and roots that 
are available when nuts and berries are not. 

Rock Tripe. The most wonderful of all is probably 
the greenish-black rock tripe, found on the bleakest, high- 
est rocks in the northern parts of this continent. There 
is a wonderful display of it on the cliffs about Mohonk 
Lake, in the Catskills. Richardson and Franklin, the 
great northern explorers, lived on it for months. It must 
be very carefully cooked or it produces cramps. First 
gather and wash it as clear as possible of sand and grit, 
washing it again and again, snipping off the gritty parts 
of the roots where it held onto the mother rock. Then 
roast it slowly in a pan till dry and crisp. Next boil 
it for one hour and serve it either hot or cold. It looks 
like thick gumbo soup with short, thick pieces of black 
and green leaves in it. It tastes a little like tapioca with 
a slight flavoring of licorice. On some it acts as a purge. 

Basswood Browse or Buds. As a child I ate these raw 
in quantities, as did also most of my young friends, but 
they will be found the better for cooking. They are 
particularly good and large in the early spring. The 
inmost bark also has food value, but one must disfigure 
the tree to get that, so we leave it out. 

Slippery Elm. The same remarks apply to the buds 
and inner bark of the slippery elm. They are nutritious, 
acceptable food, especially when cooked with scraps of 
meat or fruit for flavoring. Furthermore, its flowers 
come out in the spring before the leaves, and produce 
very early in the season great quantities of seed which 
are like little nuts in the middle of a nearly circular wing. 
These ripen by the time the leaves are half grown and 


Wi(d Food -Plants 



have always been an important article of food among the 
wild things. 

Many Indian tribes used to feed during famine times 
on the inner bark of cedar and white birch, as well as on 
the inner bark of the slippery elm and basswood, but these 
cannot be got without injury to the tree, so omit them. 

When the snow is off the ground the plants respond 
quickly, and it is safe to assume that all the earliest 
flowers come up from big, fat roots. 

A plant can spring up quickly in summer, gathering the 
material of growth from the air and soil, but a plant 
coming up in the early spring is doing business at a time 
when it cannot get support from its surroundings, and 
cannot keep on unless it has stored up capital from the 
summer before. This is the logic of the storehouse in 
the ground for these early comers. 

Wapato. One of the earliest is wapato, or duck potato, 
also called common Arrowleaf, or Sagittaria. It is found 
in low, swampy flats, especially those that are under water 
for part of the year. Its root is about as big as a walnut 
and is good food, cooked, or raw. These roots are not 
at the point where the leaves come out but at the ends 
of the long roots. 

Bog Potato. On the drier banks, usually where the 
sedge begins near a swamp, we find the bog potato, or 
Indian potato. The plant is a slender vine with three, 
five, or seven leaflets in a group. On its roots in spring 
are from one to a dozen potatoes, varying from an men 
to three inches in diameter. They taste like a cross be- 
tween a peanut and a raw potato, and are very good 
cooked or raw. 

Indian Cucumber., In the dry woods one is sure to 
see the pretty umbrella of the Indian cucumber. Its root 
is white and crisp and tastes somewhat like a cucumber, 
is one to four inches long, and good food raw or boiled. 


Calopogon. This plant looks like a kind of grass with 
an onion for a root, but it does not taste of onions and is 
much sought after by wild animals and wild people. It 
is found in low or marshy places. 

Hog Peanuts. In the early spring this plant will be 
found to have a large nut or fruit, buried under the leav- 
or quite underground in the dry woods. As summer 
goes by the plant uses up this capital, but on its roots it 
grows a lot of little nuts. These are rich food, but very 
small. The big nut is about an inch long and the little 
ones on the roots are any size up to that of a pea. 

Indian Turnip or Jack-in-the-Pulf^t. This is well 
known to all our children in the East. The root is the 
most burning, acrid, horrible thing in the woods when 
raw, but after cooking becomes quite pleasant and is 
very nutritious. 

Prairie or Indian Turnip, Bread-root or Pomme- 
hlanche of the Prairie. This is found on all the prairies 
of the Missouri region. Its root was and is a staple article 
of food with the Indians. The roots are one to three 
inches thick and four to twelve inches long. 

Solomons Seal. The two Solomon's Seals (true and 
false) both produce roots that are long, bumpy store- 
houses of food. 

Crinkle-root. Every school child in the country digs 
out and eats the pleasant peppery crinkle-root. It abounds 
in the rich dry woods. 


We have in America about two thousand diiYerent kinds 
of Mushrooms or Toadstools; they are the same thing. 
Of these, probably half are wholesome and delicious; 
but about a dozen of them are deadly poison. 

There is no way to tell them, except by knowing each 
kind and the recorded results of experience with each 


kind. The story about cooking with silver being a test 
has no foundation ; in fact, the best way for the Wood- 
craft Boy or Girl is to know definitely a dozen dangerous 
kinds and a score or more of the wholesome kinds and 
let the rest alone, 

Sporeprint. The first thing in deciding the nature of a 
toadstool is the sporeprint, made thus : Cut ofif the stem 
of the toadstool and lay the gills down on a piece of gray 
paper under a vessel of any kind. After a couple of 
hours, lift the cap, and radiating lines of spores will 
appear on the paper. If it is desired to preserve these, 
the paper should be first covered with thin mucilage. The 
color of these spores is the first step in identification. 

All the deadly toadstools have ivhite spores. 

No black-spored toadstool is known to be poisonous, 

The only deadly poisonous kinds are the Amanitas, 
Others may purge and nauseate or cause vomiting, but it 
is believed that every recorded death from toadstool 
poisoning was caused by an Amanita, and unfortunately 
they are not only widespread and abundant, but they are 
much like the ordinary table mushrooms. They have, 
however, one or two strong marks : their stalk always 
grows out of a "poison cup," which shows either as a 
cup or as a bulb; they have zvhite or yellow gills, a ring 
around the stalk, and white spores. 

Deadly Toadstools 

All the deadly toadstools known in North America are 
pictured on the plate, or of the types shown on the plate. 

The Deadly Amanita may be brownish, yellowish, or 

The Yellow Amanita of a delicate lemon color. 

The White Amanita of a pure silvery, shiny white. 

The Fly Amanita with cap pink, brown, yellow, or red 



Amanita phaUoId^* 


in the centre, shaded into yellow at the edge, and patched 
with fragments of pure white veil. 

The Frosty Amanita with yellow cap, pale cadmium 
in centre, elsewhere yellowish white, with white patches 
on warts. 


All are very variable in color, etc. 

But all agree in these things. They have gills, w^hich 
are zvliitc or yclloiv, a ring on the stalk, a cup at tJic base, 
zvhite spores, and are deadly poison. 

In Case of Poisoning 

If by ill chance any one has eaten a poisonous Amanita, 
the effects do not begin to show till sixteen or eighteen 
hours afterward — that is, long after the poison has passed 
through the stomach and began its deadly worK on tlie 
nerve centres. 

Symptoms. Vomiting and purging, "the discharge 
from the bowels being watery with small flakes suspend- 
ed, and sometimes containing blood," cramps in the ex- 
tremities. The pulse is very slow and strong at first, 
but later weak and rapid, sometimes sweat and saliva 
pour out. Dizziness, faintness, and blindness, the skin 
clammy, cold, and bluish or livid ; temperature low with 
dreadful tetanic convulsions, and finally stupor. (Mcll- 
vaine and Macadam, p. 627.) 

Remedy : "Take an emetic at once, and send for a phy- 
sician with instructions to bring hypodermic syringe and 
atropine sulphate. The dose is 1/180 of a grain, and 
doses should be continued heroically until 1/20 of a grain 
is administered, or until, in the physician's opinion, a 
proper quantity has been injected. Where the victim is 
critically ill the 1/20 of a grain may be administered." 
(Mcllvaine and Macadam XVII.) 

Wholesome Toadstools 

It is a remarkable fact that all the queer freaks, like 
clubs and corals, the cranks and tomfools, in droll shapes 
and Satanic colors, the funny poisonous looking Morels, 
Inkcaps, and Boleti are good wholesome food, but the 
deadly Amanitas are like ordinary Mushrooms, except 
that they have grown a little thin, delicate, and anaemic. 



Beefsteak mushrooms. 

tsky coftiiau3* 

All the Puffballs are good before they begin to puff, 
that is as long as their flesh is white and firm. 

All the colored coral toadstools are good, but the White 
Clavarid is said to be rather sickening. 


All of the Morels are safe and delicious. 

So also is Inky Coprinus, usually found on manure 
piles. The Beefsteak Mushroom grows on stumps — 
chiefly chestnut. It looks like raw meat and bleeds when 
cut. It is quite good eating. 

So far as known no black-spored toadstool is unwhole- 

The common Mushroom is distinguished by its general 
shape, its pink or brown gills, its white flesh, brown 
spores, and solid stem. 


Snakes are to the animal world what toadstools are to 
the vegetable world — wonderful things, beautiful things, 
but fearsome things, because some of them are deadly 

Taking Mr. Raymond L. Ditmars* as our authority, 
we learn that out of one hundred and eleven species of 
snakes found in the United States, seventeen are poi- 
sonous. They are found in every state, but are most 
abundant in the Southwest. 

These may be divided into Coral Snakes, Moccasins, 
and Rattlers. 

The coral snakes are found in the Southern States. 
They are very much like harmless snakes in shape, but 
are easily distinguished by their remarkable colors, 
"broad alternating rings of red and black, the latter bor- 
dered with very narrow rings of yellow." 

The Rattlesnakes are readily told at once by the rattle. 

But the Moccasins are not so easy. There are two 
kinds : the Water Moccasin, or Cotton-mouth, found in 
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Louis- 
iana, and the Copperhead, which is the Highland, or 

* This article is chiefly a condensation of his pamphlet on 
"Poisonous Snakes of the United States," and is made with his 
permission and approval. 


of To\$oinovs vSnsv/ces" 





Northern Moccasin or Pilot Snake, found from Massa- 
chusetts to Florida and west to Illinois and Texas. 

Here are distinguishing marks : The Moccasins, as well 
as the Rattlers, have on each side of the head, between 
the eye and nostril, a deep pit. 

The pupil of the eye is an upright line, as in a cat ; the 
harmless snakes have a round pupil. 

The Moccasins have a single row of plates under the 
tail, while the harmless snakes have a double row. 

The Water Moccasin is dull olive with wide black 
transverse bands. 

The Copperhead is dull hazel brown, marked across 
the back with dumb-bells of reddish brown; the top of 
the head more or less coppery. 

Both Moccasins and Rattlers have a flat triangular 
head, which is much wider than the thin neck ; while 
most harmless snakes have a narrow head that shades off 
into the neck. 

Rattlesnakes are found generally distributed over the 
United States, southern Ontario, southern Alberta, and 

How Does a Snake Bite 

Remember, the tongue is a feeler, not a sting. The 
"stinging" is done by two long hollow teeth, or fangs, 
through which the poison is squirted into the wound. 

The striking distance of a snake is about one-third the 
creature's length, and the stroke is so swift that no crea- 
ture can dodge it. 

The snake can strike farthest and surest when it is 
ready coiled, but can strike a little way when traveling. 

You cannot disarm a poisonous snake without killing 
it. If the fangs are removed others come quickly to take 
their place. In fact, a number of small, half-grown fangs 
are always waiting ready to be developed. 



In Case of Snake Bite 

First, keep cool, and remember that the bite of Amer- 
ican snakes is seldom fatal if the proper measures are 

You must act at once. Try to keep the poison from 
getting into the system by a tight bandage on the arm 
or leg (it is sure to be one or the other) just above the 
wound. Next, get it out of the wound by slashing the 
wound two or more ways with a sharp knife or razor 
at least as deep as the puncture. Squeeze it — wash it 
out with permanganate of potash dissolved in water to 
the color of wine. Suck it out with the lips (if you have 
no wounds in the mouth it will do you no harm there). 
Work, massage, suck, and wash to get all the poison out. 
After thorough treatment to remove the venom the liga- 
ture may be removed. 

"Pack small bits of gauze into the wounds to keep 
them open and draining, then dress over them with 
gauze saturated with any good antiseptic solution. Keep 
the dressing saturated and the wounds open for at least 
a week, no matter how favorable may be the symptoms." 

Some people consider whiskey or brandy a cure for 
snake bite. There is plenty of evidence that many have 
been killed by such remedies, and little that they have 
ever saved any one, except perhaps when the victim was 
losing" courage or becoming sleepy. 

In any case, send as fast as you can for a doctor. He 
should come equipped with hypodermic syringe, tubes of 
anti-venomous serum and strychnine tablets. 

Harmless Snakes 
Far the greatest number of our snakes are harmless, 
beautiful, and beneficient. They are friendly to the farm- 
er, because, althoigh some destroy a few birds, chickens, 
ducklings, and game, the largest part of their food is 
mice and insects. The Blacksnake, the Milk Snake, and 


one or two others, will bite in self-defence, but they have 
no poison fangs, and the bite is much like the prick of 
a bramble. 


(See Plate of Stars and Principal Constellations) 
So far as there is a central point in our heavens, that 
point is the pole-star, Polaris. Around this star all the 
stars in the sky seem to turn once in twenty-four hours. 
It is easily discovered by the help of the Big Dipper, 
a part of the Great Bear, known to every country boy and 
girl in the northern half of the world. This is, perhaps, the 
most important star group in our sky, because of its size, 
peculiar form, the fact that it never sets in our latitude, 
and that of its stars, two, sometimes called the Pointers 
always point out the Pole Star. It is called the Dipper 
because it is shaped like a dipper with a long, bent handle. 
Why (the zvhole group) is called the Great Bear is not 
so easy to explain. The classical legend has it that the 
nymph, Calisto, having violated her vow, was changed by 
Diana into a bear, which, after death, was immortalized 
in the sky by Zeus. Another suggestion is that the earliest 
astronomers, the Chaldeans, called these stars "the shin- 
ing ones," and their word happened to be very like the 
Greek arktos (a bear). Another explanation is that ves- 
sels in olden days were named for animals, etc. They 
bore at the prow the carved efifigy of the namesake, and 
if the Great Bear, for example, made several very happy 
voyages by setting out when a certain constellation was 
in the ascendant, that constellation might become known 
as the Great Bear's constellation. Certainly, there is 
nothing in its shape to justify the name. Very few of 
the constellations indeed are like the thing they are called 
after. Their names were usually given for some 



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v-:?- yy 




Th.Tw'.T^i .i; 

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fanciful association with the namesake, rather than for 
resemblance to it. 

The pole-star is really the most important of the stars 
in our sky ; it marks the north at all times ; all the other 
stars seem to swing around it once in twenty-four hours. 
It is the end of the Little Bear's tail ; this constellation 
is sometimes called the Little Dipper. But the Pole-star 
or Polaris, is not a very bright one, and it would be 
hard to identify but for the help of the Pointers of the 
Big Dipper. 

The outside stars (Alpha and Beta) of the Dipper 
point nearly to Polaris, at a distance equal to five times 
the space that separates these two stars of the Dipper's 
outer side. 

Indian names for the Pole-star are the "Home Star," 
and "The Star That Never Moves," and the Big Dipper 
they call the "Broken Back." 

The great Bear is also to be remembered as the hour- 
hand of the woodman's clock. It goes once around the 
North Star in about twenty-four hours, the same way as 
the sun, and for the same reason-^that it is the eatth 
that is going and leaving them behind. 

The time in going around is not exactly twenty-four 
hours, so that the position of the Pointers varies with 
the seasons, but, as a rule, this for woodcraft purposes 
is near enough. The bowl of the Dipper swings four- 
fifths of the width of its own opening in one hour. If 
it went a quarter of the circle, that would mean you had 
slept a quarter of a day, or six hours. 

Every fifteen days the stars seem to be an hour earlier: 
in three months they gain one-fourth of the circle, and 
in a year gain the whole circle. 

According to Flammarion, there are about seven thou- 
sand stars visible to the naked eye, and of these twenty 
are stars of the first magnitude. Fourteen of them are 


visible in the latitude of New York, the others (those 
starred) belong to the South Polar region of the sky. The 
following table of the brightest stars is taken from the 
Revised Harvard Photometry of 1908, the best authority 
on the subject. 


1. Sirius, the Dog Star. 

2. *Canopus, of the Ship. 

3. *Alpha, of the Centaur. 

4. Vega, of the Lyre. 

5. Capella, of the Charioteer. 

6. Arcturus, of the Herdsman. 

7. Rigel, of Orion. 

8. Procyon, the Little Dog-Star. 

9. *Achernar, of Eridanus. 

10. *Beta, of the Centaur. 

11. Altair, of the Eagle. 

12. Betelgueze, of Orion's right shoulder. 

13. *Alpha of the Southern Cross. 

14. Aldebaran, of the Bull's right eye. 

15. Pollux, of the Twins. 

16. Spica, of the Virgin. 

17. Antares, of the Scorpion. 

18. Fomalhaut, of the Southern Fish. 

19. Deneb, of the Swan. 

20. Regulus, of the Lion. 


Orion (O-ri-on), with its striking array of brilliant 
stars, Betelgeuze, Rigel, the Three Kings, etc., is gen- 
erally admitted to be the first constellation in the heavens. 

Orion was the hunter giant who went to Heaven when 
he died, and now marches around the great dome, but 


is seen only in the winter, because during the summer, 
he passes over during daytime. Thus he is still the 
hunter's constellation. The three stars of his belt are 
called the "Three Kings." 

Sirius, the Great Dog-Star, is in the head of Orion's 
Hound, the constellation Canis Major, and following 
farther back is the Little Dog-Star, Procyon, the chief 
star of the constellation Canis Minor. 

In old charts of the stars, Orion is shown with his 
hounds, hunting the bull, Taurus. This constellation is 
recognizable by this diagram ; the red star, Aldebaran, be- 
ing the angry right eye of the Bull. His face is covered 
with a cluster of little stars called the Hyades, and on 
his shoulder are the seven stars, called Pleiades. 

Pleiades (Ply-a-des) can be seen in winter as a cluster 
of small stars between Aldebaran and Angol, or, a line 
drawn from the back bottom, through the front rim of 
the Big Dipper, about two Dipper lengths, touches this 
little group. They are not far from Aldebaran, being 
in the right shoulder of the Bull, They may be con- 
sidered the seven arrow wounds made by Orion, 

Serviss tells us that the Pleiades have a supposed con- 
nection with the Great Pyramid, because "about 2170 
B. c, when the beginning of spring coincided with the 
culmination of the Pleiades at midnight, that wonderful 
group of stars was visible just at midnight, through the 
mysterious southward-pointing passage of the Pyramid. 

On the opposite side of the Polar-star from the Big 
Dipper and nearly as far from it, is a W of five bright 
stars. This is called the Cassiopeia's Chair. It is easily 
found and visible the year round on clear nights. 

Thus we have described ten constellations from which 


the woodcrafter may select the number needed to qual- 
ify, namely, the Little Bear, or Little Dipper, the Big 
Dipper or Big Bear, Cassiopeia's Chair, the Bull, Orion's 
Hound, Orion's Little Dog, the Pleiades and the Hyades ; 
the Lyre (later). 

The Moon 

The moon is one-fourth the diameter of the earth, 
about one-fiftieth of the bulk, and is about a quarter of a 
million miles away. Its course, while very irregular, is 
nearly the same as the apparent course of the sun. It is 
a cold solid body, without any known atmosphere, and 
shines by reflected sunlight. 

The moon goes around the earth in twenty-seven and a 
quarter days. It loses about fifty-one minutes in twenty- 
fours hours ; therefore it rises that much later each suc- 
cessive night on the average, but there are wide devia- 
tions from this average, as for example, the time of 
the Harvest and Hunter's moons in the fall, when the 
full moon rises at nearly the same time for several nights 
in succession. 

According to most authorities, the moon is a piece of 
the earth that broke away some time ago; and it has 
followed its mother around ever since. 

The Stars as Tests of Eyesight 

In the sky are several tests of eyesight which have 
been there for some time and are likely to be. The first 
is the old test of Mizar and Alcor. Mizar, the Horse, 
is the star at the bend of the handle of the Dipper. Just 
above it is a very small star that astronomers call Alcor, 
or the rider. 

The Indians call these two the "Old Squaw and the 
Papoose on Her Back." In the old world, from very 
ancient times, these have been used as tests of eyesight. 
To be able to see Alcor with the naked eye means that 


one has excellent eyesight. So also on the plains, the 
old folks would ask the children at night, "Can you see 
the papoose on the old Squaw's back?" And when the 
youngster saw it and proved that he did by a right 
description, they rejoiced that he had the eyesight which 
is the first requisite of a good hunter. 

One of the oldest of all eye tests is the Pleiades. Poor 
eyes see a mere haze, fairly good see five, good see six, 
excellent see seven. .The rarest eyesight, under the best 
conditions, see up to ten; and, according to Flammarion, 
the record with unaided eyes is thirteen. 
Vega of the Lyre 

If one draw a line from through the back wall of the 
Dipper, that is, from the back bottom star, through the 
one next the handle, and continue it upward for twice 
the total length of the Dipper, it will reach Vega, the 
brightest star in the northern part of the sky, and be- 
lieved to have been at one time the Pole-star — and likely 
to be again. Vega, with the two stars near it, form a 
small triangle. The one on the side next the North Star 
is called Epsillon. If you have remarkably good eyes, 
you will see that it is a double star. 

The Nebula in Orion's Sword 

Just about the middle of Orion's Sword is a fuzzy 
light spot. This might do for blood, only it is the wrong 
color. It is the nebula of Orion. If you can see it with 
the naked eye, you are to be congratulated. 

On the Moon 

When the moon is full, there is a large, dark, oval spot 
on it to the left, as you face it, and close to the east rim, 
almost halfway up ; this is the Plain of Grimaldi ; it is 
about twice the size of the whole State of New Jersey; 
but it is proof of a pair of excellent eyes if you can see 
it at all. 



TTliJ ij theTrail ,Tura to the Right Tura to the Lef t" Important Varnin* 

J'ignj' in Tu;ig"J' 

THiV i,f the Trail) Turn to the Right Turn to the Left/ important Varnii\J! 

tyignj" in Gra^j" 

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ThiJisthe Trail Tura to the Rijht Turn to the Left ImportantVarnin^ 

•yignj- in Blaje^ 

Thiy If the Trail Turn to the Right' Turn to the Left Important Warning 

Jbme lipecial Bla3e5 ui-e'd by Hunters ^VK^urveyor^ 

ATrapto A Trap to Campij'to Campisto iTpecial Adironda k Su-rvf^/oi 
Y(\s\\t Left Right Left Special Line Ikr. 



First among the trail signs that are used by Wood- 
crafters, Indians, and white hunters, and most Hkely to 
be of use to the traveler, are axe blazes on tree trunks. 
Among these some may vary greatly with locality, but 
there is one that I have found everywhere in use with 
scarcely any variation. That is the simple white spot 
meaning, "Here is the trail." 

The Indian in making it may nick off an infinitestimal 
speck of bark with his knife, the trapper with his hatchet 
may make it as big as a dollar, or the settler with his 
heavy axe may stab off half the tree-side; but the sign is 
the same in principle and in meaning, on trunk, log, or 
branch from Atlantic to Pacific and from Hudson Strait 
to Rio Grande. "This is your trail," it clearly says in 
the universal language of the woods. 

There are two ways of employing it : one when it 
appears on back and front of the trunk, so that the trail 
can be run both ways; the other when it appears on but 
one side of each tree, making a blind trail, which can be 
run one way only, the blind trail is often used by trappers 
and prospectors, who do not wish anyone to follow their 
back track. 

But there are treeless regions where the trail must be 
marked ; regions of sage brush and sand, regions of rock, 
stretches of stone, and level wastes of grass or sedge. 
Here other methods must be employed. 

A well-known Indian device, in the brush, is to break a 
twig and leave it hanging. (Second line.) 

Among stones and rocks the recognized sign is one 
stone set on top of another (top line) and in places where 
there is nothing but grass the custom is to twist a tussock 
into a knot {tJiird line). 

These signs are also used in the whole country from 
Maine to California. 



In running a trail one naturally looks straight ahead 
for the next sign; if the trail turned sharply without 
notice one might easily be set wrong, but custom has pro- 
vided against this. The tree blaze for turn "to the right" 
is shown in No. 2, fourth row; "to the left" in No. 3. 
The greater length of the turning blaze seems to be due 
to a desire for emphasis as the same mark set square on, 
is understood to mean "Look out, there is something of 
special importance here." Combined with a long side chip 
means "very important; here turn aside." This is often 
used to mean "camp is close by," and a third sign that 
is variously combined always with the general meaning 
of "warning" or "something of great importance" is a 
threefold blaze. (No. 4 on fourth line.) The combina- 
tion (No. 1 on bottom row) would read "Look out now 
for something of great importance to the right." This 
blaze I have often seen used by trappers to mark the 
whereabouts of their trap or cache. 

Surveyors often use a similar mark — that is, there 
simple spots and a stripe to mean, "There is a stake close 
at hand," while a similar blaze on another tree nearby 
means that the stake is on a line between. 
Stone Signs 

These signs done into stone-talk would be as in the 
top line of the cut. 

These are much used in the Rockies where the trail 
goes over stony places or along stretches of slide rock. 
Grass and Twig Signs 

In grass or sedge the top of the tuft is made to show 
the direction to be followed; if it is a point of great 
importance three tufts are tied, their tops straight if the 
trail goes straight on ; otherwise the tops are turned in 
the direction toward which the course turns. 

The Ojibways and other woodland tribes use twigs for 


a great many of these signs. (See second rozv.) The 
hanging broken twig like the simple blaze means "This 
is the trail." The twig clean broken off and laid on the 
ground across the line of march means, "Here break from 
your straight course and go in the line of the butt end," 
and when an especial zvarning is meant, the butt is pointed 
toward the one following the trail and raised somewhat, 
in a forked twig. If the butt of the twig were raised 
and pointing to the left, it would mean "Look out, camp, 
or ourselves, or the enemy, or the game we have killed 
is out that way." With some, the elevation of the butt 
is made to show the distance of the object; if low the 
object is near, if raised very high the object is a long 
way off. 

These are the principal signs of the trail used by Wood- 
crafters, Indians, and hunters in most parts of America. 
These are the standards — the ones sure to be seen by 
those who camp in the wilderness. 


Signal by Shots 

The old buffalo hunters had an established signal that 
is yet used by the mountain guides. It is as follows : 

Two shots in rapid succession, an interval of five sec- 
onds by the watch, then one shot; this means, "where 
are you?" The answer given at once and exactly the 
same means "Here I am ; what do you want ?" The re- 
ply to this may be one shot, which means, "All right ; I 
only wanted to know where you were." But if the reply 
repeats the first it means, "I am in serious trouble ; come 
as fast as you can." 

Totems in Town 

A totem is an emblem of a man, a group of men, or 
an idea. It has no reference to words or letters. 

Before men knew how to write they needed marks to 
indicate ownership. This mark must be simple and legi- 
ble and was chosen because of something connected with 
the owner or his family. Later some of the trades adopt- 
ed a symbol ; for instance the l)arl3ers in the early days 
were "blood letters" and were closely associated with the 
medical profession. Their totem indicate their business 
and we have the red and white barber pole of today. It 
v/as among the Indians along the West coast of /Vmerica 
that the science and art of totems reached its highest 
development, though they have a world-wide usage and 
go back in history to the earliest times. 

Out of this use of totems as owner marks and signs 
grew the whole science of heraldry and national flags. 

Thanks to the fusion of many small armies into one 
or two big armies, that is, of many tribes into a nation, 
and also to modern weapons which made it possible to 
kill a man farther off than you could see the totem on 



Northern Salt Lake Santa Traffic Bell 

Pacific R. R R. R. F6 R. R. Squad Telephone 

Pawnshop Liberty Army Druggist Ireland 

"Woodcraft Navy 

Sea Power Optician 


Union Pacific Islamism Skating Star Union New York 

R. R. Lines City 


Penna. The Power Canadian Barber Scotland 

R. R. of the Pacific 

People R. R. 

Totems Often Seen 


his shield, national flags have replaced the armorial de- 
vices, and are the principal totems used today. 

But a new possibility has been discovered in modern 
times. Totems w^ill serve the ends of commerce, and a 
great revival of their use is now seen. 

The totem is visible such a long way off and' is under- 
stood by all, whether or not they can read or know our 
language, is copyrightable and advertisable, so that most 
of the great railway companies, etc., now have totems. 

There are not less than one hundred common totems 
used in our streets today. Among the familiar ones seen 
are the American eagle, with white head and tail, the 
Austrian eagle with two heads, the British lion, the Irish 
harp, the French fleur de lis, etc. Among trades the three 
balls of the pawnbroker, the golden fleece of the dry- 
goods man, the mortar and pestle of the druggist, and 
others are well known. Examples of these and others 
are given in the illustration but any wideawake Wood- 
craft Girl will be able to find many others by careful 

V /. 

Christianity Mourning Electric Commercial 

Power Success 







/Ifoof and light -hear ted I take to the open road, 

Healthy, free, the zvorld before me. 

The long brozvn path before me leading wherever I 

Henceforth I ask not good-fortune — / myself am good- 

Henceforth I whimper no more, postpone no more, 
need nothing. 

Strong and content, I Irai'cl the open road 

Now I see the secret of the making of the best persons, 
I: is to grow in the open air, and to eat ami sleep with 
the earth. — IValt JVhitman. 

A Girl Scout likes to hike and camp. She learns 
tc know the stars, and becomes acquainted with the 
plants and animals al)out her. She gains independ- 
ence from her ability to help herself, and health and 
strength from exercise in the sunshine and fresh air. 

These are the good things of camping. The bad 
things are catching cold from damp ground, or insuffi- 
cient Ijedding. uncomfortable nights, and weary feet. 
P)Ut a wise Scout does not rough it. She knows how 
to make herself comfortable by a hundred little dodges. 
The aim of camping is to make things simpler for the 
Camper. She must make up her mind whether she is 

^The passages in this section, from "Camping and Wood- 
craft," by Horace Kephart, are used by permission of the author 
and the publisher, the Macmillaii Company, and are copyrighted, 
1916, by the Macmillan Company. 



ready for an overnight hike, a week-end trip or a good 
vacation in the open air, and plan accordingly. 

For a walking trip a Girl Scout must travel light and 
learn to do with a minimum amount of clothing, uten- 
sils and food. On the other hand, if she is going to 
spend the week out, why not be as comfortable as possi- 
ble? This requires more of an outfit, but it is worth it. 
• To know how to do this one must, of course, have first 
learned the simple rules of camping in Girl Scout train- 


Hikes are a good way to get this training. Extreme 
heat, or a downpour of rain is the only kind of weather 
which should interfere with a hike. Soft rains or 
snowstorms are very pleasant to hike in. 

Skirts are dangerous for cross-country travel on ac- 
count of brambles, rock work and climbing over brooks. 
Knickerbockers or bloomers should be worn. 

In the city when starting off for a hike use squad or 
double file formation through the streets, railroad sta- 
tions, ferries, etc. Silence is maintained in this forma- 

Hiking Order — In the country, even along unused 
roads, hike in single file on the left side of the road. The 
advantage of this formation is that all danger from pass- 
ing traffic in any direction is averted. It is not necessary 
to keep step, and talking, laughing, singing, etc., may be 
indulged in. Permission to break this order is only given 
when in woods, or fields, where there is no danger. 

When returning home use Scout's Pace if weary. 
This helps to make the distance seem shorter. 

Scout's pace is a walking and running device which 
serves to increase endurance when covering a long dis- 
tance. It consists in taking a certain number of walk- 
ing steps followed immediately by the same number of 


running steps, returning to the walking steps, and so 
forth. The number of steps may vary, according to 
the place, nature of the road and object of the walk. 
Fifty steps walking, fifty steps running and alternating 
steadily for twelve minutes will take one a mile, and 
this is one of the measures of distance that is useful to 
know. For ordinary use on hikes the use of twenty 
steps running and walking is preferal)le. 


With a little knowdedge as to the care of her feet the 
city girl can make a good showing at her first camp. 
Prepare feet by brushing vigorously with a dry flesh 
brush. Strengthen muscles by standing on toes in bare 
feet, raising body fifty or seventy-five times. 
I'"requent changes of stockings, bathing of tired feet in 
hot water at night and cold water in the morning, will 
overcome most of the hiker's troubles. The cold water 
hardens the skin. Boric acid powder is good for nat- 
urally damp feet. Blisters should be cleansed with 
iodine, then carefully pricked with a sterile needle to let 
out the water (hold the needle in the flame of a match), 
then washed with iodine and covered with a few layers 
of sterile gauze fastened with adhesive plaster. 

It is desirable to change the stockings every day. Wash 
them at night and hang them out to dry and keep them 
well darned. Two pairs at least are necessary. Never 
risk your health by putting on stockings even slightly 
damp with dew. A hole will cause a blister. Woolen 
stockings are preferable. For very long hikes it helps 
to wear two or three pairs, and to lather the outside of 
the stocking with a cake of soap slightly moistened. 


Shoes should be the shape of the feet and have low, 
wide heels. It rests the feet to take the shoes ofT once 


or twice during a long tramp. Grease the shoes every 
few days with mutton fat or other grease. There is no 
such thing as waterproof leather, but it can be made so 
by being greased. After being wet, shoes should be well 
dried and greased, but should not be dried in a hot place, 
for this would ruin the leather. These may seem trifling 
details, but remember, "no army is stronger than its 

Things to Remember 

Keep the feet straight when walking. If a Girl Scout 
notices the tracks of an Indian, the first hikers in this 
country, she will find them invariably straight forward. 
Scientists have agreed that the dancing school habit of 
turning out toes is one of the causes of flat feet, which 
disqualified so many men for army service. 

Start the walk slowly. Keep the pace of the slowest 
of the party. "Slow and easy goes far in a day." Prac- 
tice deep breathing. Inhale for five steps, hold your 
breath for five counts, and let it out, again counting five. 

Take short steps when climbing. Do not run down 
hill. It causes stififness, for which a hot bath and another 
walk the next day are the best cure. 

When lunch is carried it should be divided among the 
troop. Each Scout should carry her knapsack on her 
back, to leave the hands free. It is a great mistake to 
start on a hike with one's arms laden. 

Do not plan to go too great a distance in the time at 
your disposal. Remember that aside from the time you 
need for going and coming you expect to enjoy your- 
selves cooking and eating, and you need time for both. 
For an over-night hike, when you carry your equipment 
select a spot not more than two miles distant. 

Good things to carry in one's pocket are a drinking 
cup, a geological survey map (ten cents), a small pocket 


compass, a camper's knife, a small soap stone to sharpen 
it, a match box, and a note book and pencil. 

Plan a definite object for the hike. Note how many 
kinds of trees, wild flowers or birds one can find. 

Practice building fires for cooking, or getting material 
for a bed such as balsam, etc. Inquire for points of 
historical interest and make them the goal of the hike. 
There is hardly a town that has not some place connected 
with the early history of the nation. 
Personal Equipment 

Spending the nights under the stars is one of the great 
fascinations of camping. Each person requires two 
waterproof ground cloths or ponchos, two pairs of light 
wool blankets, safety pins, heavy cord, sleeping gar- 
ments, rain coat, and toilet articles, including such things 
as soap, toilet paper, sewing kit, electric flashlight, mir- 
ror, first aid kit, provision for mosquitoes or flies, live 
yards of bar netting, and oil of citronella. 

In order to ensure protection from the rain spread one 
waterproof covering or poncho on the ground using half 
underneath so that the upper half may be folded over 
the head in case of rain. Put blankets under as well as 
over you, and a second waterproof covering over the 


When living out of doors, one may make shift for 
shelter, or even go hungry for a space, but there is no 
substitute for comfortable clothing that is safe to use 
if one would keep well. Horace Kephart, the master 
camper, devotes much space to this subject, and we can 
do no better than to follow his advice from Camping 
and Woodcraft. 

"* * * One soon learns that the difference be- 
tween comfort and misery, if not health and illness, may 


depend on whether he is properly clad. Proper, in this 
case does not mean modish, but suitable, serviceable, 
proven by the touchstone of experience to be best for 
the work or play that is in hand. When you seek a guide 
in the mountains, he looks first in your eyes and then 
at your shoes. If both are right, you are right. 

"The chief uses of clothing are to help the body main- 
tain its normal temperature and to protect it from sun. 
frost, wind, rain and injuries. To help, mind you — the 
body must be allowed to do its share. 

"Perspiration is the heat-regulating mechanism of the 
body. Clothing should hinder its passage from the skin 
as little as possible. For this reason one's garments 
should be permeable to air. The body is cooled by rapid 
evaporation, on the familiar principle of a tropical water 
bag that is porous enough to let some of the water exude. 
So the best summer clothing is that which permits free 
evaporation — and this means all over, from head to heel. 
In winter it is just the same, there should be free passage 
for bodily moisture through the underclothes, but extra 
layers or thickness of outer clothing are needed to hold 
in the bodily heat and to protect one against wind ; even 
so all the garments should be permeable to air. * * *" 

"Underclothing, for any season, should be loosely 
woven, so as to hold air and take up moisture from the 
body. The air confined in the interspaces is a non-con- 
ductor, and so helps to prevent sudden chilling on the 
one hand, and over-heating on the other. A loose tex- 
ture absorbs perspiration but does not hold it — the mois- 
ture is free to pass on to and through the outer garments. 
In town we may indure close woven underwear in sum- 
mer, if thin enough, because we exercised little and can 
bathe and change frequently. In the woods we would 
have to change four times a day to keep * * * as dry. 


"Wool versus Cotton — Permeability also depends upon 
material. Ordinary cotton and linen goods do not per- 
mit rapid evaporation. They absorb moisture from the 
skin, but hold it up to the limit of saturation. Then, 
when they can hold no more, they are clammy, and the 
sweat can only escape by running down one's skin. 

"After hard exertion in such garments, if you sit 
down to rest, or meet a sudden keen wind, as in topping a 
ridge, you are likely to get a chill — and the next thing 
is a 'bad cold' or lumbago, rheumatism, or something 

"Wool, on the contrary is permeable. That is why (if 
of suitable weight and loose weave) it is both cooler in 
summer and warmer in winter than cloth made of vege- 
table fibre. 'One wraps himself in a woolen blanket to 
keep warm — to keep the heat in. He wraps ice in a 
blanket to keep it from melting — to keep the heat out/ 
In other words, wool is the best material to maintain an 
equable normal temperature." 

Camp Site 

"The essentials of a good camp site are these: 

1. Pure water. 

2. Wood that burns well. In cold weather there 
should be either an abundance of sound down wood, or 
some standing hard wood trees that are not too big for 
easy felling. 

3. An open spot level enough for the tent and camp 
fire, but elevated above its surroundings so as to have 
good natural drainage. It must be well above any chance 
overflow from the sudden rise of a neighboring stream. 
Observe the previous flood marks. . . . 

7. Exposure to direct sunlight during a part of the 
day, especially during the early morning hours. 

8. In summer, exposure to whatever breezes may 


l)low ; in cold weather, protection against the prevaiHng 

9. Privacy. 

"Water, wood, and good drainage may Ije all you need 
for a 'one-night stand,' but the other points, too, should 
be considered when selecting a site for a fixed camp. 

"Water — Be particularly careful about the purity of 
your water supply. You come, let us say, to a mountain 
brook, that issues from thick forest. It ripples over clean 
rocks, it bubbles with air, it is clear as crystal and cool 
to your thirsty throat. 'Surely that is good water.' But 
do you know where it comes from? Every mountain 
cabin is built close to a spring-branch. Somewhere up 
that branch there may be a clearing ; in that clearing, a 
house; in that house, a case of dysentery or typhoid 
fever. I have known several cases of infection from 
just such a source. It is not true that running water 
purifies itself. 

"When one must use well-water let him note the sur- 
rounding drainage. If the well is near a stable or out 
house, or if dish water is thrown near it, let it alone. A 
well in sandy soil is more or less filtered by nature, but 
rocky or clayey earth may conduct disease germs a con- 
siderable distance under ground. Never drink from the 
well of an abandoned farm : there is no telling what may 
have fallen into it. 

"A spring issuing from the living rock is worthy of 
confidence. Even if it be but a trickle you can scoop 
out a basin to receive it that soon will clear itself. 

"Sometimes a subaqueous spring may be found near 
the margin of a lake or river by paddling close in shore 
and trailing your hand in the water. When a cold sjDOt 
is noted, go ashore and dig a few feet back from the 
v/ater's edge. I have found such spring exit in the 
Mississippi some distance from the bank, and by weight- 


ing a canteen, tying a string to it and another to the 
stopper,- have brought up cool water from the river bed. 

"Disease germs are of animal, not vegetable origin. 
Still waters are not necessarily unwholesome, even though 
there is rotten vegetation in them. The water of cedar 
and cypress swamps is good to drink wherever there is 
a deep pool of it, unless polluted from some outside 
source. Lake water is safe if no settlements are on its 
border; but even so large a body as Lake Champlain has 
been condemned by state boards of health because of the 
sewage that runs into it. 

■'When a stream is in flood it is likely to be contami- 
nated by decayed animal matter. 

"Alkaline Water — When traveling in an alkali coun- 
try carry some vinegar or limes or lemons, or (better) 
a glass stoppered bottle of hydrochloric acid. One tea- 
spoonful of hydrochloric (muriatic) neutralizes about a 
gallon of water, and if there should be a little excess it 
will do no harm but rather assist digestion. In default 
of acid you may add a little Jamaica ginger and sugar 
to the water, making a weak ginger tea. 

