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Once upon a time 


They weren't predictable. They weren't durable. 





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And these poor creatures were obsessed 

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had to have a purpose and that some 



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purposes were higher than others. 

ese poor creatures spent most of their time 

trying to find oat what their purpose 

And every time they found 

a purpose of 

out what seemed to be 

themselves, the purpose seemed so low that 

creatures were filled with disgust and shame. 

And, rather than serving such a low purpose , 
the creatures would make a machine to serve it 

This left the creatures free to serve higher 

purposes. But whenever they found a higher 


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purpose the purpose, still wasn't high enough. 

So machines were made to serve higher purposes, 


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e machines did everything so expertly 

they were finally given 

THIS automatic soft-drink dispenser can't 
kid the girls and discuss baseball scores 
with the men, but it does practically every- 
thing else that a live soda jerk does. 

It rejects slugs and foreign coins, makes 
change, gives the customer a choice of three 
flavors (a forthcoming model will provide 
six), sets a cup before him and then pro- 
ceeds to measure out, mix and pour the 
drink he selected. 

The drawing below provides a highly 
simplified explanation of what takes place 
when you drop a nickel, dime or quarter 
into this multiple-flavor drink dispenser— a 
Soda Shoppe, made by the Automatic Prod- 
ucts Co., a leading manufacturer in the field. 
The machine makes change in nickels only. 

The drawing on the facing page shows 

the essential parts of this machine, except 
for the cup-dispensing unit, which if drawn 
in working position would have hidden other 
parts. Drawings on the next page show how 
the cup-dispensing unit works. 

A darker color makes it clear which 
syrup tank, solenoid valve and tube line are 
affected when a customer has chosen, for 
example, to push the center button. 

For the sake of clarity the artist also has 
straightened out the syrup lines as they 
near the faucet instead of showing them 
coiled around the cooler, as they are. 




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the job of finding out what 

the highest purpose of the creatures could be. 

The Dark Continents 
of Your Mind 

DO YOU struggle for balance? Are you 
forever trying to maintain energy, enthusiasm, 
and the will to do ? Do your personality and 
power of accomplishment ebb and flow — like 
a stream controlled by some unseen valve? 
Deep within you are minute organisms. From 
their function spring your emotions. They 
govern your creative ideas and moods — yes, even 
your enjoyment of life. Once they were 
thought to be the mysterious seat of the soul 
— and to be left unexplored. Now cast aside 
superstition and learn to direct intelligently 
these powers of self. 



he machines reported in ail honesty that the 



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creatures couldn't really be said to have 

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any purpose at all. 

The creatures thereupon began slaying each other, 
because they hated purposeless things above all 

else. And they discovered that they weren't even 

very good at slaying ... So they turned that job 

over to the machines, too. And the machines 

finished the job in less time than it takes to say, 




"Tra/famadore. ' 






































cioeconomist, is ■ 
^ves which arise from 
of cybernetics and to 
w they can be employed to meet 
our- fundamental goals-rather than 
subvert them. I am not interested in 
trying to use cybernetics to preserve our 
existing socioeconomic system; indeed, I 
intend to prove that continuation of this 
system will make it impossible to realize 
our fundamental goals. Put another way, 
the recruiting of cybernetics to aid in the 
maintenance of some of our industrial-age 
values will make it increasingly difficult 
to realize these goals. 
Four fundamental drives arise from the 
application of cybernetics in the form of 
computer systems: the drive toward 
unlimited destructive power, the drive 
toward unlimited productive power, the 
drive to eliminate the human mind from 


repetitive activities, and the inherent 
organizational drive of the computer 
within a cybernetics system. I shall first 
examine the components of these drives, 
then indicate the end results of these 
drives if we fail to change the present 
socioeconomic system, and finally, I will 
set out some of the minimum steps 
required to enable us to use these drives 
to achieve our fundamental goals. 
First, the drive toward unlimited 
destructive power results from the 
combination of nuclear energy with the 
control and communication system of the 
computer and the activities of those 
involved in research and development. It 
is now generally accepted that there are 
already sufficient nuclear explosives, as 
well as bacteriological and chemical 
weapons, to destroy civilization, if not all 


Second, the drive toward unlimited 
productive power also results from the 
combination of effectively unlimited 
energy with the control and 
communication system of the computer 
and the activities of those involved in 
researchnd development. While this drive 
toward unlimited productive power is still 
denied by the conventional economist, it 
is fully accepted by those most closely 
associated with production the 
manufacturers and the farmer. American 
firms now expand their production, both 
within America and abroad, just as fast as 
they are able to increase profitable sales. 
There is no longer any effective limit to 
our productive abilities: we have passed 
beyond the dismal science of traditional 
economics. U Thant, Secretary General of 
the United Nations has expressed this 
reality in the following words: 

The truth, the central stupendous truth, 
about developed countries today 
is that they can have-in anything but the 
shortest run-the kind and scale of 
resources they decide to have. ...It is no 
longer resources that limit decisions. 
It is the decision that makes the 
resources. This is the fundamental 

change-perhaps the most revolutionary 
mankind has ever known. 

Third, the drive to eliminate the human 
mind from repetitive activities results 
from the fact that the computer is a far 
more efficient worker than already we 
know that the production worker can be 
replaced by the cybernated system, that 
the computer controls inventory more 
effectively than the manager, that the 
computer handles bank accounts far more 
cheaply than the clerk. These however, 
are primitive developments: in the near 
future we will see that the computer can 
take over any structured task; that is to 
say, any task where the decision-making 
rules can be set out in advance. Thus for 
example, the computer will take over the 
process of granting most types of bank 
loan, the analysis of stock portfolios and 
the process of odd-lot trading on Wall 
Street. The last application is perhaps 
particularly noteworthy, for it will 
replace a group of people whose median 
income is around$50,000 a year. 
Fourth, the inherent organizational drive 
of the computer within a cybernetics 
system: The initial setting up of 
computer systems is a response to a need 
to increase economic efficiency or to 
rationalize operations, but as computer 
systems become fully operative, a drive 
emerges toward the reorganization, for 
purposes of compatability, of interacting 
systems and institutions. The greater the 
number of areas of computer application, 
the greater the number of areas of 
computer application, the greater the 
force behind this drive. There is now 
quite clearly a trend toward the 
emergence of a total computer system 
organized for maximum efficiency in 
terms of immediate tasks. 
Changes resulting from these four drives 
have already begun. The transformation 
taking place around us should, therefore 
not be regarded as a process involving the 
occurrences of random, isolated 
non-predictable events, but rather be 
urgently studied to determine what 
trends are developing. In addition, we 
must always keep in mind that change 
brought about in one part of the system 
will be accompanied by other changes, 

w, w 


both predictable and unpredictable, in 
many parts of the existing socioeconomic 
system and culture. 

It is now clear that the impact of the 
computer is destroying the industrial-age 
balance between the economy and the 
society. We continue, however, to assume 
that after a period of apparent 
disorganization, a new favorable 
socioeconomic balance will become 
evident; we have further assumed that if 
it becomes clear that a satisfactory 
balance is not emerging, we will be able 
to intervene at the last moment ot correct 
unfavorable trends. These kinds of 
assumptions are analogous to the 
pre-cybernetics industrial-age economic 
theories of laissez-faire and, later of 
pre-crisis intervention in the economy. 
But these theories were based on the 
imposibility of prediction and resulted in 
the establishment of a polity of remedial, 
not preventative, action. Today, the 
avialability of the computer enables us to 
spot trends long before they would 
otherwise be visible, to carry out the 
necessary discussion and to prepare any 
required programs before the need for 
action develops. We can thus use these 
systems to control their own effects. 
Using information provided by computer 
systems, we can speed up the 
observation-discussion-action process so 
that we can keep up with the 
developments in our own technology 
So long as we preserve our present 
socioeconomic system, internal economic 
stability is only possible if the amount 
poeple and institutions are willing and 
able to buy rises a fast as the amount that 
we are able to produce. It is necessary 
that effective demand keep up with 
potential supply. This necessity follows 
from the fact that the viability of our 
present scarcity socioeconomic system is 
based on a very simple relationship: it is 
assumed that it is possible for the 
overwhelming proportion of those 
seeking jobs to find them and that the 
income received from these jobs will 
enable the job-holder to act as an 
adequate consumer. The successful 
functioning of the present socioeconomic 
system is therefore completely dependent 
on an ability to provide enough jobs to go 
round, a continuing failure to achieve this 
invalidates our present mechanism for 
income distriburion, which operates only 
so long as scarcity persists. So long as the 
present socioeconomic system is not 
changed, abundance is a cancer and the 
various parts of the system must continue 
to do their best to inhibit its growth. 

It is for this reason that businesses of all 
sizes, economists of almost all 
persuasions, and politicians of all parties 
agree that it is necessary to keep effective 
demand growing as fast as potential 
supply; that those who are still able to act 
as adequate consumers, because they are 
still abstaining sufficient incomes from 
their jobs, be encouraged to consume 
more and more of the kind of products 
that the economic system is presently 
organized to produce. Our economy is 
dependent on "compulsive consumption" 
in the words of Professor Comberg, and 
manufacturers spend ever-increasing sums 
on consumer seduction to persuade the 
consumer that he "needs" an ever-wider 
variety of products. All of us have our 
favorite story about the evils of 
advertising. But a new dimension is being 
added to the diabolic in advertising by 
means of new techniques using 
programmed computers and automatic 
equipment: for example, a system has 
already been developed and is presently 
in use, at least on the West Coast and in 

Washington, where in a given 
neighborhood every phone will ring and a 
tape-recorded sales message will be played 
when the phone is picked up. 
Pressures from the attempt to keep 
supply and demand in balance are not 
limited to the mere constant irritative 
pressure to be aware of sales messages; 
there is a second type of consequence 
which is even more serious for it acts to 
prevent any effective control of the drive 
toward unlimited productive power. Paul 
A. Samuelson, a highly respected 
conventional economist, has expressed 
the new reality in the following extreme 
terms: "In the super-affluent society, 
where nothing is any longer useful, the 
greatest threat in the world comes from 
anything which undermines our addiction 
to expenditures on things that are 
useless." It is for this reason that it is 
difficult to close down obsolete military 
bases, to limit cigarette consumption, in 
fact to slow down any form of activity 
which might in any way create demand or 
jobs. In these conditions, the need for 

ever-higher demand will almost inevitably 
have priority over the needs described by 
the social worker, the sociologist and the 

Whatever we do, we can only succeed in 
delaying the inevitable: the attempt to 
keep demand growing as fast as supply 
and thus create enough conventional jobs 
will inevitably exceed our capacity to 
create jobs. 

Even while we continue our effort to 
maintain the present socioeconomic 
system, the situation will deteriorate. We 
will see a continuation of the trends of 
the past years during which the position 
of the unskilled and the uneducated has 
worsened, the plight of the poor has 
become ever more hopeless. Professor 
Charles Killingsworth, one of the leading 
experts on unemployment statistics, has 
shown that "in J 950, the unemployment 
rate for the poorest educated group was 
four times the rate for the most educated 
group, by I960 the 'real' rate for the 
bottom group was 12 times the rate for 
the top group." In a parallel 

development, the percentage of income 
received by the poorest 20% of the 
population has fallen from 4.9% to 4.7%. 
Continuation of present trends will lead 
to a new type of organization of the socio 
economic system, within which incomes 
and non-work time will vary in inverse 
proportion. Starting at the bottom of the 
scale, there will be a large number of 
totally unemployed workers subsisting 
inadequately on resources derived from 
government schemes merely designed to 
ensure survival; the greatest proportion of 
the population will work considerably 
shorter hours than at present and receive 
wages and salaries which will provide for 
necessities and even some conveniences, 
but will not encourage them to develop a 
meaningful pattern of activity; and a 
small number of people with the highest 
levels of education and training will work 
excessively long hours for high salaries. 
The effects of the drive toward unlimited 
productive power will, of course, not 
only be internal but will also affect the 
prospects of the poor countries. It is now 
clear that the gap between the rich and 
the poor countries is continuing to widen 
and that there is no possible way to 
reverse this trend until we change the 
existing socioeconomic system. It is 
shocking to realize that we have now 
reached the point where the annual per 
capita increase in income in the United 
States is equal to the total income per 
capita in some of the poor countries. 
The reasons for this disparity are 
illustrated by the following quotations. 
First, from the United Nations 
Development Decade report: 
Taken as a group, the rate of progress of 
the under-developed countries measured 
by income per capita has been painfully 
slow, more of the order of 1 percent per 
annum than 2 percent. Most indications 
of social progress show similar slow and 
spotty improvement. 

And from a statement discussing the 
situation in India by B. R. Shenly, 
director of the School of Social Sciences 
at Gujerat University: 
Per capita consumption of food grains 
averaged 15.8 ounces per day in 1958, 
below the usual jail ration of 16 ounces, 
the army ration of 19 ounces and the 
current economic plan's target of 18 
ounces. Since then, the average has 
fluctuated downward. Between 1955 and 
1960, the annual per capita use of cloth 
fell from 14.7 metres to 1 3.9 metres. 

The expressed policy of the Western 
powers is to aid the poor countries to 
catch up to the rich within an acceptable 

period of time. It has been generally 
argued, most explicitly in W. W. Rostow's 
Stages of Economic Growth that the way 
the poor countries can attain this goal is 
to heed the lessons of history to pass 
through the Western stages of growth, 
although hopefully at a faster pace. It is 
surely time we recognized the 
inapplicability of this policy, the rate of 
economic growth of most poor countries 
now depends primarily on their being 
able to export enough goods to pay for 
their needed imports. It is clear that the 
poor countries will not be able to increase 
exports at an adequate rate to pay for the 
required growth in imports and that they 
will not be able to attain any reasonable 
rate of growth. The vast majority of the 
poor countries have no prospect of 
achieving a reasonable standard of living 
so long as the present socioeconomic 
system continues. 

There are a few optimists who persist in 
arguing that Western man can benefit 
immediately from the decrease in toil 
promised by the computer. An analysis of 
this conclusion suggests that those 
reaching it have not yet understood that 
it is typically those people whose life and 
educational experience ensure that they 
have the least adequate preparation for 
imaginative and constructive activities 

who will receive the largest increase in 
time not allocated to the carrying out of 
conventional jobs. This group is 
composed of two main categories: those 
with totally inadequate educations 
(the"poverty-cycle group") and those 
whose education and training has been 
slanted almost entirely toward 
conformity in order to enable them to 
perform tasks which will no longer be 
needed by the socioeconomic system. 
Those analysts who simply ignore the 
threat to our sodoeconomy represented 
by the large number of individuals who 
are already manifesting psychopathologic 
symptoms as a response to loss of their 
roles in the system also generally ignore 
the deep-seated threat which the 
machines pose to existing individual 
fundamental values and motivations. This 
threat is not manifest in economic 
statistics nor even in sociological 
monographs discussing the "world view" 
of the poor, but it is already affecting all 
members of society, both employed and 
unemployed. It is all-pervasive as 
advertising, and, like it, is constantly 
exerting pressures upon the individual, 
whether he be conscious of them or not. 
Some comments by Jack Weinberg, a 
psychiatrist, illuminate this issue: 
"Complicated machines which perform 

in intricate and invisible patterns are 
frightening. They are beyond the 
common man's understanding and he 
cannot identify with them. He 
experiences hostility toward such a 
machine, as he does toward most things 
he fails to understand. Furthermore, 
automation has done something that is 
unthinkable to a man who values his own 
self and that which he produces. In a 
sense, it has removed him from the 
product which he creates.. ..Work -no 
matter how odious an implication it may 
have to a person - is an enourmously 
prized and meaningful experience to man. 
It is not all punishment for his 
transgressions, as implied biblically but it 
is aJso a blessing, not only for common 
sense economic reasons... but also because 
of its varied and unifying psychological 

Psychiatrists in clinical practice report 
increasingly that their patients are 
concerned because they feel that they 
function in an inferior way compared to 
machines; that their limbs are not acting 
as efficient machine-parts. They also 
report fantasies, such as dreams in which 
the patient is being backed into a corner 
by a computer. The popular arts - 
cartoons, comedy -routines, and 
folksongs - increasingly reflect these 

Ju'Smu, . 

S df advanc?ed 
, above atf, of the 

\A.R. Martin, Chairman of the American 
Psychiatric Association Committee on 
Leisure Time and Its Use, has summarized 
this problem in the following terms in a 
discussion of the role of medicine in 
formulating future Public Health policy: 
"Sytnp^&ns ^ ind/^^ 
are: excessive guilt, compulsive begavior 
(especially compulsive work), increase of 
anxiety ', depression, psychosomatic 
symptom and suicide... We must face the 
fact that a great majority of our people 
are not emotionally and psychologically 
ready for free time. This results in 
unhealthy adaptations which find 
expression in a wide range of 
sociopathologic and psychopathologic 
states. Among the social symptoms of 
this maladaption to free time are: low 

morale, civilian unrest subversiveness and 

We are all aware of the manifest 
acceleration of past trends which bears 
our Martin's statement: let me very 
briefly recall a few of them: 
The crime rate is presently rising about 
ten percent a year as compared to a 
population increase of less than two per 
cent a year. 

Drug addiction grows not only in the 
ghettoes but in the well-to do- suburbs, 
and young people are especially 
vulnerable to the activities of those who 
seek new recruits to the army of addicts. 
America, as a society, tolerates over forty 
thousand deaths in automobile accidents 
a year despite the fact that techniques of 
accident-reduction are available for use. 
It is true that these societally 
disfunctional trends began long before 
the computer appeared on the scene, but 

it is also true that our attempts to reverse 
these trends will be frustrated if we 
continue to regard the ability of the 
computer to act with maximum 
efficiency in the carrying out of an 
immediate task as more important than 
all of our fundamental values put 
together. Whether increasing violence and 
social disorder can fairly be laid at the 
door of the computer is, however, 
peripheral to the possibility of the 
development of a police state. The only 
question is whether we will become 
convinced that our pre dominant need is 
for greater control over the individual and 
the means we will use to achieve it. We 
have so far failed to perceive that the 
types of control made possible by the 
inherent organizational drive of the 
computer within a cybernitics system 
have no common measure with our past 
experience in organization: That the 

generalized use of the computer as a 
means of societal control threatens to 
destroy at least the privacy, and very 
probably all the present rights of the 
individual unless we change the 
socioeconomic system. Let us be very 
clear: the only way to run the complex 
society of the second half of the 
twentieth century is to use the computer. 
The question is to determine the rights of 
the individual under these circumstances 
and then to ensure that they are 
respected by the computer-using 

The danger is imminent. Government 
already holds very substantial dossiers on 
a major part of the population; these are 
either in computer memories or can be 
placed in computer memories. 
Information on the financial affairs of 
each individual will soon be available 
through the development of the Internal 

Revenue Service Computer System. It is 
now planned that the records of the Job 
Corps will be placed on computers, a step 
which will inevitably be extended to 
cover all those that the government 
considers to be in need of help to find or 
regain a place in society. In the area of 
the exercise of socially-sanctioned force 
and compulsion, it is significant to note 
that New York State is developing a 
statewide police information network: a 
network which all authorities agree could 
be extended nation wide within a brief 
period of years. 

Some form of dehumanized, 
impersonal world is inevitable in the next 
twenty years unless we make major 
changes in our socioeconomic system. 
Only the working out of a new balance 
with the aid of society's servants 
-computer systems- will enable us to 
meet our fundamental societal goals. 

I have been discussing the effect of the 
drives exerted by the application of 
computers in reinforcing certain 
industrial-age values and thus inhibiting 
our forward movement into the 
cybernated era. I would now like to turn 
to a consideration of the potential of 
these drives as aids in the effort to move 
toward the realization of our 
fundamental societal goals in the new 
context of a cybernetics-based 
socioeconomy. It is my contention that 
the positive potential of these drives wilt 
not become a reality while we continue 
on our present course, while we 
subordinate efforts to correct 
socioeconomic ills to the goal of the 
continuation of an ourmoded 
industrial-age system, with its now 
inappropriate set of restraints and lack of 
restraints. If we are to have a more 
fulfilling way of life in the 
cybernetics-based abundance era, we 
must take conscious steps to enable us to 
arrive at a new set of restraints and lack 
of restraints and a new balance between 

Let us begin with a consideration of 
the drive toward unlimited destructive 
power: it is now generally accepted that 
this can only be prevented from 
destroying mankind if we renounce force, 
and even the threat of force, and that this 
requires that negotiation and arbitration 
become the means of settling disputes. In 
effect, nations will have to move toward 
world cooperation and world law. We are, 
at the present time witnessing the early 
efforts of institutions which could 
become the creators and administrators 
of world law, but we continue to view 
such efforts as primarily aimed at 
peace-keeping. Despite the disucssions at 
meetings and conferences, our perception 
of the role of world-cooperation in 
achieving socioeconomic advances 
remains very dim, for we still allow 
language and cultural barriers to impede 
the free flow of information. The 
physical barriers to communication are 
being lifted. With the aid of cybernetics, 
the channels are opening. Our role is to 
ensure that we use them, not allow 
ourselves to be persuaded that we should 
block them once again. 

The drive toward unlimited productive 
power can result in vast benefits, both 
internationally and domestically, but 
only if we change the methods presently 
used to distribute rights to resources. It 
is, of course, impossible to determine the 
final pattern which will emerge but I 
believe that the need for three steps can 
already be seen: 


The rich countries should accept an 
unlimited commitment to provide the 
poor countries of the world with all the 
resources they can effectively employ to 
help them to move into the 
cybernetics-based abundance era. Let me 
state explicitly, however, that such a 
commitment should not be accompanied 
by the right to dump unwanted surplus 
industrial age products and machinery 
into the poor countries. Rather, the poor 
countries must move as directly as 
possible from the agricultural era, 
without being forced to pass through the 
industrial-age process of socio-cultural 
and economic realignments. 

Domestically, we should adopt the 
concept of an absolute constitutional 
right to an income through provision of 

Basic Economic Security. This would 
guarantee to every citizen of the United 
States, and to every person who has 
resided within the United States for a 
period of five consecutive years, the right 
to an income from the federal 
government sufficient to enable him to 
live with dignity. No government agency, 
judicial body or other organization 
whatsoever should have the power to 
suspend or limit any payments assured by 
these guarantees. I believe that the best 
means to implement these guarantees 
would be to amend the Employment Act 
of 1946 to read: "It is the policy of the 
United States government either to 
provide job opportunities for all those 
seeking work or, if jobs are not available 
in sufficient number to guarantee an 
income of sufficient size to enable the 
family to live with dignity." 

A second principle, Committed 
Spending, should also be introduced, 
which would embody the concept of the 
need to protect the existing 
middle-income group against abrupt 
major declines in their standard of living, 
for a very substantial proportion of this 
group will lose their jobs in the next 
decade. This principle is based on the 
premise that in the process of transition 
between the industrial age and the 
cybernetics- based abundance era, 
socioeconomic dislocation should be 
avoided wherever possible, whether 
caused by sudden large-scale reduction in 
demand or by sudden withdrawal of 
economic supports for valid individual 

and social goals. Let me remind you at 
this point that the validity of the classic 
objection, "we cannot afford it," has 
been destroyed by the drive toward 
unlimited productive power. We can 
afford to provide the individual with 
funds which will encourage and enable 
him to choose his own activities and thus 
increase his freedom, and at the same 
time increase to the required extent 
expenditures on community needs: 
particularly education, medical services, 
recreation facilities and conservation. 
There is now general agreement that if 
we are to to profit from the drive to 
eliminate the human mind from repetive 
tasks we must greatly increase our 
emphasis on education. We have been 
unwilling to face up to the fact that the 
school and the university were designed 
to serve the requirements of the industrial 
age. We have therefore concentrated our 
attention on longer periods of education 
for more and more people rather than on 
changing the educational system to make 
it appropriate for the cybernetics era. We 
must find ways to develop the creativity 
and to enlarge the capacity of each 
individual in terms of his own uniqueness. 
We will have to teach people to think for 
themselves, rather than to absorb and 
then regurgitate with maximum A-level 
efficiency the theories of past thinkers. I 
believe that the best way to do this is to 
change our educational process from 
being discipline-oriented to being 
problem-oriented: to set up educational 
systems which will force people to face 
all the implications of each problem and 
to evaluate the individual's potential in 
terms of his ability to perceive new 
interconnections between aspects of the 

We must do this in such a way as to 
avoid the "new -education" emphasis on 
means - the smoothly -interacting group 
or seminar - and concentrate on ends - 
the kind of problems which will be 
studied. I think this can probably best be 
achieved through what we can call the 
two-dimensional seminar technique. Here 
the choice is up to the individual; he 
enters the system at the fkst level with a 
multiple choice of seminars; he can then 
go on to specialize by movement up the 
levels of complexity in one problem area, 
or he can choose to gain wider knowledge 
by horizontal movement, through 
participation in many seminars. 


■Wiwjairw* loiiicu luiya 

tssity of the future and it 
ilso the prime reason why we cannot 
.jserve our present industrial-age values 
near return to the simple values of the 
agricultural era. The set of values of the 
cybernetics era will be unique: attitudes 
toward time and space, production and 
consumption, will have to be appropriate 
to the realities of this era. In the future 
we are going to value those who can think 
system in all fields — not only about the 
problems of society but also about the 
individual. For example, the patient will 
respect his doctor on the basis of his 
ability to Understand him as a biological 
system, rather than value his apparent 
qua si magical techniques as in our 

I am sure that many humanists will be 
shocked by my acceptance of the 
system-thinking for they fear that man 
will be destroyed by the rationality 
implicit in systems thinking. In this view 
the rational is synonymous with the 
concept of the logical solution to any 
problems inherent in a task, the choice of 
the one best way to do something, the 
constant search for the efficient. 
Compared to any system or smoothly 
running organization, man's thought 
processes are less rational, more subject 
to accident and distortion. According to 
this thesis, it follows that man must 
inevitably end by acting according to the 
instruction of the efficient 

himself created for his service, to carry 
out his wishes, to fulfil his needs. But the 
efficient, knowledgeable servant becomes 
the administrator, the teacher and thus, 
the master. This is the case put forward 
by Jacaues Ellul in his book originally 
published in France in 1954 under the 
title of La Technique, and just published 
in the United States this fall under the 
title The Technological Society. It is 
impossible not to concede the immense 
strength of Ellul' s arguement, even 
though it was based on the organizational 
efficiency drives existing before the 
emergence of the computer and its 
accelerating drive toward maximum- 
efficiency. My acceptance of 
system-thinking is based on reality: on 
my willingness to face up to the fact that 
there is no way to avoid the development 
of computer systems in the second-half of 
the twentieth century. Our only hope is 
to accept this reality and to use all of 
man's energy to recruit technological 
drives for the attainment of our 
fundamental goals. 

