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The Scriptores HistoriaeAugustae, or Historia 
Augusta, is a collection of biographies of 
Roman emperors, heirs, and claimants 
from Hadrian to Numerianus (AD 117 
2 84). The work, which is modelled on Sue- 
tonius, purports to be written by six dif- 
ferent authors and quotes documents and 
public records extensively. Since we pos- 
sess no continuous account of the emper- 
ors of the second and third centuries, the 
Historia Augusta has naturally attracted 
keen attention. In the last century it has 
also generated the grayest suspicions. 
Present opinion holds that the whole is the 
work of a single author ( who lived in the 
time of Theodosius) and contains much 
that is plagiarism and even downright 
forgerv. 

O J 

The Loeb Classical Library edition of the 
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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB 
EDITED BY 

G. P. GOOLD 

PREVIOUS EDITORS 
T. E. PAGE E. CAPPS 

W. H. D. ROUSE L. A. POST 
E. H. WARMINGTON 



HISTORIA AUGUSTA 
III 

LCL 263 



THE SCRIPTORES 
HISTORIAE 
AUGUSTAE 

VOLUME III 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

DAVID MAGIE 




HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 
LONDON, ENGLAND 



First published 1932 
Reprinted 1954, 1961, 1968, 1982, 1998 

LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY is a registered trademark 
of the President and Fellows of Harvard College 



ISBN 0-674-99290-3 



Printed in Great Britain by St Edmundsbury Press Ltd, 

Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, on acid-free paper. 
Bound by Hunter 6- Foulis Ltd, Edinburgh, Scotland. 



CONTENTS 



BIBLIOGRAPHY vii 

EDITORIAL NOTE xi 

THE TWO VALERIANS 2 

THE TWO GALLIENI 16 

THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 64 

THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 152 

THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 192 

TACITUS 294 

PROBUS 334 

FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, BONOSUS 386 

CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN 416 

INDEX OF NAMES 453 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 
(1919-1967) 

Scriptores Historiae Augustae I, II, ed. E. Hohl, rev. W. 
Seyfarth and C. Samberger, Leipzig, Teubner, 1965 
(1st ed. 1927). 



Alfoldi, A. Das Problem des " verweiblichten " Kaisers Galli- 

enus; Zeitschrift filr Numismatik, xxxviii. (1928), 156- 

203. 
Bassett, H. J. Macrmus and Diadumenianus ; Menasha, 

Wisconsin, 1920. 
Baynes, N. H. The Date of the Composition of the Historia 

Augusta; Classical Review, xxxviii. (1924), 165-169. 

The Historia Augusta : its Date and Purpose ; Oxford, 

1926. 

Birt, T. Zu Marius Maximus (S.H.A. Geta 2, 1) ; Philologus, 
Ixxvi. (1920), 362-366. 

Zu den S.H.A. ; Phiiologus, Ixxxiii. (1927), 177-178. 

Dessau, H. Die Samaritaner bei den S.H.A. ; in Janus : 

Arbeiten zur alien und Byzantinischen Geschichte 

(Vienna, 1921), 124-128. 
Fisher, W. H. The Augustan Vita Aureliani ; Journal of .Rowan 

Studies, xix. (1929), 125-149. 
Geffcken, J. Religionsgeschichtliches in der Historia Augusta ; 

Hermes, Iv. (1920), 279-295. 
Hadas, M. Rabbinic Parallels to S.H.A. ; Classical Philology, 

xxiv. (1929), 258-262. 
Harrer, G. A. The Chronology ot the Revolt of Pescennius 

Niger; Journal of Roman Studies, x. (1920), 155-168. 
Henderson, B. W. The Life and Principate of the Emperor 

Hadrian, A.D. 76-138; London, 1923. 

vii 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Hohl, E. Ueber den Ursprung der Historia Augusta : Hermes, 
Iv. (1920), 296-310. 

Bericht iiber die Literatur zu den S.H.A. fur die Jahre 

1916-1923; Jahresberichte uber die Fortschritte der 
klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, cc. (1924), 167-210. 

Grundsatzlich.es zur Textgestaltung der S.H.A. ; Philo- 

logisclie Wochenschrift, xlviii. (1928), 1115-1118. 
Homo, L. La grande Grise de 1'an 238 ap. J.C. et le Problems 
de 1'Histoire Auguste ; Revue Historique, cxxxi. (1919), 
209-264; cxxxii. (1919), 1-38. 

Les Documents de 1'Histoire Auguste et leur Valeur 

historique; Revue Historique, cli. (1926), 161-198: olii. 

(1926). 1-31. 
Jarde 1 , A. Etudes critiques sur la Vie et le Eegne de Severe 

Alexandre; Paris, 1926. 
Jorga, N. Le Probleme de 1'Abandon de la Dacie par I'Empereur 

Au re" lien ; Revue Historique du Sud-Est European, i. 

(1924), 37-58. 
Klotz, A. Beitrage zur Textgeschichte und Textritik der 

S.H.A.; Rheinisches Museum, Ixxviii. (1929), 268-314, 

432. 
Mattingly, H., and Sydenham, E. A. The Roman imperial 

Coinage, Vol. v., Part 1 (Valerian to the Interregnum), 

by P. H. Webb ; London, 1927. 
Milne, J. G. Aemilianus the " Tyrant " ; Journal of Egyptian 

Archaeology, x. (1924), 80-82. 
Orth, E. Zu den S.H.A; Philologische Wochenschrift, xlix. 

(1929). 1470-1471. 

Von Orpheus bis Grillius (on Tac., 10, 3) ; Philologische 

Wochenschrift, 1. (1930), 395-400. 
Pasoli, A. L'Uso di Erodiano nella ' Vita Maximini " ; Milan, 

1927. 
Sulla Composizione die due Brani parallel! degli " S.H.A," 

(Max. 13, 5 19 e Oord., 7, 216) in Annali del R. Liceo- 

Gimnasio Ugo Foscolo di Pavia del Anno 1927-1928', 

Voghera, 1929. 
Ferret, L. L'Histoire de I'Empereur G6ta ; Revue des Etudes 

Historiques, xci. (1925), 119-130. 
Pichlmayr, F. Zu den S.H.A.; Philologus, bocx. (1925), 

345-350. 
Beuss, W. Der historische Wert der Garacallavita in den 

S.H.A.; Elio, Beiheft 24 (1931). 

viii 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Rohde, J. Die Marcomanenkriege Marc Aurels; Halle, 

1924. 
Rosenberg, A. Ein Document zur Beichsreform des Kaisers 

Gallienus; Hermts, Iv. (1920), 319-321. 
Rostovtseff, M. La Crise sociale et politique de L'Empire 

Boinain au III Siecle ap. J.C. ; Jfus& Beige, xxvii. 

(1923), 233-242. 
Schmiedler, B. Adam von Bremen und die S.H.A. ; Historische 

Vitrtelialirsclir.it, 1920. 3381. 

Die S.H.A. and dor Heilige Hieronymus. Ein Beitrag 

zur Entstehungszeit der falschen Kaiserviten; Plu.o- 
logisclie WocJi<*nschr:ft, xlvii. (1927), 955-960. 

Sohnabel, P. Die Chronologic Aurelians; Klio, xx. (1925-6), 

863-368. 
Sohwendemann, J. Der historische Wert der Vita Marci bei 

den S.H.A. ; Heidelberg, 1923. 
Sedgwick, H. D. Marcus Aurelius; Oxford, 1921. 
Sjogren, H. Kleine textkritische Beitra^e (Hadr. 13, 3 ; A^ex. 

13, 6) ; Eranos, xix. (1923), 163-172. 
Stein, A. Zur Chronologie der Bomischen Kaiser von Decius 

bis Diocletian; Arclriv fiir Papifrusftjrschutig, vii. (1923), 

30-51; viii. (1926), 11-18. 

Zeitbestimmuncjen von Gallienus bis Aureliau ; K'.io, xxi. 

(1926-7), 78-82. 

Obsen-ations on the Chronology of the Roman Emperors 

in the Second Half of the Third Century ; Jcmmal of 
Egyptian Archaeology, xiv. (192S), 16-19. 
Thomell, G. Ad diversos Scriptores Couiectanea et Intoi-pret- 
atoria; in Strenaphilologica Upsalien$:s ^Upsala. 1922), 
383-392. 

Ad S.H.A. et Araniianmn Marcellinum Adnotatioues; 

Leipzig, 1927. 

Tidner, E. De Particulis copulativis apud S.H.A. Quaestiones 

selectao ; Upsala, 1922. 
In S.H.A. Adnot-atiunculae ; in Strma philotogica Up- 

saliensis (Upsala, 1922), 149-162. 
Townsend, P. W. The Chronology of the Year 28S A.P. ; Yal* 

Classical Studies, i. (192S), 231-238. 
Van Sickle, C. E. A hypothetical Chronology for the Year of 

the Gordians ; Classical Philology, xxii. (1927), 416-417. 

The Legal Status of Clodius Albinua in the Years 193-196 ; 

Classical Philology, xxiii. (192S), 128-127. 

iz 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Van Sickle, C. E. Some further Observations on the Chro- 
nology of the Year 238 A.D. ; Classical Philology, xxiv. 
(1929), 284-289. 

Vorbrodt, T. Kaiser Gallienus (253-268) ; Halle, 1923. 

Westermann, W. L. The Papyri and the Chronology of the 
Reign of the Emperor Probus ; Aegyptus, i. (1920), 
297-301 



The various contributions made to the study of the Scriptores 
Historiae Augustae, especially since 1945, are recorded annually 
in Marouzeau, UAnnte Philologique 

For the date etc., and some partial editions, see especially : 
H. Stern. Date et Destinataire de 1'Histoire Auguste, Paris, 

1953. 
Bonner. Historia Augusta Colloquium, 1964-65. Antiquitas, 

Reihe 4, 3. 
P. White. The Authorship of the Historia Augusta. 

Journal of Roman Studies, Ivii. (1967), 115 ff. 
A. Momigliano. An Unsolved Problem of Historical Forgery, 

Journal of the Warburg and Gourtauld Institutes, xvii. 

(1954), 22 ff. 

J. Schwarz, in B.F.S. xl. (1961-2), 169 ff. 
T. Zawadzki, in Studii Clasice, v. (1963), 249 ff. 
E. Manni. Trebellio Pollione. Le vite di Valeriano e di 

Gallieno. Text, introd. notes, etc. Palermo. 1952. 
E. Hohl. Maximini Duo. lulius Capitolinus (edition), 

Berlin, 1949. 

For other special aspects : 

W. Hartke. Geschichte und Politik im spatantiken Rom. 

Klio, Beiheft xlv, 1940. 
A. Reintjes. Untersucliungen zu den Beamten bei den 

Scriptores Hist. Aug., Bonn, 1961. 
A. Cameron. Literary Allusions in the Historia Augusta, 

Hermes, xcii. (1964), 313 ff. 
Atti del Colloquio patavino sulla Historia Augusta. Publl. 

ist. di Storia Antica. Padua, Rome, 1964. 
A. Bellezza. Hist. Aug. I. Le Edizioni, Genoa, 1959. 



EDITORIAL NOTE (1991) 

SCHOLARLY research pursued since the first publication of 
this work in 1922 now requires modification of some of the 
editor's views. Most authorities today are persuaded that 
die ostensible multiple authorship of these lives is a wilful 
deception, that one person is responsible for the collection 
and the insertion into it of documents which are sheer 
fabrications, and that the date of this activity is about 
A.D. 395. 

To the bibliography above the following important 
works (die first two with extensive bibliographies) may 
now be added: 

SYME, SIR RONALD: Ammianus and the Historia Augusta, 

Oxford, 1968. 
SYME, SIR RONALD: Emperors and Biography: Studies in 

the Historia Augusta, Oxford, 1971. 
BARNES, T. D.: Sources of the Historia Augusta, Bruxelles 

1978. 
SYME, SIR RONALD: Historia Augusta Papers, Oxford 

1983. 

G. P. G. 



XI 



SCRIPTORES 
HISTORIAE AUGUSTAE 



THE TWO VALERIANS 

inferioribus 1 nihil dico. Mithradates Ponticus totam 
Asiam tenuit ; certe victus est, certe Asia Roman- 
6orum est. si meum consilium requiris, utere oc- 
casione pacis et Valerianum suis redde. ego gratulor 
felicitati tuae, si taraen ilia uti tu scias." 

II. Velenus rex Cadusiorum sic scripsit : " Remissa 
mihi auxilia integra et incolumia gratanter accepi. 
at captum Valerianum principem principum non satis 
gratulor, magis gratuler, si redderetur. Romani enim 

2graviores tune sunt, quando vincuntur. age igitur ut 
prudentem decet, nee fortuna te inflammet, quae 
multos decepit. Valerianus et filium imperatorem 
habet et nepotem Caesarem, et quid ad omnem 
orbem ilium Romanum, qui contra te totus insurget ? 

3 redde igitur Valerianum et fac cum Romanis pacem, 
nobis etiam ob gentes Ponticas profuturam." 

III. Artavasdes rex Armeniorum talem ad Saporem 
epistulam misit : " In partem gloriae venio, sed 

2vereor ne non tarn viceris quam bella severis. Valeri- 
anum et filius repetit et nepos et duces Romani et 
omnis Gallia et omnis Africa et omnis Hispania et 
omnis Italia et omnes gentes quae sunt in Illyrico 
atque in oriente et in Ponto, quae cum Romanis 

1 inferioribus Obrecht, Peter ; interioribus P, S. 



1 A Median people, living on the S.W. coast of the Caspian 
Sea, also called Gaeli. 

3 i.e., Gallienus. 

3 There were three Armenian kings of this name during the 
second and first centuries before Christ and the first century 
after Christ, but none in the third century. If the author is 
not merely using a well-known name to give verisimilitude to 
the letter, as seems most likely, he may have in mind 
Artavasdes the Mamiconaean, regent for the young Tiridates 
IIT. during tho period whioh followed the death of his father, 



THE TWO VALERIANS I. 6 III. 2 

them now. Examples more remote and perhaps less 
important I will not cite. Mithradates of Pontus 
held all of Asia ; it is a fact that he was vanquished 
and Asia now belongs to the Romans. If you ask my 
advice, make use of the opportunity for peace and give 
back Valerian to his people. I do indeed congratulate 
you on your good fortune, but only if you know how 
to use it aright." 

II. Velenus, King of the Cadusii, 1 wrote as follows : 
" I have received with gratitude my forces returned 
to me safe and sound. Yet I cannot wholly con- 
gratulate you that Valerian, prince of princes, is 
captured ; I should congratulate you more, were he 
given back to his people. For the Romans are never 
more dangerous than when they are defeated. Act, 
therefore, as becomes a prudent man, and do not 
let Fortune, which has tricked many, kindle your 
pride. Valerian has an emperor for a son 2 and a 
Caesar for a grandson, and what of the whole Roman 
world, which, to a man, will rise up against you? 
Give back Valerian, therefore, and make peace with 
the Romans, a peace which will benefit us as well 
because of the tribes of Pontus." 

III. Artavasdes, 3 King of the Armenians, sent the 
following letter to Sapor : " I have, indeed, a share 
in your glory, but I fear that you have not so much 
conquered as sown the seeds of war. For Valerian 
is being sought back by his son, his grandson, and 
the generals of Rome, by all Gaul, all Africa, all 
Spain, all Italy, and by all the nations of Ilyricum, 
the East, and Pontus, which are leagued with the 

Chosroes I., about 250, as is supposed by P. Asdourian, Polit. 
Beaif-hnnge-n ew. Armenien u. Rom., p. 127 f. 



THE TWO VALERIANS 

3 consentiunt aut Romanorum sunt. unum ergo senem 
cepisti sed l omnes gentes orbis terrarum infestissimas 
tibi fecisti, fortassis et nobis, qui auxilia misimus, qui 
vicini sumus, qui semper vobis inter vos pugnantibus 
laboramus." 

IV. Bactriani et Hiberi et Albani et Tauroscythae 
Saporis litteras non receperunt sed ad Romanes 
duces scripserunt auxilia pollicentes ad Valerianum 
de captivitate liberandum. 

2 Sed Valeriano apud Persas consenescente Odae- 
nathus Palmyrenus collecto exercitu rem Romanam 

8 prope in pristinum statum reddidit. cepit regis 
thesauros, cepit etiam, quas thesauris cariores habent 

4reges Parthici, concubinas. quare magis reformidans 
Romanos duces Sapor timore Ballistae atque Odae- 
nathi in regnum suum ocius se recepit. atque hie 
interim finis belli fuit Persici. 

V. Haec sunt digna cognitu de Valeriano, cuius per 
annos sexaginta vita laudabilis in earn conscenderat 
gloriam ut post omnes honores et magistratus in- 
signiter gestos imperator fieret, non, ut solet, tumul- 
tuario populi concursu, non militum strepitu, sed iure 
meritorum et quasi ex totius orbis una sententia. 

2 denique si data esset omnibus potestas promendi 
arbitrii quern imperatorem vellent, alter non esset 
electus. 

3 Et ut scias quanta vis in Valeriano meritorum 

1 cepisti sed Petschenig, Hohl ; cepistis et P. 



1 From Trans-Caucasia. 2 See note to Hadr., xxi. 18. 

8 In S. Russia, north of the Crimea. 

4 See Tyr. Trig., xv. 5 See Tyr. Trig., xviii. 



THE TWO VALERIANS III. 3 V. 3 

Romans or subject to them. So, then, you have 
captured one old man but have made all the nations 
of the world your bitterest foes, and ours too, perhaps, 
for we have sent you aid, we are your neighbours, 
and we always suffer when you fight with each 
other." 

IV. The Bactrians, the Hiberians, 1 the Albanians, 2 
and the Tauroscythians 3 refused to receive Sapor's 
letters and wrote to the Roman commanders, 
promising aid for the liberation of Valerian from 
his captivity. 

Meanwhile, however, while Valerian was growing 
old in Persia, Odaenathus the Palmyrene 4 gathered 
together an army and restored the Roman power 
almost to its pristine condition. He captured the 
king's treasures and he captured, too, what the 
Parthian monarchs hold dearer than treasures, 
namely his concubines. For this reason Sapor was 
now in greater dread of the Roman generals, and 
out of fear of Ballista 5 and Odaenathus he withdrew 
more speedily to his kingdom. And this, for the 
time being, was the end of the war with the Persians. 

V. This is all that is worthy of being known about 
Valerian, whose life, praiseworthy for sixty years long, 
finally rose to such glory, that after holding all 
honours and offices with great distinction he was 
chosen emperor, not, as often happens, in a riotous 
assemblage of the people or by the shouting of 
soldiers, but solely by right of his services, and, as it 
were, by the single voice of the entire world. In 
short, if all had been given the power of expressing 
their choice as to whom they desired as emperor, 
none other would have been chosen. 

Now in order that you may know what power lay 



THE TWO VALERIANS 

fuerit 1 publicorum, ponara senatus consulta, quibus 
animadvertant omnes quid de illo semper amplissi- 
mus ordo iudicaverit. 

4 Duobus Deciis consulibus sexto kal. Novenibrium 
die, cum ob imperatorias litteras in Aede Castorum 
senatus haberetur, ireturque per sententias singu- 
lorum, ,cui deberet censura deferri (nam id Decii 
posuerant in senatus amplissimi potestate), ubi 
primum praetor edixit : " Quid vobis videtur, patres 
conscripti, de censore deligendo ? '" atque eum, qui 
erat princeps tune senatus, sententiam rogasset 
absente Valeriano (nam ille in procinctu cum Decio 
tune agebat), omnes una voce dixerunt interrupto 
more dicendae sententiae : " Valeriani vita censura 

5 est. ille de omnibus iudicet, qui est omnibus melior. 
ille de senatu iudicet, qui nullum habet crimen. 
ille de vita nostra sententiam ferat, cui nihil potest 

Cobici. Valerianus a prima pueritia fuit censor. 
Valerianus in tota vita sua fuit censor, prudens 
senator, modestus senator, gravis senator, amicus 
bonorum, inimicus tyrannorum, hostis criminum, 

7 hostis vitiorum. hunc censorem omnes accipimus, 
hunc imitari omnes volumus. primus genere, nobilis 

1 fuerit Z, Peter, Hohl ; fuit P. 



1 The spuriousness of this " seuatus consultum " is sufficiently 
shown by the fact that Decius died in the summer of 251. 
For other such " senatus consulta " see Maxim., xvi. ; 
Oord., xi. ; Tyr. Trig., xxi. 3-4 ; Claud., iv. ; Aur., xix. ; xli. ; 
Tac., iii. ; Prob., xi. 5-9. 

2 See note to Maxim., xvi. 1. 

3 The attempt to revive the censorship, as described here, is 
as fictitious as the " senatus consultum " itself, and is merely 
a part of the biographer's tendency to magnify the importance 
of the senate. It is true, however, that Derius in 250 conferred 

8 



THE TWO VALERIANS V. 4-7 

in the public services of Valerian, I will cite the 
decrees of the senate, 1 which will make it clear to all 
what judgement concerning him was always expressed 
by that most illustrious body. 

In the consulship of the two Decii, on the sixth 27 Oct., 251 
day before the Kalends of November, when, pursuant 
to an imperial mandate, the senate convened in the 
Temple of Castor and Pollux, 2 and each senator was 
asked his opinion as to the man to whom the censor- 
ship 3 should be offered (for this the Decii had left in 
the power of the most high senate), when the praetor 
had first announced the question, " What is your 
desire, Conscript Fathers, with regard to choosing 
a censor ? ' ' and then asked the opinion of him who 
was then the chief of the senate 4 in the absence of 
Valerian (for at that time he was in military service 
with Decius), then all, breaking through the usual 
mode of giving the vote, cried out with one voice : * 
" Valerian's life is a censorship. Let him judge all, 
who is better than all. Let him judge the senate, 
who is free from guilt. Let him pronounce sentence 
on our lives, against whom no reproach can be brought. 
From early childhood Valerian has been a censor. 
All his life long Valerian has been a censor. A wise 
senator, a modest senator, a respected senator. The 
friend of the good, the enemy of tyrants, the foe of 
crimes, the foe of vices. He it is whom we all accept 
as censor, whom we all desire to imitate. Foremost 



on Valerian some important position 77 TU>V irpay/j-drcav 
according to Zonaras, xii. 20. 

4 Valerian is said to have held this office as early as 238 ; 
see Gord., ix. 7. 

5 On such acclamations in the senate see- note to Alex., vi. 1. 
They are also found in Claud., iv. 3-4 ; xviii. 2-3 ; Toe., iv. 
1-4 ; v. 1-2 ; vii. 1 ; Prob. t xi. 6-9 ; xii. 8. 



THE TWO VALERIANS 

sanguine, emendatus vita, doctrina clams, moribus 

Ssingularis, exemplum 1 antiquitatis." quae cum 
esseiit saepius dicta, addiderunt, "omnes/' atque ita 
discessum est. 

VI. Hoc senatus consultum ubi Decius accepit, 
omnes aulicos convocavit, ipsum etiam Valerianum 
praecepit 2 rogari, atque in conventu summorum 

2virorum recitato senatus coiisulto, " Felicem te," in- 
quit, " Valerianum, totius senatus sententia, immo 
animis atque pectoribus 3 totius orbis humani. suscipe 
ceiisuram, quam tibi detulit Romana res publica, quam 
solus mereris, iudicaturus de moribus omnium, iudica- 

3 turus de moribus nostris. tu aestimabis qui manere 
in Curia debeant, tu equestrem ordinem in antiquum 
statum rediges, tu censibus modum pones, tu vecti- 
galia firmabis divides statues, tu 4 res publicas recen- 

4sebis; tibi legum scribendarum auctoritas dabitur, tibi 

5 de ordinibus militum iudicandum est ; tu arma respicies ; 

6 tu de nostro Palatio, tu de iudicibus, tu de praefectis 
eminentissimis iudicabis ; excepto denique praefecto 
urbis Romae, exceptis consulibus ordinariis et sac- 
rorum rege ac maxima virgine Vestalium (si tamen 
incorrupta permanebit) de omnibus sententias feres, 
laborabunt autem etiam illi, ut tibi placeant, de quibus 

7non potes iudicare." haec Decius. sed Valeriano 
sententia huiusmodi fuit : " Ne, quaeso, sanctissime 
imperator, ad hanc me necessitatem alliges, ut ego 

1 exemplo P, Hohl. 2 praecepit E\ praecipit P, Peter. 

8 pectoribus 2 ; peccatoribus P. 4 statues tu Hohl ; statues 

2 ; statu P ; tu Peter. 



1 Sec note to Carac., iv. 8. 
10 



THE TWO VALERIANS V. 8 VI. 7 

in family, noble in blood, free from stain in his life, 
famed for his learning, matchless in character, a sample 
of the olden times." When all this had been said 
repeatedly, they added, " All with one accord," and 
so they departed. 

VI. When this decree of the senate was brought 
to Decius, he called all his courtiers together and 
gave orders that Valerian, too, should be summoned. 
Then, having read the decree before this assemblage 
of the foremost men, he said : " Happy are you, Vale- 
rian, in this vote of the entire senate, or rather in the 
thoughts and the hearts of the whole world of men. 
Receive the censorship, which the Roman common- 
wealth has offered you and which you alone deserve, 
you who are now about to pass judgement on the 
character of all men, on the character of ourselves as 
well. You shall decide who are worthy to remain in 
the Senate-house, you shall restore the equestrian 
order to its old-time condition, you shall determine the 
amount of our property, you shall safeguard, apportion 
and order our revenues, you shall conduct the census 
'n our communities ; to you shall be given the power 
to write our laws, you shall judge concerning the 
rank of our soldiers, and you shall have a care for 
their arms ; you shall pass judgement on our Palace, 
our judges and our most eminent prefects ; in short, 
except for the prefect of the city of Rome, except 
for the regular consuls, 1 the king of the sacrifices, 
and the senior Vestal Virgin (as long, that is, as she 
remains unpolluted), you shall pronounce sentence on 
all. Even those on whom you may not pass judge- 
ment will strive to win your approval." Thus Decius ; 
but Valerian's reply was as follows : " Do not, I pray 
you, most venerated Emperor, fasten upon me the 

11 



THE TWO VALERIANS 

iudicem de populo, de militibus, de senatu, de omni 

Spenitus orbe iudicibus et tribunis ac ducibus. haec 

sunt propter l quae Augustum nomen tenetis ; apud 

vos censura desedit, non potest hoc implere privatus. 

9veniam igitur eius honoris peto, cui vita impar est, 

impar est confidentia, cui tempora sic repugnant, ut 

censuram hominum natura non quaerat." 

VII. Poteram multa alia et senatus consulta et 
iudicia principum de 2 Valeriano proferre, nisi et vobis 
pleraque nota essent, et puderet altius virum extollere, 
qui fatali quadam necessitate superatus est. nunc 
ad Valerianum minorem revertar. 

VIII. Valeria n us i uni or, aliaquam Gallienus 
matre genitus, forma conspicuus, verecundia proba- 
bilis, eruditione pro aetate clarus, moribus periucundus 
atque a fratris dissolutione seiunctus, a patre absente 
Caesar est appellatus, a fratre, ut Caelestinus dicit, 

2 Augustus, nihil habet praedicabile in vita, nisi quod 
est nobiliter natus, educatus optime et miserabiliter 
interemptus. 

3 Et quoniam scio errare plerosque, qui Valeriani im- 
peratoris titulum in sepulchro legentes illius Valeriani 
redditum putaiit corpus, qui a Persis est captus, ne 
ullus error obrepat, mittendum in litteras censui hunc 
Valerianum circa Mediolanum sepultum addito titulo 
Claudii iussu : " Valerianus imperator." 

1 propter om. in P and 2. 2 de 2, Peter ; sen P. 



1 See note to Oall. t xiv. 10. a Otherwise unknown. 

12 



THE TWO VALERIANS VI. 8 VIII. 3 

necessity of passing judgement on the people, the 
soldiers, the senate, and all judges, tribunes and 
generals the whole world over. It is for this that 
you have the name of Augustus. You it is on whom 
the office of censor devolves, for no commoner can 
duly fill it. Therefore I ask to be excused from this 
office, to which my life is unequal, my courage un- 
equal, and the times so unfavourable that human 
nature does not desire the office of censor." 

VII. I could, indeed, cite many other senatorial 
decrees and imperial judgements concerning Valerian, 
were not most of them known to you, and did I not 
feel ashamed to extol too greatly a man who was 
vanquished by what seems a destined doom. Now 
let me turn to the younger Valerian. 

VIII. Valerian the younger, 1 the son of a different 
mother from Gallienus, conspicuous for his beauty, 
admired for his modesty, distinguished in learning for 
one of his years, amiable in his manners, and holding 
aloof from the vicious ways of his brother, received 
from his father, when absent, the title of Caesar and 
from his brother, so says Caelestinus, 2 that of Augustus. 
His life contains nothing worthy of note, save that 
he was nobly born, excellently reared, and pitiably 
slain. 

Now since I know that many are in error, who have 
read the inscription of Valerian the Emperor on a 
tomb, and believe that the bodv of that Valerian who 

* > 

was captured by the Persians was given back again, 
1 have thought it my duty, that no error might creep 
in, to set down in writing that it was this younger 
Valerian who was buried near Milan and that by 
Claudius' order the inscription was added : " Valerian 
the Emperor." 

13 



THE TWO VALERIANS 

4 Non puto plus aliquid vel de maiore Valeriano vel 

5 de iuniore requirendum. et quoniam vereor ne 
modum voluminis transeam, si Gallienum, Valerian! 
filium, de quo iam multus et forlasse nimius nobis fuit 
sermo in illius vitn, vel Saloninum filium etiam Gallieni, 
qui et Saloninus et Gallienus est dictus in historia sui 
temporis, huic libro adiunctos edam, nunc ad aliud 
volumen transeamw.?, ut iubetur. semper enim nos 
vobis dedimMj et famae, cui negare nihil possumus. 1 

1 Italics are supplements of Peter to fill lacunae in P. 



THE TWO VALERIANS VIII. 4-5 

Nothing further, I think, should be demanded con- 
cerning either older or younger Valerian. And since 
I fear to exceed the proper limit of a volume, if I add 
to this book Valerian's son Gallienus, concerning 
whom we have already said much, and perchance too 
much, in the life of his father, or even Gallienus' son 
Saloninus, 1 who is called in the history of his time 
both Saloninus and Gallienus, let us now pass, as we 
are bidden, to another volume. For, indeed, we have 
ever submitted to you and to Fame, to whom we can 
make no refusal. 

1 See Qall. t xix 1-4. 



GALLIENI DUO 

TREBELLII POLLIONIS 

I. Capto Valeriano (enimvero unde incipienda est 
Gallieni vita, nisi ab eo praecipue malo, quo eius vita 
depressa est ?), nutante re publica, cum Odaenathus 
iam orientis cepisset imperium, Gallienus comperta 
patris captivitate gauderet, vagabantur ubique exer- 
citus, murmurabant omnibus in provinciis duces, erat 
omnium in gens maeror, quod Valenanus imperator 
Romanus in Perside serviliter teneretur. sed erat 
etiam maior omnium maestitia quod Gallienus n&fictus 
imperium ut pater fato sic ipse moribus rem publicatn 
perdiderat. 1 

1 Italics are supplements of Obrecht and Peter to fill lacunae 
in P. 



1 P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus (253-260 with 
Valerian ; 260-268 sole emperor). The biographer, like 
Eutropius and Aurelius Victor, portrays Gallienus in the 
worst possible light a tendency due, parti}', to senatorial 
hostility aroused by his exclusion of senators from military 
commands (Aur. Victor, Cats., 33, 33 f ), but particularly to the 
desire, by blackening Gallienus, to enhance the glories of his 
successor Claudius, who, as the reputed ancestor of Constantius 
Chlorus (see note to Claud., xiii. 2), is made the hero of this 
series of biographies. Consequently, the depreciation of 
Gallienus, as neglecting the welfare of the Empire and 
interested only in amusements and debauchery, and the 

II. 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

BY 

TREBELLIUS POLLIO 

I. When Valerian was captured (for where should 
we begin the biography of Gallienus, 1 if not with 
that calamity which, above all, brought disgrace on his 
life ?), when the commonwealth was tottering, when 
Odaenathus had seized the rule of the East, and when 
Gallienus was rejoicing in the news of his father's 
captivity, the armies began to range about on all 
sides, the generals in all the provinces to murmur, 
and great was the grief of all men that Valerian, a 
Roman emperor, was held as a slave in Persia. But 
greater far was the grief of them all that now having 
received the imperial power, Gallienus, by his mode 
of life, as his father by his fate, brought ruin on the 
commonwealth. 2 

exaltation of Claudius (and his descendant) form the prin- 
cipal theme of the series. A more favourable and, as it ia 
now generally believed, a more truthful, account of his reign 
is given by the Greek writers Zosimus (i. 30-40) and Zonaras 
(xii. 24-25). The modern point of view (based on these 
writers and supported by the evidence of inscriptions and 
archaeological research), which represents Gallienus as an 
active and able ruler, has been excellently presented by 
L. Homo in Rev. Hist., cxiii. pp. 1-22 ; 225-267. 
8 Cf. Tyr. Trig., xii. 8. 

17 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

2 Gallieno igitur et Volusiano consulibus Macrianus 
et Ballista in unum coeunt, exercitus reliquias con- 
vocant et, cum Romanum in oriente nutaret imperium, 
quern facerent imperatorem requirunt, Gallieno tarn 
neglegenter se agente ut eius ne mentio quidem apud 

3 exercitum fieret. placuit denique ut Macrianum cum 
filiis suis imperatores dicerent ac rem publicam de- 
fendendam . . capesserent sic igitur ... 

4 imperium ... delatumest ... Macriano causae 

Macriawo imperandi 1 cum filiis haec fuerunt : 

primum quod nemo eo tempore sapientior ducum 
habebatur, nemo ad res regendas aptior ; deinde ditis- 
simus et qui privatis posset fortunis publica explere 

6 dispendia. hue accedebat quod liberi eius, fortissimi 
iuvenes, tota mente in bellum ruebant, ut essent 
legionibus exemplo ad omnia munera 2 militaris.. 

II. Ergo Mzcrianus undique auxilia ... petiit 

occupa^ a se ... partibus, quas ipse ... posuerat 1 ita 
ut Jirmaret imperium. deinde bellum ita instruxit ut 
par esset omnibus, quae contra eum poterant cogitari. 3 

2 idem Macrianus Pisonem, unum ex nobilibus ac 4 
principibus senatus, ad Achaiam destinavit ob hoc ut 
Valentem, qui illic proconsulari imperio rem publicam 

Sgubernabat, opprimeret. sed Valens, comperto quod 
Piso contra se veniret, sumpsit imperium. Piso igitur 

1 So P; lacunae closed up in Z". 2 munera suppl. by 

Editor; lacuna in P. 3 Italics are supplements of Jordan 
to fill lacunae in P. 4 ac Kellerbauer, Hohl ; a P ; et Peter. 



1 The date 261 is incorrect, for papyri show that Macrianus 
and Quietus were recognized as emperors in Egypt in Sept., 
260. On this revolt see Tyr. Trig., xii-xiv. ; xviii. This vita, 
beginning as it does with this event, omits any account of 
Gallienus' success in repelling the Germans who attempted to 

18 



THE TWO GALLIENI I. 2 II. 3 

So then, when Gallienus and Volusianus were 261 
consuls, Macrianus and Ballista met together, called 
in the remains of the army, and, since the Roman 
power in the East was tottering, sought someone to 
appoint as emperor. 1 For Gallienus was showing 
himself so careless of public affairs that his name was 
not even mentioned to the soldiers. It was then 
finally decided to choose Macrianus and his sons as 
emperors and to undertake the defence of the state. 
And so the imperial power was offered to Macrianus. 
Now the reasons why Macrianus and his sons should 
be chosen to rule were these : First of all, no one of 
the generals of that tune was held to be wiser, and 
none more suited to govern the state ; in the second 
place, he was the richest, and could by his private 
fortune make good the public losses. In addition to 
this, his sons, most valiant young men, rushed with 
all spirit into the war, ready to serve as an example 
to the legions in all the duties of soldiers. 

II. Accordingly, Macrianus sought reinforcements 
on every side and, in order to strengthen his power, 
took control of the party which he himself had formed. 
So well did he make ready for war that he was a 
match for all measures which could be devised against 
him. He also chose Piso,' 2 one of the nobles and of the 
foremost men in the senate, as governor of Achaea, in 
order that he might crush Valens, 3 who was administer- 
ing that province with the authority of a proconsul. 
Valens, however, learning that Piso was marching 
against him, assumed the imperial power. Piso, 
therefore, withdrew into Thessaly, and there he, 

invade Gaul in 254-258 or of his suppression of the revolt of 
Ingenuus in Pannonia in 258 or 259 (see Tyr. Trig., ix.). 
2 See Tyr. Trig., xxi. 3 See Tyr. Trig., xix. 

19 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

4 in Thessaliam se recepit. ubi missis a Valente militi- 
bus cum plurimis interfectus est. ipse quoque im- 
perator appellatus cognomento Thessalicus. 

6 Et l Macrianus retento in oriente uno ex filiis, 
pacatis iam rebus, Asiam primum venit et 2 Illyricum 

epetiit. in Illyrico cum Aureoli imperatoris, qui contra 
Gallienum imperium sumpserat, duce, Domitiano 
nomine, manum conseruit, unum ex filiis secum 

7 habens et triginta milia militum ducens. sed victus 
est Macrianus cum filio Macriano nomine deditusque 
omnis exercitus Aureolo imperatori. 

III. Turbata interim re publica toto penitus orbe 
terrarum, ubi Odaenathus comperit Macrianum cum 
filio interemptum, regnare Aureolum, Gallienum re- 
missius rem gerere, 3 festinavit ad alterum filium 
Macriani cum exercitu, si hoc daret fortuna, capien- 

2 dum. sed ii qui erant cum filio Macriani, Quieto 
nomine, consentientes Odaenatho auctore praefecto 
Macriani Ballista iuvenem occiderunt missoque per 
murum corpore Odaenatho se omnes affatim dedide- 

3 runt, totius prope igitur orientis tactus est Odaenathus 
imperator, cum Illyricum teneret Aureolus, Romam 

4Gallienus. idem 4 Ballista multos Emesenos, ad quos 
confugerant Macriani milites, cum Quieto et thesau- 
rorum custode interfecit, ita ut civitas paene deleretur. 

1 et Peter ; haec P. 3 et ins. by Peter ; om. in P and by 

Hohl. 3 rem gerere Salm., Peter; ingerere P. *idem Z 
Peter ; id est P. 



1 See Tyr. Trig., xii. 14. 

3 This statement (also in o. iii. 1) is incorrect, for Aureolus 
did not declare himself emperor until 268, and was at this time 
acting as Gallienus' general ; see note to Tyr. Trig. t xi. 1. 

n See Tyr. Trig., xv. 

20 



THE TWO GALLIENI II. 4 III. 4 

together with many, was slain by the soldiers sent 
against him by Valens. Now Piso, too, was saluted 
as emperor with the surname Thessalicus. 

Macrianus, moreover, now that the East was 
brought into subjection, left there one of his sons, 
and came first of all into Asia, and from there set out 
for lllyricum. Here, having with him one of his sons 
and a force of thirty thousand soldiers, he engaged 
in battle with Domitianus, 1 a general of Aureolus the 
emperor, who had assumed the imperial power in 
opposition to Gallienus. 2 He was, however, defeated, 
together with his son, Macrianus by name, and his 
whole army surrendered to the Emperor Aureolus. 

III. Meanwhile, when the commonwealth had been 
thrown into confusion throughout the entire world, 
Odaenathus, 3 learning that Macrianus and his son 
had been slain, that Aureolus was ruling, and that 
Gallienus was administering the state with still greater 
slackness, hastened forward to seize the other son of 
Macrianus, together with his army, should Fortune so 
permit. But those who were with Macrianus' son 
whose name was Quietus taking sides with Odae- 
nathus, by the instigation of Ballista, Macrianus' prefect, 
killed the young man, and, casting his body over the 
wall, they all in large numbers surrendered to Odae- 
nathus. And so Odaenathus was made emperor over 
almost the whole East, while Aureolus held lllyricum 
and Gallienus Rome. This same Ballista murdered, 
in addition to Quietus and the guardian of his treasures, 
many of the people of Emesa, 4 to whom Macrianus' 
soldiers had fled, with the result that this city was 
nearly destroyed. Odaenathus, meanwhile, as if 

4 The city of Horns in central Syria. 

21 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

5 Odaenathus inter haec, quasi Gallieni partes ageret, 
cuncta eidem mmtiari ex veritate faciebat. 

6 Sed Gallienus, cognito quod Macrianus cum suis 
liberis esset occisus, quasi securus rerum ac patre iam 

7recepto, libidini et voluptati se dedidit. ludos cir- 
censes ludosque scaenicos, ludos gymnicos, ludiariam 
etiam venationem et ludos gladiatorios dedit popu- 
lumque quasi victorialibus diebus ad festivitatem ac 

Splausum vocavit. et cum plerique patris eius cap- 
tivitatem maererent, ille specie decoris, quod pater 
eius virtutis studio deceptus videretur, supra modum 

9 laetatus est. constabat autem censuram parentis eum 

ferre non potuisse votivumque l illi fuisse quod inmi- 

nentem cervicibus suis gravitatem patriamnon haberet. 

IV. Per idem tempus Aemilianus apud Aegyptum 

sumpsit imperium occupatisque horreis multa oppida 

2malo famis pressit. sed hunc dux Gallieni Theodotus 
conflictu habito cepit atque imperatoriw ornamentis 
exutum Gallieno vivum transmisit. Aegyptus post haec 
Theodoto data est ; Aemilianus in carcere strangulatus ; 
in Thebaitanos milites quoque saevitum est interfectis 
co?npluribus. 2 

3 Cum Gallienus in luxuria et improbitate persisteret 
cumque ludibriis et helluationi vacaret neque aliter 
rem publicam gereret, quam cum pueri fingunt per 
ludibria potestates, Galli, quibus insitum est leves ac 
degenerantes a virtute Romaiia et luxuriosos principes 

1 que ins. by Klotz : cum . . . potuisset Peter, Hohl. 
a Italics are supplements of Obrecht to fill lacunae in P (cf . 
Tyr. Trig., xxii. 8). 

1 On the contrary, he seems, after suppressing the revolt of 
Ingenuus (see note to c. i. 1), to have returned to Gaul to take 
up the war against Postumns (cf. c. iv. 4) 

2 See Tyr. Trig., xxii. 

22 



THE TWO GALLIENI III. 5 IV. S 

taking the side of Gallienus, caused all that had 
happened to be announced to him truthfully. 

Gallienus, on the other hand, when he learned that 
Macrianus and his sons were slain, as though he were 
secure in his power and his father were now set free, 
surrendered himself to lust and pleasure. 1 He gave 
spectacles in the circus, spectacles in the theatre, 
gymnastic spectacles, hunting spectacles, and gladia- 
torial spectacles also, and he invited all the populace 
to merriment and applause, as though it were a day 
of victory. And whereas most men mourned at his 
father's captivity, he, under the pretext of doing him 
honour on the ground that his father had been 
caught through his zeal for valour made merry be- 
yond measure. It was generally supposed, moreover, 
that he could not endure his father's censure and that 
it was his desire to feel no longer his father's authority 
bearing heavily upon his neck. 

IV. During this same time Aemilianus 2 in Egypt 
took the imperial power, and seizing the granaries he 
overcame many towns by the pressure of hunger. 
However, Theodotus, Gallienus' general, after fight- 
ing a battle captured him, and stripping him of his 
emperor's trappings sent him alive to Gallienus. 
After this Egypt was assigned to Theodotus. As for 
Aemilianus, he was strangled in prison, while the 
soldiers of Thebes were cruelly punished and many 
were put to death. 

Now while Gallienus, continuing in luxury and 
debauchery, gave himself up to amusements and revel- 
ling and administered the commonwealth like a boy 
who plays at holding power, the Gauls, by nature 
unable to endure princes who are frivolous and given 
over to luxury and have fallen below the standard of 

SS 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

ferre non posse, Postumum ad imperium vocarunt, 
exercitibus quoque 1 consentientibus, quod occupatum 
4 imperatorem libidinibus querebantur. contra hunc 
ip.se Gallienus exercitum duxit ; cumque urbem, in qua 
erat Posturaus, obsidere coepisset, acriter earn defen- 
dentibus 2 Gallis, Gallienus rauros circumiens sagitta 

6 ictus est. nam per annos septem Postumus imperavit 
ct Gallias ab omnibus circumfluentibus barbaris validis- 

6sime vindicavit. his coactus malis Gallienus pacem 
cum Aureolo facit oppugnandi Postumi studio longo- 
que bello tracto per diversas obsidiones ac proelia rem 

7 modo feliciter modo infeliciter gerit. accesserat prae- 
terea his malis, 3 quod Scythae Bithyniam invaserant 

8 civitatesque deleverant. denique Astacum, 4 quae 
Nicomedia postea dicta est, incensam graviter vasta- 

gverunt. denique quasi coniuratione totius mundi 
concussis orbis partibus etiam in Sicilia quasi quoddam 
servile bellum exstitit latronibus evagantibus, qui vix 
V. oppress! sunt. et haec omnia Gallieni contemptu 
fiebant. neque enim quicquam est ad audaciam malis, 
ad spem bonorum bonis promptius, quam cum vel 
malus timetur vel 5 dissolutus contemnitur imperator. 

1 quoque Peter ; qui P. 2 So Salm. to fill lacunae in P. 

8 malis Z 1 , Peter ; magis P. 4 Astacum Egnatius, Peter 1 ; 

contum P. 5 uel 2, Peter ; om. in P. 



1 On the revolt of Postumus, see Tyr. Trig., iii. and notes. 

9 But see note to Tyr. Trig., iii. 4. 

3 Bilt see note to Tyr. Trig., xi. 1. In fact, Aureolus was 
entrusted, during Gallienus' absence, with the conduct of the 
war against Postumus, but he did not push the campaign 
very vigorously; see Zonaras, xii. 24. 

4 Gallienus seems to have been called away in the course of 
the war, but he returned to it later on ; see c. vii. 1. The 
cause of the interruption raay have been the raid of the 

24 



THE TWO GALLIENI IV. 4 V. i 

Roman valour, called Postumus to the imperial power ; l 
and the armies, too, joined with them, for they com- 
plained of an emperor who was busied with his lusts. 
Thereupon Gallienus himself led his army against 
him, and when he began to besiege the city in 
which Postumus was, the Gauls defended it bravely, 
and GaJlienus, as he went around the walls, was 
struck by an arrow. So for seven years 2 Postumus 
held his power and with the greatest vigour protected 
the regions of Gaul from all the barbarians surging 
about. Forced by this evil plight, Gallienus made 
peace with Aureolus 3 in his desire to fight with 
Postumus, and, as the war dragged on to great 
length amid various sieges and battles, he conducted 
the campaign, now with good success and again with 
ill. 4 These evils had been further increased by the 
fact that the Scythians 5 had invaded Bithynia and 
destroyed its cities. Finally they set fire to Astacus, 
later called Nicomedia, and plundered it cruelly. 
Last of all, when all parts of the Empire were thrown 
into commotion, as though by a conspiracy of the 
whole world, there arose in Sicily also a sort of slave- 
revolt, for bandits roved about and were put down 
only with great difficulty. V. All these things were 
done out of contempt for Gallienus, for there is noth- 
ing so quick to inspire evil men to daring and good 
men to the hope of good things as an evil emperor 
who is feared or a depraved one who is despised. 

Alamanni, who about this time invaded northern Italy as far 
as Ravenna, but were defeated by Gallienus at Milan; see 
Zonaras, xii. 24. 

5 Throughout these biographies the term Scythian is often 
used for Goth, as had been done regularly by Dexippus. This 
invasion of Bithynia seems to have taken place in 258. 

25 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

2 Gallieno et Fausiano l consulibus inter tot bellicas 
clades etiam terrae motus gravissimus fuit et tenebrae 

3 per multos dies 2 ; auditum praeterea tonitruum terra 
mugiente, non love tonante. quo motu multae fabri- 
cae devoratae sunt cum habitatoribus, multi terrore 
emortui ; quod quidem malum tristius in Asiae urbibus 

4 fuit. mota est et Roma, mota et Libya, hiatus terrae 
plurimis in locis fuerunt, cum aqua salsa in fossis ap- 

5 pareret. maria etiam multas urbes occuparunt. pax 
igitur deum quaesita inspectis Sibyllae libris, fac- 
tumque lovi Salutari, ut praeceptum fuerat, sacrificium. 
nam et pestilentia tanta exstiterat vel Romae vel in 
Achaicis urbibus, ut uno die quiiique milia hominum 
pari morbo perirent. 

6 Saeviente fortuna, cum hinc terrae motus, inde 
hiatus soli, ex diversis partibus pestilentia orbem 
Romaiiam vastaret, capto Valeriano, Gallis parte 
maxima obsessis, cum bellum Odaenathus inferret, 
cum Aureolus perurgueret Illyricum, 3 cum Aemilianus 
Aegyptum occupasset, Gothorwwz pars 4 . . ., quod 
nome?t, ut & dictum est superius, Gothis inditum est, 
occupatis Thraciis, Macedoniam vastaverunt, Thessa- 
lonicam obsederunt, neque usquam quies mediocriter 

1 Fausiano from C.I.L. xiv. 5357 ; Faustiano P. 
2 dies om. in P. 3 Illyricum ins. by Salm. ; lacuna in P. 

4 So Hohl; gotharidodius P corr., 2; GotJwri Clodius Peter. 

5 So Jordan ; a quo dictum P. 

1 Salutaris is included by Cicero (de Finibus, iii. 66) among 
tbe cognomina of Jupiter, and dedicatory inscriptions to lovi 
Optimo Maximo Salutari have been found at Rome. 

2 It had previously raged in the East and wrought great 
havoc among the troops of Valerian ; see Zosimus, i. 36. For 
a vivid description of its ravages in Egypt, see Eusebius, Hist. 
Eccles., vii. 22. 

8 The Goths invaded Macedonia and besieged Thessalonioa 

26 



THE TWO GALLIENI V. 2-6 

In the consulship of Gallienus and Fausianus, 26 
amid so many calamities of war, there was also a ter- 
rible earthquake and a darkness for many days. There 
was heard, besides, the sound of thunder, not like 
Jupiter thundering, but as though the earth were 
roaring. And by the earthquake many structures 
were swallowed up together with their inhabitants, 
and many men died of fright. This disaster, indeed, 
was worst in the cities of Asia ; but Rome, too, was 
shaken and Libya also was shaken. In many places 
the earth yawned open, and salt water appeared in the 
fissures. Many cities were even overwhelmed by the 
sea. Therefore the favour of the gods was sought by 
consulting the Sibylline Books, and, according to their 
command, sacrifices were made to Jupiter Salutaris. 1 
For so great a pestilence, 2 too, had arisen in both 
Rome and the cities of Achaea that in one single day 
five thousand men died of the same disease. 

While Fortune thus raged, and while here earth- 
quakes, there clefts in the ground, and in divers 
places pestilence, devastated the Roman world, while 
Valerian was held in captivity and the provinces of 
Gaul were, for the most part, beset, while Odaenathus 
was threatening war, Aureolus pressing hard on Illy- 
ricum, and Aemilianus in possession of Egypt, a por- 
tion of the Goths . . . which name, as has previously 
been related, was given to the Goths, having seized 
Thrace and plundered Macedonia, laid siege to Thes- 
salonica, 3 and nowhere was hope of peace held out, 

in 253 or 254 (Zosirnus, i. 29, 2), but, if the chronological order 
is reliable, this would seem to be a later incursion, in 262, in 
the course of which they were driven back by Marcianus ; see 
c. vi. 1 unless, as is not improbable, this notice belongs to 
the invasion of 267, described in o. xiii. 6 f. 

87 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

7 saltern 1 ostentata 2 est. quae omnia contemptu, ut 
saepius diximus, Gallieni fiebant, horainis luxuriosis- 
simi et, si esset securus, ad omne dedecus paratissimi. 

VI. Pugnatum est in Achaia Marciano duce contra 
eosdera Gothos, unde victi per Achaeos recesserunt. 

2 Scythae autem, hoc est pars Gothorum, Asiam vasta- 
bant. etiam templum Lunae Ephesiae despoliatum et 
incensum est, cuius operis faraa satis nota per 3 populos. 

3 pudet prodere inter haec tempora, cum ista gereren- 
tur, quae saepe Gallienus malo generis humani quasi 

4 per iocura dixerit. nam cum ei nuntiatura esset 
Aegyptum descivisse, dixisse fertur : " Quid ? sine 

5 lino Aegyptio esse non possumus ! ' cum autem vas- 
tatam Asiam et elementorum concussionibus et Scy- 
tharum incursionibus comperisset, "Quid," inquit, 

6 " sine aphronitris esse non possumus ! ' perdita Gallia 
risisse ac dixisse perhibetur : " Num sine Atrebaticis 

7sagis tuta res publica est?" sic denique de omnibus 
partibus mundi, cum eas amitteret, 4 quasi detrimentis 

8 vilium ministeriorum videretur affici, iocabatur. ac ne 
quid mali deesset Gallieni temporibus, Byzantiorum 
civitas, clara navalibus bellis, claustrum Ponticum, per 
eiusdem Gallieni milites ita omnis vastata est, ut pror- 

9sas nemo superesset. denique nulla vetus familia 

1 saltern Ellis, Hohl ; salutem P, 2, Peter 2 . 2 So Salm., 
Petf-r 1 , Hohl; ostentare P, Z. 8 So Petschenig, Hohl; 

fama satis nota ]>o];nlos P. 4 amitteret E\ mitteret P. 



1 See note to c. v. '; on AJarcianus' later victory see c. xiii. 
10 and Zosimus, i. 40, 1. 

H.e., the famous temple of Artemis; this invasion (men- 
tioned also in c. vii. 3) was in 263. 

3 The Atrebates lived in northern Gaul, around the modern 
Arras, later famous for its tapestry, but the centre of the in- 
dustry in antiquity seems to have been Turnacum (Tournai). 



THE TWO GALLIEN1 V. 7 VI. 9 

even to a slight degree. All these things, as I have 
frequently said, were done out of contempt for Gal- 
lienus. a man given over to luxury and ever ready, 

' O , " 

did he feel free from danger, for any disgraceful deed. 
VI. Against these same Goths a battle was fought 

O o 

in Achaea under the leadership of Marcianus, 1 and 
being defeated they withdrew from there through the 

O * O 

country of the Achaeans. The Scythians they are 

* 

a portion of the Goths devastated Asia and even 
plundered and burned the Temple of the Moon at 
Ephesus,- the fame of which building is known 
through all nations. 1 am ashamed to relate what 
Gallienus used often to say at this time, when such 

* 

things were happening, as though jesting amid the 
ills of mankind. For when he was told of the revolt 
of Egypt, he is said to have exclaimed " What ! We 
cannot do without Egyptian linen ! ' and when in- 
formed that Asia had been devastated both by the 
violence of nature and by the inroads of the Scythians. 



he said, " What ! We cannot do without saltpetre I ' 
and when Gaul was lost, he is reported to have 
laughed and remarked, " Can the commonwealth be 

safe without Atrebatic 3 cloaks?" Thus, in short, 
with regard to all parts of the world, as he lost them, 
he would jest, as though seeming to have suffered the 
loss of some article of tritling service. And finally, 
that no disaster might be lacking to his times, the 
city of Byzantium, famed for its naval wars and the 

w 

key to the Pontus. was destroyed by the soldiers of 

/ 

Gallienus himself so completely, that not a single soul 
survived. 4 In fact, no ancient family can now be 

4 The cause of this outbreak is unknown ; on the punish- 
ment inflicted, see c. vii. 2. 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

apud Byzantios invenitur, nisi si aliquis peregrinatione 
vel militia occupatus evasit, qui antiquitatem generis 
nobilitatemque repraesentet. 

VII. Contra Postumum igitur Gallienus cum Aureolo 
et Claudio duce, qui postea imperium obtinuit, principe 
generis Constantii Caesaris nostri, bellum iniit. et 
cum 1 multis auxiliis Postumus iuvaretur Celticis atque 
Francicis, in bellum cum Victorino processit, cum quo 
imperium parti ipaverat. victrix Gallieni pars tuit 

2 pluribus proeliis eventuum variatione - decursis. erat 
in Gallieno subitae virtutis audacia, nam aliquando 
iniuriis graviter movebatur. denique ad vindictam 
Byzantiorum processit. et cum non putaret recipi se 
posse muris, receptus alia die omnes milites inermes 
armatorum corona circumdatos interemit, fracto foe- 

3 dere quod promiserat. per eadem tempora etiam 
Scythae in Asia Romanorum ducum virtute ac ductu 
vastati ad propria recesserunt. 

4 Interfectis sane militibus apud Byzantium Gallienus, 
quasi magnum aliquid gessisset, Romam cursu rapido 
convolavit convocatisque patribus decennia celebravit 
novo genere ludorum, nova specie pomparum, ex- 

VIII. quisito genere voluptatum. iam primum inter togatos 
patres et equestrem ordinem albato milite 3 et omni 
populo praeeunte, servis etiam prope omnium et 

1 So Gruter and Peter; incitet cum P. *uariatioiie Gas. ; 
rationeP,2. 3 albato milite Baehrens, Peter 2 ; albatos 

milites P. 



1 See c. iv. 6 and note. 

, 2 See Claud., xiii. 2 and note. 3 See Tyr. Trig., vi. 

4 The Decennalia were celebrated in the autumn of 262, at 
the beginning of the tenth year after Gallienus' joint accession 
with Valerian ; the festival was commemorated by an issue of 

SO 



THE TWO GALLIENI VII. 1 Vlll. 1 

found among the Byzantines, unless some member, 
engaged in travel or warfare, escaped to perpetuate 
the antiquity and noble descent of his stock. 

VII. Gallienus, then, entered into war against 
Postumus, 1 having with him Aureolus and the general 
Claudius, afterwards emperor and the head of the 
family of Constantius our Caesar. 2 And Postumus, too, 
with many auxiliary troops of Celts and Franks ad- 
vanced to the fight, in company with Victorinus, 3 with 
whom he had shared the imperial power. After 
several battles had been fought with varying outcome, 
the side of Gallienus was finally victorious. In fact, 
Gallienus had the boldness of suddenly aroused 
valour, for at times he was violently stirred by af- 
fronts. Then finally he went forth to avenge the 
wrongs of the Byzantines. And whereas he had no 
expectation of being received within the walls, he 
was admitted next day, and then, after placing a ring 
of armed men around the disarmed soldiers, contrary 
to the agreement he had made he caused them all to 
be slain. During this time, too, the Scythians in 
Asia were routed by the courage and skill of the 
Roman generals and retired to their own abode. 

Now Gallienus, after the slaughter of the soldiers 
at Byzantium, as though he had performed some 
mighty feat, hastened to Rome in a rapid march, 
convened the senators, and celebrated a decennial 
festival with new kinds of spectacles, new varieties of 
parades, and the most elaborate sort of amusements. 4 
VI II. First of all, he repaired to the Capitol with 
the senators and the equestrian order dressed in their 
togas and with the soldiers dressed all in white, and 

coins with the legends Votis Decennalibus and Votis Xet XX ; 
see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 138, nos. 92-96. 

31 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

mulieribus cum cereis facibus et lampadis praece- 

2 dentibus Capitolium petiit. praecesserunt etiara 
altrinsecus centeni albi boves cornuis auro iugatis et 

3 dorsualibus sericis discoloribus praefulgentes ; agnae 
candentes ab utraque parte ducentae praecesserunt et 
decem elephant!, qui tune erant Romae, mille ducenti 
gladiatores pompabiliter ornati cum auratis vestibus 
matronarum, mansuetae ferae diversi generis ducentae 
ornatu quam maximo affectae, carpenta cum mimis et 
omni genere histrionum, pugiles flacculis non veritate 
pugillantes. Cyclopea etiam luserunt omnes apinarii, 
ita ut miranda quaedam et stupenda monstrarent. 

4 omnes viae ludis strepituque et plausibus personabant. 
5ipse medius cum picta toga et tunica palmata inter 

patres, ut diximus, omnibus sacerdotibus praetextatis 

6 Capitolium petiit. hastae auratae altrinsecus quin- 
genae, vexilla centena praeter ea quae collegiorum 
erant, dracones et signa templorum omniumque 

7 legionum ibant. ibant praeterea gentes simulatae, ut 



l flacculi occurs only here, but it may perhaps be the same 
as the i/icWe? ol fiaXaKwrepoi in use at Elis in Pausaniaa' 
time (see Paus., vi. 23, 3), or the oldest typa of the boxing- 
straps, the untanned ^fiAlxai, contrasted in Paus., viii. 40, 3 
with the harder 1/jia.s bvs, a development of which was the 
metal-studded cestus. 

2 Apina, supposed to have been the name of a town in 
Apulia (Pliny, Nat. Hist., iii. 104), seems to have been used, in 
the plural, like tricae, to denote trifles; it is applied thus to 
literary work of a light nature (nugae) by Martial, i. 113, 2; 
xiv. 1, 7. Hence the adjective may be supposed to mean 
" buffoons." 

8 The Cyclops Polyphemus seems in the Hellenistic period 
to have become a figure in low farcical comedy, perhaps 
somewhat as represented in the burlesque in Aristophanes, 
Plutus, 290 f., both as the lover of Galatea and as a comic 



THE TWO GALLIENI VIII. 2-7 

with all the populace going ahead, while the slaves of 
almost all and the women preceded them, bearing 
waxen flambeaux and torches. There preceded them, 
too, on each side one hundred white oxen, having 
their horns bound with golden cords and resplendent 
in many-coloured silken covers ; also two hundred 
lambs of glistening white went ahead on each side, 
besides ten elephants, which were then in Rome, and 
twelve hundred gladiators decked with all pomp, and 
matrons in golden cloaks, and two hundred tamed 
beasts of divers kinds, tricked out with the greatest 
splendour, and waggons bearing pantomimists and 
actors of every sort, and boxers who fought, not in 
genuine combat, but with the softer straps. 1 All the 
buffoons 2 also acted a Cyclops-performance, 3 giving 
exhibitions that were marvellous and astonishing. So 
all the streets resounded with merry-making and 
shouts and applause, and in the midst the Emperor 
himself, wearing the triumphal toga and the tunic 
embroidered with palms, and accompanied, as I have 
said, by the senators and with all the priests dressed 
in bordered togas, proceeded to the Capitol. On 
each side of him were borne five hundred gilded 
spears and one hundred banners, besides those which 
belonged to the corporations, and the flags of auxili- 
aries and the statues from the sanctuaries 4 and the 
standards of all the legions. There marched, further- 
more, men dressed to represent foreign nations, as 

drunkard. In this latter capacity especially he appeared in 
the Roman mimes (see Horace, Sat. t i. 5, 04, and Epist., ii. 2. 
125), and the Cyclopea mentioned here and in Car., xix. 3, 
probably consisted of comic dancing or, possibly, comic feats 
of strength. 

4 i.e. , those in the camps of the legions, as also in Herodian, 
iv. 4, 8. 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

Gothi, Sarmatae, Franci, Persae, ita ut non minus 
quam duceni globis singulis ducerentur. 

IX. Hac pompa homo ineptus eludere se credidit 
populum Romanum, sed, ut sunt Romanorum facetiae, 
alius Postumo favebat, alius Regaliano, alius Aureolo 
aut Aemiliano, alius Saturnine, nam et ipse iam im- 

2 perare dicebatur. inter haec ingens querella de patre, 
quern inultum filius Hquerat, et quern externi utcumque 

3 vindicaverant. nee tamen Gallienus ad talia move- 
batur obstupefacto voluptatibus corde, sed ab iis qui 
circum eum erant requirebat : " Ecquid habemus in 
prandio ? ecquae voluptates paratae sunt ? et qualis 

4 eras erit scaena qualesque circenses?" sic confecto 
itinere celebratisque hecatombis ad domum regiam 
rediit conviviisque et epulis decursis 1 alios dies 

5 voluptatibus publicis deputabat. praetereundum non 
est baud ignobile facetiarum genus, nam cum grex 2 
Persarum quasi captivorum per pompam (rem ridi- 
culam) duceretur, quidam scurrae miscuerunt se Persis, 
diligentissime scrutantes omiiia atque uniuscuiusque 

6 vultum mira inhiatione rimantes. 3 a quibus cum 
quaereretur quidnam agerent 4 ilia sollertia, illi re- 

jsponderunt: " Patrem principis quaerimus." quod 
cum ad Gallienum pervenisset, non pudore, non 
maerore, non pietate commotus est scurrasque iussit 

8 vivos exuri. quod populus factum tristius, quam quis- 
quam aestimet, tulit, milites vero ita doluerunt ut non 
multo post vicem redderent. 

1 decursis Eyssenhardt, Petschenig, Hohl; depulsis P, 
Peter. 2 rac P. 3 rimantes Ellis, Walter, Damste"; 

mirantes P, Peter. 4 agerent Jordan ; ageret P, Peter. 



Tyr. Trig., x. 2 See Tyr. Trig., xxiii. 

3 i.e., Odaenathus; see c. x. 1-3. 

54 



THE TWO GALL1ENI IX. 1-8 

Goths and Sarmatians, Franks and Persians, and no 
fewer than two hundred paraded in a single group. 

IX. By this procession the foolish man thought to 
delude the people of Rome ; nevertheless for such 
is the Romans' love of a jest one man kept support- 
ing Postumus, another Regalianus, 1 another Aureolus 
or Aemilianus, and another Saturninus 2 for he, too, 
was now said to be ruling. Amid all this there was 
loud lamentation for the father whom the son had left 
unavenged and for whom foreigners had tried, in one 
way or another, to exact a vengeance. 3 Gallienus, 
however, was moved to no such deed, for his heart was 
dulled by pleasure, but he merely kept asking of those 
about him, " Have we anything planned for luncheon ? 
Have any amusements been arranged ? What manner 
of play will there be to-morrow and what manner of 
circus-games ? " So, having finished the procession, he 
offered hecatombs and returned to the royal residence, 
and then, the banquets and feastings having come to 
an end, he appointed further days for the public amuse- 
ments. One well-known instance of jesting, however, 
must not be omitted. As a band of Persians, supposed 
to be captives, was being led along in the procession 
(such an absurdity !), certain wits mingled with them 
and most carefully scrutinized all, examining with 
open-mouthed astonishment the features of every one ; 
and when asked what they meant by that sagacious 
investigation, they replied, " We are searching for the 
Emperor's father/' When this incident was reported 
to Gallienus, unmoved by shame or grief or filial affec- 
tion, he ordered the wits to be burned alive a 
measure which angered the people more than anyone 
would suppose, but so grieved the soldiers that not 
much later they requited the deed. 

35 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

X. Gallieno et Saturnine consulibus Odaenathus 
rex Palmyrenorum obtinuit totius orientis imperium, 
idcirco praecipue quod se fortibus factis dignum tantae 
maiestatis infulis declaravit, Gallieno aut nullas aut 

2 luxuriosas aut ineptas et ridiculas res agente. deni- 
que statim bellum Persis in vindictam Valerian!, quam 

3eius filius neglegebat, indixit. Xisibin et Carrhas 
statim occupat tradentibus sese Nisibenis atque Car- 

4 rhenis et increpantibus Gallienum. nee defuit tamen 
reverentia Odaeiiathi circa Gallienum. nam captos 
satrapas insultandi prope gratia et ostentandi sui ad 

5 eum misit. qui cum Romam deducti essent, vincente 
Odaenatho triumphavit Gallienus nulla mentione pa- 
tris facta, quern ne inter deos quidem nisi coactus ret- 
tulit, cum mortuum audisset, sed adhuc viventem, 

6 nam de illius morte falso compererat. Odaenathus 
autem ad Ctesiphontem Parthorum multitudinem ob- 
sedit vastatisque circum omnibus locis innumeros 

7 homines interemit. sed cum satrapae omnes ex 
omnibus rejjionibus illuc defeiisionis communis gratia 

O 

convolassent, fuerunt longa et varia proelia, longior 

8 tamen Romana victoria, et cum nihil aliud ageret nisi 
ut Valeriamim Odaenathus liberaret, instabat cottidie, 
at : locorum difficultatibus in alieno solo imperator 
optimus laborabat. 

1 at Gas., Peter; ac P, Hohl. 



1 See Tyr. Trig., xv. 1 and note. 

- As a matter of fact, he was acting as the general of 
Gallienus and under his command. 

3 Coins of 264, celebrating this triumph, show Gallienus in 
a four-hor-e chariot ; see Matt.-Syd. v. pp. 166-167, nos. 412-413. 
The cognomina Persicus Maximus and Parthicus Maximus 
are found in papyri and inscriptions. 

36 



THE TWO GALLIENI X. 1-8 

X. In the consulship of Gallienus and Saturninus 264 
Odaenathus, king of the Palmyrenes, held the rule 
over the entire East l chiefly for the reason that by 
his brave deeds he had shown himself worthy of the 
insignia of such great majesty, whereas Gallienus was 
doing nothing at all or else only what was extravagant, 
or foolish and deserving of ridicule. Now at once he 
proclaimed a war on the Persians to exact for Valerian 
the vengeance neglected by Valerian's son. He 
immediately occupied Xisibis and Carrhae, the people 
of which surrendered, reviling Gallienus. Neverthe- 
less, Odaenathus showed no lack of respect toward 
Gallienus, for he sent him the satraps he captured 
though, as it seemed, merely for the purpose of in- 
sulting him and displaying his own prowess. 2 After 
these had been brought to Rome, Gallienus held a 
triumph because of Odaenathus' victory; 3 but he 
still made no mention of his father and did not even 
place him among the gods, when he heard he was 
dead, until compelled to do so 4 although in fact 
Valerian was still alive, for the news of his death was 
untrue. Odaenathus, besides, besieged an army of 
Parthians at Ctesiphon and devastated all the country 
round about, killing men without number. But when 
all the satraps from all the outlying regions flocked 
together to Ctesiphon for the purpose of common 
defence, there were long-lasting battles with varying 
results, but more long-lasting still was the success 
of the Romans. Moreover, since Odaenathus' sole 
purpose was to set Valerian free, he daily pressed 
onward, but this best of commanders, now on a 
foreign soil, suffered greatly because of the difficult 
ground. 

4 There is no other evidence of Valerian's consecration. 

37 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

XI. Dum haec apud Persas geruntur, Scythae in 
Cappadociam pervaserunt. illic captis civitatibus bello 
etiam vario diu acto se l ad Bithyniam contulerunt. 

2 quare milites iterum de novo imperatore faciendo 
cogitarunt. quos omnes Gallienus more suo, cum 
placare atque ad gratiam suam reducere non posset, 
occidit. 

3 Cum tamen sibi milites dignum principem quaere- 
rent, Gallienus apud Athenas archoii erat, id est sum- 
mus magistratus, vanitate ilia, qua et civis adscribi de- 

4siderabat et sacris omnibus interesse. quod neque 
Hadrianus in summa felicitate neque Antoninus in 
adulta fecerat pace, cum tanto studio Graecarum 
docti^ sint litterarum ut raro aliquibus doctissimis 

5 magnorum arbitrio cesserint virorum. Areopagitarum 
praeterea cupiebat ingeri numero contempta prope re 

Gpublica. fuit enim Gallienus, quod negari non potest, 
oratione. poemate atque omnibus artibus clarus. 

7 huius illud est epithalamion, quod inter centum poetas 
praecipuum fuit. nam cum fratrum suorum filios 
iungeret, et omnes poetae Graeci Latinique epitha- 
lamia dixissent, idque per dies plurimos, ille, cum 



1 acto se Salm. ; actos P. 2 docti P, 27; ducti Baehrens, 

Peter, Hohl. 



1 This invasion of Cappadocia is mentioned in Zosimus, i. 
28, 1, as in the year 252 or 253, whereas it actually took place 
in 264. 

38 



THE TWO GALLIENI XI. 1-7 

XI. While these events were happening among the 
Persians, the Scythians made their way into Cap- 
padocia. 1 After capturing many cities there and 
waging war for a long time with varying success, 
they betook themselves to Bithynia. Wherefore the 
soldiers again considered the choosing of a new 
emperor ; but since he could not placate them or win 
their support, Gallienus, after his usual fashion, put 
all of them to death. 

Just, however, when the soldiers were looking for 
a worthy prince, Gallienus was holding the office of 
archon chief magistrate, that is at Athens, showing 
that same vanity which also made him desire to be 
enrolled among its citizens and even take part in all 
its sacred rites which not even Hadrian had done at 
the height of his prosperity or Antoninus during a 
long-established peace, 2 and these emperors, too, 
were schooled by so much study of Greek letters 
that in the judgement of great men they were 
scarcely inferior to the most learned scholars. He 
desired, furthermore, to be included among the 
members of the Areopagus, almost as though he 
despised public affairs. For indeed it cannot be 
denied that Gallienus won fame in oratory, poetry, 
and all the arts. His, too, is the epithalamium which 
had the chief place among a hundred poets. For, 
when he was joining in marriage the children of his 
brothers, and all the poets, both Greek and Latin, had 
recited their epithalamia, and that for very many 
days, Gallienus, holding the hands of the bridal pair, 

2 Hadrian had been archon at Athens, but before hia 
accession to power (see Hadr. t xix. 1), and both he and Marcus 
Aurelius were initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries (Hadr. t 
xiii. 1; Marc., xxvii. 1). 

39 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

maims sponsorum teneret, ut quidam dicunt, saepius l 
ita dixisse fertur : 

8 Ite, agite, 2 o pueri, pariter sudate medullis 
omnibus inter vos, non murmura vestra columbae, 
brachia noil hederae, non vincant oscula conchae. 

9 longum est eius versus orationesque conectere, quibus 
suo tempore tarn inter 3 poetas quam inter rhetores 
emicuit. sed aliud in imperatore quaeritur, aliud in 
oratore vel poeta flagitatur. 

XII. Laudatur sane eius optimum factum. nam 
consulatu 4 Valeriani fratris sui et Lucilli propinqui, 
ubi comperit ab Odaenatho Persas vastatos, redactam 
Nisibin et Carrhas in potestatem Romanam, omnem 
Mesopotamiam nostram, denique Ctesiphontem esse 
perventum, fugisse regem, captos satrapas, plurimos 
Persarum occisos, Odaenathum participate imperio 
Augustum vocavit eiusque monetam, qua Persas 
captos traheret, cudi iussit. quod et senatus et urbs 
et omnis aetas gratanter accepit. 

2 Fuit praeterea idem ingeniosissimus, cuius osten- 

Sdendi acuminis 5 scilicet pauca libet ponere : nam 

cum taurum ingentem in arenam misisset, exissetque 

ad eum feriendum venator 6 neque productum decies 



1 sa*)pius Gas., Hohl ; sceptus P; o-KanmKuis Oberdick, 
Peter 2 . 2 ait P. 8 in P. * consulatu Czwalina, 

Peter 2 ; consulta P, 2. *ostendendi acuminis Madvig, 

Hohl ; ostendentia cum in his P. 6 uector P. 



1 Found also in the lost "Codex Bellovacensis " of Binetus 
(Riese, Anth. Lat. t i. 2, p. 17G, no. 711 = Baehrens, P.L.lf., 
iv. pp. 103 104) with the addition of two more lines : " Ludite : 
sed vigiles nolite extinguere lychnos. | Omnia nocte vident, 
nil eras meminere lucernae." 

40 



THE TWO GALLIENI XL 8 XII. 3 

so it is reported, is said to have recited repeatedly 
the following verses : 

"Come now, my children, grow heated together in 

deep-seated passion, 
Never, indeed, may the doves outdo your billings and 

cooings, 
Never the ivy your arms, or the clinging of sea-shells 

your kisses." l 

It would be too long a task to collect all his verses 
and speeches, which made him illustrious among both 
the poets and the rhetoricians of his own time. But 
it is one thing that is desired in an emperor, and 
another that is demanded of an orator or a poet. 

XII. One excellent deed of his, to be sure, is 
mentioned with praise. For in the consulship of his 265 
brother Valerian and his kinsman Lucillus, when he 
learned that Odaenathus had ravaged the Persians, 
brought Nisibis and Carrhae under the sway of Rome, 
made all of Mesopotamia ours, and finally arrived at 
Ctesiphon, put the king to flight, captured the satraps 
and killed large numbers of Persians, he gave him 
a share in the imperial power, conferred on him the 
name Augustus, 2 and ordered coins to be struck in his 
honour, which showed him haling the Persians into 
captivity. This measure the senate, the city, and 
men of every age received with approval. 

Gallienus, furthermore, was exceedingly clever, and 
I wish to relate a few actions of his in order to show 
his wit. Once, when a huge bull was led into the 
arena, and a huntsman came forth to fight him but 
was unable to slay the bull though it was brought out 

a Tbis is incorrect ; see note to Tyr. Trig., xv. 1. 

41 



THE TWO GALL1ENI 

4potuisset occidere, coronam venatori misit, mussanti- 
busque cunctis, quid rei esset quod homo ineptissimus 
coronaretur, ille per curionem dici iussit : " Tauruin 

5totiens non ferire difficile est". idem, cum quidam 
gemmas vitreas pro veris 1 vendidisset eius uxori, atque 
ilia re prodita vindicari vellet, subripi quasi ad leonem 
venditorem iussit, deinde e cavea caponem emitti, 
mirantibusque cunctis rem tarn ridiculam per curionem 
dici iussit : " Imposturam fecit et passus est". deinde 
negotiatorem dimisit. 

6 Occupato tamen Odaenatho bello Persico, Gallieno 
rebus ineptissimis, ut solebat, incubante Scythae navi- 
bus factis Heracleam pervenerunt atque inde cum 
praeda in solum proprium reverterunt, quamvis multi 
naufragio perierint navalive 2 bello superati sint. 

XIII. Per idem tempus Odaenathus insidiis con- 
sobrini sui interemptus est cum filio Herode, quern et 

2 ipsum imperatorem appellaverat. turn 3 Zenobia, uxor 
eius, quod parvuli essent filii eius qui supererant, 
Herennianus et Timolaus, ipsa suscepit imperium 

3 diuque rexit non muliebriter neque more femineo, sed 
non solum Gallieno, quo quaeque 4 virgo melius im- 
perare potuisset, verum etiam multis imperatoribus 

4 fortius atque sollertius. Gallienus sane, ubi ei nun- 
tiatum Odaenathum interemptum, bellum Persis ad 
seram nimis vindictam patris paravit collectisque per 

1 ue fas pro uitrels P, 2. 2 ue ins. by Bitschofsky ; om. 

inP; nauali .... sint del. by Peter. z cum P. 
Peter 2 ; quoc[iie P ; quo quae Hohl. 



1 Mod. Benderegli on the northern coast of Bithynia ; this 
seems to have been in 266. 

2 See Tyr. Trig., xv. 5 ; xvii. 3 See Tyr. Trig., xvi. 



THE TWO GALLIENI XII. 4 XIII. 4 

ten times, he sent the huntsman a garland, and when, 
all the crowd wondered what it might mean that so 
foolish a fellow should be crowned with a garland, he 
bade a herald announce : " It is a difficult thing to 
miss a bull so many times." On another occasion, 
when a certain man sold his wife glass jewels instead 
of real, and she, discovering the fraud, wished the 
man to be punished, he ordered the seller to be haled 
off, as though to a lion, and then had them let out 
from the ca^e a capon, and when all were amazed at 
so absurd a proceeding, he bade the herald proclaim : 
" He practised deceit and then had it practised on 
him." Then he let the dealer go home. 

But while Odaenathus was busied with the war 
against the Persians and Gallienus was devoting 
himself to most foolish pursuits, as was his custom, 
the Scythians built ships and advanced upon Hera- 
clea, 1 and thence they returned with booty to their 
native land, although many were lost by shipwreck or 
defeated in a naval engagement. 

XIII. About this same time Odaenathus was 
treacherously slain by his cousin, 2 and with him his 
son H erodes, 3 whom also he had hailed as emperor. 
Then Zenobia, his wife, since the sons who remained, 
Herennianus and Timolaus, 4 were still very young, 
assumed the power herself and ruled for a long time, 5 
not in feminine fashion or with the ways ol a woman, 
but surpassing in courage and skill not merely Gallienus, 
than whom any girl could have ruled more success- 
fully, but also many an emperor. As for Gallienus, 
indeed, when he learned that Odaenathus was 
murdered, he made ready for war with the Persians 

4 See Tyr. Trig., xxvii-xxviii. 8 See Tyr. Trig., xxx. 

43 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

Heraclianum ducera militibus sollertis principis rera 

5gerebat. qui tamen Heraclianus, cum contra Persas 
profectus esset, a Palmyrenis victus omnes quos para- 
verat milites perdidit, Zenobia Palmyrenis et orienta- 
libus plerisque viri liter imperaiite. 

6 Inter haec Scythae per Euxinum navigantes His- 
trum ingressi multa gravia in solo Romano fecerunt. 
quibus compertis Gallienus Cleodamum et Athenaeum 
Byzantios instaurandis urbibus muniendisque praefecit, 
pugnatumque est circa Pontum, et a Byzantiis ducibus 

7victi sunt barbari. Veneriano item duce navali l>ello 
Gothi superati sunt, cum ipse Venerianus militari 

Speriit morte. atque inde Cyzicum et Asiam, deinceps 
Achaiam omnem vastaverunt et ab Atheniensibus duce 
Dexippo, scriptore horum temporum, victi sunt. unde 
pulsi per Epirum, Macedoniam, Boeotiam pervagati 

9 sunt. Gallienus interea vix excitatus publicis mails 
Gothis vagaiitibus per Illyricum occurrit et fortuito 
plurimos interemit. quo comperto Scythae facta 
carragine per montem Gessacem fugere sunt conati. 



1 If this is true, it means a breaking of the friendly relations 
which had hitherto existed between Rome ami Palmyra 
perhaps an attempt to put an end to the unusual powers held 
by Zenobia but we have no other evidence of it. Odae- 
nathus was killed sometime in 266-67, and in the summer of 
26S Heraclianus was with Gallienus at Milan ; see c. xiv. 1. 

2 This was the great invasion of the Eruli, a Germanic 
tribe, in 267. Setting forth with 500 ships from the Sea of 
Azov, they sailed into the mouth of the Danube. Gallienus, 
engaged in the war against Postumus, deputed the various 
generals here mentioned to deal with them, but despite their 
efforts the invaders overran Greece, even as far as the 
Peloponnese. They were defeated by Dexippus in an attempt 
to take Athens on their return northward, and again by 

44 



THE TWO GALLIENI XIII. 5-9 

an over-tardy vengeance for his father and, gather- 
ing an army with the help of the general Heraclianus, 
he plciyed the part of a skilful prince. This Hera- 
clianus, however, on setting out against the Persians, 
was defeated by the Palmyrenes and lost all the 
troops he had gathered, 1 for Zenobia was ruling 
Palmyra and most of the East with the vigour of 
a man. 

Meanwhile the Scythians sailed across the Black 
Sea and, entering the Danube, did much damage on 
Roman soil. 2 Learning of this, Gallienus deputed 
Cleodamus and Athenaeus the Byzantines to repair 
and fortify the cities, and a battle was fought near 
the Black Sea, in which the barbarians were conquered 
by the Byzantine leaders. The Goths were also de- 
feated in a naval battle by the general Venerianus, 
though Venerianus himself died a soldier's death. 
Then the Goths ravaged Cyzicus and Asia and then 
all of Achaea, but were vanquished by the Athenians 
under the command of Dexippus, an historian of 
these times. 3 Driven thence, they roved through 
Epirus, Macedonia and Boeotia. Gallienus, mean- 
while, roused at last by the public ills, met the Goths 
as they roved about in Illyricum, and, as it chanced, 
killed a great number. Learning of this, the 
Scythians, after making a barricade of wagons, at- 
tempted to escape by way of Mount Gessaces. 4 Then 
Marcianus made war on all the Scythians with varying 

Gallienus himself (who had left the war against Postumua 
and hurried to meet them) in a battle on the river Nestos, the 
boundary between Macedonia and Thrace. For a fuller 
account see Syncellus, p. 717. 

3 See note to Alex., xlix. 3. 

4 Unknown; perhaps Mt. Bhodope in Thrace. 

45 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

lOomnes inde Scythas Marcianus varia bellorum fortuna 

quae omnes Scythas ad rebellionem excitarunt. 

XIV. Et haec quidem Heracliani ducis erga rem 
publicam devotio luit. verum cum Gallieni tantam 
improbitatem ferre non possent, consilium inierunt 
Marcianus et Heraclianus, ut alter eorum imperium 

2caperet et Claudius quidem, ut suo dicemus 

loco, vir omnium optimus, electus est, qui consilio 
non adfuerat, eaque apud cunctos reverentia, ut iuste 
dignus videretur imperio, quemadmodum postea com- 

3 probatum est. is enim est Claudius, a quo Constantius, 

4 vigilissimus Caesar, originem ducit. fuit iisdem socius 
in appetendo imperio quidam Ceronius sive Cecropius, 
dux Dalmatarum, qui eos et urbanissime et prudentis- 

6 sime adiuvit. sed cum imperium capere vivo Gallieno 
non possent, huius modi eum insidiis adpetendum 
esse duxerunt, ut labem improbissimam malis fessa re 
publica a gubernaculis human! generis dimoverent, 
ne diutius theatre et circo addicta res publica per 

6 voluptatum deperiret inlecebras. insidiarum genus 
fuit tale : Gallienus ab Aureolo, qui principatum 
invaserat, dissidebat, sperans cottidie gravem et in- 

7tolerabilem tumultuarii imperatoris adventum. hoc 

1 Gallienus, summoned home by the revolt of Aureolus (see 
note to c. xiv. 1), left Marcianus (cf. c. vi. 1) and Claudius (cf. 
Claud., vi. 1) to complete the victory and hurried to northern 
Italy. 

2 According to the more complete accounts in Zosimus, i. 40 
and Zonaras, xii. 25, Gallienus defeated Aureolus (at Pons 
Aureolus = Pontirolo, Aur. Victor, Caes. t 33, 18) and shut him 
up in Milan. There a conspiracy was made against Gallienus, 
which included Claudius and Aurelian as well as Heraclianus, 
the prefect of the guard. Later, an attempt was made to 
show that Claudius had nothing to do with it, as here and in 
Claud., i. 3, and a scene was even invented in which Gallienus 

46 



THE TWO GALLIENI XIII. 10 XIV. 7 

success, 1 which measures roused all the 

Scythians to rebellion. 

XIV. Such, in fact, was the devotion of the general 
Heraclianus to the commonwealth. But being un- 
able to endure further all the iniquities of Gallienus, 
Marcianus and Heraclianus formed a plan that one of 

them should take the imperial power 2 And 

Claudius, in fact, was chosen, the best man of all, as we 
shall narrate ill the proper place. He had had no part 
in their plan, but was held by all in such respect that 
he seemed worthy of the imperial power, and justly 
so, as was proved by later events. For he is that 
Claudius from whom Constantius, our most watchful 
Caesar, derives his descent. 3 These men had also as 
their comrade in seeking the power a certain Ceronius, 
or rather Cecropius, commander of the Dalmatians, 
who aided them with the greatest shrewdness and 
wisdom. But being unable to seize the power while 
Gallienus was still alive, they decided to proceed 
against him by a plot of the following nature, purpos- 
ing, now that the state was exhausted by disasters, to 
remove this most evil blot from the governance of the 
human race and to save the commonwealth, now given 
over to the theatre and circus, from going to de- 
struction through the allurements of pleasure. Now 
the nature of their plot was as follows : Gallienus was 
at enmity with Aureolus, who had seized upon the 
position of prince, and was daily expecting the coming 
of this usurping ruler a serious and, indeed, an un- 
endurable thing. Being aware of this, Marcianus and 

on his deathbed was represented as bestowing the imperial 
insignia on Claudius; see Aur. Victor, Goes., 33, 28; Epit., 
34, 2. The evidence of papyri places the murder in July or 
August, 268. 

8 See Claud., xiii. 2 and note. 

47 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

scientes Marcianus et Cecropius subilo Gallieno ius- 

8 serant uuntiari Aureolum iam venire, ille igitur militi- 
bus cogitatis quasi cerium processit ad proelium atque 

9ita missis percussoribus interemptus est. et quidem 
Cecropii Dalmatarum ducis telo 1 Gallienus dicitur 
esse percussus, ut quidam ferunt, circa Mediolanum, 
ubi continue et frater eius Valerianus est interemptus, 
quern multi Augustum, multi Caesarem, multi neutrum 
lOfuisse dicunt. quod veri simile non est, si quidem 
capto iam Valeriano scriptum invenimus in fastis : 
"Valeriano imperatore consule." quis igitur alius 
11 potuit esse Valerianus nisi Gallieni frater ? constat 
de genere, non satis tamen constat de dignitate vel, 
ut coeperunt alii loqui, de maiestate. 

XV. Occiso igitur Gallieno seditio ingens militum 
fuit, cum spe praedae ac publicae vastationis impera- 
torem sibi utilem, necessarium, fortem, efficacem ad 

2 iiividiam faciendam dicerent raptum. quare consilium 
principum fuit, ut milites eius quo solent placari genere 
sedarentur. promissis itaque per Marcianum aureis 
vicenis et acceptis (nani praesto erat thesaurorum 
copia) Gallienum tyrannum militari iudicio in fastos 

Spublicos rettulerunt. sic militibus sedatis Claudius, 

1 telo Peter 2 ; om. in P. 



1 He was consul (for the second time) in 265; cf. c. xii. 1. 
He is mentioned in literature only here and in Vol., viii., 
where also he is said to have received the title of Augustus. 
However, no coins can be definitely proved to be his (see 
Matt.-Syd. v. p. 28), and in the lack of any evidence it may be 
seriously doubted that he was either Augustus or Caesar. The 
"inscription" cited in Fa/., viii. 3 is of equally little value 
with that quoted in c. rix. 4. 

2 This, if true, had no legal significance, for a damnatio 
could be pronounced only by the senate. According to Aur. 

4.8 



THE TWO GALLIENI XIV. 8. XV. 5 

Cecropius suddenly caused word to be sent toGallienus 
that Aureolus was now approaching. He, therefore, 
mustered his soldiers and went forth as though to 
certain battle, and so was slain by the murderers sent 
for the purpose. It is reported, indeed, that Gallienus 
was pierced by the spear of Cecropius, the Dalmatian 
commander, some say near Milan, where also his 
brother Valerian was at once put to death. This man, 
many say, had the title of Augustus, and many, that of 
Caesar, and many, again, neither one which, indeed, 
is not probable, for we have found written in the 
official lists, after Valerian had been taken prisoner, 
"During the consulship of Valerian the Emperor." 
So who else, pray, could this Valerian have been but 
the brother of Gallienus ? l There is general agree- 
ment concerning his family, but not concerning his 
rank or, as others have begun to say, concerning his 
imperial majesty. 

XV. Now after Gallienus was slain, there was a 
great mutiny among the soldiers, for, hoping for booty 
and public plunder, they maintained, in order to 
arouse hatred, that they had been robbed of an 
emperor who had been useful and indispensable to 
them, courageous and competent. Wherefore the 
leaders took counsel how to placate Gallienus' soldiers 
by the usual means of winning their favour. So, 
through the agency of Marcianus, twenty aurei were 
promised to each and accepted (for there was on hand 
a ready supply of treasure), and then by verdict of the 
soldiers they placed the name of Gallienus in the 
public records as a usurper. 2 The soldiers thus 

Victor, Goes., 33, 31-34, the senate and people gave general 
vent to their hostility. Nevertheless, Claudius ordered that 
he should be deified in the usual manner. 

49 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

vir sanctus ac iure venerabilis et bonis omnibus carus, 
amicus patriae, amicus legibus, acceptus senatui, 
populo bene cognitus accepit imperium. 

XVI. Haec vita Gallieni fuit, breviter a me litteris 
intimata, qui natus abdomini et voluptatibus dies ac 
noctes vino et stupris perdidit, orbem terrarum 
viginti l prope per " tyrannos vastari fecit, ita ut etiam 

'2 mulieres illo melius imperarent. ac ne eius praetere- 
atur miseranda sollertia, veris tempore cubicula de 
rosis fecit, de pomis castella composuit. uvas triennio 
servavit. hieme summa melones exhibuit. mustum 
quemadmodum toto anno haberetur docuit. ficos 
virides et poma ex arboribus recentia semper alienis 

3 mensibus praebuit. mantelibus aureis semper stravit. 

4gemmata vasa fecit eademque aurea. crinibus suis 
auri scobem aspersit. radiatus saepe processit. cum 
chlamyde purpurea gemmatisque fibulis et aureis 
Romae visus est, ubi semper togati principes vide- 
bantur. purpuream tunicam auratamque virilem 
eandemque manicatam habuit. gemmato balteo usus 
est. corrigias 3 gemmeas adnexuit, cum campagos 

5 reticulos appellaret. convivatus in publico est. con- 

6giariis populum mollivit. senatui sportulam sedens 

1 uiginti P, 27, Hohl ; triginta Salm., Peter. 2 per om. 

in P. 8 cwrigias Mommsen.Hohl ; caligias P ; caligas 27, 

Peter. 



1 The manuscript reading viginti here and also in c. xix. 6 
and xxi. 1 seems to show that the author's original plan was 
to include twenty pretenders, not thirty, in the v\ork now 
called Tyranni Triginta; see note to Tyr. Trig., i. 1 and Peter, 
Die S. H. A., p. 37 f. 

2 A crown surrounded by projecting rays, originally regarded 
as the emblem of a deified emperor, but apparently worn by 

50 



THE TWO GALLIENI XVI. 1-6 

quieted, Claudius, a venerated man and justly re- 
spected, dear to all good men, a friend to his native 
land, a friend to the laws, acceptable to the senate, 
and favourably known to the people, received the 
imperial power. 

XVI. Such was the life of Gallienus, which I have 
briefly described in writing, who, born for his belly 
and his pleasures, wasted his days and nights in wine 
and debauchery and caused the world to be laid waste 
by pretenders about twenty in number, 1 so that even 
women ruled better than he. He, forsooth, in order 
that his pitiable skill may not be left unmentioned 
used in the spring-time to make sleeping-places of roses. 
He built castles of apples, preserved grapes for three 
years, and served melons in the depth of winter. He 
showed how new wine could be had all through the 
year. He always served out of season green figs and 
apples fresh from the trees. He always spread his 
tables with golden covers. He made jewelled vessels, 
and golden ones too. He sprinkled his hair with 
gold-dust. He went out in public adorned with the 
radiate crown, 2 and at Rome where the emperors 
always appeared in the toga he appeared in a purple 
cloak \vith jewelled and golden clasps. He wore a 
man's tunic of purple and gold and provided with 
sleeves. He used a jewelled sword-belt and he 
fastened jewels to his boot-laces and then called his 
boots " reticulate." 3 He used, moreover, to banquet 
in public. He won the people's favour by largesses, 
and he distributed, seated, portions of food to the 

the rulers of the third century, for it is regularly shown on their 
coins. 

3 i.e., ]ike the network caps worn by women and effeminate 
men (cf. Heliog., xi. 7). 

51 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

erogavit. matronas ad consilium l suum rogavit iisdem- 
que manum sibi osculantibus quaternos aureos sui 
XVII. nominis dedit. ubi de Valeriano patre comperit quod 
captus esset, id quod philosophorum optimus de filio 
amisso dixisse fertur, "Sciebam me genuisse morta- 
lem," ille sic dixit 2 : " Sciebam patrem meum esse 
mortalem." 

2 Nee defuit Annius Cornicula, qui eum quasi con- 
stantem principem falso 3 sua voce laudaret. peior 

Stamen ille qui credidit. 4 saepe ad tibicinem processit, 
ad organum se recepit, cum processui et recessui cani 

4 iuberet. lavit ad diem septimo aestate vel sexto, 

5 hieme secundo vel tertio. bibit in aureis semper 
poculis aspernatus 5 vitrum, ita ut 6 diceret nil esse 

6 communius. semper vina variavit neque umquam 

7 in uno convivio ex uno vino duo pocula bibit. con- 
cubinae in eius tricliniis saepe accubuerunt. mensam 
secundam scurrarum et miniorum semper prope habuit. 

8 cum iret ad hortos nominis sui, omnia Palatina officia 
sequebantur. ibant et praefecti et magistri officiorum 
omnium adhibebanturque conviviis et natationibus 7 

9 lavabant simul cum principe. admittebantur saepe 
etiam mulieres, cum ipso pulchrae puellae, cum illis 
anus deformes. et iocari se dicebat, cum orbem 

1 consulatum P. 2 So Peter ; mortalem, nee defuit an ille 

se dixit P ; nee defuit mortalem del. by Hohl. 3 falsu 

P. *peior credidit om. in Z and del. by Hohl. 

*natus P. 6 ita, ut Z, Hohl ; om. in P; cum Salm., 

Peter. 7 natationibus 2} t Peter, 2 Hohl ; nationibus P. 



1 This is attributed to Anaxagoras by Cicero, Tusc. Disp., 
iii. 30 and 58, by Valerius Maximus, v. 10, Ext. 3, and by 
Plutarch, de Cohib. Ira 16 and d& Tranq. An. 16., and to 
Xenophon by Diogenes Laertius, ii. 6, 55. It was paraphrased 

52 



THE TWO GALLIEN1 XVII. 1-9 

senate. He invited matrons into his council, and to 
those who kissed his hand he presented four aurei 
bearing his own name. XVII. When he learned that 
his father Valerian was captured, just as that best of 
philosophers, it is said, exclaimed on the loss of his 
son, " I knew that I had begotten a mortal, 1 so he 
exclaimed, " I knew that my father was mortal." 

There has even been an Annius Cornicula 2 to raise 
his voice in praise of Gallienus as a steadfast prince, 
but untruthfully. However, he who believes him is 
even more perverse. Gallienus often went forth to 
the sound of the pipes and returned to the sound of 
the organ, ordering music to be played for his going 
forth and his returning. In summer he would bathe 
six or seven times in the day, and in the winter twice 
or thrice. He always drank out of golden cups, for 
he scorned glass, declaring that there was nothing 
more common. His wines he continually changed, 
and at a banquet he never drank two cups of the 
same wine. His concubines frequently reclined in 
his dining-halls, and he always had near at hand 
a second table for the jesters and actors. Whenever 
he went to the gardens named after him, all the staff' 
of the Palace followed him. And there went with 
him, too, the prefects and the chiefs of all the staffs, 
and they were invited to his banquets and bathed in 
the pools along with the prince. Women, too, were 
often sent in, beautiful girls with the emperor, but 
with the others ugly old hags. And he used to say 
that he was making merry, whereas he had brought 

by Ennius in his Telamon frg. 312 Vahlen (quoted by Cicero, 
Tusc. Disp., iii. 28), trom whom it was taken by Seneca, Cons. 
ad>Polyb., 11, 2. 

2 Otherwise unknown. 

58 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

XVIII. terrarum undique perdidisset. fuit tamen nimiae 
crudelitatis in milites ; nam et terna milia et quaterna 
militum singulis diebus occidit. 

2 Statuam sibi maiorem Colosso fieri praecepit Solis 
habitu, sed ea imperfecta periit. tarn magna deni- 
que coeperat fieri, ut duplex ad Colossum videre- 

3 tur. poni autem illam voluerat in summo Esquiliarum 
monte, ita ut hastam teneret, per cuius scapum 1 

4infans ad summum posset ascendere. sed et Claudio 
et Aureliano deinceps stulta res visa est, si quidem 
etiam equos et currum fieri iusserat pro qualitate 

& statuae atque in altissima 2 base poni. porticum 
Flaminiam usque ad Pontem Mulvium et ipse para- 
verat ducere, ita ut tetrastichae fierent, ut autem 
alii dicunt, pentastichae, ita ut primus ordo pilas 
haberet et ante se columnas cum statuis, secundus et 
tertius et deinceps Sia Tecnra'pan/ columnas. 

Longum est 3 eius cuncta in litteras mittere, quae 
qui volet scire legat Palfurium Suram, qui ephe- 
meridas eius vitae composuit. nos ad Saloninum 
rcvcrtamur. 

1 scapum Scaliger ; caput P, 27. 2 altissima Haupt, 

Peter s ; actussima P l . 3 est 27 ; om. in P. 



1 But see note to Tyr. Trig., ix. 3. 
8 See note to Hadr., xix. 12. 



fti 



THE TWO GALLIENI XVIII. 1-6 

the world on all sides to ruin. XVIII. But the 
soldiers he treated with excessive cruelty, 1 killing as 
many as three or four thousand of them in a single 
day. 

He gave orders to make a statue of himself arrayed 
as the Sun and greater than the Colossus, 2 but it was 
destroyed while still unfinished. It was, in fact, 
begun on so large a scale that it seemed to be double 
the size of the Colossus. His wish was that it should 
be placed on the summit of the Esquiline Hill, hold- 
ing a spear, up the shaft of which a child could climb 
to the top. The plan, however, seemed foolish to 
Claudius and after him to Aurelian, especially as he 
had ordered a chariot and horses to be made in pro- 
portion to the size of the statue and set up on a 
very high base. He planned to construct a Flaminian 
portico 3 extending as far as the Mulvian Bridge, and 
having columns in rows of four or, as some say, in 
rows of five, so that the first row should contain 
pillars with columns bearing statues in front of them, 
while the second and third and the rest should have 
columns in lines of four. 

It would be too long to set down in writing all that 
he did, and if anyone wishes to know these things, 
he may read Palfurius Sura, 4 who composed a journal 
of his life. Let us now turn to Saloninus. 

3 i.e., extending along the Via Flaminia northward from 
the Porta del Popolo. 

4 Otherwise unknown. 



THE TWO GALL1ENI 

SALONINUS GALLIENUS 

XIX. Hie Gallieni films fuit, nepos Valeriani, de 
quo quidem prope l nihil est dignum quod 2 in litteras 
mittatur, nisi quod nobiliter natus, educatus regie, 

2 occisus deinde non sua sed patris causa, de huius 
nomine magna est ambiguitas. nam multi eum 
Gallienum, multi Saloninum historiae prodiderunt. 

3 et qui Saloninum, idcirco quod apud Salonas natus 
esset, cognominatum ferunt ; qui autem Gallienum, 
patris nomine cognominatum et avi Gallieni, summi 

4 quondam in re publica viri. fuit denique hactenus 
statua in pede Montis Romulei, hoc est ante Sacram 
Viam, inter 3 Templum Faustinae ac Vestam 4 ad 
Arcum Fabianum, quae haberet inscriptum " Gallieno 
iuniori " " Salonino " additum. ex quo eius nomen 
intellegi poterit. 

6 Transisse decennium imperil Gallienum satis 
clarum est. quod idcirco addidi, quia multi eum 

6 imperii sui anno nono 5 perisse dixerunt. fuisse 
autem et alios rebelliones sub eodem proprio di- 
cemus loco, si quidem placuit viginti 8 tyrannos uno 

1 quidem prope Kellerbauer, Peter 2 ; guippe P. 2 quod 

dignum P, 27. * inter Mommsen, Peter 2 ; intra P, 27. 

*ac Vestam Jordan, Peter 2 ; aduentam P, 27. 6 nono om. in 
P and 27. 6 uiginti P, 27, Hohl ; triginta Peter ; but see 

c. xvi. 1. 



1 He was the younger of the two sons of Gallienus, and the 
correct form of his name is shown by inscriptions and coins 
to have been P. Licinius Cornelius Salouinus Valerianus. 
He received the title of Caesar after the death of his older 
brother, Valerian, in 258. Since the Alexandrian coins bear- 
ing his name cease with the year 260-61, it is generally 
inferred that he died in this year ; but he may be the son 

56 



THE TWO GALL1ENI XIX. 1-6 

SALONINUS GALLIENUS 

XIX. He was the son of Gallienus l and the grand- 
son of Valerian, and concerning him there is scarcely 
anything worth setting down in writing, save that he 
was nobly born, royally reared, and then killed, not 
on his own account but his father's. With regard to 
his name there is great uncertainty, for many have 
recorded that it was Gallienus and many Salon inus. 
Those who call him Saloninus declare that he was 
so named because he was born at Salonae ; 2 and 
those who call him Gallienus say that he was named 
after his father and Gallienus' grandfather, who once 
was a very great man in the state. As a matter of 
fact, a statue of him has remained to the present 
time at the foot of the Hill of Romulus, 3 in front of 
the Sacred Way, that is, between the Temple of 
Faustina and the Temple of Vesta near the Fabian 
Arch, which bears the inscription "To Gallienus the 
Younger " with the addition of " Saloninus/' and from 
this his name can be learned. 4 

It is well enough known that the rule of Gallienus 
exceeded ten years. 5 This statement I have added 
for the reason that many have said that he was killed 
in the ninth year of his rule. There were, moreover, 
other rebels during his reign, as we shall relate in 

who, according to Zonaras, xii. 26, was killed by the senate 
after the death of Gallienus. 

a On the Dalmatian coast. This derivation is nonsense, 
for his name was taken from that of his mother Cornelia 
Salonina, as is correctly stated in c. xxi. 3. 

3 The Palatine Hill. 

4 Since there is no evidence whatsoever that he bore the 
name Gallienus, this "inscription," like that in FoZ., viii. 3, 
may be regarded as one of the author's fabrications. 

5 See c. xxi. 5 and note. 

57 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

volumine includere, idcirco quod nee multa de his 
dici possunt, et in Gallieni vita pleraque iam dicta 
sunt. 

7 Et haec quidera de Gallieno hoc interim libro 
dixisse sufficiet. nam et multa iam in Valerian! vita 
dicta sunt, alia l in libro qui de triginta tyrannis in- 
scribendus est iam loquemur, quae iterari ac saepius 

8 dici minus utile videbatur. hue accedit quod quaedam 
etiam studiose praetermisi, ne eius posteri multis 

XX. r ebus editis laederentur. scis enim ipse tales 2 
homines cum iis qui aliqua de maioribus eorum scrip- 
serint quantum gerant bellum, nee ignota esse arbitror 
quae dixit Marcus Tullius in Hortensio, quern ad ex- 

2emplum Protreptici scripsit. unum tamen ponam, 
quod iucunditatem quandam sed vulgarem habuit, 

3 morem tamen novum fecit, nam cum cingula sua 
plerique militantium, qui ad convivium venerant, 
poiierent hora convivii, Saloninus puer sive Gallienus 
his auratos costilatosque balteos rapuisse perhibetur, 
et, cum esset difficile in aula Palatina requirere quod 
perisset, ac taciti ex militibus 3 viri detrimeiita pertu- 
lissent, postea rogati ad convivium cincti adcubuerunt. 

4cumque ab his quaereretur, cur non solverent cingu- 
lum, respondisse dicuntur, " Salonino deferimus," 
atque hinc tractum morem, ut deinceps cum impera- 

5 tore cincti discumberent. negare non possum aliunde 

1 dicta sunt alia ins. by Peter ; om. in P. " tales Gas., 

Peter ; qicales P, Hohl. 3 taciti ex militibus Salm., Peter J ; 

tacitis militibus P, 2 ; tacitis mtltibus Haupt, Peter 2 , Hohl. 

1 See note to c. xvi. 1. 

2 A lost work, written in 45 B.C. 

8 Aristotle's UpoToe-n-TiKts, now lost, an exhortation to the 
study of philosophy. 

58 



THE TWO GALLIENI XIX. 7 XX. 5 

the proper place ; for it is our purpose to include 
twenty pretenders 1 in one single book, since there 
is not much to be told about them, and many things 
have already been said in the Life of Gallienus. 

It will suffice, meanwhile, to have told in this 
book these facts concerning Gallienus ; for much 
has already been said in the Life of Valerian, and 
other things shall be told in the book which is to be 
entitled " Concerning the Thirty Pretenders," and 
these it seems useless to repeat here and relate too 
often. It must also be added that I have even 
omitted some facts on purpose, lest his descendants 
should be offended by the publication of many details. 
XX. For you know yourself what a feud such men 
maintain with those who have written certain things 
concerning their ancestors, and I think that you are 
acquainted with what Marcus Tullius said in his 
Hortensius? written in imitation of the Protrepticufi* 
One incident, however, I will include, which caused 
a certain amount of amusement, albeit of a common- 
place kind, and yet brought about a new custom. 
For since most military men, on coming to a banquet, 
laid aside their sword-belts when the banquet began, 
the boy Saloninus (or Gallienus), it is related, once 
stole these belts studded with gold and adorned with 
rows of jewels, and since it was difficult to search in 
the Palace for anything that had disappeared, these 
military men bore their losses in silence, but when 
afterwards they were bidden to a banquet, they 
reclined at table with their sword-belts on. And 
when asked why they did not lay aside their belts, 
they replied, it is said, " We are wearing them for 
Saloninus." And this gave rise to the custom that 
always thereafter they should dine with the emperor 

59 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

plerisque videri huius rei ortum esse morem ; dicunt 
militare prandium, quod dictum est parandium ab eo 
quod ad bellum milites paret, a cinctis initum ; cui 
rei argumentum est quod a discinctis etiam cum im- 
peratore cenatur. quae idcirco posui, quia digna et 
memoratu videbantur et cognitu. 

XXI. Nunc transeamus ad viginti J tyrannos, qui 2 
Gallieni temporibus contemptu mali principis ex- 
stiterunt. de quibus brcviter et pauca dicenda sunt. 

2neque enim digni sunt eorum plerique, ut volumen 
talium hominum saltern nominibus occupetur, 3 
quamvis aliqui non parum in se virtutis habuisse 
videantur, multum etiam rei publicae profuisse. 

3 Tam variae item opiniones sunt de Salonini nomine, 
ut qui se verius putet dicere, a matre sua Salonina ap- 
pellatum esse dicat, 4 quam is 5 perdite dilexit. et 
dilexit 6 Piparam nomine barbaram regis nliam. 

4quare 7 Gallienus cum suis semper flavo crinem condit. 

5 De annis autem Gallieni et Valeriani ad imperium 
pertinentibus adeo incerta traduntur, ut, cum quin- 
decim annos eosdem imperasse constet, id est 

1 uiginti P, Hohl ; triginta Peter ; but see c. xvi. 1. 2 qui 
Pcorr., 2, Hohl ; om. in P 1 ; Gallieni . . . exstiterunt del. by 
Peter. 3 occupetur Kellerbauer, Hohl ; occuparetur P, 27, 

Peter. * dicat Salm., Jordan ; om. inP; lacuna assumed 

by Peter and Hohl. 6 quam is Salm., Peter 1 ; quamuis 

P, Peter 2 , Hohl. 6 et dilexit ins. by Editor ; lacuna in P 

assumed by Peter and Hohl. 7 quare ins. by Editor. 

1 See note to c. xvi. 1. 

2 Cornelia Salonina Augusta. Her name and head appear 
on many coins. 

3 Pipa, according to Aur. Victor, Caes., 33, 6 and Epit., 33, 1. 
Her father was a German (Marcomannic) king, with whom 
Gallienus made a treaty ceding part of Pannonia perhaps in 
return for aid against Germanic invaders. 

60 



THE TWO GALLIENI XXI. 1-5 

belted. I cannot, indeed, deny that many believe 
this custom had a different origin ; for, they say, at 
the soldiers' ration (prandium] which they called 
a " preparation " (parandiuiri) because it prepares them 
for fighting men come in wearing belts, and the 
proof of this statement is that with the emperor 
men still dine unbelted. These details I have given 
because they seemed worthy of being related and 
known. 

XXI. Now let us pass on to the twenty pretenders, 1 
who arose in the time of Gallienus because of con- 
tempt for the evil prince. With regard to them 
I need tell but a few things and briefly ; for most of 
them are not worthy of having even their names put 
into a book, although some of them seem to have had 
no little merit and even to have been of much benefit 
to the state. 

Various, indeed, are the opinions concerning the 
name of Saloninus, but the author who believes he 
speaks most truthfully declares that he was named 
from his mother Salonina, 2 whom Gallienus loved to 
distraction. He loved also a barbarian maid, Pipara 
by name, 3 the daughter of a king. And for this 
reason Gallienus, moreover, and those about him 
always dyed their hair yellow. 

With regard to the number of years through which 
the rule of Gallienus and Valerian extended, such 
varied statements are made that, whereas all agree 
that together they ruled for fifteen years, 4 that is, 

4 253-268. Since Valerian ceased to rule not later than 260, 
the "almost ten years " is, of course, an error, evidently due 
to the celebration of the Decennalia (see c. vii. 4 f.) in 262, 
at the beginning of the tenth year after Gallienus' joint 
accession with his father. 

61 



THE TWO GALLIENI 

Gallienus usque ad quintum decimum pervenisset, 
Valerianus vero sexto sit captus, alii novem annis, 
vix l decem alii etiam Gallienum imperasse in litteras 
mittant, cum constet et decennalia Romae ab eodem 
celebrata et post decennalia Gothos ab eo victos, cum 
Odaenatho pacem factam, cum Aureolo initam esse 
concordiam, pugnatum contra Postumum, contra Lol- 
lianum, multa etiam ab eo ge^ta, quae ad virtutem, 
6 plura tamen quae ad dedecus pertinebant. nam et 
semper noctibus popinas dicitur frequentasse et cum 
lenonibus, mimis scurnsque vixisse. 



1 uix Peter ; bi& P, 



THE TWO GALIJRNI XXI. 6 

that Gallienus himself attained to his fifteenth year, 
while Valerian was captured in his sixth, some have 
set down in writing that Gallienus ruled for nine 
years, and others, again, that it was almost ten while, 
on the other hand, it is generally known that he 
celebrated a decennial festival at Rome, and that 
after this festival he defeated the Goths, made peace 
with Odaenathus, entered into friendly relations with 
Aureolus, 1 warred against Postumus and against Lol- 
lianus,' J and did many things that mark a virtuous 
life, but more that tend to dishonour. For he used 
to frequent public-houses at night, it is said, and 
spent his life with pimps and actors and jesters. 

1 See c. ii. 6 aud note. 2 See Tyr. Trig., v. 



TYRANNI TRIGINTA 

TREBELLII POLLIONIS 

I. Scriptis iam pluribus libris non historico nee 
diserto sed pedestri adloquio, ad earn temporum 
venimus seriem, in qua per annos, quibus Gallienus 
et Valerianus rem publicam tenuerunt, triginta 
tyranni occupato Valeriano magnis belli Persici ne- 
cessitatibus exstiterunt, cum Gallienum non solum 
viri sed etiam mulieres contemptui haberent, ut suis 
2 locis probabitur. sed quoniam tanta obscuritas eorum 
hominum fuit, qui ex diversis orbis partibus ad im- 
perium convolabant, ut non multa de iis vel dici 
possint a doctioribus vel requiri, deinde ab omnibus 



1 The collection actually contains 32 name?, of which the 
last two form a sort of appendix containing two men ad- 
mittedly not of the time ot Gallienus. The author's original 
plan, according to Gall., xvi. 1 ; xix. 6; xxi. 1, was to include 
20, but as Peter has pointed out (Abh. Sachs. Ges., xxvii. 
p. 190 f.), this number was raised to that of the Thirty Tyrants 
of Athens by padding with ten additional names. If we take 
from the list the names of the two women and the six youths 
who never held the imperial power, the list is reduced to 22. 
Of these it may be definitely asserted of Cyriades, Odaenathus, 
Maeonius and Ballista that they never assumed the purple, 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

BY 

TREBELLIUS POLLIO 

I. After having written many books in the style of 
neither an historian nor a scholar but only that of a lay- 
man, we have now reached the series of years in which 
the thirty pretenders l arose the years when the Em- 
pire was ruled by Gallienus and Valerian, when Valer- 
ian was busied with the great demands of the Persian 
War and Gallienus, as will be shown in the proper 
place, was held in contempt not only by men but by 
women as well. But since so obscure were these men, 
who flocked in from divers parts of the world to seize 
the imperial power, that not much concerning them 
can be either related by scholars or demanded of 
them, and since all those historians who have written 

and the same may be said with almost equal certainty of 
Valens, Piso and Aemilianus. Saturninus, Trebellianus and 
Celsus may be regarded as inventions of the author. Of the 
twelve remaining names, Valens "Superior " was of the time 
of Decius and Victorinus and Tetricus of the time of Claudius 
and Aurelian. The list, then, of the authentic pretenders 
under Gallienus reduces itself to nine, viz., Postumus (258-268), 
Laelianus, Marius, Ingenuus (258), Regalianus (258 ?), Aureolus 
(268), and Macrianus and his two sons (260-261). 

65 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

historicis, qui Graece ac Latine scripserunt, ita non- 
nulli praetereaiitur ut eorum nee l nomina frequenten- 
tur, postremo cum tam varie a plerisque super iis 
normulla sint prodita, in unum eos libellum contuli 
et quidem brevem, maxime cum vel in Valerian! vel 
in Gallieni vita pleraque de iis dicta nee repetenda 
tamen satis constet. 

CYRIADES 

II. Hie patrem Cyriadem fugiens, dives et nobilis, 
cum luxuria sua et moribus perditis sanctum senem 
gravaret, direpta magna parte auri, argent i etiam in- 

2finito pondere Persas petiit. atque hide Sapori regi 
coniunctus atque sociatus, cum hortator belli Romanis 
inferendi fuisset, Odomastem primum, deinde Sapo- 
rem ad Romanum solum traxit ; Antiochia etiam 

ucapta et Caesarea Caesareanum nomen meruit. atque 
hide vocatus Augustus, cum omnem orientem vel 
virium vel audaciae terrore quateret, patrem vero 
interemisset (quod alii historic! negant factum), ipse 
per insidias suorum, cum Valerianus iam ad bellum 

4 Persicum veniret, occisus est. neque plus de hoc 
historiae quicquam mandatum est quod dignum me- 
moratu esse videatur, quern clarum perfugium et 

1 nee ins. by Erasmus ; om. in P. 



1 To be identified with the adventurer Mareades, or Mari- 
ades, a native of Antioch in Syria, who, after being banished 
from his native city for embezzling public funds, brought over 
into Syria the army of Sapor, which captured and plundered 
Antioch. He was later put to death by Sapor; see Ammianus 
Marcellinus, xxiii. 5, 3 and Malalas, xii. p. 235 f. There is no 
reason to suppose that he was ever proclaimed Caesar or 



Augustus. 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 11. 1-4 

in Greek or in Latin have passed over some of them 
without dwelling even on their names, and, finally, 
since certain details related about them by many have 
varied so widely, I have therefore gathered them all 
into a single book, and that a short one, especially as 
it is evident that much concerning them has already 
been told in the Lives of Valerian and Gallienus and 
need not be repeated here. 

CYRIADES 

II. This man, 1 rich and well born, fled from his 
father Cyriades when, by his excesses and profligate 
ways, he had become a burden to the righteous old 
man, and after robbing him of a great part of his gold 
and an enormous amount of silver he departed to the 
Persians. Thereupon he joined King Sapor and be- 
came his ally, and after urging him to make war on 
the Romans, he brought first Odomastes ' 2 and then 
Sapor himself into the Roman dominions ; and also 
by capturing Antioch and Caesarea 3 he won for him- 
self the name of Caesar. Then, when he had been 
hailed Augustus, after he had caused all the Orient 
to tremble in terror at his strength or his daring, and 
when, moreover, he had slain his father (which some 
historians deny), he himself, at the time that Valerian 
was on his way to the Persian War, was put to death 
by the treachery of his followers. Nor has anything 
more that seems worthy of mention been committed 
to history about this man, who has obtained a place 

2 Perhaps an error for Oromastes (Hormizd), Sapor's son and 
successor. 

3 Mod. Kaisariyeh in Cappadocia, taken by Sapor after the 
capture of Valerian. 

67 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

parricidium et aspera tyrannis et 1 summa luxuria 
litteris dederunt. 



POSTUMUS 

III. Hie vir in bello fortissimus, in pace constantis- 
simus, in omni vita gravis, usque adeo ut Saloninum 
filium suum eidem Gallienus in Gallia positum crede- 
ret, quasi custodi vitae et morum et actuum imperi- 
ls alium institutori. sed, quantum plerique adserunt 
(quod eius non convenit moribus), postea fidem fregit 
Set occiso Salonino sumpsit imperium. ut autem 
verius plerique tradiderunt, cum Galli vehemen- 
tissime Gallienum odissent, puerum autem apud se 
imperare ferre non possent, eum, qui commissum 
regebat imperium, imperatorem appellarunt missis- 
4 que militibus adulescentem interfecerunt. quo inter- 
fecto ab omni exercitu et ab omnibus Gallis Postumus 
gratanter acceptus talem se praebuit per annos septem 

l etS\ ex P. 



1 M. Cassianius Latiniua Postumus Augustus ; the name 
lulius given to him in c. vi is accordingly incorrect, like 
practically all that is said of him in this vita ; see Mommsen, 
Hist. Rom. Provinces (Eng. Trans.), i. pp. 178-179. 

2 After successful campaigns against the Germans he was 
left in command of the Rhine frontier by Gallienus when he 
departed to put down the revolt of Ingenuus (see c. ix.), but 
rivalry broke out between him and Silvanus (or Albanus), to 
whose care Gallienus had entrusted his son perhaps as the 
nominal ruler of the West. In consequence of this rivalry 
Postumus seized Cologne and caused Silvanus and the prince 
to be put to death ; see Zosimus, i. 38, 2 and Zonaras, xii. 24. 
Thereupon he declared himself emperor and, despite the efforts 

68 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS III. 1-4 

in letters solely by reason of his famous flight, his act 
of parricide, his cruel tyranny, and his boundless 
excesses. 

POSTUMUS 

III. This man, 1 most valiant in war and most stead- 
fast in peace, was so highly respected for his whole 
manner of life that he was even entrusted by Gallienus 
with the care of his son Saloninus (whom he had 
placed in command of Gaul), as the guardian of his 
life and conduct and his instructor in the duties of a 
ruler.- Nevertheless, as some writers assert though 
it does not accord with his character he afterwards 
broke faith and after slaying Saloninus 3 seized the 
imperial power. As others, however, have related 
with greater truth, the Gauls themselves, hating 
Gallienus most bitterly and being unwilling to endure 
a boy as their emperor, hailed as their ruler the man 
who was holding the rule in trust for another, and 
despatching soldiers they slew the boy. When 
he was slain, Postumus was gladly accepted by 
the entire army and by all the Gauls, and for seven 

of Gallienus (see Gall., iv. 4-5; vii. 1), remained practically 
independent ruler of Gaul until his death at Mainz in 268 or 
269. 

3 The question of the date of Postumus' assumption of the 
imperial power is bound up with that of the name of this 
murdered prince, also given as Salcninus in Zosimus, i. 38, 2. 
Saloninus, however, Gallienus' younger son (cf. Gall., xix. 1 
and note) seems to have been alive as late as 260-261 . More- 
over, according to Epit., 32, 3; 33, 1, it was the elder son 
(Valerian) who was put to death at Cologne ; he is shown by 
the evidence of papyri to have died in 258. This accords with 
the evidence of c. ix. 1, that the revolt of Ingenuus was in 
268. 

69 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

ut Gallias instauraverit, cum Gallienus luxuriae et po- 
pinis vacaret et araore barbarae raulieris consenesceret. 

5 gestum est tamen a Gallieno contra hunc bellum tune, 

6 cum sagitta Gallienus est vulneratus. si quidem nimius 
amor erga Postumum omnium erat in Gallicanorura 
mente l populorum, quod summotis omnibus Germani- 
cis gentibus Romanum in pristinam securitatem re- 

7 vocasset imperium. sed cum se gravissime gereret, 2 
more illo, quo Galli novarum rerum semper sunt 
cupidi, Lolliano agente interemptus est. 

8 Si quis sane Postumi meritum requirit, iudicium de 
eo Valeriani ex hac epistula, quam ille ad Gallos misit, 

9 intelleget : " Transrhenani limitis 3 ducem et Galliae 
praesidem Postumum fecimus, virum dignissimum se- 
veritate Gallorum, praesente quo non miles in castris, 
non iura in foro, non in tribunalibus lites, non in curia 
dignitas pereat, qui unicuique proprium et suum servet, 
virum quern ego prae ceteris stupeo, et qui locum 
principis mereatur iure, de quo spero quod mihi gratias 

lOagetis. quod si me fefellerit opinio quam de illo 
habeo, sciatis nusquam gentium reperiri qui possit 

11 penitus adprobari. hums filio Postumo nomine tribu- 
natum Vocontiorum dedi, adulescenti qui se dignum 
patris moribus reddet." 

1 mente Salm. ; gent* P, 27. 3 gereret Baehrens, Peter ; 

regeret P, S. *milites P, 2. 



1 So also Gall., iv. 5. As a matter of fact he ruled for ten 
years, according to his coins with trib. pot. X (Cohen, vi. a 
p. 45, nos. 284-286) and Eutropius, ix. 10. 

* See Gall , xxi. 3. Gf. Gall., iv. 4. 

4 Cf. Firm., vii. 1. 



70 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS III. 5-11 

years l he performed such exploits that he completely 
restored the provinces of Gaul, while Gallienus spent 
his time in debauchery and taverns and grew weak 
in loving a barbarian woman. 2 Gallienus, however, 
was warring against him at that time when he 
himself was wounded by an arrow. 3 Great, indeed, 
was the love felt for Postumus in the hearts of all the 
people of Gaul because he had thrust back all the 
German tribes and had restored the Roman Empire 
to its former security. But when he began to conduct 
himself with the greatest sternness, the Gauls, follow- 
ing their custom of always desiring a change of 
government, 4 at the instigation of Lollianus put him 
to death. 