"Muddy Water — I used to clarify Mississippi water by 
stirring corn meal in it and letting it settle, or by stirring 
a. lump of alum in it until the mud began to precipitate, 
and then decanting the clear water. Lacking these, one 
can take a good handful of grass, tie it roughly in the 
form of a cone six or eight inches high, invert it, pour 
water slowly into the grass and a runnel of compara- 
tively clear water will trickle down through the small 

"Stagnant Water — A traveler may be reduced to the 
extremity of using stagnant or even putrid water; but 
this should never be done wthout first boiling it. Some 
charred wood from the camp fire should be boiled with 
the water; then skim ofif the skum, strain, and set in 







|k(' ' f 

^ ■■•..J-"" ..-■'^-^ ■. 


v/ater aside to cool. Boiling sterilizes, and charcoal 
deodorizes. * * *" 

Arriving at Camp 

As soon as the camp site is decided upon locate the 
tent. (This should be done in advance when the party 
is of any size). Each tent should be about twenty-five 
feet from the next, on a dry place and easy to drain in 
case of rain, and so placed as to have the sun in the 
m.orning and the shade in the afternoon. Each tent 
should be trenched and placed some distance from the 
water supply and from the latrine. 


"For fixed camps, situated where there are wagon 
roads or other adequate means of transportation, the 
best cloth shelter is a wall tent, rectangular or square, 
of strong and rather heavy material. * * * '^he best 
all-round size of wall tent for two people, if weight and 
bulk and cost are of any consequence, if the so-called 
9x9 or a 9 x 12, built with 33^-foot walls, instead of 
3-foot, and 8-foot center, instead of 75^-foot. For four 


persons a 12 x 14 is commonly used; but a 14 x 14 with 
4-foot walls and a 9-foot center has double the head-room 
of the standard 12 x 14, and 2^ feet more space between 
cots, if these are set lengthwise of the tent, two on a side. 

"Before selecting a tent, consider the number of people 
to occupy it and their dunnage, and the furniture. Then 
draw diagrams of floor and elevation of various sizes, 
putting in the cots, etc., according to scale; so you can 
get just what you want, no more, no less. 
Camp Sanitation 

"Nothing is cleaner, sweeter, wholesomer, than a wild- 
wood unspoiled by man, and few spots are more disgust- 
ing than a "piggy" camp, with slops thrown everywhere, 
empty cans and broken bottles littering the ground, and 
organic refuse left festering in the sun, breeding disease 
germs, to be spread abroad by the swarms of flies. I 
have seen one of nature's gardens, an ideal health resort, 
changed in a few months by a logging crew into an 
abomination and a pest hole where typhoid and dysentery 
wrought deadly vengeance. 

"Destroy at once all refuse that would attract flies. 
Or bury it where they cannot get at it. 

"Fire is the absolute disinfectant. Burn all solid 
kitchen refuse as fast as it accumulates. When a can 
of food is emptied toss it on the fire and burn it out, then 
drop it in a sink hole that you have dug for slops and un- 
burnable trash, and cover it with earth or ashes so no 
mosquitoes can breed in it after a rainfall. 

"The sink should be on the down hill side of camp, 
and where it cannot pollute the water" supply. Sprinkle 
kerosene on it or burn it out frequently with a brush 
fire. * * *" 

The Latrine 

One of the first tasks of the camper is to dig a trench 
for a latrine and build a screen around it. The latrine 


should he on a lower level than the camp, away from the 
water supi)ly and in the opposite direction from which 
the prevailing winds come toward the camp, two hundred 
feet from sleeping and mess tents. Bushes or a tent flly 
may be used as a screen and shelter. A small lean-to 
serves admirably. Dig trenches four feet long, one foot 
wide and two feet deep. Allow six inches (length) per 
day for a Scout. Cover after using with fresh dirt. It 
is imperative to fill and re-sod all trenches dug. Whether 
you camp only for lunch or for the summer leave no 
trace that you have been there. Remember the animals 
liow they scratch the soil and cover up any waste that 
they leave, and be at least as clean as they. 

Lime does not keep the flies away. Plenty of fresh 
dirt is better. 

Team Work 

Only as each and every member does her part will the 
camp be a complete success. The daily tasks should be 
assigned to individuals or groups, as in : 

The Pine Tree Patrol System 

The chief advantage of this system is that whenever 
the need for work of any description arises, there is al- 
ways someone whose duty is to perform that particular 
task, thus avoiding the inevitable question of "Who will 
do it?" The Pine Tree Patrol system does not in the 
least interfere with regular schedule of Scout activities; 
on the contrary, it saves time since more than one hand 
on each spoke of the wheel keeps it in continual motion. 
When the system seems too complicated for a small camp, 
the captain can simplify it to suit the circumstances. 

Each girl in the Patrol is assigned a number which 
requires of her: 

1. Certain well defined duties to perform for her 


2. Certain specific knowledge expected of her in the 
exercise of her "specialty." 

3. Proper care of her special "station gear." 

4. Willingness to teach her understudy all she knows. 

5. Willingness to learn the duties of the next higher 



REAR R^WV^; •tHE 610^^^ 
Junior- Q(XKer Stovtf Scovt 



The front rank (Reds) is in touch with and under the Senior 
(Patrol Leader) ; the rear rank (Blues) is in touch with and 
under the Junior. The Senior receives her orders from the 
Captain and transmits them not only to 3, 5 and 7, but to Junior 
as well. The Senior and ranking Patrol officer keeps an eye 
on the Junior and her rear rank. The Captain, of course, is the 
general overseer, but the Senior as charge of all routine troop 
duties, superintends camp details and is virtually a first Lieu- 
tenant to the Captain. The Junior is a second Lieutenant and 
assists the Senior in the supervision of the camp. 

The Senior (No. 1) looks after the flags, tentage, blankets, 
equipment and personal baggage, while the Junior (No. 2) has 
charge of food, fires, water, cooking, and kitchen work. They 
appease the demands of the outer and inner man. 

The Scribe (No. 3) — She is secretary, bookkeeper, log writer, 
recorder, correspondent, tent pitcher and First-Aid Scout. 


The Baker (No. 4) is the Junior's first aid. She is charged 
with the care and use of cereal foodstuffs all the way from corn 
on the cob to flap-jacks and "sinkers," and the cooking outfit 
and kitchen fire. 

The Lighter (No. 5) has care of the lamps, lanterns, candles, 
matches, oils and all "leaky" stuuff. She understands telegraphy 
and electricity and is chief signal Scout and assistant tent pitcher. 
She must keep the camp well illuminated. 

The Water Scout (No. 6) locates water for all purposes and 
carries it to camp. She acts as Fire Chief and Fire Watchman. 
She provides and cooks meat, vegetables and "greens." 

The Handy Scout (No. 7) is field engineer, carpenter, bridge 
builder, the general maker, mender, patcher, splicer and tinker ; 
cares for tools and trek-cart, mends the tents and clothing, and 
makes the furniture. 

The Wood Scout (Patrol Mascot) (No. 8) is usually the 
youngest girl. She keeps fires well fed, the rations dry and 
the garbage burned. She carries a spade, pick axe and cutting 

This system may be used in either a small or large camp; 
if the latter, corresponding numbers of each Patrol work to- 


6 : 30 A. M. Junior, Baker, Water Scout and Wood Scout re- 
port half an hour before Mess. 

8 : 00 A. M. Tent Inspection. 

8:30 A.M. Senior, Scribe, Lighter and Handy Scout report. 

8 : 30-9 : 30A. M. Main work for day accomplished by both 
Senior and Junior groups. 

Caution in Use of Knife and Axe 

Tlie Knife 

1. Alvi^ays whittle away from you. 

2. Keep your fingers behind the blade. 

3. Keep saying to yourself: "If this knife slips, can 
it cut my fingers? 

4. Learn how to sharpen your knife and keep it sharp. 
The Chopping Block 

"A chopping block is the first thing needed about a 
camp. The axe, when not in use, should always be 
stuck in that particular block, where one can find it 
when wanted, and where it will not injure men or dogs." 


The Axe 

"Do not let the axe lie outdoors on a very cold night ; 
the frost would make it brittle, so that the steel might 
shiver on the first knot you struck the next morning, . ." 

The axe is a most dangerous tool, and a glancing blow 
may cripple one for life. 

1. Do not put your foot on a stick you are chopping. 

2. Always have in mind where a glancing blow may 
throw the axe, and keep your foot away from that 

3. In splitting short sticks for kindling hold them by 
one end flat on the chopping block and strike the blade 
into the other end. 

4. Do not hold the stick on end in one hand while 
splitting it. 

5. Cut or split small wood on a chopping block or log. 
Never let the axe strike into the ground, as a hidden stone 
may ruin the edge. 

The Camp Fire 

"The forest floor is always littered with old leaves, 
dead sticks and fallen trees. During a drought this 
rubbish is so tinder-dry that a spark falling in it may start 
a conflagration ; but through a great part of the year the 
leaves and sticks that lie flat on the ground are too moist 
cit least on their under side, to ignite readily. If we rake 
together a pile of leaves, cover it higgledy-piggledy with 
dead twigs and branches picked up at random, and set a 
match to it, the odds are that it will result in nothing but 
a quick blaze that soon dies down to a smudge. Yet that 
is the way most of us tried to make our first outdoor fires. 

"One glance at a camper's fire tells what kind of a 
woodsman he is. It is quite impossible to prepare a 
good meal^over a heap of smoking chunks, a fierce blaze, 




or a great bed of coals that will warp iron and melt 
everything else. 

"If one would have good meals cooked out of doors, 
and would save much time and vexation ; in other words, 
if he wants to be comfortable in the woods, he must learn 
how to produce at will either (1) a quick, hot little fire 
that will boil water in a jiffy, and will soon burn down 
tc> embers that are not too ardent for frying; or (2) a 
solid bed of long-lived coals that will keep up a steady, 
glowing, smokeless heat for baking, roasting or slow 
boiling; or (3) a big log fire that will throw its heat for- 
ward on the ground, and into a tent or lean-to, and will 
last several hours without replenishing. 

"Luncheon Fire — For a noonday lunch, or any other 
quick meal, when you have only to boil coffee and fry 
something, a large fire is not wanted. Drive a forked 
stake into the ground, lay a green stick across it, slant- 
ing upward from the ground, and weight the lower end 
with a rock, so that you could easily regulate the height 
of a pot. The slanting stick should be notched, or have 
the stub of a twig left at its upper end, to hold the pot 
bail in place, and to be set at such an angle that the pot 
swings about a foot clear of the ground. 

"Then gather a small armful of sound, dry twigs from 
the size of a lead pencil to that of your finger. Take 
no twig that lies flat on the ground, for such are generally 


damp or rotten. Choose hard wood, if there is any, for 
it lasts well. 

"Select three of your best sticks for kindling. Shave 
each of them almost through, for half its length, leav- 
ing lower end of shavings attached to the stick, one 
under the other. Stand these in a tripod, under the 
hanging pot, with their curls down. Around them 
build a small conical wigwam of the other sticks, stand- 
ing each on end and slanting to a common center. The 
whole afifair is no bigger than your hat. Leave free 
air spaces between the sticks. Fire requires air, and 
plenty of it, and it burns best when it has something 
to climb up on ; hence the wigwam construction. Now 
touch off the shaved sticks, and in a moment you will 
have a small blast furnace under the pot. This will 
get up steam in a hurry. Feed it with small sticks as 

"Meantime get two bed-sticks, four or five inches 
thick, or a pair of flat rocks, to support the frying pan. 
The firewood will all drop to embers soon after the 
pot boils. Toss out the smoking butts, leaving only 
clear, glowing coals. Put your bed-sticks on either side, 
parallel and level. Set the pan on them, and fry away. 
So, in twenty minutes from the time you drove your 
stake, the meal will be cooked. 

"Dinner Fire — First get in plenty of wood and kin- 
ding. If you can find two large flat rocks, or several 
small ones of even height use them as andirons ; other- 
wise lay down two short cuts off a five or six inch log, 
facing you and about three feet apart. On these rocks 
or billets lay two four foot logs parallel, and several 
inches apart, as rests for your utensils. Arrange the 
kindling between and under them, with small sticks laid 
across the top of the logs, a couple of long ones length- 
wise, then more short ones across, another pair length 




wise, and thicker short ones across. Then Hght it. 
Many prefer to hght the kindhng at once and feed the 
fire gradually ; but I do as above, so as to have an even 
glow under several pots at once, and then the sticks 
will all burn down to coals together. 

"This is the usual way to build a cooking fire when 
there is no time to do better. The objection is that the 
supporting logs must be close enough together to hold 
up the pots and pans, and, being round, this leaves too 
little space between them for the fire to heat the balance 
evenly; besides, a pot is liable to slip and topple over. 
A better way, if one has time, is to hew both the inside 
surfaces and the tops of the logs flat. Space these 
supports close enough together at one end for the nar- 
rowest pot and wide enough apart at the other for the 
frying pan. 

"If you carry fire-irons much bother is saved. Sim- 
ply lay down two flat rocks or a pair of billets far 
enough apart for the purpose, place the flat irons on 
them, and space them to suit the utensils. 

"If a camp grate is used, build a crisscross fire of 
short sticks under it. 

"Split wood is better than round sticks for cooking; 
it catches easier and burns more easily. 

"Camp Crane — Pots for hot water, stews, coffee, and 



SO on, are more manageable when hvmg above the fire. 
The heat can easily be regulated, the pots hanging low 
at first to boil quickly, and then being elevated or shifted 
aside to simmer, 

"Set up two forked stakes about five feet apart and 
four feet to the crotches. Across them lay a green 
stick (lug-pole) somewhat thicker than a broomstick. 
Now cut three or four green crotches from branches, 
drive a nail in the small end of each, or cut a notch 
in it, invert the crotches, and hang them on the lug-pole 
to suspend kettles from. These pothooks are to be of 
different length so that the kettle can be adjusted to 
different heights above the fire, first for hard boiling, 
and then for simmering. If kettles were hung from 
the lug-pole itself, this adjustment could not be made, 
and you would have to dismount the whole business in 
order to get one kettle off. 

"If forked stakes are not easily found in the neigh- 
borhood, drive straight ones, then split the tops, flatten 
the ends of the cross poles and insert them in the clefts 
of the stakes. 


"Vou do not want a big fire to cook over. Many 
and many a time I have watched old and experienced 
woodsmen spoil their grub, and their tempers, too, by 
trying to cook in front of a roaring winter campfire, 
and have marveled at their lack of common sense. Off 
to one side of such ^a fire, lay your bed log as above; 
then shovel from the campfire enough hard coal to fill 
the space between the logs wthin three inches of the 
top. You now have a steady, even heat from end to 
end ; it can easily be regulated ; there is level support 
for every vessel ; and you can wield a short-handled 
frying pan over such an outdoor range without scorch- 
ing either the meat or yourself. 

"Fire for Baking — For baking in a reflector, or roast- 
ing a joint, a high fire is best, with a backing to throw 
the heat forward. Sticks three feet long can be leaned 
against a big log or a sheer-faced rock, and the kindlings 
started under them. 

"Often a good bed of coals is wanted. The camp- 
fire generally supplies these, but sometimes they are 
needed in a hurry, soon after camp is pitched. To get 
them, take sound hardwood, either green or dead, and 
split it into sticks of uniform thickness (say, l34"inch 
face). Lay down two bed-sticks, cross these near the 
end with two others, and so on up until you have a pen 
a foot high. Start a fire in this pen. Then cover it 
with a layer of parallel sticks laid an inch apart. Cross 
this with a similar layer at right angles, and so upward 
for another foot. The free draught will make a roar- 
ing fire, and all will burn down to coals together. 

"The thick bark of hemlock, and the hard woods gen- 
erally, will soon yield coals for ordinary cooking. 

"To keep coals a long time, cover them with ashes, 
or with bark which will soon burn to ashes. In wet 
weather a bed of coals can be shielded by slanting broad 



strips of green bark over it and overlapping them at 
the edges. 

"Fire in a Trench — In time of drought when every- 
thing is tinder-dry, or in windy weather, especially if 
the ground be strewn with dead leaves or pine needles, 
build your fire in a trench. This is the best way, too, 
if fuel is scarce and you must depend on brushwood, 
as a trench conserves heat. 

"Dig the trench in line with the prevailing wind. 
The point is to get a good draught. Make the wind- 
ward end somewhat wider than the rest, and deeper, 
sloping the trench upward to the far end. Line the 
sides with flat rocks if they are to be found, as they 
hold heat a long time and keep the sides from crumbling 
in. Lay other rocks, or a pair of green poles along 
the edges to support vessels. A little chimney of flat 
stones or sod, at the leeward end, will make the fire 
draw well. If there is some sheet-iron to cover the 
trench a quite practical stove is made, but an open 
trench will do very well if properly managed. 

"The Indian s Fire — Best where fuel is scarce, or 
when one has only a small hatchet with which to cut 
night wood. Fell and trim a lot of hardwood saplings. 
Lay three or four of them on the ground, butts on top 
of each other, tips radiating from this center like the 
spokes of a wheel. On and around this build a small 
hot fire. Place butts of other saplings on this, radiating 
like the others. As the wood burns away, shove the 
sticks in toward the center, butts on top of each other 
as before. This saves much chopping, and economizes 
fuel. Build a little wind break behind you and lie close 
to the fire. Doubtless you have heard the Indian's 
dictum (southern Indians express it just as the northern 
ones do): 'White man heap fool; make um big 


fire — can't git near; Injun make uni little fire — git close. 
Uh, good.' 


"The best kindling is fat pine or the bark of the paper 
birch. Fat pine is found in the stumps and butt cuts 
of pine trees, particularly those that died on the stump. 
The resin has collected there and dried. This wood is 
usually easy to split. Pine knots are the tough, heavy 
resinous stubs of limbs that are found on dead pine trees. 
They, as well as fat pine, are almost imperishable, and 
those sticking out of old rotten logs are as good as any. 
In collecting pine knots go to fallen trees that are almost 
rotted away. Hit the knot a lick with the pole of the 
axe and generally it will yield; if you must chop, cut deep 
to get it all and to save the axe edge. The knots of old 
dead balsams are similarly used. Usually a dead stump 
of pine, spruce, or balsam, all punky on the outside, has 
a core very rich in resin that makes excellent kindling. 

"Hemlock knots are worthless and hard as glass — 
keep your axe out of them. 

"The thick bark of hemlock is good to make glowing 
coals in a hurry; so is that of hard woods generally. 
Good kindling sure to be dry underneath the bark in all 
weather, is procured by snapping off the small dead 
branches, or stubs of branches, that are left on the trunks 
of small or medium-sized trees, near the ground. Do 
not pick up twigs from the ground, but choose those 
among the downwood that are held up free from the 
ground. Where a tree is found that has been shivered 
by lightning, or one that has broken ofif without uproot- 
ing, good splinters of dry wood will be found. In every 
laurel thicket there is plenty of dead laurel, and, since 
it is of sprangling growth, most of the branches will be 


free from the ground and snap-dry. They ignite readily 
and give out intense heat. 

"The bark of all species of birch, but of paper birch 
especially, is excellent for kindling and for torches. It 
is full of resinous oil, blazes up at once, will burn in any 
wind, and wet sticks can be ignited with it. 

"Making Fire in the Wet — It is a good test of one's 
resourcefulness to make a fire out of doors in rainy 
weather. The best way to go about it depends upon 
local conditions. If fat pine can be found, the trick is 
easy; just split it up, and start your fire under a big 
fallen log. Dry fuel and a place to build a fire can 
often be found under big up-tilted logs, shelving rocks, 
and similar natural shelters, or in the core of an old 
stump. In default of these, look for a dead softwood 
tree that leans to the south. The wood and bark on the 
under side will be dry ; chop some ofif, split it fine, and 
build your fire under the shelter of the trunk. 

"Lighting a Match — When there is nothing dry to 
strike it on, jerk the tip of the match forward against 
your teeth. 

"To light a match in the wind, face the wind. Cup 
your hands, with their backs toward the wind, and hold 
the match with its head pointing toward the rear of the 
cup ; i. €., toward the wind. Remove the right hand 
just long enough to strike the match on something very 
close by ; then instantly resume the former position. 
The flame will run up the match stick, instead of being 
blown away from it, and so will have something to feed 

"Fire Regulations— On state lands and on national 
forest reserves it is forbidden to use any but fallen 
timber for firewood. Different states have various other 
restrictions, some, I believe, not permitting trampers to 


light a fire in the woods at all unless accompanied by a 
registered guide. 

"In New York the regulations prescribe that fires 
will be permitted for the purposes of cooking, warmth 
and insect smudges ; but before such fires are kindled 
sufficient space around the spot where the fire is to be 
lighted must be cleared from all combustible material ; 
and before the place is abandoned fires so lighted must 
be thoroughly quenched. 

"In Pennsylvania forest reserves no fire may Ije made 
except in a hole or pit one foot deep, the pit being en- 
circled by the excavated earth. In those of California, 
no fire at all may be lighted without first procuring a 
permit from the authorities. 

"Fire regulations are posted on all public lands, and 
it campers disregard them they are subject to arrest. 

"These are wise and good laws. Every camper who 
loves the forest, and who has any regard for public in- 
terest, will do his part in obeying them to the letter. 
However, if he occupies private property where he may 
use his own judgment, or if he travels in the wilderness 
far from civilization, where there are no regulations, 
it will be useful for him to know something about the 
fuel value of all kinds of wood, green as well as dead, 
and for such people the following information is given: 

"The arts of fire building are not so simple as they 
look. To practice them successfully in all sorts of wild 
regions we must know the different species of trees 
one from another, and their relative fuel values, which 
as we shall see, vary a great deal. We must know 
how well, or ill, each of them burns in a green state, 
as well as when seasoned. It is important to discrim- 
nate between wood that makes lasting coals and such 
as soon dies down to ashes. Some kinds of wood pop 
violently when burning and cast out embers that may 


burn holes in tents and bedding or set the neighborhood 
afire; others burn quietly, with clear, steady flame. 
Some are stubborn to split, others almost fall apart 
under the axe. In wet weather it takes a practiced 
woodsman to find tinder and dry wood, and to select 
a natural shelter where fire can be kept going during 
a storm or rain or snow, when a fire is most needed. 

"There are several handy little manuals by wh5ch 
one who has no botanical knowledge can soon learn 
how to identify the different species of trees by merely 
examining their leaves, or, late in the season, by their 
bark, buds and habit of growth. 

"But no book gives the other information that I have 
referred to ; so I shall offer, in the present chapter, a 
little rudimentary instruction in this important branch 
of woodcraft. 

"It is convenient for our purpose to divide the trees 
into two great groups, hard woods and soft woods, using 
these terms not so loosely as lumbermen do, but draw- 
ing the line between sycamore, yellow birch, yellow 
pine, and slippery elm, on the one side, and red cedar, 
sassafras, pitch pine and white birch, on the other. 

"As a general rule, hard woods make good, slow- 
burning fuel that yields lasting coals, and soft woods 
make a quick, hot fire that is soon spent. But each 
species has peculiarities that deserve close attention, 

"Best Fuel — Best of all northern fire woods is hick- 
ory, green or dry. It makes a hot fire, but lasts a long 
time, burning down to a bed of hard coals that keep 
up an even, generous heat for hours. Hickory, by the 
way, is distinctly an American tree ; no other region on 
earth produces it. The live oak of the south is most 
excellent fuel ; so is holly. Following the hickory, in 
fuel value, are chestnut, oak, overcup, white, blackjack, 
post and basket oaks, pecan, the hornbeams (iron- 


woods), and dogwood. The latter l)urn finely to a 
1>eautiful white ash that is characteristic; apple wood 
does the same. Black birch also ranks here ; it has the 
advantage of 'doing its own blowing,' as a Carolina 
mountaineer said to me, meaning that the oil in the 
birch assists its combustion so that the wood needs no 
coaxing. All of the birches are good fuel, ranking in 
a])Out this order: Black, yellow, red, paper, and white. 
Sugar maple was the favorite fuel of our old-time hunt- 
ers and surveyors because it ignites easily, burns with 
a clear, steady flame, and leaves good coals. 

"Locust is a good, lasting fuel ; it is easy to cut, and, 
when green, splits fairly well ; the thick bark takes fire 
readily and the wood then burns slowly, with little 
flame, leaving pretty good coals ; hence it is good for 
night wood. Mulberry has similar qualities. The scar- 
let and willow oaks are among the poorest of the hard 
woods for fuel. Cherry makes only fair fuel. White 
elm is poor stuflf, but slippery elm is better. Yellow 
pine burns well, as its sap is resinous instead of watery 
like that of the soft pines. 

"In some respects white ash is the best of green 
woods for campers' fuel. It is easily cut and split, is 
lighter to tote than most other woods, and is of so 
dry a nature that even the green wood catches fire 
readily. It burns with clear flame, and lasts longer 
than any other free-burning wood of its weight. On a 
v/ager, I have built a bully fire from a green tree of 
white ash, one match, and no dry kindling. I split some 
of the wood very fine and 'frilled' a few of the little 
sticks with my knife. 

"Soft Woods — Most of the soft woods are good only 
for kindling, or for quick cooking fires, and then only 
when seasoned. For these purposes, however, some of 


them are superior, as they spht and shave reachly and 
catch fire easily. 

"Lic(uidaml)ar, magnoHa, tuh'p, catalpa, and willow 
are poor fuel. Seasoned chestnut and yellow pt)plar 
make a hot fire, hut crackle and leave no coals. l.^)al- 
sam fir, hasswood, and the white and lol)l()lly ])ines make 
ciuick fires, hut are soon spent. The grey ( La])rador) 
or jack pine is considered good fuel in the far north, 
where hard woods are scarce. Seasoned tamarack is 
good. Spruce is poor fuel, although, heing resinous, 
it kindles easily and makes a good blaze for 'branding 
up' a fire. Pitch pine, which is the most inflammal)Ie 
of all woods when dry and 'fat,' will scarcely burn at 
all in a green state. Syacmore and buckeye, when thor- 
oughly seasoned, are good fuel, but will not split. Al- 
der burns readily and gives out considerable heat, but 
i.'. not lasting. 

"The dry wood of the northern poplar (large-toothed 
aspen) is a favorite for cooking fires, because it gives 
an intense heat, with little or no smoke, lasts well, and 
does not blacken the utensils. Red cedar has similar 
qualities, Ijut is rather hard to ignite and must be fed 
fine at the start. 

"The best green soft woods for fuel are white birch, 
paper birch, soft maple, cottonwood, and quaking aspen. 

"As a rule, the timber growing along the margins of 
large streams is softwood. Hence, driftwood is gen- 
erally a poor mainstay unless there is plenty of it on 
the spot; luit driftwood on the sea coast is good fuel. 

"Precautions— I have already mentioned the neces- 
sity of clearing the camp ground of inflammable stufif 
before starting a fire- on it, raking it toward a common 
center and burning all the dead leaves, pine needles and 
trash ; otherwise it may catch and spread beyond your 



control as soon as your back is turned. Don't build 
your fire against a big old punky log ; it may smoulder 
a day or two after you have left and then burst out 
into flame when the breeze fans it. 

"Never leave a spark of fire when breaking camp, 
or when leaving it for the day. Make absolutely sure 

haverjsaok for carrying kitchen utensils 
of this by drenching the campfire thoroughly, or by 
smothering it completely with earth or sand. Never 
drop a lighted match on the ground without stamping it 
out. Have you ever seen a forest fire? It is terrible. 
Thousands of acres are destroyed and many a time men 
and women and children have been cut ofif by a tornado 
of flame and luirned alive. The person whose careless- 
ness starts such a holocaust is worse than a fool — he is 
a criminal, and a disgrace to the good earth he treads." 
Cooking Devices 
When it is convenient carry a hatchet. Scouts should 
carry a small folding grate. The best form of grate 
is one with folding legs. 


After laying the fire the legs of the grate are driven 
into the ground. As the fire burns down, the grate may 
be lowered by driving the legs in deeper. This is a 
very useful utensil for supporting hot water pails or 
frying pan. 

When no forks can l^e found use the "Pine Tree 
Horse," as shown in cut. 

In order to boil water hard it will only be necessar}' 
tc slip the kettle down the pole, holding it in place by 
graduated notches. 

Equipment and supplies for one meal may be carried 
in one or two haversacks like the one shown. In- 
deed, a meal may be cooked without any equipment what- 
ever other than a knife which every Scout should be 
provided with. 

Improvised Grate — A few sticks j^ inch in diameter 
laid about 2 inches apart and about 2 inches above 
the coals form a good enough broiler. Steak and 
chops cook perfectly well if laid right on the coals. 

Cooking kits allow for more variety, as they provide 
a frying pan, in which bacon and potatoes can be cooked, 
and a small pail for boiling water. It is convenient for 
each Scout to carry her own cup, knife, fork and spoon. 
The cooking kit and supplies can then be divided among 
the party. 

At a permanent camp a frying board is a great con- 
venience. It is simply a flat, smooth board with a 
pointed end which can be driven into the ground. Fish, 
meat, game and "Injun" bread can be cooked on this 
board better than in any other way, as the food re- 
ceives the heat without becoming charred, and is much 
more wholesome than when fried in a pan. As long 
as the board is to windward of the flame, a constant 
heat is maintained without smoke. A small fire will 
cook a very large fish in a short time. An old canoe 




paddle may be used for this purpose. The food is hung 
on nails driven in the board, a strip of bacon, hung 
above the fish and dripping on it would improve the 

It is a good plan to use a separate frying board when 
cooking fish, as the juice from the fish seeps into the 
board and it is practically impossible to remove it by 
cleaning. The flavor of fish is not pleasant on other 
food. If it is not practicable to carry two frying boards 
one can be careful to reserve the same side of one 
l^^oard for cooking fish. 

A long cooking spoon for dishing vegetables out of 
the pots is very useful. A roll of paper towels for dry- 
ing dishes and for use as napkins, or cloth dish towels 
and paper napkins are also useful. Other useful ar- 
ticles are a dish mop with a wooden' handle, and a pan- 
cake turner. 

The Foldiiuj Baker— The baker may be placed before 
the blazing fire. It is a perfect arrangement for baking 
biscuits and roasting meats. 

Friction Top Cans — It is well to have these varying 
in capacity from one to three quarts. Use one 
quart size for washing soda, powdered soap, and sugar. 




The larger sizes should carry flour, cornmeal, etc. 
Eggs may be placed in the one used for the corn- 

Where convenient to provide a large equipment the 
following utensils are suggested : 

Camp grate, 3 wire toasters (one for meat, one for 
fish, one for bread), 2 frying boards (one for meat, 
one for fish), 6-quart pail for reserve water, 9-quart 
pail for boiling vegetables, agate or paper plates, agate 
or paper cups, knives, forks, spoons, kit knife, paper 
towels, dish mops, powdered soap, cotton gloves for 
handling hot or smoky pots, candles, matches (in water- 
proof packages), non-rusting wire 34 inch thick for hang- 
ing pots, etc. 

A large permanent camp may add greatly to the pleas- 
ure of its members, and make a delightful break in the 
day, by sending off troops of, say, eight girls to cook 
a camp lunch at a place about a mile distant. For this 
purpose, when a group plans to do a great deal of camp- 
ing the above equipment is suggested. It could all be 
packed in the pack basket, and the girls could take turns 
carrying it. 

Such a basket without a canvas cover costs about $8 



and is extremely useful in permanent camp equipment. 

Utensils Required for a Party of Eight and their Uses 

If the group of girls plans for a camping trip of 
several days and transport is available, all the following 
utensils will be found useful. These may be purchased 
in any sporting goods store. 

Three Wire Toasters — One for meat, one for fish, one 
for toast. 

In cooking meat or fish, and in making toast before 
a blazing fire, stand the wire toaster upright before the 
fire and prop it up with a stick, thus : 

A board may be used in the same manner. It is 
often desirable to do this in order to avoid the delay of 
waiting for the fire to burn down. 

Cooking Pots—Size 5 quarts, for boiling vegetables; 
size 6^ quarts, for boiling vegetables ; size 9 quarts, 
for hot water; size 15 quarts, for reserve cold water. 

Each of these pots nests in the next larger size, mak- 
ing one package. A cocoa pot of this type nests into the 
5-quart pail. 

Two Frying Pons — The handles fold in and the pans 
pack in a case with the nest of cooking pots. In addi- 
tion to their usual uses, the frying pans are also used 




as dish-washing pans, one for the washing and one for 
the rinsing. 

A heaped teaspoon of washing soda dissolved in hot 
water will so perfectly clean the frying pans as to 
permit their use as dish-pans. 

Eight agate plates, or aluminum if possible ; eight 
agate cups, or aluminum if possible; eight knives, forks 
and spoons ; one large, long-handled cooking spoon. 

The complete cooking outfit may be nested together 
and packed in a canvas bag and takes up about as much 
space as a water pail. 


"When a party camps where fresh meat and farm 
products can be procured as they are wanted, its pro- 
visioning is chiefly a matter of taste, and calls for no 
special comment here. But to have good meals in the 
wilderness is a different matter. A man will eat five 
or six pounds a day of fresh food. That is a heavy 
load on the trail. And fresh meat, dairy products, fruit 
and vegetables are generally to bulky, too perishable. 
So it is up to the woodsman to learn how to get the 


most nourishment out of the least weight and bulk in 
materials that 'keep' well. 

"Light outfitting, as regards food, is mainly a ques- 
tion of how much water we are willing to carry in our 
rations. For instance, canned peaches are 88 per cent, 
water. Can one afford to carry so much water from 
home when there is plenty of it at camp? 

"The following table is suggestive : 
More than }i water 

Fresh milk, fruit, vegetables (except potatoes). 

Canned soups, tomatoes, peaches, pears, etc. 
More than ^^ water 

Fresh beef, veal, mutton, poultry, eggs, potatoes. 

Canned corn, baked beans, pineapple. 

Evaporated milk (unsweetened). 

More than 1/3 water 

Fresh bread, rolls, pork chops. 

Potted chicken, etc. 


Canned blackberries. 

Less than 1/3 water 

Dried apples, apricots, peaches, prunes. 

Fruit jelly. 

Less than 1/5 water 

Salt pork, bacon, dried fish, butter. 

Dessicated eggs, concentrated soups. 

Powdered milk. 

Wheat flour, cornmeal, etc., macaroni. 

Rice, oatmeal, hominy, etc. 

Dried beans, split peas. 

Dehydrated vegetables. 

Dried dates, figs, raisins. 

Orange marmalade, sugar, chocolate. 

Nuts, nut butter. 

"Although this table is good in its way, it is not a 




tair measure of the relative value of foods. Even the 
solid part of some foodstuffs contains a good deal of 
refuse (potatoes 20 per cent), while others have none, 

"Nutritive Values — The nutritive elements of food- 
stuffs are protein, a little mineral matter, fats, and car- 
bohydrates. Protein is the basis of muscles, bone, ten- 
don, cartilage, skin and corpuscles of the blood. Fats 
and carbohydrates supply heat and muscular energy. 
In other words, the human body is an engine ; protein 
keeps it in repair ; fats and carbohydrates are the fuel 
to run it. 

"Familiar examples of proteids are lean meat and 
white of egg. The chief food fats are fat meat, butter, 
lard, oil and cream. Carbohydrates are starchy foods 
(flour, cereals, etc.) and sugar (sweets of almost any 


"The ])r()l)lem of a well-balanced ration consists in 
su])pl\ing daily the right proportion of nutritive ele- 
ments in agreeable and digestible form. The problem 
of a campaign ration is the same, but cutting out most 
of the water and waste in which fresh foods abound. 
However, in getting rid of the water in fresh meats, 
fruits and vegetables we lose, unfortunately, much of 
the volatile essences that give these foods their good 
flavor. This loss — and it is a serious one — must be 
made up by the camp cook, changing the menu as often 
as he can by varying the ingredients and the processes 
of cooking. 

"Variety is quite as welcome at the camp board as 
anywhere else, in fact, more so; for it is harder to get. 
Variety need not mean adding to the load. It means 
substituting, say, three 5-pound parcels for one 15- 
pound parcel, so as to have something 'different' from 
day to day. 

"Digestibility — We must bear in mind the adage 
that 'we live not upon what we eat but upon what 
we digest.' Some foods rich in protein, especially 
beans, peas, and oatmeal, are not easily assim- 
ilated, unless cooked for a longer time than campers 
generally can spare. A considerable part of their pro- 
tein is liable to putrefy in the alimentary canal, and so 
be worse than wasted. An excess of meat or fish will 
do the same thing. Other foods of very high theoret- 
ical value are constipating if used in large amounts, as 
cheese, nuts, chocolate. 

"Food Components — Let us now consider the ma- 
terial of field rations, item by item. 

"Bacon — Good old breakfast bacon worthily heads 
the list, for it is the campaigner's standby. It keeps 
well in any climate, and demands no special care in 
packing. It is easy to cook, combines well with almost 


anything, is handier than lard to fry things with, does 
just as well to shorten bread or biscuits, is very nutri- 
tious, and nearly everybody likes it. Take it with you 
from home, for you can seldom buy it away from rail- 
road towns. Get the boneless, in 5 to 8 pound flitches. 
Let canned bacon alone ; it lacks flavor and costs more 
than it is worth. A little mould on the outside of a 
flitch does no harm, but reject bacon that is soft and 
watery, or with yellow fat, or with brownish or black 
spots in the lean. 

"Smoked Hani — Small ones generally are tough and 
too salty. Hard to keep in warm or damp weather; 
moulds easily. Is attractive to blow-flies, which quickly 
fill it with 'skippers' if they can get at it. If kept in a 
cheesecloth bag and hung in a cool, airy place a ham 
will last until eaten up and will be relished. Ham will 
keep, even in warm weather, if packed in a stout paper 
bag so as to exclude flies. It will keep indefinitely if 
sliced, boiled or fried and put up in tins with melted 
lard poured over it to keep out air. * * * 

"Canned Soups — These are wholesome enough, but 
their fluid kinds are very bulky for their meager nutri- 
tive value. However, a few cans of consomme are fine 
for 'stock' in camp soups or stews, and invaluable in 
case of sickness. Here, as in canned meat, avoid the 
country grocery kind. 

"Condensed Soups — Soup powders are a great help 
in time of trouble — but don't rely on them for a full 
meal. There are some that are complete in themselves 
and require nothing but 15 to 20 minutes' cooking; 
others take longer, and demand (in small type on the 
label) the addition of ingredients that generally you 
haven't got. Try various brands at home till you find 
what you like. 

"Cured Fish — Shredded codfish and smoked halibut. 


sprats, boneless herring are portable and keep well. They 
will be relished for variety's sake. 

"Eggs — To vary the camp bill of fare, eggs are sim- 
ply invaluable, not only by themselves, but as ingredi- 
ents in cooking. * * * 

"When means of transportation permit, fresh eggs 
may be carried to advantage. A hand crate holding 12 
dozen weighs about 24 pounds, filled. 

"Eggs can be packed along in winter without danger 
of breakage by carrying them frozen. Do not try to 
boil a frozen &gg ; peal it as you would a hard-boiled one 
and then fry or poach. 

"To test an tgg for freshness, drop it into cold water; 
if it sinks quickly it is fresh; if it stands on end it is 
doubtful; if it floats it is surely bad. 

"To preserve eggs, rub them all over with vaseUne, 
being careful that no particle of shell is uncoated. They 
will keep good much longer than if treated with lime 
water, salt, paraffine, water-glass or any of the other 
common expedients. 

"On hard trips it is impracticable to carry eggs in 
the shell. Some campers break fresh eggs and pack 
them in friction-top cans. The yolks soon break and 
they keep but a short time. A good brand of desic- 
cated eggs is the solution of this problem. It does away 
with all risk of breaking and spoiling and reduces bulk 
very much. Desiccated eggs vary a great deal in quality, 
according to material and process employed. Desiccated 
eggs made of the yolks are merely useful as ingredients 
in cooking. 

"Milk — Sweetened condensed milk (the 'salve of the 
lumberjacks') is distasteful to most people. Plain evap- 
orated milk is the thing to carry — and don't leave it 
out if you can practicably tote it. The notion that this 
is a 'baby food' to be scorned by. real woodsmen is 


nothing but a foolish conceit. Few things pay better 
for their transportation. It will be allowed that Admiral 
Peary knows something about food values. Here is 
what he says in The North Pole: 'The essentials, and 
the only essentials, needed in a serious Arctic sledge 
journey, no matter what the season, the temperature, 
or the duration of the journey— whether one month or 
six — are four: pemmican, tea, ship's biscuit, condensed 
milk. The standard daily ration for work on the final 
sledge journey toward the Pole on all expeditions has 
been as follows : 1 lb. pemmican, 1 lb. ship's biscuit, 4 oz. 
condensed milk, 3^ oz. compressed tea.' 

"Milk, either evaporated or powdered, is a very im- 
portant ingredient in camp cookery. 

"Butter — This is another 'soft' thing that pays its 

"For ordinary trips it suffices to pack butter firmly 
into pry-up tin cans which have been sterilized by thor- 
ough scalding and then cooled in a perfectly clean place. 
Keep it in a spring or in cold running water (hung in a 
net, or weighted in a rock) whenever you can. When 
traveling, wrap the cold can in a towel or other insulating 

"If I had to cut out either lard or butter I would 
keep the butter. It serves all the purposes of lard in 
cooking, is wholesomer, and beyond that, it is the most 
concentrated source of energy that one can use with 

"Cheese — Cheese has nearly twice the fuel value of 
a porterhouse steak of equal weight, and it contains a 
fourth more protein. It is popularly supposed to be 
hard to digest, but in reality it is not so if used in mod- 
eration. The best kind for campers is potted chee^'j, or 
cream or 'snappy' cheese put up in tinfoil. If not so 
protected from air it soon dries out and grows stale. 


A tin of imported Camembert will be a pleasant sur- 
prise on some occasion. 

"Bread Biscuits — It is well to carry enough yeast 
bread for two or three days, until the game country is 
reached and camp routine is established. To keep it 
fresh, each loaf must be sealed in wax paper or 
parchment paper (the latter is best, because it is tough, 
waterproof, greaseproof). Bread freezes easily; for 
cold weather luncheons carry toasted bread. 