Let me conclude: the fundamental 
effect of cybernetics is anti-entropic as 
Charles Dechert has pointed out. The 
increasing efficiency of organization 
permits greater output with less energy 
input. In the industrial, scarcity age, this 
process could only have worked to our 
advantage for demand exceeded supply 
and energy sources were always 
insufficient. In the cybernetics-based 
abundance era. however, we are being con 
fronted with the need to place restraints 
on both production and the new energy 
sources, lest their drives destroy us. The 
danger of exploding production is no less 
real than that of destructive explosions. It 
is incorrect to assume that because we 
have presently unfulfilled global 
production needs, we can absorb any 
extra amount, and rapidly. 

We are living in a world of exponential 
growth. But Dennis Gabor, Professor at 
the Imperial College of Science and 
Technology in London, has pointed out: 

' ....exponential curves grow to infinity 
only in mathematics. In the physical 
world they either turn round and 
saturate, or they break down 
catastrophically. It is our duty as thinking 
men to do our best toward a gentle 
saturation, instead of sustaining the 
exponential growth, though this faces us 
with very unfamiliar and distasteful 

For many people the most distasteful 
of all these problems is the fact that there 
is already insufficient toil to go round - 
that it is now necessary to allow vast 
numbers of people to do what they want 
to do simply because they personally 
believe that their activity is important. 
The guaranteed income proposal 
mentioned above recognizes this reality, 
and it has therefore been attacked from 
both ends of the political spectrum, and 
from every point in between, on the 
grounds that the proposal would promote 
the lazy society. For example, August 
Hecksher, who served as President 
Kennedy's special assistant for cultural 
affairs declared: "The very idea of large 
populations doing nothing but pleasing 

themselves goes against the American 
grain," and then went on to make 
proposals for job allocations and income 
distribution which Gerard Piel has 
described as "instant feudalism." 

We have not yet been willing to 
recognize the true extent of the challenge 
posed by the drive toward unlimited 
destructive power, unlimited productive 
power, the elimination of the human 
mind from repetitive tasks, the organizing 
drive of the computer within a 
cybernetics system. We have not yet been 
willing to recognize that we live today in 
the truly lazy society - a society where 
we allow technological trends to make 
our decisions for us because we have not 
yet been willing to recognize that man's 

power is now so great that the minimum 
requirement for the survival of the human 
race is individual responsibility. 

Man will no longer need to toil: he 
must find a new role in the cybernetics 
era which must emerge from a new goal 
of self- fulfillment. He can no longer view 
himself as a super-animal at the center of 
the physical universe, nor as a 
super-efficient taker of decisions 
self-fashioned in the model of the 
computer. He must now wiew himself as 
a truly creative being in the image of a 

' A' is the yearbook editor in a large high school located in the 
heart of a nothern city. "B" is the layout man for a smaller 
yearbook in suburbia. "C" is the yearbook advisor-English 
teacher-math instructor in a tiny rural school out in the Rockies. 
Three very different people from three very different schools! 

Yet, they all share one common thought... the importance they 
give to the little word'change". 

In the course of yearbook discussions with advisors, editors 
and general staff members whether it's during seminars or 
journalism classes at schools the importance of reflecting 
"change" in the yearbook is the one item that's sure to come up. 
In fact, it's just about the only topic that you can "put your 
money on". It seems that most people in the yearbook field feel 
that a yearbook that's different is what makes the world go 
around, that a volume that's anywhere near traditional simply 
won't make a dent in their potential market. 

And, their feelings are not without foundation in fact. It's true 
that the world has been changing at a rapid pace. And, these 
changes extend into the educational field. Schools today are 
nothing like they Were TO or 15 years ago. Students, themselves, 
,are considerably different. Teaching methods and materials have 
changed. New Interests have come to the forefront, while some 
traditional interests no longer are in the spotlight. All you need 
do is glance around you to see that exciting things are taking 

Add to your own experiences all that you hear and read about 
change in the other media and there's no denying that it's an 
important, a significant force. 

But, something's wrong somewhere For, if change is such an 
important force, why are the yearbooks that come out with new 
innovations failing in some cases to be more successful than their 
staid counterpartsTWhy are some dramatically different volumes 
garnering even less of the student interest than their less 
innovative predecessors? 

For possible answers to these important questions, let's take a 
closer look at "change". 

As is the case with almost every new yearbook feature, 
treatment or emphasis, the trend first exhibited itself in the 
advertising world. [As we've discussed in previous issues this is 
only natural, since predicting what the world will want is their 
one and only business.] And advertising people have been 
playing up "change" for several years now. Only recently, 
however, one advertising agency sent out a most interesting 
newsletter. It used the word change as its basic subject, and it 
gave the word a different perspective. For instance, the newsletter 
pointed out, a common belief in the advertising world was flying 
and traveling are frequent occurences. But the truth is that less 
than 20 per cent of the people in this country boarded an 
airplane, and not even half the total population spent the night 
any distance away from home in the year that's passed. Another 




revelation was that although most of us assume that "eating out 
is an experience everybody shares " only about 10 per cent of the 
population ate even one meal in a restaurant in 1970, and this 
included people who worked outside of the home. 

What has this to do with yearbooks? 

Advertising agencies before these surveys were taken, had 
assumed that eating out appealed to all. ..that flying was a way of 
life. Therefore, they had Supposed that when they hung their 
advertising on an airplane trip or set up a photo in a restaurant, 
most people would identify with it. In reality, they had been 
featuring messages that had meaning for only a very small portion 
of the people that they were trying to reach. 

Perhaps your yearbook situation may be similar. Do you 
wrongfully assume that every student is extremely interested in 
ecology, and are you planning to use this topic as your theme 
without taking the time and trouble to find out? Have you 
supposed that because you are tremendously interested in graphic 
innovations the rest of the student body shares your passion for 
special effects?Are you really certain of this fact?lf Ralph Waldo 
Emerson is your favorite poet do you wrongfully feel that the 
majority of students will relish his philosophy as their yearbook 
copy?You and your staff may be hung up on artist's sketches 
but are you sure your student body will want to see the beauties 
they selected illustrated in pen and ink? 



The message here is very clear: Directing your yearbook to the 
interests of only a very small portion of your student body will 
leave the majority of readers and potential buyers strictly out in 
the cold Changing interests and changing tastes certainly 
shouldn't be ignored but putting all your eggs in one basket 
could result in a yearbook that bombs. How much better to 
provide something so interest to everyone. Follow that premise 
and you'll automatically be putting into effect at least some of 

vour pet changes. , 

A little removed from the advertising scene but still in the same 
general area, we have further opinions to reenforce the statement 
that change may definitely be overrated as far as its interest 
quotient goes. Some newspaper publishers for instance, are 
seriously worried because the general newspaper public seems to 
be reflecting so much apathy. . 

"They are not interested in clean water or clean air like they 
used to be " one well known newspaper editor said. "They quit 
reading our copy about VietNam. And poverty and crime don t 
raise too many eyebrows. We give them our best our 
best reporting, and too many don't even take the time to read the 
startling and important things that we have to say We have 
headlines in every edition equal in importance to headlines that 
you were able to get only once every two or three weeks 15 years 

Another newspaper man speculated thaf'change" had dug its 
own grave in the area of reader interest: ' It's the unusual which 
has always interested newspaper readers. And, when the unusual 
becomes too commonplace it loses some of its news value," he 
said. "In other works, people may have lost some of their interest 
in major issues like ecology poverty,crime,etc. because there 
have been too many items of major interest in the past few years. 
There have been too many changes." 

Had newspapers exercised a little restraint in their covering of 
some evidences of change, he concluded, there possibly wouldn't 
be the degree of apathy some people feel exists today. "Had we 
not overcovered in many cases there would be more left to say 

In regard to the newsman's statements, the message to the 
yearbook staff is clear While a few special effects, for instance, 
are exciting because they are new and different, an entire book 
made up of them will soon become boring and common place. 
And, what is left for next year?While the words of a poem may 
make good introductory copy a whole book filled with famous 
verses soon loses its meaning and its appeal. It's like too mUch of 
anything. A little of something good can go a very long way. 

It often happens that buildings or other 
works are dedicated to the memory of 
those who have shared with us a portion 
of their personal or professional lives and 
who have now passed from us 'and are 
beyond the concerns of this life. In the 
matter of this dedication, this is not the 
case. Though it is true that Lou Roberts 
is dead and that we shall never see him 
laboring on this campus again, it is 
similarly true that so much of what has 
surrounded us for the past four years is a 
living organism, for which he worked 
untiringly, and one that will go on to 

fulfill its purpose for perhaps decades to 
come. And so this University, and 
therefore this postscript to a chronicle, 
are in themselves tributes to Lou Roberts, 
and therefore a continuing celebration of 
his life. Eulogies and paeans have 
previously been offered by those who 
knew the personal man more than we; 
but we in turn offer this small homage to 
the efficiency, competency dedication 
and goodness of a man, who as in the 
Biblical verity, moved "from strength to 
For one man the recognition comes late 

in his tenure, though every day his efforts 
on our behalf continue; for the second 
man, the honor is posthumous, for as we 
commended to him the labors of the 
building and the safeguarding of the 
physical university, he has now been 
commended to a source of reward far 
greater than anything we might be able to 
offer. The 1973 Scrimshaw is therefore 
dedicated to Dr. Samuel A. Stone, First 
Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, 
and to the late Professor J. Louis 
Roberts, Director of Planning and Plant, 
of Southeastern Massachusetts University. 


"A University," in the words of 
Benjamin Disraeli," should be a place of 
light, of liberty, and of learning." And 
while there are those among us who sould 
contend that the modern University 
should include other concerns within its 
domain, few would deny and many 
remember the struggle that was necessary 
to secure, for this University, the former 
attributes let alone the latter. At a time 
of birth for Southeastern Massachusetts 
University, there were many who held a 
narrower concept of education than that 
which encouraged the study of the liberal 
and fine arts and the pure sciences. 

Throughout this time, it was the 
advocacy and persistence of Dr. Samuel 
A. Stone that struggled and prevailed in 
the realization of a broader vision, one 
which undeniably illumines us all. At a 
time of crisis for the University, when, in 
a very real sense liberty and academic 
freedom was challenged, Dr. Stone : then 
Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, 
abhorring complicity in the perpetration 
of injustices that have since been 
rectified, protested and 
resigned-becoming thereafter the 
conscience of a University that then 
seemed too willing to quickly forget. No 

one wishes to disinter the conflict of the 
past, but these qualities of conscience and 
integrity must by their very nature be 
recognized in this seat of higher learning. 
Finally, as a most respected scholar and 
devoted and truly concerned teacher, 
Commonwealth Professor of Mathematics 
Samuel A. Stone has earned the most 
coveted award, the admiration, affection 
and respect of the students of this 
University. If, as Dr. James Bryant 
Conant put it, a University rests "on 
hallowed ground," it must surely be the 
presence and the deeds of men like 
Samuel Stone that cause it to be so 

Student Senate 

C£Mi iC blKC 1C IS 

Since we've had so many requests for 
hints on how to write effective copy - 
not just effective 'ordinary" copy but 
effective copy in a "different" style - 
IVe're turning our attentions this month 
to what might he termed the yearbook's 
approach to an "in-depth" study. 
Since in-depth studies are usually the 
property of the newspaper's feature page, 
the monthly magazine, etc., you'll have 
to look closely to find the resemblance 
when it's adapted to yearbook use. 
Limited space demands an entirely 
different approach. But, upon thorough 
examinations, many of the qualifications 
are there. Hence our label - for lack of a 
better name. 

As most students of journalism know 
the in-depth study differs from the 
normal news story in that it goes far 
beyond the "what" and the "where" and 
concerns itself more with the "how" and 
the "why." It lends itself well to stories 
of events viewed in retrospect since the 
writer or reporter has time to dig beneath 
the surface and uncover some of the more 
complex reasons behind what went on, 
some of the effects the outcome will 

Since the school yearbook cannot even 
hope to compete with the student 
newspaper's spot coverage because of 
timeliness, the in-depth study would seem 
to be just the thing the yearbook has 
been searching for. But, then, there's the 
limitation of space. If you are going to 
present the total picture in depth, it goes 
without saying that more than a 
paragraph is called for. But, where there's 
a will, there's a way. And, when you look 
at it carefully, there's a lot more copy in 
the typical yearbook than might be 
expected. Take captions and headings, for 
instance. Information can be presented 
there too. And, pictures can take the 
place of some words. 
One of the most interesting yearbook 
versions of the in-depth study appeared in 
a 1972 high school book, whose staff 
decided to make use of "quotes." 
Although realtive little copy was utilized, 
one finished reading this book with the 
feeling that he had quite a good 
understanding of the subject this staff 
had tried to study. Because the writer was 
selective in his use of quotes he managed 
to present many different points in very 
little space. Because he had screened the 
people he interviewed, he presented 

Glass Officers 




"opinions of authorities." And, because 
he'd taken the time to bone up on the 
subject, he managed to obtain a variety of 
views. The result was not only an 
enlightening summary of a particular 
issue that would distinguish that school 
year from all the rest (and therefore give 
it historical value), it was a bright and 
interesting departure from that school's 
yearbooks of the past. 
Let's say that you, too are interested in 
putting out a pictorial history that differs 
somewhat from all the rest. Let's say that 
you have an energetic writing staff that's 
not aftaid to ask questions, not afraid to 
explore. Let's say that you've got 
sufficient time before the deadline to 
coordinate the pictures with the copy and 
to do the necessary digging and research 
required. How, then, would you go about 
utilizing quotes from your school 
personalities to study a subject and 
present it "in-depth? 
First, you'd want to select a subject - 
one with wide student appeal. (The 
yearbook is prepared by students, and 
this is the first thing to remember. You 
can't choose a subject because it is one 
that your parents or your teachers are 
interested in. Not unless their interest is 
shared by your contemporaries.) 
A number of issues of general interest 
would be possibilities, but you should be 
looking for something more specific, 
something of particular interest in your 

school. It could be a new educational 
program, a new addition to the 
curriculum, a school improvement that's 
just been secured or a problem that your 
school has encountered. (Remember 
however that the yearbook is not a 
crusader. It can report on crusades, but it 
can't initiate them. For one thing, 
crusades must be followed through. 
There's but one issue of the yearbook 
each year.) It could even be a very broad 
subject - your yearbook theme , for 
instance. At the expense of being trite, 
such a subject as "change" could 
effectively be explored. In this instance 
you could interview people on changes 
that have occured in every aspect of 
school life from sports to academics. 
These quotes, then, would become the 
basis of your copy in each of the 
yearbook sections. 

Regardless of your subject, you must 
begin with the idea that this is to be an 
impartial presentation - not an editorial. 
Just as you must select a subject with 
wide student appeal - whether or not it's 
of primary interest to you, the writer - 
you must present views and opinions that 
may differ drastically from your own. As 
the writer you'll select the quotes from 
the multitude of material that you've 
gathered in your interviews, but you can't 
change the working so that the comment 
is more in line with your way of thinking. 


Seldom do historians get the chance to 
experience significant events close up. I 
got this chance at Osgood Hill in 
November 1972. As an historian, I 
decided from the start to keep a diary of 
events, as written records are much more 
dependable than memory. 

Perhaps I should begin with a catalog 
of the kinds of things that I will not 
include in this article, although they were 
recorded in by diary. Who snored, who 
drank, who was small-minded-these 
things are not important. 

What is significant about Osgood Hill, 
from my point of view, was the attempt 
by administration, faculty, and students 
to establish a sense of trust and 
community among all the factions at the 
university. Student Senator Alan Dreezer 
at one time posed the question, "What is 
a university? Aside from the legal 
definition, a university is a community of 
scholars and students who, although they 
may disagree, trust one another enough 
to talk problems over. This willingness to 
talk and listen and this sense of trust were 
in some small way reestablished at 
Osgood Hill. 

The desire to work toward the goals of 
communication and trust among 
members of the S.M.U. community was 
expressed on the first evening by Virginia 
Hadley and Donald Walker. In my group 
the road to these goals was full of pitfalls. 

We could not even agree as to whether 
first to create a climate of trust and then 
debate issues or first to argue the issues 
and then let an atmosphere of trust grow 
out of debate. President Walker and John 
Fitzgerald urged that we develop rational 
processes and that trust would follow 
from this. Most students and some 
faculty in the group wanted to reverse the 
procedure. As I recorded the ebb and 
flow of arguement, I thought that I was 
witnessing in the microcosm of my group 
the same divisions existing in the 
macrocosm of the university. 

On the last day of the weekend I 
attended a stormy session where the issue 
of student and faculty power was 
debated. Yet within this debate, I saw the 
essence of the good part of Osgood Hill. 
After many strong feelings were 
expressed by Student Senators Joyce 
Goodman and Bob DiPietro and by 
Faculty Federation President Tom John, 
the protagonists agreed to talk more 
calmly the next week back at school. In 
this, I noted the rudimentary stages of 
the development of a climate of 
trust-begun by compromise a good and 
rational procedure. 

My View of Osgood Hill- 
Dr. Robert Friedberg, History Dept. 

You can't even present something out of 
context so that it follows your line of 
thought. Objectivity will be your most 
important attribute; it will also be the 
most difficult to exercise. 
After you've selected your subject you 
must thoroughly research it. Even though 
you will only be conducting interviews 
and selecting quotes, you're still going to 
need a vast amount of background 
knowledge. Only then will you be able to 
conduct intelligent interviews, sift 
through material obtained in interviews 
and select that which says the most the 

Your next step is to select people to 
interview. Whatever your subject you 
should try to pick some "authorities." 
For instance, if you are exploring an 
innovation in teaching - perhaps a new 
vocational education program - be sure 
to interview teachers concerned. And talk 
also with the students. You get more than 
one side of the story, then. 
If people in the community are affected 
or involved, try getting their comments 
too. Remember, no study is complete 
unless every angle has been presented. If 
you, by chance, have chosen a 
controversial subject and can't present 
what may be an unpopular side, forget 
the subject. A biased presentation not 
only will destroy all efforts to 
communicate but it can do much harm to 
the eventual resolution of an issue as well. 

When you are conducting an interview 
with the purpose of obtaining a quote be 
certain to state your purpose first. Then 
completely explain your question. Make 
certain that it is understood and be 
equally sure that you understand the 
answer. Don't enter into an interview 
with such a statement as "give me your 
opinion on such and such." Do ask for 
something specific. But, don't ask leading 
questions either. For example, anything 
that begins with "don't you think " 
"don't you agree," ' don't you feel," etc. 
is designed to elicit a certain response 
Even if you receive an objective answer 
it's doubtful you will recognize it. 

Wait until you've interviewed all your 
subjects before deciding upon which 
quotes to include. This has to do with 
utilizing your small amount of copy space 
to include a wide variety of facts, 
viewpoints and opinions. Every issue has 
many aspects. A new innovation in 
education for instance, has many 
different facets. Will it prove more 
economical or more expensive? Will it 
help to prepare students for positions 
immediately upon graduation? Can it 

benefit students who are college bound? 
Does it decrease the amount of required 
learning time? Does it stimulate interest 
in a subject?Does it encourage original 
thought? Does it encourage objectivity? 
Does it require more space, fewer 
teachers, etc.?What effects will it have on 
the entire student body? On the 
community ?0n the taxpayer? 
If all the quotes that you select have to 
do with the financial angle, you woun't 
have presented many aspects. If all your 
quotes reflect the ways it will benefit a 
small group of students, you've neglected 
the majority of your student body. That's 
why it is so important not only to select a 
variety of people to interview but to 
select material from the interviews which 
has variety too. 

In the interest of brevity, it's okay to 
edit quotes, but they'll lose a great deal in 
interest and brilliance if you try to put 
them into your own words. One of the 
bright features of a quote is that it tends 
to tell something about the speaker - not 
only from the standpoint of what was 
said but in the manner that it was stated. 
For instance, you'd lose a lot of color if 
you tried to take the students' slang and 
translate it into "proper'' grammar. The 
way they express themselves is one of the 
factors which separates one generation 
from another one member of an interest 
group from a member of a group whose 
interests are dissimilar. 
The yearbook's shortage of space 
presents another problem, too. Although 
you'll hardly ever be able to utilize an 
entire comment you must be particularly 
careful not to take what you use out of 
context. A sentence beginning "I'm in 
favor of..." have a vastly different 
meaning if it originally included a "but." 
Of course it goes without saying that 
you can never make up a quote. Even if 
you have John Doe on your list as an 
essential person to quote and you haven't 
been able to talk to him, even if you are 
almost certain that you know what his 
comments would be you can never, never 
put words in his mouth. You might guess 
correctly about his comments and 
basically convey his thoughts, but you 
would seriously threaten the yearbook's 
credibility. John would know that he 
didn't actually say those words and otner 
people would probably guess, too. Work 
would get around, and students would 
begin questioning the authenticity of 
[other quotes. The entire communication 
project would be rendered practically 

Justice Arthur Goldberg 

Citizens' Party 

In December of 1972, the Class of 1974 
sponsored, with help from the Student 
Senate, a Christmas party for over 400 
area senior citizens. Intended to be 
different, the event served as a rebuttal to 
many of society's myths about both the 
young and the old. 

The warmth and generosity shown by all 
those present on that afternoon could 
never be put in writing. It was however, a 
phenomenon that will long be 
remembered. Part of this was displayed 
by the enthusiasm of the elderly and their 
comments as they left, many of whom 
were in tears. 

In all, that afternoon of singing, dancing 
and having fun served to remind people 
of their common humanity and their 
need for the affections of each other. 

Bill Burgess 



The Women's Center this past April 
offered a course titled "Our Bodies, Our 
Selves." The topics covered included 
Anatomy and Physiology, Birth Control, 
Abortion , Veneral Diseases, 
Homosexuality, and Community Health. 
Each week began with a basic 
introduction which led into open 
discussion where we shared our personal 
experiences. We learned about our bodies 
in an atmosphere of honesty, trust, and 

The Women's Art Workshop was 
sponsored by the Women's Center in 
January of 1973. It was organized by 
Marianne Johnson as a presentation for 
Goddard University. The majority of 
women who presented their work came 
from the New England area, others from 
New York and Michigan. Various 
Workshops were held during the week 
consisting of painting weaving, 
photography, film making, peotry, dance, 
music, and theatre. It was a time for 
women to share ideas with other women. 



A. A. 1 •l/«l/» 

Where can you display your quotes? 

That depends upon how extensively you 
want to rely on them to convey your 
message. In addition to the body copy 
possibilities include both captions and 
headings. Of course, information other 
than the quote itself will need to be 
included in a cutline. Where a statement 
was made by whom and under what 
circumstances are facts necessary for 
picture identification. And the same 
applies to a headline. Seldom will a quote 
provide an adequate heading for the 
yearbook page. 

Possibly the best solution might be to 
formulate the question or area to be 
discussed on the introductory page 
(Additional comments and quotes which 
were given as answers can then be 
displayed like traditional body copy). 

Seldom, however, will you be able to tell 
the entire school year story through the 
use of quotes. They might suffice for the 
opening section but additional 
information will be needed as 

supplements in such sections as 
academics, sports, etc. How, for instance 
can you tell the story of the football 
team with out listing the season's record? 
To summarize then: Sometimes quotes 
from faculty members, students, school 
officials, even members of the 
community can be effectively used to 
present a brief "in-depth" study of a 
particular problem or area of interest to 
your student body. When effectively 
chosen and carefully obtained, they not 
only can provide copy with a different 
angle but interesting and opposing views 
Any number of subjects are possibilities 
with school issues enjoying a greater 
chance of success. World-wide issues need 
not be omitted however, particularly in 
the opening section. No place is an island. 
Not even a school. 

While the use of quotes could be 
confined to a special section - developing 
a theme through the use of quotes could 
make them desirable throughout the 

Subjects from whom the quotes are 
obtained should include some 
"authorities," but a balance of views is 
mandatory. Every side should be 

While some editing will be required in 
order to adhere to space limitations, no 
quote must be taken out of context 
reworded or rearranged to fit the wtiter's 
preconceived ideas. 

Repetition can be your downfall. 
Therefore, each quote must say 
something different. Each must 
contribute to the understanding of the 
overall issue. 

Part of the beauty of quotes comes from 
the fact that the speaker's personality 
usually shines through. Unusual 
expressions word choices, etc. should 
never be tampered with in the interest of 
adhering to a writing style. 
Quotes are seldom able to stand alone. 
Usually some background copy will be 
needed to provide readers with essential 

And, finally: The use of quotes to tell a 
story is not for every yearbook staff. Not 
even for any school. Your first obligation 
is to please your readers. They are also 
the purchasers of your book. If the use of 
quotes to explore a subject is almost 
certain to turn them off, tune out the 
idea immediately. 



the school yearbook , 

highlights all the interesting events which occur on campus 
during the school year. While naturally devoting most of it's 

space to graduating seniors, students from all classes are 
able to work on the production of the book. Numerous positions 
are open to students with a creative flair, or a liking for 
business and advertising management. 

ir$ hbouc cime > 

At last it is pay-off time. Thanks to the 
system, you didn't get much of an 
education, but you are finally getting 
your degree and the job opportunities 
that come with it. Unfortunately, because 
we have not done an adequate job of 
preparing you for the job market, you 
probably do not know what job you want 
or how you can get it. 
We did not prepare you for many 
reasons, but one is especially important. 
First and most important, the universities 
have not tried to develop your 
self-understanding or ability to assert 
your independence. In fact, they have 
deliberately worked toward keeping you 
docile and dependent so that you can be 
processed by their machinery and 
marketed to the large corporations. The 
corporations generally want people who 
are not too independent, and the 
universities regard the corporations' 
demands as more legitimate than their 
students' needs. 

In fact, some professors have even 
regarded these demands as a moral 

imperative. I have tried many times to 

teach courses on company politics, career 

strategy, bargaining, and other ways to 

assert independence. Some professors 

have felt these courses were necessary and 

justified, but others have told me that 

doing so is unethical, that business 

schools should focus only on those topics 

which increase productivity and profits, 

that we should work only for the 

corporations, not for our students. 

Productivity and profits are certainly 

legitimate goals, but they are not the only 

legitimate ones, nor does making the 

maximum contribution to them 

necessarily increase your personal 

satisfaction. Since you are primarily 

interested in your own satisfaction; this 

chapter will focus entirely on ways for 

you to find the right job, to get it, and to 

bargain for the best possible deal. 

Job hunting can be one of your most 

important educational experiences. 

Interviewing, plant trips, analysis of 

offers, and discussions with other job 

hunters can help you to understand who 

you are, what you want, where you are 
going, I and what the world is really like. 
These activities have been so valuable and 
involving for so many students that some 
professors and administrators complain 
that students spend more time on them 
than they do in class. One student's reply 
to this complaint should be hung in every 
professor's office:"! spend more time 
there because I learn more in interviews 
than I do in class." 