If anyone, indeed, desires to know the merits of 
Postumus, he may learn Valerian's opinion concerning 
him from the following letter which he wrote to the 
Gauls : " As general in charge of the Rhine frontier 
and governor of Gaul we have named Postumus, a 
man most worthy of the stern discipline of the Gauls. 
He by his presence will safeguard the soldiers in the 
camp, civil rights in the forum, law-suits at the bar 
of judgement, and the dignity of the council- chamber, 
and he will preserve for each one his own personal 
possessions ; he is a man at whom I marvel above all 
others and well deserving of the office of prince, 
and for him, I hope, you will render me thanks. If, 
however, I have erred in my judgement concerning 
him, you may rest assured that nowhere in the world 
will a man be found who can win complete approval. 
Upon his son, Postumus by name, a young man who 
will show himself worthy of his father's character, I 
have bestowed the tribuneship of the VoconthY' 



71 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

POSTUMUS IUNIOR 

IV. De hoc prope nihil est quod dicatur, nisi quod 
a patre appellatus Caesar ac deinceps in eius honore 
Augustus cum patre dicitur interemptus, cum Lollia- 
nus in locum Postumi subrogatus delatum sibi a 

2 Gallis sumpsisset imperium. iuit autem (quod solum 
memoratu dignum est) ita in declamationibus disertus 
ut eius controversiae Quintiliano dicantur insertae, 
quern declamatorem Romani generis acutissimum vel 
unius capitis lectio prima statim fronte demonstrat. 

LOLLIANUS 

V. Huius rebellione in Gallia Postumus, vir omnium 
fortissimus, interemptus est, cum iam nutante Gallia 1 
Gallieni luxuria in veterem statum Roman um formas- 

2 set imperium. fuit quidem etiam iste fortissimus, sed 
rebellionis intuitu minorem apud Gallos auctoritatem 

8 de suis viribus tenuit. interemptus autem est a 
Victorino, Vitruviae filio vel Victoriae, quae postea 
mater castrorum appellata est et Augustae nomine 
affecta, cum ipsa per se fugiens tanti ponderis molem 
primum in Marium, deinde in Tetricum atque eius 

1 Gallia ins. by Paucker, Peter, 2 Hohl; om. in P and 2. 



J There is no other evidence of his participation in the 
imperial power or even of his existence. 

2 Presumably the extant collection of Declamationes (or 
controversial i.e. imaginary law-cases used in the schools of 
rhetoric) attributed to Quintilian, the famous author of the 
Institutio Oratoria, but probably not his work. 

3 The expression prima statim fronte is used in just this 
sense by Quintilian in Inst. Orat., xii. 7, 8. 

72 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS IV. 2 V. 3 

POSTUMUS THE YOUNGER 

IV. Concerning this man 1 there is naught to relate 
save that after receiving the name of Caesar from his 
father and later, as a mark of honour to him, that of 
Augustus, he was killed, it is said, together with his 
father at the time when Lollianus, who was put in 
Postumus' place, took the imperial power offered to 
him by the Gauls. He was, moreover and only this 
is worthy of mention so skilled in rhetorical exer- 
cises that his Controversies are said to have been 
inserted among those of Quintilian, 2 who, as the read- 
ing of even a single chapter will show at the first 
glance, 3 was the sharpest rhetorician of the Roman 
race. 

LOLLIANUS 

V. In consequence of this man's 4 rebellion in Gaul, 
Postumus, the bravest of all men, was put to death 
after he had brought back the power of Rome into its 
ancient condition at the time when Gaul was on the 
brink of ruin because of Gallienus' excesses. Lolli- 
anus was, indeed, a very brave man, but in the face 
of rebellion his strength was insufficient to give him 
authority over the Gauls. He was killed, moreover, 
by Victorinus, son of Vitruvia, or rather Victoria, 5 who 
was later entitled Mother of the Camp and honoured 
by the name of Augusta, though she herself, doing 
her utmost to escape the weight of so great a burden, 

4 His correct name was C. Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus 
Augustus, according to his coins ; see Cohen, vi. 2 p. 66 f. He 
rebelled against Postumus and seized the imperial power at 
Mainz, but (despite the statements in 1-4) he was defeated 
by Postumus ; see Aurelius Victor, Caes., 33, 8, and Eutropiug, 
ix. 9. 

"See c. xxxi. 

78 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

4fi]ium contulisset imperia. et Lollianus quidem non 
nihilum rei publicae profuit. nam plerasque Galliae 
civitates, nonnulla etiam castra, quae 1 Postumus per 
septem annos in solo barbarico aedificaverat, quaeque 
interfecto Postumo subita inruptione Germanorum et 
direpta fuerant et incensa, in 2 statum veterem re- 
formavit. deinde a suis militibus, quod in labore 
nimius esset, occisus est. 

5 Ita Gallieno perdente rem publicam in Gallia pri- 
mum Postumus, deinde Lollianus, Victorinus deinceps, 
postremo Tetricus, (nam de Mario nihil dicimus) ad- 

tisertores Romani nominis exstiterunt. quos omnes 
datos divinitus credo, ne, cum ilia pestis inauditae 
luxuriae impediretur malis, possidendi Romanum so- 

7lum Germanis daretur facultas. qui si eo genere 
tune evasissent quo Gothi et Persae, consentientibus 
in Romano solo gentibus venerabile hoc Romani 

8 nominis finitum esset imperium. Lolliani autem vita 
in multis obscura est, ut et ipsius Postumi, sed 
privata; virtute enim clari, non nobilitatis pondere 
vixerunt. 

VICTORINUS 

VI. Postumus senior cum videret multis se Gal- 
lieni viribus peti atque auxilium non solum militum 
verum etiam alterius principis necessarium, Victo- 

1 quac 2; om. in P. 2 in 2; om. in P. 

1 See c. xxiv.-xxv. 2 Sec note to c. iii. 4, 

3 M. Piavouius Victorinus Augustus, according to his in- 
scriptions and coins; see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 68-84. He served as 
general under Postumus, but the statement of the vita and of 
Gall., vii. 1 that he was made co-ruler by Postumus is piobably 
false, for, according to Aur. Victor, Goes., 33, 12 and Eutropius, 
ix. 9 he seems to have held the power after Murius (c. viii.) for 

74 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS V. 4 VI. 1. 

had bestowed the imperial power first on Marius and 
then on Tetricus together with his son. 1 Lolliamis, 
in fact, did to some extent benefit the commonwealth ; 
for many of the communes of Gaul and also some of 
the camps, built on barbarian soil by Postumus during 
his seven years, 2 but after his murder plundered and 
burned during an incursion of Germans, were restored 
by him to their ancient condition. Then he was slain 
by his soldiers because he exacted too much labour. 

And so, while Gallienus was bringing ruin on the 
commonwealth, there arose in Gaul first Postumus, 
then Lolli nus, next Victorinus, and finally Tetricus 
(for of Marius we will make no mention), all of them 
defenders of the renown of Rome. All of these, I 
believe, were given by gift of the gods, in order that, 
while that pestiferous fellow was caught in the toils 
of unheard-of excesses, no opportunity might be 
afforded the Germans for seizing Roman soil. For if 
they had broken forth then in the same manner as 
did the Goths and the Persians, these foreign nations, 
acting together in Roman territory, would have put 
an end to this venerable empire of the Roman nation. 
As for Lollianus, his life is obscure in many details, 
as is also that of Postumus, too but only their private 
lives ; for while they lived they were famed for their 
valour, not for their importance in rank. 

VICTORINUS 

VI. When the elder Postumus saw that Gallienus 
was marching against him with great forces, and that 
he needed the aid not only of soldiers but also of a 
second prince, he called Victorinus, 3 a man of soldierly 

two years, apparently under Claudius (so Epit., 34, 3) and so 
probably 270-271. 

75 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

rinum, militaris industriae virum, in participatum 
vocavit imperil et cum eodem contra Gallienum con- 

2flixit. cumque adhibitis ingentibus Germanorum 

Sauxiliis diu bella traxissent, victi sunt. tune inter- 
fecto etiam Lolliano solus Victorinus in imperio re- 
mansit, qui et ipse, quod matrimoniis militum et 
militarium corrumpendis operam daret, a quodam 
actuario, cuius uxorem stupraverat, composita fac- 
tione Agrippinae percussus, Victorino filio Caesare a 
matre Vitruvia sive Victoria, quae mater castrorum 
dicta est, appellate, qui et ipse puerulus statim est 
interemptus, cum apud Agrippinam pater eius esset 
occisus. 

4 De hoc, quod fortissimus fuerit et praeter libidinem 

5optimus imperator, a multis multa sunt dicta, sed 
satis credimus lulii Atheriani partem libri cuiusdam 

6 ponere, in quo de Victorino sic loquitur : " Victorino, 
qui Gallias post lulium Postumum rexit, neminem 
aestimo praeferendum, non in virtute Traianum, non 
Antoninum in dementia, non in gravitate Nervam, 
non in gubernaiido aerario Vespasianum, non in 
censura totius vitae ac severitate militari Pertinacem 

7vel Severum. sed omnia haec libido et cupiditas 
mulierariae voluptatis sic perdidit ut nemo audeat 
virtutes eius in litteras mittere, quern constat omnium 

Siudicio meruisse puniri." ergo cum id iudicii de 
Victorino scriptores habuerint, satis mihi videor eius 
dixisse de moribus. 



*i.e., Cologne. 2 See c. xxxi. 

3 Not otherwise known and probably an invention of the 
biographer's. 

4 See note to c. iii. 1. 

76 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS VI. 2-8 

energy, to a share in the imperial power, and in com- 
pany with him he fought against Gallienus. Having 
summoned to their aid huge forces of Germans, they 
protracted the war for a long time, but at last they 
were conquered. Then, when Lollianus, too, had 
been slain, Victorinus alone remained in command. 
He also, because he devoted his time to seducing the 
wives of his soldiers and officers, was slain at Agrip- 
pina l through a conspiracy formed by a certain clerk, 
whose wife he had debauched ; his mother Vitruvia, 
or rather Victoria, 2 who was later called Mother of 
the Camp, had given his son Victorinus the title of 
Caesar, but the boy, too, was immediately killed after 
his father was slain at Agrippina. 

Concerning Victorinus, because he was most valiant 
and, save for his lust fulness, an excellent emperor, 
many details have been related by many writers. 
We, however, deem it sufficient to insert a portion of 
the book of a certain Julius Atherianus, 3 in which he 
writes of Victorinus as follows : " With regard to 
Victorinus, who ruled the provinces of Gaul after 
Julius 4 Postumus, I consider that no one should be 
given a higher place, not Trajan for his courage, or 
Antoninus for his kindness, or Nerva for his noble 
dignity, or Vespasian for his care of the treasury, or 
yet Pertinax or Sever us for the strictness of their 
whole lives or the severity of their military discipline. 
All these qualities, however, were offset to such an 
extent by his lustfulness and his desire for the pleasures 
gotten from women that no one would dare to set forth 
in writing the virtues of one who, all are agreed, de- 
served to be punished." And so, since this is the 
judgement that writers have given concerning Victo- 
rinus, I consider that I have said enough regarding his 
character. 77 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

VICTORINUS IUNIOR 

VII. De hoc nihil amplius in litteras est relatum, 
quam quod nepos Victoriae Victorini filius fuit et a 
patre vel ab avia sub eadem bora qua Victorinus in- 
teremptus Caesar est nuncupatus ac statim a militibus 

2ira occisus. exstant denique sepulchra circa Agrip- 
pinam, brevi marmcre impressa humilia, in quibus 
titulus l est inscriptus : " Hie duo Victorini tyranni siti 
sunt." 

MARIUS 

VIII. Victorino, Lolliano et Postumo interemptis 
Marius ex fabro, ut dicitur, ferrario triduo tantum 

2 imperavit. de hoc quid amplius requiratur ignore, 
nisi quod eum insigniorem brevissimum fecit imperi- 
um. nam ut ille consul, qui sex meridianis horis con- 
sulatum suffectum tenuit, a Marco Tullio tali aspersus 
est ioco : " Consulem habuimus tarn severum tamque 
censorium ut in eius magistratu nemo pranderit, 
nemo cenaverit, nemo dormiverit/' de hoc etiam dici 
posse videatur, qui una die factus est imperator, alia 
die visus est imperare, tertia interemptus est. 

3 Et vir quidem strenuus ac militaribus usque ad 
imperium gradibus evectus, quern plerique Mamurium, 

1 titnlvs Cas. ; unus P, . 



1 The head of a son of Victorinus appears on a coin of the 
pretender (Cohen, vi. 2 p. 84), but the boy is included here, like 
Postumus Junior in c. iv., merely for the purpose of increasing 
the number of the Tyranni. 

2 M. Aurelius Marius Augustus. He held the imperial power 
before Victorinus; see note to c. vi. 1. The length of his rule 
given heie as three days (two days by Aurelius Victor and 
Eutropius) is certainly wrong, for the large number of his 

78 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS VII. 2 VIII. S 

VICTORINUS THE YOUNGER 

VII. Concerning him l nothing has been put into 
writing save that he was the grandson of Victoria 
and the son of Victorinus and that he was entitled 
Caesar by his father or grandmother on the eve of 
his father's murder and was at once slain in anger 
by the soldiers. Their tombs, indeed, are still to be 
seen near Agrippina, humble monuments covered 
with common marble, and on them is carved the 
inscription, " Here lie the two Victorini, pretenders." 

MARIUS 

VIII. After Victorinus, Lollianus and Postumus 
were slain, Marius, 2 formerly a worker in iron, so it is 
said, held the imperial power, but only for three days. 
What more can be asked concerning him I know not, 
save that he was made more famous by the shortness 
of his rule. For, just as that consul 3 who held the 
office as substitute for six hours at midday was ridiculed 
by Cicero in the jest, " We have had a consul so stern 
and severe that during his term of office no one has 
breakfasted, no one has dined, and no one has slept," 
so the same, it would seem, can be said of Marius, 
who on the first day was made emperor, on the second 
seemed to rule, and on the third was slain. 

He was, indeed, an active man and rose through 
the various grades of military service to the imperial 

coins is sufficient evidence of a longer reign ; see Cohen, vi. 1 
pp. 87-89. 

3 C. Caninius Rebilus, consul on 31 Dec., 45 B.C. A jest of 
Cicero's concerning him, differing somewhat from the follow- 
ing quotation is contained in Epist. ad Fam., vii. 30, 1. 

79 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

nonnulli Veturium, opificem utpote ferrarium, nun- 

4cuparunt. sed de hoc nimis multa, de quo illud ad- 

didisse satis est, nullius man us vel ad feriendum vel 

ad impellendum 1 fortiores fuisse, cum in digitls 

5nervos videretur habuisse non venas. nam et carra 

venientia digito salutari reppulisse dicitur et fortis- 

simos quosque uno digito sic adflixisse, ut quasi ligni 

vel ferri obtunsioris ictu percussi dolerent. multa 

6duorum digitorum allisione contrivit. occisus est a 

quodam milite, qui, cum eius quondam in fabrili of- 

ficina fuisset, contempt us est ab eodem, vel cum dux 

7 esset 2 vel cum imperium cepisset. addidisse verba 3 
dicitur interemptor : " Hie est gladius quern ipse 
fecisti." 

8 Huius contio prima talis fuisse dicitur : " Scio, con- 
militones, posse mihi obici artem pristinam, cuius 

9mihi omnes testes estis. sed dicat quisque quod vult. 
utinam ferrum semper exerceam, non vino, non 
floribus, non mulierculis, non popinis, ut facit Gallic - 
nus, indignus patre suo et sui generis nobilitate, 

lOdepeream. ars mihi obiciatur ferraria, dum me et 
exterae gentes ferrum tractasse suis cladibus re- 

11 cognoscant. enitar 4 denique, ut omnis Alamannia 
omnisque Germania cum ceteris quae adiacent genti- 
bus Romanum populum ferratam putent gentem, ut 

1 impellendum 27; implendum P. -dux esset Gas., 

Eyssenhardt, Hohl ; duxisset P corr., Peter. 3 iterba 

Editor; uerbo P, 27; uero Salm., Peter. 4 enitar 

Petschenig, Hohl ; in Italia P, 27, foil, by lacuna Peter. 



1 Mamurius Veturius was the legendary forger of the 
aucilia, the shields of the Salii ; his name was inserted in 

80 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS VIII. 4-11 

power itself this one whom many called Mamurius 
and some Veturius, 1 because, forsooth, he was a 
worker in iron. But we have already said too much 
about this man, concerning whom it will be sufficient 
to add that there was no one whose hands were 
stronger, for either striking or thrusting, since he 
seemed to have not veins in his fingers, but sinews. 
For he is said to have thrust back on-coming waggons 
by means of his forefinger and with a single finger to 
have struck the strongest men so hard that they felt 
as much pain as though hit by a blow from wood or 
blunted iron ; and he crushed many objects by the 
mere pressure of two of his fingers. He was slain by 
a soldier whom, because he had once been a worker 
in his smithy, he had treated with scorn either when 
he commanded troops or after he had taken the 
imperial power. His slayer is said to have added the 
words, "This is a sword which you yourself have 
forged." 

His first public harangue, it is said, was as follows : 
" I know well, fellow-soldiers, that I can be taunted 
with my former trade, of which all of you are my wit- 
nesses. However, let anyone say what he wishes. 
As for me, may I always labour with steel rather than 
ruin myself with wine and garlands and harlots and 
gluttony, as does Gallienus, unworthy of his father 
and the noble rank of his house. Let men taunt me 
with working with steel as long as foreign nations 
shall know from their losses that I have handled the 
steel. In short, I will strive to the utmost that all 
Alamannia and Germany and the nations round about 
shall deem the Roman people a steel-clad folk, and 

the Carmen Saliare as a reward for his labour; see Festug, 
p. 131 M. ; Ovid, Fasti, iii. 383 f. 

81 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

12specialiter in nobis ferrum tiraeant. vos tamen cogi- 
tetis velim fecisse vos principem, qui numquam quic- 

ISquam scierit tractare nisi ferrum. quod idcirco dico, 
quia scio mihi a luxuriosissima ilia peste nihil opponi 
posse nisi hoc, quod gladiorum atque armorum artifex 
fuerim." 

INGENUUS 

IX. Tusco et Basso consulibus cum Gallienus vino 
et popinis vacaret cumque se lenonibus, mimis et 
meretricibus dederet ac bona naturae luxuriae con- 
tinuatione deperderet, Ingenuus, qui Pannonias tune 
regebat, a Moesiacis legionibus imperator est dictus, 
ceteris Pannoniarum volentibus. neque in quoquam 
melius consultum rei publicae a militibus videbatur 
quam quod instantibus Sarmatis creatus est imperator, 

2 qui fessis rebus mederi sua virtute potuisset. causa 
autem ipsi arripiendi tune imperii fuit, ne suspectus 
esset imperatoribus, quod erat fortissimus ac rei pub- 
licae iiecessarius et militibus, quod imperantes vehe- 

Smenter movet, acceptissimus. sed Gallienus, ut erat 
nequam et perditus, ita etiam, ubi necessitas coegisset, 
velox, fortis, vehemens, crudelis, denique Ingenuum 
conflictu habito vicit eoque occiso in omnes Moesiacos 



1 The correctness of this date has been questioned, for 
Aurelius Victor (Goes., 33, 2) places the revolt of Ingenuus 
alter the capture of Valerian, i.e. in 260. It occurred, how- 
ever, shortly before the revolt of Postumus, and there is 
reason to believe that this was in 258 or 259 ; see note to 
c. iii. 2. 

3 At Mursa (mod. Eszek) or at Sirmium (Mitrovitz) in 
Pannonia ; see Aur. Victor, Caes. t 33, 2 ; Eutropius, ix. 8, 1 ; 
Zonaras, xii. 24. 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS VIII. 12 IX. 3 

that it shall be most of all the steel that they fear in 
us. But as for you, I wish you to rest assured that 
you have chosen as emperor one who will never know 
how to deal with aught but the steel. And this I say 
because I know that no charge can be brought against 
me by that pestiferous profligate save this, that I have 
been a forger of swords and armour." 

INGENUUS 

IX. In the consulship of Tuscus and Bassus, 1 while 258 
Gallienus was spending his time in wine and gluttony 
and giving himself up to pimps and actors and harlots, 
and by continued debauchery was destroying the 
gifts of nature, Ingenuus, then ruler of the Pannonian 
provinces, was acclaimed emperor by the legions of 
Moesia, and those in Pannonia assented thereto. 
And, in fact, it appeared that in no other case had 
the soldiers taken better counsel for the common- 
wealth than when, in-- the face of an inroad of the 
Sarmatians, they chose as their emperor one who by 
his valour could bring a remedy to the exhausted 
state. His reason, moreover, for seizing the power 
at that time was his fear of becoming an object of 
suspicion to the emperors, because he was both very 
brave and necessary to the commonwealth, and also 
a cause which rouses rulers most of all well 
beloved by the soldiers. Gallienus, however, worth- 
less and degraded though he was, could still, when 
necessity demanded, show himself quick in action, 
courageous, vigorous and cruel, and finally, meeting 
Ingenuus in battle, 2 he defeated him and, after slay- 
ing him, vented his anger most fiercely on all the 
Moesians, soldiers and civilians alike. For he left 

83 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

tarn milites quam cives asperrime saeviit. nee quem- 
quam suae crudelitatis exsortem reliquit, usque adeo 
asper et truculentus ut plerasque civitates vacuas a 
4virili sexu relinqueret. fertur sane item Ingenuus 
civitate capta in aquam se mersisse l atque ita vitam 
finisse, ne in tyranni crudelis potestatem veniret. 

5 Exstat sane epistula Gallieni, quam ad Celerem 
Verianum scripsit, qua eius nimietas crudelitatis os- 
tenditur. quam ego idcirco interposui ut omnes in- 
tellegerent hominem luxuriosurn crudelissimum esse, 
si necessitas postulet : 

6 " Gallienus Veriano. non mihi satisfacies, si tan- 
turn armatos occideris, quos et fors in bellis interi- 

7 mere potuisset. perimendus est omnis sexus virilis, si 
et senes atque impuberes sine reprehensione nostra 

Soccidi possent. occidendus est quicumque male 
voluit, occidendus est quicumque male dixit contra 
me, contra Valeriani filium, contra tot principum 

9 patrem et fratrem. Ingenuus factus est imperator. 
lacera, occide, concide, animum meum intellege, mea 
mente irascere, qui haec manu mea scripsi." 

REGALIANUS 

X. Fati publici f'uit, ut Gallieni tempore quicumque 
potuit ad imperium prosiliret. Regalianus denique 

1 in aquam se tn^rsisse , Hohl ; in qua se P 1 ; intrasse 
domum in qua se pugione transfodit P corr. ; laqueasse se 
Peter. 



1 On the other hand, Gallienus' clemency is noted by the 
Continuator of Cassius Dio, frg. 163 (ed. Boissevain, iii. p. 743) 
and Zonaras, xii. 25, and, in other instances, by Aminianus 
Marcelliuus, xxi. 16, 10. 

84 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS IX. 4 X. 1 

none exempt from his cruelty, 1 and so brutal and 
savage was he, that in many communities he left not 
a single male alive. It is said of Ingenuus, indeed, 
that when the city was captured, he threw himself 
into the water, and so put an end to his life, 2 that 
he might not fall into the power of the brutal tyrant. 

There is, indeed, still in existence a letter of 
Gallienus, written to Celer Verianus, 3 which shows 
his excessive brutality. This 1 have inserted, in 
order that all may learn that a profligate, if necessity 
demand, can be the most brutal of men : 

" From Gallienus to Verianus. You will not 
satisfy me if you kill only armed combatants, for 
these even chance could have killed in the war. 
You must slay every male, that is, if old men and 
immature boys can be put to death without bringing 
odium upon us. You must slay all who have wished 
me ill, slay all who have spoken ill of me, the son of 
Valerian, the father and brother of so many princes. 
Ingenuus has been created emperor ! Therefore 
mutilate, kill, slaughter, see that you understand my 
purpose and show your anger with that spirit which I 
am showing, I who have written these words with my 
own hand." 

REGALIANUS 

X. It was the public destiny that in the time of 
Gallienus whosoever could, sprang up to seize the 

2 According to Zonaras, xii. 24, he was killed by his 
attendant soldiers during his flight. It is difficult to re- 
concile this with sny of the suggested readings of 4. 

3 Unknown and probably fictitious. 

85 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

in Illyrico ducatum gerens imperator est factus 
auctoribus imperil Moesis, qui cum Ingenuo fuerant 
ante superati, in quorum parentes graviter Gallienus 

2 saevierat. hie tamen multa fortiter contra Sarmatas 
gessit, sed auctoribus Roxolanis consentientibusque 
militibus et timore provincialium ne iterum Gallienus 
graviora faceret, interemptus est. 

3 Mirabile fortasse videatur, si quae origo imperil eius 
fuerit declaretur. capitali enim ioco ] regna prome- 

4ruit. nam cum milites cum eo quidam cenarent, 
exstitit vicarius tribuni qui diceret : " Regaliani 
nomen unde credimus dictum ? ' alius continue, 

5"Credimus quod a regno ". turn iis qui aderat 
scholasticus coepit quasi grammaticaliter declinare 

6etdicere, "Rex, regis, regi, Regalianus ". milites, 
ut est hominum genus pronum ad ea quae cogitant, 
"Ergo potest rex esse?" item alius, "Ergo potest 
nos regere ? ' item alius, ''Deus tibi regis nomen 

7imposuit". 2 quid multa? his dictis cum alia die 
mane processisset, a principiis imperator est saluta- 
tus. ita quod aliis vel audacia vel iudicium, huic 
detulit iocularis astutia. 

8 Fuit, quod negari non potest, vir in re 3 militari 

1 lo~o P, S. ? - imposuit 27, Hohl, foil, by Klotz ; posuit 

P, Peter. 3 re ins. by Novak ; om. iu P 1 ; ins. after militari 
P corn, Peter. 



1 P. C Regalianus Augustus, according to his coins ; 

see Cohen, vi. 2 p. 10. The form Regilianus in which his name 
appears in the MSS. of this vita (except 5) and also in 
Gall., ix. 1 and Claud., vii. 4 seems to owe its origin to the 
desire to make the pun contained in 3 f. Aur. Victor (33, 2) 
agrees with the biographer in relating that he rallied the 
remains of Ingenuus' army and renewel the war against 
Gallienus. 

86 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS X. 2-8 

imperial power. And so Regalianus, 1 who held the 
command in Illyricum, was declared emperor, the 
prime movers being the Moesians, who had previously 
been defeated with Ingenuus and on whose kinsmen 
Gallienus had vented his anger severely. He, in- 
deed, performed many brave deeds against the 
Sarmatians, but nevertheless, at the instigation of 
the Roxolani 2 and with the consent of the soldiers 
and the provincials, who feared that Gallienus might, 
on a second occasion, act even more cruelly, he was 
put to death. 

It may perhaps seem a matter for wonder if 
I relate the origin of his rule, for it was all because 
of a notable jest that he gained the royal power. 
For when some soldiers were dining with him and 
a certain acting-tribune arose and said, " Whence 
shall we suppose that Regalianus gets his name ? " 
another replied at once, " I suppose from his regal 
power." Then a schoolmaster who was present 
among them began, as it seemed, to decline gram- 
matically, saying, " Rex, regis, regi, Regalianus," 
whereupon among the soldiers a class of men who 
are quick to express what they have in mind one 
cried out, " So, then, can he be regal ? ' another, 
" So, then, can he hold regal sway over us ? " and 
again another, " God has given you a regent's name." 
Why should I then say more ? The next day after 
these words were spoken, on going forth in the morn- 
ing he was greeted as emperor by the front-line 
troops. Thus what was offered to others through 
daring or reasoned choice was offered to him through 
a clever jest. 

It cannot, indeed, be denied that he had always 

2 See note to Hadr., vi. 6. 

87 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

semper probatus et Gallieno iam ante suspectus, 
quod dignus videretur imperio, gentis Daciae, De- 
9cebali ipsius, ut fertur, adfinis. exstat epistula divi 
Claudii tune privati, qua Regaliano, Illyrici duci, 
gratias agit ob redditum Illyricum, cum omnia 
Gallieni segnitia deperirent. quam ego repertam in 
authenticis inserendam putavi ; fuit enim publica. 

10 "Claudius Regaliano multam salutem. felicem 
rem publicam quae te talem virum habere in castris 
bellicis l meruit, felicem Gallienum, etiamsi ei vera 

11 nemo nee de bonis nee de malis nuntiat. pertule- 
runt ad me Bonitus et Celsus, stipatores principis 
nostri, qualis apud Scupos in pugnando fueris, quot 
uno die proelia et qua celeritate confeceris. dignus 

12 eras triumpho, si antiqua tempora exstarent. sed 
quid multa ? memor cuiusdam hominis cautius velim 
vincas. arcus Sarmaticos et duo saga ad me velim 
inittas, sed fibulatoria, cum ipse misi de nostris." 

13 Hac epistula ostenditur quid de Regaliano senserit 
Claudius, cuius gravissimum iudicium suis temporibus 
fuisse non dubium est. 

14 Nee a Gallieno quidem vir iste promotus est sed a 
patre eius Valeriano, ut et Claudius et Macrianus et 

1 bellicis Baehrens, Peter ; belli ius P. 



1 The formidable king of the Dacians who was finally 
overcome by Trajan, after two wais, in 107. 

2 Probably Zlokuchan near Uskiib (Skoplje) in Jugoslavia. 

88 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS X. 9-14 

won approbation in warfare and had long been 
suspected by Gallienus because he seemed worthy 
to rule ; he was, moreover, a Dacian by birth and 
a kinsman, so it was said, of Decebalus 1 himself. 
There is still in existence a letter written by the 
Deified Claudius, then still a commoner, in which he 
expresses his thanks to Regalianus, as general in 
command of Illyricum, for recovering this district, at 
a time when Gallienus' slothfulness was bringing all 
things to ruin. This letter, which I have found in 
the original form, I think should be inserted here, 
for it was written officially : 

" From Claudius to Regalianus many greetings. 
Fortunate is the commonwealth, which has deserved to 
have such a man as yourself in its military camps, and 
fortunate is Gallienus, though no one tells him the 
truth about either good men or bad. Word has been 
brought to me by Bonitus and Celsus, the attendants 
of our emperor, how you conducted yourself in fight- 
ing at Scupi 2 and how many battles you fought in 
a single day and with what great speed. You were 
worthy of a triumph, did but the olden times still 
remain. But why say more ? I could wish that you 
might be mindful of a certain person and therefore 
be more cautious in gaining victories. I should like 
you to send me some Sarmatian bows and two military 
cloaks, but provided with clasps, for I am sending 
you some of my own." 

This letter shows what opinion of Regalianus was 
held by Claudius, whose judgement was without doubt 
most weighty in his own time. 

It was not, indeed, from Gallienus that Regalianus 
received his promotion, but from his father, Valerian, 
as did also Claudius, Macrianus, Iiigenuus, Postumus 

89 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

Ingenuus et Postumus et Aureolus, qui omnes in im- 
perio interempti sunt, cum mererentur imperium. 
15mirabile autem hoc fuit in Valeriano principe, quod 
omnes, quoscumque duces fecit, postea militum testi- 
moiiio ad imperium perveiierunt, ut appareat senem 
imperatorem in deligendis rei publicae ducibus talem 
fuisse, qualem Romana felicitas, si continuari fataliter 

16 potuisset sub bono principe, requirebat. et utinam 
vel illi qui arripuerant imperia regnare potuissent, 
vel eius nlius in imperio diutius non fuisset, utlibet 

17 se in suo statu res publica nostra tenuisset. sed 
nimis sibi Fortuna indulgeiidum putavit, quae et cum 
Valeriano bonos principes tulit et Gallienum diutius 
quam oportebat rei publicae reservavit. 

AUREOLUS 

XI. Hie quoque Illyricianos exercitus regens in 
contemptu Gallieni, ut omnes eo tempore, coactus 

2 a militibus sumpsit imperium. et cum Macrianus 
cum filio suo Macriano contra Gallienum venire t cum 
plurimis, exercitus eius cepit, aliquos corruptos fidei 

3 suae addixit. et cum factus esset hinc validus 1 im- 
perator cumque Gallienus expugnare virum fortem 

1 hinc. validity Salni., Peter; invalidus P, 2. 

1 Despite the assurance contained in 6-7, practically our 
only information concerning this really important man comes 
from Zonaras (xii. 24). Aureolus as commander of Gallienus' 
cavalry contributed greatly to the successful battle against 
Ingenuus. Later he was sent to Thrace to oppose the advance 
of Macrianus (c. xii. 13-14; Gall., ii. 6-7), whose troops he 
persuaded to surrender without a battle. In 268 he declared 
himself emperor and advanced on Milan. Here Gallienus 

90 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS X. 15 XI. 3 

and Aureolus, who all were slain while they held 
the imperial power, although they deserved to hold 
it. It was, moreover, a matter for marvel in Valerian 
as emperor, that all who were appointed commanders 
by him, afterwards, by the voice of the soldiers, ob- 
tained the imperial rule, so that it is clear that the 
aged emperor, in choosing the generals of the common- 
wealth, was, in fact, such an one as the felicity of 
Rome could it only have been permitted by fate to 
continue under a worthy prince ever required. Oh 
that it might have been possible either for those who 
seized the imperial power to rule for a longer time, or 
for this man's son to rule less long, that somehow our 
commonwealth might have kept itself in its proper 
position ! But Fortune claimed for herself too much 
indulgence, when with Valerian she took away our 
righteous princes, and preserved Gallienus for the 
commonwealth longer than was meet. 

AUREOLUS 

XI. This man 1 also, while commanding the Illyrian 
armies, was urged on by the soldiers in their con- 
tempt for Gallienus (as were all others at that time) 
and so seized the imperial power. And when Macri- 
anus and his son Macrianus marched against Gallienus 
with very large forces, he took their troops, and some 
he won over to his cause by bribery. When Aureolus 
had thus become a mighty emperor, Gallienus, after 
trying in vain to conquer so brave a man and being 

besieged him but fell during the siege (see Gall., xiv. 6-9). 
After his death Aureolus submitted to Claudius but again 
planned a revolt, at the outset of which he was killed by his 
Boldiers (Claud., v. 1-3). 

91 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

frustra temptasset, pacem cum eo fecit 1 contra Postu- 
mum pugnaturus. quorum pleraque et dicta sunt et 
dicenda. 

4 Hunc eundem Aureolum Claudius interfecto iam 
Gallieno conflictu habito apud eum pontem interemit 
qui nunc pons Aureoli nuncupatur, atque illic ut 

6 tyrannum sepulchre humiliore donavit. exstat etiam 
nunc epigramma Graecum in hanc formam : 

Dono sepulchrorum victor post multa tyranni 

proelia iam felix Claudius Aureolum 
munere prosequitur mortali et iure superstes, 

vivere quern vellet, si pateretur amor 
militis egregii, vitam qui iure negavit 

omnibus indignis et magis Aureolo. 
ille tamen clemens, qui corporis ultima servans 

et pontem Aureoli dedicat et tumulum. 

6hos ego versus a quodam grammatico translates ita 
posui ut fidem servarem, non quo non 2 melius potu- 
erint transferri, sed ut fidelitas historica servaretur, 
quam ego prae ceteris custodiendam putavi, qui quod 

Vad eloquentiam pertinet nihil euro, rem enim vobis 

1 fecit 2, Hohl ; om. in P ; ins. after pugnaturiia by Peter. 
a non om. *n P. 



1 Mod. Pontirolo on the Adda, about 20 miles N.E. of 
Milan. 

2 The epigram is given in a Greek version, apparently by 
Andrea Alciatus, in 7. G., xiv. no. 355* (p. 32*). 

2 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XI. 4-7 

now on the point of beginning a war against Postumus, 
made peace with him of which events many have 
already been related and many are still to be told. 

This same Aureolus, after Gallienus was slain, 
Claudius met in battle and killed at that bridge 
which now bears the name of Aureolus' Bridge, 1 and 
there he bestowed upon him a tomb, but a lowly one 
as became a pretender. There is even now in exist- 
ence an epigram in Greek 2 of the following purport : 

"Sepulture's gift, after many a battle against the 

pretender, 

Claudius, flushed with success, gives to Aureolus now, 
Doing him honour in death, himself the rightful 

survivor. 

Fain had he kept him alive, only his glorious troops 
Suffered it not in their love ; for they put out of life 

very rightly 
All who deserved not to live why not Aureolus 

more ? 
Merciful, though, was that prince, who preserved 

what was left of his body, 
And in Aureolus' name built both a bridge and a 

tomb." 

These verses, translated by a certain teacher of 
grammar, I have given in such a way that their 
accuracy is retained, although they could be trans- 
lated more elegantly ; but I do it with the purpose 
of preserving historical truth, which I have thought 
should be guarded above all else, and caring naught 
for considerations of literary style. For, indeed, it is 
fact that I have determined to put before you and 
not mere words, especially when we have such an 

93 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

proposui deferre, lion verba, maxime tanta rerum 
copia ut in triginta tyrannorum simul vitis. 

MACRIANUS 

XII. Capto Valeriano, diu clarissimo principe civi- 
tatis, fortissimo deinde imperatori, ad postremum om- 
nium infelicissimo, vel quod senex apud Persas con- 
senuit vel quod indignos se posteros derel quit, cum 
Gallienum coritemnendum Ballista praefectus Valeri- 
ani et Macrianus primus ducum 1 intellegerent, quae- 
rentibus etiam militibus principem, unum in locum 
2 concesserunt quaerentes quid faciendum esset. tunc- 
que constitit, Gallieno longe posito Aureolo usurpante 
imperium, debere aliquem principem fieri, et quidem 

5 optimum, lie quispiam tyrannus exsisteret. verba 
igitur Ballistae (quantum Maeonius Astyanax, qui 

4consilio interfuit, adserit) haec fuerunt : " Mea et 
aetas et professio et voluntas longe ab imperio absunt, 
et ego, quod negare non possum, bonum principem 

5quaero. sed quis tandem est, qui Valtriani locum 
possit implere, nisi talis qualis tu es, fortis, con- 
stans, integer, probatus in re publica et, quod 

6 maxime ad imperium pertinet, dives ? arripe igitur 

1 ducum Salm. ; dum P, 27. 



1 M. Fulvius Macrianus Augustus. As Valerian's Ko/j.rjs 
Ttav drjffavpwv Kal ttyfffTws rp ayopa rov airov he was not 
present when the Emperor was captured ; later he succeeded 
in rallying the soldiers at Samo?ata ; see Continuator of 
Cassius Dio, frg. 159 (ed. Boissevain, iii. p. 742). Further 
details of his revolt in 261, as described here, are given in 
Gall., i-ii. and in Zonaras, xii. 24. His coins show that the 
correct form of his name and his Bon's is Macrianus, and not 

94 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XTI. 1-6 

abundance of facts as in the lives of the thirty 
pretenders taken together. 

MACRIANUS i 

XII. After the capture of Valerian, long a most 
noble prince in the state, then a most valiant emperor, 
but at the last the most unfortunate of all men (either 
because in his old age he pined away among the 
Persians or because he left behind him unworthy 
descendants), Ballista, 2 Valerian's prefect, and Macri- 
anus, the foremost of his generals, since they knew 
that Gallienus was worthy only of contempt and since 
the soldiers, too, were seeking an emperor, withdrew 
together to a certain place, to consider what should 
be done. They then agreed that, since Gallienus 
was far away and Aureolus was usurping the imperial 
power, some emperor ought to be chosen, and, indeed, 
the best man, lest there should arise some pretender. 
Therefore Ballista (or so Maeonius Astyanax, 3 who 
took part in their council, relates) spoke as follows : 
" As for myself, my age and my calling and my 
desires are all far removed from the imperial office, 
and so, as I cannot deny, I am searching for a 
worthy prince. But who, pray, is there who can fill 
the place of Valerian except such a man as yourself, 
brave, steadfast, honourable, well proved in public 
affairs, and what is of the highest importance for 
holding the imperial office possessed of great wealth ? 

Maori n us, as it frequently appears in the MSS. of the Historia 
Augusta and in other authors ; see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 2-3. Papyri 
dated in the first year of Macrianus and Quietus (c. xiv.) show 
that they were accepted in Egypt as emperors in 260. 
2 See c. xviii. 3 Otherwise unknown. 

95 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

locum meritis tuis debitum. me praefecto, quamdiu 
voles, uteris. tu cum re publica tantum bene agas, 

7 ut te Romanus orbis factum principem gaudeat." ad 
haec Macrianus : " Fateor, Ballista, imperium prudent! 
non frustra est. volo enim rei publicae subvenire 
atque illam pestem a legum gubernaculis dimovere, 
sed non hoc in me aetatis est ; senex sum, ad exem- 
plum equitare non possum, lavandum mihi est fre- 
quentius, edendum delicatius, divitiae me iam dudum 

Sab usu militiae retraxerunt. iuvenes aliqui sunt quae- 
rendi, nee unus sed duo vel tres fortissimi, qui ex 
diversis partibus l orbis humani rem publicam resti- 
tuant, quam Valerianus fato, Gallienus vitae suae 

9genere perdideruiit." post haec intellexit eum Bal- 
lista sic agere ut de filiis suis videretur cogitare, atque 
adeo sic adgressus est : " Prudentiae tuae rem publi- 

10 cam tradimus. da igitur liberos tuos Macrianum et 
Quietum, fortissimos iuvenes, olim tribunes a Valeri- 
ano factos, quia Gallieno imperante, quod boni sunt, 

11 salvi esse non possunt." tune ille ubi intellectum 
se esse comperit, "Do," inquit, "manus, de meo 
stipendium militi duplex daturus. tu tantum prae- 
fecti mihi studium et annonam in necessariis locis 
praebe. iam ego faxim ut Gallienus, sordidissimus 
feminarum omnium, duces sui parentis intellegat." 

1 partibu* 2 ; patribua P. 

96 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XII. 7-11 

Therefore, take this post which your merits deserve. 
My services as prefect shall be yours as long as you 
wish. Do you only serve the commonwealth well, 
so that the Roman world may rejoice that you have 
been made its prince." To this Macrianus replied : 
" I admit, Ballista, that to the wise man the imperial 
office is no light thing. For I wish, indeed, to come 
to the aid of the commonwealth and to remove that 
pestiferous fellow from administering the laws, but I 
am not of an age for this ; I am now an old man, I 
cannot ride as an example to others, I must bathe too 
often and eat too carefully, and my very riches have 
long since kept me away from practicing war. We 
must seek out some young men, and not one alone, 
but two or three of the bravest, who in different parts 
of the world of mankind can restore the common- 
wealth, which Valerian and Gallienus have brought 
to ruin, the one by his fate, the other by his mode 
of life." Whereupon Ballista, perceiving that Macri- 
anus, in so speaking, seemed to have in mind his own 
two sons, answered him as follows : " To your wisdom, 
then, we entrust the commonwealth. And so give 
us your sons Macrianus and Quietus, most valiant 
young men, long since made tribunes by Valerian, 
for, under the rule of Gallienus, for the very reason 
that they are good men, they cannot remain un- 
harmed/' Then Macrianus, finding out that his 
thoughts had been understood, replied : " I will yield, 
and from my own funds I will present to the soldiers 
a double bounty. Do you but give me your zealous 
service as prefect and furnish rations in the needful 
places. I will now do my best that Gallienus, more 
contemptible than any woman, may come to know his 
father's generals." And so, with the consent of all 

97 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

12 tactus est igltur cum Macriano et Quieto duobus filiis 
cunctis militibus volentibus imperator ac statim contra 
Gallienum venire coepit utcumque rebus in oriente 

13 clerelictis. sed cum quadraginta quinque milia mili- 
tum secum duceret, in Illyrico vel in Thraciarum 
extimis congressus cum Aureolo victus et cum filio 

14 interemptus est. triginta denique milia militum in 
Aureoli potestatem concessere. Domitianus autem 
eundem vicit, dux Aureoli fortissimus et vehementis- 
simus, qui se originem diceret a Domitiano impera- 
tore J trahere atque a Domitilla. 

15 De Macriano autem iiefas mihi videtur iudicium 
Valeriani praeterire, quod ille in oratione sua, quam 
ad senatum e Persidis finibus miserat, posuit. inter 

16 cetera ex oratione divi Valeriani : " Ego, patres con- 
scripti, bellum Persicum gerens Macriano totam rem 
pubiicam credidi et 2 quidem a parte militari. ille 
vobis fidelis, ille mihi devotus, ilium et amat et timet 
miles, utcumque res exegerit, cum exercitibus agit. 

17 nee, patres conscripti, nova vel inopina nobis sunt ; 
pueri eius virtus in Italia, adulescentis in Gallia, 
iuvenis in Thracia, in Africa iam provecti, senescentis 
denique in Illyrico et Dalmatia comprobata est, 
cum in diversis proeliis ad exemplum fortiter faceret. 

] imperatore ins. by P corr., foil, by Klotz ; om. by Peter 
and Hohl. -etom. in P. 



1 Mentioned also in c. xiii. 3 and Gall., ii. C. He is probably 
the pretender of this name who arose under Aurelian ; see 
Zosimus, i. 49, 2. A coin of his has been found in France on 
which he bears the titles Caesar and Augustus ; see Babelon in 
Compt.es Rendus de VAcad. des Inscrs , 1901, p. 200. His 
descent is evidently a fabrication of the biographer's, for 

98 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XIJ. 12-17 

the soldiers, Macrianus was made emperor, together 
with his two sons Macrianus and Quietus, and he 
immediately proceeded to march against Gallienus, 
leaving affairs in the East in whatever state he could. 
But while he was on the march, having with him a 
force of forty-five thousand soldiers, he met Aureolus 
in Illyricum or on the borders of Thrace, and there 
he was defeated and together with his son was slain. 
Then thirty thousand of his men yielded to Aureolus' 
power. It was Domitianus, 1 indeed, who won this 
victory, the bravest and most active of Aureolus' 
leaders, who claimed to be the descendant of the 
Emperor Domitian and Domitilla. 

In writing of Macrianus, moreover, it would seem 
to me wrong to leave out the opinion of Valerian, 
which he expressed in the message he sent to the 
senate from the frontier of Persia. A portion of the 
message of the Deified Valerian : " Being now en- 
gaged in the war with the Persians, Conscript Fathers, 
I have entrusted all public affairs, and even those 
which concern the war, to Macrianus. He is faithful 
to you, loyal to me, and both beloved and feared by 
the soldiers. He with his army Will act as the case 
shall demand. And in this, Conscript Fathers, there 
is nothing new or unexpected by us. For while a 
boy in Italy, while a youth in Gaul, while a young 
man in Thrace, while a mature man in Africa, and, 
finally, while well advanced in years in Illyricum and 
Dalmatia, his valour has been well proved, for in 
divers battles he has done brave deeds which may 
serve as a pattern to others. I will add, besides, 
that he has young sons, worthy of being our associates 

Domitilla was Domitian's niece, not his wife ; the latter was 
Domitia Longina. 

99 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

18 hue accedit quod habet iuvenes filios Romano dignos 1 
collegio, nostra dignos l amicitia," et reliqua. 



MACRIANUS IUNIOR 

XIII. Multa de hoc in patris imperio praelibata 
sunt, qui numquam imperator factus esset, nisi pru- 

2dentiae patvis eius creditum videretur. de hoc plane 
multa miranda dicuntur, quae ad fortitudinem pertin- 
eant iuvenalis aetatis. sed quid 2 ad fata aut quantum 

3 in bellis unius valet fortitude? hie enim vehemens 
cum prudentissimo patre, cuius merito imperare 
coeperat, a Domitiano victus triginta (dixi superius) 
milibus militum spoliatus est, matre nobilis, patre 
tantum forti et ad bellum parato atque ab ultima 
militia in summum perveniente ducatum splendore 
sublimi. 

QUIETUS 

XIV. Hie, ut diximus, Macriani filius fuit. cum 
patre et fratre Ballistae iudicio imperator est factus. 
sed ubi comperit Odaenathus, qui olim iam orientem 
tenebat, ab Aureolo Macrianum, patrem Quieti, cum 

1 dignos 2 ; dignus P, Peter, Hohl. 2 quid ins. by Helm, 
foil, by Hohl ; om. in P and 27 ; ad fata aut in bellis quantum 
Peter following Salm. and Obrecht. 



J T. Fulvius lunius Macrianus Augustus, according to his 
coins; see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 3-6. 

2 T. Fulvius lunius Quietus Augustus, according to his coins ; 
see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 6-8. For his death, see c. xv. 4 and Gall., 
iii. 2. According to Zonaras (xii. 24), he was defeated near 

100 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XII. 18 XIV. 1 

in Rome and worthy, too, of our friendship/' and so 
forth. 

MACRIANUS THE YOUNGER 

XIII. I have already given a foretaste, in the 
account of his father's rule, of many details about this 
man, 1 who would never have been chosen emperor, 
had it not seemed well to trust to his father's wisdom. 
Many marvellous stories, it is true, are related con- 
cerning him, all of which have to do with the bravery 
of youthful years. But what, after all, does one 
single man's bravery avail against fate or how much 
does it profit in war ? For, though active himself and 
accompanied by the wisest of fathers (through whose 
merits he had begun to rule), he was defeated by 
Domitianus, and despoiled, as I have previously said, 
of an army of thirty thousand soldiers, being himself 
of noble birth through his mother, for his father was 
merely brave and ready for war, and had risen from 
the lowest rank in the army with exalted distinction 
to the highest command. 

QUIETUS 

XIV. This man, 2 as we have said, 3 was the son of 
Macrianus and was made emperor, along with his 
father and brother, in accordance with the judgement 
of Ballista. But when Odaenathus, who had now 
for some time held the East, learned that the two 
Macriani, the father and brother of Quietus, had been 

Emesa (Horns) by Odaenathus and then put to death by the 
people of "the city. 
o. xii. 12. 

101 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

eius fratre Macriano victos, milites in eius potestatera 
concessisse, quasi Gallieni partes vindicaret, adules- 
centem cum Ballista praefecto dudum interemit. 

2 idem quoque adulescens dignissimus Romano imperio 
fiiit, ut vere Macriani filius, Macriani etiam frater, 
qui duo adflictis rebus potuerunt rem publicam gerere, 
videretur. 

3 Non mihi praetereundum videtur de Macrianorum 
familia, quae hodieque floret, id dicere quod speciale 

4 semper habuerunt. Alexandrum Magnum Mace- 
donem viri in anulis et argento, mulieres et in reti- 
culis et dextrocheriis et in anulis et in omni orna- 
mentorum genere exsculptum semper habuerunt, eo 
usque ut tunicae et limbi et paenulae matronales in 
familia eius hodieque sint, quae Alexandri effigiem de 

5 liciis variantibus monstrent. vidimus proxime Corne- 
lium Macrum ex eadem familia virum, cum cenam in 
Templo Herculis daret, pateram electrinam, quae in 
medio vultum Alexandri haberet et in circuitu omnem 
historian! contineret signis brevibus et minutulis, 
pontifici propinare, quam quidem circumferri ad 

6 omnes tanti illius viri cupidissimos iussit. quod 
idcirco posui quia dicuiitur iuvari in omni actu suo 
qui Alexandrum expressum vel auro gestitant vel 
argento. 



1 These writers have a liking for representing descendants of 
emperors or pretenders as alive in their own day ; see c. xxxiii. 
5 ; Gord., xx. 6; Max.-Balb., xvi. 1 ; Aur., i. 3 ; xlii. 1 ; Prob., 
xxiv. 1; Firm., xiii. 5. Most of these persons are probably 
fictitious. 

102 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XIV. 2-6 

defeated by Aureolus, and that their soldiers had 
yielded to his power in the belief that he was uphold- 
ing the cause of Gallienus, he put the young man to 
death and with him Ballista, for a long time prefect. 
This young man, too, was worthy to hold the power 
at Rome, so that he seemed to be truly the son of 
Macrianus and also the brother of Macrianus, who 
together were well able to govern the commonwealth 
in its stricken state. 

It does not seem to me, in telling of the family of 
the Macriani (which is still flourishing to-day), 1 that I 
should fail to speak of a peculiar custom which they 
have always observed. For an embossed head of 
Alexander the Great of Macedonia was always used 
by the men on their rings and their silver plate, and 
by the women on their head-dresses, their bracelets, 
their rings and ornaments of every kind, so that 
even to-day there are still in that family tunics and 
fillets and women's cloaks which show the likeness 
of Alexander in threads of divers colours. We, our- 
selves, recently saw Cornelius Macer, a man of that 
same family, while giving a dinner in the Temple of 
Hercules, 2 drink the health of a pontiff from a bowl 
made of electrum, 3 which had in the centre the face 
of Alexander and contained on the circumference his 
whole history in small and minute figures, and this he 
caused to be passed around to all the most ardent 
admirers of that great hero. All this I have included 
because it is said that those who wear the likeness of 
Alexander carved in either gold or silver are aided in 
all that they do. 

a There were several temples of Hercules in Home. 
3 An alloy of gold and silver ; a somewhat similar bowl is 
described in Martial, viii. 51. 

103 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

ODAENATHUS 

XV. Nisi Odaenathus, princeps Palmyrenorum, 
capto Valeriano, fessis Romanae rei publicae viribus, 
sumpsisset imperium, in oriente perditae res essent. 
2quare adsumpto nomine primum regali cum uxore 
Zenobia et filio maiore, cui erat nomen H erodes, 
minoribus Herenniano et Timolao collecto exercitu 

3 contra Persas profectus est. Nisibin primum et 
orientis pleraque cum omni Mesopotamia in potes- 
tatem recepit, deinde ipsum regem victum fugere 

4 coegit. postremo Ctesiphonta usque Saporem et 
eius liberos persecutus captis concubinis, capta etiam 
magna praeda ad orientem vertit, sperans quod Mac- 
rianum, qui imperare contra Gallienum coeperat, 
posset opprimere, sed illo iam profecto contra Aureo- 
lum et contra Gallienum. eo interempto filium eius 
Quietum interfecit, Ballista, ut plerique adserunt, 

5 regnum usurpante, ne et ipse posset occidi. composite 
igitur magna ex parte orientis statu a consobrino suo 



1 Septimius Odaenathus, son of Septimius Hairanes. A 
member of the most important family of Palmyra, he received 
from the Roman government the title of consularis, which he 
bears in an inscription of 258 (Lebas-Wad. 2602) and on his 
coins. Later he received from Gallienus the office of (rrpar-ny'bs 
TTJS 'Ecpas or ird<n)s 'Aj/aroATjs ; see Zonaras, xii. 23-24 and 
Syncellus, I., p. 716 (cf. Gall., iii. 3 ; x. 1). This indicates a 
general imperium over all the Asiatic provinces and Egypt, but 
subject to that of the Roman Emperor. He afterwards took 
the title of King of Palmyra ( 2), and on a Palniyrene inscrip- 
tion set up in 271 after his death he is called " King of Kings." 
There is no evidence that he ever received the title of Augustus 

104 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XV. 1-5 



ODAENATHUS 

XV. Had not Odaenathus, 1 prince of the Palmy- 
renes, seized the imperial power after the capture of 
Valerian, when the strength of the Roman state was 
exhausted, all would have been lost in the East. He 
assumed, therefore, as the first of his line, the title of 
King, and after gathering together an army he set 
out against the Persians, having with him his wife 
Zenobia, 2 his elder son, whose name was Herodes, 
and his younger sons, Herennianus and Timolaus. 3 
First of all, he brought under his power Nisibis and 
most of the East together with the whole of Meso- 
potamia, next, he defeated the king himself and 
compelled him to flee. Finally, he pursued Sapor 
and his children even as far as Ctesiphon, and cap- 
tured his concubines and also a great amount of booty ; 
then he turned to the oriental provinces, hoping to 
be able to crush Macrianus, 4 who had begun to rule 
in opposition to Gallienus, but he had already set out 
against Aureolus and Gallienus. After Macrianus 
was slain, Odaenathus killed his son Quietus also, 
while Ballista, many assert, usurped the imperial 
power 5 in order that he, too, might not be slain. 
Then, after he had for the most part put in order 
the affairs of the East, he was killed by his cousin 






from Gallienus (Gall., xii. 1), or assumed it himself, or in any 
way formally rebelled against the power of Rome, although in 
fact his position was almost that of an independent prince. On 
his suppression of the revolt of Quietus see also c. xiv. 1 and 
Gall., iii. 1-5, and on his invasion of Mesopotamia after the 
capture of Valerian see VaL, iv. 2-4 ; Gall., x. 3-8 ; xii. 1. 

2 See c. xxx. 3 See c. xxvii-xxviii. 

4 See c. xii. See note to c. xviii. 1. 

105 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

Maeonio. qui et ipse imperium sumpserat, interemptus 
e^t cum tilio suo Herode, qui et ipse post reditum de 

6 Perside cum patre imperator est appellatus. iratum 
fuisse rei publicae deum credo, qui interfeeto Valeri- 

7 ano noluit Odaenathum reservare. ille plane cum 
uxore /enobia non solum orientem, quern iam in 
pristimim reformaverat statum, sed et omnes omnino 
totius orbis partes refonnasset, vir aeer in bellis et, 
quantum plerique scriptores loquuntur, venatu me- 
morabili semper inclitus, qui a prima aetate capiendis 
leonibus et pardis. ursis ceterisque silvestribus ani- 
mal ibus sudorem orticii virilis impendit quique semper 
in silvis ac montibtis \\xit, perferens calorem, pluvias 
et omnia mala quae in se continent venatoriae volup- 

S tates. quibus duratus solem ac pulverem in bellis 
Persieis tulit, non aliter etiain coniuj^e adsueta, quae 
nuiltorum sententia fortior marito fuisse perhibetur, 
mulier omnium nobilissima orientalium feminarum et, 
ut Cornelius Capitolinus adserit. speciosissima. 1 

HERODES 

X\ I. Non /enobia matre sed priore uxore genitus 
Herodes cum patre accepit imperium. homo omnium 
delicatissimus et prorsus orientalis et Graecae luxuriae, 

x ' v "'' l saet w "/ P : . 



1 See also cV t i//., xiii. 1. On Maeouius, see note to c. xvii. 1. 
According to Zosimus. i. 3,\ - 2, the murder took place at Emesa 
(Horns); it eau be dated in -JtH^-JOT. as Alexandrian coins show 
this to be the first year of Vaballathus. Odaeuathus' son and 
successor. 

- Otherwise unknown and perhaps fictitious. 

8 Mentioned also in c. xv. -2 and 5 ; xvii. 1 ; Gall., xiii. 1. 
The statement that he wa-^ killed with his father seems to 

106 



THE THIRTY PRKTKNDKKS XV. 6 XVI. 1. 

Maeonius ] (who also had seized the imperial power), 
together with his son H erodes, who, also, after return- 
ing from Persia along with his father, had received the 
title of emperor. Some god, I believe, was angry 
with the commonwealth, who, after Valerian's death, 
was unwilling to preserve Odaenathus alive. For of 
a surety he, with his wife Zenobia, would have re- 
stored not only the East, which he had already 
brought back to its ancient condition, but also all 
parts of the whole world everywhere, since he was 
fierce in warfare and, as most writers relate, ever 
famous for his memorable hunts ; for from his earliest 
years he expended his sweat, as is the duty of a man, 
in taking lions and panthers and bears and other 
beasts of the forest, and always lived in the woods 
and the mountains, enduring heat and rain and all 
other hardships which pleasures of hunting entail. 
Hardened by these he was able to bear the sun and 
the dust in the wars with the Persians ; and his wife, 
too, was inured to hardship and in the opinion of 
many was held to be more brave than her husband, 
being, indeed, the noblest of all the women of the 
East, and, as Cornelius Capitolinus 2 declares, the most 
beautiful. 

HERODES 

XVI. Herodes, 3 who was the son, not of Zenobia, 
but of a former wife of Odaenathus, received the 
imperial power along with his father, though he was 
the most effeminate of men, wholly oriental and given 
over to Grecian luxury, for he had embroidered tents 

be borne out by Zonaras (xii. 24), who says that Odaenathus' 
older son was killed with him. 

107 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

cui erant sigillata tentoria et aureati papiliones et 

2omnia Persica. denique ingenio eius usus Odaenathus 

quicquid concubinarum regalium, quicquid divitiarum 

gemmarumque cepit, eidem tradidit paternae indul- 

Sgentiae adfectione permotus. et erat circa ilium 

Zenobia novercali animo, qua re commendabiliorem 

patri eum fecerat. neque plura sunt quae de Herode 

dicantur. 

MAEONIUS 

XVII. Hie consobrinus Odaenathi fuit nee ulla re 
alia ductus nisi damnabili invidia imperatorem optimum 
interemit, cum ei nihil aliud obiceret praeter filium 

2 Herodem. 1 dicitur autem primum cum Zenobia con- 
sensisse, quae ferre non poterat ut privignus eius 
Herodes priore loco quam filii eius, Herennianus et 
Timolaus, principes dicerentur. sed hie quoque spur- 

3 cissimus fuit. quare imperator appellatus per errorem 
brevi a militibus pro suae luxuriae meritis interemptus 
est. 

BALLISTA 

XVIII. De hoc, utrum imperaverit, scriptores inter 
se ambigunt. multi enim dicunt Quieto per Odae- 

1 So Salm. foil, by Peter ; filii herodes P ; filii Herodis 
Helm foil, by Hohl. 



!Cf. c. xv. 4 ; Val., iv. 3. 

9 He is represented here, as well as in c. xv. 5 and Gall., xiii. 
1, as Odaenathus' cousin, but in Zonaras (xii. 24) as his nephew. 
Here and in c. xv. 5 his name is given as Maeonius, while 
Syncellus (I. p. 717) knows him as Odaenathus, and the 
Continuator of Cassius Dio frg. 166 (ed. Boissevain., iii p. 744), 
as Kufinus. The statement that he was vested with the 
imperial power and not killed until later seems to be an 
invention of the biographer's, due to his desire to swell the 

108 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XVI. 2 XVIII. 1 

and pavilions made out of cloth of gold and every- 
thing in the manner of the Persians. In fact, 
Odaenathus, complying with his ways and moved by 
the promptings of a father's indulgence, gave him all 
the king's concubines 1 and the riches and jewels 
that he captured. Zeiiobia, indeed, treated him in 
a step-mother's way, and this made him all the more 
dear to his father. Nothing more remains to be said 
concerning Herodes. 

MAEONIUS 

XVII. This man, 2 the cousin ot Odaenathus, 
murdered that excellent emperor, being moved 
thereto by nothing else than contemptible envy, 
for he could bring no charge against him save that 
Herodes was his son. It is said, however, that previ- 
ously he had entered into a conspiracy with Zenobia, 
who could not bear that her stepson Herodes should 
be called a prince in a higher rank than her own two 
sons, Herennianus and Timolaus. But Maeonius, 
too, was a filthy fellow, and so, after being saluted as 
emperor through some blunder, he was shortly there- 
after killed by the soldiers, as his excesses deserved. 

BALLISTA 

XVIII. As to whether this man 3 held the imperial 
power or not historians do not agree. For many 

number of his " Thirty." According to Zonaras he was killed 
immediately after the murder. 

3 On his services in aiding Odaenathus to repel the Persians 
after Valerian's capture, see VaL, iv. 4 ; Zonaras, xii. 23 (where 
he is called Callistus). On his co-operation with Macrianus and 
bis sons and his death, see c. xii. 1-3; xiv. 1; xv. 4; Gall., i. 2-4; 
iii. 2. There is no evidence for the statement that he assumed 
the purple. 

109 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

nathum occiso Ballistae veniam datam et tamen eum 

imperasse, quod nee Gallieno nee Aureolo nee Odae- 

2natho se crederet. alii adserunt privatum eum in 

agro suo, quern apud Daphnidem sibi compararat, in- 

3 teremptum. multi et sumpsisse ilium purpuram, ut 
more Romano imperaret, et exercitum duxisse et de 
se plura promisisse dixerunt, occisum autem per eos 
quos Aureolus miserat ad comprehendendum Quietum, 
Macriani filium, quern praedam suam esse dicebat. 

4 fuit vir insignis, eruditus ad gerendam rem publicam, 
in consiliis vehemens, in expeditionibus clarus, in 
provisione annonaria singularis, Valeriano sic ac- 
ceptus ut eum quibusdam Htteris hoc testimonio pro- 
secutus sit : 

5 "Valerianus Ragonio Claro praefecto Illyrici et 
Galliarum. si quid in te bonae frugis est, quam esse 
scio, parens Clare, dispositiones tu Ballistae perse- 

6 quere. his rem publicam informa. videsne ut ille 
provinciales non gravet, ut illic equos contineat ubi 
sunt pabula, illic annonas militum mandet ubi sunt 
frumenta, non provincialem, non possessorem cogat 
illic frumenta ul3i non habet dare, illic equum ubi non 

7 potest pascere ? nee est ulla alia provisio melior quam 
ut in locis suis erogentur quae nascuntur, ne aut vehi- 

8 culis aut sumptibus rem publicam gravent. Galatia 
frumentis abundat, referta est Thracia, plenum est 
Illyricum ; illic pedites conlocentur, quamquam in 



1 Presumably Daphne near Antioch. 

2 Otherwise unknown and probably, like the letter, fictitious. 

110 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XVIII. 2-8 

assert that when Quietus was killed by Odaenathus, 
Ballista was pardoned, but nevertheless took the 
imperial power, putting no trust in either Gallienus 
or Aureolus or Odaenathus. Others, again, declare 
that while still a commoner he was killed on the 
lands which he had bought for himself near Daphne. 1 
Many, indeed, have said that he assumed the purple 
in order to rule in the Roman fashion, and that he 
took command of the army and made many promises 
on his own account, but was killed by those de- 
spatched by Aureolus for the purpose of seizing 
Quietus, Macrianus' son, who, Aureolus averred, was 
his own due prey. He was a notable man, skilled 
in administering the commonwealth, vehement in 
counsel, winning fame in campaigns, without an equal 
in providing for rations, and so highly esteemed by 
Valerian that in a certain letter he honoured him 
with the following testimony : 

" From Valerian to Ragonius Clarus, 2 prefect of 
Illyricum and the provinces of Gaul. If you are 
a man of good judgement, my kinsman Clarus, as 
I know that you are, you will carry out the arrange- 
ments of Ballista. Model your government on them. 
Do you see how he refrains from burdening the 
provincials, how he keeps the horses in places where 
there is fodder and exacts the rations for his soldiers 
in places where there is grain, how he never compels 
the provincials or the land-holders to furnish grain 
where they have no supply, or horses where they 
have no pasture ? There is no arrangement better 
than to exact in each place what is there produced, 
so that the commonwealth may not be burdened by 
transport or other expenses. Galatia is rich in grain, 
Thrace is well stocked, and Illyricum is filled with 

111 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

Thracia etiam equites sine noxa provincialium hiemare 

possint. multum enim ex campis faeni colligitur. 

9 iam vinum, 1 laridum, iam ceterae species in iis dandae 

10 sunt locis, in quibus adfatim redundant, quae omnia 
sunt Ballistae consilia, qui ex quadam provincia 
unam tantum speciem praeberi iussit, quod ea redun- 
daret, atque ab ea milites submoveri. id quod pub- 
licitus est decretum." 

11 Est et alia eius epistula qua gratias Ballistae agit, 2 
in qua docet sibi praecepta gubernandae rei publicae 
ab eodem data, gaudens quod eius consilio nullum 
adscripticium (id est vacantem) haberet tribunum, 3 
nullum stipatorem, qui non vere aliquid ageret, 
nullum militem, qui non vere pugnaret. 

12 Hie igitur vir in tentorio suo Cubans a quodam gre- 
gario milite in Odaenathi et Gallieni gratiam dicitur 

13 mteremptus. de quo ipse vera non satis comperi, 
idcirco quod scriptores temporum de huius praefectura 
multa, de imperio pauca dixerunt. 

VALENS 

XIX. Hie vir militaris, simul etiam civilium virtu- 
turn gloria pollens, proconsulatum Achaiae dato a 
2Gallieno tune honore gubernabat. quern Macrianus 
vehementer reformidans, simul quod in omni genere 

1 iam uinnm Peter, 3 Hohl ; iam in P. 2 agit S, Lessing, 
Hohl; ait P, Peter. 3 tribnnnm Cornelissen foil, by 

Hohl ; et tribunum P, Peter. 

1 See also c. xxi. 2 and Gall., ii. 2-4. He is also said in 
Epit., 32, 4 to have declared himself emperor in Macedonia, 
and he is listed with Aureolus, Postumus and Ingenuus as an 
opponent of Gallienus by Ammianus Marcellinus, xxi. 16, 10, 
but no coins of his are known. 

112 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XVIII. 9 -XIX. 2 

it ; so let the foot-soldiers be quartered in these 
regions, although in Thrace cavalry, too, can winter 
without damage to the provincials, since plenty of 
hay can be had from the fields. As for wine and 
bacon and other forms of food, let them be handed 
out in those places in which they abound in plenty. 
All this is the policy of Ballista, who gave orders that 
any province should furnish only one form of food, 
namely that in which it abounded, and that from it 
the soldiers should be kept away. This, in fact, has 
been officially decreed." 

There is also another letter, in which he gives 
thanks to Ballista, showing that he himself had 
received from him instruction in governing the state, 
and expressing his pleasure that he had on his staff 
no supernumerary tribune (that is, one unassigned to 
some duty), no one in attendance who did not truly 
perform some office, and no soldier who was not truly 
a fighter. 

This man, then, while resting in his tent was slain, 
it is said, by a certain common soldier, in order to 
gain the favour of Odaenathus and Gallienus. I, 
however, have not been able to find out sufficiently 
the truth concerning him, because the writers of his 
time have related much about his prefecture but 
little about his rule. 

VALENS 

XIX. This man, 1 a warrior and at the same time 
excelling in glory for his qualities as a citizen, was 
holding the proconsulship of Achaea, an honour con- 
ferred on him by Gallienus. Macrianus feared him 
greatly, both because he had learned that he was 
distinguished for his whole manner of life and because 

113 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

vitae satis clarum iiorat, simul quod inimicurn sibi 
esse invidia virtutum sciebat, misso Pisone, nobilis- 
simae tune et consularis familiae viro, interfici prae- 
Scepit. Valens diligentissime cavens et providens 
neque aliter sibi posse subveniri aestimans sumpsit 
imperium et brevi a militibus interemptus est. 

VALENS SUPERIOR 

XX. Et bene venit in mentem, ut, cum de hoc 
Valente loquimur, etiam de illo Valente qui superiorum 
principum temporibus interemptus est aliquid dicere- 

2 mus. nam huius Valentis, qui sub Gallieno imperavit, 
avunculus magnus fuisse perhibetur. alii tantum 

Savunculum dicunt. sed par in ambobus fuit fortuna, 1 
nam et ille, cum 2 paucis diebus Illyrico imperasset, 
occisus est. 

PISO 

XXI. Hie a Macriano ad interficiendum Valentem 
missus, ubi eum providum futurorum imperare cog- 
novit, Thessaliam concessit atque illic paucis sibi 
consentientibus sumpsit imperium Thessalicusque ap- 
pellatus vi 3 interemptus est, vir summae sanctitatis 

1 forma P. "cum om. in P ; ins. by Hohl ; before ille 

in 2. 3 ui P ; om. by Peter and Hohl. 



1 Probably Julius Yalens Liciniauus is meant, who pro- 
claimed himself emperor in Rome during the absence of the 
Emperor Decius in the war against the Goths in 250, but was 
promptly put to death ; see Aur. Victor, Caes., 29, 3 ; E^it., 
29, 5. As the biographer himself admits in c. xxxi. 8, he has 
no place among the rivals of Gallienus, and he is inserted 
solely for the purpose of increasing the number of Ti/ranni. 

114 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XIX. 3 XXI. 1 

he knew him to be his enemy out of hatred for his 
virtues. He therefore despatched Piso, a member of 
a family then most noble and, in fact, of consular 
rank, with orders to put him to death. Valens, 
however, who kept a most careful watch, foreseeing 
the future and believing that there was no other 
means of protecting himself, seized the imperial power 
and soon was slain by the soldiers. 

VALENS THE ELDER 

XX. It has fortunately occurred to us that, in 
speaking of this Valens, we should make some men- 
tion also of the Valens l who was killed in the time 
of the earlier emperors. For he, it is said, was the 
great-uncle of the Valens who seized the power under 
Gallienus. Others, however, assert that he was only 
his uncle. But the fate of them both was alike, for 
he, too, was killed after he had ruled for a few days 
in Illyricum. 

- PISO 

XXI. This man ' 2 was despatched by Macrianus to 
kill Valens, but on learning that he, foreseeing the 
future, had declared himself emperor, he withdrew 
into Thessaly ; there by consent of a few he assumed 
the imperial power, taking the surname Thessalicus, 
but was then slain by violence. He was a man of 
the utmost righteousness and during his life- time he 

2 Known also from c. xix. 2 and Gall., ii. 2-4, but un- 
mentioned by any other author. - That Macrianus during his 
march through the Balkan Peninsula (see c. xii. 12-14) sent 
a force into Macedonia (Achaea) is not improbable ; but no 
coins of Piso's are known, and the story of his assumption of 
the power, like the " *enatu$ consultum " conferring honours 
on a rebel (I), must be regarded as fiction. 

115 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

et temporibus suis Frugi dictus et qui ex ilia Pisonum 
familia ducere originem diceretur cui se Cicero nobili- 
2tandi causa sociaverat. hie omnibus principibus ac- 
ceptissimus fuit. ipse denique Valens. qui ad eum 
percussores misisse perhibetur, dixisse dicitur non sibi 
apud deos inferos constare rationem, quod, quamvis 
hostem suum, Pisonem tamen iussisset occidi, virum 
cuius similem Romana res publica non haberet. 

3 Senatus consultum de Pisone factum ad noscendam 
eius maiestatem libenter inserui : Die septimo kal. 
luliarum cum esset nuntiatum Pisonem a Valente in- 
teremptum, ipsum Valentem a suis occisum, Arellius 
Fuscus, consularis primae sententiae, qui in locum 

4 Valeriani successerat, ait : " Consul, consule." cumque 
consultus esset, " Divinos ' inquit, " honores Pisoni 
decerno, patres conscripti, Gallienum et Valerianum 
et Saloninum imperatores nostros esse id probaturos 1 
confido. neque enim melior vir quisquam fuit neque 

Sconstantior." post quern ceteri consulti 2 statuam 
inter triumphales et currus quadriiugos Pisoni decre- 

6verunt. sed statua eius videtur, quadrigae autem, 
quae decretae fuerant, quasi transferendae ad alium 

7 locum 3 positae sunt nee adhuc redditae. nam in his 
locis fuerunt in quibus Thermae Diocletianae sunt 
exaedificatae, tarn aeterni nominis quam sacrati. 

1 id probaturos Salm. ; imperaturos P. 2 citer consuU-nm 
P. a locum ins. by Richter aud Hohl ; om. in P and 2 

alibi Peter. 

1 Cicero's daughter Tullia was married to C. Calpurnius Piso 
Frugi. They were betrothed in 67 B.C. after Cicero had been 
elected praetor. 

2 On such " senatus consulta " see note to VaL, v. 3. 

3 A writer of this name (if Salmasius' conjecture be correct) 
is cited in c. xxv. 2, but he may well be fictitious. Also an 

116 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXI. 2-7 

was given the name Frugi, and he was said to derive 
his descent from that family of Pisos with which 
Cicero had formed an alliance for the purpose of 
entering the nobility. 1 He was highly esteemed by 
all the emperors ; in fact, Valens himself, who is said 
to have sent the assassins against him, declared, it is 
told, that never could he render account to the gods 
of the lower world for having given an order to 
put Piso to death, albeit his enemy, for his like the 
Roman commonwealth did not contain. 

I have gladly inserted the senate's decree 2 which 
was passed concerning Piso, in order that his honours 
may be made known : On the seventh day before the 
Kalends of July, when word had been brought that 
Piso was slain by Valens and Valens himself by his 
own soldiers, Arellius Fuscus, 3 the consular whose 
right it was to give his opinion first, having succeeded 
to the place of Valerian, said : "Consul, consult us." 
And on being asked his opinion, he said, " I propose 
divine honours for Piso, Conscript Fathers, and I 
firmly believe that this will be approved by our 
emperors, Gallienus, Valerian, and Saloninus ; for 
never was there a better man or a braver." After 
him the others also on being consulted voted Piso 
a statue among the triumphant generals and also 
a four-horse chariot. His statue is still to be seen, 
but the chariot which they decreed was erected only 
to be moved elsewhere, and it has not yet been brought 
back. For it was set up in the place where the Bath 
of Diocletian 4 was afterwards built, destined to have 
a name as undying as it is revered. 

Arellius Fuscus was proconsul of Asia in 274-275, according to 
Aur., xl. 4. 

4 Now the Museo Nazionale delle Terme. 

117 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

AEMILIANUS 

XXII. Est 1 hoc familiare populi Aegyptiorum ut 
velut 2 furiosi ac dementes de levissimis quib usque 3 ad 

2summa rei publicae pericula perducantur ; saepe illi 
ob neglectas salutationes, locum in balneis non con- 
cessum, carnem et olera sequestrata, calceamenta 
servilia et cetera talia usque ad summum rei publicae 
periculum in 4 seditiones, ita ut armarentur contra eas 

Sexercitus, pervenerunt. familiari ergo sibi furore, 
cum quadam die cuiusdam servus curatoris, qui Alex- 
antlriam tune regebat, militari ob hoc caesus esset 
quod crepidas suas meliores esse quam militis diceret, 
collecta multitude ad domum Aemiliani ducis venit 
atque eum omni seditionum instrumento et furore 
persecuta est ; ictus est lapidibus, petitus est ferro, 

4 nee defuit 5 ullum seditionis telum. qua re coactus 
Aemilianus sumpsit imperium, cum sciret sibi unde- 

Scumque pereundum. consenserunt ei Aegyptiacus 

Cexercitus, maxime in Gallieni odium, nee eius ad 
regendam rem publicam vigor defuit, nam Thebaidem 

1 est Peter ; et P. " uelut Baehrens, Peter 3 ; nel P, 27. 

9 quibusq^le Editio Princ. ; quibus usque P; quibusque usque 
Peter. 4 in ins. by Petschenig and Hohl ; om. in P. 

5 defuit God. Laurent, foil, by Peter; de P. 



1 See also c. xxvi. 4 ; Gall., iv. 1-2 ; v. 6 ; ix. 1 ; He is also 
mentioned in Epit., 32, 4. It is known from papyri that 
L. Mussius Aemilianus and Aurelius Theodotos (3 8) were 
prefects of Egypt, the former as late as Oct. 259, the latter in 
August 262. Aemilianus would seem to have held central 
Egypt (the Thebais) for Gallienus against Macrianus and 
Quietus, who were acknowledged as emperors in lower Egypt 
in 260. However, no genuine coins of his are known, and it is 
unlikely that he ever assumed the imperial power ; therefore it 

118 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXII. 1-6 

AEMILIANUS l 

XXII. It is the wont of the people of Egypt that 
like madmen and fools they are led by the most trivial 
matters to become highly dangerous to the common- 
wealth ; 2 for merely because a greeting was omitted, 
or a place in the baths refused, or meat and vegetables 
withheld, or on account of the boots of slaves or some 
other such things, they have broken out into riots, 
even to the point of becoming highly dangerous to 
the state, so that troops have been armed to quell 
them. With their wonted madness, accordingly, on 
a certain occasion, when the slave of the chief magis- 
trate 3 then governing Alexandria had been killed by 
a soldier for asserting that his sandals were better 
than the soldier's, a mob gathered together, and, 
coming to the house of the general Aemiliaiius, it 
assailed him with all the implements and the frenzy 
usual in riots ; he was pelted with stones and attacked 
with swords, and no kind of weapon used in a riot 
was lacking. And so Aemilianus was constrained to 
assume the imperial power, knowing well that he 
would have to die in any event. To this step the 
army in Egypt agreed, chiefly out of hatred for 
Gallienus. He did not, indeed, lack energy for 
administering public affairs. For he marched through 
the district of Thebes and, in fact, the whole of 

is hard to understand why he should have been arrested by order 
of Gallienus ; see Milne in Journ. Egypt. Arch., ix. p. 80 f. 

2 See also Firm., vii. 4. 

3 On the curator rei publicae in the second century see note 
to Marc., xi. 2. In the third century he became a regular 
official, chosen by the local curia but ratified by the emperor 
and charged with the general administration of the city with 
control over the finances and the power to veto municipal 
legislation. 

119 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

totamque Aegyptum peragravit et, quatenus potuit, 
7 barbarorum gentes forti auctoritate summovit. Alex- 
ander denique vel Alexandrinus (nam incertuin id 
Squoque habetur) virtutum merito vocatus est. et 
cum contra Indos pararet expeditionem, misso Theo- 
doto duce Gallieno iubente dedit poenas, et 1 quidera 
strangulatus in carcere captivorum veterum more per- 
hibetur. 

9 Tacendum esse 11011 credo quod, cum de 2 Aegypto 
loquor, vetus suggessit historia, simul etiam Gallieni 

10 factum. qui cum Theodoco vellet imperium procon- 
sulare decernere, a sacerdotibus est probibitus, qui 
dixerunt fasces consulares ingredi Alexandrian! non 

11 licere. cuius rei etiam Ciceronem, cum contra Ga- 
biiiium loquitur, meminisse satis novimus. denique 

l^nunc 3 exstat memoria rei frequentatae. quare scire 
oportet Herennium Celsum, vestrum parentem, cum* 
consulatum cupit, hoc quod desiderat non licere. 

13 fertur enim apud Memphim in aurea columna Aegyp- 
tiis esse litteris scriptum tune demum Aegyptum 
liberam fore cum in earn venissent Romani fasces et 

14 praetexta Romanorum. quod apud Proculum gram- 
maticum, doctissimum sui temporis virum, cum de 
peregrinis regionibus loquitur, invenitur. 

1 et Baehrens, Peter - ; sed P. 2 de 2, Peter ; om. in. P. 

*nunc Petschenig, Peter ; non P. 4 cum ins. by Peter and 

Hohl ; om. in P. 



1 e.g., Juguitha and Veruingetorix, strangled in the Tullianum 
at Borne. 

8 Aulus Gabinius, who had restored Ptolemy Auletes to his 
throne, was, on his return to Rome in 54, attacked by Cicero 
in a speech now lost ; see Cassius Dio, xxxix. 62, 2. 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXII. 7-14. 

Egypt, and to the best of his powers drove back the 
barbarians with courage and firmness. Finally, he 
won by his merits the name of Alexander, or else 
Alexandrinus for this is considered uncertain. But 
when he was making ready for a campaign against 
the people of India, the general Theodotus was sent 
against him by order of Gallienus, and so he suffered 
punishment, for it is related that, like the captives ot 
old, 1 he was strangled in prison. 

Now, since I am speaking of Egypt, I think I must 
not fail to relate what the history of former times has 
suggested and, in connection therewith, a deed of 
Gallienus. For when he wished to confer procon- 
sular power on Theodotus, the priests forbade it, 
saying that it was not lawful for the consular fasces 
to be brought into Alexandria. This, we know well 
enough, was mentioned by Cicero in his speech 
against Gabinius, 2 and, in fact, it is still remembered 
that this practice was maintained. Therefore, your 3 
kinsman Herennius Celsus, 4 in seeking the consul- 
ship, ought to know that what he desires is not law- 
ful. For at Memphis, they say, it was written on 
a golden column in Egyptian letters that Egypt would 
at last regain its freedom when the Roman fasces and 
the Roman bordered toga had been brought into the 
land. This may be found in Proculus 5 the grammarian, 
the most learned man of his time, in the place where 
he tells of foreign countries. 

3 On the person addressed see Vol. I., Intro., p. xiv. 

4 Otherwise unknown. 

'Possibly either Eutychius Proculus (Mare., ii. 3) or 
Proklos, the author of a x^ (rTO / J -^ eia ypa-V-nariK-j cited by 
Photios, but more probably, like the " inscription," fictitious. 

121 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

SATURNINUS 

XXIII. Optimus ducum Gallieni temporis, sed 
2 Valeriano delectus, Saturninus fuit. hie quoque, cum 

dissolutioiiem Gallieni, pernoctantis in publico, ferre 
non posset et milites non exemplo imperatoris sui sed 
suo regeret, ab exercitibus sumpsit imperium, vir pru- 
dentiae singularis, gravitatis insignis, vitae amabilis, 
Svictoriarum barbaris etiam ubique notarum. hie ea 
die, qua est amictus a militibus peplo imperatorio, 
contione adhibita dixisse fertur : " Commilitones, 
bonum ducem perdidistis et malum principem fecistis." 

4 denique cum multa strenue in imperio fecisset, quod 
esset severior et gravior militibus ab iisdem ipsis a 

5 quibus factus fuerat interemptus est. huius insigne 
est quod convivio discumbere milites, ne inferiora 
denudarentur, 1 cum sagis iussit, hieme gravibus, 
aestate perlucidis. 

TETRICUS SENIOR 

XXIV. Interfecto Victorino et eius filio mater eius 
Victoria sive Vitruvia Tetricum senatorem populi 
Romani praesidatum in Gallia regentem ad imperium 

1 denudarentur 2, Peter, Hohl ; nudarentur P. 



1 Mentioned in Gall., ix. 1 and also in Firm., xi. 1, where 
a careful distinction is made between him and the historical 
Saturninus, a pretender of the time of Probus. In the lack of 
any evidence for his existence he may be supposed to be merely 
an invention of the biographer's. 

2 C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus Augustus, according to his in- 
scriptions and coins; see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 91-115. His elevation 
to power after the death of Victorinus is mentioned also in c. v. 
3 and xxxi. 2, and Aur. Victor, Goes., 83, 14, and further details 

122 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXIII. 1 XXIV. 1 

SATURNINUS 

XXIII. The best of the generals of the time of 
Gallienus, though, in fact, he was chosen by Valerian, 
was Saturninus. 1 He also, being unable to endure 
the loose ways of Gallienus, who revelled all night in 
public places, and preferring to command the soldiers 
in his own way rather than in that of his emperor, 
accepted the imperial power from the army. He was 
a man unequalled in wisdom, outstanding in dignity, 
lovable in his ways, and because of his victories well 
known everywhere, even among the barbarians. On 
the day on which the soldiers clothed him with the 
imperial robe he called together an assembly, it is 
related, and said : " Fellow-soldiers, you have lost 
a good general and made a bad emperor." Finally, 
after doing many vigorous deeds during his rule, 
merely because he was too severe and too harsh to 
the soldiers he was killed by those very men who 
had made him emperor. He is famous for having 
commanded the soldiers, when reclining at table, to 
wear military cloaks in order that their lower limbs 
might not be bared, heavy ones in winter and very 
light ones in summer. 

TETRICUS THE ELDER. 2 

XXIV. After Victorinus 3 and his son were slain, 
his mother Victoria (or Vitruvia) urged Tetricus, a 
Roman senator then holding the governorship of 

of his career are given by Butropius and Aurelius Victor. The 
story concerning him is fairly consistent and in the main per- 
haps correct, but he does not belong in the list of the pretenders 
of the time of Gallienua, for he assumed the imperial power in 
270 at the earliest. 
8 See c. vi. 

123 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

hortata, quod eius erat, ut plerique loquuntur, adfinis, 
Augustum appellari fecit filiurnque eius Caesarem nun- 

2 cupavit. et cum multa Tetricus feliciterque gessisset 
diuque imperasset, ab Aureliano victus, cum militum 
suorum impudentiam et procacitatem ferre non posset, 
volens se gravissimo principi et severissimo dedit. 

3 versus denique illius fertur, quern furtim l ad Aureli- 
anum scripserat : 

" Eripe me his, invicte, malis." 

4 Quare cum Aurelianus nihil simplex neque mite aut 
tranquillum facile cogitaret, senatorem populi Romani 
eundemque consularem, qui iure praesidali omnes 
Gallias rexerat, per triumphum duxit, eodem tempore 
quo et Zenobiam Odaenathi uxorem cum filiis minori- 

6 bus Odaenathi, Hereniiiano et Timolao. pudore 
tamen victus vir nimium severus eum quern tri- 
umphaverat correctorem totius Italiae fecit, id est 
Campaniae, Samnii, Lucaniae, Bruttiorum, Apuliae, 
Calabriae, Etruriae atque Umbriae, Piceni et Flam- 
iniae omnisque annonariae regionis, ac Tetricum non 
solum vivere, sed etiam in summa dignitate manere 

1 furtim Peter; statim P, Hohl. 



1 More correctly, Aquitania, according to Aur. Victor, Caes. 
33, 14 and Eutropius, ix. 10 ; according to the latter he was ac- 
claimed emperor by the soldiers at Bordeaux. 

2 Apud Catalaunos (Chalons-sur-Marne) according to Eutro- 
pius, ix. 13, 1 , who tells the same story of his surrender. Further 
details are given by Aur. Victor, Cats., 35, 4-5. 

3 Aeneid, vi. 365. 

4 In 274 ; cf. c. xxx. 24-26 ; Aur., xxxii. 4 ; xxxiv. 2-3. 

8 See c. xxvii.-xxviii. 

6 Corrector Lucaniae, according to Aur., xxxix. 1 ; Aur. 
Victor, Goes., 35, 5 ; Epit., 35, 7 ; Eutropius, ix. 13, 2. It 

124 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXIV. 2-5 

Gaul, 1 to take the imperial power, for the reason, 
many relate, that he was her kinsman ; she then 
caused him to be entitled Augustus and bestowed on 
his son the nam^ of Caesar. But after Tetricus had 
done many deeds with success and had ruled for a 
long time he was defeated 2 by Aurelian, and, being 
unable to bear the impudence and shamelessness of 
his soldiers, he surrendered of his own free will to 
this prince most harsh and severe. In fact, a quota- 
tion of his is cited, which he secretly sent in writing 
to Aurelian : 

" Save me, O hero unconquered, from these my 
misfortunes." 3 

And so Aurelian, who did not readily plan aught 
that was guileless or merciful or peaceful, led this 
man, though he was a senator of the Roman people 
and a consular and had ruled the provinces of Gaul 
with a governor's powers, in his triumphal procession 
at the same time 4 as Zeriobia, the wife of Odaenathus, 
and the younger sons ,of Odaenathus, Herennianus 
and Timolaus/' Aurelian, nevertheless, exceedingly 
stern though he was, overcome by a sense of shame, 
made Tetricus, whom lie had led in his triumph, 
supervisor over the whole of Italy/' that is, over 
Campania, Samnium, Lucania, Bruttium, Apulia, 
Calabria, Etruria and Umbria, Picenum and the 
Flaminian district, and the entire grain-bearing 
region, and suffered him not only to retain his life 

seems probable that this is the more correct version and that 
the statement in the text is exaggerated, like that in 4, although 
the earliest corrector of a district of Italy is found in an inscrip- 
tion of 283-284 and occasional instances of correctores of all 
Italy are found earlier; see Pauly-Wissowa, BeaiencycL, iv. 
165 1 f. 

135 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

passus est, cum ilium saepe collegam, nonnumquam 
commilitonem, aliquando etiam imperatorem appel- 
laret. 

TETRICUS JUNIOR 

XXV. Hie puerulus a Victoria Caesar est appel- 
latus, cum ilia mater castrorum ab exercitu nuncupata 

2esset. qui et ipse cum patre per triumphum ductus 
postea omnibus senatoriis honoribus functus est inli- 
bato patrimonio, quod quidem ad suos posteros misit, 

3 ut Arellius 1 Fuscus dicit, semper insignis. narrabat 
avus meus sibi familiarem fuisse neque quemquam illi 
ab Aureliano aut postea ab aliis principibus esse 

4praelatum. Tetricorum domus hodieque exstat in 
Monte Caelio inter duos lucos contra Iseum Metel- 
linum, pulcherrima, in qua Aurelianus pictus est 
utrique praetextam tribuens et senatoriam dignitatem, 
accipiens ab his sceptrum, coronam, cycladem. pictura 
est 2 de musivo, 3 quam cum dedicassent, Aurelianum 
ipsum dicuntur duo Tetrici adhibuisse convivio. 

1 Arellius Salm., Hohl; Dagellius P, susp. by Peter. 
8 So Peter foil, by Hohl ; cydi picturiae P. * museo P, 

Peter, Hohl. 



1 C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus Caesar, according to his inscrip- 
tions and coins ; see Cohen, vi. 2 pp. 118-129. According to Aur., 
xxxiv. 2 he was acclaimed imperator, and some of his coins bear 
the title Augustus, but as none of these portrays him with the 
laurel it is not probable that he ever had this title. 

2 See note to c. xxi. 3. 

8 The citation from the writer's father or grandfather, found 
here and in Aur. t 43, 2 ; Firm., ix. 4 ; xv. 4 ; Car. xiii. 3 ; xiv. 1 ; 

126 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXV. 1-4 

but also to remain in the highest position, calling him 
frequently colleague, sometimes fellow-soldier, and 
sometimes even emperor. 



TETRICUS THE YOUNGER 

XXV. He, 1 when a little lad, received the name of 
Caesar from Victoria when she herself had been en- 
titled by the army Mother of the Camp. He was, 
furthermore, led in triumph along with his father, but 
later he enjoyed all the honours of a senator ; nor was 
his inheritance diminished, and, indeed, he passed it 
on to his descendants, and was ever, as Arellius Fus- 
cus 2 reports, a man of distinction. My grandfather 3 
used to declare that he was a friend of his own, and 
that never was any one given preference over him 
either by Aurelian or by any of the later emperors. 
The house of the Tetrici is still standing to-day, 
situated on the Caelian Hill between the two groves 
and facing the Temple of Isis built by Metellus ; 4 and 
a most beautiful one it is, and in it Aurelian is depicted 
bestowing on both the Tetrici the bordered toga and 
the rank of senator and receiving from them a sceptre, 
a chaplet, and an embroidered robe. This picture is 
in mosaic, and it is said that the two Tetrici, when 
they dedicated it, invited Aurelian himself to a 
banquet. 

xv. 1, is merely a device modelled after similar citations made 
by Suetonius, Otho, x. 1 and Gal., xix. 3. 

4 A temple of Isis stood on the northern side of the Caelian 
Hill near the modern Via Labicana, and, although we know of 
no connection between it and any Metellus, it may be the temple 
which the author has in mind. 

127 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

TREBELLIANUS 

XXVI. Pudet iara persequi quanti sub Gallieno 
fuerint tyranni vitio pestis illius,, si quidem erat in eo 
ea luxuria ut rebelles plurimos mereretur et ea crude- 

2litas ut iure timeretur. qua erat 1 et in Trebelliantim 
factum in Isauria principem, ipsis Isauris sibi ducem 
quaereiitibus. quern cum alii archipiratam vocassent, 
ipse se imperatorem appellavit. moiietam etiara cudi 

Siussit. palatium in arce Isauriae constituit. qui 
quidem cum se in intima et tuta Isaurorum loca 
munitus difficultatibus locorum et montibus contulisset, 

4 aliquamdm apud Cilicas imperavit. sed per Gallieni 
ducem Camsisoleum, natione Aegyptium, fratrem 
Theodoti qui Aemilianum ceperat, ad campum de- 

5ductus victus est et occisus. neque tamen postea 
Isauri timore ne in eos Gallieiius saeviret, ad 
aequalitatem perduci quavis principum humanitate 

6 potuerunt. denique post Trebellianum pro barbaris 
habentur ; etenim - in medio Romani nominis solo 
regio eorum novo genere custodiarum quasi limes 

7 im-luditur, locis defensa non hominibus. narn sunt 
non statura decori, non virtute graves, non instructi 

l qua erat Evssenhardt foil, by Hohl ; q-uare P, Z", Peter. 
* etenim Petscheuig foil, by Hohl ; et cum P, 2, Peter. 

1 Trebellianus is known only from this "vita," for the T>v- 
fcllianus mentioned briefly in Eutropius, ix. 8, 1 is evidently an 
error for Begalianus. It is hardly likely that this " archipirata " 
ever assumed the purple. 

- A mountainous district in southern Asia Minor, N.W. of 
Cilicia, and notorious as the haunt of brigands. 

3 No coins of his are known. It appears to have been a favourite 
device of these biographers to increase the importance of pretenders 
by asserting that they issued coins; cf. c. sxxi. 3; Firm., ii. 1. 

Otherwise unknown. On Theodotus see c. xxii. S. 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXVI. 1-7 

TREBELLIANUS 

XXVI. I am by this time ashamed to tell how many 
tyrants there were in the reign of Gallienus, all on 
account of the vices of that pestiferous man, for such, 
indeed, were his excesses that he deserved to have 
many rebels rise up against him, and such his cruelty 
that he was rightly regarded with fear. This cruelty 
he showed also toward TrebelKanus, 1 who was made 
ruler in Isauria 2 for the Isaurians desired a leader 
for themselves. He, though others dubbed him arch- 
pirate, gave himself the title of emperor. He even 
gave orders to strike coins 3 and he set up an imperial 
palace in a certain Isaurian stronghold. Then, when 
he had betaken himself into the inmost and safest 
parts of Isauria, where he was protected by the 
natural difficulty of the ground and by the mountains, 
he ruled for some time among the Cilicians. Camsi- 
soleus, 4 however, Gallienus' general and an Egyptian 
by race, the brother of that Theodotus who had cap- 
tured Aemiliaiius, brought him down to the plains 
and then defeated and slew him. Never afterwards, 
however, was it possible to persuade the Isaurians, 
fearing that Gallienus might vent his anger upon them, 
to come down to the level ground, not even by any 
offer of kindness on the part of the emperors. In 
fact, since the time of Trebellianus they have been 
considered barbarians ; for indeed their district, 
though in the midst of lands belonging to the Romans, 
is guarded by a novel kind of defence, comparable to 
a frontier- wall, for it is protected not by men but by 
the nature of the country. For the Isaurians are not of 
noble stature or distinguished courage, not well pro- 
vided with arms or wise in counsel, but they are kept 

129 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

armis, non consiliis prudentes, sed hoc solo securi 
quod in editis positi adiri nequeunt. quos quidem 
divus Claudius paene ad hoc perduxerat ut a suis 
semotos locis in Cilicia conlocaret, daturus uni ex 
amicissimis omnem Isaurorum possessionem, ne quid 
ex ea postea rebellionis oreretur. 

HERENNIANUS 

XXVII. Odaenathus moriens duos parvulos reliquit, 
Herennianum et fratrem eius Timolaum, quorum 
nomine Zenobia usurpato sibi imperio diutius quam 
feminam decuit rem publicam obtinuit, parvulos 
Romani imperatoris habitu praeferens purpuratos 
eosdemque adhibens contionibus, quas ilia viriliter 
frequentavit, Didonem et Semiramidem et Cleopatram 

2sui generis principem inter cetera praedicaiis. sed 
de horum exitu incertum est ; multi enim dicunt eos 
ab Aureliano interemptos, multi morte sua esse con- 
sumptos, si quidem Zenobiae posteri etiam nunc 
Romae inter nobiles manent. 1 

TIMOLAUS 

XXVIII. De hoc ea putamus digna notione quae 
2de fratre sunt dicta, unum tamen est quod eum a 

1 manent, S, Hohl ; maneat P. 



1 There is no mention of this in connection with Claudius, but 
a similar measure was employed by Probus ; see Prob., xvi. 6. 

2 Herennianus and Timolaus, mentioned in this series of vitae 
as the sons of Odaenathus and Zenobia and as ruling with their 
mother (Gall., xiii. 2 ; c. xxx. 2), are known from no other 
source. The son of Odaenathus who succeeded him in 266-267, 
and reigned jointly with Zenobia, was Vaballatbus Athenodorus ; 

ISO 



THIRTY PRETENDERS XXVII. 1 XXVIII. 2 

safe by this alone that, dwelling, as they do, on the 
heights, no one can approach them. The Deified 
Claudius did, it is true, almost persuade them to 
leave their native lands and settle in Cilicia, 1 plan- 
ning to give the entire possessions of the Isaurians to 
one of his most loyal friends in order that never again 
might a rebellion arise therein. 

HERENNIANUS 

XXVII. Odaenathus, when he died, left two little 
sons, Herennianus and his brother Timolaus, 2 in whose 
name Zenobia seized the imperial power, holding the 
government longer than was meet for a woman. 
These boys she displayed clad in the purple robe of 
a Roman emperor and she brought them to public 
gatherings which she attended in the fashion of a 
man, holding up, among other examples, Dido and 
Semiramis, and Cleopatra, the founder of her family.* 
The manner of their death, however, is uncertain; 
for many maintain that they were killed by Aurelian, 
and many that they died a natural death, since 
Zenobia's descendants still remain among the nobles 
of Rome. 

TIMOLAUS 

XXVIII. With regard to him we consider only 
those things to be worth knowing which have been 
told concerning his brother. One thing there is, 

see note to c. xxx. 2. Even the author of the vita of AureJian 
(see xxxviii. 1) knew of him as his father's successor. If these 
two princes existed at all, they were younger sons who never 
ruled. 

3 See u. xxx. V. 

LSI 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

fratre separat, quod tanti ftiit ardoris ad studia 
Romana ut brevi consecutus quae insinuaverat gram- 
maticus esse dicatur, potuisse quin etiam summum 
Latinorum rhetorem facere. 

CELSUS j 

XXIX. Occupatis partibus Gallicanis, orientalibus, 
quin etiam Ponti, Thraciarum et Illyrici, dum Gallienus 
popinatur et balneis ac lenonibus deputat vitam, Afri 
quoque auctore Vibio Passieno, proconsule Africae, et 
Fabio Pomponiano, duce limitis Libyci, Celsum im- | 
peratorem appellaverunt peplo deae Caelestis ornatum. 

2 hie privatus ex tribunis in Africa positus in agris suis 
vivebat, sed ea iustitia et corporis raagnitudine ut 

3 dignus videretur imperio. quare creatus per quamlam 
mulierem, Gallienam nomine, consobrinam Gallieni, 
septimo imperii die interemptus est atque adeo etiam 

4 inter obscuros principes vix relatus est. corpus eius 
a canibus consumptum est Siccensibus, qui Gallieno 
fidem servaverant, perurgentibus, et novo iniuriae 
genere imago in crucem sublata persultaiite vulgo, 
quasi patibulo ipse Celsus videretur adfixus. 



Mentioned nowhere else except in the spurious letter in 
L, vii. 4, and probably an in veutiou of the biographer's. 
Nothing is known of either Passienus or Pomponianus, or the 
alleged murderess, whose existence Hubert Goltzius attempted 
to prove by forging coins bearing the legend Licin. Galliena 
Aug. ; see Eckhel, D.N., vii. p. 412 f. 
^ See note to Pert., iv. 2. 
3 Mod. el-Kef in western Tunisia. 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXIX. 1-4 

however, which distinguishes him from his brother, 
that is, that such was his eagerness for Roman studies 
that in a short time, it is said, he made good the 
statement of his teacher of letters, who had said that 
he was in truth able to make him the greatest of 
Latin rhetoricians. 



CELSUS 

XXIX. When the various parts of the empire were 
seized, namely Gaul, the Orient, and even Pontus, 
Thrace and lllyricum, and while Gallienus was spend- 
ing his time in public-houses and giving up his life to 
bathing and pimps, the Africans also, at the instance 
of Vibius Passienus, the proconsul of Africa, and 
Fabius Pomponianus, the general in command of the 
Libyan frontier, created an emperor, namely Celsus, 1 
decking him with the robe of the goddess Caelestis. 2 
This man, a commoner and formerly a tribune 
stationed in Africa, was then living on his own 
estates, but such was his reputation for justice and 
such the size of his body that he seemed worthy of 
the imperial power. Therefore he was made emperor, 
but on the seventh day of his rule he was killed by a 
woman named Galliena, a cousin of Gallienus, and so 
he has scarcely found a place even among the least 
known of the emperors. His body was devoured by 
dogs, for such was the command of the people of 
Sicca, 3 who had remained faithful to Gallienus, and 
then with a new kind of insult his image was set up 
on a cross, while the mob pranced about, as though 
they were looking at Celsus himself affixed to a 



gibbet. 



133 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

ZENOBIA 

XXX. Omnis iam consumptus est pudor, si qui- 
dem fatigata re publica eo usque perventum est ut 
Galliano nequissime agente optime etiam mulieres 

2 imperarent. et quidem peregrina enim, 1 nomine 
Zenobia, de qua raulta iam dicta sunt, quae se de 
Cleopatrarum Ptolemaeorumque gente iactaret, post 
Odaenathum maritum imperiali sagulo perfuso per 
umeros, habitu Didonis 2 ornata, diademate etiam 
accepto, nomine filiorum Herenniani et Timolai diutius 

3 quam femineus sexus patiebatur imperavit. si quidem 
Gallieno adhuc regente rem publicam regale mulier 
superba munus obtinuit et Claudio bellis Gothicis 
occupato vix denique ab Aureliano victa et triumphata 
concessit in iura Romana. 

4 Exstat epistula Aureliani, quae captivae mulieri testi- 
monium fert. nam cum a quibusdam reprehenderetur, 
quod mulierem veluti ducem aliquem vir fortissimus 
triumphasset, missis ad senatumpopulumque Romanum 

6 litteris hac se adtestatione defendit : " Audio, patres 

1 enim P, def . by Tidner ; etiam Peter; < per 'egrina^> enim, 
Petschenig, Hohl. 2 Didonis Salm. ; donis P. 



1 Septimia Zenobia, wife of Septirnius Odaeuathus. Iii the 
inscriptions erected to her during her rule at Palmyra she is 
called TJ \afj.TrpoTo.Tri fia<ri\HT<ra (O.G.I. 648-650) and in one (O.G.I. 
647) she actually has the title of 2e8a<rr7] (Augusta), but, as has 
been pointed out by Mommsen, this is probably an honorary 
designation, and her son and co-ruler Vaballathus Atheuodorus 
(see note to c. xxvii. 1) bore, at first, only the titles of consul, rex 
and dux imperator Rovianorum, and there is no reason to believe 
that she actually claimed the imperial power. For her invasion 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXX. 1-5 

ZENOBIA 

XXX. Now all shame is exhausted, for in the 
weakened state of the commonwealth things came 
to such a pass that, while Gallienus conducted him- 
self in the most evil fashion, even women ruled most 
excellently. For, in fact, even a foreigner, Zenobia l 
by name, about whom much has already been said, 
boasting herself to be of the family of the Cleopatras 
and the Ptolemies, 2 proceeded upon the death of her 
husband Odaenathus to cast about her shoulders the 
imperial mantle ; and arrayed in the robes of Dido 
and even assuming the diadem, she held the imperial 
power in the name of her sons Herennianus and 
Timolaus, 3 ruling longer than could be endured from 
one of the female sex. For this proud woman per- 
formed the functions of a monarch both while Gal- 
lienus was ruling and afterwards when Claudius was 
busied with the war against the Goths, 4 and in the 
end could scarcely be .conquered by Aurelian himself, 
under whom she was led in triumph and submitted to 
the sway of Rome. 

There is still in existence a letter of Aurelian's 
which bears testimony concerning this woman, then 
in captivity. For when some found fault with him, 
because he, the bravest of men, had led a woman in 
triumph, as though she were a general, he sent a 
letter to the senate and the Roman people, defending 
himself by the following justification : " I have heard, 

of Egypt, see Claud., xi. 1. On Aurelian's campaign against 
her and his subsequent triumph, see Aur., xxii.-xxx. ; xxxiii- 
xxxiv. 

a So also c. xxvii. 2. It was, of course, a fiction. 

3 See note to c. xxvii. 1. 4 See Claud n vi. xi. 

135 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

conscript!, mihi obici, quod non virile munus im- 
pleverim Zenobiam triumphando. ne illi, qui me 
reprehendunt, satis laudarent, si scirent quae ilia sit 1 
mulier, quam prudens in consiliis, quam constans in 
dispositionibus, quam erga milites gravis, quam larga, 
cum necessitas postulet, quam tristis, cum severitas 

6 poscat. possum dicere illius esse quod Odaenathus 
Persas vicit ac fugato Sapore Ctesiphonta usque per- 

7venit. possum adserere tanto apud orientales et 
Aegyptiorum populos timori mulierem fuisse ut se non 
Arabes, non Saraceni, non Armenii commoverent. 

8 nee ego illi vitam conservassem, nisi earn scissem 
multum Romanae rei publicae profuisse, cum sibi vel 

9 liberis suis orientis servaret imperium. sibi ergo 
habeant propriarum venena linguarum ii quibus nihil 

10 placet, nam si vicisse ac triumphasse feminam non 
est decorum, quid de Gallieno loquuntur, in cuius 

11 contemptu haec bene rexit imperium ? quid de divo 
Claudio, sancto ac venerabili duce, qui earn, quod ipse 
Gothicis esset expeditionibus occupatus, passus esse 
dicitur imperare ? idque consulte a ac prudenter, ut 
ilia servante orientalis fines imperii ipse securius quae 

12instituerat perpetraret." haec oratio indicat quid 
iudicii Aurelianus habuerit de Zenobia. 

Cuius ea castitas fuisse dicitur ut ne virum suum 
quidem scierit nisi temptandis 3 conceptionibus. nam 



1 -ilia sit Peter, Hohl ; illas P. 2 consulte Paucker, Corne- 
lissen, Peter '^ ; occulte P, Peter 1 . 3 temptandis Cornelissen, 
Hohl ; temi'tatls P, Peter. 



1 See c. xv. 3-4. 
136 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXX. 6-12 

Conscript Fathers, that men are reproaching me for 
having performed an unmanly deed in leading Zenobia 
in triumph. But in truth those very persons who find 
fault with me now would accord me praise in abun- 
dance, did they but know what manner of woman she 
is, how wise in counsels, how steadfast in plans, how 
firm toward the soldiers, how generous when necessity 
calls, and how stern when discipline demands. I 
might even say that it was her doing that Odaenathus 
defeated the Persians and, after putting Sapor to 
flight, advanced all the way to Ctesiphon. 1 I might 
add thereto that such was the fear that this woman 
inspired in the peoples of the East and also the 
Egyptians that neither Arabs nor Saracens nor 
Armenians ever moved against her. Nor would I 
have spared her life, had I not known that she did a 
great service to the Roman state when she preserved 
the imperial power in the East for herself, or for her 
children. Therefore let those whom nothing pleases 
keep the venom of their own tongues to themselves. 
For if it is not meet to vanquish a woman and lead 
her in triumph, what are they saying of Gallienus, in 
contempt of whom she ruled the empire well ? What 
of the Deified Claudius, that revered and honoured 
leader ? For he, because he was busied with his 
campaigns against the Goths, suffered her, or so it is 
said, to hold the imperial power, doing it of purpose 
and wisely, in order that he himself, while she kept 
guard over the eastern frontier of the empire, might 
the more safely complete what he had taken in hand." 
This speech shows what opinion Aureliaii held con- 
cerning Zenobia. 

Such was her continence, it is said, that she would 
not know even her own husband save for the purpose 

137 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

cuin semel concubuisset, exspectatis menstruis con- 
tinebat se, si praegnans esset, sin minus, iterum 

ISpotestatem quaerendis liberis dabat. vixit regali 
pompa. more magis Persico adorata est, regum 

14 more Persarum convivata est. imperatorum more 
Romanorum ad contiones galeata processit cum limbo 
purpureogemmis dependentibus per ultimam fimbriam, 
media etiam cochlide veluti fibula muliebri adstricta, 

15bracchio saepe nudo. fuit vultu subaquilo, fusci 
colons, oculis supra modum vigentibus l nigris, spiritus 
divini, venustatis incredibilis. tantus candor in 
dentibus ut margaritas earn plerique putarent habere, 

16 noil dentes. vox clara et virilis. severitas, ubi 
iiecessitas postulabat, tyrannorum, bonorum prin- 
cipum dementia, ubi pietas requirebat. larga 
prudenter, conservatrix thesaurorum ultra femineum 

17 modum. usa vehiculo carpentario, raro pilento, equo 
saepius. fertur autem vel tria vel quattuor milia 

18 frequenter cum peditibus ambulasse. venata 2 est 
Hispanorum cupiditate. bibit saepe cum ducibus, 
cum esset alias sobria ; bibit et cum Persis atque 

19 Armeniis, ut eos vinceret. usa est vasis aureis 
gemmatis ad convivia, iam usa 3 Cleopatranis. in 
ministerio eunuchos gravioris aetatis habuit, puellas 

1 uigentibus 2, Peter; ingentibus P. 2 uenata Kiessling, 
Peter ; nata P. 3 So Editor ; conuiuicimusa Pb ; conuiuia 
non nisi Peter ; conuiuia, usa Hohl. 



1 Found in Arabia, according to Pliny, Nat. Hist., xxxvii. 
194, and often of such great size that they were used by eastern 
kings on the frontals of their horses and as ornamental 
pendants. 

J38 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXX. 13-19 

of conception. For when once she had lain with him, 
she would refrain until the time of menstruation to 
see if she were pregnant ; if not, she would again 
grant him an opportunity of begetting children. She 
lived in regal pomp. It was rather in the manner of 
the Persians that she received worship and in the 
manner of the Persian kings that she banqueted ; but 
it was in the manner of a Roman emperor that she 
came forth to public assemblies, wearing a helmet 
and girt with a purple fillet, which had gems hanging 
from the lower edge, while its centre was fastened 
with the jewel called cochlis, 1 used instead of the 
brooch worn by women, and her arms were frequently 
bare. Her face was dark and of a swarthy hue, her 
eyes were black and powerful beyond the usual wont, 
her spirit divinely great, and her beauty incredible. 
So white were her teeth that many thought that she 
had pearls in place of teeth. Her voice was clear 
and like that of a man. Her sternness, when neces- 
sity demanded, was that of a tyrant, her clemency, 
when her sense of right called for it, that of a good 
emperor. Generous with prudence, she conserved 
her treasures beyond the wont of women. She made 
use of a carriage, and rarely of a woman's coach, but 
more often she rode a horse ; it is said, moreover, 
that frequently she walked with her foot-soldiers for 
three or four miles. She hunted with the eagerness 
of a Spaniard. She often drank with her generals, 
though at other times she refrained, and she drank, 
too, with the Persians and the Armenians, but only 
for the purpose of getting the better of them. At 
her banquets she used vessels of gold and jewels, and 
she even used those that had been Cleopatra's. As 
servants she had eunuchs of advanced age and but 

139 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

20 nimis raras. filios Latine loqui iusserat, ita l ut Graece 

21 vel difficile vel raro loquerentur. ipsa Latini ser- 
monis non usque quaque gnara, sed ut loqueretur 
pudore cohibito 2 ; loquebatur et Aegyptiace ad per- 

22 fectum modum. historiae Alexandrinae atque orieii- 
talis ita perita ut earn epitomasse dicatur ; Latinam 
autem Graece legerat. 

23 Cum ilJam Aurelianus cepisset atque in conspectum 
suum adductam sic appellasset, " Quid est, 3 Zenobia ? 
ausa es insultare Romanis imperatoribus ? " ilia dixisse 
fertur : " Imperatorem te esse cognosce, qui vincis, 
Gallienurn et Aureolum et ceteros principes non 
putavi. Victoriam mei similem credens in consortium 
regni venire, si facultas locorum pateretur, optavi." 

24 ducta est igitur per triumphum ea specie ut nihil 
pompabilius populo Romano videretur. iam primum 
ornata gemmis ingeiitibus, ita ut ornamentorum onere 

25 laboraret. fertur enim mulier fortissima saepissime 
restitisse, cum diceret se gemmarum onera ferre non 

26 posse. vincti erant praeterea pedes auro, manus 
etiam catenis aureis, nee collo aureum vinculum 

27 deerat, quod scurra Persicus praeferebat. huic vita 4 
ab Aureliano concessa est, ferturque vixisse cum 
liberis matronae iam more Romanae data sibi posses- 

1 ita Peter; id P. -cohibito Peter; cohibita P, Hohl. 

*est Z", Mommsen, Hohl ; es P corr. ; Peter. *ui tains. 

by Walter and Hohl ; om. in P. 



1 See c. xxxi. a Of. Aur. t xxxiv. 3. 

140 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXX. 20-27 

very few maidens. She ordered her sons to talk 
Latin, so that, in fact, they spoke Greek but rarely 
and with difficulty. She herself was not wholly con- 
versant with the Latin tongue, but nevertheless, 
mastering her timidity she would speak it ; Egyptian, 
on the other hand, she spoke very well. In the 
history of Alexandria and the Orient she was so well 
versed that she even composed an epitome, so it is 
said ; Roman history, however, she read in Greek. 

When Aurelian had taken her prisoner, he caused 
her to be led into his presence and then addressed her 
thus : " Why is it, Zenobia, that you dared to show 
insolence to the emperors of Rome r " To this she 
replied, it is said : " You, I know, are an emperor 
indeed, for you win victories, but Gallienus and 
Aureolus and the others I never regarded as em- 
perors. Believing Victoria l to be a woman like me, 
I desired to become a partner in the royal power, 
should the supply of lands permit." And so she 
was led in triumph with such magnificence that 
the Roman people had never seen a more splendid 
parade. For, in the first place, she was adorned 
with gems so huge that she laboured under the 
weight of her ornaments ; for it is said that this 
woman, courageous though she was, halted very 
frequently, saying that she could not endure the load 
of her gems. Furthermore, her feet were bound 
with shackles of gold and her hands with golden 
fetters, and even on her neck she wore a chain 
of gold, the weight of which was borne by a Persian 
buffoon. 2 Her life was granted her by Aurelian, and 
they say that thereafter she lived with her children 
in the manner of a Roman matron on an estate that 
had been presented to her at Tibur, which even to 

141 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

sione in Tiburti, quae hodieque Zenobia dicitur, noil 
longe ab Hadrian! palatio atque ab eo loco cui nomen 
est Conchae. 

VICTORIA 

XXXI. Non tarn digna res erat ut etiam Vitruvia 
sive Victoria in litteras mitteretur, nisi Gallieni mores 
hoc facerent ut memoria dignae etiam mulieres cen- 

2serentur. Victoria enim, ubi filium ac nepotem a 
militibus vidit occisos, Postumum, deinde Lollianum, 
Marium etiam, quern principem milites nuncupave- 
rant, interemptos, Tetricum, de quo superius dictum 
est, ad imperium hortata est, ut virile semper facinus 
auderet. insignita est praeterea hoc titulo, ut cas- 

Strorum se diceret matrem. cusi sunt eius nummi 
aerei, aurei et argentei, quorum hodieque forma 

4exstat apud Treviros. quae quidem non diutius vixit. 
nam Tetrico imperante, ut plerique loquuntur, occisa, 
ut alii adserunt, fatal! necessitate consumpta. 

5 Haec sunt quae de triginta tyrannis dicenda vide- 
bantur. quos ego in unum volumen idcirco contuli, 
ne, de singulis si 1 singula quaeque narrarem, nasce- 
rentur indigna fastidia et ea quae ferre lector non 

2 si ins. by Peter; om. in P. 



1 See note to Hadr., xxvi. 5. 

2 Frequently mentioned as responsible, after the death of 
her son Victorinus, for the bestowal of the imperial power, first 
on her grandson, then on the various pretenders in Gaul ; see 
c. v. 3 ; vi. 3 ; vii. 1 ; xxiv. 1 ; xxv. 1 ; Aur. Victor, Caes., 
xxxiii. 14. The name Vitruvia, given as an alternate form in 
the Tyranni Triginta and in Claud., iv. 4, seems to have no 
warrant. 

142 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXXI. 2-5 

this day is still called Zenobia, not far from the palace 
of Hadrian l or from that place which bears the name 
of Concha. 

VICTORIA 

XXXI. It would, indeed, be an unworthy thing 
that Vitruvia also, or rather Victoria, 2 should be given 
a place in letters, had not the ways of Gallienus brought 
it about that women, too, should be deemed worthy 
of mention. For Victoria, after seeing her son and 
grandson slain by the soldiers, and also Postumus, 
then Lollianus, and Marius 3 too (whom the soldiers 
had named emperor) all put to death, urged Tetricus, 
of whom I have spoken above, 4 to seize the power, 
solely that she might always be daring the deeds of 
a man. She was distinguished, furthermore, by her 
title, for she called herself Mother of the Camp. 5 
Coins, too, were struck in her name, 6 of bronze and 
gold and silver, and even to-day the type is still in 
existence among the Treviri. 7 She did not, indeed, 
live long ; for during Tetricus' rule she was slain, 
some say, while others assert that she succumbed to 
the destiny of fate. 

This is all that I have deemed worthy of being 
related concerning the thirty pretenders, all of whom 
I have gathered into one book, lest the telling of 
each single detail about each one singly might bring 
about an aversion that is undeserved and not to be 

3 See c. iii. ; v. ; viii. 4 See c. xxiv. 

5 The title Mater Castrorum, first borne by Faustina (see 
Marc., xxvi. 8), was regularly used by the later empresses. 

6 None are known ; see note to c. xxvi. 2. 

7 Their capital was the modern Trier (Augusta Trevirorum). 

148 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

6 posset. mine ad Claudium principem redeo. de 
quo speciale mihi volumen quamvis breve merito vitae 
illius videtur edendum addito fratre singular! viro, ita 
ut de familia tarn sancta et tarn nobili saltern 1 pauca 
referantur. 

7 Studiose in medio feminas posui ad ludibrium 
Gallieni, quo nihil prodigiosius passa est Romana res 
publica, duos etiam nunc tyrannos quasi extra 
numerum, quod alieni essent temporis, additurus, 
unum qui fuit Maximini temporibus, alterum qui 
Claudii, ut tyrannorum triginta vitae 2 hoc volumine 

8 teiierentur. quaeso, qui expletum iam librum ac- 
ceperas, boni consulas atque hos volumini tuo volens 
addas, quos ego, queni ad modum Valentem supe- 
riorem huic volumini, sic post Claudium et Aurelianum 
iis qui inter Taciturn et Diocletianum fuerunt addere 

9 destinaveram. sed errorem meum memor historiae 
lOdiligentia tuae eruditionis avertit. habeo igitur 

gratiam, quod titulum meum prudentiae tuae benig- 

nitas implevit. nemo in Templo Pacis dicturus est 

me feminas inter tyrannos, tyrannas videlicet vel 

tyrannides, ut ipsi de me solent cum risu et ioco 3 

11 iactitare, posuisse. habent integrum numerum ex 

12arcanis historiae in meas litteras datum. Titus enim 

et Censorinus addentur, 4 quorum unus, ut dixi, sub 

l saltim S\ saluti P. - nitae Peter; uiri P, Hohl. 

9 cum risu et ioco transp. by Peter; after tyrannos in P. 
4 addentur sugg. by Peter 2 ; om. in P. 

1 Quintillus ; see Claud., xii. 

2 See c. xx. 

3 Built, with an enclosing forum, by Vespasian, N.E. of the 
Forum Romanum. Adjacent to it was the Bibliotheca Templi 
Pacis, apparently a resort of critics. 

144 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXXT. 6-12 

borne by my readers. Now 1 will return to the 
Emperor Claudius. Concerning him I think I should 
publish a special book, short though it be, for his 
manner of life deserves it, and I must say something, 
besides, about that peerless man, his brother, 1 in order 
that at least a few facts may be told of so righteous 
and noble a family. 

It was with deliberate purpose that I included the 
women, namely that I might make a mock of Gal- 
lienus, a greater monster than whom the Roman 
state has never endured ; now I will add two pre- 
tenders besides, supernumeraries, so to speak, for 
they lived each at a different period, since one was of 
the time of Maximinus, the other of the time of Clau- 
dius, my purpose being to include in this book the 
lives of thirty pretenders. I ask you, accordingly, 
you who have received this book now completed, to 
look on my plan with favour and to consent to add 
to your volume these two, whom I had purposed to 
include after Claudius and Aurelian among those who 
lived between Tacitus and Diocletian, just as I in- 
cluded the elder Valens 2 in this present book. This 
error on my part, however, your accurate learning, 
mindful of history, prevented. And so I am grateful 
that the -kindliness of your wisdom has filled out my 
title. Now no one in the Temple of Peace 3 will say 
that among the pretenders I included women, female 
pretenders, forsooth, or, rather, pretendresses for 
this they are wont to bandy about concerning me 
with merriment and jests. They have now the 
number complete, gathered into my writings from 
the secret stores of history. For I will add to my 
work Titus and Censorinus, the former of whom, as 

145 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

Maximino, alter sub Claudio fuit, qui ambo ab iisdem 
militibus a quibus purpura velati fuerant interempti 
sunt. 

TITUS 

XXXII. Docet Dexippus, nee Herodianus tacet 
omnesque qui talia legenda posteris tradiderunt, 
Titum, tribunum Maurorum, qui a Maximino inter 
privates relictus fuerat, timore violentae mortis, ut 
illi l dicunt, invitum vero et a militibus coactum, 
ut plerique adserunt, imperasse, atque hunc intra 
paucos dies post vindicatam defectionem, quam 
consularis vir Magnus Maximino paraverat, a suis 
militibus interemptum. imperasse autem mensibus 

2 sex. fuit hie vir de primis erga rem publicam 
domi forisque laudabilis, sed in imperio parum 

3 felix. alii dicunt ab Armeniis sagittariis, quos 
Maximinus ut Alexandrinos et oderat et offenderat, 

4 principem factum. nee mireris tantam esse varie- 

5 tatem de homine, cuius vix nomen agnoscitur. huius 
uxor Calpurnia fuit, sancta et venerabilis femina de 
genere Caesoninorum, id est Pisonum, quam maiores 
nostri univiriam sacerdotem inter sacratissimas feminas 

1 alii P, def. by Lenze. 



1 On this " pretender," called Quartinus by Herodian, vii. 1, 
9-10, see Maxim., xi. 1-4 and note. 

2 See note to Alex., xlix. 3. 

3 Herodian, vii. 1, 9. 

4 See Maxim., x. 

5 According to Maxim., xi. 1 and Herodian I.e., they were 
Osroenians. 

6 L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, consul in 148 B.C., be- 
queathed his second surname to his descendants, among whom 
was the consul of 58 B.C., made famous by Cicero's invective, 

146 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXXII. 1-5 

I have said, lived under Maximinus and the latter 
under Claudius, but both were slain by the very 
soldiers who clothed them with the purple. 