"Hardtack (pilot bread, ship biscuit) can be recom- 
mended only for such trips or cruises as do not permit 
baking. It is a cracker prepared of plain flour and 
water, not even salted, and kiln-dried to a chip, so as to 
keep indefinitely, its only enemies being weevils. Get 
the coarsest grade. To make hardtack palatable toast 
it until crisp, or soak in hot cofifee and butter it, or at 
least salt it. 

"Swedish hardtack, made of whole rye flour, is good 
for a change. 

"Plasmon biscuit, imported from England, is the most 
nutritious breadstuff I have ever used. It is a round 
cracker, firm but not hard, of good flavor, containing 
a large percentage of the protein of milk, six of the 
small biscuits holding as much proteid as a quarter of 
a pound of beef. 

"Flour — Graham and entire wheat flours contain more 
protein than patent flour, but this is offset by the fact 
that it is not so digestible as the protein of standard 
flour. Practically there is little or no difference be- 
tween them in the amount of protein assimilated. The 
same seems to be true of their mineral ingredients. 

"Many campers depend a good deal on self-raising 
flour because it saves a little trouble in mixing. But 
such flour is easily spoiled by dampness, it does not 
make as good biscuits or flapjacks as one can turn out 



in camp by doing his own mixing, and it will not do 
for thickening, dredging, etc. 

"Four and meal should l)e sifted before starting on an 
expedition. There will be no sieve in camp." 

"Baking Poivdcr — Get the best available powder, put 
up in air and damp-eight tins, so that your material will 
be in good condition when you come to use it in camp. 
Baking soda will not be needed on short trips, but is 
required for longer ones, in making sour-dough, as a 
steady diet of baking-powder bread or biscuit will ruin 
the stomach if persisted in for a considerable time. Soda 
also is useful medicinally. 

"Cornmeal — Some like yellow, some prefer white. The 
flavor of freshly ground meal is best, but the ordinary 
granulated meal of commerce keeps better, because it 
has been kiln-dried. Cornmeal should not be used as 
the leading breadstuff, for reasons already given, but 
johnnycake, corn pancakes, and mush are a welcome 
change from hot wheat bread or biscuit, and the aver- 
age novice at cooking may succeed better with them. 
The meal is useful to roll fish in before frying. 

"Breakfast Cereals — These according to taste, and for 
variety's sake. Plain cereals, particularly oatmeal, re- 
ouire a long cooking, either in a double boiler or with 
constant stirring, to make them digestible ; and then there 
is a messy pot to clean up. They do more harm than 
good to campers who hurry their cooking. So it is best 
to buy the partially cooked cereals that take only a few 
minutes to prepare. Otherwise the 'patent breakfast 
foods' have no more nutritive (juality than plain grain ; 
some of them not so much. The notion that bran lias 
remarkalile food value is a delusion; it actually makes 
the protein of the grain less digestible. As for mineral 
matter, 'to build up hone and teeth and brawn,' there 


i.s enough of it in almost any mixed diet, without swal- 
lowing a lot of crude fiber, 

"Rice, although not very appetizing by itself, com- 
bines so well in stew or the like, and goes so well in 
pudding, that it deserves a place in the commissariat. 

"Maracroni — The various i)astes (pas-tay, as the Ital- 
ians call them) take the place of bread, may be cooked in 
many ways to lend variety, and are especially good in 
soups which otherwise would have little nourishing pow- 
er. Spaghetti, vermicelli, and noodles all are good in 
their way. Break macaroni into inch pieces and pack 
so that insects cannot get into it. It is more wholesome 
than flapjacks and it 'sticks to the ribs.' 

"Sweets — Sugar is stored-up energy, and is assimi- 
ated more quickly than any other food. Men in the 
open soon get to craving sweets. 

"Maple sugar is always welcome. Get the soft kind 
that can be spread on bread for luncheons. Syrup is 
easily made from it in camp by simply bringing it to a 
boil with the necessary amount of water. Ready-made 
syrup is mean to pack around. 

"Sweet chocolate (not too sweet) has remarkable sus- 
taining power, 

"When practicable, take along some jam and mar- 
malade. The commissaries of the British Army were 
wise when they gave jam an honorable place in Tommy 
Atkins' field ration. Yes: jam for soldiers in time of 
war. So many ounces of it, substituted, mind you, for 
so many ounces of the porky, porky, porky, that has 
ne'er a streak of lean. So, a little current jelly with 
your duck or venison is worth breaking all rules for. 
Such conserves can be repacked by the buyer in pry-up 
cans that have been sterilized as recommended under 
the heading Butter. 

"Fresh Vegetables — The only ones worth taking along 


are potatoes and onions. Choose potatoes with small 
eyes and of uniform medium size, even if you have to 
buy half a bushel to sort out a peck. They are very 
heavy and bulky in proportion to their food value; so 
you cannot afiford to ])e Ijurdened with any but the best. 
Cereals and beans take the place of potatoes when you 
go light. 

"Fresh onions are almost indispensable for seasoning 
soups, stews, etc. A few of them can be taken along 
almost anywhere. I generally carry at least one, even 
on a walking trip. C)nions are good for the suddenly 
overtaxed system, relieve the inordinate thirst that one 
experiences the first day or two, and assist excretion. 
Treezing does not spoil onions if they are kept frozen 
until used. 

"Beans — A prime factor in cold weather camping. 
Take a long time to cook ('soak all day and cook all 
right' is the rule). Cannot be cooked done at altitudes 
of 5,000 feet and upward. Large varieties cook quick- 
est, but the small white navy beans are best for baking. 
Pick them over ])efgre packing, as there is much waste. 

"Split Peas — Used chiefly in making a thick, nourish- 
ing soup. 

"Dehydrated Vegetables — Much of the flavor of fresh 
vegetables is lost when the juice is expressed or evap- 
orated, but all of their nutriment is retained and enough 
of the flavor for them to serve as fair sul>stitutes when 
fresh vegetables cannot be carried. They help out a 
camp stew and may even be served as side dishes if one 
has butter and milk to season them. Generally they re- 
quire soaking (which can be done over night) ; then they 
are to Ije boiled slowly until tender, taking about as 
much time as fresh vegetables. If cooking is hurried 
they will be woody and tasteless. 

"Dehydrated vegetables are very portable, keep in any 


climate, and it is well to carry some on trips far from 

"Canned Vegetables — In our taljle of food values it 
will be noticed that the least nourishing article for its 
weight and bulk is a can of tomatoes. Yet these 'air- 
tights' are great favorites with outdoors men, especially 
iri the West and South, where frequently they are eaten 
raw out of the can. It is not so much their flavor as 
their acid that is grateful to a stomach overtaxed with 
fat or canned meat and hot bread three times a day. 
If wanted only as an adjuvant to soups, stews, rice, 
macaroni, etc., the more concentrated puree will serve 
very, well. 

"Canned corn (better still, 'kornlet,' which is concen- 
trated milk of sweet corn) is quite nourishing, and 
everybody likes it. 

"A few cans of baked beans (zvithout tomato sauce) 
will be handy in wet weather. The B. & M. % lb. cans 
are convenient for a lone camper or for two going light. 

"Nuts — A handful each of shelled nuts and raisins, 
with a cake of sweet chocolate, will carry a man far 
on the trail or when he has lost it. The kernels of butter- 
nuts and hickory nuts have the highest fuel value of 
our native species ; peanuts and almonds are very rich 
in protein; Brazil nuts, filberts and pecans, in fat. Pea- 
nut butter is a concentrated food that goes well in sand- 
wiches. One can easily make nut butter of any kind 
(except almonds or Brazil nuts) for himself by using 
the nut grinder that comes with a kitchen food chopper, 
and can add ground dates, ground popcorn, or whatever 
he likes ; but such preparations will soon grow rancid 
il not sealed airtight. Nut butter is more digestible than 
kernels unless the latter are thoroughly chewed. 

"Fruits — All fruits are very deficient in protein and 
(except olives) in fat, but dried fruit is rich in carbo- 


hydrates. Fruit acid (that of primes, dried apricots, 
and dehydrated cranberries, when fresh fruit cannot be 
carried) is a good corrective of a too fatty and starchy 
or sugary diet, and a preventive of scurvy. Most fruits 
are laxative, and for that reason, if none other, a good 
proportion of dried fruit should be included in the 
ration, no matter how light one travels ; otherwise one 
if likely to suffer from constipation when he changes 
from 'town grub' to 'trail grub.' 

"Among canned fruits those that go farthest are pine- 
apples and blackberries. Excellent jelly can be made 
in camp from dried apples. 

' "There is much nourishment in dates, figs (those dried 
round are better than layer figs) and raisins. Pitted 
dates and seedless raisins are best for light outfits. And 
do not despise the humble prune ; buy the best grade in 
the market (unknown to landladies) and soak over night 
before stewing ; it will be a revelation. Take a variety 
of dried fruits, and mix them in different combinations, 
sweet. and tart, so as not to have the same sauce twice 
in succession ; then you will learn that dried fruits are 
by no means a poor substitute for fresh or canned ones. 

"In hot weather I carry a few lemons whenever prac- 
ticable. Limes are more compact and better medicinally, 
but they do not keep well. Lime juice in bottles is ex- 
cellent, if you carry it. 

"Critic acid crystals may be used in lieu of lemons 
when going light, but the flavor is not so good as that 
of lemonade powder that one can put up for himself. 
The process is described by A. W. Barnard : 'Squeeze 
out the lemons and sift into the clear juice four to six 
spoonfuls of sugar to a lemon; let stand a few days if 
the weather is dry, or a week if wet, till it is dried up. 
then pulverize and put up into capsules.' Gelatin cap- 
sules of any size, from one oz. down, can be procured 


at a drug store. They are' convenient to carry small 
quantities of spices, flavoring, medicines, etc., on a hike. 

"Vinegar and pickles are suitable only for fixed camps 
or easy cruises. 

"Fritures — Lard is less wholesome than olive oil, or 
'Crisco,' or the other preparations of vegetable fats. 
Crisco can be heated to a higher temperature than lard 
without burning, thus ensuring the 'surprise' which pre- 
vents getting a fried article sodden with grease; 
it does as well as lard for shortening ; and it can be used 
repeatedly without transmitting the flavor of one dish to 
the next one. Olive oil is superior as a friture, espe- 
cially for fish, but expensive. 

"Beverages — Tea is better than coffee. Even if 
you don't use it at home, take along on your camping 
trip enough for midday meals. Tea tabloids are not 
bad, but I advise using the real thing. On a hike, with 
no tea-ball, I tie up enough for each pint in a bit of 
washed cheesecloth, loosely, leaving enough string at- 
tached whereby to whisk it out after exactly four, min- 
utes' steeping. 

"Cocoa is not only a drink but a food. It is best for 
the evening meal because it makes one sleepy, whereas 
tea and coffee have the opposite effect. 

"Get the soluble kind if you want it quickly prepared, 

"Condiments — Do not leave out a small assortment of 
condiments wherewith to vary the taste of common ar- 
ticles and serve a new sauce or gravy or pudding now 
and then. 

"Salt is best carried in a wooden box. The amount 
used in cooking and at table is small. 

"White pepper is better than black. Some Cayenne 
or Chili should also be taken. Red pepper is not only 
a good stomachic, but also is fine for a cliili (made into 
a tea with hot water and sugar). 


"Among condiments I class beef extract, bouillon 
cubes or capsules, and the like. They are of no use as 
food except to stimulate a feeble stomach or furnish a 
spurt of energy, but invaluable for flavoring camp-made 
soups and stews when you are far away from beef. 
The powder called Oystero yields an oyster flavor. 

"Mustard is useful not only at table but for medici- 
nal purposes ; cloves, not only for its more obvious pur- 
poses, but to stick in an onion for a stew, and perchance 
for a toothache. 

"Celery and parsley can now be had in dehydrated 
form. Some sage may be needed for stuffing." Onion 
and celery salt are real additions to the camp cooking 

"If you aim at cake-making and puddings, ginger 
and cinamon may be required. Curry powder is relished 
by many; its harshness may be tempered with sweet fruits 
or sugar. 

"On short trips, salt and pepper will meet all require- 

"Packing Food — Meat of any kind will quickly mould 
or spoil if packed in tins from which air is not exhausted. 

"Flour should not be carried in the original sacks ; they 
wet through or absorb moisture from the air, snag easily, 
and burst under the strain of a lashrope. Pack your 
flour, cereals, vegetables, dried fruits, etc., in the round- 
bottomed paraffined bags sold by outfitters (various sizes, 
from 10 lbs. down), which are damp-proof and have the 
further merit of standing up on their bottoms instead of 
always falling over. Put a tag on each bag and label 
it in ink. These small bags may then be stowed in 9-inch 
waterproof canvas provision bags (see outfitter's cata- 
logues), but in that case the thing you want is generally 
at the bottom. * * * 

"Butter, lard, ground coffee, tea, sugar, jam, matches, 


,i;o in j)i"y-up tin cans, sold 1)y nnlfittcrs ( smnll ([iian- 
tJties in mailing tubes), or in common capped tins with 
tops secured by surgeon's plaster. Ciet pepper and spices 
in shaker-top cans, or, if you carry common shakers, 
cover tops with cloth and snap stout rul)ber bands around 

"Often it is well to carry separately enough food to 
last the party between the jumping-off place and the 
main camp site, as it saves the bother of breaking l)ulk 
en route. 

"When transportation is easy it pays to pack the bread, 
bags of flour, etc., in a tin wash-boiler or two, which are 
wrapped in burlaps and crated. These make capital grub 
boxes in camp, securing their contents from wet. in- 
.sects and rodents. Ants in summer and mice at all times 
are downright pests of the woods, to say nothing of the 
wily coon, the predatory mink, the inquisitive skunk, and 
the fretful ix)rcupine. The boilers are useful, too, on 
many occasions to catch rain-w^ater, boil clothes, water- 
proof and dye tents, and so forth. 

"A Last Look Around — Check off every article in the 
outfit as it is stowed, and keep the inventory for future 
reference. Then note what is left over at the end of the 
trip. This will help in outfitting for the next season." 

Camp Cooking 

Meat and fish are easy to cook and require few utensils. 
Steaks or chops require from four to twelve minutes to 
liroil rare over a good bed of live coals, depending on 
the thickness of the meat. Place either directly on the 
coals in wire broiler and raise only an inch or two al)ove 
the fire. Turn after about lyz minutes, and afterward 
turn a little oftener to prevent burning. 

Chicken or duck of broiling size takes aliout 20 min- 
utes to broil and requires very particular care in frequent 


turning to prevent burning. Turn about every J/o min- 
ute. As portions of the skin shov\r signs of getting too 
brown baste them with a few drops of hot water from a 
If-.rge spoon. This also tends to keep them moist. The 
poultry may be cooked by propping the wire broiler up- 
right six to nine inches from a blazing fire. Often 
the poultry is started this way and finished over the 
coals, as this saves considerable time in waiting for the 
fire to burn down. The chicken or duck may be hung 
close to the fire by a wire from a slanting pole, revolving 
frequently. An hour is required to roast poultry. 

Stczv~Cut meat in small pieces, brown in fry-ing pan 
(use drippings), remove and place in stew pan in which 
there is sufficient water to cover stew. Cut vegetables 
in small pieces, place in frying pan a few minutes — long 
enough to soften — place in stew pan, season with salt 
and pepper, cook one-half hour — add flour thickening 
(water and flour), cover with enough water to prevent 
stew becoming dry and lnu'\' in hot oven for two or 
three hours. 

Broiled Fish — Place in wire broiler, rubbing broiler 
first with salt pork or lard to prevent sticking, and broil 
over coals for about 20 minutes. All fish that is broiled 
should be served with a little butter sauce. 

Frying Pan Dishes 

Fried Fish — Cut the fish in pieces ; that is, serving 
portions. Roll fish in cornmeal (this is not absolutely 
necessary). Fry for about 20 minutes (depending upon 
thickness of fish) over hot fire, in about 2 tablespoons 
of heated frying oil. Tried-out bacon, salt pork, lard, 
crisco, or prepared cooking oil may be used. 

Fish Balls — Fish balls prepared at home and carried 
along make good camp food. For group of eight: In- 
gredients — 1 bowl dried codfish soaked several hours in 


cold water, 1 egg, 2 raw potatoes cut in pieces, 2 ozs. 
butter, frying oil, 2 tablesixjons milk. Boil codfish and 
potatoes together for about 10 minutes, mash, add 1 
beaten egg, butter size of ^ small egg (about 2 ozs.), 2 
tablespoons milk and stir thoroughly. This mixture 
should be about the consistency of stiff oatmeal. Heat 
small amount of frying oil in pan. Drop batter from 
large spoon into hot oil. When brown, turn and cook 
on other side. Each patty should cook about three min- 
utes to the side, about six minutes for the whole. 

Fried Ham — Boil in frying pan for about 5 minutes, 
then pour off water and fry about two minutes on each 

Fried Bacon — Fry gently until fat is tried out (Save 
drippings.) Bacon may also be fried on a hot rock, or 
cooked on sharp pointed stick with forked ends. 

Fried Country Sausage — Fry sausages over moderate 
fire for about 15 minutes till they are brown. 

Corn Beef Hash — Carry with the ingredients already 
prepared 1 part corned beef, chopped, 2 parts chopped 
cold boiled potatoes. Melt butter or suet into the frying 
pan. Fry. 


Boiled Potatoes — Clean and scrape potatoes. Do not 
peel. Have water boiling and salted before putting po- 
tatoes in pot and keep water boiling until potatoes are 
soft. Large ones take about 25 minutes to cook. Plan 
to serve the meal about 25 minutes altei the potatoes 
are put on the fire, for they are best served hot. When 
potatoes are cooked, drain water and keep hot until 

Fried Potatoes — Slice cold boiled potatoes uniformly 
and fry in hot butter until brown. 

Fried Raw Potatoes — Slice raw potatoes uniformly, 


boil in frying pan 5 minutes and then fry in Ijutter until 

Onions — Boil in salted water 30 minutes until tender. 
Onions and potatoes go well together and campers should 
boil them together. 

Green Peas — Buy them fresh from a farmer near camp 
if possible. Reject over-ripe pods. Shell and boil about 
20 minutes in salted water, keeping peas barely covered. 
Drain almost all water when cooked and add one ounce 
of butter. 

Green Corn — Boil corn al)Out five minutes in boiling 
salted water. 


One teaspoon ful (level) to each person, y^ cup of 
water to each person, ^ cup of milk to each person. 
Cook cocoa in water 5 minutes ; add to warm milk and 
allow it to reach boiling point. Do not boil. 


When possible carry along a supply of bread. 

Toast — Toast may either be made over coals or by 
propping wire broiler upright before blazing fire. 

"Biscuit Loaf — This is a standard camp bread, because 
it bakes quickly. It is good so long as it is hot, but it 
dries out soon and will not keep. For four : 3 pints 
flour, 3 heaping teaspoonfuls baking powder, 1 heaping 
teaspoonful salt, 2 heaping tablespoonfuls cold grease, 
1 scant pint cold water. Amount of water varies ac- 
cording to quality of flour. Baking powders vary in 
strength ; follow directions on can. Mix thoroughly, with 
big spoon or wooden paddle, first the baking powder with 
the flour and then the salt. Rub into this the cold grease 
(which may be lard, cold pork fat, drippings) until there 
are no lumps left and no grease adhering to bottom of 
pan. This is a little tedious, but don't shirk it. Then 


stir in the water and work it with spoon until you have 
a rather stiff doug-h. Have the pan greased. Turn the 
loaf into it and bake. Test center of loaf with a sliver 
when you think it properly done. When no dough ad- 
heres remove bread. All hot breads should be broken 
with the hand, never cut. 

"To freshen any that is left over and dried out, si)rinkle 
a little water over it and heat through. This can be done 
but once." 

Washing Dishes 

Every part of the camp work should be a pleasure, 
and there is no reason whatever that dish washing should 
be an exception. If the following directions for -dish 
washing are followed the work may be so cjuickly and 
perfectly done as to be part of the fun. 

1. Each girl should throw scraps from her plate into 
a trench or receptacle. Do not throw food scraps on 
the camp fire, as they make a disagreeable smoke. 

2. Wipe each plate and other utensils as clean as pos- 
sible with paper napkin, and throw napkin in the fire. 

3. Scrape out all cooking pots. If any material has 
burned on them, boil them out with one ounce of wash- 
ing soda to one quart of water. 

4. Pile all dishes thus prepared beside the two dish- 
pans. Partly fill the dish-pans with boiling water, putting 
a heaping teaspoonful of powdered soap in one. 

5. Wash dishes with dish mop, and rinse in other pan 
of hot water. 

If the water is kept hot one girl can keep two busy 
drying, and the whole operation for a party of four 
should not take over ten minutes. If unskillfully done, 
without sufficient hot water or preparation, it is a dis- 
agreeable task. Try to make it a pleasant one. 

The coffee pot should l)e frequently boiled out with 
washing soda. 


The wire broilers may be cleaned by rubbing them 
with ashes from the camp fire. 

In nesting" a blackened cooking pail, wrap it in paper 
to prevent soiling the inside of the pail into which it fits. 

Use the fewest dishes possible in cooking and you will 
lighten your labor. 

Use the same plates for different courses, rinsing them 
with hot water. 

Be sure to carry in your dish washing outfit, washing 
soda, powdered soap and dish mops. 

"Dutch Cleanser" is very useful in cleaning dishes, 
pots and pans. 

After washing up for the night, put utensils and pro- 
vision box together and cover with rubber cloth to pro- 
tect them from the weather. 

Cleaning Up 

This is important! If you leave your camping place 
littered with tin cans, paper, etc., you will be spoiling 
that place for future campers. 

Burn all waste paper and string. 

Bury tin cans and empty bottles. 

Bury food scraps and refuse. 

Be absolutely certain that you have extinguished your 

You should take pride in leaving your camp site so 
clean that not one evidence of your camping remains 
except the ashes of the fire. 




Climb the mountains and get their good tidings. 

Nature's peace zvill flozv into you as sunshine 
floivs into trees. The zvinds will hlozv their ozun 
freshness into you and the storms their energy, 
zvhile cares zvill drop off like autumn leaves. 

— JoJin Muir. 




Mountain climbing is the final test of a Girl Scout's 
perserverance in following a trail, in endurance, courage 
and woodcraftmanship. Nature reserves her choicest 
beauties and secrets for those who know how to conquer 
all difficulties. No Girl Scout's education is complete 
until she has seen mountain peaks like waves of the sea 
flashing with white snow foam, piercing the blue sky 
as far as the eye can reach; clouds forming below her 
feet; breathed rare air found only in high places; drunk 
from the pure source of rivers, and heard the mighty 
roar of waterfalls. A climb to a high mountain top is 
an experience that will enrich and influence the entire 
after life of whoever has had the hardihood and wisdom 
to accomplish it. 

Before attempting this last test of scouting the girl 
must be in perfect physical trim, be able to sleep on the 
ground, have learned to live simply. Girls should train 
for this experience by taking graduated hikes. On these 
hikes the girls can practice using the condensed foods 
that must be depended upon in mountain climbing The 
rations for those who wish to climb to high places must 
necssarily be condensed, for each Scout must carry her 
own rations for two weeks. 

The foundation of a mountain climber's bill of fare is 
lice, bacon, cheese, chocolate, raisins, dates, dried fruits, 
powdered soups, whole wheat crackers, and tea. Tea 
should be used instead of coffee. The eating chocolate 
is sometimes made into a refreshing drink. Only a small 
amount of sugar and salt can be carried. This fare is 
augmented by mushrooms, wild fruit and berries and 
fish. Watercress is a refreshing addition and a good 
Scout knows where to find it. Some hardened climbers 
add a little "jerky" (dried meats) to this bill cf fare. 


No definite rule of distance to be covered in a day 
can be laid down. In the hisb mountains ten or twelve 
miles a day should be considered a maximum, for part 
of the benefit to be gained from such trips is the enjoy- 
ment of the trip itself. It is better to go a few miles 
slowly, observing keenly all the time, stopping for fre- 
quent rests to examine a flower, to drink at a clear 
spring, to feast upon the view, than to cover more ground 
in a hurried way. 

The following is a suggestion for the management of 
'6 day in high mountain altitudes. Arise with the sun or 
a little before breakfast. ' Breakfast consists of rice, 
dried fruit (put to soak the night before), bacon, and 
shredded wheat biscuit. Before packing, make a small 
package of cheese, chocolate, raisins and biscuit for the 
noon lunch that can be reached without having to unpack 
equipment. There should be a rest of at least an hour 
at noon, eating slowly, throwing ofif the pack, and if 
possible relaxing flat on the back for a while. Then an- 
other hike of three or four miles, making camp early in 
the evening, about 5 o'clock. This divides the day into 
three periods of hikes with a rest in between. The 
dinner is like breakfast, with the addition of soup. 
Soup can be prepared and eaten while the rice is cook- 
ing. Mountain trout can be fried with bacon. 

The equipment must be of the lightest. Clothing 
should consist of one pair of stout, high, waterproof, 
hob-nailed boots; one pair of light moccasins, to rest the 
feet in camp ; short skirt ; middy ; riding breeches or 
bloomers (for in crossing difficult passes skirl's must be 
discarded); hat; gauntlet gloves; one change of under- 
clothes ; three pairs of wool stockings ; one sweater ; one 
comb (no brush) ; one small pocket mirror ; ivory soap 
or soap leaves ; one tube of cold cream ; compass ; fish- 
ing rod, lines and hooks ; rope ; leather thongs ; stout 



Tlie largest nieinbcr of the deer tribe. The antlers wliU-h are worn 
only by the male are sheil once a year. Range: This a.Ti<l related 
forms found in northern United States, Canada, and Alaska. Cour- 
tesy of A.merican Museum of Natural History. 

string; notebook and map; small hatchet; matches (in 
waterproof case). 

No guns, books or cameras can be carried on a high 
hike, for their weight is prohil)iti\e. A s!ee])ing l)ag 
made of eiderdown. Hned witli canton flannel and cov- 
ered with oiled silk or duck's back can be rolled and car- 
ried across the shoulders. A knife, fork and spoon in 
addition to the big sheath knfe worn at the belt, one fry- 
ing pan, tin plate and cup (aluminum should be used in 
l)reference as tin rusts easily), a rice and a soup kettle 
are all the cooking utensils needed. If a company of 



Girl Scouts attempts a high mountain climb, additional 
covers of clothing and food can be carried on a pack 
mule, but this chapter is for those who wish to climb un- 
encumbered with pack animals. It is by far the finest 
way to see the high mountains, though it must be ad- 
mitted few have the hardihood or courage to try it. 
The new Roosevelt National Park, one of the most mag- 
nificent playgrounds in the world, can be visited in the 
way just described. 

The writer of this chapter has walked all through this 
park carrying the clothing, food and equipment just de- 
scribed. Every day of the journey found her in better 
physical trim, vigor, strength, and with keenness of vision 
and joy of life increased daily. 

The largest gnawing animal in this country, noted for damming 
streams with trees (which they cut down by gnawing), mud, and 
stones. (Range: This or related races formerly found practically all 
over this country, and northward into Canada. Detail from Hab- 
itat Group in American Museum of Natural History. 



Now the Four-way Lodge is opened : Now the hunting 
winds are loose, 
Now the Smokes of Spring go up to clear the brain ; 
Now the young men's hearts are troubled for the whisper 
of the trues, 
Now the Red Gods make their medicine again ! 
Who hath seen the beaver busied? Who hath watched 
the black-tail mating? 
Who hath lain alone to hear the wild goose cry? 
Who hatli worked the chosen waters where the ouana- 
niche is waiting? 
Or the sea-trout's jumping crazy for the fly? 
Who hath smelled wood-smoke at twilight? Who hath 
smelled the birch log burning? 
Who is quick to read the noises of the nigl:t? 
Let him follow with the others, for the young men's feet 
are turning 
To Ihe camps of proved desire and known delight ! 
Do you know the blackened timber ? Do you know that 
racing stream 
With the raw, right-angled log-jam at the end ? 
And the bar of sun-warmed shingle where a man may 
bask and dream 
To the click of shod canoe-poles round the bend ? 
It is there that we are going with our rods and reels and 
To a silent, smoky Indian that we know, 
To a couch of new-pulled hemlock with the starlight on 
our faces, 
For the Red Gods call us out and we must q'o ! 



He must go — go — go away from Jicrc! 

On the other side the zvorld lie's overdue. 
'Send your road is clear before you ivhen the old spring- 
fret comes o'er you 
And the Red Gods call for you! 

— Riulyard Kiplins^. 

1>()|)X WITH [MEST 
Froini Group in American Museum of Natural History 




The following section was specially prepared for the 
Girl Scouts by Mr. George II. Sherwood. Curator, and 
Dr. G. Clyde Fisher, Associate Curator, of the Depart- 
ment of Public Education of the American Museum of 
Natural History. All the illustrations used were supplied 
by the Museum, and the tests in the various subjects were 
devised by the same authors. 

The American Museum of Natural Historv in New 
York conducts special courses of lectures in all of the 
branches of Natural Hisory, and extends a cordial invi- 
ation to all Girl Scouts to visit the Department of Edu- 
cation if wishing help in preparation for their Nature 
Study tests. 


1. Introduction to Nature Study, 

2. Plants : Flowers and Ferns and Trees. 

3. Animals : Mammals 






4. Geology. 




The demand for the nuptial plumes of this bird in the millinery 
trade brought it to the verge of extermination. Range: Temperate 
and tropical America. Habitat Group in The American Museum 
of Natural History. 


1. Introduction to Nature Study 

To the solid ground 

Of Nature trusts the uiiud whicJi builds for aye. 

— IVordszvorth. 

To understand nature is to gain one of the greatest 
resources of life. 

— John Burroughs 

Nature Study means getting acquainted with the multi- 
tude of creatures, great and small, which inhabit the land, 
the water, and the air, and with the objects which sur- 
round them. Mother Nature has many, many secrets 
which she will reveal to sharp eyes and alert minds. It 
is, of course, impossible for any one to learn all these 
secrets, but the mastering of a few makes it easier to 
learn others, until finally it becomes clear that all life 
is related and that the humblest creature may be of the 
greatest importance to the welfare of the highest. 

It is for these reasons that the Girl Scout should learn 
as much as possible of the Wonders of Nature. This 
study may begin wherever you are, but rapid progress 
will be made by rambles afield and by visits to the great 
Natural History Museums. For example, a visit to the 
exhibition halls of the American Museum of Natural 
History in New York will answer many of your questions 
about animals you have seen and will enable you to 
answer many others for yourself, when you go out into 
the country. 

Nature Study in its broadest application includes all of 
the natural sciences, such as zoology, botanv, geology, 
meteorology, and astronomy. So, there are many fasci- 
nating fields for study and enjoyment, and it does not 
matter much where we begin, wdiether it be Wild Flow- 
ers, Trees, Birds, Butterflies, or Stars. 

Of the more practical subjects especially suited to the 




activities of the (iirl Scout are those ci-vic prolilems which 
can only he solved hy team-play ; that is, by working 
together. Among these may be mentioned : The preser- 
vation of birds, wild flowers, and forests; ,ontrol of 
mosquitoes, house-flies, rats, weeds, diseases of plants 
and animals, including man. 

The civic nature of these problems is appreciated when 
we realize that it would do little good, for example, for 
one person to destroy the breeding places of mosquitoes 
on his premises, if his neighbors did not do likewise 
about their homes ; or for one orchardist to cut out the 
blight from his pear-trees or the black-knot from his 
plum-trees, if his neighbors did not co-operate with him 
by ridding their orchards of these diseases. 

These pratical questions are so well presented, to- 
gether with plans for their solution, in Civic Biology, by 
Clifton F. Hodge and Jean Dawson (Ginn & Co.), that 
instead of going into details here, both the Girl Scouts 
and their Leaders are referred to this most useful work. 

All objects of Nature are either living (organic) or 
non-living (inorganic). The non-living bodies include 
the minerals and rocks. The living bodies are either 
plants or animals. Plants may be divided into two great 
groups, the flowerless plants and flowering plants. In 
general the flowerless plants reproduce by means of 
spores, like the mushroom and the ferns, while the flower- 
ing plants reproduce by means of seeds. 

Animals may be separated into two grevit groups, 
those without backbones (invertebrates) like an oyster, 
a cricket, or an earthworm, and those with backbones, 
e.g., a dog, a fish. In this brief study we shall not go 
into much detail about invertebrates, but with the back- 
boned animals or vertebrates we shall go a little further. 
These may be divided into five general groups : ( 1 ) 
Fishes; (2) Amphibians, which include frogs, toads, and 





salamanders; (3) Reptiles, which include alligators, 
crocodiles, turtles, lizards, and snakes; (4) Birds; (5) 

This simple analysis may he clearly shown by the 

following diagram : 




^Living Bodies 


Vertebrates Wirds 

) Amphibians 


( Flozvering Phmts 
I Flozverless Plants 

'Non-living Bodies 

This classification could be carried further at every 
point, but this will be far enough for present purposes. 
It should be remembered in any classification that there 
are no hard and fast lines in Nature. For example, some 
creatures are on the border-land between plants and ani- 
mals, and again some animals are between the backboned 
animals and those without backbones. 



A forest tree with large solitary white flowers. Range: .Southern 
and Southeastern United States. 

2. Plants 
Wild Flowers and Ferns 

Flower in the crannied wall, 

I pluck you out of the crannies; 

Hold you here, root and all, in my hand. 

Little floiver — but if I could understand 

What you are, root and all, and all in all, 

I shoidd knoiv what God and man is. 

— Tennyson. 
Do you know the earliest spring flower in your neigh- 
borhood? In the northern United States it is usually 
found in bloom before all the snow of winter is gone. In 
some swamp or along some stream where the snow has 
melted away in patches it is possible to find the Skunk 




One of our earliest spring flowers, usually growing in patches in 
sandy or rocky woods. Range: Eastern United States westward 
to Michigan. Photograph by G. Clyde Fisher. 

Caljl)age in bloom very early in the spring. See how 
early you can find it. In the southern United States, one 
of the earliest spring flowers is the yellow Jessamine, 
which twines over bushes and trees thus displaying its 
fragrant, golden bells. 

As the season advances, other flowers appear, and we 
find the Spring Beauty, the Trailing Arbutus, the Blood- 
root, and the Hepatica. What delightful associations 
each of these names brings to our minds ! By the time 
summer is here we have an entirely different flower-pop- 
ulation in the fields and woods — the Cardinal Flower with 
its intense red color and the Pink Lady's-Slipper with its 
drooping moccasin-shaped lip are to be found then. In 
the autumn we have a different group of flowers still — 
the Goldenrods, the Asters, and the Fringed Gentian, the 




A striking native wild orchid growing in sandy or rocky 
woods. Range: Newfoundland to North Carolina westward 
to Minnesota. Photograph by G. Clyde Fisher. 

season closing with our latest fall flower, the Witch-hazel. 

Some flowers and ferns grow hest in the shady woods, 

others in the sunny fields, some on the rocks and others 


in the marshes. We soon learn where to look for our 
favorites. In taking tramps along the roadS; across the 
fields, through the woods, and into the swamps, we could 
notice along the roadside Bouncing-Bet. Common Yar- 
row, Dandelion, Thistles, and Goldenrod ; in the fields 
and meadows, we would see the Ox-eye Daisy, Black- 
eyed Susan, Wild Carrot, and the most beautiful fall 
flower of the northeastern United States, the Fringed 
Gentian; in the woods, Mountain Laurel, Pink Azalea, a 
number of wild Orchids, Maidenhair Fern, and Jack-in- 
the Pulpit ; in the marshes, Pink Rose-mallow, which re- 
minds us of the Hollyhocks of our Grandmother's gar- 
den, Pickerel-weed, Water-lily, and Marsh Marigold. 

It is natural to want to know the name of any plant 
that interests us, and this is important. As in the sub- 
jects of Birds, there are many helpful books on Flowers 
and Ferns. Beginners will find "The Flower Guide," by 
Chester A. Reed (Doubleday, Page & Co.) to be useful. 
After a good start has been made, such books as Gray's 
Manual, or Britton and Brown's Illustrated Flora should 
be used. 

Our pursuit, however, should not stop with the name 
of a plant. That is a mere beginning. Even slight atten- 
tion will uncover many fascinating things in the lives of 
plants. Why can not a farmer raise a good crop of 
clover-seed without the bumble-bees? What devices are 
there among the Orchids to bring about cross-pollination? 
(See "Our Native Orchids," by William Hamilton Gib- 
son). Examine the flower of the wild Blue Flag, and 
see whether you can determine how the bumble-bee cross- 
pollinates this plant. Do the Hummingbirds cross-polli- 
nate some flowers ? In what plants is the pollen scattered 
by the wind? Do these plants produce nectar? 

How do the various plants scatter their seeds How 
are the Hickory-nuts and Walnuts scattered? The 



G A 1 1 J. A R D 1 A OR B L A X K'ET - F I.' \V E R 
Daisy family. 'Range; Hills and plains of western United States 
and Canada. Photograph by Albert E. Butler. 

Dandelion's and Thistle's seeds have flyinjy-hairs or 
parachutes and are hlown about by the wind. What 
other plants can you iind whose seeds are scattered in 




■ p-^^^i^ 



^" '■' /^ --"V." :v 

A beautiful and abundant flower of the fields. 
Range: JCastem North America westward to 
the Rocky Mountains. Photograph by G. 
Clyde Fisher. 

the same way? Can you discover a plant whose seeds 
are carried by water ? The Witch-hazel shoots its seeds. 
What other plants can you find that have explosive 
fruits? Cherry-seeds are carried by birds. Mention 
some other seeds that are carried in this way. It would 
take very little observation to learn how Burdock-burs, 
Cockle-burs, Stick-tights, Beggar-lice, Spanish-needles, 
and such hooked fruits are scattered. 

Learn the names of the principal noxious weeds of 
the farm and garden, and also learn the be?t methods 
of combating them. 

Learn to know the plants in your vicinity which are 
used in the making of drugs. 



A poisonous plant which produces loco-disease in cattle, sheep, and 
horses that eat it. Range: Plains from Montana to Colorado. 
Photograph by Albert E. Butler. 

Learn to know the poisonous plants around your 
home and summer camp. Are the following to be found 
there: Poison Ivy, Poison Sumach, Loco-weed, Bitter- 



Not a true Primrose, but a member of the Evening Primrose Family. 
Range: Prairies of western United States and northern Mexico; also 
naturalized farther east. Photograph by Mr. and Mrs. Leo E. Miller. 

sweet (Salanum Dulcamara) , Black Nightshade, Jimson- 
weed, Poke-weed, Poison Hemlock? 

He who wanders widest lifts 
No more of beauty's jealous veils, 
Than he who from his doorivay sees 
The miracle of flowers and trees. 

— Whittier 

The trees of the forest are of two classes, deciduous 
trees and evergreen trees. To the former belong those 
which shed their leaves in the fall, are bare in the win- 
ter, and then grow a new crop of leaves in the spring, 
e.g., oaks, elms, maples. The evergreen trees shed their 
leaves also, but not all at one time. In fact, they always 



A tall shrub, or sometimes a tree, growing in woods and along 
streams. Range: Eastern North America froin 'Nova Scotia to 
Georgia. Photograph by Albert E.« Butler. 

have a goodly number of leaves, and are consequently 
green all the year round, e.g.. pines, spruces, firs. 

The uses of wood are so many and various that we 





An evergreen fern growing in woods and rocky places. Range: 

Eastern United States and Ca^nada. Pliotograph by Mary C. Dickerson. 

can only begin to mention them. In looking about us 
we see wood used in building houses, in making furni- 
ture, for railroad ties, and for shoring timbers in mines. 
In many country districts wood is used for fuel. And 
do you realize that only a short time ago the newspaper 
which you read this morning and the book which you 
now hold in your hand were parts of. growing trees in 
the forest? Paper is made of wood-pulp, mostly from 

Besides the direct uses of wood, we turn to the forest 
for many interesting and valuable products, varying in 
importance from a balsam-pillow filled with the frag- 
rant leaves or needles of the Balsam Fir, to turpentine 
and rosin (naval stores), produced chiefly by the Long- 
leaved Pine of the Southeastern States. Spruce gum is 
obtained from the Black Spruce and Red Spruce. Can- 
ada balsam used in cementing lenses together in micro- 



The long-leaved Pine furnishes most of the turpentine and rosin 
of commerce. iRange: Virginia to Florida and Texas. Photo- 
graph by G. Cylde Fisher. 

scopes, telescopes, and the like, comes from the Balsam 
Fir. Bark for tanning comes from Oak and Hemlock. 
The Indians of the Eastern Woodlands or Great Lakes 
area made canoes and many other useful articles of the 
bark of the Canoe or Paper Birch. Baskets are made 
from Willow twigs. Maple sugar comes chiefly from 
the Sugar Maple. 

The turpentine industry is the chief one in parts of 
the South where the Long-leaved Pine thrives. The 
United States produces more turpentine and rosin than 
any other country in the world. The turpentine is used 
in paints and in various arts. The rosin is used in var- 
nish, laundry soap, etc. These two products come from 
the sap or "gum" of the pine tree. The sap is secured 
by tapping or "boxing" the tree, and then keeping the 
cut ducts of the sap-wood open by "chipping" or "pull- 




The sap of this tree, as well as the more common Sugar 
Maple, is the souree of maple sugar. Range: Eastern 
United States and southeastern Canada. 

ing," that is, by putting a new "streak" on the tree. This 
has to be done once a week from March 1 to November 
1. The sap used to be collected in a "box" or deep notch 
cut in the base of the tree, but the modern method is to 
have it run into cups made of zinc or of burned clay 
similar to flower-pots. The sap is taken to a turpentine 




'»«-t'i'" 1 












An excellent article of food growing commonly in old pasture 
fields. Rang'e: Temperate and tropical regions all over the 
world. Photograph by G. Clyde Fisher. 

still where it is heated over a furnace. This drives off 
the turpentine or "spirits" as steam or vapor, which is 
condensed to liquid again by passing through the worm 
of the still surrounded by cold water. The rosin or 
resin is left behind. 