An intelligent approach to job junting 
should therefore try to take the 
maximum advantage of its educational 
possibilities. Interviewing many different 
kinds of companies, systematically 
analyzing these opportunities, 
systematically analyzing your own 
feelings about these opportinities, and 
openly discussing your feelings and 
opportunities with other people can help 
you with both learning tasks: 
understanding your own career goals and 
understanding the opportinities you 
really have to reach these goals. 


It will, of course, be years before you can 
completely understand your goals and 
opportunities, but you can make a good 
beginning during this period. Once you 
have a fair understanding, you can start 
your third task: developing a tentative 
career plan. 

Your plans must be tentative because 
your understanding is so incomplete. But 
you do need a plan. Without one you are 
adrift, moved by external forces, instead 
of controlling your own life and career. 
Drifting will probably cause you to end 
up in the wrong place, and the drifting 
process creates feelings of anxiety and 

In the process of developing your 
understanding and career plans you have 
probably gotten some offers, but you 
may have to develop more offers and 
bargain with the companies which have 
made previous offers to accomplish the 
fourth task: getting the best possible 

You need several good offers for three 
reasons: [1] they help you with your 
educational task; [2]they increase your 
bargaining power; [3]they allow you to 
make a real decision. Many students can't 
make a real decision because they have 
only one offer that appeals to them. With 
two or more attractive offers you are 
forced to make a more careful analysis 
and this analysis helps you with the 
learning tasks. Then, after you have made 
this analysis, you can accomplish the fifth 
task: making a decision that fits your 
style and long-term career plans. 
As the preceding paragraphs clearly 
indicate, these five tasks are 
interdependent. You must work on all of 
them and shift back and forth from one 
to the other. Analysis, planning, 
bargaining, and interviewing are not easy. 
They take time and create anxiety. It is 
much simpler to choose the job that pays 
the most money or offers the "best 
opportunities for advancement." 

But this decision is much too important 
to be made hurriedly. In fact, for many 
people it is the second most important 
decision of their entire lives. It opens 
some doors and closes others. It starts 
you moving in one direction, and that 
direction may not be right for you. Each 
week I encounter the personal tragedy of 
men who have started in the wrong 
direction and are now locked into the 
wrong jobs. 

They may be only 35 or 40 years old 
but they have responsibilities they cannot 
ignore and salaries and pension right they 
cannot give up. They must therefore 
resign themselves to unsatisfactory careers 
- a terrible fate for a man who cares about 
his work. If you make this decision 
hurriedly you may realize in 15 or 20 
years that it was a mistake which led 
inevitably to a series of other mistakes. I 
therefore urge you to treat this decision 
with the respect it deserves and to do all 
the analysis and planning that it requires. 

In other works, your first job should fit 
into coherent and comprehensive plans 
for your life and career. The techniques 
for making and implementing these plans 
are described in my book Executive 
Career Strategy. The following pages 
outline this strategy and the 
questionnaires in the appendix can help 
you to apply it. Given your limited 
information about yourself and the 
world, this plan must be rather tentative 
but the following suggestions and the 
questionnaires in the appendix should 
help to make it more realistic and useful. 
Analyze Your Career Goals 
The very first step in your career strategy 
must be carefully analyzing your own 
career goals. You obviously must decide 
what you want from your career before 
you can take any intelligent action 
toward getting it. Unfortunately, the data 
on the turnover of new college graduates 
indicate very clearly that many of them 
do not understand what they wanted or 
what their companies offered when they 
took their first job. Within 5 years more 
than half change jobs, and by the time 
they are 30 or 35 many change jobs 
several times. 

It is certainly not easy to analyze your 
goals. It takes a great deal of skill and 
courage to look at yourself objectively 
Ideally, your college years should help 
you to develop this courage and skill, but 
the educational system, with its emphasis 
on coercion and dependence, actually 
makes it harder for some people to 
understand themselves or to think 
independently. We have been telling you 
what you are and what you must do for 
so long that you may not know how to 
act independently or to look at yourself 
objectively. The schools and American 
society in general have told you what 
goals you should have - you should want 
to get ahead, make money (or 
educational equivalent, good grades), try 
for the top and so on - and many 
students are unable to decide what goals 
they do have. For some people money 
position, and other indices of 
conventional success are important, but 
they are not important for everyone. 
Everyone needs more than money or 
success, even the compulsive neurotic 
who thinks that these things can satisfy 
him. You must therefore resist the 
pressures and decide how important other 
things are to you. For example, how 
much freedom do you need? Do you 

want to have a regular or irregular 
schedule? What kind of work do you 
want to do?What sort of people do you 
like?What sort of values do you have? 
This is not the first time I have suggested 
asking yourself these questions but 
self-analysis is particularly important at 
this point in your life. You are making a 
decision which will dramatically affect 
your future. The following suggestions 
therefore focus on methods for 
performing these analyses, and the 
questionnaires in the appendix provide an 
orderly procedure. 

to introspection causes most people to 
think in terms of concrete goals rather 
than psychological needs. People say that 
they want to be corporate presidents, to 
earn $25,000 per year, or to have a secure 
job, not that they want to satisfy their 
needs for status, power, security or 
comfort. This tendency to think in terms 
of goals rather than needs causes many 
men to waste their lives. They spend 
years striving for some goal, only to learn 
that it does not satisfy them. Some men 
sacrifice their marriages, children and 
friends to reach the top of the pyramid, 


Because you have had relatively little 
contact with the real world, the analysis 
of your goals should be tied into the 
analyses of your assets, liabilities, and 
opportunities. You should interview a 
few companies, analyze their 
opportunities, see how you feel about 
them, and use this information to help 
you to understand yourself. This 
understanding of yourself gives you 
further insight into the opportunities 
various companies really offer. 
You should also relate your career goals 
to the psychological needs which you are 
trying to satisfy. The American aversion 

but find that they don't enjoy it. The 
money, power, and status do not 
compensate for the pressure and 
loneliness. As one very wealthy and 
powerful man put it: "The thing I most 
regret about my life is that I never knew 
there was a life to live until it was too 

This kind of tragedy occurs every day 
and it is the inecitable result of thinking 
in terms of concrete goals rather than 
needs. There is no such thing as a need to 
be a corporate president or to earn 
$25,000 a year or to accumulate a million 
dollars. These things are not ends in 

themselves; they are means for satisfing 
your real needs. 

In an ideal world jobs would satisfy all 
types of needs, but in the world we live in 
each job satisties some needs and 
frustrates others. High paying jobs are 
usually insecure. Jobs which offer power 
and prestige usually interfere with family 
life. It is therefore curcially important to 
understand which needs are important to 
you and to select gobs which will satisfy 
these needs. If you do not, you may 
spend Furthermore, if you interview 
companies which do not recruit on 

literature, and offer you about the same 
opportunities. It takes some effert to 
approach other companies, but the effort 
is well spent. (The section on interview 
tactics will discuss ways to approach 
these companies.) 

Psychological counseling and T-groups 
can play a valuable part in your goal 
analysis by providing insights that you 
can't get on your own and in developing 
your ability and courage to be honest 
with yourself. If you have not already 
tried counseling or T-groups, it might be 
useful to do so now. 

campus, you will learn much more about 
yourself and the world and develop a 
broader range of options. Interviewing 
only the ones that do campus recruiting 
means, in effect, that you are letting the 
companies and placement office make the 
basic decision for you. They would be 
deciding what companies you will 
consider and what you will learn about 
the business world. If you do not 
approach other companies, you will not 
learn much or have a broad enough range 
of options because the recruiters are quite 
similar to each other. They use the same 
advertising agencies to prepare their 

The opportunities to satisfy your career 
goals will depend on the job you get and 
the assets and liabilities you bring to that 
job. No accountant would try to plan a 
company's future without a thorough 
analysis of its balance sheet, and a 
personal balance sheet will help you to 
plan your own career. 
Three obstacles can hinder making this 
analysis: measurement problems, your 
own reluctance toward analyzing 
yourself and other people's resistance 
giving you the information you need. 
You can measure a company's assets and 
liabilities fairly accurately, and they can 

be compared to each 
them in terms of 
standard: dollars. But 
exact value on your 
skills, originality, 
characteristics, nor can 

other by stating 

an unambigious 

you can't put an 

judgment, social 

or any other 

we compare an 

asset such as originality to a liability such 
as low energy. You can only make a 
subjective judgment on how you compare 
with other people on each dimension. 
This judgment may be very distorted 
because most of us have rather false 
images of ourselves and we want to 
preserve these false images. We don't 
want to look too hard at ourselves 
because it makes us uncomfortable. 
In addition to the discomfort it causes 
we don't analyze ourselves because we do 
not see any immediate pay-off. Not doing 
so may hurt us in the long run, but we are 
unwilling to pay the immediate cost in 
discomfort for the future and 
unmeasurable benefits self-analysis 

Even if you should be willing to analyze 
yourself, you would still need 
information from other people, and they 
don't want to give it to you. They feel as 
uncomfortable as you do about giving 
honest information. T-groups and other 
groups in which honest and open 
communication are stressed can be 
invaluable .here. They can help you to get 
a clearer picture of yourself and see how 
other people perceive you. 
You may also get some useful 
information from psychological tests. 
Tests provide a great deal of information 
and they do so quickly and reliably. If 
your university offers testing and 
counseling, you should take advantage of 
it, and you might even want to go to a 
commercial testing organization. 
Unfortunately, most people accept only 
those scores that agree with their 
preexisting beliefs about themselves and 
reject the information that is really new. 
Normally the work "opportunity" refers 
primarily or entirely to your chances for 
advancement, but here it refers to the 
chances to reach your goals, regardless of 
what thise goals may be. Of you want 
money, a chance to move into top 
management, and the other conventional 
measures of success, "opportunity" refers 
to your chances of getting them. If you 
want a low-pressure job, or one with 
satisfying work regular hours, a good 
location, travel, or like able 
associates, "opportunity" refers to your 
chances for reaching these goals. 

I suggest you analyze your real 
opportunities as cold-bloodedly as 
possible. This analysis may be difficult 
because you have so little experience, and 
most companies are quite dishonest about 
the opportunities they really offer. Their 
brochures about "your unlimited 

potential with " 

provide as much and as honest 
information as a cigarette advertisement, 
and recruiters deliberately create false 
expectations to attract people. 
Lying is costly to everyong because 
companies lost money on people who 
leave in the first few years but the 
competition for college graduates is so 
intense that they really have little choice 
They have to lie because everyone else is 
lying and creating completely unrealistic 
expectations. The students (especially 
engineers and M.B.A.s) are wooed so 
ardently that they expect much more 
than the firms can possibly deliver. When 
they learn what the company and the 
world are really like, many change jobs or 
become cynical and apathetic. 
Expectations about salaries offer an 
excellent example of this process. Most 
students are very interested !n the salaries 
they will get, both to start and over the 
long run, but they rarely understand even 
the salary opportunities offered by a 
company. Since money is much easier to 
measure than type of work, relationships 
with superiors, and any other aspect of a 
job, expectations about these other things 
must be even more distorted. 
The basic principle that you must 
understand is that your first salary will be 
set by the market, but your later salaries 
will be set by policies, customs, and 
traditions. At this moment several 
companies are bidding for your services 
and they must offer about the same 
salary. But unless you go to graduate 
school or become rather prominent, there 
will never again be an open market for 
your services, and your salary will depend 
almost entirely on company and industry 

A public utility, steel company, and an 
aerospace firm may offer you the same 
starting salary, but (other things being 
equal) you will end up making much less 
in a utility than in a steel company and 
much less in steel than in aorospace. You 
may be offered similar starting salaries to 
work in production, finance, marketing, 

and personnel, but personnel offers more 
limited opportunities and lower long-term 
salaries than other fields, and finance and 
marketing usually offer much greater 
opportunities than production. These 
principles are fully explained in the 
chapter on executive compensation in 
The Executive Life. 

Most of you also have the false 
impression that large companies offer 
greater financial rewards than small and 
medium ones. They do offer larger 
starting salaries because they can afford 
to pay you more than you produce but 
they offer you much lower chances than 
small or medium businesses of ever 
accumulating a lot of money. 
M.B.A.s are an atypical example but the 
data on them are so complete and recent 
that we will use them as an example. A 
recent survey shows that: "In every 
industry small business executives have a 
greater possibility of achieving a high new 
worth position." This survey also 
s uggested thatsmall and medium 
businesses satisfy other needs more than 
big business does: "Most MBAs now in a 
small firm would choose another small 
firm if they had the opportunity to start 
over, while less than half of those in big 
business would re-choose big business... It 
is the medium sized firm which offers the 
greatest opportunities and challenges for 
the MBA." These data indicate how 
important it is to interview the smaller 
companies which do not recruit on 
campus and to look at the long-term 
opportunities instead of just the starting 

Regardless of whom you interview, you 
must gather information from more 
sources than the men who are trying to 
hire you. They are selling, and you need 
more complete and objective information 
than they will provide. It takes time and 
hard It takes time and hardwork to dig 
out this information, but, if you know 
how to do it, it is not too difficult. If 
your parents have a stockbroker he can 
be of great help to you; knowledge is his 
stock in trade, and he can tell you a great 
deal and direct you to other sources of 
information. Even if you do not have a 
broker, you can get information about 
most large companies from the research 
departments of the large brokerage 





They will provide this 
information because they hope to get 
your account. Newspaper files, Dun & 
Bradstreet, consulting firms, trade 
journals, people who have left the firm, 
and men in related companies can also 
tell you a great deal. A particularly 
valuable resource that most students 
never use is alumni of their school who 
work for the same company. It takes time 
to scan theulumni office files, and no one 
likes to call strangers, but most alumni 
would be glad to help you. 
When we look at them abstractly these 
points seem too obvious to discuss, but 
thousands of people have harmed their 
careers by ignoring them. Again and again 
I have heard that same old story: "Things 
were going beautifully. I had three 
promotions in five years. I had almost 
tripled my income. Then, all of a sudden, 
the government cut back on defence 
spending (or money got tight, or the 
competition got too rough, or foreign 
manufacturers flooded the market, and so 
on). Now I am out of a job (or going 
nowhere, or waiting to be phased out). 
Nobody seems to need my experience 
and I am starting to get desperate." 
Whether an apparently promising career 
was ruined by government cut backs, or 
tight money, or excessive competition, or 
similar factors, the man feels the same. 
"It is not my fault. I did good work - 
just look at my record. But now my 
record is not worth anything. Ther e are 
dozens of men like me, and nobody 
wants us." 

These tragedies are the inevitable result 
of focusing only on the job or the 
company. A proper understanding of the 
forces affecting our economy and the 
implications of these forces for different 
industries and companies could prevent 
these problems. So start your analysis at 
the industry level and work your way 
down. Analyze the opportunities offered 
by the industry, company, and 
department before you worry about 
issues such as whether your boss will be a 
nice guy. Bosses come and go; economic 
forces are more permenent. 
Although these analyses can be 
time-consuming and even annoying, they 
make it possible for you to do something 
that very few men ever do: to plan your 
career, to decide where you are going and 
how you are going to get there. Since 
many men never plan their careers, they 
may take the wrong job, or stay in it long 

after they should have quit, or change 
jobs prematurely or for irrational reasons, 
and they rarely have an overall concept of 
where they are going and how they are 
going to get there. They therefore do not 
control their own lives and careers,, nor 
do they satisfy all their goals. You can 
avoid this experience by making these 
analysis and then planning your career. 
The first step in planning your career is 
obviously setting a concrete long-term 

objective. Where do you want to end up 
ultimately? What kind of position and 
company best fit your goals, assets, and 

Once the long-term objective is set, you 
should establish intermediate-term goals. 
What jobs will you have to take, what 
connections will you need to reach your 
ultimate objective? Once you have set 
these long-term and intermediate 
objectives, you can set up a plan for 
obtaining the connections and training 
you need and getting into the 
stepping-stone jobs. 

Finally, your first job should clearly fit 
into this plan for your entire career. It 
should be picked not only for its salary or 
"opportinities for advancement," but for 
the chances it provides for the training 
and connections you need to reach your 
long-term goal. The job which is 
superficially attractive because it has a 
high salary, or offers the opportunity for 
immediate advancement, or is located in a 
desirable place, may be a mistake from 
the standpoint of your long-term career. 
Note that the planning strategy 
advocated here is exactly the opposite of 
the strategy followed by most people (if 
it can be called a strategy). Most people 
do not plan farther ahead than their next 
job (if they plan their career at all). They 
take a job because it looks attractive, and 
then they see what they can do with it. I 
advocate looking as far into the future as 
you can and deciding where you want to 
end up and what steps lead to it. In that 
way your life and career fit into some 
intelligent plan, and you are in control of 
your own life. 

Most people will regard the creation of a 
career plan as the final step in a career 
strategy. Unfortunately, because you 
have so little information and things 
change so rapidly, you cannot expect to 
make a career plan now which will hold 
true for an indefinite period. A job which 
was originally seen as a stepping stone to 
bigger things may turn out to be a dead 
end. A firm which looked as if it was 
going places may run into financial 
difficulties. You might not make as much 
progress as you expected toward your 
goals. You must therefore keep a periodic 
record of your progress and see whether 
your goals, strategies, or both have to be 

In the interview itself you have three 
tasks: you want to get the best possible 
offer, find out whether you want the job, 
and learn as much as possible about 
yourself and the business world. If you 
handle the interview properly, you can 
accomplish all three tasks, but very few 
students know how to, Your problem is 
aggravated because the interviewer has a 
significant edge on you. He is a pro and 
you are not. He has probably studied the 
principles of interviewing, and he has 
practiced them again and again, while you 
are inexperienced and do not even know 
the basic principles. He also has a 
psychological advantage because he is 
older and jn a higher status position. 

To even things up and accomplish your 
tasks you will have to study, to practice 
and to prepare. You must learn the 
principles of interviewing, practice the 
necessary skills, and prepare for each 
interview, or else the interview will be a 
general and meaningless discussion of 
"your great future with our company." 
The following sections will describe these 
basic principles, but you have to practice 
using them. So that you can learn the 
game, your first interviews should 
therefore be with companies in which 
you have no interest. You can increase 
the learning value of these early 
interviews by conducting a post mortem 
after each interview, preferably with 
someone who has been through the same 


The recruiting process usually has two 
phases: the campus interview and the 
plant trip. The campus interview is a 
general screening, while the plant trip is a 
more specific discussion of your abilities 
and a particular job. 

Campus interviews used to be conducted 
by special college recruiters who are part 

of the personnel department. Since many 
of these men were not very 
knowledgeable in the fields for which 
they were recruiting, students got a rather 
negative impression of their companies. 
To preserve their images and to increase 
their chances of getting good people 
many companies now send alumni to visit 
their own schools. These men usually 
know the field in which they are 
recruiting, but they may not have much 
information about the specific jobs they 
are offering. Your discussions with them 
will therefore be rather general and focus 
on your abilities and personality and 
their general program for young men in 
your field. You can try to get some 
"feel" for the company and its policies 
from the campus recruiter, but you will 
usually be unable to get much 
information about the job. Your primary 
task in this phase is therefore to convince 
the recruiter that you are good enough to 
invite to their plant or office. 
On the plant trip you can get the 
information you really need, but you 
must be very careful that the important 

messages do not get drowned in the 
"noise." You may be so impressed by the 
fancy hotels and first-class restaurants 
and plane tickets that you lose sight of 
the longer-term aspects of the job. 
Many corporations deliberately confuse 
you with the first-class treatment. You 
have been poor for so long, and enjoy 
living it up so much that the wining and 
dining routine can turn your head. You 
may even get the false impression that 
you will be living that way after you take 
the job. Some students have even taken 
lower salaries simply because the 
company treated them more lavishly and 
they inferred that they would be treated 
well in the future. Lavish treatment is 
excellent economics for the company, 
but very poor economics for the student. 
The company spends a few extra dollars 
on a one-shot basis and gets away with 
lower salaries indefinitely. I therefore 
urge you to enjoy the trips, but to keep 
your attention firmly on the longer term 

To understand this longer-term picture 
you must ask questions and listen 
carefully to the answers, but you must 
also keep your eyes open and ask some 
silent questions: what are the real goals 
and values of the organization, and how 
do they conflict with their stated ones? 
How do people act toward each other? 
How are promotions really made?How 
often and to what areas will you have to 
relocate?Where have people gone from 
this particular job? 

It is quite tempting to confine your 
attention to the campus recruiters. You 
just have to walk over to the placement 
department; you know you will be 
treated politely; they have shown an 
interest in you by coming to campus; and 
they seem to offer unlimited 
opportunities and high starting salaries. 
On the other hand, the companies which 
do not recruit on campus may pay lower 
starting salaries, and you have no idea 
how they will respond to you. Some will 
invite you to fly out to talk to them. 
Others will say "drop in if you get into 
the area." And most will either reject or 
ignore your application. 
Approaching the nonrecruiters will cost 
you money, time and discomfort, but it 
will provide you with a broader range of 
information and options. Furthermore if 
the surveys are correct, they will offer 
you a chance for a more lucrative and 
satisfying career. 

You can approach the nonrecruiters in 
two different ways, and you should 
probably use both. You can send out a 
resume to a large number of companies 
which might be interested in you, and 
you could send individual letters, with or 
without a resume, to companies in which 
you are particularly interested. 
If you broadcast a resume, you should 
prepare a rough draft and then take it to 
a professional resume service. They will 
edit to make it more attractive and useful 
and then type or mimeograph it. You can 
then use several different sources to find 
the companies you want to approach. 
The best overall source of information is 
the Dun & Bradstreet publications. They 
can be found in any large library and are 
indexed by size of company, geographical 
area, and industry. Moody's and various 
other investment and business advisory 
services have similar publications, but the 
Dun & Bradstreet books are a little easier 
to use. If you are interested in working in 
a particular city, the Chamber of 
Commerce can provide you with a 
complete list of businesses in that area. 
Their publications are often indexed by 
industry. The U'S' Chamber of 
Commerce can also provide you with 
industry lists. If you want to work in a 
particular industry, its trade association 
can give you the names and addresses of 
all its members; it may also tell you a 
little bit about each company. The 
College Placement Annual lists the 
companies which are interested in 
recruiting college students (indexed by 
major field of study and geographical 
area), and many of these companies do 
not recruit on your campus. These 
companies are generally large but some 
smaller companies which can only afford 
to recruit in their own area are also listed. 
If you have majored in a clearly defined 
field such as engineering or accounting, 
professional associations are a particularly 
good source of leads. In fact, you may be 
able to write directly to them and have 
them route your resume to interested 
companies. Your librarian can provide 
names and addresses of these associations. 
A few specialized publications also act as 
clearing houses for people and companies 
(for example. Generation magazine). 

The placement office can also provide 
you with a great deal of information, and 
you should take full advantage of its 
facilities. Not too many years ago 
students came to them primarily for 
advice, but now campus recruiting has 
largely taken over. Nevertheless, these 
peopel still have a feel for the market and 
can direct you to many companies which 
cannot or will not recruit on campus. 
You may have a little trouble getting the 
help you need from the placement 
director because many of them feel that 
their job is to keep the recruiters happy 
and the campus interviews flowing , but 
you should at least try a few people in 
the placement office before you set out 
on your own. 

If you are willing to put in even more 
time, you can study the want ads in The 
Wall Street Journal and The New York 
Times. If you live in certain areas, your 
edition of The Times may not include all 
the ads, but you can write directly to the 
newspaper for a complete edition. If you 
do respond to an advertisement, you 
should send a resume and an individually 
prepared, typed letter which indicates 
how your ability, training, and other 
characteristics fit the needs stated in the 
advertisement. The section on "Making 
the Match" develops this principle more 
fully and shows you how to apply it. 
If you want something 
out-of-the-ordinary and are willing to risk 
some money, you can put an ad in The 
Wall Street Journal, The New York 
Times, or some local paper. You should 
spell out clearly what you are looking for 
and indicate why your background is 
appropriate. Unless you have some special 
talent or training, your advertisement will 
probably not yield very many replie s, but 
it is a legitimate "businessman's risk." 
Advertising in the NYT and WSJ costs 
about $50 per column inch; local papers 
are less expensive. 

Several books can help you to approach 
companies and handle interviews with 
recruiters and non-recruiters. Only one is 
written for students, Job Strategy by 
Allan Rood (McGraw-Hill) gives an 
excellent overall description of the 
market and ways to approach it. 
Executive Jobs Unlimited by Carl Boll 
(Macmillan) describes an outstanding 
method for approaching companies and 
handling interviews. Most public libraries 
have at least one of these books. 

The key to successful interviewing is 
preparation. If you wald in without any 
idea of what you are going to say, if you 
do not know anything about the 
company, if you are unclear about why 
you want to work for it, the interview 
will probably be a failure. The interviewer 
will control it, and you will walk out 
without impressing him or getting the 
information you need. The more 
preparation you do before the interview, 
the better your chances of getting a good 
offer, and the less you have to dig for 
information when you try to evaluate 
your offers and to make your decision. 
With proper preparation you can ask 
intelligent questions and have a real 
conversation. This conversation will 
provide you with the information you 
need to make an intelligent decision, and 
it will also solve the "visibility problem." 
You have a visibility problem because 
interviewers see so many students that 
they cannot remember who is who. Some 
of my students have gotten letters 
thanking them for trips they have not yet 
made or referring to conversations they 
have never had because the recruiters got 
their names mixed ud. Others have gotten 
offers for jobs which were clearly 

1 J 1 

II ; 












* 4 


inappropriate because people 
remembered that they were bright and 
likeable, but not what they were 
interested in. You can solve this problem 
and stand out from the crowd by 
preparing several specific questions and 
comments which show that you have 
done your homework. So few students do 
this that you will make a lasting 
impression on the interviewers. 
Some of this homework is very easy. 
Simply reading the company's recruiting 
literature and preparing two or three 
specific questions before you sit down 
with campus recruiters will make a highly 
favorable impression. Before you go on a 
plant trip you can read the annual report 
and other material obtainable from the 
public relations department, and this 
material will suggest several questions and 
comments. Further information can be 
gathered from all of the sources 
mentioned earlier in the section on 
"Opportunity Analysis" (stockbroders, 
trade associations, Chambers of 
Commerce, etc.) . If you use these 
sources before the interview rather than 
after it you will ask the right questions, 
stand out from the crowd, get better 
offers, and be able to make an informed, 
intelligent decision. 

. .-W-,,*, ««'»«— !l~ • 

■■ ssaasK 



I I ! ! 

