TITUS i 

XXXII. It is related by Dexippus 2 and not left 
immentioned by Herodian 3 or any of those who have 
recorded such things for posterity to read, that Titus, 
once a tribune of the Moors but reduced by Maximinus 
to the position of a civilian, fearing a violent death, 
as they narrate, but reluctantly, so most assert, and 
compelled by the soldiers, seized the imperial power. 
But within a few days, after the revolt was put down 
which Magnus, 4 a man of consular rank, led against 
Maximinus, he was slain by his own troops. He 
reigned, however, for the space of six months. He 
was one who especially deserved the praise of the 
commonwealth both at home and abroad, but in 
his ruling he had ill-fortune. Some say, on the 
other hand, that he was made emperor by the 
Armenian 5 bowmen, whom Maximinus hated as 
devoted to Alexander and to whom he had given 
offence. You will not, indeed, wonder that there is 
such diversity of statement about this man, for even 
his name is scarcely known. His wife was Calpurnia, 
a revered and venerated woman of the stock of the 
Caesonini (that is, of the Pisos), 6 to whom our fathers 
did reverence as a priestess married but once and 
among the most holy of women, and whose statue 

but there is no reason for believing tbat tbe family was in 
existence in tbe tbird century, and tbis Calpurnia is probably 
an invention of tbe author's, due to bis desire to ornament his 
work with great names. 

147 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

adorarunt, cuius statuam in Templo Veneris adhuc 

6 vidimus acrolitham sed auratam. haec uniones Cleo- 
patranos habuisse perhibetur, haec lancem centum 
librarum argenti, cuius plerique poetae meminerunt } 
in qua maiorum eius expressa ostenderetur historia. 

7 Longius mihi videor processisse quam res postulabat. 
sed quid faciam ? scientia naturae facilitate verbosa 

8 est. quare ad Censorinum revertar, hominem nobilem 
sed qui non tarn bono quam malo rei publicae septem 
diebus dicitur imperasse. 

CENSORINUS 

XXXIII. Vir plane militaris et antiquae in curia 
dignitatis, bis consul, bis praefectus praetorii, ter 
praefectus urbi, quarto pro coiisule, tertio consularis, 
legatus praetorius secundo, quarto aedilicius, tertio 
quaestorius, extra ordinem quoque legatione Persica 
functus, etiam Sarmatica. 

2 Post omnes tamen honores cum in agro suo degeret 
senex atque uno pede claudicans vulnere, quod bello 
Persico Valeriani temporibus acceperat, factus est 
imperator et scurrarum ioco Claudius appellatus est. 

3 cumque se gravissime gereret neque a militibus ob 
disciplinam censoriam ferri posset, ab iis ipsis a quibus 

4 factus fuerat interemptus est. exstat eius sepulchrum 



1 Despite the imposing array of offices which this " pre- 
tender " is said to have held, no trace of him is found in any 
record of any kind, and, if he existed at all, he was certainly 
not the man of importance that the writer would have ua 
believe. 

2 Apparently a pun on claudus = " lame." 

148 



THIRTY PRETENDERS XXXII. 6 XXXIII. 4 

we have seen still standing in the Temple of Venus, 
its head, hands and feet made of marble but the rest 
of it gilded. She is said to have owned the pearls 
that once belonged to Cleopatra and a silver platter 
weighing a hundred pounds, of which many poets 
have made mention and on which was shown wrought 
in relief the history of her forefathers. 

I seem to have gone on further than the matter 
demanded. But what am I to do ? For knowledge 
is ever wordy through a natural inclination. Where- 
fore I shall now return to Censorinus, a man of noble 
birth, but said to have ruled for seven days not so 
much to the welfare as to the hurt of the state. 



CENSORINUS 1 

XXXIII. He was a soldier, indeed, and a man of 
old-time dignity in the senate-house, having been 
twice consul, twice prefect of the guard, three times 
prefect of the city, four times proconsul, three times 
legate of consular rank, twice of praetorian, four times 
of aedilician, three times of quaestorian, and having 
held the post of envoy extraordinary to the Persians 
and also to the Sarmatians. 

Nevertheless, after all these offices, while living on 
his own estates, now an old man and lame in one foot 
from a wound received in 'the Persian War under 
Valerian, he was created emperor and by a jester's 
witticism given the name of Claudius. 2 But when he 
proceeded to act with the greatest severity and be- 
came intolerable to the soldiers because of his rigid 
discipline, he was put to death by the very men 
who had made him emperor. His tomb is still in 

149 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS 

circa Bononiam, 1 in quo grandibus litteris incisi sunt 
omnes eius honores ; ultimo tamen versu adscriptum 

5 est 2 : " Felix omnia, infelicissimus imperator." exstat 
eius familia, Censorinorum nomine frequentata, cuius 
pars Thracias odio rerum Romanarum, pars Bithyniam 

6 petiit. exstat etiam domus pulcherrima, adiuncta 
Gentibus Flaviis, quae quondam Titi principis fuisse 
perhibentur. 

7 Habes integrum triginta numerum tyrannorum, qui 

8 cum malevolis quidem sed bono animo causabaris. da 
nunc cuivis libellum, non tam diserte quam fideliter 3 
scriptum. neque ego eloquentiam mini videor polli- 
citus esse, sed rem, qui hos libellos, quos de vita 
principum edidi, non scribo sed dicto, et dicto cum ea 
festinatione, quam, si quid vel ipse promisero vel tu 
petieris, sic perurges ut respirandi non habeam 
facultatem. 

1 circa Bononiam transp. by Eyssenhardt, foil, by Peter ; 
after litteris in P. 2 adscriptum est Hohl ; asscri2Jt'nsest Z\ 
adseripext P 1 ; adseri potest P corr., Peter. 3 fideliter 2, 
Peter ; ft-liciter P. 



1 See note to c. xiv. 3. 

2 The Templum Gentis Flaviae, originally the private house 
of Vespasian, was converted into a temple by Domitian (Suet., 
Dotn., i. 1) and was used as the burial-place of the Flavian 



150 



THE THIRTY PRETENDERS XXXIII. 5-8 

existence near Bologna, and on it are inscribed in 
large letters all the honours he had held, but in the 
last line there is added : " Happy in all things, as 
emperor most hapless." His family is still in exist- 
ence, 1 well known by the name of Censorini, some of 
whom, in their hatred of all things Roman, have 
departed to Thrace, and some to Bithynia. His 
house, too, is still in existence, and a most beautiful 
one it is, adjacent to the Flavian House, 2 which is said 
to have once belonged to the Emperor Titus. 

You have now the complete number of the thirty 
tyrants, you who used to dispute with those ill dis- 
posed to me, though always in a kindly spirit. Now 
bestow on any one you wish this little book, written 
not with elegance but with fidelity to truth. Nor, in 
fact, do I seem to myself to have made any promise 
of literary style, but only of facts, for these little 
works which I have composed on the lives of the 
emperors I do not write down but only dictate, and 
I dictate them, indeed, with that speed, which, 
whether I promise aught of my own accord or you 
request it, you urge with such insistence that I have 
not even the opportunity of drawing breath. 

emperors. It stood on the Quirinal Hill close to the modern 
Quattro Fpntane. The term Oentes Flaviae used in the text 
to denote this building is given as Gentem Flaviam in the 
Notitia Regionum and the Curiosum. 



151 



DIVUS CLAUDIUS 

TREBELLII POLLIONIS 

I. Ventum est ad principem Claudium, qui nobis 
intuitu Constant!! Caesaris cum cura in litteras dige- 
rendus est. de quo ego idcirco recusare non potui 
quod alios, tumultuarios videlicet imperatores ac 
regulos, scripseram eo libro quern de triginta tyrannis 
edidi, qui Cleopatranam etiam stirpem Victoriamque l 

2 mine detinet ; si quidem eo res processit ut mulierum 

3 etiam vitas scribi Gallieni comparatio effecerit. neque 
enim fas erat eum tacere principem, qui tantam generis 
sui prolem reliquit, 2 qui bellum Gothicum sua virtute 



1 Victoriamque Peter; Victor ianamgue P, Hohl. 
" reliquit ins. by Salm. foil, by Peter ; om. in P. 



2 



*M. Aurelius Claudius Augustus (268-270). The names 
Flavius (c. vii. 8 ; Aur., xvii. 2) and Valerius (c. xviii. 3) are 
incorrectly given to him by the biographer for the purpose of 
connecting him more closely with Flavius Valerius Constantius 
(Chlorus), his reputed descendant; see note to c. xiii. 2. He 
seems to have been born in Illyricum (c. xi. 9), probably in 
214, and to have served under Gallienus in the wars against 
Postumus (Gall., vii. 1) and against the Goths; see c. vi. 1; 
xviii. 1. For his accession to power and his victory over 
Aureolus, see c. v. 1-3 ; Gail., xiv. 2 f . ; xv. 3 ; Tyr. Trig., 
xi. 4. The biographer omits from this hysterical panegyric all 

152 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

BY 

TREBELLIUS POLLIO 

I. I have now come to the Emperor Claudius, 1 
whose life 1 must set forth in writing with all due 
care, out of respect for Constantius Caesar. I could 
not, indeed, refuse to write of him, inasmuch as I had 
already written of others, emperors created in tumult, 
I mean, and princes of no importance, all in that book 
which I composed about the thirty pretenders and 
which now includes even a descendant of Cleopatra 2 
and a Victoria ; 3 for things had come to such a pass 
that, for the sake of comparison with Gallienus, I was 
forced to write even the lives of women. 4 And, in 
fact, it would not be right to leave unmentioned an 
emperor who left us such a scion of his race, 5 who 
ended the war against the Goths by his own valour, 

mention of his great victory in 268 over the Alamanni, near 
Lake Garda, recorded by Epit., 34, 2 and an inscription in 
which he has the cognomen Germanicus, as well as by his 
coins with the legend Victoria Germanica (Matt.-Syd., v. p. 232, 
nos. 247-250). 

3 i.e., Zenobia ; see Tyr. Trig., xxx. 2. 

See Tyr. Trig., xxxi. 1-4. 4 Cf. Tyr. Trig., xxi. 1. 

'Constantius Ghlorus ; see c. xiii. 2 and note. 

153 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

coiifecit, qui manum publicis cladibus victor imposuit, 
qui Gallienum, prodigiosum imperatorem, etiamsi 
non auctor consilii fuit, tamen ipse imperaturus bono 
generis humani, a gubernaculis publicis depulit, qui, 
si diutius in hac esset commoratus re publica, Sci- 
piones nobis l et Camillos omnesque illos veteres suis 
viribus, suis consiliis, sua providentia reddidisset 

II. Breve illius, negare 2 non possum, in impeno fuit 
tempus, sed breve fuisset, etiamsi quantum hominum 
vita suppetit, tantum vir talis imperare potuisset. 

2 quid enim in illo non mirabile ? quid lion con- 
spicuum ? quid non triumphalibus vetustissimis prae- 

3 ferendum ? in quo Traiani virtus, Antonini pietas, 
Augusti moderatio, et magnorum principum bona sic 
fuerunt, ut non ille 3 ab aliis exemplum caperet, sed, 
etiamsi illi non fuissent, hie ceteris reliquisset ex- 

4 emplum. doctissimi mathematicorum centum viginti 
annos homini ad vivendum datos iudicant neque 
amplius cuiquam iactitant esse concessos, etiam illud 
addentes Mosen solum, dei, ut ludaeorum libri lo- 
quuntur, familiarem, centum viginti quinque annos 
vixisse ; qui cum quereretur quod iuvenis interiret, 
responsum ei ab incerto ferunt numine neminem plus 

6 esse victurum. quare etiamsi centum et viginti quinque 
annos Claudius vixisset, ne necessarian! quidem mortem 
eius exspectandam fuisse, ut Tullius de Scipione 

1 nobis Salin. ; bonis P. . 2 negare Eyssenhardt, Peter ; 
genere P, 27. 3 ille Salm. ; nihil P, Z. 



1 See note to Gall., xiv. 1. 

2 Usually applied to Abraham ; but cf. Exodus, xxxiii. 11 and 
EcclesiasticuSt xliv. 1. 

3 120 years, according to Deuteronomy, xxxiv. 11. 

4 Cicero, pro Milone, 16, of the younger Scipio Africanus. 

154 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS II. 1-5 

who as victor laid a healing hand upon the public 
miseries, who, though not the contriver of the plan, 1 
nevertheless thrust Gallienus, that monstrous emperor, 
from the helm of the state, himself destined to rule 
for the good of the human race, who, finally, had he 
but tarried longer in this commonwealth, would by 
his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have re- 
stored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those 
men of old. 

II. Short, indeed, was the time of his rule I can- 
not deny it but too short would it have been, could 
such a man as he have ruled even as long as human 
life may last. For what was there in him that was 
not admirable ? that was not pre-eminent ? that was 
not superior to the triumphant generals of remote 
antiquity ? The valour of Trajan, the righteousness 
of Antoninus, the self-restraint of Augustus, and the 
good qualities of all the great emperors, all these 
were his to such a degree that he did not merely take 
others as examples, but, even if these others had 
never existed, he himself would have left an example 
to all who came after. Now the most learned of the 
astrologers hold that one hundred and twenty years 
have been allotted to man for living and assert that 
no one has ever been granted a longer span ; they 
even tell, us that Moses alone, the friend of God, 2 
as he is called in the books of the Jews, lived for one 
hundred and twenty-five years, 3 and that when he 
complained that he was dying in his prime, he re- 
ceived from an unknown god, so they say, the reply 
that no one should ever live longer. But even if 
Claudius had lived for one hundred and twenty-five 
years as his life, so marvellous and admirable, shows 
us we need not, as Tullius says of Scipio, 4 have 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

6 loquitur, 1 stupenda et mirabilis docet vita, quid enim 
magnum vir ille domi forisque non habuit ? amavit 
parentes ; quid mirum ? amavit et fratres ; iam potest 2 
dignum esse miraculo. amavit propinquos ; res nostris 
temporibus comparanda miraculo. invidit nulli, malos 

7persecutus est. fures iudices palam aperteque dam- 
navit ; stultis quasi neglegenter indulsit. leges 

8 optim/> s dedit. talis in re publica fuit, ut eius stirpem 
ad imperium summi principes eligerent, emendatior 
senatus optaret. 

III. In gratiam me quispiam p utet Constantii Caesaris 
loqu', sed testis est et tua conscientia et vita mea me 
nihil umquam cogitasse, dixisse, fecisse gratiosum. 

2Claudium principem loquor, cuius vita, probitas, et 
omnia quae in re publica gessit tantam posteris famam 
dedere ut senatus populusque Romanus novis eum 

3 honoribus post mortem adfecerit : illi clipeus aureus, 
vel, ut grammatici loquuntur, clipeum aureum, senatus 
totius iudicio in Romana Curia conlocatum est, et 
etiam nunc videtur expresso 3 thorace vultus eius. 

4 illi, quod nulli antea, populus Romanus sumptu suo 
in Capitolio ante lovis Optimi Maximi Templum 

6 statuam auream decem pedum conlocavit. illi totius 
orbis iudicio in Rostris posita est columna palmata 

1 So Gas. foil, by Peter ; sic loquitur pro Milone P. 
8 potest 27; post P. * expresso Salm. ; expressa P, Peter, 

Hohl. 



1 The author protests frequently and in vain against the 
imputation of flattery ; see c. vi. 5 ; viii. 2 ; xi. 5. 

2 See note to Pius, v. 2. 

3 As a matter of fact, the masculine form is the more 
common. 

156 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS II. 6 III. 5 

expected for him even a natural death. For what 
great quality did not that man exhibit both at home 
and abroad ? He loved his parents ; what wonder in 
that ? He loved also his brothers ; that, indeed, may 
seem worthy of wonder. He loved his kinsmen ; 
and that, in these times of ours, may well be com- 
pared to a wonder. He envied none, but he punished 
evil-doers. Judges guilty of theft he condemned 
openly and in public ; but to the stupid he extended 
a sort of careless indulgence. He enacted most excel- 
lent laws. Indeed, so great a man did he show 
himself in public affairs, that the greatest princes 
chose a descendant of his to hold the imperial power, 
and a bettered senate desired him. 

III. Some one perhaps may believe that I am speak- 
ing thus to win the favour of Constant! us Caesar, but 
your sense of justice and my own past life will bear 
me witness that never have I thought or said or done 
anything to curry favour. 1 I am speaking of the 
Emperor Claudius, whose manner of life, whose up- 
rightness, and whose whole career in the state have 

~ 

brought him such fame among later generations that 
after his death the senate and people of Rome be- 
stowed on him unprecedented rewards : in his honour 
there was set up in the Senate-house at Rome, by 
desire of the entire senate, a golden c/ipeus 2 or 
clipeum, as the grammarians say 3 and even at the 
present time his likeness may be seen in the bust that 
stands out in relief; in his honour and to none 
before him the Roman people at their own expense 
erected a golden statue ten feet high on the Capitol 
in front of the Temple of Jupiter, Best and Greatest ; 
in his honour by action of the entire world there was 
placed on the Rostra a column bearing a silver statue 

157 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

statua superfixa librarum argenti mille quingeniarum. 

6ille, velut futurorum memor, Gentes Flavias, quae 
Vespasian! quoque 1 et Titi, nolo autem dicere Domi- 
tiani, fuerant, propagavit. ille bellum Gothicum brevi 

7tempore implevit. adulator igitur senatus, adulator 
populus Romanus, adulatrices exterae gentes, adula- 
trices provinciae, si quidem omnes ordhies, omnis 
aetas, omnis civitas statuis, vexillis, coronis, fanis, 
arcubus, aris ac templis 2 bonum principem hono- 
raverit. 

IV. Interest et eorum qui bonos imitantur principes 
et totius orbis humani cognoscere quae de illo viro 
senatus consulta sint condita, ut omnes iudicium pub- 

2licae mentis adnoscant. nam cum esset nuntiatum 
IX kal. Aprilis ipso in Sacrario Matris sanguinis die 
Claudium imperatorem factum, neque cogi senatus 
sacrorum celebrandorum causa posset, sumptis togis 
itum est ad Apollinis Templum, ac lectis litteris 

3 Claudi? principis haec in Claudium dicta sunt : " Au- 
guste Claudi, di te praestent," dictum sexagies. 
"Claudi Auguste, te principem aut qualis tu es 
semper optavimus," dictum quadragies. "Claudi 

1 Vespasiani quoque 2, Hohl ; om. in P. 2 aris ac 

transp. by Klotz ; after principem in P, Peter. 



1 See note to Gord., iv. 4. 

a See note to Tyr. Trig., xxxiii. 6. 

8 See c. vi.-xi. 

4 The date is incorrect, for Gallienus was killed probably in 
July ; see note to Gall., xiv. 1. 

5 March 24 was the second day of the great four-day festival 
held in honour of the Magna Mater, whose temple stood on the 
Palatine Hill. Originally the day of the castration of the Galli, 

158 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS III. 6 IV. 3 

arrayed in the palm- embroidered tunic 1 and weigh- 
ing fifteen hundred pounds. It was he who, as 
though mindful of the future, enlarged the Flavian 
House, 2 which had also belonged to Vespasian and 
Titus, and I say it reluctantly of Domitian as well. 
It was he who, in a brief space of time, put an end 
to the war against the Goths. 3 Therefore the senate 
and people of Rome, foreign nations and provinces, 
too, must all be his flatterers, for indeed all ranks, all 
ages, and all communities have honoured this noble 
emperor with statues, banners, and crowns, shrines 
and arches, altars and temples. 

IV. It will be of interest, both to those who imitate 
righteous princes and to the whole world of mankind 
as well, to learn the decrees of the senate that were 
passed about this man, in order that all may know 
the official opinion concerning him. For when it was 
announced in the shrine of the Great Mother on the 
ninth day before the Kalends of April, 4 the day of 
the shedding of blood, 5 that Claudius had been 
created emperor, the senators could not be held to- 
gether for performing the sacred rites, but donning 
their togas they set forth to the Temple of Apollo, 6 
and there, when the letter of the Emperor Claudius 
was read, the following acclamations were shouted in 
his honour 7 : " Claudius Augustus, may the gods pre- 
serve you !" said sixty times. " Claudius Augustus, 
you or such as you we have ever desired for our 
emperor," said forty times. " Claudius Augustus, the 

or priests of the goddess, it was later the occasion of a ceremony 
in which the Archigallus cut his arm and so shed blood 
symbolically. 

6 The great temple on the Palatine Hill, built by Augustus. 

7 See note to Val., v. 4. 

159 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

Auguste, te res publica requirebat/' dictum quad- 
ragies. ft Claudi Auguste, tu frater, tu pater, tu 
amicus, tu bonus senator, tu vere princeps," dictum 

4octogies. "Claudi Auguste, tu nos ab Aureolo vin- 
dica," dictum quinquies. "Claudi Auguste, tu nos a 
Palmyrenis vindica," dictum quinquies. " Claudi Au- 
guste, tu nos a Zenobia et a Vitruvia libera," dictum 
septies. " Claudi Auguste, Tetricus iiihil fecit," 
dictum septies. 

V. Qui primum ut factus est imperator, Aureolum, 
qui gravior rei publicae fuerat, quod Gallieno multum 
placebat, conflictu habito a rei publicae gubernaculis 
depulit tyrannumque missis ad populum edictis, datis 

2 etiam ad senatum orationibus, iudicavit. his accedit 
quod rogantem Aureolum et foedus petentem impera- 
tor gravis et serius non audivit, response tali re- 
pudiatum : " Haec a Gallieno petenda fuerant ; qui 

Sconsentiret moribus, poterat et timere." denique 
iudicio suorum militum apud Mediolanum Aureolus 
dignum exitum vita ac moribus suis habuit. et hunc 
tamen quidam historici laudare conati sunt, et ridicule 

4 quidem. nam Gallus Antipater, ancilla honorum et his- 
toricorum dehonestamentum, principium de Aureolo 
habuit: " Venimus ad imperatorem nominis sui." 

5 magiia videlicet virtus ab auro nomen accipere. at 
ego scio saepius inter gladiatores bonis propugnatori- 



1 See T ; >/r. Trig., xi. 2 Otherwise unknown. 

3 Probably imitated from Sallust (Historiae i. frg. 55, 22) : 
ancilla liirpis, bonornm omnium deJionestamentum. 

ifio 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS IV. 4 V. 5 

state was in need of you," said forty times. " Claudius 
Augustus, you are brother, father, friend, righteous 
senator, and truly prince," said eighty times. 
" Claudius Augustus, deliver us from Aureolus," said 
five times. " Claudius Augustus, deliver us from the 
men of Palmyra," said five times. "Claudius 
Augustus, set us free from Zenobia and from Vrt- 
ruvia," said seven times. " Claudius Augustus, 
nothing has Tetricus accomplished," said seven 
times. 

V. As soon as he was made emperor, entering 
into battle against Aureolus, 1 who was the more 
dangerous to the commonwealth because he had 
found great favour with Gallienus, he thrust him 
from the helm of the state ; then he pronounced him 
a pretender, sending proclamations to the people and 
also despatching messages to the senate. It must be 
told in addition that when Aureolus pleaded with him 
and sought to make terms, this stern and unbending 
emperor refused to hearken, but rejected him with 
a reply as follows : " This should have been sought 
from Gallienus ; for his character was like your own, 
he, too, could feel fear." Finally, near Milan, by the 
judgement of his own soldiers Aureolus met with an 
end worthy of his life and character. And yet certain 
historians have tried to praise him, though indeed 
most absurdly. For Gallus Antipater, 2 the hand- 
maiden of honours and the dishonour of historians, 3 
composed a preface about Aureolus, beginning as 
follows : " We have now come to an emperor who 
resembled his own name." Great virtue, forsooth, to 
get one's name from gold ! I, however, know well 
that among gladiators this name has often been given 
to courageous fighters. Indeed, only recently your 

161 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

bus hoc nomen adpositum. habuit proxime tuus libel- 
lus munerarius hoc nomen in indice ludiorum. 

VI. Sed redeamus ad Claudium. nam, ut superius 
diximus, 1 illi Gothi, qui evaserant eo tempore quo illcs 
Marcianus est persecutus, quosque Claudius emitti 
non siverat, ne id 2 fieret quod effectum est, omnes 
gentes suorum ad Romanas incitaverunt praedas. 

2denique Scytharum diversi populi, Peucini, Greu- 
thungi, Austrogothi, Tervingi, Visi, 3 Gepedes, Celtae 
etiam et Eruli, praedae cupiditate in Romanura solum 
inruperunt 4 atque illic pleraque vastarunt, dum aliis 
occupatus est Claudius dumque se ad id bellum quod 
confecit imperatorie instruit, ut videantur fata Romana 

3boni principis occupatione lentata, sed credo, ut 
Claudii gloria adcresceret eiusque fieret gloriosior toto 

4penitus orbe victoria, armatarum denique gentium 

6 trecenta viginti milia tune fuere. dicat nunc qui nos 
adulationis accusat Claudium minus esse amabilem. 
armatorum trecenta viginti milia. quis tandem 

1 So Gruter, foil, by Peter ; diximus triginta P. 2 id Peter, 
quid P. 5 Names corr. by Muellenhoff; virtingui sigypedes P. 
4 inruperunt Peter, Hohl ; in tep. uenerunt P. 



1 See Gall., vi. 1 ; xiii. 10 and notes. 

z i.e., under Gallienus; see note to c. i. 1. 

3 Cc. vi.-xi. describe the great Gothic invasion of 269-270, the 
most important event of Claudius' reign. The account, padded 
with fabricated letters and rhetorical questions, is hopelessly 
inadequate. A fuller description is given by Zosimus, i. 42-43 ; 
45. The East and West Gothic tribes, Greuthungi-Austrogothi 
and Tervingi-Visi (the author has made four out of two), and 
the Gepidae, led, apparently, by the Eruli (see Gall. xiii. 6-10) 

Iffc 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS VI. 1-5 

own announcement of games contained in the list of 
the combatants this very name. 

VI. But let us return to Claudius. For, as we have 
said before, those Goths who had escaped when 
Marcianus chastised them 1 and those whom Claudius, 
hoping to prevent what actually came to pass, had not 
allowed to break forth, 2 fired all the tribes of their 
fellow-countrymen with the hope of Roman booty. 3 
Finally, the various tribes of the Scythians, the 
Peucini, Greuthungi, Austrogothi, Tervingi, Visi, and 
Gepedes, and also the Celts and the Eruli, in their 
desire for plunder burst into Roman territory and 
there proceeded to ravage many districts ; for mean- 
while Claudius was busied with other things and was 
making preparation, like a true commander, for that 
war which he finally brought to an end ; and so it 
may seem that the destiny of Rome was retarded by 
the diligence of an excellent prince, but I, for my 
part, believe that it so came to pass in order that the 
glory of Claudius might be enhanced and his victory 
have a greater renown throughout the whole world. 
There were then, in fact, three hundred and twenty 
thousand men of these tribes under arms. Now let 
him who accuses us of flattery 4 say that Claudius was 
not worthy of being beloved ! Three hundred and 

and accompanied by some of the Peucini from the mouth of the 
Danube invaded Thrace and Macedonia and the Propontis by 
land and sea. After a vain attempt to take Byzantium and 
Cyzicus they laid siege to Thessalouica and Cassandrea but 
were called away by the arrival of Claudius, who completely 
defeated and scattered their forces at Naissus (modern Nish in 
Jugoslavia). The figures of 320,000 men ( 4) and 2000 ships 
(c. viii. 1) are, of course, gross exaggerations, like the number 
of Germans in Prob. t xiii. 7. 
4 See c. iii. 1 and note. 

163 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

Xerxes hoc habuit ? quae fabella istum numerum ad- 
finxit ? quis poeta composuit ? trecenta viginti milia 

6armatorum fuerunt. adde servos, adde familias, adde 
carraginem et epotata flumina consumptasque silvas, 
laborasse denique terram ipsam, quae tantum barbaric! 
tumoris excepit. 

VII. Exstat ipsius epistula missa ad senatum le- 
geiida ad populum, qua indicat de numero bar- 
barorum, quae tails est : 

2 "Senatui populoque Romano Claudius priiiceps." 
(hanc autem ipse dictasse perhibetur, ego verba 

Smagistri memoriae non require.) " Patres conscripti, 
mirantes 1 audite quod verum est. trecenta viginti 
milia barbarorum in Romanum solum armati venerunt. 
haec si vicero, vos vicem reddite meritis ; si non vicero, 

4scitote me post Gallienum velle pugnare. fatigata 
est tota res publica. pugnamus post Valerianum, post 
Ingenuum, post Regalianum, post Lollianum, post 
Postumum, post Celsum, post mille alios, qui con- 

Stemptu mali 2 principis a re publica defecerunt. non 
scuta, non spathae, non pila iam supersunt. Gallias 
et Hispanias, vires rei publicae, Tetricus tenet, et 
omnes sagittarios, quod pudet dicere, Zenobia possi- 
det. quidquid fecerimus satis grande est." 

6 Hos igitur Claudius ingenita ilia virtute superavit, 
hos brevi tempore adtrivit, de bis vix aliquos ad 

1 mirantes Obreoht, Peter; militantes P. ' 2 mali v. 

Wintorfeld ; olio P; Gallieni Egnatius, foil, by Peter arid 
Hohl. 



1 According to Herodotus, vii. 60 and 87, Xerxes brought 
across the Hellespont 1,700,000 foot and 80,000 horse; these 
figures are ceita ; nly greatly exaggerated. 

-See Pesc. Nig., vii. 4 and note. 

164 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS VI. 6 VII. 6 

twenty thousand armed men ! What Xerxes, 1 pray, 
had so many ? What tale has ever imagined, what 
poet ever conceived such a number ? There were 
three hundred and twenty thousand armed men ! 
Add to these their slaves, add also their families, 
their waggon -trains, too, consider the streams they 
drank dry and the forests they burned, and, finally, 
the labour of the earth itself which carried such a 
swollen mass of barbarians ! 

VII. There is still in existence a letter of his, sent 
to the senate to be read before the people, in which 
he tells the number of the barbarians. It is as follows : 
" From the Emperor Claudius to the senate and people 
of Rome." (This letter, it is said, he dictated himself, 
and I will not demand the version of the secretary of 
memoranda. 2 ) " Conscript Fathers, you will hear with 
wonder what is only the truth. Three hundred and 
twenty thousand barbarians have come in arms into 
Roman territory. If I defeat them, do you requite 
my services; if I fail to defeat them, reflect that I 
am striving to fight after Gallienus' reign. The whole 
commonwealth is exhausted. We are fighting now 
after Valerian, after Ingenuus, after Regalianus, after 
Lollianus, after Postumus, after Celsus, and after a 
thousand others, who, in their contempt for an evil 
prince, revolted against the commonwealth. No 
shields, no swords, no spears are left to us now. The 
provinces of Gaul and Spain, the sources of strength 
for the state, are held by Tetricus, and all the bow- 
men I blush to say it Zenobia now possesses. Any- 
thing we accomplish will be achievement enough." 

These barbarians, then, Claudius overcame by his 
own inborn valour and crushed in a brief space of 
time, suffering scarcely any to return to their native 

165 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

patrium solum redire permisit. rogo, quantum pre- 
tium est clipeus in Curia tantae victoriae ? quantum 

7 una aurea statua ? dicit Ennius de Scipione : " Quan- 
tam statuam faciet populus Romanus, quantam colum- 

8 nam, quae res tuas gestas loquatur ? " possumus dicere 
Flavium Claudium, unicum in terris principem, non 
columnis, non statuis sed famae viribus adiuvari. 

VIII. Habuerunt praeterea duo milia navium, du- 
plicem scilicet numerum quam ilium quo tota pariter 
Graecia omnisque Thessalia urbes Asiae quondam ex- 
pugnare conata est. sed illud poeticus stilus fingit, 

2 hoc vera continet historia. Claudio igitur scriptores 
adulamur, qui duo milia navium barbararum et tre- 
centa viginti milia armatorum delevit, oppressit, ad- 
trivit, qui carraginem tantam, quantam numerus hie 
armatorum sibimet aptare potuit et parare, nunc in- 
cendi fecit, nunc cum omnibus familiis Romano ser- 

Svitio deputavit. ut docetur eiusdem epistula, quam 
ad lunium Brocchum scripsit Illyricum tuentem : 

4 " Claudius Broccho. delevimus trecenta viginti 

5 milia Gothorum, duo milia navium mersimus. tecta 
sunt flumina scutis, spathis et lanceolis omnia litora 
operiuntur. campi ossibus latent tecti, nullum iter 

epurum est, ingens carrago deserta est. tantum muli- 

erum cepimus ut binas et ternas mulieres victor sibi 

IX. miles possit adiungere. et utinam Gallienum non esset 

passa res publica ! utinam sescentos tyrannos non 

1 See c. iii. 3. 

2 Evidently from Ennius' Scipio, a poem eulogizing the elder 
Africanus. These two lines are unmetrical and are plainly an 
inexact quotation. 

3 See note to c. i. 1. 

4 The thousand ships of the Greeks in the war against Troy. 
But see note to c. vi. 1. 

8 See c. iii. 1 and note. "Otherwise unknown. 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS VII. 7 IX. 1 

soil. What reward for such a victory, I ask you, is a 
shield x in the Senate-house ? What reward is one 
golden statue ? Of Scipio Ennius wrote 2 : " What 
manner of statue, what manner of column shall the 
Roman people make, to tell of your deeds ? ' : We 
can say with truth that Flavius 3 Claudius, an emperor 
without peer upon earth, is raised to eminence not by 
any columns or statues but by the power of fame. 

VIII. They had, furthermore, two thousand ships, 
twice as many, that is, as the number with which all 
Greece and all Thessaly together once sought to 
conquer the cities of Asia. 4 This number, however, 
was devised by the pen of a poet, while ours is found 
in truthful history. And so do we writers flatter 
Claudius ! 5 the man by whom two thousand barbarian 
ships and three hundred and twenty thousand armed 
men were crushed, destroyed and blotted out, and by 
whom a waggon-train, as great as this host of armed 
men could fit out and make ready, was in part con- 
signed to the flames and in part delivered over, along 
with the families of all, to Roman servitude. This is 
shown by the following letter of his, written to Junius 
Brocchus, 6 then in command of Illyricum : 

" From Claudius to Brocchus. We have destroyed 
three hundred and twenty thousand Goths, we have 
sunk two thousand ships. The rivers are covered 
over with their shields, all the banks are buried under 
their swords and their spears. The fields are hidden 
beneath their bones, no road is clear, their mighty 
waggon-train has been abandoned. We have cap- 
tured so many women that the victorious soldiers can 
take for themselves two or three apiece. IX. And 
would that the commonwealth had not had to endure 
Gallienus ! Would that it had not had to bear six 

167 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

pertulisset ! salvis militibus, quos varia proelia sustu- 
lerunt, salvis legionibus quas Gallienus male victor 

2 occidit, quantum esset additum rei publicae ! si qui- 
dem nunc membra l naufragii publici colligit nostra 
diligentia ad Romanae rei publicae salutem." 2 

Pugnatum est enim apud Moesos, et multa proalia 

4fuerunt apud Marcianopolim. multi naufragio perie- 
runt, plerique capti reges, captae diversarum gentium 
nobiles feminae, impletae barbaris servis Scythicisque 3 
cultoribus Romanae provinciae. factus limitis 4 bar- 

5 bari colonus e Gotho. nee ulla fuit regio quae Gothum 

6 servum triumphali quodam servitio non haberet. quid 
bourn barbarorum nostri videre maiores ? quid ovium ? 
quid equarum, quas fama nobilitat, Celticarum ? hoc 
totum ad Claudii gloriam pertinet. Claudius et secu- 
ritate rem publicam et opulentiae nimietate donavit. 

7pugnatum praeterea est apud Byzantios, ipsis qui 

8 superfuerant 5 Byzantinis fortiter facientibus. pugna- 
tum apud Thessalonicenses, quos Claudio absente ob- 

9 sederant barbari. pugnatum in diversis regionibus, et 
ubique auspiciis CLiudianis victi sunt Gothi, prorsus 
ut iam tune Constantio Caesari nepoti future videretur 
Claudius securam parare rem publicam. 

1 membra Damste, Thomell ; uerba P, 27, Peter; reliqua 
Gas., Hohl. '* salutem in=. by Hohl ; om. in P ; lacuna 

assumed by Peter, c. ix. 1-2 incl. in letter of Claudius by 
Thornell and Hohl; letter ended in c. viii. 6 by Peter. 

s Scythicisqiie Gloss foil, by Peter and Hohl; senibusque 
P, 27. 4 limit is Peter ; miles P, 27. s superfuerant 27, 

Peter ; su}>erius f iterant P. 



1 An allusion to Gallienus' victories over the Goths and 
Aureolus ; see Gall., xiii. 6 and xiv. 1 and notes. 

2 The capital of the province of Moesia, now Preslav near 
Devna in eastern Bulgaria, founded by Trajan and named for 

168 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS IX. j>-y 

hundred pretenders! Had but those soldiers been 
saved who fell in divers battles, those legions saved 
which Gallienus destroyed, disastrously victorious, 1 
how much strength would the state have gained ! 
Now, indeed, my diligence has but gathered together 
for the preservation of the Roman commonwealth the 
scattered remains of the shipwrecked state." 

For there was fighting in Moesia and there were 
many battles near Marcianopolis. 2 Many perished 
by shipwreck, many kings were captured, noble 
women of divers tribes taken prisoner, and the Roman 
provinces filled with barbarian slaves and Scythian 
husbandmen. 3 The Goth was made the tiller of the 
barbarian frontier, nor was there a single district which 
did not have Gothic slaves in triumphant servitude. 
How many cattle taxen from the barbarians did our 
forefathers see ? How many sheep ? How many 
Celtic mares, which fame has rendered renowned ? 
All these redound to the glory of Claudius. For 
Claudius gave the state both security and an abun- 
dance of riches. There was fighting, besides, at 
Byzantium, 4 for those Byzantines who survived acted 
with courage. There was fighting at Thessalonica, 
to which the barbarians had laid siege while Claudius 
was far away. There was fighting in divers places, 
and in all of them, under the auspices of Claudius, the 
Goths were defeated, so that even then he seemed 
to be making the commonwealth safe in days to come 
for his nephew Constantius Caesar. 5 

his sister Marciana. It was unsuccessfully attacked by the 
Goths on their southward march. 

3 Underlying the rhetoric is the fact, related in Zosimus i. 
46, that many of the Goths who survived the battle were settled 
as farmers in Roman territory. 

4 See note to c. vi. 1. 5 See note to c. xiii. 2. 

169 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

X. Et bene venit in mentera, expriraenda est sors 
quae Claudio data esse perhibetur Comagenis, ut in- 
tellegant omnes genus Claudii ad felicitatem rei 

2 publicae divinitus constitutum. nam cum consuleret 
factus imperator quamdiu imperaturus esset, sors 
tails emersit : 

3 " Tu, qui nunc patrias gubernas oras 
et mundum regis, arbiter deorum, 
tu vinces l veteres tuis novellis ; 
regnabunt etenim tui 2 minores 

et reges facient suos minores." 

4 item cum in Appennino de se consuleret, responsum 
huius modi accepit : 

"Tertia dum Latio regnantem viderit aestas." 

5 item cum de posteris suis : 

" His ego nee metas rerum nee tempora ponam." 

6 item cum de fratre Quintillo, quern consortem habere 
volebat imperii, responsum est : 

" Ostendeiit terris hunc tantum fata." 

7 quae idcirco posui ut sit omnibus clarum Constantium, 
divini generis virum, sanctissimum Caesarem, et 
Augustae ipsum familiae esse et Augustos multos de 
se daturum, salvis Diocletiano et Maximiano Augustis 
et eius fratre Galerio. 

1 tu uinces Salm. ; in P, 27. a tui om. in P. 



1 Mod. Tulln on the Danube, about 20 m. N.W. of Vienna. 
2 Cf. Alex., iv. 6 and note and Firm., iii. 4. 
s Aeneid, i. 265. 4 Aeneid, i. 278. s See c. xii. 

tAetteid, vi. 669 ; quoted also in Ael. t iv. 1 and Gard., xx. 5. 

170 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS X. 1-7 

X. It has fortunately come into my mind, and so 
I must relate the oracle given to Claudius in Coma- 
gena, 1 so it is said, in order that all may know that 
the family of Claudius was divinely appointed to bring 
happiness to the state. For when he inquired, after 
being made emperor, how long he was destined to 
rule, there came forth the following oracle 2 : 

" Thou, who dost now direct thy fathers' empire, 
Who dost govern the world, the gods' vicegerent, 
Shalt surpass men of old in thy descendants ; 
For those children of thine shall rule as monarchs, 
And make their children into monarchs also." 

Similarly, when once in the Apennines he asked about 
his future, he received the following reply : 

"Three times only shall summer behold him a ruler 

in Latium 3 ." 

Likewise, when he asked about his descendants : 

" Neither a goal nor a limit of time will I set for their 

power 4 ." 

Likewise, when he asked about his brother Quiiitillus, 5 
whom he was planning to make his associate in the 
imperial power, the reply was : 

" Him shall Fate but display to the earth. 6 ' 

These oracles I have included, in order that it may be 
clear to all that Constantius, scion of a family divinely 
appointed, our most venerated Caesar, himself springs 
from a house of Augusti and will give us, likewise, 
many Augusti of his own with all safety to the 
Augusti Diocletian and Maximian and his brother 
Galerius. 

171 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

XI. Sed dum haec a divo Claudio aguntur, Palmy- 
reni ducibus Saba et Timagene contra Aegyptios 
bellum suniunt atque ab his Aegyptia pervicacia et 
2indefessa pugnandi continuatione vincuntur. dux 
tamen Aegyptiorum Probatus Timagenis insidiis 
interemptus est. Aegyptii vero omnes se Romano 
imperatori dederunt in absentis Claudii verba iurantes. 

3 Antiochiano l et Orfito consulibus auspicia Claudiana 
favor divinus adiuvit. nam cum se Haemimontum 
multitude barbararum gentium, quae superfueraiit, 
contulisset, illic ita fame ac pestilentia laboravit ut 

4 iam Claudius dedignaretur et vincere. denique finitum 
est asperrimum bellum, terroresque Romani nominis 
sunt depulsi. 

5 Vera dici fides cogit, simul ut sciant ii qui adulatores 
nos aestimari cupiunt, id quod historia dici postulat 

6nos 2 non tacere : eo tempore, quo parta est plena 
victoria, plerique milites Claudii secundis rebus elati, 
quae "sapientium quoque animos fatigant," ita in 
praedam versi sunt ut non cogitarent a paucissimis se 

1 Atticiano P, Peter. 2 nos ins. by Hohl ; om. in P and 

by Peter. 



1 According to the better account in Zosimus i. 44, Septimius 
Zabdas (Saba), tbe general of Zenobia (see also Anr. t xxv. 3), 
aided by the Egyptian Timagenes conquered Egypt and left 
a garrison in it. Probatus (or Probus), Claudius' admiral, aided 
by some of the Egyptians, drove out the Palmyrenes, but he was 
later caught in a trap by Timagenes and his army was destroyed. 
He committed suicide after being captured, and Egypt remained 
in the possession of the Palmyrenes. The statement in 2 that 
Egypt submitted to Claudius seems to be the usual fabrication 
for the purpose of eulogy. 

2 In this name the biographer is anticipating, for Haemi- 
montum was the name of one of the six provinces into which 

172 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS XI. 1-6 

XI. While these things were being done by the 
Deified Claudius, the Palmyrenes, under the generals 
Saba and Timagenes, made war against the Egyptians, 1 
who defeated them with true Egyptian pertinacity 
and unwearied continuance in fighting. Probatus, 
nevertheless, the leader of the Egyptians, was killed 
by a trick of Timagenes'. All the Egyptians, how- 
ever, submitted to the Roman emperor, swearing 
allegiance to Claudius although he was absent. 

In the consulship of Antiochianus and Orfitus the 270 
favour of heaven furthered Claudius' success. For 
a great multitude, the survivors of the barbarian tribes, 
who had gathered in Haemimontum, 2 were so stricken 
with famine and pestilence that Claudius now scorned 
to conquer them further. And so at length that most 
cruel of wars was brought to an end, and the Roman 
nation was freed from its terrors. 3 

Now good faith forces me to speak the truth, and 
also the desire of showing to those who wish me to 
appear as a flatterer 4 that I am not concealing what 
history demands should be told : namely, that at the 
time when the victory was won in full, a number of 
Claudius' soldiers, puffed up with success which 
" weakens the minds of even the wise " 5 turned to 
plundering ; for they did not reflect that, while busied 

Diocletian divided the diocese of Thrace. Zosimus (i. 45) gives 
the scene more correctly as Mt. Haemus, i.e., the Balkan Range. 

3 The victory was commemorated by Claudius' assumption of 
the cognomen Gothicus, which appears in an inscription and on 
the coins issued after his death with the legend Divo Clandio 
Gothico (Matt.-Syd., v. p. 234, nos. 263-265) ; it was also com- 
memorated by an issue of coins with the legend Victoriaa 
Gothicae ; see ibid., pp. 232-233, nos. 251-252. 

4 See note to c. iii. 1. 

5 A quotation from Sallust, Catilina, xi. 7. 

173 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

posse fugari, 1 dum occupati animo atque corporibus 

7 avertendis praedis 2 inserviunt. denique in ipsa 
victoria prope duo milia railitum a paucis barbaris et 

8 iis qui fugerant interempta sunt. sed ubi hoc com- 
perit Claudius, omnes qui rebelles animos extulerant 
conducto exercitu rapit atque in vincula Romam etiam 
mittit ludo publico deputandos. ita id, quod vel 
fortuna vel miles egerat, virtute boni principis 
antiquatum est. nee sola de hoste victoria, sed etiam 

9 vindicta praesumpta est. in quo bello, quoad 3 gestum 
est, equitum Dalmatarum ingens exstitit virtus, quod 
originem ex ea provincia Claudius videbatur ostendere, 
quamvis alii Darclanum et ab Ilo Troianorum rege 4 
atque ab ipso Dardano sanguinem dicerent trahere. 

XII. Fuerunt per ea tempora et apud Cretam 
Scythae et Cyprum vastare temptarunt, sed ubique 
morbo aeque 5 exercitu laborante superati sunt. 

2 Finito sane bello Gothico gravissimus morbus 
increbruit, tune cum etiam Claudius adfectus morbo 
mortalis reliquit et familiare virtutibus suis petiit 

3caelum. quo ad deos atque ad sidera demigrante 



1 



1 fugari Petschenig, Hohl ; fatigari P, Peter. *praesidiis 
P. 8 quoad Petschenig, Ellis ; quod P ; quod foil, by lacuna 
Peter. 4 rege ins. by Salm. ; om. in P. B aeque 

Bitschofsky ; atque P ; atque <fame> Salm., Peter. 



1 He is referred to as an Illyrian in c. xiv. 2, and he may well 
have been a native of the district of Dardania, hi southern Jugo- 
slavia, extending northwards from Uskiib. An easy confusion 
between this region and the Asiatic Dardanus near Troy, com- 
bined with a desire to give the emperor royal ancestry, led to 
the story of his descent from the Trojan kings. 

2 Zosimus (i. 46) records that the Goths with their fleet in- 

174 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS XL 7- XII. 3 

in mind and in body, they gave themselves up to 
seizing their prey, a very few could put them to flight. 
And so, at the very moment of victory, about two 
thousand soldiers were slain by a few barbarians, who 
had already been routed. When Claudius learned this, 
however, he assembled his army and seized all those 
who had shown a rebellious spirit, and he even sent 
them to Rome in chains to be used in the public 
spectacles. So, whatever damage either fortune or 
the soldiers had caused was made good through the 
courage of the excellent prince, and not only was 
victory won from the enemy, but revenge was taken 
as well. In this war, throughout its whole length, 
the valour of the Dalmatian horsemen stood out as 
especially great, because it was thought that Claudius 
claimed that province as his original home x ; others, 
however, declared that he was a Dardanian and derived 
his descent from Ilus, a king of the Trojans and, in 
fact, even from Dardanus himself. 

XII. During this same period the Scythians at- 
tempted to plunder in Crete and Cyprus as well, but 
everywhere their armies were likewise stricken with 
pestilence and so were defeated. 2 

Now when the war with the Goths was finished, 
there spread abroad a most grievous pestilence, and 
then Claudius himself was stricken by the disease, 
and, leaving mankind, he departed to heaven, an 
abode befitting his virtues. 3 He, then, moved away 

vaded Crete and Rhodes but did no harm worthy of mention ; 
he says nothing about this division suffering from pestilence. 

3 He died early in 270 at Sirmium (mod. Mitrovitz on the 
lower Save), according to Zonaras xii. 26. The tendency to 
exalt him caused the fabrication of a romantic story which re- 
presented his death as a voluntary sacrifice ; see Aur. Victor, 
Goes., 34, 3-5 ; Epit., 34, 3. 

175 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

Quiiitillus frater eiusdera, vir sanctus et sui fratris, ut 
vere dixerim, frater, delatum sibi omnium iudicio 
suscepit imperium, non hereditarium sed merito 
virtutum, qui factus esset imperator, etiamsi frater 
4Claudii principis non fuisset. sub hoc barbari qui 
superfuerant Anchialum vastare conati sunt, Nicopolim 
etiam obtinere. sed illi provincialium virtute obtriti 

5 sunt. Quintillus autem ob brevitatem temporis nihil 
dignum imperio gerere potuit, nam septima decima 
die, quod se graven et serium c.mtra milites ostenderat 
ac verum principem pollicebatur, eo genere, quo 

6 Galba, quo Pertinax interemptus est. et Dexippus 
quidem Quintillum l non dicit occisum, sed tantum 
mortuum. nee tamen addit morbo, ut dubium sentire 
videatur. 

XIII. Quoniam res bellicas diximus, de Claudii 
genere et familia saltern pauca dicenda sunt, ne ea 

2 quae scienda sunt praeterisse videamur : Claudius, 
Quintillus et Crispus fratres fuerunt. Crispi filia 2 
Claudia ; ex ea et Eutropio, nobilissimo gentis Dar- 

3 danae viro, Constantius Caesar est genitus. fuerunt 

1 Quintillum Salm., Peter ; Claudium P, Hohl. * filia 

2 ; familia P. 



*M. Aurelius Quintillus Augustus, according to his coins; 
see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 238 f. 

2 Mod. Anchiali on the Gulf of Burgas on the western shore 
of the Black Sea. 

3 Mod. Stari Nikub in southern Bulgaria. 

4 The length of Quintillus' reign is also given as 17 days in 
Eutropius ix. 12 and Zonaras xii. 26, but as 77 days by the 
" Chronographer of 354 " and as a few months by Zosimus 
(i. 47). As the coins bearing his name are very numerous, we 
must suppose a longer reign than 17 days ; on the other hand, 
as, according to a papyrus dated 25 May, 270, Aurelian was 

176 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS XII. 4 XIII. 3 

to the gods and the stars, and his brother Quintillus, 1 
a righteous man and the brother indeed, as I might 
truly say, of his brother, assumed the imperial power, 
which was offered him by the judgement of all, not 
as an inherited possession, but because his virtues de- 
served it ; for all would have made him emperor, even 
if he had not been the brother of the Claudius their 
prince. In his time those barbarians who still sur- 
vived endeavoured to lay waste Anchialus 2 and even 
to seize Nicopolis, 3 but they were crushed by the 
valour of the provincials. Quintillus, however, could 
do naught that was worthy of the imperial power 
because his rule was so short, for on the seventeenth 
day of his reign 4 he was killed, as Galba 5 had been 
and Pertinax 6 also, because he had shown himself 
stern and unbending toward the soldiers and promised 
to be a prince in very truth. Dexippus, 7 to be sure, 
does not say that Quintillus was killed, but merely 
that he died. He does not, however, relate that he 
died of an illness, and so he seems to feel doubt. 

XIII. Since we have now described his achieve- 
ments in war, we must tell a few things, at least, con- 
cerning the kindred and the family of Claudius, lest 
we seem to omit what all should know : now Claudius, 
Quintillus, and Crispus were brothers, and Crispus had 
a daughter Claudia ; of her and Eutropius, the noblest 
man of the Dardanian folk, was born Constantius 



then known in Egypt to be emperor, the period of 77 days is 
too long. He may be -supposed to have ruled for six weeks at 
the most ; see Stein in Arch. f. Pa/p.-Forsch.,vn. p. 45 f. Ac- 
cording to Aur., xxxvii. 6 and Zosimus and Zonaras, he killed 
himself by opening his veins. 

5 See Tacitus, Hist., i. 18 f . 

* See Pert., xi. 7 See note to Alex., xlix. 3. 

177 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

etiam sorores, quarum una, Constantina nomine, 
4nupta tribune Assyriorum, inprimis annis defecit. de 
avis nobis parum cognitum ; varia enim plerique 
prodiderunt. 

6 Ipse Claudius insignis morum gravitate, insignis 
vita singulari et unica castimonia, vini parcus, ad 
cibum promptus, statura procerus, oculis ardentibus, 
lato et pleno vultu, digitis usque adeo fortibus, ut 
saepe equis et mulis ictu pugni dentes excusserit. 

6 fecerat hoc etiam adulescens in militia, cum ludicro 
Martiali in Campo luctamen inter fortissimos quosque 

7 monstraret. nam iratus ei, qui non balteum sed 
genitalia sibi contorserat, omnes dentes uno pugno 
excussit. quae res l indulgentiam meruit ' 2 pudoris 

Svindictae. si quidem tune Decius imperator, quo 
praesente fuerat perpetratum, et virtutem et vere- 
cundiam Claudii publice praedicavit donatumque 
armillis et torquibus a militum congressu facessere 
praecepit, ne quid atrocius quam luctamen exigit 
faceret. 

1 quae res Hohl ; quaeres P ; quaerens editors. meruit 

E, Hohl ; om. in P and by Peter. 



1 The statement of the relationship of Constantius to Claudius 
as given here differs from that of Eutropius (ix. 22) and Zona- 
ras (xii. 26 end), both of whom represent Constantius as the 
son of Clauaius' daughter, while the nepos of c. ix. 9 is am- 
biguous. On the other hand, the accepted official version, 
found in the Panegyrics addressed to Constantino and in the 
inscriptions of both the emperor himself and his sons, in which 
Constantine appears as Claudius' grandson, presupposes the 
theory that Constantius was Claudius' son. This divergence 
leads inevitably to the suspicion that the relationship was 

178 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS XIII. 4-8 

Caesar. 1 There were also some sisters, of whom one, 
Constantina by name, was married to a tribune of the 
Assyrians, but died at an early age. Concerning his 
grandparents we know all too little, for varying state- 
ments have been handed down by most of the writers. 
Now Claudius himself was noted for the gravity of 
his character, and noted, too, for his matchless life 
and a singular purity ; he was sparing in his use 
of wine, but was not averse to food; he was tall 
of stature, with flashing eyes and a broad, full face, 
and so strong were his fingers that often by a blow of 
his fist he would dash out the teeth of a horse or 
a mule. He even performed a feat of this kind as 
a youth in military service, while taking part in a 
wrestling-match between some of the strongest cham- 
pions at a spectacle in the Campus Martius held in 
honour of Mars. For, becoming angry at one fellow 
who grasped at his private parts instead of his belt, 
he dashed out all the man's teeth with one blow of 
his fist. This action won him favour for thus protect- 
ing decency ; for the Emperor Decius, who was present 
when this was done, publicly praised his courage and 
modesty and presented him with arm-rings and col- 
lars, 2 but bade him withdraw from the soldiers' con- 

ii 

tests for fear he might do some more violent deed 
than the wrestling required. 

wholly a fabrication, designed, in the interests of the dynasty, 
to provide tlie parvenu Constantius with ancestors. This is 
strengthened by the fact that, with the exception of Quintillus, 
none of the members of Claudius' family named in this chapter 
is known to us, and by the wholly incorrect attribution to 
Claudius of the names Flavius and Valerius which were those 
of Constantius ; see note to c. i. 1. 

2 i.e., the usual rewards given to soldiers ; see Maxim., ii. 4 ; 
Aur., vii. 7 ; Prob., v. i. 

179 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

9 Ipsi Claudio liberi nulli fuerunt, Quintillus duos 
reliquit, Crispus, ut diximus, filiam. 

XIV. Nunc ad iudicia principum veniamus, quae 
de 1 illo a diversis edita sunt, et eatenus quidem ut 
appareret quandocumque Claudium imperatorem fu- 
turum. 

2 Epistula Valerian! ad Zosimionem, procuratorem Sy- 
riae : " Claudium, Illyricianae gentis virum, tribunum 
Martiae quintae legioni fortissimae ac devotissimae 2 
dedimus, virum devotissimis quibusque ac fortissimis 

Sveterum praeferendum. huic salarium de nostro 
private aerario dabis annuos frumenti modios tria 
milia, hordei sex milia, laridi libras duo milia, vini 
veteris sextarios tria milia quingentos, olei boni 
sextarios centum qainquaginta, olei secundi sextarios 
sescentos, salis modios viginti, cerae pondo centum 
quinquaginta, feni, paleae, aceti, holeris, herbarum 
quantum satis est, pellium tentoriarum decurias tri- 
ginta, mulos annuos sex, equos annuos tres, camelas 
annuas decem, mulas annuas novem, argenti in opere 
annua pondo quinquaginta, Philippeos nostri vultus 
annuos centum quinquaginta et in strenis quadraginta 

4septem et trientes centum sexaginta. item in cauco 

1 de ora in P. 2 ac deuotissimae 2, Hohl ; om. in P and 

by Peter. 



1 None of the persons to whom this letter and the following 
ones (cc. xv.-xvii.) are addressed is otherwise known. They are 
probably as fictitious as the letters themselves. 

2 No Legio V. Martia is known, but a Legio IV. Martia is 
mentioned as stationed in Arabia in the early fifth century; 
see Not. Dig. Or. xxxvii. 22. 

3 This name, originally given to the famous gold stater of 
Philip II. of Macedonia, was also occasionally applied to the 

J80 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS XIII. 9 XIV. 4 

Claudius himself had no children, but Quintillus 
left two sons, and Crispus, as I have said, a daughter. 

XIV. Let us now proceed to the opinions that 
many emperors expressed about him, and in such 
wise, indeed, that it became apparent that he would 
some day be emperor. 

A letter from Valerian to Zosimio, the procurator 
of Syria l : " We have named Claudius, a man of 
Illyrian birth, as tribune of our most valiant and loyal 
Fifth Legion, the Martian, 2 for he is superior to all 
the most loyal and most valiant men of old. By way 
of supplies you will give him each year out of our 
private treasury three thousand pecks of wheat, six 
thousand pecks of barley, two thousand pounds of 
bacon, three thousand five hundred pints of well- 
aged wine, one hundred and fifty pints of the best 
oil, six hundred pints of oil of the second grade, 
twenty pecks of salt, one hundred and fifty pounds 
of wax, and as much hay and straw, cheap wine, greens 
and herbs as shall be sufficient, thirty half-score of 
hides for the tents ; also six mules each year, three 
horses each year, ten camels each year, nine she- 
mules each year, fifty pounds of silverware each year, 
one hundred amd fifty Philips, 3 bearing our likeness, 
each year, and as a New-year's gift forty-seven Philips 
and one hundred and sixty third-Philips. Likewise 
in cups and tankards and pots eleven pounds. Also 

Koman aureus, but tbe author is probably using it loosely bere, 
as also in Firm., xv. 8, tbinking of it as named after Philippus 
Arabs; see note to Aur., ix. 7. Coins of a tbird-aureus are 
said to have been issued for tbe first time by Sever us Alexander 
(Alex., xxxix. 7), but no certain examples eitber of tbese or of 
any of Gallienus and Saloninus are in existence ; see Menadier, 
Die M'ilnzen . . . bei den S. II. A. p. 30 f. 

181 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

5et scypho et zema pondo undecim. tunicas russas 
militares annuas duas, 1 sagochlamydes annuas duas, 
fibulas argenteas inauratas duas, fibulam auream cum 
acu Cyprea unam. balteum argenteum inauratum 
unum, anulum bigemmem unum uncialem, brachialem 
unam unciarum septem, torquem libralem unum, 
cassidem inauratam unam, scuta chrysographata duo, 

Cloricam unam, quam refundat. lanceas Herculianas 
duas, aclides duas, falces duas, falces fenarias quattuor. 

7 cocum, quern refundat, unum. mulionem, quern re- 
fundat, unum, mulieres speciosas ex captivis duas. 

Salbam subsericam unam cum purpura Girbitana, sub- 

9armalem unum cum purpura Maura, notarium, quern 
refundat, unum, structorem, quern refundat, unum. 

10 accubitalium Cypriorum paria duo, interulas puras 
duas, fascias viriles duas, 2 togam, quam refundat, 

11 unam, latum clavum, quern refundat, unum. vena- 
tores, qui obsequantur, duo, carpentarium unum, 
curam praetorii unum, aquarium unum, piscatorem 

12 unum, dulciarium unum. ligni cotidiani pondo mille, 
si est copia, sin minus, quantum fuerit et ubi fuerit ; 

I3coctilium cotidiana vatilla quattuor. balneatorem 
unum et ad balneas ligna, sin minus, lavetur in publico. 

1 duas ins. by Gas. foil, by Hohl ; om. in P and by Peter. 
a fascias . . . duas 2, Hohl ; om. in P and by Peter. 



1 The adjective Herculianus, if the form is correct, ia 
evidently from Herculius, the name assumed by Maximian. It 
occurs in the forms Herculia and Herculiani given by him to 
legions and other bodies of troops, and the name of the lances 
here mentioned seems to have the same derivation ; its presence 
in a letter attributed to Valerian is an unfortunate slip on the 
part of the author. It is, of course, possible to alter the read- 
ing to Herculaneus, but Heracles is almost uniformly repre- 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS XIV. 5-13 

two red military tunics each year, two military cloaks 
each year, two silver clasps gilded, one golden clasp 
with a Cyprian pin, one sword-belt of silver gilded, 
one ring with two gems to weigh an ounce, one arm- 
let to weigh seven ounces, one collar to weigh a 
pound, one gilded helmet, two shields inlaid with 
gold, one cuirass, to be returned. Also two Her- 
culian 1 lances, two javelins, two reaping-hooks, and 
four reaping-hooks for cutting hay. Also one cook, 
to be returned, one muleteer, to be returned, two 
beautiful women taken from the captives. One 
white part-silk 2 garment ornamented with purple 
from Girba, 3 and one under- tunic with Moorish 
purple. One secretary, to be returned, and one 
server at table, to be returned. Two pairs of Cyprian 
couch-covers, two white under-garmenis, a pair of 
men's leg-bands, 4 one toga, to be returned, one broad- 
striped tunic, to be returned. Two huntsmen to 
serve as attendants, one waggon-maker, one head- 
quarters-steward, 5 one waterer, one fisherman, one 
confectioner. One thousand pounds of fire-wood each 
day, if there is an abundant supply, but if not, as 
much as there is and wherever it is, and four braziers 
of charcoal each day. One bath-man and firewood 
for the bath, but if there is none, he shall bathe in 
the public bath. All else, which cannot be enume- 

sented with a club ; the spear appears as his weapon only in 
the Hesiodic Shield and on coins of Erythrae ; see Eoscher, 
Lexikon, i. 2137-2188. 

2 See note to Heliog., xxvi. 1. 

3 Mod Djerba, an island off the coast of southern Tunisia 
and the seat of an imperial purple-factory. 

4 See note to Alex., xl. 11. 

5 More correctly a cur is or domicurius ; see Pauly-Wissowa, 
RealencycL, iv. 1773. 

183 



THE DEIFIED C'LAUDIUS 

14 iam cetera, quae propter minutias suas scribi nequennt, 
pro moderatione praestabis, sed ita ut nihil adaeret, 
et si alicubi aliquid defuerit, non praestetur nee in 

15 nummo exigatur. liaec autem omnia idcirco special- 
iter non quasi tribune sed quasi duci detuli, quia vir 
talis est ut ei plura etiam deferenda sint." 

XV. Item ex epistula eiusdem alia inter cetera ad 
Ablavium Murenam praetectum praetorii : " Desine 
autem conqueri, quod adhuc Claudius est tribunus nee 
exercitus ducis loco 1 accipit, unde etiam senatum et 

2populum conqueri iactabas. dux factus est et dux 
totius Illyrici. habet in potestatem Thracios, Moesos, 

SDalmatas, Pannonios, Dicos exercitus. vir ille sum- 
mus nostro quoque iudicio speret consulatum et, si 
eius animo commodum est, quando voluerit, accipiat 

4 praetorianam praefecturam. sane scias tantum ei 
a nobis decretum salarii quantum habet Aegypti 
praeiectura, tantum vestium quantum proconsulatui 
Africano detulimus, tantum argenti quantum accipit 
curator Illyrici metallarius/ tantum ministeriorum 
quantum nos ipsi nobis per singulas quasque decer- 
nimus eivitates, ut intellegant omnes quae sit nostra 
de viro tali sententia." 

XVI. Item epistula Decii de eodem Claudio : 

" Decius Messallae praesidi Achaiae salutem." 

1 duels loco Mominsen, Hohl ; ducem locoP, Z\ ducendos 
Cas., Peter. *metallarius Mommsen, Hohl; Metlarins P, 

Peter. 



1 The silver mines in eastern Dalmatia were under the 
charge of an imperial procurator metallornm Pannoniorum et 
Delmaticorum (C./.L., iii. 12721). 

184 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS XIV. 14 XVI. 

rated here because of its insignificance you will supply 
in due amount, but in no case shall the equivalent in 
money be given, and if there should be a lack of any- 
thing in any place, it shall not be supplied, nor shall 
the equivalent be exacted in money. All these things 
I have allowed him as a special case, as though lie 
were not a mere tribune but rather a general, because 
to such a man as he an even larger allowance should 
be made." 

XV. Likewise in another letter of Valerian's, 
addressed to Ablavius Murena, the prefect of the 
guard, among other statements the following : " Cease 
now your complaints that Claudius is still only a 
tribune and has not been appointed the leader of our 
armies, about which, you were wont to declare, the 
senate and people also complain. He has been made 
a general, and, in fact, the general in command 
of all lllyricum. He has under his rule the armies of 
Thrace, Moesia, Dalmatia, Pannonia, and Dacia. 
Indeed, this man, eminent in my estimation as well, 
may hope for the consulship, and, if it accords with 
his wishes, he may receive the prefecture of the guard 
whenever he desires. I would have you know, more- 
over, that we have allotted to him the same amount 
of supplies that the prefect of Egypt receives, the 
same amount of clothing that we have allowed to the 
proconsulate of Africa, the same amount of silver that 
the procurator of the mines in lllyricum l receives, 
and the same number of servants that we allot to 
ourselves in each and every community ; for I wish 
all to know my opinion of such a man." 

XVI. Likewise a letter of Decius' concerning this 
same Claudius : 

" From Decius to Messalla, the governor of Achaea, 

185 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

inter cetera : " Tribunum vero nostrum Claudium, 
optimum iuvenem, fortissimum militem, constantissi- 
mum civem, castris, senatui et rei publicae necessarium, 
in Thermopylas ire praecipimus mandata eidem cura 
Pelopoimensium, scientes neminem melius omiiia 
2quae iniungimus esse curaturum. huic ex regione 
Dardanica dabis milites ducentos, ex cataphractariis 
centum, ex equitibus sexaginta, ex sagittariis Creticis 

3 sexaginta, ex tironibus bene armatos mille. nam bene 

O * 

illi novi creduntur exercitus ; neque enim illo quis- 
quam devotior, fortior, gravior invenitur." 

XVII. Item epistula Gallieni, cum nuntiatum esset 
per frumentarios Claudium irasci. quod ille mollius 

2viveret: " Nihil me gravius accepit quam quod no- 
taria tua intimasti Claudium, parentem amicumque 
nostrum, insinuatis sibi falsis plerisque graviter irasci. 

Squaeso igitur, mi Venuste, si mihi fidem exhibes, ut 
eum facias a Grato et Herenniano placari, nescientibus 
hoc militibus Daciscianis, qui iam saeviunt, ne graviter 

4 res erumpant. 1 ipse ad eum dona misi, quae ut 
libenter accipiat tu facies. curandum praeterea est, 
ne me hoc scire intellegat ac sibi suscensere iudicet 

5et pro necessitate ultimum consilium capiat. misi 
autem ad eum pateras gemmatas trilibres duas, scyphos 
aureos gemmatos trilibres duos, discum corymbiatum 

1 res erumpant Salm. foil, by Peter 1 and Lenze; reserum P; 
remferant Petschenig, Peter, 2 Hohl. 



1 See note to c. xi. 9. The district must have been under the 
command of the governor of Moesia, not of Achaea. 

2 See note to Alex., Ivi. 5. 

3 See note to Hadr., xi. 4. 4 Otherwise unknown. 

186 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS XVI. 2 XVII. 5 

greetings." Among other orders the following : 
" But to our tribune Claudius, an excellent young 
man, a most courageous soldier, a most loyal citizen, 
necessary alike to the camp, the senate, and the 
commonwealth, we are giving instructions to proceed 
to Thermopylae, entrusting to his care the Pelopon- 
nesians also, lor we know that no one will carry out 
more carefully all our injunctions. You will assign 
him from the district of Dardania l two hundred foot- 
soldiers, one hundred cuirassiers, 2 sixty horsemen, 
sixty Cretan archers, and one thousand new recruits, 
all well armed. For it is well to entrust new troops 
to him, inasmuch as none can be found more loyal, 
more valiant, or more earnest than he." 

XVII. Likewise a letter of Gallienus', written when 
he was informed by his private agents 3 that Claudius 
was angered by his loose mode of life : " Nothing has 
grieved me more than what you have stated in your 
report, namely, that Claudius, my kinsman and friend, 
has been made very angry by certain false statements 
that have reached his ears. I request you, therefore, 
my dear Venustus, if you are faithful to me, to have 
him appeased by Gratus and Herennianus, 4 while the 
Dacian troops, even now in a state of anger, are still 
in ignorance, for I fear there may be some serious 
outbreak. I myself am sending him gifts, and you 
will see to it that he accepts them willingly. You 
will take care, furthermore, that he shall not become 
aware that I know all this and so suppose that I am 
incensed against him, and, accordingly, out of neces- 
sity adopt some desperate plan. I am sending to him, 
moreover, two sacrificial saucers studded with gems 
three pounds in weight, two golden tankards studded 
with gems three pounds in weight, a silver disk-shaped 

187 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

argenteum librarum viginti, lancem argenteam pampi- 
natam librarum triginta, patenam argenteam hede- 
raciam librarum viginti et trium, boletar halieuticum 
argenteum librarum viginti, urceos duos auro inclusos 
argenteos librarum sex et in vasis minoribus argenti 
libras viginti quinque, calices Aegyptios operisque 

6 diversi decem, chlamydes veri luminis limbatas duas, 
vestes diversas sedecim, albam subsericam, para- 
gaudem triuncem unam, zanchas de nostris Parthicas 
paria tria, singiliones Dalmatenses decem, chlamydem 
Dardanicam mantuelem unam, paenulam Illyricianam 

7 unam, bardocucullum unum, cucutia villosa duo, oraria 
Sarabdena quattuor, aureos Valerianos centum quin- 
quaginta, trientes Saloninianos trecentos." 

XVIII. Habuit et senatus iudicia, priusquam ad 
imperium perveniret,, ingentia. nam cum esset nun- 
tiatum ilium cum Marciaiio fortiter contra gentes in 

2 Illyrico dimicasse, adclamavit senatus : " Claudi, dux 
fortissime, aveas ! virtutibus tuis, devotioni tuae ! 
Claudio statuam omnes dicamus. Claudium consulem 

3 omnes cupimus. qui amat rem publicam sic agit, qui 
amat principes sic agit, antiqui milites sic egerunt. 
felicem te, Claudi, iudicio prmcipum, felicem te 



1 The paragaudes or paragauda (irapayu>8r)s) t also men- 
tioned in. Aur., xv. 4; xlvi. 6; Prob., iv. 5, is described by 
Lydus (de Magistratibus, i. 17; ii. 4) as a x iT & v Ao7x t)T ^, 
a tunic of eastern origin, having sleeves and a purple border 
embroidered with designs in gold. The Edict of Justinian 
permits its use by men as a special distinction. 

2 See Com., viii. 8 and note. 
8 See Pert., viii. 3 and note. 

4 Near Sidon in Phoenicia and famous for its purple. 

188 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS XVII. 6 XVIII. 3 

platter with an ivy-cluster pattern twenty pounds in 
weight, a silver dish with a vine-leaf pattern thirty 
pounds in weight, a silver bowl with an ivy-leaf 
pattern twenty -three pounds in weight, a silver vessel 
for fish twenty pounds in weight, two silver pitchers 
embossed with gold six pounds in weight and smaller 
vessels of silver amounting to twenty-five pounds in 
weight, ten cups of Egyptian and other workmanship, 
two cloaks witti purple borders of the tine brilliance, 
sixteen garments of various kinds, a white cne of part- 
silk, one tunic with bands of embroidery 1 three 
ounces in weight, three p.urs of Parthian shoes from 
our own supply, ten Dalmatian 2 striped tunics, one 
Dardaniaii great-coat, one Illy rian mantle, one hooded- 
cloak, s two shaggy hoods, four handkerchiefs from 
Sarepta 4 ; also one hundred and fifty aurei with the 
likeness of Valerian and three hundred third-aurei 
with that of Saloninus." 5 

XVIII. He had also the approval of the senate 
before he became emperor, and weighty, indeed, it 
was. For when the announcement was made that 
he, together with Marciunus, had fought valiantly 
against the barbarian tribes in Illyricum, the senate 
acclaimed him thus 7 : " Claudius, our most valiant 
leader, hail ! Hail to your courage, hail to your 
loyalty !" Let us all decree a statue to Claudius. 
We all desire Claudius as consui. So acts he who 
loves the commonwealth, so acts he who loves the 
emperors, so acted the soldiers of old. Happy are 
you, Claudius, in the approval of princes, happy are 
you in your own valour, you our consul, you our 



6 See note to c. xiv. 3. 6 See Gall., vi. 1. 

7 Of. c. iv. 3. 



189 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS 

virtutibus tuis, consulem te, praefectum te ! vivas 
Valeri, et ameris a principe ! ' 

4 Longum est tarn multa quam meruit vir ille per- 
scribere ; unum tamen tacere non debeo, quod ilium 
et senatus et populus et ante imperium et in imperio 
et post imperium sic dilexit ut satis constet neque 
Traianum neque Antoninos neque quemquam alium 
principem sic amatum. 



1 See note to c. i. 1. 



190 



THE DEIFIED CLAUDIUS XVIII. 4 

prefect ! Long may you live, Valerius, 1 and enjoy 
the love of your prince ! ' 

It would be too long to set forth all the many 
honours that this man earned ; one thing, however, 
I must not omit, namely, that both the senate and 
people held him in such affection both before his 
rule and during his rule and after his rule that it is 
generally agreed among all that neither Trajan nor 
any of the Antonines nor any other emperor was so 
beloved. 



191 



DIVUS AURELIANUS 

FLAVII VOPISCI SYRACUSII 

I. Hilaribus, quibus omnia festa et fieri debere 
scimus et dici, impletis sollemnibus vehiculo suo me 
et iudiciali carpento praefectus urbis, vir inlustris ac 
praefata reverentia nominandus, lunius Tiberianus ac- 

2 cepit. ibi cum animus a causis atque a negotiis pub- 
licis solutus ac liber vacaret, sermoiiem multum a 
Palatio usque ad Hortos Varianos instituit et in eo 

Spraecipue de vita principum. cumque ad Templum 
Solis venissemus ab Aureliano principe consecratum, 
quod ipse lion iiihilum ex eius origine sanguinem 
duceret, quaesivit a me quis vitam eius in litteras ret- 

4tulisset. cui cum ego respondissem iieminem a me 
Latinorum, Graecorum aliquos lectitatos, dolorem 



1 Celebrated in honour of the Magna Mater on 25 March. 

2 Junius Tiberianus was consul in 281 and 291. He was 
prefect of the city, according to the list of the " Chronographer 
of 354," from 18 Feb., 291, to 3 Aug., 292, and again irom 
12 Sept., 303, to 4 Jan., 304. Since neither this group of 
biographies nor those ascribed to Trebellius Pollio was written 
as early as 292, it must be his second prefecture that is meant 
here. This, however, did not include the Hilaria, and one is 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

BY 

FLAVIUS VOPISCUS OF SYRACUSE 

I. At the festival of the Hilaria 1 when, as we 
know, everything that is said and done should be of 
a joyous nature when the ceremonies had been 
completed, Junius Tiberianus, 2 the prefect of the 
city, an illustrious man and one to be named only 
with a prefix of deep respect, took me up into his 
carriage, that is to say, his official coach. There, his 
mind being now at leisure, relaxed and freed from 
law-pleas and public business, he engaged in much 
conversation all the way from the Palatine Hill to 
the Gardens of Varius, 3 his theme being chiefly the 
lives of the emperors. And when we had reached 
the Temple of the Sun, 4 consecrated by the Emperor 
Aurelian, he asked me for he derived his descent in 
some degree from him who had written down the 
record of the life of that prince. When I replied 
that I had read none in Latin, though several in 

forced to the conclusion that, unless the feast of Isis on 3 Nov., 
sometimes also referred to as the Hilaria, is meant, the episode 
described here is merely a literary device. 

8 Otherwise unknown. 4 See c. xxxv. 3 and note. 

193 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

gemitus sui vir sanctus per haec verba pro fuel it : 

5 " Ergo Thersitem, Sinonem ceteraque ilia* prodigia 

vetustatis et nos bene scimus et poster! frequenta- 

buiit ; divum Aurelianum, clarissimum principem, 

severissimum imperatorem, per quern totus Romano 

nomini orbis est restitutus, poster! nescient ? deus 

Gavertat hanc amentiam. et tamen, si bene novi, 

ephemeridas illius viri scriptas habemus, etiam bella 

charactere historico digesta, quae velim accipias et 

per ordinem scribas, additis quae ad vitam pertinent. 

7 quae omnia ex libris liiite s, in quibus ipse cotidiana 

sua scribi praeceperat, pro tua sedulitate condisces. 

curabo autem ut tibi ex Ulpia Bibliotheca et libri 

Slintei proferantur. tu velim Aurelianum ita ut 

9 est, quatenus potes, in litteras mittas." parui, mi 

Ulpiane, 1 praeceptis, accepi libros Graecos et omnia 

mihi necessaria in manum sumpsi, ex quibus ea quae 

10 digna erant memoratu in unum libellum contuli. tu 

velim meo muneri boni consulas et, si hoc contentus 

non meris, lectites Graecos, linteos etiam libros re- 

quiras, quos Ulpia tibi Bibliotheca, cum volueris, 

ministrabit. 

1 So Mommsen ; parrumipiane P ; parui Tiberiani Peter. 



1 The reviler of Agamemnon in Iliad, ii. 212 f. 

2 He persuaded the Trojans to bring into their city the 
Wooden Horse ; see Aeneid, ii. 67 f. 

3 Probably, like the whole incident, fictitious. They seem 
to have been suggested by the Libri Lintei, containing lists of 
magistrates, cited by the annalists C. Licinius Macer and 
Q. Aelius Tubero, of the first century B.C. (see Livy, iv. 7, 1 2 ; 
23, 2), but regarded by many modern scholars as apocryphal. 

4 In the Forum of Trajan ; see note to Hadr., vii. 6. It is 

194 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN I. 5-10 

Greek, that revered man poured forth in the follow- 
ing words the sorrow that his groan implied : " And 
so Thersites J and Sinon 2 and other such monsters of 
antiquity are well known to us and will be spoken of 
by our descendants ; but shall the Deified Aurelian, 
that most famous of princes, that most firm of rulers, 
who restored the whole world to the sway of Rome, 
be unknown to posterity ? God prevent such mad- 
ness ! And yet, if I am not mistaken, we possess 
the written journal of that great man and also his 
wars recorded in detail in the manner of a history, 
and these I should like you to procure and set forth 
in order, adding thereto all that pertains to his life. 
All these things you may learn in your zeal for 
research from the linen books, 3 for he gave instruc- 
tions that in these all that he did each day should 
be written down. I will arrange, moreover, that the 
Ulpian Library 4 shall provide you with the linen 
books themselves. It would be my wish that you 
write a work on Aurelian, representing him, to the 
best of your ability, just as he really was." I have 
carried out these instructions, my dear Ulpianus, 5 
I have procured the Greek books and laid my hand* 
on all that I needed, and from these sources I have 
gathered together into one little book all that was 
worthy of mention. You I should wish to think 
kindly of my work, and, if you are not content there- 
with, to study the Greeks and even to demand the 
linen books themselves, which the Ulpian Library will 
furnish you whenever you desire. 

a favourite source for the erudition displayed by this biographer ; 
see Tac., viii. 1 ; Prob., ii. 1 ; Car., xi. 3. 

8 Only a tentative restoration of the text and wholly un- 
known (cf. note to Prob., i. 3). 

195 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

II. Et quoniam sermo nobis de Trebellio Pollione, 
qui a duobus Philippis usque ad divum Claudium et 
eius fratrem Quintillum imperatores tarn claros quam 
obscures memoriae prodidit, in eodem vehiculo fuit 
adserente Tiberiano quod Pollio multa incuriose, 
multa breviter prodidisset, me contra dicente neminem 
scriptorum, quantum ad historiam pertinet, non aliquid 
esse mentitum, prodente quin etiam in quo Livius, in 
quo Sallustius, in quo Cornelius Tacitus, in quo denique 
Trogus manifestis testibus convincerentur, pedibus in 
sententiam transitum faciens ac manum porrigens 

2iocando praeterea, 1 "Scribe," inquit, " ut libet. se- 
curus quod veils dices, habiturus mendaciorum comites, 
quos historicae eloquentiae miramur auctores." 

III. Ac lie multa et frivola prooemiis odiosus in- 
texam, divus Aurelianus ortus, ut plures loquuntur, 
Sirmii familia obscuriore, ut nonnulli, Dacia Ripensi. 

2 ego autem legisse me memini auctorem qui eum 
Moesia genii um praedicaret. et evenit quidem ut de 
eorum virorum genital! solo nesciatur qui humiliore 
loco et ipsi plerumque solum genitale confingunt, ut 

8 dent posteritati de locorum splendore fulgorem. nee 
tamen magnorum principum in rebus 2 summa sciendi 

l praeterea P, Lessing, Hohl; propterea Gas., Peter. 2 in 
rebus Peter; uiribus P, E. 



a See note to Val., i. 1. 

2 Pompeius Trogus, of the time of Augustus, who wrote 
Historiae Philipijicae, extant only in the abridgement by 
Justinus. 

3 L. Domitius Aurelianus Augustus (270-275). 
4 According to Epit., 35, 1, his father was a colonus of a 
senator named Aurelius. 

3 Mod. Mitrovitz. His actual birthplace is, indeed, unknown, 

196 



THE DEIFIED AURKLIAN IF. 1 III 3 

II. Now, when in the same carriage our talk had 
fallen on Trebellius Pollio, who has handed down to 
memory all the emperors, both illustrious and obscure, 
from the two Philips l to the Deified Claudius and his 
brother Quintillus, Tiberianus asserted that much of 
Pollio's work was too careless and much was too brief ; 
but when I said in reply that there was 110 writer, at 
least in the realm of history, who had not made some 
false statement, and even pointed out the places in 
which Livy and Sallust, Cornelius Tacitus, and, finally, 
Trogus 2 could be refuted by manifest proofs, he came 
over wholly to my opinion, and, throwing up his 
hands, he jestingly sa d besides : " Well then, write 
as you will. You will be safe in saying whatever you 
wish, since you will have as comrades in falsehood 
those authors whom we admire for the style of their 
histories." 

III. So then lest I become tiresome by weaving 
too many trifles into my preface the Deified 
Aurelian 3 was born of a humble family, 4 at Sirmium 5 
according to most writers, but in Dacia Ripensis 6 ac- 
cording to some. I remember, moreover, having read 
one author who declared that he was born in Moesia ; 
and, indeed, it often comes to pass that we are ig- 
norant of the birthplaces of those who, born in a 
humble position, frequently invent a birthplace for 
themselves, that they may give their descendants a 
glamour derived from the lustre of the locality. How- 
ever, in writing of the deeds of a great emperor, the 

but there is no doubt that, like Claudius, Probus, Carus aud 
Diocletian, he came of the hardy Illyrian stock which in this 
period furnished the greater part of Rome's soldiers. He was 
born in 214 or 215. 

6 A new province formed by Aurelian himself (see c. xxxix. 7), 
and so not unnaturally supposed to be his native place. 

197 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

est ubi quisque sit genitus, sed qualis in re publica 

4fuerit. an Platonem magis commendat quod Athen- 

iensis fuerit quam quod unicum sapientiae munus 

6inluxerit? aut eo minores invenientur Aristoteles 

Stagirites Eleatesque Zenon aut Anacharsis Scytha 

quod in minimis nati sint viculis, cum illos ad caelum 

omnis philosophiae virtus extulerit ? 

IV. Atque, ut ad ordinem redeam, Aurelianus modi- 
cis ortus parentibus, a prima aetate ingenio vivacissi- 
mus, viribus clarus, nullum umquam diem praetermisit, 
quamvis festum, quamvis vacantem, quo non se pilo 
et sagittis ceterisque armorum exerceret officiis. 
2matrem quidem eius Callicrates Tyrius, Graecorum 
longe doctissimus scriptor, sacerdotem templi Soils 
sui l in vico eo in quo habitabant parentes fuisse dicit ; 

3 habuisse quin etiam non nihilum divinationis, adeo ut 
aliquando marito suo iurgans ingesserit, cum eius et 
stultitiam increparet et vilitatem, "En imperatoris 
patrem." ex quo constat illam mulierem scisse fatalia. 

4 idem dicit auspicia imperil Aureliano haec fuisse : 
primum pueri eius pelvem serpentem plerumque cinx- 
isse neque umquam occidi potuisse, postremo ipsam 
matrem, quae hoc viderat, serpentem quasi familiarem 

1 sui Mommaen ; qui P, 2 ; lacuna after parentes assumed 
by Peter. 



1 A pupil of Parmenides, born in Elea (Velia) in Italy about 
485 B.C. and resident in Athens about 450, the inventor of the 
argument about Achilles and the tortoise. 

2 A Scythian prince who travelled to Greece and was sup- 
posed to have lived in Athens in the early sixth century as the 
friend of Solon and to have been the author of a series of apho- 
risms ; see Diog. Laert., i. 8, 101 f. 

198 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN III. 4^IV. 4 

chief thing to be known is not in what place he was 
born, but how great he was in the State. Do we 
value Plato more highly because he was born at 
Athens than because he stands out illumined as the 
peerless gift of philosophy ? Or do we hold Aristotle 
of Stagira or Zeno of Elea 1 or Anacharsis 2 of Scythia 
in less esteem because they were born in the tiniest 
villages, when the virtue of philosophy has exalted 
them all to the skies ? 

IV. And so to return to the course of events 
Aurelian, born of humble parents and from his earliest 
years very quick of mind and famous for his strength, 
never let a day go by, even though a feast-day or a 
day of leisure, on which he did not practise with the 
spear, the bow and arrow, and other exercises in arms. 
As to his mother, Callicrates of Tyre, 3 by far the most 
learned writer of the Greeks, says that she was a 
priestess of the temple of his own Sun-god 4 in the 
village in which his parents lived ; she even had the 
gift of prophecy to a certain extent, for once, when 
she was quarrelling with her husband and reviling him 
for his stupidity and low estate, she shouted at him, 
" Behold the father of an emperor ! ' From which it 
is clear that the woman knew something of fate. The 
same writer says also that there were the following 
omens of the rule of Aurelian : First of all, when he 
was a child, a serpent wound itself many times around 
his wash-basin, and no one was able to kill it ; finally, 
his mother, who had seen the occurrence, refused to 
have the serpent killed, saying that it was a member 

3 Otherwise unknown and probably fictitious. 

4 An allusion to the cult of the Sun founded by him at Rome ; 
see c. xxxv. 3 and note. This fact is probably the origin of the 
story that his mother was a priestess of the deity. 

199 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

Soccidere noluisse. his accedit quod ex palliolo pur- 
pureo, quod Soli sui temporis imperator obtulerat, 
sacerdos mulier crepimdia filio fecisse perhibetur. 

6 addit etiam illud, quod vinctum fasciola Aurelianum 
aquila innoxie de cunis levaverit et in aram posuerit, 

7quae iuxta sacellum forte sine ignibus erat. idem 
auctor est vitulum matri eius natum mirae magnitu- 
dinis, candidum sed purpurantibus maculis, ita ut hab- 
V. eret in latere uno "ave" et 1 in alio coronam. multa 
superflua in eodem legisse me 2 memini; quippe qui 
adseveret etiam rosas in eiusdem mulieris chorte nato 
Aureliano exisse purpureas, odoris rosei, floris aurei. 

2fuerunt et postea multa omina iarn militanti futuri, ut 

3 res monstravit, imperil, nam ingrediente eo Antio- 
chiam in vehiculo, quod prae vulnere tune equo sedere 
non posset, ita pallium purpureum, quod in honore eius 

4 pansum fuerat, decidit, ut umeros eius tegeret. et cum 
in equum transire vellet, quia invidiosum tune erat 
vehiculis in civitate uti, equus est ei imperatoris adpli- 
citus, cui per festinationem insedit. sed ubi comperit, 

5 semet ad suum transtulit. data est ei praeterea, cum 
legatus ad Persas isset, patera, qualis solet imperatori 
dari a rege Persarum, in qua iiisculptus erat Sol eo 
habitu quo colebatur ab eo templo in quo mater eius 

1 " aue " et in alio Hohl ; auetrinalio P 1 ; " aue imperator" 
Peter a . 2 me ins. by Lessing, v. Winterfeld, Hohl ; om. in P 
and by Peter. 



J Pliny (Nat. Hist., xxix. 72) tells of snakes kept as pets in 
Rome. The snake was, in fact, regarded as the symbol of the 
genius of the owner of a house, and is often found at Pompeii 
painted on the wall of the shrine of the household-gods along 
with the figures of the Lares and Penates. 

2 For a similar " omen" see Cl. Alb., v. 9. 

:! It had been forbidden by M. Aurelius ; see Marc., xxiii. 8. 

200 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN IV. 5 V. 5 

of the household. 1 Furthermore, it is said, the priest- 
ess made swaddling-clothes for her son from a purple 
cloak,^ which the emperor of the time had dedicated 
to the Sun-god. This, too, is related, that Aurelian, 
while wrapped in his swaddling-clothes, was lifted out 
of his cradle by an eagle, but without suffering harm, 
and was laid on an altar in a neighbouring shrine 
which happened to have no fire upon it. The same 
writer asserts that on his mother's land a calf was born 
of marvellous size, white but with purple spots, which 
formed on one side the word "hail," en the other 
side a crown. V. I remember also reading in this 
same author much that has no importance ; he even 
asserts that when Aurelian was born there sprang up 
in this same woman's courtyard roses of a purple 
colour, having the fragrance of the rose but a golden 
centre. Later, when he was in military service, there 
were also many omens predicting, as events showed, 
his future rule. For instance, when he entered 
Antioch in a carriage, for the reason that because of 
a wound he could not ride his horse, a purple cloak, 
which had been spread out in his honour, fell down 
on him in such a way as to cover his shoulders. Then, 
when he desired to change to a horse, because at that 
time the use of a carriage in a city was attended with 
odium, 3 a horse belonging to the emperor was led up 
to him, and in his haste he mounted it. But when he 
discovered to whom it belonged, he changed to one 
of his own. Furthermore, when he had gone as 
envoy to the Persians, he was presented with a sacri- 
ficial saucer, of the kind that the king of the Persians 
is wont to present to the emperor, on which was en- 
graved the Sun-god in the same attire in which he 
was worshipped in the very temple where the mother 

201 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

6 fuerat sacerdos. donatus eidem etiam elephantus prae- 
cipuus, quern ille imperatori obtulit, solusque omnium 
privatus Aurelianus elephant! dominus fuit. 

VI. Sed ut haec et talia omittamus, fuit decorus ac 
gratia viriliter speciosus, statura procerior, nervis vali- 
dissimis, vini et cibi paulo cupidior, libidinis rarae, 
severitatis inmensae, disciplinae singularis, gladii ex- 

2serendi cupidus. nam cum essent in exercitu duo 
Aureliani tribuni, hie et alius, qui cum Valeriano cap- 
tus est, huic signum exercitus adposuerat " manu ad 
ferrum," ut si forte quaereretur quis Aurelianus aliquid 
vel fecisset vel gessisset, suggereretur " Aurelianus 
manu ad ferrum " atque cognosceretur. 

3 Privati huius multa exstant egregia facinora. nam 
erumpentes Sarmatas in Illyrico cum trecentis prae- 

4sidiariis solus adtrivit. refert Theoclius, Caesarea- 
norum temporum scriptor, Aurelianum manu sua bello 
Sarmatico una die quadragiiita et octo interfecisse, 
plurimis autem et diversis diebus ultra nongentos 
quinquaginta, adeo ut etiam ballistia pueri et salta- 
tiunculas in 1 Aurelianum tales componerent, 2 quibus 
diebus festis militariter saltitarent : 

5 " Mille mille mille decollavimus. 
unus homo mille decollavimus. 
mille bibat 3 quisquis 4 mille occidit. 
tantum vini nemo habet quantum fudit sanguinis." 

1 in cm. in P. 2 componerent 27, editors ; om. in P. 

8 bibat Biicheler, Hohl ; uiuat P, 27, Peter. 4 quisquis 

Basore ; qiLi P, 27, Peter. 

1 In Juvenal, xii. 106-107, elephants are designated as Caesaris 
armentum, nulli servire paratum \ private. 

2 Similarly, a centurion in the army of the Danube in A.D. 
14 had the nickname of " Cedo alteram " (" Give-me-another ") ; 
see Tacitus, Annals, i. 23, 4. 

:l Otherwise unknown. 

202 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN V. 6 VI. 5 

of Aurelian had been a priestess. He was also pre- 
sented with an elephant of unusual size, which he then 
gave to the emperor, and Aurelian was the only com- 
moner of them all who ever owned an elephant. 1 

VI. But, to omit these and similar details, he was 
a comely man, good to look upon because of his manly 
grace, rather tall in stature, and very strong in his 
muscles ; he was a little too fond of wine and food, 
but indulged his passions rarely ; he exercised the 
greatest severity and a discipline that had no equal, 
being extremely ready to draw his sword. And, in 
iact, since there were in the army two tribunes, both 
named Aurelian, this man and another, who later was 
captured with Valerian, the soldiers gave him the nick- 
name of " Sword-in-hand," 2 so that, if anyone chanced 
to ask which Aurelian had done anything or performed 
any exploit, the reply would be made "Aurelian 
Sword-in-hand," and so he would be identified. 

Many of the remarkable deeds which he did as a 
commoner are still well known : For instance, he and 
three hundred men of his garrison alone destroyed 
the Sarmatians when they burst into Illyricum. 
Theoclius, 3 who wrote of the reigns of the Caesars, 
relates that in the war against the Sarmatians Aurelian 
with his own hand slew forty-eight men in a single 
day and that in the course of several days he slew 
over nine hundred and fifty, so that the boys even 
composed in his honour the following jingles and 
dance-ditties, to which they would dance on holidays 
in soldier fashion : 

" Thousand, thousand, thousand we've beheaded now. 
One alone, a thousand we've beheaded now. 
He shall drink a thousand who a thousand slew. 
So much wine is owned by no one as the blood which 
he has shed." 

203 



THE DEIFIED AURELTAN 

6haec video esse perfrivola, sed quia supra scriptus 

auctor ita eadem ut sunt Latina suis scriptis inseruit, 

VII. tacenda esse non credidi. idem apud Mogontiacum 

tribunus legionis sextae Gallicanae Francos inruentes, 

cum vagarentur per totam Galliam, sic adflixit ut 

trecentos ex his captos septingentis interemptis sub 

2 corona vendiderit. unde iterum de eo facta est 

cantilena ; 

" Mille Sarmatas, mille Francos semel et semel 

occidimus, 
mille Persas quaerimus." 

8 Hie autem, ut supra diximus, 1 militibus ita timori 
fuit ut sub eo, posteaquam semel cum ingenti severi- 
tate castrensia peccata correxit, nemo peccaverit. 

4 solus denique omnium militem, qui adulterium cum 
hospitis uxore commiserat, ita punivit ut duarum 
arborum capita inflecteret, ad pedes militis deligaret 
easdemque subito dimitteret, ut scissus ille utrimque 
penderet. quae res ingentem timorem omnibus 
fecit. 

5 Huius epistula militaris est ad vicarium suum data 
huius modi : " Si vis tribunus esse, immo si vis vivere, 
manus militum contine. nemo pullum alienum rapiat, 
ovem nemo contingat. uvam nullus auferat, segetem 
nemo deterat, oleum, salem, lignum nemo exigat, 
annona sua conteiitus sit. de praeda hostis, non de 

1 diximus om. in P. 



1 Presumably during the German invasions of 254-258. No 
Legio VI Gallicana is known. 

2 The same punishment, but for a different offence, was used 
by Alexander the Great; see Plutarch, Alex., 13, 3. 

204 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN VI. 6 VII. 5 

I perceive, indeed, that these verses are very trivial, 
but since the author mentioned before has included 
them in his writings, in Latin just as they are here, 
I have thought they ought not to be omitted. VII. 
Likewise, when at Mainz as tribune of the Sixth 
Legion, the Gallican, 1 he completely crushed the 
Franks, who had burst into Gaul and were roving 
about through the whole country, killing seven 
hundred of them and capturing three hundred, whom 
he then sold as slaves. And so a song was again 
composed about him : 

" Franks, Sarmatians by the thousand, once and once 

again we've slain. 
Now we seek a thousand Persians." 

He was, moreover, so feared by the soldiers, as I 
have said before, that, after he had once punished 
offences in the camp with the utmost severity, no one 
offended again. In fact, he alone among all com- 
manders inflicted the following punishment on a soldier 
who had committed adultery with the wife of the man 
at whose house he was lodged : bending down the 
tops of two trees, he fastened them to the soldier's 
feet and then let them fly upward so suddenly that 
the man hung there torn in two 2 a penalty which 
inspired great terror in all. 

There is a letter of his, truly that of a soldier, written 
to his deputy, as follows : " If you wish to be tribune, 
or rather, if you wish to remain alive, restrain the 
hands of your soldiers. None shall steal another's 
fowl or touch his sheep. None shall carry off grapes, 
or thresh out grain, or exact oil, salt, or firewood, and 
each shall be content with his own allowance. Let 

205 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

elacrimis provincialium victum 1 habeant. arma tersa 
sint, ferramenta samiata, calciamenta fortia. vestis 
nova vestem veterem excludat. stipendium in balteo, 

7non in popina habeat. torquem, brachialem, anulura 
adponat. equum et sagmarium suum defricet, 
capitum animalis non vendat, mulum centuriatura 

8 communiter curent. alter alteri quasi miles, 2 nemo 
quasi servus obsequatur, a medicis gratis curentur, 
haruspicibus nihil dent, in hospitiis caste se agant, qui 
litem fecerit vapulet." 

VIII. Inveni nuper in Ulpia Bibliotheca inter 
linteos libros epistulam divi Valeriani de Aureliano 
principe scriptam, quam ad verbum, ut decebat, 
inserui. 

2 " Valerianus Augustus Antonino Gallo consuli. 
culpas me familiaribus litteris, quod Postumo filium 
meum Gallienum magis quam Aureliano commiserim, 
cum utique severiori et puer credendus fuerit et exer- 
citus. ne tu 3 id diutius iudicabis, si bene scieris 

8 quantae sit Aurelianus severitatis ; nimius est, multus 
est, gravis est et ad nostra iam non facit tempora. 

4 testor autem omnes me etiam timuisse, ne quid etiam 
erga filium meum severius, si quid ille fecisset, cum 
ut est natura pronus ad ludicra levius cogitaret." 

1 uictum ins. by Novak ; om. in P and by Hohl ; habeant 
replaced by uiuant by Peter. 2 miles Obrecht, Peter 1 ; 

in P. 3 ne tu P, 27, def. by Baehrena and Hohl ; tiec tamen 
Peter. 



1 See Claud., xiii. 8 and note. 2 See c. i. 7 and notes. 

8 No consul of this name is known. 

4 This is certainly an error, probably due to confusion with 
the fact that Gallienus entrusted his son Valerian to the care 
of Silvanus ; see notes to Tyr. Trig., iii. 1. 

206 



THE DEIFIED AUREL1AN VII. 6 VIII. 4> 

them get their living from the booty taken from the 
enemy and not from the tears of the provincials. 
Their arms shah 1 be kept burnished, their implements 
bright, and their boots stout. Let old uniforms be 
replaced by new. Let them keep their pay in their 
belts and not spend it in public-houses. Let them 
wear their collars, arm-rings, 1 and finger-rings. Let 
each man curry his own horse and baggage -animal, 
let no one sell the fodder allowed him for his beast, 
and let them take care in common of the mule be- 
longing to the century. Let one yield obedience to 
another as a soldier and no one as a slave, let them 
be attended by the physicians without charge, let 
them give no fees to soothsayers, let them conduct 
themselves in their lodgings with propriety, and let 
anyone who begins a brawl be thrashed." 

VIII. I have recently found among the linen books 
in the Ulpian Library 2 a letter, written by the 
Deified Valerian concerning the Emperor Aurelian, 
which I have inserted word for word, as seemed 
right : 

" From Valerian Augustus to Antoninus Gallus,* 
the consul. You find fault with me in a personal 
letter for confiding my son Gallienus 4 to Postumus 
rather than to Aurelian, on the ground, of course, 
that both the boy and the army should be entrusted 
to the sterner man. Of a truth you will continue 
to hold this opinion when once you have learned 
how stern Aurelian is ; for he is too stem, much 
too stern, he is harsh and his actions are not suited 
to those of our time. Moreover, I call all to wit- 
ness that I have even feared that he will act too 
sternly toward my son also, in case he does aught in 
behaving with too great frivolity for he is naturally 

207 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

Shaec epistula indicat quantae fuerit severitatis, ut 
ilium Valerianus etiam timuisse se dicat. 

IX. Eiusdem Valeriani alia est epistula, quae laudes 
illius continet. quam ego ex scriniis praefecturae 
urbanae protuli. nam illi Romam venienti salaria sui 
ordinis sunt decreta. exemplum epistulae : 

2 "Valerianus Augustus Ceionio Albino praefecto 
urbi. vellemus quidem singulis quibusque devotis- 
simis rei publicae viris multo maiora deferre compendia 
quam eorum dignitas postulat, maxime ubi honorem 
vita commendat debet enim quid praeter dignitatem 
pretium esse meritorum, sed tacit rigor publicus ut 
accipere de provinciarum inlationibus ultra ordinis 

8 sui gradum nemo plus possit. Aurelianum, fortis- 
simum virum, ad inspicienda et ordinanda castra 
omnia destinavimus, cui tan turn a nobis atque ab 
omni re publica communi totius exercitus confessione 
debetur, ut digna illo vix aliqua vel nimis magna sint 

4 munera. quid enim in illo non clarum ? quid noil 
Corviiiis et Scipionibus conferendum ? ille liberator 
Illyrici, ille Galliarum restitutor, ille dux magni 

6 totius exempli, et tamen nihil praeter ea possum 

6 addere tanto viro ad muneris gratiam ; non l patitur 
sobrie et bene gerenda res publica. quare Sinceritas 

1 non ins. by Peter ; om. in P. 



1 Perhaps M. Numrni us Ceionius Annius Albinus of C.I.L., 
vi. 314 b, who may be identical with the Nummius Albinus 
who was prefect of the city in 256 ; but see note to Cl. Alb., 
iv. 1. 

- M. Valerius Corvus (or Corvinus), six times consul between 
848 and 299 B.C. and victor over the Volsci and Samnites, and 
his descendants, especially M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, 

208 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN VIII. 5 IX. 6 

prone to merry-making." This letter shows how 
great was his sternness, so that even Valerian said 
that he feared him. 

IX. There is another letter by the same Valerian, 
sounding his praises, which I have brought out from 
the files of the city-prefecture. For when he came 
to Rome the allowance usually made to his rank was 
assigned to him. A copy of the letter : 

" From Valerian Augustus to Ceionius Albinus, 1 
the prefect of the city. It had, indeed, been our 
wish to bestow on each and every man who has been 
loyal to the commonwealth a much larger recompense 
than his rank demands, but especially when his 
manner of life recommends him for honours for 
there should be some other reward for merit than 
rank , but the public discipline requires that none 
shall receive from the income of the provinces a 
greater sum than the grade of his position permits. 
Wherefore we have now chosen Aurelian, a very 
brave man, to inspect and set in order all our camps, 
for, by the general admission of the entire army, 
both we ourselves and the whole commonwealth as 
well are so in his debt that there are scarcely any 
rewards that are worthy of him, or, indeed, too great. 
For what quality has he that is not illustrious ? that 
cannot be compared with the Corvini 2 and the 
Scipios ? He is liberator of Illyricum, saviour of the 
provinces of Gaul, and as a general a great and perfect 
example. And yet there is nothing but this that I 
can bestow on such a man by way of reward for his 
services ; for a wise and careful administration of the 
commonwealth will not permit it. Wherefore your 

famous as a general in the early principate of Augustus and 
the patron of Tibullus. 

209 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

tua, mi parens carissime, supra dicto viro adiciet, 1 
quamdiu Romae fuerit, panes militares mundos se- 
decim, panes militares castrenses quadraginta, vini 
mensalis sextarios quadraginta, porcellum dimidium, 
gallinaceos duos, porcinae pondo triginta, bubulae 
pondo quadraginta, olei sextarium unum et item 
liquaminis sextarium unum, salis sextarium unum, 

7 herbarum 2 holerum quantum sat est. sane quoniam 
ei aliquid praecipue decernendum est, quamdiu Romae 
fuerit, pabula extra ordinem decernes, ipsi autem ad 
sumptus aureos Antoninianos diurnos binos, argenteos 
Philippeos minutulos quinquagenos, aeris denarios 
centum. reliqua per praefectos aerarii praebe- 
buntur." 

X. Frivola haec fortassis cuipiam et nimis levia esse 

2 videantur, sed curiositas nihil recusat. habuit ergo 
multos ducatus, plurimos tribunatus, vicarias 3 ducum 
et tribunorum diversis temporibus prope quadraginta, 

1 ad.iciet Gruter, Madvig, Peter 2 ; adficiet P, Peter 1 . 
2 herbas P. 3 uacarios P. 



1 These coins are also mentioned in similar "letters" in 
c. xii. 1; Prob., iv. 5 ; Firm., xv. 8. That gold coins of any 
of the Antonines were current at the time when these " letters " 
were supposed to have been written is very doubtful. The 
name Antoninianus is usually applied (though with no other 
warrant than these " letters") to the new silver coin that was 
issued by Caracalla and the later emperors of the third century, 
but there is no reason to suppose that it was ever given to the 
aureus. The term Philippeus was familiar, from long-standing 
tradition, as a designation for the aureus (see note to Claud., 
xiv. 3), but neither the small silver minutuli (see note to Alex., 

210 



THE DEIFIED AUREL1AN IX. 7 X. 2 

Integrity, my dearest kinsman, will supply the afore- 
said man, as long as he shall be in Rome, with sixteen 
loaves of soldiers' bread of the finest quality, forty 
loaves of soldiers' bread of the quality used in camp, 
forty pints of table-wine, the half of a swine, two 
fowl, thirty pounds of pork, forty pounds of beef, one 
pint of oil and likewise one pint of fish-pickle, one pint 
of salt, and greens and vegetables as much as shall be 
sufficient. And indeed, since something out of the 
ordinary must be allowed him, as long as he shall be 
in Rome, you will allow him fodder beyond the usual 
amount and for his own expenses, moreover, a daily 
grant of two aurei of Antoninus/ fifty silver minutuli 
of Philip, and one hundred denarii of bronze. 2 All 
else will be furnished by the prefects of the treasury 3 ." 
X. These details may perhaps seem to someone to 
be paltry and over trivial, but research stops at noth- 
ing. He held, then, very many commands as general 
and very many as tribune, and acted as deputy for 
generals or tribunes on about forty different occasions. 

xxii. 8) nor the bronze coins had any possible connection with 
Philip of Macedonia, nor is there any reason to suppose that 
they took their name from Philippus Arabs, who did not 
institute any reform in the coinage. It would seem that the 
author, failing to understand the real significance of the term 
Philippeus and supposing that it was derived from the name 
of the emperor, has applied both it and Antoninianus to all 
coins indiscriminately, for the purpose of creating the impres- 
sion of greater learning ; see Menadier, p. 27 f. ; p. 47 f. 

2 The expression aeris denarios is nonsense, since these 
coins were not made of bronze but of base metal washed with 
silver. 

3 The statement that supplies will be furnished to an army 
officer by the prefect of the aerarium (the old senatorial treasury) 
is sufficient evidence that this letter is a forgery. Equally fio- 
titious is this official in c. xii. 1 and c. xx. 8. 

211 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

usque adeo ut etiam Ulpii Criniti, qui se de Traiani 
gen ere referebat, et forth simi re vera viri et Traiani 
simillimi, qui pictus est cum eodem Aureliano in 
Templo Solis, quern Valerianus Caesaris loco habere 
instituerat, vicem sumeret, exercitum duceret, limites 
restitueret, praedam militibus daret, Thracias bubus, 
equis, mancipiis captivis locupletaret, manubias in 
Palatio conlocaret, quingentos servos, duo milia 
vaccarum, equas mille, ovium decem milia, caprearum 
quindecim in privatam villam Valeriani congereret. 

3 tune enim 1 Ulpius Crinitus publice apud Byzantium 
sedenti Valeriano in thermis egit gratias, dicens 
magnum de se iudicium habitum, quod eidem 
vicarium Aurelianum dedisset. quare eum statuit 
adrogare. 

XI. Interest epistulas nosse de Aureliano scriptas et 
ipsam adrogationem. epistula Valeriani ad Aureli- 
anum : "Si esset alius, Aureliane iucundissime, qui 
Llpii Criniti vicem posset implere, tecum de eius 
virtute ac sedulitate conferrem. nunc tu cum alium 
non 2 requirere potuissem suscipe bellum a parte 

2Nicopolis, ne nobis aegritudo Criniti obsit. fac 
quicquid potes. multa non dico. in tua erit potestate 

Smilitiae magisterium. habes sagittarios Ituraeos 
trecentos, Armenios sescentos, Arabas centum quin- 

1 cum P. 2 So Editor ; tecum P ; lacuna assumed by 

Peter 2 after tu t cum ; te cum <^non meUoretrT> Hohl. 



1 Mentioned also in c. xxxviii. 2-3, but otherwise unknown. 
It is probably true that under Valerian Aurelian was engaged 
in the defence of Thrace against the Goths, but the episode as 
developed in the following chapters, with the account of 
Valerian's audience at Constantinople, the adoption of Aurelian 
and his appointment to the consulship, all embellished with 

212 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN X. 3 XI. S 

Indeed, he even acted as deputy for Ulpius Crinitus, 1 
who used to assert that he was of the house of Trajan 
he was, in actual fact, a most brave man and very 
similar to Trajan , who was painted together with 
Aurelian in the Temple of the Sun, and whom 
Valerian had planned to appoint to the place of a 
Caesar. He also commanded troops, restored the 
frontiers, distributed booty among the soldiers, en- 
riched the provinces of Thrace with captured cattle, 
horses, and slaves, dedicated spoils in the Palace, and 
brought together to a private estate of Valerian's five 
hundred slaves, two thousand cows, one thousand 
mares, ten thousand sheep, and fifteen thousand goats. 
At this time, then, Ulpius Crinitus gave thanks formally 
to Valerian as he sat in the public baths at Byzantium, 
saying that he had done him great honour in giving 
him Aurelian as deputy. And for this reason he 
determined to adopt Aurelian. 

XI. It is of interest to know the letters that were 
written concerning; Aurelian and also the account of 

~ 

his adoption itself. Valerian's letter to Aurelian : 
"If there were anyone else, my dearest Aurelian, 
who could fill the place of Ulpius Crinitus, I should 
be consulting with you in regard to his courage and 
industry. But now do you since I could not have 
found any other take upon yourself the war around 
Nicopolis, 2 in order that the illness of Crinitus may 
cause us no damage. Do whatever you can. I will 
be brief. The command of the troops will be vested 
in you. You will have three hundred Ituraean bow- 
men, six hundred Armenians, one hundred and fifty 

fabricated "documents," must be considered an invention of 
the author's. 

2 See Claud., xii. 4 and note. 

213 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

quaginta, Saracenos ducentos, Mesopotamenos auxili- 

4 ares quadringentos ; habes legionem tertiam Felicem 
et equites cataphractarios octingentos. tecum erit 
Hariomundus, Haldagates, Hildomundus, Chariovis- 

5 cus. commeatus a praefectis necessarius in omnibus 

6 castris est constitutus. tuum est pro virtutibus tuis 
atque sollertia illic hiemalia et aestiva disponere ubi 
tibi nihil deerit, quaerere praeterea ubi carrago sit 
hostium, et vere scire quanti qualesque sint, ut non 
in vanum 1 aut annona consumatur aut tela iaciantur, 

7 in quibus res bellica constituta est. ego de te tantum 
deo favente spero quantum de Traiano, si viveret, 
posset sperare res publica. neque enim minor est, 

8 in cuius locum vicemque 2 te legi. consulatum cum 
eodem Ulpio Crinito in annum sequentem a die un- 
decimo kal. luniarum in locum Gallieni et Valeriani 

9 sperare te convenit sumptu publico. levanda est 
enim paupertas eorum hominum, qui diu in re publica 

10 viventes pauperes sunt, et nullorum magis." his quo- 
que litteris indicatur quantus fuerit Aurelianus ; et re 
vera, 3 neque enim quisquam aliquando ad summam 
rerum pervenit qui non a prima aetate gradibus 
virtutis ascenderit. 

XII. Litterae de consulatu : 

" Valerianus Augustus Aelio Xiphidio praefecto 

1 uanmn Madvig, Peter 2 ; uinum P, S. ^uicemque Gas., 
Cornelissen, Hohl ; fidemque P, E, Peter. 3 So P, Z", foil, by 
Hohl ; apuero Peter" 2 . 

1 Mentioned also in a " speech " of Valerian's in Prob., v. 6, 
but otherwise unknown, for none of the five Third Legions of 
which we know had the cognomen Felix. 

2 See note to Alex., Ivi. 5. 

3 Evidently intended to be names of German chieftains in 
Roman service. 

211 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XI. 4 XII. 1 

Arabs, two hundred Saracens, and four hundred 
irregulars from Mesopotamia ; you will have the 
Third Legion, the Fortunate, 1 and eight hundred 
mounted cuirassiers. 2 You will also have with you 
Hariomundus, Haldagates, Hildomundus and Chario- 
viscus. 3 The prefects have arranged for the needful 
supplies in all the camps. Your duty it is, with the 
aid of your wisdom and skill, to place your winter 
and summer camps where you will lack nothing, and, 
furthermore, to ascertain where the enemy's train is, 
and to find out exactly how great his forces are and 
of what kind, in order that no supplies may be used 
in vain or weapons wasted, for on these depends all 
success in war. I, for my part, expect as much from 
you, if the gods but grant their favour, as the common- 
wealth could expect from Trajan, were he still alive. 
And indeed, he, in whose place I have made you 
deputy, is no less great a man. It is, therefore, 
proper that you should expect the consulship, 4 with 
this same Ulpius Crinitus as colleague, for the follow- 
ing year, beginning on the eleventh day before the 
Kalends of June, to fill out the term of Gallienus and 
Valerian, and your expenses shall be paid from the 
public funds. For we shou'd aid the poverty of those 
men and of none more than those who after a long 
life in public affairs are nevertheless poor." This 
letter also shows how great a man Aurelian was 
and truly great, indeed, for no one ever reached the 
highest place who did not from his earliest years climb 
up by the ladder of noble character. 

XII. The letter about the consulship: "From 
Valerian Augustus to Aelius Xiphidius, 5 the prefect 

4 Aurelian's first consulship was, in fact, in 271. 
B Otherwise unknown and probably fictitious. 

215 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

aerarii. Aureliano, cui consulatum detulimus, ob 
paupertatem, qua ille magnus est, ceteris maior, 
dabis ad editionem circensium aureos Antoninianos 
trecentos, argenteos Philippeos minutulos tria milia, 
in aere sestertium quinquagies, tunicas multicias 
viriles decem, lineas Aegyptias viginti, mantelia 
Cypria paria duo, tapetia Afra decem, stragula Maura 

2 decem, porcos centum, oves centum, convivium 
autem publicum edi iubebis senatoribus et l equitibus 
Romanis, hostias maiores duas, minores quattuor." 

3 Et quoniam etiam de adrogatione aliqua me dixeram 
positurum quae ad tantum principem pertinerent, 

4 quaeso ne odiosior verbosiorve in ea re videar, quam 
fidei causa inserendam credidi ex libris Acholii, qui 
magister admissionum Valeriani principis fuit, libro 
actorum eius nono : 

XIII. Cum consedisset Valeriaiius Augustus in 
thermis apud Byzantium, praesente exercitu, prae- 
sente etiam officio Palatine, adsidentibus Nummio 2 
Tusco consule ordinario, Baebio Macro praefecto 
praetorii, Quinto Anchario praeside orientis, ad- 
sidentibus etiam a parte laeva Avulnio Saturnino 
Scythici limitis duce et Murrentio Mauricio ad 

l et om in P. 2 Nummio Fasti Cons., Hohl ; Nemmio P ; 
Memmio Peter. 



1 See c. ix. 7 and note. 

2 See Alex., xiv. 6 and note. 

3 In the early empire known as ab admissione, a freedman 
whose duty it was to admit persons to audiences with the emperor. 
Tbe title magister admissionum was held in the Byzantine 
period by an official of high degree, but this reference is the 
onry evidence for the existence of the office as early as the third 
century and it is probably a fabrication. 

216 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XII. 2 XIII. 1 

of the treasury. To Aurelian, whom we have named 
for the consulship, because of his poverty in which 
he is great and greater than all others you will 
supply for the performance of the races in the Circus 
three hundred aurei of Antoninus, 1 three thousand 
silver minutuli of Philip, five million bronze sesterces, 
ten finely-woven tunics of the kind used by men, 
twenty tunics of Egyptian linen, two pairs of Cyprian 
table-covers, ten African carpets, ten Moorish couch- 
covers, one hundred swine, and one hundred sheep. 
You will order, moreover, that a banquet shall be 
given at the state's expense to the senators and Roman 
knights, and that there shall be two sacrificial victims 
of major and four of minor size." 

And now, inasmuch as I have said in reference to 
his adoption that I would include certain things which 
concern so great a prince, I ask you not to consider 
me too tedious or too wordy in the following statement, 
which I have thought I should introduce, for the sake 
of accuracy, from the work of Acholius, 2 the master 
of admissions 3 under the Emperor Valerian, in the 
ninth book of his records : 

XIII. When Valerian Augustus had taken his seat 
in the public baths at Byzantium, in the presence of 
the army and in the presence of the officials of the 
Palace, there being seated with him Nummius Tuscus, 
the consul-regular, 4 Baebius Macer, 5 prefect of the 258 
guard, and Quintus Ancharius, governor of the East, 
and seated on his left hand Avulnius Saturninus, 
general in command of the Scythian frontier, 
Murrentius Mauricius, just appointed to Egypt, 



4 See note to Carac., iv. 8. 

* Unknown, like all those whose names follow. 



217 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

Aegyptum destinato et lulio Tryphone orientalis 
limitis duce et Maecio Brundisino praefecto annonae 
orientis et Ulpio Crinito duce Illyriciani limitis et 
Thracici et Fulvio Boio duce Raetici limitis, Valeri- 

2 anus Augustus dixit : "Gratias tibi agit, Aureliane, 
res publica, quod earn a Gothorum potestate liberasti. 
abundamus per te praeda, abundamus gloria et iis 

3 omnibus quibus Romana feJUcitas crescit. cape igitur 
tibi pro rebus gestis tuis coronas murales quattuor, 
coronas vallares quinque, coronas navales duas, 
coronas civicas duas, hastas puras decem, vexilla 
bicolora quattuor, tunicas russas ducales quattuor, 
pallia proconsularia duo, togam praetextam, tunicam 
palmatam, togam pictam, subaimalem profundum, 

4sellam eburatam. nam te consulem hodie designo, 
scripturus ad senatum, ut tibi deputet scipionem, 
deputet etiam fasces ; haec enim imperator noil solet 
XIV. dare, sed a senatu, quando fit consul, accipere." post 
haec Valeriani dicta Aurelianus surrexit atque ad 
manus accessit agens gratias militaribus verbis, quae 
propria et ipsa adponenda decrevi. Aurelianus dixit: 

2 " Et ego, domine Valeriane, imperator Auguste, ideo 
cuncta feci, ideo vulnera patienter excepi, ideo et 



1 Made of gold with a decoration in the form of a battlement, 
presented to the man who first scaled the enemy's wall. 

- Ma ie of gold with a decoration in the form of a rampart, 
presented for forcing a way into a hostile camp. 

3 Made of gold and adorned with the beaks of ships, pre- 
sented to the man who first boarded an enemy's ship. 

4 See Marc., xii. 8 and note. 

6 Frequently presented as a mark of distinction (so also 
Profr., v. 1.) 

6 See note to Gord., iv. 4. 

7 Originally carried by the triumphant general on the day 

218 






THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XIII. 2 XIV. 2 

Julius Trypho, general in command of the frontier 
of the East, Maecius Brundisinus, prefect of the 
grain-supply for the East, Ulpius Crinitus, general in 
command of the Illyrian and Thracian frontier, and 
Fulvius Boius, general in command of the Raetian 
frontier, Valerian Augustus spoke as follows : " The 
commonwealth thanks you, Aurelian, for having set 
it free from the power of the Goths. Through your 
efforts we are rich in booty, we are rich in glory and 
in all that causes the felicity of Rome to increase. 
Now, therefore, in return for your great achievements 
receive for yourself four mural crowns/ five rampart 
crowns, 2 two naval crowns, 3 two civic crowns, 4 ten 
spears without points/' four bi-coloured banners, four 
red general's tunics, two proconsul's cloaks, a bordered 
toga, a tunic embroidered with palms, 6 a gold-em- 
broidered toga, a long under-tunic, and an ivory- 
chair. For on this day I appoint you consul, and 
I will write to the senate that it may vote you the 
sceptre of office 7 and vote you also the fasces ; for 
these insignia the emperor is not wont to give, but, 
on the contrary, to receive from the senate when 
he is created consul." XIV. After this speech of 
Valerian's Aurelian arose and bending over the 
Emperor's hand, he expressed his thanks in words 
befitting a soldier, and these I have considered suit- 
able and worthy of being quoted here. He spoke as 
follows: " As for myself, my lord Valerian, Emperor 
and Augustus, it was with this end in view that 
I have done all that I did, have suffered wounds with 
patience, and have exhausted my horses and my 

of his triumph, but from the second century onward, like the 
other insignia of office here mentioned, permitted to the consul 
on the occasion of his solemn procession to the Capitol. 

219 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

equos et coniuratos meos lassavi, ut mihi gratias 

Sageret res publica et conscientia mea. at tu plus 
fecisti. ago ergo x gratias bonitati tuae et accipio 
consulatum, quern das. deus faciat, et deus certus, 

4ut et senatus de me sic iudicet." agentibus igitur 
gratias omnibus circumstantibus Ulpius Crinitus sur- 

5 rexit atque hac oratione usus est : " Apud maiores 
nostros, Valeriane Auguste, quod et familiae meae 
amicum ac proprium fuit, ab optimis quibusque in 
filiorum locum fortissimi viri semper electi sunt, ut 
vel senescentes familias vel fetus matrimoniis iam 

6caducos substitutae fecunditas prolis ornaret. hoc 
igitur, quod Cocceius Nerva in Traiano adoptando, 
quod Ulpius Traianus in Hadriano, quod Hadrianus 
in Antonino et ceteri deinceps proposita suggestione 
fecei unt, in adrogando Aureliano, quern mihi vicarium 
iudicii tui auctoritate fecisti, censui esse referendum. 

7iube igitur ut lege agatur, sitque Aurelianus heres 

sacrorum, nominis et bonorum totiusque iuris Ulpio 

Crinito iam consulari viro, ipse actutum te iudice con- 

XV. sularis." longum est cuncta pertexere. iiam et 

actae sunt Crinito a Valeriano gratiae, et acloptio, ut 

2 solebat, impleta. memini me in quodam libro Graeco 
legisse, quod tacendum esse non credidi, mandatum 

1 ego P. 
220 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAX XIV. S XV. 2 

sworn comrades, namely, that I might win the ap- 
proval of the commonwealth and of my own con- 
science. You, however, have done more. Therefore, 
I am grateful for your kindness and I will accept the 
consulship which you offer me. May a god. and 
a god in whom we can put our trust, now grant that 
the senate also shall form a like judgement concerning 
me." And so. when all who stood about expressed 
their thanks, Ulpius Crin'tus arose and delivered the 
following speech : " According to the custom of our 
ancestors, Valerian Augustus, a custom which my 
own family has held particularly dear. men of the 
highest birth have always chosen the most courageous 
to be their sons, in order that those families which 
either were dying out or had lost their offspring 1 bv 

. O i . 

marriage might gain lustre from the fertility of a bor- 
rowed stock. This custom, then, which was followed 
by Xerva in adopt 'ng Trajan, by Trajan in adopting 
Hadrian, by Hadrian in adopting Antoninus, and by 
the others after them according to the precedent thus 
established. I have thought I should now bring back 
by adopting Aurelian. whom you, by the authority of 
your approval, have given to me as my deputy. Do 
vou, therefore. give the order that it may be sanctioned 

c^ 

by law and that Aurelian may become heir to the 
sacred duties, the Dame, the goods, and the legal 
rights of Ulpius Crinitus. abea.lv a man of consular 

O 1 

rank, even as through vour decision he is straight- 



way to become a consular. XV. It would be too 
long to include every detail in full. For Valerian 
expres-ed his gratitude to Crinitus. and the adoption 
was carried out in the wonte.l form. I remember 
having read in some Greek book what I have thought 
I ought not to omit, namely, that ^ alerian commanded 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

esse Crinito a Valeriano ut Aurelianus adoptaretur, 
idcirco praecipue quod pauper esset ; sed hoc in medio 
relinquendum puto. 