The Sugar Maple grows from Florida and Texas 
northward to Manitoba and Quebec, but it is only in the 
northern part of its range that the maple sugar industry 
thrives. This delicious food is one of the many that 
we learned to utilize from the Indians. The sap is ob- 
tained by tapping the tree in the spring before the leaves 
come out, the best weather for the flow of sap being 
that when it freezes at night and thaws in the daytime. 
The sap is boiled down ; that is, the water is driven off 
and the sugar remains. It takes about three gallons, or 
a little more, of sap to make a pound of maple sugar, 


Three to four pounds of sugar is an average yield for 
one tree in a season. Much of the sap, however, is not 
boiled down into sugar, but the boiling is stopped while 
it is in the form of syrup. If you have ever eaten buck- 
wheat cakes with real maple syrup you will always es- 
teem the Sugar Maple tree. 

The forests perform extremely valuable services for 
mankind entirely apart from the products they yield. 

First, they prevent erosion, or the washing away of 
soil by the water that falls as rain. After the trees have 
been cut away, very often, especially upon hillsides, the 
most productive soil is washed away, usually clear off of 
the original owner's farm, and deposited in the flood- 
plains or bottoms of creeks and rivers or in river deltas 
— in places where it cannot be utilized to any great ex- 
tent. Thus erosion causes a tremendous loss to farmers, 
and it is chiefly due to the thoughtlessness of the Amer- 
ican people in destroying the forests. 

Second, and chiefly related to this, is the fact that the 
floods upon our rivers, which every year take such heavy 
toll in property and in human life, are due to the cutting 
away of the forests. This allows the water from rain 
and melting snow to reach the streams at times faster 
than it can be carried off, and so we have a flood. The 
forest floor, with its undergrowth and humus, in those 
localities where the forests still exist about the head- 
waters of our rivers, acts like a huge layer of blotting 
paper which holds the water back and allows it to escape 
to the streams slowly, and so floods are avoided. 

Third, and related to the above, is the fact that the 
water supply of our cities would be more constant if 
the forests had not been cut away. In these cases the 
summer droughts make much greater the danger from 
water-borne diseases. 

It is only in recent years that the American people 




^ magnificent tree which furnishes valuable timber. Range: Hills 
and mountains of western United States. Photograph by Albert 
E. Butler. 



Range: Northern United States and Canada, south in the 
Rocky Mountains to Mexico. Photograph by Albert E. Butler. 

have begun to realize the necessity of the conservation 
of our forests, and in many sections much has been done 
to redeem the criminal thoughtlessness in destroying our 
forests and to restore those devastated by forest fires. 
Reforestation operations have accomplished a great deal, 
and the orgajiiZfJ^tJon to prevent forest fires emphasizes 




This tree is almost entirely hidden by this "moss," which is really a 
flowering plant of the Pineapple family. Range: In swamps and along 
rivers from Delaware to Florida, west to Texas, north to Missouri and 
southern Indiana. Photograph by G. Clyde Fisher, 


the old adage that "an ounce of prevention is worth a 
pound of cure." Also the people are being taught cor- 
rect forestry practices, such as cutting only ripe trees 
and allowing the rest to grow, instead of clearing the 
land entirely, as was formerly done so universally. 

The life history of every tree is interesting; how it 
breathes by means of its leaves, just as the animals do 
by means of gills or lungs ; how" it manufactures starch 
by means of the green matter in the leaves ; how the 
starch is changed to sugar and other substances v/hich 
are carried to other parts of the tree in the sap; how 
the sap flows upward in the vessels in the s^p-wood and 
downward in the vessels of the inner bark; how the 
entire heart-wood of a tree is dead and the only living 
part is the sap-wood and the innermost bark. 

One of the first things we shall want to know when 
we get out into the woods is the name of the tree that 
interests us. For this purpose the books given as refer- 
ences under "Trees" will be useful. 





























^ t^ 

U o 





vV- ' :. 





' ^V 










IK. , ^M 

For the first few weeks after they are born the mother carries her 
babies in her pocket; later they ride on her back holding on by 
clinging to her fur with their paws and by wrapping their tails 
about that of their mother. Range: Middle and Southern States. 
*'rom Group in American Museum of Natural History. 


Mammals differ from birds in that they have hair 
instead of feathers, and that they are first fed upon 
milk produced by the mother. Unfortunately the mam- 
mals are usually called simply animals, but the latter is 
obviously too inclusive a term and should not be used 
in this way. There is no reason vv^hy the name mammal 
should not be commonly used, just as birds, reptiles, 
amphibians, and fishes are used for the other groups of 
backboned animals. 

In the United States the lowest or most primitive 
mammal is the Opossum. The baby Opossums — from 
six to a dozen of them — are born when very small and 




The Otter belongs to tlie Weasel family, and feeds almost entirely upon 
fish. Range: This and related varieties over Northern and Eastern North 
America. From Group in American Museum of Natural History. 



A blood-thirsty cousin of the Otter and the 
,Mink. Range: This and related species 
found all over United States and Canada. 
Group in American Museum of Natural 

undeveloped and are immediately placed by the mother 
in an external pouch, where they continue to grow until 
they are too large to get into their mother's pocket ; then 
they frequently ride upon their mother's back, clinging 
to her fur with their finger-like toes and wrapping their 
tails about their mother's tail. The Opossum is the only 
animal in this country the young of which are carried 
around in the mother's pocket, and the only one which 
has a prehensile tail ; that is, one used for coiling around 
and clinging to branches, and the like. Its food is vari- 
ous, consisting of both animal and plant material — in- 
sects, young birds, pawpaws, persimmons, etc. In the 



'■kf Wiv-y,^ 

'It- - ■■ '*i 





A near relative of the bears. Note the black face-mark and the 
ringed tail. Range: This or a related variety occurs in all parts 
of United States. Photograph from American Museum of Natural 

food devoured the Opossum probably does more good 
than harm. 

In their food habits many mamals are decidedly 
injurious. Rats, Weasels, Minks, and Foxes destroy 
poultry ; Wolves and Pumas kill domestic and game 
animals ; Woodchucks or Groundhogs eat clover and 
various garden plants ; Moles damage the lawns ; Rats, 
Mice, and Gophers spoil and devour grain ; Mice and 
Rabbits girdle fruit trees, thus killing them. 

On the other hand, many mammals furnish food ; 
e. g., Rabbits, Elk, and Deer. This was more important 
in pioneer times than at present. Many furnish furs 
used as articles of clothing; e. g., Raccoon, Fox, Musk- 
rat, Mink, Otter, Marten, Mole, New York Weasel and 
other northern weasels in their winter coats. 



An expert swimmer. Feeds upon seals, fish and other animal 
food. Range: Artie regions of the world. Habitat Group in 
American Museum of Natural History. 

Many furs are usually sold under trade names that 
are entirely different from the true name of the ani- 
mal. A list of a few fur-bearing mammals of the United 
States having trade names differing from the true names 
follows : 

The True Fur 
Dark blended Muskrat 
Mink blended Muskrat 
Natural Muskrat* 
Natural Jersey Muskrat 
Plucked and Seal-dyed Muskrat 
Plucked and Seal-dyed Muskrat 

Striped Skunk 
N. Y. Weasel in winter pelage 

The Trade Name 
Russian Otter 
Natural River Mink 
River Mink 
River Sable 
Hudson Seal 
Aleutian Seal 
Black Marten 
Civet Cat 

*Muskrat fur is now also sold under its true name. 





A eoisin of the Weasel and Otter, the Jlink feeds upon frogs, cray- 
fish, mice, bird's egg's, etc. Range: Tliis and closely related forms 
over most of United States, Canada, and Alaska. From Group in 
American Museum of Natural History. 

A few suggestions for observation or study : 

1. What peculiar instinct or habit has the Opossum de- 
veloped ? 

2. How does the flight of a Bat dififer frorn that of a 
Flying Squirrel ? 

3. Can you notice any peculiarity in the Rabbit's 
track ? 

4. Mention three mammals that hibernate. 

5. Describe the methods of defense in the following 
mammals : Armadillo, Porcupine, Skunk. 

6. Why do the front teeth of the Squirrel and the 
Beaver continue to grow? 



The best way to find the answers to these f|nestions is 
by actual observation of the animals, but when this is 
impossible, the references given under "Mammals" will 
be found useful. 


The Cross Fox, the Silver Fox, and the Black Fox are color 
phases of the Red Fox, and not different species. Range: 
Northern X'orth America south to Georgia. Habitat Group 
in American Museum of X^atural History. 



The American Eagle, the Emblem of our Country 

Range: United States 


He who takes the first step in ornithology is 
ticketed for the whole trip. — John Burroughs. 
The love of the beautiful seems to be innate ; that is, 
born in us. And the birds appeal to this in at least two 
ways : First, on account of the beauty of their songs, 



w aX 




The Screech Owl feeds largly upon mice and other destructive 

rodents. Range: Eastern North America. 

and second, on account of the beauty of their plumage. 

Among the birds that have especially beautiful songs 
are the Thrushes, which include the Robin and the Blue- 
bird, the finest singer in this family probably being the 
Hermit Thrush. In the Southern States there is no more 
popular singer among the birds than the Mockingbird. 
But it should be remembered that a bird's song cannot 
be separated from the associations which it calls up in 
one's memory. So that the performance of an ordinary 





Rabbits constitute a favorite food when 
available. Poultry and other birds are also 
destroyed by this owl. Range: Eastern 
North America. 

songster may be more pleasing to one than that of some 
finer one because of youthful associations. 

It seems to be a general law of nature that the finest 
songsters have the plainest coats. 

Among the birds that we enjoy on account of their 
beautiful plumage are the Egrets, every feather of their 






coats being as white as snow, and the plumes of these 
birds are so beautiful, and human beings have been so 
thoughtless that the Egrets have been almost extermin- 
ated in order to supply the millinery trade. These plumes, 
known as aigrettes, grow on the backs between the shoul- 
ders of both the male and female birds, and are worn 
only during the nesting season. The only time during the 
nesting season that the plume hunter finds it profitable to 
hunt these birds is when the young are in the nest. At any 
other time the birds would be so wild that the plume hunt- 
er could not easily shoot them. When the young are in 
the nest the parental love is so strong that the adult birds 
cannot resist the instinct to return to feed the nestlings 



The Golden Plover makes the longest single flight known to be 
made by any bird in migration, — that is, 2,500 miles from Nova 
Scotia across the open ocean to South America. Range: North 
and South America. 

when they are begging for food. In this way both the 
father bird and the mother bird become an easy prey 
for the ambushed plume hunter, and there is but one 
thing that can happen to the baby Egrets in the nest 
after both of their parents have been killed — they starve 
to death. This is one of the most cruel phases of the 
plume trade, and there is no other way to secure the 
aigrette plumes of the Egrets than by killing the adult 
birds. Fortunately, in the United States it is against 
the law to shoot these birds, and it is against the law 
to import the plumes. Until recently it has not been 
illegal to wear these plumes, and the fact that there 
are still a few women who adorn their hats with them 
has encouraged the illegal and cruel killing of these 
birds in our country, or the smuggling in of the plumes 



During the autumn migration this bird is the Reedbird 

or Ricebird. Range: North and South America. 

from some other country. In the latter part of 1919 
the federal regulations have been interpreted to make it 
illegal to possess aigrette plumes, and henceforth the 
law will be so enforced. This is the successful culmina- 
tion of a long fight by the Audubon Society. 

A few other birds of striking plumage are the Blue- 
jay, the Bluebird, the Baltimore Oriole, the Scarlet Tan- 
ager, the Cedar Waxwing, and Red-winged Blackbird. 

Turning from the esthetic value of birds, which de- 
pends, among other things, upon the beauty of their 
songs and the beauty of other plumage, we may consider 
the value of birds in dollars and cents. 






The habit illustrated here has given the Shrike the nan;ie of 
Butcher-bird. It is surprising to find a song-bird with the habits 
of a bird of prey. Range: .Northern North America. 

Every farmer and gardener must cultivate his crops 
and fight the weeds which are always crowding out the 
plants he is trying to raise, and in this fight he is helped 
by a great many birds of various kinds. Among these 
are the Mourning Dove, the Bob-Wiiite, and members 




C 3 

a 3 

to a 

o a 



This plover is common in meadows, cultivated flelds, and about 
ponds and lakes. It gets its name from its note. Range: iNorth 
and South Aimerica. 

of the Sparrow family, such as the Goldfinch, the Junco, 
and the Song Sparrow. In this country, in the aggre- 
gate, these seed-eating birds destroy every year tons of 
seeds of the noxious weeds, and are therefore valuable 
friends of the gardner and farmer. For more definite 
data see bulletins published by the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, or "Useful Birds and Their Protection," 
by Edward Howe Forbush (Massachusetts Board of 

Thousands of bushels of grain are eaten or spoiled 
by small mammals, such as mice, rats, and spermo- 
philes or gophers. To the relief of the farmer, many 
birds feed upon these destructive little rodents. The 
Crow occasionally captures a mouse, while the Shrikes 
or Butcher-birds catch a great many. The Screech Owl 
feeds largely upon mice. The Red-tailed Hawk is 
called the Hen-hawk or Chicken-hawk by most farmers, 



Introduced 1890 into iNew York City; since spread over north- 
eastern states. Western and central iEurope, New England 
and Middle Atlaaitic States. 

but this is very unfair to the bird, for its principal food 
is mice. In fact, most of the Hawks and Owls of the 
United States are really valuable friends of ihe farmer 
because of the injurious rodents which they devour. 
(See "Hawks and Owls of tJic United States/' by A. 
K. Fisher.) 

To be fair, it must be admitted that there are a few 
exceptions ; that is, that there are a few Hawks and 
Owls which do more harm than good. The Sharp- 
shinned Hawk kills many harmless songbirds and oc- 
casionally young game birds and young chickens. The 
Cooper's Hawk, which nests throughout the United 
States, is a real chicken hawk, and the worst one in the 
country. The Duck Hawk, the "Noble Peregrine" of 
falconry, in this country feeds largely upon domestic 
pigeons, but no bird student would wish to see it exter- 
minated on account of this habit. 



There are a number of birds which are vakia])le 
friends to all the people Ijecause they are scavengers. 
The Herring Gull, which is the commonest gull of the 
harbors of the United States, and which is also found 
on inland lakes and rivers, by feeding upon all kinds 
of refuse animal and plant materials makes the waters 
about our cities more healthful. This is especially true 
of the coast cities which dump their garbage into the 
waters not far distant. The Turkey Vulture, the Black 
Vulture or Carrion-Crow, and the California Condor 
make the fields and woods of the country more health- 
ful by devouring the carcasses of animals, and the first 
two species eat the ofifal from slaughter houses and even 
scraps of meat from the markets in some of our South- 
ern cities. 

The most valuable group of birds from the stand- 
point of the farmers, the orchardists, and the gardeners 


A close relative of the gulls. IRange: Northern Hemisphere, 

northern South America and Africa. 



Frequently miscalled Blue "Crane." The long legs indicate 
that this is a wading bird. Range: Western Hemisphere. 

is the insect-eating birds. Among these are the Wood 
Pewee, the Phoebe, the Kingbird, and all of the Fly- 
catchers ; the Purple Martin and all of the Swallows ; 
the Nighthawk and Whip-poor-will. The Yellow-billed 
and Black-billed Cuckoos and the Baltimore Oriole feed 
largely upon tent caterpillars and others caterpillars 


which defoliate the fruit and shade trees. The Sparrow 
Hawk has been wrongly named, for it eats a thousand 
times as many grasshoppers as it does sparrows. The 
Chickadees, Brown Creepers, and many of the Warblers 
feed largely upon insects and insect eggs which they 
glean chiefly from the trees. The Rose-breasted Gros- 
beak and the Bob-White eat the Colorado potato-1:)eetle. 
In the West the Franklin's Gull follows the farmer in 
the fields and picks up great numbers of destructive 

In learning the value of our feathered friends it is 
necessary to learn to know the birds, and in this quest 
great help can be obtained from books. Beginners will 
find the following useful : 

"Land Birds East of the Rockies," by Chester A. 

"Water and Game Birds," by Chester A. Reed. 

"Western Bird Guide," by Chester A. Reed. (All 
published by Doubleday, Page & Co.) 

For more advanced students the following are recom- 
mended : 

"Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America," by 
Frank M. Chapman (D. Appleton & Co.). 

"Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America," by 
Florence Merriam Bailey (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). 

Our study of birds should not stop with the name, be- 
cause we shall find many things of interest in the home 
life of birds, many things that seem to reflect our own 
lives. (See "Home Life of Wild Birds," by F. H. Her- 
rick. G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

If we like to hear birds sing, if we enjoy the beauty 
of their coats, and if they are valuable neighbors from 
the standpoint of dollars and cents, then it is worth 
while to consider how we may have more of them about 



our homes. Every girl can do a great deal to attract 

First, I)y i)Utting up nesting boxes. Since the people 
of our country have destroyed so much of our native 
forests and undergrov^'th, have drained so many of our 
swamps, and have cultivated so much of the grassy 
prairie, many birds have difficulty in finding suitable 
places to nest. This can be remedied in the case of 
liirds that nest in cavities, such as the House Wren, 
Tree Swallow, Purple Martin, Screech Owl. Chicka- 
dee, and Bluebird, by putting up nesting boxes. For 
those that nest in shrubbery, like the Catbird and the 
Brown Thrasher, shrubs and vines may be planted so 
that the desirable tangle may be had. 

Second, by putting out bird baths. In this improved 
country of ours, there are doubtless large areas in which 

The Wild Mallard is the original of many of the flomesticated 
ducks. Range: Northern Hemisphere. 



wild birds have difficulty in finding suitaljle places to 
bathe. Artificial bird baths are more attractive to 
birds in the summer time than during cold weather, but 
they will be used even in winter if kept free from ice. 
Do not place a bird bath so close to a shrub, tree, or 
building that a house cat may stalk the birds from be- 
b.ind it. The house cat is probably the worst enemy of 
our native songbirds. 

Third, by establishing feeding stations, especially in 
winter when snow covers the natural food of so many 
birds. When birds have enough to eat they rarely suffer 
severely from the cold. 

Fourth, by cooperating with the authorities in seeing 
that the laws protecting the birds are enforced 

The Audubon Society has done much effective work 
along these lines, and a Girl Scout should join this so- 
ciety, whose headquarters are 1974 Broadway, New York 

All nature is so full that tliat district produces 
the greatest variety zvhicJi is most examined. 
— Gilbert White, Natural History of Selborne. 

The group of back-boned animals next above the fishes 
is the Amphibians, which includes the frogs, toads, sala- 
manders,* and their relatives. The name "amphibian" 
refers to two modes of life as shown by most of the 
frogs and toads. A good example is the Common Toad, 
whose eggs are laid in the water. These eggs hatch out 
not into toads, but into tadpoles, which have no legs and 
which breathe by means of gills, as the fishes do. They 
grow^ rapidly, develop a pair of hind legs and then a pair 

♦Unfortunately in the Southern States there is an entirely 
different animal commonly called a "Salamander" which is in 
reality a pocket-gopher of tlie group of mammals. 


A valuable animal in the garden because of the Insects 
which it eats. Range: Eastrn United States. Photograph 
by Herbert OUang. 

of front legs, while the tail and gills are absorbed, all 
within a little more than a month from the time the eggs 
are laid. During this change a pair of lungs is devel- 
oped, so that the toads breathe air as human beings do. 
The eggs of toads and frogs may be collected in the 
spring in ponds, and this remarkable change from the 
egg through the tadpole stage to the adult form may be 
cbserved in a simple home aquarium. Toads' eggs may 
be distinguished from those of frogs by the fact that 
toads' eggs are laid in strings, while frogs' eggs are laid 
in masses. 

Every Girl Scout should know the song of the toad, 
William Hamilton Gibson says it is "the sweetest sound 
in nature." (Sharp Eyes, p. 54.) If you do not know it, 
take a lantern or electric flash-lamp after dark some eve- 
ning in the spring at egg-laying time, and go to the 
edge of some pond and see the toad sing. Notice how 
the throat is pufifed out while the note is being produced. 



The largest of our frogs, remarkable for its sonorous bass notes. 
Range: Eastern United States westward to Kansas. Photograph 
by Herbert Lang. 

The belief that warts are caused by hancHing toads has 
no foundatipn in fact. 

The toad is a valuable friend of the gardner, for it 
feeds upon a great variety of destructive insects. 

The life of our Salamanders is very similar to that 
of the frogs and toads. The eggs hatch out into tad- 
poles, then legs are developed, but the tail is not ab- 
sorbed. Unlike the frogs and toads, the Salamander 
keeps its tail throughout life, and in some kinds of Sala- 
manders which spend all of their time in the water, the 
gills are used throughout life. Salamanders have vari- 
ous common names, some being called newts, others 
water-dogs or mud-puppies. The mud-eel and the Con- 
go "snake" of the Southern States, and the "hell-bender" 
of the Ohio valley and south are all Salamanders. The 





•h '-'■'_ 






■H^^- I:' 

•i' . 

' '< ■ 

The note of this piping hyla is a wel- 
come sound about the ponds and 
Bwaimps in early spring. Range: East-- 
eirn United States. Photograph by Her- 
bert Lang. 

belief that any of the Salamanders is poisonous is a 
myth and has no basis in fact. 


Reptiles include Alligators, Crocodiles, . Turtles, Liz- 
ards and Snakes. It is commonly said that reptiles are 
cold-blooded. This means that the temperature of their 
blood varies and is the same as the surrounding medium. 
The temperature of an Alligator that has been floating 
with its nose out of the water is the same as the sur- 
rounding water. The temperature of a turtle in the 


■Sio called froni the Gila River in Arizona. The only member of 
the lizard family known to be venomous except the very similar 
crust-lizard found in Mexico. Range: Desert regions of south- 
ern Arizona and New Mexico. 

winter time is the same as the mud in which it is Ijuried, 
while in the summer time it is much higher. What is 
true of the reptiles in respect to temperature is also true 
of Amphibians and Fishes. However, this is not true 
of Birds and Mammals, for these have a uniform tem- 
perature so high that they are called warm-hlooded. 

In the United States there is hut one species of Alli- 
gator and but one species of Crocodile, both limited to 
the Southeastern States. 

There are about fifty kinds of Turtle and Tortoises 
in North America, some of which live on the land and 
feed largely upon plants, e. g., the Common Box Turtle, 
found from the New England States to South Caro- 
lina and westward to Kansas, and the Gopher Tortoise 
of the Southern States. Others are aquatic, like the 
Painted Turtles, which are found in one form or an- 
other practically all over the United States. 

Many of these reptiles are highly prized as food, e. g., 
Diamond-backed Terrapin, Soft-shelled Turtle, Snap- 
ping Turtle and Gopher Tortoise. 



Range: Eastern United States 

There are about one hundred species of Lizards in 
North America, the greatest number being found in the 
drier parts of the continent. Of this whole number only 
two species are poisonous, and only one of these, the 
Gila Monster, is found within the United States, being 
confined in its range to desert regions of Southern Ari- 
zona and New Mexico. 

The Blue-tailed Lizard or Skink, which occurs from 
Massachusetts to Florida and westward to Central Texas, 
is commonly believed to be poisonous in the Southern 
States, where it is called the Red-headed "Scorpion," but 
this is one of the popular myths still too common among 
intelligent people. 

The Glass "Snake" of the Central and Southern States 
is a peculiar lizard in that it has no legs. That it is able, 
after being broken to pieces, to collect itself together 
again and continue to live is another old myth. 



-Range: Salt marshes of the Atlantic Coast and Gulf of 
Mexico from Massachusetts to Texas. 

About a dozen kinds of Horned "Toads" are found 
in the western portions of the United States. AltJiough 
toad-Hke in the shape of their bodies and in some of 
their hal:»its, they are really lizards. 

The American Chameleon or "Green" Lizard, which 
ranges in this country in the coastal regions from North 
Carolina to the Rio Grande River, has a remarkable 
power of changing the color of its skin through shades 
of brown, gray, and green. In fact, it is said to rival 
or possibly excel the true chameleons of the Old World. 

For treatment of the Snakes see Woodcraft section, 
"It is not all of fishing to fish." 

The fishes are the lowest of the true vertebrates or 
rnimals with backbones, and all live in the water. They 
do not have lungs, but breathe through gills on the sides 
of the head. They are cold blooded animals ; i. e., the 
temperature of the blood is the same as that of the water 




The barbels which suggest the whiskers of a cat are responsible 
for the name. This fish has no scales. Range: Eastern and 
iCentral United States. 

in which they are living. Fishes are found in both fresh 
and salt water all over the world and have adapted them- 
selves to many conditions ; for example, certain fishes 
have lived in caves so long that they are blind ; some live 
in the coldest water, while others can revel in the heat 
of the hot springs. 

Many fishes are valuable as food and the fisheries are 
extensive industries, in which large sums of money are 

There are four great groups of fishes : 

1. The sharks and rays, with cartilaginous skeletons. 

2. The ganoids of which the sturgeon and garpike are 

examples, with heavy plates or scales. 

3. The bony fishes — salmon, pickerel, mackerel, cod, 

halibut, etc. 

4. The lung fishes, that live partly in air. 

There are many species of sharks. Among the more 
common ones in Atlantic waters are the Smooth Dogfish 
which have pavement-like teeth ; the Sand Sha'"k with cat- 
like teeth; the Hammerhead Shark with its eyes on 
stalks. The near relatives of the sharks are the Skates, 




The most common example of the ganoid fish is the 
sturgeon, which is heavily clad with a bony armor. Most 
of the fishes that we find, however, belong to the third 
group, i. e., bony fishes. Among the salt-water species, 
the cod, the halibut, the mackerel, and the bluefish are 
especially valuable as food. Of the salt-water fishes 
that go up the rivers into fresh water to breed, the 
salmon and the shad are widely known. Of a strictly 
fresh-water fish, the sunfish and catfish are very com- 
mon. Among the game-fish are the trout, bass, pickerel, 
and salmon. 

For those who live in cities, a convenient place to begin 
the study of fishes is in the fish-market Here we may 
learn to know the common food-fishes by name, and to 
know many interesting things about them. If there is a 
Public Aquarium or a Natural History Museum in your 
city, you can use it in connection with the fish-market. 
Especially valuable in Museums are the habitat groups of 
fishes, that is, those in which the fishes are shown in their 
natural surroundings. But, best of all, the place to study 
fishes, as is true of all other animals, is out-of-doors in 
their native haunts. With your dip-net or hook and line, 
catch the fish, and then by the aid of one of the books 
listed below find out what its name is. Then, by observa- 
tion of the fish see what is interesting in its life-history. 
Find out where the mother-fish lays her eggs. Does 
either parents guard them? Has the fish any natural 
weapons of defense? If so, what are they? Does either 
parent care for the young after they are hatched ? What 
does the fish feed upon? In what way is the fish protec- 
tively colored? In the study of fishes, an interesting 
means is the home aquarium. Any Girl Scout can easily 
learn how to install and maintain a balanced aquarium, 
that is, one in which the water does not have to be changed 
and in fact should not be changed. In such an aquarium, 


one may keep and study a great variety of fishes. Some 
of our local fishes, such as young catfish and suckers, 
will prove fully as interesting as the goldfish and many 
other animals besides fishes will thrive in a small aquar- 
ium, such as tadpoles of frogs, toads, and salamanders, 
adult water-newts, soft-shelled turtles, snails, and water- 
beetles and nymphs of dragon-flies. 


The eyes are on the ends of blunt stalks, or extensions of the 
sides of the head, which suggest the name. Range: All warm 
seas, north to Oape Cod. 




























< 5 




Member of sanae family as Octopus, and is re- 
lated to the Oyster. Has ink bag for protection. 

Animals Without Backbones 

In general the Invertebrates are animals without a 
backbone ; that is, they do not have an internal support- 
ing skeleton of bone, as does the dog or cat. Compared 
with mammals or birds, they are all small and some 
are so very tiny that they can be seen only with a very 
powerful microscope. Most of them live in the water 
or in the mud or sand under the water. Hence the best 
place to get acquainted with them is along the seashore 
or near some lake or stream. 

There are several different groups of Invertebrates 
Slid between these groups there are greater differences 



— Photograph by Mary C. Dickerson. 

of structure than there is between a horse and a hum- 
mingbird. The principal groups are : 

1. The Protozoa, or one-celled animals (nearly all 
microscopic) , 

2. The Sponges, 

3. The Jellyfishes, Sea-anemones, and Corals. 

4. Worms of several groups. 

5. Starfishes, Sea-urchins, and Sea-cucumbers. 

6. Segmented Worms. 

7. Crabs, Lobsters, etc. 

8. Oysters, Snails, and Octopi. 

9. Insects and Spiders. 

Seashore Life 
Because of their connection with our industries or 
cur food supply, some of the Invertebrates are familiar 




to all ; for instance, sponges, corals, starfishes, crabs, 
shrimps, lobsters, clams, and oysters. Others are seldom 
seen unless one takes pains to look for them. 

All life comes from pre-existing life. So every ani- 
mal living to-day has come from some other living animal 
and every plant living to-day has come from some other 
previously living plant. It is believed that the first forms 
of life came from the water. At any rate, the oldest and 
lowest forms of life to-day, the Protozoa, are found in 
the water. As these are nearly all very minute and can 
be studied only with a microscope, they are omitted from 
the suggested field work. 

All who have access to the seashore have a wonderful 
opportunity to study the Invertebrates. The long stretches 



Habitat Group in the American Museum of Natural History 


of sandy beach, the sections of shore covered with water- 
rolled pebbles and stones, even the steep, jagged cliffs, 
are all pebbled with these animals of the sea. Twice 
every twenty-four hours the sea water creeps slowly up 
the beach until high water is reached, and twice every 
twenty- four hours it recedes again toward the ocean. 
It is therefore about twelve hours from one low water 
to the next. On a gently sloping beach, the distances 
between the high water mark and the low water mark 
may be many hundreds of feet, while on a steep beach 
or a straight cliff this area may be only a few feet in 
width. It is this area between the high and low water 
marks that is the haunt of many Invertebrates. These 
are animals that can live if they are not continually 
covered with water. Here are the rock barnacles, the 
soft clams, crabs of many kinds, beach fleas, numerous 
sea worms in their special houses, snails, and hermit 
crabs. Others will be found in the pools between the 
rocks or in the crevices of the cliffs, which as the 
tide falls becomes great natural aquaria. Here will be 
found hydroids, sea-anemones, starfishes, sea-urchins, 
barnacles, muscles. In the shallow water, crabs and 
shrimps are crawling along the sandy bottom or are lying 
concealed in the mud, while schools of little fishes scoot 
across the pool. If a fine silk net is drawn through the 
water and then emptied into a glass dish a whole new 
world of creatures will be revealed — jellyfishes, cteno- 
phores, hydroids, eggs of fish, tiny copepods, the larvae or 
young of sea-urchins, starfishes, or oysters. If an old 
wharf is near by, examine the posts supporting it. The 
pilings seem to be coated with a shaggy mass of seaweed. 
Scrape some of this off and put in a dish of water. Sea- 
spiders, starfishes, hydroids that look like moss, sea- 
anemones, many varieties of worms, mussels and crabs 
are all living here. 

Begin your study of these seashore animals with a 
stroll along the beach. Examine the windrows of sea- 



H = 


wrack or seaweed. Whole troops of sandhoppers rise 
ahead of you. Oftentimes animals from distant shores 
or deep water will be found. The empty shells have 
many a story to tell. The Papery egg-cases of the peri- 




Common Mollusk Found on Sandy Shores Along the Atlantic 
Coast of the United States. 

winkle remind one of a beautiful necklace. The air 
bubbles rising from the sand or mud as the wave re- 
cedes mark the entrance to the burrows of worms. 
Stamp hard on the sand. A little fountain of water 
announces the abode of the soft clam. Watch the sand 
at the edges of the rippling water. The mole-crab may 
be seen scuttling to cover. In the little hollows between 
rocks a rock-crab or a green-crab may be found on 

For collecting in the pools and shallow water a fine- 
nieshed net is desirable. Many of the animals can be 
caught and placed in glass dishes of sea water for close 




A few animals that may be found at the seashore 

Rocky Shores — Hyclroids on the rock-weed, rock-bar- 
nacles, snails, amphipods, lobsters, and oysters. 

Sandy Shores — Worms, in tube houses, mole-crab, 
sand-hopper, egg-cases, whelks, shrimps. 

Muddy Shores — Snails, clams, worms of many vari- 
eties, mud-crabs, hermit-crabs, blue crabs, scallops. 

Wharves and Bridges (on the piling) — Sponges, hy- 
droids, sea-anemones, ascidians, starfishes, sea-urchins, 

On the shores of lakes, ponds, and streams will also 
be found many invertebrates. 


Range: Eastern North America. The larvae or caterpillars 
of this moth feed upon virburnum, snowberry and hawthorn. 

Insects play an important part in Nature's activities. 
From the point of view of man some are beneficial and 
some are destructive. In the former group may be 
mentioned the Dragonflies which feed upon m.osquitoes, 
the Cochineal insects of Mexico, which furnish a dye- 





Range: Eastern United States. Pupae emerging from the 
ground. Detail from Group in the American Museum of 
Natural History. 

Stuff, the Lady-bird beetles, which in the larval stage feed 
upon plant lice; the scale insects of India, which fur- 
nish shellac; the Bumblebees, which cross-pollinate the 
clover, and the Wasps, which fertilize the figs. Dr. Lutz 
savs that the manna which fed the Children of Israel 





Range: (Eastern United States. The pupa climbing tree trunk. 

Then it bursts its horny outer skin and crawls out an adult. 

was honeydew secreted by a scale insect, and that it is 
still eaten. 

The Silkworm and the Honey-bee have been domesti- 
cated since prehistoric times, the former supplying a 
valuable fiber for clothing and the latter an important 
article of food. 


Among the injurious insects a few may be mentioned: 
the House Fly or Filth Fly, which may carry disease 
germs on its feet to the food that we eat ; the mosquitoes, 
which transmit yellow fever and malaria, the rat flea, 
which carries bubonic plague; the weevils, which destroy 
rice, beans, chestnuts, etc., and the plant lice, or aphids, 
which, by sucking the juices from ornamental and food 
plants, are among the most destructive of all insects. 

There are so many insects in the world that we cannot 
hope to learn them all, even if we wanted to do so, but 
most of us wish to know the names of those that attract 
our attention, and to know what they do that is im- 
portant or interesting. There are approximately 400,000 
species or kinds of insects known in the world ; that is, 
about three times as many as there are species or kinds 
of all the rest of the animals in the world put together. 
This fact should not hinder us from making a start and 
becoming familiar with the interesting habits of a few 
of the insects about us. 

The eggs of the Monarch Butterfly may be collected 
upon the milkweed and brought in, so that the whole 
life history or metamorphosis of this beautiful insect, 
from the tgg through the larva or caterpillar sta^s and 
the pupa or chrysalis stage to the adult butterfly, may be 
watched. The larvae or caterpillar must be supplied 
daily with fresh milkweed leaves. Other butterflies and 
moths and many other insects may be reared in the same 
way by supplying the larvae with suitable food. If we 
should find a caterpillar feeding upon the leaves of a 
maple tree we should continue to feed it maple leaves 
if we wish to rear it. Silkworms will eat the leaves of 
Osage-orange, but they seem to prefer mullberry leaves. 

Cocoons of moths may be easily collected in winter 
after the leaves have fallen, and brought in and kept in 



a cool place until spring when the coming out of the 
adult moths will be an occurrence of absorbing interest. 
The spiders, although not insects, are interesting little 
animals. See how many types of webs you can find. 
Mention a few insects which you know to be preyed 

^~H hM<m, ^ 



Monarch Butterflies resting during migration. The Monarch 
ranges all over -North and South America and It imigrates like 
the birds. Photograph of group in American Museum o< 
Natural History. 



upon by spiders. Mention one insect that catches 
spiders and stores them away as food for its young. 


North America at the time of the maximum stage of the Great Ice Age, 
showing area covered by ice. (After ChamberHn and Sahsbury). Photograph 
used by courtesy of Henry Holt & Co. 




Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks. 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything. 

— Shakespeare, As You Like It. 

The Structure and History of the Earth 

There is nothing eternal about the earth except eternal 
change, some one has said. It requires only a little look- 
ing about us to see that this is true. The earth is not as 
it was in the past. Every shower of rain changes or 
modifies its surface. And many other and some very 
great changes have occurred during the past few millions 


of years. During one age, the coal was formed of plants 
that grew luxuriantly on the earth's surface. At one 
period in the development of the earth there were many 
kinds of invertebrate animals, but no animals with back- 
bones. Later, the vertebrates appeared. At one time the 
whole Mississippi Valley was under the water of the sea, 
("The Story of Our Continent," by N. S, Shaler. Ginn 
& Co,), These statements suggest just a few of the 
things that have been going on in the history of the earth. 
By the study of Geology we can learn much more about 
it, and we should supplement our study of books with the 
more important actual observation of conditions out-of- 
doors. To those living in that part of North America, 
which is shaded in the accompanying map, the easiest and 
most natural approach to the subject of the structure and 
history of the earth is by studying the eflfects of the 
continental glacier which formerly moved down over 
this region. 

Tracks of the Glacier 

When we see the foot-prints of an animal in the mud 
or in the snow, we are sure that an animal has passed 
that way at some previous time. Those who live in Can- 
ada or northern United States (See map above) can be 
just as sure that a great glacier or ice-sheet formerly 
moved down over northern North America, by the tracks 
it has left. Although it is estimated by geologists that 
between 10,000 and 40,000 years have elapsea since the 
Great Ice Age, these tracks or evidences can still be seen 
bv any one who lives in this region or who can visit it. 
The principal ones are : ( 1 ) Boulders or Lost Rocks 
which were brought down by this glacier ; (2) The Glacial 
Drift or Boulder Clay which covers nearly all of the 
glaciated region; (3) Scratches on the bed-rock which 
show the direction the glacier moved. 

Notice in the field the size and shape of the glacial 


boulders, where they are found, evidence of the place 
where the glacier melted off (terminal moraine). Do 
these boulders increase or decrease in size as we go south 
over the glaciated area? Can you discover any place 
where they can I)e traced back in iheir native ledge? 
Present-day glaciers, like the Muir Glacier in Alaska, 
can be seen transporting boulders and drift just as this 
great prehistoric ice-sheet must have done. 

The drift which consists of clay mixed with pebbles, 
cobblestones, and boulders, varies greatly in depth. In 
some places there is none, while at St. Paris, Ohio, it is 
:->50 feet deep. It probably averages 100 feet thick or less. 

In your locality note the depth of the drifts in cuts made 
naturally by creeks and rivers or those made artificially 
for railroads. Oil-wells furnish evidence on this point. 
Collect a few good examples of scratched or glaciated 
pebbles or cobblestones which are abundant in the drift. 
These were scratched while frozen in the bottom of the 
glacier and pushed along on the bed-rock under the weight 
of the ice above. 

Collect ten different kinds of rock from the glacial 
boulders and drift, — there are more than one hundred 
kinds to be found, — and with the aid of some such book 
as "Rocks and Rock Minerals," by Louis V. Pirsson 
(John Wiley & Sons) or "Common Minerals and Rocks, 
by Wm. O. Crosby (D. C. Heath & Co.) try to identify 

All soil is composed of disintegrated or decayed rock. 
And it has been observed that the soil of northern North 
America is foreign to the bed-rock. Therefore it must 
must have been transported from some other place. The 
glacier did this huge piece of work. The soil of southern 
United States contains no boulders or cobblestones and 
has been formed by the disintegration and decay of rocks 
in place. 


Observe glacial scratches and grooves on the bed-rock, 
those on Kelley's Island in Lake Erie are famous. 

Agassiz was the first to realize that it was a glacier that 
did this stupendous piece of work, and this conception or 
discovery greatly added to his fame. It is novi? easy for 
us to find the evidences and to enjoy their interpretation. 

In fact, the Greenland ice-sheet is a remnant ol this 
prehistoric continental glacier. 




A Garden is a lovcsome thing, God wot! 
Rose plot 
Fringed pool, 

Fern'd grot — 
The veriest school 
Of peace; and yet the fool 
Contends that God is not — 

Not God! in gardens! when the eve is cool? 
Nay, but I have a sign; 

'Tis very sure God walks in mine. 

— Thomas Edward Brown. 

A very old story tells us that when man was created 
lie was put by the Creator into a garden to dress it and 
to keep it. He could not have been put into a better 
place nor could a more honorable and necessary occupa- 
tion have been given to him. No doubt the woman who 
lived in the garden with him aided him in this work. 
Not having a house to care for or dressmaking and 
sewing to do, or cooking to take her attention, there 
was nothing to prevent her from helping in the dressing 
?nd keeping of the lovely garden. At any rate, that is 
what Milton thought, for he makes Adam speak to Eve 
oi "our delightful task to prune these growing plants 
and tend these flowers." 

Two persons would not need a very large garden, 
and I will commend this early example to the beginner 
in gardening and urge a very small garden to start 
with. For it is well to undertake only what can be 
easily handled or what can be done throughly. There 


is joy in the contemplation of a perfect work, even 
though it be on a small scale, that never comes from 
a more ambitious undertaking imperfectly carried out. 
Better six square feet of well tilled, weedless, thrifty 
garden than an acre poorly cultivated and full of weeds. 