You have heard that the first impressions 
are important, but only recently have we 
found out how important they are. 
Psychological research indicates that the 
first few seconds determine what we 
think of people. The first impression 
creates a "set," and all later information 
is interpreted to fit that set. For example, 
Professor Harold Kelly had two groups of 
students hear an almost identical 
introduction to a guest lecturer. The only 
difference between the two introductions 
was the work "warm" versus the work 
"cold." Then both groups sat in the same 
auditorium and heard the same lecture. 
Despite the fact that they were exposed 
to this man for a full hour, and there was 
only a one-word difference in the 
introduction, the two groups had quite 
different perceptions of the lecturer and 
they behaved differently toward him. The 
group with the "warm" introduction 
rated him consistently more favorable. 
They saw him as more considerate, more 
informal, more sociable, more popular, 
more humorous, and more humane. They 
also participated more in discussions with 
him than the group that got the "cold" 

If a one-word difference in an 
introduction can have that much impact, 
it is obvious that the first few seconds of 
the interview — your clothes, walk, voice 
handshake posture — are crucial. If you 
can create the impression of businesslike 
self-confidence, you are well on you way 
toward a successful interview. 
If you approach a nonrecruiter, or send 
written materials to the recruiter before 
you see him, his impression of you begins 
before he ever meets you. Your written 
materials, voice on the phone, and 
conversations with his secretary can get 
things started on the right or the wrong 
bases. In fact, many men ask their 
secretaries: 'How does he look? before 
they start talking to you. Her comment 
can have more impact upon his 
impression and decision than anything 
you do 

The most basic principle of all selling is 
that people will not buy something unless 
doing so solves a problem. If you want 
him to buy you, you have to find out 
what his problem is and show him that 
you can solve it. 

Your qualifications and experience are 
therefore important only insofar as they 
help him solve his problem. Many of the 

things you have done and learned have no 
relevance to has problem, and he is not 
really interested in hearing about them. 
Learning what his problem is lets you 
know whether you want the job, and it 
helps you to get it. If he wants you to 
solve a problem which does not interest 
you, then you know that you don't want 
the job. If his problem is one that you 
could enjoy working on, then you might 
want the job. The proper focus for the 
interview is therefore not on your 
background, but on his problem. 
You must go one step further. You must 
make the match between his problem and 
your qualifications. Most job hunters do 
not make the match. They simply provide 
information about themselves and leave 
the matching process to the interviewer. 
But he probably doe s not know how to 
interpret your experience or to relate it 
to his problem. Hence, after you leave, he 
sits at his desk, looking at your 
qualifications, wondering whether they 
fit his needs. 

You should therefore go back and forth 
between your qualifications and his 
problem, learning what his problem is and 
showing him how your training and 
experience will solve it. Make the 
interview into a tennis game, not a golf 
match — a genuing gine and take 
conversation, not parallel monologues. 
It is really simple to create a genuine 
conversation. The basic principle is: if he 
asks you for information, give him some, 
and throw the ball back to him. He will 
then have to give you some information, 
and he will throw the ball back to you. 
For example after the pleasantries are 
over nearly all interviewers ask some 
specific questions or ask the man to: 
"Tell me about yourself." The 
interviewee then gives a long story which 
may or may not be relevant to the 
interviewer's needs. It is much better to 
tell him some of the basic things about 
yourself and then say: "How does that fit 
your needs? He will then say something, 
and his response will indicate what 
direction you should go in the future. 
You can then be more specific about 
your releveant qualifications, and ignore 
discussing the ones in which he has no 

The best kind of interview is one in 
which the attention is directed away from 
your qualifications in a formal sense and 
to the problem he is trying to solve. Many 

of my older clients have been able to get 
into interviews in which they essentially 
served as consultants for some 
organizational problem of the 
interviewer. They told him how they 
would solve or approach the problem the 
interviewer had. Many of them have 
gotten jobs as a result of this consultant's 
role without ever discussing the usual 
material — age degrees, courses taken, 
references, etc. They showed the man 
that they could solve his provlem. As a 
new college graduate, you may not be 
able to act as a consultant, but it 
certainly pays to show him how you 
would approach and solve the problem he 
is concerned with. 

You should make the match at all stages 
in the job-hunting process. Instead of 
sending a resume in response to an 
advertisement, write a short letter which 
shows, point by point, how your 
experience matches the specific 
requirements listed in the advertisement. 
The same general approach works on the 

Focusing on his problems and having a 
give and take conversation also helps you 
build a good personal relationship. He is 
probably tired of the typical interviews, 
and an intelligent, well-prepared approach 
will create a favorable impression. 
However, it takes more than task-oriented 
conversation to build a good relationship. 

The basic principle of interpersonal 
attraction is that people like people who 
are similar to themselves. Democrats like 
Democrats; rich people like rich people; 
sportsmen like sportsmen, etc. You do 
not want to get away from his problem 
until he indicates that he'd like to know 
more about you as a person, but when he 
does so, try to have a give-and-take 
conversation with him about the other 
aspects of your life. If you are interested 
in hunting, ask him about the hunting 
near the plant. If you're a golfer a fisher, 
a swimmer, etc., let him know it — and 
ask him if he participates in the same 
sports. The more bonds of similarity you 
can build between you, the more he will 
like you, and, because we overvalue the 
people we like, the more competent he 
will think you are. 

Bargaining is a touchy topic. Almost 
everyone feels uncomfortable and 
incompetent about it?some people feel 
so uncomfortable that they stand on their 
dignity and "refuse to bargain". But the 
principles are easy to understand and 
intelligent bargaining can increase a salary 
offer by 5 to 10% and improve other 
aspects of the job as well. 
The first and most important principle is 
to avoid giving salary requirements until 
after he wants you. All salesmen quote 
the price only after a man wants the 
merchandise, and there is a little sense in 
losing the sale or selling too cheap by 
discussing salary prematurely. You should 
leave that space blank on the application 
or write "to be negotiated." 
The second principle is that bargaining 
has always been based on power, not 
morality, and power depends on the 
number of alternatives available to each 
party. You needs are therefore irrelevant. 
His offer will be based on his situation, 
the value he places on your services, and 
the alternatives he thinks you have 
available to you, not your financial 

Fortunately, you are in an excellent 
bargaining position not because you have 
a market for your services. If you don't 
take advantage of your situation, you will 
lose thousands of dollars. Taking a low 
offer now will keep your salary low for 
an indefinite period of time because the 
business world works on a very simple 
principle: you are worth what you get 
paid. If you switch jobs they will switch 
you at that salary or only slightly above 
it. You future raises will be a percentage 

of your salary. Therefore, bargain for 
every dollar you can get because each 
one of those dollars is worth $10 or $15 
or $30. 

The bargaining process need not be 
acrimonious. In fact, the most important 
part of it is showing that you can solve 
his problem. Then, once he wants you 
you must clearly communicate that you 
have other offers. The more offers you 
have, the more highly he will evaluate 
you (you must be good .if other people 
want you). He will also know that he has 
to make a more attractive offer to get 

A particularly lucrative technique is to 
get offers from companies in which you 
are not interested, but which pay high 
salaries. You can then use this high salary 
offer to extract concessions from the 
desired empyer. 

Some students try to bluff or lie about 
the salary offers they have. A few get 
away with it, but it is very difficult unless 
you are an extrememly skilled ear. 
Remember, he is a professional, and he 
has had dozens of people try that on him. 
I therefore suggest that you play it 
Bargaining should not refer only to 

salary. There are many other aspects of 
the job which are not necessarily fixed 
and you can bargain about any of them 
You can bargain for location, job title 
reporting relationships, training programs, 
tuition, and many other things. 
Furthermore, many companies are more 
willing to bargain about these things than 
they are about salaries. 
Most bargaining should be done 
indirectly because directness may appear 
rude or unprofessional and create 
resentment. It should also take place 
before he makes a concrete offer because 
he will be more tigid after he makes one. 
You therefore want to create a great deal 
of desire on his part and the impression 
that he has to make a high offer to get 
you. Then let him make an offer! 
Unfortunately, not many people have the 
nerve to wait him out. They get trapped 
into indicating what they will take. 
However, since you will never get more 
than you asked for and asking for too 
much can cost you the job it is far better 
to indicate your other alternatives and 
say you will naturally take the offer that 
sounds best to you. He will probably ask 
the question in several different ways 
and you may feel quite uncomfortable, 
but you will usually come out ahead by 
waiting for him to make an offer. This 
can take almost iron nerve, because many 
interviewers are highly skilled at getting 
you to commit youself but you have just 
got to hold on 

Despite everything I have said about 
bargaining, first impressions etc., I firmly 
believe that you should try to come 
across as what you are. You do want to 
make a good first impression, but before 
he makes you an offer, you want him to 
know who you are. If he doesn't like you 
as you are, if he thinks you wouldn't fit 
in, you are much better off not getting an 
offer from him. 

You don't need a job. There are so many 
companies after college graduates that 
you are certain of getting a job, but you 
want it to be the right job. It has to be 
right not only for your abilities but for 
your personality. And interviewers know 
much better than you whether your 
personality fits their organization. If you 
present a false front you may get an 
offer you wouldn't get if they knew who 
you were, but how long can you pretend? 
To paraphrase the hair coloring ad: if I 
have one life to lead let me live it as 







N 14 






Team Members 

Alper, Bennett 

Laing, Peter 

Bernstein, Howard 

LaPorte, Phil 

Bullock, Clarence 

Lawn, Brian 

Castonguay, Bruce 

LeBlanc, Kevin 

DiPaola, Steven 

Lewis , Lawrence 

Dwyer, Wayne 

Mansulla, William 

Fletcher, David 

McCann, Michael 

Forand, Stephen 

Morton, Donald 

Gray, Thomas 

Nuttall, John 

Greene, Gregory 

Ozug, David 

Gregory, Mark 

Pecora, Ralph 

Harris, Buddy 

Peters, Artelle 

Hill, David 

Rosa, Joseph 

Hill, Edward Jr. 

Servais, Paul 

Hoffman, Timothy 

Thibault, Leonard 

Kuchinski, Peter 

Tompson, Edward 

Ab rams on, St 

even - Manager 


WON 14 LOST 2 






Beneduci, James 
Bernstein, Howard 
Dwyer , Wayne 
Fine, Richard 
Gardiner, Stephen 
Harris, Buddy 
Hill, Edward 
Huey, Richard 

Kelly, William 
Kuchinski, Peter 
Laing, Peter 
LaPorte, Phil 
Mansulla, William 
Nieuwenhuis , Glenn 
Owen , Clark 
Ozug, David 
Smith, Peter 
Upton, Philip 






Aguir, James 
Araujo, Americo 
Cardoza, William 
Castanheira, Mario 
Condon, Edward 
DaSilva, Fernando 



Eastwood, Paul 
Gaudreau, Robert 
Goulart, Fernando 
Hermann, Scott 
Hutchings, Robert 
Moore, Kevin 
Pacheco, Charles 
Parsons, Mike 
Pimental, Nono 
Shea, Walter 
Souza, Paul 
Spahi, Rafat 
Wolfe, Daniel 
Parsons, Alec - Manager 

<* <: 

f ,(, 

Team Members 
Duval, Thomas 
Edward, William 
Phelan, Kevin 
Rocha, Leonard 
Mello, Phillip 
Roy, Michael 
Funches , Charles 
Holman, General 
Magnant, Ronald 
Pocknett, David 
Bastoni, Steven 
Glenn, John 
McGuirk, James 
Ratte, Marc 
Schoepfer, Brian 
Trundy, Arthur 
Ciborowski, James 
Messier, Robert 



WON 13 LOST 13 









WON 23 LOST 10 








Team Members 
Aucella, Phil 
Braga, John 
Costa, Frank 
Drysgola, Joseph 
Lizek, Chester 
Pina, Robert 
Evans , John 
Nassr, Michael 
Savastano, David 
Silva, Steven 
Assad, David 
Ciborowski, James 
Driscoll, Connie 
Jesus, Roy 
Knowles, Steven 
Rego , Richard 
Rezendes, Steven 
Sadler, George 
Vigeant, Paul 
Andrade, Anthony 
Charette, Ray 
Gaudreau, Robert 
Moore, Kevin 
Taber 9 Carl 









Team Members 
Howard , Fran 
Mederios, Elaine 
Camandona, Nancy 
Fortier, Nancy 
Shea, Nancy 
Mason, Pam 
Augustyn, Judy 
Occihuti, Paula 
Roy, Michele 
Gogne , Mary Ann 
Martel, Arlene 


' / 



Team Members 
Brierley, Joanne 
Cesan, Ann 
Colley, Faith 
Cornier, Enid 
Cowley, Raylene 
Hague, Linda 
Moore , Margo 
Perlmutter, Karen 
Roy, Dianne 








Team Members 
Anderson, Kenneth 
Barcelos, Frank 
Canto, Roger 
Escancy, Chris 
Fink, Alan 
McGuirk, Francis 
Monahan, Thomas 
Roberts, Chris 




Team Members 
Cobb, Terry 
Amerelo, David 
Anness, Steven 
Bollea, Paul 
Cardoza, Dennis 
Lemos , James 
Chase, Douglas 
Silva, Michael 
Marchesault, Paul 
Hebert, James 
Bessette, Kevin 


eoneerc: seRies 

5 *1M^ 


Surely the earth was off its axis. It was 
all so preposterous, even back then in the 
middle of the whole thing, if you just so 
much as took a half step backward to 
scope it over in perspective: all those 
ambitious movers and shakers, strivers & 
achievers, glad-handers and clean-cut 
fresh-faced forthsteppers...tailfins, 
flattops, passing fads;;;juvenile 
delinquents, people with inferiority 
complexes and "I Was A Teenage 
Werewolf "...all blandly lulling along in 
the Eisenhower Slough 
conformity. ..scrupulosity. ..militant 
ambivalence - with everyone talking ever 
so matter of factly about "the next war" 
or the "Cold War" or " The Bomb" (and 
what the hell difference can anything else 
possibly make when you're up against 
that), though all the whole acting neat 
and sharp and acceptable in the face of 
the prevailing fearfullness of not -fitting -in 
- into benign madness... duckbilled 
platitudes... perforated two tone wing-tip 
cordovan shoes. . .rigged quiz 
shows. . . zzie & Harriet .. . 
"Be-Bop-A-Lula"... and Lord God, just 
the very idea of all those children coming 
out there in mouse ears! 
Preposterous was what it was. Superficial 
silly indulgences of the sort that people 
who look back on them are ashamed to 
admit they ever took part in. But 
nevertheless there were, at that time, 
people - mostly the young and those 
who thought about it - who were 
becoming old enough or aware enough to 
perceive dim glimmerings of far deeper 
prepostrocities. Structures of existence 
revolved and convolved before youthful 
eyes into odd-shaped actualities that 
somehow just didn't parse, at least not in 
their minds. 

For the most part these were young 
people whose minds were different not 
because they were young per se but 
because their most promordial tastes and 
outlooks had been spawned amid the 
accelerated patriotism and self-righteous 
American ideology that pervaded the 
domestic atmosphere during World War 
II. The country they first perceived was 
America in its most carefully laundered 
messianic robes, locked in all-out combat 
with the forces of evil. U.S. soldiers were 
Christian crusaders whose global 
advancement automatically brought with 
it the shedding of peace freedom and 
light, plus a Hershey bar in every deprived 
child's hand. To be a patriot in the midst 
of the "moral" war was a good thenk : it 
meant you were a benevolent idealist and 

a believer in all those rhapsodic virtues 
America ever claimed to embody. I swear 
to Cod, things really did look that way. 
For whatever it's worth, I've been told 
that one of my very first words was 

steeteye span 

Come the mid-50s, though some of these 
now -older youths began slowly to sense 
that the country taking shape around 
them just didn't quite fall into the 
ideological framework so deeply 
imprinted in their brains. It was 
discovered, for instance that here were 
black Americans being systematically 
denied deprived and, for all practical 
purposes, actually oppressed, and that 
surely somebody in charge of things 
somewhere must have known about all 
this before it happened to smeak onto the 
TV screen. It was near-impossible not to 
feel at least some vague intimations of 
bafflement and outrage - most especially 
when there appeared older people, people 
ensconced within the system, who could 
stand right up in public and defend the 
status quo (occasionally supporting their 
philosophical contentions when 

necessary, with police dogs, jailings or 
clandestine mayhem). 
The civil rights struggle in itself 
unleashed a plethora of unsettling new 
sensibilities and painful conundrums 
posing questions to which " the answer, 
my friend," as the word spread, "is 
blowin' in the wind the answer is blowin' 
in the wind"... along with the dolorous 
plaint of a harmonica. 
Comes now onstage the spectral image of 
a skinny unstrung marionette with a wad 
of hair a guitar and a mouth harp on a 
rack around his neck, who radiates the 
fey foredoomed intensity of a Jewish 
James Dean or of a Holden Caulfield gone 
ratty; and nere stands this 
unprepossessing hobo minstrel singing 
what were supposed to be folk songs 
(since he was said to ba a folk singer) but 
aren't. ..quite. On top of that, he sings not 
with a great voice as of a trumpet but in a 
thin, reedy -flat warble backed by guitar 
accompaniment of no special skilled 
distinction. And yet the total effect is of 
an expressive free form, with which his 
listeners can instantly identify. 
The whole folk revival scene functioned 
in the fairly rarified atmosphere of 
serious collegians aspiring intellectuals, 
leftists, beatniks emeriti and long-necked 
pliant young ladies all white, privileged 
and somewhat precious in their tastes, 
and all voluntary refugees from 
middle-class life who were sedulously 
groping for vestiges of tradition and 
authenticity in anonymous old ballads 
about Lord Somebody or-other and roses 
growing out of stones. There occasionally 
emerged songs with themes of injustice or 
of people being wronged, but they were 
always of persons impossibly far away or 
long ago. 

kiV CflVIiOK 

Here, though, was someone invested with 
all the purity and integrity that being a 
folk singer meant you had.. .yet he 
shucked the traditional pretensions to 
gentility and sang his own compositions 
about current things with lyrics that 
flowed forth as direct contemporary 
protest. Moreover he openly reflected 
the angst of the moment - seemed, if 
fact, to be an incarnation of it and 
somehow through his words, voiced 
those passions and hitherto ineffable 
aggrievements of others his age. He was 
"so real," they all said. He was them. 
'Blowin' in the Wind" was a topical 
folk-protest hymn that not only crossed 
musical categories to rank as a pop hit 
but crossed racial lines to become an 
anthem for the freedom movement. While 
its tune was a varittion of the old '' No 
More Auction Block for Me," its lyrics 
conveyed in comtemporary terms - 
that plorative drive of black gospel, 
whose mood hangs forever on the line of 
optimism and despair It was a gentle 
statement formed entirely of questions, 
idealistic but skeptical, full of ablique 
profundities and yet idiomatic enough for 
you to sing and think seriously about or 
hear and feel a part of. "Bobby Dylan," 
vowed Joan Baez "says what a lot of 
people my age feel but cannot say." 
As it happened, a lot of those who found 
they felt that way weren't (or hadn't 
been up until that time) involved in any 
movement. Songs of course have a cross- 
cultural reach and potential impact that 
other forms of communication can't hope 
to attain. Here was a song that reached 
out all the way and evoked a gnawing 
sense of commitment to something. It 
transcended the coffee house- hootenanny 
culture to waft through frat houses 
suburbs, pubs, and youthful gathering 
spots, challenging the consciousness of 
those who heard it and becoming, for 
many, the very first statement that really 

com RUS5 

Among other things it helped impart an 
unimpeachable righteousness to the rights 
struggle. Civil rights was gradually 
becomming a just cause in the American 
mind - a view steadily reinforced by the 
involvement of older people as well as the 
active interest of the federal government. 
Respect, if not reverence, for human 
integrity was obviously moral and hence 
evidently compatible with patriotism 
after all. 

But almost simultaneous with its fuller 
flowering, the Movement commenced to 
sprout an offshoot in the form of a faint 
but swelling uneasiness with the conflict 
in Vietnam. To some, the aspirations of 
American blacks - and the persecutions 
they suffered as a result became 

ethically identified with the plight of the 
Vietnamese, in that these, too, were 
non-Caucasian souls whose efforts to 
decide their own fate had run smack into 
the Brobdingnagian might of the 
American military (which seemed 
somewhat analogous, in this instance, to 
the overseam of the Alabama State 

Aside from that, Vietnam just didn't 
make ideological sense the way World 
War Ilhad. For one thing the officially 
designated enemy obviously had no 
ambitions to subdue and enslave the 
world. Nor did North Vietnam pose any 
remote threat to our shores. Nor could 
anyone seriously claim we were fighting 
this time for truth, justice and the 
American Way.. or if this was the 
American Way nowadays, then maybe 
we'd just better have a little talk about 

For young people, then, Vietnam 
became a struggle of conscience that 
proceeded out of that same awakened 
moral awareness and same perceptions of 
righteousness they had tasted in the civil 
rights crusade. But this time those among 
them who felt compelled to protest 
managed to evoke, in response to their 
concerns, not only sleazyuse from 
abruptly uptightened older folk but also 
an implacable hostility from the same 
government that had backed them before. 
So this time they were alone - although 
as before, the simple fact of being resisted 
helped reinforce the virtue of their stand. 

Vietnam became the Great Divide: the 
trauma that first polarized the 
generations over the issue of the war itself 
and that then went on to become the 
cultural eye-opener and catalyst that 
exposed a far deeper fissure down the 

entire fault line ot society. Patriots and 
idealists were not the same anymore, 
parents were now revealed with 
considerable bitter remorse as inflexible 
custodians of out-of-date notions holders 
of vested interests in a bygone era. It was 
as if a generation abruptly awoke to 
discover itself in the charge of 
well-meaning elders who honestly and 
adamantly believed in the diving right of 
kings and slavery and the punitive 
roasting of witches. It was plainly 
unthinkable to aspire to be like those 
people anymore or to follow in the 
footsteps of those who had brought 
things to such a sorry path. With nothing 
more they could teach parents became 
lost points of reference. 

But once again the chaos was put in 
perspective by a song that came forth 
with the fervor and moral finality of the 
Declaration of Independence. Like a call 
to an Armageddon that "will soon shake 
your windows and rattle your walls," 
"The Times They Are A-Changin' " rang 
with an apocalyptic eloquence that 
defined a generation in terms of its values 
and verbalized into consciousness the 
reality of a revolution in progress. Indeed, 
if any song cam be said to have come out 
of the Vietnam war, it was surely this. It 
was both a fight song, to which young 
people listened with conspiratorial 
sympathy, as well as a spiritual 
reaffirmation that you could sense in 
yourself and recognize in others. 
"Today," as one hournalist wrote of 
Dylan, "he is Shakespeare and Judy 
Garland to my generation. We trust what 
he tells us." 

What Dylan told was of an emerging 
new order founded upon a wholly 
different angle of vision. In multitudinous 
swift unfoldings, young people thus 
politicized and radicalized now saw 
themselves as mere integers in a vast 
cynical system. They saw America as a 
casually malevolent machine fueled with 
greedy vapors and driven by devices of 
duplicity, tricknology exploitative 
competition and rote obedience to some 
seedy code of unspoken rules, all gauzed 
over with the facade of respectability . 
And so, stirred by apprehensions of its 
own betrayal, a generation declared itself 
independent of an irrevocable 
commitment to change and promptly set 
forth in an urgent collective quest for 
self-identity at a portentous time when 
the times themselves were distinctly 


Dylan himself, by then, was generally 
acknowledged among members of the 
Youth Menace not merely as a poet sage 
troubadour and speaker forth for a 
universe of hung-up souls but also as a 
paradigmatic seer: surely he foresaw that 
no future protest song could ever hope to 
top his own vision of apocalypse and 
hence gravitated from that point on into 
more intricate and indirect purely 
personalized compositions. 

Meanwhile having become riled into a 
per fervid frenzy be endless escalations in 
Vietnam as well as by setbacks to 
oppressed peoples at home (which now 
included themselves), the leading New 
Left edge of the youth movement turned 
flat-out radical, in much the same spirit as 
the rights struggle had hardened into the 
Black Revolution. Now they were all 
internal aliens arrayed against 
unresponsive and absurd institutions, 
diligently arming for a cosmic melee. 

The ultimate calcification of hard-core 
radicaldom was the Weatherman element 
of SDS , which interestingly, had taken 
its name from a line in a later Dylan song 
("You don't need a weatherman to know 
which way the wind blows"). ..and 
proceeded in short order to carry the 
Movement's remaining banner 
straight-away toward a final fiery splat. 

At some inprecise but abrupt point, 
and in the face of cumulative 
counter-reaction from adults weary of 
rage and being confronted, the activists 
began to grasp the scope of their own 
futility and inability to prevail as 
planned. The war would not end. ..the 
banks and corproations would not 
fall... the cities didn't uprise like they 
were supposed to... and the pariseees not 
only wouldn't leave the temple but 
elected one of their own as president. At 
length, with more stiflements and 
thwartations than ever before, radical 
politics bottomed out. 

So it all seems to have come full circle. 
Here we are back in the Soporific Fifties 
again. The Youth Revolution is over, as is 
the cultivation of hair as a badge of 
alienated identity. Meanwhile the 
campuses loll away in a narcotized calm 
and the dopesuckers are turning to Jesus. 

It's a titanic downsurge, a Post-hope 
Era whose spiritual terrain lies woven 
over in a mantle of meaninglessness and 
despair. Movements have dissolved into 
despondency and exradicals or otherwise 
sensitized youths - now 'buked ana 
scorned and depleted of moral outrage - 


are in self-exile or underground or out in 
search of hopeful omens somewhere on 
the road, or wherever else it is that people 
go when all has come to naught. After all 
your lost winnings, what've you got left 
to lose?The only anthems or fight songs 
you hear today are at football games. 

It's all properly absurd and 
preposterous once again. But different. 
For far too many doors have been opened 
for anyone ever to shut things up the way 
they were before; and far too much has 
altered beyond redemption. For example, 
there's some comfort to be gleaned from 
the fact that while odious in other 
respects, the 1972 presidential campaign 
could never conceivably have focused, as 
in 1960, on the issue of a "missile gap." 

Another thing is that young people, 
quickly aging here have a clearer • 
conception of who they are today such 
that there bodes no slipping back into the 
"lonely crowd" and faceless travails of an 
earlier age. They are disillusioned but still 
different, indelibly so, filled with quieter, 
if not deeper, convictions. However it's 
obvious that they can't go horn e agaim 
if going home means reintegrating 
themselves into social realities no longer i 
real for nothing could be more: 

intolerable and inherently at odds with 
contemporary humanity than yesterday's 
accepted orthodoxies. In any event, there- 
is nothing they more devoutly believe 
than that history is ultimately on their 
side even if indeed, the chaos of 
history has no purpose or pattern other 
than being just individual and collective 
experiences, hopefully always adding up 
to something a shade better next time. 