3 Et quoniam superius epistulam posui, qua suraptus 
Aureliano ad coiisulatum delatus est, quare posuerim 

4rem quasi frivolam eloquendum plitavi : vidimus 
proxime consulatum Furii Placidi tanto ambitu in 
Circo editum ut non praemia dari aurigis sed patri- 
monia viderentur, cum darentur tunicae subsericae, 
lineae paragaudae, darentur etiam equi, ingemescenti- 

6 bus frugi hominibus. factum est enim ut iam diviti- 
arum sit, non hominum consulatus, quia utique si 
virtutibus defertur, editorem spoliare non debet. 

6perierunt casta ilia tempora et magis ambitione 
populari peritura sunt. sed nos, ut solemus, hanc 
quoque rem in medio relinquemus. 1 

XVI. His igitur tot ac talibus praeiudiciis muiieri- 
busque fultus Claudianis temporibus tantus enituit, ut 
post eum Quintillo quoque eius fratre interempto solus 
teneret imperium Aureolo interfecto, cum quo Galli- 

2enus fecerat pacem. hoc loco tanta est diversitas 
historicorum, et quidem Graecorum, ut alii dicant 
invito Claudio ab Aureliano Aureolum interfectum, 

1 relinyuemus von Winterfeld ; relinquimus P, editors. 



1 No such consul is known. 

2 See note to Claud., xvii. 6. 

3 The vita omits any mention of Aurelian's participation in 
Gallienus' campaign against Aureolus at Milan (see Zouaras, 
xii. 25) and of his share in the conspiracy for the murder of 
Gallienus (see Gall., xiv. 1 and note). 

4 See Claud., xii. 2-6. 

5 There is no reason to suppose that Aurelian had anything 

222 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XV. 3 XVI. 2 

Crinitus to adopt Aurelian, chiefly for the reason that 
he was poor ; but this question I think should be left 
undiscussed. 

Now, inasmuch as 1 have previously inserted the letter 
in accordance with which Aurelian was furnished with 
the money needed for his consulship, I have thought 
I should tell why I inserted a detail apparently trivial. 
We have recently beheld the consulship of Furius 
Placidus l celebrated in the Circus with so much dis- 
play that the chariot-drivers seemed to receive not 
prizes but patrimonies, for they were presented with 
tunics of part-silk, with embroidered tunics 2 made of 
fine linen, and even with horses, while right-thinking 
men groaned aloud. For it has come to pass that 
the consulship is now a matter of wealth, not of men, 
because, of course, if it is offered to merit, it ought 
not to impoverish the holder. Gone are those former 
days of integrity, destined to disappear still further 
through the currying of popular favour. But this 
question, too, as is our wont, we shall leave un- 
discussed. 

XVI. So then, raised to a high position by these 
many expressions of approval and these rewards, 
Aurelian became so illustrious during the time of 
Claudius 3 that, after this emperor's death and the 
murder of his brother Quintillus, 4 he alone received 
the imperial power ; for Aureolus, with whom 
Gallienus had made peace, had been put to death. 
Concerning this matter there is great diversity of 
opinion among the historians, even among the Greeks, 
for some say that Aureolus was killed by Aurelian 
against Claudius' will, 5 others that it was by his 

to do with the death of Aureolus, who was killed by his 
soldiers ; see Claud., v. 1-3. 

223 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

alii mandante ac volente, alii ab imperatore iam 
Aureliano eundem occisum, alii vero adhuc a private. 

3 sed haec quoque media reliuquemus, ab ipsis petenda, 

4 per quos in litteras missa sunt. illud tamen constat 
omne contra Maeotidas bellum divum Claudium nulli 
magis quam Aureliano credidisse. 

XVII. Exstat epistula, quam ego, ut soleo, fidei 
causa, immo ut alios annalium scriptores fecisse video, 
inserendam putavi : 

2 " Flavius Claudius Valeric Aureliano suo salutem. 
expetit a te munus solitum nostra res publica. 
adgredere. quid moraris ? tuo magisterio milites 
uti volo, tuo ductu tribunos. Gothi oppugnandi sunt, 
Gothi a Thraciis amovendi. eorum enim plerique 
Haemimontum Europamque vexant, qui te pugnante 

3 lugerunt. omnes exercitus Thracicos, omnes Illyrici- 
anos, totumque limitem in tua potestate constituo ; 
solitam en nobis ede virtutem. tecum erit etiam 

4frater Quintillus, cum recurrent, ego aliis rebus 
occupatus summam belli illius virtutibus tuis credo, 
misi sane equos decem, loricas duas et cetera quibus 
munire ad bellum euntem necessitas cogit." 

5 Secundis igitur proeliis usus auspiciis Claudianis 
rein publicam in integrum reddidit atque ipse statim, 



1 i.e., the Eruli, thus called because they came from the 
shores of Lake Maeotis (the Sea of Azov) ; on their invasion see 
Claud., vi.-xi. Aurelian seems to have distinguished himself 
in the course of this war (see also c. xvii. 5), and alter a serious 
disaster to the cavalry toward its close (Claud., xi. 6-8) to have 
been appointed by Claudius to the command of the whole 
cavalry (c. xviii. 1) and thereupon to have avenged the previous 
defeat. 

- These urines were never borne by Claudius and Aurelian ; see 
note to Claud., i. 1. 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XVI. 3 XVII. 5 

command and desire, others again that he was killed 
by Aurelian after assuming the imperial power, and 
still others that it was while he was yet a commoner. 
But these things, too, we shall leave undiscussed, to 
be learned from those who have put them in writing. 
This much, however, is agreed among all, namely, 
that the Deified Claudius entrusted the whole conduct 
of the war against the Maeotidae l to no one in pre- 
ference to Aurelian. 

XVII. There is still in existence a letter, which, 
for the sake of accuracy, as is my wont, or rather 
because I see that other writers of annals have done 
so, I have thought I should insert : " From Flavins 
Claudius to his dear Valerius 2 Aurelian greeting : 
Our commonwealth demands of you your wonted 
services. Up then ! Why this delay ? I wish the 
soldiers to reap the benefit of your command, the 
tribunes of your leadership. The Goths must be 
crushed, they must be driven from Thrace. For large 
numbers of them are, ravaging Haemimontum 3 and 
Europe, those very ones who fled when you fought 
against them. I now place under your command all 
the armies in Thrace, all in Illyricum, and, in fact, 
the whole frontier ; come now, show us your wonted 
prowess. My brother Quintillus, as soon as he meets 
you, will also give you his aid. Busied as I am with 
other tasks, I am entrusting to your valour the whole 
of this war. I am sending you, moreover, ten horses, 
two cuirasses, and all else with which necessity bids 
me equip one going out to fight." 

So, making use of success won in battles fought 
under Claudius' auspices, he brought back the empire 

8 See Claud. , xi. 3 and note. 

225 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

ut supra diximus, consensu omnium legionum factus 
est imperator. 

XVIII. Equites sane omnes ante imperium s..b 
Claudio Aurelianus gubernavit, cum offensam magistri 
eorum incurrissent, quod temere Claudio non iubente 
pugnassent. 

2 Item Aurelianus contra Suebos et Sarmatas iisdem 
temporibus vehementissime dimicavit ac florentissi- 

3 mam victoriam rettulit. accepta est sane clades sub 
Aureliano a Marcomannis per errorem. nam dum iis 
a fronte non curat occurrere subito erumpentibus, 
dumque illos a dorso persequi parat, omnia circa 
Mediolanum graviter evastata sunt. postea tamen 
ipsi quoque Marcomanni snperati sunt. 

4 In illo autem timore, quo Marcomanni cuncta vas- 
tabant, ingentes Romae seditiones motae sunt paven- 



1 Before 25 May, 270, on which day he appears in a papyrus 
as emperor. Immediately after Claudius' death, in the spring 
of 270, Quintillus was proclaimed emperor in Italy; see Claud., 
xii. 2-5 and notes. According to Zonaras, xii. 26, Quintillus 
and Aurelian were proclaimed simultaneously, the former by 
the senate and the latter by the army. This would seem to 
mean that the army, recently victorious over the Goths, refused 
to acknowledge the unwarlike Quintillus and bestowed the im- 
perial power on its most competent general, then in Pannonia, 
whereupon Quintillus committed suicide (cf. c. xxxvii. 6). 

2 See Claud., xi. 6-8. 

3 More correctly, Juthungi, akin to the Alamanni and, like 
them, living north of the upper Danube. Taking advantage of 
the disturbances folllowing Claudius' death, the}' invaded Raetia 
in 270 and seem even to have entered northern Italy. On the 
news of Aurelian's approach from Pannonia they withdrew, 
but were overtaken south of the Danube by Aurelian and de- 
feated in a great battle. A speech, supposedly delivered by 
Aurelian to their envoys after this battle, is preserved from the 
EwQiKo. of Dexippus; see Fragm. Hist. Graec., iii. p. 682 f. 

226 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XVIII. 1-4 

to its previous condition and was at once, as we have 
related before, declared emperor by the unanimous 
voice of all the legions. 1 

XVIII. Aurelian, in fact, commanded all the cavalry 
before he received the power and while Claudius was 
still ruling, after the leaders of the horse had incurred 
reproach for having fought rashly and without the 
Emperor's orders. 2 

Aurelian, too, during that same time, fought with 
the greatest vigour against the Suebi 3 and the Sarma- 
tians 4 and won a most splendid victory. 5 Under him, 
it is true, a disaster was inflicted by the Marcomanni 6 
as the result of his blunder. For, while he was making 
no plan to meet them face to face during a sudden 
invasion, but was preparing to pursue them from the 
rear, they wrought great devastation in all the region 
around Milan. Later on, however, he conquered even 
the Marcomanni also. 

During that panic, moreover, while the Marcomanni 
were devastating far and wide, great revolts arose at 
Rome, 7 for all were afraid that what had happened 

4 This invasion seems to have necessitated Aurelian's return 
to Pannonia immediately after his defeat of the Juthungi. 

5 The biographer here omits any mention of Aurelian's journey 
to Rome, in the late summer of 270, and his reception by the 
senate, which was soon followed by a rapid return to Pannonia 
in order to repel an invasion of Vandals ; see Zosimus, i. 48. 

6 More correctly, Alamanni and Juthungi. They invaded 
Italy in the winter of 270-271, while Aurelian was absent fight- 
ing against the Vandals. Aurelian hurried to meet them, but 
the vita fails to make his tactics clear ; it would seem that he 
tried to attack them from the north as they were advancing. 
He then followed them and was badly defeated at Placentia 
(c. xxi. 1-3), while the invaders continued their advance. 

7 See c. xxi. 5-6. 

227 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

tibus cunctis, ne eadera quae sub Gallieno fuerant 

5provenirent. quare etiam Libri Sibyllini noti bene- 

ficiis publicis inspect! sunt, inventumque ut in certis 

locis sacrificia fierent, quae barbari transire non possent. 

6 facta denique sunt ea quae praecepta fuerant in di- 
verso caerimoniarum genere, atque ita barbari re- 
stiterunt, quos omnes Aureliaiius carptim vagantes 
occidit. 

7 Libet ipsius seiiatus consulti formam exponere, quo 
libros inspici clarissimi ordinis iussit auctoritas : 

XIX. Die tertio iduum lanuariarum Fulvius Sabinus 
praetor urbanus dixit : " Referimus ad vos, p itres con- 
scripti, pontificum suggestionera et Aureliani principis 
litteras, quibus iubetur ut inspiciantur fatales libri, 
quibus spes belli terminandi sacrato deorum iniperio 

2 concinetur. scitis enim ipsi, quotiescumque gravior ali- 
quis exstitit motus, eos semper inspectos, neque prius 
mala publica esse finita quam ex iis sacrificiorum pro- 

Scessit auctoritas." tune surrexit primae sententiae 
Ulpius Silanus atque ita locutus est : " Sero nimis, 
patres conscripti, de rei publicae salute consulimur, 
sero ad fatalia iussa respicimus more languentium, qui 
ad summos medicos nisi in summa desperatione non 
mittunt, proinde quasi peritioribus viris maior facienda 



1 i.e,, an invasion by Alamanni; see note to Gall., iv. 6. 

2 They advanced south-eastward along the Via Aemilia as far 
as the mouth of the Metaurus, where Aurelian defeated them in 
a great battle at Fano, forcing them to retreat. Thereupon he 
followed them and again defeated them near the river Ticinus ; 
see Epit. t xxxv. 2. After this victory the title Germanicus 
Maximus was conferred on him by the senate, and coins were 
issued with the legend Victoria Germanica; see Matt.-Syd., v. 
p. 305, no 355. 

3 On such " senatus oonsulta," see note to Vol., v. 3. 

228 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XVIII. 5 XIX. S 

under Gallienus l might occur once more. Therefore 
they even consulted the Sibylline Books, famed for 
their benefits to the State, and in these it was found 
that sacrifices should be made in certain places, which 
the barbarians then would not be able to pass. And 
so all those measures which were ordered were carried 
out with divers kinds of ceremonies, and thus the bar- 
barians were checked, all of whom, as they wandered 
about in small divisions, Aurelian later destroyed. 2 

It is my desire to give in full the text of the senate's 
decree 3 itself, in which the authority of that most 
illustrious body ordained that the Books should be 
consulted : 

XIX. On the third day before the Ides of January 11 Jan. 
Fulvius Sabinus, 4 the city-praetor, spoke as follows : ( 27 ' 
"We bring before you, Conscript Fathers, the recom- 
mendation of the pontiffs and a message from Aurelian 
our prince, bidding us consult the Books of Fate, in 
which, by the sacred command of the gods, are con- 
tained our hopes of ending the war. For you your- 
selves are aware that, whenever any serious commotion 
arose, they were always consulted, and that never 
have the public ills been brought to an end until 
there issued from them the command to make sacri- 
fice." Then Ulpius Silanus, whose right it was to 
give his opinion first, arose and spoke as follows : " It 
is over late, Conscript Fathers, for us to be consulted 
now concerning the safety of the commonwealth, and 
over late for us to look to the commands of Fate, 
even as do the sick who do not send for the great- 
est physicians save when in the greatest despair, 
exactly as though more skilful men must needs give 

4 Neither he nor Ulpius Silauus ( 3) is otherwise known. 

229 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

4 sit cura, cum omnibus morbis occurri sit melius. me- 
ministis enim, patres conscripti, me in hoc ordine 
saepe dixisse, iam turn cum primum nuntiatum est 
Marcomannos erupisse, consulenda Sibyllae decreta, 
utendum Apollinis beneficiis, inserviendum deorum 
inmortalium praeceptis, 1 recusasse vero quosdam, et 
cum ingenti calumnia recusasse, cum adulando dice- 
rent tan tarn principis Aureliani esse virtutem ut opus 
non sit deos consuli, proinde quasi et ipse vir magnus 

6 non deos colat, non de dis inmortalibus speret. quid 
plura ? audivimus litteras, quibus rogavit opem deorum, 
quae numquam cuiquam turpis est. 2 ut vir fortissi- 

6 mus adiuvetur. agite igitur, pontifices, qua puri, qua 
mundi, qua sancti, qua vestitu animisque sacris corn- 
modi, templum ascendite, subsellia laureata con- 
struite, 3 velatis 4 manibus libros evolvite, fata rei 
publicae, quae sunt aeterna, perquirite. patrimis matri- 
tnisque pueris carmen indicite. nos sumptum sacris, 
nos apparatum sacrificiis, nos arvis Ambarvalia indice- 
XX. mus." 5 post haec interrogati plerique senatores sen- 

2tentias dixerunt, quas longum est innectere. deinde 

1 inseruiendum . . . praeceptis ins. from Z by Hohl ; om. in 
P and by Peter. ^deorum . . . est ins. from S by Hohl; 
del, the rest om. in P and by Peter. s construite S; 

constuite P ; consti'uite editors. *uelatis Salm. ; uetanis 
PJ; ueteranis P corr. 5 patrimis . . . indicemus ins. from 

27 by von Winterfeld and Hohl ; om. in P and by Peter. 



J The expression (also used in Heliog., viii. 1) means pro- 
perly " with both parents living " ; this was a pre-requisite for 
service at the sacrifices, sacred meals, and other temple- 
ceremonies. A similar chorus sang the Carmen Saeculare of 
Horace. 

230 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XIX. 4 XX. 2 

a more certain cure, whereas it were better far to 
meet every disease at the outset. For you re- 
member, Conscript Fathers, that I often said in this 
body, when the invasion of the Marcomanni was first 
announced, that we should consult the commands of 
the Sibyl, make use of the benefits of Apollo, and 
submit ourselves to the bidding of the immortal gods ; 
but some objected, and objected, too, with cruel guile, 
saying in flattery that such was the valour of the 
Emperor Aurelian that there was no need to consult 
the deities, just as though that great man does not 
himself revere the gods and found his hopes on the 
dwellers in Heaven. Why say more ? We have 
heard his message asking for the help of the gods, 
which never causes shame to any. Now let this most 
courageous man receive our assistance. Therefore 
come, ye pontiffs, and do ye, pure and cleansed and 
holy, attired as is meet and with spirits sanctified, 
ascend to the temple, deck the benches with laurel, 
and with veiled hands unroll the volumes, and inquire 
into the fate of the commonwealth, that fate which is 
unchanging. And finally, do ye also enjoin a sacred 
song upon those boys who may lawfully aid in the 
ceremonies. 1 We, for our part, will decree the money 
to be expended for the sacred rites and all that is 
needful for the sacrifices, and we will proclaim for the 
fields the festival of the Ambarvalia." 2 XX. After 
this speech many of the senators were asked for their 
opinions and gave them, but these it would be too 
long to include. Then, while some raised their 

2 An ancient ceremony of purification held in May, in which 
a bull, a ram, and a pig were conducted about the Kornan terri- 
tory and then sacrificed to Mars. It was entrusted by Augustus 
to the revived priestly college of the Fratres Arvales. 

231 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

aliis manus porrigentibus, aliis pedibus in sententias 
euntibus, plerisque verbo consentientibus conditum 

3 est senatus consultum. itum deinde ad templum, in- 
spect! Libri, proditi versus, lustrata urbs, cantata car- 
mina, Amburbium celebratum, Ambarvalia promissa, 
atque ita sollemnitas, quae iubebatur, expleta est. 

4 Epistula Aureliani de Libris Sibyllinis nam ipsam 

5 quoque indidi ad fidem rerum : " Miror vos, patres 
sancti, tamdiu de aperiendis Sibyllinis dubitasse Libris, 
proinde quasi in Christianorum ecclesia, non in templo 

6 deorum omnium tractaretis. agite igitur et castimoiiia 
pontificum caerimoniisque sollemnibus iuvate princi- 

7 pern necessitate publica laborantem. inspiciantur 
Libri ; si l quae facienda fuerint celebrentur ; quem- 
libet sumptum, cuiuslibet gentis captos, quaelibet 
animalia regia non abnuo sed libens offero, neque 
enim indecorum est dis iuvantibus vincere. sic apud 

8 maiores nostros multa finita sunt bella, sic coepta. si 
quid est sumptuum, datis ad praefectum aerarii litteris 
decerni iussi. est praeterea vestrae auctoritatis area 
publica, quam magis refertam reperio esse quam 
cupio." 

XXI. Cum autem Aurelianus vellet omnibus simul 
facta exercitus sui constipation e concurrere, tanta 
apud Placeiitiam clades accepta est ut Romanum 

1 libri ; si Baehrens, Peter 2 ; libris P. 



1 A festival held, apparently, on 2 Feb. for the purification of 
the city, in which the sacrificial victims (as in the Ambarvalia) 
were led around its confines. 

2 See note to c. xviii. 3. 

282 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XX. 3 XXI. 1 

hands and others went on foot to give their votes 
and others again expressed their assent in words, the 
senate's decree was enacted. Then they went to the 
temple, consulted the Books, brought forth the verses, 
purified the city, chanted the hymns, celebrated the 
Amburbium, 1 and proclaimed the Ambarvalia, and 
thus the sacred ceremony which was commanded 
was carried out. 

Aurelian's letter concerning the Sibylline Books 
for I have included it also as evidence for my state- 
ments : " I marvel, revered Fathers, that you have 
hesitated for so long a time to open the Sibylline 
Books, just as though you were consulting in a gather- 
ing of Christians and not in the temple of all the 
gods. Come, therefore, and by means of the purity 
of the pontiffs and the sacred ceremonies bring aid to 
your prince who is harassed by the plight of the 
commonwealth. Let the Books be consulted ; let 
all that should be done be performed ; whatever ex- 
penses are needful, whatever captives of any race, 
whatever princely animals, I will riot refuse, but will 
offer them gladly, for it is not an unseemly thing to 
win victories by the aid of the gods. It was with 
this that our ancestors brought many wars to an end 
and with this that they began them. Whatever costs 
there may be I have ordered to be paid by the prefect 
of the treasury, to whom I have sent a letter. You 
have, moreover, under your own control the money- 
chest of the State, which I find more full than were 
my desire." 

XXI. Aurelian, however, since he wished, by 
massing his forces together, to meet all the enemy 
at once, suffered such a defeat near Placentia 2 that 
the empire of Rome was almost destroyed. This 

233 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

2paene solveretur imperium. et causa quidem huius 
periculi perfidia et calliditas barbarici fuit motus. 

3 nam cum congredi aperto Marte non possent, in silvas 
se densissimas contulerunt atque ita nostros vespera 

4incumbente turbarunt. denique nisi divina ope post 
inspectionem Librorum sacrificiorumque curas mon- 
stris quibusdam speciebusque divinis implicit! essent 
barbari, Romana victoria non fuisset. 

5 Finite proelio Marcomannico Aureliaiius, ut erat 
natura ferocior, plenus irarum Romam petiit vindictae 
cupidus, quam seditionum asperitas suggerebat. in- 
civilius denique usus imperio, vir alias optimus, sedi- 
tionum auctoribus interemptis cruentius ea quae 

6 mollius fuerant curanda compescuit. interfecti sunt 
enim nonnulli etiam nobiles senatores, cum his leve 
quiddam et quod contemni a mitiore principe potuis- 

7 set vel unus vel levis vel vilis testis obiceret. quid 
multa ? magnum illud et quod iam fuerat et quod 
noil frustra speratum est infamiae tristioris ictu con- 

8 taminavit imperium. timeri coepit prmceps optimus, 
non amari, cum alii dicerent perodiendum l talem 
principem, non optandum, alii bonum quidem me- 

9dicum, sed mala ratione curantem. his actis cum 

1 perodiendum Salm., Hirschfeld, Hohl ; perfodiendum P, 
Peter. 



1 The occasion of this revolt was the successful advance of 
the Germans (see c. xviii. 4), but inasmuch as senators seem to 
have been involved in it (so also c. xxxix. 8 and Zosimus, i. 
49, 2), it may be that the opponents of this emperor created by 
the army took advantage of the opportunity to attempt his 
overthrow. It has been suggested that the revolt of the mint- 
workers (c. xxxviii. 2-3) was a part of this movement. 

2 According to Ammianus Marcellinus, xxx. 8, 8, he con- 

234 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXI. 2-9 

peril, in fact, was caused by the cunning and perfidy 
of the barbarians' mode of attack. For, being unable 
to meet him in open battle, they fell back into the 
thickest forests, and thus as evening came on they 
routed our forces. And, indeed, if the power of the 
gods, after the Books had been consulted and the 
sacrifices performed, had not confounded the bar- 
barians by means of certain prodigies and heaven- 
sent visions, there would have been no victory for 
Rome. 

When the war with the Marcomanni was ended, 
Aurelian, over-violent by nature, and now filled with 
rage, advanced to Rome eager for the revenge which 
the bitterness of the revolts had prompted. 1 Though 
at other times a most excellent man, he did, in fact, 
employ his power too much like a tyrant, for in slay- 
ing the leaders of the revolts he used too bloody a 
method of checking what should have been cured by 
milder means. For he even killed some senators of 
noble birth, 2 though the charges against them were 
trivial and could have been held in disdain by a more 
lenient prince, and they were attested either by a 
single witness or by one who was himself trivial or 
held in but little esteem. Why say more ? By the 
blow of a graver ill-repute he then marred that rule 
which had previously been great and of which high 
hopes were cherished, and not without reason. Then 
men ceased to love and began to fear an excellent 
prince, some asserting that such an emperor should 
be hated and not desired, others that he was a good 
physician indeed, but the methods he used for healing 
were bad. Then, since all that happened made it 

fiscated much property ; this was perhaps to provide money for 
the war against Palmyra. 

235 



THE DETFIED AURELIAN 

videret posse fieri ut aliquid tale iterum, quale 
sub Gallieno evenerat, proveniret, adhibito consilio 
senatus muros urbis Romae dilatavit. nee tamen 

lOpomerio addidit eo tempore sed postea. pomerio 
autem neminem principum licet addere nisi eum qui 
agri barbarici aliqua parte Romanam rem publicam 

11 locupletaverit. addidit autem Augustus, addidit 
Traianus, addidit Nero, sub quo Pontus Polemoniacus 
et Alpes Cottiae Romano nomini sunt 1 tributae. 

XXII. Transactis igitur quae ad saeptiones atque 

urbis statum et civilia pertinebant contra Palmyrenos, 

id est contra Zenobiam, quae filiorum nomine orientale 

2tenebat imperium, iter flexit. multa in itinere ac 

magna bellorum genera confecit. nam in Thraciis et 

1 nomini sunt Salm., Peter; nominis P, 2. 



1 See c. xxxix. 2 and note. 

2 The ancient ceremonial boundary-line of the city, enclosing 
the area within which auspices could be taken. Originally 
surrounding the Palatine Hill only, it was extended to include 
the Septimontium and then the four Regions. Sulla extended 
it on the principle stated here (see Aulus Gellius, xiii. 14, 3-4), 
as did, apparently, Julius Caesar and Augustus and, certainly, 
Claudius, some of whose boundary-stones are extant, and 
Vespasian also. No extensions made by Nero or Trajan are 
known. 

3 The kingdom of Polemo I. and his descendants, annexed to 
the Empire in 63 and incorporated, first, in the province of 
Galatia and later in Cappadocia. It consisted of a district 
along the southern coast of the Black Sea, extending eastward 
from the mouth of the river Iris (Yeshil Irmak) to Cotyora 
(Ordu) and as far south as Sebasteia (Sivas). 

4 Named from Cottius, who ruled the district under Augustus. 
It lay on both sides of the present Franco-Italian boundary, 
including Seguaio (Susa) on the north-east and Ebrodunum 

236 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXI. 10 XXII. 2 

seem possible that some such thing might occur 
again, as had happened under Gallienus, after asking 
advice from the senate, he extended the walls of the 
city of Rome. 1 The pomerium, 2 however, he did not 
extend at that time, but later. For no emperor may 
extend the pomerium save one who has added to the 
empire of Rome some portion of foreign territory. 
It was, indeed, extended by Augustus, by Trajan, 
and by Nero, under whom the districts of Pontus 
Polemoniacus 3 and the Cottian Alps 4 were brought 
under the sway of Rome. 

XXII. And so, having arranged for all that had to 
do with the fortifications and the general state of 
the city and with civil affairs as a whole, he directed 
his march against the Palmyrenes, or rather against 
Zenobia, who, in the name of her sons, was wielding 
the imperial power in the East. 5 On this march he 
ended many great wars of various kinds. For in 



(Embrun) on the south-west. It was made a province by Nero 
and put under a procurator et praises. 

5 See note to Tyr. Trig., xxx. 1. After the death of Odae- 
nathus she had, while acting as regent for her son (c. xxxviii. 
1), developed an imperialistic policy, sending an army to Egypt, 
which succeeded in holding most of that country (see Claud., 
xi. 1 and note), and extending her sway northward over Syria, 
including Antioch, and Asia Minor as far as Ancyra (Angora). 
Without actually rebelling against Roman rule, she had created 
what seems to have been virtually an independent kingdom. 
Encouraged, however, by Aurelian's ill-success against the 
Alamanni, she determined on a definite break with Rome, and 
in the spring or early summer of 271 coins were issued iu 
Antioch and Alexandria, bearing the portrait of her son Vabal- 
lathus, with the titles of Imperator and Augustus. She seems 
to have now formed the plan of setting up in the East a rival 
power after the pattern of the independent empire in Gaul, and 
a war with Aurelian was inevitable. 

237 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

in Illyrico occurrentes barbaros vicit, Gothorum quin 

etiam ducem Caiinaban sive Cannabaudem cum 

quinque milibus hominum trans Danuvium interemit. 

Satque inde per Byzantium in Bithyniam transitum 

4 fecit eamque nullo certamine obtinuit. multa eius 
magna et praeclara tam facta quam dicta sunt, sed 
omnia libro innectere nee possumus fastidii evita- 
tione nee volumus, sed ad intellegendos mores atque 

5 virtutem pauca libanda sunt. nam cum Tyanam ve- 
nisset eamque obclusam repperisset, iratus dixisse fer- 

6tur: "Canem in hoc oppido non relinquam." tune 
et militibus acrius incumbentibus spe praedae, et 
Heraclammone quodam timore, lie inter ceteros occi- 
XXIII. deretur, patriam suam prodente civitas capta est. sed 
Aurelianus duo statim praecipua, quod unum severi- 
tatem ostenderet, alterum lenitatem, ex imperatoria 

2mente monstravit. nam et Heraclammonem pro- 
ditorem patriae suae sapiens victor occidit et, cum 
milites iuxta illud dictum, quo canem se relicturum 
apud Tyanos negarat, eversionem urbis exposcerent, 
respondit his : " Canem," inquit, "negavi in hac urbe 

8 me relicturum ; canes omnes occidite." grande prin- 



1 i.e. , the Goths, who invaded the country south of the 
Danube in the summer of 271. On the spoils and captives 
taken by Aurelian see c. xxxiii. 3-4 and xxxiv. 1. He com- 
memorated the victory by assuming the name Gothicus 
Maxim us and by coins with the legend Victoria Gothica ; see 
Matt.-Syd. v. p. 303, no. 339. It was probably at this time 
that the districts north of the Danube were evacuated ; see note 
to c. xxxix. 7. 

2 Meanwhile the Palmyrenes were driven out of Egypt by 
Probus, according to Prob., ix. 5. This happened after 11 Mar., 
271 (of which date there is a papyrus dated in the joint reign of 
Aurelian and Vaballathus) and before 29 Aug., 271, after which 
there are no Alexandrian coins of Vaballathus. 

238 



THE DEIFIED AUERLIAN XXII. 3 XXIII. S 

Thrace and Illyricum he defeated the barbarians 1 
who came against him, and on the other side of the 
Danube he even slew the leader of the Goths, 
Cannabas, or Cannabaudes as he is also called, and 
with him five thousand men. From there he crossed 
over by way of Byzantium into Bithynia, and took 
possession of it without a struggle. 2 Many were the 
great and famous things that he said and did, but we 
cannot include them all in our book without causing a 
surfeit, nor, indeed, do we wish to do so, but for the 
better understanding of his character and valour a 
few of them must be selected. For instance, when 
he came to Tyana 3 and found its gates closed against 
him, he became enraged and exclaimed, it is said : 
" In this town I will not leave even a dog alive." 
Then, indeed, the soldiers, in the hope of plunder, 
pressed on with greater vigour, but a certain Hera- 
clammon, fearing that he would be killed along with 
the rest, betrayed his native-place, and so the city 
was captured. XXI IL Aurelian, however, with the 
true spirit of an emperor, at once performed two 
notable deeds, one of which showed his severity, the 
other his leniency. For, like a wise victor, he put 
to death Heraclammon, the betrayer of his native- 
place, and when the soldiers clamoured for the 
destruction of the city in accordance with the words 
in which he had declared that he would not leave a 
dog alive in Tyana, he answered them, saying : " I 
did, indeed, declare that I would not leave a dog 
alive in this city; well, then, kill all the dogs." 
Notable, indeed, were the prince's words, but more 

3 Mod. Kizli-Hissar in S.W. Cappadocia, whence led the 
route over the Taurus into Cilicia. 

239 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

cipis dictum, grandius militum factum 1 ; nam iocatum 
principis, quo praeda negabatur, civitas servabatur, 
totus exercitus ita quasi ditaretur accepit. 

4 Epistula de Hera clam mone : " Aurelianus Augustus 
Mallio Chiloni. occidi passus sum cuius quasi bene- 
ficio Tyanam recepi. ego vero proditorem amare non 
potui, et libenter tuli quod eum milites occiderunt ; 
neque enim mihi fidem servare potuisset, qui patriae 

6 non pepercit. solum denique ex omnibus, qui oppug- 
nabantur, campus accepit. divitem hominem negare 
non possum, sed cuius bona eius liberis reddidi, ne 
quis me causa pecuniae locupletem hominem occidi 
passum esse criminaretur." 

XXIV. Capta autem civitas est miro modo. nam 
cum Heraclammon locum osteiidisset aggeris naturali 
specie tumentem, qua posset Aurelianus cultus ascen- 
dere, ille conscendit atque elata purpurea chlamyde 
intus civibus foris militibus se ostendit, et ita civitas 
capta est, quasi totus in muris Aureliani fuisset exer- 
citus. 

2 Taceri non debet res quae ad famam venerabilis 

3viri pertiiiet. iertur enim Aurelianum de Tyanae 
civitatis eversione vere dixisse, vere cogitasse ; verum 
Apollonium Tyanaeum, celeberrimae famae auctorita- 
tisque sapientem, veterem philosophum, amicum 
verum 2 deorum, ipsum etiam pro numirie frequentan- 
dum, recipienti se in tentorium ea forma qua videtur 

1 factum Gruter, Peter ; uocatumP. ' 2 uerum editors; 

uir P 1 ; uirum P corr. 



1 Aurelian apparently wished to appear as the deliverer of 
Asia Minor and Syria from the Falmyrenes, for he followed a 
similar policy at Antioch ; see c. xxv. 1. 

- Otherwise unknown. 3 See note to Alex., xxix. 2. 

240 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXIII. 4 XXIV. 3 

notable still was the deed of the soldiers ; for the 
entire army, just as though it were gaining riches 
thereby, took up the prince's jest, by which both 
booty was denied them and the city preserved intact. 1 

The letter concerning Heraclammon : " From 
Aurelian Augustus to Mallius Chilo. 2 I have suffered 
the man to be put to death by whose kindness, as it 
were, I recovered Tyana. But never have I been 
able to love a traitor and I was pleased that the 
soldiers killed him ; for he who spared not his native 
city would not have been able to keep faith with me. 
He, indeed, is the only one of all who opposed me 
that the earth now holds. The fellow was rich, I 
cannot deny it, but the property I have restored to 
the children of him to whom it belonged, that no one 
may charge me with having permitted a man who 
was rich to be slain for the sake of his money." 

XXIV. The city, moreover, was captured in a 
wonderful way. For after Heraclammon had shown 
Aurelian a place where the ground sloped upward by 
nature in the form of a siege-mound, up which he 
could climb in full attire, the emperor ascended there, 
and holding aloft his purple cloak he showed himself 
to the towns-folk within and the soldiers without, and 
so the city was captured, just as though Aurelian's 
entire army had been within the walls. 

We must not omit one event which enhances the 
fame of a venerated man. For, it is said, Aurelian 
did indeed truly speak and truly think of destroying 
the city of Tyana ; but Apollonius of Tyana, 3 a sage 
of the greatest renown and authority, a philosopher 
of former days, the true friend of the gods, and him- 
self even to be regarded as a supernatural being, 
as Aurelian was withdrawing to his tent, suddenly 

241 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

subito adstitisse, atque haec Latine, ut homo Pan- 

4 nonius intellegeret, verba dixisse : " Aureliane, si vis 
vincere, nihil est quod de civium meorum nece cogites. 
Aureliane, si vis imperare, a cruore innocentium 
abstine. Aureliane, clementer te age, si vis vivere." 

5 norat vultum philosophi venerabilis Aurelianus atque 

6 in multis eius imaginem viderat templis. denique 
statim adtonitus et imaginem et statuas et templum 
eidem promisit atque in meliorem rediit mentem. 

7 haec ego et a gravibus viris comperi et 1 in Ulpiae 
Bibliothecae libris relegi et pro maiestate Apollonii 

Smagis credidi. quid enim illo viro sanctius, venera 
bilius, antiquius diviniusque inter homines fuit ? ille 
mortuis reddidit vitam, ille multa ultra homines et 
fecit et dixit. quae qui velit nosse, Graecos legat 

9libros qui de eius vita conscript! sunt. ipse autem, si 
vita suppetit, atque ipsius viri favori usque placuerit, 2 
breviter saltern tanti viri facta in litteras mittanr, non 
quo illius viri gesta munere mei sermonis iiidigeant, 
sed ut ea quae miranda sunt omnium voce praedi- 
centur. 

XXV. Recepta Tyana Antiochiam proposita om- 
nibus impunitate brevi apud Daphnem certamine 

1 et 2, om. in P. ^fauori usque quaque placuerit P 

corr. ; favor iuscuerit P 1 ; favor nos iuverit Peter. 



1 The only one extant is the biography written by Flavins 
Philostratus early in the Third Century (trans, by F. C. Cony- 
beare in the L.C.L.). 

2 The best account of the war against Zenobia is in Zosiuius, 
i. 50-56. According to this, the battle took place on the 
Orontes, whereas the engagement at Daphne occurred during 
the retreat of the Palmyrenes. Zenobia herself was present 
at the main battle, the victory at which was due to a skilful 

24-2 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXIV. 4 XXV. l 

appeared to him in the form in which he is usually 
portrayed, and spoke to him as follows, using Latin in 
order that he might be understood by a man from Pan- 
nonia : " Aurelian ,, if you wish to conquer, there is 
no reason why you should plan the death of my 
fellow-citizens. Aurelian, if you wish to rule, abstain 
from the blood of the innocent. Aurelian, act with 
mercy if you wish to live long." Aurelian recog- 
nized the countenance of the venerated philosopher, 
and, in fact, he had seen his portrait in many a 
temple. And so, at once stricken with terror, he 
promised him a portrait and statues and a temple, 
and returned to his better self. This incident I have 
learned from trustworthy men and read over again in 
the books in the Ulpian Library, and I have been the 
more ready to believe it because of the reverence in 
which Apollonius is held. For who among men has 
ever been more venerated, more revered, more re- 
nowned, or more holy than that very man ? He 
brought back the dead to life, he said and did many 
things beyond the power of man. If any one should 
wish to learn these, let him read the Greek books 
which have been composed concerning his life. 1 I 
myself, moreover, if the length of my life shall permit 
and the plan shall continue to meet with his favour, 
will put into writing the deeds of this great man, 
even though it be briefly, not because his achieve- 
ments need the tribute of my discourse, but in order 
that these wondrous things may be proclaimed by the 
voice of every man. 

XXV. After thus recovering Tyana, Aurelian, by 
means of a brief engagement near Daphne, 2 gained 

manoeuvre of the Roman cavalry, the infantry taking no part 
in the fight. 

243 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

obtinuit atque inde praeceptis, quantum probatur, 
venerabilis viri Apollonii parens humanior atque 

2clementior fuit. pugnatum est post haec de sum- 
ma rerum contra Zenobiam et Zabam eius socium 

3apud Emesam magno certamine. cumque Aureliani 
equites fatigati iam paene discederent ac terga darent, 
subito vi numinis, quod postea est proditum, hortante 
quadam divina forma per pedites etiam equites resti- 
tuti sunt. fugata est Zenobia cum Zaba, et plenissime 

4 parta victoria, recepto igitur orientis statu Emesam 
victor Aurelianus ingressus est ac statim ad Templum 
Heliogabali tetendit, quasi commuiii officio vota solu- 

5 turns. verum illic earn formam numinis repperit 
6quam in bello sibi faventem vidit. quare et illic 

templa fundavit doiiariis ingentibus positis et Romae 
Soli templum posuit maiore honorificentia consecra- 
tum, ut suo dicemus loco. 

XXVI. Post haec Palmyram iter flexit, ut ea op- 
pugnata laborum terminus fieret. sed in itinere a 
latronibus Syris male accepto frequenter exercitu 
multa perpessus est et in obsidione usque ad ictum 
sagittae periclitatus est. 
2 Epistula ipsius exstat ad Mucaporem missa, in qua 



1 Septimius Zabdas (Zaba, see Claud., xi. 1), who had com- 
manded in the battle near Antioch, after abandoning the city 
to Aurelian, fell back to the south along the Orontes to Emesa 
(Horns), where the great battle of the war was fought. 
Z*enobia's troops, 70,000 strong, greatly outnumbered the 
Romans, and her cavalry drove the Roman horse from the 
field, but her infantry was badly defeated by Aurelian. The 
defeated remnants of the Queen's army took refuge in the city, 
but the hostility of the towns-folk forced her to retreat across 
the desert to Palmyra, 90 miles distant, leaving behind a great 
amount of treasure. 

244 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXV. 2 XXVJ. 2 

possession of Antioch, having promised forgiveness 
to all ; and thereupon, obeying, as far as is known, 
the injunctions of that venerated man, Apollonius, 
he acted with greater kindness and mercy. After 
this, the whole issue of the war was decided near 
Emesa in a mighty battle fought against Zenobia and 
Xaba, 1 her ally. When Aurelian's horsemen, now 
exhausted, were on the point of breaking their ranks 
and turning their backs, suddenly by the power of 
a supernatural agency, as was afterwards made known, 
a divine form spread encouragement throughout the 
foot-soldiers and rallied even the horsemen. Zenobia 
and Zaba were put to flight, and a victory was won 
in full. And so, having reduced the East to its 
former state, Aurelian entered Emesa as a conqueror, 
and at once made his way to the Temple of Elaga- 
balus, 2 to pay his vows as if by a duty common to all. 
But there he beheld that same divine form which he 
had seen supporting his cause in the battle. Where- 
fore he not only established temples there, dedicating 
gifts of great value, but he also built a temple to the 
Sun at Rome, which he consecrated with still greater 
pomp, as we shall relate in the proper place. 3 

XXVI. After this he directed his march toward 
Palmyra, 4 in order that, by storming it, he might put 
an end to his labours. But frequently on the march 
his army met with a hostile reception from the 
brigands of Syria, and after suffering many mishaps 
he incurred great danger during the siege, being 
even wounded by an arrow. 

A letter of his is still in existence, addressed to 



2 See note to Heliog., i. 5. 
3 See c. xxxv. 3. 4 Early in 272. 



245 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

de huius belli difficultate ultra pudorem imperialem 

8 fatetur : " Romani me modo dicunt bellum contra 

feminam gerere, quasi sola mecum Zenobia et suis 

viribus pugnet, atque hostiura quantum si vir a me 

oppugnandus esset, ilia 1 conscientia et timore longe 

4deteriore. dici non potest quantum hie sagittarum 

est, qui belli apparatus, quantum telorum, quantum 

lapidum ; nulla pars muri est quae non binis et ternis 

ballistis occupata sit ; ignes etiam tormentis iaciuntur. 

6 quid plura ? timet quasi femina, pugnat quasi poenam 

timens. sed credo adiuturos Romanam rem publicam 

vere 2 deos, qui numquam nostris conatibus defuerunt." 

6 Denique fatigatus ac pro malis fessus litteras ad 
Zenobiam misit deditionem illius petens, vitam pro- 
mittens, quarum exemplum indidi : 

7 "Aurelianus imperator Romani orbis et receptor 
orientis Zenobiae ceterisque quos societas tenet bellica. 

gsponte facere debuistis id quod meis litteris nunc iu- 
betur. deditionem enim praecipio impunitate vitae 
proposita, ita ut illic, Zenobia, cum tuis agas vitam ubi 

9te ex senatus amplissimi sententia conlocavero. gem- 
mas, aurum, argentum, sericum, equos, camelos in 
Romanum aerarium conferatis. Palmyrenis ius suum 
servabitur.' 



l illa Editor; in P, Peter. *uere Petschenig; uir P; 

ueros Salm., Peter. 



1 See c. xxxv. 5. 
246 



THE DEIFIED AUREL1AN XXVI. 3-9 

Mucapor, 1 in which, without the wonted reserve of 
an emperor he confesses the difficulty of this war : 
" The Romans are saying that I am merely waging 
a war with a woman, just as if Zenobia alone and 
with her own forces only were fighting against me, 
and yet, as a matter of fact, there is as great a force 
of the enemy as if I had to make war against a man, 
while she, because of her fear and her sense of guilt, 
is a much baser foe. It cannot be told what a store 
of arrows is here, what great preparations for war, 
what a store of spears and of stones ; there is no 
section of the wall that is not held by two or three 
engines of war, and their machines can even hurl fire. 
Why say more ? She fears like a woman, and fights 
as one who fears punishment. I believe, however, that 
the gods will truly bring aid to the Roman common- 
wealth, for they have never failed our endeavours." 

Finally, exhausted and worn out by reason of 
ill-success, he despatched a letter to Zenobia, asking 
her to surrender and promising to spare her life ; of 
this letter I have inserted a copy : 

" From Aurelian, Emperor of the Roman world and 
recoverer of the East, to Zenobia and all others who 
are bound to her by alliance in war. You should 
have done of your own free will what I now command 
in my letter. For I bid you surrender, promising 
that your lives shall be spared, and with the condition 
that you, Zenobia, together with your children shall 
dwell wherever I, acting in accordance with the wish 
of the most noble senate, shall appoint a place. Your 
jewels, your gold, your silver, your silks, your horses, 
your camels, you shall all hand over to the Roman 
treasury. As for the people of Palmyra, their rights 
shall be preserved." 

24,7 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

XXVII. Hac epistula accepta Zenobia superbius 
insolentiusque rescripsit quam eius fortuna poscebat, 
credo ad terrorem ; nam eius quoque epistulae exem- 

2 plum indidi : "Zenobia regina orientis Aureliano 
Augusto. Nemo adhuc praeter te hoc quod poscis 
litteris petiit. virtute faciendum est quidquid in 

3 rebus bellicis est gerendum. deditionem meam petis, 
quasi nescias Cleopatram reginam perire maluisse 

4 quam in qualibet vivere dignitate. nobis Persarum 
auxilia non desunt, quae iam speramus, pro nobis 

5sunt Saraceni, pro nobis Armenii. latrones Syri 
exercitum tuum, Aureliane, vicerunt. quid si igitur 
ilia venerit manus quae undique speratur, pones pro- 
fecto supercilium, quo iiunc mihi deditionem, quasi 
omnifariam victor, imperas." 

6 Hanc epistulam Nicomachus se transtulisse in 
Graecum ex lingua Syrorum dicit ab ipsa Zenobia 
dictatam. nam ilia superior Aureliani Graeca missa 
est. 

XXVIII. His acceptis litteris Aurelianus non eru- 
buit sed iratus est statimque collecto exercitu ac 
ducibus suis undique Palmyram obsedit ; neque quic- 
quam vir fortis reliquit quod aut imperfectum videre- 

2tur aut incuratum. nam et auxilia, quae a Persis 
missa fuerant, iiitercepit et alas Saracenas Armenias- 
que corrupit atque ad se modo ferociter rnodo subti- 
liter traiistulit. denique multa vi mulierem poten- 



1 Otherwise unknown. 

2 These were probably not very numerous, for the old enemy 
of the Romans, Sapor L, was nearing his end; he died in the 
autumn of 272, after making his son Hormizd I. king in his 
stead. 

248 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXVII. 1 XXVIII. 2 

XXVII. On receiving this letter Zenobia responded 
with more pride and insolence than befitted her 
fortunes, I suppose with a view to inspiring fear ; for 
a copy of her letter, too, I have inserted : 

" From Zenobia, Queen of the East, to Aurelian 
Augustus. None save yourself has ever demanded 
by letter what you now demand. Whatever must be 
accomplished in matters of war must be done by 
valour alone. You demand my surrender as though 
you were not aware that Cleopatra preferred to die 
a Queen rather than remain alive, however high 
her rank. We shall not lack reinforcements from 
Persia, which we are even now expecting. On our 
side are the Saracens, on our side, too, the Armenians. 
The brigands of Syria have defeated your army, 
Aurelian. What more need be said ? If those forces, 
then, which we are expecting from every side, shall 
arrive, you will, of a surety, lay aside that arrogance 
with which you now command my surrender, as 
though victorious on every side." 

This letter, Nicomachus 1 says, was dictated by 
Zenobia herself and translated by him into Greek 
from the Syrian tongue. For that earlier letter of 
Aurelian's was written in Greek. 

XXVIII. On receiving this letter Aurelian felt no 
shame, but rather was angered, and at once he 
gathered together from every side his soldiers and 
leaders and laid siege to Palmyra ; and that brave 
man gave his attention to everything that seemed 
incomplete or neglected. For he cut off the rein- 
forcements which the Persians had sent, 2 and he 
tampered with the squadrons of Saracens and Ar- 
menians, bringing them over to his own side, some by 
forcible means and some by cunning. Finally, by 

249 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

Stissimam vicit. victa igitur Zenobia cum fugeret 
camelis, quos dromedas vocitant, atque ad Persas iter 
tenderet, equitibus missis est capta atque in Aureliani 
potestatem deducta. 

4 Victor itaque Aurelianus totiusque iam orientis 
possessor, cum in vinculis Zenobiam teneret, cum 
Persis, Armeniis, Saracenis superbior l atque insolen- 

5 tior egit ea quae ratio temporis postulabat. tune 
illatae illae 2 vestes, quas in Templo Solis videmus, 
consertae gemmis, tune Persici dracones et tiarae, 
tune 3 genus purpurae, quod postea nee ulla gens 
detulit nee Romanus orbis vidit. 

XXIX. De qua pauca saltern libet dicere. memi- 
nistis enim fuisse in Templo lovis Optimi Maximi Cap- 
itolini pallium breve purpureum lanestre, ad quod cum 
matronae atque ipse Aurelianus iungerent purpuras 
suas, cineris specie decolorari videbantur ceterae divini 

2 comparatione fulgoris. hoc munus rex Persarum ab 
Indis interioribus sumptum Aureliano dedisse per- 
hibetur, scribens : " Sume purpuram, qualis apud nos 

8 est." sed hoc falsum fuit. 4 nam postea diligent issime 
et Aurelianus et Probus et proxime Diocletianus missis 
diligentissimis confectoribus requisiverunt tale genus 

1 superbior Salm., editors; superior P. 2 illatae illae 

Purser ; illae P ; allatae Peter ; illatae Eyssenhardt, Hohl. 
3 tune Peter; turn P. 4 sed . . . fuit 2, Hohl ; om. in P 

and by Peter. 



1 According to Zosimus, the supplies of the Palmyrenes were 
exhausted and it was decided that Zenobia should go in person 
to the Persians to seek aid, but she was captured after crossing 
the Euphrates. Soon afterwards the peace-party in Palmyra 
gained the upper hand and surrendered the city after exacting 
from Aurelian the promise that no punishment should be 
inflicted, 

250 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXVIII. 3 XXIX. 3 

a mighty effort he conquered that most powerful 
woman. 1 Zenobia, then, conquered, fled away on 
camels (which they call dromedaries), but while seek- 
ing to reach the Persians she was captured by the 
horsemen sent after her, and thus she was brought 
into the power of Aurelian. 

And so Aurelian, victorious and in possession of the 
entire East, more proud and insolent now that he 
held Zenobia in chains, dealt with the Persians, 
Armenians, and Saracens as the needs of the occasion 
demanded. Then were brought in those garments, 
encrusted with jewels, which we now see in the 
Temple of the Sun, then, too, the Persian dragon- 
flags 2 and head-dresses, and a species of purple such 
as no nation ever afterward offered or the Roman 
world beheld. 

XXIX. Concerning this I desire to say at least few 
words. For you remember that there was in the 
Temple of Jupiter Best and Greatest on the Capitolium 
a short woollen cloak of a purple hue, by the side of 
which all other purple garments, brought by the 
matrons and by Aurelian himself, seemed to fade to 
the colour of ashes in comparison with its divine 
brilliance. This cloak, brought from the farthest 
Indies, the King of the Persians is said to have pre- 
sented as a gift to Aurelian, writing as follows : 
"Accept a purple robe, such as we ourselves use." 
But this was untrue. For later both Aurelian and 
Probus and, most recently, Diocletian made most 
diligent search for this species of purple, sending out 

2 A flag depicting a dragon was used by the Orientals and 
by the northern barbarians as shown on the Columns of Trajan 
and M. Aurelius. It was later adopted by the Romans also 
and carried by a draconarius (c. xxxi. 7). 

951 



THE DEIFIED AURELTAN 

purpurae nee tamen invenire potuerunt. dicitur enim 
sandyx Indica talem purpuram facere, si curetur. 

XXX. Sed ut ad incepta redeamus : ingens tamen 
strepitus militum fuit omnium Zenobiam ad poenam 

2 poscentium. sed Aurelianus indignum aestimans 
mulierem interimi occisis plerisque, quibus auctoribus 
ilia bellum moverat, paraverat, gesserat, triumpho 
mulierem reservavit, ut populi Romani oculis esset 

3 ostentui. grave inter eos qui caesi sunt de Longino 
philosopho fuisse perhibetur, quo ilia magistro usa 
esse ad Graecas litteras dicitur, quern quidem 
Aurelianus idcirco dicitur occidisse, quod superbior 
ilia epistula ipsius diceretur dictata consilio, quamvis 
Syro esset sermone contexta. 

4 Pacato igitur oriente in Europam Aurelianus rediit 
victor atque illic Carporum copias adflixit et, cum 
ilium Carpi cum senatus absentem vocasset, mandasse 
ioco 1 fertur : " Superest, patres conscripti, ut me 

6 etiam Carpisculum vocetis." carpisclum enim genus 

1 ioco Cornelisseu, Hohl ; loco P; e loco Peter. 



1 Usually the term given to a mixture of red sulphide of 
arsenic and red ochre, but here, apparently, the name of a 
plant, as also in Vergil, Buc., iv. 45; see Pliny, Nat. Hist., 
xxxv. 40. 

2 This was at Emesa, whither Aurelian withdrew after the 
surrender of Palmyra, summoning there for trial both Zenolia 
and her counsellors. The latter were accused by the Queen in 
an effort to save herself, and many of them were then put to 
death. 

3 See c. xxxiii-xxxiv. 

4 Cassius Longinus, Neo-Platonist philosopher, rhetorician 
and philologian. After a long career as a teacher in Athens 
he withdrew to the court of Zenobia. Of his many works 

252 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXX. 1-5 

their most diligent agents, but even so it could not be 
found. But indeed it is said that the Indian sandyx l 
yields this kind of purple if properly prepared. 

XXX. But to return to my undertaking : despite 
all this, there arose a terrible uproar among all the 
soldiers, who demanded Zenobia for punishment. 2 
Aureiian, however, deeming it improper that a woman 
should be put to death, killed many who had advised 
her to begin and prepare and wage the war, but the 
woman he saved for his triumph, wishing to show her 
to the eyes of the Roman people. 3 It was regarded 
as a cruel thing that Longinus the philosopher 4 should 
have been among those who were killed. He, it is 
said, was employed by Zenobia as her teacher in 
Greek letters, and Aurelian is said to have slain him 
because he was told that that over-proud letter of 
hers had been dictated in accord with his counsel, 
although, in fact, it was composed in the Syrian 
tongue. 

And so, having subdued the East, Aurelian re- 
turned as a victor to Europe, 5 and there he defeated 
the forces of the Carpi 6 ; and when the senate gave 
him in his absence the surname Carpicus, he sent 
them this message, it is said, as a jest : " It now only 
remains for you, Conscript Fathers, to call me Carpis- 
culusalso" for it is well known that carpixclum la 

there remain only fragments of his Rhetoric, although the 
essay nepi"TvJ/ous, by an unknown author, was long attributed 
to him. 

5 He seems to have made some sort of a punitive expedition 
into Persian territory ; see c. xxxv. 4 ; xli 9. He received 
from the senate the title of Persicus Maximus or Parthicus 
Maximus and issued coins with the legend Victoria Parthica; 
see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 291, no. 240. 

6 On the Lower Danube ; see note to Max.-Balb.,-xvi. 3. 

253 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

calciamenti esse satis notum est. quod cognomen 
deforme videbatur, cum et Gothicus et Sarmaticus et 
Armeniacus et Parthicus et Adiabenicus iam ille 
diceretur. 1 

XXXI. Rarum est ut Syri fidem servent, immo 
difficile, nam Palmyreni, qui iam victi atque contusi 
fuerant, Aureliano rebus Europensibus occupato non 

2mediocriter rebellarunt. Sandarionem enim, quern 
in praesidio illic Aurelianus posuerat, cum sescentis 
sagittariis occiderunt, Achilleo cuidam parenti Zenobiae 

jjparantes imperium. verum adeo Aurelianus, ut erat 
paratus, e Rhodope revertit atque urbem, quia ita 

4 merebatur, evertit. crudelitas denique Aureliani vel, 
ut quidam dicunt, severitas eatenus exstitit ut epistula 
eius feratur confessioneminmanissimi furorisostentans, 
cuius hoc exemplum est : 

5 " Aurelianus Augustus Cerronio Basso, non oportet 
ulterius progredi militum gladios. iam satis Palmyre- 
norum caesum atque concisum est. mulieribus non 
pepercimus, infantes occidimus, senes iugulavimus, 

6 rusticos interemimus. cui terras, cui urbem deinceps 
relinquemus ? parcendum est iis qui remanserunt. 
credimus enim tarn paucos tarn multorum suppliciis 

1 diceretur 2 ; disceretur P. 



1 Of these names, Gothicus, Parthicus and Carpicus, as well 
as Germanicus, appear in an inscription of Aurelian's last 
year (C./.L., vi. 1112); the others do not seem to have been 
borne by him. 

2 According to the fuller account in Zosimus, i. 60-61, the 
Palmyrenes under the leadership of Apsaios (perhaps the Sep- 
timius Apsaios to whom C.I.G., 4487 is dedicated) tried to 
persuade Marcellinus, who had been left in charge of the 
Euphrates frontier, to take part in a revolt. He put them off 

2,54 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXXI. 1-6 

a kind of boot. This surname appeared to him as 
ignoble, since he was already called both Gothicus 
and Sarmaticus and Armeniacus and Parthicus and 
Adiabenicus. 1 

XXXI. It is a rare thing, or rather, a difficult 
thing, for the Syrians to keep faith. For the Palmy- 
renes, who had once been defeated and crushed, now 
that Aurelian was busied with matters in Europe, 
began a rebellion of no small size. 2 For they killed 
Sandario, whom Aurelian had put in command of the 
garrison there, and with him six hundred bowmen, 
thus getting the rule for a certain Achilleus, a kins- 
man of Zenobia's. But Aurelian, indeed, prepared 
as he always was, came back from Rhodope and, 
because it deserved it, destroyed the city. In fact, 
Aurelian's cruelty, or, as some say, his sternness, is 
so widely known that they even quote a letter of his, 
revealing a confession of most savage fury 3 ; of this 
the following is a copy : 

" From Aurelian Augustus to Cerronius Bassus. 4 
The swords of the soldiers should not proceed further. 
Already enough Palmyrenes have been killed and 
slaughtered. We have not spared the women, we 
have slain the children, we have butchered the old 
men, we have destroyed the peasants. To whom, at 
this rate, shall we leave the land or the city ? Those 
who still remain must be spared. For it is our belief 
that the few have been chastened by the punishment 

with ambiguous replies and sent word of the plot to Aurelian. 
Meanwhile the Palmyrenes invested Antiochus (whom the vita 
calls Achilleus) with the royal insignia. This seems to have 
been in the early summer of 272. 

3 Yet, according to Zosimus, he spared Antiochus' life. 

4 Otherwise unknown. 

255 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

7esse correctos. Templum sane Soils, quod apud 
Palmyram aquiliferi legionis tertiae cum vexilliferis 
et draconario et cornicinibus atque liticinibus diri- 
puerunt, ad earn formam volo, quae fuit, reddi. 

8 habes trecentas auri libras de l Zenobiae capsulis, 
habes argenti mille octingenta pondo de Palmyre- 

9norum bonis, habes gemmas regias. ex his omnibus 
fac cohonestari templum ; mihi et dis inmortalibus 
gratissimum feceris. ego ad senatum scribam, petens 
10 ut mittat pontificem qui dedicet templum." haec 
litterae, ut videmus, indicant satiatam esse inmani- 
tatem principis duri. 

XXXII. Securior denique iterum in Europam rediit 
atque illic omnes qui vagabantur hostes nota ilia sua 

2virtute contudit. interim res per Thracias Europam- 
que omnem Aureliano ingentes agente Firmus quidam 
exstitit, qui sibi Aegyptum sine insignibus imperii, 

3 quasi ut esset civitas libera, vindicavit. ad quern 
continuo Aurelianus revertit, nee illic defuit felicitas 
soiita. nam Aegyptum statim recepit atque, ut erat 
ferox animi, cogitationem ultus, vehementer irascens, 
quod adhuc Tetricus Gallias obtineret, occidentem 
petiit atque ipso Tetrico exercitum suum prodeiite, 
quod eius scelera ferre non posset, deditas sibi 

4legiones 2 obtinuit. princeps igitur totius orbis 
Aurelianus pacatis oriente et 3 Gallis atque ubique 

1 de ins. by Salm. ; om. in P. 2 regiones P, 2. 3 so Peter ; 
orientem P. 

1 Still the chief glory of the ruins of Palmyra. 

2 See note to c. xxviii. 5. 

3 See Firm., iii.-v. According to the more correct version of 
Zosimus (i. 61, 1), Aurelian marched directly from Palmyra to 
Alexandria. 

4 See Tijr. Trig., xxiv. 1-2 and notes. 

256 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXXI. 7 XXXII. 4 

of the many. Now as to the Temple of the Sun x at 
Palmyra, which has been pillaged by the eagle-bearers 
of the Third Legion, along with the standard-bearers, 
the dragon-bearer, 2 and the buglers and trumpeters, I 
wish it restored to the condition in which it formerly 
was. You have three hundred pounds of gold from 
Zenobia's coffers, you have eighteen hundred pounds 
of silver from the property of the Palmyrenes, and 
you have the royal jewels. Use all these to embellish 
the temple ; thus both to me and to the immortal gods 
you will do a most pleasing service. I will write to 
the senate and request it to send one of the pontiffs 
to dedicate the temple." This letter, as we can see, 
shows that the savagery of the hard-hearted prince 
had been glutted. 

XXXII. At length, now more secure, he returned 
again to Europe, and there, with his well-known 
valour, he crushed all the enemies who were roving 
about. Meanwhile, when Aurelian was performing 
great deeds in the provinces of Thrace as well as in 
all Europe, there rose up a certain Firmus, who laid 
claim to Egypt, but without the imperial insignia and 
as though he purposed to make it into a free state. 8 
Without delay Aurelian turned back against him, and 
there also his wonted good-fortune did not abandon 
him. For he recovered Egypt at once and took 
vengeance on the enterprise violent in temper, as 
he always was ; and then, being greatly angered that 
Tetricus still held the provinces of Gaul, he departed 
to the West and there took over the legions which 
were surrendered to him 4 for Tetricus betrayed his 
own troops since he could not endure their evil deeds. 
And so Aurelian, now ruler over the entire world, 
having subdued both the East and the Gauls, and 

'257 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

terrarum victor l Romam iter flexit, ut de Zenobia et 
Tetrico, hoc est de oriente et de occidente, triumphum 
Romanis oculis exhiberet. 

XXXIII. Non absque re est cognoscere qui fuerit 

2 Aureliani triumphus. fuit enim speciosissimus. currus 
regii tres fuerunt, in his unus Odaenathi, argento, 
auro, gemmis operosus atque distiiictus, alter, quern 
rex Persarum Aureliano douo dedit, ipse quoque pari 
opere fabricatus, tertius, quern sibi Zenobia com- 
posuerat, sperans se urbem Romanam cum eo visuram. 
quod illam non fefellit ; nam cum eo urbem ingressa 

3 est victa et triumphata. fuit alius currus quattuor 
cervis iunctus, qui fuisse dicitur regis Gothorum. quo, 
ut multi memoriae tradiderunt, Capitolium Aurelianus 
invectus est, ut illic caederet cervos, quos cum eodem 
curru captos vovisse lovi Optimo Maximo ferebatur. 

4 praecesserunt elephanti viginti, ferae mansuetae 
Libycae, Palaestinae diversae ducentae, quas statim 
Aurelianus privatis donavit, ne fiscum annoiiis gra- 
varet ; tigrides quattuor, camelopardali, alces, cetera 
talia per ordinem ducta, gladiatorum paria octingenta, 

1 So Helm in Hohl's ed. ; terrori uicto P, after which P has 
eripe me his, invicte, malis, evidently a repetition from Tyr. 
Trig., xxiv. 3. 



1 He had, in fact, re-uuited the Roman Empire, divided ever 
since 258, when Postumus established his independent power 
in Gaul. His successes were commemorated by the official as- 
sumption of the title Restitutor Orbis, which appears in in- 
scriptions and on coins ; the latter bear also the titles Pacator 
Orbis, Restitutor Saeculi, Restitutor Gentis, Restitutor Orien- 
tis, Pacator Orientis, Pax Aeterna, Pax Augusti. 

a ln 273. 

3 According to an account preserved in Zosimus, i. 59, 
Zenobia died on the way to Europe either by disease or by her 

258 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXXIII. 1-4 

victor in all lands, turned his march toward Rome, 
that he might present to the gaze of the Romans 
a triumph over both Zenobia and Tetricus, that is, 
over both the East and the West. 1 

XXXIII. It is not without advantage to know what 
manner of triumph Aurelian had, 2 for it was a most 
brilliant spectacle. There were three royal chariots, 
of which the first, carefully wrought and adorned with 
silver and gold and jewels, had belonged to Odaena- 
thus, the second, also wrought with similar care, had 
been given to Aurelian by the king of the Persians, 
and the third Zenobia had made for herself, hoping 
in it to visit the city of Rome. And this hope was 
not unfulfilled ; for she did, indeed, enter the city in 
it, but vanquished and led in triumph. 3 There was 
also another chariot, drawn by four stags and said to 
have once belonged to the king of the Goths. 4 In 
this so many have handed down to memory 
Aurelian rode up to the Capitol, purposing there to 
slay the stags, which he had captured along with this 
chariot and then vowed, it was said, to Jupiter Best 
and Greatest. There advanced, moreover, twenty 
elephants, and two hundred tamed beasts of divers 
kinds from Libya and Palestine, which Aurelian at 
once presented to private citizens, that the privy- 
purse might not be burdened with the cost of their 
food ; furthermore, there were led along in order four 
tigers and also giraffes and elks and other such 
animals, also eight hundred pairs of gladiators besides 

own hand. All other writers, however, agree with the version 
given in the text, and it may be supposed that the account in 
Zosirnus was invented for the purpose of likening her to 
Cleopatra. 

4 See c. xxii. 2. 

259 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

praeter captives gentium barbararum. Blemmyes, 
Axomitae, Arabes Eudaemones, Indi, Bactriani, 
Hiberi, Saraceni, Persae cum suis quique muneribus ; 
Gothi, Alani, Roxolani, Sarmatae, Franci, Suebi, 
5 Vandali, German!, religatis manibus captivi. prae- 
cesserunt 1 inter hos etiam Palmyreni qui superfuerant 
XXXIV. principes civitatis et Aegyptii ob rebellionem. ductae 
sunt et decem mulieres, quas virili habitu pugnantes 
inter Gothos ceperat, cum multae essent interemptae, 
quas de Amazon um genere tttulus indicabat praelati 

2 sunt tituli gentium nomina continentes. inter haec 
fuit Tetricus chlamyde coccea, tunica galbina, bracis 
Gallicis ornatus, adiuncto sibi filio, quern imperatorem 

3 in Gallia nuncupaverat. incedebat etiam Zenobia, 
ornata gemmis, catenis aureis, quas alii sustentabant. 
praeferebantur coronae omnium civitatum aureae 

4 titulis eminentibus proditae. iam populus ipse 

Romanus, iam vexilla collegiorum atque castrorum 

et cataphractarii milites et opes regiae et omnis 

exercitus et senatus (etsi aliquantulo tristior, quod 

senatores triumphari viclebant) multum pompae ad- 

Sdiderant. denique vix nona hora in Capitolium 

gpervenit, sero autem ad Palatium. sequentibus die bus 

1 paterae cesserunt P. 



1 From the kingdom of Axomis (mod. Axum) in the district 
of Tigrd in northern Abyssinia ; see Mommsen, Hist. Rom. Prov. 
(Eng. Trans.), ii. p. 305 f. The king seems to have extended 
his sway over the Blemmyes (see also Prob., xvii. 2 ; xix. 1 ; 
Firm., iii. 3), a robber nomad-people in lower Nubia, and also 
over the Arabs of the Yemen (the Homeritai, see Mommsen, 
ibid., p. 321). It would appear that Auteiian had entered into 
friendly relations with this luler during his expedition to Egypt. 

a From Trans-Caucasia. 

;1 See note to Pius, v. 5. 

260 



DEIFIED AURELIAN XXXIII. 5 XXXIV. 6 

the captives from the barbarian tribes. There were 
Blemmyes, Axomitae, 1 Arabs from Arabia Felix, 
Indians, Bactrians, Hiberians, 2 Saracens and Per- 
sians, all bearing their gifts ; there were Goths, 
Alans, 3 Roxolani, Sarmatians, Franks, Suebians, 4 
Vandals and Germans all captive, with their hands 
bound fast. There also advanced among them certain 
men of Palmyra, who had survived its fall, the fore- 
most of the State, and Egyptians, too, because of 
their rebellion. XXXIV. There were led along also 
ten women, who, fighting in male attire, had been 
captured among the Goths after many others had 
fallen ; these a placard declared to be of the race of 
the Amazons for placards were borne before all, dis- 
playing the names of their nations. In the proces- 
sion was Tetricus also, arrayed in scarlet cloak, 
a yellow tunic, and Gallic trousers, 5 and with him 
his son, whom he had proclaimed in Gaul as emperor. 6 
And there came Zenobia, too, decked with jewels 
and in golden chains, the weight of which was borne 
by others. There were carried aloft golden crowns 
presented by all the cities, made known by placards 
carried aloft. Then came the Roman people itself, 
the flags of the guilds and the camps, the mailed 
cuirassiers, 7 the wealth of the kings, the entire army, 
and, lastly, the senate (albeit somewhat sadly, since 
they saw senators, too, being led in triumph) all 
adding much to the splendour of the procession. 
Scarce did they reach the Capitol by the ninth hour 
of the day, and when they arrived at the Palace it 

4 i.e., Juthungi and Alamanni ; see notes to c. xviii. 2-8. 
6 See note to Alex., xl. 11. 

6 See note to Ti/r. Trig., xxv. 1. 

7 See note to Alex., Ivi. 5. 

261 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

datae sunt populo voluptates ludorum scaenicorum, 
ludorum circensium, venationum, gladiatorum, nau- 
machiae. 

XXXV. Non praetereundum videtur quod et 
populus memoria tenet et fides historica frequen- 
tavit, Aurelianum eo tempore quo proficiscebatur ad 
orientem bilibres coronas populo promisisse, si victor 
rediret, et, cum aureas populus speraret neque Aureli- 
anus aut posset aut vellet, coronas eum fecisse de 
panibus, qui nunc siliginei vocantur, et singulis qui- 
busque donasse, ita ut siligineum suum cottidie toto 
aevo suo unusquisque 1 et acciperet et posteris suis 

2 dimitteret. nam idem Aurelianus et porcinam carnem 
populo Romano distribuit, quae hodieque dividitur. 

3 Leges plurimas sanxit, et quidem salutares. sacer- 

1 So Peter ; et unusquisque P, Hohl. 



1 His daily distribution of bread (mentioned also in c. xlviii. 
1 and Zosimus, i. 61, 3) took the place of the monthly distribu- 
tion. It was commemorated by issues of coins with the legends 
AnnonaAug. and Llberalitas Aug. ; see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 268, 
no. 21, and p. 290, no. 229. The cost was covered by additional 
appropriations from the revenues from Egypt, and the boatmen 
on thi Nile and the Tiber were organised into compulsory 
guilds in order that the service might be improved ; see c. xlv. 
1 and xlvii. 1-3. This distribution, like that of pork, which 
was now added to the previous allowances of salt and oil 
(c. xlviii. 1), seems to have been due to the necessity of reliev- 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXXV. 1-3 

was late indeed. On the following days amusements 
were given to the populace, plays in the theatres, 
races in the Circus, wild-beast hunts, gladiatorial 
fights and also a naval battle. 

XXXV. I think that I should not omit what both 
the people remember and the truth of history has 
made current, namely, that Aurelian, at the time of 
his setting out for the East, promised, if he came back 
victorious, to give to the populace crowns weighing 
two pounds apiece ; the populace, however, expected 
crowns of gold, and these Aurelian either could not 
or would not give, and so he had crowns made of the 
bread now called wh eaten and gave one to each 
separate man, providing that each and every one 
might receive his wheaten bread every day of his life 
and hand on his right to his heirs. 1 The same 
Aurelian, too, gave the allowance of pork to the 
Roman people which is given them also to-day. 

He enacted very many laws, and salutary ones 
indeed. 2 He set the priesthoods in order, he con- 
ing the needs of Eome, impoverished by the economic decline of 
Italy and threatened with starvation; see Rostovtzeff, Social 
and Econ. Hist, of the Roman Emp., p. 611 f. and p. 618. 

2 The vita omits any mention of the reform of the coinage, 
which is recorded in Zosimus, i. 61, 3, and attested by the coins 
themselves. As the result of lack of uniformity in coining and 
ftae absence of any fixed standard, the " Antoninianus " had 
become worthless. This coin was now replaced by a new piece, 
which not only was better made and contained more silver, but 
also bore a fixed relation (20 : 1) to a coin of definite value, 
perhaps the aureus or the denarius of real silver or even the 
reduced denarius; see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 9 f. Also a smaller 
coin (the denarius) and bronze coins (the sestertius and 
dupondius) were issued again after a lapse of many years. 

263 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

dotia composuit, Templum Soils fundavit et pontifices 3 
roboravit ; decrevit etiam eraolumenta sartis tectis et 
minis tr is. 

4 His gestis ad Gallias profectus Vindelicos obsidione 
barbarica liberavit, deinde ad Illyricum rediit para- 
toque magno potius quam ingenti exercitu Persis, 
quos eo quoque tempore quo Zenobiam superavit 

5 gloriosissime iam vicerat, bellum indixit. sed cum 
iter faceret, apud Caenophrurium, mansionem quae 
est inter Heracleam et Byzantium, malitia notarii sui 
et manu Mucaporis interemptus est. 

XXXVI. Et causa occidendi eius quae fuerit et 

quemadmodum sit occisus, ne res tanta lateat, brevi 

2edisseram. Aurelianus, quod negari non potest, se- 

3 verus, truculentus, sanguinarius fuit princeps. hie, 

cum usque eo severitatem tetendisset, ut et filiam 

sororis occideret non in magna neque in satis idonea 

1 pontifices P, , def. by Purser; porticibus Scaliger, foil, 
by Peter and Hohl. 



J This temple, in campo Agrip2Jae according to the Notitiae, 
has been identified with a temple that stood on the western 
edge of the Quiriual Hill, just above the gardens of the Palazzo 
Colonna, where some magnificent remains are preserved ; but 
it is perhaps more probable that it was the temple that stood 
farther north, on the eastern side of the Corso, where the Via 
Frattiua now enters it. It contained, according to Zosimus, 
i Cl, statues of Helios and Belos. The latter was the patron- 
god of Palmyra, and beseems to have been the particular deity 
in whose honour Aureliau erected the temple, but transformed 
into a Roman god with the usual national priests and festival 
and evidently intended to be the centre of worship for the 
whole Empire, since on coins of Aurelian he is called Sol 
Dominus Imperil Romani ; see Wissowa, Relig. u. Knltus 
der Burner, p. 307, and Matt.-Syd., v. p. 301, uos. 319-22. 

264 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XXXV. 4 XXXVI. 3 

structed the Temple of the Sun, 1 and he founded its 
college of pontiffs 2 ; and he also allotted funds for 
making repairs and paying attendants. 

After doing these things, he set out for the regions 
of Gaul and delivered the Vindelici from a barbarian 
inroad 3 ; then he returned to Illyricum and having 
made ready an army, which was large, though not of 
inordinate size, he declared war on the Persians, whom 
he had already defeated with the greatest glory at 
the time that he conquered Zenobia. 4 While on his 
way thither, however, he was murdered at Caeno- 
phrurium, 5 a station between Heraclea and Byzantium, 
through the hatred of his clerk but by the hand of 
Mucapor. 6 

XXXVI. Both the reason for his murder and the 
manner in which he was slain I will set forth briefly, 
that a matter of such moment may not remain con- 
cealed. Aurelian it cannot be denied was a stern, 
a savage, and a blood-thirsty prince. And so, when 
he pushed his sternness to the length of slaying his 
sister's daughter 7 without any good or sufficient 
reason, he incurred, first of all, the hate of his own 

2 The Pontlfices Soils, modelled on the ancient college of the 
Pontifices and equal to it in rank ; see Wissowa, p. 307. 

3 Early in 275. These invaders are also mentioned in 
c. xli. 8, but it is not known who they were. The statement 
in Tac., iii. 4 (cf. Prob., xiii. 5), that the barbarians, after 
Aurelian's death, broke through the Limes Transrhenamis 
suggests that he entered Germany and restored this boundary. 

4 See note to c. xxx. 4. 

5 Near the modern station of Sinekli, about 50 m. W. of 
Constantinople. 

6 Addressed in the fictitious letter in c. xxvi. 2-5. In Aur. 
Victor, Goes., 36, 2, he is called dux and is said to have been 
tortured to death by Tacitus. 

7 Sde o. xxxix. 9. 

265 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

4 causa, iam primum in odium suorura venit. incidit 
autem, ut se res fataliter agunt, ut Mnestheum quen- 
dam, quern pro notario secretorum habuerat, libertum, 
ut quidam dicunt, suum, infensiorem sibi minando 
redderet, quod nescio quid de eo l suspicatus esset. 

5 Mnestheus, qui sciret Aurelianum neque frustra 
minari solere neque, si minaretur, ignoscere, brevem 
nominum conscripsit mixtis iis quibus Aurelianus vere 
irascebatur cum iis de quibus nihil asperum cogitabat, 
addito etiam suo nomine, quo magis fidem faceret 
ingestae sollicitudinis, ac brevem legit singulis quorum 
nomina continebat, addens disposuisse Aurelianum 
eos omnes occidere, illos vero debere suae vitae, si 

6viri sint, subvenire. hi 2 cum exarsissent, timore qui 
merebantur offensam, dolore innocentes, quod 3 bene- 
ficiis atque officiis Aurelianus videbatur ingratus, in 
supra dicto loco iter facientem principem subito adorti 
interemerunt. 

XXXVII. Hie finis Aureliano fuit, principi neces- 
sario magis quam bono. quo interfecto cum esset res 
prodita, et sepulchrum ingens et templum illi detu- 

2lerunt ii a quibus interemptus est. sane Mnestheus 
postea subreptus ad stipitern bestiis obiectus est, quod 
statuae marmoreae positae in eodem loco utrimque 

1 60 Peter, Hohl ; quo P, 27, def . by Purser. a hi 27, Hohl ; 
hie P, Peter. 3 quod ins. by Salm. and Hohl ; om. in P and 
by Peter. 



1 In Zosimus, i. 62, 1, and Zonaras, xii. 27, he is called Eros. 
The name Mnestheus, found only here, has been supposed to 
be an error for ^wr^s, which occurs in the expression ruiv 
e|a>Cei/ (pfpo/uLevow airoKpi<rf(ai> fjurivvr^s, by which both Zosimus 
and Zonaras (and consequently their source) describe his office. 



DEIFIED AURELIAN XXXVI. 4 XXXVII. 2 

kinsmen. It came to pass, moreover, as things do 
happen by decree of fate, that he roused the anger 
of a certain Mnestheus l his freedman, some say 
whom he had employed as his confidential clerk, 
because he had threatened him, suspecting him on 
some ground or other. Now Mnestheus, knowing 
that Aurelian neither threatened in vain nor pardoned 
when he had threatened, drew up a list of names, in 
which he mixed together both those at whom Aurelian 
was truly angry and those toward whom he bore no 
ill-will, including his own name also, in order there- 
by to lend greater credence to the fear that he sought 
to inspire. This list he read to the various persons 
whose names were contained therein, adding that 
Aurelian had made arrangements to have them all 
put to death, and that, if they really were men, they 
should save their lives. Thereupon all were aroused, 
those who had deserved his anger being moved by 
fear, and those who were innocent by sorrow, since 
Aurelian seemed ungrateful for their services and 
their fidelity, and so they suddenly attacked the 
Emperor while on the march in the aforesaid place, 
and put him to death. 

XXXVII. Such was the end of Aurelian, a prince 
who was necessary rather than good. After he was 
slain and the facts became known, those very men 
who had killed him gave him a mighty tomb and 
a temple. Mnestheus, however, was afterward haled 
away to a stake and exposed to wild beasts, as is 
shown by the marble statues set up on either hand 
in that same place, where also statues were erected 

According to Aur. Victor, Goes., 35, 7-8, the conspiracy was due 
to Aurelian's sternness in repressing the extortion practised 
by the officials in the provinces. 

267 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

significant, ubi et in columnis divo Aureliano statuae 

3 'constitutae sunfc. senatus mortem eius graviter tulit, 
gravius tamen populus Romanus, qui vulgo dicebat 

4Aurelianum paedagogum esse senatorum. imperavit 
annis sex minus paucis diebus, ac rebus magnis gestis 
inter divos relatus est. 

5 Quia pertinet ad Aurelianum, id quod in historia 
relatum est tacere non debui. nam multi ferunt 
Quintillum, fratrem Claudii, cum in praesidio Italico 
esset, audita morte Claudii sumpsisse imperium. 

gverum postea, ubi Aurelianum comperit imperare, a 
toto exercitu eum derelictum l ; cumque contra eum 
contionaretur nee a militibus audiretur, incisis sibimet 
venis die vicesimo imperil sui perisse. 

7 Quidquid sane scelerum fuit, quidquid malae con- 
scientiae vel artium funestarum, quidquid denique 

. factionum, Aurelianus toto penitus orbe purgavit. hoc 
quoque ad rem pertinere arbitror, Vaballathi filii 
nomine Zenobiam, non Timolai et Herenniani, im- 
perium tenuisse quod tenuit. 

2 Fuit sub Aureliano etiam monetariorum bellum 

1 eum derelictum Peter; ea delectum P. 



1 5 yrs. 6 mos., according to Epit., 35, 1 ; 5 yrs. 4 mos. 
20 days, according to the " Chronographer of 354." He was 
killed probably in October or November, 275 ; see Stein in 
Arch. /. Pap.-Forsch., vii. p. 46. 

268 



DEIFIED AURELIAN XXXVII. 3 XXXVIII. 2 

on columns in honour of the Deified Aurelian. The 
senate mourned his death greatly, but the Roman 
people still more, for they commonly used to say 
that Aurelian was the senators' task-master. He 
ruled six years save for a few days/ and because of 
his great exploits he was given a place among the 
deified princes. 2 

An incident related in history I must not fail to 
include, inasmuch as it has to do with Aurelian. For 
it is told by many that Quint illus, Claudius' brother, 
in command of a garrison in Italy, on hearing of 
Claudius' death seized the imperial power. 3 But 
later, when it was known that Aurelian was emperor, 
he was abandoned by all his army ; and when he had 
made a speech attacking Aurelian and the soldiers 
refused to listen, he severed his veins and died on 
the twentieth day of his rule. 

Now whatever crimes there were, whatever guilty 
plans or harmful practices, and, lastly, whatever plots 
all these Aurelian purged away throughout the 
entire world. XXXVIII. This also, I think, has to 
do with my theme, namely, that it was in the name 
of her son Vaballathus and not in that of Timolaus or 
Herennianus that Zenobia held the imperial power, 4 
which she did really hold. 

There was also during the rule of Aurelian a revolt 
among the mint-workers, under the leadership of 

2 The portion of the vita that follows (co. xxxvii. 5 xli. 15) 
seems to be a sort of appendix, containing many instances of 
repetition of what has been already told. Much of it shows 
a close resemblance to the material in Eutropius and Aurelius 
Victor and seems to have been taken from a common source. 

3 See c. xvii. 5 and Gland., xii. 3-5 and notes. 

4 See c. xxii. 2 and Tyr. Trig., xxx. 1 and notes. 

269 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

Felicissimo rational! auctore. quod acerrime severis- 
simeque compescuit, septem tamen milibus 1 suorum 
militum interemptis, ut epistula docet missa ad Ulpium 
Crinitum ter consulem, qui eum ante adoptaverat : 

3 " Aurelianus Augustus Ulpio patri. quasi fatale 
quiddam mihi sit, utomnia bella quaecumque gessero, 
omnes motus ingravescant, ita etiam seditio intra- 
murana bellum mihi gravissimum peperit. monetarii 
auctore Felicissimo, ultimo servorum, cui procura- 
tionem fisci mandaveram, rebelles spiritus extulerunt. 

4 hi compressi sunt septem milibus l lembariorum et 
ripariensium et castrianorum et Daciscorum inter- 
emptis. unde apparet nullam mihi a dis inmortalibus 
datam sine difficultate victoriam." 

XXXIX. Tetricum triumphatum correctorem 
2 Lucaniae fecit, filio eius in senatu manente. Tern- 
plum Solis magnificentissimum constituit. muros 
urbis Romae sic ampliavit, ut quinquaginta prope 

1 militibus P. 



1 This revolt is described also in Aur. Victor, Goes., 35, 6; 
Epit., 35, 2, and Eutropius, ix. 14. According to these authors, 
the mint-workers, who, with the connivance of Felicissimus, 
had adulterated the metal appropriated for the coinage, fearing 
punishment, broke out into open war. It would appear that 
they had been keeping a part of the silver that was to have 
been used for the billon (i.e., adulterated) coins. Though the 
number of soldiers said to have fallen is, of course, greatly 
exaggerated, a battle seems to have been fought on the Caelian 
Hill, near the mint, which was on the Via Labicana. The 
date is uncertain ; it may have been on the occasion of the 
German invasion of 270-271 (see c. xxi. 5) or in 27-4, just prior 
to the reform of the currency (see note to c. xxxv. 3). 

2 See c. x. 2 and note. 

270 



DEIFIED AURELIAN XXXVIII. 8 XXXIX. 2 

Felicissimus, the supervisor of the privy-purse. 1 This 
revolt he crushed with the utmost vigour and harsh- 
ness, but still seven thousand of his soldiers were 
slain, as is shown by a letter addressed to Ulpius 
Crinitus, 2 thrice consul, by whom he had formerly 
been adopted : 

" From Aurelian Augustus to Ulpius his father. 
Just as though it were ordained for me by Fate that 
all the wars that I wage and all commotions only 
become more difficult, so also a revolt within the city 
has stirred up for me a most grievous struggle. For 
under the leadership of Felicissimus, the lowest of 
all my slaves, to whom I had committed the care of 
the privy-purse, the mint-workers have shown the 
spirit of rebellion. They have indeed been crushed, 
but with the loss of seven thousand men, boatmen, 8 
bank-troops, camp-troops 4 and Dacians. Hence it is 
clear that the immortal gods have granted me no 
victory without some hardship." 

XXXIX. Tetricus, whom he had led in triumph, he 
created supervisor of Lucania, 5 and his son he retained 
in the senate. The Temple of the Sun 6 he founded 
with great magnificence. He so extended the wall 
of the city of Rome 7 that its circuit was nearly fifty 

3 i.e., from the fleets on the Danube. 

4 Terms applied in the fourth century to troops stationed in 
permanent garrisons along the bank of the Danube or in the 
castra on the frontier. 

5 See Tyr. Trig., xxiv. 5 and note. 

6 See c. xxxv. 3 and note. 

7 Begun in 271 after the war against the Marcomanni (see 
c. xxi. 9) and finished by Probus (Zosimus, i. 49). Most of it, 
though frequently restored and increased in height, still remains, 
encircling the ancient city. Its actual length is about twelve 
miles; but perhaps the "50 milia" means 50,000 feet. 

271 



THE DEIFIED AUREIJAN 

Smilia murorum eius ambitus teneant. idem quadru- 
platores ac delatores ingenti severitate persecutus est. 
tabulas publicas ad privatorum securitatem 1 exuri in 

4Foro Traiani semel iussit. amnestia etiam sub eo 
delictorum publicorum decreta est de exemplo Athe- 
niensium, cuius rei etiam Tullius in Plrlippicis 

Bmeminit. fures provinciales repetundarum ac pecu- 
latus reos ultra militarem modum est persecutus, ut 

6eos ingentibus suppliers cruciatibusque puniret. in 
Templo Solis multum auri gemmarumque constituit. 

7 cum vastatum Illyricum ac Moesiam deperditam 
videret, provinciam Traiisdanuvinam Daciam a Traiano 
constitutam sublato exercitu et provincialibus reliquit, 
desperans earn posse retineri, abductosque ex ea 
populos in Moesia conlocavit appellavitque earn 2 
Daciam, quae nunc duas Moesias dividit. 

8 Dicitur praeterea huius fuisse crudelitatis, ut 
plerisque senatoribus simulatam ingereret factionem 
coniurationis ac tyrannidis, quo 3 facilius eos posset 

9 occidere. addunt nonnulli filium sororis, non filiam, 
ab eodem interfectum, plerique autem etiam filium 
sororis. 

1 seueritatem P. 2 eam sugg. by Peter, Purser (of. 

Eutrop., ix. 15) ; suom P. 3 quo OEQ. in P. 

1 In imitation of Hadrian ; see Hadr., vii. G and note. 

2 Cicero, Philippics, i. 1 ; Cicero is speaking of the decree of 
the senate on 17 March, 44 B.C., granting amnesty to all those 
implicated in the murder of Caesar. 

3 See note to c. xxxvi. 4. 

4 The various Gothic invasions had shown that the districts 
north of the Danube could no longer be held without constant 
fighting, and this led to their evacuation, probably in 271. 
The new province was formed out of portions of the two 
Moesias, Thrace aud Dardania, with its capital at Serdica (mod. 

272 



THE DEIFIED AURET IAN XXXIX. S-p 

miles long. He punished with inordinate harshness 
both informers and false accusers. In order to in- 
crease the sense of security of the citizens in general, 
he gave orders that the records of debts due the State 
should be burned once and for all in the Forum of 
Trajan. 1 Under him also an " amnesty" for offences 
against the State was decreed according to the example 
of the Athenians, which Cicero also cites in his 
Philippics?' Thieving officials in the provinces, accused 
of extortion or embezzlement, he punished with more 
than the usual military severity, 3 inflicting on them un- 
wonted penalties and sufferings. He dedicated great 
quantities of gold and jewels in the Temple of the 
Sun. On seeing that Illyricum was devastated and 
Moesia was in a ruinous state, he abandoned the 
province of Trans- Danubian Dacia, which had been 
formed by Trajan, and led away both soldiers and 
provincials, giving up hope that it could be retained. 4 
The people whom he moved out from it he established 
in Moesia, and gave to this district, which now divides 
the two provinces of Moesia, the name of Dacia. 

It is said, furthermore, that so great was his cruelty 
that he brought against many senators a false accusa- 
tion of conspiracy and intention to seize the throne, 
merely in order that it might be easier to put them 
to death. 5 Some say, besides, that it was the son of 
his sister, and not her daughter that he killed, 8 many, 
however, that he slew the son as well. 



Sofia). In order to avoid any loss of prestige, Aurelian assumed 
the title Dacicus Maximus and issued coins with the legend 
Dacia Felix ; see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 277, no. 108. 

5 See note to c. xxi. 5. 

6 The daughter, according to o. xxxvi. 3 ; the son, according 
to Eutropius, ix. 14 ; EpiL, 35, 9. 

273 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

XL. Quam difficile sit imperatorem in locum boni 
principis legere, et senatus sanctioris gravitas probat 

2et exercitus prudentis auctoritas ; occiso namque 
severissimo principe de imperatore deligendo exercitus 
rettulit ad senatum, idcirco quod nullum de iis facien- 
dum putabat, qui tarn bonum priiicipem occiderant. 

8 verum senatus hanc eandem electionem in exercitum 
refudit, sciens non libenter iam milites accipere im- 

4 peratores eos quos senatus elegerit. denique id tertio 
faetum est, ita ut per sex menses imperatorem Romanus 
orbis non habuerit, omnesque iudices ii permanerent, 
quos aut senatus aut Aurelianus elegerat, nisi quod 
pro consule Asiae Faltonius Probus in locum Arellii 
Fusci delectus est. 1 

XLI. Non iniucundum est ipsas inserere litteras 
quas a senatum exercitus misit : 

" Felices ac fortes exercitus senatui populoque 
Romano. Aurelianus imperator noster per traudem 
unius hominis et per errorem bonorum ac malorum 

2 interemptus est. hunc inter deos referte, sancti domini 
patres conscripti, et de vobis aliquem, sed dignum 
vestro iudicio, principem mittite. nos enim de iis qui 
vel errarunt vel 2 male fecerunt, imperare nobis 
neminem patimur." 

3 Rescriptum ex senatus consulto. cum die III 
nonarum Februariarum senatus amplissimus in Curiam 

1 delectus, est Salm. ; delegit P. 2 qui uel P. 



1 On this incident, see Toe., ii.-vi. 

3 Perhaps the consularls of this name in Tyr. Trig., xxi. 3. 
Faltonius Probus is unknown. 

3 On such " senatus consulta " see note to VaL, v. 3. 

4 This date is certainly incorrect, for Aurelian was probably 
killed in October or November ; see note to o. xxxvii. 4. The 

274 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XL. 1 XLI. 3 

XL. How difficult it is to choose an emperor in the 
place of a good ruler is shown both by the dignified 
action of a revered senate and by the power exerted 
by a wise army. For when this sternest of princes 
was slain, the army referred to the senate the busi- 
ness of choosing an emperor, 1 for the reason that it 
believed that no one of those should be chosen who 
had slain such an excellent ruler. The senate, how- 
ever, thrust this selection back on the army, knowing 
well that the emperors whom the senate selected 
were no longer gladly received by the troops. 
Finally, for the third time, the choice was referred, 
and so for the space of six months the Roman world 
was without a ruler, and all those governors whom 
either the senate or Aurelian had chosen remained 
at their posts, save only that Faltonius Probus was 
appointed proconsul of Asia in the place of Arellius 
Fuscus. 2 

XLI. It is not without interest to insert the letter 
itself which the army sent to the senate : 

" From the brave and victorious troops to the 
senate and the people of Rome. Aurelian our em- 
peror has been slain through the guile of one man and 
the blunder of good and evil alike. Do you, now, 
our revered lords and Conscript Fathers, place Aure- 
lian among the gods and send us as prince one of 
your own number, whom you deem a worthy man. 
For none of those who have erred or committed crime 
will we suffer to be our emperor." 

To this a reply was made by decree of the senate. 3 
When on the third day before the Nones of February * 

consul Aurelius Gordianus is perhaps intended to be the same 
as Velius Comificius Gordianus in Toe., iii. 2, but both are 
equally unknown. 

275 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

Pompilianam conveuisset, Aurelius Gordianus consul 
dixit: " Referimus ad vos, patres conscript!, litteras 

4 exercitus felicissimi. " quibus recitatis Aurelius Tacitus, 
primae sententiae senator, ita locutus est (hie autem 
est qui post Aurelianum sententia omnium imperator 

5 est appellatus) : " Recte atque ordine consuluissent di 
immortales, patres conscripti, si boiii principes ferro 
inviolabiles exstitissent, ut longiorem ducerent vitam, 
neque contra eos aliqua esset potestas iis qui neces 

6 infandas tristissima mente coricipiunt. viveret enim 
princeps Aureiianus, quo neque fortior l neque utilior 

7 fuit quisquam. respirare certe post infelicitatem 
Valerian!, post Gallieni mala imperante Claud io coep- 
erat uostra res publica, at eadem reddita fuerat 

SAureliano toto penitus orbe vincente. ille nobis 
Gallias dedit, ille Italiam liberavit, ille' 2 Vindelicis 
iugum barbaricae servitutis amovit. illo vincente Illy- 
ricum restitutum est, redditae Romanis legibus 
9 Thraciae. ille, pro pudor ! orientem femineo pressum 
iugo in iiostra iura restituit, ille Persas, insultantes 

lOadhuc Valerian! nece, fudit, fugavit, oppressit. ilium 
Saraceni, Blemmyes, Axomitae, Bactriani, Seres, 
Hiberi, Albani, Armenii, populi etiam Indorum veluti 

11 praesentem paene venerati sunt deum. illius donis, 

1 neque fortior ins. by Salm. ; om. in P. 2 inde P. 



1 This name is applied to the Curia Julia only here and in 
Tac. t iii. 2. It may be due to an attempt to attribute the 
foundation of the earliest senate-house to Numa Pompilius 
instead of Tullus Hostilius, but it is more probable that it i3 
an invention of the author's. 

2 See Tac. t vii. 1. 3 See notes to c. xxxiii. 4. 

276 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XLI. i-11 

the most high senate had assembled in the Senate- 
house of Pompilius, 1 Aurelius Gordianus, the consul, 
said : " We now lay before you, Conscript Fathers, 
the letter from our most victorious army." When 
this letter was read, Tacitus, whose right it was to 
give his opinion first (it was he, moreover, who was 
acclaimed as emperor after Aurelian by the voice of 
all 2 ), spoke as follows : " Well and wisely would the 
immortal gods have planned, Conscript Fathers, had 
they but rendered good emperors invulnerable to 
steel, for so would they have longer lives and those 
have no power against them who with most grievous 
intent contrive abominable murder. And if it were 
so, our emperor Aurelian would still be alive, than 
whom none was ever more brave or more beneficial. 
For after the misfortune of Valerian and the evil 
ways of Gallienus our commonwealth did indeed under 
Claudius' rule begin to breathe once more, but 
Aurelian it was who won victories throughout the 
entire world and restored it again to its former state. 
He it was who gave us back the provinces of Gaul, 
he who set Italy free, he who removed from the 
Vindelici the yoke of barbarian enslavement. He by 
his victories won back Illyricum and brought again 
the districts of Thrace under the laws of Rome. He 
restored to our sway the Orient, crushed down (oh, 
the shame of it !) beneath the yoke of a woman, he 
defeated and routed and destroyed the Persians, still 
vaunting themselves in the death of Valerian. He 
was revered as a god, almost as though present in per- 
son, by the Saracens, the Blemmyes, the Axomitae, 3 
the Bactrians, the Seres, the Hiberians, the Albanians, 
the Armenians, and even by the peoples of India. 
His donations, won from barbarian tribes, fill the 

277 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

quae a barbaris gentibus meruit, refertum est Capito- 

lium. quindecim milia librarura auri ex eius liberalitate 

unum tenet tern plum, omnia in urbe fana eius micant 
12donis. quare, patres conscripti, vel deos ipsos iure 

convenio, qui talem principem interire passi sunt, nisi 
13 forte secum eum esse maluerunt. decerno igitur 

divinos honores idque vos omnes aestimo esse facturos. 

nam de imperatore deligendo ad eundem exercitum 
14censeoesse referendum, etenim in tali genere sen- 

tentiae nisi fiat quod dicitur, et electi periculum erit et 
15 eligentis invidia." probata sententia est Taciti. atta- 

men cum iterum atque iterum mitteretur, ex senatus 

consulto, quod in Taciti vita dicemus, Tacitus fact us 

est imperator. 

XL11. Aurelianus filiam sol am reliquit, cuius pos- 

2 teri etiam nunc Romae sunt. Aurelianus namque pro 
consule Ciliciae, senator optimus sui vere iuris vitaeque 
venerabilis, qui nunc in Sicilia vitam agit, eius est 
nepos. 

3 Quid hoc esse dicam, tarn paucos bonos exstitisse 
principes, cum iam tot Caesares fuerint ? nam ab 
Augusto in Diocletianum Maximianumque principes 
quae series purpuratorum sit, index publicus tenet. 

4 sed in his optimi ipse Augustus, Flavius Vespasianus, 
Flavius Titus, Cocceius Nerva, divus Traianus, divus 
Hadrianus, Pius et Marcus Antonin^ Severus Afer, 



1 Otherwise unknown ; see note to Tyr. Trig., xiv. 3. A 
proconsul of Cilicia is mentioned also in Car., iv. 6, but no 
such office had existed since the time of the Republic. During 
the first three centuries of the Empire this province was 
governed by an imperial legatus, after Diocletian by a procon- 
sularis. Hence the title seems to be an invention of the 
author's due to his desire to introduce antiquarian details. 
Moreover, it is improbable that a great-grandson of Aurelian'a 

278 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XLI. 12 XLII. 4 

Capitol ; by his liberality one temple alone contains 
fifteen thousand pounds of gold, and with his gifts all 
the shrines in the city are gleaming. Wherefore, 
Conscript Fathers, I couldjustly bring charges against 
even the very gods, who suffered such a prince to 
perish, were it not that perchance they preferred to 
have him among themselves. I therefore propose 
divine honours, and these I believe you all will bestow. 
With regard to the choice of an emperor, indeed, 
you should refer it, I think, to this army. For in a 
proposal of this kind, unless that which is urged be 
done, there is both danger for those who are chosen 
and odium for those who choose." The proposal of 
Tacitus found favour ; but after the matter had been 
referred back again and again, by decree of the senate 
Tacitus, as we shall relate in his Life, was chosen as 
emperor. 

XLII. Aurelian left only a daughter, whose descen- 
dants are even now in Rome. For Aurelianus, 1 
proconsul of Cilicia, a most excellent senator in his 
own true right and venerated for his manner of life, 
who now is living in Sicily, is a grandson of hers. 

Now what shall I say of this, that whereas so many 
have borne the name of Caesar, there have appeared 
among them so few good emperors ? For the list of 
those who have worn the purple from Augustus to 
the Emperors Diocletian and Maximian is contained 
in the public records. Among them, however, the 
best were Augustus himself, Flavius Vespasian, Titus 
Flavius, Cocceius Nerva, the Deified Trajan, the 
Deified Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Anto- 
ninus, Severus the African, Alexander the son of 

was a mature man in 306, when this vita purports to have been 
written. 

279 



THE DEIFIED AUERLIAN 

Alexander Mamaeae, divus Claudius et divus Aureli- 
anus. Valerianum enim, cum optimus fuerit, ab om- 

5nibus infelicttas sepaiavit. 1 vide, quaeso, quam pauci 
sint principes boni, ut bene dictum sit a quodam 
mimico scurra Claudii huius temporibus in uno anulo 

Gbonos principes posse perscribi atque depingi. at 
contra quae series malorum ! ut enim omittamus 
Vitellios, Caligulas et Nerones, quis ferat Maximinos 
et Philippos atque illam inconditae multitudinis fae- 
cem? tametsi Decios excerpere debeam, quorum et 
vita et mors veteribus comparanda est. 

XLIII. Et quaeritur quidem quae res malos prin- 
cipes faciat ; iam primum, mi amice, licentia, deinde 
rerum copia, amici praeterea improbi, satellites detes- 
tandi, eunuchi avarissimi, aulici vel stulti vel detes- 
tabiles et, quod negari non potest, rerum publicarum 

2 ignorantia. sed ego a patre meo audivi Diocletianum 
principem iam privatum dixisse nihil esse difficilius 

3 quam bene imperare. colligunt se quattuor vel 
quinque atque unum consilium ad decipiendum im- 

4peratorem capiunt, dicunt quid probandum sit. im- 
perator, qui domi clausus est, vera non novit. cogitur 
hoc tantum scire quod illi loquuntur, facit iudices 
quos fieri non oportet, arnovet a re publica quos de- 
beat obtinerc. quid multa ? ut Diocletianus ipse 
dicebat, bonus, cautus, optimus, venditur imperator. 

1 separauit Gruter ; paruit P. 



1 i.e., Gallienus ; see note to Gall., i. 1. 
8 See note to Tyr. Trig., xxv. 3. 



280 



THE DEIFIED AUREL1AN XLII. 5 XLI1I. 4 

Mamaea, the Deified Claudius, and the Deified Aure- 
liaii. For Valerian, though a most excellent man, 
was by his misfortune set apart from them all. Ob- 
serve, I pray you, how few in number are the good 
emperors, so that it has well been said by a jester on 
the stage in the tune of this very Claudius that the 
names and the portraits of the good emperors could 
be engraved on a single ring. But, on the other 
hand, what a list of the evil ! For, to sav naught of 

* o 

a Vitellius, a Caligula, or a Nero, who could endure a 
Maximimis, a Philip, or the lowest dregs l of that dis- 
orderly crew? I should, however, except the Decii, 
who in their lives and their deaths should be likened 
to the ancients. 

XLIII. The question, indeed, is often asked what 
it is that makes emperors evil ; first of all, my friend, 
it is freedom from restraint, next, abundance of wealth, 
furthermore, unscrupulous friends, pernicious atten- 
dants, the greediest eunuchs, courtiers who are fools 
or knaves, and it cannot be denied ignorance of 
public affairs. And yet I have heard from my father 2 
that the emperor Diocletian, while still a commoner, 
declared that nothing was harder than to rule welL 
Four or five men gather together and form one plan 
for deceiving the emperor, and then they tell him to 
what he must give his approval. Now the emperor, 
who is shut up in his palace, cannot know the truth. 
He is forced to know oiilv what these men tell him, 

/ * 

he appoints as judges those who should not be ap- 
pointed, and removes from public office those whom 
he ought to retain. Why say more ? As Diocletian 
himself was wont to say, the favour of even a good 
and wise and righteous emperor is often sold. These 
were Diocletian's own words, and I have inserted 

281 



THE DEIFIED AUREL1AN 

6 haec Diocletiani verba sunt, quae idcirco inserui ut 

prudentia tua sciret nihil esse difficilius bono principe. 

XLIV. Et Aurelianum quidem multi neque inter 

bonos neque inter malos principes ponunt, idcirco 

quod ei dementia, imperatorum dos 1 prima, defuerit. 

2Verconnius Herennianus praefectus praetorii Diocle- 
tiani teste Asclepiodoto saepe dicebat Diocletianum 
frequenter dixisse, cum Maximiani asperitatem repre- 
henderet, Aurelianum magis ducem esse debuisse 
quam principem. nam eius nimia ferocitas eidem 
displicebat. 

3 Mirabile fortasse videtur quod compertum Dio- 
cletiano Asclepiodotus Celsino consiliario suo dixisse 

4perhibetur, sed de hoc posteri iudicabunt. dicebat 
enim quodam tempore Aurelianum Gallicanas con- 
suluisse Druiadas, sciscitantem utrum apud eius pos- 
teros imperium permaneret, cum illas respondisse dixit 
nullius clarius in re publica nomen quam Claudii pos- 

5terorum futurum. et est quidem iam Constantius 
imperator, eiusdem vir sanguinis, cuius puto posteros 
ad earn gloriam quae a Druiadibus proiiuntiata sit 
per venire, quod idcirco ego in Aureliani vita con- 
stitui quia haec ipsi Aureliano consulenti responsa 
sunt. 

XLV. Vectigal ex Aegypto urbi Romae Aurelianus 
vitri, chartae, lini, stuppae, atque anabolicas species 

1 dos 2 ; om. in P. 



1 See Prob., xxii. 3. 

2 See note to Prob., xxii. 8. Nothing is known of any history 
written by him. Celsinus is unknown. 

3 Other prophecies by Druid women are given in Alex., be. 6, 
and Car., xiv. 3 f. 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XLIII. 5 XLV. 1 

them here for the very purpose that your wisdom 
might understand that nothing is harder than to be a 
good ruler. 

XL IV. Now Aurelian, indeed, is placed by many 
among neither the good nor the evil emperors for the 
reason that he lacked the quality of mercy, that fore- 
most dower of an emperor. In fact, Verconnius 
Herennianus, 1 Diocletian's prefect of the guard, used 
often to say or so Asclepiodotus 2 bears witness 
that Diocletian, in finding fault with Maxim ian's 
harshness, frequently said that Aurelian ought to 
have been a general rather than an emperor. So 
displeasing to Diocletian was Aurelian's excessive 
ferocity. 

This may perhaps seem a marvellous thing that 
was learned by Diocletian and is said to have been 
related by Asclepiodotus to Celsinus his counsellor, 
but concerning it posterity will be the judge. For 
he used to relate that on a certain occasion Aurelian 
consulted the Druid priestesses 3 in Gaul and inquired 
of them whether the imperial power would remain 
with his descendants, but they replied, he related, 
that none would have a name more illustrious in the 
commonwealth than the descendants of Claudius. 
And, in fact, Constantius is now our emperor, a man 
of Claudius' blood, 4 whose descendants, I ween, will 
attain to that glory which the Druids foretold. And 
this I have put in the Life of Aurelian for the reason 
that this response was made to him when he inquired 
in person. 

XLV. Aurelian set aside for the city of Rome the 
revenues from Egypt, consisting of glass, paper, linen, 
and hemp, in fact, the products on which a perpetual 

4 See Claud., xiii. 2. 

9,83 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

2 aeternas constituit. thermas in Transtiberina regione 
Aurelianus facere paravit hiemales, quod aquae frigidi- 
oris copia illic deesset. forum nominis sui in Ostiensi 
ad mare fundare coepit, in quo postea praetorium pub- 

Slicum constitutum est. amicos suos honeste ditavit et 
modice, ut miserias paupertatis effugerent et diviti- 

4 arum invidiam patrimonii moderatione vitarent. ves- 
tem holosericam neque ipse in vestiario suo habuit 

5neque alteri utendam dedit. et cum ab eo uxor sua 
peteret, ut unico pallio blatteo serico uteretur, ille 
respondit, " Absit ut auro fila pensentur." libra enim 
XLVI. auri tune libra serici fuit. habuit in animo ut au- 
rum neque in cameras neque in tunicas neque in pelles 
neque in argent um mitteretur, dicens plus auri esse in 
rerum natura quam argenti, sed aurum per varies brat- 
tearum, filorum et liquationum usus perire, argentum 

2autem in suo usu manere. idem dederat facultatem, 
ut aureis qui vellent et vasis uterentur et poculis. 

3 dedit praeterea potestatem, ut argentatas privati car- 
ruchas haberent, cum antea aerata et eburata vehicula 

4 fuissent. idem concessit, ut blatteas matronae tunicas 
haberent et l ceteras vestes, cum antea coloreas ha- 

5buissent et ut multum oxypaederotinas. ut fibulas 

1 et om. in P. 



1 The anabolicum, mentioned frequently in papyri, seems to 
have been a tax in kind on products (especially those enumerated 
here), in the manufacture of which the State had a monopoly. 
On the distribution of food in Rome, see c. xxxv. 1-2 and note. 

2 See Heiiog., xxvi. 1 and note. 

-According to the Edict of Diocletian a pound of blatta 
seric.a (fj.eTaa.fi\a.TTr), raw silk dyed purple) was worth 150,000 

284 



THE DEIFIED AUREL1AN XLV. 2 XLVI. 5 

tax was paid in kind. 1 He planned to erect a public 
bath, in the Transtiberine district as a winter bath 
^ince here there was no supply of fairly cold water. He 
>egan to construct a forum, named after himself, at 
Ostia on the sea, in the place where, later, the public 
magistrates' office was built. He gave wealth to his 
friends with wisdom and moderation, in order that 
they might avoid the ills of poverty and yet, because 
of the moderate size of their fortunes, escape the 
envy that riches bring. Clothing made wholly of 
silk 2 he would neither keep in his own wardrobe nor 
present to anyone else for his use ; and when his wife 
besought him to keep a single robe of purple silk, he 
replied, " God forbid that a fabric should be worth its 
weight in gold." For at that time a pound of silk 
was worth a pound of gold. 3 XLVI. He had in 
mind to forbid the use of gold on ceilings and tunics 
and leather and also the gilding of silver, saying that 
nature had provided more gold than silver, but the 
gold was wasted by being used variously as gold-leaf, 
spun gold, and gold that is melted down, while the 
silver was kept for its proper use. He had, indeed, 
given permission that those who wished might use 
golden vessels and goblets. He furthermore granted 
permission to commoners to have coaches adorned 
with silver, 4 whereas they had previously had only 
carriages ornamented with bronze or ivory. He also 
allowed matrons to have tunics and other garments 
of purple, whereas they had had before only fabrics 
of changeable colours, or, as frequently, of a bright 
pink. He also was the first to allow private soldiers 

denarii (approximately $940) ; according to his system of coin- 
age, 1 Ib. of gold = 50,000 denarii. 

4 See A lex. t xliii. 1, and Heliog., xxix. 1 and note. 

285 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

aureas gregarii milites haberent idem primus conces- 

6 sit, cum antea argenteas habuissent. paragaudas 
vestes ipse primus militibus dedit, cum ante non nisi 
rectas purpureas l accepissent, et quidem aliis mono- 
lores, aliis dilores, trilores aliis et usque ad pentelores, 
quales hodie lineae sunt. 

XLVII. Panibus urbis 2 Romae unciam de Aegyptio 
vectigali auxit, ut quadam epistula data ad praefectum 
annonae urbis etiam ipse gloriatur : 

2 " Aurelianus Augustus Flavio Arabiano praefecto 
annonae. inter cetera, quibus dis faventibus Romanam 
rem publicam iuvimus, nihil mihi est magnificentius 
quam quod additamento unciae omne annonarum urbi- 

Scarum genus iuvi. quod ut esset perpetuum, navi- 
cularios Niliacos apud Aegyptum novos et Romae 
amnicos posui, Tiberinas exstruxi ripas, vadum alvei 
tumentis effodi, dis et Perennitati vota constitui, almam 

4 Cererem consecravi. nunc tuum est officium, Arabiane 
iucundissime, elaborare ne meae dispositiones in irri- 
tum veniant. neque enim populo Romano saturo 
quicquam potest esse laetius." 

XL VI II. Statuerat et vinum gratuitum populo 
Romano dare, ut, quemadmodum oleum et panis et 
porcina gratuita praebentur, sic etiam vinum daretur, 

1 rectas purpureas editors ; rectis purpureis P, Hohl. 2 urbis 
2 ; uerbis P. 



1 See note to Ciaud., xvii. 6. ' 2 See c. xlv. 1 and note. 
3 Otherwise unknown. 4 See o. xxxv. 1-2 and note. 

286 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XLVI. 6 XLVIII. i 

to have clasps of gold, whereas formerly they had had 
them of silver. He, too, was the first to give tunics 
having bands of embroidery 1 to his troops, whereas 
previously they had received only straight-woven 
tunics of purple, and to some he presented tunics 
with one band, to others those having two bands or 
three bands and even up to five bands, like the tunics 
to-day made of linen. 

XL VI I. To the loaves of bread for the city of 
Rome he added one ounce, which he got from the 
revenues from Egypt, 2 as he himself boasts in a 
certain letter addressed to the prefect of the city's 
supply of grain : 

"From Aurelian Augustus to Flavius Arabianus, 3 
the prefect of the grain supply. Among the various 
ways in which, with the aid of the gods, we have 
benefited the Roman commonwealth, there is noth- 
ing in which I take greater pride than that by adding 
an ounce I have increased every kind of grain for the 
city. And to the end that this may be lasting, I 
have appointed additional boatmen on the Nile in 
Egypt and on the river in Rome, I have built up the 
banks of the Tiber, I have dug out the shallow places 
in its rising bed, I have taken vows to the gods and 
the Goddess of Perpetual Harvests, and I have con- 
secrated a statue of fostering Ceres. It is now your 
task, my dearest Arabianus, to make every effort that 
my arrangements may not be in vain. For nothing 
can be more joyous than the Roman people when 
sufficiently fed." 

XLVIII. He had planned also to give free wine to 
the people of Rome, in order that they might be sup- 
plied with it as they were with oil and bread and 
pork, 4 all free of cost, and he had designed to make 

287 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

2 quod perpetuum hac dispositione conceperat. Etruriae 
per Aureliam usque ad Alpes maritimas ingentes agri 
sunt iique fertiles ac silvosi. statuerat igitur dominis 
locorum incultorum, qui tamen vellent, pretia 1 dare 
atque illic familias captivas constituere, vitibus montes 
conserere atque ex eo opere vinum dare, ut nihil 
redituum fiscus acciperet, sed totum populo Romano 
concederet. facta erat ratio dogae, cuparum, naviura 

3 et operum. sed multi dicunt Aurelianum ne id faceret 
praeventum, alii a praefecto praetorii suo prohibitum, 
qui dixisse fertur : " Si et vinum populo Romano 
damus, superest ut et pullos et anseres demus." 

^argumento est id vere Aurelianum cogitasse, immo 
etiam facere disposuisse vel ex aliqua parte fecisse, 
quod in porticibus Templi Solis fiscalia vina ponuntur, 

5 non gratuita populo eroganda sed pretio. sciendum 
tamen congiaria ilium ter dedisse, donasse etiam populo 
Romano tunicas albas manicatas ex diversis provinciis 
et lineas Afras atque Aegyptias puras, ipsumque 
primum donasse oraria populo Romano, quibus ute- 
retur populus ad favorem. 

XLIX. Displicebat ei, cum esset Romae, habitare 
in Palatio, ac magis placebat in Hortis Sallustii vel in 

1 pretia editors ; gratia P ; gratis 2, Hohl. 



1 The Via Aurelia ran along the coast of Etruria to Pisa and 
was continued thence to Genoa by the Via Aemilii Scauri. 

2 This attempt to revive viticulture in Italy was made on 
a wider scale in the provinces by Probus ; see Prob., xviii. 8. 

3 See c. xxxv. 3. 

4 According to the " Chronographer of 354," there was only 
one distribution, 500 denarii to each person. There was an 

288 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XLVI1I. 2 XLIX. 1 

this perpetual by means of the following arrange- 
ment. In Etruria, all along the Aurelian Way 1 as 
far as the Maritime Alps, there are vast tracts of 
land, rich and well wooded. He planned, therefore, 
to pay their price to the owners of these uncultivated 
lands, provided they wished to sell, and to settle 
thereon families of slaves captured in war, and then 
to plant the hills with vines,' 2 and by this means to 
produce wine, which was to yield no profit to the 
privy-purse but to be given entirely to the people of 
Rome. He had also made provision for the vats, 
the casks, the ships, and the labour. Many, how- 
ever, say that Aurelian was cut off before he carried 
this out, others that he was restrained by his prefect 
of the guard, who is said to have remarked : "If we 
give wine to the Roman people, it only remains for 
us to give them also chickens and geese." There is, 
indeed, proof that Aurelian really considered this 
measure, or, rather, made arrangements for carrying 
it out and even did so to some extent ; for wine be- 
longing to the privy-purse is stored in the porticos of 
the Temple of the Sun, 3 which the people could 
obtain, not free of cost but at a price. It should 
be known, however, that he thrice distributed largess 4 
among them, and that he gave to the Roman people 
white tunics with long sleeves, brought from the 
various provinces, and pure linen ones from Africa 
and Egypt, and that he was the first to give hand- 
kerchiefs to the Roman people, to be waved in show- 
ing approval. 

XLIX. He disliked, when at Rome, to reside in 
the Palace, and preferred to live in the Gardens of 

issue of coins with the legend Liberalitas Aug. ; see Matt-Syd., 
v. p. 290, no. 229. 

289 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

2Domitiae vivere. milliarensem denique porticum in 
Hortis Sallustii ornavit, in qua cottidie et equos et se 

3 fatigabat, quamvis esset non bonae valetudinis. servos 
et ministros peccantes coram se caedi iubebat, ut 
plerique dicunt, causa tenendae severitatis, ut alii, 

4 studio crudelitatis. ancillam suam, quae adulterium 

5 cum conserve suo fecerat, capita punivit. multos 
servos ex familia propria qui peccaverant legibus 
audiendos iudiciis publicis dedit. 

6 Senatum sive senaculum matron is reddi voluerat, ita 
ut primae illic quae sacerdotia senatu auctore meruis- 

7 sent, calceos mulleos et cereos et albos et hederacios 
viris omnibus tulit, mulieribus reliquit. cursores eo 

Shabitu quo ipse habebat senatoribus concessit. con- 
cubinas ingenuas haberi vetuit. eunuchorum modum 
pro senatoriis professionibus statuit, idcirco quod ad 

Qingentia pretia pervenissent. vas argenti eius num- 

quam triginta libras transiit. convivium de assaturis 

maxime fuit. vino russo maxime delectatus est. 

L. medicum ad se, cum aegrotaret, numquam vocavit, 

2 sed ipse se inedia praecipue curabat. uxori et filiae 

3 annuum sigillaricium quasi privatus instituit. servis 
suis vestes easdem imperator quas et privatus dedit 
praeter duos senes, quibus quasi libertis plurimum 



1 On the northern slope of the Quirinal Hill, extending north- 
ward as far as Aurelian's wall, and bounded on the east by the 
Via Salaria Vetus (Via di Porta Salaria). Laid out by Sallust 
the historian, they became imperial property, probably under 
Tiberius. Only scanty ruins of the buildings in them are 
extant. 

2 On the right bank of the Tiber, containing the Mausoleum 
of Hadrian (Castel S. Angelo) ; see Pius, v. 1. 

290 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN XLIX. 2 L. 3 

Sallust l or the Gardens of Domitia. 2 In fact, he 
built a portico in the Gardens of Sallust one thousand 
feet long, in which he would exercise daily both him- 
self and his horses, even though he were not in good 
health. His slaves and attendants who were guilty 
of crime he would order to be slain in his own pres- 
ence, for the purpose, some say, of keeping up dis- 
cipline, or, according to others, through sheer love of 
cruelty. One of his maid-servants, who had com- 
mitted adultery with a fellow-slave, he punished with 
death, and many slaves from his own household, who 
had committed offences, he delivered over to public 
courts to be heard according to law. 

He had planned to restore to the matrons their 
senate, or rather senacitlum, 3 with the provision that 
those should rank first therein who had attained to 
priesthoods with the senate's approval. He forbade 
men to wear boots of purple or wax-colour or white 
or the colour of ivy, but allowed them to women. 
He permitted the senators to have runners dressed 
like his own. He forbade the keeping of free-born 
women as concubines, and limited the possession of 
eunuchs to those who had a senator's rating, for the 
reason that they had reached inordinate prices. His 
silver vessels never went beyond thirty pounds in 
weight, and his banquets consisted mainly of roasted 
meats. He took most pleasure in red wine. L. When 
ill he never summoned a physician, but always 
cured himself, chiefly by abstaining from food. He 
held a yearly celebration of the Sigillaria 4 for his 
wife and daughter, like any private citizen. To his 
slaves he gave when emperor the same kind of cloth- 
ing that he had given them when a commoner, save 

3 See Heliog., iv. 3 and note. 4 See Hadr., xvii. 3. 



THE DEIFIED AURELIAN 

detulit, Antistiuni et Gillonem ; qui l post eum ex 
4senatus sententia manu missi sunt. erat quidem rarus 
in voluptatibus, sed miro modo mimis delectabatur, 
vehementissime autem delectatus est phagone, qui 
usque eo raultum comedit ut uno die ante mensam 
eius aprum integrum, centum panes, vervecera et 
porcellum comederet, biberet autem infundibulo ad- 
posito plus orca. 

6 Habuit tempus praeter seditiones quasdam domesti- 
cas fortunatissimum. populus eum Romanus amavit, 
senatus et timuit. 

1 qui om. in P. 



29* 



THE DEIFIED AUREL1AN L. 4-5 

for two old men, Antistius and Gillo, wlio received 
many privileges from him, just as though they were 
ireedmen, and who after his death were set free by 
vote of the senate. His amusements, indeed, were 
few, but he took marvellous pleasure in actors and 
had the greatest delight in a gourmand, 1 who could 
eat vast amounts to such an extent that in one single 
day he devoured, in front of Aurelian's own table, an 
entire wild boar, one hundred loaves of bread, a sheep 
and a pig and, putting a funnel to his mouth, drank 
more than a caskful. 

Except for certain internal riotings his reign was 
most prosperous. The Roman people loved him, 
while the senate held him in fear. 

1 i.e., Qayuv, " an eater." 



5B9S 



TACITUS 

FLAVII VOPISCI SYRACUSII 

T. Quod post excessum Romuli novello adhuc 
RDmanae urbis imperio factum pontifices, penes quos 
scribendae historiae potestas fuit, in litteras ret- 
tulerunt, ut interregnum, dum post bonura principem 
bonus alius quaeritur, iniretur, hoc post Aurelianum 
habito inter senatum exercitumque Romanum non 
invido non tristi sed grato religiosoque certamine sex 
2totis mensibus factum est. multis tamen mod's haec 
ab illo negotio causa separata est. iam primum enim, 



1 According to the official version Romulus disappeared from 
the earth during an eclipse or a storm ; see Cicero, de- Re Publica, 
ii. 17, and Livy i. 16. Excessus is similarl}* used to denote his 
"disappearance" by Cicero in de Re PnbL, ii. 23 and 52. 

2 The proclamation of an interregnum was the regular practice 
of the Roman Republic on those occasions when there were no 
magistrates with consular or dictatorial power iu office, i.0. 
when both consuls died during their year's term or this term 
expired before their successors were elected. The practice is 
also said by the historians to have beeu in vogue during the 
time of the kings, and a full account of the institution is given 
in connection with the choice of Numa Pompilius as Romulus' 
successor; see Livy, i. 17. This serves as the basis for the 



TACITUS 

BY 

FLAVIUS VOPISCUS OF SYRACUSE 

I. A certain measure adopted after the departure of 
Romulus, 1 during the infancy of Rome's power, and 
recorded by the pontiffs, the duly authorized writers 
of history, namely, the proclamation of a regency 
for the interval in which one good prince was being 
sought for to succeed another 2 was also adopted after 
the death of Aurelian for the space of six whole months, 3 
while the senate and the army of Rome were engaged 
in a contest, one that was marked not by envy and un- 
happiness but rather by good feeling and sense of duty. 
This occasion, however, differed in many ways from that 
former undertaking. For originally, when the regency 

description given here. Despite the suspicions aroused by the 
biographer's love of antiquarian lore and his tendency to exalt 
the rule of the senate, we may believe that an interregnum was 
actually proclaimed at this time, though only in the sense that 
the government was carried on by the senate; it is mentioned 
also in Aur. Victor, Caes., 35, 9-12 ; 36, 1, and Epit., 35, 9, and 
seems to be attested by coins bearing the legend Genius P. R. 
and Int. Urb. (Interregnum Urbis ?) S. C. ; see Matt.-Syd. v. 
p. 361. 