A Girl Scout who proposes to make a garden will 
naturally ask herself certain questions. If she has the 
ground, if she knows already where her garden is to be 
placed, the next thing, perhaps, that she will wish to 
know is, what tools will be needed. Then follows the 
way to treat the soil in order to prepare it for planting 
the seeds. After that comes the question of seeds and 
the way to plant them. Then the cultivation of the 
crops until they are ready to be gathered. 

Here, then, we have material for short sections on 
(1) tools, (2) preparation of the soil, (3) selection of 
seeds, (4) planting, and (5) cultivation. 
(1) Tools 

Not many tools will be needed, but some seem to be 
mdispensable. I would suggest: 1. A spading fork. 
Some like a long-handled fork, others prefer a short- 
handled one. 2. A hoe. 3. A garden or iron-toothed 
rake. 4. A hand weeder of some kind. 5. A shovel. 
In addition to these tools every gardener will find it 
recessary to have a line for making straight rows. This 
should be at least the length of the longest dimension 
of the garden and white that if may be easily seen. 
There should be two pegs to stick it in with. I should 
add a board and about ten inches wide with straight edges 
and as long as the bed is wide, and a pointed stick. 
(2) The Preparation of the Seed Bed 

The first thing to do, after having determined the 
location of your garden, is to measure youi bed. If 
)ou have a single bed, one twelve feet long by six fe^t 


wide is enough to start with. I should prefer, however, 
to have two beds, each three feet wide by twelve feet 
long with a narrow path between, say, twelve inches. 
The reason for thus laying out the ground in two beds 
is that it will be easier to reach the whole bed from 
either side without stepping or kneeling on the culti- 
vated soil. All cultivation can be done from the paths. 

The soil for flower beds needs most careful prepara- 
tion. The bed should be dug out to a depth of two 
feet, and if the soil is clay, two feet six inches. In the 
latter case, put broken stones, cinders or gravel on the 
bottom for drainage. The soil should be a mixture of 
one-half good sandy loam, one-fourth leaf mould or muck 
that has been left out all winter. Mix these thoroughly 
together before filling the beds, sprinkle wood ashes over 
the beds and rake them in before planting. This is to 
sweeten the soil. Lime may be used for the same pur- 
pose, but in either case get advice as to the amount needed 
foi the soil in question. 

Manure. Next in order will come the enriching of 
this plot of ground by spreading upon it a good coating 
of well rotted cow manure. In case barnyard manure 
:s not available, a good mixture of commercial fertilizer 
consists of four parts ground bone to one of muriate of 
potash applied at the rate of four pounds to the square 
rod. This done, proceed to fork the whole piece over, 
thrusting the spading fork into the ground its full length 
each time, and turning the forkful of earth so that the 
manure will be covered and not lie on top of the ground. 

When the spading has been done, then use your rake 
and spare it not. Rake until the earth in the beds is 
finely pulverized and until the whole bed is as level as 
you can make it. 


Now construct your central or dividing path, throw- 
ing the soil moved on the beds on either side. To do 
this you will need a shovel. 

Next define or limit your beds, making the sides and 
ends as straight as possible. You ought now to have 
two rectangular beds, each three feet by twelve feet, 
with a narrow path separating them all readv to put in 
the seeds. It would be a good thing to have your beds 
raised a little, two or three inches above the general 
level of the surrounding earth. This will make them 
more distinct and will obviate the settling oi water on 
your beds ; in other words, will drain them. 


The principal counsel to be given here is to use great 
care in the selection of seeds because it is a bitter dis- 
appointment and a discouraging experience to find that 
alter all your labor your seeds are worthless. It would 
be well to test a sample of your seeds to determine their 
germinating power. If you have a reliable friend from 
whom you can secure your seeds, you are fortunate, but 
if you must purchase at the dealer by all means patronize 
one of established reputation. 

For the first garden I should plant lettuce, radishes, 
beets and beans in one of the beds. The other bed may 
be devoted to flowers. 


Your beds are now supposed to be all ready for the 
seeds. That is to say, they are shaped and graded and 
raked fine. The next thing to do is to lay v^our board 
across the bed, with one edge six inches from the edge 
cf the bed. Then stand on the board and wi+h a pointed 
slick make a shallow furrow on each side of the board 
close to the board. Here I should put the lettuce. It 
is desirable to have the seeds evenly and not too thickly 


distributed in the shallow furrows. One way of accom- 
plishing this is by mixing your seeds with some very fine 
wood ashes in a bowl and spreading the mixed ashes and 
seeds along the furrows. A better way, I think, in the 
case of a small quantity of seeds would be to place each 
seed at a proper distance from the others. This distance 
will vary according to the size of the full grown heads 
of lettuce. The smaller varieties might stand six inches 
apart, while the largest ones would need to be twice that 
distance or more. 

Having planted your letti^e seeds, turn your board 
over carefully twice. That will bring it into position 
for two more rows of vegetables. Stand on the board 
again and proceed as before, making two shallow far- 
rows with a pointed stick. Here I should put the radish 
seeds. These may be sown more thickly, for the rea- 
son that as soon as the radishes become large enough 
to eat they may be pulled out, leaving room for the 
rest of the radishes to develop. 

Having planted your radish seeds, repeat the preced- 
ing operations, making two furrows again, this time for 
beet seeds. These may also be sown thickly. The plants 
may be thinned out afterward. The small plants that 
are pulled out will make excellent greens. When the 
thinning is completed the remaining plants should stand 
from four to six inches apart, according to variety; 
some beets are much larger than others. 

The rest of the bed devote to string or butter beans. 
You will have left for these a space of eighty-eight 
inches, or a little more than seven feet. The rows of 
beans must be farther apart than the other vegetables 
you have planted. Two feet between the rows is not 
too much. You will have space enough for three rows. 
Measure from your last row of beets one foot six inches 
at each side of your bed. Now stretch your line across 


your bed at this distance from the beets, then with a 
hoe make a furrow close to the hne. This furrow 
should be two inches deep at least. Much deeper, you 
see, than the shallow furrows for the smaller seeds. 
Having made this furrow, measure two feet from it on 
each side of the bed and place your line at this pomt 
and make a furrow as before. Repeat the process ior 
a third furrow. You should now have left -a space of 
eighteen inches between your last furrow and the end 
of the bed. Into these three furrows place the beans, 
spacing them. 

Your seeds are now all in. At this juncture take 
your rake and cover the seeds, leaving the whole bed 
level and smooth. 

There is nothing more to be done just at present ex- 
cept to leave these seeds to the forces of nature, to the 
darkness and the moisture and the warmth of their 
earthy bed. They are put to bed not that they may 
sleep, but in order to wake them up. Soon the deli- 
cate shoots will begin to appear above the ground, and 
with them will also appear the shoots of many weeds 
whose seeds were in the soil. These weeds constitute a 
call to your next operation which is 


Declare war on the weeds. Use your hand weeder 
between the rows of smaller vegetables and let not a 
weed escape. If they are in the rows so near to the 
seedlings that you cannot use the weeder wiihout dan- 
ger to the delicate little plants that you are attending, 
then employ your fingers. 

For a time you may use the hoe or rake between the 
rows of beans, but even here near the paths themselves 
the weeder or hands should be preferred. 

There is one caution that old gardeners give which 


is not to work among beans when they are wet with 
dew or rain for fear of "rust." Wait till the sun has 
dried the foliage. 

Frequent and thorough cultivation not only destroys 
ihe weeds, thus giving your vegetables a better chance 
and giving your garden a tidy, well-kept appearance, 
but it keeps the soil loose and forms a sort of mulch 
whereby tjie moisture is conserved. The dryer the sea- 
son the greater the need of cultivation. 

It may seem to you that you are obliged to wait long 
and spend a good deal of labor without results, but 
when you have for the breakfast table some cool, crisp 
radishes and for dinner a head of fresh 'ettuce, and 
later a dish of sweet, luscious beets or mess of string 
beans, you will feel well repaid. 

Let us now turn our attention to the other bed, in 
which you are to grow flowers. This may be treated 
as a sort of background for the vegetable bed To 
do this let the rows of plants run the other way. That 
ii to say, lengthwise of the bed instead of across. It is 
assumed that the ground has been treated as in the 
case of the vegetable bed. 

When you have accomplished this work of prepara- 
tion set you line six inches from the side of the bed 
nearest your vegetables, or the patch between the two 
beds. Make a shallow furrow the full length of the 
bed with your pointed stick. In this furrow sow your 
flower seeds of some low-growing plant such as sweet 
oJyssum. Then move your line back toward the other 
s'de of the bed one foot. Here you should place some 
taller plants, such as asters. The aster plants should 
have been raised in the house, or purchased from some 
grower. Again move your line one foot nearer the rear 
n^argin of your bed and in this row plant your tallest 


plants. Dahlias or cosmos would be very effective. 
You must get the roots for the dahlias somewhere. 
Cosmos is planted from seeds. In planting the dahlias 
it would be well to dig a hole for each plant so deep 
that when the root is set it will be two or three inches 
below the surface of the ground. Good results will be 
obtained if before putting in the roots you put a hand- 
ful or two of good manure in the hole and sprinkle a 
little soil over it. 

I have mentioned these particular plants simply as 
specimens. Other choices may be made and a suggested 
list is given at the end of this section. But whatever 
the selection, two things should be kept in mind. First, 
that the rows should contain plants that vary in height, 
the lowest being placed in the front row, the tallest at 
the back; and second, that plants should be chosen that 
will be in bloom at the same time, for at least a part 
of the season. 

If your work has been well done you ought to have 
a small bed of vegtables, thrifty, in straight rows, well 
cultivated, clean, and back of that, looking from the 
s:de, another bed of flowering plants that should be a 
delight to the eye, especially the eye of the possessor 
and maker. Of course, the beds will not present this 
perfect appearance for a long time because as the vege- 
tables are used the beds will show where the vegetables 
have been removed. It should be mentioned, however, 
that it is possible to have more than one planting of 
radishes in a season; also of lettuce, and these may be 
replaced after the first planting has been used 

There are many satisfactions in gardening. The in- 
timacy with nature furnishes one of them. lo be with 
growing things through all the stages of their growth, 
in all weathers and all hours of the day gives a quiet 
pleasure that is a healing and soothing influence. To 


produce something so valuable, so necessary as food 
by one's own exertion and care confers true dignity 
upon one and a sense of worth. To eat what one has 
raised oneself adds a flavor to it. 

From the garden as a center path, lead out in every 
direction, paths for thought and study. 

My wish for every Girl Scout who undertakes a gar- 
den is that she may have all these satisfactions, and 
may follow all these delightful paths that lead to know- 
ledge, and through knowledge to joy. 

Suggested Flowers for Border 

Biennials such as Canterbury Bells, Foxgloves and 
Sweet William should be seeded early in the spring in a 
reserve bed to be ready for the season's bloom In order 
T.0 secure a succession of bloom they should be taken 
out after flowering and replaced with annuals 

Anuitals — Of these some of the most satisfactory are 
Asters, Calendula, Lupin, Petunias, Rosy Morn, Snap- 
dragon, Stock and Rose Zinnias. 

Take out any plants that are not the right colors. 
Brown earth is better than purple annual Larkspur, ma- 
genta Petunias, orange Calendulas or red Zinnias Keep 
the color scheme ranging from true blues through rose 
and salmon pinks, lavenders and deep blue purples and 
v/hite yellows. If you want brilliant reds or magentas 
have them in a bed apart. 

Bulbs — Tulips, such as Murillo, or early varieties (La 
Reine, Pink Beauty, President Lincoln, Proserpine, 
Queen of the Netherlands and Rose Luisante), or late 
varieties (La Merveille, La Reve, Moonlight, The Fawn) 
and Mertensiav Virginica can be along the borders. 

Darwin Tulips, such as. Clara Butt, Dream, Gretchen, 
La Tristesse, La Tulipe Noire, Mrs. Potter Palmer, 
Philippe de Commines, Psyche, Rev. Ewbank, Suzon, 
should be planted in more shaded places. 



. ^'i' 




y V, i- 1 J 1 

Plan for a border of Perennials 







Every country has national standards of measures and 
weights which are made and kept by the governments 
as patterns, for measuring and comparing the instruments 
made for business purposes. The units of measure have 
been fixed by law, for it is most important that people 
and countries in dealing with each other shall know ex- 
actly what is meant by such words as yard, foot, pint 
snd pound. 

The unit of length used in this country is the yard. It 
is divided into three feet and each foot into twelve inches. 
The foot refers to the length of a man's foot. It is said 
that the length of the yard was based upon the length of 
the arm of an English king, but that sounds like a fairy 
tale. Many of our units of distance and weight have 
been borrowed from the English and are more complicat- 
ed than those used by the French, whose unit of length 
is the meter. In 1799, or thereabouts, an international 
convention met at Paris to decide what the exact length 
of a meter should be, for several countries at that time 
were using what was known as the Metric System of 
Weights and Measures. It was finally agreed that the 
length of a meter should l)e equal to one ten-millionth 
of the distance on the earth's surface, from the pole to 
the equator, or 39.37 inches. 

At the same convention a unit of weight was determin- 
ed. Because water is so important and familiar it was 
chosen as the basis for this unit, A cube of water at 40 
centigrade, and measuring on each edge 1/100 of a meter, 



was taken and called a gram, which is ahout equal to 15 
cf our grains. 

All peoples find it necessary in the house, out in the 
open and in nearly all forms of occupation to measure 
and weigh in order to accomplish their work. 

It is part of a Scout's preparedness to know how to 
measure and weigh, and how to judge measurements and 
numbers without using measures and weights. 

There are rules for determining length and weight, and 
it is important to understand them. Measuring a distance 
means to find out the length of the straight line from one 
point to another. To get a straight line in the open when 
walking fix the eyes upon two objects direct'y in front, 
one nearer and smaller than the other. With eyes high 
walk toward these objects keeping them always in line. 
When approaching the first one choose another to take 
its place in line with it and the second. Always have two 
objects in direct line with the eyes. 

This method can be used in marching, rowing, swim- 
niing, and when staking out the points of triangles for 
measuring distance and height, as it will give the shortest 
distance between two points. 

There are three general methods of measuring distance 
accurately. (1) chaining or taping; (2) telemetry, and 
(3) triangulation. Less accurate means of measuring are 
by sound, pacing and timing. 

(1) Chaining and Taping. The regulation chain or 
tape used by surveyors is 100 feet long. A Scout mav 
use a shorter line but must follow the same rules. 

Three things must be kept in mind when using a line. 
a. The straight distance between two points is to be ob- 
tained, b. The point where the end of the line comes 
each time must be marked, c. The line must be stretched 

This method can be used in measurinsf off the distance 


for pacing to obtain the average length of one's pace, as 
suggested in a later paragraph under Useful Personal 

(2) Telemetry. The second method is used in deter- 
mining long distances for artillery practice and in survey- 
ing. It is called telemetry and the use of an instrument 
is necessary. 

(3) Triangulation. This is a long word but one a 
Scout can learn to know and use. It means that the 
length of the distance can be computed by means of 
triangles staked out on the ground, when to measure 
with a line would be impossible or not satisfactory.. It 
is not necessary to make the sides of the triangles, only 
the points need to be indicated as it is the relative position 
of the points which make a triangle and not the lines. 
These can be marked in the country with poles, stakes 
or stones ; in the city Scouts could stand in position at the 
necessary points. 

When using triangles where shall a Scout place the 
points ? 

If the width of a stream, road or field is wanted 
choose a place where its sides are on about the same 
level and if possible fairly straight. Then proceed as 
shown in the accompanying diagram A. Select a conspi- 
cuous object on the farther bank of the stream, such as a 
tree, bush or stone and call it X. Stand opposite it at the 
near edge of the stream or on the bank, and place a 
stake A in front of you keeping X and A in direct line, 
v/alk backward a few feet and plant a stake B in direct 
line with them. Right or left face — (for a right angle 
is necessary at this point). Pace a straight line for say 
20 feet and plant a stake C, one high enough to be plainly 
seen; continue the straight line for say 10 feet more and 
plant a stake D. Turn inland, (another t-Jght angle 
is here necessary) and pace to the point where the ob- 



Diagram A. To Measure Width of Stream or Road 

ject X on the far side of the stream can be seen in direct 
line with the stake C. At this point place stake E. 
Measure the distance from E to D. With paper and 
pencil mark down the example — for such it is — in this 

DC : CB :: DE : BX 

as the length from D to C is to the length of C to B 


is the length from D to E to the length from B to X 
or as in this example, 
as 10 is to 20 so 8 is to the distance from B to X, which 
would be 16. Having discovered the distance between A 
and B in the case given, to be 4 feet, take this from the 
distance between B and X and the result will give the 
width of the stream, which is 12 feet. 

It may not be always necessary to use the line A — B 
but if the edge of the stream or road is crooked it is 
necessary in order to make B — D a straight line at right 
angles to A — X. 

In calculating a height, as that of a tree, house or 
tower, the triangles can again be used, as shown in 
diagram B. Choose a level strip of ground; pace the 
distance in a straight line, from the base of the tree A, or 



6 //• C- 

Diagiiim 1',. To Measure Height of Tree, Etc. 

tower, to a point some distance from the tree, and plant 
a pole or stake say 5 feet high B ; continue pacing the 
straight line to the point where, lying down with eyes 
level with the tree base, the top of the tree can be seen 
on a line with the top of the pole ; plant here stake C. 
I'he height of the tree AA' will be to the length of the 
distance from C to A as the height of the pol^, BB' is to 
the distance between B and C. A Scout can stand in the 
place of the stake B. 


Diitgiaiu C. To Measure Height with a Mirror 

There are other ways of determining height. As 
shown in the diagram C, place a mirror (M) horizontally 
on the ground reflector side up, some distance from the 
base of the object to be measured, in this case a tent. 
Walk backward from the mirror in a straight line until 
the top of the tent pole can be seen in it. The problem 
will read in this way : the distance from the mirror to 
your heels (MS) is to the distance from your heels to 
ycur eyes (GS) as the distance from the mirror to the 
bf'.se of the object (MT) is to the height of the object 
TT'). Water in a dark pan or tray or a pool on a still 
day will answer for a mirror. 


Diagram D. To Test a Right Angle 

A right angle can be tested by measuring off 3 feet on 
cne side of the corner and 4 feet on the other side, as 
shown in diagram d. If the distance between the two 
points is 5 feet the angle is true; if not 5 feet move one 
point as much as is necessary to make 5 feet. 

South American natives estimate height fairly correct- 
ly by turning the back to the object, walking straight 
away from it to the point where the top of the object 
can be seen by bending over and looking between the 
legs. Plant a peg at this point and the distance from the 
peg to the base of the object is roughly equal to the 

Sound travels at the rate of 365 yards every second, 
as many yards as there are days in the year. By count- 
ing the seconds between seeing the flash from a gun, 
or the steam puff from a locomotive and hearing the 
sound of the explosion or whistle it is possible to figure 
the length of the distance between yourself and the gun 
or locomotive. 

It is said that the number of seconds between a flash of 
lightning and the thunder will give the distance between 
you and the place where the lightning struck. 

We use weighing machines or scales in buying food, so 
that we may compare the actual amount of food we buy 
with a standard weight, otherwise there would be much 
confusion and business could not be carried on between 
peoples. For this reason we use pint, quart, peck and 


bushel measures, all of which are regulated by law as to 
the amount they hold. 

There are some ' people who have a true feeling or 
sense for weight and can tell almost to an ounce the 
weight of a parcel by lifting it. Others have a good 
memory and can tell the weight of a quantity by looking 
at it. Others know distance and can estimate it correctly 
without use of rule or measure,, and likewise judge numb- 

Very few people have this ability naturally but many 
have acquired it by practice and patience and a Scout 
can do so: she will find many times that thi? particular 
form of knowledge whether in or out of doors is of 

How often a housekeeper wishes she could tell about 
how much material to buy for this or that purpose with- 
out getting the yard stick and measuring. The seamstress 
and dressmaker must judge length and width and even 
height, and the cook constantly has need of a sense of 
quantity and size. The photographer, the pioneer, the 
camper, all must know measurements. This matter of 
judging is something we are called upon to do much 
more than we have realized. The point is how can we 
learn the trick? We should start with something we 
know and compare to it something whose size we do not 
know. This is where knowing your personal measure- 
ment will be of value. Always prove when practicing 
your idea, otherwise you will not improve your ability. 
That is, make your estimate, then see how near right it is 
by measuring. Learn to know how an inch, a foot, ,a yard 
look. Then work with longer lengths out .of doors with 
several feet, and several yards. Fences, roads, streets, 
dooryards, houses, all can be judged as to length. 

Height is less easy to estimate for we are not so accus- 
tomed to looking up and down as we are to looking 


forward or back and forth, but the same rules hold good. 
Learn to know the height of a chair seat, a table, your 
own height, a room, a house, trees: by measuring and 
looking, and looking and measuring, you will accopmlish 

To learn to judge weight begin by holding in your hand 
something that weighs a pound; after holding it a few 
moments put it down and then take it up again always 
trying to sense the weight. Do not use your eyes, only 
your hand. Try a two pound weight and so on. Then 
take up something else the weight of which you do not 
know and see if you can tell its weight. Practice, patience 
and memory are necessary in this work. 

There is another way of judging weight, one in which 
our eyes help us. Knowing how a pound of butter looks 
as to size we 'an judge the weight of a mass ot butter by 
looking at it and comparing it mentally with what we 
know. We can follow this method in judging the weight 
of different goods, but as each kind when put in pound 
quantities looks more or less different from every other 
kind, experience and knowledge of the character of the 
goods is necessary. A pound of butter and a pound of 
feathers do not make the same size bundle so the weight 
cf each could not be judged by the same eye standard. 

By practice a Girl Scout should be able to do the follow- 
ing things in the way of judging height, weight and dis- 
tance : 

(1) Be able to judge within 25 per cent the follow- 
ing: Height of a tree, house, pole, etc., not ex- 
ceeding 50 feet. Material, 1, 3, 15, 18, 27. 30, 36, 
42 and 56 inches. Diameter of the trunk of a 
tree, a pole, water pipe or similar object. Distance 
of 6, 10, 15, 25 and 100 feet. (This is useful in 
camera work.) 

(2) Pick out from a miscellaneous assortment bottles 


^f 2, 4, 6 and 8 ounces. Bottles of 1 pint, 1 quart, 
1 gallon. Pails, 1 pint, 1 quart, 2 quarts, 1 gallon. 

(3) Be able without scales to weigh out specified 
amounts of sugar, flour or other household mater- 
ials, for example, 1, 5 or 10 pounds 

(4) Be able to pick out from an assortment, packages 
of rice, tea, cornmeal, etc., weighing 3^, 1, 2, 5 
and 10 pounds. 

(5) Be able to give in the usual measures, either 
avoirdupois or metric, capacity of the standard 
teaspoon, tablespoon, teacup. 

(6) Be able to tell when you have walked a mile in 
open country. This may be done by usmg Scout's 
Pace for 12 minutes, on a fifty walk, fifty run 
rhythm, or by knowing one's own walking step 

(7) Be able to judge of spaces between distant ob- 
jects such as the distance between two trees, the 
width of a road, or a brook, by the triangulation 

It is sometimes a great convenience to measure a length 
of ribbon, lace or other goods without the use of a rule 
or tape measure; but what shall we use in their place? 
Look at your thumb — how long is it from the end to the 
first joint? And the middle finger, from the end to the 
knuckle on the back of the hand? Isn't it nearly four and 
cne-half inches or one-eighth of a yard? That is what 
the average grown person's finger measures. To get the 
correct length of your finger, hold the end of a tape 
line to the end of the finger with the thumb of the same 
hand, draw the tape measure tight over the bent finger to 
the knuckle. This is a very useful measure for short 


Another measure for longer lengths is the distance 
from the end of your nose, when your head is turned 
sharply to one side, to the end of your thumb when your 
arm is stretched straight out from the shoulder in the 
opposite direction. Measure and find out this distance 
for yourself by holding the very end of a ribbon, tape or 
rope with the left hand to the end of the nose, head 
turned to the left, and with the right hand run the fingers 
along the edge of the ribbon until it is stretched to arm's 
length. Marking the ribbon with a pin where the right 
thumb and forefinger have held it, measure the distance 
wfth a yard measure or rule from the end of the ribbon 
to the pin. This length will be about the same as the 
standard unit of length used in this country. When meas- 
uring a long length of goods, use the point held by the 
right hand as the starting point to be held by left hand. 

If you know the distance between the end of your little 
finger and the end of your thumb when they are stretched 
apart, the palm of the hand being flat, you can meas- 
ure a distance such as the length of a table, shelf, pole, 
etc. When judging the height of a person, remember that 
the distance from the top of the head to the chm is about 
cne-ninth of the height of the body. The distance be- 
tween the middle fingers when the arms are stretched 
straight out from the shoulders is about equal to the 
height of the body. 

Another personal measure that is of value is the length 
of one's average pace or stride ; that is,, the distance from 
the toe of one boot to the toe of the other when walking 
a natural gait. It is also useful to know the average 
number of paces taken in walking a given distance, such 
as a mile, and the time required to make them. All of 
this information can be obtained in a very simple way. 
Measure ofT as accurately as possible 220 yards, which is 
one-eighth of a mile,, or take a known distance, and pace 


it back and forth at least eight times, but nc+ all in one 
day. Each time keep a record of the number of paces 
taken and the time required to pace the distance. Divide 
the sum of the paces by the number of times paced and 
the result will be the average number of pares for the 
distance. Then divide the whole distance bv the aver- 
age number of paces and get the average length of your 
pace. Divide the sum of the minutes spent in pacing the 
distance by the number of times paced, and get the aver- 
age length of time required to walk the distance. When 
the average length of pace is known, the distarce between 
two points can be quite accurately estimated by pacing, if 
the ground is open, level and solid. If up or down grade, 
if the ground is muddy or heavy, or there are other 
causes which retard the gait, a reduction must be made. 

None of the above methods for measuring are scien- 
tific, therefore are not accurate, but they are useful ways 
of measuring approximately lengths and distances by 
means of a guide always at hand. 


The word map calls to our mind a picture of lines, 
angles, dots and circles which tell us something about a 
position of the surface of the earth. It gives us an idea 
of distance and direction, indicates heights and sometimes 
tells of interesting land conditions. What we see are 
but symbols representing a more or less true picture. 
This method of telling a story is very old ; as long ago 
as 1370 B. C. it was used to show the location of the then 
famous Nubian Gold Mines. This ancient map is now 
preserved in the Museum of Turin. 

Later, in 611 B. C. the first map of the world was 
made — the world as men knew it then. They thought 
it was like a hollow cylinder and surrounded by a river. 
Bv 276 B. C. maps were used and understood quite gener- 


They were named originally after the material upon 
M'hich they were painted or drawn. Map from Mappa, 
meaning cloth, and chart from charta, meaning parch- 
ment. Even today maps are made on cloth when for 
use in the open by cyclists, military men, and so forth, 
and charts are those maps filling the needs of seamen. 
Savage tribes used maps made of horn, bone and wood 

In the 15th century the first printed maps were made 
and now many processes are used in reproducing these 
valuable and necessary graphic pictures, eve^'v line and 
dot of which have been made out of someone's experi- 
ence. The explorer, the pioneer, the navigator, all con- 
tributing to the store of knowledge of the earth's surface, 
and many times having thrilling adventures, surviving ter- 
rible conditions that the earth may be known as it really 

Although maps are made to scale and every distance 
computed most accurately by the use of very fine instru- 
ments, Scouts can accomplish the real purpo'^e of maps 
in a small and simple way, for they are after all, but 
guides to those who follow. 

Knowing a delightful road or trail, one can by a map 
guide others to it, or by making a map of a city, or coun- 
try district hely a stranger to find his way about. Our 
maps must contain as the all important features: Direc- 
tion, Distance, Points of Identification, and the explana- 
tion on the margin of the map of all symbols or conven- 
tional signs used. For hiking purposes a starting point 
and a goal are necessary, all cross-roads must be indicated 
— streams, bridges, trails, springs, points of interest, van- 
tage points for extended views, and so forth. 

A city map should note beside streets, the car lines or 
bus lines, public buildings, library, churches, hotels, 
stores, police station, public telephone booths, a doctor's 
office, fire alarm box and post box. 


A village map should show in addition the way to the 
nearest large town or city, give the railroad station, and 
so forth. 

Direction is shown by symbol,, an arrow or a line with 
an N pointing to the North, which should be at the top of 
the map, and all lines and signs should be made in relation 
to it. 

Distance is shown by what is known as scale. It would 
be impossible and unnecessary in making a map to use the 
exact measurements of distances existing in any given 
portion of the country, but we can indicate those distances 
by drawing our map even though very small so that lines, 
angles, circles and dots will bear the same relation to each 
other as the points they represent bear to '^ach other. 
This is done by using a small measure to represent a large 
measure. If 1 inch was used to represent a mile, a map 
showing 80 square miles of ground, measuring 8x10 
miles could be drawn on a comparatively small piece of 
paper. Whatever scale is used must be noted on the map, 

The true distances are found by pacing or by triangu- 
kition. The interesting, helpful and necessary points are 
learned by observation. These are the real guides when 
using a map and these should be placed most correctly. 
Some of the symbols most generally used in map making 
are shown in the accompanying cut. 

To be able to read a map is quite as important as mak- 
ing one. Signs must be understood, distances read, and 
directions known. It will help in ascertaining the latter 
point to hold the map so its position will be true to the 
points of the compass — the East to the East. This is 
called orienting a map. 

A sketch map, not made to scale or true as *^o direction 
01 distance, but giving enough accurate information to 
serve in guiding a stranger truly, can be made very 



City , Town, or 



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(;uickly and easily if the district sketched has heen ob- 
served closely. Observation it at the root of map making. 
The reproduced sketch of a map made by Girl Scout, 
will be a guide to the Scout who is learning how to tell 
a story by symbols, 


The Mariner's Compass is an instrument which shows where 
the North, and other directions, are. Boxing the Compass consists 
in enumerating the points beginning with North and working 
around the circle as follows : 


North by East South by West. 

North, Northeast South, Southwest 

Northeast by North Southwest by South 

Northeast Southwest 

Northeast by East Southwest by West 

East, Northeast West, Southwest 

East by North West by South 


East by South West by North 

East, Southeast West, Northwest 

Southeast by East Northwest by West 

Southeast Northwest 

Southeast by South Northwest by North 

South, Southeast North by West 

South by East ' NORTH 

How to Find Points of Compass Without a Compass 

Every Scout should be able to find the North without a com- 
pass. By day the sun will tell you where the North is, and the 
stars by night. 

How to Tell the Points of the Compass by the Sun 

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Any time before 
noon, if you stand facing the sun, North is at your left hand-' 
after noon, if you face the sun. North is at your right hand. 

The Phoenicians, who sailed round Africa in ancient times, 
noticed that when they started the sun rose on their left-hand 
side — they were going south. Then they reported that they got to 
a strange country where the sun got up in the wrong quarter, 
namely on their right hand. The truth was that they had gone 
round the Cape of Good Hope and were steering north again up 
the coast of Africa. 



Probably the most accurate way to find North, if you have 
no compass, is to use an open-faced watch. Holding the watch 
flat, turn it so that the small or hour hand points directly toward 
the sun. The South will then be half way between the hour hand 
and the figure XII on the dial. Before noon the halfway point is 
between the hour hand and XII clockwise, and after noon it is 
between the hour hand and XII counter-clockwise. 

How to Find North by the Stars 

All stars appear to rise in the east and set in the west, which 
is really due to our earth turning around under them. But one 
star never moves in relation to us, and that is Polaris, the North 
Star, which stands still over the north pole to show us where North 



It doubtless seems very strange to you that a Girl 
Scout should have to know how to handle a rope and 
tie knots according to rules. Most people have never 
dreamed that there are rules for these things ; they have 
made knots, when necessary, in a way peculiar to them- 
selves and have been quite surprised that the knots come 
out when they are expected to hold fast and hold fast 
when they are expected to come out. 

Ropes and knots have been in use by all peoples for 
n.'any years. The rules concerning them have been de- 
veloped and i^erfected as time has passed until now 
there is no question as to the usefulness of these things 
and the way to handle them correctly. 

As the sailors and the engineers have worked with 
ropes and knots more than others, it is to them that we 
go for our information. We need all we can get, for to- 
day in nearly all forms of occupation twine, cord and 
rope are used and knots are tied. As the Girl Scout 
who wants to be a Golden Eaglet takes up many of these 
occupations, she needs to know how to tie knots quickly, 
in the dark if necessary, and correctly, for then they 
will hold fast yet can be readily untied. These are 
essential requirements to be remembered, but just as 
important is the fact that purposes and uses of knots 
differ greatly. 

Every Scout should have five feet of one-quarter inch 
Manila rope, whipped at both ends. With this small 
piece, which only represents the much larger rope needed 
in many cases for practical purposes, all of the required 
knots can be made and nearly all of their uses demon- 

Have you ever made a blanket roll, put it across your 
shoulder, hiked through the woods or over the hills for 
a sleep in the open? Where would all your necessary 


articles have been if you had not tied them snugly in the 
roll? Without them you would have been far from 

yOr have you pulled a sled up a long hill over and 
over again for the sake of the slide down? How about 
the little knots that held the rope in place — did you ever 
thmk of them ? There are many things we do for the 
sake of a good time where knots and rope are indispen- 

An interesting story is told by a Girl Scout who 
watched two men trying to hang a very large and heavy 
curtain which was to be used as part of the stage setting 
for an entertainment. The men tried to tie two ropes 
together, one of which was considerably larger than 
the other. Every knot they tied was pulled out by 
the weight of the curtains. Finally the men were quite 
ready to say "It cannot be done." It was then that 
the Girl Scout offered her services. The men looked 
at her doubtfully, but said, "Go ahead." Of course she 
tied a knot that held fast ; then she had to teach it to 
the men. You see, she could be helpful, for she knew 
the kind of knot that would hold two ropes of unequal 
thickness together and knew how to make it. 

Did you ever notice how few people know how to 
tie bundles and packages securely and neatlv ? Yet this 
is a most helpful thing to do. Parcels that go through 
the post or by express are handled roughly and unless 
tied with special care they are not delivered in good 

Sometimes we find ourselves in the midst of unusual 
surroundings where we can be of service if we know 
what to do and how to do it. A Scout is sometimes 
called upon to give First Aid, possibly to tie on splints, 
a bandage, or a sling; or use a life-line. 

Once a boat was swept over one of the lesser falls 




1. Square or Reef Knot 

at Niagara. In it were three people — a father, mother 
and their son. A group of men and women standing on 
the bridge saw the accident ; one of them ran for a rope 
and threw the end over the side of the bridge calHng 
to those in the water to catch it Ofie succeeded, but 
the rope sHpped through his hands almost immediately 
because there was neither a loop nor a knot to hold on to. 
These stories, which are true, make us realize the 


importance of knowing something of ropes and knots, 
tiiat we may Be Prepared when our services are needed. 

Parts of a Rope 

The three parts of a rope are: 

1, The End, the part used in leading; 

2, The Bight, a loop made by bending the rope back 
on itself and holding it in place; 

3, The Standing Part, the long portion of the rope 
not used when tying a knot. 

1. Square or Reef Knot 

The name of the knot the purpose of which is to tie 
together two ends of equal thickness, either to make 
them fast or to lengthen a rope, is the Square or Reef 
knot. It is made so that the ends come out alongside 
of the standing part and the knot will not iam. It is 
used when tying bundles, such as the blanket-roll, and 
packages ; for tying on splints, fastening the ends of a 
sling or mending broken strings, ropes or coris, as shoe- 
strings, clotheslines, etc. It is the knot used more com- 
monly than any other. 

To make the Square Knot : 

Take an end in each hand; 

Cross the end in the right hand over the end in the 
left hand; 

Bend it around the rope in the left hand ; 

Cross the end in the left hand over the end in the 
right hand; 

Bend it around the rope in the right hand ; 

Pull tight. 

2. Sheet-bend 

Another knot that is used for tying two ends together, 
generally those of unequal thickness, or for fastening an 
end to a permanent loop, is the Sheet-bend, 



2a. Sheet Bend: Loose 

2b. Sheet Bend: Drawn Tight 

To make a Sheet-bend : 

Make in the end of the larger rope a small bight or 
use the permanent loop in its place ; 

Pass the end of the smaller rope up through the bight; 

Under the bight ; 

Over the bight; 

Under its own standing part; 

Pull the loops tight. 

This is the way the Girl Scout tied the rope together 
for the stage hands. 

3. Bowline-Knot 

If the people on the bridge at Niagara Falls had made 
a Bowline-knot in the end of the rope before throwing 
it as a life-line they might have saved one if not three 
lives. A Bowline is used chiefly for hoisting and lower- 
ing; it can be used for a halter or with the Sheet-bend in 
making a guard-line or fence. It is a knot holding fast 
a loop which can be made of any size and which will 
not jam or give. 

To make a Bowline-knot: 


Take the end in the right hand ; 

Draw the rope toward you over the palm of the left 
hand, measuring off as much as is needed to make the 
required size loop; 

Drop the end; 

Make a small bight in the palm of the left hand by 
turning the rope toward the ends of the fingers; 

Take the end in the right hand ; 

Pass it up through the bight; 

Back of and around the standing part; 

Down through the bight ; 

Pull the end and the rope forming the loop against 
the standing part. 

When the Bowline is used for hoisting or lowering 
a person as in case of fire, the loop should be large 
enough to be used as a seat; it should be passed over 
the head and shoulders, the standing part in front of 
ihe body, to be held on to with both hands. 

When using a rope for a life-line: 

Fasten securely one end to something that will not give. 

Make a Bowline at ^the other end of the line large 
enough to go over the head and shoulders ; 

Hold the knot in the right hand, the end toward you; 

Take the standing part in the left hand, measure off 
about three feet of rope; 

Draw the rope toward you, pass it over the palm of 
the right hand and hold fast. 

Again measure off the same amount, draw the rope 
toward you, pass it over the palm of the right hand, and 
hold fast; 

Continue this process until enough rope is coiled to 
more than cover the distance to the person in the water. 

Grasp the coil firmly in the right hand; 

Hold the standing part in the left hand; 

Draw the right arm back from the shoulder ; 


3. Bowline 

Swing the arm forward and throw the coil out over 
the water to the person in distress; 

Make sure that the person in the water gets a firm 
grasp on the rope; 

Quickly take the standing part in both hands; 

Pull on the rope with a hand over hand motion, keep 
the line taut and pull the person to safety. 

Do not make the mistake of throwing the coil "up" ; 
throw it out over the water. 


The important points to remember when using a rope 
for rescue work are to fasten the free end so the rope 
will not shp out of reach; to coil the rope properly so 
it will not kink or knot when let out; and to make a 
P>owline large enough to go around the body. 

When a group of Scouts make a guard line, each girl 
makes a Bowline in the end of her rope, large enough 
to put her hand through, fasten her right-hand neigh- 
bor's rope to it by means of a Sheet-bend and holds her 
portion of the line in place by using the Bowline in her 
rope for a handle. 

4. Two Half-Hitches 

Two Half-hitches are used to make fast an end of 
rope to a pole, post, etc. It is a knot that can be easily 
undone. It is used for hauling, fastening awning ropes, 
flag ropes, etc. 

To make a Half-hitch : 

Take the end in the right hand ; 

Pass the end under and around the pole ; 

Around the standing part: 

Under itself, forming a bight out of which the stand- 
ing part comes. Repeat this for the second half-hitch, 
using standing part in place of pole. 



5. Clove-Hitch 

The purpose of a Clove-hitch, which is also called 
the Builders' Knot, is to make fast an end of rope, gen- 
erally to a post or tree. This knot holds securely and 
does not slip laterally. It is of value when tethering 
an animal or tying a boat. It can be used for fastening 
an awning rope, tent ropes, for tying on splints or fasten- 
ing the end of a bandage when it is used to confine a- de- 
lirious person. 

A fence or guard-line can be made where trees or posts 
are available by tying the end of the rope b}' means of 
a Half-hitch to the first tree, and then using a Clove- 


hitch on the other trees or posts. 
To tie the Clove-hitch : 
Take the end in the right hand ; 
Pass it around the post; 
Over the standing part; 
Continue around the post ; 
Under the standing part; 
SHp the end up through the lower loop; 
Pull tight. 


6. Sheep-Shank 

The purpose of a Sheep-shank is to take up slack or 
shorten a rope temporarily. It is used on tent ropes, 
tow lines. 

To make the Sheep-shank : 

Cross the hands and take hold of the rope : 

Take up the slack by drawing the hands past each 
other ; 

Hold the two long loops firmly in one hand; 

Make a bight in the rope between the loop and the end ; 

Pass the loop through the bight; 

Do the same thing at the other end. 


The knot will stay in place so long as the rope is taut. 

If it is necessary to shorten a rope when neither end 
is held fast, make the Sheep-shank and pass each end 
through the bight nearest to it. 

Ready For Transportation or Storage 

When in uniform a Girl Scout hangs her rope on a 
belt-hook placed in her belt or skirt-binding 

To have the rope in a convenient form: 

Make two loops five or six inches long at one end 
of the rope ; 

Leaving a small bight at the top to go over the hook, 
bind the loops together by winding the standing part 
around them ; 

Hold the end fast by putting it through the remain- 
ing bight. 

To serve or whip the ends of a Scout rope so they 
will not fray : 

Take a piece of soft twine twelve or fourteen inches 
long ; 

Make a loop two inches long at one end ; 

Lay the loop on the rope, the end of the twine ex- 
tending beyond the rope end an inch ; 

Bind the rope and loop together by winding the stand- 
ing part tightly and closely around them ; 

Slip the end down through the loop, which must not 
be entirely covered by the binding; 

Pull the other end of the twine and draw the loop 
imder the binding. 

As the twine will be held fast, the ends can be cut off 
close to the rope. 