Back during that period ten years ago 
when Dylan was undisputed king of 
topical outrage and dissent his producer 
declared, "He's not a singer of protest so 
much as he is a singer of concern about 
people." Essentially this is the same 
concern at the core of current radicalism: 
a perception of the need for people to 
relate to each other differently, an 
insistence on the validity of human 
feelings and the absolute confidence that 
one is personally able to make a 

3Hmes eoccon 

If nothing else, young people emerged 
from the decade's strifes and dislocations 
with an intact concept of themselves. 
Now it is older people who are 
discovering that their own sense of 
identity is more and more uneasily 
perched upon the premises of another 
era. Perhaps, then, the deeper revolution 
will emerge as a reaching out to the 
unconverted by the already radicalized, a 
compassionate stretching of the flesh 
and quiet sharing of those findings that 
lead to a reassessment of aid assumptions. 

What Dylan did was to seize intuitively 
upon the aspirations and unlocatable 
pains hovering in the atmosphere and 
render them in a form for people to wrap 
their minds around. The amorphic 
consciousness of that heavily idealogized 
generation, his generation (and mine), 
was given shape and scope by means of 
songs that set all sorts of spirits loose 
upon the land, making ordinary life look 
different. Or, if nothing else causing 
people to ask questions inside themselves. 

Though he fed and fed upon social 
activism, Dylan was never personally a 
part of any movement and soon forsook 
topicality altogether "I've stopped 

composing and singing anything that has 
either a reason to be written or a motive 
to be sung." And so saying, he faded, in 
effect, from the revolutionary scene, with 
only the plaintive skirl of a lonesome 
harmonica left floating in the air. 

And the revolutionary scene itself has 
faded, fragmented and finally 
transmogrified into a disconnected 
multiplicity of separate quests for 
individual salvation and deliverance. What 
may possibly be under way is a mass 
recycling of sorts whose by-products will 
bloom again at some more fertile time. In 
any event, America is momentarily 
languishing between images. 

Yet there was, nevertheless, a singular 
brief reach of time wherein people, in the 
course of their innumerable aimless 
movings through the moments of their 
lives, were brought together for a single 
instant, filled with the formless 
mournings longings and unfocused 
realizations drawn up from great depths 
within them. There occurred this historic 
coincidence in time and space wherein all 
these people, plus social forces, 
psychological factors and various vagrant 
whimsies, converged and commingled 
within a frail unaccountable freak who 
distilled out of their voices a language 
that helped crystallize the anguish of the 
epoch and unleash an inexorable 
collective impulse for change. 

Git tes pie 

Although "Blowin' in the Wind" and 
"The Times They Are A-Changin' " are 
dated as music ("They're ghosts "Dylan 
says), they still stand as monuments to 
the revolutionary primal forces that 
helped sculpt the texture of a decade and 
mold the contours for a vast 
transformation of outlooks and attitudes 
which, though diffused at the moment, is 
still spreading. 

At bottom, this radical new awareness 
turns out to he really no more than a 
logical extension of the nation's most 
fundamental laws, precepts and long-held 
finer visions of itself. In this way, it is 
"radical" in the original sense of getting 
back closer to the roots, of moving 
definitions closer to their realities. And 
this, of course, constitutes part of a 
cosmic thrust as irreversible and ceaseless 
as the orbital cyclings of the earth 
itself... for the times they are still 

(Note: Let my anti-hippie readers take 
no comfort from this satire. The whole 
scene was beautiful, and, at worst, funny, 
while so many other scenes are ludicrous 
at best.) 

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fun-going body he now has — thanks to Crash Weight Formula #7. He says. "All I did was 
follow the plan and drink a few small glasses of delicious Crash Weight Formula #7 — and the 
improvement I made in just 14 days was beyond my wildest dreams!" Shouldn't this happen to you? 

Much of L.A.'s vast underground 
community is still not hip to an unusual 
and significant tribal gathering that took 
place in the Crystal Springs area of 
Griffith Park last Saturday. Two of our 
very groovy local tribes met there at 
dawn in a sort of unpublicized love-in to 
celebrate and arrange a tribal merger. 

Like everyong who attended I was so 
flipped out behind all of it that I have 
since had trouble describing what 
happened. But I want to try just the same 
because anything as groovy, as mythic, as 
loving and as Traditional as this just has 
to be shared. 

First can you dig the scene?Before 
dawn - when the two groups were to 
meet - Lord Fairfax's tribe was 
encamped on the flat grassy area near the 
road and Marco's people were spread out 
on the slopes just beyond. Until it began 
to get light, all you could see were a 
couple of small fires and, around them, 
moving here and there in the dark, were 
the glowing tips of joints and incense 
sticks. There were also a number of 
flickering perfumed tapers which both 
Marco and Lord Fairfax used to sanctify 
various pre-dawn tribal ceremonies. 

Marco performed several marriages as well 
as a briss and a divorce. Lord Fairfax did 
two marriages, granted one temporary 
restraining order and accepted a plea of 
nolo contendere on a matter carried over 
from the previous Sunday's love-in. 

All of this took place before the sun 
came up. When the light finally did 
appear, both tribes greeted it with the 
Hare Krishna mantra, of which Allen 
Ginsberg says," It brings a state of 
ecstasy!" After the mantra, Elliot Mintz 
read a telegram in which Allen expressed 
his regret at not being able to be present 

but sent his best vibrations. Elliot also 
introduced the persons who made the 
tribal gathering possible, and up front 
made a plea for everyone to help pick up 
trash before going home in the evening. 
By the time this holy morning raga 
ended it was light enough to trip out on 
the beautiful scene. Marco's tribe had 
come down from the slopes and was 
standing in a body facing Lord Fairfax's 
people on the flat grassy area. They 
looked a lot like two small armies ready 
for battle - and indeed they were, but 
these were armies of the future, baby, 
carrying no weapons but love and beauty 
(In fact when the uptight materialistic 
white world of fear -ridden brown-shoes, 
power-trip politicians and hate filled 

police blows itself up in an orgasmic 
Armageddon and at last pays for its 
crimes against the Traditional American 
Indian then it will be just such love 
armies of gentle seed-carrying hippies 
with their black and red flower brothers 
who will wander triumphantly across the 
earth like freaked-out nonviolent Mongol 

Now in order for you to dig what was 
going down, I have to explain the merger 
ritual. You see, each tribe before the 
merger had its own spiritual leader; Marco 
was one and Lord Fairfax was the other. 
But after the merger they would be one 
tribe, and it was generally agreed that 
any single tribe with two spiritual leaders 
would be sent on a bummer. "Too many 

yogin," as Marco put it, "spoil the 
pirogen." So part of the merger ritual -in 
fact the main part-was sort of an 
elimination thingy to cut down on 
spiritual leaders, leaving just one, with the 
other becoming you know like a sidekick. 
Now the square uptight way of solving 
this kind of problem would be some kind 
of armed combat or at best some 
viciously competitive civil service exam. 
But the two tribes chose to let it happen 
lovingly and to let their gurus compete-if 
you want to use the word "compete"at 
all-in love. You dig?Marco and Lord 
Fairfax two of the most beautiful cats in 
Southern California , in an 
eyeball-to-eyeball love duel. 

So there, in the cool incense -fragrent 
dawn, were these two tribes, facing each 
other across the still damp grassy field, 
getting ready, turning on in an aura of 
gentle pagan sound:flute, drum and 
tambourine. There was about a 15 -yard 
stretch of ground between the tribes, who 
were beaming love at each other through 
the patterned psychedelic air. It was an 
earth thing, an ancient mythic thing. Mr. 
Jones, take a good look! Here were the 
New Americans! Sterling silver roach 
holders dangled from intricately beaded 
Traditional American Indian style belts. 
Custon-make knee length rawhide boots 
with fringed tops alternated with massive 
and ornate all-leather sandals. Everyone 
had his button collection on. Everyone 
wore bright short dresses with colorful 
tights or multi-colored striped shirts and 
pants or bright long robes. Everyone 
carried toys to look at or look through or 
play with. Every single person wore 
handcrafted jewelry and bead necklaces 
supporting glittering gems or emblems in 
metal or wood. It was Groovy New 
America giving the lie to Materialistic 
Conformist Old America. 

Then the two rock bands began to do 
their thing. Marco's band, The Warren 
Commission, took turns with Lord 
Fairfax's group The Cherokee Omelet. In 
preparation for and as a symbol of the 
coming merger, they had figured out a 
way to wire up both sets of amplifiers so 
that their maximum volume was doubled. 
Are you ready for that?Doubled?It was 
pure McLuhan baby. When The Warren 
Commission did their thing, they 
transformed Griffith Park, Silverlake, 
Echo Park Glendale Eagle Rock and 
Burbank into a tribal village right on the 
spot. And when The Cherodee Omelet 
took over it was a mind-blower you 
wouldn't believe. They just had to be 
laying down the genetic code, man. The 
two-billion-year-old genetic code itself. It 
couldn't have been anything else. I 
haven't checked this out but I've heard 
that when The Cherokee Omelet played 
their first number, three soldiers 
stationed at a Nike missile base in the 
Hollywood Hills took off their uniforms, 
burned them and walked off the job 
naked with flowers in their hair. If 
anyone has more information on this, I'd 
appreciate hearing from him. 

So the rock groups played and 
everybody freaked out dancing. Imagine: 
It's like seven in the morning- still pretty 
cold and gray. The musicians are laying 
down more sound in five minutes than 

the average career artilleryman hears in a 
lifetime. And around them on the grass 
are 100 cases of apparent epilepsy. Can 
you dig it?We just let it happen, man. 

Finally at a certain point, the music 
stopped dead. Everything stopped. There 
wasn't a sound except for a little breeze 
in the leaves, like in "Blow-Up." Then 
Lord Fairfax stepped out in front of his 
tribe and walked forward his bells 
jangling like spurs. It was time for the 
two to do their thing. But first let me hip 
you to what they looked like. 

Marco?I can't describe it. He was too 
beautiful, man. Can you dig a violet 
leather mini-sari with Traditional 
American Indian fringework? He was 
wearing one, man. Chartreuse tights on 
his legs. And shoes? Are you ready? 
Pilgrim Father Buckle Shoes! It was 
beautiful. And ankhs? Godseyes? 
Yin-Yangs ?Mandalas ?Beads ?Talismans ? 
Amulets? Charms? The cat could 
HARDLY MOVE, man! I mean this was a 
very beautiful cat. And I haven't even 
mentioned his buttons. "Let's Suck 
Toes" - 'Undergo Lysurgery" 'Down 
to Lunch" - you name it and he was 
.wearing it. Plus a complete set of Ron 
Boise Kama Sutra Sculpture buttons, 
each position set against a background of 
I Ching hexagrams, astrological signs and 
Tarot symbols. 

Now if Marco was beautiful, Lord 
Fairfax was just AS beautiful. It wasn't 
his clothes because he didn't have any on 

- except for a Traditional Borneo Indian 
penis sheath, which was also long enough 
to keep a stash in (You get them at The 
Yoni in Bell Gardens). What he had on 
was groovy body paint. Like on his chest, 
in pale rose on an amber ground it said 
"LOVE" - but in lettering so psychedelic 

- dig this- in letterning so psychedelic 
that the cat who did it can't even read 
what he wrote. And he won't be able to 
either until the next time he gets that 
high. At exactly 983 mikes you can read 
what the lettering says. One mike less and 
it's totally meaningless. Across Lord 
Fairfax's back was "BORN TO LOSE" in 
traditional Red White and Blue with 
three eagles bert and on a bend sable, five 
martlets or. And his buns, man. On his 
left was a really delicate water color of 
Bodhidharma regarding a plum blossom. 
And on his right was a silk- screened 
reproduction of a photo of Jerry (Captain 
Trips) Garcia turning on with the Hopi. 
Between them, up his ass was a let stick 
of incense ('Nirvana" -which you can 
score at the Kazoo.) 

So there they are baby - mano a 
mano. In front of one tribe is Lord 
Fairfax with his long wavy brown hair 
and beard, standing tall and dreamy like 
some kind of saint on a church wall in 
Borneo. And in front of the other tribe is 
Marco, a lot shorter smiling, with flowers 
in his mouth and flowers twined in his 
blond beard and with the eternal Atman 
gazing out through his trippy blue eyes. 

The two cats stared at each other 
lovingly; they were beginning to do their 
thing. Neither one wavered or blinked or 
even got watery eyed. In fact it was just 
the opposite. As time passed. ..ten 
minutes. ..fifteen minutes. ..a half 
hour. ..their thing got more intense and 
more loving. The ordinary cat couldn't 
hae taken that kind of heavy trip. They 
would have loved him to death. 

In fact, if you didn't have your head 
together, you couldn't even bear being in 
the vicinity. Like the narks. They 
couldn't take it. After 30 minutes of 
those good vibrations, the plainclothes 
cops completely blew their cool. No 
matter how freaky their threads were, or 
how much acid they had dropped, or how 
tight they were with the tribes, the narks 
just had to split. They were clutching 
their throats, man! The cats were 
SCREAMING! Aargh! Aargh! And they 
ran back to the squad cars parked on the 
road. It was like when Dracula sees the 
cross on the chick's neck, man. They just 
weren't ready for that kind of love. 

I'm sure you can dig that there were 
some surprises that morning. Like four of 
Lord Fairfax's dancers ran off to the 
squad cars, gnawing on their badges. And 
Marco's wife?A nark! Can you believe it? 
His WIFE, man! That morning at Crystal 
Springs was the moment of truth. If you 
were the heat, or even if you were just a 
weekend hippy, it was tough titty on 

But dig. None of this even reached 
Marco and Lord Fairfax. I may have 
noticed the cops splitting. The tribes may 
have noticed them; in fact there were a 
great many rocks and bottles thrown 
(thrown. I should add not in anger but in 
love). But Marco and Fairfax just kept up 
that love stare. Lord Fairfax's incense 
even burned down but he didn't seem to 
notice it. They went on for another half 
hour. Then Lord Fairfax spoke. He said: 

"You're a beautiful cat." 


I guess you could say that it was sort 
of Marco's move. But he didn't say 
anything He stared up at Lord Fairfax 
for a long time, squinting his stoned blue 
eyes in the sun. Maybe another half hour 
went by. Then Marco asked: 

"What did you say man? 

"I said you're beautiful." 

"Oh." Marco didn't say anything else 
for another long time. Finally he took 
Lord Fairfax's hand and squeezed it and 
said slowly "I can't tell you, man It's 
too beautiful. You may not know it but 
you've just changed my life." 

Now you would have thought that 
nobody could be laying down more love 
than Lord Fairfax. But Marco's gratitude. 
Marco's beautiful gratitude! It was too 
much. You had to cry, man. And 
meanwhile the play was kind of tossed 
back to Lord Fairfax. 

But Fairfax was right in there playing 
heads-up ball. He reached out with his 
other hand, gently touching Marco's face 
and he said "Marco it's the you in me 
that's changed the you in you." 

What a trip! Lord Fairfax was all love 
and admiration and yet the kind of deep 
talk he was laying down left you 
wondering if maybe Marco was too 
lightweight intellectually to be a spiritual 
leader. And yet you felt that Lord 
Fairfax in his humility thought himself 
the lesser cat. It was too much. 

Now metaphysics was never Marco's 
bag so no one was surprised when he 
didn't try to top Lord Fairfax in the 
"you-in-me" thing. But still, what Marco 
did say-"Teach me, man" seemed 
unnecessarily weak. Like he was dwelling 
on what he should have been staying 
away from. And Marco's people started 
to look a little nervous. "Teach me" 
seemed like asking for trouble. 

Even Lord Fairfax looked puzzled. But 
he smiled and said, "There is nothing to 
teach and nothing to learn." 

Some people I've talked to say they 
felt at that point that Lord Fairfax was 
walking into a trap. But I don't think so. 
It wasn't that kind of thing. It was too 

Anyway Marco said softly, "Nothing 
to teach and nothing to learn. What is 
there then? 

Lord Fairfax didn't answer right away. 
He walked back to where his tribe was 
and came back with a basket of 
tangerines. He handed them to Marco. 
"Love," he said. 







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Now there was something going down 
that Lord Fairfax couldn't have known 
because nobody knew except some of the 
kids in Marco's tribe. You see, Marco 
couldn't eat tangerines when he was 
stoned. They put him on a big nausea 
trip. But here he was all the same with a 
love gift of tangerines. The cat was in 
trouble. He looked at them for a minute. 
Then he started passing them out to his 
tribe. But after everyone had taken theirs 
there were still some left over. So he bit 

into one. The kids who were hip to his 
tangerine problem came running up to 
stop him but he waved them away. "One 
swallow," he said with his mouth full, 
"doesn't make a bummer." 

Marco might have looked a little green. 
But if he was nauseated, he maintained. 
He smiled up at Lord Fairfax and said, 
"You're right, man. Love IS what's 
happening. I love you. I give you my 

Fantastic! Marco was really looking 
good in there! It was Lord Fairfax's move 
and, if you thought about it you knew 
he only had one. It was like chess man. 
There was only one answer he could 
make. He said, "Marco, I'm glad you gave 
me your tribe because now I can make 
you a gift of both tribes. You are a 
beautiful, loving cat. You are our 
spiritual leader." 

Almost at once everyone there began 
to realize that Marco had blown it 
Because if Marco's giving one tribe made 
him a beautiful loving cat, then Lord 
Fairfax had come through as 
twice -as-beautiful, twice as-loving by 
giving two tribes. And what's more 
Fairfax had made the ultimate move. 
Like you couldn't top it. Marco had set 
up his own checkmate. The cat was in 
real trouble now. 

There was a silent wait. Everyone was 
trying to figure out what Marco could do 
and was feeling maybe a little sorry for 
him. But Marco looked very cool And 
then he said, suddenly: 

"'Why thank you, I accept. Thank you 
very much. Very kind of you." And he 
nodded quickly to The Warren 
Commission, which immediately went 
into a very freaky thing that had 
everybody dancing in seconds. 

Everybody, that is. except Lord 
Fairfax who was standing there looking 
at Marco. Marco kissed him and said "My 
first action as spiritual leader of the 
combined tribes is to appoint you Tribe 
:aphysician and Love Fountain." 

3ut Lord Fairfax was on a weird trip. 

fact, it was 15 or 20 minutes before he 
-Iked over to Marco, who was dancing, 

d asked: 

"What did you say? 

Still dancing, Marco repeated, "I 
accept and I appoint you Metaphysician 
and Love Fountain." 

"Oh. Groovy." Lord Fairfax nodded 
his head to the music. "Groovy," he said 
igain. "Groovy." He walked away, still 
nodding his head, to get a tangerine. 
"That's groovy." He pooled it. "Yeah 
that's pretty damn groovy all right." 
Meanwhile, everyone was dancing. 

This past week there's been some 
grumbling among the people who had 
been in Lord Fairfax's tribe. A couple of 
them have said that maybe Marco copped 
out on the love thing. There's even been 
some talk about running a full-page 
put-down of Marco in the Free Press. But 









J y 

. i'i ■; .. 

Marco meanwhile has consolidated his 
position very quickly. His new tribe has 
already received official recognition from 
such tribes as the L.A. Oracle and Hugh 
Romney's Hog Farm people. Marco is 
also working out a consular treaty with 
Vito's Fraternity of Man and he has been 
laying a lot of canned goods on Plastic 

Man and the other diggers. 

As for what people are now referring 
to as the "love duel," Marco doesn't say 
too much. But yesterday when I was 
rapping with him about it he opened up 
a little. He said that Lord Fairfax had 
been a little straighter than him that day 
but that there was such a thing as being 

too straight. 

"Too much dharma" Marco said 
"spoils the karma." And he told me his 
private opinion of Lord Fairfax which 
was that Fairfax was indeed a beautiful 
loving cat but maybe a little too loving 
and too beautiful to be a good 


■yj^ycau^ ~- ■ ,.'1.': 

BOSTON' On election night, I went to a television-watching 
party at a spacious Manhattan duplex. By the time I arrived, 
the networks's electronic tote boards were already crackling 
with decisive portents of the Nixon landslide. I began working 
on a fifth of Jack Daniels. Over in the corner, a stockbroker 
was saying what a great thing the President's victory would be 
for the market. In a sullen stupor, I sank into a couch to watch 
one state after another sign on for Four More Years. 

Then I heard a new note creep into Walter Cronkite's 
monotone. "Well," he said, "it looks as though Massachusetts 
may be the only state in the union to go for George 
McGovern." Suddenly I felt much better. For, after New 
York, I am most at home in Massachusetts - where I went to 
college returned on a fellowship and have spent countless 
vacations. Good old Massachusetts! Soon I was composing a 
drunken panegyric to the Bay State: to Emerson and Thoreau; 
golden Berkshire autumns; steamer clams dipped in melted 
butter on a Gloucester dock; a Mozart string quartet in Mrs. 
Jack Gardner's grandiouse palazzo; muddy-booted farmers 
arguing over a new fire engine at a Wilbraham town meeting; 
weathered salt-box cottages on a Nantucket shore, the 
Mediterranean hubbub of Boston's North End; the soaring 
white spire of a Unitarian church steeple, the slash of Bobby 
Orr's skates across the Garden ice, a sloop in full sail making 
for Marblehead harbor; the call of French horns across a 
sun-drenched Tanglewood lawn. 

The next morning I woke to a leaden hangover and a 
soaking downpour. The morning papers confirmed that only 
Massachusetts and the District of Columbia had resisted the 
Nixon landslide. But the grim light of dawn I could muster 
little of my nocturnal euphoria. Indeed, the Bay State's 
defection began to strike me as curous. 

Ml ^ s 

After all, my most vivid memories of Massachusetts politics 
stem from the early fifties when Senator Joseph McCarthy was 
rooting out "Communists" at Harvard, and Massachusetts was 
a stronghold of pro-McCarthy sentiment. When I went into 
Boston to cover the Senator's hearings as a young reporter for 
the Harvard Crimson, I often felt as if I were entering enemy 
territory. The crowds in the murky hearing room booed 
Harvard witnesses, and one day a pasty-faced woman behind a 
Scollay Square lunch counter told me to ' go back to Pinko 

And when I came back to Boston in 1958 to write speeches 
for Gov. Foster Furcolo's re-election campaign, I found the 
Democrats riven by feudalism, factionalism and corruption. 
Issues were largely subordinated to bitter vendettas and fierce 
loyalties. As late as 1962, Prof. Murray Levin of Boston 
University could write "The Democratic party in 
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wonder just what had happened to Massachusetts? Had its 
politics really changed so much in the past decade? Why 
should it, of all places, rally to McGovern's quixotic campaign? 
I set off to find out. 





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City State 

When I arrived here in late November, I found the 
Commonwealth still obsessed with its singularity. Boston's 
Mayor Kevin White and distributed 1,200 buttons reading 
"Massachusetts -- The Lone Star State." Cars sported a line of 
new bumper stickers: "Don't Blame Me - I'm from 
Massachusetts," "Massachusetts -- We'd Rather Be Right," 
"Massachusetts -- The One and Only." An epidemic of 
irreverent humor swept the Commonwealth. Arch Macdonald 
of Channel 5 was first to coin the slogan, "As Massachusetts 
goes, so goes the District of Columbia." Others said the 
Bunker Hill Monument had been renamed "The Shaft." Many 
of the new jokes focused on anticipated White House reaction. 
Some predicted that the President would remove the 

Department of Transportation complex in Cambridge and 
replace it with the National Institute of Mental Health. Others 
said the U.S.S. Constitution was being towned from Boston to 
Key Biscayne for safekeeping. A cartoon in The Boston Globe 
showed the President with shears in one hand and a new 
49-star flag in the other. And the Clover Club of Boston in a 
satirical skit at its annual dinner, sang this ditty to thetune of 
"Bye, Bye, Blackbird": 

"Bye, bye, Bay State, 

You gave Georgy boy your vote, 

Out to sea - you can float. 

Most states will get Federal donations, 

You'll instead by paying reparations." 


But beneath all this levity, Bay Staters preened, even 
gloated in their loneliness. John Kenneth Galbraith always 
one of the Commonwealth's most confidnet citizens, struck 
the keynote when he told the "Today" show: ' Invariably the 
country has been out of step with Massachusetts. We have 
been four years ahead." The theme was echoed in hundreds of 
letters to the press? "It gives me a great sense of pride and 
satisfaction to know I live in the only truly enlightened state 
in the country," wrote Christine O'Hearn of Maiden. "The 
people of Massachusetts stand alone, again the pilgrims to a 
better world," wrote Lydia A. Capano of Revere. Mrs. Jane 
Lambert of Boston wrote, "I am so proud of the voters of 
Massachusetts I could cry." And, from around the nation, 
letters poured in from those who admired Massachusetts' 
stand. "Everyone is talking about moving to Massachusetts, 
the real home of the free and the brave," wrote a woman from 
Bohemia, N.Y. 

There was something touching in these letters -- in their 
almost desperate quest for a beacon in the darkness. But that 
need, like my own on election night, cast the state in a role it 
simply could not fill. Massachusetts was not unique. The 
statistical quirk which left it as the only state to cast its 
electoral vote for McGovern did not mean it was immune to 
the political tikes running in the rest o f the country. At best 
it was the end of a continous spectrum, differentiated from 
other states only by degree. 

And, viewed another way, it was not even the end of the 
spectrum. Massachusetts Democrats have a huge edge in 
registration - 43 per cent, to 19 per cent Republican and 38 

per cent Independent. In 1968, Hubert Humphrey polled 63 
per cent in Massachusetts (the second largest Democratic 
margin, after Rhode Island). Yet, McGovern polled only 55 
per cent this year. Michael Barone, a Massachusetts political 
scientist, notes that this dropoff of 8 percentage points was 
among the largest in the nation (only 10 states had falloffs as 
large or larger). Thus, Massachusetts was very vulnerable 
indeed to the Nixon landslide just not quite vulnerable 
enough to erase its traditional Democratic majority. 

But this kind of analysis raises as many questions as it 
answers. For the only state which went more decisively for 
Humphrey in 1968 - Rhode Island -- suffered one of the 
heaviest defections from McGovern this year (18 points), 
enough to take it into the Nixon column. Moreover, Rhode 
Island is not only adjacent to Massachusetts -- and thus subject 
to most of the same regional pulls and tugs -- but it is similar in 
ethnic and religious configuration. Any interpretation of the 
Massachusetts vote must explain why, despite these 
similarities, Rhode Island Democrats defected at nearly twice 
the rate of Massachusetts Democrats this year. 

One obvious answer, which I heard frequently from New 
Yorkers, was simply, "Teddy did it." This theory attributes 
the Bay State's vote essentially to Senator Edward F. 
Kennedy's machine, money and influence. At first glance, it is 
a persuasive explanation - for certainly nobody benefited 
from the Massachusetts results more than Ted Kennedy. A 
postelection cartoon in The Philadelphia Inquirer depicted the 
Democratic party as an exhausted whale panting on the beach 
at Hyannis Port. 