8 See note to c. ii. 6. 

295 



TACITUS 

cum interregnum initum est post Romulum, interreges 
tamen facti sunt, totusque ille annus per quinos et 
quaternos dies sive ternos centum senatoribus de- 
putatus est, ita ut qui valerent interreges essent 

Ssinguli dumtaxat. qua re factum est ut et plus anno 
interregnum iniretur, ne aliquis sub aequabili dignitate 

4Romani expers remaneret imperii. hue accedit quod 
etiam sub consulibus tribunisque militaribus praeditis 
imperio consulari, si quando interregnum initum est, 
interreges fuerunt, nee umquam ita vacua i'uit hoc 
nomine Romana res publica ut nullus interrex biduo 

5 saltern triduove crearetur. video mihi posse obici 
curules magistratus apud maiores nostros quadrien- 
nium in re publica non fuisse. sed erant tribuni plebis 
cum tribunicia potestate, quae pars maxima regalis im- 

Gperii est. tamen non est proditum interreges eo 
tempore non fuisse ; quin etiam verioribus historicis 
referentibus declaratum est consules ab interregibus 
post creates, qui haberent reliquorum comitia magis- 
tratuum. 

II. Ergo, quod rarum et difficile fuit, senatus popu- 
lusque Romanus perpessus est ut imperatorem per sex 

1 Five days only, according to Livy. 

2 These consular tribunes formed a board of magistrates, 
varying from three to six, elected instead of consuls during the 
early republic, in those years hi which there was need for more 
than two officials vested with supreme power. 

3 There are 28 known years in the history of the republic 
in which interreges were appointed ; the last was 52 B.C. 

4 A period ot five years (= 375-371 B.C.) according to Livy, 
vi. 35, 10, of four years according to Eutropius, ii. 3, or of one 
year according to Diodorus, xv. 75. It is generally agreed that 
sucli a period of anarchy could never have existed. An ex- 
planation has been sought in the theory that these years were 
inserted in blank in the official lists in an attempt to make 



TACITUS I. 3 II. 1 

was proclaimed after the reign of Romulus, regents 
were actually created, and that whole year was divided 
up among the hundred senators for periods of three, 
or four, or five days apiece, 1 in such a way that there 
was only one single regent who held the power. From 
this it resulted that the regency remained in force for 
even more than a year, in order that there might be no 
one of those equal in rank who had not held the rule 
at Rome. To this must be added that also in the time 
of the consuls and the military tribunes vested with 
consular power," whenever a regency was proclaimed 
there were always regents, and never did the Roman 
commonwealth so entirely lack this office that there 
was not some regent created, though it might be for 
only two or three days. 3 I perceive, indeed, that the 
argument can be brought up against me that for the 
space of four years 4 during the time of our ancestors 
there were no curule magistrates in the commonwealth. 
There were, however, tribunes of the plebs vested with 
the tribunician power, which is the most important 
element of the power of a king. 5 Even so, it is no- 
where stated that there were no regents in that time ; 
and indeed it has been declared on the authority of 
more reliable historians that consuls 6 were later created 
by regents for the purpose of conducting the election 
of the other magistrates. 

II. And so the senate and people of Rome passed 
through an unusual and a difficult situation, namely, 

these agree with the synchronism of events which was adopted 
by Roman chronographers ; see Cambr. Anc. Hist., vii. p. 322. 
Another explanation presupposes that during this time there 
was in control a revolutionary government, which later was not 
recognized as legal ; see Beloch, Rom. Gesch., p. 31. 

3 i.e., the emperor; see note (o Pius, iv. 7. 

8 Consular tribunes according to Livy, vi. 86, 3. 

297 



TACITUS 

menses, dum bonus quaeritur, res publica non haberet. 

2 quae ilia concordia militum ! quanta populo quies ! 
quam gravis senatus auctoritas fuit ! l nullus usquam 
tyrannus emersit, sub iudicio senatus et militum popu- 
lique Romani totus orbis est temperatus ; non illi 
principem quemquam, ut recte facerent, non tri- 
buniciam potestatem formidabant sed quod est in 
vita optimum se timebant. 

3 Dicenda est tamen causa tarn felicium morarum et 
speciatim in monumentis publicis inserenda et 2 eadem 
posteris 3 human! generis stupenda moderatio, ut dis- 
cant qui regna cupiunt non raptum ire imperia sed 

4inereri. interfecto fraude Aureliano, ut superiore 
libro scriptum est, calliditate servi nequissimi, errore 
militarium (ut apud quos quaelibet commenta pluri- 
mum valent, dum modo irati audiunt, plerumque 
temulenti, certe consiliorum prope semper expertes 4 ), 
reversis ad bonam mentem omnibus eisdemque ab 
exercitu graviter confutatis, coeptum est quaeri ecquis 

5 fieri deberet ex omnibus princeps. tune odio prae- 
sentium exercitus, qui creare imperatorem raptim 
solebat, ad senatum litteras misit, de quibus priore 
libro iam dictum est, petens ut ex ordine suo princi- 

6 pern legerent. verum senatus, sciens lectos a se 
principes militibus non placere, rem ad milites rettulit. 
dumque id saepius fit, sextus peractus est meusis. 

1 fuit Draeger, Peter; fuerit P. *et om. in P. 3 eadem 
posteris Jordan, Ellis, Hohl ; eacU>m posteros P; etiam ad 
posteros Peter 2 . 4 expertes Jordan ; expertis P, Peter. 



l Aur., xxxvi. * Aur., xli. 1-2. 

8 So also c. i. 1 ; ii. 1 ; Aur., xl. 4 ; but in fact the interval 
was not more than two months, since Aurelian was killed in 
October or November, 275 (see note to Aur., xxxvii. 4), and 

298 



TACITUS II. 2-6 

that for sixjmonths, while a good man was being sought, 
the commonwealth had no emperor. What harmony 
there was then among the soldiers ! What peace for 
the people ! How full of weight the authority of the 
senate ! Nowhere did any pretender arise, and the 
judgement of the senate, the soldiers and the people of 
Rome guided the entire world ; it was not because they 
feared any emperor or the power of a tribune that they 
did righteously, but what is the noblest thing in life 
because they feared themselves. 

I must, however, describe the cause of a delay so 
fortunate and an instance of unselfishness which should 
both receive special mention in the public records and 
be admired by future generations of the human race, in 
order that those who covet kingdoms may learn not to 
seize power but to merit it. After Aurelian had been 
treacherously slain, as I have described in the previous 
book, 1 by the trick of a most base slave and the folly 
of the officers (for with these any falsehood gains 
credence, provided only they hear it when angry, being 
often drunken and at best almost always devoid of 
counsel), when all returned again to sanity and the troops 
had sternly put down those persons, the question was at 
once raised whether any one of them all should be 
chosen as emperor. Then the army, which was wont 
to create emperors hastily, in their anger at those who 
were present, sent to the senate the letter of which I 
have already written in the previous book, 2 asking it to 
choose an emperor from its own numbers. The senate, 
however, knowing that the emperors it had chosen 
were not acceptable to the soldiers, referred the matter 
back to them. And while this was being done a 
number of times the space of six months elapsed. 3 

Tacitus was made emperor before the end of the year. The 
date in c. iii. 2 (cf. also c. xiii. C) is therefore too early. 

299 



TACITUS 

III. Interest tamen ut sciatur quemadmodum 
2 Tacitus imperator sit creatus. die VII kal. Octob. 

cum in Curiam Pompilianam ordo amplissimus con- 
sedisset, Velius Cornificius Gordianus consul dixit : 

3 " Referemus ad vos, patres conscripti, quod saepe 
rettulimus ; imperator est deligendus, cum l exercitus 
sine principe recte diutius stare non possit, simul 

4quia cogit necessitas. nam limitem Transrhenanum 
Germani rupisse dicuntur, occupasse urbes validas, 

5nobiles, divites et potentes. iam si nihil de Persicis 
motibus nuntiatur, cogitate tarn leves esse mentes 
Syrorum ut regnare vel feminas cupiant potius quam 

6 nostram perpeti sanctimoniam. quid Africam ? quid 
Illyricum ? quid Aegyptum earumque omnium 
partium exercitus? quo usque sine principe credimus 

7 posse consistere ? quare agite, patres conscripti, et 
principem dicite. aut accipiet enim exercitus quern 
elegeritis aut, si refutaverit, alterum faciet." 

IV. Post haec cum Tacitus, qui erat primae sen- 
tentiae consularis, sententiam incertum quam vellet 

2 dicere, 2 omnis senatus adclamavit : " Tacite Auguste, 
deus te servet. te deligimus, te principem facimus, 

3 tibi curam rei publicae orbisque mandamus, suscipe 
imperium ex senatus auctoritate, tui loci, tuae vitae, 
tuae mentis est quod mereris. princeps senatus recte 
Augustus creatur, primae sententiae vir recte im- 

1 cum om. in P. z incertam\ . . . diceret P. 



1 M. Claudius Tacitus Augustus (275-276) ; there is no warrant 
for the name Aurelius given to him iu Aur., xli. 4. According 
to Zonaras, xii. 28, he was at this time 75 years old. 

2 See Aur. t xli. 3 and notes. 

3 See note to Aur., xxxv. 4. 4 See note to Val. t v. 4. 

300 



TACITUS III. 1 IV. S 

III. It is important, however, that it should be 
known how Tacitus 1 was created emperor. On the 

seventh day before the Kalends of October, when the 25 Sept. (275; 

most noble body had assembled in the Senate-house of 

Pompilius, 2 Velius Cornificius Gordianus the consul 

spoke as follows : " We shall now bring before you, 

Conscript Fathers, what we have often brought before 

you previously ; you must choose an emperor, because 

it is not right for the army to remain longer without 

a prince, and at the same time because necessity 

compels. For it is said that the Germans have broken 

through the frontier beyond the Rhine 3 and have seized 

cities that are strong and famous and rich and powerful. 

And even if we hear nothing now of any movement 

among the Persians, reflect that the Syrians are so 

light-minded that rather than submit to our righteous 

rule they desire even a woman to reign over them. 

What of Africa? What of Illyricium? What of 

Egypt and the armies of all these regions ? How long, 

do we suppose, can they stand firm without a prince ? 

Wherefore up, Conscript Fathers, and name a prince. 

For the army will either accept the one you name or, 

if it reject him, will choose another." 

IV. Thereupon when Tacitus, the consular whose 
right it was to speak his opinion first, began to express 
some sentiment, it is uncertain what, the whole senate 
acclaimed him 4 : " Tacitus Augustus, may God keep 
you ! We choose you, we name you prince, to your 
care we commit the commonwealth and the world. 
Now take the imperial power by authority of the 
senate, for by reason of your rank, your life and your 
mind you deserve it. Rightfully is the prince of the 
senate created Augustus, rightfully is the man whose 
privilege it is to speak his opinion first created our 

301 



TACITUS 

4 perator creatur. ecquis melius quam gravis imperat ? 
ecquis melius quam litteratus imperat ? quod bonum 
faustum salutareque sit. diu privatus fuisti. scis 
quemadmodum debeas imperare, qui alios principes 
pertulisti. scis quemadmodum debeas imperare, qui 
de aliis principibus iudicasti." 

6 At ille : " Miror, patres conscripti, vos in locum 
Aureliani, fortissimi imperatoris, senem velle prin- 

6 cipem facere. en membra, quae iaculari valeant, quae 
hastile torquere, quae clipeis intonare, quae ad ex- 
emplum docendi militis frequenter equitare. vix 
munia senatus implemus, vix sententias, ad quas nos 

7 locus artat, edicimus. videte diligentius quam 
aetatem de cubiculo atque umbra in pruinas aes- 
tusque mittatis. ac probaturos senem imperatorem 

Smilites creditis ? videte ne et rei publicae non eum 
quern velitis principem detis, et mihi hoc solum obesse 
incipiat quod me unanimiter delegistis." 

V. Post haec adclamationes senatus haec fuerunt : 
"Et Traianus ad imperium senex venit." dixerunt 
decies. "Et Hadrianus ad imperium senex venit." 
dixerunt decies. " Et Antoninus ad imperium senex 
venit." dixerunt decies. " Et tu legisti : * In- 
canaque menta regis Roman!.' dixerunt decies. 
"Ecquis melius quam senex imperat?" dixerunt 
decies. " Imperatorem te, non militem facimus." 

1 Aeneid, vi. 809-810 ; of. Hadr., ii. 8. 
302 



TACITUS IV. 4 V. 1 

emperor. Who can rule more ably than a man of 
authority? Who can rule more ably than a man of 
letters? May it prove happy, auspicious, and to the 
general welfare ! Long heve you been a commoner. 
You know how you should rule, for you have been 
subject to other princes. You know how you should 
rule, for on other princes you have rendered judge- 
ment." 

Tacitus, however, replied : "I marvel, Conscript 
Fathers, that in the place of Aurelian, a most valiant 
emperor, you should wish to make an aged man your 
prince. Behold these members, which should be able 
to cast a dart, to hurl a spear, to clash a shield, and, 
as an example for instructing the soldiery, to ride with- 
out ceasing. Scarce can I fulfil the duties of a senator, 
scarce can I speak the opinions to which my position 
constrains me. Observe with greater care my advanced 
age, which you are now sending out from the shade of 
the chamber into the cold and the heat. And think 
you that the soldiers will welcome an old man as their 
emperor ? Look you lest you give the commonwealth 
a prince whom you do not really desire and lest men 
begin to raise this as the sole objection against me, 
namely, that you have chosen me unanimously." 

V. Thereupon there were the following acclama- 
tions from the senate : " Trajan also came to power 
when an old man." This they said ten times. 
" Hadrian also came to power when an old man." 
This they said ten times. " Antoninus also came to 
power when an old man." This they said ten times. 
" You yourself have read, ' And the hoary beard of 
a Roman king.' " l This they said ten times. " Can 
any one rule more ably than an old man ? " This they 
said ten times. "We are choosing you as an emperor, 

303 



TACITUS 

2 dixerunt vicies. "Tu iube, milites pugnent." dixe- 
runt tricies. " Habes prudentiam et bonum fratrem." 
dixerunt decies. " Severus dixit caput imperare non 
pedes." dixerunt tricies. " Animum tuum, non 
corpus eligimus." dixerunt vicies. " Tacite Auguste, 
di te servent ! ' 

3 Deinde omnes interrogate 1 praeterea qui post 
Taciturn sedebat senator consularis, Maecius Faltonius 
VI. Nicomachus, in haec verba disseruit : " Semper 
quidem, patres conscripti, recte atque prudenter rei 
publicae magnificus hie ordo consuluit, neque a 
quoquam orbis terrae populo solidior umquam ex- 
spectata sapientia est. attamen nulla umquam neque 
gravior neque prudentior in hoc sacrario dicta sen- 

2tentia est. seniorem principem fecimus et virum 
qui omnibus quasi pater consulat. nihil ab hoc 
inmaturum, nihil praeproperum, nihil asperum for- 
midandum est. omnia seria, cuncta gravia, et quasi 

3ipsa res publica iubeat, auguranda sunt. scit enim 
qualem sibi principem semper optaverit nee potest 2 
aliud nobis exhibere quam ipse desideravit et voluit. 

4enimvero si recolere velitis vetusta ilia prodigia, 
Nerones dico et Heliogabalos et Cormnodos, seu 
potius semper Incommodos, certe non hominum magis 

Svitia ilia quam aetatum fuerunt. di avertant prin- 
cipes pueros et patres patriae dici impuberes et 
quibus ad subscribendum magistri litterarii manus 

1 interrogate S, Peter ; interrogatis P. *potes P. 

1 See Sev. t xviii. 10. 2 Otherwise unknown. 



TACITUS V. 2 VI. 5 

not as a soldier." This they said twenty times. " Do 
you but give commands, and let the soldiers fight." 
This they said thirty times. " You have both wisdom 
and an excellent brother." This they said ten times. 
" Severus said that it is the head that does the ruling 
and not the feet." * This they said thirty times. " It 
is your mind and not your body that we are choosing." 
This they said twenty times. " Tacitus Augustus, 
may the gods keep you ! " 

Then all were asked their opinions. In addition, 
Maecius Faltonius Nicomachus, a a senator of consular 
rank, whose place was next to Tacitus', addressed 
them as follows: VI. "Always indeed, Conscript 
Fathers, has this noble body taken wise and prudent 
measures for the commonwealth, and from no nation 
in the whole world has sounder wisdom ever been 
awaited. At no time, however, has a more wise or 
more weighty opinion been voiced in this sacred place. 
We have chosen as prince a man advanced in years, 
one who will watch over all like a father. From him 
we need fear nothing ill-considered, nothing over hasty, 
nothing cruel. All his actions, we may predict, will 
be earnest, all dignified, and, in fact, what the common- 
wealth herself would command. For he knows what 
manner of prince he has ever hoped for, and he can- 
not show himself to us as other than what he himself 
has sought and desired. Indeed, if you should wish 
to consider those monsters of old, a Nero, I mean, an 
Elagabalus, a Commodus or rather, always, an In- 
commodious you would assuredly find that their vices 
were due as much to their youth as to the men them- 
selves. May the gods forfend that we should give the 
title of prince to a child or of Father of his Country to 
an immature boy, whose hand a schoolmaster must 

305 



TACITUS 

teneant, quos ad consulatus dandos dulcia et circuli et 
6quaecumque voluptas puerilis invitet. quae (malum) 
ratio est habere imperatorem, qui famam curare non 
noverit, qui quid sit res publica nesciat, nutritorem 
timeat, respiciat ad nutricem, virgarum l magistralium 
ictibus terrorique subiaceat, faciat eos consules, duces, 
iudices quorum vitam, merita, aetates, familias, gesta 

7 lion norit. sed quo 2 diutius, patres conscripti, pro- 
trahor ? magis gratulemur quod habemus principem 
senem, quam ilia iteremus quae plus quam lacrimanda 

8 tolerantibus exstiterunt. gratias igitur dis inmortali- 
bus ago atque habeo, et quidem pro universa re publica, 
teque, Tacite Auguste, convenio, petens, obsecrans ac 
libere pro communi patria et 3 legibus deposcens, ne 
parvulos tuos, si te citius fata praevenerint, facias 
Romani heredes imperil, ne sic rem publicam patresque 
conscriptos populumque Romanum ut villulam tuam, 

9ut colonos tuos, ut servos tuos relinquas. quare cir- 
cumspice, imitare Nervas, Traianos, Hadrianos. ingens 
est gloria morientis principis rem publicam magis 
amare quam filios." 

VII. Hac oratione et Tacitus ipse vehementer est 
motus, et totus senatorius ordo concussus, statimque 
adclamatum est, " Omnes, omnes." 

2 Inde itum ad Campum Martium, ubi comitiale 
tribunal ascendit. ibi 4 praefectus urbis Aelius Cesetti- 

1 uirgarum Peter, Hohl ; magnarum P 1 . 2 quo Salm., 

Peter; quod P. ' A et ins. by Salm.; om. in P. 4 ubi . . . 
ibi Peter; ibi . . . ubi P, Hohl. 

1 i.e., adopt a successor. 

' Otherwise unknown. According to the list of the " Chrono- 
grapher of 354," Postumius Suagrus was prefect of the city in 
275. 

306 



TACITUS VJ. 6 VII. 2 

guide for the signing of his name and who is induced 
to confer a consulship by sweetmeats or toys or other 
such childish delights. What wisdom is there a 
plague upon it ! in having as emperor one who has 
not learned to care for fame, who knows not what the 
commonwealth is, who stands in dread of a guardian, 
who looks to a nurse, who is in subjection to the blows 
or the fear of a schoolmaster's rod, who appoints as 
consuls or generals or judges men whose lives, whose 
merits, whose years, whose families, whose achieve- 
ments he knows not at all? But why, Conscript 
Fathers, do I proceed farther. Let us rejoice that we 
have an elder as our prince, rather than recall again 
those times which appear more than tearful to those 
who endured them. And so I bring and offer thanks 
to the gods in heaven in behalf, indeed, of the entire 
commonwealth, and I appeal to you, Tacitus Augustus, 
asking and entreating and openly demanding in the 
name of our common fatherland and our laws that, if 
Fate should overtake you too speedily, you will not 
name your young sons as heirs to the Roman Empire, 
or bequeath to them the commonwealth, the Conscript 
Fathers, and the Roman people as you would your 
farm, your tenants, and your slaves. Wherefore look 
about you and follow the example of a Nerva, a Trajan, 
and a Hadrian. 1 It is a great glory to a dying prince 
to love the commonwealth more than his own sons." 

VII. By this speech Tacitus himself was greatly 
moved and the whole senatorial order was deeply 
affected, and at once they shouted, "So say we all 
of us, all of us." 

Thereupon they proceeded to the Campus Martius, 
where Tacitus mounted the assembly-platform. There 
Aelius Cesettianus,- the prefect of the city, spoke as 

307 



TACITUS 

3 aims sic locutus est: "Vos, sanctissimi milites et 
sacratissiini vos Quirites, habetis principem, quern de 
sententia omnium exercituum senatus elegit, Taciturn 
dico, augustissimum virum, ut qui hactenus seiitentiis 
suis rem puolicam, DUDC adiuvet 1 iussis atque con- 

4sultis." adclamatum est a populo, " Felicissime Tacite 
Auguste, di te servent," et reliqua quae solent dici. 

6 Hoc loco tacendum non est plerosque in litteras 
rettulisse Taciturn absentem et in Campania positum 

6 principem nuncupatum ; verum est, nee dissimulare 
possum, nam cum rumor emersisset ilium imperatorem 
esse faciendum, discessit atque in Baiano duobus 

yinensibus fuit. sed inde deductus huic senatus con- 
sulto interfuit, quasi vere privatus et qui vere recusaret 
VIII. imperium. ac ne quis me temere Graecorum alicui 
Latinorumve aestimet credidisse, liabet in Bibliotheca 
Ulpia in armario sexto librum elephanttnum, in quo 
hoc senatus consultum perscriptum est, cui Tacitus ipse 

2manu sua subscripsit. nam diu haec senatus consulta 
quae ad principes pertinebant in libris elephantinis 
scribebantur. 

3 Inde ad exercitus profectus. ibi quoque, cum pri- 
mum tribunal ascendit, Moesius Gallicanus praefectus 

4 praetorii in haec verba disseruit : " Dedit, sanctissimi 
commilitones, senatus principem, quern petistis ; paruit 
praeceptis et voluntati 2 castrensium ordo ille nobilis- 
simus. plura mihi apud vos praesente iam imperatore 

l adiu'uet Peter, Hohl ; diuet P. *uoluntati 27; 

uoluptati P. 

1 So also Zonaras, xii. 28. 

2 See Aur. t i. 7 and notes; the "ivory book" is doubtless as 
fictitious as the " libri lintei." 

3 Otherwise unknown. 

308 



TACITUS VII. 3 VI II. 4 

follows : " You have now, most venerated soldiers, and 
you, most revered fellow-citizens, an emperor chosen 
by the senate at the request of all the armies, Tacitus, 
I mean, the most august of men, who, as he has in the 
past benefited the commonwealth by his counsels, will 
now benefit it by his commands and decrees." The 
people then shouted, "Tacitus Augustus,! most blessed, 
may the gods keep you ! " and all else that it is 
customary to say. 

At this point I must not leave it unmentioned that 
many writers have recorded that Tacitus, when named 
emperor, was absent and residing in Campania l ; this 
is indeed true, and I cannot dissemble. For when the 
rumour spread that he was to be made emperor, he 
withdrew and lived for two months at his house at 
Baiae. But after being escorted back from there he 
took part in this decree of the senate, as though 
actually a commoner and one who in truth would 
refuse the imperial power. VIII. And now, lest any 
one consider that I have rashly put faith in some 
Greek or Latin writer, there is in the Ulpian Library, 2 
in the sixth case, an ivory book, in which is written 
out this decree of the senate, signed by Tacitus himself 
with his own hand. For those decrees which pertained 
to the emperors were long inscribed in books of 
ivory. 

He proceeded thence to the troops. Here also, as 
soon as he mounted the platform Moesius Gallicanus, 8 
the prefect of the guard, spoke as follows: "The 
senate has given you, most venerated fellow-soldiers, 
the emperor you sought ; and that most noble order 
has carried out the instructions and the wishes of the 
men of the camps. More I may not say, for the 
emperor is now present with you. Do you, then, as 

309 



TACITUS 

non licet loqui. ipsum igitur, qui tueri nos debet, 

5loquentem dignanter audite." post hoc Tacitus 
Augustus dixit : " Et Traianus ad imperium senex 
venit, sed ille ab uno delectus est, at me, sanctissimi 
commilitones, primum vos, qui scitis principes adpro- 
bare, deinde amplissimus senatus dignum hoc nomine 
iudicavit. curabo, enitar, efficiam, ne vobis desint, si 
non fortia facta, at saltern l vobis atque imperatore 
digna consilia." 

IX. Post hoc stipendium et donativum ex more pro- 
misit et primam orationem ad senatum talem dedit : 
"Ita mihi liceat, patres conscripti, sic 2 imperium regere 
ut a vobis me constet electum, ut ego cuncta ex vestra 
facere sententia et potestate decrevi. vestrum 3 est 
igitur ea iubere atque sancire quae digna vobis, digna 
modesto exercitu, digna populo Romano esse videan- 

2tur." in eadem oratione Aureliano statuam auream 
ponendam in Capitolio decrevit, item statuam argen- 
team in Curia, item in Templo Solis, item in Foro divi 
Traiani. sed aurea non est posita, dedicatae autem 

Ssunt solae argenteae. in eadem oratione cavit ut 
si quis argento publice privatimque aes miscuisset, si 
quis auro argentum, si quis aeri plumbum, capital esset 

4 cum bonorum proscription e. in eadem oratione cavit 
ut servi in dominorum capita non interrogarentur, ne 

1 at saltern Z ; ad salutem P. 2 sic 27; sit P. 3 itestrum 
2 ; uerum P. 



1 See Aur. t xxxv. 3 and note. 

a See note to Hadr. t vii. 6. 

3 This principle had been established by a vetus senatus 
consul turn ; see Tacitus, Annals, ii. 30, 3. But by Cicero's 
time an exception was made in cases of sacrilege and con- 
spiracy; see Cicero, Oral. Partition's, 118. 

310 



TACITUS VI 11. 5- JX. 4 

he speaks, listen to him with all respect, for his duty 
it is to watch over us." Thereupon Tacitus Augustus 
spoke : " Trajan also came into power in his old age, but 
he was chosen by a single man, whereas I have been 
judged worthy of this title, first by you, most venerated 
fellow-soldiers, who know how to approve your 
emperors, and then by the most noble senate. Now I 
will endeavour and make every effort and do my 
utmost that you may have no lack, if not of brave 
deeds, at least of counsels worthy of you and of your 
emperor." 

IX. After this he promised them their pay and the 
customary donative, and then he delivered his first 
speech to the senate as follows : " So surely may it be 
granted me, Conscript Fathers, to rule the empire in 
such a way that it will be apparent that I was chosen 
by you, as I have determined to do all things by your 
will and power. Yours it is, therefore, to command 
and enact whatsoever seems worthy of yourselves, 
worthy of a well-ordered army, and worthy of the 
Roman people." In this same speech he proposed 
that a golden statue of Aurelian be set up in the 
Capitolium, likewise a silver one in the Senate-house, 
in the Temple of the Sun, 1 and in the Forum of the 
Deified Trajan. 2 The golden one, however, was never 
set up and only the silver ones were ever dedicated. 
In the same oration he ordained that if any one, either 
officially or privately, alloyed silver with copper, or gold 
with silver, or copper with lead, it should be a capital 
offence, involving confiscation of property. In the 
same speech he ordained that slaves should not be 
questioned against their master when on trial for his 
life, 3 not even in a prosecution for treason. He added 
the further command that every man should have a 

311 



TACITUS 

Bin causa maiestatis quidem. addidit ut Aurelianum 
omnes pictum haberent. divorum templura fieri iussit, 
in l quo essent statuae principum bonorum, ita ut iis- 
dem natalibus suis et Parilibus et kalendis lanuariis 

6 et Votis libamina ponerentur. in eadem oratione fratri 
suo Floriano consulatum petiit et non impetravit, id- 
circo quod iam senatus omnia mmdinia suffectorum 
consulum clauserat. dicitur autem multum laetatus 
senatus libertate, quod ei negatus est consulatus, quern 
fratri petierat. fertur denique dixisse, " Scit senatus 
quern principem fecerit." 

X. Patrimonium suura publicavit, quod habuit in re- 
ditibus, sestertium bis milies octingenties. pecuniam, 
quam domi collegerat, in stipendium militum vertit. 
togis et tunicis iisdem est usus quibus privatus. 

2raeritoria intra urbem stare vetuit, quod quidem diu 
tenere non potuit. thermas omnes ante lucernam 
claudi iussit, ne quid per noctem seditionis oriretur. 

SCornelium Taciturn, scriptorem historiae Augustae, 
quod parentem suum eundem diceret, in omnibus 

1 in Z ; ut P. 



1 There was already in existence a large structure built by 
Domitian, consisting of two temples of Vespasian and Titus with 
a great enclosing portico, called the Portions Divorum, the 
whole complex being known as the Ternplum Divorurn. Its 
site was the mod. Piazza Grazioli and the land to the south. 

2 21 April, originally a festival in honour of an ancient 
pastoral deity named Pales, and later celebrated as the birth- 
day of Rome. 

8 The Votorum Nuncupatio on 3 Jan., on which vows for the 
emperor's health were taken by the officials and priests. 
4 See c. xiii. 6 f. 
"See notes to Corac., iv. 8, and Alex., xxviii. 1. 

312 



TACITUS IX. 5 X. $ 

painting of Aurelian, and he ordered that a temple to 
the deified emperors l be erected, in which should be 
placed the statues of the good princes, so that sacrificial 
cakes might be set before them on their birthdays, the 
Parilia, 2 the Kalends of January, and the Day of the 
Vows. 3 In the same speech he asked for the consul- 
ship for his brother Florian, 4 but this request he did 
not obtain for the reason that the senate had already 
fixed all the terms of office for the substitute consuls. 6 
It is said, moreover, that he derived great pleasure 
from the senate's independence of spirit, because it 
refused him the consulship which he had asked for his 
brother. Indeed he is said to have exclaimed, " The 
senate knows what manner of prince it has chosen." 

X. He presented to the state the private fortune 
which he had in investments, amounting to two 
hundred and eighty million sesterces, and the money 
which he had accumulated in his house he used for the 
pay of the soldiers. He continued to wear the same 
togas and tunics that he had worn while a commoner. 
He forbade the keeping of brothels in the city 
which measure, indeed, could not be maintained for 
long. He gave orders that all public baths should be 
closed before the hour for lighting the lamps, 6 that 
no disturbance might arise during the night. He had 
Cornelius Tacitus, the writer of Augustan history, 7 
placed in all the libraries, claiming him as a relative 8 ; 



6 They had been kept open at night by Severus Alexander ; 
see Alex., xxiv. 6. 

7 From this passage Casaubon took the title which has ever 
since been given erroneously to this collection ; see vol. I M 
Intro., p. xi. 

8 The difference between the names of their respective gentea 
shows this to be impossible. 

313 



TACITUS 

bibliothecis conlocari iussit ; ne 1 lectorum incuria 
deperiret, librum per annos singulos decies scribi 
publicitus in t evicosarchis 2 iussit et in bibliothecis 

4poni. holosericam vestem viris omnibus interdixit. 
doraum suam destrui praecepit atque in eo loco ther- 

5 mas publicas fieri private sumptu iussit. columnas 
centum Numidicas pedum vicenum ternum Osti- 
ensibus donavit de proprio. possessiones, quas in 
Mauretania habuit, sartis tectis Capitolii deputavit. 

eargentum mensale, quod privatus habuerat, 3 minis- 
teriis conviviorum, quae in templis fierent, dedicavit. 

7 servos urbanos omnes manu misit utriusque sexus, 
intra centum tamen ne Caniniam transire videretur. 

XI. Ipse fuit vitae parcissimae, ita ut sextarium 
vini tota die numquam potaverit, saepe intra heminam. 
2convivium vero unius gallinacei, ita ut sinciput ad- 
deret et ova. prae omnibus holeribus adfatim minis- 
tratis lactucis impatienter indulsit, somnum enim se 
mercari ilia sumptus effusione dicebat. amariores 

8 cibos adpetivit. balneis raro usus est atque adeo vali- 
dior fuit in senectute. vitreorum diversitate atque 
operositate vehementer est delectatus. panem nisi 
siccum numquam comedit eundemque sale atque aliis 

4 rebus conditum. fabricarum peritissimus fuit, mar- 
morum cupidus, nitoris senatorii, venationum studiosus. 

1 ne Hohl ; nee P ; iieue Peter 2 . 2 So P ; no successful 
emendations have been proposed. ' A habuerat Z\ habu-eritP. 



1 See Heliog., xx^i. 1 and note. 

8 See note to Gord., xxxii. 2. 

3 The Lex Fufia Caninia of 2 B.C., designating specified pro- 
portions of a household of slaves that might be manumitted, 
the maximum being one hundred ; see Gaius, i. 42-46. 



TACITUS X. 4 XI. 4 

and in order that his works might not be lost through 
the carelessness of the readers he gave orders that ten 
copies of them should be made each year officially in 
the copying-establishments and put in the libraries. 
He forbade any man to wt-ar a garment made wholly 
of silk. 1 He gave orders that his house should be 
destroyed and a public bath erected on the site at his 
own expense. To the people of Ostia he presented 
from his own funds one hundred columns of Numidian 
marble/ each twenty-three feet in height, and the 
estates which he owned in Mauritania he assigned tor 
keeping the Capitolium in repair. The table-silver 
which he had used when a commoner he dedicated 
to the service of the banquets to be held in the 
temples, and all the slaves of both sexes whom he had 
in the city he set free, keeping the number, however, 
below one hundred in order not to seem to be trans- 
gressing the Caninian Law. 3 

XI. In his manner of living he was very temperate, 
so much so that in a whole day he never drank a pint 
of wine, and frequently less than a half-pint. Even 
at a banquet there would be served a single cock, with 
the addition of a pig's jowl and some eggs. In pre- 
ference to ah 1 other greens he would indulge himself 
without stint in lettuce, which was served in large 
quantities, for he used to say that he purchased sleep 
by this kind of lavish expenditure. He especially 
liked the more bitter kinds of food. He took baths 
rarely and w r as all the stronger in his old a<:e. He 
delighted greatly in varied and elaborate kinds of 
g'assware. He never ate bread unless it was dry, but 
he flavoured it with salt and other condiments. He 
was very skilled in the handicrafts, fond of marbles, 
truly senatorial in his elegance and devoted to hunting. 



TACITUS 

5mensam denique suam numquam nisi agrestibus 
opimavit. phasianam avem nisi suo et auorum natali 
et diebus festissimis nori posuit. hostias suas semper 

6 domurn revocavit iisdemque suos vesci iussit. uxorem 
gemmis uti non est passus. auro clavatis vestibus idem 
interdixit. nam et ipse auctor Aureliano fuisse perhi- 
betur ut aurum a vestibus et cameris et pellibus sum- 

7 moveret. multa hums feruntur, sed longum est ea in 
litteras mittere. quod si quis omnia de hoc viro cupit 
scire, legat Suetonium Optatianum, qui eius vitam ad- 

8 fatim scripsit. legit sane senex minutulas litteras ad 
stuporem nee umquam noctem intermisit qua non ali- 
quid vel scriberet ille vel legeret praeter posterum 
kalendarum diem. 

XII. Nee tacendum est et frequenter intimandum 1 
tantam senatus laetitiam fuisse, quod eligendi principis 
cura ad ordinem amplissimum revertisset ut et suppli- 
cationes decernerentur, et hecatombe promitteretur, 
singuli denique senatores ad suos scriberent, nee ad 
suos tantum sed etiam ad externos, mitterentur prae- 
terea litterae ad provincias : "scirent omnes socii 
omnesque nationes in antiquum statum redisse rem 
publicam ac senatum principes legere, immo ipsum 
senatum principem factum, leges a senatu petendas, 

1 intimandum Salm. ; vmitandum P. 



1 See note to Pert., xii. 6. a See Aur. t xlvi. 1. 

3 Unknown and probably fictitious. 

4 His reign was regarded throughout as the re-establishment 
of the rule of the senate ; he restored to the senators the right 
to hold military commands (Aur. Victor, Caes., 37, 6) and 
issued gold coins inscribed S.C. (Matt.-Syd., v. p. 333, no. 75 ; 
pp. 346-347, nos. 205 and 209). This policy found expression in 

316 



TACITUS XI. 5 XII. 1 

II is table, indeed, was supplied only with country 
produce, and he never served pheasants l except on his 
own birthday and on those of his family and on the 
chief festivals. He always brought back home the 
sacrificial victims and bade his household eat them. 
He did not permit his wife to use jewels and also for- 
bade her to wear garments with gold stripes. In fact, 
it is said that it was he who impelled Aureliaii to forbid 
the use of gold on clothing and ceilings and leather.' 2 
Many other measures of his are related, but it would 
be too long to set them all down in writing, and if 
anyone desires to know everything about this man, he 
should read Suetonius Optatianus, 3 who wrote his life 
in full detail. Though he was an old man, he could 
read very tiny letters to an amazing degree and he 
never let a night go by without writing or reading 
something except only the night following the day 
after the Kalends. 

XII. It must not be left unmentioned, and in fact 
it should become widely known, that so great was the 
joy of the senate that the power of choosing an 
emperor had been restored to this most noble body, 4 
that it botli voted ceremonies of thanksgiving and 
promised a hecatomb and finally each of the senators 
wrote to his relatives, and not to his relatives only but 
also to strangers, and letters were even despatched to 
the provinces, all in the following vein : " Let all the 
allies and all foreign nations know that the common- 
wealth has been restored to its ancient condition, and 
that the senate now creates the ruler, nay rather the 
senate itself has been created ruler, and henceforth 

the titles Verae Liber tatis Auctor given to him in an inscription 
from Gaul (C.I.L. xii. 5563 = Dessau, Ins. Set. 591) and 
Eestitutor Rei Publicae on coins (Cohen, vi. 2 p. 231, no. 107). 

317 



TACITUS 

reges barbaros senatui supplicaturos, pacem ac bella 
2senatu auctore tractanda." ne quid denique deesset 
cognition!, plerasque huius modi epistulas in fine libri 
posui, et cum cupiditate et sine fastidio, ut aestimo, 
perlegendas. 

XIII. Et prima quidem illi cura imperatoris facti 

haec fuit, ut omnes qui Aurelianum occiderant interi- 

meret, bonos malosve, cum iam ille vindicatus esset. 

2et quoniam a Maeotide multi barbari eruperant, hos 

Seosdem consilio atque virtute compressit, ipsi autem 

Maeotidae ita se gregabant, quasi accitu Aureliani ad 

bellum Persicum convenissent, auxilium daturi nostris 

4 si necessitas postularet. M. Tullius dicit magnificen- 

tius esse dicere, quemadmodum gesserit quam quemad- 

modum l ceperit consulatum ; at in isto viro magnificum 

fuit quod tanta gloria cepit imperium ; gessit autem 

6 propter brevitatem temporum nihil magnum, inter- 

emptus est enim insidiis militaribus, ut alii dicunt, 

sexto mense, ut alii, morbo interiit. tameii constat 

1 gesserit quam quemadmodum rest, by Salm. from Cicero; 
om. in P. 



1 cc. xviii.-xix. 

2 See Aur., xxxvii. 2. Others were punished by Probus ; 
see Prob., xiii. 2. 

3 The Sea of Azov ; see note to Aur., xvi. 4. A fuller account 
of this invasion of the Erali in 275-276 is found in Zosimus, i. 
63, 1 and Zonaras, xii. 28. Entering Asia Minor from Colchis, 
they overran Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia and Cilicia, where 
they were defeated by Tacitus with the aid of Florian. He 
celebrated the victory by assuming the cognomen Gothicus 
Maximus and by coins (of 276) with the legend Victoria 
Gothica; see Matt.-Syd., v. p. 337, no. 110. 

4 See Aur., xxxv. 4. 6 In Pisonem 3. 

318 



TACITUS XII. 2 XIII. 5 

laws must be sought from the senate, barbarian kings 
bring their entreaties to the senate, and peace and war 
be made by authority of the senate." In fact, in 
order that nothing may be lacking to your knowledge, 
I have placed many letters of this sort at the end of 
the book, 1 to be read, as I think, with enjoyment, or 
at least without aversion. 

XIII. His first care after being made emperor was 
to put to death all those who had killed Aurelian, 
good and bad alike, although he had already been 
avenged. 2 Then with wisdom and courage he crushed 
the barbarians for they had broken forth in great 
numbers from the district of Lake Maeotis. 3 The 
Maeotidae, in fact, were flocking together under the 
pretext of assembling by command of Aurelian for the 
Persian War, 4 in order that, should necessity demand 
it, they might render aid to our troops. Now Cicero 
declares 5 that it is rather a matter for boasting to tell 
how one has conducted, rather than how one has ob- 
tained, the consulship ; in the case of Tacitus, however, 
it was a noble achievement that he obtained the 
imperial power with such glory to himself, but by 
reason of the shortness of his reign he performed no 
great exploit. For hi the sixth month of his rule, he 
was slain, 6 according to some, by a plot among the 
troops, though according to others he died of disease. 7 

6 At Tyana (Kizli-Hissar) in Cappadocia, according to Aur. 
Victor, Goes., 36, 2. Zosimus (i. 63, 2) and Zonaras (xii. 28) 
relate that he was killed by some soldiers who had murdered 
his kinsman Maximinus, the governor of Syria, and then 
feared punishment from him. As there are papyri of June 
276, drawn up while he was ruling, his death could not have 
taken place before this month. 

7 This version, evidently incorrect, seems to appear also in 
Prob. , x. 1 and Car., iii. 7, and in Ejjit., 36, 1. 

319 



TACITUS 

factionibus eum oppressum mente atque animo de- 
fecisse. liic idem mensem Septembrem Taciturn ap- 
pellari iussit, idcirco quod eo mense et natus et factus 
est imperator. 

Huic frater Florianus in imperio successit, de quo 
pauca ponenda sunt. 

XI V. Hie frater Taciti germanus fuit, qui post fra- 
trem arripuit imperium, non senatus auctoritate sed 
suo motu, quasi hereditarium esset imperium, cum 
sciret adiuratum esse in senatu Taciturn, ut, cum mori 
coepisset, non liberos suos sed optimum aliquem prin- 

2 cipem faceret. denique vix duobus mensibus imperium 
ten u it et occisus est Tarsi a militibus, qui Probum 
audierant imperare, quern omnis exercitus legerat. 

3 tantus autem Probus fuit in re l militari ut ilium sena- 
tus optaret, miles eligeret, ipse populus Romanus ad- 

4 clamationibus peteret, fuit etiam Florianus morum 
fratris imitator, nee tamen usquequaque. nam effu- 

1 in re 27, Peter, Hohl ; intere P. 



1 See c. ii. 6 and note. 

2 M. Annius Florianus Augustus. His name shows that the 
biographer is correct in his statement, in c. xvii. 4, that he was 
the son of Tacitus' mother by a second husband ; accordingly, 
the " germanus " of c. xiv, 1 is incorrect. In direct contradic- 
tion of c. xiv. 1 Zonaras says that he was i ecognised by the 
senate, and both he and Zosimus relate that he was acknow- 
ledged emperor by the European and African portions of the 
empire ; this is supported by the evidence of inscriptions from 
the various western provinces. 

3 Cf . c. vi. 8. 

4 He reigned for eighty days according to Eutropius, ix. 16, 
and for eighty-eight according to the " Ghronographer of 354." 
Since Tacitus seems to have been killed in June, 276 (see note 
to c. xiii. 5), and F:orian is said by Zosimus (i. 64, 2) to have 

320 



TACITUS XIII. 6 XIV. 4 

It is, nevertheless, agreed among all that, crushed by 
plots, he grew weak both in mind and in spirit. He 
likewise gave command that the month of September 
should be called Tacitus, for the reason that in that 
month he was not only born but also created emperor. 1 

He was succeeded in the imperial power by his 
brother Florian, 2 about whom a few things must now 
be related. 

XIV. Florian was own brother to Tacitus, and after 
his brother's death he seized the imperial power, not 
by authorisation of the senate but on his own volition, 
just as though the empire were an hereditary posses- 
sion, and although he knew that Tacitus had taken 
oath in the senate that when he came to die he would 
appoint as emperor not his own sons but some excel- 
lent man. 3 Finally, after holding the imperial power 
for scarce two months 4 he was slain at Tarsus by the 
soldiers, 5 who heard that Probus, the choice of the 
whole army, was now in command. So great, more- 
over, was Probus in matters of war that the senate 
desired him, the soldiers elected him, and the Roman 
people itself demanded him by acclamations. 6 Florian 
was also an imitator of his brother's ways, though not 

been killed during the summer, his death may be supposed to 
have taken place about August. 

"Zosimus (i. 64, 2) relates that he carried on the war against 
the Eruli with success and that he had cut off their retreat 
when he was forced by Probus' assumption of the imperial 
power to return to Cilicia. After a battle of no importance 
Probus' soldiers deposed Florian and placed him under guard ; 
when he made an attempt to recover his position he was killed 
by his own troops at the instigation of Probus' emissaries. The 
biographer, both here and in Prob., x. 8, suppresses all sugges- 
tion of complicity in Florian's death on the part of his hero 
Probus. 

"See Prob., x. -xii. 

321 



TACITUS 

sionem in eo frater frugi reprehendit, et haec ipsa im- 
perandi cupiditas aliis eum moribus ostendit fuisse 
quam fratrem. 

5 Duo igitur priucipes una exstiterunt domo, quorum 
alter sex mensibus, alter vix duobus imperaverunt, 
quasi quidam interreges inter Aurelianum et Probura, 
post interregnum principes nuncupati. 1 

XV. Horum statuae fuerunt Interamnae duae 
pedum tricenum e mar more, quod illic eorum ceno- 
taphia constituta sunt in solo proprio ; sed deiectae 
fulmine ita contritae sunt ut membratim iaceant dis- 

2sipatae. quo tempore responsum est ab haruspicibus 
quandocumque ex eorum familia imperatorem Roma- 
num futurum seu per feminam seu per virum, qui det 
iudices Parthis ac Persis, qui Francos et Alamannos 
sub Romanis legibus habeat, qui per omnem African! 
barbaruml I non relinquat, qui Taprobanis praesidem 
imponat, qui ad luvernam 2 insulam proconsulem 
mittat, qui Sarmatis omnibus iudicet, qui terram 
omnem, qua Oceano ambitur, captis omnibus genti- 
bus suam faciat, postea tamen senatui reddat imperium 
et antiquis legibus vivat, ipse victurus annis centum 

3 viginti et sine herede moriturus. futurum autem eum 
dixerunt a die fulminis praecipitati statuisque confract : s 

4 post 3 annos mille. non magna haec urbanitas harus- 
picum fuit, qui principem talem post mille annos 
futurum esse dixerunt, pollicentes cum vix remanere 

1 post . . . nuncupati P, retained by von Winterfeld; del. 
by Salm., Peter, Hohl. a luvernam Purser, Hohl ; 

Romanam P, Peter. 3 post 2 ; per P. 



1 Mod. Terni, about 60 m. N. of Rome. 

2 Cf. Prob., xxiv. 2. 8 Ceylon. 

4 Ireland if the emendation in the text is correct. 

322 



TACITUS XIV. 5 XV. 4 

in every respect. For the frugal Tacitus found fault 
with his lavishness, and his very eagerness to rule 
showed him to be of a different stamp from his brother. 

So then there arose two princes from one house, of 
whom the one ruled for six months and the other for 
scarce two merely regents, so to speak, between 
Aurelian and Probus, and themselves named princes 
after a regency. 

XV. Their two statues, made of marble and thirty 
feet in height, were set up at Interamna, 1 for there 
cenotaphs were erected to them on their own land ; 
but these were struck by lightning and so thoroughly 
broken that they lay scattered in fragments. On 
this occasion the soothsayers foretold that at some 
future time there would be a Roman emperor from 
their family, 2 descended through either the male or 
the female line, who would give judges to the Parthians 
and the Persians, subject the Franks and the Ala- 
manni to the laws of Rome, drive out every barbarian 
from the whole of Africa, establish a governor at 
Taprobane, 3 send a proconsul to the island of luverna, 4 
act as judge to all the Sarmatians, make all the land 
which borders on the Ocean his own territory by 
conquering all the tribes, but thereafter restore the 
power to the senate and conduct himself in accord- 
ance with the ancient laws, being destined to live for 
one hundred and twenty years 5 and to die without 
an heir. They declared, moreover, that he would 
come one thousand years from the day when the 
lightning struck and shattered the statues. It showed 
no great skill, indeed, on the soothsayers' part to de- 
clare that such a prince would come after an interval 
of one thousand years, for their promise applied to 

* Cf. Claud., ii. 4. 

323 



TACITUS 

tails possit historia, 1 quia, si post centum annos prae- 
dicerent, forte possent eorum deprehendi mendacia. 
6 ego tamen haec idcirco inserenda volumini credidi lie 
quis me legens legisse non crederet. 

XVI. Tacitus congiarium populo Romano intra sex 

2 menses vix dedit. imago eius posita est in Quintili- 
orum, in una tabula quinquiplex, in qua semel togatus, 
semel chlamydatus, semel armatus, semel palliatus, 

3 semel venatorio habitu. de qua quidem epigram- 
matarius ita allusit ut diceret : "Non agnosco seiiem 
armatum, non chlamydatum ' inter cetera, " sed 

4 agnosco togatum." et Floriani liberi et Taciti multi 
exstiterunt, quorum sunt poster!, credo, millesimum 
annum exspectantes. in quos multa epigrammata 
scripta suiit, 2 quibus 3 iocati sunt haruspices imperium 

5 pollicentes. haec sunt quae de vita Taciti atque 
Floriani digna memoratu comperisse me memiiii. 

6 Nunc nobis adgrediendus est Probus, vir domi foris- 
que conspicuus, vir Aureliano, Traiano, Hadriano, 
Antoninis, Alexandro Claudioque praeferendus, quia 4 
in illis varia, in hoc omnia praecipua iuiicta 5 fuere, 
qui post Taciturn omnium iudicio bonorum imperator 
est factus orbemque terrarum pacatissimum guber- 
navit, delet : s barbaris gentibus, deletis etiam plurimis 
tyrannorum, qui eius temporibus exstiterunt, de quo 

1 pollicentes . . . historic, transp. by Salm. ; after niendacia 
in P. "scripta sunt 2, Hohl ; om. in P and by Peter. 
8 quibus Hohl ; quo P, Peter ; queis Cas. 4 So Peter ; nisi 

quia P, Hohl. 5 iunc ! a Baehrens, Peter 2 ; tune P. 



1 Commemorated by coins with the legend Annona Augusti ; 
see Matt.-S.yd., v. p. 339, nos. 123-125. 

- Unknown. 8 See note to Prob., i. 3. 

S24- 



TACITUS XV. 5 XVI. 6 

a time when such a story will scarce be remembered, 
whereas, if they had said one hundred years, their 
falsehood could perhaps be detected. All this, never- 
theless, I thought should be included in this volume 
for the reason that someone who reads me might think 
that I had not read. 

XVI. Tacitus scarcely gave a largess ] to the Roman 
people in six months' time. His portrait was placed 
in the house of the Quintilii, 2 representing him in five 
ways on a single panel, once in a toga, once in a 
military cloak, once in armour, once in a Greek 
mantle, and once in the garb of a hunter. Of this 
picture, indeed, a writer of epigrams made mock, 
saying : " I do not recognise the old man in the 
armour, I do not recognise the man in the military 
cloak," and so forth, " but I do recognise the man in 
the toga." Both Florian and Tacitus left many 
children, whose descendants, I suppose, are awaiting 
the coming of the thousandth year. About them 
many epigrams were written, ridiculing the sooth- 
sayers who made the promise of the imperial power. 
This is all that I remember learning about the lives 
of Tacitus and Florian that is worthy of record. 

Now we must take up Probus, a man of note both 
at home and abroad, and one to be preferred to 
Aurelian, to Trajan, to Hadrian, to the Antonines, to 
Alexander, and to Claudius, for the reason that, while 
they had various virtues, he had all combined and to 
a surpassing degree. 3 He was made emperor after 
Tacitus by the vote of all good men, and he ruled 
a world to which he had brought perfect peace by 
destroying barbarian tribes and by destroying also 
the very many pretenders who arose in his time, and 
about him it was said that he was worthy to be called 



TACITUS 

dictum est dignum esse 1 ut Probus diceretur, etiamsi 
Probus nomine non fuisset. quern quidem multi 
ferunt etiam Sibyllinis Libris promissum, qui si diutius 

7 fuisset, orbis terrae barbaros non haberet. haec ego 
in aliorum vita de Probo credidi praelibanda, ne dies, 
hora, momentum aliquid sibi vindicaret in me neces- 

8 sitate fatali ac Probo indicto deperirem. nunc quon- 
iam interim meo studio satisfeci, claudam istud volu- 
men, 2 satisfactum arbitrans studio et cupiditati meae. 

XVII. Omina imperii Tacito haec fuerunt : fanati- 

cus quidam in Templo Silvani tensis membris ex- 

clamavit, " Tacita purpura, tacita purpura/' idque 

septimo ; quod quidem postea omini deputatum est. 

2 vinum, quo libaturus Tacitus fuerat in templo Herculis 

8 Fundani, subito purpureum factum est. vitis, quae 

uvas Aminnias albas ferebat, eo anno quo ille im- 

perium meruit purpureas tulit. 3 plurima purpurea 

4 facta sunt. mortis omina haec fuerunt : patris sepul- 

chrum disruptis ianuis se aperuit. matris umbra se 

per diem et Tacito et Floriano velut viventis obtulit, 

nam diversis patribus nati ferebantur. in larario di 

omnes seu terrae motu seu casu aliquo conciderunt. 

1 dignum esse ins. by Gas., Peter 3 ; om. in P. 2 satisfeci 

. . . uolumen 2, Hohl ; om. in P and by Peter. 3 So Salm. ; 
purascere P; purpurascere . . . Peter, Hohl. 



1 i.e., Upright ; cf. Prob., iv. 4 ; x. 4. 

2 There were in Rome many private shrines of Silvanus, 
which are attested by inscriptions, but there was no official cult 
of the god or any temple. 

3 A dedicatory inscription to Hercules Fundauius has been 
found in Rome (C.I.L., vi. 311 = Dessau, In<. Sel., 3449), but 
the adjective may refer to the town of Fundi (mod. Fondi) on 
the Via Appia. 

326 



TACITUS XVI. 7 XVII. 4 

Probus 1 even if that had not been his name. Many, 
indeed, declare that he was even foretold by the 
Sibylline books, and had he but lived longer the 
world would contain no barbarians. These state- 
ments about him I thought should be given in the 
life of others as a foretaste, lest the day, the hour, 
and the moment should put forth some claim against 
me because my fate is destined, and I should die 
without mention of Probus. Now, since I have for 
the time satisfied my zeal, I will bring this book to 
a close, believing that I have given satisfactory ex- 
pression to my devotion and my desire. 

XVII. The omens that predicted the rule of Tacitus 
were the following : A certain madman in the Temple 
of Silvanus 2 was seized with a stiffening of the limbs 
and shouted out, " There is tacit purple, there is tacit 
purple," and so on for seven times; and this, .indeed, 
was later regarded as an omen. The wine, moreover, 
with which Tacitus was about to pour a libation in 
the Temple of Hercules Fundanius, 3 suddenly turned 
purple, and a vine, which had previously borne white 
Aminnian grapes, 4 in the year in which he gained the 
imperial power bore grapes of a purple colour. Very 
many other things, too, turned purple. Now the 
omens predicting his death were these : His father's 
tomb burst its doors asunder and opened of its own 
accord. His mother's shade appeared in the daytime 
as though alive to Tacitus and to Florian as well it 
is said, indeed, that they had different fathers. 5 All 
the gods in their private chapel fell down, overthrown 
either by an earthquake or by some mischance. The 

4 One of the most famous of the Italian grapes ; see Vergil, 
Georg., ii. 97, and Pliny, Nat. Hist., xiv. 21-22. 

5 See note to c. xiii. 6. 

327 



TACITUS 

5 imago Apollinis, quae ab his colebatur, ex summo 
fastigio in lectulo posita sine hominis cuiuspiam manu 
deprehensa est. sed quousque ultra progredimur ? 
sunt a quibus ista dicantur. nos ad Probum et ad 
Probi gesta insignia reservemus. 1 

XVIII. Et quoniam me promisi aliquas epistulas 
esse positurum, quae create Tacito principe gaudia 
senatus ostenderent, his additis finem scribendi 
faciam . 

Epistulae publicae : 

2 " Senatus amplissimus curiae Carthaginiensi salutem 
dicit. quod bonum, faustum, felix salutareque sit rei 
publicae orbique Romano, dandi ius imperii, appel- 
landi principis, nuncupandi Augusti ad nos revertit. 

Sad nos igitur referte quae magna sunt. omnis pro- 
vocatio praefecti 2 urbis erit, quae tamen a procon- 

4 sulibus et ab ordinariis iudicibus emerserit. in quo 
quidem etiam vestram in antiquum statum redisse 
credimus dignitatem, si quidem primus hie ordo est, 
qui recipiendo vim suam ius suum ceteris servat." 

5 Alia epistula : 

" Senatus amplissimus curiae Trevirorum. ut estis 
liberi et semper fuistis, laetari vos credimus. creandi 
principis iudicium ad senatum rediit, simul etiam 

1 reseruemns Z, Petschenig, Hohl ; reseruemur P ; reuertemur 
Peter. * praefecti 2 ; quae P. 



J c. xii. 2. 

2 As the representative of the senate; so also Prob., xiii. 1. 
The principle had been laid down by Nero that appeals from 
Italy and the senatorial provinces should be made to the consuls 
(i.e., the senate), while those from the imperial provinces should 
be made to the emperor ; see Tacitus, Annals, xiii. 4. This was 

328 



TACITUS XVII. 5 XVIII. 5 

statue of Apollo, worshipped by them both, was found 
removed from the top of its pedestal and laid on a 
couch, all without the agency of any human hand. 
But to what end shall I proceed further? There are 
others to relate these things ; let us save ourselves 
for Probus and for Probus' famous deeds. 

XVIII. Now since 1 have promised l to quote some 
of the letters which showed the joy of the senate 
when Tacitus was created emperor, I will append the 
following and then make an end of writing. 

The official letters : 

" From the most noble senate to the council of 
Carthage, greeting. May it prove happy, auspicious, 
of good omen, and to the welfare of the common- 
wealth and the Roman world ! The right of con- 
ferring the imperial power, of naming an emperor, 
and of entitling him Augustus has been restored to 
us. To us, therefore, you will now refer all matters 
of importance. Every appeal shall now be made to 
the prefect of the city, 2 but it shall come up to him 
from the proconsuls and the regular judges. And 
herein, we believe, your authority also has been re- 
stored to its ancient condition, for this body is now 
supreme, and in recovering its own power it is pre- 
serving the rights of others as well." 

Another letter : 

" From the most noble senate to the council of the 
Treviri. 3 We believe that you are rejoicing that you 
are free and have ever been free. The power to 
create the emperor has been restored to the senate, 



now extended, on the theory that the senate was the supreme 
governing body, to all the provinces. 
3 See note to Tyr. Trig., xxxi. 3. 

329 



TACITUS 

praefecturae urbanae appellatio universa decreta 
est" 

6 Eodem modo scriptum est Antiochensibus, Aqui- 
leiensibus, Mediolanensibus, Alexandrinis, Thessaloni- 
censibus, Corinthiis et Atheniensibus. 

XIX. Privatae autem epistulae haec fuerunt : 
" Autronio lusto patri Autronius Tiberianus salutem. 
nunc te, pater sancte, interesse decuit senatui amplis- 
simo, nunc sententiam dicere, cum tantum auctoritas 
amplissimi ordinis creverit ut reversa in antiquum 
statum re l publica nos principes demus, nos faciamus 

2imperatores, nos denique mmcupemus Augustos. fac 
igitur ut convalescas, Curiae interfuturus antiquae. 
nos recepimus ius proconsulare, redierunt ad prae- 
fectum urbi appellationes omnium potestatum et 
omnium dignitatum." 

3 Item alia : 

" Claudius Sapilianus Cereio Maeciano patruo salu- 
tem. obtinuimus,' 2 pater sancte, quod semper optavi- 
mus ; in antiquum statum senatus revertit. nos 
principes facimus, nostri ordinis sunt potestates. 

4 gratias exercitui Romano et vere Romano ; reddidit 
5nobis quam semper habuimus potestatem. abice 

Baianos Puteolanosque secessus, da te urbi, da te 
Curiae. floret Roma, floret tota res publica. impera- 
tores damus, principes facimus ; possumus et prohibere 
qui coepimus facere. dictum sapienti sat est." 

1 So Peter ; reuera . . . rei P. 2 optinuimus 2 ; 

optimus P. 



1 Neither these persons nor those mentioned in the next letter 
are otherwise known. 

330 



TACITUS XVIII. 6 XIX. 5 

and at the same time the prefect of the city has been 
authorized to hear all appeals." 

After the same manner letters were written to the 
people of Antioch, of Aquileia, of Milan, of Alexandria, 
of Thessalonica, of Corinth, and of Athens. 

XIX. The private letters, moreover, were as 
follows : 

" From Autronius Tiberianus to Autronius Justus l 
his father, greeting. Now at last it is fitting, my 
revered father, for you to be present in the most noble 
senate, and now to speak your opinion, for so greatly 
has the authority of that noble body increased that, 
now that the commonwealth has been restored to its 
ancient position, we name the princes, we create the 
emperors, we, in fine, give the Augusti their title. 
Now look to it that you grow strong, ready to be 
present once more in the ancient Senate-house. We 
have recovered the proconsular command, and to the 
prefect of the city have been restored the appeals 
from every office and from every rank." 

Likewise another letter : 

" From Claudius Sapilianus to Cereius Maecianus 
his uncle, greeting. We have obtained, revered sir, 
what we have always desired ; the senate has been 
restored to its ancient position. We now create the 
emperors and in our body is vested every power. 
All thanks to the Roman army, aye, Roman in truth 1 
It has restored to us the power which we always held. 
Now away with retirement to Baiae and Puteoli 1 
Present yourself in the city, present yourself in the 
Senate-house. Happy is Rome, happy the entire 
commonwealth. We name the emperors, we create 
the princes ; and we who have begun to create are 
also able to depose. To the wise a word is sufficient." 

331 



TACITUS 

6 Longum est omnes epistulas conectere quas rep- 
peri, quas legi. tantum illud dico, senatores omnes 
ea esse laetitia elatos ut in domibus suis omnes albas 
hostias caederent, imagines frequenter aperirent, 1 
albati sederent, convivia sumptuosiora praeberent, 2 
antiquitatem sibi redditam crederent. 

1 aperirent 2; aperient P. * praeberent Gas., Peter. 

praeuenerent, P 1 . 



332 



TACITUS XIX. 6 

It would be too long to include all the letters that 
I have found and read. I will say only this much, 
that all the senators were so carried away by joy that 
they all in their houses sacrificed white victims, un- 
covered everywhere the portraits of their ancestors, 
sat arrayed in white garments, served more sumptuous 
banquets, and supposed that the ancient times had 
been restored. 



333 



PROBUS 

FLAVII VOPISCI SYRACUSII 

I. Certum est quod Sallustius Crispus quodque 
Marcus Cato et Gellius historic! sententiae modo in 
litteras rettulerunt, omnes omnium virtutes tantas esse 
quantas videri eas voluerint eorum ingenia qui unius 

2Cuiusque T facta descripserint. inde est quod Alex- 
ander Magnus Macedo, cum ad Achill s sepulchrum 
venisset, graviter ingemescens " Felicem te," inquit, 
"iuvenis, qui talem praeconem tuarum virtutum rep- 
peristi," Homerum intellegi volens, qui Acliillem 
tantum in virtutum studio fecit 2 quantum ipse valebat 
ingenio. 

3 Quorsum haec pertiueant, mi Celsine, fortassis requi- 

l cuiusque 27; cuius P. 2 fecit Peter; fuit P. 



1 What follows is not a quotation, but a reflection based on 
Sallust, CatiL, 8, 4 and Cato's Origines quoted by Aulus Gellius, 
iii. 7, 19. The actual words of Sallust are cited by Jerome in his 
Vita Hilarivnis, 1, in immediate connection with the anecdote 
related in 2, though without the reference to Cato. The co- 
incidence and the exactness of Jerome's quotation from Sallsut 
have suggested the possibility that the biographer has taken 

334 



PROBUS 

BY 

FLAVIUS VOPISCUS OF SYRACUSE 

I. It is true as Sallustius Crispus and the historians 
Marcus Cato and Gellius l have put into their writings 
as a sort of maxim that all the virtues of all men are 
as great as they have been made to appear by the 
genius of those who related their deeds. Hence it was 
that Alexander the Great of Macedonia, as he stood at 
the tomb of Achilles, said with a mighty groan, 
" Happy are you, young man, in that you found such 
a herald of your virtues," 2 making allusion to Homer, 
who made Achilles outstanding in the pursuit of 
virtue in proportion as he himself was outstanding in 
genius. 

"But to what does all this apply," you may perhaps 

this passage from the Vita Hilarionis (written about 390), and 
that, accordingly, the Probus was not composed before the end of 
the fourth century; see B. Schmiedler in Phil. Woch., 1927, 

p. 955 f. 

2 Related also by Plutarch, Alexander, 15, 4; Arrian, Anab. 
Alex., i. 12, 1 ; Cicero, pro Archia, 24, and referied to by Cicero 
in Epist. ad Familiares, v. 12, 7. 

335 



PROBUS 

ris. Probum principem, cuius imperio oriens, occidens, 
meridies, septentrio omnesque orbis partes in totam 
securitatem 1 redactae sunt, scriptorum inopia iam 

4 paene nescimus. occidit, pro pudor ! tanti viri et talis 
historia qualem non habent bella Punica, lion terror 
Gallicus, non motus Pontici, non Hispaniensis astutia. 

5 sed non patiar ego ille, a quo dudum solus Aurelianus 
est expetitus, cuius vitam quantum potui persecutus, 
Tacito Florianoque iam scriptis non me ad Probi facta 
conscendere, si vita suppetet, omnes qui supersunt 
usque ad Maximianum Diocletianumque dicturus. 

6neque ego nunc facultatem eloquentiamque polliceor 
sed res gestas, quas perire non patior. 

II. Us us autem sum, ne in aliquo fallam carissimam 
mihi familiaritatem tuam, praecipue libris ex Biblio- 
theca Ulpia, aetate mea Thermis Diocletianis, et item 
ex Domo Tiberiana, usus etiam regestis scribarum 
Porticus Porphyreticae, actis etiam senatus ac populi. 

2 et quoniam me ad colligenda talis viri gesta ephemeris 
Turduli Gallicani plurimum iuvit, viri honestissimi ac 
sincerissimi, beneficium amici senis tacere non debui. 

1 securitatem Z" ; seiieritatem P. 



1 Like the other persons to whom Vopiscus' biographies are 
addressed (Aur. t 1, 9, arid Firm., ii. 1), unknown, unless he is the 
Celsiuus of Aur. t xliv. 3. 

2 M. Aurelius Probus Augustus (276-282). The name Valerius, 
by which he is called in c. xi. 5, is incorrectly given to him, as 
also to Claudius ; see note to Claud., i. 1. Probus is the hero of 
this group of biographies and this vita is little more than a 
panegyric; see especially c. xxii-xxiii; cf. Tac., xvi. 6; Car., 
i. 2. 

3 See Aur. t i. 7 and note. This is the only authority for its 
removal to the Baths of Diocletian (on which see note to Tyr. 
Trig., xxi. 7). 

336 



PROBUS I. 4 II. 2 

be inquiring, my dear Celsinus. 1 It means that 
Probus, 2 an emperor whose rule restored to perfect 
safety the east, the west, the south, and the north, 
indeed all parts of the world, is now, by reason of 
a lack of writers, almost unknown to us. Perished 
shame be upon us ! has the story of a man so great 
and such as is not to be found either in the Punic 
Wars or in the Gallic terror, not in the commotions of 
Pontus or the wiles of the Spaniard. But I will not 
permit myself I who at first sought out Aurelian alone, 
relating the story of his life to the best of my powers, 
and have since written of Tacitus and Florian also to 
fail to rise to the deeds of Probus, purposing, should 
the length of my life suffice, to tell of all who remain 
as far as Maximian and Diocletian. No fluency or 
elegance of style can I promise, but only the record of 
their deeds, which I will not suffer to die. 

II. I have used, moreover not to deceive in any 
respect your friendly interest which I hold most dear 
chiefly the books from the Ulpian Library 3 (in my 
time in the Baths of Diocletian) and likewise from the 
House of Tiberius, 4 and I have used also the registers 
of the clerks of the Porphyry Portico 5 and the transac- 
tions of the senate 6 and of the people : and since in 
collecting the deeds of so great a man I have received 
most aid from the journal of Turdulus Gallicanus, 7 
a most honourable and upright man, I ought not to 
leave unmentioned the kindness of this aged friend. 

4 See Pius, x. 4 and note. This library is also mentioned 
in Aulus Gellius, xiii. 20, 1, and Fronto, Epist. ad M. Caes., 
iv. 5. 

6 This portico (called Purpuretica) is mentioned in an inscrip- 
tion as part of the Forum of Trajan (of. Hadr. t vii. 6) ; see 
C.T.L., vi. 7191 = Dessau, Ins. Sel. 8729. 

6 See note to Alex., Ivi. 2. 7 Otherwise unknown. 

337 



PROBUS 

8 Cn. Pompeium, tribus fulgentem triumphis belli 
piratici, 1 belli Sertoriani, belli Mithradatici multarum- 
que rerum gestarum maiestate sublimem, quis tandem 
nosset, nisi eum Marcus Tullius et Titus Livius in 

4 litteras rettulissent ? Publium Scipionem Africanum, 
immo Scipiones omnes, seu Lucios seu Nasicas, nonne 
tenebrae possiderent ac tegerent, nisi commendatores 
eorum historici nobiles atque ignobiles exstitissent ? 

5 longum est omnia persequi, quae ad exemplum huiusce 

6 modi etiam nobis taceiitibus usurpanda sunt. illud 
tantum contestatum volo, me et rem scripsisse, quam 
si quis voluerit honestius eloquio celsiore demonstret. 

7 et mihi quidem id animi fuit ut 2 non Sallustios, Livios, 
Tacitos, Trogos atque omnes disertissimos imitarer 
viros in vita principum et temporibus disserendis, sed 
Marium Maximum, Suetonium Tranquillum, Fabium 
Marcellinum, Gargilium Martialem, lulium Capitoli- 
num, Aelium Lampridium ceterosque, qui haec et talia 

8 non tarn diserte quam vere memoriae tradiderunt. sum 
enim unus ex curiosis, quod infitias 3 ire non possum, 
incendentibus vobis, qui, cum multa sciatis, scire multo 

9 plura cupitis. et ne diutius ea, quae ad meum consilium 

1 piratici Z; Parthici P. 2 ut ins. by Peter; om. in P. 

s infitias Peter; infinitas P 1 . 



1 Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiagenus, the brother of Af ricanus, 
was nominally in command of the Roman army at the battle 
of Magnesia, 190 B.C. 

2 There were no less than six men named P. Cornelius Scipio 
Nasica, the most famous of whom were the consul of 191 B.C., 
who in 204 had been declared by the senate to be the best man 
in Rome and so qualified to receive the image of the Magna 

338 



PROBUS II. 3-9 

Who, pray, would know of Gnaeus Porapey, re- 
splendent in the three triumphs that he won by his 
war against the pirates, his war against Sertorius, and 
his war against Mithradates, and exalted by the 
grandeur of his many achievements, had not Marcus 
Tullius and Titus Livius brought him into their 
works ? And as for Publius Scipio Africanus, or rather 
all the Scipios, whether called Lucius 3 or Nasica, 2 
would they not lie hidden in darkness, had not 
historians, both famous and obscure, arisen to grace 
their deeds ? It would, indeed, be too long to 
enumerate all the cases which might be brought up 
by way of example of this sort of thing, even if I were 
silent. I do but wish to call to witness that I have 
also written on a theme which anyone, if he so desire, 
may narrate more worthily in loftier utterance. As for 
me, indeed, it has been my purpose, in relating the 
lives and times of the emperors, to imitate, not a 
Sallust, or a Livy, or a Tacitus, or a Trogus, 3 or any 
other of the most eloquent writers, but rather Marius 
Maximus, 4 Suetonius Tranquiilus, Fabius Marcellinus, 6 
Gargilius Martialis, 6 Julius Capitolinus, Aelius Lam- 
pridius, and the others who have handed down to 
memory these and other such details not so much with 
eloquence as with truthfulness. For I am now an 
investigator I cannot deny it incited thereto by you, 
who, though you know much already, are desirous of 
learning much more besides. And now, lest I speak 
at too great length concerning all that has to do with 

Mater, and his son, consul in 162 and 155 B.C., conqueror of 
Dalmatia and a famous orator. 

3 See note to Aur., ii. 1. * See note to Hadr., ii. 10. 

8 See note to Alex., xlviii. 6. 

8 See note to Alex., xxxvii. 9. 

339 



PROBUS 

pertinent, loquar, magnum et praeclarum principem et 
qualem historia nostra non novit, arripiam. 

III. Probus oriundus e Pannonia, civitate Sirmiensi, 
nobiliore matre quam patre, patrimonio moderate, 
adfinitate non magna, tarn privatus quam imperator 

2nobilissimus virtutibus claruit. Probo, ut quidam in 
iitteras rettulerunt, pater nomine Maximus fuit, qui, 
cum ordines honestissime duxisset, tribunatum adep- 
tus apud Aegyptum vita functus est uxore ac filio et 

Sfilia derelictis. multi dicunt Probum Claudii propin- 
quum fuisse, optimi et sanctissimi principis, quod, 
quia per unum taiitum Graecorum relatum est, iios in 

4 medio relinquemus. unum tamen dico, quod in ephe- 
meride legisse me memini, a Claudia sorore Probum 

6 sepultum. adulescens Probus corporis viribus tarn 
clarus est factus ut Valeriani iudicio tribunatum prope 

6 imberbis acciperet. exstat epistula Valeriani ad Gal- 
lienum, qua Probum laudat adhuc adulescentem et 

7 imitationi omnium proponit. ex quo apparet nemi- 
nem umquam pervenisse ad virtutum summam iam 
maturum, nisi qui puer seminario virtutum generosiore 
concretus aliquid inclitum desigiiasset. 

IV. Epistula Valeriani : 

" Valerianus pater Gallieno filio, Augustus Augusto. 
et meum secutus iudicium, quod semper de Probo 
adulescente primo habui, et omnium bonorum, qui 



1 Mitrovitz ; see note to Aur., iii. 1. 

8 See note to Av. Ca^s., i. 1. 

8 Evidently a fiction, due to a desire on the part of the bio- 
grapher 10 connect his hero with Pollio's. 

4 Probably fictitious, on account of her name, unless we may 
suppose that she was a half-sister. 

340 



PROBUS III. 1 IV. 1 

v 

my plan, I will hasten on to an emperor great and 
illustrious, the like of whom our history has never 
known. 

III. Probus was a native of Pannonia, of the city of 
Sirmium, 1 his mother was of nobler birth than his 
father, his private fortune was modest, and his 
kindred unimportant. Both as commoner and as 
emperor he stood forth illustrious, famed for his 
virtues. His father, so some have said in their writ- 
ings, was a man named Maximus, who, after com- 
manding in the ranks 2 with honour and winning 
a tribuneship, died in Egypt, leaving a wife, a son, 
and a daughter. Many aver that Probus was a rela- 
tive of Claudius, 3 that most excellent and venerated 
prince, but this, because it has been stated by only 
one of the Greek writers, we shall leave undiscussed. 
This one thing I will say, however, which I remember 
reading in the journal, namely, that Probus was 
buried by a sister named Claudia. 4 As a youth 
Probus became so famed for his bodily strength that 
by approval of Valerian he received a tribuneship 
almost before his beard was grown. There is still in 
existence a letter written by Valerian to Galliemis, in 
which he praises Probus, then still a youth, and holds 
him up for all to imitate. From this it is clear that 
no man has ever in his maturity attained to the sum 
of the virtues except one who, trained in the nobler 
nursery of the virtues, had as a boy given some sign 
of distinction. 

IV. Valerian's letter : 

" From Valerian the father to Gallienus the son, an 
Augustus to an Augustus. Following out the opinion 
which I have always held concerning Probus from his 
early youth, as well as that held by all good men, 

341 



PROBUS 

eundem sui nominis virum dicunt, tribunatum in eum 
contuli datis sex cohortibus Saracenis, creditis etiam 
auxiliaribus Gallis cum ea Persarum manu quam nobis 

2 Artabassis Syrus mancipavit. te quaeso, fill carissime, 
ut eum iuvenem, quern imitari pueris omnibus volo, 
in tanto habeas honore quantum virtutes eius et merita 
pro debito mentis splendore desiderant." 

3 Alia epistula de eodem ad praefectum praetorio 

cum salario : 

"Valeriauus Augustus Mulvio Gallicano praefecto 
praetorio. mireris fortassis, quod ego imberbem tri- 
bunum fecerim contra sententiam l divi Hadriani, sed 

4non multum miraberis, si Probum cogitas ; est adules- 
cens vere probus ; numquam enim aliud mihi, cum 
eum cogito, nisi eius nomen occurrit, quod nisi nomen 

Bhaberet, potuit habere cognomen, huic igitur dari 
iubebis, quoniam mediocris fortunae est, ut eius digni- 
tas incrementis iuvetur, tunicas russulas duas, pallia 
Gallica duo fibulata, interulas paragaudias duas, pati- 
nam argenteam librarum decem specellatam, aureos 
Antoninianos centum, argenteos Aurelianos mille, 

6 aereos Philippeos decem milia ; item in salario diurno, 
bubulae pondo . . ., porcinae pondo sex, caprinae 
pondo decem, gallinaceum per biduum, olei per 
biduum sextarium unum, vini veteris diurnos sextarios 

1 contra sententiam Gruter, Peter ; constentiam P J . 



1 Unknown ; the form is probably an error for the Armenian 
name Artavasdes ; cf. VaL, iii. 1. 

2 Otherwise unknown. 8 See Hadr., x. 6. 

4 Cf . Tac. t xvi. 6. 5 See note to Claud., xvii. 6. 

6 See Aur., ix. 7 and note. 

34-2 



PROBUS IV. 2-6 

who say that he is a man worthy of his name, I have 
appointed him to a tribuneship, assigning him six 
cohorts of Saracens and entrusting to him, besides, 
the Gallic irregulars along with that company of 
Persians which Artabassis 1 the Syrian delivered over 
to us. Now I beg of you, my dearest son, to hold 
this young man, whom I wish all the lads to imitate, 
in the high honour that his virtues and his services 
call for in view of what is owed him by reason of the 
brilliance of his mind." 

Another letter about him, written to the prefect of 
the guard with an order for rations : 

" From Valerian Augustus to Mulvius Gallicanus, 2 
prefect of the guard. You may perhaps wonder why 
it is that contrary to the ruling of the Deified Hadrian 3 
I have appointed as tribune a beardless youth. You 
will not, however, wonder much if you consider 
Probus ; he is a young man of probity indeed. 4 For 
never, when I consider him myself, does aught suggest 
itself to me but his name, which, were it not his name 
already, he might well receive as a surname. There- 
fore, since his fortune is but a modest one, that his 
rank may be enhanced by an additional remuneration, 
you will order him to be supplied with two red tunics, 
two Gallic cloaks provided with clasps, two under- 
tunics with bands of embroidery, 5 a silver platter, 
polished to reflect the light, to weigh ten pounds, one 
hundred aurei of Antoninus, 6 one thousand silver pieces 
of Aurelian, and ten thousand copper coins of Philip ; 
likewise for his daily rations, . . . pounds of beef, 
six pounds of pork, ten pounds of goat's meat, one 
fowl every second day, one pint of oil every second 
day, ten pints of old wine every day, and a sufficient 
quantity of bacon, biscuit, cheap wine, salt, greens, 

343 



PROBUS 

decem cum larido, bucellati, 1 aceti, salis, holerum, lig- 
7norum quantum sat est. hospitia praeterea eidem ut 
tribunis legionum praeberi iubebis." 

V. Et haec quidem epistulis declaraiitur. nunc 
quantum ex ephemeride colligi potuit : cum bello 
Sarmatico iam tribunus transmisso Danuvio multa 
fortiter fecisset, publice in contione donatus est hastis 
puris quattuor, coronis vallaribus duabus, corona civica 
una, vexillis puris quattuor, armillis aureis duabus, 
torque aureo uno, patera sacrificali quinquelibri una. 

2 quo quidem tempore Valerium Flaccinum, adulescen- 
tem nobilem, parentem Valeriani, e Quadorum libe- 
ravit manu. unde illi Valerianus coronam civicam 

3 detulit. verba Valeriani pro contione habita : " Sus- 
cipe, Probe, praemia pro re publica, suscipe coronam 

4 civicam pro parente." quo quidem tempore legionem 
tertiam eidem addidit, sub testimonio huiusmodi. 

5 Epistula de legione tertia : 

" Res gestae tuae, Probe carissime, faciunt ut et 
serins tradere maiores tibi exercitus videar et cito 

6 tamen tradam. recipe in fidem tuam legionem tertiam 
Felicem, quam ego adhuc nulli nisi provecto iam 
credidi ; mihi autem eo tempore credita est, quo et me 

7 canosum qui credebat cum gratulatione vidit. sed 
ego in te lion exspecto aetatem, cum et virtutibus 

1 bucellati aceti Purser (cf. Av. Cass. v. 3); bolulaci P; 
pabnli aceti Peter, Hohl. 



1 See notes to Aur., xiii. 3. 2 See note to Marc., xii. 8. 

3 See note to Claud., xiii. 8. 4 Otherwise unknown. 



PROBUS IV. 7 V. 7 

and firewood. You will order, furthermore, that 
quarters be assigned to him as they are to the tribunes 
of the legions." 

V. The foregoing details are attested by the letters. 

Now as to what I have been able to gather from the 

journal : Whereas during the Sarmatian war, while 

holding the rank of tribune, he had crossed the 

Danube and performed many brave exploits, he was 

formally presented in an assembly with four spears 

without points, 1 two rampart-crowns, one civic crown, 2 

four white banners, two golden arm-bands, 3 one golden 

collar, one sacrificial saucer weighing five pounds. At 

this same time, indeed, he delivered out of the hands 

of the Quadi Valerius Flaccinus, 4 a young man of 

noble birth and a kinsman of Valerian's, and it was for 

this reason that Valerian presented him with the civic 

crown. The words of Valerian spoken before the 

assembly were : " Receive these rewards, Probus, from 

the commonwealth, receive this civic crown from 

a kinsman." At this time, too, he added the Third 

Legion to his command, with a testimonial as follows. 

The letter concerning the Third Legion : 

" Your exploits, my dear Probus, are causing me to 

appear too tardy in assigning you larger forces, and 

yet I will assign them with haste. So take under 

your faithful care the Third Legion, the Fortunate, 5 

which as yet I have not entrusted to any save one 

well advanced in years ; it was entrusted to me, 

moreover, at an age when he who entrusted it, along 

with congratulations, beheld my grey hairs. In your 

case, however, I shall not wait for age, for your virtues 

are now illustrious and your character is strong. 

I have given command to supply you with three sets 

See note to Aur., xi. 4. 

345 



PROBUS 

Sfulgeas, 1 et moribus polleas. vestes tibi tripliees dari 
iussi, salarium duplex feci, vexillarium deputavi." 

VI. Longum est, si per res gestas tanti percurram 
viri, quae ille sub Valeriano, quae sub Gallieno, quae 
sub Aureliano et Claudio privatus fecerit, quoties 
murum conscenderit, vallum diripuerit, hostem corn- 
minus interemerit, 2 dona principum emeruerit, rem 
publicam in antiquum statum sua virtute reddiderit. 

2docet Gallieni epistula ad tribunes data qui fuerit 
Probus : 

" Gallienus Augustus tribunis exercituum Illyrici- 
anorum. etiamsi patrem meum fatalis belli Persici 
necessitas tenuit, habeo tamen parentem Aurelium 
Probum, quo laboraiite possim esse securus. qui si 
adfuisset, numquam ille ne nominandus quidem 

Styrannus sibi usurpasset imperium. quare omnes vos 
consiliis eius cupio parere 3 qui et patris iudicio pro- 
batus est et senatus." 

4 Non magnum fortassis iudicium Gallieni esse videatur, 
principis mollioris, sed, quod negari non potest, lie 
dissolutus quidem quispiam se nisi in eius fidem tradit, 

5 cuius sibi virtutes aestimat profuturas. sed esto, 
Gallieni epistula sequestretur, quid Aureliani iudicium ? 
qui Probo decimanos, fbrtissimos exercitus sui et cum 
quibus ipse ingentia gesserat, tradidit sub huius modi 
testimonio : 

6 " Aurelianus Augustus Probo salutem dicit. ut scias 

l fulgeas 27 ; fulges P. 2 interemerit 2 ; interemit P. 

9 parere 27 ; parare P. 



1 See note to FaZ., i. 1. 
346 



PROBUS V. 8 VI. 6 

of garments, I have ordered you double rations, and 
I have assigned you a standard-bearer." 

VI. It would be a lengthy task, were I to enume- 
rate all the exploits of so great a man, which he per- 
formed as a commoner under Valerian, under Gallienus, 
under Aurelian, and under Claudius, how many times 
he scaled a wall, tore down a rampart, slew the enemy 
in a hand-to-hand fight, won the gifts of emperors, 
and by his valour restored the commonwealth to its 
ancient condition. Gallienus' letter, addressed to the 
tribunes, shows what manner of man was Probus : 

" From Gallienus Augustus to the tribunes of the 
armies in Illyricum. Even if the destined fate of the 
Persian war has taken away my father, 1 I have still 
my kinsman Aurelius Probus, through whose efforts 
I may be free from care. Had he been present, 
never would that pretender, whose name even should 
not be mentioned, have dared to usurp the imperial 
power. Wherefore, it is my wish that all of you 
should obey the counsels of one who has been ap- 
proved by the judgement both of my father and of the 
senate." 

It may seem perhaps that the judgement of Gal- 
lienus, so weak an emperor, is not worth much, but 
at least it cannot be denied that no one, not even 
a weakling, entrusts himself to the protection of 
a man unless he believes that his virtues will profit 
him. But be it so ! Let Gallienus' letter be set 
aside. What will you say to the judgement of 
Aurelian? For he handed over to Probus the soldiers 
of the Tenth Legion, the bravest of his army, with 
whom he himself had done mighty deeds, giving him 
the following testimonial : 

" From Aurelian Augustus to Probus, greetings. In 

347 



PROBUS 

quanti te faciam, decimanos meos sume, quos Claudius 
mihi credidit. isti enim sunt qui quadam felicitatis 
praerogativa praesules nisi futures principes habere non 
norunt." 

7 Ex quo intellectum est Aurelianum in animo hoc 
habuisse, ut, si quid sibi scienti prudentique eveniret, 
Probura principem faceret. 

VII. lam Claudii, iam Taciti iudicia de Probo longum 
est innectere, quamvis feratur in senatu Tacitus dixisse, 
cum eidem ofFerretur imperium, debere Probum prin- 
cipem fieri, sed ego senatus consultum ipsum non 
inveni. 

2 Ipse autem Tacitus imperator primam talem ad 
Probum epistulam dedit : 

8 " Tacitus Augustus Probo. me quidem senatus prin- 
cipem fecit de prudentis exercitus voluntate. attamen 
sciendum tibi est tuis nunc umeris magis incubuisse 
rem publicam. qui et quantus sis omnes novimus, 
scit senatus. adesto igitur nostris necessitatibus, tuae 

ifamiliae adsere, ut soles, rem publicam. nos tibi 
decreto totius orientis ducatu salarium quinquiplex 
fecimus, ornamenta militaria geminavimus, con- 
sulatum in annum proximum nobiscum decrevimus ; te 
enim manet pro virtutibus tuis Capitoliiia palmata." 

6 Ferunt quidam Probo id pro imperil omine luisse, 
quod Tacitus scripsit, " Te manet Capitolina palmata." 



1 There is no evidence for this, and it is evidently only an 
attempt to legitimatize the imperiuin of the author's hero. 
L As a matter ui fact, Probus was not consul until 277. 
3 See Gord., iv. 4 and notes. 

348 



PROBUS VI. 7 VII. 5 

order that you may know how much I think of you, 
take the command of my Tenth Legion, which Claudius 
entrusted to me. For these are soldiers who know as 
commanders none but those destined to be emperors 
an assurance, as it were, of favourable fortune." 

From this it was seen that Aurelian had in mind, 
in case anything serious befell him, which he we! 1 
knew to be such, was to make Probus emperor. 

VII. Now the judgement of Claudius concerning 
Probus and that of Tacitus also it would be too long 
to include ; but it is reported that Tacitus said in the 
senate, when offered the imperial power, that Probus 
should be chosen as emperor, 1 But the senate's decree 
itself I have not been able to find. 

Tacitus himself, moreover, sent to Probus his first 
letter as emperor in the following vein : 

" From Tacitus Augustus to Probus. I, it is true, 
have been made emperor by the senate in conformity 
with the wishes of our sagacious army. You, how- 
ever, must know that it is on your shoulders that the 
burden of the commonwealth has now been laid more 
heavily. What sort of man and how great you are 
we all have learned, and the senate also knows. And 
so aid us in our need and, as is your custom, look upon 
the commonwealth as a part of your own household. 
We have voted to you the command of the entire East, 
we have granted you five-fold rations, we have doubled 
your military insignia, we have appointed you consul ' J 
for the coming year as colleague to ourselves ; for by 
reason of your virtues, the palm- embroidered tunic 
from the Capitolium 3 awaits you." 

Some relate that Probus regarded it as an omen of 
imperial power that Tacitus should have written, " The 
palm-embroidered tunic from the CapitoLurn awaits 

349 



PROBUS 

sed in hanc sententiam omnibus semper consulibug 
scribebatur. 

VIII. Amor militum erga Probum ingens semper 
fuit. neque enim umquam ille passus est peccare 
militem. ille quin etiam Aurelianum saepe a gravi 

2 crudelitate deduxit. ille singulos manipulos adiit, 
vestes et calciamenta perspexit, si quid praedae fuit, 
ita divisit ut sibi nihil praeter tela et arma servaret. 

3 quin etiam cum de praedato, sive l ex Alanis sive ex 
aliqua alia gente incertum est repertus esset equus 
non decorus neque ingens, qui, quantum captivi 
loquebantur, centum ad diem milia currere diceretur, 
ita ut per dies octo vel decem continuaret, et omnes 
crederent Probum tale animal sibimet servaturum, 
iam primum dixit : " Fugitive militi potius quam forti 

4 hie equus convenit." deinde in urnam nomina 2 
milites iussit mittere, ut aliqui eum sorte ductus 

5 acciperet. et cum essent in exercitu quidam nomine 
Probi alii quattuor milites, casu evenit ut qui primum 
emergeret ei 3 Probo nomen exsisteret, cum ipsius 

6 Probi ducis nomen missum non esset. sed cum 
quattuor illi milites inter se contenderent ac sortem 
sibi quisque defenderet, iussit iterum agitari urnam. 
sed et iterum Probi nomen emersit ; cumque tertio et 

7 quarto fecisset, quarto Probi nomen effusum est. tune 
omnis exercitus equum ilium Probo duci dicavit, ipsis 
etiam militibus, quorum nomina exierant, id volenti- 
bus. 

1 hie P. 2 So Walter ; nomina om. in P ; nomen suum ins. 
after iussit by Peter and Hohl. 3 So Peter and Hohl ; 

emergeret ei om. in P. 



1 See note to Pius, v. 6. 
350 



PROBUS VIII. 1-7 

you," but as a matter of fact this expression was 
always used in writing to every consul. 

VIII. The soldiers' love for Probus was always un- 
bounded. Never, indeed, did he permit any of them 
to commit a wrong. Moreover, he often prevented 
Aurelian from some act of great cruelty. He visited 
each maniple and inspected its clothing and boots, 
and whenever there was plunder he divided it so as to 
keep naught for himself but weapons and armour. 
Once, indeed, when a horse was found among the 
booty taken from the Alani l or some other nation 
for this is uncertain which, though not handsome or 
especially large, was reputed, according to the talk of 
the captives, to be able to run one hundred miles in a 
day and to continue for eight or ten days, all sup- 
posed that Probus would keep such a beast for 
himself. But first he remarked, "This horse is 
better suited to a soldier who flees than to one who 
fights," and then he ordered the men to put their 
names into an urn, that the one drawn by lot should 
receive the horse. Then, since there were in the army 
four other soldiers named Probus, it so chanced that 
the name of Probus appeared on the lot that first came 
forth, though the general's name had not been put into 
the urn. And when the four soldiers strove with one 
another, each maintaining that the lot was his, he 
ordered the urn to be shaken a second time. But a 
second time, too, the name of Probus came forth ; and 
when it was done for the third and the fourth time, 
on the fourth time also there leaped forth the name 
of Probus. Then the entire army set apart that horse 
for Probus their general, and even those very soldiers 
whose names had come forth from the urn desired it 
thus. 

351 



PROBUS 

IX. Pugnavit et contra Marmaridas in Africa 
fortissime eosdemque vicit atque ex Libya Cartha- 
ginem transiit eandemque a rebellionibus vindicavit. 

2pugnavit et singular! certamiiie contra quendam 
Aradionem in Africa eundemque prostravit et, quia for- 
tissimum ac pertinacissimum virum viderat, sepulchro 
ingenti honoravit, quod adhuc exstat tumulo usque 
ad ducentos pedes terra elato 1 per milites, quos 

Sotiosos esse numquara est passus. exstant apud 
Aegyptum eius opera, quae per milites struxit, in 
plurimis civitatibus. in Nilo autem tarn multa fecit 

4 ut vectigal frumentarium solus adiuverit. pontes, 
templa, porticus, basilicas labore militum struxit, ora 
fluminum multa patefecit, paludes plerasque siccavit 

5 atque in his segetes agrosque constituit. pugnavit 
etiam contra Palmyrenos Odaenathi et Cleopatrae 
partibus Aegyptum defendentes, primo feliciter, 
postea temere, ut paene caperetur ; sed postea re- 
fectis viribus Aegyptum et orientis maximum partem 
in Aureliani potestatem redegit. 

X. Cum his igitur tot ac 2 tantis virtutibus eniteret, 

1 terra elato P com, Salm. ; terra elatum P 1 , Peter, Hohl. 
2 oo om. in P. 



i 



The inhabitants of Marmarica, the district between Egypt 
and Cyrenaica ; they had been conquered by P. Sulpiciua 
Quiriuius about 20 B.C. 

2 Unknown. 

8 This may have been in connection with Aurelian's policy 
of using the revenues from Egypt for the benefit of the city of 
Borne (cf. Aur., xlv. 1 ; xlvii. 1-3), but perhaps this statement 
is out of the proper order, for a papyrus dated 1 April, 278 
(Probus' third year as emperor) contains an official command 
for building dykes and cleaning canals. As this would scarcely 

352 



PROBUS IX. 1 X. I 

IX. He also fought with great bravery against the 
Marmaridae l in Africa and defeated them too, and 
from Libya he passed over to Carthage and saved it 
from rebels. And he fought a single combat in Africa 
against a certain Aradio 2 and overcame him, and be- 
cause he had seen that he was a valiant and resolute 
man, he honoured him with a mighty tomb, still 
standing on a mound of earth two hundred feet high 
piled up by the soldiers, whom he never allowed to 
be idle. There are still to be seen in many cities in 
Egypt public works of his, which he caused to be 
built by the soldiers. On the Nile, moreover, he did 
so much that his sole efforts added greatly to the 
tithes of grain. He constructed bridges and temples, 
porticos and basilicas, all by the labour of the soldiers, 
he opened up many river-mouths, and drained many 
marshes, 3 and put in their place grain-fields and 
farms. He fought also against the Palmyrenes who 
held Egypt for the party of Odaenathus and Cleopatra, 4 
fighting at first with success, but later so recklessly 
that he nearly was captured ; later, however, when 
his forces were strengthened, he brought Egypt 5 and 
the greater part of the Orient under the sway of 
Aurelian. 

X. And so, resplendent by reason of these many 

have been necessary if Probus had caused it to be done as here 
described, it would seem that the work was begun in 278 and 
was still in operation in 280, when Probus may have been in 
Egypt (c. xvii. 2-3) ; see W. L. Westermann in Aegyptus, i. 
p. 297 f. 

4 i.e. t Zenobia. This campaign is described in Claud., xi. 
1-2, where the Roman general i? called Probatus. There is no 
reason to suppose that Probus was in Egypt under Claudius. 

5 Between March and September, 271; see note to Aur. t 
xxii. 3. 

353 



PROBUS 

Tacito absumpto fatal iter ac Floriano imperium 

arripiente omnes orientales exercitus eundem im- 
2peratorem fecerunt. non inepta 1 neque inelegans 

fabula est scire queraadmodum imperium Probus 
Ssumpserit. cum ad exercitus nuntius venisset, turn 

primum animus militibus fuit praevenire Italicos 

4 exercitus, lie iterum senatus principem daret. sed 
cum inter milites sermo esset quis fieri deberet, et 
manipulatim in campo tribuni eos adloquerentur, 
dicentes requirendum esse principem aliquem fortem, 
sanctum, verecundum, clementem, probum, idque per 
multos circulos, ut fieri adsolet, diceretur, quasi divino 
nutu undique ab omnibus adclamatum est, " Probe 

5 Auguste, di te servent ! " deinde concursus et 
caespiticium tribunal, appellatusque imperator, ornatus 
etiam pallio purpureo, quod de statua templi oblatum 
est, atque inde ad palatium reductus, invitus et re- 
tractans et saepe dicens : " Non vobis expedit, milites, 
non mecum bene agetis. ego enim vobis blandiri non 
possum." 

6 Prima eius epistula, data ad Capitonem praefectum 
praetorio, talis fuit : " Imperium numquam optavi et 
invitus accepi. deponere mihi rem invidiosissimam 

7 non licet, agenda est persona quam mihi miles im- 
posuit. te quaeso, Capito, ita mecum salva re publica 

1 inepta 2; inaegyptum P. 



1 See Tac., xiii. 5 and note. 

2 As there are Alexandrian coins of Probus minted before 
29 Aug., 276 (J. Vogt, die Alex. Miinzen, p. 218), he was made 
emperor in the summer of 276. He was probably acclaimed 
in the East about the same time that Florian was acclaimed 
in the West ; see note to Tac., xiv. 2. Zosimus (i. 64, 1) and 
Zonaras (xii. 29) relate that he was acknowledged in Syria, 
Palestine, and Egypt, while Asia Minor and Europe supported 

3.54 



PROBUS X. 2-7 

great virtues, when Tacitus had been removed l by 
the decree of Fate and Florian was seizing the rule, 
he was created emperor by all the troops of the East. 2 
Nor is the story of how he got the imperial power an 
idle or tiresome tale. When the news came to the 
armies, the soldiers' first thought was how to forestall 
the armies of Italy, that the senate might not a second 
time appoint a prince. But when discussion arose 
among them as to who should be chosen and the 
tribunes addressed them by maniples on their parade- 
ground, saying that they must look for a prince who 
would be brave and revered, modest and gentle and a 
man of probity, 3 and this was repeated, as is wont to 
be done, throughout many groups, all on all sides, as 
though by divine command, shouted out, " Probus 
Augustus, may the gods keep you ! ' Then they ran 
together, a tribunal of turf was erected, and Probus 
was saluted as emperor, being even decked with a 
purple robe, which they took from a temple-statue ; 
from there he was led to the palace, 4 against his will 
and protesting and saying again and again, " It is not 
to your own interest, soldiers, with me you will not 
fare well, for I cannot court your favour." 

His first letter, addressed to Capito, 5 prefect of the 
guard, was as follows : " I have never desired the 
imperial power and I have accepted it against my 
will. I may not refuse an office which is most dis- 
tasteful to me. I must play the part which the 
soldiers have assigned me. I beg of you, Capito, as 

Florian. Probus' proclamation as emperor by the army of the 
East seems to be commemorated by coins with the legend 
Exercitus Pers(icus) ; see Cohen, vi. 2 p. 273, no. 207. 

3 See Tac. t xvi. 6 and note. 4 See note to Sev. t xxii. 7. 

8 Otherwise unknown. 

355 



PROBUS 

perfruaris, annonam et corameatus et quicquid neces- 
sariura est ubique militi l pares, ego, quantum in me 
est, si recte omnia gubernaveris, praefectum alterum 
iion habebo." 

8 Cognito itaque quod imperaret Probus milites Floria- 
num, qui quasi hereditarium arripuerat imperium, 2 in- 
teremerunt, scientes neminem dignius posse imperare 

9quam Probum. ita ei sine ulla molestia totius orbis 
imperium et militum et senatus iudicio delatum est. 

XI. Et quoniam mentionem senatus fecimus, scien- 
dum est quid ipse ad senatum scripserit, quid item ad 
eum amplissimus ordo rescripserit : 

2 Oratio Probi prima ad senatum : 

" Recte atque ordine, patres conscripti, proximo 
superiore anno factum est ut 3 vestra dementia orbi 
terrarum principem daret, et quidem de vobis, qui et 
estis mundi principes et semper fuistis et in vestris 

Sposteris eritis. atque utinam id etiam Florianus ex- 
spectare voluisset nee velut hereditarium sibi vin- 
dicasset imperium, vel ilium vel alium quempiam 

4 maiestas vestra fecisset. nunc quoniam ille imperium 
arripuit, nobis a militibus delatum est nomen Augus- 
tum, vindicatum quin etiam in ilium a prudentioribus 
militibus, quod fuerat usurpatum. quaeso ut de meis 
meritis iudicetis 4 facturus quicquid iusserit vestra 
dementia." 

1 militi 2; milites P. arripuerat imperium 27, ins. by 
Peter and Hohl; om. in P. s ut; ad P. 4 iudicetis 

ins. by Hohl (Helm) ; om. in P and by Peter. 



1 Apparently modelled on Cicero, in CatiL, iv. 11. 

2 See Tac., xiv. 2 and note. 

356 



PRORUS X. 8 XI. 4 

you hope to enjoy with me the state in safety, l to 
supply the soldiers everywhere with grain and pro- 
visions and all necessities. I assure you that in so 
far as it lies in me, I will have no other prefect if you 
administer all things well." 

And so, when it was known that Probus was 
emperor, the soldiers killed Florian, 2 who had seized 
the imperial power as though an inheritance, for they 
knew well that no one could rule more worthily than 
Probus. Accordingly, without any effort of his, the 
rule of the whole world was conferred upon him by 
the voice of both army and senate. 

XI. Now, since we have mentioned the senate, it 
should be made known what he himself wrote to the 
senate and likewise what reply that most noble body 
wrote back to him : 

The first message of Probus to the senate : 

" Rightly and duly did you act, Conscript Fathers, 
in the last year that has passed, when your clemency 
gave to the world a prince, 3 and one, indeed, from 
among yourselves, you who are the princes of the 
world, as you have ever been in the past and shall 
continue to be in the days of your descendants. And 
I would that Florian also had been content to wait 
for this and had not claimed the imperial power as 
though an inheritance, or even that your majesty had 
made him or some other man your prince. But now, 
since he has seized the imperial power, we have been 
offered the name of Augustus by the army, while he 
has even been punished by the wiser soldiers because 
he usurped it. I beg you, therefore, to judge con- 
cerning my merits, for I am ready to do whatsoever 
your clemency shall command." 

s i.e., Tacitus ; see Tac., iii.-vi. 

357 



PROBUS 

6 Item senatus consultum : 

Die III nonas Feb. in Aede Concordiae inter cetera 
Aelius Scorpianus consul dixit : " Audistis, patres con- 
scripti, litteras Aurelii Valerii Probi ; de his quid vide- 
6tur?" tune adclamatum est : " Probe August, di te 
servent. olim dignus et fortis et iustus, bonus ductor, 
bonus imperator, exemplum militiae, exemplum im- 

7 perii. di te servent. adsertor rei publicae felix im- 
peres, magister railitiae felix imperes, te cum tuis 

8di custodiant. et senatus aiitea te delegit. aetate 
Tacito posterior, ceteris prior, quod imperium suscep- 
isti gratias agimus tuere nos, tuere rem publicam. 

9 bene tibi com mittimus quos ante servasti. tu Franci- 
cus, tu Gothicus, tu Sarmaticus, tu Parthicus, tu omnia. 
et prius fuisti semper dignus imperio, dignus triumphis. 
felix agas, feliciter imperes." 

XII. Post haec Manlius Statianus, qui primae sen- 
tentiae tune erat, ita locutus est : " Dis inmortalibus 
gratias et prae ceteris, patres conscripti, lovi Optimo, 
qui nobis principem talem qualem semper optabamus 

2dederunt. si recte cogitemus, non nobis Aurelianus, 
non Alexander, non Antonini, non Traianus, non 
Claudius requirendi sunt. omnia in uno principe con- 
stituta sunt, rei militaris scientia, animus clemens, vita 

1 On such " senatus consulta " and acclamations, see notes to 
Vol., v. 3 and 4. 

2 This date is also given (incorrectly) as that of the announce- 
ment in Rome of Aurelian's death; see Aur., xli. 3. In this 
instance it is also incorrect, since Florian was killed in the 
summer (probably August) of 276 ; see note to Tac., xiv. 2. 
There is no record of any consul named Scorpianus in 276. 

3 See note to Pert., iv. 9. 

4 See note to c. i. 3. 

5 Of all these cognomina only Gothicus was ever borne by 
Probus ; see note to c. xiii. 5. 

358 



PROBUS XI. 5 Xil. 2 

Likewise the decree of the senate 1 : 

On the third day before the Nones of February, 2 
in the Temple of Concord, 3 Aelius Scorpianus, the 
consul, said during his speech : " Conscript Fathers, 
you have listened to the letter of Aurelius Valerius 4 
Probus ; now what is your pleasure concerning it ? " 
Thereupon they shouted out: "Probus Augustus, 
may the gods keep you ! Long since worthy, brave 
and just, a good leader, a good commander, an ex- 
ample in warfare, an example in command. May the 
gods keep you ! Deliverer of the commonwealth, 
may you be happy in your rule, master in warfare, 
may you be happy in your rule ! May the gods guard 
you and yours ! Even before this the senate chose 
you. In years inferior to Tacitus, in all else superior. 
For having accepted the imperial power we give you 
our thanks. Protect us, protect the commonwealth. 
Rightly do we entrust to your keeping those whom 
you formerly saved. You are Francicus, you are 
Gothicus, you are Sarmaticus, you are Parthicus, 5 you 
are all things. In former years, too, you were ever 
worthy of command, worthy of triumphs. Happily 
may you live, happily rule ! " 

XII. Thereupon Manlius Statianus, 8 whose right it 
then was to give his opinion first, spoke as follows ; 
" All thanks to the immortal gods, Conscript Fathers, 
and above the others to Jupiter the Best, for they 
have given us such an emperor as we always desired. 
If we consider the matter rightly we need seek no 
Aurelian, no Alexander, no Antonines, no Trajan, no 
Claudius. All their qualities are found in this one 
prince, knowledge of warfare, a merciful spirit, a 

6 Otherwise unknown. 

359 



PROBUS 

venerabilis, exemplar agendae rei publicae atque om- 

3 nium praerogativa virtutum. enimvero quae mumli 
pars est, quam ille non vincendo didicerit ? testes sunt 
Marmaridae, in Africae solo victi, testes Franci, in 1 
inviis strati paludibus, testes Germani et Alamanni, 

4 longe a Rheni summoti litoribus. iam vero quid Sar- 
matas loquor, quid Gothos, quid Parthos ac Persas 
atque omnem Ponticum tractum ? ubique vigent 2 Probi 

5 virtutis insignia, longum est dicere quot reges mag- 
narum gentium fugarit, quot duces manu sua occiderit, 

6 quantum armorum sit, quae ipse cepit privatus. superi- 
ores principes quas illi gratias egeriut, testes sunt lit- 
terae publicis insertae monumentis. di boni, quotiens 
ille donis militaribus est donatus ! quas militum laudes 
emeruit ! adulescens tribunatus, non longe post adules- 

7 centiam regendas legiones accepit. luppiter Optime 
Maxime, luno Pegina tuque virtutum praesul Minerva, 
tu orbis Concordia et tu Romana Victoria, date hoc 
senatui populoque Romano, date militibus, date sociis 
atque exteris nationibus 3 : imperet quemadmodum 

8 militavit ! decerno igitur, patres conscripti, votis 
omnium conciiientibus nomen imperatorium, nomen 
Caesareanum, nomen Augustum, acldo proconsulare 
imperium, patris patriae reverentiam, poiitificatum 
maximum, ius tcrtiae relationis, tribuniciam potes- 
tatem." post haec adclamatum est, " Omnes, omnes." 

1 in om. in P. ~uigent 2; uigeant P. '^nationibus E\ 
nationes P. 



1 See Marc., vi. 6 and notes. 
360 



PROBUS XII. 3-8 

revered life, a pattern for conducting the common- 
wealth, and the assurance of every virtue. For what 
part of the world is there which he has not learned 
to know by conquering it ? Witness the Marmaridae, 
conquered on African soil, witness the Franks, over- 
thrown amid pathless marshes, witness the Germans 
and the Alamanni, driven far back from the banks of 
the Rhine. But why need I now speak of Sarma- 
tians, of Goths, of Parthians and Persians, and all the 
expanse of Pontus ? In all places the signs of Probus' 
valour abound. It were too long to relate how many 
kings of mighty nations he drove into flight, how 
many commanders he slew with his own hand, how 
many arms he captured unaided while still a com- 
moner. What thanks former emperors gave him their 
letters attest, now placed in the public memorials. 
Ye Gods, how many times he has been presented 
with military gifts ! What praise he has won from 
the soldiers ! As a youth he received a tribuneship, 
not long after his youth the command of legions. O 
Jupiter, Best and Greatest, thou, Juno our Queen, 
thou, Minerva, patroness of the virtues, thou, Concord 
of the world and thou, Victory of Rome, do ye all 
grant this to the senate and the people of Rome, 
grant this to our soldiers, grant this to our allies and 
to foriegn nations : may he rule even as he has served 1 
Therefore, Conscript Fathers, in accordance with the 
harmonious wish of us all I vote him the name of 
emperor, the name of Caesar, the name of Augustus ; 
and I add thereto the proconsular command, the re- 
vered title of Father of his Country, the chief pontifi- 
cate, the right of three proposals in the senate, 1 and 
the tribunician power." Thereupon they shouted 
out, "So say we all of us, all of us." 

36 1 



PROBUS 

XIII. Accepto igitur hoc senatus consulto secunda 
oratione permisit patribus ut ex magnorum iudicum ap- 
pellationibus ipsi cognoscerent, proconsules crearent, 
legates proconsulibus l darent, ius praetorium prae- 
sidibus darent, leges quas Probus ederet senatus con- 
sultis propriis consecrarent. 

2 Statim deinde, si quidam ex interfectoribus Aureliaiii 
superfuerant, vario genere vindicavit, mollius tamen 
moderatiusque quara priiis exercitus et postea Tacitus 

3 vindicaverant. deinde animadvertit etiam in eos qui 
Tacito insidias fecerant. Floriani sociis pepercit, quod 
non tyrannum aliquem videbantur secuti, sed sui prin- 

4 cipis fratrera. recepit deinde omnes Europenses ex- 
ercitus, qui Florianum et imperatorem fecerant et 
occiderant. 

5 His gestis cum ingenti exercitu Gallias petiit, quae 
omnes occiso Postumo turbatae fuerant, interfecto 

6 Aureliano a Germanis possessae. tanta autem illic 
proelia et tarn feliciter gessit, ut a barbaris sexaginta 
per Gallias nobilissimas reciperet civitates, praedam 
deinde omnem, qua illi praeter divitias etiam 2 effere- 

7baiitur ad gloriam. et cum iam in nostra ripa, immo 
per omnes Gallias, securi vagarentur, caesis prope 

1 proconsulibus Mommsen ; considibus P; ex consulibus 
Salm. , Peter. *diuitias etiam Gas; diuinas tamen P. 



1 See note to Tac., xviii. 3. 

2 This is not clear, for the provincial governors had always 
had judicial functions. 

3 See Aur., xxxvii. 2 and Tac. t xiii. 1. According to Zosi- 
mus, i. 65, he resorted to the ruse of inviting them to a banquet 
and had them killed there. 

4 See Toe., xiv. 2 and note. 

362 



PROBUS XIII. 1-7 

XIII. On receiving this decree of the senate, then, 
Probus in a second message granted the fathers the 
right to decide on appeals from the highest judges, 1 
to appoint the proconsuls, to name the proconsuls' 
legates, to confer on the governors the rights of a 
praetor, 2 and to sanction by special decree of the 
senate all the laws that Probus enacted. 

Immediately thereafter he punished in various ways 
all the slayers of Aurelian who still survived, but he 
used therein more mildness and leniency than the 
army at first and Tacitus later had shown. 3 Next he 
punished those also who had formed a plot against 
Tacitus, but the comrades of Florian he spared, be- 
cause they seemed to have followed no mere pre- 
tender but the brother of their prince. He then 
received the submission of all the armies of Europe, 
who had made Florian emperor and then had killed 
him. 4 

This done, he set out with a huge army for the 
provinces of Gaul, 5 which since the death of Postumus 
had all been in turmoil, and after the murder of 
Aurelian had been seized by the Germans. 6 There, 
moreover, he fought battles so great and successful 
that he took back from the barbarians sixty most 
famous communes of Gaul, besides all the booty, by 
which the Germans, even apart from the actual wealth, 
were puffed up with glory. And whereas they were 
wandering at large on our bank, or rather through all 
the country of Gaul, Probus, after slaying about four 

5 In 277. In the autumn of 276 he probably completed the 
war begun by Tacitus and Florian against the Goths in Asia 
Minor, since in an inscription of 277 he bears the title Gothicua ; 
see C.I.L., xi. 1178 b. 

6 See note to Aur., xxxv. 4. 

363 



PROBUS 

quadringeiitis milibus, qui Romanum occupaverant 
solum, reliquos l ultra Nicrum fluvium et Albam re- 

8 movit. tantum his praedae barbaricae tulit quantum 

ipsi Romanis abstulerant. contra urbes Romanas 

castra in solo barbarico posuit atque illic milites col- 

XIV. locavit. agros et horrea et domos et annonam Trans- 

rhenanis omnibus fecit, iis videlicet quos in excubiis 

2conlocavit. nee cessatum est umquam pugnari, cum 
cottidie ad eum barbarorum capita deferrentur, iam 
ad singulos aureos singula, quamdiu reguli novem 
ex diversis gentibus venirent atque ad pedes Probi 

3 iacerent. quibus ille primum obsides imperavit, qui 
statim dati suiit, deinde frumentum, postremo etiam 

4vaccas atque oves. dicitur iussisse his acrius ut 
gladiis non uterentur, Romanam exspectaturi defen- 

5 sionem, si essent ab aliquibus vindicandi. sed visum 
est id non posse fieri, nisi si limes Romanus exten- 

Gderetur et fieret Germania tota provincia. maxime 
tamen ipsis regibus consentientibus in eos vindicatum 

7 est qui praedam fideliter non reddiderunt. accepit 

1 reliqiios 2 ; religuas P. 



1 Greatly exaggerated, like the number in Claud., vi. 4. 

2 The Swabian Alb, a plateau south of the Neckar and east of 
the Black Forest; see Pauly-Wissowa, Realenci/cL, i. 1299. 
According to the much fuller account in Zosimus, i. 67-68, 
Probus conducted this campaign (against the Alamanni) in 
person, while his generals fought against the Franks further 
north. Zosimus' narrative is embellished with picturesque de- 
tails such as a miraculous rain, which saved Probus' army 
from starvation, and the capture of a German chieftain of the 
Loudones (Lugii) named Semnon. A second campaign, against 
the Burgundians and Vandals, which Zosimus records, is omitted 

364 



PROBUS XIII. 8 XIV. 7 

hundred thousand 1 who had seized upon Roman soil, 
drove all the rest back beyond the river Neckar and 
the district of Alba, 2 getting from them as much bar- 
barian booty as they themselves had seized from the 
Romans. Opposite the Roman cities, moreover, he 
built camps on barbarian soil 3 and in these he 
stationed troops. XIV. He also provided farms and 
store-houses, homes and rations of grain for all beyond 
the Rhine, for those only, that is, whom he placed 
in the garrisons there. All the while the heads of 
barbarians were brought in to him daily, now at the 
price of an aureus apiece, and he never ceased fight- 
ing until nine princes of different tribes came before 
him and prostrated themselves at his feet. From these 
he demanded, first hostages, which they gave him at 
once, then grain, and last of all their cows and their 
sheep. It is said, moreover, that he sharply ordered 
them not to use swords, since now they might count 
on protection from Rome in case they must be de- 
fended against any foe. It appeared, however, that 
this could not be accomplished, unless the Roman 
frontier were advanced and the whole of Germany 
turned into a province. Nevertheless, with the 
princes' consent, he punished severely those who did 
not faithfully give back the booty. He took, besides, 
sixteen thousand recruits, all of whom he scattered 

by the biographer, unless we are to suppose with Dannhauser 
(Untersuch. z. Gesch. d. Kaisers Probus, p. 56 f.) that this battle 
took place when Probus was in Raetia; see c. xvi. 1. In cele- 
bration of his success he assumed the title Germanicus Maxi- 
mus and issued coins with the legend Victwia Germ(m/.ica); 
see Cohen, vi 2 . p. 328 f., nos. 754-776. 

3 i.e., on the right bank of the Rhine, which he hoped to 
make the frontier instead of the old limes (on which see note to 
Hadr., xii. 6). 

365 



PROBUS 

praeterea sedecim milia tironum, quos omnes per di- 
versas provincias sparsit, ita ut numeris vel limitaneis 
militibus quinquagenos et sexagenos intersereret, 
dicens sentiendum esse non videndum cum auxiliari- 
bus barbaris Romanus iuvatur. 

XV. Compositis igitur rebus in Gallia tales ad sena- 
tum litteras dedit : " Ago dis inmortalibus gratias, 
patres conscript!, quia vestra in me iudicia compro- 
2barunt. subacta est omnis qua tenditur late Ger- 
mania, novem reges gentium diversarum ad meos 
pedes, immo ad vestros, supplices stratique iacuerunt. 
omnes iam barbari vobis arant, vobis iam serunt 1 et 

3 contra interiores gentes militant. supplication es 
igitur vestro more decernite. nam et quadrigenta 
milia hostium caesa sunt, et sedecim milia armatorum 
nobis oblata, et septuaginta urbes nobilissimae a cap- 
tivitate hostium vindicatae, et omnes penitus Galliae 

4 liberatae. coronas, quas mihi obtulerunt omnes Gal- 
liae civitates aureas, vestrae, patres conscripti clemen- 
tiae dedicavi. eas lovi Optimo Maximo ceterisque dis 
deabusque inmortalibus vestris manibus consecrate. 

5 praeda omnis recepta est, capta etiam alia, et quidem 

6 maior quam fuerat ante direpta. arantur Gallicana 
rura barbaris bubus et iuga German ica captiva prae- 
bent nostris colla cultoribus, pascuntur ad nostrorum 
alimoiiiam gentium pecora diversarum, equinum pecus 
nostro iam fecundatur equitatui, frumento barbarico 
plena sunt horrea. quid plura ? illis sola relinquimus 

1 serunt Salm., Peter ; seruiunt P, 27, Hohl. 



1 According to Zosimus, i. 68, 3, he settled some of the cap- 
tured Germans in Britain. 

366 



PROBUS XV. 1-6 

through the various provinces, 1 incorporating bodies 
of fifty or sixty in the detachments or among the 
soldiers along the frontier ; for he said that the aid 
that Romans received from barbarian auxiliaries must 
be felt but not seen. 

XV. And so, the affairs in Gaul being settled, 
he sent to the senate the following letter : " I give 
thanks, Conscript Fathers, to the immortal gods that 
they have confirmed your judgment of me. For all of 
Germany, throughout its whole extent, has now been 
subdued, and nine princes of different tribes have lain 
suppliant and prostrate at my feet, or, I should say, at 
yours. Now all the barbarians plough for you, plant 
for you, and serve against the more, distant tribes. 
Therefore do you, in accord with your custom, decree 
thanksgivings. For four hundred thousand of our foes 
have been slain, sixteen thousand armed men are at 
our disposal, seventy most famous cities have been 
rescued from the enemy's possession, and all the Gallic 
provinces have been made entirely free. The crowns of 
gold which all the communes of Gaul have bestowed 
upon me I have dedicated to your clemency, Conscript 
Fathers. Do you, with your own hands, now con- 
secrate them to Jupiter Best and Greatest and to the 
other immortal gods and goddesses. All booty has 
been regained, other booty too has been captured, 
greater, indeed, than that which was previously 
taken. The barbarians' oxen now plough the farms 
of Gaul, the Germans' yoked cattle, now captive, 
submit their necks to our husbandmen, the flocks of 
divers tribes are fed for the nourishing of our troops, 
their herds of horses are now bred for the use of our 
cavalry, and the grain of the barbarians fills our 
granaries. Why say more ? We have left them solely 

367 



PROBUS 

7 sola, 1 nos eorum omnia possidemus. volueramus, 
patres conscript!, Germaniae novum praesidem facere, 
sed hoc ad pleniora vota distulimus. quod quidem 
credimus conferre, cum divina providentia nostros 
uberius secundarit exercitus." 

XVI. Post haec Illyricum petiit. priusquam veni- 
ret, Raetias sic pacatas reliquit ut illic ne suspicionem 

2 quidem ullius terroris relinqueret. in Illyrico Sarmatos 
ceterasque gentes ita contudit ut prope sine bello 

3 cuncta reciperet quae illi diripuerant. tetendit deinde 
iter per Thracias atque omnes Geticos populos fama 
rerum territos et antiqui nominis potentia pressos aut 
in deditionem aut in amicitiam recepit. 

4 His gestis orientem petiit atque itinere 2 potentis- 
simo quodam latrone Palfuerio capto et interfecto 
omnem Isauriam liberavit, populis atque urbibus 

6 Romanis legibus restitutis. barbarorum, qui apud 
Isauros sunt, vel per terrorem vel urbanitatem loca 
ingressus est. quae cum peragrasset, hoc dixit, 
" Facilius est ab istis locis latrones arceri quam tolli." 

6 veteranis omnia ilia quae anguste adeuntur loca 
privata donavit, addens ut eorum filii ab anno octavo 

1 sola S ; so/o P. a So P, Leasing ; in itinere S, Peter, 

Hohl. 



1 Probably in 279. His benefits to this region were com- 
memorated by coins minted at Siscia (mod. Sissek) with the 
legend Restit(utor) Illyrici ; see Cohen, vi 2 . p. 304, no. 505. 

2 In Thrace, on both banks of the lower Danube. Probably 
those tribes who inhabited the northern bank, despite Aurelian's 
evacuation of the country in their favour (see Aur., xxxix. 7), 
had crossed over to plunder Roman territory, or perhaps they 
had been driven over by the Gotlis dwelling further north. 

368 



PROBUS XV. 7 XVI. 6 

their soil, and all their goods we now possess. It had 
been our wish, Conscript Fathers, to appoint a new 
governor for Germany, but this we have postponed for 
the completer fulfilment of our prayers. This indeed 
we believe will come to pass when divine providence 
shall more richly have prospered our armies." 

XVI. After this he set out for Illyricum, but before 
going thither he left Raetia in so peaceful a state that 
there remained therein not even any suspicion of fear. 
In Illyricum l he so crushed the Sarmatians and other 
tribes that almost without any war at all he got back 
all they had ravaged. He then directed his march 
through Thrace, and received in either surrender or 
friendship all the tribes of the Getae, 2 frightened by 
the repute of his deeds and brought to submission by 
the power of his ancient fame. 

This done, he set out for the East, 3 and while on his 
march he captured and killed a most powerful brigand, 
named Palfuerius, and so set free the whole of Isauria 
and restored the laws of Rome to the tribes and the 
cities. By fear or favour he entered the places held 
by the barbarians living among the Isaurians, and 
when he had gone through them all he remarked : " It is 
easier far to keep brigands out of these places than to 
expel them." And so all those places which were 
difficult of access he gave to his veterans as their own 
private holdings, attaching thereto the condition that 
their children, that is, the males only, should be sent 

3 In 280. Zosimus (i. 69-70) tells a romantic story of an 
Isaurian brigand named Lydius (perhaps the same man as 
Palfuerius here mentioned), who, after ravaging Pamphylia and 
Lycia, seized the strongly fortified colony Cremna (in Pisidia) 
and there resisted the Romans until he was killed by the 
treachery of one of his men. 

369 



PROBUS 

decimo, mares dumtaxat, ad militiam mitterentur, ne 
latrocinare umquam discerent. 

XVII. Pacatis denique omnibus Pamphyliae parti- 
bus ceterarumque provinciarum, quae sunt Isauriae 

2vicinae, ad orientem iter flexit. Blemmyas etiam 
subegit, quorum captives Romam transmisit qui mira- 
bilem sui visum stupente populo Romano praebuerunt. 