A "knot board," showing the various knc*"s tied per- 
fectly and names attached, ends of rope whipped, bights, 
loops and coils, is an interesting bit of work for a Troop 
of Girl Scouts to do. The board hung in the Troop 
room would be a help to new Scouts, and it could be 
loaned to Troops that are not registered, but are learn- 
mg the Tenderfoot test, which includes knot-tying. 


Belt-hook — A double hook in the form of the letter S. 
Sometimes called S-hook. 

Bight — A loop made by bending a rope bark on itself 
and holding it in place. 

Coil — A series of rings, one on top of another, into which 
a rope is wound. 

Cord — A string or small rope composed of several strands 
of thread or vegetable fiber twisted and woven to- 

End — One of the terminal points of that which has more 
length than breadth. The part of a rope used in 

Hemp — An annual herbaceous plant. The fib'^r, obtained 
from the skin or rind by rotting the stalks of the 
plant under moisture is prepared in various ways 
for twisting into ropes, cables, and weaving coarse 

Knot — An interlacement of twine, cord, rope or other 
flexible material formed by twisting the ends about 
each other and then drawing tight the loop thus 

Life-line — A rope used in rescuing; it should have a 
Bowline in one end and the other end should be 
secured to something that will not give. 

Loop — An opening through which something can be 


Manila rope — A rope made from Manila hemp, a fibrous 
material which is obtained from the leaves of plants 
which grow in the Philippine Islands. 

Rope — A cord of considerable thickness, technically over 
one inch in circumference. Ropes are ma'le of hemp, 
manila, flax, cotton or other vegetable fiber or of 
iron, steel or other metallic wire. A rope is some- 
times called a line. They are composed of threads 
which are spun or twisted into strands and the fin- 
ished ropes have special names, according to the 
number of the strands, and the various sizes are 
indicated by the circumference in inches. 

Standing part — The long portion of a rope not used when 
tying a knot. 

btring — A slender cord, a thick thread. 

Twine — A double thread; a thread made of two strands 



For details regarding these badges see the 


I. Introduction to Proficiency Tests. 

II. Proficiency Tests: 

***Subjects marked ttius are specially recommended for First 
Class Scouts or girls at least sixteen years old. 

**>i<*Subject8 marked thus are for Scouts eighteen years and over. 










Bird Hunter 

First Aide*** 



Flower Finder 


Business Women*** 




Handy Woman 


Child Nurse 

Health Guardian*** 

Rock Tapper 


Health Winner 



Home Maker 



Home Nurse*** 




Star Gazer 

Dairy Maid 











III. Group Badge 

IV. Golden Eaglet. 

V. Specia 

1 Medals: 

Attendance Stars 
Life Saving Medals 

Bronze Cross 

Silver Cross 
Medal of Merit 
Thanks Badge 
Community Service Award 
Scholarship Badge 


Proficiency Tests and Merit Badges 


A girl must be a Second Class Scout before receiving a Merit Badge 
in any subject. However, this does not mean that she cannot begin to 
study her subject and plan for passing the test at any time. 

Proficiency in these tests is to be determined by the Local Council, 
or by persons competent (in the opinion of the Council) to judge it. If 
no Local Council exists, certificates should be secured from persons 
competent to judge each subject, such as teachers of music, dancing 
or drawing, riding masters, motorists, electricians, milliners, dress- 
makers, artists, craftsmen, scientists and so forth. These certificates 
should be sent to the National Headquarters or to the nearest District 
Headquarters for inspection. Headquarters will either pass on these, 
or Indicate the nearest local body cempetent to deal with them. 

The tests as given are topical outlines of what a Scout should know 
about the subject rather than formal questions. Captains and others 
giving the tests will adapt the wording to the needs of the particular case. 

With many subjects a list of standard references is given. It is 
desirable that a girl should read at least one of these books, not In 
order to pass an examination but that she may be familiar with the 
general field and the great names and principles associated with it. Where 
a whole troop is working on a subject, portions of the books may be read 
at troop meetings, or several Scouts can read together and discuss their 

It is important that every Girl Scout should understand that the 
winning of any one of the following Merit Badges does not mean that 
she is a finished expert in the subject. 

What does it mean then? It means three things: 

1. She has an intelligent interest in the subject 

2. She has a reasonable knowledge of its broad principles 

3. She is able to present some practicable proofs of her knowledge, 
so that a competent examiner can see that she has not simply 
"crammed it up" from a book. Doing, not talking or writing 
is the principle of the Girl Scouts 

One of the great things about these Merit Badges is that they require 
a definite amount of perseverance. This is a quality in which women 
are sometimes said to be lacking; if this is a fair criticism, the Merit 
Badges will certainly test it. 

Nobody compels any Scout to earn these Badges; she deliberately 
chooses to do so. Therefore, to fail in a task she has voluntarily set herself, 
comes straight back to her and shows her what stu£F she is made of. 
For while it is of no particular importance how many things you start 
in this life, it is of great importance how many things you finlshi Out 
OF GOODNESS of heart, or quick interest, or sudden resolution, a girl will 
start out to master a subject, earn a certain sum of money, make some- 
thing for herself or someone else, form some good habit or break some bad 
one; and after her first enthusiasm has died out, where is she? So that 
a great many people laugh at a girl's plans — and with reason. 

Now while this may be merely amusing, so long as it afifects only the 
girl herself, it becomes very annoying when other people's affairs are 
involved, and may be positively dangerous if carried too far. If your 
life depended upon a Girl Scout's efforts to resuscitate you from drowning, 
you would be very glad if she stuck to it. But if she happened to be a 
girl who had started to win five different Merit Badges, and had given 
them all up, half way through, what sort of chance do you think you would 

Girl Scouts are slower to begin than other girls, perhaps, but they 
stick to it till they've made good. "She carried that through like a Girl 
Scout" ought to become a common saying. 





Submit a drawing, a painting, or a model of sculpture which In the 

Judgment of a competent professional represents a sufficiently high 

order of ability to merit recognition. 

This badge is offered with the object of encouraging a talent already 
existing, and it is not suggested that Girl Scouts should select this 
badge unless they are possessed of sufficient natural talent to warrant 
presenting their work to a good judge. The standard required for 
winning the badge is left to the judgment of the professional as it is 
impossible for the organization to lay down strict requirements in 
these subjects. 


"Childrens Book of Art," A. E. Conway, Adam and Charles Black. 
"Knights of Art," Amy Steedman, George W. Jacobs and Company. 
"Gabriel and the Hour Book," Evaleen Stein. 
"Apollo," by S. Reinach, from the French by Florence Simmonds, 



1. T? Sy^l*'^ '***" ***** ^ ^^'^ Scout must be at least fourteen, and must 
hold the badge for personal health, the "Health Winner." 

1. State briefly the value and effect of exercise. 

2. Demonstrate habitual good posture, sitting and standing. 

3. Demonstrate a) marching steps, quick and double time, and Scout's 


b) Setting-up exercises, (as shown in Handbook). 

4. Present statement from troop Captain, of a hike of at least 5 miles. 

5. Demonstrate with basket ball 5 goals out of 7 trials standing at 
least 5 feet from basket, OR demonstrate with basket ball distance 
throw of 40 feet. 

6. Demonstrate with indoor base ball accurate pitching for distance 
of forty feet. 

B* ^"*® brief description of rules for five popular games. 

8. Play well and be able to coach in any three of the following games: 
Basket Ball, Battle Ball, Bowling, Captain Bail, Dodge Ball, Long 
Ball, Punch Ball, Indoor Baseball, Hockey — field or ice, Prisoners' 
Base, Soccer, Tennis, Golf, Volley Ball Newcomb. 


9. Hold swimming badge or bring statement of ability to demonstrate 
three strokes, swim 100 yards, float and dive. Note: For alternate 
to swimming requirements see First Class Test, question 7, page 65. 
10. Demonstrate three folk dances, using any nationality, OR be a 
qualified member of a school or society athletic team, playing one 
summer and one winter sport, OR be able to qualify for entry in a 
regular competition in some sport such as Tennis, Skating, Skiing, 
Running, Pitching Quoits, etc. 

"Games for the Playground, Home, School and Gymnasium," Jessie 
H. Bancroft, Macmillan. 

"Summer in the Girls' Camp," A. W. Coale, Century. 

"Book of Athletics," Paul Withington, Lothrop. 

"Outdoor Sports and Games," C. H. Miller, Doubleday Page. 


1. What constitutes a swarm of bees? How do they live? Tell how 
honey is gathered and stored and honey comb is built, and what 
part the queen, drones and workers play in the life of the colony. 

2. Be able to recognize and describe each of the following: queen, 
drones, workers, eggs, larvae, pupae, honey, bee food, wax, pollen, 
propolis, brood-nest, comb, different queen cells. 

3. Have a practicable knowledge of bee keeping and assist in hiving a 
swarm, examining a colony, removing the comb, finding the queen, 
putting foundation in sections, filling and removing supers, and 
preparing honey in comb and strained for market, and present a 
certificate to this effect. 

4. Know which flowers afford the best food for bees, and how honey 
varies according to the flowers in color and flavor. 


"Productive Bee Keeping," Pellett. 

Bulletins from Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agri- 

"Life of the Bee," Maurice Maeterlinck, Dodd. 

"Queen Bee," Carl Ewald, Thomas Nelson and Sons. 

"How to Keep Bees," A. B. Comstock, Doubleday Page. 


To qualify for this badge a Girl Scout should 
belong to the Audubon Society* and be able 
to answer the following: 

* Any Captain can form a Junior Audubon Club by applying to "The 
National Association of Audubon Societies, 1974 Broadway, N. Y. City. 
The club dues are ten cents annually, per member, and must be paid 
for by the Club. If 25 or more belong, the Magazine "Bird Lore" will 
be sent. 


Give list of twenty wild birds personally observed and Identified In 
the open and show field notes including at least the date seen, 
markings, food habits, nesting habits if known, and migration, if any. 

2. Give game-bird laws of her State. 

3. Name five birds that destroy rats and mice. 

4. Give list of ten birds of value to farmers and fruit growers in the 
destruction of insects on crops and trees. 

5. (a) Tell what the Audubon Society is and how it endeavors to pro- 

tect the birds. 
(b) Give name and location of two large bird refuges; explain 
the reason for their establishment and give names of the birds 
they protect. 

6. (a) Know what an aigret is? How obtained and from what bird. 
(b) Tell methods to attract birds winter and summer. 

1. GENERAL REFERENCES: (At least one must be read to qualify 
for badge). 

"Method of Attracting Wild Birds," Gilbert H. Trafton, Houghton, 
Mifflin Co. 

"Bird Study Book," T. Gilbert Pearson, Doubleday Page Co. 
"Wild Bird Guests," Ernest Harold Baynes, E. P. Dutton Co. 

"Hawks and Owls of the United States," A. K. Fisher. 

"Useful Birds and Their Protection," Edward H. Forbush, Massachus- 
etts Board of Agriculture. 

"Home Life of Wild Birds," F. H. Herrick, G. F. Putnam Co. 

"Land Birds East of the Rockies," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page Co. 

"Water and Game Birds," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page Co. 

"Western Birds," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page Co. 

"Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America," Frank M. Chapman, 
D. Appleton and Co. 

"Bird Life," Frank M. Chapman, D. Appleton and Co. 

"Handbook of Birds of Western United States," Florence Merriam 
Bailey, Houghton, Mifflin and Co. 

"Children's Book of Birds," O. T. Miller, Houghton, Mifflin Co. 

"Burgess Bird Book for Children," W. T. Burgess, Little Brown Co. 


Play correctly as to notes and time the following calls and marches 
and play at sight any calls selected: 

1, First Call; 2, Reveille; 3, Assembly; 4, Mess; 5, Recall; 6, Fire; 7, Drill; 
8, Officers; 9, Retreat; 10, To Colors; 11, To quarters; 12, Taps. 

Reference: Cadet Manual, E. L. Steever, Lippincott. 




1. Must have a legible and neat handwriting and show a knowledge 
of spelling and punctuation by writing from dictation a paragraph 
necessitating use of commas, periods, quotation marks, apostrophe. 

2. Must typewrite 40 words a minute, or as an alternative write in 
shorthand from dictation 70 words a minute as a minimum, and 
transcribe them at the rate of 35 words. 

3. Must show a knowledge of simple bookkeeping and arithmetic. 

4. Must show how to make out, and know how and when to use re- 
ceipts, notes and drafts, and money orders. 

5. Must know how to write a simple business letter, such as asking 
for employment, or a letter recommending a person for employ- 

6. Must show how to keep a check book, make out checks and de- 
posit slips, endorse checks, and balance checking accounts. 

7. Must keep a simple cash account to show receipts and expenditures 
of personal funds for three months, OR the household accounts of 
the family for three months. (This account may be fictitious.) 

8. Must be able to write a letter from memory on facts given five minutes 


"Thrift by Household Accounting," American Economics Association, 

"Household Accounts and Economics," ShaefFer, MacMlllan. 

"What every Business Woman Should Know," Lillian C. Kearney, 

"Bookkeeping and Accounting," J. J. Klein, Appleton. 

"Essential Elements of Business Character," H. G. Stockwell, Revell. 


Submit the following specimens of canning work: a) six pint jars 
of two kinds of vegetables, showing the cold pack method; b) six 
jars of preserved fruit, at least two kinds; c) six glasses of jelly, 
jam or marmalade. 

What are the essential things to be considered when selecting vege- 
tables to be canned, fruit to be preserved or made into jelly, jam 
or marmalade? 

Give general rules for preparing fruits and vegetables for preserv- 
ing in_any.way. 


4. What kind of jars are considered best for preserving? Wiiat otlier 
materials are used for making holders besides glass? How should 
all utensils and jars, glasses, rubbers, be prepared before using? 

5. What is essential regarding the heat? 

6. What are the general rules for preserving fruit? Give proportions 
by measure or weight, time of cooking, amount of sugar, water 
or any other ingredient for the fruits that you have preserved, and 
for at least two others. 

7. Give same rules for jams, marmalades and jellies. 

8. Give directions for filling and sealing jars. How can jars be tested 
within twenty-four hours after filling? If not air tight what should 
be done? 

9. What should be done to all jars, tumblers, etc., before storing? 
How are canned goods best stored ? 


Government Bulletin — U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
"Canning, Preserving and Jelly Making," J. McK. Hill, Little. 


1. During a period of three months care for a little child, under two 
years, for a time equivalent to two hours daily for four weeks. Dur- 
ing this period all of the necessary work for routine care of a child 
must be demonstrated, including feeding, bathing, dressing, pre- 
paring for bed, arranging bed and windows, amusing, giving the 
air, and exercise, and so forth, according to directions in Handbook. 

2. What are the most necessary things to be considered when caring 
for a child under three years of age? Elaborate on these points. 

3. What are some of the results of neglecting to do these things? What 
is the importance of regularity in care, to child, to mother, or nurse? 

4. Should a child be picked up or fed every time he cries? What is 
the result of so doing? 

5. What are the important things to remember in lifting and handling 

6. What things are important in connection with their sleeping, either 
in or out of doors? Up to what age should a child have two naps 
a day? One nap? What time should a child be put to bed? 

7. How can a baby be encouraged to move itself and take exercise? 

8. What should be done when preparing a baby's bath? How should 
the bath be given to a little baby? To an older child? 

9. How is a child prepared for bed? How are the bed and room pre- 
pared ? 

10. What is the best food for a child up to nine months? If he cannot 
have this food, what can take its place, and how should it be given? 
What are the principal things to remember concerning the ingredi- 
ents and preparation of this food, and the care of utensils? 

11. At what age may a child be given solid food with safety? What 
foods are best and how should they be prepared? 

12. When feeding a child either from a bottle or a spoon, what 


precautions should be taken? How often should a child under one 
year be fed? from one to two years? 
13. When suffering from a cold what precautions should be taken? 
If it is necessary to continue to care for a child in spite of your cold? 
What Is the wisest thing to do first if a child is HI? 


"The Baby, His Care and Training," M. Wheeler, Harper. 
"Care and Feeding of Children," Ernest Holt, Appleton. 
"The Home and Family," Klnne and Cooley, Macmlllan. 


1. Who is responsible for the government of your country? 

2. Whose business is it to see that the laws are enforced? 

3. How can you help make your government better? 

4. Give the best definition you know of our government. 

5. What are the principal qualifications for the vote in your state? 

6. a. Who is a citizen? b. How can a person not a citizen become 
a citizen? c. What is the advantage of being a citizen? 

7. Who makes the law for you in your state? 

8. What part will you have in making that law? 

9. What are the duties of the President of the United States and of 
each of his Cabinet? 

10. Name five things on which the comfort and welfare of your family 
depend, which are controlled by your government. 

11. a. What is meant by a secret ballot? b. How can anyone tell 
how you vote? 

12. What is the difference between registering to vote and enrolling 
in a political party? 

13. If you enroll in a political party must you vote the straight ticket 
of that party? 


"The Woman Movement in America," McClurg and Co., Chicago. 

"The Woman Voter's Manual, Forman and Shuler, Century Co., 1918. 

"Democracy in Reconstruction," Houghton Mifflin, 1919. Cleveland 
and Schafer. 

"History of Politics," Edward Jenks, Macmillan Co. 

"The Subjection of Women," John Stuart Mill, Frederick Stokes. 

"Your Vote and How to Use It," Mrs. Raymond Brown, Harper Bros. 

"The Story of a Pioneer," Anna Howard Shaw. 

"American Commonwealth," James Bryce. 

"Promised Land," Mary Antin, Houghton Mifflin. 

"Land of Fair Play," Geoffrey Parsons, Scribner. 

"Making of an American," J. A. Riis, Macmillan. 

"Peace and Patriotism," E. S. Smith, Lothrop, Lee and Shepard. 

"The Children in the Shadow," Ernest Kent Coulter, McBrlde Nest 
and Co. 

"American Citizenship," Charles and Mary Beard, Macmillan. 




This test is based on the thorough knowledge of the article on "Cooking" 
in the handbook. It may be taken in sections. A certificate may be 
presented from a Domestic Science teacher, or from the mother if the 
Captain knows her and can testify to her competency to judge. 

1. Build and regulate the fire in a coal or wood stove, or if a gas range 
is used know how to regulate the heat in the oven, broiler and top. 

2. What does it mean to boil a food? To broil? To bake? Why is it 
not advisable to fry food? 

3. How many cupfuls make a quart? How many tablespoonfuls to 
a cup? Teaspoonfuls to a tablespoon? 

4. Be able to cook two kinds of cereal. 

5. Be able to make tea, coffee and cocoa properly. 

6. Be able to cook a dried and a fresh fruit. 

7. Be able to cook three common vegetables in two ways. 

8. Be able to prepare two kinds of salad. How are salads kept crisp? 

9. Know the difference in food value between whole milk and skimmed 

10. Be able to boil or coddle or poach eggs properly. 

11. Be able to select meat and prepare the cuts for broiling, roasting 
and stewing OR be able to clean, dress and cook a fowl. 

12. Be able to make two kinds of quick bread, such as biscuits or muffins. 

13. Be able to plan menus for one day, choosing at least three dishes 
in which left-overs may be utilized. 


"The Junior Cook Book," Girl Scout Edition, Clara Ingram, Barse and 

"Fun of Cooking," C. F. Benton, Century. 

"Boston Cooking School Cook Book," Little. 

"Hot Weather Dishes," S. T. Rorer, Arnold and Co. 

"Food and Health," Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley, Mcamillan. 


To earn this badge a Girl Scout must qualify in at least one of the fol- 
lowing and must read at least one general reference: 
J. Tie-dying: Make a tie-dyed scarf using two kinds of tieing. 
Reference: "Dyes and Dyeing," Charles E. Pellew, McBride. 

"Industrial and Applied Art Books, Book 6," Bush. 


2. Block Printlnii: Make an original design for a block print unit 
using a flower or bird motif. Apply to a bag or collar in one color 
using oil paint or dyes. 

3. Stencilling: Make an original stencil design for a border, use flower, 
bird, boat or tree motif. Apply in two colors to a bag, collar or scarf 
using oil paint or dyes. 

4. Crochet, Cross-stitch. Darning: Make an original border design 
on square paper using any two geometric units, or a conventional 
flower or animal form. Apply the design to a towel in crochet, cross- 
stitch or darning. 

Reference: "Cross-stitch Patterns," Dorothy Bradford, "Industrial 
Art Text Books, Book 6," "Modern Priscilla," Snow. 

6. Weaving, Baskets: Design a basket shape with its widest dimen- 
sion not less than six inches, and make the basket of raffia over 
a reed or cord foundation. Use eight stitch or lazy squaw. 
Reference: "How To Make Baskets," White — "Practical Bask- 
etry," McKay. "Inexpensive Basketry," Marten. "Raffia and 
Reed Weaving," Knapp. 

Weaving Wool: Weave a girdle, a hat band, or a dress ornament 
use a simple striped or geometric design, in three or more colors. 
Reference: "Hand Weaving," Dorothy Bradford. "Hand-loom 
Weaving," Todd. 

Weaving Beads: Design and weave a bead chain or a bead band 
for trimming: use two or more colors. 

7. Applique: Design an applique unit in a 7-inch square that might 
be applied to a pin cushion top, a bag or a square for a patchwork 
quilt. Use geometric units or conventional flower or bird forms 
suggested by cretonnes. Work out in cotton materials using two 
tones of one color or closely related colors, as brown and orange; 
grey and violet. 

8. Pottery: Design an original shape for a bowl, vase or paper weight, 
and model shape in clay. 

Reference: "The Potter's Craft," Binns — "Pottery," Cox. "In- 
dustrial Work for the Mddle Grades," E. Z. Worst. 

9. Posters: Design a Girl Scout poster that will illustrate some law 
or activity. Poster to be at least 9x12 inches and to consist of a simple 
illustration and not less than three words of lettering. Finish In 
crayon, water color, pen and ink, or tempera. 

Reference: "School Arts Magazine," Jan. 1920. "Poster Magazine." 

10. China Painting: Make a conventional design for a border that 
can be used on a plate, bowl, or cup and saucer. Work out on the 
object in one color in a tinted background. 

References: Keramic Studio — any number. 

11. Decoration: Make an original design for a box top or a tray center 
adapting units found in cretonnes. Apply to the object using enamel 
paints and in a color scheme suggested by the same or another cre- 


Read regularly: School Arts Magazine, Davis Press. Art Crafts for 
Beginners, Frank G. Sanford, Centruy; Handicraft for Girls, McGlougblln 
— See also: "Wood Carving," P. Hasbruck, McKay. 




1. Own a bicycle, and care for it, cleaning, oiling, and making minor 
repairs, readjusting chain, bars and seat. 

2. Be able to mend a tire. 

3. Demonstrate the use of a road map. 

4. Demonsrrate leading another bicycle while riding. 

5. Know the laws of the road, right of way, lighting and so forth. 

6. Make satisfactory report to Captain, of a bicycle Scouting expedi- 
tion as to the condition of a road with camping site for an over- 
night hike. 

7. Pledge the bicycle to the government in time of need. 


"American Girl's Handibook," L. Beard, Scribner. 

"For Playground, Field and Forest," J). C. Beard, Scribner. 


1. Take entire care of a cow and the milk of one cow for one month, 

keeping a record of quantity of each milking. 
3. Make butter at four different times, and submit statement of amount 

made and of the process followed In making. 

3. Make pot cheese; give method. 

4. Name four breeds of cows. How can they be distinguished? Which 
breed gives the most milk? Which breed gives the richest milk? 

5. What are the rules for feeding, watering and pasturing cows? What 
feed is best for cows? What care should be given cows to keep them 
In perfect condition? What diseases must be guarded against in 
cows? Why is it so imperative to have a cow barn, all implements, 
workers and cows scrupulouly clean? 

6. Of what is milk composed? How is cream separated from milk? 
Name two processes and explain each. How and why should milk 
be strained and cooled before being bottled or canned? 


"Stories of Industry," Vol. 2, A. Chase, Educational Pub. Co. 
"How the World is Fed," F. G. Carpenter, American Book Co. 
"Food* and their uses," F. G. Carpenter, Scribner. 



This test is being revised. Following is a 
Temporary ruling (July 1922). 

2. Demonstrate three modern social dances in correct form. See 
rules of American Association of Dancing Masters. OR 

1. Demonstrate three folk dances. 

3. Where social dancing is not given approval by parents, three addi- 
tional folk dances may be substituted. 


"Dances of the People," Elizabeth Burchenal, Schlrmer. 
"Folk Dances and Singing Games," Elizabeth Burchenal, Schirmer. 
"Social Games and Group Dances," J. C. Elsom, Lippincott. 
"Country Dance Book," C. J. Sharp, Novello. 


1. Must hold Needlewoman's Badge. 

2. Must know the bias, selvage, and straight width of goods. 

3. Must cut and make a garment from a pattern following all riiles 
and directions given. It is suggested that two girls work together 
on this. 

4. Be able to clean, oil and use a sewing machine. 

5. Demonstrate on other persons the way to measure for length of 
skirt, length of sleeve, length from neck to waist Ime. Sew on hooks 
and eyes so they will not show. Hang a skirt, make a placket, put 
skirt on belt. Skirt must be hemmed evenly and hang evenly. 

6. Know what to do if a waist is too long from the neck to the waist 
line and does not fit well. 


"Complete Dressmaker," C. E. Laughlin, Appleton. 
'The Dress You Wear and How to Make It," M. J. Rhoe, Putnam. 
"The Dressmaker," Butterick Publishing Co. 

"Clothing and Health," Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley, Macmillan. 
"Clothing: Choice, Care, Cost," Mary Schenet Woolman, Lippincott 




Be prepared to play all of the following taps and steps and In order 
further to show proficiency on the drum, perform any feat selected. 

1 "Roll off"; 2, Flam (right and left hand); 3, Five-stroke roll; 4, 
Seven-stroke roll; 5, "Taps" step; 6, Six-eight step; 7, two-four step; 
8, Single Stroke. 


"Recollections of a Drummer Boy," H. M. Kieffer, Houghton Mifflin 


A Girl Scout must qualify for 1 and 2, and either 3 or 4. 

1. Oflfer record of ten per cent, savings from earnings or allowance 
for three months. 

Show card for Postal Savings, or a Savings Bank Account. 

2. Show record from parent or guardian that she has: 

a. Darned stockings. 

b. Keep shoes shined and repaired. 

c. Not used safety pins or other makeshift for buttons, hooks, 
hems of skirts, belts, etc. 

d. Kept clothes mended and cleansed from small spots. 

3. For girls who have the spending of their money, either in allow- 
ance or earnings, show by character of shoes, stockings and gloves, 
hair-ribbons, handkerchiefs and other accessories that they know 
how to select them for wearing qualtiies and how to keep them 
in repair. 

4. Show record of one week's buying and menus with plans for using 
food economically, such as left-overs, cheap but nourishing cuts 
of meat, butter substitutes, thrifty use of milk such as sour, skimmed 
or powdered milk, and so forth. 


"Scout Law in Practice," A. A. Carey, Little. 

"Thrift and Conservation," A. H. Chamberlain, Lippincott. 



1. Explain the use of magnets for attraction and repulsion. 

2. Describe the use of electricity for forming electro-magnets and 
their use in: Electric bell; Telegraph; Telephone. 

3. What is meant by low and high voltage in electric current? Describe 
the use of current in: Dry cell; Storage Battery; Dynamo. 

4. a. Describe how current is sent through resistance wire resulting 

in heat and light, in case of Electric lights, Electric stoves, toasters, 
flat irons, etc., and 
b. How it is converted into working energy in Motors. 

5. Describe fuses and their use, and how to relpace a burnt-out fuse. 

6. Connect two batteries in series with a bell and push button. 

7. Demonstrate methods of rescuing a person in contact with live wires, 
and of resuscitating a person insensible from shock. 

8. Know how electricity is used as motive power for street cars, trains, 
and automobiles. 

9. Know the proper way to connect electric appliances such as flat 
irons, toasters, etc. 


"Electricity in Every Day Use," J. F. Woodfull, Doubleday Page. 
"How to Understand Electrical Work." W. H. Onken, Harper. 
"Harper's Electricity Book for Boys," J. H. Adams, Harper. 
"Electricity for Young People," Tudor Jenks, Stokes. 
"Heroes of Progress in America," Charles Morris, Llppincott. 


This badge is given for proficiency in general farming. A Scout farmej 
may have her chief interest in rearing animals but she should know 
something about the main business of the farmer which is tilling the 
soil. Therefore, the Scout must fulfill four requirements: either A 
or B under I, and II, III, and IV. 


I. A. Animal Care 

A Scout must have reared successfully one of the following: 

a) A brood of at least 12 chickens under hen or with incubator" 

b) A flock of at least 12 pigeons, 12 ducks, 12 geese or 12 guinea- 

c) A family of rabbits or guinea pigs. 

d) A calf, a colt, or a pig. 

A certificate as to the condition of the animals must be pre- 
sented, made by some competent judge who has seen them 
Wherever possible a chart should be made by the Scout, showing 
the schedule of care followed, including feeding, and notes 
on the development of the animals. 

AND she must also have planted and cultivated a small veg- 
etable garden like the one described in the Handbook, in the 
Section "The Girl Scout's Own Garden" OR 

B. Vegetable raising 

A Scout may make her main interest the raising of some 
sort of vegetable or fruit and may do one of the following: 

1. Plant, cultivate and gather the crop from 

a) A small truck garden, with at least six vegetables, 
two berries, and two salads or greens, OR 

b) Where the soil is not suitable for a variety of plants 
she may raise a single vegetable, like corn or tomatoes, 
or tubers. 

2. Tend and gather a fruit crop such as apples, peaches, pears, 
cherries, oranges, or any other tree fruit, OR 
Cultivate and tend a small vineyard or grape arbor, and 
gather the grapes, OR 

Plant and culivate and gather the berries from straw 
berry, raspberry, blackberry, currant or gooseberry plants. 
Whatever the vegetable or fruit chosen a chart should be 
made and presented, showing the schedule of digging, 
planting, sowing and tending, with notes on the time of 
appearance of the first shoots, the size and condition of 
the crop and so forth. Any obstacles met and overcome, 
such as insect pests, drouths or storms should be mentioned. 
No special size is mentioned for the garden, as the conditions 
vary so greatly in different parts of the country. The quality 
of the work, and the knowledge gained is the Important 

II. Identify and collect ten common weeds and tell how to get rid of 

III. Identify ten common insect pests, tell what plant or animal each 
attacks, and how to get rid of each. 

IV. Describe four different kinds of soil and tell what is best planted 
in each. Tell what sort of fertilizer should be used in each soil. 
Explain the value of stable manure. 


Farmers Bulletin, published by the Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. Write for catalogue and select the titles bearing 
on your special interest. The bulletins are free. 
The Beginner's Garden Book by Allen French, Macmlllan Co. 
Manual of Gardening, L. H. Bailey, Macmlllan. 
Principles of Agriculture, L. H. Bailey, Macmlllan. 
Essentials of Agriculture, H. J. Waters, Glnn. 



A Girl Scout should know: 

1. What to do first in case of emergency. 

2. Symptoms and treatment of shock. 

3. How and when to apply stimulants. 

4. How to put on a sling. 

5. How to bandage the head, arm, hand, finger, leg ankle, eye, Jaw. 

6. What to do for: a. bruises, strains, sprains, dislocations, fracturesi 
b. wounds; c. burns, frost bite, freezing, sunstroke, heat exhaustioni 
d. drowning, electric shock, gas acidents; e. apoplexy, convulsionsi 
f. snake bite; g. common emergencies such as: 1. cinders In the 
eye; 2. splinter under the nail; 3. wound from rusty nail; 4. oak 
and ivy poisoning; 5. insect in the ear. 

A Girl Scout should demonstrate: 

7. Applying a sterile dressing. 

8. Stopping bleeding. 

9. Putting on a splint. 

10. Making a stretcher from uniform blanket or Scout neckerchiefs 
and poles. 

11. The Schaefer method of artificial respiration. 


Section on First Aid in this Handbook. 

American Red Cross Abridged Text Books on First Aid, Blakiston. 


1. To pass this test a Scout must be able to tell the difference between 
plants and animals and the difference between the two general 
types of plants. 

2. A Scout must also pass either the test for Flowers and Ferns or Trees 
given below. 


1. Make a collection of fifty kinds of wild flowers and ferns and cor- 
rectly name them or make twenty-five photographs or colored draw- 
ings of wild flowers and ferns. 

2. Why were the following ferns so named: Christmas Fern, Sen- 
sitive Fern, Walkingleaf Fern, Cinnamon Fern, Flowering Fern? 

3. Name and describe twenty cultivated plants in your locality. 

4. Be able to recognize ten weeds. 


5. How can you distinguish Poison Ivy from Virginia Creeper? Wiiat 
part of Pokeweed is poisonous? Wliat part of Jimsonweed is poison- 
ous? Be able to recognize at least one poisonous musiiroom. 


1. Give examples of tlie two great groups of trees and distinguish be- 
tween them. 

2. Why is forest conservation important? What are the laws of your 
state concerning forest conservation? 

3. Mention at least three uses of trees. 

4. Collect, identify and preserve leaves from twenty-five different species 
of trees. 

5. Mention three trees that have opposite branching and three that 
have alternate. 

6. How do the flower-buds of Flowering Dogwood differ from the leaf- 
buds? When are the flower-buds formed? 

7. The buds of what tree are protected by a natural varnish? 

8. Mention one whose outer bud-scales are covered by fine hairs. Can 
you find a tree that has naked buds? 

9. From a Sassafras-tree or from a Tulip-tree collect and preserve 
leaves of as many shapes as possible. 

10. Name five trees in this country which produce edible nuts. 



"New Manual of Botany," Asa Gray, American Book Co. 

"Illustrated Flora of the Northern States and Canada," (tiu-ee volumes), 
N. L. Britton, Brown and Addison, Scribners. 

"Flower Guide," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page. 

"Flora of the Southeastern States," Jolm K. Small, published by the 
author. New York Botanical Garden. 

"Flora of the Rocky Mountain Region," P. A. Rydberg, published 
by the author, New York Botanical Garden. 

"State Floras." — Three are some excellent State Floras, and in order 
to keep this list from being too long, it is suggested that the Scout leader 
write to the Professor of Botany in her State University and ask for the 
name, author and publisher of the best Flora of her State. Especially 
is this advisable for those living in sections of the country not covered 
by the above references. 

"Our Native Orchids," William Hamilton Gibson. 

"Wild Flower Book for Y'oung People," A. Lounsberry, Stokes. 

"Field Book of American Wild Flowers," F. S. Matthews, Putnam. 

"Emerald Story Book," A. M. Skinner, Duffield. 

"Mushrooms," George F. Atkinson, Henry Holt Co., (See Handbook, 
"Scouting for Girls," Section on Woodcraft.) 


"Field Book of American Trees and Shrubs," F. S. Matthews, Putnam. 

"Trees of the Northern United States," Austin C. Apgar, American 
Book Co. 

"Manual of Trees of North America," Charles S. Sargent, Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 

"Handbook of the Trees of United States and Canada," Romeyn B. 
Hough, Published by the author, Lowville, N. Y. 

"Trees in Winter," A. F. Blakeslee, and C. D. Jarvis, Macmillan Co. 

"The Book of Forestry," F. F. Moon, Appleton. 



The test may well be worked for by a patrol or even a troop who can 
share expenses for tools, and cultivate together a larger plot of ground 
than would be possible for any one girl. Arrangements may frequently 
be made through the school garden authorities. 

Alternate: For Scouts already members of the Girls' Garden and 
Canning Club throughout the country, a duplicate of their reports, 
sent in for their season's work, to the state agricultureal agents, or agri- 
cultural colleges, in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture 
of the United States, may be submitted as their test material for this 
hedge, in place of the Test given. 

1. What are the necessary things to be considered before starting a 
garden? List them in the correct order. 

2. What exposure is best for the garden? Why? At what season of 
the year is it best to prepare the soil? What care should be given 
garden tools? 

3. Why is it necessary to fertilize the soil for a garden? What kind 
of fertilizer will you use in your garden, and why? 

4. Do all seeds germinate? What precautions must be taken when 
purchasing seed? During what month should seed be sown in the 
ground in your locality? What are the rules for sowing seed as 
regards depth? 

5. What does it mean to thin out and to transplant? When and why 
are both done? 

6. What does it mean to cultivate? Why is it very important? How 
is it best done? What should be done with pulled weeds? 

7. When is the proper time of day to water a garden? Is moistening 
the surface of the ground sufficient? If not, why not? 

8. Name five garden pests common in your locality and tell how to 
eradicate them. Name three garden friends and tell what they do. 

9. At what time of day is it best to pick flowers and vegetables? Men- 
tion two things to be considered in both cases. 

10. What are tender and hardy plants? Herbaceous plants, annuals, 
perennials and biennials? Bulbs and tubers? 

11. Select a garden site, or if space is lacking use boxes, barrels, window 
boxes, tubs and so forth; prepare the soil, choose the seed of not 
less than six flowers, and six vegetables that will grow well in 
the soil and climate in which they are planted; take entire care 
of the garden and bring to blossom and fruit at least 75 per cent, 
of the seed plantfed. Keep and submit a record of the garden, in- 
cluding size, time and money spent, dates of planting, blooming, 
and gathering of vegetables, or colors of flowers, and so forth. 


"Harper's Book for Young Gardeners," A. H. Verill, Harper. 

"Beginner's Garden Book," Allen French, Macmillan. 

"Home Vegetable Gardening from A to Z," Adolph Krulm, Doubleday. 

"Suburban Gardens," Grace Tabor, Outing Publishing Co. 

"The Vegetable Garden," R. L. Watts, Outing Publishing Co. 



1. Know how to mend, temporarily with soap, a small leak in a water 
or gas pipe. 

2. Know how to turn off the water or gas supply for the house and 
whom to notify in case of accident, OR 

Know what to do to thaw out frozen water pipes, OR 

Be able to put on a washer on a faucet, OR 

Cover a hot water boiler neatly and securely to conserve the heat, 

using newspaper and string. 

3. Know the use of and how to use a wrench and pliers. 

4. Demonstrate the way to use a hammer, screw-driver, awl, saw, 
can-opener, corkscrew. 

5. Locate by sounding, an upright in a plaster wall, and know why 
and when this is necessary to be done. 

6. Put up a shelf using brackets, strips of wood or both and know under 
what conditions to use either. 

7. Be able to put up hooks for clothes or other articles and properly 
space them. 

8. Be able to measure for and put up a rod in a clothes closet, OR 
Be able to repair the spring in a window shade and tack the shade 
on the roller, OR 

Know how to keep clean and care for window and door screens. 

9. Must wrap, tie securely and neatly, and label a parcel for delivery 
by express or parcel post. 

10. Be able to sharpen knives using either a grindstone, whetstone, 
the edge of an iron stove, or another knife. 

11. Clean, trim and fill an oil lamp, or put on a gas mantle, OR 
Clean, oil and know how to repair the belt of a sewing machine, OR 
Lay a fire in a fireplace and tell what to do with the ashes. 

12. Choose a wall space for a picture, measure for the wire, fasten the 
wire to the picture frame and give the rule concerning height for 
hanging pictures. 

13. State how brooms, dry mops, dustpans, and brushes should be placed 
when not in use, and be able to wash brushes and place them properly 
for drying. 


"What a Girl Can Make and Do," Lina Beard, Scribner. 
"Harper's Handy Book for Girls," A. P. Paret, Harper. 
"Handicraft for Handy Girls," A. N. Hall, Lothrop. 
"In the Days of the Guild," L. Lamprey, Stokes. 



I. Recreation and Health. What Is offered to the public in the town 
you live in, or in that part of the city in which you live, in the way 
of Play Grounds, Gymnasiums, Baths, Skating Rinks, Tennis Courts, 
Golf J.inks, Water Sports? 

If there is a public park in or near the town; what privileges does 
it offer, especially for young people? Is it well taken care of? Well 

Discuss briefly why you think the Government should provide 
these things and what results may be expected when it does not 
supply them. How does the lack of them affect the grown people 
of a town, in the end? 
II. Special Health Facilities in your Locality. 

1. What is the rule as to registering births? What is the advantage 
of this? What is the infant mortality rate? 

Of what diseases should the local authorities be notified? 
What diseases must be quarantined? Isolated? Posted? 

2. Food Supplies. What are milk stations? Does your community 
control the marketing of milk to any degree? Why is the milk 
question so important? 

Are there any laws for your bakeries? 

What are the regulations as to thp storage and protection of 

meat in local markets? 

3. Housing. If three families are willing to live in three rooms 
in your town, may they do so? 

Is there anything to prevent your erecting a building of any 
size and material you wish in any place? 

4. Medical Institutions. Is there a public hospital in your town? 
Who has a right to use it? Who pays for it? 

Is there a public clinic? Why should there be? 
Is there a public laboratory? How would it benefit your com- 
munity if there were? 

Is there a district nurse? How could Girl Scouts assist such 
a nurse? 

5. Schools. Is there any medical inspection in your schools? How 
did it ever effect you? 

Is its work followed up in the home? How are Girl Scouts par- 
ticularly fitted to help in this? 

Is there a school nurse? Why does it pay the community to 
employee one? 

Are luncheons served in your school free, or at low cost? 
Mention at least two advantages in this and one disadvantage. 
Are there school clinics for eyes and teeth? Why are some 
cities providing such clinics? 

6. Baby Hygiene. Is there any place in your town where young 
or ignorant mothers can ask advice and instruction in the 
care of infants? State briefly why you think such help would 
benefit the community in the end. 

III. Public Services and Sanitation. 

1. Who is responsible for the cleaning of the streets? Dry or wet 
method used? 


2. What are the laws concerning the public collection and dis- 
posal of garbage? How much responsibility In this line has 
your family? Can you do what you please? Is there any 
practical use for garbage? 

3. What is the source of your local water supply? What meas- 
ures are taken to make and keep It pure?^State some of the 
results of lack of care in this matter. 