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But, significantly, I heard this theory chiefly from New 
Yorkers. When I mentioned it here, most people scoffed. "Ted 
Kennedy doesn't have a machine because he doesn't really 
need one," one Boston politician told me. 'By now the 
Kennedy name is enough to get him elected here despite a 
horror show like Chappaquiddick. He has an organization, of 
course, but it wasn't really enlisted in the McGovern campaign.' 

A prominent member of that organization is K. Dun 
Gifford, a former Kennedy aide now in the real estate 
business. Gifford concedes that Kennedy people weren't 
deeply involved in McGovern's Massachusetts effort "because 

frankly I don't think they wanted us." Although McGovern 
clearly sought and got Ted Kennedy's help elsewhere -- 
noteably appearances with the candidates in Ohio, New Jersey 
and llliniois -- his Massachusetts people apparently didn't feel 
they needed Kennedy. At times, they positively didn't want 
him: for example, at the Post Office Square rally in Boston on 
Oct. 3, where McGovern organizers were eager to know that 
their candidate could draw a big crowd on his own (he drew 
60,000). In fact, the Senator did very little stumping for 
McGovern in his home state. 

There were undoubtedly those who voted for McGovern 
simply because they knew Kennedy was for him. "People 
wouldn't go too far from the Kennedy line," Frank Santa 
Maria, a 73-year-old Roslindale man. told a reporter after the 
election. McGovern's widely advertised preference for 
Kennedy as his running mate undoubtedl'y helped with some 
Massachusetts voters, and his eventual selection of Kennedy's 
brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver couldn't have done him any 
harm in the state. But most people I talked to doubted that 
this sort of loyalty - what Dun Gifford calls the 
"do-it-for-the-Gipper" reflex -- produced may votes. 

More important than Ted Kennedy's direct influence is the 
indirect effect from more than 20 years of three successive 
Kennedys. A living Kennedy helps to keep the "Kennedy 
mystique" alive but the mystique persists in the state on its 
own. Student canvassers report finding pictures of Jack and 
Robert Kennedy in may white working-class homes in Revere 
and Somerville, and the same two picutes alongside Martin 
Luther King's in the black homes of Roxbury and Dorchester 
in Boston. In the weeks just after the election, The Globe gave 
front-page display to a serialization of Dave Powers's and Ken 
O'Donnell's neVv book of recollections of Jack Kennedy, 
"Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye." The first segment began, 
"The memories will always keep coming back . . ." In 
Massachusetts, they probably will. 

But how much of the Kennedy mystique could rub off on 
George McGovern, who, despite his long indentification with 
the Kennedys, shares so little of their special magnetism? 
David Bartley, the 37- year old Speaker of the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives, puts it this way: 'Three Kennedys 
have legitimized liberalism in Massachusetts. They've made it 
O.K. for a loyal son of Ireland, a devout member of the 
church, to also be a liberal. Elsewhere in this country 
blue-collar workers, Catholics, ethnics may still see liberalism 
as far out or alien. But here the voters have been conditioned 
by the Kennedys to accept it." 

Others see the 1960 election itself as a direct factor in this 
year's vote. Richard Nixon is the only man ever to run against 
Camelot and there are those who will never forget it. Boston 
Mayor Kevin White told me: "If you were 10 when the Black 
Knight attacked the White Knight, when you're 22 you 
remember that and you don't vote for the Black Knight." 
Bartley put it even more bluntly: "If Nixon were running 
against Satan in Massachusetts and 'none of the above' would 






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Nixon compounded his problems here by virtually ignoring 
the state during his first term. Except for a brief visit to his 
daughter Julie, while she was a student at Smith, he is not 
known to have entered the state. And he didn't make a single 
campaign appearance here last fall. Nor, for that matter, did 
Spiro Agnew. 

Massachusetts may be the only state where even Republican 
officeholders could summon little enthusiasm for Nixon. Gov. 
Francis Sargent didn't have much to say for him all fall. Nor 
did Senator Edward Brooke who had an easy race this time 
against a ho-hum Democrat. After the votes were counted on 
election night, Brooke said bluntly: "I will support the 
President when he is right and vote against him when he is 

The other side of this coin is the striking loyalty of the 
state's Democratic politicians. Unlike other states where 
regular Democrats defected in droves the only prominent 
Massachusetts politician to join "Democrats for Nixon" was 
John T. Collins the former Mayor of Boston, who teaches 
urban affairs at M.I.T. 

As in other states, a breach was opened between the 
"regular" and "new-politks" factions of the party during the 
campaign for the April 25 primary. Most of Massachusetts' 
prominent regulars -- among them Kevin White and Attorney 
General Robert Quinn - quickly hopped on the Muskie 
bandwagon and headed his slate in the primary. They were 
outraged when McGovern decided to enter a slate against them 
and chagrined when he clobbered them 325 673 to 131,709 
an impressive triumph which got the McGovern slate, headed 
by some prominent reformers and filled out with a cast of 
unknowns (a Pittsfield plumber and a North Attleboro 
jeweler) was openly jubilant at upsetting the "pols." The 
resentments peaked after Ted Kennedy turned down the 
Vice-Presidential offer, when McGovern seemed ready to 
choose Kevin White as his running mate. Galbraith apparently 
helped put the kibosh on White, warning McGovern that the 
selection would not be welcomed by either Ted Kennedy or 
the Massachusetts delegation. 

But right after the mini-convention which put Sargent 
Shriver on the ticket, Massachusetts Democrats held a "unity 
breakfast" at the venerable Parker House in Boston. Charlie 
Flaherty the state chairman, says, "We had everybody who 
was anybody in the Democratic party here. From then on we 
were a hell of a lot more successful than most states in getting 
the regulars and the McGovern people together." 

Clearly, the regulars had read the lesson of McGovern's 
resounding primary victory. Michael Dukakis, a former state 
legislator who is considered a possible candidate for Governor 
in 1974, puts it this way: "All of us in this state -- liberals, 
moderates or conservatives -- are acutely aware of the 
importance of what we now call the McGovern constituency. 
It's particularly important because that's where the workers 
are. The people who get out there and ring doorbells for you 
are the kids with the McGovern buttons. They work like crazy. 
So nobody wants to antagonize them" 

Clearly, "the kids with the McGovern buttons" exerted 
heavy leverage on Massachusetts politicans this year. But how 
important were they in other respects, as cavassers or as 
voters? Their role has been widely emphasized. One man wrote 
to Newsweek, "Lest you think we are all crazy here in 

assachusetts, please remember that it was the out-of-state 
students and academicians who put McGovern over the top 

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True, there are lots of students here - a ballpark figure 
would be 300,000, of whom about a thrid are from out of 
state. There are 120 institutions of higher learning, heavily 
concentrated in the Boston metropolitan area (Harvard, 
M.I.T., Bradeis, Wellesley) but also dotted across the state in 
lush profusion (Williams, Holy Cross, University of 
Massachusetts, Bradford). But relatively few of these students 
voted in Massachusetts this fall - in part becase the McGovern 
forces urged out-of-state students to register at home. Ann 
Lewis, who headed the McGovern registration drive in the 
state, recalls: "One of the first things I was told when I came 
on the job was that we were sure of carrying only three areas -- 
Massachusetts, the District of Columbia and South Dakota. So, 
from the start, we were going to be exporting money, 
volunteers and votes." This policy irritated some 
Massachusetts activists who were after every vote they could 
get for local candidates and referendum issues like abortion 
reform. But apparently the McGovern effort was successful. 
Dave Strohm, the state student coordinator, estimates that at 
most 30 per cent of out-of-state students registered in 
Massachusetts, of whom perhaps 75 per cent - or about 24,00 
-- may have voted. 

Of the roughly 200,000 Massachusetts students, Ann Lewis 
estimates that about two-thirds registered and 75 per cent of 
those -- about 95,000 - voted. Surveys suggest that the vast 
majority voted for McGovern. But, even with the out-of-staters, 
this still makes barely 100,000 votes for McGovern, who 
carried the state by more than 220,000. The fabled "student 
vote" does not seem to provide the answer. 

Nor does student "activism." Dave Strohm told me that 
only 2,000 to 3,000 students in the state were "active" this 
fall -- that is, canvassed more than once - and most of them 
served as a "mobile strike force" in the rest of New England. 
"The level of apathy was incredible," he said, "and greatest of 
all at the elitie schools. Students at Harvard and Wellesley 
insisted on ideological purity. McGovern would make some 
concession they didn't like or we worked with some local poll 
they found distasteful and they'd throw up their hands and 
refuse to play." 

Thus the student button-wearers probably didn't produce 
much direct result; but their numbers may have had an 
important psychological effect. "They created a presence for 
McGovern that simply didn't exist in most states " says Mike 
Dukakis. "There may not have been all that many, but they 
seemed like an army. You looked around and you really felt 
McGovern was going to win." Many Massachusetts students 
live at home and commute to schools like Northeastern, 
Suffolk or Boston University. Shuttling back and forth 
between the liberal-left student subculture and their 
working-class homes, they may have persuaded may of their 
parents to vote for McGovern. 

There is more than just a huge student subculture in 
Massachusetts. There is a dense thicket of academia -- 
formidable phalanxes of professors, lecturers, instructors, 
tutors and section men. Some -- like the ubiquitous Galbraith, 
Abe Chayes and Marc Roberts of Harvard -- were McGovern 
advisers this year. Others were simply outspolken supporters. 
They undoubtedly added their weight to McGovern's 
"presence" in the state. 

Academia has influenced the Massachusetts voter not only 
directly, but through the state's peace movement, perhaps the 
strongest, most effective such force anywhere in the United 
States. The membership of the state's peace groups has never 
been large: the most important, Massachusetts Politcal Action 
for Peace (known as "Mass Pax"), now has only 1 ,220. But the 
movement's impact goes far behond its membership. It has 
moblized huge crowds on the Boston Common before the 
State House, at Army bases and Navy yards. Perhaps its most 
significant victory was the State Legislature's passage in 1970 
of a bill forbidding Massachusetts residents to serve in Vietnam 
without a Congressional declaration of warThe courts rejected 
Massachusetts' argument, but it was a historic stand by a state 
against a war it regarded as unjust 

The "dean" of the Massachusetts peace movement is Jerome 
Grossman, an envelope-company executive, who founded Mass 
Pax in 1962 and originated the Vietnam Moratorium 
Movement in October, 1969. Not surprisingly, Grossman 
believes that the peace movement's 10-year crusade is the 
single most important factor in McGovern's victory. "In the 
fifties, this was a priest-ridden, reactionary state, probably the 
most hawkish in the nation. Anti-Communism was next to 
godliness, if not godliness itself. We helped change all that. We 
made peace the single most important issue here and we made 
the politicians take us seriously. Nobody's frigging around 
with us anymore." 

Grossman points particularly to recent infusions of young 
Catholics into the movement "We always got Quakers, Jews 

At least two Massachusetts Congressmen owe their seats 
largely to the Movement: Michael Harington in the Sixth 
District (the WASPy North Shore) and the Rev. Robert F. 
Drinan in the Fourth District (Newton, Brookline and other 
prosperous Boston suburbs). Both men won decisvely this 
year. A third "peace candidate " John Kerry, lost this time in 
the largely industrial Fifth District (but less because of his 
leadership in Vietnam Veterans Aganist the War than because 
of his slick, preppy style.) 

A segment of Massachusetts - the Yankee— Brahmin 
tradition - has always tended to see issues in moral terms. 
Doris Kearns, an associate professor of government at Harvard, 
says: "From the witch trials and the abolitionists down 
through the peace movement, this state seems to respond 
when the battle lines are drawn between Good and Evil. And 
that was perfect for McGovern, because he is essentially a 
prairie preacher. He was best when thundering against the war 
and Watergate and Nixon himself as 'evil.' ' 

and Unitarians," he says, "but in the old days it was just 
impossible to talk to Catholics saying, 'We heard you speak 
and we want to get involved.' Ten years ago that would have 
been unthinkable." 

The changes in the Catholic Church over the past decade 
have presumably had some political impact. The ecumenical 
movement, Vatican II, Pope John's far-reaching internal 
reforms, Father Groppi'sfair housing marches, the Berrigans' 
activism and all the other dissenting priests have obviously 
worked remarkable changes in the American church. The 
Archdiocese of Boston has evolved, too: from haughty, rigid 
William Cardinal O'Connell to ebullient, compassionate 
Richard Cardinal Cushing, to Humberto Sousa Medeiros a 
close friend of Cesar Chavez's. 

And the changes among Massachusetts Catholics are 
unmistakable . Father Drinan's staunch advocacy of 
liberal-to-radical positions - and his widespread acceptance -- is 
one sign. The students at Boston College, a Jesuit institution 

where Father Drinan served as dean of the Law School now 
look very much like those at Boston University a few miles 
away -- blue-jeans, long hair no bras and, very often, politics 
to match. 

But just what impact this liberalization had on Catholic 
voting behavior this year is difficult to gauge. Nationally of 
course, Nixon pressed his so-called "Catholic strategy" with 
apparent success: a Harris survey showed that 52 per cent of 
Catholics now say they voted for the President and only 48 
per cent for McGovern reversing a long-time Democratic 
allegaince. Why then did Massachusetts Catholics vote so 
overwhelmingly for McGovern when their fellow commuicants 
in Ohio, Pennsylvania and Michigan did not? 

Of late, the Italians - often Republicas precisely becase the 
Irish are Democrats - have begun to encroach on the Irish 
oligarchy in Massachusetts politics. And there has been a 
maverick tendency to elect Republicans as Governor (Robert 
Bradford, Christian Herter, Francis Sargent) and Senator 
(Leverett Saltonstall Henry Cabot Lodge) - almost as if the 
Irish didn't trust their own men in those jobs. But, at lower 
levels, where "representation" is more important than 
efficiecy or honesty, the Irish still have an extraordinary hold 
on Massachusetts politics. 

In Presidential politics, they have helped provide a solid 
majority for Democratic candidates in all but two elections 
since 1928 -- the exceptions being Eisenhower's victories over 

Perhaps the Catholic subculture in Massachusetts is simply 
so strong, self-contained and irredeemably Democratic that it 
proved largely impervious to Nixon's vaunted "strategy." The 
state is 52 per cent Catholic - more than twice the national 
percentage (23 per cent) and second only to Rhode Island (62 
per cent). Although there are many Italian and 
French-Canadian Catholics here "Catholic" in Massachusetts 
still means primarily Irish-Catholic. And the Irish are 
historically Democrats here. 

Many historians have told the story of how legions of 
impoverished, uneducated Irish flooded into Massachusetts 
following the great potato famine of 1845, how the 
entrenched Yankee Protestants systematically excluded them 
from the professions and all but the lowest-paying jobs in 
industry; how the Irish then turned to their favorite avocation 
politics. Since the Yankees were over-whelmingly 
Republican, that meant Democratic politics. John 
McCormack, the former Speaker of the House, once said, "The 
people in my district are conceived Democrats." 

Stevenson in 1952 and 1956. William Schneider, assistant 
professor of government at Harvard, says: ' Everything else 
being equal, the Irish-Catholic voter in Massachusetts goes into 
the voting booth and pulls the Democratic lever." 

Yet it would be wrong to see the Irish as purely instictive 
voters. In some respects, they are among the shrewdest voters 
anywhere. For politics is their game: they love it more and are 
fooled by it less. And somehow this trait has pervaded the 
entire state. As Dun Gifford says: ' Massachusetts is the most 
politicized state in the Union. People here are just more 
sophisticated about politics than anywhere else. They don't 
take political posturing very seriously - which means Nixon 
would have a particularly tough time here exploiting fake 
issues like amnesty and marijuana or fooling people on 
Watergate or the grain deal." 

Some people I talked with linked Massachusetts' political 
sophistication to education, claiming that the state was simply 
the "best educated" in the nation. There is no evidence to 

support this claim (12.5 per cent of Massachusettts citizens 
over 25 have four our more years of higher education -- 
slightly above the national average of 10.7, but not even 
among the top 15 states). It isn't formal education which 
seems to count, but a kind of "street sense" about politics. Al 
Lupo of WGBH attributes some of this to the high rate of 
community organization: "In recent years, dozens of 
communites here have mobilized for some cause, often against 
something like a renewal project or a highway. It spans a broad 
range, from the little old lady who says, 'Could we have 
something to say about that?' to the black man who says, 
'You're not coming onto my turf.' But it sharply increased 
political awareness in the neighborhoods. They used to sit 
back and say, 'Ah, politicians! They're all crooks.' Now they 
say, 'Wait a minute we can work with him.' ' 

Administration retaliation against Democratic Massachusetts. 
"The President has concluded we're a lost cause and he's going 
to use the contracts where they'll do some good," one 
engineer told me. "You won't find many Engineers for Nixon' 
around here." 

And economic issues may have counted for more because 
there were fewer diversions. Sam Beer, professor of 
government at Harvard, says: ' Massachusetts went for 
McGovern because it's a large industrial state with a small 
black population. Thus, the blue-collar workers could vote 
their economic/class interests without being sidetracked by 
racial fears as they were in other industrial states. Nixon won 
the country largely by playing on subterranean fears of blacks 
to scare the average voter." Beer notes not only is 
Massachusetts' black population very small (3 per cent), but it 
is essentially middle-class, moderate and not given to violent 




ar Will end for U$ 


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In most of the country, McGovern seemed unable to exploit 
the recesstion, inflation and unemployment. But economic 
issues may have gained him some votes in Massachusetts 
because the recession hit this state harder than most and 
because people here seemed to put the blame for that directly 
on Nixon. 

The Massachusetts economy has been in trouble for a long 
time. Undermined by obsolescence assaulted by imports from 
Japan, unable to compete with cheap Southern labor the 
Commonwealth's traditional shoe factories and textile mills 
began closing up decades ago. This vacuum was gradually filled 
by another kind of industry - electronics and 

research-and-development companies which feed off the 
scientific expertise available at the state's universities. Such 
firms clustered along Route 128- a belt highway around 
Boston - which by the early sixties had become one of the 
world's great centers of space and electronic research. 
Then, in 1969, recession came to Route 128. Almost 
simultaneously, the Defence Department and NASA sharply 
cut back spending on research and development. By 1971, 
Massachusetts employment in electrical-equipment and 
supplies manufacture had dropped from its 1967 high of 
103,000 to 80,800. Unemployment in the state this year 
averaged 8 per cent, nearly double the national average with 
certain pockets running as high as 13 per cent Many of the 
unemployed felt they were victims of a conscious 

demonstrations. There has been an intense controversy over 
school segregation and busing in Boston- the issue which 
brought Congresswoman Louise Day Hicks to prominence. 
But, perhaps significantly, Mrs. Hicks lost this election. 
After two weeks here, I concluded that no single factor 
explained the Massachusetts phenomenon. Many different 
factors seemed to play a role, each reinforcing the other 
Ultimately, I came to feel that what counted as much as 
anything else was the exceptional "openess" of the state. 
Unlike the fifties, when it was Balkanized into warring and 
deeply suspicious enclaves, Massachusetts today is a place 
where people really talk- and listen- to each other: the peace 
movement to the Catholic Church, the professors to the labor 
unions, the students to the wealthy suburbs. Much of the 
talking, of course, is not face-to-face, but through the media. 
And here Massachusetts is fortunate to have a good, 
news-oriented public television station (WGBH), two of the 
best "alternative" papers in the country (Boston After 
Dark/Phoenix and The Real Paper) and- most important of 
all- a fine daily newspaper (The Globe). 
Finally, Massachusetts is distinguished by a confident- almost 
cocky- air of irreverence. One day I walked into The Harvard 
Crimson to ask its managing editor, David Lubow, why he 
thought Massachusetts had voted for McGovern. "That isn't a 
question that concerns us very much," Lubow said. "We've 
been wondering why the other 49 states went for Nixon." 



The settlement of America had its origins 
in the unsettlement of Europe. America 
came into existence when the European 
was already so distant in mind form the 
ancient ideas and ways of his birthplace 
that the whole span of the Atlantic did 
not materially widen the gulf. The 
dissociation, the displacement, and finally 
the disintegration of European culture 
became most apparent in the New World: 
but the process itself began in Europe, 
and the interests that eventually 
dominated the American scene all had 
their origin in the Old World. 

The Protestant, the inventor, the 

politician, the explorer, the restless 
delocalized man - all these types appeared 
in Europe before they rallied together to 
form the composite American. If we can 
understand the forces that produced 
them, we shall fathom the origins of the 
American mind. The settlement of the 
Atlantic seaboard was the culmination of 
one process, the breakup of medieval 
culture, and the beginning of another. Of 
the disinte gration went farthest in 
America, the processes of renewal have, 
at intervals, been most active in the new 
country; and it is for the beginnings of a 
genuine culture, rather than for its 

relentless exploitation of materials, that 
the American adventure has been 
significant. To mark the points at which 
the culture of the Old World broke down, 
and to discover in what places a new one 
has arisen are the two poles of this study. 
Some thing of value disappeared with the 
colonization of America. Why did it 
disappear? Something of value was 
created. How did that come about?If I 
do not fully answer these questions, I 
propose, at least, to put them a little 
more sharply, by tracing them to their 
historic beginnings, and by putting them 
in their social context. 

In the thirteenth century the European 
heritage of medieval culture was still 
intact. By the end of the seventeenth it 
had become only a heap of fragments, 
and men showed, in their actions if not 
by their professions, that it no longer had 
a hold over their minds. What had 

If one tries to sum up the world as it 
appeared to the contemporaries of 
Thomas Aquinas or Dante one is 
conscious of two main facts. The physical 
earth was bounded by a narrow strip of 
seas: it was limites: while above and 
beyond it stretched the golden canopy of 
heaven, infinite in all its invitations and 
promises The medieval culture lived in 
the dream of eternity: within that dream, 
the visible world of cities and castles and 
carabans was little more than the 
forestage on which the prologue was 
spoken. The drama itself did not properly 
open until the curtains of Death rang 
down, to destroy the illusion of life and 
to introduce the main scene of the drama, 
in heaven itself. During the Middle Ages 
the visible world was definite and secure. 
The occupations of men were defined, 
their degreee of excellence described, and 
their provileges and duties, though not 
without struggle, were set down. Over the 
daily life lay a whole tissue of meanings, 
derived from the Christian belief in 
eternity: the notion that existence was 
not a biological activity but a period of 
moral probation, the notion of an 
intermediate hierarchy of human beings 
tha t connected the lowest sinner with 
the august Ruler of Heaven, the idea that 
life was signi ficant only on condition 
that it was prolonged, in beatitude or in 
despair, into the next world. The beliefs 
and symbols of the Christian Church had 
guided men, and partly modified their 
activities, for roughly a thousand years. 
Then, one by one, they began to crack; 
one by one they ceased to be "real" or 
interesting; and gradually the dream that 
held them all together started to dissolve. 
When the process ceased, the united order 
of Christendom had become an array of 
independent and sovereign States, and the 
Church itself had divided up into a host 
of repellent sects. 

At what point did midieval culture begin 
to break down? The current answer to 
this, "With the Renaissance," is merely an 
evasion. When did it finally cease to 
exist /The answer is that a good part of it 
is still operative and has mingled with the 
customs and ideas that have succeeded it. 

But one can, perhaps, give an arbitrary 
beginning and an arbitrary end to the 
whole process. One may say that the first 
hint of change came in the thirteenth 
century, with the ringing of the bells, and 
that medieval culture ceased to dominate 
and direct the European community 
when it turned its back upon 
contemporary experience and failed at 
last to absorb the meanings of that 
experience, or to modify its nature. The 

Church's inability to control usury; her 
failure to reckon in time with the 
Protestant criticism of her internal 
administration; the unreadiness of the 
scholastics to adapt their methods to the 
new interests and criteria of science; the 
failure to prevent the absorption of the 
free cities, the feudal estates, and the 
monasteries by the central government - 
these are some of the stigmata of the 
decline. It is impossible to give a date to 
all of them; but it is pretty clear that by 
the end of the seventeenth century on e 
or another had come to pass in every part 
of Europe. In countries like England, 
which were therefore "advanced," all of 
them had come to pass. 
It is fatly easy to follow the general 
succession of events. First, the bells 
tolled, and the idea of time, or rather, 
temporality, resumed its hold over men's 
minds. All over Europe, beginning in the 
thirteenth century, the townsman erected 

campaniles and belfries, to record the 
passing hour. Immersed in traffic or 
handicraft, proud of his city or his guild, 
the citizen began to forget his awful fate 
in eternity; instead, he noted the 
succession of the minutes, and planned to 
make what he could of them. It was an 
innocent enjoyment, this regular tolling 
of the hour, but it had important 
consequenc es. Ingenious workmenin Italy 
and Southern Germany invented clocks, 
rigorous mechanical clocks: they adapted 
the principle of the woodman's lathe and 
applied it to metal. Here was the 
beginning of the exact arts. The 
craftsman began by measuring time; 
presently he could measure millimeters, 
too, and with the knowledge and 
technique introduced by the clockmaker, 
he was ready to make the telescope, the 
microscope, the theodolite - all of them 
instruments of a new order of spatial 
exploration and measurement. 
The interests in time and space advance 
side by side. In the fifteenth century the 
mapmakers devised new means of 
measuring and charting the earth's 
surface, and scarcely a generation before 
Columbus's voyages they began to cover 
their maps with imaginary lines of 
latitude and longitude. As soon as the 
mariner could calculate his position in 
time and space, the whole ocean was 
open to him; and henceforward even 
ordinary men, without the special skill 
and courage of a Marco Polo or a Leif 
Ericsson, could travel to distant lands. So 
time and space took possession of 
theEuropean's mind. Why dream of 
heaven or eternity, while the world was 
still so wide, and each new tract that was 
opened up promised, if not riches, 
novelty, and if not novelty, well, a new 
place to breathe in?So the bells tolled, 
and the ships set sail. Secure in his newly 
acquired knowledge, the European 
traveled outward in space, and, losing 
that sense of the immediate present 
which went with his old belief in eternity, 
he traveled backward and forward in 
time. An interest in archaeology and 
Utopias characterized the Renaissance. 
They provided images of pruely earthly 
realizations in past and future: ancient 
Syracuse and The City of the Sun were 
equally credible. 

The fall of Constantiople and the 
diffusion of Greek literature had not, 
perhaps, such a formative influence on 
this change as the historian once thought. 