3 Copten praeterea et Ptolemaidem urbis ereptas bar- 

4barico servitio Romano reddidit iuri. ex quo tantum 
profecit ut Parthi legates ad eum mitterent confitentes 
timorem pacemque poscentes, quos ille superbius 

Sacceptos magis timentes domum remisit. fertur 
etiam epistula illius repudiatis donis, quae rex mi- 
serat, ad Narseum talis iuisse : " Miror te de omnibus 
quae nostra futura sunt tarn pauca misisse. habeto 
interim omnia ilia quibus gaudes. quae si nos habere 
cupiamus, scimus quemadmodum possidere debeamus." 

6 his acceptis litteris Narseus maxime territus, et eo 
praecipue quod Copten et Ptolemaidem comperit 
a Blemmyis, qui eas teuuerant, vindicatas caesosque 
ad internecionem eos qui gentibus fuerant ante terrori. 

XVIII. Facta igitur pace cum Persis ad Thracias 
rediit et centum milia Bastarnarum in solo Romano 



1 For a similar policy, see Alex., Iviii. 4. 

2 From Nubia ; see note to Anr., xxxiii. 4. Undaunted by the 
defeat administered under Auielian they had broken foith again 
and had overrun all Upper Egypt. According to Zosimus, i. 
71,1, they were now defeated by Probus' generals ; because of this 
statement it has been questioned whether Probus himself was 
in Egypt at all. 

3 i.e., the Persians, against whom the present eastern expedi- 
tion was directed in resumption of the war which had been cut 
short by the murder of Aurelian ; see Aur., xxxv. 4-5. 

370 



PROBUS XV11. 1 XVIII. 1 

to the army * at the age of eighteen, in order that they 
never might learn to be brigands. 

XVII. Having finally established peace in all parts 
of Pamphylia and the other provinces adjacent to 
Isauria, he turned his course to the East. He also 
subdued the Blemmyae, 2 and the captives taken from 
them he sent back to Rome and thereby created a 
wondrous impression upon the amazed Roman people. 
Besides this, he rescued from servitude to the bar- 
barians the cities of Coptos and Ptolemais and restored 
them to Roman laws. By this he achieved such fame 
that the Parthians 3 sent envoys to him, confessing 
their fear and suing for peace, but these he received 
with much arrogance and then sent back to their 
homes in greater fear than before. The letter, more- 
over, which he wrote to Narseus, 4 rejecting the gifts 
which the king had sent, is said to have been as 
follows : "I marvel that you have sent us so few of 
the riches all of which will shortly be ours. For the 
time being, keep all those things in which you take 
such pleasure. If ever we wish to have them, we 
know how we ought to get them." On the receipt of 
this letter Narseus was greatly frightened, the more 
so because he had learned that Coptos and Ptolemais 
had been set free from the Blemmyae, who had previ- 
ously held them, and that they, who had once been 
the terror of nations, had been put to the sword. 

XVIII. Having made peace, then, with the Persians, 5 
he returned to Thrace, and here he settled one hundred 

4 Clearly a fabrication, for Narses was king of the Persians in 
293-302 ; the king at this time was Bahrain II. 

5 It is probable that he was ready to patch up a peace because 
of the revolts of the pretenders in the West; see 5. He 
evidently regarded it as a temporary measure, for in 282 he set 
forth on another war ; see c. xx. 1. 

371 



PROBUS 

2constituit, qui omnes fidem servartmt sed cum et ex 
aliis gentibus plerosque pariter transtulisset, id est ex 
Gepedis, Greuthungis et Vandalis, illi omnes fidem 
fregeruiit et occupato bellis tyrannicis Probo per 
totum paene orbem pedibus et navigando vagati sunt 
nee parum molestiae Romanae gloriae intulerunt. 

3quos quidem ille diversis vicibus variisque victoriis 
oppressit, paucis domum cum gloria redeuntibus, quod 
Probi evasissent manus. haec Probus cum barbaris 
gessit. 

4 Sed habuit etiam non leves tyrannicos motus. iiam 
et Saturninum, qui orientis imperium arripuerat, variis 
proeliorum generibus et nota virtute superavit. quo 
victo tanta in oriente quies fuit, ut, quemadmodum 
vulgo loquebantur, mures rebelles nullus audiret. 

Sdeinde cum Proculus et Bonosus apud Agrippinam 
in Gallia imperium arripuissent omnesque sibi iam 
Britannias, Hispanias et bracatae Galliae provincias 
vindicarent, barbaris semet iuvantibus vicit. 

6 Ac ne requiras plura vel de Saturnino vel de 
Proculo vel de Bonoso, suo eosdem inseram libro, 



1 North of the mouth of the Danube. Like the Getae, they 
may have been driven southward by the pressure of the Goths, 
and now they were admitted to Roman territory. 

2 Both Gothic tribes ; see Claud., vi. 2 and note. Nothing is 
known of any of these settlers, but Zosimus (i. 71, 2) tells of a 
colony of Franks settled by Probus near the mouth of the 
Danube, who, as soon as the Emperor had left the region, built 
ships and, after plundering the coasts of Greece, Sicily and 
northern Africa, sailed off to their home, near the mouth of the 
Rhine. The biographer may have generalised this incident. 

3 See Firm., vii.-xi. * See Firm., xii.-xiii. 
5 See Firm., xiv-xv, 

372 



PROBUS XVIII. 2-6 

thousand Bastarnae 1 on Roman soil, all of whom re- 
mained loyal. But when he had likewise brought over 
many from other tribes, that is, Gepedes, Greuthungi 2 
and Vandals, they all broke faith, and when Probus 
was busied with wars against the pretenders they 
roved over well nigh the entire world on foot or in 
ships and did no little damage to the glory of Rome. 
He crushed them, however, at divers times and by 
various victories, and only a few returned to their 
homes, enjoying glory because they had made their 
escape from the hands of Probus. Such were Probus' 
exploits among the barbarians. 

He also had to cope with revolts of pretenders, and 
they were serious indeed. For Saturninus, 3 who had 
seized the rule of the East, he overcame only by 
battles of various kinds and by his well-known valour. 
But when Saturninus was crushed, such quiet prevailed 
in the East that, as the common saying is, not even 
a rebel mouse was heard. Then Proculus 4 and 
Bonosus 5 seized the rule at Agrippina in Gaul, and 
proceeded to claim all of Britain 6 and Spain and the 
provinces, also, of Farther Gaul, 7 but these men he 
defeated with the aid of barbarians. 

But in order that you may not ask for more informa- 
tion now about either Saturninus, or Proculus, or 

6 The revolt in Britain had no connection with the rising 
either of Proculus or of Bonosus, but was the act of the governor 
stationed there. It was quelled by Victorinus, who treacherously 
killed the revolting governor ; see Zonaras, xii. 29. 

7 Literally " trousered," a term derived from bracae 
("breeches"), the native costume of the northern barbarians; 
see note to Alex., xl. 11. The name Gall a Bracata was often 
used to designate the three provinces of Farther Gaul, viz. Gallia 
Lugdunensis, Gallia Belgica, and Aquitania, as contrasted with 
Gallia Togata, i.e. t Gallia Narbonensis. 

373 



PROBUS 

pauca de iisdem, ut l decet, immo ut poscit necessitas, 

7 locuturus. unum sane sciendum est, quod German! 

omnes, cum ad auxilium essent rogati a Proculo, Probo 

servire maluerunt quam cum Bonoso et Proculo im- 

Sperare. 2 Gallis omnibus et Hispanis ac Britannis 

hinc permisit, ut vites haberent vinumque conficerent. 

ipse Almam montem in Illyrico circa Sirmium militari 

manu fossum lecta vite conseruit. 

XIX. Dedit Romanis etiam voluptates, et quideir 

2insignes, delatis etiam congiariis. triumphavit de 

Germanis et Blemmyis, omnium gentium drungos 

usque ad quinquagenos homines ante triumphum 

duxit. venationem in Circo amplissimam dedit, ita ut 

3 populus cuncta diriperet. genus autem spectaculi fuit 
tale : arbores validae per milites radicitus vulsae con- 
exis late longeque trabibus adfixae sunt, terra deinde 
superiecta totusque Circus ad silvae consitus speciem 

4 gratia novi viroris effronduit. missi deinde per omnes 

1 ut om. in P. 2 imperare ins. by Peter ; om. in P. 



J This measure is mentioned also by Aur. Victor, Caes., 37, 2 
and Eutropius, ix. 17, 2. It does not imply that there had been 
a general prohibition, but meant the rescinding of an order of 
Domitian (Suetonius, Dow., vii. 2), which attempted to provide, 
both for the increase in the production of grain and for the pro- 
tection of Italian vine-growers, that no new vineyards should be 
planted in Italy and that half of those in the provinces should 
be cut down. This order seems never to have been enforced in 
Asia Minor or southern Gaul or Spain, and even in the Danube 
provinces vines were planted before the time of Probus. An 
attempt had been made by Aurelian to promote viticulture in 
Italy (see Aur., xlviii. 2), but apparently without much success, 
and the attempt was now extended to the northern provinces, 
with the result that the prosperity of Gaul, at least, was revived ; 

374 



PROBUS XVIII. 7 XIX. 4 

Bonosus, I will put them all in a special book, relating 
a little concerning them, as seems fitting, or rather, 
as need demands. One fact, indeed, must be known, 
namely, that all the Germans, when Proculus asked 
for their aid, preferred to serve Probus rather than 
rule with Bonosus and Proculus. Hence he granted 
permission to all the Gauls and the Spaniards and 
Britons to cultivate vineyards and make wines, 1 and 
he himself planted chosen vines on Mount Alma 2 near 
Sirmium in Illyricum, after having had the ground dug 
up by the hands of the soldiers. 

XIX. He also gave the Romans their pleasures, 
and noted ones, too, and he bestowed largesses also. 
He celebrated a triumph 3 over the Germans and the 
Blemmyae, and caused companies from all nations, 
each of them containing up to fifty men, to be led 
before his triumphal procession. He gave in the 
Circus a most magnificent wild-beast hunt, at which 
all things were to be the spoils of the people. Now 
the manner of this spectacle was as follows : great 
trees, torn up with the roots by the soldiers, were set 
up on a platform of beams of wide extent, on which 
earth was then thrown, and in this way the whole 
Circus, planted to look like a forest, seemed, thanks to 
this new verdure, to be putting forth leaves. Then 
through all the entrances were brought in one thousand 



see Rostovtzeff, Soc. and Econ. Hist, of tJie Rom. Empire, pp. 
189, 545, 621. 

2 Probably the Fruska-Gora range, north of Mitrovitz, still 
rich in vineyards. 

3 In 2S1, according to the coins of his fourth consulship, on 
which he is represented in a quadriga and crowned by a Victory 
(Cohen, vi. 2 , p. 300, no. 465) or similarly on a six-horse chariot 
with the legend Gloria Orbis (ibid., p. 279, no. 269). 

375 



PROBUS 

aditus struthioiies mille, mille cervi, mille apri ; iam 
damae, ibices, oves ferae et cetera herbatica animal ia 
quanta vel ali potuerunt vel inveniri. inmissi deinde 

Spopulares, rapuit quisque quod voluit. edidit alia die 
in Amphitheatre una missione centum iubatos leoiies, 

6qui rugitibus suis tonitrus excitabant. qui omnes e 1 
posticis interempti suiit, non magnum praebentes 
spectaculum, quo occidebantur. neque enim erat 
bestiarum impetus ille qui esse e caveis egredientibus 
solet ; occisi suiit praeterea multi, qui dirigere nole- 

7 bant, sagittis. editi deinde centum leopardi Libyci, 
centum deinde Syri ; editae centum leaenae et ursi 
simul trecenti ; quarum omnium ferarum magnum 
magis constat spectaculum fuisse quam gratum. 

8 edita praeterea gladiatorum paria trecenta Blemmyis 
plerisque pugnantibus, qui per triumphum eraiit 
ducti, plerisque Germanis et Sarmatis, nonnullis 
etiam latronibus Isauris. 

XX. Quibus peractis bellum Persicum parans, cum 
per Illyricum iter faceret, a militibus suis per insidias 

2 interemptus est. causae occidendi eius haec fuerunt : 
primum quod numquam militem otiosum esse per- 
pessus est, si quidem multa opera militari manu per- 
fecit, dicens annonam gratuitam militem comedere 

311011 debere. his addidit dictum eis grave, si umquam 
eveniat, salutare rei publicae, brevi milites iiecessarios 

4 non futures, quid ille conceperat animo qui hoc 

1 e ins. by Salm., who explains posticis ; om. in P. 



1 315 had been presented by Pompey and 400 by Julius 
Caesar ; see Pliny, Nat. Hist., viii. 53. 

376 



PROBUS XIX. 5- XX. 4 

ostriches, one thousand stags and one thousand wild- 
boars, then deer, ibexes, wild sheep, and other grass- 
eating beasts, as many as could be reared or captured. 
The populace was then let in, and each man seized 
what he wished. Another day he brought out in the 
Amphitheatre at a single performance one hundred 
maned lions/ which woke the thunder with their roar- 
ing. All of these were slaughtered as they came out of 
the doors of their dens, and being killed in this way 
they afforded no great spectacle. For there was none 
of that rush on the part of the beasts which takes place 
when they are let loose from cages. Besides, many, un- 
willing to charge, were despatched with arrows. Then 
he brought out one hundred leopards from Libya, then 
one hundred from Syria, then one hundred lionesses 
and at the same time three hundred bears ; all of 
which beasts, it is clear, made a spectacle more vast 
than enjoyable. He presented, besides, three hundred 
pairs of gladiators, among whom fought many of the 
Blemmyae, who had been led in his triumph, besides 
many Germans and Sarmatians also and even some 
Isaurian brigands. 

XX. These spectacles finished, he made ready for 
war with Persia, 2 but while on the march through 
Iliyricum ha was treacherously killed by his soldiers. 
The causes of his murder were these : first of all, he 
never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many 
works by means of their labour, saying that a soldier 
should eat no bread that was not earned. To this he 
added another remark, hard for them, should it ever 
come true, but beneficial to the commonwealth, 
namely, that soon there would be no need of 
soldiers. What had he in his mind when he made 

a Temporarily abandoned in 280 ; see c. xviii. 1. 

377 



PROBUS 

dicebat? nonne omnes barbaras gentes subegerat 1 
pedibus totumque 2 mundum fecerat iam Romanum ? 

6 " Brevi/' inquit, " milites necessaries non habebimus." 
quid est aliud dicere : Romanus iam miles erit nullus ? 
ubique regnabit, omnia possidebit 3 secura res publica. 

6orbis terrarum non arma fabricabitur, non annonam 
praebebit, boves 4 habebuntur aratro, equus nascetur 
ad pacem, nulla erimt bella, nulla captivitas, ubique 
pax, ubique Romanae leges, ubique iudices nostri. 

XXI. Longius amore imperatoris optimi progredior 
quam pedestris sermo desiderat. quare addam illud 
quod praecipue tanto viro fatalem properavit necessi- 

2tatem. nam cum Sirmium venisset ac solum patrium 
effecundari cuperet et dilatari, ad siccandam quandam 
paludem multa simul milia militum posuit, ingentem 
parans fossam, qua deiectis in Savum 5 naribus loca 

3 Sirmiensibus profutura siccaret. hoc permoti 6 milites 
confugientem eum in turrem ferratam, quam ipse 
speculae causa elatissimam exaedificaverat, intere- 

4merunt anno imperii sui quinto. postea tamen ingens 
ei sepulchrum elatis aggeribus omnes pariter milites 

1 subegerat Editor (cf. c. xv. 2 ; xvii. 2) ; subierat P ; subie- 
cerat 27, Peter, Hohl. 2 pedibus totumque 27, Peter 1 ; pedi- 
busque totum P; penitusgue totnm Kellerbauer, Peter 2 , Hohl. 
* possidebit Salm., Peter ; possidebimus P, 27. 4 b^ues Salm. ; 
uobis P. 6 Sauum Gloss, Peter ; saltum P. 6 so 27, 

Petschenig, Hohl; hoc permoti P ; hac re moti Salm., Peter. 



1 The same account of his death is given in Aur. Victor, Caes., 
37, 4 and Eutropius, ix. 17,2 ; on the other hand, Zosimus (i.7i, 
4-5) and Zonaras (xii. 29) relate that after the departure of Probus 
the armies of Raetia and Noricum forced their commander, 
Carus, to assume the purple. The troops sent by Probus to 
quell the uprising joined the revolt, and when the remainder of 
Probus' force learned of this they killed the Emperor. This 

378 



PROBUS XX. 5 XXI. 4 

this remark ? Had he not put down all barbarian 
nations under his feet and made the whole universe 
Roman? "Soon," he said, "we shall have no need 
of soldiers." What else is this than saying: "Soon 
there will not be a Roman soldier ? Everywhere the 
commonwealth will reign and will rule all in safety. 
The entire world will forge no arms and will furnish 
no rations, the ox will be kept for the plough and the 
horse be bred for peace, there will be no wars and no 
captivity, in all places peace will reign, in all places 
the laws of Rome, and in all places our judges." 

XXI. But in my love for a most excellent emperor 
I am proceeding further than a prosaic style requires. 
Wherefore, I will add only that which, most of all, 
hastened on for this great man his destined doom. 
When he had come to Sirmium, desiring to enrich 
and enlarge his native place, he set many thousand 
soldiers together to draining a certain marsh, plan- 
ning a great canal with outlets flowing into the Save, 
and thus draining a region for the use of the people 
of Sirmium. At this the soldiers rebelled, and pur- 
suing him as lie fled to an iron-clad tower, which he 
himself had reared to a very great height to serve as 
a look-out, they slew him there in the fifth year of 
his reign. 1 Afterwards, however, all the soldiers 
together built him a mighty tomb on a lofty mound, 

version, simpler and free from the laudatory tendencies of the 
account given in the vita, seems more credible an attempt to 
absolve Cams from the charge of treachery is made in Car., 
vi. 1. Probus' death took place after 29 Aug., 282, since there 
are Alexandrian coins of his eighth year, which began on that 
day. As he began to rule in the summer of 276, the five-year 
reign allotted to him here is evidently too short ; the period of 
six years and four months given by Zosimus is more nearly 
correct. 

379 



PROBUS 

fecerunt cum titulo huius modi inciso marmori : " Hie 
Probus imperator et vere probus situs est, victor 
omnium gentium barbararum, victor etiam tyran- 
norum." 

XXII. Conferenti mihi cum aliis imperatoribus prin- 
cipem Probum omnibus prope Romanis ducibus, qua 
fortes, qua l clementes, qua prudentes, qua mirabiles ex- 
stiterunt, intellego hunc virum aut parem fuisse aut, si 
2non repugnat invidia furiosa, meliorem. quinquennio 
enim imperil sui per totum orbem terrarum tot bella 
gessit, et quidem per se, ut mirabile sit quemadmodum 

3 omnibus occurrerit proeliis. multa manu sua fecit, 
duces praeclarissimos instituit. nam ex eius disciplina 
Cams, Diocletianus, Constantius, Asclepiodotus, Han- 
nibalianus, Leonides, Cecropius, Pisonianus, Heren- 
nianus, Gaudiosus, Ursinianus et ceteri, quos patres 
nostri m ; rati sunt et de quibus nonnulli boni principes 

4 exstiterunt. conferat mine, cui placet, viginti Traiani 
Hadrianique annos, conferat prope totidem Anto- 
ninorum. nam quid de Augusto loquar, cuius imperil 
annis 2 vix potest advivi? malos autem principes 
taceo. ipsa vox Probi clarissima indicat quid se facere 
potuisse speraret, qui dixit brevi necessarios milites 

XXIII. non futures. ille vero coiiscius sui non barbaros 

2timuit, non tyrannos. quae deinde felicitas emi- 

cuisset, si sub illo principe milites non fuissent? an- 

1 qua om. in P and by Hohl. 2 anni P. 



1 Iulius Asclepiodotus (see also Aur., xliv. 2) and Afranius 
Hannibalianus were consuls in 292 and prefects of the guard in 
296 ; the former aided Constantius to suppress the revolt of 
Allectus, and the latter was city-prefect in 297. Herennianus 
is perhaps Verconnius Herennianus, Diocletian's prefect, 

380 



PROBUS XXII. 1 XXIII. 2 

with an inscription carved on marble as follows : 
" Here lies Probus, the Emperor, a man of probity 
indeed, the conqueror of all barbarian nations, the 
conqueror, too, of pretenders." 

XXII. As for myself, when I compare Probus as 
a ruler with other emperors, in whatever way almost 
all Roman leaders have stood out as courageous, as 
merciful, as wise, or as admirable, I perceive that he 
was the equal of any, or indeed, if no insane jealousy 
stands in the way, better than all. For during his 
five years' rule he waged so many wars through the 
whole of earth's circle, all of them, too, unaided, that 
we can only marvel how he faced all the battles. He 
did many deeds with his own hand and trained most 
illustrious generals. For from his training came 
Cams, Diocletian, Constantius, Asclepiodotus, 1 Han- 
iiibalianus, Leonides, Cecropius, Pisonianus, Hereii- 
nianus, Gaudiosus, Ursinianus, and all the others 
whom our fathers admired and from whom many 
good princes arose. Let him now, who will, compare 
the twenty years of Trajan or Hadrian, let him com- 
pare the years of the Antonines, nearly equal in 
number. For why should I mention Augustus, the 
years of whose reign all but exceeded the life of 
a man ? Of the evil princes, moreover, I will keep 
silent. That most famous remark of Probus itself 
reveals what he hoped to have brought about, for he 
said that soon there would be no need of soldiers. 
XXIII. He, truly conscious of his powers, stood in 
fear of neither barbarian nor pretender. What great 
bliss would then have shone forth, if under his ride 
there had ceased to be soldiers ! No rations would 

mentioned in Aur., xliv. 2. Leonides and those who follow are 
unknown. 



PROBUS 

nonam provincialis claret nullus, stipendia de largitioni- 
bus nulla erogarentur, aeternos thesauros haberet 
Romana res publica, nihil expenderetur a principe, 
nihil a possessore redderetur ; aureum profecto saecu- 

3 lum promittebat. nulla futura erant castra, nusquam 
lituus audiendus, arma non erant fabricanda. populus 
iste militantium, qui nunc bellis civilibus rem publicam 
vexat, araret, studiis incumberet, erudiretur artibus, 
navigaret. adde quod nullus occideretur in bello. 

4 di boni, quid tantuni vos offendit Romana res publica, 
5cui talem principem sustulistis? eant nunc, qui ad 

civilia bella milites parant, in germanorura necera 
arment dexteras fratrum, hortentur in patrum vulnera 
liberos et divinitatem Probo derogent, quam impe- 
ratores nostri prudenter et consecrandam vultibus et 
ornandam templis et 1 celebrandam ludis circensibus 
iudicarunt. 

XXIV. Posteri Probi vel odio vel invidiae timore 

Romanam rem fugerunt et in Italia circa Veronam ac 

Benacum et Larium atque in his regionibus larem 

2locaverunt. sane quod praeterire non potui, cum 

imago Probi in Veroneiisi sita fulmine icta 2 esset ita 

1 et 27 ; om. in P. 2 iecta P. 



1 He was eventually deified ; for he is called Divus Probus 
in the Panegyric addressed to Constantius, c. 18, and in the list 
of the emperor's birthdays (C.I.L., i. 2 p. 255). 

2 See note to Tyr. Trig., xiv. 3. The Acta Sanctorum and 
the chronicler Nicephorus (i. p. 773) list, the former Probus' 
son Dometius, the latter his brother Dometius and two nephews, 
among the Patriarchs of Const mtinople ; but the correctness 
of such statements is very doubtful. The prominence in the 
fourth century of a family which supplied four consuls, Petron- 
ius Probianus (cos. 322), Petronius Probinus (cos. 341), Sex. 
Petronius Probus (cos. 371), and Anicius Probinus (cos. 395), 

382 



PROBUS XXIII. 3 XXIV. 2 

now be furnished by any provincial, no pay for the 
troops taken out of the public largesses, the common- 
wealth of Rome would keep its treasures forever, no 
payments would be made by the prince, no tax re- 
quired of the holder of land ; it was in very truth 
a golden age that he promised. There would be no 
camps, nowhere should we have to hear the blast of 
the trumpet, nowhere fashion arms. That throng of 
fighting-men, which now harries the commonwealth 
with civil wars, would be at the plough, would be 
busy with study, or learning the arts, or sailing the 
seas. Add to this, too, that none would be slain in 
war. O ye gracious gods, what mighty offence in 
your eyes has the Roman commonwealth committed, 
that ye should have taken from it so noble a prince ? 
Now away with those who make ready soldiers for 
civil strife, who arm the hands of brothers to slay 
their brothers, who cah 1 on sons to wound their fathers, 
and who deny to Probus the divinity l which our 
emperors have wisely deemed should be immortalised 
by likenesses, honoured by temples, and celebrated by 
spectacles in the circus ! 

XXIV. The descendants of Probus, 2 moved either 
by hate or by fear of jealousy, fled from the region of 
Rome, and established their household gods in Italy 
near Verona and the Lakes Benacus and Larius 3 and 
in all that district. I cannot indeed leave unmen- 
tioned that when a portrait of Probus in the region of 
Verona was struck by lightning in such a fashion that 

suggested to Dessau that the present chapter was written in 
their honour at the end of that century (see Vol. ii. Intro., 
p. ix.), but as Dannhauser (op. cit., p. 90) has pointed out, this 
seems to be refuted by the statement in 3. 
8 Lakes Garda and Como. 

383 



PROBUS 

ut eius praetexta colores mutaret, haruspices respon- 
derunt huius familiae posteros tantae in senatu claritu- 
dinis fore ut omnes summis honoribus fungerentur. 
3sed adhuc neminem vidimus, posteri autem aeterni- 
tatem videntur habere non modum. 

4 Senatus mortem Probi gravissime accepit, aeque po- 
pulus. et cum esset nuntiatum Carum imperare, 
virum bonum quidem sed longe a moribus Probi, Carini 
causa filii eius, qui semper pessime vixerat, tarn senatus 

5 quam populus inhorruit. metuebant enim unusquis- 
que tristiorem principem, sed magis improbum metue- 
bant heredem. 

6 Haec sunt, quae de Pro bo cognovimus vel quae 
7digna memoratu aestimavimus. nunc in alio libro, et 

quidem brevi, de Firmo et Saturnino et Bonoso et 
8 Proculo dicemus. non enim dignum fuit ut quadrigae 
tyrannorum bono principi miscerentur. post deinde 
si vita suppetit, Carum incipiemus propagare cum 
liberis. 



1 Of. Tac. t xv. 1-2. 3 Of. Car., iii. 8. 



PROBUS XXIV. 3-8 

the colour of its bordered toga was altered, the sooth- 
sayers responded that future generations of his family 
would rise to such distinction in the senate that they 
all would hold the highest posts. 1 As yet, however, 
we have seen none, and moreover it would seem that 
the " future generations " are unlimited in time and 
not a definite number. 

The senate mourned greatly at the death of Probus, 
and likewise the people also. But when they were 
told that Carus was emperor, a good man, 2 to be sure, 
but far removed from the virtues of Probus, remem- 
bering his son Carinus, who had always lived a most 
evil life, both the senate and people shuddered. For 
while each one feared a sterner prince, they dreaded 
still more a wicked successor. 

This is all we have learned of Probus, or rather all 
we have deemed worthy of mention. Now in another 
book, and that a short one, we will tell of Firmus and 
Saturninus, Bonosus and Proeulus. For it has not 
seemed suitable to combine a four-span of pretenders 
with a righteous prince. Then next, if the length of 
our life suffice, we will proceed to hand down to 
memory Carus and his sons. 



385 



FIRMUS SATURNINUS 
PROCULUS ET BONOSUS 

FLAVII VOPISCI SYRACUSII 

I. Minuscules tyrannos scio plerosque tacuisse aut 
breviter praeterisse. nam et Suetonius Tranquillus, 
emendatissimus et candidissimus scriptor, Antonium 
Vindicemque l tacuit, contentus eo quod eos cursim 
perstrinxerat, et Marius Maximus * Avidium Marci 
temporibus, Albinum et Nigrum Severi non suis pro- 

2priis libris sed alienis innexuit. et de Suetonio non 
miramur, cui familiare fuit amare brevitatem. quid 
Marius Maximus, homo omnium verbosissimus, qui et 
mythistoricis se voluminibus implicavit, num ad istam 

8 descriptionem curamque descendit? atque contra 
Trebellius Pollio ea fuit diJigentia, ea cura in edendis 
bonis malisque principibus ut etiam triginta tyrannos 
uno breviter libro coiicluderet, qui Valeriani et Gal- 
lieni nee multo superiorum aut inferiorum principum 

1 que ins. by Peter ; om. in P and by Hohl. 2 So Peter ; 
Maximus qui P, def. by Hohl. 



1 See notes to Peso. Nig., ix. 2. 
* See Vol. I., Intro., p. xvii. f. 



386 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, 
PROCULUS, AND BONOSUS 

BY 

FLAVIUS VOPISCUS OF SYRACUSE 

I. The minor pretenders, I am well aware, have 
either been wholly omitted by most of the writers or 
else passed over briefly. For Suetonius Tranquillus, 
a most accurate and truthful author, has said nothing 
of Antonius l or Vindex, content with having touched 
on them in passing, and Marius Maximus - treated of 
Avidius in the time of Marcus and of Albinus and 
Niger under Severus in no special books of their own 
but merely joined them to the lives of others. Now 
in regard to Suetonius we feel no wonder, for he was 
naturally a lover of brevity. But what of Marius 
Maximus, the wordiest man of all, who involved him- 
self in pseudo-historical works ? Did he descend to 
such accuracy of detail? But, on the other hand, 
Trebellius Pollio, in writing of the emperors, both 
good and bad, showed such industry and care that 
he also included, though briefly and in a single book, 
the thirty pretenders of the time of Valerian and 
Gallienus and the emperors who lived shortly before 

387 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

4fuere temporibus. quare nobis 1 quoque, etiamsi non 
tanta 2 non tamen minima fuerit cura, ut, dictis Aure- 
liano, Tacito et Floriano, Probo etiam, magno ac 
singulari principe, cum dicendi essent Cams, Carinus 
et Numerianus, de Saturnine, Bonoso et Proculo et 
Firmo, qui sub Aureliano fuerat, non taceremus. 

II. Scis enim, mi Basse, quanta nobis contentio 
proxime fuerit cum amatore historiarum Marco 
Fonteio, cum ille diceret Firmum, qui Aureliani 
temporibus Aegyptum occupaverat, latrunculum 
fuisse non principem, contra ego mecumque Rufius 
Celsus et Ceionius lulianus et Fabius Sossianus con- 
tenderent, dicentes ilium et purpura usum et percussa 
moneta Augustum esse vocitatum, cum etiam nummos 
eius Severus Archontius protulit, de Graecis autem 
Aegyptiisque libris convicit ilium avroKparopa in 

2edictis suis esse vocatum. et illi quidem adversum nos 
contendenti haec sola ratio fuit, quod dicebat Aureli- 
anum in edicto suo non scripsisse quod tyrannuin 
occidisset, sed quod latrunculum quendam a re publica 
removisset ; proiii Je 3 quasi digne tanti princeps 
nominis debuerit tyrannum appellare hominem tene- 
brarium, aut non semper latrones vocitaverint magni 
principes eos quos invadentes purpuras necaverunt. 

3ipse ego in Aureliani vita, priusquam de Firrno cuncta 
cognosccrem, Firmum non inter purpuratos habui sed 

1 nobis Edit. Princ. ; etiam P ; left as corrupt by Peter. 
a non tanta ins. by Lenze and Thornell ; om. in P. *proinde 
P, Z", Hobl ; perinde Peter. 



1 See note to Tyr. Trig., i. 1. 2 See Aur., xxxii., 2-3. 

'Unknown; see note to Prob., i. 3. 

4 All these are otherwise unknown, and, like the whole con- 



388 



AND BONOSUS I. 411. 3 

or after them. 1 Wherefore we also, even though we 
may show no such diligence as his, will yet make it 
by no means our smallest care, after telling of Aurelian, 
Tacitus and Florian, and Probus, too, that great and 
peerless prince, and having further to tell of Carus, 
Carinus and Numerian, to see to it that Saturninus 
and Bonosus and Proculus and Firmus, who revolted 
under Aurelian,^ be not passed over in silence. 

II. For you know, my dear Bassus, 3 how great an 
argument we had but recently with Marcus Fonteius,* 
that lover of history, when he asserted that Firmus, 
who had seized Egypt in the time of Aurelian, was 
not an emperor but merely a brigand, while I, and 
together with me Rufius Celsus and Ceionius Julianus 
and Fabius Sossianus, argued against him, maintaining 
that Firmus had both worn the purple and called 
himself Augustus on the coins that he struck, and 
Archontius Severus even brought out certain coins of 
his and proved, moreover, from Greek and Egyptian 
books that in his edicts he had called himself 
emperor. Fonteius, on the other hand, in his con- 
tention against us, had only the argument that 
Aurelian wrote in one of his edicts, not that he had 
slain a pretender, but that he had rid the state of a 
brigand just as though a prince of such renown could 
properly have called so obscure a fellow by the name 
of pretender, or as though mighty emperors did not 
always use the term of brigand in speaking of those 
whom they slew when attempting to seize the purple 1 
I myself, indeed, in my Life of Aurelian, 5 before I 
learned the whole story of Firmus, thought of him, 

versation and that reported in Aur., i. 1-8, probably fictitious. 
No coins of Firmus are known ; see note to Tyr. Trig., xxvi. 3. 
6 Aur., xxxii. 2. 

389 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

quasi quendam latronem ; quod idcirco dixi ne quis 
4 me oblitum aestiraaret mei. sed ne volumini, quod 
brevissimum promisi, multa conectam, veniamus ad 
Firmum. 

III. Firmo patria Seleucia fuit, tametsi plerique 
Graecorum alteram tradunt, ignari eo tempore ipso 
tres fuisse Firmos, quorum unus praefectus A eg} pti, 
alter dux limitis African! idemque pro consule, tertius 
iste Zenobiae amicus ac socius, qui Alexandriam 
Aegyptiorum incitatus furore pervasit, et quern Aure- 
lianus solita virtutum suarum felicitate contrivit. 

2 De huius divitiis multa dicuntur. nam et vitreis 
quadraturis bitumine aliisque medicamentis insertis 
domum instruxisse 1 perhibetur et tantum habuisse 
de chartis ut publice saepe diceret exercitum se alere 

3 posse papyro et glutine. idem et cum Blemmyis 
societatem maximam tenuit et cum Saracenis. naves 

4quoque ad Indos negotiatorias saepe misit. ipse 
quoque dicitur habuisse duos dentes elephanti pedum 
denum, e quibus Aurelianus sellam constituerat facere 
additis aliis duobus, in qua luppiter aureus et gem- 
matus sederet cum specie praetextae, ponendus in 

1 instruxisse Ursinus, Peter ; introduxisse P, S. 



1 His revolt is attested by Zosimus, i. 61, 1, though without 
mention of his name. The account given briefly in Aur., 
xxxii. 2-3 is more correct than this " vita," 1 ' for Firmus seems 
to have made no claim to the imperial power (cf. c. v. 1), but 
merely to have attempted (probably in the summer of 272) to 
restore the supremacy of the Palmyrenes in Alevandria. 
Aurelian, after destroying Palmyra, marched to Alexandria and 
promptly quelled the revolt. 

390 



AND BONOSUS II. 4111. 4 

not as one who had worn the purple, but only as a 
sort of brigand ; and this I have stated here that no 
one may think that I am inconsistent. Lest I add too 
much, however, to a book which I promised to make 
very short, we shall now proceed to Firmus. 

III. Now Firmus l was a native of Seleucia, 2 though 
many of the Greeks write otherwise, not knowing that 
at that same time there were three men called Firmus, 
one of them prefect of Egypt, another commander of 
the African frontier and also proconsul, 3 and the third 
this friend and ally of Zenobia's, who, incited by the 
madness of the Egyptians, seized Alexandria and was 
crushed by Aurelian with the good fortune that was 
wont to attend his valour. 

Concerning the wealth of this last-named Firmus 
much is related. For example, it is said that he fitted 
his house with square panes of glass set in with pitch 
and other such substances and that he owned so many 
books that he used often to say in public that he could 
support an army on the paper and glue. He kept up, 
moreover,the closest relations with the Blemmyae 4 and 
Saracens, and he often sent merchant-vessels to the 
Indians also. He even owned, it is said, two elephant- 
tusks, ten feet in length, to which Aurelian planned 
to add two more and make of them a throne on which 
he would place a statue of Jupiter, made of gold and 
decked with jewels and clad in a sort of bordered 

2 Which of the many cities of this name is meant is not 
clear. 

6 Neither of these is known ; an attempt has been made by 
P. Meyer in Hermes, xxxiii., p. 268 f. to identify the latter with 
the hero of this vita. 

4 See note to Aur., xxxiii. 4 and Prob., xvii. 2 L 

391 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

Templo Soils, Appenninis sortibus aditis, 1 quern 
appellari voluerat lovem Consulem vel Consulentem. 

5sed eosdem dentes postea Carinus mulieri cuidam 
dono dedit, quae lectum ex iis fecisse narratur. 
quam, 2 quia et nunc scitur et sciri apud posteros nihil 

6proderit, taceo. ita donum Indicum, lovi Optimo 
Maximo consecratum, per deterrimum principem et 
ministerium libidinis factum videtur et 3 pretium. 

IV. Fuit tamen Firmus statura ingenti, oculis foris 
emiiientibus, capillo crispo, fronte vulnerata, vultu 
nigriore, reliqua parte corporis candidus sed pilosus 
atque hispidus, ita ut eum plerique Cyclopem voca- 

2 rent, carne multa vescebatur, struthionem ad diem 
comedisse fertur. vini non multum bibit, aquae 
plurimum. mente firmissimus, nervis robustissimus, 
ita ut Tritannum vinceret, cuius Varro meminit. 

3 nam et incudem superpositam pectori constanter aliis 
tundentibus pertulit, cum ipse reclinis ac resupinus 
et curvatus in manus penderet potius quam iaceret. 
fuit tamen ei coiitentio cum Aureliani ducibus ad 

4 bibendum, si quando eum 4 temptare voluissent. nam 
quidam Burburus nomine de numero vexillariorum, 
notissimus potator, cum ad bibendum eundem pro- 
vocasset, situlas duas plenas mero duxit et toto postea 

1 aditis Ellis, Walter, Hohl ; additis P, 27; adductus Peter. 
9 quam ins. by Haupt and Peter ; om. in P. *et om. in P. 

4 eum 27 ; eius P. 



1 See Atir., xxxv. 3 and note. 

2 Cf. Alex., iv. 6 and Claud., x. 4. No such Jupiter is 
known. 

3 The name of two famous strong men, father and son, the 
former a gladiator, the latter a soJdier of Pompey's, whose 

39% 



AND BONOSUS III. 5 IV. 4 

toga, to be set up in the Temple of the Sun l ; and, 
after asking advice of the oracle in the Apennines, 2 
he purposed to call him Jupiter the Consul or the 
Consulting. These tusks, however, were later pre- 
sented by Carinus to a certain woman, who is said 
to have made them into a couch ; her name, both 
because it is known now and because future genera- 
tions will have no profit from knowing it, I will leave 
unmentioned. So under a most evil prince the gift 
of the Indians, consecrated to Jupiter Best and 
Greatest, seems to have become both the instrument 
and the reward of lust. 

IV. But as for Firmus himself, he was of huge 
size, his eyes very prominent, his hair curly, his brow 
scarred, his face rather swarthy, while the rest of his 
body was white, though rough and covered with hair, 
so that many called him a Cyclops. He would eat 
great amounts of meat and he even, so it is said, con- 
sumed an ostrich in a single day. He drank little 
wine but very much water. He was most resolute 
in spirit, and in sinews most strong, so that he sur- 
passed even Tritannus, 3 of whom Varro makes 
mention. For he would hold out resolutely when 
an anvil was placed on his chest and men struck it, 
while he, leaning backward face up, supporting his 
weight on his hands, seemed to be suspended rather 
than to be lying down. In drinking, moreover, he 
would compete with Aurelian's generals whenever 
they wished to test him. For example, when a 
certain fellow named Burburus, one of the standard- 
bearers and a notable drinker, challenged him to a 
contest in drinking, he drained two buckets full of 

muscles and feats of strength are described by Pliny (Nat. 
Hist. , vii. 81) on the authority of Varro. 

393 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

convivio sobrius fuit ; et cum ei Bui-bums diceret, 
" Quare non faeces bibisti?" respondit ille, " Stulte, 
terra non bibitur." levia persequimur, cum maiora 
dicenda sint. 

V. Hie ergo contra Aurelianum sumpsit imperium 
ad defendendas partes quae supererant Zenobiae. 
sed Aureliano de Thraciis redeunte superatus est. 

2multi dicunt laqueo eum vitam finisse ; aliud edictis 
suis ostendit Aurelianus 1 ; namque cum eum vicisset 
tale edictum Romae proponi iussit : 

3 "Amantissimo sui populo Romano Aurelianus 
Augustus salutem dicit. Pacato undique gentium 
toto qua late patet orbe terrarum, Firmum etiam 
latronem Aegyptium, barbaricis motibus aestuantem 
et feminei propudiireliquias colligentem, ne plurimum 
loquar, fugavimus, obsedimus, cruciavimus et occidi- 

4mus. nihil est, Romulei Quirites, quod timere possitis. 
canon Aegypti, qui suspensus per latronem improbum 

5 fuerat, integer veiiiet. sit vobis cum senatu coiicordia, 
cum equestri ordine amicitia, cum praetorianis ad- 
fectio. ego efficiam ne sit aliqua sollicitudo Romana. 

6 vacate ludis, vacate circeiisibus. nos pubiicae neces- 
sitates teneant, vos occupent voluptates. qua re 
sanctissimi Quirites," et reliqua. 

VI. Haec nos de Firmo cognovisse scire debuisti, 

1 om. in P. 
394 



AND BONOSUS V. l VI. 1 

wine and yet remained sober throughout the whole 
banquet ; and when Burburus asked, " Why did you 
not drink up the dregs?" he replied, "You fool, one 
does not drink earth." But we are narrating mere 
trifles when we should be telling what is of greater 
importance. 

V. He, then, seized the imperial power in opposi- 
tion to Aurelian with the purpose of defending the 
remainder of Zenobia's party. Aurelian, however, 
returning from Thrace defeated him. Many relate 
that he put an end to his life by strangling, but 
Aurelian himself in his proclamations says otherwise ; 
for when he had conquered him he gave orders to 
issue the following proclamation in Rome : 

" From Aurelian Augustus to his most devoted 
Roman people, greeting. We have established peace 
everywhere throughout the whole world in its widest 
extent, and also Firmus, that brigand in Egypt, who 
rose in revolt with barbarians and gathered together 
the remaining adherents of a shameless woman not 
to speak at too great length we have routed and 
seized and tortured and slain. There is nothing now, 
fellow-citizens, sons of Romulus, which you need fear. 
The grain-supply from Egypt, which has been inter- 
rupted by that evil brigand, will now arrive undimin- 
ished. Do you only maintain harmony with the 
senate, friendship with the equestrian order, and 
good will toward the praetorian guard. I will see to 
it that there is no anxiety in Rome. Do you devote 
your leisure to games and to races in the circus. Let 
me be concerned with the needs of the state, and do 
you busy yourselves with your pleasures. Wherefore, 
most revered fellow- citizens," and so forth. 

VI. This is what you should know that we have 

395 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

2sed digna memoratu. nam ea quae de illo Aurelius 
Festivus, libertus Aureliani, singillatim rettulit si vis 
cognoscere, eundem oportet legas, maxime cum dicat 
Firmum eundem inter crocodillos, unctum crocodil- 
lorum adipibus, natasse et elephantum rexisse et 
hippopotamo sedisse et sedentem ingentibus struthi- 

3 onibus vectum esse et quasi volitasse. sed haec scire 
quid prodest ? cum et Livius et Sallustius taceant 

4 res leves de iis quorum vitas l arripuerunt. non enim 
scimus quales mulos Clodius habuerit aut mulas Titus 
Annius Milo, aut utrum Tusco equo sederit Catilina 
an Sardo, vel quali in 2 chlamyde Pompeius usus fuerit 

5 purpura. quare finem de Firmo faciemus venientes ad 
Saturninum, qui contra Probum imperium sibimet in 
orientis partibus vindicavit. 

VII. Saturninus oriundo fuit Gallus, ex gente 

hominum inquietissima et avida semper vel faciendi 

2principis vel imperii. huic inter ceteros duces, quod 

vere summus vir esse 3 certe videretur, Aurelianus 

1 uitas Cod. Chigianus, Hohl; uita P; uitam Salm., Peter. 
2 in ins. by Klein and Hohl ; om. in P and by Peter. s uerisset 
P ; uir esset Peter, Hohl. 



1 Nothing is known of him or of any work by him. 

2 P. Clodius Pulcher, the tribune of 58 B.C., who was instru- 
mental in bringing about the banishment of Cicero. He was 
killed in 52 B.C. in a brawl with his enemy, T. Annius Milo, 
who was then defended by Cicero, in the speech pro Milone. 

8 Tulius Saturninus Augustus, according to a coin issued by 
him in Egypt ; see Rev. Numlsm., xiv. (1896), p. 133 f. The 
account of Zosinius (i. (36 1), which is probably more correct 
than this vita, represents him as a Moor by birth (cf. c. x. 4), and 
relates that he was a friend of Probus' and was appointed by 

396 



AND BONOSUS VI. 2 VII. 2 

found out concerning Firmus, all, however, that is 
worthy of mention. For as to what Aurelius Festivus, 1 
Aurelian'sfreedman,hasreportedabouthimindetail,if 
you wish to learn it, you should read him yourself, most 
of all the passage which tells how this same Firmus 
went swimming among the crocodiles when rubbed 
with crocodiles' fat, how he drove an elephant and 
mounted a hippopotamus and rode about sitting upon 
huge ostriches, so that he seemed to be flying. But 
what avails it to know all this, especially as both Livy 
and Sallust are silent in regard to trivial matters con- 
cerning those men on whose biographies they have 
laid hold? For instance, we do not know of what 
breed were the mules of Clodius " 2 or the she-mules of 
Titus Annius Milo, or whether the horse that Catiline 
rode was a Tuscan or a Sardinian, or what kind of 
purple Pompey used for his cloak. Therefore we 
will make an end of Firmus and pass on to Satur- 
ninus, who seized the imperial power in the regions of 
the East in opposition to Probus. 

VII. Saturninus 3 was a Gaul by birth, one of a 
nation that is ever most restless and always desirous 
of creating either an emperor or an empire. 4 To this 
man, above all the other generals, because it seemed 
certain that he was truly the greatest, Aurelian had 

him governor of Syria. He seems to have been declared em- 
peror at Antioch (cf. c. ix. 2-3), and, while he was recognised in 
Egypt, as the coin bearing his name shows, there is no reason to 
connect that country with his revolt ; his attempt to rule is cor- 
rectly enough described in Pro6., xviii. 4 as orientis imperium 
arnpnerot. The order of events in Zosimus places the revolt 
early in Probus' reign. If it was crushed by Probus in person, 
this must have been in 280, when Probus was in the East. 
Cf. Tyr. Trig., iii. 7. 

397 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

limitis orientalis ducatum dedit, sapienter praecipiens 

3ne umquam Aegyptum videret. cogitabat enim, 

quantum videmus, vir prudentissimus Gallorum na- 

turam et verebatur ne, si perturbidam civitatem 

vidisset, quo eum natura ducebat, eo societate quoque 

4hominum duceretur. sunt enim Aegyptii, ut satis 

nosti, viri l ventosi, furibundi, iactantes, iniuriosi, atque 

adeo vani, liberi, novarum rerum usque ad cantilenas 

publicas cupientes, versificatores, epigrammatarii, 

5 mathematici, haruspices, medici. nam in eis 2 Chris- 
tiani, Samaritae, et quibus praesentia semper tempora 

6 cum enormi libertate displiceant. ac ne quis mihi 
Aegyptiorum irascatur et meum esse credat quod in 
litteras rettuli, Hadriani epistulam ponam ex libris 
Phlegontis liberti eius proditam, ex qua penitus 
Aegyptiorum vita detegitur : 

VIII. " Hadrianus Augustus Serviano consuli salu- 
tem. Aegyptum, quam mihi laudabas, Serviane caris- 
sime, totam didici levem, pendulam et ad omnia famae 

2 momenta volitantem. illic 3 qui Serapem colunt Chris- 
tiani sunt, et devoti sunt Serapi qui se Christi episco- 

3pos dicunt. nemo illic archisynagogus ludaeorum, 
nemo Samarites, nemo Christianorum presbyter non 

4 mathematicus, non haruspex, non aliptes. ipse ille 
patriarcha cum Aegyptum venerit, ab aliis Serapidem 

1 uiri 2, editors ; uenti P ; inuenti Walter, Hohl. 2 in eis 
Petschenig, Hohl ; eis P ; sunt Peter. 3 illic Cas ; ilia P ; 

illi E. 



1 See note to Tyr. Trig., xxii. 10. 

8 A similar characterisation is given in Tyr. Trig., xxii. 1-2. 

8 See Hadr., xvi. 1 ; Sev. t xx. 1. 



398 



AND BONOSUS VII. 3 VIII. 4 

given the command of the Eastern frontier, wisely 
charging him never to visit Egypt. 1 For, as we see, 
this far-sighted man was well acquainted with the 
Gallic character and feared that if Saturninus visited 
this turbulent land he might be drawn by association 
with the inhabitants to a course toward which he was 
by nature inclined. For the Egyptians, as you know 
well enough, are puffed up, madmen, 2 boastful, doers 
of injury, and, in fact, liars and without restraint, 
always craving something new, even in their popular 
songs, writers of verse, makers of epigrams, astro- 
logers, soothsayers, quacksalvers. Among them, in- 
deed, are Christians and Samaritans and those who 
are always ill-pleased with the present, though en- 
joying unbounded liberty. But, lest any Egyptian 
be angry with me, thinking that what I have set 
forth in writing is solely my own, I will cite one of 
Hadrian's letters, taken from the works of his freed- 
man Phlegon, 3 which fully reveals the character of 
the Egyptians. 

VIII. From Hadrian Augustus to Servianus 4 the 
consul, greeting. The land of Egypt, the praises of 
which you have been recounting to me, my dear 
Servianus, I have found to be wholly light-minded, 
unstable, and blown about by every breath of rumour. 
There those who worship Serapis are, in fact, Chris- 
tians, and those who call themselves bishops of Christ 
are, in fact, devotees of Serapis. There is no chief 
of the Jewish synagogue, no Samaritan, no Christian 
presbyter, who is not an astrologer, a soothsayer, or 
an aiiointer. Even the Patriarch himself, when he 
comes to Egypt, is forced by some to worship Serapis, 

4 Hadrian's brother-in-law (see Eadr.,i. 2) whom Hadrian 
compelled to commit suicide in 136 ; see Hadr., xv. 8 ; xxiii. 8. 

399 



F1RMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

Sadorare, ab aliis cogitur Christum, genus hominum 
seditiosissimum, vanissimum, iniuriosissimum ; civitas 
opulenta, dives, fecunda, in qua nemo vivat otiosus. 

6 alii vitrum conflant, aliis charta conficitur, omnes certe 
linyphiones aut 1 cuiuscumque artis esse 2 videntur ; et 
habent podagrosi quod agant, habent praecisi 3 quod 
agant, habent caeci quod faciant, ne chiragrici quidem 
apud eos otiosi vivunt. unus illis deus nummus 4 est. 

7 hunc Christiani, hunc ludaei, hunc omnes venerantur 
et gentes. et utinam melius esset morata civitas, 
digna profecto quae pro sui fecunditate, quae pro sui 

8 magnitudine totius Aegypti teneat principatum. huic 
ego cuncta concessi, vetera privilegia reddidi, nova 
sic addidi ut praesenti gratias agerent. denique ut 
primum inde discessi, et in filium meum Verum multa 
dixerunt, et de Antinoo quae dixerint comperisse te 

9 credo, nihil illis opto, nisi ut suis pullis alantur, quos 
10 quemadmodum fecundant, pudet dicere. calices tibi 

allassontes versicolores transmisi, quos mihi sacerdos 
templi obtulit, tibi et sorori meae specialiter dedicates ; 
quos tu velim festis diebus conviviis adhibeas. caveas 
tamen ne his Africanus noster indulgenter utatur." 
IX. Haec ergo cogitans de Aegyptiis Aurelianus 

1 aut ins. by Hohl ; om. in P ; <Y77ii> linifiones, omnes certe 
Salm. , Peter. z esse Editor; etP; et uidentur et habentur. 
Peter. a praecisi Hohl; cesiP; cesi . . . habent del. by 
Salm. and Peter. *nummua Vossius, Peter; nulhisP. 



ir The three most famous products of Egypt ; see Aur. t xlv. 1 

2 i.e., L. Aelius Caesar, whom Hadrian adopted in 136 ; see 

Hadr., xxiii. 11. As Hadrian was in Alexandria in 130 (see note 

to Hadr., xiv. 4), and as his sister Paulina, the wife of Servianus 

( 10), died about 130, this letter is clearly not genuine. 

400 



AND BONOSUS VIII. 5 IX. 1 

by others to worship Christ. They are a folk most 
seditious, most deceitful, most given to injury ; but 
their city is prosperous, rich, and fruitful, and in it no 
one is idle. Some are blowers of glass, others makers 
of paper, all are at least weavers of linen l or seem to 
belong to one craft or another ; the lame have their 
occupations, the eunuchs have theirs, the blind have 
theirs, and not even those whose hands are crippled 
are idle. Their only god is money, and this the 
Christians, the Jews, and, in fact, all nations adore. 
And would that this city had a better character, for 
indeed it is worthy by reason of its richness and by 
reason of its size to hold the chief place in the whole 
of Egypt. I granted it every favour, I restored to it 
all its ancient rights and bestowed on it new ones 
besides, so that the people gave thanks to me while 
I was present among them. Then, no sooner had I 
departed thence than they said many things against 
my son Verus, 2 and what they said about Antinous 3 
I believe you have learned. 1 can only wish for 
them that they may live on their own chickens, which 
they breed in a fashion I am ashamed to describe. 4 
I am sending you over some cups, changing colour 6 
and variegated, presented to me by the priest of a 
temple and now dedicated particularly to you and 
my sister. I should like you to use them at banquets 
on feast-days. Take good care, however, that our 
dear Africanus 6 does not use them too freely." 

IX. So then, holding such an opinion about the 

3 See Hadr., xiv. 5-6 and notes. 

4 According to Aristotle, Hist. Anim. t vi. 2, they hatched the 
eggs by burying them in dung-heaps. 

6 I.e., a.\\d(TO'OVTS. 

9 Unknown and probably fictitious. 

40 i 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

iusserat lie Saturninus Aegyptum videret, et mente 
quidem divina. nam ut primum Aegyptii magnam 
potestatem ad se venisse viderunt, statim clamarunt, 

2 " Saturnine Auguste, di te servant ! " et ille quidem, 
quod negari non potest, vir sapiens de Alexandrina 

3 civitate mox fugit atque ad Palaestinam rediit. ibi 
tamen cum cogitare coepisset tutum sibi non esse, si 
privatus viveret, deposita purpura ex simulacro Vene- 
ris cyclade uxoria militibus circumstantibus amictus 

4 et adoratus est. avum meum saepe dicentem audivi 

5 se inter fuisse, cum ille adoraretur. " Flebat " inquit 
e ' et dicebat, ' Necessarium, si non adroganter dicam, 
res publica virum perdidit. ego certe instauravi Gal- 
lias, ego a Mauris possessam Africam reddidi, ego 
Hispanias pacavi. sed quid prodest? omnia haec 
adfectato semel honore perierunt.' 

X. Et cum eum animarent vel ad vitam vel ad im- 
perium, qui amicuerunt purpuram, in haec verba dis- 

2seruit: " Nescitis, amici, quid mali sit imperare. 
gladii saeta pendentes cervicibus inminent, hastae un- 
dique, undique spicula. ipsi custodes timentur, ipsi 
comites formidantur. non cibus pro voluptate, non 
iter pro auctoritate, non be) la pro iudicio, noil arma 

3 pro studio, adde quod omnis aetas in imperio repre- 



1 See note to Tyr. Trig., xxv. 3. 

2 Au allusion to the well-known story of Dionysius of Syra- 
cuse and his courtier Damocles ; see Cicero, Tusc. Disp., v. 61- 
62. 



AND BONOSUS IX. 2 X. S 

Egyptians Aurelian forbade Saturninus to visit Egypt, 
showing a wisdom that was truly divine. For as soon 
as the Egyptians saw that one of high rank had ar- 
rived among them, they straightway shouted aloud, 
" Saturninus Augustus, may the gods keep you 1 " 
But he, like a prudent man, as one cannot deny, fled 
at once from the city of Alexandria and returned to 
Palestine. There, however, when he had begun to 
reflect that it would not be safe for him to remain 
a commoner, he took down a purple robe from a statue 
of Venus and, with the soldiers standing about, he 
arrayed himself in a woman's mantle and then re- 
ceived their adoration. I have often heard my 
grandfather 1 tell that he was present when Satur- 
ninus thus received adoration ; " He began to weep," 
he would tell us, " and to say, ' The commonwealth 
has lost an indispensable man, if I may say so with- 
out undue pride. I have certainly restored the pro- 
vinces of Gaul, I have recovered Africa, seized by the 
Moors, I have brought peace to the provinces of Spain. 
But what does it all avail ? For all these services 
go for nothing when once I have claimed imperial 
honours.' 

X. Then, when those who had clothed him with 
the purple began to hearten him, some to defend his 
life and others his power, he delivered the following 
speech : " My friends, you do not know what an evil 
thing it is to rule. A sword suspended by a hair 
hangs over your head, 2 on all sides there are spears, 
on all sides arrows. You fear your very guards, you 
dread your very attendants. Your food brings you 
no pleasure, your journeys no honour, your wars do 
not meet with approval, your arms call forth no en- 
thusiasm. Remember, moreover, that they find fault 

403 



FIRM US, SATURN1NUS, PROCULUS, 

henditur. senex est quispiam ? inhabilis videtur : 
adulescens ? 1 additur his et furere. 2 iam quid ama- 
bilem omnibus Probum dico ? cui cum 3 me aemulum 
esse cupitis, cui iibens cedo et cuius esse dux cupio, 
in necessitatem mortis me trahitis. habeo solacium 
4 mortis : solus perire non potero." Marcus Salvidienus 
hanc ipsius orationem vere fuisse dicit, et fuit re vera 
non parum litteratus. nam et in Africa rhetori operam 
dederat, Romae frequentaverat pergulas magistrales. 4 
XI. Et ne longius progrediar, dicendum est, quod 
praecipue ad hunc pertinet, errare quosdam et putare 
hunc esse Saturuinum qui Gallieni temporibus im- 
perium occupavit, cum is longe alius sit et Probo 

2 poenam 5 nolente sit occisus. fertur autem Probus et 
clementes ad eum litteras saepe misisse et veniam esse 
pollicitum, sed milites, qui cum eo fuerant, non credi- 

3 disse. obsessum denique in castro quodam ab iis quos 
Probus miserat invito Probo esse iugulatum. 

4 Longum est frivola quaeque conectere, odiosum di- 
cere quali statura fuerit, quo corpore, quo decore, quid 
biberit, quid comederit. ab aliis ista dicantur quae 
prope ad exemplum nihil prosunt. nos ad ea quae 
sunt dicenda redeamus. 



1 adulescens ins. by Peter ; om. in P and 27. 2 So Ellis ; 

additur his et furore P; est furiosus Peter. 9 cum ins. by 

Salm. 4 magistrales 2 Peter; ministrales P. 5 poenam 
Editor ; poene P ; paene editors. 



1 Unknown. 

See Tyr. Trig., xxiii. and note. 

8 The statement of Probus' reluctance is probably due to the 
general tendency of the author to praise him in all respects. 

404* 



ANJ) BONOSUS X. 4 XL 4 

with a man of any age as ruler. Is he an old man ? 
He is deemed incapable. Is he young? They go on 
to say that he is mad as well. Why should I now tell 
you that Probus is beloved by all ? In wishing me 
to be a rival of his, to whom I would gladly yield 
place and whose general I desire to be, you do but 
force me to an unavoidable death. One solace I have 
for my death : I shall not be able to die alone." 
This speech, according to Marcus Salvidienus, 1 was 
really his own, and, in fact, he was not unlettered, 
for he had even studied under a rhetorician in Africa 
and attended the schools of the teachers at Rome. 

XI. Now, not to proceed at too great length, 1 
must say one thing which particularly concerns this 
man, namely, that many wrongly believe that he was 
the Saturninus 2 who seized the imperial power in 
the time of Gallienus, whereas, in fact, he was alto- 
gether a different man, for he was put to death under 
Probus who did not desire his punishment. It is 
said, moreover, that Probus often sent him a letter 
offering him mercy and promised him pardon, but the 
soldiers who were with him refused to believe it. So 
at last he was seized in a certain stronghold and 
stabbed by those whom Probus had sent, though it 
was not at Probus' desire. 3 

It would be too long to include every trivial thing 
and tiresome to tell of his stature, his person, and his 
comeliness, or how much he could eat and drink. 
Let others describe these things, which have almost 
no value as an example, and let us return to what we 
should tell. 



According to the version given by Zosimus, Satuminus was 
killed by his own soldiers. 

405 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

XII. Proculo patria Albingauni fuere, positi in 
Alpibus Maritimis. domi nobilis sed maioribus latro- 
cinantibus atque adeo pecore ac servis et iis rebus quas 

2abduxerant satis dives., fertur denique eo tempore 
quo sumpsit imperium duo milia servorum suorum ar- 

3 masse, huic uxor virago, quae ilium in hanc prae- 
cipitavit dementiam, nomine Samso, quod ei postea 

4inditum est, nam antea Vituriga nominata est. filius 
Herennianus, quern et ipsum, si quinquennium imples- 

6 set, ita enim loquebatur, dicasset imperio. homo, quod 
iiegari non potest, . . . idemque fortissimus, ipse 
quoque latrociniis adsuetus, qui tamen armatam sem- 
per egerit vitam. nam et multis legionibus tribunus 

6praefuit et fortia edidit facta. et quoniam minima 
quaeque iucunda sunt atque habent aliquid gratiae cum 
leguntur, tacendum non est quod et ipse gloriatur in 
quadam sua epistula, quam ipsam melius est ponere 
quam de ea plurimum dicere : 

7 " Proculus Maeciano adfini salutem dicit. centum 
ex Sarmatia virgines cepi, ex his una nocte decem 
inivi ; omnes tamen, quod in me erat, mulieres intra 
dies quindecim reddidi." 

8 Gloriatur, ut vides, rem ineptam et satis libidino- 



1 His revolt is mentioued also in Prob., xviii. 5; Eutropius, 
ix. 17, 1 ; Epit., 37, 2, but no details are given. In all these 
passages it is said to have taken place at Agrippina (Cologne), 
whereas in c. xiii. 1 we are told that it was at Lugdunum 
(Lyons). If the statement in c. xiii. 4 and Prob., xviii. 7 that 
be attempted to combine forces with the Franks be correct, it 
may be that he began the revolt in Gaul but was forced to 
retreat to northern Germany, where he was finally defeated. 
The date was probably 280 ; see note to Prob., xviii. 1. 

406 



AND BONOSUS XII. 1-8 

XII. Proculus 1 was a native of Albingauni, 2 situated 
in the Maritime Alps. He was a nobleman in his 
native place, but his ancestors had been brigands, 
and thus he was very rich in cattle and slaves and 
all that they had carried away. In fact, it is said 
that at the time when he seized the imperial power 
he armed two thousand slaves of his own. His wife, 
who drove him to this act of madness, was a masculine 
woman called Samso though this name was given 
her in her later years, for originally she was called 
Vituriga. His son was Herennianus, whom also he 
would have dedicated to the imperial office for that 
was his way of speaking had he but completed his 
fifth year. The man himself, it cannot be denied, 
was . . . and at the same time most valiant ; though 
accustomed also to brigandage, he yet lived his whole 
life in arms, for he commanded many legions as tri- 
bune and did courageous deeds. And now, since all 
the most trivial things are interesting and bring some 
pleasure when they are read, I must not fail to men- 
tion an incident of which he himself boasts in one of 
his letters, deeming it better to quote the letter itself 
rather than to speaK about it at length. 

" From Proculus to his kinsman Maecianus, 3 greet- 
ing. I have taken one hundred maidens from Sar- 
matia. Of these I mated with ten in a single night ; 
all of them, however, I made into women, as far as 
was in my power, in the space of fifteen days." 

He boasts, as you see, of a foolish and a very licen- 
tious deed, thinking that he would be held a brave 

2 Mod. Albenga, on the Riviera di Ponente, about 50 m. S. W. 
of Genoa. 
8 Unknown. 

407 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

sam atque inter fortes se haberi credit, si criminum 
densitate concallescat. 1 

XIII. Hie tamen cum etiam post honores militares 
se 2 improbe, libidinose, tamen fortiter gereret, 3 hor- 
tantibus Lugdunensibus, qui et ab Aureliano graviter 
contusi videbantur et Probum vehementissime perti- 
mescebant, in imperium vocitatus est, ludo paene ac 
ioco, ut Onesimus dicit, quod quidem apud nullum 

2 alium repperisse me scio. nam cum in quodam con- 
vivio ad latrunculos luderetur, atque ipse decies im- 
perator exisset, quidam non ignobilis scurra " Ave " 
inquit " Auguste," adlataque lana purpurea umeris 
eius vinxit eumque adoravit ; timor hide consciorum 

3 atque inde iam exercitus temptatio et imperii. non 
iiihilum tamen Gallis profuit. nam Alamannos, qui 
tune adhuc Germani dicebantur, non sine gloriae 
splendore contrivit, numquam aliter quam latroci- 

4nandi pugnans modo. hunc tamen Probus fugatum 
usque ad ultimas terras et cupientem in Francorum 
auxilium venire, a quibus originem se trahere ipse dice- 
bat, ipsis prodentibus Francis, quibus f'amiliare est 

5 ridendo fidem frangere, vicit et interemit. posteri 
eius etiam nunc apud Albingaunos agunt, qui ioco 

1 concallescat Damstd, Hohl ; coalescat P, Peter. 2 cum se 
P. :! gereret Baehrens, Peter 2 ; regeret P. 



1 Perhaps during his stay in Gaul in 274-275 ; see Aur., 
xxxv. 4. 

2 Cited in c. xiv. 4 as the author of a life of Probus, and also 
in Car., iv. 2 ; vii. 3 ; xvi. 1 ; xvii. 6. He is perhaps to be 
identified with an " Onasimos " listed by Suidas (s.v.) as an 
IffropiK^s /cat o-o<t>i(TTT)s and writer of encomia, who lived under 
Constantino. 

3 A game resembling chess, but apparently with thirty pieces 

408 



AND BONOSUS XIII. 1-5 

man if he grew callous through repeated acts of 
crime. 

XIII. And yet this man, who, even after his mili- 
tary honours conducted himself with depravity and 
lustfulness but, nevertheless, with courage, at the 
bidding of the people of Lugdunum, who seemed to 
have been harshly put down by Aurelian l and were 
in the greatest fear of Probus, was called to take the 
imperial power. This came about through what 
was almost a game and a jest, as Onesimus 2 tells, 
though I know that I have not found it in any other 
writer. For when once at a banquet they were play- 
ing a game of " Brigands " 3 and Proculus had ten 
times come out as " King," a certain well-known wit 
cried out, "Hail, Augustus," and bringing in a gar- 
ment of purple wool he clasped it about Proculus' 
shoulders and then bowed in adoration. Then fear 
fell upon all who had had a part in the deed, and so an 
attempt was then made to gain both the army and 
the imperial power. He was, nevertheless, of some 
benefit to the Gauls, for he crushed the Alamanni 
who then were still called Germans and not without 
illustrious glory, though he never fought save in 
brigand-fashion. He was forced by Probus, however, 
to flee to distant lands, and when he attempted to 
bring aid to the Franks, from whom he said he de- 
rived his origin, Probus conquered and slew him ; for 
the Franks themselves betrayed him, whose custom 
it is to break faith with a laugh. His descendants 4 
still live at Albingauni, and they are wont to say in 

on each side. It is frequently alluded to by ancient authors, 
and an elaborate account of it is given in the anonymous poem 
Laus Pisonis, 11. 192-208. 

4 See note to Tyr. Trig., xiv. 3. 

409 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

solent dicere sibi non placere esse vel principes vel 
latrones. 

6 Haec digna memoratu de Proculo didicisse me 
memini. veniaraus ad Bonosum, de quo raulto minora 
condidi. 

XIV. Bonosus domo Hispaniensi fuit, origine Bri- 
tannus, Galla tamen raatre, ut ipse dicebat, rhetoris 
films, ut ab aliis comperi, paedagogi litterarii. par- 
vulus patrem amisit atque a matre fortissima educatus 

2litterarum nihil didicit. militavit primum inter ordi- 
iiarios, deinde inter equites ; duxit ordines, tribunatus 
egitj dux limitis l Raetici fuit, bibit quantum hominum 

3 nemo, de hoc Aurelianus saepe dicebat, "Non ut 
vivat natus est, sed ut bibat," quern quidem diu in 

4honore habuit causa militiae. nam si quando legati 
barbarorum undecumque gentium venissent, ipsi pro- 
pinabantur, ut eos inebriaret atque ab iis per vinum 
cuncta cognosceret. ipse quantumlibet bibisset, sem- 
per securus et sobrius et, ut Onesimus dicit, scriptor 

Svitae Probi, adhuc in vino prudentior. habuit prae- 
terea rem mirabilem, ut quantum bibisset tantum 

1 militis P. 



1 His revolt is mentioned briefly in Prob., xviii. 5 ; Aur. 
Victor, Goes., 37, 3 ; Epit., 37, 2 ; Eutropius, ix. 17, 1, and 
attested by coins struck by him with the legend Pax Augnsti ; 
see Cohen, vi 2 . p. 349. All authors agree that it took place at 
Agrippina (Cologne). The date was probably 280 ; see note to 
Prob., xviii. 1. It would appear from 2 and c. xv. 1 that he 
had been left in charge of the Rhine-frontier by Probus when 
after his victories over the Germans he set out for Illyricum 
and the East in 279 ; see Prob., xiii. 7-8 and xvi. 1 and notes. 

410 



AND BONOSUS XIII. 6 XIV. 5 

jest that they do not desire to be either princes or 
brigands. 

This is all that I remember having learned about 
Proculus that is worthy of mention. Let us now pass 
on to Bonosus, concerning whom I have written much 
less. 

XIV. Bonosus l was a Spaniard by birth, but in 
descent a Briton, though he had a Gallic mother. 
His father, so he himself used to say, was a rhetori- 
cian, but I have learned from others that he 
was only a teacher of letters. He lost his father 
when a child, and being reared by his mother, a very 
brave woman, he learned nothing of literature. He 
served in the beginning as a legionary centurion, 2 
and next in the cavalry ; he commanded in the ranks, 3 
he held tribuneships, he was general in charge of the 
Raetian frontier, and he drank as no man had ever 
drunk. In fact, Aurelian used often to say of him, 
" He was born, not to live, but to drink," and yet, 
because of his prowess in war, he long held him in 
honour. Indeed, whenever the envoys of barbarian 
nations came from any place, they were plied 
with wine in order that he might make them 
drunken, and when they were in wine learn from 
them all their secrets. But however much he drank 
himself, he always remained calm and sober, and, as 
Onesimus, 4 the author of a Life of Probus, says, when 
in wine he was all the wiser. He possessed, further- 
more, a marvellous quality, namely, that he could 
always discharge all he had drunk, so that neither his 



a See note to CL Alb., xi. 6. 

See note to Av. Ca-ss., i. 1. 4 See note to c. xiii. 1. 



411 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

mingeret, neque umquam eius aut pectus aut venter 
aut vesica gravaretur. 

XV. Hie idem, cum quodam tempore in Rheno 
Romanas lusorias Germani incendissent, timore ne 
poenas daret sumpsit imperium, idque diutius tenuit 
gquam merebatur. nam longo gravique certamine a 
Probo superatus laqueo vitam finivit, cum quidem 
iocus exstitit, amphoram pendere, non hominem. 

3 Filios duos reliquit, quibus ambobus Probus peper- 
cit, uxore quoque eius in honore habita et usque ad 

4 mortem salario praestito. fuisse enim dicitur, ut et 
avus meus dicebat, femina singularis exempli et fa- 
miliae iiobilis, gentis tamen Gothicae ; quam illi Au- 
relianus uxorem idcirco dederat ut per eum a Gothis 

5 cuncta cognosceret. erat enim ilia virgo regalis. ex- 
stant litterae ad legatum Thraciarum scriptae de his 
nuptiis et donis, quae Aurelianus Bonoso dari nuptia- 
rum causa iussit, quas ego inserui : 

6 "Aurelianus Augustus Gallonio Avito salutem. 
Superioribus litteris scrips eram, ut optimates Gothi- 
cas apud Perinthum conlocares, decretis salariis, non 
ut singulae acciperent, sed ut septem simul unum con- 
vivium haberent. cum enim divisae accipiunt, et illae 

7 parum sumunt et res publica plurimum perdit. nunc 
tamen, quoiiiam placuit Bonoso Hunilam dari, dabis ei 
iuxta brevem infra scriptum omnia quae praecipimus ; 
sumptu etiam publico nuptias celebrabis." 



1 See note to Tyr. Trig., xxv. 3. 

2 Or Heraclea, now Eski Eregli, on the north shore of the 
Sea of Marmora. 

412 



AND BONOSUS XV. 1-7 

stomach nor his abdomen nor his bladder ever felt any 
discomfort. 

XV. He, then, at the time when the Roman galleys 
on the Rhine were burned by the Germans, fearing 
that he might have to suffer punishment, seized the 
imperial power. This he held longer than he deserved, 
for he was finally defeated by Probus only after 
a lengthy and difficult struggle, and he then put an 
end to his life by the noose, which gave rise to the 
jest that it was not a man that was being hanged but 
a wine -jug. 

He left two sons, both of whom were spared by 
Probus, and his wife, too, was treated with honour 
and given an allowance as long as she lived. She was 
in fact, as my grandfather also used to declare, 1 
a woman of unequalled excellence and also of noble 
family, though by race a Goth ; for Aurelian had given 
her to him as wife in order that through his help lie 
might learn all the plans of the Goths, for she was 
a maiden of royal blood. There is still in existence 
a letter addressed to the governor of Thrace concern- 
ing this marriage and the gifts which Aurelian wished 
Bonosus to receive on the occasion of his wedding, 
and this letter I have inserted : 

" From Aurelian Augustus to Gallonius Avitus, 
greeting. In a previous letter I wrote you to establish 
the Gothic noblewomen at Perinthus, 2 and I assigned 
them rations, which they were not to receive singly, 
but seven of them together sharing one meal. For 
when they receive them singly, they get too little and 
the state loses too much. Now, however, since it is our 
wish that Bonosus take Hunila to wife, you will give her 
all we have ordered in the subjoined list, and you will 
celebrate the marriage at the expense of the state." 

4-13 



FIRMUS, SATURNINUS, PROCULUS, 

8 Brevis munerum fuit : " Tunicas palliolatas ianthinas 
subsericas, tunicam auro clavatam subsericam librilem 
unam, interulas dilores duas, et reliqua quae matronae 
conveniimt. ipsi dabis aureos Philippeos centum, ar- 
gentos Antoninianos mille, aeris sestertium decies." 

9 Haec me legisse teneo de Bonoso. et potui quidem 
horum vitam praeterire quos nemo quaerebat, attamen, 
ne quid fidei deesset, etiam de his quae didiceram inti- 

10 man da curavi. supersunt mihi Car us, Carinus et Nu- 
merianus, nam Diocletianus et qui sequuntur stilo 
maiore dicendi sunt. 



1 See Claud. , xiv. 3 and Aur., ix. 7 and notes. 



414 



AND BONOSUS XV. 8-10 

The list of gifts was as follows : " Violet tunics of 
part-silk provided with hoods, one tunic of part-silk 
with a golden stripe, to weigh a pound, two double- 
striped under-tunics, and all the other things that are 
befitting a matron. To Bonosus himself you will give 
one hundred Philips of gold, one thousand silver 
Antonines, and ten thousand bronze sesterces." l 

This is what I remember having read about Bonosus. 
I might, indeed, have omitted the lives of these men, 
concerning whom no one has ever inquired, but, in 
order that there may be no lack of accuracy, I have 
taken care to make known what I have learned about 
these also. There still remain for me Carus, Carinus 
and Numerian ; for Diocletian and those who came 
after him must be described in a grander style. 



415 



CARDS ET CARINUS 
ET NUMERIANUS 

FLAVII VOPISCI SYRACUSII 

I. Fato rem publicam regi eamque nunc ad sum- 
mum evehi, nunc ad minima retrahi Probi mors satis 

2prodidit. nam cum ducta per tempora variis vel 
erecta motibus vel adflicta, nunc tempestate aliqua 
nunc felicitate variata omnia prope passa esset quae 
patitur in homine uno mortaLtas, videbatur post diver- 
sitatem malorum iam secura continuata felicitate man- 
sura post Aurelianum vehementem principem Probo 
ex sententia senatus ac populi 1 leges et gubernacula 

3 temperante. sed ruina ingens vel naufragii modo vel 
incendii accensis fataliter militibus sublato e medio 
tali principe in earn desperationem votum publicum 
redegit ut timerent omnes Domitianos, Vitellios et 

1 senatus acpopulo after gnbe macula in P. 



1 On the tendency of the author of this group of biographers 
to eulogise Probus see note to Prob. , i. 3. 

416 



CARUS, CARINUS 
AND NUMERIAN 

BY 

FLAVIUS VOPISCUS OF SYRACUSE 

I. That it is Fate which governs the commonwealth, 
now exalting it to the heights and again thrusting it 
down to the depths, was made very clear by the death 
of Probus. For the state, in its course through the 
ages, was by turns raised up and dashed down by 
divers commotions, and, in the changes wrought now 
by some tempest and again by a time of prosperity, it 
suffered well nigh all the ills that human life may 
suffer in the case of a single man ; but at last, after a 
diversity of evils, it seemed about to abide in assured 
and unbroken felicity, when, after the reign of 
Aurelian, a vigorous prince, both the laws and the 
helm of the state were directed by Probus in accord- 
ance with the wish of the senate and people. 1 
Nevertheless, a mighty disaster, coming like a ship- 
wreck or a conflagration, when the soldiers had been 
fired with a fated madness and this great prince had 
been removed from our midst, reduced the hopes of 
the state to such despair that all feared a Domitian, 

417 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

4 Nerones. plus enim timetur de incertis moribus prin- 
cipis quam speratur, maxime in ea re publica quae 
recentibus confossa vulneribus Valerian! captivitatem, 
Gallieni luxuriam, triginta etiam prope tyraniiorum 
caesa civium l membra sibimet vindicantium imperia 2 
perpessa maeruerit. 

II. Nam si velimus ab ortu urbis repetere quas 
varietates sit passa Romana res publica, inveniemus 
nullam magis vel bonis floruisse vel malis laborasse. 

2et, ut a Romulo incipiam, vero patre ac parente rei 
publicae, quae illius felicitas 3 fuit, qui fundavit, coii- 
stituit roboravitque rem publicam atque uiius omnium 

8 conditorum perfectam urbem reliquit ! quid deinde 
Numam loquar, qui frementem bellis et gravidam 

4triumphis civitatem religione munivit? viguit igitur 
usque ad Tarquinii Superbi tempora nostra res publica, 
sed passa tempestatem de moribus regiis non sine 

5 gravi exitio semet ulta est. adolevit deinde usque ad 
tempora Gallicani belli, sed quasi quodam mersa nau- 
fragio capta praeter arcem urbe plus prope mali sens it 

6 quam tumebat bonis. 4 reddidit se deinde in integrum, 
sed eo usque gravata est Punicis bellis ac terrore 
Pyrrhi ut mortal itatis mala praecordiorum timore 

III. sentiret. crevit deinde victa Carthagine trans maria 
missis imperiis, sed socialibus adfecta discordiis exte- 



1 ciuium Editor; ciuiliitm P, editors. 2 imperia ins. by 

Walter ; orn. in P ; coluuionem ins. after tyrannorum by 
Bichter, foil, by Peter. 8 Here follows in P a misplaced 

portion, consisting of c. xiii., 1 Augustum to c. xv. 5 fuisse ; 
see Intro, to Vol. I., p. xxxiii. f. 4 So Editor; tuniebat boni 
P ; habuerat boni Peter ; timebant boni Hohl (from Z 1 ). 

"8 



CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN I. 4 III. 1 

or a Vitellius, or a Nero. For they felt more fear 
than hope from the ways of a prince yet unknown, 
especially since the commonwealth, stricken by recent 
wounds, was still in a state of sorrow from having 
endured the capture of Valerian, the excesses of 
Gallienus, and also the power of well nigh thirty 
pretenders, who could lay claim to naught but the 
mangled limbs of their fellow-citizens. 

II. Now if we should wish, beginning with the 
origin of the city, to review all the changes that the 
Roman commonwealth endured, we shall find that no 
state abounded more in blessings or suffered more 
from evils. For, to begin with Romulus, the true 
father and founder of the commonwealth, what 
felicity was his, who founded, established and 
strengthened this state, and alone among founders 
left a completed city ! Why should I speak of Numa, 
the next in order, who by means of religious observ- 
ances safeguarded a state which resounded with wars 
and was swollen with triumphs ? From then on, 
therefore, our commonwealth prospered until the 
time of Tarquinius Superbus, when it endured a 
tempest arising from the evil ways of the monarch 
and avenged itself only at the cost of grave disaster. 
Then it increased in strength until the time of the 
Gallic war, when it was overwhelmed, as it were, by 
shipwreck, the city, save only the citadel, being cap- 
tured, and it suffered evils greater, indeed, than the 
prosperity with which it was swollen. Again it re- 
turned to its former strength, but was brought so low 
by the Punic Wars and the terror caused by Pyrrhus 
that in the fear of its heart it came to know all the 
ills of human life. III. Next, having conquered 
Carthage and extended its empire over the seas, it 

419 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

nuato felicitatis sensu usque ad Augustum bellis civili- 
bus adfecta consenuit. per Augustum deinde reparata, 

2 si reparata dici potest libertate deposita. tamen ut- 
cumque, etiamsi domi tristis f'uit, apud exteras gentes 
effloruit. passa deinceps tot Nerones per Vespasianum 

Sextulit caput. nee omni Titi felicitate laetata, Domi- 
tiani vulnerata inmanitate, per Nervam atque Traia- 
num usque ad Marcum solito melior, Commodi vecordia 

4et crudelitate lacerata est. nihil post haec praeter 
Severi lUligentiam usque ad Alexandrum Mamaeae 

5 sensit bonum. longum est quae sequuntur universa 
conectere ; uti enim principe Valeriano non potuit et 

6 Gallienum per annos quindecim passa est. invidit 
Claudio longinquitatem imperil amans varietatum et 

7 prope l semper inimica fortuna iustitiae. sic enim Au- 
relianus occisus est, sic Tacitus absumptus, sic Probus 
caesus, ut appareat nihil tarn gratum esse fortunae, 
quam ut ea quae sunt in publicis actibus eventuum 

8 varietate mutentur. sed quorsum talibus querelis et 
temporum casibus detinemur ? veniamus ad Carum, 
medium, ut ita dixerim, virum et inter bonos magis 
quam inter malos principes conlocandum et longe 
meliorem, si Carinum non reliquisset lieredem. 

IV. Cari patria sic ambigue a plerisque proditur, ut 
prae summa varietate 2 dicere nequeam quae ilia vera 

1 So Lenze and Tiduer ; prope et semper P, Hohl ; xemper et 
prope Peter. 2 So Obrecht foil, by Peter ; praesumptae 

grauitate P. 



1 i.e., the Julio Claudian emperors. 

2 See Tac.y xiii., 5 and note. 

3 M. Aurelius Carus Augustus (282-283). 

420 



CARUS, CARINUS, Nt-MERIAN III. 2 IV. 1 

waxed great, but afflicted by strife with allies it lost 
all sense of happiness, and crushed by civil wars it 
wasted away in weakness until the time of Augustus. 
He then restored it once more, if indeed we may say 
that it was restored when it gave up its freedom. 
Nevertheless, in some way or other, though mourning 
at home, it enjoyed great fame among nations abroad. 
Next, after enduring so many of the house of Nero, 1 
it reared its head again under Vespasian, and though 
having no joy from all the good fortune of Titus and 
bleeding from Domitian's brutality, it was happier 
than had been its wont under Nerva and Trajan and 
his successors as far as Marcus, but was sorely stricken 
by the madness and cruelty of Commodus. There- 
after, save for the diligent care of Severus, it knew 
naught that was good until Alexander, the son of 
Mamaea. All that ensued thereafter is too long to 
relate ; for it was not permitted to enjoy the rule of 
Valerian and it endured Gallienus for fifteen years. 
Then Claudius was begrudged a long-lasting rule by 
Fortune, which loves a change and is almost always 
a foe to justice. For in such wise was Aurelian slain 
and Tacitus carried off by disease 2 and Probus put 
to death, that it became clear that Fortune takes 
pleasure in nothing so much as in changing, by means 
of a varied succession of events, all that pertains to 
the public business. To what end, however, do we 
dwell on such lamentations and the misfortunes of 
the times ? Let us, rather, pass on to Carus, 3 a 
mediocre man, so to speak, but one to be ranked with 
the good rather than the evil princes, yet a better 
ruler by far, had he not left Carinus to be his heir. 

IV. In regard to Cams' birthplace there is such 
divergence of statement among the various writers 

4-3*1 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

2 sit. Onesimus enim, qui diligentisslme vitam Probi 
scripsit, Romae ilium et natum et eruditum sed 

Slllyricianis parentibus fuisse contendit. sed Fabius 
Ceryllianus, qui tempora Cari, Carini et Numeriani 
sollertissime persecutus est, neque Romae sed in 
Illyrico genitum, neque Pannoniis sed Poenis parenti- 

4 bus adserit natum. in ephemeride quadam legisse 
me 1 memini Carum Mediolanensem fuisse, sed albo 

Scuriae 2 Aquileiensis civitatis insertum. ipse se, quod 
negari non potest, ut epistula eius indicat, quam pro 
consule ad legatum suum scripsit, cum eum ad bona 
hortaretur officia, Romanum vult videri. 

8 Epistula Cari : 

" Marcus Aurelius Carus pro consule Ciliciae lunio 
legato suo. maiores nostri, Romani illi principes, in 
legatis creandis hac usi sunt consuetudine, ut morum 
suorum specimen per eos ostenderent quibus rem 

7 publicam delegabant. ego vero, si ita non esset, 
aliter non fecissem ; nee feci aliter, si 3 te iuvante non 
fallar. fac igitur, ut maioribus nostris, id est Romanis 
non discrepemus viris." 

8 Vides tota epistula maiores suos Romanes ilium 

V. velle intellegi. indicat et oratio eius ad senatum 

data istam generis praerogativam. nam cum primum 

1 me ins. by Lessing and Hohl ; om. in P and by Peter. 
8 albo curiae Madvig, Hohl ; auo iuria P ; auo iuri Peter. 
* So Bitschoisky ; feci alii si P, Z\ specialiter Peter. 



1 See note to Firm., xiii. 1. 

a Unknown. 

3 At Narbona (more correctly Narona), now the ruins of Vid 
in Dalmatia, near the mouth of the river Naretva, according to 
Epit.i 3S, 1, probably the most correct version (see note to Aur., 
iii. 1). 

422 



CARDS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN IV. 2 V. 1 

that by reason of the very great difference among 
them I am unable to tell what it really was. For 
Onesimus, 1 who wrote with great diligence a Life of 
Probus, maintains that, whereas Cams' parents were 
Illyrians, he himself was both born and educated at 
Rome. Fabius Ceryllianus, 2 however, who has described 
with the greatest skill the period of Carus, Carinus 
and Numerian, declares that he was born, not in 
Rome, but in Illyricum, 3 and that his parents were not 
Pannonians but Carthaginians. I myself remember 
having read in a certain journal 4 that Car us was born 
at Milan but enrolled in the official list of the council 
of the city of Aquileia. Carus himself, it cannot be 
denied, wished to appear a Roman, for this is shown 
by a letter of his, which he wrote when proconsul to 
his legate, urging him to a faithful performance of 
duty. 

The letter of Carus : 

" From Marcus Aurelius Carus proconsul of Cilicia 5 to 
Junius his legate. Our forefathers, those great men 
of Rome, in choosing their legates observed the follow- 
ing principle, namely, to display a sample of their own 
characters in those to whom they delegated the conduct 
of public affairs. And even if this were not so, I my- 
self should not do otherwise ; and, indeed, I have not 
done otherwise, if by your aid I shall make no mistake. 
Wherefore look to it that we may not be found to 
differ from our forefathers, that is, the men of Rome." 

You see that throughout this letter he wishes it to 
be understood that his forefathers were native Romans. 
V. A speech of his, moreover, addressed to the senate, 
affords this same assurance regarding his birth. For 

4 Fictitious, like most of the author's " sources." 

3 There was no such office in his time ; see note to Aur., xlii. 2. 

423 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMKRIAN 

imperator esset cr^atus, sic ad senatoriurn ordinem 

2scripsit. inter cetera: " Gaudendum est itaque, 
patres conscript!, quod unus ex vestro ordine, vestri 
etiam generis, imperator est factus. quare adnitemur 
ne meliores peregrini quam vestri esse videaiitur." 

Shoe quoque loco satis clarum est ilium voluisse intel- 
legi se esse Romanum, id est Roma oriundum. 

4 Hie igitur per civiles et l militares gradus, ut tituli 
statuarum eius indicant, praefectus praetorii a Probo 
factus tantum sibi apud milites amoris locavit, ut 
interfecto Probo tanto principe solus dignissimus 
videretur imperio. 

VI. Non me praeteriit suspicatos esse plerosque et 
eos in fastos rettulisse, Cari factione interemptum 
Probum, sed neque >J meritum Probi erga Carum 
neque Cari mores id credi patiuntur, simul quia Probi 
mortem et acerrime et constantissime vindicavit. 

2 quid autem de eo Probus senserit indicant litterae de 
eius honoribus ad senatum datae : 

" Probus Augustus amantissimo senatui suo salutem 
dicit." inter cetera: " Felix autem esset nostra res 
publica, si, qualis Carus est aut plerique vestrum, 

splures haberem in actibus conlocatos. quare eques- 
trem statuam viro morum veterum, si vobis placeat, 
decernendam censeo, addito eo ut j;ublico sumptu 
eidem 3 exaedificetur domus marmoribus a me delatis. 

1 et om. in P. 2 quod P. :t So S and Cas., foil, by 

editors ; uel eidem P. 



1 None are known to us. - See note to Prob. t xxi. 3. 

424 



CARDS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN V. 2 VI. 3 

when he was first made emperor, he wrote to the 
senatorial order among other things the following: 
"And so, Conscript Fathers, you should rejoice that 
one of your own order and your own race has been 
created emperor. Wherefore we will do our best that 
no foreigner shall seem to be a better man than one 
of yourselves." This passage also makes it sufficiently 
clear that he wished to be thought a Roman, that is, 
one born in Rome. 

He, then, after rising through the various civil and 
military grades, as the inscriptions l on his statues 
show, was made prefect of the guard by Probus, and 
he won such affection among the soldiers that when 
Probus, that great emperor, was slain, he alone seemed 
wholly worthy of the imperial power. 

VI. I am not unaware that many have suspected 
and, in fact, have put it into the records that Probus 
was slain by the treachery of Carus. 2 This, however, 
neither the kindness of Probus toward Carus nor 
Carus' own character will permit us to believe, and 
there is the further reason that he avenged the death 
of Probus with the utmost severity and steadfastness. 
Probus' opinion of him, moreover, is shown by a letter 
written to the senate with regard to the honours con- 
ferred on him : 

" From Probus Augustus to his most devoted senate, 
greeting." Among other recommendations : " Happy, 
indeed, were our commonwealth if I had more men 
engaged in the public business similar to Carus or, in 
fact, to most of yourselves. Wherefore I recommend, 
if it be your pleasure, that an equestrian statue be 
voted to this man of old-time character, adding the 
further request that a house be erected for him at the 
public expense, the marble to be furnished by me. 



CARDS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

decet enim nos tails integritatem remunerari viri " et 

reliqua. 

VII. Ac ne minima quaeque conectam et ea quae 
apud alios poterunt inveniri, ubi primum accepit 
imperium, consensu omnium militum bellum Persi- 
cum, quod Probus parabat, adgressus est, liberis 
Caesaribus nuncupatis, et ita quidem ut Carinum ad 
GalHas tuendas cum viris lectissimis destinaret, secum 
vero Numerianum, adulescentem cum lectissimum 

2 turn etiam disertissimum, duceret. et dicitur quidem 
saepe dixisse se miserum, quod Carinum ad Gallias 
principem mitteret, neque ilia aetas esset Numeriani 
ut illi Gallicanum, quod maxime constantem prin- 

3 cipem quaerit, crederetur imperium. sed haec alias ; 
nam exstant etiam l litterae Cari, quibus apud prae- 
fectum suum de Carlni moribus queratur, ut appareat 
verum esse quod Onesimus dicit, habuisse in animo 
Carum ut Carino Caesareanum abrogaret imperium. 

4 sed haec, ut diximus, alias in ipsius Carini vita 
dicenda sunt. nunc ad ordinem revertemur. 

VIII. Ingenti apparatu et totis viribus Probi profli- 
gate magna ex parte bello Sarmatico, quod gerebat, 

1 etiam Gas. ; iam P. 



1 See Prob., xx. 1. 

'The titles Nobilissimus Caesar and Princeps luventutis 
appear ou their coins minted before they were entitled Augustus. 

3 Cf. c. xvii. 6. 

4 See c. ix. 4. This war seems to have included a campaign 
against the Quadi also, for Numerian (as Augustus) issued coins 
with the legend Triunfu. (.sic) Qua d >r(um) and a representation 
of his father and himself in a quadriga with an attendant 
Victory and captives ; see Cohen, vi 2 . p. 378, no. 91. It would 

426 



CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN VII. 1 VIII. 1 

For it behooves us to reward the uprightness of so 
great a man," and so forth. 

VII. And so not to include what is of little im- 
portance or what can be found in other writers as 
soon as he received the imperial power, by the 
unanimous wish of all the soldiers he took up the war 
against the Persians for which Probus had been pre- 
paring. 1 He gave to his sons the name of Caesar, 2 
planning to despatch Carinus, with some carefully 
selected men, to govern the provinces of Gaul, and 
to take along with himself Numerian, a most ex- 
cellent and eloquent young man. It is said, more- 
over, that he often declared that he was grieved 
that he had to send Carinus to Gaul as prince, and 
that Numerian was not of an age to be entrusted 
with the Gallic empire, which most of all needed a 
steadfast ruler. But of this at another time ; for there 
is still in existence a letter of Carus', in which he com- 
plains to his prefect about the character of Carinus, so 
that it seems to be true, as Onesimus says, that Carus 
intended to take from Carinus the power of a Caesar. 
But of this, as I have already said, 1 must tell later on 
in the Life of Carinus himself. 3 Now we will return 
to the order of events. 

VIII. With a vast array and all the forces of Probus 
he set out against the Persians after finishing the 
greater part of the Sarmatian war, 4 in which he had 

appear that Carus fought this war on the Danube and then set 
out for the East without going to Rome. We are told by 
Zonaras (xii. 30) that he defeated the Persians and then re- 
turned to Rome, whence he set out against the Sarmatiaus but 
was killed during a campaign against the Huns, or, as some 
say, on the river Tigris, as the result of a stroke of lightning ; 
but this can hardly be correct, as his reign of one year was not 
long enough to permit of so much activity. 

4-27 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

contra Persas profectus nullo sibi occurrente Meso- 
potamiam Caruscepit et Ctesiphontem usque pervenit 
occupatisque Persis domestica seditione imperatoris 

2Persici nomen emeruit. verum cum avidus gloriae, 
praefecto suo maxime urgente, 1 qui et ipsi et filiis 2 
eius quaerebat exitium cupiens imperare, longius 
progressus esset, ut alii dicunt morbo, ut plures 

sfulmine, interemprus est. negari non potest eo 
tempore quo periit tantum fuisse subito tonitruum ut 
multi terrore ipso exanimati esse dicantur. cum igitur 
aegrotaret atque in teiitorio iaceret, ingenti exorta 
tempestate inmani coruscatione, inmaniore, ut dixi- 

4mus, tonitru exanimatus est. lulius Calpurnius, qui 
ad memoriam dictabat, talem ad praefectum urbis 
super morte Cari epistulam dedit : 

5 Inter cetera " Cum," inquit, " Carus, princeps 
noster vere carus, aegrotaret, tanti turbinis subito 
exorta tempestas est ut caligarent omnia, neque 
alterutrum iiosceret ; coruscationum deinde ac toni- 
truum in modum fulgurum igniti sideris continuata 
vibratio omnibus nobis veritatis scientiam sustulit. 

1 urgente Eyssenhardt, Peter ; iurganteP. 2 filiis 
filii P, Z ; filio Peter. 



1 He captured it, according to all our authorities, and also 
Seleucia, according to Zonaras, and Coche, according to 
Eutropius. The importance of his successes aided by the strife 
between Bahram II., the Persian king, and his brother Hormizd 
is shown by the fact that all Mesopotamia was under Roman 
sway at the accession of Diocletian ; see Mommsen, Hist. Rom. 
Prov. (Eng. Trans.), ii. p. 123. 

2 He bears the title of Persicus Maxirnus iu his inscriptions, 
and on his coins (after deification) those of Persicus and 
Parthicus. 

3 Aper ; see c. xii. 

428 



CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN VIII. 2-5 

been engaged, and without opposition he conquered 
Mesopotamia and advanced as far as Ctesiphon l ; and 
while the Persians were busied with internal strife he 
won the name of Conqueror of Persia. 2 But when he 
advanced still further, desirous himself of glory and 
urged on most of all by his prefect, 3 who in his wish 
to rule was seeking the destruction of both Carus and 
his sons as well, he met his death, according to some, 
by disease, according to others, through a stroke of 
lightning. 4 Indeed, it cannot be denied that at the 
time of his death there suddenly occurred such violent 
thunder that many, it is said, died of sheer fright. And 
so, while he was ill and lying in his tent, there came 
up a mighty storm with terrible lightning and, as I 
have said, still more terrible thunder, and during this 
he expired. Julius Calpurnius, who used to dictate for 
the imperial memoranda, 5 wrote the following letter 
about Carus' death to the prefect of the city, saying 
among other things : 

"When Carus, our prince for whom we truly care, 
was lying ill, there suddenly arose a storm of such 
violence that all things grew black and none could 
recognize another ; then continuous flashes of lightning 
and peals of thunder, like bolts from a fiery sky, took 
from us all the power of knowing what truly befell. 

4 This is the story given by all our authorities, including 
Zonaras, though he gives an alternate version ; see note to 1. 
The rationalized version that he died of disease occurs only in 
this vita. His death seems to have taken place not much later 
than 29 August, 283, as there are no Alexandrian coins beyond 
liis first year; see J. Vogt, Die Alexandr. Munzen, i. p. 220 . 
This would agree with the rule of tea months and five days 
assigned him by the " Chronographer of 354." 

5 See Pesc. Nig., vii. 4 and note. Julius Calpurnius is other- 
wise unknown and, like the letter, probably fictitious. 

429 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

6 subito enim conclamatum est imperatorem mortuum, 
et post illud praecipue tonitruum quod cuncta ter- 

Truerat. 1 his accessit quod cubicularii dolentes prin- 
cipis mortem incenderunt tentorium. unde unde fuit, 2 
fama emersit fulmine interemptum eum quem, quan- 
tum scire possumus, aegritudine constat absumptum." 
IX. Hanc ego epistulam idcirco indidi quod pleri- 
que dicunt vim fati quandam esse, ut Romanus prin- 
ceps Ctesiphontem transire non possit, ideoque Carum 
iulmine absumptum quod eos fines transgredi cuperet 

2qui fataliter constituti suiit. sed sibi habeat artes 

3suas timiditas, calcanda virtutibus. licet plane ac 
licebit, ut 3 per sacratissimum Caesarem Maximianum 
constitit, Persas vincere atque ultra eos progredi, et 
futurum reor, si a nostris non deseratur promissus 
numinum favor. 

4 Bonum principem Carum fuisse cum multa indicant 
turn illud etiam, quod statim ut 3 est adeptus im- 
perium, Sarmatas adeo morte Probi feroces ut in- 
vasuros se non solum Illyricum sed Thracias quoque 
Italiamque minarentur, ita scienter bella partiendo 4 
contudit, ut paucissimis diebus Pannonias securitate 
donaverit occ.sis Sarmatarum sedecim milibus, captis 
diversi sexus viginti milibus. 

1 quod . . . terruerat Purser, Hohl ; quo . . . terruerat P ; 
quo . . . territi erant Peter. 2 unde unde fuit Purser ; unde 
fuit P ; unde subito Peter, Hohl. 3 ut 2, foD. by Peter ; 

om. in P. 4 So Madvig, foil, by Hohl ; sic inter bella 

pariendi P. 



1 He was warned by an oracle according to Aur. Victor, Goes., 
88,4. 

430 



CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN VIII. 6 IX. 4 

For suddenly, after an especially violent peal which 
had terrified all, it was shouted out that the emperor 
was dead. It came to pass, in addition, that the 
chamberlains, grieving for the death of their prince, 
fired his tent ; and the rumour arose, whatever its 
source, that he had been killed by the lightning, 
whereas, as far as we can tell, it seems sure that he 
died of his illness." 

IX. This letter I have inserted for the reason that 
many declare that there is a certain decree of Fate 
that no Roman emperor may advance beyond Ctesi- 
phon, and that Carus was struck by the lightning 
because he desired to pass beyond the bounds which 
Fate has set up. 1 But let cowardice, on which 
courage should set its heel, keep its devices for itself. 
For clearly it is granted to us and will always be 
granted, as our most venerated Caesar Maximian has 
shown, 2 to conquer the Persians and advance beyond 
them, and methinks this will surely come to pass if 
only our men fail not to live up to the promised 
favour of Heaven. 

That Carus was a good emperor is evident from 
many of his deeds but especially from this, that as 
soon as he received the imperial power he crushed 
the Sarmatians, who were so emboldened by Probus* 
death that they threatened to invade not only Illy- 
ricum but Thrace and Italy as well, and he showed 
such skill in breaking up the war that in a very few 
days he made the provinces of Pannonia free from all 
fear, having killed sixteen thousand Sarmatians and 
captured twenty thousand of both sexes. 

2 An allusion to the successes of Galeriua Maximianus against 
Narses, the Persian king, in 296-297. 

431 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

X. Haec de Caro satis esse credo, veniamus ad 
Numerianum. huius et iunctior patri et admirabilior 
per socerum suum facta videtur historia. et quamvis 
Carinus maior aetate fuerit, prior etiam Caesar quam 
hie l sit nuncupatus, tamen necesse est ut prius de 
Numeriano loquamur, qui patris secutus est mortem, 
post de Carino, quern vir rei publicae necessarius 
Augustus Diocletianus habitis conflictibus interemit. 

XI. Numerianus, Cari films, moratus egregie et vere 
dignus imperio, eloquentia etiam prae pollens, adeo ut 
puer publice declamaverit feranturque illius scripta 
nobilia, declamationi tamen magis quam Tulliano ad- 

2commodiora stilo. versu autem talis fuisse praedi- 
catur ut omnes poetas sui temporis vicerit. nam et 
cum Olympio Nemesiano contendit, qui 'AA-teim/ca, 
KvvyycTLKa et NauTiKa scripsit quique in 2 omnibus 
coloniis inlustratus emicuit, et Aurelium Apollinarem 
iamborum scriptorem, qui patris eius gesta in litteras 
rettulit, iisdem quae recitaverat editis veluti radio 

3solis obtexit. huius oratio fertur ad senatum missa 
tantum habuisse eloquentiae ut illi statua non quasi 

l quam hie Editor; qua* P; quam Numerianus Peter 2 , Hohl. 
2 quique P corr., Hohl ; quinque P 1 ; inque Peter. 



1 Coins with the legends Divo Caro and Consecratio show 
that he was deified ; see Cohen, vi 2 . pp. 352-353, nos. 14-24. 

2 M. Aurelius Numerius Numerianus Augustus (283-284). 
He seems not to have borne the title of Augustus until after 
Cams' death, when he and Carinus held it conjointly ; see 
Cohen, vi 2 . p. 404. 

3 The author of four Eclogues written in the manner of 
Vergil. Of the poems cited here we have only 325 lines of his 

432 



CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN X. XI. 3 

X. This I believe to be enough about Carus l ; let 
us now pass on to Numerian. His history seems to 
be more closely connected with that of his father and 
to have become more noteworthy because of his 
father-in-law ; and although Carinus was older than 
he and received the title of Caesar before him, it is 
necessary, nevertheless, for us to tell first of Numerian, 
whose death followed that of his father, and after- 
wards of Carinus, whom Diocletian Augustus, a man 
indispensable to the state, met in battle and put to 
death. 

XI. Numerian, 2 the son of Carus, was of excellent 
character and truly worthy to rule ; he was notable, 
moreover, for his eloquence, so much so, in fact, that 
even as a boy he declaimed in public, and his writings 
came to be famous, though more suitable for declama- 
tion than in keeping with Cicero's style. In verse, 
furthermore, he is said to have had such skill that he 
surpassed all the poets of his time. In fact, he com- 
peted with Olympius Nemesianus, 3 who wrote On 
Fishing, On Hunting, and On Seamanship, and shone 
with conspicuous lustre in all the colonial towns ; and 
as for Aurelius Apollinaris, 4 the writer of iambics, 
who had composed an account of his father's deeds, 
Numerian, when he published what he had recited, 
cast him into the shade like a ray of the sun. The 
speech, moreover, which he sent to the senate is said 
to have been so eloquent that a statue was voted him 
not as a Caesar but as a rhetorician, to be set up in 

Cynegetica, composed after the death of Carus but before that 
of either of his sons, whose deeds he promises to recount (see 
1. 63 f.). 

4 Unknown. 

433 



CARDS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

Caesari sed quasi rhetori decerneretur, ponenda in 
Bibliotheca Ulpia, cui subscriptum est : " Numeriano 
Caesari, oratori temporibus suis potentissimo." 

XII. Hie patri comes fuit bello Persico. quo 
mortuo, cum oculos dolere coepisset, quod illud 
aegritudinis genus nimia utpote vigilia 1 confecto 
familiarissimum fuit, ac lectica portaretur, factione 
Apri soceri sui, qui invadere conabatur imperium, 
2occisus est. sed cum per plurimos dies de impera- 
toris salute quaereretur a milite, contionareturque 
Aper idcirco ilium videri non posse, quod oculos 
invalidos a vento ac sole subtraheret, foetore tamen 
cadaveris res esset prodita, omnes invaserunt Aprum, 
cuius factio latere non potuit, eumque ante signa et 
principia protraxere. tune habita est ingens contio, 
XIII. factum etiam tribunal. et cum quaereretur quis 
vindex Numeriani iustissimus fieret, quis daretur rei 
publicae bonus princeps, Diocletianum omnes divino 
consensu, cui multa iam signa facta dicebantur imperii, 
Augustum 2 appellaverunt, domesticos tune regentem, 
virum insignem, callidum, amantem rei publicae, 
amantem suorum et ad omnia quae tempus quaesiverat 

1 uigilia added in P corr. 2 In P the portion of the vita 
which begins with Augustum and ends with fuisse in c. xv. 5 
is transposed and inserted in c. ii. 2 ; in the Z codices it is in 
its proper place. 



1 See note to Aur., i. 7. 

2 He was defeated by the Persians, according to Zonaras, xii. 
30. The biographer omits the account of his homeward march 
across Asia Minor, in the course of which he was killed. His 
death seems to have been discovered at the Bosphorus ; as thei-e 
are Alexandrian coins of his third year, it could not have taken 

434 



CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN XII. 1 XIII. 1 

the Ulpian Library l with the following inscription : 
" To Numerian Caesar, the most powerful orator of his 
time." 

XII. He accompanied his father in the Persian 
war, and after his father's death, when he had begun 
to suffer from a disease of the eyes for that kind of 
ailment is most frequent with those exhausted, as he 
was, by too much loss of sleep and was being carried 
in a litter, he was slain 2 by the treachery of his 
father-in-law Aper, who was attempting to seize the 
rule. But the soldiers continued for several days to 
ask after the emperor's health, and Aper kept ha- 
ranguing them, saying that he could not appear before 
them for the reason that he must protect his weakened 
eyes from the wind and the sun, but at last the stench 
of his body revealed the facts. Then all fell upon 
Aper, whose treachery could no longer be hidden, and 
they dragged him before the standards in front of the 
general's tent. Then a huge assembly was held and 
a tribunal, too, was constructed. XIII. And when 
the question was asked who would be the most lawful 
avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the 
commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a 
heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus 
on Diocletian, 3 who, it was said, had already received 
many omens of future rule. He was at this time in 
command of the household- troops, an outstanding man 
and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to 
his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the 

place until after 29 August, 284. He was deified, evidently by 
order of Carinus ; for there are coins of his with the legends 
Divo Numeriano and Consecratio ; see Cohen, vi 2 . p. 369. nos. 
10-12 

3 C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus (284-805). 

435 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

temperatum, consilii semper alti, nonnumquam tamen 
effrontis l sed prudentia et nimia pervicacia motus 

2inquieti pectoris comprimentis. hie cum tribunal 
conscendisset atque Augustus esset appellatus, et 
quaereretur quemadmodum Numerianus esset occisus, 
educto gladio Aprum praefectum praetorii ostentans 
percussit, addens verbis suis, " Hie est auctor necis 
Numeriani." sic Aper foeda vita 2 et deformibus con- 

Ssiliis agens dignum moribus suis exitum dedit. avus 
meus rettulit interfuisse contioiii, cum Diocletiani 
manu esset Aper occisus ; dixisse autem dicebat Dio- 
cletianum, cum Aprum percussisset : " Gloriare, Aper, 

4'Aeneae magni dextra cadis.' quod ego miror de 
homine militari, quamvis plurimos plane sciam 3 mili- 
tares vel Graece vel Latine vel comicorum usurpare 

5 dicta vel talium poetarum. ipsi denique comici ple- 
rumque sic milites inducunt ut eos faciant vetera dicta 
usurpare. nam et "Lepus tute es, pulpamentum 
quaeris ? " Livii Andronici dictum est, multa aliaque 4 
Plautus Caeciliusque posuerunt. 

XIV. Curiosum non puto neque satis vulgare fabel- 
lam de Diocletiano Augusto ponere hoc convenientem 
loco, quae illi data est ad omen imperil, avus meus 

1 effrontis editors; frantic P; efrontis Z. ^ foeda uita 

Eyssenhardt, Hohl ; foedauit P; foeditate Peter. s platie 

sciam Paucker, Peter 2 ; plus quam P, Z". 4 aliaque Peter 2 ; 
alia quae P. 



1 See note to Tyr. Trig., xxv. 3. 2 Aeneid, x. 830. 

3 The quotation is from Terence, Eunuchus, 426, but as it is 
described in the context as a vetus dictum, it may well have 
come from a comedy of Livius Andronicus. It is evidently 
an adaptation of the saying recorded by Diogenianus (in 

436 



CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN XIII. 2 XIV. 1 

occasion demanded, forming plans that were always 
deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could 
by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check 
the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, 
having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, 
and when someone asked how Numerian had been 
slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the 
prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying 
as he did so, " It is he who contrived Numerian's 
death.'' So Aper, a man who lived an evil life and 
in accordance with vicious counsels, met with the end 
that his ways deserved. My grandfather used to 
relate 1 that he was present at this assembly when 
Aper was slain by the hand of Diocletian ; and he 
used to say that Diocletian, after slaying him, shouted, 
" Well may you boast, Aper, ' "Tis by the hand of the 
mighty Aeneas you perish.' "' ' 2 I do, indeed, wonder 
at this in a military man, although I know perfectly 
well that very many soldiers use sayings in both Greek 
and Latin taken from the writers of comedy and other 
such poets. In fact, the comic poets themselves fre- 
quently introduce soldiers in such a way as to make 
them use familiar sayings ; for " You are a hare your- 
self and yet are you looking for game ? '' is a saying 
which is taken from Livius Andronicus, 3 and many 
others were given by Plautus and Caecilius. 

XIV. I do not consider it too painstaking or yet 
too much in the ordinary manner to insert a stoiy 
about Diocletian Augustus that seems not out of place 
here an incident which he regarded as an omen of 

Corpus Paroemiographorum Oraecorum), iv. 12 : Aaa-tJirovs 
Kpecav iri0vfjLf'i ' firl rS>v Trap' &\\<av 4irir)TOvvT<ov & Trap' 



4-37 



CARDS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

2 mihi rettulit ab ipso Diocletiano compertum. " Cum/' 
inquitj " Diocletianus apud Tungros in Gallia in qua- 
darn caupona moraretur, in minoribus adhuc locis 
militans, et cum Druiade quadam muliere rationem 1 
convictus sui cottidiani faceret, atque ilia diceret, 
' Diocletiane, nimium avarus, nimium parcus es,' ioco 
non serio Diocletianus respondisse fertur, 'Tune ero 

Slargus, cum fuero imperator.' post quod verbum 
Druias dixisse fertur, ' Diocletiane. iocari noli, nam 
XV. eris imperator cum Aprum occideris.' : semper in 
animo Diocletianus habuit imperil cupiditatem, idque 
Maximiano conscio atque avo meo, cui hoc dictum 
a Druiade ipse rettulerat. denique, ut erat altus, risit 

2 et tacuit. apros tamen in venatibus, ubi fuit facultas, 

3manu sua semper occidit. denique cum Aurelianus 
imperium accepisset, cum Probus, cum Tacitus, cum 
ipse Carus, Diocletianus dixit, " Ego semper apros 

4occido, sed alter utitur pulpamento." iam illud 
notum est atque vulgatum, quod, cum occidisset 
Aprum praefectum praetorii, dixisse fertur, " Tandem 

Soccidi Aprum fatalem." ipsum Diocletianum idem 
avus meus dixisse dicebat nullam aliam sibi causam 
occidendi manu sua fuisse 2 nisi ut impleret Druiadis 

6 dictum et suum firmaret imperium. non enim tarn 
crudelem se innotescere cuperet, primis maxime 
diebus imperii, nisi ilium necessitas ad hanc atroci- 
tatem occisionis adtraheret. 

1 curationem P. 2 With fuisse ends the portion of the vita 
transposed in P to c. ii. 2. 



] Around mod. Tongres in eastern Belgium. 

5 For prophecies by Druid women see Aur. t xliv. 4 and note. 

438 



CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN XIV. k! XV. 6 

his future rule. This story my grandfather related to 
me, having heard it from Diocletian himself. "When 
Diocletian," he said, "while still serving in a minor 
post, was stopping at a certain tavern in the land of 
the Tungri l in Gaul, and was making up his daily 
reckoning with a woman, who was a Druidess, she said 
to him, ' Diocletian, you are far too greedy and far too 
stingy,' to which Diocletian replied, it is said, not in 
earnest but only in jest, ' I shall be generous enough 
when I become emperor.' At this the Druidess said, 2 
so he related, ' Do not jest, Diocletian, for you will 
become emperor when you have slain a Boar (Aper).' 
XV. Now Diocletian always had in his mind a desire 
to rule, as Maximian 3 knew and my grandfather 
also, to whom he himself told these words of the 
Druidess. Then, however, reticent, as was his wont, 
he laughed and said nothing. Nevertheless, in his 
hunting, whenever there was opportunity, he always 
killed the boars with his very own hand. In fact, 
when Aurelian received the imperial power, then 
Probus, then Tacitus, and then Carus himself, Diocle- 
tian remarked, " I am always killing boars, but the 
other man enjoys the meat." It is now well known 
and a common story that when he had killed Aper, 
the prefect of the guard, he declared, it is said, " At 
last I have killed my fated Boar." My grandfather 
also used to say that Diocletian himself declared 
that he had no other reason for killing him with his 
own hand than to fulfil the Druidess' prophecy and 
to ensure his own rule. For he would not have 
wished to become known for such cruelty, especially 
in the first few days of his power, if Fate had not 
impelled him to this brutal act of murder. 

3 i.e., Diocletian's co-ruler. 

4-39 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

1 Dictum est de Caro, dictum etiam de Numeriano, 
XVI. superest nobis Carinus, homo omnium contaminatissi- 

mus, adulter, frequens corruptor iuventutis (pudet 
dicere quod in litteras Onesimus rettulit), ipse quoque 

2 male usus genio sexus sui. hie cum Caesar decretis 
sibi Galliis atque Italia, Illyrico, Hispaniis ac Britan- 
niis et Africa relictus a patre Caesareanum teneret 
imperium, sed ea lege ut omnia faceret quae Augusti 
faciunt, enormibus se vitiis et ingenti foeditate macu- 

3 lavit, amicos optimos quosque relegavit, pessimum 
quemque elegit aut teiiuit, praefectum urbi uiium ex 
cancellariis suis fecit, quo foedius nee cogitari potuit 

4aliquando nee dici. praefectum praetorii quern habe- 

5 bat occidit ; in eius locum Matronianum, veterem 
conciliatorem, fecit, unum ex suis l notariis, quern 
stuprorum et libidinum conscium semper atque 

6 adiutorem habuerat. invito patre consul processit. 
superbas ad senatum litteras declit. vulgo urbis 
Romae, quasi populo Romano, bona senatus promisit. 

1 suis suggested by Peter ; his P, Hohl. 



1 M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus (283-285). His debauchery 
and cruelty are emphasised by all the sources, but this judge- 
ment may be due, at least in part, to the desire to flatter the 
dynasty which succeeded him ; cf. note to Gall., i. 1. 

He held the title officially during Cams' lifetime, for it 
appears in their inscriptions and on coins issued under their 
joint names ; see Cohen, vi' 2 , p. 364 f., nos. 2 and 5-11. The 
division of the empire between the two seems similar to that 
between Valerian and Gallienus, and it probably was not with- 
out influence on the subsequent similar partition of powers by 
Diocletian and Maximian. 

3 The title of an official of considerable importance at the 

440 



CARDS, CARINUS, NUMKRIAN XV. 7 XVI. 6 

We have written of Cams, we have written, too, of 
Numerian, and now there still remains Carinus. 1 
XVI. He was the most polluted of men, an adulterer 
and a constant corrupter of youth (I am ashamed to 
relate what Onesimus has put into writing), and he 
even made evil use of the enjoyment of his own sex. 
He was left by his father as Caesar in Gaul and Italy 
and in Illyricum, Spain, Britain, and Africa, all of 
which had been voted to him, and he exercised there 
a Caesar's powers, but with the permission to perform 
all the duties of an Augustus. 2 Then he defiled him- 
self by unwonted vices and inordinate depravity, he 
set aside all the best among his friends and retained 
or picked out all the vilest, and he appointed as city- 
prefect one of his doorkeepers, 3 a baser act than 
which no one can conceive or relate. He slew the 
prefect of the guard whom he found in office and put 
in his place Matronianus, one of his clerks and an old 
procurer, whom he had always kept with him as 
accomplice and assistant in debaucheries and lusts. 
He appeared in public as consul contrary to his 
father's wish. 4 He wrote arrogant letters to the 
senate, and he even promised the senate's property 
to the mob of the city of Rome, as though it, forsooth, 
were the Roman people. By marrying and divorcing 



Byzantine court. The fact that there is no mention of an 
imperial cancellarius prior to the fifth century has been used 
by Seeck as an argument for his theory that the Hist. Aug. 
is the work of a fifth-century "forger"; see Vol. ii. Intro., 
p. x. The point of the present passage, however, seems to Jie 
in the low position of the cancellarius, i.e., as actually a door- 
keeper. 

4 Since he was consul ordinarius conjointly with Cai'us in 
283, this statement is hardly credible. 

441 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

7 uxores ducendo ac reiciendo novem duxit pulsis 
plerisque praegnantibus. mimis, meretricibus, panto- 
mimis, cantoribus atque lenonibus Palatium replevit. 

Sfastidium subscribendi tantum habuit lit impurum 
quendam, cum quo semper meridie iocabatur, ad sub- 
scribendum poneret, quern obiurgabat plerumque 
XVII. quod bene suam imitaretur manum. habuit gemmas 
in calceis, nisi gemmata fibula usus non est, balteo 
etiam saepe gemmato. 1 regem denique ilium Illyrici 

2 plerique vocitarunt. praefectis numquam, numquam 2 
consulibus obviam processit. hominibus improbis 
plurimum detulit eosque ad convivium semper vocavit. 

3 centum libras avium, centum piscium, mille diversae 
carnis in convivio suo frequenter exhibuit. vini pluri- 
mum effudit. inter poma et melones natavit. rosis 

4 Mediolanensibus et triclinia et cubicula stravit. bal- 
neis ita frigidis usus est, ut solent esse cellae supposi- 

5 toriae, frigidariis semper nivalibus. cum hiemis tern- 
pore ad quendam locum venisset, in quo fontana esset 
pertepida, ut adsolet per hiemem naturaliter, eaque 
in piscina usus esset, dixisse balneatoribus fertur, 
"Aquam mihi muliebrem praeparastis." 3 atque hoc 

6 eius clarissimum dictum effertur. audiebat pater eius 
quae ille faceret, et clamabat, " Non est meus." 

1 So Petschenig, Hohl ; balteum . . . gemmatum P, Peter. 
3 numquam ins. by Gruter; om. in P. 3 praeparastis 

Petschenig, Hohl ; praeparatis P, 27, Peter. 



1 Only one is known, Magnia Urbica Augusta, whose likeness 
appears on Carinus' coins as well as on her own ; see Cohen 
vi 2 . p. 405-408. 

442 



CARUS, CARTNUS, NUMERIAN XVT. 7 XVII. 6 

he took nine wives in all, 1 and he put away some 
even while they were pregnant. He filled the Palace 
with actors and harlots, pantomimists, singers and 
pimps. He had such an aversion for the signing of 
state-papers that he appointed for signing them a cer- 
tain filthy fellow, with whom he used always to jest 
at midday, and then he reviled him because he could 
imitate his writing so well. XVII. He wore jewels 
on his shoes, 2 used only a jewelled clasp and often 
a jewelled belt also. In fact, in Illyricum most 
people hailed him as king. He would never come 
forward to meet the prefects or consuls. He granted 
favours most of all to the base, and always invited 
them to banquets. At one of his banquets he often 
served one hundred pounds of birds, one hundred of 
fish, and one thousand of meat of different kinds, and 
he lavished on his guests vast quantities of wine. 
He swam about among apples and melons and 
strewed his banqueting-halls and bedrooms with 
roses from Milan. The baths which he used were 
as cold as the air of rooms that are under the 
ground, and his plunge-baths were always cooled 
by means of snow. Once, when he came in the 
winter to a certain place in which the spring-water 
was very tepid its wonted natural temperature dur- 
ing the winter and he had bathed in it in the pool, 
he shouted to the bath -attendants, it is said. " This 
is water for a woman that you have given me " ; and 
this is reported as his most famous saying. When his 
father heard of all that he did, he exclaimed, " He is 
no son of mine," and at last he determined to appoint 

2 Also told to the discredit of Elagabalus, as it was to the 
credit of Severus Alexander that he removed them ; see Heliog., 
xxiii, 4; Alex., iv. 2. 

443 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

statuerat denique Constantium, qui postea Caesar est 
factus, tune autera praesidatum Dalmatiae adminis- 
trabat, in locum eius subrogare, quod nemo tune vir 
melior videbatur, ilium vero, ut Onesimus dicit, 
7 occidere. longum est si de eius luxuria plura velim 
dicere. quicumque ostiatim cupit noscere, legat etiam 
Fulvium Asprianum usque ad taedium gestorum eius 
universa dicentem. 

XVI II. Hie ubi patrem fulmine absumptum, fratrem 
a socero interemptum, Diocletianum Augustum appel- 
latum comperit, maiora vitia et scelera edidit, quasi 
iam liber ac l frenis domesticae pietatis suorum 

2 mortibus 2 absolutus. nee ei tamen defuit ad vindi- 
candum sibimet imperium vigor mentis, nam contra 
Diocletianum multis proeliis conflixit, sed ultima 
pugna apud Margum commissa victus occubuit. 

3 Hie trium principum fuit finis, Cari, Numeriani et 
Carini. post quos Diocletianum et Maximianum prin- 
cipes di 3 dederunt, iungentes talibus viris Galerium 
atque Constantium, quorum alter natus est, qui 

1 ac Lenze ; a P, Peter, Hohl. 2 mortibus Gas. ; moribus 

P, 27. 8 di ins. by Egnatius ; om. in P and 27. 



1 i e., Constantius I. (Chlorus). There seems to be no reason 
to believe this statement. 

2 Otherwise unknown. 

3 The vita omits all mention of his campaigns against the 
Germans and in Britain, as the result of which he assumed the 
cognomina Germanicus Maximus and Britannicus Maximus. 

4 After being called from Rome by the news of Diocletian's 
assumption of the power he overthrew near Verona a usurper 
named M. Aurelianus Julianus (so his coins, Cohen, vi 8 . pp. 410- 
411 : Sabinus Julianus according to Epit., 38, 6 and Zosimus, 
i. 73). 