4. Why should there be regulations about spitting in public places ? 
Why are common towels and drinking cups forbidden? What 
are the general rules for prevention and treatment of tuber- 

5. Trace the life history of the house fly or filth fly and tell why 
it is a nienace. How may the fly be exterminated? How are 
mosquitoes dangerous? How may they be eliminated? 


"Democracy in Reconstruction," Frederick A. Cleveland and Joseph 
Schafer, Houghton Mifflin. 

"A Manual for Health Officers," J. Scott MacNutt, John Wiley and 

"House of the Good Neighbor," Esther Lovejoy, Macmillan. 

"Community Civics," J. Field, Macmillan. 

"Town and City," F. G. Jewett, Ginn and Co. 

"Good Citizenship," J. Richraan, American Book Co. 

"Healthy Living," Charles E. Winslow, Merrill Co. 


To earn this badge a Girl Scout must for three months pay at- 
tention to those conditions upon which health depends. She should 
keep a Health Record like that shown in the Handbook, which must 
cover at least the following points: 

1. Position of body: Show improvement in posture. 

2. Exercise (a) Walk a mile briskly or walk steadily and vigorously 
for fifteen minutes, or take some other active and vigorous 
outdoor exercise for at least thirty minutes. OR in case of bad 
weather, (b) Do setting-up exercises as given in Handbook 
every day. At least twenty minutes should be spent on these, 
either at one time, or ten minutes night and morning. To 
make this point will require a record of compliance for at least 
seventy-five days in three months. 

3. Rest, (a) Go to bed early. Be in bed by at least 9:30 and sleep 
from eight to ten hours. Do not go to parties, the theatre, 
movies or any other late entertainment on nights before school 
or work. 

4. Supply needs for Air, Water and Food in the right way: 

(a) Sleep with window open. 

(b) Drink at least six glasses of water during the day, between 
meals; taking one before breakfast, two between breakfast 
and lunch, two between lunch and dinner, and one before 
going to bed. 

(c) Eat no sweets, candy, cake or ice cream except as dessert 
after meals. 

5. Keep Clean: 


fa) Have a bowel movement at least once every day, preferably 
immediately after breakfast or the last thing at night. 
(b) Wash hands after going to the toilet, and before eating. 
Take a daily tub, shower or sponge bath, or rub down with 
a rough towel every day; and take a full bath of some sort at 
least twice a week. 

(d) Brush teeth twice a day: after breakfast and just before 

(e) Wash hair at least once a month, and brush well every day. 
II. In addition to doing the things that make for health, the Girl Scout 

must know the answeis to the following questions: 

1. What is the best way to care for your teeth? 

2. Why is care for the eyes especially necessary? How are the 
eyes rested? What are the points to remember about light 
for work? 

3. What is the difference in effect between a hot and cold bath? 

4. How can you care for your feet on a hike so that they will not 
become blistered or over-tired? 


"CJood Health," F. G. Jewett, Ginn and Co. 

"How to Get Strong and How to Stay So," William Blaikie, Harper. 

"Keeping Physically Fit," Wm. J. Cromie, Macmillan. 

"Exercise and Health," Woods Hutcheson, Outing Pub. Co. 

"Handbook of Health and Nursing," American School of Home Econ- 
omics, Chicago. 

"Food and Health," Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley, Macmillan. 

"Healthy Living," Chas. E. Winslow, Chas E. Merrill Co. 


1. In planning a house and choosing a site for it what things should 
be considered? 

2. Draw the floor plan of an imaginary house or apartment to be built 
in your locality for a family of four, and list the furnishings for 
each room. 

3. Choose a system for heating and state reasons for choice. 

4. How will water be furnished? What precautions should always 
be taken about the water supply and why? 

5. How will the house be lighted? How will it be ventilated? 

6. State how the walls and floors will be finished and why? 

7. Describe the cook stove and the ice box; tell why they were selected 
and the best way to keep them clean. 

8. List the utensils used in keeping the house clean. 

9. State why it is particularly necessary to keep the cellar, closets, 
cupboards, wash basins, toilets, sinks, clean. Give ways of cleaning 

10. State the proper way to prepare dishes for washing and the order 
in which silver, glass, table and and kitchen dishes should be washed. 

11. How should rugs, mattresses, pillows, upholstered furniture, paper 
walls, and windows be cleaned? 

12. How should winter clothes and blankets be stored during the 
summer? What should be done with soiled laundry prior to washing? 


13. What is the most economical way to buy flour, sugar, cereals, butter 
and vegetables? How should they be kept in the house? 

14. What is the law in your community concerning the disposition of 
trash, ashes and garbage? How will you care for these things in 
the house? If there is no law what will you do with them and why? 

15. Under what conditions do germs thrive and vermin infest? How 
can both be kept away? 

16. Plan the work in your house for one week giving the daily schedule 
and covering all necessary points. 

17. Tell how to make and use a firoless cooker. Explain what it is good for. 

18. Take care of your own bedroom for one iTJOnth. Report just what 
you do and how long it takes. 


"Housewifery," L. Ray Balderston, Lippincott. 

"The Home and the F"amily," Helen Kinne and Anna Cooley, The 
Macmillan Co. 

"Foods and Household Management," Helen Kinne and Anna Cooley, 

"Shelter and Clothing," Helen Kinne and Anna Cooley, Macmillan. 

"Feeding the Family," M. vS. Rose, Macmillan. 

"Handbook of Food and Diet," American School of Home Economics, 

"The House Beautiful," "Ladies Home Journal," "Delineator," "Good 


1. Describe care of the room under following points: 

(a) Ventilation heat and sun; (b) Character and amount of furni- 
ture; (c) Cleanliness and order; (d) Daily routine; (e) General 

2. Demonstrate bed making with patient in bed. Bed must be made 
in fifteen minutes. 

3. (a) Show how to help a patient in the use of a bedpan, (b) Care of 
utensils, dishes, linen and their disinfection. 

4. Bodily care of patient. Know all the following and be able to dem- 
onstrate any two points asked for: 

(a) Bathing; (b) Rubbing; (c) Changing of body linen; (d) Comb- 
ing hair; (e) Lifting and changing position; (f) Arranging of sup- 
ports; (g) Temperature, pulse and respiration; (h) Feeding when 

5. Local applications, hot and cold, (fomentations, compresses etc.) 
(Demonstrate at least one point). 

6. Common household remedies and their use: castor oil, soda, olive 
oil, epsom salts, aromatic spirits of ammonia. 

7. First treatment of some common household emergencies, crainps, 
earache, headache, cold, chills, choking, nosebleed, and fainting. 

8. How to give an enema. 

9. Proper food for invalids and serving it. Be able to prepare and 
serve five of the following. Two foods must be shown to ex- 
aminer and three may be certified to by mother or other respon- 
sible person. 



1. Cereal, as oatmeal, gruel; cereal water, as barley water. 

2. Toast, toast water, milk toast, cream toast. 

3. Plain albumen, albuminized water, albuminized milk. 

4. Eggnog, soft cooked egg, poached egg. 

5. Pasteurized milk, junket, custard. 

6. Beef, mutton, chicken, clam or oyster broth. 

7. Fruit beverage, stewed dried fruit, baked apple. 

8. Gelatin jellies, chicken jelly. 

9. Tea, coffee, cocoa. 

"Home Hygiene and Care of the Sick." Red Cross Text by Jane A- 

Delano, R. N. Revised by AnneH. Strong, R. N., Blakiston, Philadelphia. 


"What to do Before the Doctor Comes," Frieda E. Lippert, Lippincott. 

"Home Nurses Handbook of Practical Nursing," C. A. Aikens, Saunders. 

"Honie Nursing," Louisa C. Lippitt, World Book Co. 


1. Demonstrate saddling and bridling a saddle horse. 

2. Demonstrate riding at a walk, trot and gallop. 

3. Demonstrate harnessing correctly in single harness. 

4. Demonstrate driving in single harness. 

5. What are the rules of the road as to turning out? 

6. What are the rules for feeding and watering a horse, and how do 
these vary according to conditions? 

What implements are used for grooming a horse? Show how they 
should be used. 

Hitch a horse, using the best knot for that purpose. 
Know principal causes of and how to detect and how to remedy 
lameness and sore back. 

Know how to detect and remove a stone from the foot. 
Know the principal points of a horse, and the different parts of 
the harness. 


"Riding and Driving for Women," B. Beach, Scribner. 
"Horsemanship," C. C. Fraser. 


1. Demonstrate receiving, introducing and bidding guests goodbye. 

2. Write notes of invitation for a luncheon, dinner party, and write 
a letter inviting a friend to make a visit. 






3. Give, an out of door party or picnic planning entertainment, and 
prepare and serve refreshments, OR 

Demonstrate ability to plan for an indoor party, arranging the rooms, 
a place for wraps, entertainment of guests, serving of refreshments. 

4. Set a table and entertain guests for lunch or dinner or afternoon 
tea and demonstrate the duties of a hostess who has no maid, or 
one who has a maid, to serve. 

5. What are the duties of a hostess when entertaining a house guest 
for a few days or more? 


6. When entertained as a house guest what are some of the necessary 
things to be remembered? 

7. What is a "bread and butter" letter? Write one. 

8. When invited to a party, luncheon, dinner, or to make a visit, how 
should the invitations be acknowledged? Write at least two letters 
to cover the question. 

What are the duties of a caller, dinner or party guest as concerns 
time of arrival, length of stay and leaving? 


"Everyday Manners, for American Boys and Girls," by the Faculty 
of the South Philadelphia High School for Girls, Macmillan, 1922. 

"Dame Courtesy's Book of Novel Entertainments," E. H. Glover, 

"Hostess of Today," L. H. Larned, Scribner. 

"Bright Ideas for Entertaining," H. B. Linscott, Jacobs. 


1. Show ability to converse in a language other than English. 

2. Translate quickly and accurately a conversation in a foreign lan- 
guage into English, and English into a foreign language. 

3. Be able to write a simple letter in a language other than one's own, 
subject to be given by examiner. 

4. Read a passage from a book or newspaper written in a language 
other than one's own. 

5. Write a clear intelligible letter in a foreign language. 


1. Know how a newspaper is made, its different departments, func- 
tions of its staff, how the local news is gathered, how the news of 
the world is gathered and disseminated — Inquire at newspaper 

2. What is a news item? 

3. What is an editorial? 

522 scouTiNc; for girls 

4. Describe briefly the three important kinds of type setting used today. 

5. Write two articles, not to exceed five hundred words each, on events 
that come within the observation of the Scouts. For instance give 
the school athletic events or describe an entertainment for Scouts 
in church or school or rally. 

6. Write some special story about Scoutcraft such as a hike or camping 


"Newspaper," G. B. Dibble, Holt. 

"Handbook of Journalism," N. C. Fowler, Sully 


1. What elements are needed to clean soiled clothes? 

2. Show a blouse that you have starched and folded, OR 
Show a skirt and coat you have pressed. 

3. How is starch made? How is it prepared for use? 

4. What is soap? How is it made? What is soap powder? 

5. How can you soften hard water? How are a ringer and a mangle used? 

6. Name steps to take in washing colored garments. 

7. Should table linen be starched? Why? 

8. Why do we run clothes through blueing water? What is blueing? 
How made? 

9. Know the different kinds of irons and how to take care of irons. 

10. How to remove stains; ink, fruit, rust, grass, cocoa and grease. 
Why must stains be removed before laundering? 

11. What clothes should be boiled to make them clean? How are flannels 
washed? What should be done to clothes after drying before they 
are ironed? 


"Saturday Mornings," C. B. Burrell, Dana Estes. 
"First Aid to the Young Housekeeper," C. T. Herrick, Scribner. 
"Guide to Laundry Work," M. D. Chambers, Boston Cooking School. 
"Approved Methods for Home Laundry," Mary Beals Vail, B. S., Proctor 
Gamble Co. 


1. Renovate a hat by removing, cleaning and pressing all trimmings 
and the lining, turn or clean the hat and replace trimmings and 

2. Trim a felt hat and make and sew in the lining. 



3. Make a ginftham, cretonne or straw hat using a wire frame. 

4. Wiiat is felt and flow is it made into hats? 

5. What is straw and how is it prepared for millinery purposes? 

6. How is straw braid for hats sold? 

7. What is meant by "a hand made hat?" 

8. Can the shape of a felt or straw hat be materially changed? if so 
by what process? 

9. What kind of thread is best for sewing trimming on to a hat? 

10. How is the head measured for ascertaining the head size for a hat? 


"Art of Millinery," Anna Ben Yusef, Millinery Trade Pub. Co. 


To qualify for this badge a Scout must be at least eighteen, and must 
pass the examination which was required for the Motor Corps of the 
National League for Women's Service. 

This includes: 

1. A certificate of health from a physician. 

2. Possessing the First Aide Badge. 

3. A diploma from a training course for motorists, such as that run 
by the Y. M. C. A., with a mark of at least 8,S per cent. 

4. A driver's license from her state, signed by the Secretary of State. 

5. Taking the oath of allegiance. 

"The Gasoline Automobile," by Hobbs, Elliott and Consoliver, McGraw, 
Hill Book Co. 

Putnam's Automobile Handbook, H. C. Brokaw, Putnam. 


For pianist, violinist, cellist or singer. 

1. Play or sing a scale and know its composition. 

2. Write a scale in both the treble and bass clef. 

3. Know a half-tone, whole tone, a third, fifth and octave. 

4. Be able to distinguish a march from a waltz, and give the time of 

5. What is a quarter, half and whole note, draw symbols. 

6. Name five great composers and one composition of each, includ- 
ing an opera, a piano composition, a song. Two of the foregoing 
must be American. 

7. Play or sing from memory three verses of the Star Spangled Banner. 
The Battle Hymn of the Republic and America. 

8. Play or sing correctly from memory one piece of good music. 




For instrumentalist: Be able to play at sight a moderately 
difficult piece and explain all signs and terms in it. 
For singers: Siiow witii baton how to lead a group in singing com- 
positions written in 3/4 and 4/4 time. 
What is an orchestra : Name at least five Instruments In an orchestra. 


"Art of the Singer," W. T. Henderson, Scribner. 

"How to Listen to Music," H. E. Krehbiel, Scribner. 

"Orchestral Instruments and What They Do," D. G. Mason, Novello. 


1. Know how to run a seam, overcast, roll and whip, hem, tucli, gather, 
bind, make a French seam, make button hole, sew on buttons, 
hooks and eyes, darn and patch. Submit samples of each. 

2. Show the difference between "straight" and "on the bias," and 
how to make both. 

Know the difference between linen, cotton and woolen, and pick 
out samples of each. 

4. Know how thread, silk and needles are numbered and what the 
numbers indicate. 

5. Know how to measure and plan fullness for edging or lace. 

6. Know how to lay a pattern on cloth, cut out a simple article of wear- 
ing apparel and make same. Use this article to demonstrate as 
much of question 1 as possible. 

7. Knit, either a muffler, sweater or baby's jacket and cap and crochet 
one yard of lace or make a yard of tatting. 

8. Hemstitch or scallop a towel or bureau scarf and work an initial 
on it in cross stitch. 


"Complete Dressmaker," C. E. Laughlin, Appleton. 
"Art in Needlework," S. F. Day, Scribner. 



Describe the general plan of the city, town or village in which you 
live, locate the principal shopping, business and residence districts 
and know how to reach them from any quarter of the city, town 
or village. Be able to diiect a person to the nearest place of worship 
to wliich they desire to go, OR 

Describe in a general way the township or county in which you live 
giving the principal roads, naming two of the nearest and largest 
cities or towns, giving their distance from your residence and telling 
bow to reach them. 


2. Know the route of the principal surface car and subway lines, OR 
The name of the nearest railroad division to your residence and 
four of the principal cities or towns through which it passes within 
a distance of one hundred miles. 

3. Know at least three historic points of interest within the limits of 
your city, town or village, how to get to them and why they are his- 
toric, OR 

Tell of three things of interest concerning the history of your own 

4. Know the name and location of the Post Office, Telegraph and Tel- 
ephone Stations, Public Library, City or Town Hall, one Hospital 
of good standing, one hotel or inn, three churches, one Protestant, 
one Catholic, one Synagogue, and the nearest railroad, OR 
Know the name, location and distance from your home or village 
of the nearest Library, Hospital, Church, Post Office, Telegraph 
and Telephone and Railroad Stations. 

5. Know the name and location of three buildings or places in your 
city, town or village, of interest from a point of beauty either of 
architecture, decoration or surroundings, OR 

Know and locate three places of interest within ten miles of your 
home, because of beautiful views or surroundings, OR give direc- 
tions for taking a walk through beautiful woods, lanes or roads. 

6. Draw a map of the district around your home covering an area of 
one quarter square mile, noting streets, schools and other public 
buildings, fire alarm boxes, at least one public telephone booth, 
one doctor's office, one drug store, one provision store, and four 
points of the compass. Draw to scale, OR 

Draw a map covering a half square mile of country around your 
home noting schools and any other public buildings, roads, lanes, 
points of interest, historic or otherwise, streams, lakes and four 
cardinal points of the compass. Map must be drawn to scale. 

7. Know how to use the fire alarm, how to consult telephone direc- 
tory, how to call for assistance in case of water leak, accident, burg- 
lary, forest fire and how to call the police for any other emergency. 

8. Find any of the four cardinal points of the compass by sun or stars, 
by use of a watch and a cane or stick. 


Sections in Handbook on "Woodcraft," and "Measurements and Map- 
making," and publications of local Historical Societies, Guides and 


1. Submit six good photographs, interior and out of door, taken, de- 
veloped and printed by self, OR twelve good photographs taken 
by self including portraits, animals, out of door and indoor subjects. 

2. What constitutes a good picture? 

3. Give three rules to be followed in taking interiors, portraits and 
out of door pictures. 

4. Name and describe briefly the processes used in photography. 

5. Tell what a camera is and name and describe the principal parts 
of a camera. 

6. What is a film? What is a negative? 


7. What position in relation to the sun should a photographer take 
when exposing a film? 

8. Should a shutter be operated slowly? If so, why? 

9. What causes buildings in a picture to look as if they were falling? 

10. What precautions should be taken when reloading a camera and 
taking out an exposed film? 

11. What is an enlargement? How is it made? 

12. What are the results of under exposure and over exposure? 

13. What are the results of failing to take the proper camera distance, 
having improper light and allowing the camera to move? 

14. If there is more than one method of exposing a film what deter- 
mines the method to be used? 


"How to Make Good Pictures," Eastman Kodak Company. 
"The Photo Miniature," such numbers as appear to be needed. 
"Nature and the Camera," A. R. Dugmore, Doubleday. 
"Photography for Young People," T. Jenks, Stokes. 
"Why My Photographs Are Bad," C. M. Taylor, Jacobs. 


1. Tell four things that must be considered when choosing a camp site. 

2. Know how to use a saw, an axe, a hatchet. 

3. Know how to select and fell a tree for building or fuel purposes. 
Know a fork and sapling and their uses. 

4. Build or help three others to build a shack suitable for four occupants. 

5. Make a latrine, an incinerator, a cache. 

6. Make a fire place for heating and cooking purposes and cook a simple 
meal over it. 

7. Know how to tell the directions of the wind. 

8. Know how to mark a trail. 

9. Tell what to do to make water safe for drinking if there is any question 
as to its purity. 


"Campward Ho!" A Manual for Girl Scout Camps, National Head- 
quarters, Girl Scouts, Inc. 

"Camping and Woodcraft," Horace Kephart, Macmillan. 
"On the Trail," L. Beard, Scribner. 
"Vacation Camps for Girls," Jeantiette Marks, D. Appleton. 


1. Collect and correctly identify ten rocks found among the glacial 
* Note: Scouts in non-glacial regions may apply to Headquarters for 
other tests in preparation. 


2. Make photograph or make sketch of glacial boulders. 

3. Collect two or three scratched glaciated pebbles or cobblestones 
in the drift. 

4. Make a sketch or photograph of an exposed section of glaciated or 
scratched bed-rock and nofe as accurately as you can the direction 
of the scratches or grooves. 


"The Story of Our Continent," N. S. Shaler, Ginn and Co. 

"The Great Ice Age and Its Relation to the Antiquity of Man," D. 
Appleton and Co. 

"A Text Book of Geology," portion of Chapter XXV entitled "The 
Glacial Epoch in North America," — D. Appleton and Co. 

"Physiography for High School," Chapter V entitled, "The Work of 
Snow and Ice," Henry Holt and Co. 

"An Introduction to Physical Geography," Chapter VI entitled, "Glac- 
iers," D. Appleton, or any other good text book of geology or physical 

"Travels in Alaska," John Muir. 


Qualify for questions under A, one to eleven, and one other test on 
rowboat, sailboat, canoe or motor boat. 


1. Swim twenty-five yards with clothes and shoes on, or hold the swim- 
ming merit badge. 

2. Know sixteen points of the compass. 

3. Find any one of the four cardinal points of the compass by sun or 

4. Know the rules for right of way. 

5. Know how to counteract the effect of current, tide and wind. 

6. Demonstrate making a landing, coming along side, making fast, 
pushing off. 

7. What is a calm? What is a squall? What are the sky and water 
conditions that denote the approach of the latter? 

8. Why are squalls dangerous? 

9. What are the dangers of moving about or standing in a boat? 

10. Tie four knots for use in handling a boat. Prepare, tie and throw 
a life line a distance of 25 feet. 

11. Which is the "port" and which the "starboard" side of the boat, 
and what color lights represent each: 


1. Demonstrate correct way to step into a rowboat, to boat the oars, 
feather the oars, turn around, row backward, back water, keep a 
straight course. 

2. Name two types of row boats. 

3. Demonstrate rowing alone on a straight course for a period of one- 
half hour. Keep stroke with another person for the same length 
of time. 

4. Demonstrate sculling or poling. 

5. Bail and clean a boat. 

6. What does it mean to "trim ship?" 


1. Demonstrate hoisting a sail, taking in a reef, letting out a reef. 



steering, sailing close to the wind, before the wind, coming about, 

cominii up into the wind. 
2. What is meant l)y tacking? 
^' ^^?^ '" ^^^ difference between a keel and centerboard type of boat? 

Tell the advantage of each. 

4. Coil the ropes on a sailboat. 

5. Name three different types of sailboats. 


1. Where and how should a canoe be placed when not in use? 

2. Demonstrate putting a canoe into the water, stepping into it, taking 
it out, and the technique of bow and stern paddling. 

3. Overturn, right and get back into a canoe. 

4. Name two standard makes of canoes. 

5. What does it mean to make a portage? 


1. Know how to oil the engine and the best kind of oil with which to oilit. 

2. Demonstrate cleaning the engine; cranking the engine. 

3. Know how to measure gas in tank, how much gas the tank holds, 
and how long the engine will run when the tank is full. Know how 
to judge good gasoline. 

4. Why should a motor boat never be left without turning off the gas? 
State reasons. 

5. Be able to rectify trouble with the carburetor. 

6. Know proper weight of anchor for boat; how to lower and hoist 
anchor; how to ground anchor so boat will not drag; know the knot 
to fasten rope to anchor and rope to boat, and how to throw out 

7. Demonstrate how to coil rope so it will not kink when anchor is 
thrown out. 

8. Know channels and right of way by buoys and lights. 

"Harper's Boating Book for Boys," C. J. Davis, Harper. 
"Boat Sailing," A. J. Kenealy, Outing. 


1. Submit an original short story, an essay or play or poem. 

2. Know three authors of prose and their compositions. 

3. Mention the names and some works of three novelists, two essayists, 
three poets, two dramatists of the present century, at least three 
of them American. 



1. Give alphabet correctly in 30 seconds, or less. 


2. Give the following abbreviations correctly; 


3. Send message not previously read, of twenty words, containing 
three numerals and sent at the rate of 50 letters per minute. Only 
one error to be allowed. Technique is to be considered and judged. 

4. Receive unknown message of twenty words, containing three num- 
erals at the same rate. Two errors to be allowed. Scouts may have 
someone take message down in writing as they read it, and five min- 
utes in which to rewrite it afterwards. 


1. Give alphabet correctly in two and one half minutes or less. 

2. Give numerals up to ten correctly. 

3. Send message not previously read, of twenty words, containing 
three numerals, at the rate of ten letters per minute. Only one 
error allowed; technique and regularity to be considered and judged. 

4. Receive unknown message of twenty words, containing three num- 
erals, to be given at the rate of 10 letters per minute — Two errors 
to be allowed. Conditions for receiving, the same as in Semaphore. 


1. Send message of twenty words, not previously read, at the rate of 
ten letters per minute. Two errors allowed. 

2. Receive unknown message of twenty words to be given at the sarne 
rate. Two errors allowed. Scouts to be allowed five minutes in 
which to rewrite message, afterwards. 


"How to Signal by Many Methods," J. Gibson, Gale. 
"Cadet Manual," E. Z. Steever, Lippincott. 
"Boys' Camp Manual," C. K. Taylor, Century. 
"Outdoor Signalling," Elbert Wells, Outing Pub. Co. 


What is meant by the Solar System? 
o. Make a diagram showing the relative positions and movements of 
the earth, sun and moon. What governs the tide? What causes 
an eclipse? What is a comet, a shooting star, a sun spot? 

3. Name the planets in their order from the sun. Which planet is 
nearest the earth and give its distance? 

4. How fast does light travel? 

5. What is the difference between planets and fixed stars and name 
three of the latter. 

6. What is a constellation? Name and be able to point out six. Name 
two constellations which are visible throughout the year. 

7. Draw a chart of the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia and the North 
Star at intervals of three hours through the night using a fixed 


frame and drawinii from the same spot. 

8. Observe a sunrise and a sunset. 

9. What Is the Milky-Way? (Jive its course through the heavens. 

10. What is a morning star? What is an evening star? 

11. Rxplain zenitli and nadir. 

12. What is the Aurora Borealis? Have you seen it? 

"Field Book of Stars," W. T. Olcott, Putnam. 
"The Book of Stars," R. F. Collins, D. Appleton. 
"Around the Year With the Stars," Garrett P. Serviss, Harper. 
"Monthly Evening Sky Map," Barrett, 360 Fulton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
"The Star I'eople," Gaylord Johnson, Macmillan 1921. Especially for 
Younger Scouts. 

"The Call of the Stars," John, R. Kilfax. 

The following is identical with the life-saving 
test for Juniors of the American Red Cross. If 
the test is given by one of the various examiners 
of the First Aid Service of the American Red Cross 
the Scout may wear In addition to the regular 
Scout Badge the Junior Life Saving Badge. It Is 
recommended that Girl Scout troops work toward 
the establishment of Junior Life Saving Crews, 
directions for the formation of which may be 
secured from any American Red Cross Division. 
Pass the swimmer's test for American Red Cross as follows: a. Swim 
100 yards, using two or more strokes, b. Dive properly from a take-off. 
c. Swim on back 50 feet. d. Retrieve objects at resaonable depth 
from surface (at least 8 feet). 
II. Life Savers must pass the following test, winning at least 75 points. 
The value in points for each section of the test is given in parenthesis 
after it: 

1. Carry a person of own weight 10 yards, by: a. Head carry. (10 
points), b. Cross Chest Carry. (10 points), c. Hair or two point 
carry, or repeat cross chest carry. (9 points), d. Tired Swimmer's 
carry. (5 points). 

2. Break three grips, turning after break, bring subject to surface, 
and start ashore: a. Wrist hold. (8 points), b. Front neck hold 
(10 points), c. Back neck hold. (10 points). 

3. Make surface dive and recover object 
from bottom. (10 points). 

4. Demonstrate the Schaefer method of 
inducing artificial respiration. (18 

5. Disrobe in water from middy blouse, 
skirt or bloomers, and camp shoes, and 
then swim one hundred yards, not touch- 
ing shore from time entering water. (10 

Either: a. Telegraphy, 

1. Send 22 letters per minute using a sounder and American Morse 

2. Receive 25 letters per minute and write out the message in long hand 
or on a typewriter directly from sound. 

No mistakes allowed. OR 

b. Wireless. Pass examination for lowest grade wireless operator accord- 
ing to U. S. N. regulations, 

"Harper's Beginning Electricity," D. C. Shafer, Harper. 



1. To pass this test a Scout must be able to tell in a general way the 
differences between plants and animals, the different kinds of an- 
imals. Invertebrates and Vertebrates, and among the Vertebrates 
to distinguish between Fishes, Amphibia, Reptiles, Birds and Mam- 

II. She must also pass the test on Mammals and the test on at least 
one other group: either Invertebrates, Fishes, Amphibia, Reptiles or 
Birds, (For this see special test under Bird Hunter). 


i. Describe and give life history of ten wild mammals personally observed 
and identified. 

2. Name two mammals that kill fruit trees by girdling them. 

3. Mention three mammals that destroy the farmer's grain. 

4. State game laws of your State which apply to mammals. 

5. Name and locate one great game preserve in the United States and 
mention five game mammals protected there. 


1. Give the life history of one reptile. 

2. Give names of three Turtles that you have identified in the open. 

3. What is the only poisonous Lizard in the United States? 

4. Name and describe the poisonous Snakes of your State. 


1. Describe the life history of the frog or the toad. 

2. Describe the wonderful power of changing color shown by the common 

3. What is the difference in the external appearance of a salamander 
and a lizard? 

4. Give a list of five Amphibians that you have identified in the open. 


1. Describe the habits of feeding and egg-laying in one of our native 

2. Mention a common fish that has no scales, one that has very small 
scales, and one that has comparatively large scales. 

3. Name five much-used food fishes of the sea, and five fresh-water 

4. What are some necessary churacteristics of a game-fish? Mention 
a well-known salt-water game fish, and two fresh-water ones. 

5. Describe the nest of some local fish, giving location, size, etc. 


(EITHER of the following) 
a. Insects and Spiders 

1. How may mosquitoes be exterminated? 

2. Collect, preserve and Identify ten butterflies, five moths, ten other 
insects, and three spiders. 

3. Describe the habit tliat certain ants have of caring for plant-lice 

or aphlds which secrete honey-dew. 

4. Describe the life-history of one of our solitary wasps. (See "Wasps 
Social and -Solitary," by George W. and Elizabeth G. Peckham; 
Houghton Mifflin Co.) 

5. Describe the life of a hive or colony of honey bees. (See "The Life 
of the Bee," by Maurice Maeterlinck, Dodd Mead Co.; 

b. Sea Shore Life 

1. Name five invertebrates used as food and state where they are found. 

2. What is the food of the starfish? How are starfish destroyed? 

3. Name twenty invertebrates which you have seen and give the locality 
where they were found. 

4. Name five invertebrates that live in the water only and five that 
burrow in the mud or sand. 

5. What invertebrate was eaten by the Indians and its shell used in 
making wampum? Where have you seen this animal? 


"Life-Histories of Northern Animals," 2 vols., Ernest Thompson Seton, 

"American Animals," Stone, Witmer and Wm. E. Cram, Doubleday 

"American Natural History, Vol. 1, Mammals," Wm. T. Hornaday, 

"Squirrels and Other Fur-Bearers," John Burroughs, Houghton, 

"Kindred of the Wild," C. G. D. Roberts, Doubleday Page. 

"Animals, Their Relation and Use to Man," C. D. Wood, Ginn and Co. 

"Popular Natural History," J. G. Wood, Winston. 


"Reptile Book," Raymond L. Ditmars, Doubleday Page. 
"The Poisonous Snakes of North America," Leonhard Stejnegar, Report 
U. S. National Museum, 1893. 


"The Frog Book," Mary Cynthia Dickerson, Doubleday Page. 
"Manual of Vertebrates of the Northern United States," David Starr 
Jordon, A. C. McClurg Pub. Co. 

"Nature Study and Life," Clifton F. Hodge, Ginn and Co. 


"American Food and Game Fishes," David Starr Jordan and Barton 
W. Evermann, Doubleday Page. 

"The Care of Home Aquaria," Raymond C. Osburn, New York Zoo- 
logical Society. 

"The Story of the Fishes," James Newton Baskett, D. Appleton and Co. 


a. Insects and Spiders 

"Butterfly Guide," W. J. Holland, Doubleday Page.— (For beginners). 

"Our Common Butterflies," Frank E. Lutz, (Guide Leaflet No. 38, 
American Museum of Natural History). 

"How to Collect and Preserve Insects," Frank E. Lutz, (Guide Leaflet 
No. 39, American Museum of Natural History). 

"The Moth Book," W. J. Holland, Doubleday Page. 

"The Butterfly Book," W. J. Holland, Doubleday Page. 

"The Spider Book," J. H. Comstock, Doubleday Page. 

"Moths and Butterflies," Mary C. Dickerson, Ginn and Co. 

"Manual for the Study of Insects," J. H. and A. B. Comstock, Com- 
stock Publishing Co. 

"The Wonders of Instinct," Jean Henri Fabre, Century Co. 

"Field Book of Insects," Frank E. Lutz, Putnam. 

b. Sea Shore Life 

"The Sea-Beach at Ebb Tide," A. F. Arnold, The Century Co. 
"Sea-Shore Life," A. G. Mayer, (New York Zoological Society 1906). 
"Introduction to Zoology," C. B. and G. C. Davenport, Macmillan 
Co., 1900. 


The Scout who follows one line of interest suSiclently long to qualify 
In several related subjects may take a Group Badge signifying proficiency 
in the general field. 

1. SCOUT NEIGHBOR (any four) 
Health Guardian*** 
Business Woman*** 



First Aide*** 
Home Nurse*** 
Health Winner 
Health (Juardian*** 
Child Nurse*** or Cook 

* This must be passed on by National Headquarters. 

WOODCRAFT SCOUT (any three) 


To earn this Badge a Scout must have passed three of the tests of Bird 
Hunter, Flower F'inder, Rock Tapper, Star Gazer or Zoologist. She must 
also pass the following brief test: 

1. What sorts of things are included in Nature Study? 

2. What are the other names for living and non-living objects? 

3. Read one of the following general books on Nature Study. 


"Handbook of Nature Study," Anna Botsford Comstock, Comstock 
Publishing Co. (Manual for Leaders). 

"Nature Study and Life," Clifton F. Hodge, Ginn and Co. 

"The Story Book of Science," J. Henri Fabre, Century Co. 

"Leaf and Tendril," John Burroughs, Houghton Mifflin. 

"Wake Robin," John Burroughs, Houghton Mifflin. 

"Natural History of Selbourne," Gilbert White. 

"Travels in Alaska," John Muir. 

"My First Summer in the Sierras," John Muir. 



Dairy Maid 
Bee Keeper 


Qualifications: Only First Class Scouts are eligible for this, the highest 
award offered to Girl Scouts. To obtain this a girl must have been given 
the Medal of Merit and in addition have won twenty-one Proficiency 
Badges, of which fifteen must be: 


Bird Hunter or Flower Finder or 


First Aide*** 

Health Guardian*** 
Health Winner 
Honie Nurse*** 
Child Nurse*** 




To earn this a Scout must attend every troop meeting for a year." 
A year is counted as one meeting a week for eight months, or two meetings 
a week for four months. 

1. The gold star is given for attendance at all regular troop meetings 
held during a period of one year. Punctuality is required and no 
excuses allowed. 

2. The silver star is given for attendance at 90 per cent of all regular 
troop meetings. 

3. The attendance badge may be given only to a girl who has belonged 
to the organization for one year; the badges therefore denote how 
many years a girl has been a Scout. 


1. The Bronze Cross is given as the highest possible award for gal- 
lantry, and may be won only when the claimant has shown special 
heroism or has faced extraordinary risk of life. 

2. The Silver Cross is awarded for saving life with considerable risk 
to oneself. 

3. These two medals are worn over the right pocket. 

4. Applications must be made by the girl's Captain, who should send 
to National Headquarters, through the Local Council, if there is 
one, a full account with written evidence from two witnesses of 
the deed. 





The following books have been selected for the Girl Scouts with two 
ideas in mind: first, to list some of the best books of the world, with 
which all persons should be familiar, and second, to give books that should 
easily be available in all parts of the country. In some cities the Public 
Libraries have "Girl Scout Shelves." Has your library one? In some 
places the Libraries have Reading Clubs for young people, conducted 
by the boys and girls themselves under the guidance of specially trained 
librarians who know just how to help bring the right book to hand, on 
any subject a Scout would be interested in. In Manhattan there are no 
less than thirty such clubs in connection with the various district 
libraries. Why not have one of these in your town? 

The American Library Association, whose headquarters are In Wash- 
ington, will help to bring books to rural districts and places without 
regular public libraries. Write to them for help if you need it. 

The Congressional Library may be called upon at any time for biblio- 
graphy on any special topic. 

The books in this section are in addition to the special refarences for 
Proficiency Tests in Section XVIII. 


Boy Scouts of America, Handbook for Boys, 200 Fifth Ave., N. Y. C. 

Boy Scout Camp Book, Edward Cave, Doubleday and Page. 

The Book of the Camp Fire Girls, 31 East 17th Street, New York City. 

Girl Guiding, Sir Robert Baden-Powell, C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd., 

Scouting for Boys, Sir Robert Baden-Powell, C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd., 

Woodcraft Manual for Boys and Woodcraft Manual for Girls by Ernest 
Thompson Seton, Doubleday and Page, 


Robinson Crusoe, Daniel DeFoe. 

Jim Davis, John Masefield. 

A Woman Tenderfoot: Two Little Savages: Ernest Thompson Seton and 
Grace Gallatin. 

David Balfour, Kidnapped, Treasure Island, Robert Louis Stevenson. 

Around the World in Eighty Days, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under 
the Sea, The Mysterious Island, Jules Verne. 

Swiss Family Robinson, Wyss. 

Jungle Books, First and Second; Just So Stories; Rudyard Kipling. 
The Call of the Wild, Jack London. 
Bob, Son of Battle, OUivant. 

Wild Animals I Have Known, Ernest Thompson Seton. 
Black Beauty, Sewell. 
Lad, a Dog; Albert Payson Terhune. 




Fairy Tales, Hans Christian Anderson — Mrs Edgar Lucas' Edition. 

Arabian Nights. 

Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, James M. Barrie. 

Granny's Wonderful Chair, F. Browne. 

Davy and the Goblin, Guy Wetmore Carryl. 

Celtic Fairy Tales, J. Jacobs. 

Norse Fairy Tales, Sir George Dasent. 

Folk Tales of Flanders, Jean De Bosschere. 

Fairy Tales, Grimm Bros., Mrs. Lucas, Editor. 

Uncle Remus, His Songs and Sayings, Joel Chandler Harris. 

Mopse the Fairy, Jean Ingelow. 

Water Babies, Charles Kingsley. 

Wonderful Adventures of Nils, Selma Lagerlof. 

Blue, Red, Green and Brown Fairy Books, Andrew Lang. 

Pinocchio, C. Lorenzini. 

Back of the North Wind; Double Story; the Princess and Curdle; The 

Princess and the Goblin; George MacDonald. 

Czecho-Slovak Fairy Tales, Parker Fillmore. 

Ting a Ling Tales; The Queen's Museum and Other Fanciful Tales, 

Frank Stockton. 


The Story of France, Mary MacGregor. 

The Little Book of the War, Eva March Tappan. 

Story of the World, Elizabeth O'Neill. 

Story of the War for Young People, F. A. Kummer, Century 1919. 

Story of the Great War, Roland Usher. 

Story of a Pioneer, Anna Howard Shaw. 

Old Timers in the Colonies, Charles C. Coffin. 

The Boys of '76, Charles C. Coffin. 

Drum-Beat of the Nation, Charles C. Coflfln. 

Redeeming the Republic, Charles C. Coffin. 

Lafayette, We Come! Rupert S. Holland. 

Historic Events of Colonial Days, Rupert S. Holland. 

History of England, Rudyard Kipling. 

Hero Tales from American History, Lodge and Roosevelt. 

Famous Scouts, Charles H. Johnston. 

Famous Frontiersmen and Heroes of the Border, Charles H. Johnston. 

Boy's Life of Theodore Roosevelt, Herman Hagedorn. 

Boy's Life of Abraham Lincoln, Helen Nicolay. 

American Hero Stories, Eva March Tappan. 

A Gentleman of France, Weyman. 

A Tales of Two Cities, Charles Dickens. 

Cardigan, Robert Chambers. 

Deerslayer, Fenimore Cooper. 

Fortunes of Nigel, Walter Scott. 

Henry Esmond, William Makepeace Thackery. 

Hugh Wynne, Weir Mitchell. 

Ivanhoe, Walter Scott. 

Janice Meredith, Paul Leicester Ford. 

Joan of Arc, Laura E. Richards. 

Last of the Mohicans, Fenimore Cooper. 

Maid at Arms, Robert Chambers. 

Man Without a Country, Edward Everett Hale. 

Master Simon's Garden, Caroline Meigs. 

Pool of Stars, Caroline Meigs. 

Master Skj'lark, Bennett. 

Merry Lips, Beulah Marie Dix. 

Otto of Silver Hand, Howard Pyle. 

Quentin Durward, Walter Scott. 


Raniona, Helen Hunt Jackson. 

Rewards and Fairies, Rudyard Kipling. 

Richard Carvel, Winston Churchill. 

Soldier Rigdale, Beulah Marie Dix. 

The Crisis, Winston Churchill. 

The Perfect Tribute, M. S. Andrews. 

The Prince and the Pauper, Mark Twain. 

The Refugees, Conan Doyle. 

The Scarlet Pimpernel, Baroness Onczy. 

The Spartan, Caroline Snediker. 

The Three Musketeers, Alexandre Dumas. 

The White Company, Conan Doyle. 

Two Little Confederates, Thomas Nelson Page. 

Via Crucis, Marion Crawford. 

Westward Ho, Charles Klngsley. 

A Yankee at King Arthur's Court, Mark Twain. 


Story of Roland, James Baldwin. 

The Sampo (Finnish), James Baldwin. 

The Story of Siegfried, James Baldwin. 

Children of the Dawn, (Greek), Elsie Buckley. 