But they accompanied it,and theimage of 
historic Greece and Rome gave the mind 
a temporary dwelling-place. Plainly, the 
knowledge which once held it so firmly, 
the convictions that the good Christian 
once bought so cheaply and cheerfully, 
no longer sufficed: if they were not 
altogether thrown aside, the humanists 
began, with the aid of classic literatu re, 
to fill up the spaces they had left open. 
The European turned aside from his 
tradition al cathedrals and began to build 
according to Vitruvius. He took a pagan 
interest in the human body, too, and 
Leonardo's Saint John was so lost to 
Christianity that he became Bacchus 
without changing a feature. The Virgin 
herself lost her old sanctity. Presto! the 
Child disappeared, the responsibilities of 
motherhood were gone, and she was now 
Venus. What had Saint Thomas Aquinas 
to say about theology ?One could read 
the 'Phaedo.' What had Aristotle to say 
about natural history? Leonardo, 
unaided, discovered fossils in the Tuscan 
hills and inferred that the ocean was once 
there. Simple peasants might cling to the 
Virgin, ask for the intercession of the 
saints, and kneel before the cross; but 
these images and ideas had lost their hold 
upon the more acute minds of Europe. 

They had broken, these intellectual 
adventurers, outside the tight little world 
of Here and Eternity: they were 
interested in Yonder and Yesterday; and 
since eternity was a long way off and 
we'll "he damnable moldy a hundred 
years hence," they accepted tomorrow as 
a substitute. 

There were some who found it hard to 
shake off the medieval dream in its 
entirety; so they retained the dream and 
abandoned all the gracious practices that 
enthroned it in the daily life. As 
Protestants, they rejected the outcome of 
historic Christianity, but not its 
inception. They believed in the Eucharist, 
but they did not enjoy paintings of the 
Last Supper. They believed in the Virgin 
Mary, but they were not softened 
by the humanity of Her motherhood. They 
read, voraciously, the literature of the 
Ancient Jews, and the legends of that sect 
which grew up by the shores of Galilee, 
but, using their private judgement and 
taking the bare words as the sum and 
substance of their religion , they forgot 
the interpretations from the early Fathers 
to Thomas Aquinas which refined that 
literature and melted it into a 
comprehensible whole. When the 

Protestant renounced justification by 
works, he included under works all the 
arts which had flourished in the medieval 
church and created an independent realm 
of beauty and magnificence. What 
remained of the faith was perhaps 
intensified during the first few 
generations of the Protestant 
espousal- one cannot doubt the original 
intensity and vitality of the protest-but 
alas! so little remained! 
In the bareness of the Protestant 
cathedral of Geneva one has the 
beginnings of that hard barracks 
architecture which formed the stone 
tenements of seventeenth century 
Edinburgh, set a pattern for the austere 
meeting-houses of New England, and 
finally deter iorated into the miserable 
shanties that line Main Street. The 
meagerness of the Protestant ritual began 
that general starvation of the spirit which 
finally breaks out, after long repression, 
in the absurd jamborees of Odd Fellows, 
Elks, Woodmen, and kindred fraternities. 
In short, all that was once made manifest 
in a Chartres, a Strasbourg, or a Durham 
minister, and in the mass, the pageant, 
the art gallery, the theater- all this the 

f<m<M /x &«&-4 



Protestant bleached out into the hare 
abstraction of the printed word. Did he 
suffer any hardship in moving to the New 
WorldTNone at all. All that he wanted of 
the Ole World he carried within the 
covers of a book. Fortunately for the 
original Protestants, that book was a 
whole literature; in this, at least, it 
differed from the later protestant canons, 
perpetrated by Joseph Smith or Mary 
Baker Eddy. Unfortunately, however, the 
practices of a civilized society cannot be 
put between two black covers. So, in 
some respects, Protestant society ceased 
to be civilized. 

Our critical eyes are usually a little 
dimmed by the great release of energy 
during the early Renaissance: we forget 
that it quickly spent itself. For a little 
while the great humanists, such as More, 
Erasmus, Scaliger, and Rabelais created a 
new home for the spirit out of the 
fragments of the past, and the new 
thoughts were cemented together by the 
old habits of medieval civilization, which 
persisted among the peasants and the 
craftsmen long after they had been 
undermined in the Church and the palace. 

The revival of classic culture, however, 
did not give men any new power of 
command over the workaday routine of 
life, for the very ability to re-enter the 
past and have commerce with its great 
minds implied leisure and scholarship. 
Thus the great hulk of the community 
had no direct part in the revival, and if 
the tailor or the tinker abandoned the 
established church, it was only to espouse 
that segment called Protestantism. Tailors 
and tinkers , almost by definition, could 
not be humanists, moreover, beyond a 
certain point, humanism did not make 
connections with the new experience of 
the Columbuses and the Newtons any 
better then did the medieval culture. If 
the criticism of the pagan scholars 
released a good many minds from 
Catholic theology, it did not orient them 
toward what was "new" and "practical" 
and "coming". The Renaissance was not, 
therefore, the launching out of a new 
epoch: it simply witnessed the 
breakdown and disruption of the existing 
science, myth, and fable. When the Royal 
Society wa s founded in London in the 
middle of the seventeenth century the 
humanities were deliberately excluded. 

'Science' was indifferent to them. 
Once the European, indeed, had 
abandoned the dream of medieval 
theology, he could not live very long on 
the memory of a classic culture: that, 
too, lost its meaning; that, too, failed to 
make connections with his new 
experiences in time and space. Leaving 
both behind him, he turned to what 
seemed to him a hard and patent reality: 
the external world. The old symbols, the 
old ways of living, had become a blank. 
Instead of them, he took refuge in 
abstractions, and reduced the rich 
actuality of things to a bare description 
of matter and motion. Along this path 
went the early scientists, or natural 
philosophers. By mathematical analysis 
and experiment, they extracted form the 
conplicated totality of everyday 
experience just those phenomena which 
could be observed, measured , 
generalized, and, if necessary, repeated. 
Applying this exact methodology, they 
learned to predect more accurately the 
movements of the heavenly bodies, to 
describe more precisely the fall of a stone 
and the flight of a bullet, to determine 
the carrying load of a bridge, or the 
composition of a fragment of 'matter.' 

Rule, authority, precedent, general 
consent - these things were all 
subordinate in scientific procedure to the 
methods of observation and mathematical 
analysis: weighing, measuring, timing, 
decomposing, isolating - all operations 
that led to results. 

At last knowledge could be tested and 
practice reformed: and if the scientists 
themselves were usually too busy to see 
the upshot of their investigations, one 
who stood on the sidelines, Francis 
Bacon, was quick to announce their 
conclusion: science tended to the relief of 
man's estate. 

With the aid of this new procedure, the 
external world was quickly reduced to a 
semblance of order. But the meanings 
created by science did not lead into the 
core of human life: they applied only to 
'matter', and if they touched upon life at 
all, it was through a post-mortem 
analysis, or by following Descartes and 
arbitrarily treating the human organism as 
if it were automatic and externally 
determined under all conditions. For the 
scientists, these new abstractions were 
full of meaning and very helpful; they 
tunneled through whole continents of 
knowledge. For the great run of men, 
however, science had no meaning for 
itself; it transferred meaning from the 
creature proper to his estate, considered 
as an independent and external realm. In 
short, except to the scientist, the only 
consequences of science were practical 
ones. A new view m of the universe 
developed, naturally, but it was accepted 
less because of any innate credibility than 
because it was accompanied by so many 
cogent proofs of science's power. 
Philosophy, religion, art, non of these 
activities had ever baked any bread: 
science was ready, not merely to bake the 
bread, but increase the yield of the 
wheat, grind the flour, and eliminate the 
baker. Even the plain man would 
appreciate consequences of this order. 
Seeing was believing. By the middle of 
the seventeenth century all the 
implications of the process had been 
imaginatively grasped. In 1661 Joseph 
Clanvill wrote: 

"I doubt not posterity will find many 
things that are now but rumors, verified 
into practical realities. It may be that, 
some ages hence, a voyage to the 
Southern tracts, yea, possibly to the 
moon, will not be mbre strange than one 
to America. To them that come after us, 

it may be as ordinary to buy a pair of 
wings to fly to remotest regions, as now a 
pair of boots to ride a journey; and to 
confer at the distance of the Indies by 
sympathetic conveyances may be as usual 
in future times as by literary corresponde 
nee. The restoration of gray hairs to 
juvenility, and renewing the exhausted 
marrow, may at length be effected 
without a miracle; and the turning of the 
now comparatively desert world into a 
Paradise may not improbably be effected 
from late agriculture." 
The process of abstraction began in the 
theology of Protestantism as an attempt 
to isolate, deform, and remove historic 
connections; it became habitual in the 
mental operations of the physical 
scientist; and it was carried over into 
other departments. 

The extended use of money, to replace 
barter and service, likewise began during 
this same period of disintegration. Need I 
emphasize that in their origin 
Protestantism, physical science and 
finance were all liberating influences? 
They took the place of habits and 
institutions which, plainly were 
moribund, being incapable of renewal 


from within: Need I also emphasixe the 
close historic inter-connection of the 
three things? We must not raise our 
eyebrows when we discover that a 
scientist like Newton in seventeenth 
century England, or Rittenhouse in 
eighteenth century America, became 
master of the mint, nor must we pass by, 
as a quaint coincidence, the fact the 
Geneva is celebrated both as the home of 
Jean Calvin and as the great center of 
watches and clocks. These connections 
are not mystical nor factitious. The new 
financial order was a direct outgrowth of 
the new theological and scientific views. 
First came a mechanical method of 
measuthen a method of measuring space: 
finally, in money, men began more 
widely to apply an abstract way of 
measuring power, and in money they 
achieved a calculus for all human activity. 
This financial system of measurement 
released the European from his old sense 
of social and economic limitations. No 
glutton can eat a hundred pheasants; no 
drunkard can drink a hundred bottles of 
wine at a sitting; and if any one schemed 
to have so much food and wine brought 
to his table daily, he would be mad. Once 

he could exchange the potential 
pheasants and Burgundy for marks or 
thalers, he could direct the labor of his 
neighbors, and achieve the place of an 
aristocrat without being to the manor 
born. Economic activity ceased to deal 
with the tangible realities of the medieval 
world - land and corn and houses and 
universityes and cities. It was transformed 
into the pursuit of an abstraction - 
money. Tangible goods were only a 
means to this supreme end. When some 
incipient Rotarian finally coined the 
phrase "Time is money," he expressed 
philosophically the equivalence of two 
ideas which could not possible be 
combined, even in thought, so long as 
money meant houses, food, pictures, and 
time meant only what it does in Bergson's 
duree, that is, the succession of organic 

Does all this seem very remote form the 
common lifeTOn the contrary, it goes to 
the roots of every activity. The difference 
between historical periods, as the late T. 
E. Hulme pointed out, is a difference 
between the categories of their thought. 
If we have got on the trail of their 
essential categories, we have a thread 
which will lead outward into even remote 
departments of life. The fact is that from 
the seventeenth century onward, almost 
every field was invaded by this process of 
abstraction. The people not affected were 
either survivals from an older epoch, like 
the orthodox Jews and Roman Catholics 
in theology, or the humanists in 
literature, or they were initiators, 
working through to a new order - men 
like Lamarch, Wordsworth, Goethe, 

Last and most plainly of all, the 
disintegration of medieval culture became 
apparent in politics. Just as "matter," 
when examined by the physicist, is 
abstracted form the esthetic matrix of 
our experience, do the 'individual' was 
abstracted by the political philosopher 
the new order from the bosom of human 
society. He ceased, this individual, to 
maintain his omnipresent relations with 
city, family, household, club, college 
guild, and office: he became the new unit 
of political society. Having abstracted this 
purely conceptual person in thought - he 
had, of course, no more actual existence 
than an angel or a cherub - the great 
problem of political thinking in the 
eighteenth century became: How shall we 
restore him to society?- for somehow 
we always find man, as Rousseau grimly 
said, in chains, that is, in relations with 
other human beings. The solution that 

Rousseau and the dominant schools of 
the time offered was ingenious: each 
individual is endowed with natural rights, 
and he votes these political rights into 
society, as the shareholder votes his 
economic rights into a trading 
corporation. This principle of consent 
was necessary to the wellbeing of a civil 
society; and assent was achieved, in free 
political states, through the operation of 
the ballot, and the delivery of the general 
will by a parliament. 

The doctrine broke the weakening chain 
of historical continuity in Europe. It 
challenged the vested interests; it was 
ready to declare the existing corporations 
bankrupt; it was prepared to wipe away 
the traditional associations and nests of 
privileges which maintained the clergy, 
the nobility, the guilds. On its destructive 
side, the movement for political liberty, 
like that for free contract, free 
association, and free investigation , was 
sane and reasonable; for the abuses of the 
past were genuine and the grievances 
usually had more than a small touch of 
justice. We must not, however, be blind 
to the consequences of all these 
displacements and dissociations. Perhaps 
the briefest way of character izing them is 
to say that they made America inevitable. 
To those who were engaged in political 
criticism, it seemed that a genuine 
political order had been created in the 
setting up of free institutions, but we can 
see now that the process was an inevitable 
bit of surgery, rather than the beginning 
of a more organic form of political 
association. By 1852 Henry James, Sr. 
was keen enough to see what had 
happened: "Democracy," he observed, 
"is not so much a new form of political 
life as a dissolution and disorganization of 
the old forms. It is simply a resolution of 
government into the hands of the people 
a taking down of that which has before 
existed, and a recommitment of it to its 
original sources, but it is by no means the 
substitution of anything else in its place." 
Now we begin to see a little more clearly 
the state of mind out of which the great 
migrations to the New World became 
possible. The physical causes have been 
dwelt on often enough; it is important to 
recognize that a cultural necessity was at 
work at the same time. The old culture of 
the Middle Ages had broken down; the 
old heritage lingered on only in the 
"backward" and "un progressive" 
countries like Italy and Spain, which 
drifted outside the main currents of the 
European mind. Men's interests became 
externalized ; externalized and abstract. 

They fixed their attention on some 
narrow aspect of experience , and they 
pushed that to the limit. Intelligent 
people were forced to choose between 
the fossilized shell of an old and complete 
culture, and the new culture, which in 
origin was thein, partial, abstract, and 
deliberately indifferent to man's proper 
interests. Choosing the second, our 
Europeans already had one foot in 
America. Let them suffer persecution, let 
the times get hard, let them fall out with 
their governments, let them dream of 
worldly success - and they will come 
swarming over the ocean. The groups that 
had most completely shaken off the old 
symbolisms were those that were most 
ready for the American adventure: they 
turned themselves easily to the mastery 
of the external environment. To them 
matter alone mattered. 
The ultimate results of this disintegration 
of European culture did not come out, in 
America, until the nineteenth century. 
But its immediate consequences became 
visible, step by step, in the first hundred 
and fifty years or so of the American 
settlement. Between the landing of the 
first colonists in Massachusetts, the New 
Netherlands, Virginia, and Maryland, and 
the ft st thin trickle of hunters that 
passed over the Alleghenies, beginning 
figuratively with Daniel Boone in 1775, 
the communities of the Atlantic seaboard 
were outposts of Europe: they carried 
their own moral and intellectual climate 
with them. 

During this period, the limitations in the 
thought of the intellectual classes had not 
yet wrought themselves out into defects 
and malformations in the community 
itself: the house, the town, the farm were 
still modeled after patterns formed in 
Europe. It was not a great age, perhaps, 
but it had found its form. Walking 
through the lanes of Boston, or passing 
over the wide lawns to a manor house in 
Maryland, one would have had no sense 
of a great wilderness beckoning in the 
beyond. To tell the truth, the wilderness 
did not beckon: these solid townsmen, 
these freeholders, these planters, were 
content with their civil habits; and if they 
thought of expansion, it was only over 
the ocean, in search of Palladian designs 
for their houses, or of tea and sperm-oil 
for personal comfort. On the surface, 
people lived as they had lived in Europe 
for many a year. 

In the fkst century of colonization, this 
life left scarcely any deposit in the mind. 
There was no literature but a handful of 
verses, no music except the hymn or 

some surviving Elizabethan ballad, no 
ideas except those that circled around the 
dogmas of Protestantism. But, with the 
eighteenth century, these American 
communities stepped fully into the 
sphere of European ideas, and there was 
an American equivalent for every new 
European type. It is amusing to follow 
the leading biographies of the time. 
Distinguished American figures step onto 
the stage, in turn, as if the Muse of 
History had prepared their entrances and 
exits. Their arrangement is almost 
diagrammatic: they form a resume of the 
European mind. In fact, these Edwardses 
and Franklins seem scarcely living 
characters: they were Protestantism, 
Science, Finance, Politics. 
The first on the stage was Jonathan 
Edwards: he figured in American thought 
as the last great expositor of Calvinism. 
Edwards wrote like a man in a trance, 
who at bottom is aware that he is talking 
nonsense; for he was in love with beauty 
of the soul, like Plato before him, and it 
was only because he was caught in the 
premisis of determinism that, with a 
heavy conscience, he followed his dire 
train of thought to its destination. After 
Edwards, Protestantism lost its 
intellectual backbone. It developed into 
the bloodless Unitarianism of the early 
nineteenth century, which is a sort of 
humanism without courage, or it got 
caught in orgies of revivalism, and, under 
the name of evangelical Christianity, 
threw itself under the hoofs of more than 
one muddy satyr. There were great 
Protestant preachers after Edwards, no 
doubt: but the triumph of a Channing or 
a Beecher rested upon personal qualities; 
and they no longer drew their thought 
from any deep well of conviction. 
All the habits that Protestantism 
developed, its emphasis upon industry, 
upon self-help , upon thrift, upon the 
evils of 'idleness' and 'pleasure', upon the 
worldiness and wickedness of the arts, 
were so many gratuitous contributions to 
the Industrial Revolution. When Professor 
Morse, the inventor of the telegraph, was 
still a painter, traveling in Italy, he 
recorded in one of his letters the animus 
that pervaded his religious creed: the 
testimony loses nothing by being a little 
belated. "I looked around the church," 
he wrote, "to ascertain what was the 
effect upon the multitude , 
assembled... Everything around them, 
instead of aiding devotion, was entirely 
calculated to destroy it. The imagination 
was adressed to every avenue; music and 
painting pressed into the service of -not 

religion but the contrary- led the mind 
away from the contemplation of all that 
is practical in religion to the charms of 
mere sense. No instruction was imparted; 
none ever seems to be intended." 

It is but a short step from this attitude to 
hiring revivalist mountebanks to promont 
factory morale; nor are these thoughts far 
from that fine combination of 
commercial zeal and pious effort which 
characterize such auxiliaries as the 
Y.M.C.A. The fictions of peotry and the 
delusions of feeling were the bugbears of 
Gr ad g r ind , Bounderby , and 
M'Choakumchild in Dickens's classic 
picture of industrialism: for the shapes 
and images they called forth made those 
which were familiar to the Protestant 
mind a little dreary and futile. It was not 
merely that Protestantism and science 
had killed the old symbols: they must 
prevent new ones from developing: they 
must abolish the comtemplative attitude 
in which art and myth grow up, and 
create new forms for man's activities. 
Hence the fury of effort by which the 
leaders of the new day diverted energies 
to quantitative production. The capacity 
to do work, which the new methods in 
industry had so enormously increased, 
gave utilitarian objects an importance 
they had not hitherto possessed. Did not 
Cod's Work say: "Increase and 
multiply: :?If babies, shy not goods: if 
goods, why not dollars?Success was the 
Protestant miracle that justified man's 
ways to Cod. 

The next figure that dominated the 
American scene stood even more 
completely for these new forces. He was, 
according to the pale lights of his time, a 
thoroughly cultivated man, and in his 
maturity he was welcomed in London 
and Paris as the equal of scientists like 
Priestley and Erasmus Darwin, and of 
scholars like d'Alembert and d'Holbach. 
As a citizen, by choice, of Philadelphia, 
Benjamin Franklin adopted the plain 
manners and simple thrifty ways of the 
Quakers. He went into business as a 
publisher, and with a sort of sweet 
acuteness in the pursuit of money, he 
imparted the secrets of his success in the 
collection of timely saws for which he 
became famous. The line from Franklin 
through Samuel Smiles to the latest 
advertisements for improving one's 
position and doubling one's income, in 
the paper that dates back to Franklin's 
ownership, is a pretty direct one. If one 
prefers Franklin's bourgeois qualities to 
those of his successors, it is only perhaps 
because his life was more fullv rounded. 

If he was not without the usurious habits 
of the financier, he had also the dignity 
and freedom of the true scientise. 
For Franklin was equally the 
money maker, the scientist, the inventor, 
and the politician and in science his fair 
boast was that he had not gained a penny 
by any of his discoveries. He 
experimented with electricity; he 
invented the lightning rod; he improved 
the draft of chimneys; in fact, on his last 
voyage home to America, shortly before 
his death, he was still improving the ffraft 
of chimneys. Finally he was a Deist: he 
had gotten rid of all the "gothick 
phantoms" that seemed so puerile and 
unworthy to the quick minds of the 
eighteenth century - which meant that 
he was completely absorbed in the 
dominant abstractions and myths of his 
own time, namely, matter, money, and 
political rights. He accepted the 
mechanical concept of time: time is 
money; the importance of space: space 
must be conquered; the desirability of 
money: money must be made; and he did 
not see that these,too, are phantoms, in 
preoccuption with which a man may lose 
most of the advantages of a civilized life. 
As a young man, Franklin even invented 
an elaborate system of 
moral bookkeeping: utilitarianism can go 
no further. 

Although Franklin's sagacity as a 
statesman can hardly be overrated, for he 
had both patience and principle, the 
political side of the American thought of 
his time is best summed up in the 
doctrines of a new immigrant, that 
excellent friend of humanity, Thomas 
Paine. Paine' s name has served so many 
purposes in polemics that scarcely any 
one seems to take the trouble to read his 
books: and so more than one shallow 
judgement has found its way into our 
histories of literature, written by worthy 
men who were incapable of enjoying a 
sound English styly, or of following, with 
any pleasure, an honest system of 
thought, clearly expressed. 'The Rights of 
Man' is as simple as a geometrical 
theorem; it contains, I think, most of 
what is valid in political liber tarianism. I 
know of no other thinker who saw more 
clearly through the moral humbug that 
surrounds a good many theories of 
government. Said Paine: 
"Almost everything appertaining to the 
circumstances of a nation has been 
absorbed and confounde; under the 
general and mysterious word government. 
Though it avoids taking to its account the 
errors it commits and the mischiefs it 

occasions, it fails not to arrogate to itself 
whatever has the appearance of 
prosperity. It robs industry of its honors 
by pendantically making itself the cause 
of its effects; and purloins from the 
general character of man the merits that 
appertain to him as a social being." 
Passage after passage in 'The Rights of 
Man' and 'The Age of Reason' is written 
with the same pithiness. Paine came to 
America as an adult, and saw the 
advantages of a fresh start. He believed 
that if first principles could be 
enunciated, here, and here alone, was a 
genuine opportunity to apply them. He 
summed up the hope in reason and in 
human contrivance that swelled through 
the eighteenth century. Without love for 
any particular country, and without that 
living sense of history which makes one 
accept the community's past, as one 
accepts the totality of one's own life, 
with all its lapses and mistakes, he was 
the vocal immigrant, justifying in his 
political and religious philosophy the 
complete break he had made with old 
ties, affections, allegiances. 
Unfortunately, a man without a 
background is not more truly a man: he 
has merely 

lost the scenes and institutions which 
gave him his proper shape. If one studies 
him closely, one will find that he has 
secretly arranged another background, 
made up of shadows that linger in the 
memory, or he is uneasy and restless, 
settles down, moves on, comes home 
again, lives on hopeless tomorrows, or 
sinks back into mournful yesterdays. The 
immigrants who came to America after 
the War of Independence gave up their 
fatherland in exchange for a Constitution 
and a Bill of Rights: they forfeited all the 
habits andinstitutions which had made 
them men without getting anything in 
exchange except freedom from arbitrary 
misrule. That they make the exchange 
willingly, proves that the cond itions 
behind them were intolerable; but that 
the balance was entirely in favor of the 
new country, is something that we may 
well doubt. When the new settlers 
migrated in bodies, like the Moravians, 
they sometimes managed to maintain an 
effective cultural life; when they came 
alone, as "free individuals," they gained 
little more than cheap land and the 
privileges of the ballot box. The land 
itself was all to the good; and no one 
minded the change, or felt any lack, so 
long as he did not stop to compare the 
platitudes of Fourth of July orations with 


■?P- -. ■"- -J: 

■ :- ■ 

the actualities of the Slave Trade, the 
Constitutional Conventions, Alien and 
Sedition Acts, and Fugitive Slave Laws. 
It was possible for Paine, in the 
eighteenth century, to believe that 
culture was served merely by the absence 
of a church, a state, a social order such as 
those under which Europe labored. That 
was the error of his school, for the 
absence of these harmful or obsolete 
institutions left a vacancy in society, and 
that vacancy was filled by work, or more 
accurately speaking, by busy work, which 
fatigued the body and diverted the mind 
from the things which should have 
enriched it. Republican politics aided this 
externalism. People sought to live by 
politics alone; the National State became 
their religion. The flag, as Professor 
Carleton Hayes has shown, supplanted 
the cross, and the Fathers of the 
Constitution the Fathers of the Church. 

The interaction of the dominant interests 
of industry and politics is illustrated in 
Paine 's life as well as Franklin's. Paine 
was the inventor of the take-down iron 
bridge. Indeed, politics and invention 
recurred rhythmically in his lofe, and he 
turned aside from his experiments on the 
iron bridge to answer Edmund Burke's 
attack on the French Revolution. "The 
War of Independence," as he himself 
said, "energized invention and lessened 
the catalogue of impossibilities. ..As one 
among thousands who had borne a share 
in that memorable revolution, I returned 
with them to the enjoyment of a quiet 
life, and that I might not be idle, 
undertook to construct a bridge of a 
single arch for this river [the 

That I might not be idle! What a tale 
those workd tell! While the aristocracy 
was in the ascendant, patient hirelings 
used to apply then knowledge of 
hydraulics to the working of fountains, as 
in Versailles, or they devised automatic 
chess-players, or they contrived elaborate 
clocks which struck the hour, jetted 
water, caused little birds to sing and wag 
their tails, and played selections form the 
operas. It was to such inane and harmless 
Performances that the new skills in the 
exact arts were first put. The bored 
patron was amused; life plodded on; 
nothing was altered. But in the freedom 
of the new day, the common man, as 
indifferent to the symbols of the older 
culture as the great lords and ladies, 
innocent of anything to occupy his mind, 
except the notion of controlling matter 
and mastering the external world - the 
common man turned to inventions. 

Stupid folk drank heavily, ate 
gluttonously, and became libertines; 
intelligent, industrious men like Franklin 
and Paine turned their minds to 
increasing the comforts and conveniences 
of existence. Justification by faith: that 
was politics: the belief in a new heaven 
and a new earth to be established by 
regular elections and parliamentary 
d~oate. Justification by works: that was 
invention. No frivolities entered this new 
religion. The new divices all saved labor, 
decreased distances, and in one way or 
another multiplied riches. 