444 



CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN XVII. 7-XVIII. 8 

Constantius l afterwards made Caesar but at that 
time serving as governor of Dalmatia in the place of 
Carinus, for the reason that no one even then seemed 
to be better, and he even planned, as Onesimus relates, 
to put Carinus to death. It would be too long to tell 
more, even if I should desire to do so, about his excesses. 
If anyone wishes to learn all in detail, he should read 
Fulvius Asprianus ' J also, who tells the whole tale of 
his deeds even to the point of boredom. 3 

XVIII. When he learned that his father had been 
killed by lightning and his brother slain by his own 
father-in-law, and that Diocletian had been hailed as 
Augustus, Carinus committed acts of still greater vice 
and crime, as though now set free and released by 
the death of his kindred from all the restraints of 
filial duty. He did not, however, lack strength of 
purpose for claiming the imperial power. 4 For he 
fought many battles against Diocletian, but finally, 
being defeated in a fight near Margus, 5 he perished. 

We have now come to the end of the three em- 
perors, Carus, Numerian and Carinus, after whom the 
gods gave us Diocletian and Maximian to be our 
princes, joining to these great men Galerius and Con- 
stantius, the one of whom was born to wipe out the 



6 At the mouth of the river of the same name (mod. Morava), 
a tributary of the Danube below Belgrade. The scene of the 
battle is described in Eutropius, ix. 20 as between Viminacium 
(Kostolacz, near the mouth of the Morava) and Aureus Mons 
(Oresac) about 25 m. further west. According to the Epitome 
and Zosimus, Carinus was killed by a tribune whose wife he had 
seduced, according to Eutropius, he was betrayed by his army. 
As he assumed the consulship (for the third time) on 1 Jan., 
285, the battle was after that date. 

445 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

acceptarn ignominiam Valeriaiii captivitate deleret, 
4alter, qui Gallias Romanis legibus redderet. quattuor 
sane principes mundi fortes, sapientes, benigni et 
admodum liberales, unum in rem publicam sentientes, 
perreverentes l Roman! senatus, moderati, populi 
amici, persancti, 2 graves, religiosi et quales principes 
6 semper oravimus. quorum vitam singulis libris 
Claudius Eusthenius, qui Diocletiano ab epistulis 
fuit, scripsit, quod idcirco dixi ne quis a me rem 
tantam requireret, maxime cum vel vivorum principum 
vita non sine reprehensione dicatur. 

XIX. Memorabile maxime Cari et Carini et Numer- 
iani hoc habuit imperium, quod ludos populo Romano 
novis ornatos spectaculis dederunt, quos in Palatio 
2 circa porticum stabuli pictos vidimus, nam et neuro- 
baten, qui velut in ventis cothurnatus ferretur, ex- 
hibuit, et toichobaten, qui per parietem urso eluso 
cucurrit, et ursos mimum agentes et item centum 
salpistas unocrepitu concinentes et centum cerataulas, 3 
choraulas centum, etiam pythaulas centum, panto- 
mimos et gymnicos mille, pegma praeterea, cuius 
flammis scaena conflagravit, quam Diocletianus postea 

1 perreiierentes Petscheuig, Hohl ; spe reuerent P; semper 
reuerentes Gruter, Peter. 2 persancti Gruter ; pescate P. 

*ceratau.as Salm. ; capitaulas P. 



1 By his victories over the Persians ; see note to c. ix. 3. 

2 By his victories over the Franks and the Alamani and other 
Germans and his suppression of the revolts of the British pre- 
tenders Carausius and Allectus. 

3 Unknown. 

4 Otherwise unknown, unless it be the place that is mentioned 
in the title Comes domesticorum et stabuli sacri in an inscription 
of Stilicho from Borne ; see C.I.L., vi. 1731 = Dessau, Ins. Sel., 
1278. 

446 



CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN XVIII. 4 -XIX. 2 

disgrace incurred by Valerian's capture, 1 the other, 
to bring again the province of Gaul under the laws 
of Rome.'" 3 Four rulers, indeed, of the world were 
they, brave, wise, kindly, and wholly generous, all of 
one mind toward the commonwealth, very respectful 
to the Roman senate, moderate, friends of the people, 
revered, earnest, and pious, and, in fact, such em- 
perors as we have always desired. Their lives have 
been related, each in a separate book, by Claudius 
Eusthenius, 3 imperial secretary to Diocletian a fact 
which I mention in order that none may demand so 
great a work from me, especially since the biographies 
even of living emperors cannot be written without 
incurring blame. 

XIX. The most noteworthy event of the rule of 
Carus, Carinus and Numerian was the series of games 
that they gave the Roman people, distinguished by 
some novel spectacles, a painting of which we have 
seen in the Palace near the portico of the stables. 4 
For there was exhibited a rope-walker, who in his 
buskins seemed to be walking on the winds, also a 
wall-climber, who, eluding a bear, ran up a wall, also 
some bears which acted a farce, and, besides, one 
hundred trumpeters who blew one single blast to- 
gether, one hundred horn-blowers, one hundred 
flute-players, also one hundred flute-players who 
accompanied songs, one thousand pantomimists and 
gymnasts, moreover, a mechanical scaffold, 5 which, 
however, burst into flames and burned up the 
stage though this Diocletian later restored on a 



5 A scaffold suddenly raised aloft and opened to exhibit per- 
formers; they are described in Seneca, Epist., 88, 22 and 
Juvenal, iv. 122. 

44? 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMERIAN 

magnificentiorem reddidit. mimos praeterea undique 

Sadvocavit. exhibuit et ludum Sarmaticum, quo dul- 
cius nihil est. exhibuit Cyclopea. donatum 1 est 
Graecis artificibus et gymnicis et histrionibus et 
musicis aurum et argentum, donata et vestis serica. 

XX. Sed haec omnia nescio quantum apud populum 
gratiae habeant, nullius sunt momeiiti apud principes 

2bonos. Diocletiani denique dictum fertur, cum ei 
quidam largitionalis suus editionem Cari laudaret, 
dicens multum placuisse principes illos causa ludorum 
theatralium ludorumque circensium ; "Ergo," inquit, 

3"bene risus est in imperio suo Carus.'' denique cum 
omnibus gentibus advocatis Diocletianus daret ludos, 
parcissime usus est liberalitate, 2 dicens castiores esse 
oportere ludos spectante censore. 

4 Legat hunc locum lunius Messalla, quern ego 
libere culpare audeo. ille enim patrimonium suum 
scaenicis dedit, heredibus abnegavit, matris tunicam 
dedit mimae, lacernam patris mimo, et recte, si aviae 
pallio aurato atque purpureo pro syrmate tragoedus 

Suteretur. inscriptum est adhuc in choraulae pallio 
tyrianthino, quo ille velut spolio nobilitatis exsultat, 



1 adornatum P. 2 usus est liber alit ate 27; ausus libeitate 
P ; est usus liberalitate Peter. 



1 Probably in celebration of Cams' victory over the Sarma- 
tians (see c. viii. 1 ; ix. 4), but the writer seems to be thinking 
of the Ludi Sarmatici which, according to the Calendar of 
Philocalus of A.D. 354 (see C.I.L., i 2 . p. 276 f.), were held regu- 
larly on 25 Nov.-l Dec., in honour, apparently, of the victories 
of Constantine I. or Constantius II. 

2 See note to Gall., viii. 3. 

44-8 



CARUS, CARTNUS, NUMERTAN XIX. 3 XX. 5 

more magnificent scale. Furthermore, actors were 
gathered together from every side. They were given 
also Sarmatian games, 1 than which nothing affords 
greater pleasure, and, besides, a Cyclops-performance. 2 
And they bestowed on the Greek artists and gym- 
nasts and actors and musicians both gold and silver 
and they bestowed on them also garments of silk. 

XX. But although all these things have a certain 
charm for the populace, they are of no importance in 
a good emperor. In fact, a saying of Diocletian's is 
current, uttered when one of his treasury-officials 3 
was speaking to him with praise of Cams' exhibition, 
saying that he and his sons, while emperors, had 
gained great favour by means of theatrical spectacles 
and spectacles in the circus. " And so," he remarked, 
"Carus caused great laughter during his rule." In 
fact, when Diocletian himself presented spectacles, 
after inviting all nations thereto, he was most sparing 
in his liberality, declaring that there should be more 
continence in games when a censor was looking on. 

I should like this passage to be read by Junius 
Messalla, 4 with whom I will dare to find fault frankly. 
For he has cut off his natural heirs and bestowed his 
ancestral fortune on players, giving a tunic of his 
mother's to an actress and a cloak of his father's 
to an actor and rightly so, I suppose, if a gold and 
purple mantle of his grandmother's could be used as 
a costume by a tragic actor ! Indeed, the name of 
Messalla's wife is still embroidered on the violet 
mantle of a flute-player, who exults in it as the spoils 

3 The term largitiones came to mean, in the later empire, 
the public treasury, since largesses from public funds depended 
entirely on the emperor's generosity. 

4 Unknown. 

449 



CARUS, CARINUS AND NUMRRIAN 

Messallae nomen uxoris. iam quid lineas petitas 
Aegypto loquar? quid Tyro et Sidone tenuitate per- 
lucidas, micantes purpura, plumandi difficultate per- 

6nobiles ? donati sunt ab Atrebatis birri petiti, donati 
birri Canusini, Africani, opes in scaena non prius 
XXI. visae. et haec quidem idcirco ego in litteras rettuli, 
quod futures editores pudore tangeret, ne patrimoiiia 
sua proscriptis legitimis heredibus mimis et balatroni- 
bus deputarent. 

2 Habe, mi amice, meum munus, quod ego, ut saepe 
dixi, non eloquentiae causa sed curiositatis in lumen 
edidi, id praecipue agens ut, si quis eloquens vellet 
facta principum reserare, materiam non requireret, 

Shabiturus meos libellos ministros eloquii. te quaeso, 
sis contentus nosque sic voluisse scribere melius quam 
potuisse contendas. 



*See Gall., vi. 6. 

2 Mod. Canosa in Apulia. The wool of this region was 
famous, and a pippos Kai/vo-eTi/os is valued in the Edict of Dio- 
cletian at 4000 denarii (about $25). 



CARUS, CARINUS, NUMERIAN XX. 6 XXI. 3 

of a noble house. Why, now, should I speak of those 
linen garments imported from Egypt ? Why of those 
garments from Tyre and Sidon, so fine and trans- 
parent, of gleaming purple and famed for their 
embroidery-work? He has presented, besides, capes 
brought from the Atrabati l and capes from Canusium 2 
and Africa, such splendour as never before was seen 
on the stage. XXI. All of this I have put into 
writing in order that future givers of spectacles may 
be touched by a sense of shame and so be deterred 
from cutting off' their lawful heirs and squandering 
their inheritances on actors and mountebanks. 

And now, my friend, accept this gift of mine, 
which, as I have often said, I have brought out to the 
light of day, not because of its elegance of style but 
because of its learned research, chiefly with this pur- 
pose in view, that if any gifted stylist should wish to 
reveal the deeds of the emperors, he might not lack 
the material, having, as he will, my little books as 
ministers to his eloquence. I pray you, then, to be 
content and to contend that in this work I had the 
wish to write better than I had the power. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



ABBREVIATIONS 



A ... Aurelian. Go 

AC . . Avidius Cassius. H 

Ae . . . Aelius. HP 

AP . . . Antoninus Pius. M 

C . . . Commodus. MA 

CA . . . Clodius Albinus. M-B 

Ca . . . Carus. OM 

Cc . . . Caracalla. P 

Cl . . . Claudius. PN 

D . . . Diadumenianus. S 

DJ . . . Didius Julianus. SA 

E . . . Elagabalus. T . 

F . . . Firmus, Saturninus, Pro- TT . 

culus, Bonosus. V . 

Ga . . . Gallienus. Va . 
Ge . . . Geta. 



Gordian. 

Hadrian. 

Pertinax. 

Maximmus. 

. M. Aurelius Antoninus. 
. Maximus and Balbinus. 
, Opellius MacrinuSi 

Pro bus. 

Pescennius Niger. 

Septimius Severus. 

Severus Alexander- 
Tacitus. 

Tyranni Triginta, 

Lucius Verus. 

Valerian. 



Names of Roman emperors and pretenders are in capital letters, 
words Roma, Romanus, Graecus and Graecanicus have been omitted. 



The 



Ababa : mother of Maximinus M i, 6. 

Abgarus, King (pretender) of Osrho- 
ene: relations of Antoninus Pius 
with AP 9, 6. 

Abgarus IX, King of Osrhoene: con- 
quered by Severus S 18, i. 

Ablavius Murena, prefect of guard : 
letter of Valerian to Cl 15. 

Abraham : statue of in chapel ot 
Severus Alexander SA 29, 2. 

Academia: place in Hadrian's villa 
near Tibur H 26, 5. 

Achaia : Hadrian in H 13, 1-2 : revolt 
of quelled AP 5, 5 : Annia Faustina 
killed in C 7, 7 : Valens proconsul 
of Ga 2, 2 ; TT 19, i : Piso in Ga 
2, 2 : pestilence in cities of Ga 5, 
5 : Goths defeated in Ga 6, I : in- 
vaded by Goths Ga 13, 8 : Messalla 
governor of Cl 16, I. 



Achilleis: poem of Statius, imitated 
by Gordian I. Go 3, 3. 

Achilles : statue of in chapel of Sev- 
erus Alexander SA 31, 4 : Maxi- 
minus likened to M 4, 9 ; Alexander 
at tomb of P i, 2. 

Achilleus : relative of Zenobia, made 
ruler ot Palmyra A 31, 2. 

Acholius : master of ceremonies under 
Valerian A 12, 4 : work on Severus 
Alexander cited SA 14, 6; 4&, 7; 
64,5. 

Adiabeni : conquered by Severus S 
9, 9 : made tributary S 18, i. 

Adiabenicus : cognomen borne by 
Severus 89, 10: by Aurelian A 

3.5- 

Aebutianus: prefect of the guard, 
lulled by Commodus C 6, 12. 

453 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Alia, Pons, at Rome: built by 
Hadrian H 19, n. 

Aelianus : see Celsus. 

Aelius : name given to month C 12, 2. 

Aelius Aurelius Applaustus Mem- 
phius, L. (Agrippus), actor : 
brought by L. Verus from Syria V 
8, 10 ; killed by Commodus C 7, 2. 

Aelius Bassianus : proconsul of Africa, 
letter to CA 4, 5-7. 

Aelius Celsus : killed by Severus S 
13,2. 

Aelius Cesettianus, city-prefect : 
speech of T 7, 2-3. 

Aelius Corduenus: succeeded in 
command by Niger PN 4, 4. 

Aelius Decius Triccianus : accom- 
plice in murder of Caracalla Cc 
6,7. 

Aelius Gordianus: counsellor of 
Severus Alexander SA 68, i. 

Aelius Hadrianus : great-uncle of 
Hadrian, prophesied his rule H 2, 4. 

Aelius Hadrianus Afer, P. : father of 
Hadrian H i, 2. 

Aelius lunius Cordus : cited CA 5, 
10; 7, 2: 11,2; M 4, i; 6, 8; 12, 
7; 27,7; 28, 10; 29, 10; 31,4; Go 
4,6; 5,6; 12, i; 14, 7; i?, 3! 19. 
8; 21, 3-4; 22,2; 26, 2; 31,6; 33, 
4; M-B 4, 2; 12,4: criticized OM 
1,3-5; M-B 4 , 5. 

Aelius Lampridius : Vopiscus will 
imitate P 2, 7. 

Aelius Maurus : cited S 20, i. 

Aelius Sabinus : cited M 32, i. 

Aelius Scorpianus, consul : speech of 

P. ir, 5- 

Aelius Serenianus : counsellor of 

Severus Alexander SA 68, i. 
Aelius Stilo : killed by Severus S 

13, 5- 

AELIUS VERUS: original names 
H 23, JO-ii ; Ae 2, i. 6; 6, 6 : an- 
cestry Ae 2, 7-8 ; V i, 7. 9 : adopted 
by Hadrian H 23, 10-11 ; Ae i, 2; 
2,1.6; 3, L 8; AP 4, i; V i, 6; 
CA 2, 5 : honours and offices, H 
23, 12-13; Ae3, 2-3; 6, i; V i, 8: 
first to receive title of Caesar Ae 
i, 2; 2, i; V i, 6: Hadrian's 
affection for Ae 3, 4: prowess in 
province Ae 3, 5-6: Hadrian's 
regret for adoption H 23, 14; Ae 
1, 7; 4i 1-6; 6, 2-3 : ill-health and 

434 



Aelius Verus cont inued. 
death H 23, 15-16; Ae 4, 7-8; 6, 
5-6 : appearance and accomplish- 
ments Ae 5, 1-2 : pleasures Ae 5, 
3-n : father of L. Verus Ae 2, 9; 
5, 12; 6, 9; 7,2; AP 4,5; V i, 6: 
statues and temples for Ae 7, i : 
daughter betrothed to M. Aurelius 
MA 4, 5 ; 6, 2: burial V u, i: 
received purple robe from Hadrian 
CA 2, 5 : reviled by Egyptians F 
8,8. 

Aelius Xiphidius, prefect of treasury: 
letter of Valerian to A 12. 

Aemilia, Via : supplies of in charge of 
Pertinax HP 2, 2. 

Aemilia Clara : mother of Didius 
Julianus DJ i, 2. 

AEMILIANUS: seized rulein Egypt 
Ga 4, i; 5, 6; 6, 4: TT 22, 3-7: 
defeated and killed Ga 4, a; TT 
22, 8; 26, 4 : supported at Rome 
Ga 9, i : planned expedition 
against Indi TT 22, 8 : called Alex- 
ander or Alexandrinus TT 22, 7. 

Aemilianus we Asellius : Casperius : 
Cornelius Scipio. 

Aemilius, Pons, at Rome : Hlaga- 
balus' body thrown from E 17, 2. 

Aemilius luncus : consul, exiled by 
Commodus C 4, n. 

Aemilius Laetus, Q. : prefect of the 
guard, dissuaded Commodus from 
burning Rome C 15, 7 : accomplice 
in murder of Commodus C 17, 1-2; 
HP 5, i : made Pertinax emperor 
HP 4, 5-6: 5, 1-2: conspired with 
soldiers to kill Pertinax HP 10, 8 
ii, 13 : saved Didius Julianus from 
Commodus DJ 6, 2 : death DJ 6, 
2 : had Severus appointed to com- 
mand of army in Germany S 4, 4. 

Aemilius Papinianus : friend or rela- 
lative of Severus Cc 8, 2-3 : con- 
silium included Ulpian and Paulus 
PN 7, 4; SA 26, 6: Caracalla 
entered Palace leaning on arm of 
Cc 3, 2 ; advised harmony between 
Caracalla and Geta Cc 8, 3 : advised 
against murder of Geta Cc 8, 4 : 
refused to write speech for Caracalla 
excusing murder of Geta Cc 8, 5-6: 
murder of S 21, 8; Cc 4, i ; 8, 1-8; 
Ge 6, 3 : murder of son of Cc 4, 2. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Aemilius Parthenianus, historian : 

cited AC 5, i. 
Aeneas: Diocletian likened himself 

to Ca 13, 3. 
Aetieid: quoted H 2, 8; Ae 4, 1-3 ; 

CA 5, 2. 4; OM 12,9; D8,7; SA 

4, 6 ; M 27, 4 ; Go 20, 5 ; TT 24, 
3; Cl 10, 4-6; T 5, i; Ca 13, 3: 
imitated by Gordian I. Go 3, 3. 

Aethiopia : omen given by soldier 
from S 22, 4-5; women from E 

32,5- 

Aetius: son-in-law of Severus, en- 
riched and made consul S 8, 1-2. 

Aetna : ascent of by Hadrian H 13, 3. 

Afer : used by oracle to designate 
Severus PN 8, 1-2. 

Afer : see Aelius Hadrianus : Septi- 
mius : Terentius. 

Afranius Hannibalianus : trained by 
Probus P 22, 3. 

Africa : Hadrian in and generosity to 
H 13, 4; 22,14: pretended journey 
of Commodus to C 9, i : Pertinax 
proconsul of HP 4, i; DJ 2, 3; 
Didius Julianus proconsul of DJ 
2, 3: Severus a native of S i, i ; 
CA 5, 5: Severus in S 2, 2-9: 
legions sent to by Severus in fear 
that Niger would seize S 8, 7 ; PN 

5. 4-5 ; people of honoured Severus 
as god S 13, 8 : Severus had accent 
of S 19, 9 : Septizonium visible to 
people coming from S 24, 3 : Al- 
binus a native of CA i, 3; 10, 6; 
12, 8 : spent boyhood in CA 5, I : 
Aelius Bassianus proconsul of CA 
4, 5 : originally conquered by the 
senate CA 13, 6: Macrinus in OM 
4, 3-5 : Caelianus a native of D 8, 
9 : revolt and defeat of Gordians in 
M 13, 6; 14, 2-4; 19, 2-3; Go 7, 
2 9, 8; 10, i ; n, 4; 15 16; 17,1; 
20, 4; 34, i; M-B 9, 5: anger of 
Maximinus at people of M 17, 7; 
18, i. 3; Go 13, 3-4; 14, 1-3- 7: 
Gordian I. proconsul of M 13, 6; 
14, 2 ; 16, I ; Go 2, 4 ; 5 ; 7, 2 ; 17, 
I : Balbinus proconsul of M-B 7, 
2: revolt against Gordian III. sup- 
pressed Go 23, 4-5 : people of 
subject to Romans Va 1,4: desired 
rescue of Valerian Va 3, 2 : Mac- 
rianus' valour in TT 12, 17 : Vibius 
Passienus proconsul of, made Celsus 



Africa continued. 
emperor in TT 29, 1-2 : clothing 
supplied to proconsul of allotted 
to Claudius Cl 15,4: carpets from 
A 12, i : linen tunics from A 48, 5 : 
danger of revolt in after Aurelian's 
death T 3, 6 : Roman emperor 
destined to drive barbarians from 
T 15, 2: Probus' victories in P 9, 
1-2 ; 12, 3 : Firmus in command of. 
frontier of F 3, i : recovered by 
Saturninus F 9, 5 : Saturninus 
studied in F 10, 4 : under rule of 
Carinus Ca 16, 2: capes from Ca 
20, 6. 

Africana, Classis : organized by Com- 
modus C 17, 7 : names given to C 
17, 8. 

Africanus : Hadrian's caution for F 
8, 10. 

Africanus : bestowed as cognomen on 
Gordian I. Go 9, 3-4 ; 17, 2. 

Africanus : see Cornelius Scipio. 

Agaclytus : influencial freedman of 
M. Aurelius and L. Verus MA 15, 
2 ; V 9, 3 : married to widow of 
Libo V 9, 4 : alleged conspiracy of 
L. Verus against M. Aurelius re- 
vealed by V 10, 5. 

Agricola : see Calpurnius. 

Agrippa : see Marcius. 

Agrippae, Lavacrum, at Rome: re- 
stored by Hadrian H 19, 10. 

Agrippae, Templum, at Rome : re- 
paired by Antoninus Pius AP 8, 2. 

Agrippianae, Saepta, at Rome: 
restored by Hadrian H 19, 10: 
Basilica Alexandrina near SA 26, 7. 

Agrippina (Cologne) : Victorinus and 
son killed at TT 6, 3 : their tombs 
at TT 7, 2 : Proculus and Bonosus 
seized power at P 18, 5. 

Agrippinus : see Casperius. 

Agrippus: see Aelius Aurelius 
Apolaustus Memphius, L. 

Ajax : Maximinus likened to M 4, 9. 

Alamanni : conquered by Caracalla 
Cc 10, 6 : Roman emperor destined 
to rule T 15, 2: driven back by 
12, 3 : by Proculus F 



Probus P 

13, 3- 
Alamannia : 

TT 8, ii. 
Alamannicus : cognomen assumed by 

Caracalla Cc 10, 6. 



made to fear Romans 



455 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Alani : defeated under Antoninus Pius 
AP 5, 5 : warred against Rome MA 
22, i: Maximinus' mother one of 
M i, 5 : friendly relations with 
Maximinus M 4, 5 : defeated 
Gordian III. Go 34,4: led as cap 
tives in Aurelian's triumph A 33, 
4 : booty taken from by Probus P 
8,3- 

Alba, town in Italy : villa of M. 

Aurelius at AC 9, 8. n : soldiers at 

angered by murder of Geta Cc 2, 

7-8 ; Ge 6, 1-2. 

Alba, district of Germany : Germans 

driven beyond by Probus P 13, 7. 
Albani, people of Transcaucasia: 
Hadrian's friendly relations with 
H 20, 13 : offered aid for rescue of 
Valerian Va4, i : revered Aurelian 
A 41, 10. 

Albanus, Mons, in Italy: soldiers 
from killed Maximinus and son 
M 23, 6. 

Albingauni, town in N.W., Italy : 
Proculus born in F 12 i : his 
descendants lived in F 13, 5. 
Albini, family of: Clodius Albinus 
descended from CA 4, i. 7 : prowess 
of during the Republic CA 13, 5. 
Albinus : see Ceionius : Clodius : 

Nummius : Pescennius. 
Albis, river of Germany : Chauci 

lived on DJ i, 7. 

Albus : used by oracle to designate 
Clodius Albinus PN 8, 1-3; CA 
i, 4. 
Alcyonat: poem of Cicero, imitated 

by Gordian I. Go 3, 2. 
Alexander : name given to Aemi- 

lianus TT 22. 7. 
Alexander of Cotiaeum, grammarian : 

teacher of M. Aurelius MA 2, 3. 
Alexander the Great : died without 
naming successor H 4, 9; opinion 
of Philip concerning MA 27, n : 
admired by Caracalla Cc 2, 1-2 : 
Severus Alexander born in temple 
of and on date of death of SA 5, 
1-2; 13,1: called Magnus after 
many achievements SA u, 4 : 
parents of SA 13, 3-4 : Severus 
Alexander in costume of SA 25, 9 : 
life of studied and imitated by 
Severus Alexander SA 30, 3 : statue 
of in private chapel oi Severus 

456 



Alexander the Great continued. 
Alexander SA 31, 5 : praises of en- 
joyed by Severus Alexander SA 
35, i : contest in honour of SA 35, 
4 : drinking in honour of SA 39, i : 
Severus Alexander's desire to outdo 
SA 50, 4 : died violent death SA 
62, 3 : Severus Alexander criticized 
for desire to imitate SA 64, 3 : por- 
trait of worn by descendants of 
Macrianus TT 14, 3-5 : efficacy of 
portrait of TT 14, 6 : at tomb of 
Achilles P i, 2. 

Alexander: see lulius. 

Alexandria : daughter of Avidius 
Cassius, allowed to go free by M. 
Aurelius MA 26, 12 ; AC 9, 3. 

Alexandria : riots at H 12, i : 
Museum at H 20, 2: Maecianus 
slain at MA 25, 4; AC 7, 4: 
leniency of M. Aurelius to MA 26, 
1.3: crystal cups from used by 
L. Verus V 5, 3 : actors and musi- 
cians from V 8, n : grain from C 
17, 7 : Severus at and granted 
rights to S 16, 9; 17, 2-3: Cara- 
calla's cruelty at Cc 6, 2-3 : people 
of ridiculed Severus Alexander SA 
28, 7 ; riot at caused Aemilianus to 
declare himself emperor TT 22, 3 : 
fasces not allowed to be brought 
into TT 22, 10-11 : Zenobia versed 
in history of TT 30, 22 : letter of 
senate to council of T 18, 6 : seized 
by Firmus F 3, i : Hadrian's 
opinion of F 8, 5-8 : Saturninus 
acclaimed emperor in F 9, 1-2. 

Alexandria : name given to Carthage 
by Commodus C 17, 8. 

Alexandriana, Aqua : brought into 
Rome by Severus Alexander SA 

25, 3- 
Alexandriana, purpura: used by 

Severus Alexander SA 40, 6. 
Alexandrianae, ficus : showed omen 

of death of Severus Alexander SA 

60,4. 
Alexandriani, Sodales: decreed lor 

Severus Alexander SA 63, 4. 
Alexandrian: poem in praise of 

Severus Alexander, imitated by 

Gordian I. Go 3, 3. 
Alexandrina, Basilica : begun by 

Severus Alexander SA 26, 7. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Alexandrinum, opus : first used by 

Severus Alexander SA 25, 7. 
Alexandrinus : name given to Aemili- 

anus TT 22, 7. 
Allius Fuscus : killed by Commodus 

C7.6. 
Alma Mons : planted with vines by 

Pro bus P 1 8, 8. 
Alpes Cottiae : added to Empire 

under Nero A 21, n. 
Alpes Maritimae : Proculus a native 

of F 12, i. 

Alps : cheese from AP 12, 4 : crossed 
by M. Aurelius and L. Verus MA 
14, 6; V 9, 7: crossed by Maxi- 
minus and army M 21, 3: Maxi- 
mus planned to defend country as 
far as M-B 12, 3 : vines planted 
as tar as A 48, 2. 

Altinum, town in Italy : L. Verus 
died in V 9, n. 

Amazon : Commodus and Marcia in 
garb of C n, 9: signet of Com- 
modus CA 2, 4 : Gothic women 
dressed as A 34, i. 

Amazonius : name given to Com- 
modus C ii, 9 : to monlh December 
C 11,8. 

Ambarvalia : celebration of A 19, 6 ; 
20, 3. 

Ambibulus: see Eggius. 

Amburbium : celebration of A 2O, 3. 

Aminniae, name of grapes : omen 
given in T 17, 3. 

Amphitheatrum at Rome (Colos- 
seum) : restored by Antoninus Pius 
AP 8, 2 : by Elagabalus E 17, 8 : 
by Severus Alexander SA 24, 3 : 
women from E 32, 9: repair of 
discussed in senate M-B i, 4 : 
spectacle of Probus in P 19, 5-7. 

Anacharsis : famed for philosophy A 

3,5- . 
Ancharius, Q., governor of the East: 

with Valerian at Byzantium A 13, 

i. 
Anchialus, city on Black Sea : Goths 

attempted to plunder Cl 12, 4. 
Ancilia: plan to remove to temple of 

Elagabalus E 3, 4. 
Andro : teacher of M. Aurelius MA 

2, 2. 

Andronicus : see Livius. 
Aninius Macer, orator : teacher of M. 

Aurelius MA 2, 4. 



Annia Cornificia Faustina: sister of 

M. Aurelius MA i, 8. 
Annia Faustina: daughter of Antoni- 
nus Pius Ae 6, 9; AP i, 7; 10, 2: 
betrothed to Lucius Verus Ae 6, 9 ; 
V 2, 3 : married to M. Aurelius AP 
i,7; 10,2; MA i, 8; 6,6; V 2, 3: 
received title of Augusta MA 20, 7 : 
unwilling to have Lucilla married 
to Claudius Pompeianus MA 20, 7 : 
accused of having encouraged 
Avidius Cassius to revolt MA 24, 6 ; 
AC 7, i; 9, 9; ii, i : death MA 
26, 5 : honours after death MA 26, 
6-9 : reputed amours and lovers 
MA 19, 1-7; 23, 7; 26, 5; 29, 1-2; 
C 8, i : M. Aurelius refused to 
divorce MA 19, 8-9: refused to 
believe rumours about MA 23, 7; 
26, 5 : alleged amour with L. Verus 
and murder of Verus V 10, i : 
frustrated alleged conspiracy of 
Verus against M. Aurelius V 10, 5 : 
correspondence with M. Aurelius 
concerning revolt of Avidius Cassius 
AC 9, 7-8; 9, n 10, 10; n, 3-8: 
dream at birth of Commodus C i, 
3 : temple abolished by Caracalla 
Cc ii, 6-7. 

Annia Fundania Faustina : cousin of 
M. Aurelius, killed by Commodus 
C7.7. 

Annia Galeria Faustina : wife of 
Antoninus Pius AP i, 6 : aunt of 
M. Aurelius MA i, 8: stories con- 
cerning character of AP 3, 7 : re- 
ceived title of Augusta AP 5, 2 : 
death and honours AP 6, 7-8 : 
orphan girls endowed in memory 
of AP 8, i : urged Antoninus Pius 
to protect his family AC 10, i. 
Annia Lucilla, daughter of M. Aure- 
lius : married to L. Verus MA 7, 7 ; 
9, 4-6 ; V 2, 4 ; 7, 7 : married to Ti. 
Claudius Pompeianus after Verus 1 
death MA 20, 6 : received title of 
Augusta MA 20, 7: said to have 
murdered L. Verus V 10, 3 : jealousy 
of Fabia V 10, 3 : in conspiracy to 
kill Commodus C 4, i ; 8, 3 : exiled 
C 4, 4 : killed C 5, 7. 
Annius Arrianus, L. : consulship of 

Go 29, i. 

Annius Cornicula : praised Gallienus 
Gai7,3. 

467 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Annius Florus, P. : Hadrian's ex- 
change of epigrams with H 16, 3-4. 

Annius Fuscus : father of Pescennius 
Niger PN i, 3. 

Annius Libo, M. : uncle of M. 
Aurelius MA i , 3. 

Annius Libo, M. : cousin of M. 
Aurelius, legate of Syria, said to 
have been killed by L. Verus V 9, 
2 : widow married to Agaclytus V 

9. 3- 

Annius Milo, T. : mules of F 6, 4. 

Annius Severus : consul, father-in-law 
of Gordian I. Go 2, 2; 6, 4. 

Annius Verus : great-grandfather of 
M. Aurelius MA i, 4. 

Annius Verus : original name of M. 
Aurelius MA i, 10; 5, 5. 

Annius Verus, M. : father-in-law of 
Antoninus Pius AP i, 6: grand- 
father of M. Aurelius MA 1,2: M. 
Aurelius born in second consulship 
and reared in house of MA i, 5-7 i 
consulship of HP 15, 6. 

Annius Verus, M. : father of M. 
Aurelius MA i, i. 

Annius Verus, M. : son of M. Aurelius, 
received title of Caesar MA 21, 3; 
C i, 10. 

Antaeus : Maximinus likened to M 
6, 9. 

Antimachus : poet imitated by 
Hadrian H 16, 2. 

Antinous, favourite of Hadrian : 
death and consecration of H 14, 5- 
8 : reviled by Egyptians F 8, 8. 

Antioch, city in Syria: Hadrian at 
H 5, 9-10 : people of hated by 
Hadrian H 14, i : fire at AP 9, 2 : 
L. Verus at MA 8, 12; V 7, 1-3: 
Claudius Pompeianus a native of 
MA 20, 6 : loved and supported 
Avidius Cassius AC 6, 6 ; 7, 8 ; 9, 
i : punished by M. Aurelius MA 
25, 8-u; AC 9, i: M. Aurelius at 
MA 26, i : Pertinax at HP i, 6: 
punished by Severus for support of 
Niger S 9, 4-5; Cc i, 7: Severus 
at S 16, 8 : rights restored to Cc i, 
7 : Macrinus overthrown at OM 
8, 4; 10, i: coins with name of 
Diadumenianus struck at D 2, 6 : 
people of ridiculed Severus Alex- 
ander SA 28, 7 : Alexander sup- 
pressed mutiny at SA 53 54 : 

458 



Antioch, city in Syria continued. 
Alexander returned to SA 55, 2 : 
recaptured from Persians by 
Gordian III. Go 26, 5-6; 27, 5: 
captured by Cyriades TT 2, 2 : 
Aurelian at A 5, 3 : captured by 
Aurelian A 25, i : letter of senate 
to people of T 18, 6. 

Antiochianus : prefect of the guard, 
prevailed upon soldiers not to kill 
Elagabalus E 14, 8. 

Antiochianus : see Flavius. 

Antipater : see Caelius : Gallus. 

Antistius : favourite slave of Aurelian 
A 50, 3. 

Antistius Burrus, L., nephew of Corn- 
modus : accused by Pertinax of 
treason HP 3, 7 : killed by Cleander 
C6, ii. 

Antistius Capella : teacher of Com- 
modus C i, 6. 

Antium, town in Italy : aqueduct in 
repaired by Antoninus Pius AP 8, 3. 

Antius : see Antonius. 

Antonini : Severus dreamed of being 
placed among S 22, 2 : Niger be- 
loved by PN 12, 6: Albinus intro- 
duced to CA 6, i : list of OM 3, 3-4 : 
Caracalla given by gods in the 
place of OM 6, 2 : revered above 
gods D 7, 4 : Elagabalus last of 
and disgraced name of OM 7, 8; 
E i, 7; 2, 4; 18, i; 33, 8; 34, 6; 
SA 2, 2 : name of revered by Con- 
stantine E 2, 4 : temples of to be 
dedicated by Severus Alexander 
SA 7, 5 ; 8, 3 ; 10, 7 : admired and 
praised by Gordian I. Go 4, 7 : 
Claudius more beloved than Cl 18, 
4 : Probus to be preferred to T 16, 
6 ; P 22, 4 : under Probus no longer 
desired P 12, 2. 

Antoninianae, caracallae : presented 
by Caracalla to populace S 21, 11; 
Cc 9, 7-8 ; D 2, 8. 

Antoninianae, paenulae: presented 
by Macrinus to populace D 2, 8. 

Antoninianae, Plateae, at Rome: 
paved by Elagabalus E 24, 6. 

Antoninianae, Thermae, at Rome: 
built by Caracalla S 21, 11 ; Cc 9, 
4. 5. 9 ; E 17, 8-9 : portico of begun 
by Elagabalus E 17, 9 : completed 
by Severus Alexander E 17, 9; SA 
25,6. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Antoniniani (-ae), pueri and puellae : 
endowed by Macrinus D 3, 10. 

Antoniniani Sodales : decreed for 
Antoninus Pius AP 13, 4; MA 7, 
ii (wrongly called Aureliani) : for 
L. Verus MA 15,4: for M. Aure- 
lius MA 18, 8; HP 15, 4 (wrongly 
called Marciani) : called Helviani 
in honour of Pertinax HP 15, 4; 
S 7, 8 : decreed for Caracalla Cc 
11,6. 

Antoninianus: name given by Mac- 
rinus to edict D 2, 9: to military 
standards D 3, i. 

Antoninianus : name of coin A 9, 7 ; 
12, i ; P4, 5; F 15, 8. 

A ntoninias : poem written by Gord- 
ian I. Go 3, 3. 

Antoninorum, Sepulchrum : see 
Hadriani, Sepulchrum. 

Antoninus : son of M. Aurelius, died 
at age of four C i, 2-4. 

Antoninus : plebian, had omen of 
death of Geta Ge 3, 5. 

Antoninus : boy who gave omen of 
death of Geta Ge 3, 8. 

Antoninus (as imperial name) : re- 
garded as imperial title OM 3, 7. 9 : 
assumed by M. Aurelius MA 7, 6 ; 
OM 3, 4; D 6, 5; SA 10, 5: by 
Verus (incorrect) MA 7, 7; OM 
3, 4 ; D 6, 6 ; SA 10, 5 : by Severus 
(incorrect) OM 3, 6; D 6, 3 : by 
Pertinax (incorrect) OM 3, 6; D 
6, 3 : by Didius Jul'anus (incorrect) 
OM 3, 6; D 6, 3: conferred on 
Caracalla S 10, 3-6; PN 8, 5 ; Cc 
i, i; Ge i, 4 ; OM 3, 4! D 6, 8; 
SA 10, 5 : on Geta (incorrect) S jo, 
5; 16, 4; 19, 2; Cc i, i; Ge I, 
5-7; 2, 2-3; 5, 3; OM 3, 4 ; D 6, 
9 : Severus wished to make equi- 
valent of Augustus S 19, 3 ; Ge 2, 
2 : cherished by all like Augustus 
Cc 9, 2 : borne by four emperors 
before Geta Ge 2, 5 : assumed by 
Macrinus OM 2, i ; 3, 6 : bestowed 
on Diadumenianus Cc 8, 10; OM 
2,53,9; 5, i ; 6, 6; 7, 5; 10, 6; 
14,2-3; D 12; 6,10; 7,1-5-7; 8, 
i; Ei, 4; 3, i; 8,4; SA 9, 3; 10, 
5: assumed by Elagabalus Cc 9, 
a; OM3, 4; 7,6; 8,4; 9,6; D 9, 
4; E 1,5.7; 3, i; 9,2]; 17, 4= re- 
fused by Severus Alexander SA 5, 



Antoninus continued, 
3; 6, i ii, 2; 12, 4: wrongly 
supposed to have been borne by 
the Gordians OM 3, 5 ; D 6, 3 ; 
E 18, I ; 34, 6-7 ; Go 4, 7-8 ; 5, 3 ; 
9, 5 ; 17, * 5 : declined in greatness 
OM 7, 7-8 : a beloved and revered 
name S 20, 3; 21, n; OM 6, 7; 
7,7; D.6, 1-2; 7, i; E i, 5: gen- 
eral desire for emperor of the name 
OM 3, 9; D i, 2. 4. 

Antoninus : proposed as name for 
September AP 10, i. 

Antoninus, Temple of, at Rome: 
built AP 13, 4: Patruinus mur- 
dered near Cc 4, 2. 

Antoninus Gallus, consul : letter of 
Valerian to A 8, 2-5. 

ANTONINUS PIUS: names H 24, 
i ; AP i, i : family and birth AP 
i, 1-8: childhood AP i, 8-9: char- 
acter AP 2, i. 2. 7. 8; 13, 4; MA 
29, 6 ; D 7, 4 : cognomen Pius and 
reasons for bestowal H 24, 3-5 ; Ae 
6,9; AP2.3-8; 5,2; PN 8, 5; E 

7, 10 ; SA 9, i : early career AP 2, 
9-n : omens of rule AP 3, 1-5 : 
proconsul of Asia AP 3, 2. 3, 6; 4, 
3 : death of daughter AP 3, 6 : in 
Hadrian's consilium AP 3, 8: 
adoption by Hadrian H 24, i ; Ae 
6,9; AP4.I-6; MAS, i; V 2, 2; 
A 14, 6 : adopted M. Aurelius 
and L. Verus H 24, I ; Ae 2, 9 ; 
5,12; 6, 9; 7,2; AP 4, 5; MA 5, 
1-7; V 3, 6; S 20, i; SA 10, 5: 
colleague of Hadrian in imperial 
powers AP 4, 7 : largesses to people 
AP 4, 9 ; 8, i. ii ; V 3, i : remitted 
crown-gold AP 4, 10: deference 
to_Hadrian AP 5, i : second consul- 
ship MA 5,6: honours for Hadrian 
H 24, 5 ; 27, 2-3 ; AP 2, 5 ; 5, 1-2 ; 

8, 2 ; V 3, i : honours for wife and 
relatives AP 5, 2 : accepted honor- 
ary races AP 5, 2: continued offi- 
cials in posts AP 5,3; 8, 6-7 : con- 
quests and suppression of revojjs 
AP 5, 4-5 ; 12, 2 : repressed pro- 
curators AP 6, 1-2 : clemency AP 
6, 3; AC ii, 6: moderation AP 
6, 4 : deference to senate AP 6, 5 ; 
8, ip : accepted tide of Pater 
Patriae AP 6, 6 : honours for 
Faustina AP 6, 7-8 : offices for sons 

459 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Antoninus Pius continued. 

AP 6, 9-10 ; 10, 3 : consultations 
with friends AP 6, 11-12: care for 
provinces AP 7, i. 2. n; 10, 7: 
treatment of conspirators AP 7, 
3-4: simplicity of life AP 7, 5-6: 
administration of finances AP 7, 
7-10 : in Campania AP 7, 11 : pres- 
tige abroad AP 7, 12 : donatives 
to soldiers AP 8, i ; 10, 2 : endow- 
ment for orphans AP 8, i : public 
works AP 8, 2-4 : declined legacies 
AP 8, 5 : prefects of guard under 
AP 8, 7-9 : disasters and prodigies 
during principate AP 9, 1-5 : 
foreign relations AP 9, 6-10: re- 
fused honorary names of months 
AP 10, i : remark concerning Apol- 
lonius AP 10, 4 : affection for M. 
Aurelius AP 10, 5 ; MA 6, 7-10 : 
relations with L. Verus V 3, 6-7 : 
rewards for prefects AP 10, 6 : 
spectacles AP 10, 9 : treatment of 
friends and freedmen AP n, i : 
amusements AP n, 2: interest in 
oratory and philosophy AP n, 
2-3 : affability AP 11,4-8: legisla- 
tion AP 12, i : administrative 
measures AP 12, 3 : death AP 12, 
4-7 : commended Empire to M. 
Aurelius AP 12,5; MA 7, 3: will 
AP 13, 1-2 : burial, deification and 
honours AP 13, 3-4 ; MA 7, 10-11 : 
conspiracy of Avidius Cassius 
against AC 1,5: could not be over- 
thrown by rebels AC 8, 6 : Pertinax 
under rule of HP i, 6 : example of 
good son by adoption S 21, 4: 
admired by Niger PN 12, i : ad- 
vanced Severus and admired by 
him Ge 2, 3-4 : details concerning 
related by Cordus OM 1,4: sup- 
posed oracle concerning OM 3, 1-2 : 
Diadumenianus born on birthday 
of D 5, 4: example of good ruler 
E 1,2; A 42, 4 : revered by Con- 
stantine E 2, 4 : praised in poem 
by Gordian I. Go 3, 3 : old when 
made emperor T 5, i. 

Antoninus: see Arrius: Aurelius: 
Petrpnius. 

Antonius Antius Lupus, M. : killed 
by Commodus C 7, 5. 

Antonius Balbus : killed by Severus 
S 13, 2- 

460 



Antonius Saturninus, L. : acclaimed 
emperor by soldiers PN 9, 2 ; SA i , 
7 : no life of written by Suetonius 
FI.I. 

Anubis : statue of carried by Corn- 
modus C 9, 4. 6; PN 6, 9; Cc 9, 
ii : statue of showed prodigy C 
16, 4. 

Apamea, city in Syria: grapes rrom 
21, 2. 

Aper : father-in-law of Numerian, 
killed him Ca 12: killed by Dio- 
cletian Ca 12, 2 13, 3 ; 15,4: pre- 
fect of guard Ca 13, 2 ; 15, 4. 

Aper : se-e Flavius : Septimius : 
Trpsius : Vectius. 

Apicius Caelius : works read by 
Aelius Veius Ae 5, 9; banquets 
imitated by Elagabalus E 18, 4; 
20, 5 ; 24, 3- 

Apis: appeared after interval of 
many years H 12, I. 

Apolaustus : see Aelius Aurelius. 

Apollinares, Ludi : banquet of 
Severus Alexander on SA 37, 6; 
meeting of senate on M-B i, i. 

Apollinaris : see Aurelius : Sulpicius. 

Apollo : statue of MA 6, 9 : temple 
ot in Babylonia V 8, 2 : oracles of 
PN 8, i-6; CA i, 4; 5, 4; said by 
Maximinus' soldiers to have fought 
against them M 22, 2 : thanks 
rendered to M 26, 2 : aid of sought 
A 19, 4 : omen given by statue of 

T 17, 5- 

Apollo, Temple of, in Rome : senators 
acclaimed Claudius in Cl 4, 2. 

Apollodorus, architect : designed 
Colossus of Luna for Hadrian H 
19, 13. 

Apollonius, rhetorician teacher ot 
L. Verus V 2, 5. 

Apollonius of Chalcedon, philoso- 
pher : patience of Antoninus Pius 
with AP 10, 4: teacher of M. 
Aurelius MA 2, 7 ; 3 i : of L. Verus 

V 2, 5: 

Apollonius Syrus, philosopher : cited 

H2, 9. 

Apollonius of Tyana : statue of in 
private chapel of Severus Alex- 
ander SA 29, 2 : appearance of to 
Aurelian made him more merciful 
A 24, 3-6; 25, i : greatness of A 
24,7-9- 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Appenninus, Mons, in Italy : Per- 
tinax born on HP i, 2 : oracles 
given to Claudius on Cl 10, 4-5 : 
to Aurelian on F 3, 4. 

Appia, Via : Geta buried on Ge 7, 2. 

Apuleius, L : writer of Milesiae CA 

12, 12. 

Apuleius Rufinus : consul with Se- 

verus S 4, 4. 
Apulia, district of Italy : L. Verus in 

V 6, 9 : Tetricus supervisor of TT 

24.5. 

Aquileia, city in Italy : M. Aurelius 
and L. Verus at MA 14, 2 ; V 9, 
7-10 : resisted siege by Maximinus 
M 21, 622, 6; 28, 4; 33, i; M-B 

11, 3; 12, 2-3; 15, 4; 16, 5. 7: 
Maximinus killed at M 23, 6; 
M-B ii, 2 : army fed with provi- 
sions from M 24, 3 : news of Maxi- 
minus' death sent from to Rome 
M 25, 2 : memorial of Maximinus 
near M 28, 8 : question whether 
Maximus went to M 33, 3 : letter 
of senate to council of T 18, 6 : 
Carus in list of council of Ca 4, 4. 

Aquilius : centurion, sent to kill 
SeverusDJ 5, 8; PN 2,6. 

Aquilo : name given by Aelius Verus 
to messenger Ae 5, 10. 

Aquinum, town in Italy : grandfather 
of Pescennius Niger official at PN 

if 3- 

Arabia : Hadrian in H 14, 4 : pro- 
digies in AP 9, 4-5 : pestilence in 
AP 9, 4 : victory of Avidius Cassius 
in AC 6, 5 ; Severus in S 9, 9 : 
legion in declared for Albinus S 

12, 6: governor of implicated in 
conspiracy but pardoned D 8, 4. 

Arabianus : punishment of urged by 
Diadumenianus D 9, i. 

Arabianus : see Claudius : Claudius 
Severus: Flavius: Septimius. 

Arabicus: cognomen conferred on 
Severus 89,10; assumed by Cara- 
calla Cc 10, 6. 

Arabs : conquered by Severus S 18, 
i : war of Macrinus against Eudae- 
mones OM 12, 6 : subject to Zen- 
obia TT 30, 7: served under 
Aurelian A ii, 3: Eudaemones 
marched in Aurelian's triumph A 

07 A 

Arad'io : killed by Probus P 9, 3. 



Aratus : Cicero's translation of imita. 
ted by Gordian I. Go 3, 2. 

Area Caesarea, city in Syria : Severus 
Alexander born at SA i, 2; 5, I : 
omen at SA 13,5. 

Archimea : omen at M 31, 3. 

Archontius Severus : conversation 
with F 2, i. 

Arcia, town in Italy : memorial of 
Maximinus near M 28, 8. 

Arellius Fuscus: speech of TT 21, 
3-4: proconsul of Asia A 40, 4. 

Arellius Fuscus : cited TT 25, 2. 

Areopagus : Gallienus wished to join 
Ga ii, 5. 

Argunt (?) King of Scythians ; 
attacked neighbours Go 31, 1. 

Aristomachus : tribune, withheld 
colours when soldiers wished to 
kill Elagabalus E 14, 8. 

Aristotle : works of studied by Gor- 
dian I. Go 7, i : famed for philo- 
sophy A 3, 5. 

Armenia : victory of Pnscus in MA 
9, i : recovered by generals of 
L. Verus V 7, i : victory of Avidius 
Cassius in AC 6, 5 : victory of 
Palmatus in SA 58, i. 

Armeniacus : cognomen borne by 
M. Aurelius and L. Verus MA 9, 
i ; V 7, 2 : by Aurelian A 30, 5. 

Armenians: permitted by Hadrian 
to have king H 21, ii : saved by 
Antoninus Pius from Parthian in- 
vasion AP 9, 6 : served under Niger 
PN 4, 2 : war of Caracalla against 
Cc 6, i : war of Macrinus against 
OM 12, 6 : in army of Severus 
Alexander SA 61, 8; TT 32, 3 : 
letter of king of Va 3 : subject to 
Zenobia TT 30, 7 : Zenobia drank 
with TT 30, 18: hated by Maxi- 
minus made Titus emperor TT 32, 
3 : served under Aurelian An, 3 : 
sent aid to Zenobia, intercepted by 
Aurelian A 27, 4 ; 28, i. 4 : revered 
Aurelian A 41, 10. 

Arria Fadilla : mother of Antoninus 
Pius AP i, 4. 

Arrianus : see Annius : Herodianus. 

Arrius Augur : consulship of MA 

i, 5- 

Arrius Antoninus : grandfather of 
Antoninus Pius AP i, 4. 

461 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Arrius Antoninus, C. : accused of 
treason by Pertinax HP 3, 7 : killed 
by Oleander C 7, i. 

Axtabanus V., King of the Parthians : 
avenged slaughter of Parthians 
and granted peace- to Romans OM 

8,3- 
Artabassis: delivered company ot 

Persians to Romans P 4, i. 
Artavasdes : letter of Va 3. 
Artaxanses : recaptured from Persians 

by Gordian III. Go 26, 6. 
Artaxata, city in Armenia : captured 

by M. Statius Priscus MA 9, i. 
Artaxerxes, King of the Persians: 

defeated by Severus Alexander SA 

55, i ; 56, 7- 
Articuleius Paetus, Q. : consulship 

ofHs.i. 
Ascanius : Diadumenianus likened to 

D8.7. 

Asclepiodotus : see lulius. 

Asellio : see Marcius. 

Asellius Aemilianus : general of Niger 
declared a public enemy S 8, 13 : 
PNs.7: defeated PN 5, 7: Severus 
refused to pardon S 8, 15 : defeated 
and killed S 8, 16. 

Asellius Claudianus: killed by^ Se- 
verus S 13, i. 

Asia : Hadrian in H 13, i. 6 : Antoni- 
nus Pius proconsul of AP 3, 2-3. 6 ; 
4, 3 : earthquake in AP 9, i : L. 
Verus in V 6, 9 : Arrius Antoninus 
proconsul of C 7, i : Sulpicius Cras- 
sus proconsul of C 7, 7 : persons 
killed in by Commodus 7,7: 
Caracalla in Cc 5, 8 : legate of im- 
plicated in conspiracy but par- 
doned D 8, 4 : Balbinus proconsul 
of M-B 7, 2 : subject to Romans Va 
1,5: Macrianus in Ga 2, 5 : earth- 
quake in Ga 5, 3 ; 6, 5 : invaded 
by Goths Ga 6, 2. 5; 7, 3; 13, 8; 
Cl 8, i : Faltonius Probus and 
Arellius Fuscus proconsuls of A 
40, 4. 

Asinius Lepidus Praetextatus, C. : 
consulship of Go 26, 3. 

Asinius Quadratus, historian; cited 
V8, 4; AC i, 2. 

Aspnanus : see Fulvius. 

Assyrii : Constantina wife of tribune 
of Cl 13, 3. 

462 



Astacus : old name of Nicomedia Ga 
4,8. 

Astyanax : see Maeonius. 

Ateius Sanctus, orator: teacher of 
Commodus C i, 6. 

Atellanae, fabulae: produced by 
Hadrian H 26, 4. 

Athenaeum, place in Rome : Pertinax' 
visit to interrupted HP u, 3: 
visited by Severus Alexander SA 
35, 2 : Gordian I debated in Go 

3, 4- 

Athenaeus : defended Byzantium 
against Goths Ga 13, 6. 

Athenio : Maximinus likened to M 
9, 6. 

Athens : Hadrian's generosity and 
offices held in H 13, i; 19, 1-2: 
Temple of Jupiter Olympius and 
altar to Hadrian H 13,6: part of 
named Hadrianopolis H 20, 4 : 
M. Aurelius at MA 27, i : L. Verus 
at V 6, 9 : Severus at S 3, 7 : 
Gallienusat Ga n, 3-5: people of 
defeated Goths Ga 13, 8 : Plato 
born at A 3, 4 : amnesty proclaimed 
by people of A 39, 4 : letter of 
senate to council of T 18, 6. 

Atherianus : see lulius. 

Atilius Severus: consul, exiled by 
Commodus C 4, n. 

Atilius Titianus : conspired against 
Antoninus Pius AP 7, 3. 

Atrebati, in Gaul : cloaks from Ga 6, 
6 : capes from Ca 20, 6. 

Attalus : condemned by Arrius An- 
toninus C 7, i. 

Attianus : see Caelius. 

Atticus : see Claudius : Vettius. 

Attidius Cornelianus : governor of 
Syria, defeated by Vologaesus MA 
8,6. 

Aufidius Victorinus, C. : fellow- 
student of M. Aurelius MA 3, 8 : 
sent to repel invasion of Chatti 
MA 8, 8. 

Augur : see Arrius. 

Augusta (as imperial name) : con- 
ferred on Faustina the elder AP 5, 
2: on Flavia Titiana, but refused 
by Pertinax HP 5, 4: 6, 9: on 
Manlia Scantilla and Didia Clara 
PJ 3, 4 ; 4i 5 ' taken from Didia 
Clara DJ 8, 9; held by Victoria 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Augusta, Historia: written by 
Tacitus T 10, 3. 

AUGUSTUS : title of Pater Patriae 
granted to him late H 6, 5 : military 
discipline relaxed after H 10, 3 : 
temple of at Tarraco restored by 
Hadrian H 12, 3 : could not be 
overthrown by rebels, according to 
Marcus Aurelius AC 8, 6 : clemency 
of AC ii, 6: temple of at Tarraco 
dreamed of by Severus 83, 4 : 
donative of to soldiers cited as 
precedent by troops of Severus S 
7, 6 : unsuccessful in adoption of 
son S 21, 3 : admired by Niger PN 

12, i : example of good ruler E i, 
2 ; A 42, 4 : gave name to all later 
emperors SA 10, 4 : erected statues 
of famous men SA 28, 6 : resem- 
blance of Gordian I to Go 21, 5: 
equalled in moderation by Claudius 
Cl 2, 3 : pomerium extended by 
A 21 , 1 1 : list of emperors after A 
42, 3-4 : Probus compared with P 
22, 4 : Rome weakened until time 
of, made strong by Ca 3, i. 

Augustus (as imperial name) : held 
conjointly by M. Aurelius and L. 
Verus H 24, 2 ; Ae 5, 12-13 ; MA 7, 
6 ; conferred on L. Verus MA 7, 5 : 
held by Antonines SA 10, 4 : con- 
ferred on Pertinax HP 5, 5 : on 
Didius Julianus DJ 4, 5 : on Cara- 
calla S 18, 9; Cc 11, 3: not held 
by Diadumenianus D 10, 4 : con- 
ferred on Severus Alexander SA i, 
3; 8, i : on Maximinus M 8, i : on 
Gordians M 14, 3-5; 15, 7; 18, 2 ; 
Go 4, 2; ii, 10 ; 16, 4; 17, i ;~I9. 
7; 34, i; M-B i, i: on Maximus 
and Balbinus M 20, 2 ; Go 22, i ; 
on Gordian III Go 22, 5 : on Philip 
Go 31, 3 : held by Decii Va 6, 8 : 
conferred on Valerian the younger 
Va 8, i ; Ga 14, 9 : on Odaenathus 
Ga 12, i : assumed by Cyriades 
TT 2, 3 : conferred on Postumus 
the younger TT 4, i : on Tetricus 
TT 24, i : on Tacitus T 4, 3 : on 
Probus P 10, 4; ii, 4; 12, 8: on 
Firmus F 2, i : on Diocletian Ca 

13, 1-2; 18, i. 

Aurelia, Via : Lorium situated on 
AP i, 8: vines planted along A 
48, 2. 



Aurelia Fadilla, daughter of M. 
Aurelius : illness of AC 10, 6. 

Aurelia Messalina : mother ofClodius 
Albinus CA 4, 3. 

AURELIAN : foremost of emperors 
35,2: extended Empire SA 64, i : 
bravest of emperors T 4, 5 : restored 
world to Roman sway A i, 5; 32, 
4 ; 41 , 7 : life of written by Vopiscus 
P i, 5 ; F i, 4 : life of little known 
A i, 5-9; birthplace and parents A 
3 ; 4, 1-2 ; 24, 3 : omens of future 
rule A 4, 3-5. 6 : legate to King of 
Persians A 5, 5 : appearance and 
habits A 6, i : severity to soldiers 
A. 6, 2 ; 7, 3 8, 5 : military posts 
and campaigns under Valerian A 
6, 2; 7, i; 10, 2-3 ; n, 1-7: wars 
against Sarmatians A 6, 3-4 ; 7, 2 ; 
18, 2 : against Franks A 7, 1-2 : 
against Persians, A 7, 2 ; 35, 4; 41, 
9; T 13, 3 : greatness A II, 10: 
feared by Valerian A 8, 5 : allow- 
ance, supplies and gifts to A 9, i. 
6-7; 12, i-2; 13, 2-4: deputy of 
Ulpius Crinitus and adopted by 
himAio,2-3; 11,1-2; 12,3 15,2; 
38, 2: consulship A ii, 8; 12, i; 

15, 3 ; victories over Goths A 13, 2 ; 

16, i. 4;. 17, i 18, i; 22,2; 41, 8; 
P 6, 6 : interview with Valerian at 
Byzantium A 13, i 15, i ; com- 
mander of cavalry under Claudius 
A 18, i : letters of A 7, 5-8 ; 20, 4-8 ; 
23, 4-5; 26, 3-9; 31, 5-9; 38, 3-4; 
42,2-4; P 6, 6; F 15, 6-8: message 
to senate TT 30, 4-11 : letters ot 
Valerian concerning A 8 9; 12; 
letters of Valerian and Claudius to 
An; 17, 2-4 : made emperor A 16, 
i; 37, 6; Ca 15, 2: said to have 
killed Aureolus A 16, 2 : war against 
Suebi A 18, 2 : repelled invasion of 
Marcomanni A 18, 3 21, 5 ; 41, 8 : 
ordered consultation of Sibylline 
Books A 18, 520, 8 : cruelty A 21, 
5-91 3i, 4-5; 36, 2; 39, 8; 44,1-2; 
P 8, i : relations with senate A 21, 
6 ; 37, 4 ; 39, 8 : extended walls of 
Rome and pomerium A 21, 9; 39, 
2 : marched through Byzantium 
and recovered Bithynia A 22, 3 : 
captured Tyana A 22, 5 24, 3 ; 25, 
I ; Apollonius appeared to A 24, 
2-6 ; 25, i : matchless purple gar- 

463 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Aurelian continued. 

ment received by A 29: war against 
Zenobia TT 30, 3 ; A 22, i ; 25, 2 
28, 4; 35, 4; 41,9: letters and con- 
versation with Zenobia TT 30, 23 ; 
A 26, 6 27, 6 : granted Zenobia's 
life TT 30, 27; A 30, 2: killed 
Longinus A 30, 3:_defeated Carpi 
A 30, 4 : cognomina A 30, 4-5 : 
victories in Thrace, Illyricum and 
Europe A 22, 2 ; 31, 4; 32, 1-2; 
41, 8; F 5, i: crushed revolt of 
Palmyrenes A 31, 1-6: restored 
Temple of Sun at Palmyra A 31, 
7-9 : defeated Tetricus in Gaul TT 
24, 2-3; A 32, 3; 41, 8: triumph 
over Zenobia and Tetricus TT 24, 
4-5 ; 25, 2 ; 3, 3-4- 24-26 ; A 30, 2 ; 
32, 434, 6 ; 39, i ; spectacles given 
by A 34,6: honoured Tetrici and 
friendship for them TT 24, 5; 25, 
2-4; A 39, 1-2: Firmus revolted 
against in Egypt A 32, 2-3 ; F i, 4; 
2, i-3; 3, i; 5: gifts, food, wine 
and clothing for populace A 35, i- 
2; 47; 48: built Temple of the 
Sun at Rome and enriched it A i, 
3; 25, 5; 35. 3; 39, 2-6: good 
legislation A 35, 3 : in Gaul A 35, 
4 : saved Vindelici from invasion 
A 35, 4 ; 41, 8 : in Illyricum A 35, 
4 : killed A 35, 537, 2 ; 40, 2; 41, 
i. 12; T 2, 4; P 13, 5; Ca 3, 7: 
tomb and temple A 37, 2-3 : mur- 
derers of punished A 37, 2-3 ; T 13, 
i ; P 13, 2 : general grief at death 
of A 37, 3 : length of reign A 37, 4 : 
deified A 37, 4; 41, 2. 13: freed 
world from crime A 37, 7 : mur- 
dered niece (or nephew) A 36, 3 ; 
39,9: revolt of mint- workers under 
A 38, 2-4 : burned records of debts 
and punished false accusers and 
dishonest officials A 30, 3-5 : formed 
province of Dacia Transdanuvina 
A 39, 7 : interregnum after death 
of A 40; T i, i ; 2; 14, 5 : no one 
more fortunate or useful than A 
41, 6: revered by eastern nations 
A 41, 10: enriched temples A 41, 
n : descendants A 42, 1-2 : example 
of good ruler A 42, 4 : neither good 
nor bad ruler A 44, i : Diocletian's 
opinion of A 44, 2 : prophecy given 
to related by Diocletian A 44, 3-5 : 

464 



Aurelian continued. 
used taxes from Egypt for food of 
Rome A 45, i ; 47, i : public \vorks 
A 45, 2 ; 49, 2 : generosity to 
friends A 45, 3 : sumptuary 
measures A 45, 446, 6 ; 49, 7-8 ; T 
11,6: increased boatmen A 47, 3 : 
promoted viticulture A 48, 2 : 
residence A 49, i : harshness to 
servants A 49, 3-5: established 
senaculum A 49, 6: simplicity of 
life A 49, 9 50, 4 : rule fortunate 
A 50, 5 : beloved by people, feared 
by senate A 50, 5 : disapproved of 
statue cf Gallienus Ga 18, 4 : 
honours for proposed by Tacitus 
T 9, 2. 5 : Probus to be preferred 
to T 16, 6 : Probus' achievements 
under P 6, i. 5 : planned to make 
Probus emperor P 6, 7 : under 
Probus no longer desired P 12, 2 : 
planned to make throne for Jupiter 
F 3, 4 : Firmus competed in 
drinking with generals of F 4, 4-5 : 
proclamation of concerning Firmus 
F 5, 3-6 : made Saturninus com- 
mander of eastern frontier and 
forbade to visit Egypt F 7, 2 ; 9, i : 
knew character of Gauls F 7, 3 : 
put down people of Lugdunum F 
13, i : remark of concerning 
Bonosus F 14, 3 : gave wife and 
wedding-gifts to Bonosus F 15, 4-8 : 
a vigorous prince Ca i, 2. 

Aurelianus : influenced Niger to per- 
sist in rebellion PN 7, i. 

Aurelianus : tribune, captured with 
Valerian A 6, 2. 

Aurelianus : proconsul of Cilicia, 
great-grandson of Aurelian A 42, 2. 

Aurelianus : see Pescennius. 

Aurelianus : name of coin P 4, 5. 

AURELIUS ANTONINUS, M. : 
pre-eminent in purity of life MA 
i, i : devoted to philosophy MA 
i, i; 4, 10; 6, 5; 8, 3; 16, 5; AC 
3, 6-7; 14, 5; D 7, 4; SA 9, i: 
family and birth MA i, 1-6 ; edu- 
cation and teachers AP 10, 4 ; MA 
i, 7; 2, i 3, 9: sister MA i, 8: 
married to Faustina AP i, 7;,io, 
2; MA i, 8; 6, 6; V 2, 3 : original 
names MA i, 9-10: affection of 
Hadrian for MA 4, 1-2; 16, 6-7: 
early honours MA 4, 2-6 : betrothal 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Aurelius Antoninus continued. 
to daughter of L. Ceionius Com- 
modus MA 4, 5 ; 6, 2 : generosity 
to sister and her son MA 4,7; 7, 4 : 
amusements MA 4, 8-9: adopted 
by Antoninus Pius H 24, I ; Ae 5, 
12; 6, 9; 7, 2; AP 4, 5; MA 5, 
i-7; i9,9; Va, a; Sao, i; SA 10, 
5 : relations with Antoninus Pius 
AP io, 5; MA 5, 7-8; 6, 7-10- 7, 
2-3 : career of office AP 6, 9 : MA 
5, 6 ; 6, i. 3. 4 : colleague or An- 
toninus Pius in imperial powers 
MA 6, 6 : birth of daughter MA 6, 
6 : lack of greed MA 7, i : made 
emperor AP 12, 5 ; MA 7, 3 : made 
L. Verus co-emperor MA 7, 5-6; 
V 3, 8 4, 3 : assumed name Anton- 
inus MA 7, 6; OM 3, 4; D 6, 5: 
added honour to name OM 7, 7 : 
married Lucilla to L. Verus MA 
7,7; 9,4-6; V 2, 4; 7i 7- endow- 
ment for orphans MA 7, 8 : dona- 
tive to soldiers MA 7, 9 : honours 
for Antoninus Pius MA 7, 10-11 : 
leniency MA 8, i ; 13,6: overflow 
of Tiber under MA 8, 4-5 : wars 
and invasions MA 8, 69, i ; 21, i- 
2; 22, i. io. ii : consideration for 
L. Verus MA 8, io. n. 13 ; 15, 3 ; 
V 4, ii ; 5, 6; 6, 7: cognomina 
MA 9, 1-2 ; 12, 9 : finally accepted 
title of Pater Patriae MA 9, 3; 12, 
7 : care for status of citizens MA 
9, 7-9 : deference to senate MA io, 
i-io; 12, 7; 29,4: legislation MA 
9, 9; io, 2; ii, 8-10 : administra- 
tive measures MA io, io ii, 7 ; 23, 
i 24, 2; 27, 6 : moderation MA 12, 
1-7. 9. 12 : offered the corona civica 
MA 12, 8: triumphs MA 12, 8-n ; 

16, 2; 17, 3; 27, 3; C 2, 4: wars 
with Marcomanni MA 12, 13 14, 7 ; 

17, 1-4; 21, 622, 2; V 9, 7-10; C 
2-5 ; E 9, 1-2 : pestilence MA 13, 
3-6; 17, 2; 21, 6: criticism and 
slander of MA 9, 5 ; 15, i. 5. 6 ; 22, 
5 ; 23, 5 ; 29, 3-7 ; V io, 2 ; n, 2-3 : 
relations with freedmen MA 15, 2; 
V 9, 6 : honours for L. Verus MA 
I5i 3-4i 20, i: honours for rela- 
tives MA 16, i ; 20, 5 ; 29, 8 : 
honours for Commodus MA 16, 
1-2; 17, 3; 22, 12; C i, 102, 5: 
virtues in rule as sole emperor MA 



Aurelius Antoninus continued. 

16, 3-5 : care for provinces MA 17, 
i ; 22, 9 : auction to replenish 
treasury MA 17, 4-5; ai, 9; E 19, 
i : granted pomp to commoners 
MA 17, 6 ; E 19, i : spectacles MA 

17, 7 ; 27, 5 : refused to divorce 
Faustina or believe rumours con- 
cerning her MA 19, 9; 23, 7; 26, 
5 : regard for reputation MA 20, 5 ; 
22, 5 ; 29, 5 : married Lucilla to 
Claudius Pompeianus MA 20, 6-7 : 
loss of son Verus aud honours for 
him MA 21, 3-5 : settled Marco- 
manni in Italy MA 22, 2 ; 24, 3 : 
consulted with friends MA 22, 3-4 : 
erected statues of nobles MA 22, 7 : 
largesses to people MA 22, 12 ; 27, 
5. 8 : planned to make new provin- 
ces in north MA 24, 5 ; 27, io : 
revolt of Avidius Cassius MA 15, 
6; 21,2; 24,625, 4; AC 7, 1-9; 
C 2, 2; F i, i : leniency to parti- 
sans and children of Cassius MA 

25, 5-10 ; 26, 3. 10-13; AC 8, 29, 
4; ii, 412, io ; 13, 6-7: in Syria 
MA 25, 1126, i ; C 2, 3 : negotia- 
tions with oriental kings and 
beloved in eastern provinces MA 

26, 1-2 : in Egypt MA 26, 3 ; C 3, 
3 : honours and temple for Faustina 
MA 26, 5-9 : at Athens, initiated 
into Eleusinian Mysteries MA 27, 
ii ; Ga ii, 4: assumed toga in 
Brundisium MA 27, 3 : at Lavinium 
MA 27, 4 : made Commodus col- 
league in tribunician power MA 

27, 5 ; AC 13, 4 : opinion concern- 
ing Commodus MA 27, n ; 28, io : 
quoted Plato MA 27, 7: married 
Commodus to daughter of Bruttius 
Praesens MA 27, 8: death MA 18, 
i; 27, 9. 11-12; 28, 1-9: beloved 
and honoured MA 18,2-8; 19, 10- 
12: patience toward Faustina's 
lovers MA 29, 1-3 : Fabia tried to 
marry MA 29, io : rumours of dis- 
sensions with L. Verus V 9, 1-2: 
correspondence concerning revolt 
of Avidius Cassius AC i, 6 2, 8; 
5, 5-i2; 9, 7-8; 9, ii io, io ; n, 
3-8 : speech to senate and acclama- 
tions AC 12, i 13, 5 : deemed 
happy had he not eft son like 
Commodus MA 18, i ; S 21, 5 : 

465 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Aurelius Antoninus continued. 
suspected, then promoted Pertinax 
HP 2, 4-9 : promoted Didius Juli- 
anus DJ i, 5 : promoted Severus 
S i, 5; 3, i. 3: example of good 
son by adoption S 21, 4: letter 
concerning Niger PN 4, 1-3 : 
Niger's advice to PN 7, 2-3 : ad- 
mired by Niger PN 12, i : details 
concerning related by Cordus OM 
i, 4: example of good ruler E i, 
2 ; A 42, 4 : revered by Constantine 
E 2, 4 : wrong done to by Elaga- 
balus SA 7, 3 : praised by Gordian 
I Go 3, 3 : equalled in kindness by 
Victorinus TT 6, 6 : in righteous- 
ness by Claudius Cl 2, 3 : Rome 
happy under Ca 3, 4. 

Aurelius Antoninus, M. : see Cara- 
calla : Elagabalus. 

Aurelius Apollinaris : accomplice in 
murder of Caracalla Cc 6, 7. 

Aurelius Apollinaris : poetry of 
eclipsed by Numerian's Ca n, 2. 

Aurelius Cleander, M., chamberlain 
of Commodus : influence over Corn- 
modus C 6, 3. 5-12 : appointed pre- 
fect of the guard C 6, 12 : death C 
7, i : debaucheries C 7, 3 : public 
bath built by C 17, 5. 

Aurelius Festivus, Aurelian's freed- 
man : cited F 6, 2. 

Aurelius Fulvus : father of Antoninus 
Pius AP i, 3. 

Aurelius Fulvus, T. : grandfather of 
Antoninus Pius AP i, 2. 

Aurelius Gordianus, consul : pre- 
sided over meeting of senate A 41, 3. 

Aurelius Nemesianus : accomplice in 
murder of Caracalla Cc 6, 7. 

Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus, M. : 
Numerian competed with Ca n, 2. 

Aurelius Philippus : teicher of Sev- 
erus Alexander SA 3, 2. 

Aurelius Probus : superintendent of 
imperial dye-works SA 40, 6. 

Aurelius Verus, biographer of Trajan : 
cited SA 48, 6. 

Aurelius Victor (with cognomen 
Pinius), historian : statements of 
concerning Macrinus OM 4, 2-4. 

Aurelius Zoticus: power of under 
Elagabalus E 10, 2-5. 

Aureoli, Pons, place in Italy : Aure- 
olas killed and buried at TT n, 4.5. 

466 



AUREOLUS : rebellion against Gal- 
lienus Ga 2,6; 3, i; 14, 6-7; TT 
ii, i; 12, 2: took over army of 
Macrianus Ga 2, 7; TT n, 2; 12, 
14; 14, i : held Illyricum Ga 3, 3 ; 
5, 6: Gallic nus made peace with 
Ga4,6; 21,5; TT 11,3; Cl 5, i; 
A 16, i : aided Gallienus against 
Postumus Ga 7, I : supported at 
Rome Ga 9, i : promoted by Val- 
erian TT 10, 14 : found favour with 
Gallienus Cl 5, i: defeated by 
Claudius, killed and buried TT 11, 
4-5 ; Cl 5, 1-3 ; A 16, 1-2 : Domiti- 
anus general of TT 12, 14 : not 
trusted by Ballista TT 18, i : 
soldiers sent by to seize Quietus 
killed Ballista TT 18, 3 : Zenobia's 
contempt for TT 30, 23 : Claudius 
besought to save from Cl 4, 4 : 
praised by Callus Antipater Cl 5, 4. 

Aurunculeius Cornelianus : killed by 
Severus S 13, 2. 

Austrogothi : invasion of under 
Claudius Cl 6, 2. 

Autronius lustus : letter to T 19, 1-2. 

Autronius Tiberianus : letter of T 

AVIDIUS CASSIUS: ancestry AC 
i, 1-4 : hatred for principate AC i, 
4 : alleged conspiracies against 
Antoninus Pius and L. Verus AC 

1, 5-6: character AC 3, 4-5; 13, 9- 
10: severity in military discipline 
AC 3, 8 6, 4 : in command of army 
in Syria AC 5, 4 6, 4 : as legate of 
L. Verus victorious against Par- 
thians V 7, i : stormed Seleucia V 
8, 3-4 : victorious in Armenia, 
Arabia and Egypt MA 21, 2; AC 
6, 5-7 : beloved and supported by 
people of Antioch MA 25, 8; 
AC 6, 5-6; 7, 8; 9, i : attempt to 
seize the imperial power MA 15, 6; 
21, 2; 24, 625, 4; AC 7, 1-8; C 

2, 2; CA 6, 2; 10, 9-10; SA i, 7; 
F i, i : death MA 25, 2-3; AC 7, 
8-9; 8, i : leniency of M. Aurelius 
toward MA 25, 526, i; 26, 10- 
13; AC 8, 29, 4; ii, 412, 10 ; 
13, 6-7: descendants of killed by 
Commodus AC 13, 7 : correspond- 
ence of M. Aurelius concerning 
revolt AC i, 62, 8; 5, 5-12; 9, 7- 
8; 9, u 10, 10; ii, 3-8: speech 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Avidius Cassius continued. 
of M. Aurelius in the Senate con- 
cerning partisans of AC 12, 3-10: 
letter to son-in-law AC 14, 2-8 : 
Pertinax in Syria during revolt 
of HP 2, 10 : senators opposed to 
CA 12, 10 : life of written by 
Marius Maximus F i, i. 

Avidius Heliodorus: son of Avidius 
Cassius, banished by M. Aurelius 
MA 26, ii. 

Avidius Nigrinus, C. : conspiracy 
against Hadrian and death H. 7, 
1-2 : father-in-law of Aelius Verus 
H 23, 10. 

Avidius Severus : grandfather ot 
Avidius Cassius AC i, i. 

Avitus : see Elagabalus : Gallonius : 
Lollianus. 

Avulnius Saturninus, commander of 
Scythian frontier : with Valerian at 
Byzantium A 13, i. 

Axomitae : marched in Aurelian's 
triumph A 33, 4 : revered Aurelian 
A 41, 10. 



Babylon : captured by generals of 
L. Verus V 7, i. 

Babylonia: pestilence said to have 
originated in V 8, 2 : Caracalla in 
Cc 6, 4. 

Bactriani : kings of sent envoys to 
Hadrian H 21, 14: offered aid for 
rescue of Valerian Va 4 , i' : marched 
in Aurelian's triumph A 33, 4 : 
revered Aurelian A 41 , 10. 

Baebius Longus : fellow-student of 
M. Aurelius MA 3, 8. 

Baebius Macer, prefect of city : spared 
by Hadrian H 5, 5. 

Baebius Macer, prefect of guard : with 
Valerian at Byzantium A 13, i. 

Baebius Macrianus, rhetorician : tea- 
cher of Severus Alexander SA 3, 3. 

Baebius Maecianus : introduced Al- 
binus to Antonines CA 6, i. 

Baetica : see Hispania. 

Baiae, town in Italy : Celsus mur- 
dered at H 7, 2 : Hadrian died at 
H 25, 5-6; AP 5, i ; MA 6, i : 
buildings of Severus Alexander at 
SA 26, 9-10 : Tacitus at when made 
emperor T 7, 6: senator's retire- 
ment to T 19, 5. 



BALBINUS: origin M-B 7, i. 3; 
16, i : career or office M-B 7, a; 

15, 2 : appearance and tastes M-B 
7, 4-5 : character M 20, i ; M-B i, 
2; 2, 7; 7, 6-7; 15, i; 16, 4 : on 
commission of twenty to oppose 
Maximinus, made emperor with 
Maximus M 20, 1-3. 8 ; 32, 3 33, 
3; Go 10, 1-2; 19, 9; 22, I; M-B 
1,23, 3; 8, i ; 13, 2; 15,5; 16, 6: 
riots in Rome against M 20, 6 ; Go 
22, 7-9; M-B 9, 1-4; 10, 4-8: re- 
ceived news of death of Maximinus 
M 25, 3 : sacrifices on news of 
death of Maximinus M 24, 7 ; M- 
B n, 4: acknowledged by army 
of Maximinus M 24, 2-3 : jealousy 
of Maximus M-B 12, 5 : honours 
and acclamations in senate M 26 ; 
M-B 12, 9; 13, 1-2: established in 
Palace M 24, 8; 26, 7: ill-will of 
soldiers toward M-B 12, 9; 13, 2-3. 
5 : excellent rule of M-B 13, 4; 15, 
1-2 : plan for campaign against 
Germans M-B 13, 5 : quarrels with 
Maximus M-B 14, i : killed by 
soldiers Go 22, 5 ; M-B 14, 2-8 ; 15, 
4 ; 16, 4 : length of rule Go 22, 5 ; 
M-B 15, 7 : house of at Rome M-B 

1 6, i : letter congratulating MB 17. 
Balbus : see Antonius : Cornelius : 

lunius. 

BALLISTA: Valerian's prefect XT 
12, i : defeated Persians Va 4, 4 : 
helped to make Macrianus and sons 
emperors Ga i, 2; TT 14, i: 
Macrianus' prefect Ga 3, 2; TT ia, 
6 ; 14, i : betrayed Quietus Ga 3, 
2-4 : seized imperial power TT 15, 
4 ; 18, i. 3 : speeches of TT 12, 3-6. 
9-10: pardoned after Quietus 1 
death TT 18, i : did not trust 
Gallienus, Aureolus or Odaenathus 
TT 18, i: killed TT 18, 2-3. 12: 
character TT 18, 4 : opinion ot 
Valerian concerning TT 18, 5-11. 

Bardaici : hooded cloaks from HP 

8,3- 

Bassianus : see Aelius : Caracalla : 

Valerius. 
Bassus : prefect of the city, successor 

appointed by Severus S 8, 8. 
Bassus : consulship of TT 9, i. 
Bassus: Lives of Firmus, etc., ad* 

dressed to F a, i. 

t-67 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Bassus : see Cerronius. 

Bastarnae: war against Rome MA 
22, i : settled in Thrace by Probus 
P 18, i. 

Belenus, god worshipped at Aquileia : 
prophecy of M 22, i. 

Belgica : see Gallia. 

Bellona: worshippers maltreated by 
Commodus C 9, 5 : omen at temple 
of S 22, 6. 

Benacus (Lake Garda) : descendants 
of Probus lived near P 24, i. 

Bessi : warred against Rome MA 22, 1. 

Bithynia: Didius Julianus governor 
of DJ 2, 2 : Heraclitus sent to take 
possession of PN 5, 2; troops in 
commanded by Albinus CA 6, 2 : 
Macrinus and Diadumenianus 
killed in OM 10, 3 ; 15, i : Maximus 
proconsul of M-B 5, 8: Balbinus 

tovernor of M-B 7, 2 : invaded by 
cythians (Goths) Ga 4, 7;_ n, i: 
descendants of Censorinus lived in 
TT 33, 5 : recovered by Aurelian 
A 22, 3. 

Blemmyae(-es) : marched in Aurelian's 
triumph A 33, 4 : revered Aurelian 
A 41, 10 : defeated by Probus P 17, 
2-3. 6 : Probus' triumph over P 19, 
2. 8 : Firmus 1 relations with F 3, 3. 

Boeotia : Goths retreated through Ga 

13,8. 

Boionia Procilla : grandmother of 
Antoninus Pius AP I, 4. 

Boius : see Fulvius. 

Bona Dea, Temple of, at Rome: 
built by Hadrian H 19, n. 

Bonitus : reported favourably about 
Regalianus TT 10, n. 

Bononia (Bologna) : tomb of Censor- 
inus near TT 33, 4. 

BONOSUS : Vopiscus will write life 
of P 18, 6; 24, 7; F i, 4; 13, 6: 
origin and parentage F 14, i : early 
career and habits F 14, 2-5 : seized 
imperial power in Germany, de- 
feated by Probus, committed suicide 
P -18, 4-5. 7; F 15, i-2 : wife and 
sons F 15, 3-8. 

Bonus : see Rupilius. 

Boreas : name given by Aelius 
Verus to messenger Ae 5, 10. 

Bosphorus (Cimmerian) : Rhoe- 
metalces restored to kingdom of 
AP 9, 8. 

4-68 



Britain: Hadrian in H n, 2: wail 
built in H 11,2: war in under M. 
Aurelius MA 22, I : under Corn- 
modus C 6, 2; 13, 5 : Pertinax 
served in HP 2, i : revolt in 
checked by Pertinax HP 3, 5-10 : 
Albinus commander of troops in 
CA 13, 4: troops in not feared by 
Julianus DJ 5, i : Heraclitus sent 
to hold S 6, 10 : wall built in by 
Severus S 18, 2 : tribes in subdued 
by Severus S 19, I : Severus died 
in S 19, i ; 24, i : omen in S 22, 
4-5 : peace established in S 23, 3 : 
conquered by Julius Caesar CA 
13, 7: Severus Alexander killed 
in (incorrect) SA 59, 6 : stags from 
painted in Domus Pompeiana Go 
3, 7 : seized by Proculus and 
Bonosus P 18, 5 : under rule of 
Carinus Ca 16, 2. 

Britannicus: cognomen given to 
Commodus C 8 , 4 : to Severus S 
18,2. 

Britons: revolts of H 5, 2; MA 8, 
7-8; C 6, 2 : Hadrian among H 16, 
3 : defeat of and turf wall built 
AP 5, 4 : allowed by Probus to 
plant vines P 18, 8: Bonosus 
descended from F 14, i. 

Brocchus : set. lunius. 

Brundisinus : see Maecius. 

Brundisium, town in Italy : M. 
Aurelius accompanied daughter to 
MA 9, 5 : M. Aurelius assumed 
toga and ordered soldiers to do so 
at MA 27, 3 : Severus at on way to 
Syria S 15, 2. 

Bruttii, district of Italy : Tetricus 
supervisor of TT 24, 5. 

Bruttius Praesens, C. : daughter 
married to Commodus MA 27, 8 : 
second consulship C 12, 7. 

Bucolici, tribe in Egypt : attacked 
Egypt and defeated by Avidius 
Cassius MA 21, 2 ; AC 6, 7. 

Burburus : challenged Firmus to 
contest in drinking F 4, 5. 

Buri : warred against Rome MA 
22, T. 

Biirrus: see Antisiius. 

Busiris : Maximiims likened to M 
8,5- 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Byzantium : occupied by Niger S 8, 
12 : punished by Severus for 
support of Niger, rights restored 
through intervention ot Caracalla 
Cc i, 7: Gallienus' soldiers plun- 
dered and were punished Ga 6, 8-9 ; 
7, 2. 4 : key of the Pontus Ga 6, 8 : 
people of defeated Goths Ga 13,^6 ; 
Cl 9, 7 : Valerian's interview with 
Ulpius Crinitus and Aurelian at A 
10, 3; 13, i 15,1: Aurelian at A 
22, 3 : Aurelian murdered near A 
35,5- 

Cadusii, tribe of Media: Caracalla 

among Cc 6, 4 : letter of King of 

V a2 . 
Caecilius : eunuch of Faustina AC 

10,9. 
Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, Cj. : 

example followed by Hadrian 

H 10, 2. 

Caecilius Metellus Pius, Q. : example 
of loyalty SA 8, 5. 

Caecilius : see Statius. 

Caelestinus : cited Va 8, i. 

Caelestis, goddess : oracles given by 
HP 4, 2; OM 3, i : Celsus made 
emperor in robe of TT 29, i. 

Caelianus, rhetorician: teacher of 
Diadumenianus D 8, 9. 

Caelius : see Apicius. 

Caelius, Mons, at Rome : M. Aurelius 
born on MA i, 5 : Commodus 
moved to C 16, 3 : dinner served 
to Elagabalus on E 30, 4 : house 
of Tetrici on TT 25, 4. 

Caelius Antipater, L., historian : 
preferred to Sallust by Hadrian H 
16, 6. 

Caelius Attianus : guardian of 
Hadrian H i, 4; 9, 3: friendship 
for Hadrian H 4, 2: advice to 
Hadrian on his accession H 5, 5 : 
escorted ashes of Trajan H 5, 9 : 
promoted by Hadrian from prefect 
of guard to senator H 8, 7 : 
Hadrian's jealousy of and deposi- 
tion H 9, 3-4 : Hadrian owed his 
principate to H 9, 6 : regarded as 
enemy by Hadrian H 15, 2. 

Caelius Felix : killed by Commodus 
C7.6. 

Caenophruriuiri, place in Thrace : 
Aurelian murdered near A 35, 5. 



Caesar (as imperial name): origin 
Ae 2, 3 : used for heir of emperor 
Ae i, i; OM i, i: conferred on 
Aelius Verus H 23, n ; Ae i, 2 ; 2, 
i. 6: AP 4, i; V i, 6: on M. 
Aurelius MA 6, 3 : on L. Verus 
MA 7, 5 : on sons of M. Aurelius 
MA 12, 8; C i, 10: on Commodus 
MA 16, i; 17, 3; C i, 10; n, 13: 
refused by Pertinax for son HP 6, 
9: conferred by Commodus on 
Albinus S 6, 9; CA 2, 13, 3; 6, 
4-5! I3i 4-io: conferred on Cara- 
calla S 10, 3 ; 14, 3 ; 16, 3 : on 
Geta S 16, 3 ; Ge 5, 3 : offered by 
Severus to Albinus CA 1,2; 7, 3-4 ; 
10, 3 : conferred on Diadumenianus 
OM 10, 4 ; D 2, 5 : on Severus 
Alexander OM 4., i ; E 5, i ; 10, i ; 
SA i, 2; 2, 4; 8, i ; 64, 4: taken 
from Alexander E 13, I : given by 
Alexander to father-in-law SA 49, 
3 : conferred on Gordian III M 16, 
7; 20, 2; Go 22, 2-5; M-B 3, 3-5; 
8, 3 : on Maximinus the younger 
M 22, 6 : on Valerian the younger 
Va 8, i ; Ga 14, 9 : won by Cyriades 
TT 2, 2 : conferred on Postumus 
the younger TT 4, i : on Victorinus 
the younger TT 6, 3 ; 7, i : on 
Tetricus the younger TT 24, i ; 
25, i : Valerian planned to appoint 
Ulpius Crinitus as A 10, 2 : con- 
ferred on Probus P 12, b : on 
Carinus Ca 7, i ; 10 ; 16, 2 : Carus 
planned to take powers of from 
Carinus Ca 7, 3; 17, 6: conferred 
on Numerian Ca 7, I ; 10 : on 
Constantius Ae 2, 2; Ca 17, 6 : on 
Galerius Ae 2, 2. 

Caesarea, city in Cappadocia : cap- 
tured by Cyriades TT 2, 2. 

Caesars: custom of family of CA 5, 
6 : Theoclius writer of times oi A 
6, 4. 

Caesonini : Calpurnia descended 
from TT 32, 5. 

Caesonius Vectilianus : report ol to 
M. Aurelius AC 5, 5. 

Caieta, town in Italy: harbour re- 
paired by Antoninus Pius AP 8, 3 : 
reputed amours of Faustina at MA 

19. 7- 

Calabria, district of Italy: Teuicus 
supervisor of TT 24, 5. 

469 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Calenus : fellow-student of M. Aure- 
lius MA 3, 8. 

CALIGULA: M. Aurelius feared 
that Commodus would resemble 
MA 28, 10 : L. Verus imitated vices 
of V 4, 6 : deserved to die, accord- 
ing to M. Aurelius AC 8,4: bio- 
graphy by Suetonius C 10, 2 : man 
who had same birthday as killed 
by Commodus C 10, 2 : example 
of evil ruler E i, i ; A 42, 6 : vices 
of practised by Elagabalus E 33, 
i : removed by tyrannicide E 34, i. 

Callicrates of Tyre : cited A 4, 2. 

Calpurnia : wife of pretender Titus 
TT 32, 5-6. 

Calpurnius : wrote letter to Faustina 
AC 10, 9. 

Calpurnius Agricola : sent to quell 
revolt in Britain MA 8, 8. 

Calpurnius Crassus Frugi Licinianus, 
C. : spared by Hadrian H 5, 5 : 
murdered H 5, 6. 

Calpurnius Piso, C. : attempt to 
seize principate now forgotten PN 
9, 2 : conspiracy of suppressed CA 
12, 10. 

Calpurnius Piso, L. : consulship of 
C 12, 1-3. 

Calpurnius Scipio Orfitus, Ser. : con- 
sulship of C ii, 14. 

Calpurnius : see lulius. 

Calvisius Tnllus, P. : twice consul, 
grandfather of M. Aurelius MA i, 3. 

Camilli : Claudius resembled Cl i, 3. 

Camillus : see Furius : Ovinius. 

Campania : Hadrian's visit and gen- 
erosity to H 9, 6 : visit of Anton- 
inus Pius to AP 7, ii : M. Aurelius 
in MA 10, 7 : spectacles given by 
Gordian I in Go 4, 6 : peaches 
from CA ii, 3 : Tetricus supervisor 
of TT 24, 5 : Tacitus in when made 
emperor T 7, 5. 

Campus Martius, at Rome : theatre 
in destroyed by Hadrian H 9, i : 
a lunatic's harangue in MA 13,6: 
Basilica Alexandrina near SA 26, 
7 : heads of Maximinus and son 
burned in M 31, 5 : portico in 
planned by Gordian III Go 32, 6: 
public meeting in T 7, 2 : spectacle 
in Cl 13, 7. 

Camsisoleus : general of Gallienus, 
defeated Trebellianus TT 26, 4. 

470 



Candidus : see lulius : Vespronius. 

Caninia, Lex: observed by Tacitus 

, T 10, 7. 

Caninius Celer, orator : teacher of 
M. Aurelius MA 2, 4 : of L. Verus 

V 2, 5. 

Cannabas (or Cannabaudes): leader of 
Goths, killed by Aurelian A 22, 2. 

Canopus : place in Hadrian's villa 
near Tibur H 26, 5. 

Canus : see Sulpicius. 

Canusium, town in Italy : L. Verus 
ill at MA 8, ii; V 6, 7 : capes 
from Ca 20, 6. 

Capelianus : defeated Gordians in 
Africa M 19 ; 20, 7 ; Go 15 16. 

Capella : see Antistius. 

Cap i to, prefect of guard: letter of 
Probus to P 10, 6-7. 

Capito : see Egnatius. 

Capitolinus : see Cornelius : lulius. 

Capitolium, in Rome : oath sworn in 
by M. Aurelius MA 29, 4 : vows 
fulfilled in by Pertinax HP 5, 4: 
visit of Didius Julianus to DJ 4, 6 : 
visit of Severus to S 7, i : visited 
by Severus and Plautianus S 14, 7 : 
by Caracalla Cc 3, 2 : by Elaga- 
balus E 15,7: dinner served to 
Elagabalus on E 30, 4 : ceremonial 
robes of emperors kept in SA 40, 
8 : Go .,, 4 ; P 7, 4-5 : visited by 
Severus Alexander SA 43, 5 ; 57, i : 
soldiers killed on Go 22, 8 : visited 
by Maximus and Balbinus M-B 3, 
2 ; 8, 2. 4 : by Gallienus Ga 8, i. 5 : 
statue of Claudius on Cl 3, 4: 
temple of Jupiter on A 29, i : Aure- 
lian's triumphal procession to A 
33. 3 ; 34. 5 : filled with gifts by 
Aurelian A 41, n : statue of Aure- 
lian voted for T 9, 2 : Tacitus' en- 
dowment for repair of T 10, 5 : 
amphora kept on M 4, I. 

Cappadocia: slaves from used by 
Hadrian H 13, 7 : horses from 
given away by Gordian I Go 4,5: 
invaded by Scythians (Goths) Ga 
ii, i. 

Capreae : Lucilla killed in C 5, 7. 

Capua, town in Italy : M. Aurelius 
escorted L. Verus to MA 8, 10; 
V 6, 7: journey of Faustina to 
AC 10, 7 : plan to arm gladiators 
at DJ 8, 3. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



CARACALLA (L. Septimius Bas- 
sianus; M. Aurelius Antoninus): 
origin of name S 21, u ; Cc 9, 7-8; 
D 2, 8: Severus deemed happy 
had he not had son like S 21, 6: 
birth and parentage S 3, 9; 20, 2; 
21, 7; Cc 6, 6; 10, i: childhood 
S 4, 6; Cc i, 3-8: character S 20, 
3; Cc 2, 1-3; 5, 2; 9, 3; " 5; 
Ge 7, 4-6 ; SA 9, i : received title 
of Caesar S 10, 3 ; 14, 3 ; 16, 3 : 
received name Antoninus S 10, 3- 
6; PN8, 5; Cci.i; Gei,4; OM 
3, 4 ; D 6, 8 ; SA IO, 5 : received 
imperial insignia from Senate S 14, 
3 : married daughter of Plautianus 
S 14, 8 : made consul S 14, 10; 16, 
8 : acclaimed colleague of Severus 
S 16, 3 ; Ge 5, 3 : received triumph 
over Jews S 16, 7 : attempt of 
soldiers to make emperor S 18, 9- 
ii ; Cc ii, 3-4: omen given by 
statue of S 22, 3 : sent greetings to 
Albinus CA 7, 4 : Severus planned 
to make joint ruler with Geta S 20, 
1-2 ; 23, 3-6 ; CA 3, 5 ; 7, 2 ; Cc 2, 
7; Ge I, 3-7; 6, i : caused Severus 
to be deified S 19, 4 : murdered 
Geta S 20, 3 ; 21, 7 ; 23, 7 ; Cc 2, 
4-6 ; 8, 5 ; 10, 4-6 ; Ge 2, 8 ; 6, i : 
asked Papinian to have murder of 
Geta excused Cc8, 5-6 : opposed by 
soldiers at Alba Cc 2, 7-8 ; Ge 6, i -2 : 
donatives to soldiers, Cc 2, 8 ; Ge 6, 
2 : appearance before senate and 
first acts of rule Cc 2, 9 3, 2 : 
murders S 21, 8; Cc3, 34, 9; 5, i ; 
8, i. 4. 8 ; Ge 6, 3-6 ; 7, 6 : arrogance 
Cc4,io: acts of cruelty and oppres- 
sion 821,9; Cc 5, 3. 7; Ge4, 2. 5 : 
hated S 21, 11 ; Cc 5, 2 ; 9, 3 ; OM 
2, 3-4; 7, 1-3: journey through 
Gaul, Raetia, Dacia, Thrace to 
Asia Cc 5, 1-8: cognomina Cc 5, 
5-6 ; 6, 5 ; 10, 5-6 ; Ge 6, 6 : love of 
hunting Cc 5, 9 : war against 
Parthians Cc 6, 1-6 : cruelty at 
Alexandria Cc 6, 2-3 : murdered 
Cc 6, 67, 2 ; 8, 9 ; OM 2, i. 5 ; 3, 
8; 4,7-8; D i, i; E 2, 3 ; M 4, 4 : 
length of life and rule Cc 9, i : 
public works S 21, 11-12 ; Cc 9, 4- 
9; E 17, 8-9; gifts to populace S 
21, i ; Cc 9, 7-8 ; OM 5, 3 : interest 
in cult of Isis Cc 9, 10-11 : burial 



Caracalla continued. 

Cc 9, 12 : deification and other 
honours Cc n, 5-6; OM 5, 1-3; 

6, 8 ; D 3, i : relations with Julia 
Domna S 21, 7; Cc 3, 3; 10, 1-4; 
Ge 7, 3 : gave omen of death of 
Geta Ge 3, 3 : seemed to mourn 
Geta's death Ge 7, 5 : a disgrace to 
name Antoninus OM 7, 8 : deci- 
sions not worthy of becoming 
law OM 13, i : relations with Julia 
Soaemis E 2, i : Elagabalus called 
son of Cc 9, 2; n, 7; OM 7, 6; 

8, 4; 9,4; E i, 4; 2, i ; 3, i ; 17, 
4 ; M 4, 6 : wrong done to by Ela- 
gabalus SA 7, 3 : Maximinus' mili- 
tary service under M 4, 4 ; remark 
concerning Maximinus the younger 
M 30, 6-7 : consul with Gordian I, 
envied him Go 4, i. 3. 

Carinae, place in Rome : house of 
Balbinus in M-B 16, i. 

CARINUS : older son of Carus Ca 
10 : Carus better had he not left as 
heir Ca 3, 8: evil emperor P 24, 
4-5; F 3, 5-6: presented conse- 
crated ivory to woman Ca 3, 5-6: 
vices and evil friends of Ca 16; 17, 
2 ; 18, i : made Caesar, sent to 
rule Gaul and western provinces 
Ca 7, 1-2 ; 10; 16, 2 : Carus planned 
to take powers of Caesar from Ca 

7. 3! I7i 6 : attitude toward senate 
Ca 16, 6 : indifference toward duties 
as ruler Ca 16, 8 : arrogance and 
luxury Ca 17, 1-5 : defeated and 
killed by Diocletian Ca 10; 18, 2. 

Carnuntum, town in Austria : Severus 
acclaimed emperor at S 5, i. 

Carpi : war of against Moesia M-B 
16, 3 : defeated by Aurelian A 30, 4. 

Carpicus : cognomen bestowed on 
Aurelian A 30, 4. 

Carpisculus : cognomen proposed in 
jest by Aurelian A 30, 4. 

Carrhae, city in Mesopotamia : Cara- 
calla murdered near Cc 6, 6 ; 7, i : 
Lunus worshipped at Cc 7, 3 : re- 
captured from Persians by Gordian 
III Go 26, 6; 27, 6: captured by 
Odaenathus Ga 10, 3; 12, i. 

Carthage : renamed Hadrianopolis 
H 20, 4 : fire at AP 9, 2 : called 
Alexandria Commodiana Togata 
C 17, 8 ; oracle of Caelestis at OM 

471 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Carthage continued. 

3, i : Gordian I at M 14, 4 : Go 9, 
6; ii, 5: Gordian II defeated and 
killed near Go 4, 2; 15 : prayer of 
Scipio, conqueror of M-B 17, 8 : 
submission of rebels at Go 23, 4: 
letter of senate to council of T 18, 
2-4 : saved from rebels by Probus 
P 9, i : Rome grew after conquest 
of Ca 3, i. 

CARUS: Vopiscus will write life of 
and of sons P 24, 8 ; F i, 4 ; 15, 10 : 
lives of written by Fabius Cerylli- 
anus Ca 4, 3 : a good emperor P 
24, 4 ; Ca 3, 8 ; 9, 4 : trained by 
Probus P 22, 3 : birthplace Ca 4, 
I 5, 3: early career Ca 4, 6; 5, 
4: made emperor P 24, 4; Ca 5, 
4 ; 15,2: said to have caused death 
of Probus but punished his slayers 
Ca 6, i : opinion of Probus con- 
cerning Ca 6, 2-3 : gave sons name 
of Caesar Ca 7, i ; sent Carinus to 
rule Gaul Ca 7, 1-2 : deplored ways 
of Carinus and planned to take 
from him powers of Caesar Ca 7, 3 ; 
17, 6 : made war on Persians Ca 7, 
I ; 8, I ; 12, I : defeated Sarma- 
tians Ca 8, i ; 9, 4 : death Ca 8, 2 
9, 2 ; 18, i : letter of Ca 4, 6-7 : 
message to senate Ca 5, 2 : spec- 
tacles given by Ca 19 ; 20, 2 : Dio- 
cletian's saying concerning Ca 

20,2. 

Carystus, place in Euboea : marble 

from Go 32, 2. 
Casius, Mons, mountain in Syria : 

ascended by Hadrian H 14, 3. 
Casperius Aemilianus : killed by 

Severus S 13, 4. 
Casperius Agrippinus : killed by 

Severus S 13, 3. 
Cassii : murderers of Julius Caesar, 

supposed ancestors of Avidius 

Cassius AC i, 4. 
Cassius, L. (C. ?) : name of borne by 

Avidius Cassius AC 14, 4. 
Cassius Longinus : teacher of Zen- 

obia, killed by Aurelian A 30, 3. 
Cassius Papirius : Albinus to succeed 

in consulship CA 10, 10-12. 
Castor and Pollux, Temple of, at 

Rome: meeting of senate in M 16, 

i; Va 5 ,4. 
Catilina: see Sergius. 

472 



Catilius Severus : original name of 
M. Aurelius MA I, 9. 

Catilius Severus : counsellor of Sev- 
erus Alexander SA 68, i. 

Catilius Severus, L. : appointed 
governor of Syria by Hadrian H 5, 
10 : attacked by Hadrian H 15,7: 
angered by adoption of Antoninus 
Pius H 24, 6 : deposed by Hadrian 
from prefecture of city H 24, 7 : 
colleague of Antoninus Pius in 
consulship AP 2, 9 : great-grand- 
father of M. Aurelius MA i, 4. 9. 

Cato : see Porcius. 

Catos : left no sons S 21, i. 

Catulinus : sze Valerius. 

Catulus : grandfather of Memiaia, 
wife of Severus Alexander SA 20, 3. 

Catulus : see Cinna. 

Cecropius (or Ceronius) : murdered 
Gallienus Ga 14, 4-9. 

Cecropius : trained by Probus P 22, 3. 

Ceioma Fabia : sister of L. Verus V 
10, 4 : influence over Verus V 10, 
3-4 : attempted to marry M. Aure- 
lius MA 29, 10 : in conspiracy to 
kill M. Aurelius V 10, 4: a self- 
styled son of HP 10, 2. 

Ceionii, family of: Clodius Albinus 
descended from CA 4, I ; 10, 6 ; 
T2, 8 : later importance of CA 4, 2 : 
prowess of under the Republic CA 

i.3. 5- 
Ceionius Albinus : killed by Severus 

S 13, 3. 
Ceionius Albinus, city-prefect: letter 

of Valerian to A 9. 
Ceionius Civica Barbarus, M. : uncle 

of L. Verus, sent to Orient to join 

him MA 9, 4. 
Ceionius Commodus : father of Aelius 

Verus Ae 2, 7 ; also called L. Aure- 
lius Verus and Annius Ae 2, 7. 
Ceionius lulianus : conversation \vith 

F 2, i. 
Ceionius Postumianus : introduced 

Albinus to Antonines CA 6, i. 
Ceionius Postumus : father of Clodius 

Albinus CA 4, 3 : letter of CA 4, 

Celer Verianus : letter of Gallienus 

to TT 9, 5-9. 
Celer : see Caninius. 
Celerinus : see Cuspidius. 
Celsa : see Nonia. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Celsinus : counsellor of Diocletian A 

44, 3. 
Celsinus : Life of Probus addressed 

to P i, 3. 

Celsinus : see Clodius. 
CELSUS: formerly tribune, made 

emperor in Africa, murdered TT 29, 

1-4: Cl7, 4- 
Celsus : revolted against Antoninus 

Pius AC 10, i. 
Celsus : reported favourably about 

Regalianus TT 10, n. 
Celsus Aelianus : consul, sent decree 

of senate to colleague M-B 17, 2. 
Celsus : see Aelius : Furius : Heren- 

nius : luventius : Publilius : Rag- 

onius : Rufius. 
Celts : aided Postumus Ga 7, i : 

invasion of under Claudius Cl 6, 

2 : mares of captured Cl 9, 6. 
Censorini : family of Censorinus TT 

CENSORINUS : good qualities and 
honours of TT 32, 8; 33, i : made 
emperor in reign of Claudius ana 
killed TT 31, 7. 12; 33i 2-3 : tomb 

of TT 33, 4-5- 
Centumcellae, town in Italy : cruelty 

of Commodus at C I, 9. 
Cereius Maecianus : letter to T 19, 3.5. 
Cerellius Faustinianus : killed by 

Severus S 13, 6. 
Cerellius lulianus : killed by Severus 

S 13, 6. 

Cerellius Macrinus : killed by Sev- 
erus S 13, 6. 
Ceres: rites of; see Eleusinian 

Mysteries : statue of consecrated by 

Aurelian A 47, 3. 
Cerronius Bassus : letter of Aurelian 

to A 31, 5-10. 
Cervidius Scaevola, Q. : consulted 

by M. Aurelius MA n, 10 : teacher 

of Septimius Severus and Papinian 

Cc 8, 3. 
Cervonius Papus, C. : consulship of 

Go 29, i. 

Ceryllianus : see Fabtus. 
Cesettianus : see Aelius. 
Chaeronea, town in Greece : home 

of Sextus, teacher of M. Aurelius 

MA 3, 2. 
Chalcedon, city in Asia : home of 

Apollonius, teacher of M. Aurelius 

MA 2, 7- 



Apollonius (in 

by 



Chalcis : home of 
correct) AP 10, 4. 

Chaldaeus (-i) : consulted by M. 
Aurelius MA 19, 3 ; E 9, i : by 
father of Pertinax HP i, 3 : by 
Severus 84, 3 : those who con- 
sulted killed by Severus S 15, 5. 

Charioviscus : served under Aurelian 
A ii, 4. 

Chatti : invaded Germany and Raetia 
MA 8, 7 : defeated by Didius 
Julianus DJ i, 8. 

Chauci : defeated by Didius Julianus 
DJ i, 7- 

Chilo : see Mallius. 

Christ : statue of in private chapel 
of Severus Alexander SA 29, 2 : 
Hadrian and Alexander wished to 
build temples to SA 43, 6 : bishops 
of worshipped Serapis in Egypt 
F 8, 2 : patriarch forced to worship 
in Egypt F 8, 4. 

Christians : persons forbidden to be- 
come S 17, 2 : plan to amalgamate 
religion of with cult of Elagabalus 
E 3, 5: tolerated by Severus 
Alexander SA 22, 4 : danger of all 
persons becoming SA 43, _7- cus- 
tom of in choosing priests imitated 
by Alexander SA 45, 7 : dispute 
settled in favour of by Alexander 
SA 49, 6 : precept of adopted by 
Alexander SA 51, 7-8 : meeting of 
senate compared to gathering of A 
20, 5 : bad character of in Egypt 
F7, 5; 8, 2-3, 7- 

Christologus : nickname 
Pertinax HP 13, 5. 

Cicero : see Tullius. 

Cilicia : L. Verus in V 6, 9 : 
lianus ruled over people of TT 26, 
3 : Claudius planned to remove 
Isaurians to TT 26, ^ : Aurelianus 
proconsul of A 42, 2 : Carus pro- 
consul of Ca 4, 6. 

Cilo : see Fabius : Mallius. 

Cincinnatus : see Quinctius. 

Cincius Severus : protested against 
burial of Commodus C 20, 3-5 : 
killed by Severus S 13, 9. 

Cinna Catulus, philosopher : teacher 
of M. Aurelius MA 3, 2. 

Circeius : name given by Aelius 
Verus to messenger Ae 5, 10. 

473 



given to 



Trebel- 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Circesium, place in Mesopotamia: 
Gordian III buried near Go 34, 2. 

Circus Maximus, in Rome : wild 
beast hunts in H 19, 7 : collapse of 
AP 9, i : M. Aurelius in MA 16, 2 : 
Commodus wished to drive in C 8, 
8 : prodigy in C 16, 2 : benches in 
filled PN 3, i : acclamations in OM 
12, 9 : performers from favoured 
E 6, 4 : Elagabalus' body dragged 
through E 17, 3 : women from E 
26, 3 : 32, 9 : Elagabalus drove in 
E 23, i : restored by Severus Alex- 
ander AS 24, 3 : - races of Furius 
Placidus in A 15, 4-5 : spectacle of 
Probus in P 19, 2-4. 

Civica : see Ceionius. 

Clara : see Aemilia : Didia. 

Clarissimus : ses Severus. 

Clarus : see Erucius : lulius Eru- 
cius : Ragonius : Septicius. 

Claudia : neice of Claudius, mother 
of Constantius Cl 13, 2. 9. 

Claudia : sister of Probus P 3, 4. 

Claudia, Aqua: drunk by Severus 
Alexander SA 30, 4. 

Claudianus : see Asellius. 

Claudianus, Mons, in Egypt : marble 
from Go 32, 2. 

Claudii : ancestors of Constantine, 
revered by him E 2, 4. 

CLAUDIUS: glory of all emperors 
and founder of Constantino's family 
E 35, 2 : family of revered and 
noble TT 31, 7: ancestor of Con- 
stantius Ga 7, I ; 14, 3 ; Cl I, i. 3 ; 

9, 9; 10, 7; A 44, 5 : set up inscrip- 
tion to Valerian the younger Va 
8, 3 : aided Gallienus against Post- 
umus Ga 7, i : native of Dalmatia, 
said to be descended from kings of 
Troy Cl n, 9 ; native of Illyricum, 
tribune of Fifth Legion Cl 14, 2 ; 
15, i ; 16, i : in command of 
Illyricum Cl 15, 2 : in command of 
Peloponnesus Cl 16, 2 : excellent 
character of Ga 14,2; 15, 3; Cl i, 
3; 2, i-8; 3, 2-7; 7, 6-8: dis- 
approved of statue of Gallienus Ga 
18,4: approved of Regalianus TT 

10, 9-13 : promoted by Valerian 
TT 10, 14 : made emperor Ga 14, 
2; 15, 3; Cl 4: defeated, killed 
and buried Aureolus TT n, 4-5; 
Cl 5, 1-3 ; A 16, 2 : planned to re- 

474 



Claudius continued. 
move Isaurians to Cilicia TT 26, 
7 : allowed Zenobia to rule TT 30, 
3. ii : victory over Goths with 
Marcianus Cl 6, i ; 18, i : Censor- 
inus pretender in time of TT 31,7. 
12: Gothic war TT 30, 3. n ; Cl 
i, 3; 2, 6 ; 6- 9; ii 12, i: sent 
Aurelian against Goths A 16, i ; 
17, 2-4 : removed Gallienus from 
rule Cl i, 3: scorn for Gallienus 
Cl 5, 2 : letters of Cl 7, 1-5 ; 8, 4 
9, 2; A 17, 2-4: oracles given to 
Cl 10, 1-5 : wished to make Quin- 
tillus associate in power Cl 10, 6 : 
Egyptians faithful to Cl ii, 2: 
disobedient soldiers of defeated and 
sent to Rome in chains Cl ii, 5-8; 
A 18, i : pestilence during reign 
of Cl 12, 2 : death Cl 12, 2 : 
brothers and sister of Cl 10, 6 ; 12, 
3 ; 13, 1-3 : had no children Cl 13, 
9 : habits, appearance and strength 
Cl 13, 5-8: received soldier's re- 
wards from Decius Cl 13, 8 : letters 
of Valerian concerning Cl 14 15 : 
letter of Decius concerning Cl 16 : 
letter of Gallienus concerning Cl 
17 : acclamations for in senate after 
victory in Illyricum Cl 18, 1-3: 
more beloved than Trajan and 
Antonines Cl 18, 4 : importance of 
Aurelian under A 16, i ; 17, 4; 
P 6, 6 : example of good emperor 
A 42, 4 : witticism of jester of A 42, 
5 : fame of descendants of A 44. 4 : 
Probus to be preferred to T 16, 6 : 
Probus said to be relative of P 3, 3 : 
Probus' achievements under P 6, i : 
opinion concerning Probus P 7, i : 
under Probus no longer desired P 
12, 2: fortune begrudged long rule 
to Ca 3, 6. 

Claudius : barber, made prefect of 
grain-supply by Elagabalus E 12, 
i. 

Claudius Arabianus : killed by Sev- 
erus 813, 7. 

Claudius Atticus Herodes, Ti., ora- 
tor : teacher of M. Aurelius MA 2, 
4 : of L. Verus V 2, 5. 

Claudius Eusthenius : wrote lives of 
Diocletian and associates Ca 18, 5. 

Claudius lulianus : letter to Maxi- 
mus and Balbinus M-B 17. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Claudius Livianus, Ti. : friendship 
for Hadrian H 4, 2. 

Claudius Lucanus : killed by Corn- 
modus C 7, 7. 

Claudius Marcellus, M. : prophecy 
that Severus Alexander would re- 
semble SA 4, 6. 

Claudius Maximus, philosopher : 
teacher of M. Aurelius MA 3, 2. 

Claudius Pompeianus : son ot Ti. 
Claudius Pompeianus, killed by 
Caracalla Cc 3, 8. 

Claudius Pompeianus Quintianus : 
relative of Commodus, attempted 
to kill him C 4, 2-3 ; 5, 12 : killed 
C 4, 4; 5, 12 (incorrect). 

Claudius Pompeianus, Ti. : married 
to Lucilla MA 20, 6 ; Cc 3, 8 : 
twice consul MA 20, 6 : Cc 3, 8 : 
consulship of AC n, 8; 12, 2: 
advanced in years AC 10, 3 : ap- 
pointed Pertinax to a military 
command HP 2, 4 : urged by Per- 
tinax to take principate but refused 
HP 4, 10: invited by Didius 
Julianus to share principate but 
refused DJ 8, 3. 

Claudius Rufus: killed by Severus 
S 13, i. 

Claudius Sapilianus : letter of T 19, 

Claudius Severus, philosopher : 
teacher of M. Aurelius MA 3, 3. 

Claudius Severus Arabianus, Cn. : 
consulship of S i, 3. 

Claudius Sulpicianus : killed by 
Severus S 13, 4. 

Claudius Venacus: counsellor of 
Severus Alexander SA 68, i. 

Cleander : see Aurelius. 

Cleodamus : defended Byzantium 
against Goths Ga 13, 6. 

Cleopatra: claimed by Zenobia as 
ancestress TT 27, i ; 30, 2 ; Cl i, 
i : gold dishes of used by Zenobia 
TT 30, 19; pearls of owned by 
Calpurnia TT 32, 6: preferred 
death to captivity A 27, 3. 

Cleopatra : name given to Zenobia 

P9, 5- 
Clodia, Via : villa of L. Verus on V 

8,8. 
CLODIUS ALBINUS: family and 

birth CA i, 354, 1-7: older than 

Niger CA 7, I : education CA 5, 



Clodius Albinus continued. 

1-2: omens of rule CA 5, 3-10 : 
oracles concerning PN 8, 1-3 ; CA 
i, 4: early career CA 6, 1-7: ap- 
pointed governor of Britain by 
Commodus CA 13, 4 : offered title 
of Caesar by Commodus S 6, 9 ; 
CA 2, i3, 35 6, 4-5; 13, 4-io: 
letter of Commodus to CA 2, 2-5 : 
made consul by Severus CA 3, 6 ; 
6, 8 : offered title of Caesar and 
share in principate by Severus CA 
i, 2; 7, 2-6; 10, 3: speech to 
troops accepting imperial power 
CA 3, 3 : considered as successor 
by Severus S 6, 9; PN 4, 7; CA 
3, 4-5 ; 6, 8 ; 10, 3 : popularity of 
S ii, 3; CA 3, 5? 7, 2. 4; 9, 6; 

12, 1-12; 13, 3' 14, 2: Severus 
tried to murder CA 8, 1-3: revolt 
DJ 5, i; S 10, i; PN 2, i; 6, 2; 
9, 3 ; CA i, i ; 8, 4 ; SA i, 7 : 
measures taken against by Severus 
S6, 10 ; 10, 2; PN 5, 2; CA 9, i: 
revolt suppressed S 10, 7 u, 6; 
CA 9, 1-3; 12, 13: death S 11, 
6-9; CAg, 3-7; 12, 3: prophecies 
concerning death S 10, 7; CA 9, 
2-4 : family and partisans punished 
S 12, i. 5. 7 5 CA 9, 5 ; 12, 2-4 : 
character CA 10, i; 11, 5: letters 
of M. Aurelius concerning CA 10, 
4-12 : habits and tastes CA n, 2-8; 

13, 1-2: generosity CA _u, i: 
letter of Severus concerning CA 
12, 5-12: appearance CA 13, i: 
speech to soldiers CA 13, 5-10 : 
anger of Commodus at CA 14, i-5 : 
Pertinax advised to take as asso- 
ciate CA 14, 2 : Pertinax' hatred 
for CA 14, 6 : influenced Julianus 
to kill Pertinax CA i, i ; 14, 2. 6 : 
life of written by Marius Maximus 
Fi, i. 

Clodius Celsinus : praised by senate 

Sn, 3. 

Clodius Pulcher, P. : mules of F 6, 4- 
Clodius Rufinus: killed by Severus 

S 13, 5. 
Cobotes: warred against Rome MA 

22, i. 
Cocceius Verus: killed by Severus 

S 13, 4. 
Coedes: influential freedman of L. 

Verus V 9, 5. 

475 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Comagena, town in Austria: oracle 
given to Claudius at Cl 10, 1-3. 

Commodianus : name given to Rome 
C 8, 6. 9 : to the senate C 8, 9 : to 
the Domus Palatina C 12, 7: to 
the age C 14, 3 : to the Roman 
People C 15, 5 : to Carthage C 17, 
8: to the African fleet C 17, 8: to 
flamen of Commodus C 17, 11. 

COMMODUS: M. Aurelius deemed 
happy had he not had son like MA 
18, i ; S 21, 5 : a disgrace to name 
Antoninus OM 7, 7; SA 9, 2: 
parentage and birth MA 19, i. 4-7; 
C i, 2-4: education and teachers 
C i, 5-6: evil and cruel in youth 
MA 16, i ; 27, 9. 12 ; C i, 7-9 ; 10, 
1-2 : opinion of M. Aurelius con- 
cerning MA 27, ii ; 28, 10 : early 
honours MA 16, i-2; 17, 3; 22, 
12; C i, io2, 5; ii, 1312, 7- 
in Marcomannic war C 2, 5 ; 12, 2. 
6 : colleague of father in tribunician 
power MA 27, 5; AC 13, 4 : dis- 
missed father's councillors C 3, i. 
3 : killed family of Avidius Cassius 
AC 13, 7 : abandoned war against 
Marcomanni C 3, 5 : triumph C 3, 
6 : debaucheries C 2, 7-9; 3, 6-7; 
5, 4. 8-1 1 ; 10, 8-9: bad appoint- 
ments to provinces C 3, 8 : hostile 
relations with senate C 3, 9; DJ 
2, i : conspiracies against C 4, 1-3 ; 
15, 2; 17, i: murders and exiles 
C 4, 4. 8-n; 5, 7. 12-14; 7, 1-2. 
4-8; 8, 1-3; 9, 2-3; 10, 7; 14, 8; 
15, i : influence of Saoterus C 3, 6; 

4, 5-6 : influence of Perennis C 4, 7 : 

5, 1-6. 13 ; 6, 1-2 : prowess as gladi- 
ator MA 19, 4-6; C I, 8; 5, 5 ; 8, 5 ; 
ii, 10-12; 12, 10-12; 13, 3; 15, 3. 8; 
CA 6, 7 : exiled and killed wife C 
5, 9: wars C 6, 1-2 ; 13, 5-6 : influ- 
ence of Cleander C 6, 3. 5-12: 
cognomina C 8, 1-5. 9; ii, 14; Cc 
5. 5 J D 7, 2-3 : folly and cruelty 
C 8, 6-9; 9, 6; 10, 2 ii, 9; 13, 
4; 15, 4-7; Ca 3, 3: took part in 
foreign cults C 9, 4-6; PN 6, 8-9; 
Cc 9, ii : vows made for C 12, 9: 
appearance C 13, i ; 17, 3 : negli- 
gent as ruler C 13, 7 14, i : famine 
C 14, 1-3 : official corruption under 
C 14, 4-7: death C 17, 2; HP 4, 
4.5.7; 5, I'.Ss, i; 14, i; PNi,5; 

476 



Commodus continued. 
2, i : prodigies C 16, 1-7 : largess 
and spectacles C 16, 8-9 : buried C 
17, 4; 20, 1-5 : hatred for C 17, 4; 
S 4, 3; CA 3, i : public works C 
J 7i 5-7i 9- IQ : organized African 
grain-fleet C 17, 7-8: honoured by 
Severus C 17, 11-12; S n, 3-4; 12, 
8: sisters C 17, 12: outcries in 
senate after death C 18-19; HP 5, 
i : promoted Pertinax HP 3, 5 : 
accusations made to by Pertinax 
HP 3, 7 : pleased by Pertinax as 
city-prefect HP 4, 3 : statues over- 
thrown HP 6, 3 : property sold by 
Pertinax HP 7, 8-10 ; 8, 2-7 : ser- 
vants of tried to murder Pertinax 
HP 12, 8: freed Didius Julianus 
from charge of conspiracy DJ 2, i ; 
6, 2 : Didius Julianus promised to 
restore to honour DJ 2, 6 : appoin- 
ted Severus consul S 4, 4 : planned 
to make Albinus a Caesar S 6, 9 ; 
CA 2, i3, 3; 6, 4-5; 13, 4-io : 
appointed Niger consul and gov- 
ernor of Syria PN i, 5 ; 4, 6 : letter 
concerning Niger PN 4, 4: Niger's 
advice to PN 7, 2-3 : military dis- 
cipline relaxed under PN 10, 8: 
painting in gardens of PN 6, 8: 
letter to Albinus CA 2, 2-5 : ad- 
vanced Albinus in office CA 6, 3-7; 
14, 3 : replaced Albinus as governor 
of Britain CA 14, i ; better had he 
feared the senate CA 13, 7: letter 
concerning Albinus CA 14, 3-6: 
decisions unworthy of becoming 
law OM 13, i : verses directed 
against D 7, 2-4 : Elagabalus worse 
than SA 7, 4; 9, 4: example of evil 
ruler T 6, 4 : called Incommodus 

T6, 4 . 

Commodus : name given to month 
August C ii, 8; 12, 6. 

Commodus : see Aelius : Aurelius : 
Ceionius. 

Concha, place in Italy : Zenobia lived 
near TT 30, 27. 

Concordia: appealed to P 12, 7. 

Concordia, Temple of, at Rome : 
Pertinax waited in before acclama- 
tion as emperor HP 4, 9 : meetings 
of senate in SA 6, 2 ; M-B I, I ; P 
10, 5. 