Pilgrim's Progress, John Bunyan. 

The Stories of Norse Heroes, Wilmot Buxton. 

Don Quixote, Cervantes. 

Stories of Charlemagne and the Twelve Peers of France, A. J. Church. 

Greek Tragedies, Church. 

Adventures of Odysseus and The Tale of Troy, Padraic Colum. 

Undine, De la Motte Fouque. 

Sintram and His Companions, De la Motte Fouque. 

Tanglewood Tales, Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

The Wonderbook, Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

Rip Van Winkle, Washington Irving. 

Heroes, Charles Kingsley. 

Robin Hood, Howard Pyle. 

The Story of the Champions of the Round Table, Howard Pyle. 

The Story of the Grail and the Passing of Arthur, Howard Pyle. 

The Story of King Arthur and His Knights, Howard Pyle. 

The Story of Sir Launcelot and His Companions, Howard Pyle. 


Goops, Gillett Burgess. 

Inklings for Thinklings, Susan Hale. 

Child's Primer of Natural History, Oliver Herford. 

The Nonsense Book, Edward Lear. 

Alice's Adventui-es in Wonderland, Lewis Carroll. 

Through the Looking Glass, Lewis Carroll. 

The Hunting of the Snark, Lewis Carroll. 

Nonsense Anthology, Carolyn Wells. 

Parody Anthology, Carolyn Wells. 


Aldrich, Thomas Bailey; Marjorie Daw. 

Austen, Jane; Pride and Predjudice. 

Bacon, Josephine Baskam; Ten to Seventeen, Madness of Philip. 

Barrie, James N. ; Little Minister, Little White Bird, Sentimental Tommy. 

Bjornson, Bjernsterne; A Happy Boy, Arne, A Fisher Lassie, Synove 


Blackmore, R. W.; Lorna Doone. 


Bronte, Charlotte; Jane Eyre. 

Brunner, H. C; Short Sixes. 

Chesterton, Gilbert K.; The Club of Queer Trades, the Innocence of 

Father Brown. 

Collins, Wilkie; The Moonstone. 

Craik, D. M.; (Miss Mulock( John Halifax, Gentleman. 

Crawford, Marion; Marietta, Mr. Isaacs, the Roman Singer. 

Daskam, Josephine; Smith College Stories, Sister's Vocation. 

Davis, Richard Harding; Soldiers of Fortune, Van Bibber. 

Deland, Margaret; Tales of Old Chester. 

Eliot, George; Mill on the Floss. 

Farnol, Jeffrey; The Broad Highway. 

Fox, John; Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come, Trail of the Lonesome 


Green, Anna Katherine; The Leavenworth Case, The Filigree Ball. 

Haggard, Rider; King Solomon's Mines. 

Holmes, Sherlock; Hound of the Baskervilles. 

Hope, Anthony; Rupert of Hentzau, The Prisoner of Zenda. 

Jacobs, W. W.; Light Freights, Many Cargoes. 

Johnson, Owen; The Varmint. 

Hornung; Adventures of Raffles, the Gentleman Burglar. 

Kipling, Rudyard; Captains Courageous, Soldiers Three, Wee Willie 

Winkle, Kim, The Nalaukha, The Light That Failed. 

Lincoln, Joseph; Captain Erie. 

McCarthy, Justin; If I Were King. 

Merriman, Henry Seton; Dust, With Edged Tools. 

Meredith, Nicholson; In the Bishop's Carriage. 

Poe, Edgar Allen; Tales, The Gold Bug. 

Reade, Charles; The Cloister and the Hearth, Foul Play. 

Rinehart, Mary Robert; The Amazing Interlude. 

Smith, F. Hopkinson; Fortunes of Oliver Home, Colonel Carter of 


Stowe, Harriet Beecher; Little Pussy Willow, Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

Stockton, Frank; Rudder Grange, The Lady or the Tiger, Casting Away 

of Mrs. Leeks and Mrs. Aleshine. 

Tarkington, Booth; Monsieur Beaucaire, Gentleman from Indiana, 

Seventeen, Penrod, Penrod and Sam. 

Wells, Carolyn; The Clue, The Gold Bag, A Chain of Evidence, The 

Maxwell Mystery. 

White, Edward Stewart; The Blazed Trail. 

Wister, Owen; The Virginian. 

Woolson, Constance F.; Anne. 

Alcott, Louisa M.; Eight Cousins, Little Women, Little Men, Rose In 

Bloom, etc. 

Burnett, Frances Hodgson; Little Lord Fauntleroy, Sarah Crewe, etc. 

Coolidge, Susan; Clover, In the High Valley, What Katy Did and other 

Katy Books. 

Craik, Mrs.; (Miss Mulock); The Little Lame Prince. 

Cummins, Maria Susanna; The Lamplighter. 

Dodge, Mary Mapes; Donald and Dorothy, Huns Brinker and the Silver 


Ewing, Juliana; Jackanapes, Six to Sixteen. 

Hale, C. P.; Peterkin Papers. 

Hughes, Thomas; Tom Brown's School Days. 

Jackson, Helen Hunt; Nelly's Silver Mine. 

Jordan, Elizabeth; May Iverson, Her Book. 

NesbJt, E.; The Wouldbegoods, The Phoenix and the Carpet. 

Ouida (de la Ramee); Bimbi Stories. 

Richards, Laura E.; Hildegarde Series, Margaret Montford Series. 

Shaw, F. E.; Castle Blair. 

Spyri, J.; Heidi. 

Twain, Mark; Huckleberry Finn, Tom Sawyer, etc. 


Warner, Susan; The Wide Wide World. 

Wlggln, Kate Doufilas; The Birds' Christmas Carol, Polly Oliver's Prob- 
lems, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. 


Abbott, Jane; Keineth, Larkspur. 

Blanchard, Amy E.; A Girl Scout of Red Rose Troop. 

Wlddemer, Margaret; Winona's Way and other Winona Books. 


Verse for Patriots, Jean Broadhurst and Clara Lawton Rhodes. 

Golden Staircase, (An Antliology), 1.. Chisholm. 

Lyra Heroica, William Ernest Henley. 

Blue Book of Poetry, Andrew Lang. 

Story Telling Poems, F. J. Olcot. 

Book of Famous Verse, Agnes Reppller. 

Home Book of Verse for Young Folks, Burton Egbert Stevenson. 

Child's Garden of Verse, Robert Louis Stevenson. 

Children's Book of Ballads, Mary W. Tileston. 

Golden Numbers, Kate Douglas Wiggin. 


Magic of Science, Collins. 

The Story Book of Science, Jean Henri Fabre, Century. 

Field, Forest and Farm, Jean Henri Fabre, Century. 

In the Once Upon a Time, Lillian Gask. 

Book of the Ocean, Ingersoll. 

Careers of Danger and Daring, Cleveland Moffett. 

Science at Home, Russell. 

Wonders of Science, Eva March Tappan. 

The Book of Wonders. 

Magazines: Popular Science, Popular Mechanics, Scientific American. 

The National Geographic. 


After a thorough study of Scouting for Girls, the authorized American 
Handbook, Scout Captains and Lieutenants are urged to read the following 
list of allied Handbooks for Leaders as containing many practical hints 
for workers with young people, and emphasizing the essential unity of 
these movements. 

A study of these manuals will bring out very clearly the fact that though 
our methods of approach and phraseology may differ in certain instances, 
our ultimate aim and our broad general principles are precisely the 

The books in the following list which have been starred are recom- 
mended as particularly practical for all students and friends of young 
people. They represent the latest thought of the greatest authorities 
on the subjects most closely allied with the sympathetic study of adol- 
escence. It is impossiljle to isolate a study of the girlhood of America 
from the kindred topics of women in industry and politics, the growth 
of the community spirit, the present theories of education, and in general 
a brief survey of economics, sociology and psychology. 

Many of these titles appear technical and dry, but the books have been 
carefully selected with a view to their readable and stimulating qualities, 
and no one need be a profound student in order to understand and 
appreciate them. 


It is especially advisable that Leaders in the Girl Scout organization 
should be reasonably well informed as to the principal social move- 
ments of the day so as to relate the effective organization of the 
young people of the country with corresponding progress along other 
lines. The more broadly cultivated our Captains and Councillors be- 
come, the more vital and enduring will be the work of the Girl Scouts, 
and this breadth of view cannot be obtained from the knowledge and 
practice of what might be called the "technique of Scouting" alone. 


The Boy Scout Movement Applied by the Church. Richardson-Loomls, 

Girls Clubs, Helen Ferris. E. P. Dutton and Co., 1919. Suggestions 
for programs, community cooperation, practical methods and helps in 
organization. Bibliography. 

The Girl Guides. Rules, Policy and Organization, Annual Senior 
Guides, Rules, Policy and Organization, 1918. Both official manuals 
forGuiders. Nat. Hdqrs. Girl Guides 76 Victoria Street. London, S. W. 1. 

(1) Handbook for Scout Masters, 200 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 
(2) Community Boy Leadership — A Manual for Scout Executives. 

Model Treasurer's Book for Girls' Clubs. National League of Women 
Workers, 25 cents. 

Scoutmastership, Sir Robert Baden-Powell, Putnam, 1920. 

The Girl Reserves. Y. W. C. A. Association Press. 600 Lexington 
Avenue, New York City. Manual of Leaders, 1921. 


Abbott, Edith; Women in Industry, Appleton. 

Addams, Jane; Twenty Years at Hull House, Spirit of Youth in the 
City Streets, A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil, Macmillan. 

*AngelI, Emmett D.; Play. 

♦Bancroft, Jessie H.; Games for the Playground, Home, School and 
Gymnasium. Macmillan. 

♦Burchenal, Elizabeth; Dances of the People — Shirmer. 

♦Byington, Margaret; What Social Workers Should Know About Their 
Own Communities. Russell Sage Foundation, N. Y. 

Daggett, Mabel Potter; Women Wanted. George H. Doran. A book 
about women in all walks of life, as affected by the war. 

*Dewey, John; Schools of Tomorrow, School and Society, E. P. Dutton. 
Showing the growth of the "Scout Idea" in our modern educational 
methods. Practical and stimulating. 

♦Douglass, H. Paul; The Little Town, Macmillan. The latest and 
best treatment of rural social conditions. Especially recommended for 
Scout leaders in localities outside the great cities. 

Hall, G. Stanley; Adolescence, 2 Volumes, 1907. See also "Youth", 
summary volume, by same author, who did pioneer work in the field. 

♦Hoerle, Helen, and Salzberg, Florence B.; the Girl and the Job, Henry 
Holt, $1.50. 

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins; Women in Economics, In This Our World, 
A Man Made World, Concerning Children — All: Small and Maynard. 
The most brilliant American writer on the woman movement. Sound 
economics and good psychology clevely presented. 

James, William; Principles of Psychology, 2 vols. The psychologist 
who wrote like a novelist. Chapters of special interest: Habit, Instinct, 
Will, Emotions and The Stream of Consciousness. Talks to Teachers 
on Psychology, and to Students on Some of Life's Ideals. Memories 
and Studies, especially essay on the Moral Equivalents of War — All: Henry 
Holt and Co. 


Key, Ellen; The Century of the Child. 

*Lovejoy, Esther; The House of the Good Neighbor, MacmlUan, 1919 
Social and Medical Work in France during the war by the President of 
the Women's International Medical Association. 

♦MacDougall, William; Social Psychology, Luce and Co. Study of how 
people act and feel in a group. 

Mill, John Stuart; The Subjection of Women. Frederick Stokes. 
*Norsworthy, Naomi, and Whitley: The Psychology of Childhood, Mac- 
millan, 1919. Best and latest general child psychology. 

Parsons, Elsie Clews: Social Control, Social Freedom, The Old Fasholned 
Woman, The Family. All: Putnam. 

♦Patrick, G. T. W.; Psychology of Relaxation. Houghton Mifflin. 
The necessity for and guidance of the play instinct. 

*Perry, Clarence A. ; Community Center Activities. Russell Sage Found- 
ation, New York City. 

Pillsbury, W. B.; Essentials of Psychology, Macmillan. Good, brief 
treatment of general psychology for popular reading. 

♦Playground and Recreation Association of America Publications: 
What the Playground Can Do for Girls, Games Every Child Should Know, 
Folk and National Dances, The Home Playground. Headquarters 1 Mad- 
ison Avenue, New York City. 

♦Puffer, J. Adam; The Boy and His Gang. Houghton Mifflin. 

Putnam, Emily; The Lady. 

Schreiner, Olive; Woman and Labour. 

Sharp, Cecil J.; One Hundred English Folksongs. Charles H. Ditson 
and Co. 

*Slattery, Margaret; The Girl in Her Teens, The Girl and Her Religion, 
The American Girl and Her Community, The Woman's Press. 

♦Thorndike, Edward L.; Individuality, Riverside Educational Mono- 
graphs, Houghton Mifflin. What constitutes the "average person." 
The danger of "sizing up" people too rapidly. 

*Terman, Lewis; The Hygiene of the Child, Houghton Mifflin. 

♦Woods, Robert A.; Young Working Girls, Houghton Mifflin. 

Trotter, W.; Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War, Fisher Unwin. How 
"public opinion" exerts its Influence on conduct. 

Wallas, Graham; Human Nature in Politics, and The Great Society, 
Our Social Heritage, Macmillan. 

Ward, Lester F.; Psychic Factors of Civilization and Applied Sociology. 
Ginn and Co. Psychological interpretation of civilization. 


Campward Ho!, The Camp Manual for Girl Scouts contains a full and 
annotated bibliography. The following is an additional list. 

The Boy Camp Manual, Charles Keen Taylor. 

Camping and Outing Activities, Cheley-Baker. Games, Songs, Page- 
ants, Plays, Water Sports, etc. 

Camp Cookery, Horace Kepfaart, Macmillan Co. 

The Camp Fire Girls' Vacation Book, Camp Fire Girls, New York City. 

Camping and Woodcraft (2 vols.) Horace Kephart, Macmillan. 

Camp Kits and Camp Life, Charles Stedman Hanks. 

Camping Out, Warren Miller, Geo Doran Co. 

Caravanlng and Camping-out, J. Haris Stone — Herbert Jenkins, 
Ltd., 12 Arundel Place, London. 

Harper's Camping and Scouting, Joseph Adams, Harper Bros. 

Shelters, Shacks and Shanties, D. C. Beard, Scrlbners. Illustrated. 

Summer in a Girls' Camp, Anna Worthington Coale, Century. 

Swimming and Watermanship, L. de B. Handley, Macmillan Co. 

Touring Afoot, Dr. C. P. Fordyce, N. Y. Outing Publishing Co. 

Wildetness Homes, Oliver Kamp, Outing Publishing Co. 



The publications of all departments of the United States Govern- 
ment are in the custody of the Superintendent of Documents, 
Washington, D. C. Price lists of various subjects are sent free. 
The following list of subjects will be found especially useful in pre- 
paring for many of the proficiency tests. The numbers given are 
the official ones by which the catalogs of prices and special titles 
may be ordered: 

(11) Foods and Cookery. (16) Farmers' Bulletins. (31) Education. 
(38) Animal Industry. (39) Birds and Wild Animals. (41) Insects 
(including household and farm pests, and bees). (43) Forestry. 
(44) Plants. (50) American History and Biography. (51) Health. 
(53) Maps. (54) Political Science. (55) National Museums and 
National Academy of Science. (67) Immigration. (68) Farm Man- 

The Children's Bureau of the U. S. Dept. of Labor has a special list 
of articles on Child an Infant Care and Health. Write direct to the 
Bureau for these. 

For State publications on Health, Education, etc., apply to Sec- 
retary of State if special officer in charge is unknown. 
Apply to town hall or special departments for city documents on 
health, child care, education, etc. 

The following organizations publish bulletins and cheap authori- 
tative books and pamphlets for general consumption on health, 
first aid, child care and other topics of interest to Girl Scouts. 
The Red Cross National Headquarters, Washington, D. C. 
The Metropolitan Insurance Company, 1 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C 
Child Health Organization, 370 Seventh Avenue, Miss Sally Lucas 
Jean, Director. 
The Posture League of America, 1 Madison Avenue, N. Y. C. 


Accidents, First Aid for lO-l ff 

Water 191 ff 
Act to Establish Flag 69 
Adam 450 

Adventure, bookc> of 540 
Africa 27 
Agassiz 455 
Alaska 454 
Alcott, Louisa 23 
Allied Organizations, Handbooks of 

Alignments 92 
Alligator 429 
"America" 74. 75 
"America the Beautiful" 06 
American Museum of Natural History 

373 ff 
Amphibians 425 
"Anacreon in Heaven" 74 
Animal Stories 540 
Aphids 449 

Apoplexy, care of 186 ff 
Aquarium 435 
Arnold, Sarah Louise 106 
Artist test 499 
Aspen 395 

Asphyxiation, prevention of 197 ff 
Asters 381 
At ease 87 
Athlete test 499 
Attendance stars 530 
Attention 85 
Audubon Society 425 
Australia 27 
Axe, use of 326 ff 
Azalea 383 

Background 40 

Back step 89 

Baden-Powell Iff 

Balsam fir 390 

Bandages, making of 204 ff 

Barnacles 442 

Bathroom, care of 119 

"Battle Hymn of the Republic" 77 

Beach fleas 442 

Beaver 370 

Bedroom, care of 119 

Beekeeper test 500 

Birds 407 ff 

Bird baths 424 

Birds, economic value of 415 ff 

Bird Hunter test 500 

Bird Woman 21 

Biscuit Loaf 363 

Bites, care of 190 ff 

Black Eyed Susan 383, 385 

Blood Root 381 

Blue Bird 409 

Blue Flag 383 

Blue tailed lizzard 430 

Bobolink 415 

Bog Potato 288 

Border, flowers for 404 ff 

Boulders 453 

Bouncing Bet 383 

Bowline, knot 188 ff 

Box Turtle 4.30 

Brandywine, battle of 409 

Bread 363 

Breakfast 133 ff 

Broiled Fish 361 

Brown, Thomas Edward 456 

Bubonic Plague 449 

Bugler's test 501 

Bull Frog 370, 427 

Burroughs, John 375, 407 

Business Woman test 502 

Butterfly 449 

Business meeting 57 

Butler. Albert E. 384, 388, 394 

Bumble Bees 447 

Cambridge flag 08 
Camp cooking 300 ff 

recipes 362 ff 

utensils 340, 344, 361 
Camping and the Guide Law 36 
Camping for Girl Scouts 313 ff 

hiking 314 ff 

site 319 ff 

f^res 327 ff 

provisions 345 ff 
Camp sanitation 323 
Canada 27 
Canner 502 
Captain 14 
Captain's pin 538 
Cardinal flower 381 
Cassiopeia 302 
Cat fish 433 
Cellar 107 

Ceremonies, Forms for Girl Scouts 
44 ff 

Alternate forms 48 ff 
Chaining 407 ff 




Chairman 57 

Chamelon 431 

Change step 90 

Chevrons 538 

Chief Scout 35 

Child, care of 157 ff 

Child Health Organization 547 

Child Nurse. 157 ff. test 503 

Child, routine of 162 ff 

Christmas Fern 389 

Cicada 447 

Citizen's test 504 

Civic biology 377 

Clams 442 

Class test 60 ff 

Cleaning 126 

Clermont 69 

Closing exercises 57 

Clothing for Hiking 317 

Clove hitch 492 ff 

Cochineal 446 

Cocoa 363 

Cod 433 

Colds, care of 247 ff 

Color Guard 46 

"Common minerals and rocks" 454 

Compass 482 ff 

Congressional Library 540 

Conservation of forests 393 ff 

Continental Code 97, 99 

Conventional signs for maps 479 

Convulsions, care of 186 ff 

Cooking devices 340 

Cooking in camp 360 

Cook 133 ff test 505 

Coral 439 

Corned beef hash 362 

Corporal 13, 538 

Council 14 

Court of Honor, 15, 45 

Crabs 437, 439 

Craftsman test 505 

Crinkle root 289 

Crocodile 429 

Crosby, William O. 454 

Cultivation 461 

Cyclist test 507 

Cypress, bald 396 

Dancer test 518 

Dandelion 383 

Dairy Maid test 507 

Dash, General Service Code 98 

Daughter of New France 20 

Dawson, Jean 377 

Deciduous 387 

Declaration of Independence 68 

Deming, Dr. VV. C, 190 

Diamond Back Terrapin 431 

Dickerson, Mary C. 389 

Diminish front 96 

Dinner 139 flf 

Director, National 15 

Dish washing 117 

Dishes, washing in camp 364 

Dislocations, care of 177 ff 

Distance, to take in drill 92 

Direction 478 

Dot. in General Service Code 98 

Double time 88 

Doughty. Arthur G. 20 

Dow. Ula M. 133 

Dragon flies 446 

Dressmaker 508 

Dress, right or left 85 

Drill. Girl Scout 84 ff 

Tenderfoot 84 

Second Class 90 

First Class 95 
Drummer test 509 
Duck hawks 418 
Dutch Cleanser 365 

Eagle 407 

Eclaireuses de France 31 

Economist test 509 

Eel 456 

Egrets 374. 411ff 

Electrician test 510 

Emergencies, aid for 164 ff 

Erosion 393 

Evergreen 387 

Exercises 275 ff 

Explorer 21 

Eyes, Health of 259 ff 

Eyesight, tested by stars 303 

Eyes right or left 80 

Facings 86 
Fall in 84 

out 87 
Falkland Islands 27 
Fairy Tales 541 
Farmer test 510 
Feet, care of 315 
Fellowship 2 
Fire , control of 199 ff 
Fireless Cooker 1 1 1 ff 
Fishes 432 ff 
Fishes, group of 433 
Fishballs 361 

Fisher, G. Clyde, 366. 373 ff 
First Aide 164 ff test 512 
First Class Badge 538 

Conferring of 50 

Test 64 ff 
First Girl Scout 20 
Flag 67 ff 

Colors 67 

History 67 ff 

How to make 77 

Respect due 70 ff 

Regulations for flying 71 ff 
Flashlight signalling 100 
Floods, causes of 393 
Floor. Kitchen 108 



Flower crests 539 

Flower Finder test 512 

Flower garden 462 ff 

Fly, House, fighting of 121 

Folk Tales 511 

Food for Camps, 362 ff 

Food for the Sick 249 ff 

Food furnishing animals 402 

Food Habits 402 

Food, storage of 123 ff 

Foot 466 

Forbush, Edward Howe 419 

Forests, uses of 393 ff 

fires 395 
Fox 406 

Fractures, care of 177 ff 
France 31 
Freezing 40 

care of 188 ff 
Fried bacon 362 
Fried fish 361 
Fried ham 361 
Fried country sausage 362 
Fried potatoes 362 
Fringed gentian 381, 383 
Frying pan, 361 ff 
Fulton, Robert 59 
Fungi 289 
Furnishing 107 

Gaillardia 384 

Gamefish 435 

Ganoid 433 

Garden, Girl Scout's Own 456 ff 

Gardener test 514 

Gas stove 110 

General service code 97 

Geology 452 ff 

Germs, fighting of 121 

Gibson, William Hamilton 383. 420 

Gila Monster 429 

Gills 431 

Girl Guides 1, 18 ff 

Girl Scout Stories 544 

Glacial Drift 453 

Glacier 451 ff 

Glass snake 430 

Golden Eaglet 45, 52, 636 

Golden Plover 414 

Goldenrod 381 

Government Bulletins 456 

Grand Union Flag 68 

Great Blue Heron 422 

Great horned owls 411 

Great Ice Age 453 

Grebe 408 

Grey, Lord 20 

Group Badges 533 ff 

Guide, the Flower 383 

Guides, War Service 27 

Half-hitch 491 ff 

Halibut 433 

Half step 89 

Halt 89 

Hammerhead shark 436 

Handbooks of Allied Organizations 

"Handbook of Birds in Eastern North 

America" 423 
"Handbook of Birds of Western United 

States" 423 
Hand signalling 103 
Handywoman test 515 
Hawks 420 

"Hawks and Owls of the U. S." 420 
Health Guardian test 516 
Health Winner 257, test 517 
Heating house 124 
Heights, to estimate 459 ff 
Hemlock 390 
Hepatica 381 
Hermit crab 442 
Hickory nut 383 
Hiking 314 ff 
History novels 541 
History of the American Girl Scouts 

Hog peanuts 289 
Hodge, Clifton 377, 534 
"Home Life of Wild Birds" 423 
Hollyhocks 383 

Homemaker, the 23, 106; test 518 
Home Nurse, the 217 ff; test 519 
Honeybee 448 
Honeydew 448 
Horsewoman test 520 
Hostess test 520 
House fly 449 
House planning 106 
Howe, Julia Ward 77 
Hummingbird 383 
Hummingbird moth 446 
Hunter, David M. 456 
Hydroids 441 
Hyla 428 

Ice Chest 114 ff 
"Illustrated Flora" 383 
Illnesses, common 245 fi 
India 27 

Indian cucumber 288 
Indian turnip 289 
Injuries, major 177 ff 

minor 169 ff 
Inorganic 377 
Insects 439, 446 ff 
Insect eating birds 421 ff 
Insignia, Scouts and officers 538 
Inspection 56 
Interpreter test 521 
Interval, Gen. Ser. Code 98 

Semaphore 101 
Invertebrate 377, 438 ff 



Jack in the Pulpit 383 

Jean, Sally Lucas 547 

Jelly fish 439 

Jessamine 381 

Jones, John Paul 68 

Journalist test 521 

Judging weights and measures 467 ff 

Kelley's Island 455 
Kephardt, Horace 313 ff 
Key, Francis Scott 73 
Kildeer 419 
Kindling 334 ff 
Kipling, Rudyard 376 
Kitchen 108 
Knots 484 ff, glossary 495 

Labor Saving 124 ff 

Lady Slipper 281 

Lafayette 69 

"Land Birds East of the Rockies' 

Land Scout, Group Badge 535 

Lang, Herbert 426 

Lantern, signalling 100 

Latrine in camp 323 

Laundress test 522 

Laws of Girl Scouts 4 ff 

Leader's Handbooks of Allied Or- 
ganizations 545 

Legends 542 

Lewis and Clark Expedition 21 

Lobsters 439 

Loco Weed 383 

Lone Scout 13 

Loon 372 

Low, Mrs. Juliette, Founder G. S. 1 

Lunch 148 ff 

Lung fishes 433 

Lutz, Dr. 447 

Life Saving Medals 536 

"Little Women" 23 

Living room 118 

Library, American Association 540 

Lieutenants 14 

Maps, history, uses, how to make 

476 ff 
Marine worms 443 
Mark time 88 
Marsh Marigold 383 
Measurements 268 ff, 466 ff 
Medal of Merit 536 
Medals, special 536 
Medicines 241 ff 
Meeting, Girl Scout 55 ff 
Menus 133 ff 
Metre 466 
Metric Systm 466 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company 

Merit Badges, conferring 51 
Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Leo 387 
Milliner test 522 
Milton 456 
Mink 415 
Minutes 58 
Mississippi Valley 453 
Moccasin Flower 382 
Mocking bird 409 
Mole Crab 444 
Monarch butterfly 449, 450 
Moon 303 
Moose 369 
Morris, Robert 68 
Morse Code 

American 97 
International 97 ff 
Mosquito 449, fighting of 121 
Motorist test 523 
Motto of Girl Scouts 3 
Mountain Climbing 367 ff 
Mountain Laurel 383 
Mudeel 427 
Mud puppy 427 
Musician test 523 
Muscular strain, avoiding 261 ff 
Mushrooms 289 ff, 392 
Mussels 442 
Muir Glacier 454 
Muir, John 366 
Myths 542 

Mackerel 433 

Magdelaine de Vercheres 20 
Magnolia 380 
Maiden Hair Fern 383 
Malaria 449 
Mallard Duck 424 
Mammals 399 ff 
Manna 447 
Manners, good 129 ff 
Manual by Grey 383 
Manure 458 
Map of camp 481 
Maple, black sugar 391 
Mappa 477 

National Convention 1 

National Director 16 

National Headquarters 1 

National Organization 15 

Nature, classification 379 

Nature in City 39 

Nature Study 36, 43 

Nature Study for Girl Scouts 373 ff 

Naturalist, Scout, group badge 534 

Needlewoman's test 524 

Nesting boxes 424 

Newts 427 

New York 1 

Noble Peregrine 418, 420 

Nonsense 642 



North America 451 

North Pole 69 

Novels 542 

Nubian Gold Mines 476 

Nurse, the Child 157 ff, home 217 ff 

Oak 390 

Oblique March 93 

Observation 39 

Octopus 439 

Oil stove 110 

One cell animals 431 

Onions 363 

Opossum 399, 401 

Orchids 383 

Organic 377 

Organization 13 ff 

Orion's Sword 304 

Otter 400 

"Our Native Orchids" 383 

Out of Door Scout 35 ff 

Ox Eye Daisy 383 

Oyster 439, 445 

Pace, Scout's 314 

Pacing 476, 478 

Paddle fish 432 

Parade 87 

Parade formation 80 ff 

Pathfinder's test 524 

Patients, amusing of 251, feeding 

251, routine 252 
Patriotic songs 72 
Patrol system 13 
Peary, Robert 69 
Pecten 443 
Peeper, spring 428 
Pelicans 412 
Periwinkle 442 
Personal measures 474 
Photographer test 525 
Pickerel 453 
Pickerel weed 385 
Pickersgill, Mrs. Mary 74 
Pine, long leaved 389 
Pine tree patrol system 325 
Pine rose mallow 383 
Pioneer 25, test 526 
Pirsson, Louis V. 454 
Pivot, moving 93, fixed 94 
Planting 459 
Plants 380 ff 

Plants, edible, wild 285 ff 
Plants poisonous 386 ff 
Pledge 3 
Pleiades 302 
Poetry 544 

Poison, antidotes for 202 ff 
Polar bear 402, 452 
Policy 16 

Posture 257ff, 273 ff 
League 547 

Position, right 273 ff 
Poultry, destroyed 402 
Preparation of seed bed 457 
Presentation of badges 21, 45 ff 
Princess Pat 21 
Principles of Girl Scouts 3ff 
Proficiency tests 497 ff 
Promise 4 
Protozoa 439 
Proverbs, out-door 284 
Provisions for camping 345 ff 
Public Health 257 ff 

Quick time 87 
Quebec 20 

Racoon 402 

Rat flea 449 

Rally 45 

Rays 433 

Recipes, camp 362 ff, home 133 ff 

Red Cross, National 214 ff 547 

"Red Gods," 371 

Reed, Chester A. 383. 423 

Reef knot 487 ff 

Reference reading, Captains' 544, Scouts' 

540 ff 
Refrigator, iceless 115 ff 
Remedies 241 ff 
Reptiles 428 ff 
Rests 86 ff 

Rhododendrons or Great Laurel 388 
Right angle, to test 471 
Robin 409 
Rock crab 444 

"Rocks and Rock Minerals" 454 
Rocky Mountain Goat 378 
Rock Tapper test 526 
Roorbach, Eloise 367 
Ropes, parts of 487 
Ross, Betsy 67, Colonel 68 
Roumanian Scout 29 
Russian Revolution 29 

Sacajawea 21 

Sailor test 527 

St. Paris, Ohio 454 

St. Paul 70 

Salamander 425 

Salmon 433 

Sandhill cranes 410 

Sand hoppers 442 

Sanitation in Camp 323 

Scale insect 447, maps made to 478 

Scallop 443 

Scavangers, bird 421 

Science, wonders of 544 

Scout Aide 105 ff, Group Badge 534 



Scout Cook, the 133 £f 

Scout Naturalist Group Badge 534 

Scout Neighbor Badge 533 

Scout's pace 314 

Scratches glacial 453 

Screech owl 409 

Scribe test 528 

Sea anemone 439 

cucumber 439 

spiders 442 
Seashore animals 439 ff 
Second class badges 49 

drill 90 

test 61 ff 
Secretary 57 
Seeds 459 

Segmented worms 439 
Semaphore signalling 101 ff 

code 102 
Setting-up exercises for Girl Scouts 

273 ff 
Seventeen Year Locusts 447 ff 
Shakespeare 452 
Shaler, N. S. 453 
Shaw, Anna Howard 25 
Sheep shank 493 ff 
Sheet bend 487 ff 
Sherwood, Geo H. 373 ff 
Shocks, care of 186 ff 
Shoes, for hiking 315 
Shovel nosed sturgeon 434 
Sharks 433 
Showy primrose 387 
Shrike 417 
Sick bed 221 ff 
Sick, care of 217 ff 
Sick room 218 ff 
Side step 89 
Signalling 97 ff 
Signal flag, Gen'l Service 97, Semaphore 

Signaller test 528 
Signs and blazes 305 
Silk worm 448 
Simmons College 106, 133 
Sink 116 ff 
Skink 430 
Skunk 404 
Skunk cabbage 380 
Slogan 3 

Smith. Samuel F. 55 
Snail 439 
Snake bite 297 
Snakes 294 ff 
Social forms 129 ff 
Soft shelled crab 445 
Soil 458 

Solomon's Seal 289 
Song birds 409 

Sounds, measuring distance by 471 
Spanish Moss 396 
Spiders 439. 450, 446 ff 
Sponges 439 
Spring Beauty 381 

Spruce, black, red 389 

Square knot 487 ff 

Squid 438 

Stains 127 ff 

Stalking 39 

Steps and marchings 87 

Stew 361 

Stars 78 ff, 298 ff 

Starfish 437, 445 

Star Gazer test 529 

Starling 420 

Star Spangled Banner 73 ff 

"Story of Our Continent" 453 

Stove 109 

Supper 148 ff 

Sun stroke, care of 188 ff 

Swimmer's test 530 

Table manners, 130 ff, setting 131 

Tadpoles 425 

Taping 467 ff 

Tenderfoot enrollment 44, 48 

pin 538 

test 60 ff 
Tennyson 380 
Tents 322 ff 
Telegrapher test 530 
Telemetr>- 467, 468 
Teodorroiu, Ecaterina 29 
Timber wolves 398 
Thanks badge 537 
Thistle 383 
Thrushes 409 
Toad 425 ff 
Toadstools 289 ff 
Toast 363 
Tools 457 
Totem 309 
Tracking 40 
Trade name and true name of furs 

Trailing arbutus 381 
Trans-Atlantic flight 69 
Treasurer, report of 57 ff 
Trees 387 ff 

Triangulation 467 ff, 478 
Troop 14 
Troop crests 539 
Turin 476 
Turpentine 389 ff 
Turtles 429 ff 

Uniform, one piece 83, two piece 92 
Union, the 70 
Union Jack 68 
Units of measure 466 
"Useful Birds and their Protection" 



Vega 304 

Vegetable garden 459 ff 

Vertebrates 377 

Walnuts 383 

Wapato 288 

War service 266 ff 

Water dog 427 

Water and game birds iZi 

Water lily 383 , ,oro 

Water, selection. 320; supply l^o tt 

Wasp 447 

Waste 122 

Weasel 400 ff 

Weather wisdom 282 n 

Weeds 461 

Weevils 449 ^ „ • j • 

Weights and measures 135 ff, 3Udgmg 

467 ff 
West Indies 27 „ 

"Western Bird Guide 4^J 
Wharf pile animals 441 
Whelk 443, 444 
Who are the Scouts 17 n 
Whistle 100, 103 

White, Gilbert 425 

Whitman, Walt 313 


Width, to estimate 46a n 

Wig Wag 97 

Wild carrot 383 

Wild flowers and ferns 3»U n 

Wild turkey 416 

Witch Hazel 382 

Woodcraft 280 ff 

Woodcraft Scout Group Badge 534 

Woods, twelve secrets of the 280 tt 

Woolen things 122 ff, clothes 317 ff 

Wood, uses of 388 ff 

Wordsworth 375 

Wounds, care of 181 ff 

Wright, Wilbur 69 

Yard 466 
Yarrow 383 
Yellow fever 449 
Yellow pine 394 

Zoologist test 531 



189 Lexington Ave., New York City 


Mrs. Juliette Low 

Honorary President Honorary Vice-President 

Mrs. Warren G. Harding Mrs. Wood row Wilson 


Mrs. Herbert Hoover 

First Vice-President Second Vice-President 

Mrs. James J. Storrow Mrs. Arthur A. Choate 

Third Vice-President Fourth Vice-President 

Mrs. Julius Rosenwald Mrs. William F. Sims 

Fifth Vice-President 
Mrs. Eliza Morgan Swift 

Treasurer Chairman, Executiie Board 

Mrs. Nicholas F. Brady Mrs. V. Everit Macy 

Mr. Douglas Campbell 

Mrs. Jane Deeter Rippin 





Mr. Frederic W. Allen, Chairman 

Mr. Gordon Abbot 
Mr. Robert Cassatt 
Mr. T. DeWitt Cuyler 
Mr. Herbert Lloyd 
Mr. Dunlevy Milbank 

Mr. Charles E. Mitchell 
Mr. John D. Ryan 
Mr. Frederick Strauss 
Mr. Felix Warburg 
Mr. C. F. Weed 


Miss Sarah L. Arnold Miss E. Gwen Martin 
Mrs. Leo Arnstein Mrs. William G. McAdoo 

Mrs. Selden Bacon Mrs. Robert G. Mead 

Mrs. Nicholas F. Brady Miss Llewellyn Parsons 
Mrs. Frederick H. Brook Mrs. Harold L Pratt 
Mrs. Francis K. Carey Mrs. Theodore H. Price 

Mr. Francis P. Dodge 
Mrs. Frederick Edey 
Mrs. Arthur W. Hartt 
Mrs. V. Everit Macy 

Mrs. W. N. Rothschild 
Mrs. a. Clifford Shinkle 
Mrs. Charles Welch 
Mrs. Percy H. Williams 


Education Chairman, Miss Sarah Louise Arnold 

Secretary, Dr. Louise Stevens Bryant 
Field Chairman, Mrs. Frederick Edey 

Secretary, Miss Sibyl Gordon 
Finance Chairman, Mrs. Nicholas F. Brady 
Policies Chairman, Mrs. Harold L Pratt 

Publication Chairman, Mrs. Josephine D. Bacon 

Secretary, Dr. Louise Stevens Bryant 
Standards Chairman, Mrs. Arthur O. Choate 

Secretary, Miss Sibyl Gordon 



See Latest Price List for Cost 

Scouting for Girls. Official Handbook of the Girl Scouts. 572 pages, profuse 
illustrations. Bibliography. Khaki cloth cover, flexible. Officers' Edition, 

Campward Hoi Manual for Girl Scout Camps. 192 pages. Illustrations. Biblio- 
graphy, cuts and diagrams. Cloth. 

The Blue Book Of Rules For Girl Seoul Captains. All official regulations, and 
Constitution and By-Laws. Lefeix form. No. 12 

Introductory Training Course For Girl Scout Officers. Outline of 10 lessons. Equip- 
ment and references. Lefax form. No. 13. 

The Girl Scouts' Health Record. A convenient form tor recording the points needed 
to cover for badge of "Health Winner." No. 7 

Girl Scouts, Their Works, Ways and Plays. Pamphlet. No. 5 

Your Girl and Mine, by Josephine Daskam Bacon, Pamphlet. No. 9. 

Why I Believe in Scouting for Girls. Mary Roberts Rinehart. Pamphlet No. 10. 

Field Note Book For Girl Scout Officers. Blue canvas cover, filler, envelope, for 
Blue Book of Rules, Training Courses, Miscellaneous Publications and Notes. 
Lefax form. 

The Citizen Scout, A Program for Senior Girl Scouts. Lefax form. No. 14. 

Why Scouting for Girls Should Interest College Women. Louise Stevens Bryant 
Pamphlet. Lefax form. No. 16. 

Girl Scout Councils, Their Organization and Training, 20 pp. Lefax form No. 17. 

Why My Girls are Girl Scouts by Rear-Admiral W. S. Sims, U. S. N. Pamphlet. 
No. 15 

Community Service for Girl Scouts. Lefax form. No. 18. 

Girl Scouts; Inc., Annual Reports for 1920 and 1921. Lefax form. No. 25 and 26. 

Has She Got Pep? What the Girl Scout Leader Needs. Josephine Daskam Bacon. 
Pamphlet. No. 21. 

Educational Work of the Girl Scouts. Louise Stevens Bryant. Written for Biennial 
Survey. 1918-1920, Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. 

The American Girl. A Scouting Magazine for all girls. Monthly. 15 cents the 
copy; $1.50 the year. Special Section for Officers, "The Field News." 

Otiier Publications in Stock 

Scoutmaster ship. A Handbook for Scoutmasters on the Theory of Scout Training 
by Sir Robert Baden-Powell. Putnam's Sons, N. Y. 1920. 

Brownies or Blue Birds. A Handbook for Young Girl Guides, by Sir Robert Baden- 
Powell, London. C. Arthur Pearson. 1920. 

The Patrol System for Girl Guides. London. C. Arthur Pearson. 

The Junior Cook Book. Girl Scout Edition. Clara Ingram. Barse and Hopkins. 

Order From 


National Headquarters 

189 Lexington Ave. 

New York City 



The Woodcraft Section of Scouting For 
Girls gives the Girl Scout a taste of one of 
the j oiliest, most readable books about the 
out of door life that any girl can have : "The 
Woodcraft Manual for Girls," by Ernest 
Thompson Seton, published by Doubleday 
Page and Company for the Woodcraft League 
Of America, Inc. 

Mr. Seton has long been loved by the young 
people of many countries for his marvelous 
understanding of animals and their homes, 
and in this book he has shared his secrets with 
the boys and girls of America; so that any 
Girl Scout who wants to be sure of herself on 
the trail and equipped for all emergencies of 
the woods, could add no better guide book to 
her Troop or personal life than this one. 


Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 


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DEC 12199^ 

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Form L9-25i/i-9,'47(A5618)444 


PLpi 3 1158 00769 4895 


AA 000 944 733 5