With these inventors, the American, like 
his contemporary in Europe, began 
theutilitarian conquest of his 
environment. From this time on, men 
with an imaginative bias like Morse, the 
pupil of Benjamin Wast, men like 
Whitney, the schoolteacher, like Fulton, 
the miniature painter, turned to invention 
or at least the commercial exploitation of 
inventions without a qualm of distrust: to 
abandon the imaginative arts seemed 
natural and inevitable, and they no longer 
faced the situation, as the painters of the 
Renaissance had done, with a divided 

mind. Not that America began or 
monopolized the developments of the 
Industrial Revolution: the great outbreak 
of technical patents began, in fact in 
England about 1760, and the first 
inklings of the movement were already 
jotted down in Leonardo da Vinci's 
notebooks. The point is that in Europe 
heavy layers of the old culture kept large 
sections of the directing classes in the old 
ways. Scholars, literary men, historians, 
artists still felt no need of justifying 
themselves by exclusive devotion to 
practical activities. In America, however, 
the old culture had worn thin, and in the 
rougher parts of the country it did not 
exist. No one in America was unaffected 
by the progress of invention; each 
improvement was quickly cashed in. 
When Stendhal wrote 'V Amour' the 
American love of comfort had already 
become a by -word: he refers to it with 

Given an old culture in ruins, and a new 
culture in vacuo, this externalizing of 
interest, this ruthless exploitation of the 
physical environment was, it would seem, 

Protestantism, science, invention, 
political democracy, all of these 
institutions denied the old values; all of 
them, by denial or by precept or by 
actual absorption, furthered the new 
activities. Thus in America the new order 
of Europe came quickly into being. If the 
nineteenth century found us more raw 
and rude, it was not because we had 
settled in a new territory; it was rather 
because our minds were not buoyed up 
by all those memorials of a great past that 
floated over the surface of of Europe. 
The American was thus thus a stripped 
European; and the colonization of 
America can, with justice, be called the 
dispersion of Europe - a movement 
carried on by people incapable of sharing 
or continuing its past. It was to America 
that the outcast Europeans turned, 
without a Moses to guide them, to 
wander in the wilderness; and here they 
have remained in exile, not without an 
occasional glimpse, perhaps, of the 
promised land. 

The Origins of the American Mind, 
by Lewis Mumford 


President Walker, Dr. Greer, Members 
of the Board of Trustees, Faculty and 
Students of Southeastern Massachusetts 
University, Honored Delegates and 
Friends of the University. It is, indeed, a 
very great pleasure, on an occasion like 
this - I think I could say a historic 
occasion - to bring congratulations to 
President Walker from his colleagues on 
the West Coast. And to those personal 
good wishes, I should like to add, too, the 
applause of the students and the 
institutions in the West that he served so 
able before he took that great leap to the 
East Coast. I think that I probably belong 
to the last wave of migration that 
followed Horace Greeley's male 
chauvinist advice "Go West young man, 
go West". And, therefore, I salute 
President Walker for his insight and his 
courage in listening to the new voice of 

prophecy, because I think a perceptive 
educator today hears the words, "Go 
East, young man, and preach the glories 
of public education. Show them that 
California has not just gold, but also a 
master plan, which made open admissions 
a reality before we had dreamed up the 
term." It is ; therefore, a privilege to 
convey to President Walker the 
congratulations of his West Coast 
colleagues, and at the same time to 
express to him their confidence in his 
capacity to fulfill a great missionary 
enterprise - that of reversing the historic 
migration in America. 

Now, at the same time, I should like to 
welcome the new President on behalf of 
the New England colleagues. And, lest 
you might question my warrant to speak 
for them, I should confess that actually I 
was President of Connecticut College in 
New London from 1947 to 1962 and 

therefore I know a lot more about New 
England education than I can claim to 
know about the West. Perhaps, as a 
footnote, I should say to Dr. Greer that 
there were three college presidents in my 
family, and it is very easy to confuse one 
of us with the other. As additional 
evidence, and I now come to the source 
of the confusion for my warrant to speak 
for New England, I should mention that 
it was my father, J. Edgar Park, who was 
President of Wheaton College in Norton, 
Massachusetts for almost twenty years, 
and therefore this area of Massachusetts is 
by no means alien territory to me. In 
fact, I remember very well that the radio 
station to which we listened in Norton, 
Mass., in those non-TV days, was located 
in Dartmouth; it might have been South 
Dartmouth, I'm not quite sure, but in any 
case the Town of Dartmouth is a familiar 
town to me. 

But as some of you know, there are 
more important reasons for remembering 
the Town of Dartmouth. These are 
historical reasons. As some of you are 
perhaps aware the Towns of Dartmouth 
and of Tiverton, both at that time in the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony, came to the 
attention of the General Court of the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1707, more 
than two-hundred and fifty years ago. 
They came to the attention of the 
colonial legislature because these two 
towns had refused to obey a statute of 
the colony requiring every town in the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony to hire and 
support by taxes a learned, orthodox, 
Congregational minister. Now , as many 
of you know, Dartmouth and Tiverton 
were settled mostly by Baptists and by 
Quakers, and these people refused, In 
their own words, they said to the Court, 
"We are firmly persuaded that many of 
our people, who are religiously sincere 
and upright before Cod, cannot for 
conscience sake pay any tax or rate raised 
for that use". Now the General Court, of 
course, was composed of orthodox, 
perhaps not learned, but certainly 
orthodox congragationalists and they 
found this response inadequate. They 
directed the assessors of the Towns of 
Dartmouth and Tiverton to collect that 
tax, and the assessors, with the 
concurrence of the citizenry, refused. 
They were, thereupon, cast into prison. 
And so these men became in effect, 
martyrs to the demand for a right of 
conscience or as we would say today to 
the demand for freedom of religion. And 
the irony, of course, is that it was this 
same demand that had led to the 
founding of the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony itself. You can read in the history 
books the various turns in this dispute. It 
went on until 1724 and finally reached 
King William, who through his privy 
council, ruled that these two towns, 
Dartmouth and Tiverton, should be free 
of any obligation to support a minister 
not of their own choosing. I mention this 
to show you that the tradition of 
non-conformity is well established in this 
part of the country. Your early ancestors 
defied the County of Bristol and the 
General Court of the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony in the name of conscience, and 
they were prepared to make sacrifices in 
that cause. As one of their petitions says, 
"Either by execution on their bodies, or 
estates". Those were strong words, even 
at that time. 

Now I mention all this early history 
because I think it is relevant to the task 
of the university today, no matter where 
that university may be situated. Because, 
however revolutionary and dissenting a 
society may be in its origins, there is a 
tendency for it to lose its flexibility as it 
grows older as surely happened in 
Massachusetts Bay. And such a society 
desperately needs to be put to question 
from time to time lest it become 
conformist, dull and even corrupt. From 
time to time in history, men, like the 
assessors of Dartmouth and of Tiverton, 
question the establishment , and by their 
dissent they point the way to new 
policies for government and for society. 
During the last century in the United 
States, the universities have forged the 
doctrine of academic freedom, which 
established such questioning as a 
recognized provilege of the university, 
and which stipulates even further that 
students are to be accustomed to the 
critical analysis of society's assumptions, 
so that, as adults, they can make their 
own examination of it's assumptions and 
can continually refine the structure and 
responsiveness of community life. 

Therefore, no institution could be more 
at home in this dissenting area of 
Massachusetts than a university, 
particularly a young one, which is not 
frozen in inflexibilities and which can 
respond honestly to question. 

Universities are a unique kind of place. 
They always have been. When they first 
arose in Europe, they arose around great 
teachers. Men who were teaching new 
doctrines, not simply expurgating the 
established tenets. And from all over 
Europe, often at great hardship to 
themselves, students came to find out 
what new things Irnerius was telling 
about Roman law in Bologna, or what 
peculiar, philosophical questions Abelard 
was discussing in Paris. And before long, 
of course, the number of students seeking 
instruction far exceeded what one man or 
his assistants could manage, and so 
numerous rivals to Irnerius and Abelard 
emerged. As the university became a 
place, where many masters taught many 
subjects to many young people. The 
newness of what was taught at the 
university varied during the centuries. 
Initially the novelty of new discoveries 
was what attracted the students and what 

sturred Europe to its core. But, in time, 
these new insights and discoveries became 
established doctrine, as we have seen at 
Massachusetts Bay, and the university 
ceased to be the center of the intellectual 
life of its society. But today, the modern 
university, with its enormous research 
capabilities, is once again the source of 
new ideas and new techniques for our 
world. Just as Irnerius and Abelard 
presented new questions and new kinds 
of knowledge, so are learned men and 
scientists today revealing the mysteries of 
heredity, the identification of 
Shakespeare's dark lady, the geological 
composition of the moon and the ocean 
floor. And then there are still others, who 
dare to question the validity of schooling 
as a way of reducing inequalities in our 
society, men, who at the moment, refuse 
to accept the idea that inequalities are 
entirely the result of environment. By 
raising such questions, they challenge our 
accepted beliefs, and most of us wish 
they would keep quiet. Just, I think, as 
the General Court of Massachusetts must 
have wished that those citizens of 
Dartmouth would not make an issue out 
of accepting, Conqraqational minister. 

The liveliness and the ferment of our 
time owes much, I think, to the 
provocation of our universities. And, as in 
medieval times, so today young people 
are attracted to the universities, partly 
out of sheer curiosity partly out of deske 
to learn, and partly because they know it 
is a place where they can exchange 
opinions with their peers. Like medieval 
students, our students have decided to 
forego immediate employment after 
leaving their schools so that they could go 
to the university and learn more on the 
chance that they would be more 
successful in their chosen professions. 
And since the 12th century, then, this 
strange corporate entity, the university, 
has tried to meet both the professional 
and the personal expectations of 
students. As we all know in America, its 
success has been phenomenal, so that 
today half the age group attends some 
kind of institution of higher learning 
voluntarily. Now, there are people today, 
who say that this has gone too far. And 
they say, in effect, all thsee students can't 
be interested in learning; why not set up 
some apprentice programs?3er them into 
jobs with none of this foolishness. Only 

those that truly want a life of scholarship 
and of research should go to the 
university, and we could save money on 
the rest. Now this sounds reasonable, 
until you remember that the assessors of 
the Town of Dartmouth who went down 
in history did so, not because they were 
outstanding or even very good assessors. 
They are in the history books because 
they had thought * enough about the 
nature of the State to be convinced that 
religious freedom would not destroy it. 
They knew enough about the activities of 
the Queen and King to know that they 
too were committed to toleration, and 
they knew enough, too about history to 
remind the General Court at Boston that 
the Colony of Massachusetts Bay came 
into existence to provide for religious 
freedom. None of this is part of an 
assessor's training. And so I would say 
today, important as job training is, and it 
is particularly important today becaust no 
man can instruct his son in the techniques 
by which he earned his living, I do not 
think it can save the republic unless in 
addtion young people are brought up and 
educated to examine the fundamental 
concepts of our government and to judge 
performance in the light of that 
understanding. Now this is not something 
that one memorizes in the grade school. 
It is something that needs to be analysed 

in a free inter change between young and 
mature minds so that one truly grasps 
what the Constitution provides and what 
it means by its balance of power scheme. 
And, therefore I find itat the end of a 
long career a thrilling thing that so many 
of our young people choose to come to 
the university rather than searching out 
only job training, because, I think, it gives 
them an opportunity to become 
conscious of the nature of the State in 
which they are privileged to live. Some 
of the students may smile at that, and I 
understand it. I am talking here about the 
theory of this State. But what about the 
practice of politics, when, every day, we 
see fresh proof of the corruption of the 
democratic theory of the democratic 
process, by big and little men, who felt 
above the law?And I hear, and you hear, 
everywhere in the country, people 
saying,"Oh, politics is like that. They are 
all crooks". This is simply not true. 
History in this republic is full of the lives 
of generous, of noble and honest men 
who served that state. The question, 
however, is can we leave it to chance? 
Can we leave it to chance that there will 
always be generous, noble, and honest 
men? Or does, possibly, the university 
have a responsibility in this area toward a 
younger generation? The question, you 
see, is can one teach personal integrity? 

This is a very, very ancient question, on 
which Socrates debated with his friends 
in 5th century Athens. And it's a 
question that every educator asks himself. 
And it's a question that will continue to 
be debated. We know that Socrates chose 
to die in accordance with a sentence 
passed on him by his judges, though he 
considered himself innocent of the 
charges and could have escaped. We know 
that the assessors of the Town of 
Dartmouth chose to go to jail rather than 
to obey a law which they found to be 
against conscience. There are many 
examples, choosing the more difficult 
course because of a concern for principle. 
And perhaps the university, then, can 
come closest to developing personal 
integrity if it encourages its students to 
do hard things, to have learning 
experiences which demand the most of 
which they are capable. This is, I know, 
not a particularly popular doctrine today. 
We have been rightly concerned with 
tempering the wind to the shorn lamb. 
There have been a good many full-coated 
lambs that have profited by this, I'm 
afraid, to take an easy degree. I think we 
need to be as inventive and as 
sophisticated as we can be in offering 
help where it is needed. But we need also 
to be sure that a student discovers that 
learning involves meeting some standards 



which are not related to his individual 
interest l capacity, or condition. There 
are, after all, accepted standards of 
evidence. There are right and wrong 
answers to some questions and 1 do not 
control that rightness or wrongness-two 
and two is four. I know the difference 
between my own work and work I'm 
tempted to offer as mine. I'm suggesting 
that if we learn intellectually that there 
are demands for truth with which I can 
only comply, then perhaps in the area of 
conduct we will understand the same 
overarching demands made upon us by 
the ideas of fairness, of decency, of 
justice - these things which exist without 
regard to my wishes or my interests. 
Integrity is not taught by a three hour a 
week class. Rather I think, it is 
accomplished by the humane level of the 
standard of work which the university 
expects of it's students. This is a new 
university, established at a time of 
exciting forment in education and 
haunting insecurity in the world at large. 
It is the time to ask simple fundamental 
questions. Are we afraid of freedom of 
thought? Do we truly understand the 
principles of our government? Do we 
believe that the university has, toward its 
students not just a professional and 
intellectual responsibility but a moral 
one as well?How do we answer and how 
do we discharge these educational 
responsibilities today TThere are no ready 
answers. Each institution develops, I 
think, its own resp, its own program. 

As a young university, you have here 
the freedom to work out your answers 
together, with a President who from his 
youth has been an ingenious builder. I 
warn you that there is a very great Rube 
Goldberg strain in President Walker. I 
have even found testimony which states 
that he one time turned an old hot water 
boiler into a diving helmet, and this I 
should think would make him a great 
man with a tight budget. Seriously, you 
are fortunate in a President who knows 
that modern leadership is not lonely 
eminence, but is a joint endeavor in 
which many share. With such a man as 
President, and with the pride that the 
State of Massachusetts takes in its 
developing system of public higher 
education, with faculty and with students 
who have chosen to come to a new 
campus and a new institution, together 
you will confront these simple 
fundamental questions - the questions of 
freedom and of integrity, questions which 
in the present time require an answer. 

Dr. Rosemary Parks 


Jin introduction 

G.Roy Levin 


Si - Ljj,mti ■ ^ m&mii. '■- *• 


/ would like to speak of two things here. 
One, the making of the book, and two, 
some of my own thoughts about 
documentary film. 

I. Books often appear as though they 
materialized out of thin air. From reading 
articles about authors, and biographies 
and autobiographies, I am not unaware of 
the problems that authors have, yet still I 
have a feeling of mystification about 
books. Generally, if someone wants an 
explication of a text, he buys a book 
dealing specifically with that. But I think 
it worthwhile to speak of this here 
because the making of this book has 
certain si miliarities to the making of a 
cinema-verite film -- one of the main 
subjects that interested me in doing these 

How to begin? Perhaps with this very 
question, which is one Ed Pincus raises: 
how does a film-maker start a 
cinema-verite film when he has so much 
background information that the viewer 
doesn't have? And how can the interview 
tell you, the reader, everything that is not 
included, such as the influence of the 
personalities of the people involved, the 
mood of the moment and the 
environment in which the interview took 

I could say that the book is about 
documentary films, truth, fiction, 
objectivity, subjectivity, reality, etc.; and, 
further, that my attitudes toward these 
subjects are the very things that 
influenced the making of the book: 
choice of film-makers, how I did the 
interviews and editied them and how I 
gathered and we*te all the other material 
in the book - including these words. It is 
also presumably clear that my prejudices 
affected the questions I asked, the tone 
of the interview, how I related to the 
film-maker and he to me and, most 
importantly, the effect all this had on 
what the film-maker said. 
As I write this, I still do not know what 
the order of the interviews will be. 
Chronologica, by nationality, for contrast? 
All three would ignore the order in which 

iited them, and 
Her interviews 
influenced the later ones and that the 
earlier editing work influenced the 
succeeding editing work. 




1 » lj 



I. did not do these interviews primarily as 
a film critic or historian of the 
documentary film -I'm neither, and have 
no wish to be either. It's not that I wasn't 
interested in historical, technical or 
critical points, but that my main purpose 
was io learn something. I wanted to know 
about - and I suspect reveal - these 
film-makers as people, because it's the 
person who makes the films. If the 
interviews are successful, it is at least in 
part due to my being as personal and 
intimate with the film-makers as the 
Situation permitted; and when this was 
not possible, by being impersonal, 
suggestive, tactful, and perhaps even 
slightly dishonest at times by not fully 
saying what I thought* by shading my 

opinions. In brief, even if the interviews 
appear to be objective, they are not. 

Have I then manipulated reality and 
distorted the truth?! think not. I did not 
want confrontations. I wanted the 
film-makers to speak as revealingly as 
possible about themselves and their work. 
And if I am not guilty of deceit or 
betrayal of trust - and again, I think I am 
not - I think these interviews are then 
fair and honest. But objective? 

Yes, to a degree, in spite of my 
subjectivity. At least in letting the men 
speak for themselves. I worked very hard 
at ordering the rambling of taped 
conversations so that neither the ideas 
expressed nor the manner of expression 
got distorted; and, more important, I 

think mostly successfully. By what 
criteria, you ask?or whose? Clearly mine. 
What are theyTThey're self-evident in the 
interviewSj and based on a substantial 
comprehensive understanding of the 

I also note that I left in a few shots of 
the camera and tape recorder, not to be 
chic, but to remind the viewer that the 
words he reads exist only as an 
interviewer-created reality. Also, ellipses 
(. . .) have been put in to avoid inventing 
questions where there is a break in the 
logic and as a reminder that deletions 
have be made where I considered material 
redundant or irrelevant - and not, I 
believe, to avoid statements which might 
conflict with my pre-conceived ideas. 

There are now questions I wish I had 
asked but did not, questions I let slip by 
only half-answered, clues I missed for 
exploring certain points; but I was often 
preoccuped with listening, responding, 
juggling the order of the questions in my 
mind, trying to keep a logical order to the 
interview without dampening spontaneity 
- and, at times, with mundane matters 
like being tired or hungry or a plane I had 
to catch or an appointment I wanted to 
keep. But it is six of one and half a dozen 
of the other, vices are an integral part of 
virtues, and if I succeeded in obtaining 
worthwhile interviews, it is not only in 
spite of my failings as an interviewer, but 
perhaps also because of these failings. 
II' Undocumented opinions. 

As implied above, this book is not meant 
to be a critical study, and for this reason I 
refrain from expressing my opinions 
about the work of the film-makers 
interviewed. To do that here without 
detailing the reasons for my likes and 
dislikes would be unfair and not 
particularly illuminating. Besides, many 
of my opinions are expressed in the 
interviews where the context makes them 
more meaningful. 

What, then, are the aims of the bookTTo 
offer a broad picture of the history and 
nature of the documentary film as a 
genre, insights into the work of each man 
interviewed, a sense of the film-maker as 
a person, and to raise basic questions 
about the form, effect and resultant 

social implications of documentary and 
its various uses. The inteviewees selected 
do not represent a comprehensive 
worldwide survey of the documentary 
film, but they do represent those 
traditions and aspects that are essential 
and relavant to the documentary as it is 
known in the United States and the West 
today. It is on the basis of these criteria 
that the men in this book have been 
chosen. I regret that Alberto Cavalcanti, 
Joris Ivens, Pare Lorentz, Chris" Marker, 
Alain Resnais, Paul Rotha, Roberto 
Rossellini, Peter Watkins, several 
Canadian film-makers and Newsreeel are 
not included, but circumstances and 
space limitations have made this 

A definition ' of documentary? Fifteen 
interviews with documentary film-makers 
and still it would be difficult to find a 
satisfactory one. The classic definition is 
John iGrierson's: "The creative treatment 
of actuality," but though rich in 
implication it is hardly sufficient. 
Defining the word today is further 
complicated by the introduction of 
documentary techniques into fiction 
films so that at times it is difficult to say 
whether a film is completely fictional or 
documentary. This is true not only of a 
number of underground films of recent 
years but also of comparatively 
big-budget productions like Haskell 
Wexler's "Medium Cool" and Agnes 
Varda's "Lions Love." 
Grierson, for example, the "father" of 
English documentary, felt that 
documentaries should be used for 
purposes of propaganda. Paul Rotha, a 
very respected documentary film-maker 
himself and the author of the standard 
text on the subject, feels that 
documentary films should have an 
ameliorative social purpose and that they 
should be produced by groups rather than 
by individuals with ego-centered 
sensibilites. Many of the French see little 
difference between documentary and 
fiction; rather, they see each as a 
personal, artistic expression. Some 
Americans tend to see it as an impersonal 
and objective gathering of data. Many 
would see social purpose as a necessary 
ingredient. To a good part of the public it 
implies something "educational" and 

At best, a definition of -coumentary is 
like any definition of an ongoing form of 
art: useful in indicating its concerns and 
raising provocative questions, but limiting 
and therefore falsifying. If one wishes to 
discuss the subject, the point is not to tie 
Ut up with string and lock it up in a box, 

but to be stimulated and perhaps to learn 
something. Suffice it here to say that the 
main attributes of documentary as 
generally understood are: it treats reality, 
past or present (or future}, either by 
direct recording or by some indirect 
means as compilation or reconstruction; 
very often it is concerned with social 
problems, which means, almost by 
definition, such subjects as the poor and 
the alienated; recently it has often come 
to include hand-held cameras (i.e., 
shakiness, grain, bad focus as acceptable) 
and direct interviews. 
Though the above takes into account the 
principal ostensible features of 
documentary, it ignores what I see as the 
underlying problem of documentary: 
objectivity vs. subjectivity, or, the 
question of interpretation and its validity. 
The point is raised here not because it is 
the kind of problem that has a solution - 
it doesn't - or to reiterate the obvious - 
that finally everything we do or say is in 
some sense subjective. Rather, my 
purpose is to clarify and insist on that 
which is undoubtedly clear to many but 
which is often ignored or obfuscated and 
which should be clear to wt^tave: 1. that 
footage of actual events can be made to 
lie or distort the facts; 2. that 
do cum en taries and documen tary-like 
material (newsreels, etc.) are a mixture of 
the objective and the subjective (of fact 
and fiction, if you like); 3. that those 
films that pretend to pure objectivity are 
highly suspect; and 4. that every film is 
the result of many subjective choices, as: 
what to shoot and what to omit, how to 
shoot (framing angle, lighting, etc.) and 
the fact of editing (omitting certain shots, 
justaposing shots or sounds unconnected 
in reality, etc.) 

These observations are hardly new; they 
take on their proper significance, 
however, when considering the fact that a 
large proportion of the population of this 
country recieves a large percentage of its 
information from television, which 
presents documentaries and 
documentary-type material with the a 
priori assumption that because it is 
documentary - even simply because it is 
film - that it is presenting "reality" and 
therefore the unquestionable objective 
truth about a subject. 

Furthermore, not only do documentaries 
give us information that shapes our 
attitudes on many crucial issues, the 
manner in which the information is 
presented influences our attitudes toward 
the various problems and, by extension, 
the way we as a society deal with these 
problems of vital local, national, 
international and even global concern- 
like the nuclear arms race, pollution, 
overpopulation, racism, Vietnam, 
demonstrations and protests and cultural 
trends such as the youth movement. To 
take only one example, note television's 
changing attitude toward the Vietnam 
war over the past ten years, from general 
approval of U.S. actions to at least a 
questioning stance, if not outright 
disapproval. This came a b otu not so 
much through the differences in the 
actual footage shown- much of it in fact 
would be interchangeable- but through 
the editorial comment that accompanied 
the footage and from allowing dissenting 
opinions to be heard. The facts- or the 
footage- have not radically changed over 
the years, simply the opinion about the 

Or, let there be no mistake that television 
is a free and open medium, for 
documentaries or anything else. The three 
networks will almost never air films not 
produced under their own auspices and 
completely supervised by their own 
staffs. Furthermore, since commercial 
television is completely dependent for its 
existence on advertising revenue, it is apt 
to refrain from making strong statements 
about anything for fear of offending 
advertisers or viewers and thereby 
adversly affecting revenues. And because 
commercial television represents large 
investments of capital and great influence 
in government circles (this is finally the 
only way to get- and keep- a television 
license), it is inevitable that networks and 
stations are controlled by members of the 
establishment. This includes the very 
wealthy, the influencial in national 
economic and political affairs- and, by 
extension, in an indirect but real way, the 
government. Therefore, almost by 
definition, those in control of television 
are in favor of keeping the status quo, for 
obvious reasons as well as for more subtle 
ones like self-censorship. This clearly 
makes it difficult for minority or 
dissident voices to be heard on this 
medium and makes television's 
objectivity highly suspect. 
Educational television does provide a 
certain alternative to commercial TV, but 
it has remained rather limited because 
even its funds come in good part from the 
government and from large foundations 
that finally have the same desire for the 
status quo as do the commercial 

The importance of documentary film, 
then, should not be underestimated. In 
addition to the effects discussed above, it 
has also influenced our perception of the 
world, our awareness of other peoples 
and cultures and our knowledge of social 
injustice. It continues to remind us of 
certain essential facts of life which 
contemporary society would in many 
ways have denied us: the concrete reality 
of the physical world and the existence of 
people as individual, human, living beings. 

Photographs by Debby Vendetti 








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■■ ■• ' ■\ 

UMASS Dartmouth 

3 2922 00509 342 9 

"This class deserves some special congratulations 
and recognition. Many members of this graduating 
class have passed through troubled times on campus. 
A University is never a serene and uncontentious 
place, nor should it be. It is a free market place 
for ideas, some of them outrageous. It must always 
be effervescent and disputatious and contentious 
because as one educator has pointed out : "The 
University is in the business of making students 
safe for ideas, not ideas safe for students." 

Dr. Donald E. Walker 
1973 Commencement