Condianus : set Quintilius. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Constantii : ancestors of Constantine, 
revered by him E 2, 4. 

Constantina : sister of Claudius Cl 
13, 3. 

CONSTANTINE : addressed CA 4, 
2; Ge i, 1-2; E 34, 1-5; 35; SA 
65-67; M i, 1-3; Go i; 34, 6: 
elevated family of Ceionii CA 4, 2 : 
revered Antoninus and M. Aurelius 
with own ancestors E 2, 4. 

CONSTANTIUS: received title of 
Caesar from Diocletian Ae 2, 2; 
Ca 17, 6: son of Eutropius and 
Claudia Cl 13, 2: descendant of 
Claudius Ga 7, i ; 14, 3 ; Cl i, i. 
3; 9,9; 10,7; A 44, 5: Trebellius 
Pollio suspected of seeking favour 
of Cl 3, i : ancestor of many Aug- 
ust! with all loyalty to Diocletian, 
Maximian and Galerius Cl 10, 7: 
descendants of glorious A 44, 5 : 
trained by Probus P 22, 3 : gov- 
ernor of Dalmatia, Carus planned 
to put in place of Carinus Ca 17, 6 : 
restored Gaul to rule of Rome Ca 
1 8, 3 : character of Ca 18, 4. 

Coptos, city in Egypt: recovered 
from Blemmyae by Probus P 17, 
2.6. 

Cordius : charioteer, favourite of Ela- 
gabalus E 6, 3 : appointed prefect 
of the watch E 12, i : removed 
from power at demand of soldiers 
E 15, 2. 

Corduenus : see Aelius. 

Cordus : see Aelius lunius : Valerius. 

Corfulenus : see Statilius. 

Corinth: L. Verus at V 6, 9: letter 
of senate to council of T 18, 6. 

Coriolanus : see Marcius. 

Cornelia Salonina, wife of Gallienus : 
mother of Saloninus Ga 21, 3. 

Cornelianus : see Attidius : Aurun- 
culeius. 

Cornelius Balbus : letter of M. Au- 
relius to PN 4, 1-3. 

Cornelius Balbus Theophanes (in- 
correct), historian : received citi- 
zenship from Pompey, claimed as 
ancestor by Balbinus M-B 7, 3. 

Cornelius Capitolinus: cited TT 
15,8. 

Cornelius Dolabella Petronianus, 
Ser. : consulship of AP i , 8. 



Cornelius Pronto, M., orator : teacher 
of M. Aurelius MA 2, 4-5 : of 
Lucius Verus V 2, 5. 

Cornelius Macer : descendant ot 
Macrianus TT 14, 5. 

Cornelius Palma, A. : enemy of 
Hadrian H 4, 3 : fell from favour 
of Trajan H 4, 3 : conspiracy 
against Hadrian and death H 7, 
1-2. 

Cornelius Repentinus : son-in-law of 
Didius Julianus, appointed prefect 
of the city DT 3, 6 : remained loyal 
to Didius Julianus DJ 8, 6. 

Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, P. : 
example followed by Hadrian H 
10, 2 : saying of AP 9, 10 : left no 
sons S 21, i : Elagabalus professed 
to imitate E 26, 2 : Gordian I. 
likened to Go 5, 5. 7 : prayer of 
M-B 17, 8: praised by Cicero Cl 

2, 5- 

Cornelius Scipio Africanus, P. : 
praised by Ennius Cl 7, 7 : by 
historians P 2, 4. 

Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, L. : re- 
semblance of Gordian III to Go 21, 
5 : praised by historians P 2, 4. 

Cornelius Scipio Nasica, P. : praised 
by historians P 2, 4. 

Cornelius Scipio Orfitus, Ser. : con- 
sulship of C 12, 6. 

Cornelius Sulla, L. : Commodus 
likened to C 8, i : Seveius likened 
to PN 6, 4 : lauded by Caracalla 
Cc 2, 2 : Caracalla showed himself 
a future Cc 4, 10 : soldiers of Cara- 
calla rewarded like those of Cc 5, 4. 

Cornelius Tacitus, P. : inaccuracy of 
A 2, 2 : interest of Emperor Taci- 
tus in T 10, 3 : Vopiscus will not 
imitate P 2, 7. 

Cornelius : see Fabius. 

Cornicula : see Annius. 

Cornificia : mistress of Pertinax HP 
13,8. 

Cornificia : see Annia. 

Cornificius : see Velius. 

Corvini : Aurelian comparable to A 

9, 4- 
Costoboci : warred against Rome 

MA 22, i. 

Cotiaeum, town in Asia : home of 
Alexander, teacher of M. Aurelius 
MA 2, 3. 

477 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Crassus : see Calpurnius : Sulpicius. 

Crete: Scythians (Goths) attempted 
to plunder Cl 12, i : bowmen from 
under command of Claudius Cl 
16, 2. 

Crinitus : see Ulpius. 

Crispinus : defended Aquileia against 
Maximinus M 21, 6; 22, i; M-B 
12, 2. 

Crispinus : see Tullius. 

Crispus : brother of Claudius, father 
of Claudia, mother of Constantius 
Cl 13, 2. 9. 

Croton, city in Italy : Milo a native 
of M 6, 9. 

Ctesiphon, city in Mesopotamia: 
captured by Severus S 16, i : 
Gordian III. hoped to reach Go 27, 
6 : attacked by Odaenathus Ga 10, 
6 ; 12, i ; TT 15, 4; 30, 6 : reached 
by Carus Ca 8, i : ordained that 
Roman emperor should not pass 
Ca 9, i. 

Cumae, city in Italy : oracle of 
Apollo at CA 5, 4. 

Cures, town in Italy: H 2, 8 citing 
Aeneid VI. 811. 

Curius Fortunatianus : wrote history 
of Maximus and Balbinus M-B 

4, 5- 

Cuspidius Celerinus : proposed hon- 
ours for Maximus, Balbinus and 
Gordian III M 26, 5. 

Cyclopea: performance of Ga 8, 3; 
Ca 19, 3. 

Cyclops : Maximinus likened to M 
8, 5; M-B n, i : name given to 
Firmus F 4, i. 

Cyprus : bulls /rom painted in 
Domus Pompeiana Go 3, 7 : Scyth- 
ians (Goths) attempted to plunder 
Cl 12, i : clasp with pin from Cl 
14, 5 : couch-covers from Cl 14, 10 : 
table-covers from A 12, i. 

Cyrillus : see Tatius. 

CYRIADES: fled to Persians, 
warred against Romans TT 2, 1-2 : 
called Caesar and Augustus TT 2, 
2-3 : killed father TT 2, 3.4 : killed 
TT 2, 3. 

Cyriades : father of pretender Cyri- 
ades, robbed and murdered by him 
TT 2 . 

Cyrrhus, town in Syria : birthplace 
of Avidius Cassius MA 25, 12. 

478 



Cyzicus, city in Asia : omen for 
Antoninus Pius at AP 3, 4 : Aemi- 
lianus fled to S 8, 16 : Niger de- 
feated at S 9, i ; PN 5, 8 : attacked 
by Goths Ga 13, 8. 



Dacia : campaigns of Trajan and 
Hadrian in H 3, 2-3. 6 : Turbo in 
command of H 6, 7 : 7, 3 : revolts 
in quelled AP 5, 4; C 13, 5 : Per- 
tinax procurator of HP 2, 4 : Per- 
tinax governor of HP 2, 10: Cara- 
calla in Cc 5, 4 : Regalianus a 
native of TT 10, 8 : troops in under 
command of Claudius Cl 15, 2 : 
troops in disaffected Cl 17, 3 : 
troops from killed in revolt of mint- 
workers A 38, 4 : established as 
province by Trajan, given up by 
Aurelian A 39, 7. 

Dacia Ripensis : Aurelian born in 
A 3, I- 

Dacia Transdanuvina : formed by 
Aurelian A 39, 7. 

Dalmatia : bandits of enrolled as 
soldiers MA 21, 7: Didius Julianus 
governor of DJ i , 9 : cavalry from 
commanded by Albinus CA 6, 2: 
by Cecropius (or Ceronius) Ga 14, 
4. 9: Macrianus' valour in TT 12, 
17 : Claudius a native of Cl n, 9 : 
valour of cavalry from Cl n, 9: 
tunics from C 8, S ; HP 8, a ; 26, 
2; Cl 17, 6: troops in under 
command of Claudius Cl 15, 2: 
Constantius governor of Ca 17, 6. 

Danube : Marcomanni defeated on 
MA 21, 10 : Sarmatae slaughtered 
on AC 4, 6 : guarded by Pertinax 
HP 2, 10 : Aurelian's victory north 
ot A 22, 2 : Probus' achievements 
north of P 5, i. 

Daphne (Daphnis), town in Syria : 
L. Verus at MA 8, 12; V 7, 3: 
demoralization of Roman legions 
at AC 5, 5; SA 54, 7: soldiers 
found at disciplined by Avidius 
Cassius AC 6, i : Ballista killed 
at TT 18, 2: battle fought by 
Aurelian at A 25, i. 

Dardania, district in Jugoslavia : 
bandits of enrolled as soldiers MA 
21, 7: Eutropius a native of Cl 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Dardania continued. 

13, 2 : troops from under command 

of Claudius Cl 16, 2 : great-coat 

from Cl 17, 6. 
Dardania, district in Asia Minor: 

Claudius said to be from Cl 11,9. 
Dardanus, King of Troy : Claudius 

said to be descended from Cl 11, 9. 
Dasummus : father of Malemnius, 

king of the Sallentini MA i, 6. 
Decebalus : Regalianus a kinsman 

of TT 10, 8. 
Decii : consulship of Va 5,4: left 

choice of censor to senate Va 5, 4 : 

had title of Augustus Va 6, 8 : 

lives and deaths like those of the 

ancients A 42, 6. 
DECIUS : Valerian in service of Va 

5, 4 : speech of Va 6, 1-6 : gave 

soldier's rewards to Claudius Cl 

13, 8 : letter of Cl 16. 
Decius : see Aelius. 

Decrianus, architect : Colossus of 
Nero moved by H 19, 12. 

Delphi : oracles of Apollo at PN 8, 
1-6; CA 1,4. 

Demosthenes : left no sons 821,2: 
died violent death SA 62, 3. 

Dexippus : see Herennius. 

Dexter : see Domitius. 

Diadematus : original name of Dia- 
dumenianus D 4, 4. 

DIADUMENIANUS : associated 
with Macrinus in imperial power 
OM 5, i; D i, i; E i, 4; 2, 3 : 
called Caesar, not Augustus OM 
10, 4 ; D 2, 5 : received name An- 
toninus Cc 8, 10; OM 2, 5 3, 9; 
5, i ; 6, 6: 7, 5. 8; 10, 6; 14, 2-3; 
Di-2; 3, i; 6, 10; 7, 1.5-?; 8, i; 
E 1,4; 3, i; 8, 5; SA 9, 3; 10,5: 
a spurious Antoninus OM 10, 6 : 
harangue to troops D 2, 2-4 : an- 
nouncement of name of to senate 
OM 6, 6-7; D 2, 7 : coins struck 
with name of D 2, 6 : gifts to people 
in honour of D 2, 8-10 : appearance 
D 3, 2-3 : omens of rule D 3, 4 
5, 6 : cruelty D 8, 29, 3 : E 2, 3 : 
killed with Macrinus OM 10, 3. 5 ; 

14, 2; D 2, 5; 9, 4; E i, 4; M 4, 
6: verses concerning OM 12, 9: 
vilified at accession of Elagabalus 
E 3, 3 J 8, 4-5- 



Diana : statues of at Laodicea and 
other places E 7, 5-6. 

Diavplenus (perhaps lavolenus) : 
jurist consulted by Antoninus Pius 
AP 12, i. 

Didia Clara : daughter of Didius 
Julianus, received title of Augusta 
DJ 3, 4 ; 4, 5 : deprived of title DJ 
8, 9 : buried Julianus DJ 8, 10. 

DIDIUS JULIANUS: ancestry DJ 

1, 1-2: education DJ i, 3: early 
career DJ i, 4 2, 2: consul with 
Pertinax and successor in Africa 
HP 14, 5 ; DJ 2, 3 : omen of rule 
HP 14, 4 ; DJ 2, 3 : made emperor 
DJ 2, 4-3, 5 ; PN 2, i ; CA i, i : 
donative to soldiers DJ 3, 2 : un- 
popular with people DJ 3, 7-8; 
4, 2-10 ; PN 2, 2-3 ; 3, 1-2 : restored 
Commodus' memory and acts DJ 

2, 6 ; 4, 8 : simplicity of habits DJ 

3, 9 : regarded as responsible for 
murder of Pertinax DJ 3, 7 : buried 
Pertinax HP 14,9; DJ 3, 10 : 
silence concerning Pertinax HP 
14, 10 ; DJ 4, 9-10 : relations with 
senate DJ 4, i. 5 ; 6, 7-9; 7, 3; 
SA i, 7: revolts of Albinus, Sev- 
erus and Niger against DJ 5, 1-2; 
S 5 , 1.8; 6,7; PN 2 , i; CA i, i: 
measures taken against Severus 

DJ5, 3-8, 5; S 5 , 5-9JPN3, 5-7: 
attempt to kill Niger DJ 5, i ; 85, 
8 ; PN 3, 4 : omen of downfall DJ 

7, 1-2 : deposition and death DJ 8, 
6-8; S 5, 10; PN 2, i : burial DJ 

8, 10 : criticisms of DJ 9, i. 4 : good 
qualities DJ 9, 2 : length of life 
and rule DJ 9, 3 : consul with 
Severus and predecessor in pro- 
consulship S 2, i : supporters of 
killed by Severus S 8, 3 : influenced 
by Albinus to kill Pertinax CA I, 
i ; 14, 2. 6 : assumed name Anton- 
inus (incorrect) OM 3, 6 ; D 6, i. 3. 

Didius Proculus : brother of Didius 
Julianus DJ 1,2. 

Didius : see Petronius. 

Dido : cited as precedent by Zenobia 
TT 27, i : robe of worn by Ze- 
nobia TT 30, 2. 

DIOCLETIAN: biographies dedi- 
cated to Ae i, i; AC 3, 3; OM 15, 
4 : conferred title of Caesar on 
Maximian and Constantius Ae 2, 

479 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Diocletian continued. 
2 : revered M. Aurelius as divine 
MA 19, 12 : compared to M. Aure- 
lius V ii, 4: discourses addressed 
to S 20, 421, 12; PN 9, 1-4: 
father of the golden age E 35, 4 : 
loyalty of Constantius toward Cl 
ID, 7 : tried to match purple gar- 
ment of Aurelian A 29, 3 : review 
of emperors as far as A 42, 3-4 : 
sayings of A 43, 2-5 ; Ca 20, 2 : 
opinion of Aurelian A 44, 2 : pro- 
phecy related by A 44, 3-5 : Vopis- 
cus planned to write lives of em- 
perors as far as P i, 5 : trained by 
Probus P 22, 3 : life of to be 
written in grander style F 15, 9 : 
defeated and killed Carinus Ca 
10 ; 18, 2 : killed Aper Ca 13, 2-3; 
15, 4 : hailed as Augustus Ca 13, 
1-2; 18, i: prophecy given to and 
fulfilled Ca 14, i 15, 5 : desire to 
rule Ca 15, i : character of Ca 13, 
i ; 18, 4 : cruelty of Ca 15, 6 : given 
as emperor by gods Ca 18, 3 : 
Eusthenius secretary of Ca 18, 5 : 
stage restored by Ca 19, 2: spec- 
tacles given by Ca 20, 3. 

Diocletianae, Thermae : built TT 21, 
7 : Ulpian Library in P 2, i. 

Diogmitae : used as soldiers by M. 
Aurelius MA 21, 7. 

Diognetus : teacher of M. Aurelius 
MA 4, 9- 

Dolabella : see Cornelius. 

Domitia Lucilla : mother of M. Aure- 
lius MA i, 3; DJ i, 3: slandered 
by Homullus MA 6, 9 : Didius 
Julianus reared in house of DJ i, 

3-4- 

Domitia Paulina : mother of Hadrian 
H 1,2. 

Domitia Paulina : sister of Hadrian 
H i, 2. 

Domitiae, Horti : Hadrian buried in 
AP 5, i : Aurelian lived in A 49, i. 

DOMITIAN: period of H 2, 3: fate 
feared by Hadrian H 20, 3 : i?th 
consulship of AP i, 8 : M. Aurelius 
feared that Commodus would re- 
semble MA 28, 10 : quoted in letter 
attributed to M. Aurelius AC 2, 6 : 
Commodus more cruel than C 19, 
2 : revolt of Saturninus against PN 
9, 2 . had the republic endured 

480 



Domiti an continued. 
Rome would not have come under 
the power of CA 13, 5: remark of 
Homullus concerning SA 65, 5 : 
Domitianus descendant of TT 12, 
14 : Gentes Flaviae formerly house 
of Cl 3, 6 : another feared by all 
Ca i, J3 : Rome lacerated by bru- 
tality of Ca 3, 3. 

Domitianus: general of Aureolus, 
defeated Macrianus Ga 2, 6 ; TT 
12, 14; 13, 3 : descendant of Domi- 
tian and Domitilla TT 12, 14. 

Domitilla : Domitianus descendant 
ofTT 12, 14. 

Domitius Dexter, C. : appointed pre- 
fect of the city by Severus S N, 8. 

Domitius Ulpianus : in consilium of 
Papinian PN 7, 4; SA 26, G : sec- 
retary of petitions PN 7, 4 : prefect 
of the guard PN 7, 4; SA 26, 5 : 
removed from office by Elagabalus 
E 16, 4 : addressed works to 
Sabinus E 16, 2 : trusted official 
and counsellor of Severus Alex- 
ander SA 15, 6; 26, 5-6; 27, 2: 
31, 2-3 ; 51,4; 67, 2 ; 68, i : invited 
to dinner by Alexander SA 34, 6 : 
attitude of Julia Mamaea toward 
SA 51,4: protected from soldiers 
by Alexander SA 51, 4. 

Domna : see lulia. 

Druid : prophecy given by to Se- 
verus Alexander SA 60, 6 : to 
Aurelian A 44, 4-5 : to Diocletian 
Ca 14, 2-5. 

Druncianus : son-in-law of Avidius 
Cassius, allowed to go free MA 26, 
12 ; AC 9, 3. 

Dulius Silanus : killed by Commo- 
dus C 7, 5. 



Eboracum, town in Britain : Severus 
died at S 19, i. 

Eclectus : influential freedman of L. 
Verus V 9, 5 : retained by M. 
Aurelius V 9, 6 : accomplice in 
murder of Commodus V 9, 6 ; C 
15, 2 : helped to make Pertinax 
emperor HP 4, 5-6 : murdered 
HP ii, ii. 

Edessa, city in N. Mesopotamia: 
Caracalla wintered at Cc 6, 6: 
munlered near Cc 7, i. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Effeminatus : name given to Com- 

modus C 17, 10. 
Eggius Ambibulus, C. : consulship 

of HP 15, 6. 
Egnatius Capito : killed by Com 

modus C 4, 10. 
Egnatuleius Honoratus: killed by 

Severus S 13, 5. 
Egypt: revolt in H 5, 2: Hadrian 

in H 14, 4-6 : revolt in quelled AP 

5, 5: ravaged by Bucolici MA 21, 
2 ; AC 6, 7 : M. Aurelius in MA 
26, 3-4 ; C 2, 3 : victories of Avidius 
Cassius in AC 6, 5. 7 : Severus 
feared that Niger would seize S 8, 
7; PN 5, 5 : Severus in S 17, 2-4 : 
soldiers in rebuked by Niger PN 
7, 7: Niger terror of soldiers in 
PN 12, 6 : animals from owned by 
Elagabalus E 28, 3 : revolt of Ae- 
milianus in Ga 4, i ; 5, 6 ; 6, 4 ; TT 
22, 3-6 : Theodotus in command of 
Ga 4, 2 ; TT 22, 10 : linen from Ga 

6, 4 : troops in hated Gallienus TT 
22, 5: freed when fasces brought 
into it TT 22, 13 : Camsisoleus a 
native of TT 26, 4: supplies of 
prefect of allotted to Claudius Cl 
15, 4: cups from Cl 17, 5: linen 
clothing from A 12, i ; 48, 5 ; Ca 
20, 5 : Murrentius Mauricius gov- 
ernor of A 13, i : revolt of Firmus 
in crushed by Aurelian A 32, 2-3 ; 
33, 5 ; F 2, i ; 3, i ; 5, i : taxes 
from used for food-supply of Rome 
A 45, i; 47, i: boatmen of in- 
creased A 47, 3 : danger of revolt 
in after Aurelian's death T 3, 6 : 
Probus' father served in P 3, 2: 
public works of Probus in P 9, 3-4 : 
defended against Palmyrenes _ by 
Probus P 9, 5 : books from cited 
F 2, i : a prefect of named Firmus 
F 3, i : Firmus a brigand of F 5, 
3 : grain-supply from F 5, 4 : 
Saturninus forbidden to visit F 7, 
2; 9, i : Hadrian's opinion of F 8, 
i : patriarch forced to worship 
Serapis in F 8, 4 : Alexandria 
chief city in F 8, 7. 

Egyptians : M. Aurelius' conduct 
among MA 26, 3 : worshipped 
Luna Cc 7, 5 : ridiculed Severus 
Alexander SA 28, 7 : inscriptions 



Egyptians continued. 
in language of Go 34, 2 ; TT 22, 13 : 
character of TT 22, 1-3; F 7, 4-5: 
feared Zenobia TT 30, 7 : language 
of spoken by Zenobia TT 30, 21 : 
resisted invasion of Palmyrenes, 
loyal to Claudius Cl n, 1-2: led 
as captives in Aurelian's triumph 
A 33, 5 : Firmus incited by mad- 
ness of F 3, i : Hadrian's opinion 
of F 7, 6 8, 10 : Aurelian's opinion 
of F 9, i : acclaimed Saturninus 
emperor F 9, 1-2. 

ELAGABALUS (Varius Avitiis ; M. 
Aurelius Antoninus): a disgrace 
to Roman Empire OM 15,2; D 9, 
5 ; SA 2, 2 : names OM 8, 4 ; E i, 
i. 6 ; 2, 1-2 : ancestry and parentage 
OM 7, 6: 9, 2; E 2, 1-2; 10, i : 
priest of Elagabalus at Emesa OM 
9, 3 ; D 9, 5 ; E i, 5-6 : took refuge 
in temple of Elagabalus E 2, 3 : 
declared son of Caracalla and called 
Antoninus Cc 9, 2 ; n, 7; OM 3, 4; 
7, 6 ; 8, 4 ; 9, 4. 6 ; D 9, 4-5 ; E i, 
4-5-7; 2, i; 3, i; 17, 4J SA 5, 35 
M 4, 6 : a disgrace to name OM 7, 
8; 2,4; 9, 2; 17, 9; 33, 8; SA 
i, i ; 2, 2 ; 7, 2-4 ; 9, 4 = made em- 
peror OM 8, 2. 4 ; 9,4 10,3; 15, 
1-2 ; D 9, 4 ; E i, 4 ; 5, i : accepted 
at Rome E 3, 1-3 : established cult 
of Elagabalus at Rome E i, 6; 3, 
4-5 ; 17, 8 : rededicated temple of 
Faustina to Elagabalus MA 26, 9 ; 
Cc ii, 6-7: admitted mother and 
grandmother to senate E 4, r-2; 
12, 3; 18, 3 : established senaculum 
E 4, 3 : gave title of Caesar to 
Severus Alexander OM 4, i ; E 5, 
i; 10, i : unpopular with soldiers 
E 5, i ; 10, i : wished to make war 
on Marcomanni E 9, 1-2 : debauch, 
eries E 5, 1-5; 8, 6-7; 9, 3; 10, 5-7; 
24, 2 ; 31, 6-7; 33, i : evil favourites 
in power E 6, i-5; 10, 2-5; n, i; 
12, 1-2; 20, 3; SA 15, i; 23, 6: 
profaned Roman cults E 6, 6-9 : 
practised foreign rites E 7, 1-5; 8, 
1-2: largesses to people E 8, 3; 
22, 2-4 : maladministration of pub- 
lie grain and oil E 27, 7 ; SA 21,9; 
22, 2: vilified Macrinus and Dia- 
dumenianus E 8, 4-5 : tried to de- 
pose and murder Alexander 13, 

481 



TNDEX OF NAMES 



Elagabalus continued. 

i 14, i; SA 2, 4; 4, 6: revolt of 
soldiers against E 14, 2-8 : forced 
to give up evil favourites E 15, 1-4 : 
forced to a reconciliation with 
Alexander E 15, 5.7: ordered 
senate to leave Koine E 16, I : re- 
moved from office or murdered 
prominent men 1C 16, 2-4: lenient 
to the dishonest SA 17, 3 : killed 
''' i<>, 5 ; 17, i ; SA i, i ; M 5, 3 : 
disgraced after death E 17, 1-6; 
18, i ; 33, 7; SA i, 2; 6, 4-5 : pub- 
lic works E 17, 8-9; 24, 6-7 : extra- 
vagance E 30, 7; 31, 1-5. 8; 32, 
1-3; SA 33, 3: extravagance in 
banquets E 18, 419,9; 20, 4-7; 
2i, 222, i; 23, 8; 24, 3-4; 28, 
5-6 ; 20, 330, 6 ; 32, 4 ; SA 37, 2. 
12: relations with senate and pub- 
lic officials V. 20, 1-3: jests and 
amusements E n, 2-6; 21, i; 23, 
1-2-7; 24, I- 5i 25, 1-9; 26, 3 
28, 4; 2i), 1-2; 32, 5-9: extrava- 
gance in clothing E 23, 3-5; 20, 
i-.:; ;.:, i; SA 4,2: wished to be 
worshipped SA 18, 3 : preparations 
for death H 33, 2-0: vilified to gain 
lavour of Alexander E 30, 8 : worse 
than Commodus SA 7, 4; under 
control of eunuchs SA 23, 5j 34, ; , 

45> 4 : permitted promiscuous 

bathing SA ^4, 2: taxes imposed 
l>y reduced by Alexander SA ;<), 
() : coinage SA 31), 9: lack ol mili- 
tary discipline SA 59, 5-6 ; M 7, 2 : 
treatment of Maximinus M 4, 6 
5, 2: furthered cairn ol doulian 
II. Go 18, 4: example ol evil ruler 
T6, 4. 
Elagabalus (deity) : temple- <ii 1 aus- 

lina at llalala rededi< al-d to MA 
20, 9; Cc 11, 7: name given to Sol 
by the Phoenicians OM 9, 3: Ela- 
gabalus priest ol OM .), j; 1>9, 5; 
E I, 5-0 : at temple ot ['. 2, 3 : 
brought Irom Syria and given a 
temple at Rome E i , ; 3, 4-5; 17, 
8: plan to have worshipped every 
where as sole deity E 0, 7 : plan 
for statue of on column I-'. 24, 7: 
temple ol at Emesa visited and en- 
riched by Auiclian A 25, 4-0. 
Elc.i, i,,\vn in Italy: /eno born in 
\ I, 5- 



Eleusinian Mysteries : Hadrian initi- 
ated into H 13, i : M. Aurelius 
initiated into MA 27, i : only those 
conscious of innocence admitted 
SA 18, 2. 

Emesa, city in Syria: Julia Maesa 
from OM 9, i : people of killed by 
Ballista da 3, 4 : Aurelian's victory 
at A 25, 2-3 : Aurelian in temple 
of Elagabalus at A 25, 4-6. 

Emona, town in Carniola : taken by 
Maximinus M 21, i. 5; omen at 
MSI, 3. 

Encolpius, biographer of Severus 
Alexander : cited SA 17, I ; 48, 7. 

Ennius, Q. : preferred to Vergil by 
Hadrian H 16, 6: quoted in letter 
ascribed to M. Aurelius AC 5, 7; 
praised Scipio Africanus the elder 
Cl 7, 7- 

Ephesus, city in Asia : L. Verus 
received I.ucilla at V 7, 7 : temple 
at destroyed by Goths Ga 6, 2. 

Epictetus, philosopher: Hadrian's 
friendship for H 16, 10. 

Epirus: Goths retreated through Ga 

1 ;, .s. 

1 nicius Clarus, Sex.: consulship of 

S i, 3. 
F.ruli: invasion of under Claudius 

Cl 6, 2. 

Esquiliae, at Rome: statue of Galli- 
enus on Ga 18, 3. 

Htruria, district of Italy: Hadrian 
praetor in II 19, i : origin of family 
of Aelius Verus Ac 2, 8 ; V i, ): 
omens lor Antoninus 1'ius in AF 
3,5: spectacles given by (iordian 
I. in do |,0: 'letricus supervisor 
of TT 24, 5 : vines planted in A 48, 

2 : horse Irom I 1 ' 6, 4. 
Eudaemon : aided Hadrian to obtain 

principate and later reduced by 
him to povri ty II 15, 3. 

l-!lldaen e-, : .s.'C Arabs. 

Euergetes ! see PtolemaeuSi 

I'.ngamius, rhetorician : teacher of 

Maximinus the younger M 27, 5. 
l-uphoiion: teachei ol M. Aurelius 

MA 2, 2. 
Euphrates, trnitory across lelin- 

i|iiished by Hadrian 11 5, 3; 

journey of L. Verus to V 7. 6. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Europe : plundered by Goths A 17, 
2 : Aurelian returned to from the 
East A 30, 4 : Aurelian busy with 
affairs of A 31, i : defeated enemies 
in A 32, i-2: armies of made 
Florian emperor and killed him P 

13, 4- 

Eurupianus : see Larcius. 

Eusthenius : see Claudius. 

Eutropius : husband of Claudia, 
father of Conslantius Cl 13, 2. 

Eutychius Proculus, grammarian : 
teacher of M. Aurelius MA 2, 3 : 
proconsul MA 2, 5. 

Euxinus (Black Sea): Scythians 
(Cloths) sailed across Ga 13, 6. 

Exsuperatorius : name given to No- 
vember C n, 8; 12, 4. 



Fabia Orestilla : wife of Gordian I. 
Go 17, 4. 

Fabia : see Ceionia. 

Fabianus, Arcus, at Rome: statue ot 
Saloninus near Ga 19, 4. 

Fabianus : see Masticius. 

Fabillus : teacher of Maximinus the 
younger M 27, 3. 

Fabius Ceryllianus : cited Ca 4, 3. 

Fabius Cilo, L. : buried body of 
Commodus C 20, i : Caracalla 
entered Palace leaning on arm of 
Cc 3, 2 : twice prefect of the city 
and consul tried to reconcile Cara- 
calla and Geta Cc 4, 5 : attempt to 
kill Cc 4, 6. 

Fabius Cornelius Repentinus : pre- 
fect of guard under Antoninus 
Pius AP 8, 8-9. 

Fabius Marcellinus, biographer of 
Trajan : cited SA 48, 6 : Vopiscus 
will imitate P 2, 7. 

Fabius Maximus Gurges, Q. : Elaga- 
balus professed to imitate E 26, 2. 

Fabius Paulinus : killed by Severus 

S.i 3, 3- 

Fabius Pomponianus : commander of 
Libyan frontier, made Celsus em- 
peror TT 20, i. 

Fabius Quintilianus, M. : Controver- 
sitie of TT 4, 2. 

Fabius Sabinus: counsellor of Se- 
verus Alexander SA 68, i. 

Fabius Sossianus : conversation with 
F2, i. 



Fadilla : see Arria : Aurelia : lulia : 
lunia. 

Falco : see Sosius. 

Faltonius Probus : made proconsul 
of Asia A 40, 4. 

Faltonius : see Maecius. 

Fausianus : consulship of Ga 5, 2. 

Faustina, Temple of, at Rome : statue 
of Saloninus near Ga 19, 4. 

Faustina : see Annia : Maecia : Ru- 
pilia : Vitrasia. 

Faustinianae, puellae: endowed by 
Antoninus Pius AP 8, i : by M. 
Aurelius MA 26, 6 ; SA 57, 7. 

Faustinianus : see Cerellius. 

Faustinus : praetor read aloud cog- 
nomina of Caracalla Ge 6, 6. 

Faustinus : proposed as name for 
October AP 10, i. 

Faustus : see Papius. 

Faventia, a town in Italy : Nigrinus 
murdered at H 7, 2 : home of 
family of Aelius Verus Ae 2, 8 ; V 
1,9. 

Favorinus, philosopher : debate with 
Hadrian H 15, 12-13: Hadrian's 
friendship for H 16, 10. 

Felicio : unworthy favourite of Gor- 
dian III. Go 25, 2. 

Felicissimus : leader of revok of 
mint-workers under Aurelian A 38, 
2 : 3- 

Felix : name given to Commoxlus C 
8, 1-2: to Macrinus OM 7, 5; u, 
2-4. 

Fe^x : see Caelius. 

Festivus : see Aurelius. 

Festus : aided Macrinus in his career 
OM 4, 4. 

P'estus : see Pescennius. 

FIRMUS: Vopiscus will write life 
of P 24, 7 ; F i, 4 : discussion con- 
cerning powers of F 2 : revolt of 
in Egypt, crushed by Aurelian A 
32, 2-3; F 2, i- 3, i ; 5, i : birth- 
place F 3, i : ally of Zenobia F 3, 
i ; 5,1: wealth and trade of F 3, 
2-4 : appearance and habits of F 4; 
6, 1-2 : death of F 5, 2-3 : Aurelian's 
proclamation concerning F 5, 3-6. 

Firmus : prefect of Egypt F 3, i. 

Firmus : proconsul, in command of 
African frontier F 3, i. 

Flaccinus : see Valerius. 

Flaccus : see Horatius : Persius. 

4-83 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Flaminia, Porticus : planned by Gal- 
lienus Ga 18, 5. 

Flaminia, Via, in Italy: spectacles 
given by Gordian I. in cities of Go 
4, 6 : Tetricus supervisor of district 
ofTT24, 5. 

Flavia Titiana, wife of Pertinax: 
offered tide of Augusta HP 5, 4 : 
title retused by Pertinax HP 6, g : 
daughter of Flavius Sulpicianus 
HP 13, 7 : amours of HP 13, 8. 

Flaviae, Gentes, in Rome : Censo- 
rinus' house near TT 33, 6: en- 
larged by Claudius Cl 3, 6. 

Flavius Antiochianus : consulship of 
Cl ii, 3- 

Flavius Aper, M. : consulship of C 
2, 4; 12, 4-5. 

Flavius Arabianus, prefect of grain- 
supply : letter of Auielian to A 47, 
2-4. 

Flavius Genialis, T. : appointed pre- 
fect of the guard by Didius Juli- 
anus DJ 3, i : remained loyal to 
Didius Julianus DJ 8, 6. 

Flavius luvenalis : appointed prefect 
of the guard by Didius Julianus 
and by Severus S 6, 5 : remark of 
Severus to Ge 2, 7 : encouraged 
Severus in murder Ge 4, 4. 

Flavius Sulpicianus, T. : father-in- 
law of Pertinax, made prefect of 
the city HP 13, 7 : tried to seize 
principate DJ 2, 4. 6-7 : removed 
from prefecture of the city DJ 
3,6. 

Floralia : alleged celebration by 
Elagabalus E 6, 5. 

FLORIAN : brother of Tacitus T 9, 
6; 13, 6: Tacitus failed to obtain 
consulship for T 9, 6 : seized im- 
perial power T 13, 6 ; 14, i ; P 10, 
1.8; 11,3-4: length of reign T 14, 
2. 5 : killed T 14, 2 ; P 10, 8 : 
character T 14, 4 : like interrex T 
14, 5 : statue and cenotaph of T 15, 
i : descendants of and prophecy 
concerning them T 15, 2-4; 16, 4: 
mother of appeared as omen of 
death T 17, 4 : Life of written by 
Vopiscus T 16, 5; P i, 5: asso- 
ciates of spared by Probus P 13, 
3 : made emperor and killed by 
armies of Europe P 13, 4. 

484 



Florianus, P. : tribune of the guard, 
urged Didius Julianus to seize 
principate DJ 2, 4. 

Florus : see Annius. 

Fonteius, M. : maintained that Fir- 
mus was a bandit F 2, I. 

Formiae, town in Italy : villa ot M. 
Aurelius at AC 10, 6-8 : n, 3. 

Fortuna : golden statue of kept in 
emperor's bedroom AP 12, 5 ; MA 
7, 2 ; S 23, 5-6 : Nemesis the power 
of M-B 8, 6. 

Fortunatianus : see Curius. 

Forum Augusti, at Rome : restored 
by Hadrian H 19, 10: statues 
erected in by Augustus SA 28, 6. 

Forum Nervae (Forum Transito- 
rium) : statues erected in by Severus 
Alexander SA 28, 6 : Turinus 
burned in SA 36, 2. 

Forum Traiani, at Rome: burning 
of promisory notes in H 7, 6 : auc- 
tion in MA 17, 4-5 ; 21, 9 : statues 
of nobles who fell in war erected in 
MA 22, 8 : Aurelian burned records 
of debts in A 39, 3 : statue of Au- 
relian in T 9, 2. 

Francicus : cognomen conferred on 
Probus P 10, 9. 

Franks : aided Postumus Ga 7, i : 
in procession at Rome Ga 8, 7 : in- 
vasion of repelled by Aurelian A 
7, 1-2 : led as captives in Aurelian's 
triumph A 33, 4 : Roman emperor 
destined to rule T 15, 2: defeated 
by Probus P 12, 3 : Proculus going 
to aid of, betrayed by F 13, 4. 

Frontinus : see lulius. 

Pronto : see Cornelius. 

Frugi : see Calpurnius Crassus. 

Fucinus, Lacus, in Italy : drained by 
Hadrian H 22, 12. 

Fufidius Pollio, L. : consulship of C 

ii, 13- 

Fulvia Pia : mother of Severus S i, 2. 

Fulvius Asprianus : cited Ca 17, 7- 

FulviusBoius : commander of frontier 
of Raetia, with Valerian at Byzan- 
tium A 13, i. 

Fulvius Pius : grandfather of Severus 
S i, 2. 

Fulvius Plautianus, C. : sent by 
Severus to seize Niger's children 
S 6, 10 ; PN 5, 2 : Severus' friend- 
ship for turned to enmity S 14, 5 : 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Fulyius Plautianus, C. continue. 
friendship renewed S 14, 7. 9 : 
daughter of married to Caracalla 
S 14, 8 : urged pursuit of partisans 
of Niger S 15, 4: hated by Cara- 
calla for cruelty Cc i, 7: encour- 
aged Severus in murder Ge 4, 4. 

Fulvius Sabinus, city-praetor : speech 
ot A 19, 1-2. 

Fulvus : see Aurelius. 

Fundanius : see Hercules. 

Furius Camillus, M. : left no sons 
like himself 821, i : admired by 
Niger PN 12, i. 

Furius Celsus : victory in Mauretania 
SA 58, i. _ 

Furius Placidus : extravagance of as 
consul A 15, 4-5. 

Furius Sabinius Aquila Timesitheus, 
C. (Misitheus), prefect of the guard : 
daughter married to Gordian III. 
Go 23, 6 : aided Gordian by his 
advice Go 23, 7; 25, 3-7- 27, 2; 
31, i : correspondence with Gordian 
Go 24-25 : speech of Gordian in 
praise of Go 27, 4-8 : honours con- 
ferred on Go 27, 9-10 : death Go 
28, i. 5-6 : excellent administration 
of Go 28, 2-4 ; 29, 2 : baths planned 
by Go 32, 7. 

Furius Victorinus : prefect of guard 
under Antoninus Pius AP 8, 8 : de- 
feated and killed MA 14, 5. 

Fuscianus : see Seius. 

Fuscus : used by oracle to designate 
Pescennius Niger PN 8, 1-2. 

Fuscus : see Allius : Annius : Arel- 
lius : Pedanius. 



Gabinius, A. : Cicero's speech against 

cited TT 22, n. 
Gades, town in Spain : birthplace ot 

Hadrian's mother H i, 2. 
Galatia : Balbinus governor of M-B 

7, 2 : rich in grain TT 18, 8. 
GALBA : criticized for avarice AC 

8, 5 : killed by soldiers Cl 12, 5. 
GALERIUS: received title of Caesar 

from Diocletian Ae 2, 2 : loyalty of 
Constantius toward Cl 10, 7 : war 
of against Persians Ca 9, 3 : wiped 
out disgrace of Valerian's capture 
Ca 18, 3 : character of Ca 18, 4. 
Galli : see Gauls. 



Galli (priests of the Mater Deum): 
rites of performed by Elagabalus 
E 7,2. 

Gallia : see Gaul. 

Gallia Belgica : governed by Didius 
Julianus DJ i, 7. 

Gallia Bracata : seized by Proculus 
and Bonosus P 18, 5. 

Gallia Lugdunensis : Severus gov- 
ernor of S 3, 8 ; PN 3, 3. 

Gallia Narbonensis : proconsul of 
killed by Caracalla Cc 5, i : Maxi- 
mus proconsul of M-B 5, 8. 

Gallia Transalpina : family of Anto- 
ninus Pius from AP i, i. 

Gallicanus : two soldiers killed by 
M 20, 6 ; Go 22, 8. 

Gallicanus: see Moesius: Mulvius: 
Turdulus. 

Galliena : cousin of Emperor Gal- 
lienus, murdered Celsus TT 29, 
3- 

GALLIENUS: elevated family of 
Ceionii CA 4, 2 : half-brother of 
Valerian the younger Va 8, i : 
father of Saloninus Va 8, 5 ; Ga 19, 
i ; TT 3, i : rejoiced in father's 
captivity Ga i, i ; 3, 8 : evil char- 
acter ot Ga I, i ; 3, 6. 9; 4, 3 ; 14, 
1.5; TT 12,8. n; 30, i; 31, 1.7; 
P 6, 4 : evil rule of Ga i, 2 ; 3, i ; 
4,3; 13, 3J TT 10, 9. 17; 12, 10 ; 
Cl 1,2-3; 7, 3; 9, i; A 41, 75 Ca 

3, 5 : consulships Ga I, 2 ; 5,2; 10, 
i; A u, 8: revolt of Macrianus 
against Ga i, 2-3 ; 2, i ; TT 11,2; 
12, 12; 15, 4: revolt of Aureolus 
against Ga 2, 6 ; 14, 6-7; TT n, i ; 
supported by Rome Ga 3, 3 ; 
Odaenathus subordinate of Ga 3, 5 : 

10, 4 : spectacles given by Ga 3, 7 ; 
15, 5 : Theodotus a general of Ga 

4, 2 ; TT 22, 8. 10 : contempt for 
Ga 5, i. 7; 10, 3 ; 31, i ; TT i, i ; 
n, i ; 12, i: campaigns against 
Postumus Ga 4, 4-6; 7, i; 21, 5; 
TT 3, 5; 6, i; n, 3: made peace 
with Aureolus Ga 4, 6; 21, 5; TT 

11, 3 ; Cl 5, i ; A 16, i : earthquake 
in reign of Ga 5, 2-4 : pestilence in 
reign of Ga 5, 5-6 : jests of Ga 6, 
3-7; 9, 3-4; 12, 2-5; 17, i. 9: 
soldiers plundered Byzantium and 
were punished Ga 6, 8 ; 7, 2. 4 : 
decennial games of Ga 7, 4 8, 7: 

485 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Gallienus continued. 
3i, 5 : vices and follies Ga 9, i ; 10, 
i; 12, 6; 16, i; 21, 6; TT 3, 4; 
5, i ; 8, 9 ; 9, i ; 23, 2 ; 26, i ; 29, 
i ; Ca i, 4: cruelty Ga 9, 7; u, 2; 
18, I ; TT 9, 1-9 ; ip, 1-2 ; 26, I. 4 : 
triumph over Persians Ga 10, 5 : 
archon at Athens Ga u, 3 : _ wished 
to be initiated into mysteries and 
enrolled in Areopagus Ga n, 3-5 : 
literary gifts Ga n, 6-9: gave 
Odaenathus power and title of 
Augustus Ga 12, i : made peace 
with Odaenathus Ga 21, 5: sent 
Heraclianus against Persians Ga 

13, 4 : arranged for defence of 
Byzantium Ga 13, 6 : defeated 
Goths Ga 13, 9; 21, 5 : murder Ga 

14, 4-9; 15, i : declared usurper 
after death Ga 15, 2 : amusements 
and appearance Ga 16, 2-5 ; 17, 
2-9; 21, 4: bounties Ga 16, 6; 
court Ga 16, 6 : praised by Annius 
Cornicula Ga 17, 2 : public works 
Ga 18, 2-5 : length of reign Ga 19, 
5 ; 21, 5 ; Ca 3, 5 : rebellions and 
pretenders under Ga 19, 6; 21, i; 
TT i, i; 10, i; 26, i ; F i, 3: 
loved Pipara Ga 21, 3: campaign 
against Lollianus Ga 21, 5 : en- 
trusted Saloninus to Postumus 
(incorrect) TT 3, i : entrusted by 
Valerian to Postumus (incorrect) 
A 8, a : hated by Gauls TT 3, 3 : 
campaign against Ingenuus TT 9, 
3 : suspected Regalianus TT 10, 8 : 

etters of TT 9, 5-9 ; Cl 17 ; P 6, 
2-3 : good generals not appointed 
by TT 10, 14 : not trusted by 
Ballista TT 18, i : Ballista killed 
to please TT 18, 12 : made Valens 
proconsul of Achaea TT 19, I : 
approved honours for Piso TT 21, 
4 : hated by troops in Egypt TT 
22, 5 : Saturninus best general of 
and revolted against TT 23, i ; 
F ii, i : sent Camsisoleus to con- 
quer Trebellianus TT 26, 4 : people 
of Sicca faithful to TT 29, 4 : 
Zenobia ruled during reign of TT 
30, 3 : Zenobia's contempt for TT 
30, 10. 23 : removed from rule by 
Claudius Cl i, 3 : despised by 
Claudius Cl 5, 2 : Germans invaded 
Italy under A 18, 4; ai, 9: letter 



Gallienus continued. 
of Valerian to P 3, 6 4, 2 : Probus* 
achievements under P 6, i. 

Gallienus : grandfather of Emperor 
Gallienus Ga 19, 3. 

Gallonius Avitus, legate of Thrace: 
letter of Aurelian to F 15, 5-8. 

Callus (?) : H 2, 7. 

Gallus Antipater: praised Aureolus 
Cl 5, 4- 

Gallus : see Antoninus. 

Gargilius Martialis : cited SA 37, 9: 
Vopiscus will imitate P 2, 7. 

Gaudianus : favourite of mother of 
Gordian III. Go 25, 3. 

Gaudiosus : trained by Probus P 22, 3. 

Gaul (country) : Hadrian in H TO, I ; 
12, 1-2 : involved in Marcomannic 
War MA 22, i : Severus supported 
by troops in S 5, 3 : Albinus served 
in CA 6, 3 : revolt of Albinus in 

5 10, i ; PN 2, i ; CA i, i : Severus' 
victory in S n, i : gold in seized 
by Severus S 12, 3 : ravaged by 
deserters PN 3, 4: Ragonius Celsus 
governor of PN 3, 9 : tribes in con- 
quered by Albinus CA 5,5: origin- 
ally conquered by senate CA 13, 

6 : Caracalla in Cc 5, 1-2 : plundered 
by Germans SA 59, 3 : Severus 
Alexander killed by troops in SA 
59, 5-6 ; M 7, 4-6 : cenotaph of 
Alexander in SA 63, 3 : Balbinus 
governor of M-B 7, 2 : desired 
rescue of Valerian Va 3,2: Postu- 
mus governor of TT 3, i. 9: pro- 
tected against barbarians by Postu- 
mus Ga 4, 5 ; TT 3, 4. 6 : revolted 
under Postumus Ga 6, 6 : revolt of 
Lollianus in TT 5, i : ruined by 
Gallienus' excesses TT 5, i : cities 
of restored by Lollianus TT 5, 4: 
Macrianus' valour in TT 12, 17 : 
Ragonius Clarus prefect of TT 18, 
5 : Tetricus governor of TT 24, i. 
4: seized by pretender TT 29, i: 
held by Tetricus as pretender Cl 7, 
5 ; A 32, 3 : Aurelian saved from 
invasion of Franks A 7, 1-2; 9, 4: 
Tetricus dressed in trousers from 
A 34, 2: Tetricus the younger 
made emperor in A 34, 2 : Aurelian 
in A 35, 4 : recovered by Aurelian 
A 41, 8: Druids from A 44, 3 : 
cloaks from P 4, 5: German in- 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Gaul continued. 

vaders driven from by Probus P 13, 
5-7 ; 15 : Proculus and Bonosus 
seized power at Agrippina in P 18, 
5 : Saturninus a native of F 7, i : 
restored by Saturninus F 9, 5 : 
Bonosus' mother a native of F 14, 
I : Carinus sent to rule Ca J, 1-2 ; 
16, 2 : Numerian not old enough 
to rule Ca 7, 2 : Tungri lived in 
Ca 14, 2 : restored to rule of Rome 
by Constantius Ca 18, 3. 

Gauls (people) : Severus beloved by 
S 4, i : nobles of killed S 12, i : in 
revolt C A i, 2; 5, 4: prophecy in 
language of SA 60, 6 : subject to 
Romans Va i, 4 : made Postumus 
emperor and supported him Ga 4, 
3-4 : TT 3, 3-6 : war among Ga 5, 
6 : hated Gallienus TT 3,3: char- 
acter of TT 3, 7. 9 ; F 7, i. 3 : letter 
of Valerian to TT 3, 8-u : made 
Lollianus emperor TT 4, i : little 
authority of Lollianus over TT 5, 
2 : terrified bv Aurelian A 32, 4 : 
invasions of had no such hero as 
Ptfobus P I, 4 : served under Probus 
P 4, i : allowed by Probus to plant 
vines P 18, 8: delivered from Ala- 
manni by Proculus F 13, 3 : Rome 
overwhelmed by invasion of Ca 2, 5. 

Gavius Maximus, M, : prefect of the 
guard under Antoninus Pius AP 

8,7- 
Gellia : addressed in epigram of 

Martial SA 38, 1-2. 
Gellius : punishment urged by Dia- 

dumenianus D 9, i. 
Gellius, Aulus : cited P i, i. 
Geminas : influential freedman of M. 

Aurelius and L. Verus MA 15, 2; 

V 9 , 3- 
Geminus : teacher of M. Aurelius 

MA 2, 2. 

Genialis : see Flavius. 
Gentianus : see Hedius : Terentius. 
Georgica : written by Albinus CA n, 

7- 

Gepedes : invasion of under Claudius 
Cl 6, 2 : settled in Thrace by Probus 
but left lands P 18, 2. 

Germania Transrhenana : ravaged by 
Maximinus M 12, i. 

Germanica, Classis : Pertinax in com- 
mand of HP a, 2. 



Germanicus : cognomen assumed by 
M. Aurelius MA 12, 9 : by Com- 
modus C ii, 14 : by Caracalla Cc 
6, 5 ; 10, 6. 

Germans : king of appointed by 
Hadrian H 12, 7 : defeated AP 5, 
4: wars of M. Aurelius and L. 
Verus against MA 12, 14; 17, i; 
20, 6; 21, 7-8; V 9, 7 (see also 
Marcomanni) : Roman nobles fell 
in war against MA 22, 7 : war of 
Commodus against C 2, 5 : defeated 
by Caracalla Cc. 5, 6 : soldiers' 
anger directed toward SA 53, 9: 
war of Severus Alexander against 
SA 59, i ; 63, 5 : ravaged Gaul SA 
59, i : Alexander killed by one of 
SA 61, 3-6 : war of Maximinus 
against M 10, 2; n, 8 12, 7: 
served under Maximus against 
Maximinus M 24, 5-6 : defeated by 
Maximus M-B 5, 9: Balbinus 
planned campaign against M-B 13, 
5 : company of attended Maximus 
and Balbinus at Rome M-B 13, 5 ; 
14, 2-8 : Gordian III. victor over G 
34, 3 : driven out of Gaul by Postu- 
mus TT 3, 6 : attacked Romans 
after death of Postumus TT 5, 4. 6 : 
aided Postumus against Gallienus 
TT 6, 2 : led as captives in Aure- 
lian's triumph A 33, 4 : invasion of 
after Aurelian's death T 3, 4; P 13, 
5 : invasion of repelled by Probus 
P 12, 3 : Probus' campaign against 
P 13, 6 15, 7: loyal to Probus 
against Proculus and Bonosus P 18, 
7 : Probus' triumph over P 19, 2. 8 : 
Alamanni called F 13, 3 : burned 
Roman galleys F 15, i. 

Germanus : assumed as cognomen by 
Caracalla Cc 5,6. 

Germany : Hadrian in H 2, 5 ; 10, 2: 
invaded by Chatti MA 8, 7-8: 
Commodus set out for C 12, 2-6: 
people in refused to submit to 
Commodus' rule C 13, 5 : Pertinax 
and mother in HP 2, 2-3 : Didius 
Julianus in command of troops in 
DJ i, 6: Chauci, a people of, de- 
feated DJ i, 7: Didius Julianus 
governor of G. Inferior DJ i, 9: 
Severus in command of troops in 
S 4, 5. 7 : acclaimed emperor by 
legions of S 5, i : troops of refused 

4-87 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Germany continued. 

to recognize Albinus as emperor 
CA i, 2: campaign of Maximinus 
in SA 61, 8 ; M 12, 1-6 ; 13, 3 ; Go 
14, i : made to fear Romans TT 8, 
II : subdued and hope of making 
province of P 14, 5 ; 15, 2. 7. 

Gessaces, Mons: Scythians (Goths) 
retreated over Ga 13, 9. 

GETA : birth S. 4, 2 ; Ge 3, i : 
horoscope Ge 2, 6-7: omens of early 
death S 21, 3 ; Cc 11, i ; Ge 3, 2-9 ; 
4, 5 : character and tastes Ge 4-5 : 
early honours S 14, 8. 10 : title of 
Caesar conferred by soldiers S 16, 3 ; 
Ge 5, 3 : name Antoninus given by 
Severus S 10, 5 ; 19, 2 ; Ge i, 5-7 ; 2, 
2-5 ; OM 3, 4; D 6, 9 : by soldiers 
S 16, 4 ; Cc i, i ; Ge 5, 3 : named in 
honour of Marcus Aurelius or of 
Antoninus Pius Ge 2, 2-3 : men- 
tioned in Severus' letter to Albinus 
CA 7, 4 : Severus planned to make 
joint ruler with Caracalla S 20, 1-2 ; 
23, 3-6; CA 3, 5; 7, 2; Cc 2, 7; 
Ge i, 3-7 ; 6, i : obtained deification 
for Severus S 19, 4 : murdered by 
Caracalla S 20, 3; 21, 7; 23, 7; 
Cc2,4-6; 8, 5; 10, 4. 6; Ge 2, 8; 
6, i : burial Ge 7, 1-2 : mourned for 
because of Caracalla's cruelty Ge 7, 
6 : games on birthday of M 2, 4. 

Geta : see Septimius. 

Getae : also called Gothi Cc 10, 6 : 
Maximinus beloved by M 4, 4: 
tribes of subdued by Probus P 16, 3. 

Geticus: cognomen proposed in jest 
for Caracalla Cc 10, 6 ; Ge 6, 6. 

Gillo : favourite slave of Aurelian 
A 50, 3- 

Girba, in Tunisia : purple trom Cl 14, 
8. 

Gladiatorius : name given to Corn- 
modus C i7i 10. 

Gordiana : see Ulpia. 

GORDIAN I. : descent Go 2, 2 ; 9, 4 ; 
17, 3 : possessions Go 2, 3 ; 17, 2 
literary tastes Go 3, 1-4; 7, i 
career of office Go 2, 4 ; 3, 5 5, I 
spectacles and gifts to the people 
Go 3, 5-8 ; 4, 5-6 : children SA 68, 
i ; Go 4, 2. 8; 17, 4 : proconsul of 
Africa M 13, 6; 14, 2; 16, i ; Go 2, 
4; 5; 7, 2; 17, i : personal appear- 
ance Go 6, i ; 21, 5 : character and 

488 



Gordian I. continued. 
habits Go 6, 2-7 : revolt in Africa 
under M 13, 6 14, 4; Go 7, 2 9, 
6; ii, 4-5; 17, i; 22, 6 : acclaimed 
Augustus by senate M 14, 5; 15, 
6-7; 16, 3-6; Go 11 ; 16, 4; 17, i ; 
M-B i, i : letter of to senate M 16, 
i-2 : attacked in speech by Maxi- 
minus M 17, 7; 18; Go 14, 2: 
envoys at Rome Go 9, 7-8; ip, 4. 
8 ; n, 8 : defeated and committed 
suicide in Africa M 19, 1-4; Go 10, 
i; 15-16; 22, 6; 34, i; M-B i, 
i ; 4, 3 ; 9, 5 ; 16, 6 : deified M 24, 
2-3; 26, 2. 5; Go 16, 4; M-B 4 , 
1-2 : received cognomen Africanus 
Go 9, 3-4; 17, 2: bore cognomen 
Antoninus (incorrect) Go 5, 3 ; 17, 
2 : prophecies concerning son Go 
19, 6 ; 20, 5-6 : excitement in Rome 
after death of Go 22, i. 

GORDIAN II.: son of Gordian I. 
Go 4, 2 ; 17, i. 4 : received name 
Antoninus (incorrect) Go 4, 8; 17, 
5 : education Go 18, 1-3 : career of 
office Go 4, 2; 18, 4-5: legate of 
father in Africa Go 7, 2; 8, 3^11, 
4; 15, 2; 18, 6 : acclaimed emperor 
with father M 14, 3; Go 8, 3-4 ; n, 
4-5 ; 17, i : acclaimed Augustus by 
senate M 14, 5 ; 15, 6-7; 16, 6; 18, 
2; GOII; 16, 4; 17, i; 19, 7; M-B 
i, i : attacked in speech by Maxi- 
minus Go 14, 2 : defeated and killed 
near Carthage Go 4, 2 ; 15 ; 16, i ; 
22,6; 34, i; M-B i, i; 4, 3; 9, 5; 
16, 6: tastes and habits Go 19, 1-8; 
21, 1-4 : prophecies concerning 
future of Go 20, 1-5 : literary works 
Go 20, 6: appearance Go 21, 5: 
deified M 24, 2-3; 26, 2. 5; Go 16, 
4; M-B 4, 1-2: excitement in Rome 
after death of Go 22, i. 

GORDIAN III.: relationship to 
Gordian Land Gordian II. M 16, 
7 ; Go 19, 9 ; 22, 4. 6 ; 23, i ; M-B 3, 
4; 8, 3: education Go 22, 5: re- 
ceived title of Caesar M 16, 7; 20, 
2 ; Go 22, 2, 3. 5 ; M-B 3, 3-5 ; 8, 3 ; 
16, 6 : acclaimed in senate M 20, 8 ; 
26, 4-5 : acknowledged by army of 
Maximinus M 24, 2-3 : demanded 
as emperor by soldiers Go 22, 6 23, 
i; M-B 9, 4; 15, 6: established in 
Palace M 24, b; 26, 7: received 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Gordian III. continued. 
news of death of Maximinus M 25, 
3 : went forth to meet Maximus 
M-B 13, i : wrongly said to have 
been prefect of the guard M-B 15, 
6 . plan to remain in Rome during 
campaigns of colleagues M-B 13, 
5 : made emperor on death of Maxi- 
mus and Balbinus Go 22, 5 ; M-B 
14, 7 : consulships Go 23, i. 5 : 
omen of shortness of rule Go 23, 2 : 
appearance Go 21, 5 : age at acces- 
sion and at death Go 22, 2 : revolt 
against in Africa suppressed Go 23, 
4-5 : war against Persians Go 23, 
5 ; 26, 3-6; 27, 1-8 : marriage Go 23, 
6 : aided in ruling by Timesitheus 
Go 23, 7; 25, 5-7; 27, 2 : freed him- 
self from eunuchs and courtiers 
Go 23, 7; 24, 2-3; 25, 1-3: corre- 
spondence with Timesitheus Go 24- 
25 : earthquake during reign of 
Go 26, 1-2 : speech to senate thank- 
ing Timesitheus Go 27, 4-8 : triumph 
over Persians Go 27, 9; 33, 2 : plots 
of Philip against Go 29: attempt 
to free himself from Philip Go 30, i- 
7: death Go 30, 8-9; 31, 2; 33, 5! 
34, 4 : length of reign Go 31, I : 
deification Go 31, 3. 7; 34, 3 : 
character Go 31, 4-6: privileges for 
descendants Go 32, 4 : public works 
Go 32, 5-8: wild beasts at Rome 
Go 33, i : tomb and inscription 
Go 34, 2-3 : defeated by Alani 
Go 34, 4. 

Gordiani : elevated family ot Ceionn 
CA 4, 2 : wrongly supposed by 
many to have borne name An- 
toninus but in reality Antonii 
OM3, 5; D6, 3; E 18, i ; 34,6-7; 
Go 4, 7-b ; 9, 5 : three included in 
one book Go 1,4: three in all Go 2, 
i : house and villa Go 32, 1-3 : all 
entitled Augustus Go 34, i. 

Gordianus : see Aelius : Aurelius : 
Maecius : Velius Cornificius. 

Gothia : Maximinus' father a native 
of M i, 5. 

Gothicus : cognomen proposed in 
jest for Caraculla Ge 6, 6 ; borne by 
Aurelian A 30, 5 : by Probus 
P ii, 9. 

Goths: also called Getae Cc 10, 6: 
Maximinus' dealings with M 4, 4; 



Goths continued. 
Gordian III. victor over Go 34, 3: 
invaded Thrace and Macedonia 
Ga 5, 6: defeated by Marckmus 
Ga 6, i ; Cl 6, i ; 18, i : invaded 
Asia Ga 6, 2; 13, 8; Cl 8, i: in 
procession at Rome Ga 8, 7 : at- 
tacked Cyzicus Ga 13, 8: invaded 
Achaea, defeated by Athenians 
Ga 13, 8 : retreated through Epirus, 
Macedonia, Bceotia Ga 13, 8 : de- 
feated in Illyricum by Gallienus 
Ga 13, 9; 21, 5 : invasions of worse 
than Germans' TT 5, 7 : Claudius' 
wars against TT 30, 3. n; Cl i, 
3 ! 3, 6 ; 6-9 : invaded Thessaly 
and Greece Cl 8, i : became settlers 
in Roman territory Cl 9, 4-5 : 
battles with at Byzantium and 
Thessalonica Cl 9, 7-8 : suffered 
from famine and pestilence at Hae- 
mimontum Cl n, 3-4: attempted 
to take Anchialus and Nicopolis 
Cl 12, 4 : defeated by Aurelian A 
13, 2 : Aurelian sent by Claudius 
to war against A 1 6, 4 ; 17, 2-4 : 
leader of killed by Aurelian A 22, 
2 : chariot of king of in Aurelian's 
triumph A 33, 3 : led as captives in 
Aurelian's triumph A 33, 4; 34, i : 
defeated by Probus P 12, 4 : Bono- 
sus' wife of the race of F 15, 4 : 
Aurelian used Bonosus to learn 
secrets of F 15, 4: noblewomen of 
settled at Perinthus F 15, 6. 

Gracchi : Gordian I. descended from 
Go 2, 2. 

Gracchus : see Nonius. 

Gratus : Claudius to be appeased by 

Cl 17, 3- 
Greece : Severus sent troops to S 8, 

12; PN 5, 6: Maximus proconsul 

of M-B 5, 8: invaded by Goths 

Cl 8, i. 
Graecostadium, at Rome : restored by 

Antoninus Pius AP 8, 2. 
Graeculus : name given to Hadrian 

Hi, 5. 

Granianus : see lulius. 
Greuthungi : invasion of under 

Claudius Cl. 6, 2 : settled in 

Thrace bv Probus but left lands 

P 18, 2. 
Gurges : see Fabius Maximus. 

489 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Hadria, town in Italy : origin of 
Hadrian's family H i, i : office 
held in it by Hadrian H 19, i. 

HADRIAN: Autobiography of H 
i, i; 7, 2; 16, i ; S i, 6: other 
writings H 14, 9 ; 16, 2-4 ; 2. 5. 9-10 : 
ancestry, birth and guardians H i, 
1-4: early studies H I, 5 : early 
career H 2, 1-5 ; 3, i. 2. 5. 8 : 
prophecies of rule H 2, 4. 8. 9 ; 3, 5 : 
relations with Trajan H 2, 6. 7. 10 : 
3, 3. 7. ii : marriage H 2, 10 : 
campaigns in Dacia H 3, 2. 3. 6 : 
quelled revolt of Sarmatians H 3, 
9 : consulships H 3, 10; 4, 4 ; 8, 5 : 
adoption by Trajan H 3, 10; 4, 4. 
6. 8. 10 ; A 14, 6 : favoured by 
Plotina H 4, i. 4. 10 : in campaign 
against Parthians, H 4, i : at 
Trajan's court H 4, 5 : legate of 
Syria H 4, 6 : made emperor H 4, 
7 : policy of peace H 5, i : revolts 
under H 5, 2 : policy in the Orient 
H 5, 3-4: 9, i; 12, 8; 13, 8-9; 21, 
10-14: clemency H 5, 5; 17, i: 
donatives to soldiers H 5, 7 ; 23, 12 ; 
Ae, 3, 3 ; 6, i : appointed provin- 
cial governors H 5, 8. 10; 6, 7; 7, 
3 : honours for Trajan H 5, 9 ; 6, i. 
3 : arrival at Rome H 5, 10 : 
apologies to senate H 6, 2 : deferred 
title of Pater Patriae H 6, 4 : re- 
mitted crown-gold H 6, 5 : cam- 
paign against Sarmatae and 
Roxolani H 6, 6-8 : murdered four 
consulars H 7, 1-2; 9, 3 : returned 
to Rome H 7, 3 : largesses to people 
H 7, 2; 23, 12; Ae, 3, 3; 6, I : 
promised not to kill senators H 7, 
4 : instituted imperial post H 7, 5 : 
remitted debts to fiscus H 7, 6 : 
grant to aerarium H 7, 7 : endow- 
ment for orphans H 7, 8 : generosity 
H 7, 9-n ; 15, i ; 17, 2-5; 22, 9: 
spectacles H 7, 12 ; 19, 2-8 ; 23, 12 ; 
Ae, 3, 3 : advisory consilium H 8, 
I ; i8_, i ; 22, ii ; AP 3, S : modera- 
tion in honours and power H 8, 
2-3 ; 9. 7-8 : generosity in giving 
consulships H 8, 4 : deference 
toward senate H 8, 6-10 : toward 
Servianus H 8, n : pretended 
fulfilment of Trajan's commands 
but destroyed his theatre H 9, 1-2: 
jealousy and deposition of Attianus 

490 



Hadrian continued. 
and Similis H 9, 3-5 : made Turbo 
and Clarus prefects of guard H 9, 
4-5 : visit and generosity to Cam- 
pania H 9, 6 : honours for mother- 
in-law H 9, 9; 19, 5 : in Gaul H 

10, i; 12, 1-2; in Germany H 10, 
2 : discipline and care of army H 
10,2 n, i ; P4,s: economy H ii, 
i : in Britain H 11, 2 : dismissed 
Septicius Clarus and Suetonius H 

11, 3: thought of divorcing Sabina 
H ii, 3: spy-system H ii, 4-6: 
amours H ii, 7: built basilica in 
honour of Plotina H 12, 2 : in 
Spain H 12, 3-6 : restored temple 
of Augustus H 12, 3 : appointed 
king in Germany H 12, 7 : checked 
revolt in Mauritania H 12, 7 : was 
granted supplicatio by senate H 

12, 7 : in Asia H 13, i. 6 : in 
Achaea H 13, 1-2: interest in 
Athens and initiation into mysteries 
H 13, i. 6; 19, i. 4; Ga n, 4: in 
Sicily H 13, 3: in Africa H 13, 
4-5; 22, 14: used Cappadocian 
slaves H 13, 7 : severity toward 
provincial officials H 13, 10 : hatred 
for Antioch H 14, i : planned to 
separate Syria and Phoenice H 14, 
i : ascended Mons Casius H 14, 3 : 
in Arabia H 14, 4 : rebuilt tomb of 
Pompey H 14, 4 : mourning for and 
consecration of Antinous H 14, 
5-8 : interest in arts, sciences, and 
literature H 14, 8-9 ; 16, 5-7 ; 26, 
4 ; Ae 3, 9 : complex character H 
14, ii : knowledge of war and 
arms H 14, 10; 26, 3: suspicions 
and murders H 15, 2-9; 23, 2-8; 
25, 8 : association with learned 
men and artists H 15, 10-13; 16, 
8-1 1 : retort to Florus H 16, 5-6: 
in the public baths H 17, 5-7: 
love for plebs H 17, 8 : love of 
travel H 17, 8: endurance H 17, 
9 : gifts to kings H 17, 10-12 : 
administrative measures H 18,2-11; 
22, 6-8: offices held in various 
cities H 19, i : public works at 
Rome H 19, 9-13 ; 20, 4-5 : affa- 
bility H 20, 1-3 : instituted post of 
advocatus fisci H 20, 6 : memory 
and other talents H 20, 7-11 : care 
of public finances H 20, ii : interest 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Hadrian continued. 
in hunting H 20, 12-13 ; 26, 3 : 
supervision of jurisdiction H 21, 
i ; 22, 1 1 : treatment of freedmen 
and slaves H 21, 2-3: liking for 
tetrapharmacum H 21, 4; Ae 5, 4; 
SA 30, 5-6 : disasters during 
principate H 21, 5-6: granted lus 
Latium and remitted tribute H 
21, 7: wars H, 21, 8-9: enforced 
laws and customs H 22, 1-5 : care 
for state-religion H 22, 10 : ap- 
pointed governors for Italy H 22, 
13; AP 2, ii : last illness H 23, 
i ; 24, 8 25, 4 : plans for successor 
H 23, 2-6 : adoption of Aelius 
Verus, honours and offices for him 
H23, 10-13; Aei, 2; 2, 6; 3, 1-3; 
7, i ; CA 2, 5 : remarks concerning 
Aelius H 23, 14 ; Ae 4, 1-7; 6, 2. 3. 
7 : adoption of Antoninus Pius H 
24, i ; Ae 6, 9; AP 4, 1-6; MA 5, 
i-7; V 2, 2; A 14, 6: plan to kill 
senators frustrated by Pius H 24, 
4; 25,8; AP2.4; 7,9-10: death 
H 25, 5-6 ; Ae 6, 10 ; AP 5, i ; MA 
6, i: buried H 25, 6; AP 5, i: 
age H 25, ii : appearance H 26, i : 
villa near Tibur H 23, 7 ; 26, 5 ; 
TT 30, 27 : omens of death H 26, 
6-10 : hatred foi after death H 25, 
6 ; 27, 1-2 : honours for H 24, 5 ; 
27, 2-3 ; AP 2, 5 ; 5, 1-2 : prevented 
from suicide H 24, 9 ; AP 2, 6 : 
temple to AP 8, 2 ; V 3, i : affec- 
tion for M. Aurelius MA 2, 10; 
4, 1-2: treasures of sold by M. 
Aurelius MA 17, 4; quoted in 
letter of M. Aurelius AC 2, ^5 : 
could not be overthrown by rebels 
AC 8, 6 : gave commands only to 
tested officers PN 4, 3 ; example of 
good ruler E i, 2; A 42, 4 ; T 6, 9 : 
named Oresta in Thrace after 
himself E 7, 8 : extravagance in 
banquets SA 37, 2 : temples built 
by, supposedly to Christ SA 43, 6 : 
old when made emperor T 5, i : 
Probus to be preferred to T 16, 6; 
P 22, 4 : letter concerning Egyp- 
tians F 7, 6 8, 10. 

Hadriani, Sepulchrum, at Rome : 
built by Hadrian H 19, n : re- 
paired by Antoninus Pius AP 8, 2: 
Aelius Verus buried in V II, i : 



Hadriani continued. 

Antoninus Pius buried in MA 7, 
10 : L. Verus buried in MA 20, i : 
V ii, i : Commodus buried in C 
17, 4 : Severus buried in S 19, 3 ; 
24, 2 : Caracalla buried in Cc 9, 
12; OM 5, 2. 

Hadrianopolis : name given by Had- 
rian to Carthage and part of Athens 
H 20, 4. 

Hadrianotherae, city in Asia : 
founded by Hadrian H 20, 13. 

Hadrianus : see Aelius. 

Hadrumetum, city in Africa : grand- 
father of Didius Julianus from DJ 
1,2: Clodius Celsinus from S n, 
3 : Clodius Albinus from CA i, 3 ; 
4, i ; 12, 8. 

Haemimontum : Goths attacked at 
by famine and pestilence Cl n, 
3-4 : plundered by Goths A 17, 2, 

Halala, town in Cappadocia : 
Faustina died in MA 26, 4, 9 : 
made a colony MA 26, 9 : temple 
of Faustina at MA 26, 9; Cc ii, 6 : 
temple abolished by Caracalla Cc 
ii, 6: temple re-dedicated to god 
Elagabalus MA 26, 9 ; Cc ii, 7. 

Haldagates : served under Aurelian 
A ii, 4. 

Hannibal : admired by Niger PN n, 

4-5-. 

Hannibalianus : see Afranius. 

Hariomundus : served under Aurelian 
A ii, 4. _ 

Harpocratio, grammarian : teacher 
of L. Verus V 2, 5. 

Hebrus, river in Thrace : Orestes 
purified near E 7, 7. 

Hedius Rufus Lollianus Gentianus : 
criticized Pertinax HP 7, 7. 

Heliodorus, philosopher : attacked 
by Hadrian H 15, 5 : Hadrian's 
friendship for H, 16, 10. 

Heliodorus : see Avidius. 

Hellespontus : Aemilianus defeated 
at S 8, 16. 

Helvius Pertinax, P. : see Pertinax. 

Helvius Pertinax, P., son of Em- 
peror Pertinax : title of Caesar 
offered to but refused by father 
HP 6, 9 : made flamen of father by 
Severus HP 15, 3 : killed by Cara- 
calla Cc 4, 8 ; Ge 6, 7 : jest con- 
cerning Caracalla's cognomina Cc 

491 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Helvius Pertinax P. continued. 
10, 6; Ge 6, 6: suspected by 
Caracalla of designs on principate 
Ge 6, 8. 

Helvius Successus : father of Emperor 
Pertinax HP i, i. 

Hephaestio, grammarian : teacher of 
I,. Verus V 2, 5. 

Heraclammon: betrayed Tyana to Au- 
relian and punished A 22, 6 24, i. 

Heraclea, city in Bithynia : attacked 
by Scythians (Goths) Ga 12, 6. 

Heraclea, city in Thrace: Aurelian 
murdered near A 35, 5. 

Heraclianus : in war against Persians, 
defeated by Palmyrenes Ga 13, 4-5 : 
in plot to kill Gallienus G 14, i. 

Heraclitus : sent by Severus to take 
possession of Britain S 6, 10: of 
Bithynia (incorrect) PN 5, 2. 

Herculaneus : title given to flamen of 
Commodus C 17, n; name of a 
kind of sword HP 8, 4. 

Herculea : name given to African 
fleet C 17, 8. 

Hercules : initiation into Eleusinian 
Mysteries imitated by Hadrian H 
13, i : Commodus in garb of C 9, 
2 : favourite of Commodus made 
priest of C 10, 9 : statue of showed 
prodigy C 16, 5 : Caracalla likened 
himself to Cc 5, 9: Maximinus 
likened to M 4, 9 ; 6, 9. 

Hercules : name given to Commodus 
C 8, 5. 9; Cc 5, 5 ; D 7, 2-3 : given 
to month September C n, 8: to 
October C 8, 13. 14. 

Hercules, Temple of: banquet in TT 

i-!-. 5- 
Hercules Fundanius, Temple of: 

omen in T 17, 2. 

Herculeus, Agon : contest in honour 
of Alexander the Great held by 
Severus Alexander SA 35, 4. 

Herculianus : name of kind of lance 
Cl 14, 6. 

HERENNIANUS: with Odenaethus 
in Persian War TT 15,2: Zenobia 
ruled in name of Ga 13, 2 ; TT 27, 
i ; 30, 2 : Zenobia did not rule in 
name of A 38, i : Zenobia wished 
to make prince TT 17, 2: led in 
triumph by Aurelian TT 24, 4 : 
s.u'J tohavt ueen killed by Aurelian 
TT 27, 2. 

492 



Herennianus : Claudius to be ap- 
peased by Cl 17, 3. 

Herennianus: trained by Probus P 
22, 3. . 

Herennianus : son of Proculus F 
12, 3. 

Herennianus : see Verconnius. 

Herennius Celsus: sought consulship 
TT 22, 12. 

Herennius Dexippus, P., historian : 
cited SA 49, 3 ; M 32, 3-4 ; 33, 3 ; 
Go 2, i; 9,6; 19,9; 23, i; M-B I, 
2; 15,5; 16, 3-6; XT 32, i; Cl 12, 
6 : defeated Goths Ga 13, 8. 

Herennius Modestinus, jurist : teacher 
of Maximinus the younger M 27, 5. 

Herennius Nepos : killed by Severus 
S 13, 7- 

Hermunduri : warred against Rome 
MA 22, i : plan of M. Aurelius to 
make a province of MA 27, 10. 

HERODES : son of Odaenathus' first 
wife, disliked by Zenobia TT 16, 
i. 3 ; 17, 2 : with Odaenathus in 
Persian war TT 15, 2 : made em- 
peror by Odaenathus Ga 13, i ; TT 
15, 5; 16, i : luxury of and indul- 
gence of Odaenathus toward TT 16, 
1-2 : killed with Odaenathus Ga 13, 
i : TT 15,5: a reproach to Odaena- 
thus TT 17, i. 

Herodes : see Claudius Atticus. 

Herodianus, historian (also called Ar- 
rianus) : cited CA i, 2 ; 12, 14 ; D 2, 
5; SA52, 2; 57,3; M 13, 4; 33,3 
(Amanus) ; Go 2, i (Amanus) ; M- 
B i, 2 (Arrianus); 15, 3. 5; 16, 6; 
TT 32, i. 

Hiberi, people of Transcaucasia : 
Hadrian's gifts to king of H 17, n : 
friendly relations with H 20, 13 : 
offered aid for rescue of Valerian 
Va 4, i: marched in Aurelian's 
triumph A 33, 4 : revered Aurelian 
A 41, 10. 

Hierocles : favourite of Elagabalus 
E 6, 5 : removed from power at 
demand of soldiers E 15, 2 : re- 
stored E 15, 4. 

Hilaria : banquets of Severus Alex- 
ander on SA 37, 6 : conversation of 
Vopiscus on A i. 

Hildomundus : served under Aurelian 
An, 4. 

Hispania : see Spain. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Hispania Baetica : quaestorship of as- 
signed to Severus S 2, 3-4 : invaded 
by Mauri S 2, 4. 

Hister (Danube): Scythians (Goths) 
'sailed into Ga 13, 6. 

Homer : Hadrian's knowledge of H 
16, 6 : left no sons S 21, 2 : works 
of given to Maximinus the younger 
M 30, 4 : made Achilles famous P 
1,2. 

Homullus : remark to Trajan con- 
cerning Domitian SA 65, 5. 

Homullus : see Valerius. 

Honoratus: see Egnatuleius. 

Horatius Flaccus, Q. : cited AC n, 
8 : works of read by Severus Alex- 
ander SA 30, 2. 

Hortensius of Cicero : cited Ga 20, I. 

Hunila : wife of Bonosus F 15, 7. 

lanus : showed prodigy C 16, 4 : 
gates of opened by Gordian III. 
Go 26, 3. 

Illyricum : Hadrian in H 5, 10: plans 
for defence of MA 14, 6: in Mar- 
comannic War MA 22, i : Severus 
made emperor in DJ 5, 1-2 ; S 5, 
3; CA i, i : victory in SA 58, i 
protected by Maximinus Go 14, I 
Sarmatae defeated in M-B 5, 9 
desired rescue of Valerian Va 3, 2 
Macrianus defeated and killed in 
Ga 2, 5-7; TT 12, 13: troops in 
made Aureolus emperor TT n, i : 
held by Aureolus Ga 3, 3 ; 5, 6 : 
Gallienus defeated Goths in Ga 13, 
9 : Regalianus general in TT 10, I. 
9 : Macrianus' valour in TT 12, 17 : 
Ragonius Clarus prefect of TT 18, 
5: rich ingrain TT 18, 8: Valens 
the elder seized power in TT 20, 3 : 
seized by pretender TT 29, i : 
victory of Marcianus and Claudius 
in Cl 6, i ; 18, i : lunius Brocchus 
governor of Cl 8, 3 : Claudius a 
native of Cl 14, 2 : Claudius com- 
mander of Cl 15, 2 : procurator of 
mires in Cl 15, 4: mantle from Cl 
17, 6 : Aurelian defeated Sarmatians 
in A 6, 3 ; 9, 4 : Ulpius Crinitus 
commander of frontier of A 13, i : 
Aurelian in command of troops in 
A 17, 2 : Aurelian's victories in A 
22, 2; 41, 8: Aurelian in A 35, 4 : 
devastated A 39, 7 : danger of re- 



Illyricum continued. 
volt in after Aurelian's death T 3, 
6: Gallienus' letter to tribunes of 
army in P 6, 2-3 : Probus' victories 
in P 16, 1-2: AlmaMonsin planted 
with vines P 18, 8: Probus killed 
in P 20, i : Cams' parents from Ca 
4, 2 : Carus born in Ca 4, 3 : Sar- 
matians threatened after Probus' 
death Ca 9, 4 : under rule of Carinus 
Ca 16, 2 : Carinus called king in 
Ca 17, i. 

Ilus, King of Troy : Claudius said 
to be descended from Cl 1 1 , 9. 

Impurus : name given to Elagabalus 
E 17, 5- 

Incommodus : name given to Corn- 
modus T 6, 4. 

Indi : expedition of Aemilianus 
against TT 22, 8 : marched in 
Aurelian's triumph A 33, 4 : re- 
vered Aurelian A 41, 10: Firmus' 
trade with F 3, 3. 

India: perfumes from E 31, 4: 
purple from A 29, 2-3 : ivory from 
F 3 ,6. 

INGENUUS: governor of Pannonia 
TT 9, i : made emperor by troops 
in Moesia TT 9, i. 9; Cl 7, 4: 
supported by PannoniansTT 9, i : 
character TT 9, 2 : Gallienus' 
campaign against TT 9, 3 ; 10, i : 
killed TT 9, 3-4 : promoted by 
Valerian TT 10, 14. 

Inferi : place in Hadrian's villa near 
Tibur H 26, 5. 

Insubres, tribe in N. Italy : grand- 
father of Didius Julianus from DJ 
1,2. 

Interamna, town in Italy : envoys of 
senate met Severus at S 6, 2 : 
statues of Tacitus and Florian at 

T 15, i. 
Invictus : name given to month 

October C n, 8; 12, i. 
lovis, Campus, in Rome : house of 

Niger in PN 12, 4. 
lovis Cenatio, place in Palatium at 

Rome : conspirators against Per- 

tinax in HP n, 6. 
lovis, Epulum : banquet of Severus 

Alexander on SA 37, 6. 
Isauria : victory in SA 58, i : Tre- 

bellianus made emperor in TT 26, 

2-3 : people of refused to leave 

493 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Isauria continued. 

mountains TT 26, 5-6 : Claudius 
planned to remove people of TT 
26, 7 : campaign of Probus in P 
16, 4 17, i : brigands from in 
Probus' triumph P 19, 8. 

Iseum, at Rome : beautified by 
Severus Alexander SA 26, 8. 

Iseum Metellinum, at Rome : house 
of Tetrici near TT 25, 4. 

Isis : cult of practised by Commodus 
C 9 t 4; PN 6, 8: worshippers of 
maltreated by Commodus C 9, 6 : 
said to have been brought to Rome 
by Caracalla Cc 9, 10-11. 

Istria, city on W. coast of Black 
Sea : destruction of M-B 16, 3. 

Italica, town in Spain : home of 
Hadrian's family H i, i : office 
held in it by Hadrian H 19, i. 

Italici : in Spain objected to conscrip- 
tion H 12, 4. 

Italy : four judges for appointed by 
Hadrian H 22, 13; AP 2, n ; MA 
ii, 6: towns of aided by M. 
Aurelius MA n, 3: judges for 
appointed by M. Aurelius MA 11, 
6 : foreign-born senators required 
to hold land in MA u, 8: plans 
for defence of by M. Aurelius and 
L. Verus MA 14, 6 : food-supplies 
of administered by Didius Julianus 
DJ 2, i : gold in seized by Severus 
S 12, 3 : boys of noble birth sought 
in as sacrificial victims E 8, i : 
toga worn in by M. Aurelius and 
troops MA 27, 3 : by Hadrian H 
22, 3 : by Severus Alexander SA 
40, 7 : Persians feared in Go 27, 3 : 
desired rescue of Valerian Va 3, 2 : 
Macrianus' valour in TT 12, 17: 
Tetricus supervisor of TT 24, 5 : 
freed from Marcomanni A 41, 8: 
army of forestalled by troops of 
Probus P 10, 3 : descendants of 
Probus lived in P 24, I : threatened 
by Sarmatians after Probus' death 
Ca 9, 4 : under rule of Carinus Ca 
16, 2. 

Ituraeans : served under Aurelian A 

ii, 3- 

lulia Domna : native of Syria S 3, 9 : 
married by Severus because of her 
horoscope S 3, 9; Ge 3, i; SA 5, 
4: called (incorrectly) stepmother 

49* 



lulia Domna continued. 

of Caracalla S 20, 2 ; 21, 7 ; Cc IO, 
i : sister of lulia Maesa OM 9, i : 
influenced Severus to leave princi- 
pate to sons CA 3, 5 : influenced 
Severus to give name Antoninus to 
Geta Ge i , 5 : reproof to Caracalla 
as omen Ge 3, 3 : Geta killed in 
arms of S 21, 7: Caracalla wished 
to kill Cc 3, 3; Ge 7, 3: amours 
and conspiracy of S 18, 8 : relations 
with Caracalla S 21, 7 ; Cc 10, 1-4 : 
mentioned in letter of Severus to 
Albinus CA 7, 5. 

lulia Fadilla : stepsister of Antoninus 
Pius AP i, 5. 

lulia Maesa (Varia): sister of Julia 
Domna, driven from Palace by 
Macrinus after Caracalla's death 
OM 9, i : a native of Emesa OM 
9, i : mother of Julia Soaemias 
and Julia Mamaea OM 9, 2 : 

frandmother of Elagabalus and 
everus Alexander E 10, i ; SA i, 
2 : wealthy OM 9, 5 : caused 
Elagabalus to be declared emperor 
by the soldiers OM 9, 4-6 : taken 
by Elagabalus to camp and senate- 
house E 12, 3 : left by Elagabalus 
in Palace, taken by soldiers to 
camp with Alexander E 13, 5 ; 14, 
3 : protested against Elagabalus' 
extravagance E 31, 4. 

lulia Mamaea : daughter of Julia 
Maesa OM 9, 2 : mother of Severus 
Alexander SA 3,1: taken to camp 
by soldiers with Alexander E 14, 
3 : character SA 14,7: greed SA 
*4> 7; 59, 8: reproved Alexander 
for affability SA 20, 3 : power of 
SA 14, 7 ; 60, 2 : devotion of Alex- 
ander to SA 26, 9 : buildings 
named after SA 26, 9 : attitude 
toward Ulpian SA 51, 4: death 
SA 60, 2 ; M 7, 4 : festival in 
honour of SA 63, 4 : wished 
Alexander to abandon German 
war SA 63, 5 ; M 7, 5 : wise 
counsellor of Alexander SA 66, i : 
letter of Alexander to M 29, 1-4. 

lulia Soaemias (Symiamira) : daugh- 
ter of Julia Maesa OM 9, 2 : 
mother of Elagabalus OM 9, 2; 
E 2, I : relations with Caracalla 
E 2, i : character OM 7, 6; E 2, 



INDEX OF NAMES 



lulia Soaemias continued. 
i-2 ; 18, 2 : influence over son E 
2, I : admitted to senate E 4,^ 1-2 ; 
1 8, 3 : social regulations established 
under influence of E 4, 4 : left _by 
Elagabalus in Palace, accompanied 
Alexander and soldiers to camp E 
13, 5; 14, 4: killed with son E 
1 8, 2. 

lulianus : prefect of the guard, killed 
by Commodus C 7, 4 : maltreated 
by Commodus C 11, 3-4. 

lulianus: see Ceionius: Cerellius: 
Claudius : Didius : Pescennius : 
Salvius : Ulpius. 

lulius Alexander : revolted against 
Commodus C 8, 3. 

lulius Asclepiodotus : cited A 44, 
2-3 : trained by Probus P 22, 3. 

lulius Atherianus : quoted TT 6, 5-7. 

lulius Calpurnius : letter of Ca 8, 
4-7- 

lulius Candidus Marius Celsus, Ti. : 
second consulship H 3, 4. 

lulius Capitolinus: Vopiscus will 
imitate P 2, 7. 

lulius Erucius Clarus, C. : consul- 
ship of HP 15, 6: killed by 
Severus S 13, 4. 

lulius Frontinus, rhetorician : teacher 
of Severus Alexander SA 3, 3. 

lulius Granianus, rhetorician : teach- 
er of Severus Alexander SA 3, 3. 

lulius Laetus : advised murder of 
Tullius Crispinus DJ 8, i. 

lulius Lupus, P. : stepfather of 
Antoninus Pius AP i, 6. 

lulius Martialis : murderer of Cara- 
calla Cc 6, 7 ; 7, 2. 

lulius Paulus : in consilium of 
Papinian PN 7, 4 ; SA 26, 6 : pre- 
fect of the guard PN 7, 4 ; SA 26, 
5 : trusted official and counsellor 
of Severus Alexander SA 26, 5; 
27, 2 ; 68, i. 

lulius Proculus : killed by Corn- 
modus C 7, 7. 

lulius Quadratus, A: consulship of 
HS. 4- 

lulius Rufus : killed by Severus S 
1.3, 2. 

lulius Titianus : author of a work on 
the provinces, called the ape of his 
age M 27, 5. 



lulius Trypho : commander of fron- 
tier of the East, with Valerian 
at Byzantium A 13, i. 

lulius Ursus Servianus, L. : brother- 
in-law of Hadrian H I, 2: 8, Ii: 
early enmity for Hadrian H 2, 6 : 
second consulship H 3, 8 : defer- 
ence of Hadrian toward H 8, n : 
third consulship H 8, n : compelled 
by Hadrian to commit suicide H 
15, 8; 23, 2. 8; 25, 8: considered 
by Hadrian as successor H 23, 
2 : letter of Hadrian to F 8. 

lulius Vindex, C. : attempt to seize 
principate now forgotten PN 9, 2 : 
acclaimed emperor by soldiers SA 
1,7- no life of written by Suetonius 
FI.I. 

lulus : Diadumenianus likened to D 

8,7- 

luncus : see Aemilius. 

lunia Fadilla : great-granddaughter 
of Marcus Aurelius, betrothed to 
Maximinus the younger, later 
married to Toxotius M 27, 6-8. 

Junior : see Petronius. 

lunius, legate of Carus: letter of 
Carus to Ca 4, 6-7. 

lunius Balbus : son-in-law of Gordian 
I. Go 4, 2. 

lunius Brocchus : letter of Claudius 
to Cl 8, 3-9, 2. 

lunius Messalla : extravagance of 
Ca 20, 4-6. 

lunius Palmarus : victory of in 
Armenia SA 58, i. 

lunius Rusticus, Q., philosopher : 
teacher of M. Aurelius MA 3, 2-4. 

lunius Severus : appointed successor 
to Albinus by Commodus CA 14, i. 

lunius Silanus : consul, read pro- 
clamation of Gordian I. M 16, i. 

lunius Tiberianus, city-prefect: con- 
versation of Vopiscus with A 1-2. 

Justus : see Autronius. 

luvenalia : celebrated by Gordian I. 
Go 4, 6. 

luvenalis : see Flavius. 

luventius Celsus : in Hadrian's 
consilium H 18, i. 

luverna (Ireland) : Roman emperor 
destined to send governor to T 15, 2. 

xiones : name given by Elagabalus 
to parasites E 24, 5. 

495 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Jews: revolt quelled by Turbo H 5, 
8 : in revolt H 14, 2 : revolt quelled 
AP 5,4: triumph over granted to 
Caracalla S 16, 7: persons for- 
bidden to become S 17, i : child 
punished for adherence to religion 
of Cc i, 6 : plan to amalgamate 
religion of with cult of Elagabalus 
E 3, 5 : ordered to eat ostriches E 
28, 4 : privileges respected by 
Severus Alexander SA 22, 4 : 
custom of in choosing priests 
imitated by Alexander SA 45, 7 : 
precept of adopted by Alexander 
SAsi,7-8: inscription in language 
of Go 34, 2 : sacred books of Cl 2, 
4 : bad character of in Egypt F 8, 

3-7- 

JULIUS CAESAR: clemency of 
AC ii, 6: left no sons S 21, 2: 
conquered Britain CA 13, 7 : died 
violent death SA 62, 3 : killed by 
senators M 18, 2 : contrasted with 
Cato by Sallust M-B 7, 7 : mur- 
derers died violent death Go 33, 

4-5- 

Juno : appealed to D 7, 7- 
Juno Regina : appealed to P 12, ?. 
Jupiter : Severus dreamed of being 

called by S 22, 2 : appealed to SA 

i7_, 4 : thunderer Ga 5, 3. 
Jupiter Consul (or Consulens) : 

statue of planned by Aurelian F 

3. 4- 
Jupiter Nicephorius : oracle of H 

2,9- 

Jupiter Olympius : temple at Athens 
dedicated by Hadrian H 13, 6. 

Jupiter Optimus Maximus : games 
for MA 21, 5 : appeals to C 18, 7 ; 
D i, 7: thanks rendered to M 26, 
2 : Maximus and Balbinus called 
to empire by M-B. 17, 2 : statue 
of Claudius before temple of Cl. 2, 
4 : purple garment in temple of 
A 29, I : thanks and appeal to P 
12, I. 7 : senate ordered to conse- 
crate crowns to P 15, 4: ivory 
consecrated to F 3, 6. 

Jupiter Praestes : omen at shrine of 
M-B 5, 3. 

Jupiter Salutaris: sacrifice to Ga 5, 5. 

Jupiter Syrius, identified with Sol 
and Elagabalus : temple of Faus- 
tina at Halala rededicated to him 

496 



Jupiter Syrius continued. 

by Elagabalus MA 26, 9; Cc u, 7 : 
Elagabalus priest of E i, 5 : temple 
of at Rome E i, 6 ; 3,4; 17, 8 . 

Jupiter Ultor : Pertinax prayed to 
HP u, 10. 



Laberius Maximus, M' : spared by 
Hadrian H 5, 5. 

Labicana, Via : Didius Julianus 
buried on DJ 8, 10. 

Labici, town in Italy : grapes from 
CAii, 3 . 

Labyrinth, in Egypt: visited by 
Severus S 17, 4. 

Lacedaemon : marble from E 24, 6 ; 
SA 25, 7- 

Lacringes : warred against Rome 
MA 22, i. 

Laelius, C. : Gordian I. likened to 
Go 5, 5. 

Laetus : responsibility for death of 
denied by Severus S 15, 6. 

Laetus : see Aemilius : lulius : Mae- 
cius. 

Lamia Silanus : son-in-law of An- 
toninus Pius AP i, 7. 

Lampridia : mother of Pescennius 
Niger PN i, 3. 

Lampridius : see Aelius. 

Lanuvium, town in Italy: birthplace 
of Antoninus Pius AP i, 8 : temples 
at repaired by Antoninus Pius AP 
8, 3 : birthplace of Commodus C i, 
3 : wild-beast fights of Commodus 
at C 8, 5 : prodigy at C 16, 5. 

Laodicea, city in Syria : L. Verus at 
V 7, 3 : shrine of Diana at E 7, 5. 

Larcius Eurupianus : killed by Com- 
modus C 7, 6. 

Larius (Lake Como) : descendants of 
Probus lived near P 24, i. 

Lascivius : see Triarius. 

Lateranus : house of MA i, 7. 

Lateranus : see Sextius. 

Latinae, Feriae: M. Aurelius prefect 
of MA 4, 6. 

Latium, district of Italy : offices held 
by Hadrian in towns of H 19, i. 

Latium, lus : given by Hadrian to 
many cities H 21, 7. 

Laurensis : see Livius. 

Lavinium, town in Italy : M. Aure- 
lius at MA 27, 4. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Lazi, people in N.E. Asia Minor: 
king of appointed by Antoninus 
Pius AP 9, 6. 

Legio I: Pertinax in command of: 
HP 2, 6 : Albinus in command of 
CA 6, 2. 

Legio I Minervia: Hadrian in com- 
mand of H 3, 6. 

Legio II Adiutrix: Hadrian tribune 
of H 2, 2. 

Legio II Parthica : prefect of an ac- 
complice in murder of Caracalla 
Cc 6, 7. 

Legio III : eagle-bearers of plundered 
temple of Sun at Palmyra A 31, 7. 

Legio III Felix: served under Aure- 
lian A n, 4: Probus in command 

of P 5, 4-7- 

Legio IV : Albinus in command or 
CA 6, 2 : Maximinus tribune of M 5, 
5 : Serapammon in command of 
Go 25, 2. 

Legio IV Scythica :_ Severus in com- 
mand of at Massilia 83,6. 

Legio V Martia: Claudius tribune 
of Cl 14, 2. 

Legio VI Gallicana: Aurelian tri- 
bune of A 7, i. 

Legio XXII Primigenia: Didiub 
Julianus in command of in Germany 
DJ i, 6. 

Leonides : trained by Probus P 

22, 3. 

Leptis, town in Africa: home of 
family of Severus S 1,2 : man from 
beaten by Severus S 2, 6 : Severus' 
sister came from S 15, 7. 

Liber : Elagabalus arrayed as E 28, 2. 

Libo : see Annius. 

Libya revolt in H 5, 2 : Severus 
feared that Niger would seize S 8, 
7; PN 5,5 : procurator of Maxi- 
minus killed in M 14, i : wild 
beasts from at games of Gordian I. 
Go 3,6: earthquake in Ga 5, 4 : 
Fabius Pomponianus commander 
of frontier of, made Celsus emperor 
TT 29, i : beasts from in Aurelian's 
triumph A 33, 4 : Probus in P 9, i : 
leopards from in spectacle of Probus 
P 19, 7- 

LICINIUS: conquered by Constan- 
tine E 35, 6 : claimed descent from 
Philip Go 34, 5. 



Licinius Sura, L. : promoted friend- 
ship between Trajan and Hadrian 
H 2, 10 : informed Hadrian of 
adoption planned by Trajan H 3, 
10: death H 3, n. 

Liguria, district of Italy : Pertinax 
in HP 3, 3-4- 

Livianus : see Claudius. 

Livius, T. : inaccuracy of A 2, 2 : 
wrote of Pompey P 2, 3 : Vopiscus 
will not imitate P 2, 7 : did not 
record trifles F 6, 3. 

Livius Andronicus : saying taken 
from Ca 13, 5. 

Livius Laurensis, P. : gave body of 
Commodus for burial C 20, i. 

LOLLIANUS: instrumental in kill- 
ing Postumus TT 3, 7 ; 5, i : made 
emperor in Gaul TT 4,1; 5, i. 5 ; 
Cl 7, 4 : campaign of Gallienus 
against Ga 21, 5 : small prestige of 
in Gaul TT 5, 2 : killed TT 5, 3-4 ; 
6, 3 ; 8, i ; 31,2: benefits to Gaul 
TT 5, 4: life of little known TT 
5,8. 

Lollianus : see Hedius. 

Lollianus Avitus, L. : aided Pertinax 
to secure post of centurion HP i, 5. 

Lollianus Titianus : ordered to arm 
gladiators at Capua DJ 8, 3. 

Lollius Professus : killed by Severus 
S 13, 2. 

Lollius Serenus : introduced Albinus 
to Antoninus CA 6, i. 

Longinus : see Cassius. 

Longus : see Baebius. 

Lollius Urbicus, historian : cited D 
9,2. 

Lollius Urbicus, Q. : conquests of in 
Britain AP 5, 4. 

Lorium, town in Italy : Antoninus 
Pius reared at AP i, 8: died at 
AP 12, 6. 

Lucani : Caracalla's joke concerning 
Cc 5, 6. 

Lucania, district of Italy: Tetricus 
supervisor of TT 24, 5 ; A 39, i. 

Lucanicus : Caracalla threatened to 
assume as cognomen Cc 5, 6. 

Lucanus : see Claudius. 

Lucceius Torquatus : killed by 
Commodus C 7, 6. 

Lucilius, C,, poet : verse of quoted 
against Pertinax HP 9, 5. 

Lucilla: see Annia: Domitia. 

497 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Lucillus : consulship of Ga 12, i. 

Lugdunensis : see Gallia Lugdun- 
ensis. 

Lugdunum (Lyons) : Albinus died 
at CA 12, 3 : people of put down 
by Aurelian, fearing Probus, made 
Proculus emperor F 13, 1-2. 

Luguvallum, place in Britain : omen 
at S 22, 4. 

Luna : colossus of planned by Had- 
rian H 19, 13: worship of Cc 7, 
3-5 : temple of at Ephesus de- 
stroyed by Goths Ga 6, 2. 

Lunus : worship of at Carrhae Cc 
6, 6 ; 7, 3- 

Lupiae, town in Italy : founded by 
Malemnius MA i, 6. 

Lupus : see Antonius Antius : lulius. 

Lusitania : revolt in MA 22, 10. 

Lusius Quietus : deprived of com- 
mand H 5, 8 : plot against Hadrian 
and death H 7, 1-2. 

Lustralis : see Sergius. 

Lyceum : place in Hadrian's villa 
near Tibur H 26, 5. 



Maccius Plautus, T., writer of com- 
edies : left no sons S 21, 2 : sayings 
taken from works of Ca 13, 5. 

Macedonia : opinion of Cato con- 
cerning H 5, 3 : Severus sent troops 
to hold against Niger PN 5, 6 : 
invaded by Goths, Ga 5,6: Goths 
retreated through Ga 13, 8. 

Macedonius : murdered Titus Quar- 
tinus, killed by Maximinus M ii, 

4-5- . 

Macellinus : name given to Macrinus 
OM 13,3. 

Macer : grandfather of Severus S i, 2. 

Macer : see Aninius : Baebius : Cor- 
nelius. 

MACRIANUS: foremost of Va- 
lerian's generals TT 12, i : made 
emperor Ga i, 2-3; TT 12, 2-12: 
qualifications of Ga i, 4-5; TT 12, 
5-6: campaign Ga 2, 1-6; TT ii, 
2 ; 12, 12 : 15, 4 : troops surrendered 
to Aureolus Ga 2, 7; TT ii, 2; 12, 
14 ; 14, i : defeated and killed Ga 
2,7; 3, 1-6; TT 12, 13-14; 14, i; 
15, 4 : made Ballista prefect Ga 2, 
7 : soldiers of in Emesa Ga 3, 4 : 
promoted by Valerian TT 10, 14 : 

498 



Macrianus ccmtinued. 

worthy to fill Valerian's place TT 

12, 5 : Valerian's opinion of TT 12, 
15-18 : speeches of TT 12, 7-8. n : 
descendants of TT 14, 3-5 : feared 
Valens TT 19, 2. 

MACRIANUS the younger: made 
tribune by Valerian TT 12, 10 : 
made emperor, TT 12, 12; 13, i: 
defeated and killed with his father 
Ga2, 7; 3,1.6; TT n, 2; 12,13; 

13, 1-3; 14, i. 
Macrianus : see Baebius. 
MACRINUS: origin and early 

career OM 2, i; 4, 1-6; 5, 6; 8, i ; 
D 14, i : prefect of guard Cc 6, 6 ; 
OM 2, i ; 4, 7 : murdered Caracalla 
Cc6,6-7; 8,9; ii, 5; OM 2, 1.5; 
3, 8; 4,7-8;. D i, i ; E 2, 3; M 4, 
4 : seized principate OM 2, i ; 5, i ; 
E 2, 3 : accepted by senate OM 2, 
3-4 ; 5 1 9 7. 4 : caused Caracalla to 
be deified and buried Cc n, 5; 
OM 5, 1-3; 6, 8; D 3, i : assumed 
names Severus and Antoninus OM 
2, i ; 3. 6; 5, 7; ii, 2: name Per- 
tinax OM n, 2: gave name An- 
toninus to son Diadumenianus Cc 
8, 10; OM 2, 53, 9! 5, 1 1 7, 5; 
D 1-2; 3, i; 6, 10; 7, i. 5-7; 8, i; 
E i, 4; SA 9, 3: feared soldiers 
OM 3, 8 ; 5,4: donative to soldiers 
OM 5, 7-8 ; D 2, i : hatred for OM 
5, 5 ; 14, 1-2 : refused cognomen Pius 
OM 7, 2; ii, 2-4; 14,2: accepted 

cognomen Felix OM 7, 5 ; n, 2-4 : 
war against Parthians OM 2, 2 ; 8, 

1-3 ; 12, 6 : against Armenians and 
Arabs OM 12, 6 : deserted by troops 
and killed OM 8, 2. 4 ; 9, 5 ; 10, 1-3; 
14,2; 15, i ; D 9, 4; E i, |; 5,1; 
M4,6: severity and cruelty OM ii, 
1-2; 12, i-n ; 13, 3; D8, 4 : planned 
reform of laws OM 13, i ; financial 
policy OM 13, 2 : habits and tastes 
OM 13, 4-5 : verses concerning and 
by OM ii, 3-71. 12, 9; 14, 3-4: 
harangues to soldiers and their ac- 
clamations D i, 4 2, i : honours 
for Diadumenianus and gifts to 
people D 2, 6-10 : pardoned con- 
spirators, remonstrated with by 
Diadumenianus D 8, 4-8 ; 9, i : 
drove Julia Maesa from the Palace 
OM 9, i : vilified at accession of 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Macrinus continued. 

Elagabalus OM 4, i ; E 3, 3; 8, 4- 

5 : bated by Maximinus M 4, 4. 
Macrinus : father-in-law of Severus 

Alexander, named Caesar and put 

to death SA 49, 3-4. 
Macrinus : see Cerellius : Varius : 

Veturius. 
Maecenas : two soldiers killed by M 

20, 6 ; Go 22 , 8. 
Maecia Faustina: daughter of Gor- 

dian I. Go 4, 2. 
Maecianus : partisan of Avidius Cas- 

sius, slain at Alexandria MA 25, 4 ; 

AC 7, 4- 
Maecianus : letter of Proculus to F 

12, 6-7. 

Maecianus : see Baebius : Cereius : 

Volusius. 
Maecius Brundisinus : prefect of 

grain-supply, with Valerian at 

Byzantium A 13, i. 
Maecius Faltonius Nicomachus : 

speech of T 6. 
Maecius Gordianus : kinsman of 

Gordian III. Go 30, i. 
Maecius Laetus : advised murder of 

Geta, killed by Caracalla Cc 3, 4. 
Maecius Marullus : father of Gordian 

I. Go 2, 2. 
MAEONIUS: Odaenathus' cousin, 

killed him and Herodes, seized 

power and killed TT 15, 5 ; 17, 1-3. 
Maeonius Astyanax : cited TT 12, 3. 
Maeotidae (Goths) : Aurelian sent by 

Claudius to war against A 16, 4 : 

invaded Roman territory under 

pretext of summons from Aurelian 

Ti3, 2. 
Maeotis : barbarians from invaded 

Roman territory T 13, 3. 
Maesa : see lulia. 
Magirus : name given to Zoticus by 

Elagabalus E 10, 5. 
Magnus : conspired against Maxi- 
minus and killed M 10; TT 32, i. 
Magnus : cognomen offered to Severus 

Alexander but refused SA 5, 5 ; 6, 

i; 11,2-5; 12,4. 

Magnus : see Pactumeius : Pompeius. 
Malemnius : king of the Sallentini 

from whom family of M. Aurelius 

claimed descent MA i, 6. 
Mallius Chilo : letter of Aurelian to 

A 23, 4-5- 



Mamertinus : see Petronius Sura. 

Mamaea : see lulia. 

Mamaeani (-ae), pueri and puellae: 
endowed by Severus Alexander SA 
57,7- 

Mammam, ad : building in Rome built 
by Severus Alexander SA 26, 9. 

Mamurius : name given to Marius TT 
8,3- 

Manlia Scantilla : wife of Didius 
Julianus, received title of Augusta 
E>J 3. 4 ; 4i 5 : buried Julianus DJ 
8, 10. 

Manlius Statianus : speech of P 12. 

Marcelli, Theatrum: Severus Alex- 
ander wished to restore SA 44, 7. 

Marcellina : see Pescennia. 

Marcellinus : see Fabius : Valerius. 

Marcellus: see Claudius: Publicius: 
Quintilius : Ulpius. 

Marcia, concubine of Commodus: 
abetted folly of Commodus C 8, 6 : 
in garb of Amazon C n, 9: ac- 
complice in murder of Commodus 
C 17, 1-2 : helped to make Pertinax 
emperor HP 5,2: death DJ 6, 2. 

Marcia : first wife of Severus 83,2. 

Marcianopolis, city in Bulgaria: 
battles with Goths at Cl 9, 3. 

Marcianus : defeated Goths Ga 6, 1 : 
warred against Scythians (Goths) 
Ga 13, 10; Cl 6, i ; 18, i : in plot 
to kill Gallienus Ga 14, 1. 7 : bribed 
troops to declare Gallienus a usur- 
per Ga 15, 2. 

Marcius Agrippa : accomplice in 
murder of Caracalla Cc 6, 7. 

Marcius Asellio : killed by Severus 

S 13, 7- 

Marcius Coriolanus, Cn. : admired 
by Niger PN 12, i. 

Marcius Quartus: prefect of the 
guard under Commodus C 6, 8. 

Marcius Turbo, Q. : friendship for 
Hadrian H 4, 2 : transferred from 
Judaea to Mauretania H 5, 8 : trans- 
ferred from Mauretania to Pannonia 
and Dacia H 6, 7 ; 7, 3 : appointed 
prefect of the guard H 9, 4 : at- 
tacked by Hadrian H 15,7. 

Marcomanni : wars with, waged by 
M. Aurelius and L. Verus MA 12, 
1314,7; 17,2-4; 21, 622, 2. 8; 
27, 10; V 9, 7-10 ; E 9, 1-2: settled 
in Italy by M. Aurelius MA 22, 1 ; 

499 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Marcoman ni continued. 
24, 3 : Roman nobles fell in war 
against MA 22, 7: plan of M. 
Aurelius to make a province of MA 
24, 5; 27, 10 : war against left by 
M. Aurelius MA 25, i : war resumed 
MA 29, 4 ; C 2, 5 : Pertinax in war 
against HP 2, 6 : Elagabalus wished 
to make war against E 9,^1-2: in- 
vasion of repelled by Aurelian A 18, 
321, 5. 

Marcus : addressed in epigram of 
Martial's SA 38, 2. 

Margus, place in Jugoslavia: Carinus 
defeated near Ca 18, 2. 

MARIUS : formerly a worker in iron 
TT 8, i. 6 : made emperor in Gaul 
by Victoria TT 5, 3. 5; 8, 2. 6 : 
killed TT 8, 2; 31, 2: called Ma- 
murius and Veturius TT 8, 3 : 
strength of TT 8, 4-5 : speech of 
TT 8, 8-13. 

Marius, C. : Avidius Cassius likened 
himself to AC 3, 8 : Severus likened 
to PN 6, 4: admiration of Niger 
for PN ii, 3-5; 12, i. 

Marius : poem of Cicero imitated by 
Gordian I. Go 3, 2. 

Marius Maximus, L., historian : cited 
H 2, 10 ; 12,4; 20, 3; 25, 4; Ae 

3, 9; 5, 5; AP ii, 3; MA i, 6; 
25,10; AC 6, 6-7; 9,5-9; Ci3,2; 
15,5; 18,2; HP 2, 8; 15,8; Si 5 , 
6 ; CA 3, 4 ; 9, 2. 5 ; 12, 14 ; Ge 2, 
i; E 11,6; SA 5,4; 21, 4;. 3, 6; 
48, 6; 65, 4 : Vopiscus will imitate 
P 2, 7 : most wordy of writers, 
wrote lives of Avidius Cassius, 
Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus 
F i, 1-2. 

Marmaridae : defeated by Probus P 
9i i ; 12, 3. 

Marna : appealed to SA 17, 4. 

Maro : see Vergilius. 

Mars : believed to have placed wreath 
on head of M. Aurelius MA 4, 3 : 
spectacle in honour of Cl 13, 6. 

Marsi, people of Italy : priests of E 
23, 2. 

Martialis : see Gargilius : lulius : 
Valerius. 

Martis, Sacrarium : Claudius' elec- 
tion as emperor announced in Cl 

4, 2. 

500 



Martius Verus, P. : as legate of L. 
Verus victorious in war against 
Parthians V 7, i. 

Marullinus: ancestor of Hadrian H 
1,2. 

Marullus, writer of mimes : attacked 
M. Aurelius and L. Verus MA 8, i. 

Marullus : see Maecius. 

Massilia : Severus in command of 
legion at S 3, 6. 

Masticius Fabianus: killed by 
Severus S 13, 3. 

Mater (Deum) : plan to remove 
symbol of to temple of Elagabalus 
E 3, 4 : rites of performed by 
Emperor Elagabalus E 7, 1-2: 
Elagabalus arrayed as E 28, 2: 
Hilaria festival of SA 37, 6. 

Materianus : see Pescennius. 

Maternus : see Triarius. 

Matidia, mother-in-law of Hadrian: 
escorted ashes of Trajan H 5, 9: 
honours for H 9, 9 ; 19, 5. 

Matronianus : made prefect of guard 
by Carinus Ca 16, 4. 

Maurentius : aided Didius Julianus 
to seize principate DJ 3, i. 

Mauretania : revolt in quelled by 
Marcius Turbo H 5, 8 ; 6, 7 : 
governor of quelled revolt Go 23, 4 : 
purple from Cl 14, 8 : couch-covers 
from A 12, i : possessions of 
Tacitus in T 10, 5. 

Mauretania Tingitana : victory in 
SA 58, i. 

Mauri : attacks made by H 5,2: 
Lusius Quietus deprived of com- 
mand against H 5, 8 : revolt of 
quelled H 12, 7 : name Caesar taken 
from language of Ae 2,3: forced 
to sue for peace AP 5, 4 : invaded 
Spain MA 21, i: S 2, 4 : con- 
quered C 13, 5 : in army of Severus 
Alexander M ii, 7: Capelianus in 
command of M 19, i ; Go 15, i : 
ostriches from painted in Domus 
Pompeiana Go 3, 7; Titus tribune 
of TT 32, i : invaded Africa F 9, 5. 

Mauricius : aroused Africans to 
acclaim Gordian I. emperor Go 
7, 48, 4. 

Mauricius: Ste Murrentius. 

Maurus : see Aelius. 

MAXENTIUS: conquered by Con- 
stantine E 35, 6. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



MAXIMIAN : father of the iron age 
E 35, 4 : loyalty of Constantius 
toward Cl 10, 7 : review of 
emperors as far as A 42, 3-4 : 
Vopiscus planned to write lives of 
emperors as far as P 1,5: Dio- 
cletian's desire to rule known to 
Ca 15, i : given as emperor by 
gods Ca 18, 3 : character of Ca 
18,4. 

MAXIMINUS: origin M i, 5-7; 2, 
i; 8, 9-11; 9, 5: appearance and 
habits SA 63, 2 ; M 2, 2 ; 4, 1-3 ; 
6, 8-9 ; 28, 8 : admitted to military 
service by Severus M i, 4 ; 2, 3 3, 
6; 4, 6; 5, 4: career under 
Caracalla, Macrinus and Elaga- 
balusM4,4 5,2: military service 
under Severus Alexander M i, 4; 

5, 3 6, 7 ; 7, 1-2 : incited troops to 
kill Alexander SA 59, 7 ; M 7, 4 ; 
10, 3; ii, i: made emperor by 
troops M 7, 4; 8, i; M-B 13, 2: 
severity in military discipline M 

6, 1-7; 10, 4: won favour of 
troops M 8, 2-4 : cruelty M 8, 5 
9, 8; 10,1.5.6; 11,6; 13,5; 22,7; 
24., i : treatment of servants and 
friends of Alexander M 9, 7-8 : 
feared and hated at Rome M 8, 6 ; 
J 3i 5 ! 20, i ; Go 22, i : suppressed 
conspiracy of Magnus M 10; TT 

32, i : suppressed conspiracy of 
Titus M ii, 2-5 ; TT 31, 7. 12 ; 32, 
1-3 : knowledge of warfare M 10, 
3 : desired to surpass Alexander 
M 10, 3 : war against Germans SA 
61, 8 ; M 10, 2 ; ii, 712, 5 ; 13, 3 
Go 14, i: announced victories M 
12,5-6; 13, 1-2: plans for further 
conquests M 13, 3 : revolt of 
Gordians against M 13, 6 14, 5 ; 
19; 20, 7; Go 7, 29, 8; 15-16; 
22, 6 : adherents at Rome killed M 
15, i; Go 10, 5-8; 13, 7-9: de- 
clared public enemy together with 
son M 15, 2 16, 6 ; Go ii ; 13, 6 ; 
M-B i, 4: behaviour on hearing 
declaration M 17-18; Go 13, i- 
4 : Maximus and Balbinus ap- 
pointed emperors against M 20 ; 

33, 3; Go 10, 1-2; 22, i ; M-B i, i 
3, 3; 15. 5; 16, 6: donative to 
soldiers M 18, 4 : envoys sent to 
Rome Go 10, 3 : marched on Italy 



Maximinus continued. 

M 18, 4 ; 20, 721, 5 ; Go 14 ; M-B 
I0 i !-3; I5i 5: besieged Aquileia 
M 21, 622, 6 ; 28, 4 ; 33, i. 3 I M-B 
12, 2; 15, 4; 16, 5. 7; 18, 2: 
anger of soldiers at M 21, 3-4 ; 23, 
1-2 : killed M 23, 6-7 ; 32, 4-5 ; M- 
B ii, i : army brought to Rome 
by Maximus M-B 12, 7-8 : rejoicing 
at death and condemnation of M 
24, 4 26, 6; 31, 5; M-B ii, 4; 13, 
i : refused adoration M 28, 7 : 
memorial of near Aquileia M 28, 
8-9 : made son Caesar M 22, 6 : 
made son co-emperor M 29, 6-7: 
omens of rule and of death M 30, 
I -3; 3i, 1-3: Gordians sent to 
Africa under Go 18, 6 : Alexander 
vilified to please SA 63, 6 : favoured 
by Herodian out of hatred for 
Alexander M 13, 4 : length of rule 
M-B 15, 7 : example of evil ruler 
A 42, 6. 

MAXIMINUS the younger: ap- 
pearance M 22, 7; 27, 1-2; 28, 3; 
32, 6 : education M 27, 2-5 : be- 
trothed to Junia Fadilla M 27, 6 : 
character and tastes M 24, i ; 28 ; 
29,8-10: Severus Alexander wished 
to marry sister to M 29, 1-5 : re- 
ceived title of Caesar from Maxi- 
minus M 22, 6 : made emperor 
with Maximinus M 8, i ; 29, 6-7 : 
declared public enemy with father 
M 15, 2. 9; 16, 4 ; Go n, 9 : wilh 
father on march to Italy M 17, 2-3 ; 
22, 6 ; 28, 4 ; Go 14, 6 : killed with 
father M 23, 6; 32, 4-5: dis- 
honoured after death M 26, 5; 
31, 5: omens of rule M 30, 4-7: 
sorrow at death of M 32, 2. 

Maximinus, actor: brought by L. 
Verus from Syria V 8, 7. 

MAXIMUS : also called Puppierms 
M24, 5; 33, 3-4; Go 10, i; 19, 9; 
22, i ; M-B, 1,2; ii, i ; 15, i. 4-5 ; 
16, 2. 7; 17-18: parentage M 20, 
I ; M-B, 5, 1-2 ; 16, 2 : omens of 
rule M-B 5, 3-4 : education M-B 5, 
5-6: early career M-B 5, 7-9: 
prefect of city M 20, i ; M-B 5, 
10; 15, 2 : character and appear, 
ance M 20, i. 4; M-B i, 2; 2, i. 7; 
6; 7, 7; i5i i; 16, 2. 4: on com- 
mission of twenty to oppose 

501 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Maximus continued. 

Maximinus, made emperor with 
Balbinus M 20, 1-3. 8; 32, 3; 33, 
3; Go 10, 1-2; 19, 9; 22, i; M-B 
It 23, 3; 5, "I 8, i; 13, 2; 
15. 5 ; 16, 6 : demonstration in 
Rome against M-B 3, 3-5 ; 8, 2-3 : 
campaign against Maximinus M 
30, 5-6; 21-22; 24, 2-6; 33, 3; 
M-B, 8, 4; 10, 1-3; 11,1-2; 12, 3; 
I 5> 4-5 J 18, 2 : return to Rome M 
24, 8; M-B 12, i. 7: honours 
decreed for M-B 12, 4. 6 : Bal- 
binus jealous of MB 12, 5 : honours 
and acclamations in senate M 26 ; 
M-B 12, 9; 13, 1-2 : established in 
Palace M 24, 8; 26, 7: ill-will of 
soldiers toward M-B 12, 9; 13,2-3. 
5: excellent rule of M-B 13, 4; 
15, 1-2 : plan for campaign against 
Parthians M-B 13, 5 : quarrels 
with Balbinus M-B 14, i : killed 
by soldiers Go 22, 5 ; M-B 14, 2-8 ; 
15, 4: length of rule Go 22, 5; 
M-B 15, 7 : letter congratulating 
M-B 17. 

Maximus : father of Emperor Maxi- 
mus M-B 5, i. 

Maximus : father of Probus P 3, 2. 

Maximus : see Claudius : Gavius : 
Laberius : Marius : Quintilius : 
Tattius. 

Media : conquered by generals of L. 
Verus V 7, i. 

Medicus : cognomen assumed by M. 
Aurelius and L. Verus V 7, 2. 

Mediolanum (Milan) : grandfather of 
Didius Julianus from DJ i, 2: 
Geta born at Ge 3,1: Valerian the 
younger killed and buried near Va 
8, 3 ; Ga 14, 9 : Gallienus killed 
near Ga 14, 9: Aureolus killed 
near Cl 5, 3 : plundered by Marco- 
manni A 18, 3 : letter of senate to 
council of T 18, 6 : Carus said to 
have been native of Ca 4, 4 : roses 
from Ca 17, 3. 

Megalensia : date of birth and of 
death of Caracalla Cc 6, 6. 

Memmia : wife of Severus Alexander, 
reproved him for affability SA 
20, 3. 

Memmius Rufinus : killed by Severus 
S 13, 4- 

502 



Memnon, statue in Egypt : visited 
by Severus S 17, 4. 

Memphis, city in Egypt : visited by 
Severus S 17, 4 : inscription at TT 
22, 13. 

Memphius : see Aelius Aurelius 
Apolaustus. 

Menophilus : see Tullius. 

Mesomedes : salary of reduced by 
Antoninus Pius AP 7, 8. 

Mesopotamia : tribute imposed by 
Trajan remitted by Hadrian H 21, 
12 : reconquered by Severus Alex- 
ander SA 56, 6: by Odaenathus 
Ga 12, i ; TT 15, 3 : troops from 
served under Aurelian A n, 3 : 
conquered by Carus Ca 8, i. 

Messalina : see Aurelia. 

Messalla : suggested as husband for 
Theoclia by Severus Alexander M 

29, 4- 

Messalla : governor of Achaea, letter 
of Decius to Cl 16. 

Messalla : see lunius. 

Metelli : Severus Alexander claimed 
descent from SA 44, 3. 

Metellus : see Caecilius. 

Mezentius : imitated by Macrinus 
OM 12, 8-9. 

Micca : father of Maximinus M i, 6. 

Micipsa : speech of sent by Severus 
to Caracalla S 21, n. 

Milesiae,fabulae : written by Albinus 
CA ii, 8: by Apuleius CA 12, 12. 

Milo of Croton, athlete : Maximinus 
likened to M 6, 9. 

Milo : see Annius. 

Minerva : appealed to P 12, 7. 

Minucia (Porticus) : statue of Her- 
cules in C 16, 5. 

Mirissimus : favourite of Elagabalus, 
dismissed by him E 15, 2. 

Misitheus : see Furius Sabinius. 

Mithra : rites of polluted by Com- 
modus C 9, 6. 

Mithradates, King of Pontus : con- 
quered by Romans Va i, 5 : 
Pompey in war against P 2, 3. 

Mnestheus : made plot to kill Aure- 
lian A 36, 4-6 : punished A 37, 2. 

Moderatus : reputed lover of Faus- 
tina, promoted by Marcus Aure- 
lius MA 29, i. 

Modes dnus: see. Herennius. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Moesia : Hadrian in H 2, 3 ; 6, 6 : 
prodigy in AP 9, 4: Pertinax 
served in HP 2, 2 : Pertinax 
governor of HP 2, 10 : Gordian 
III. in Go 26, 4 : people of attacked 
by Carpi M-B 16, 3: Ingenuus 
made emperor by troops in TT 
9, i : cruelty of Gallienus to 
people in TT 9, 3 ; 10, I : 
Regalianus made emperor by 
troops in TT 10, i : battle with 
Goths in Cl 9, 3 : troops in under 
command of Claudius Cl 15, 2 : 
Aurelian born in A 3, 2 : in ruinous 
condition, settled with people from 
Dacia A 39, 7. 

Moesius Gallicanus, prefect of guard : 
speech of T 8, 3-4. 

Moguntiacum (Mainz) : Aurelian's 
victory at A 7> i. 

Montanus : favourite of mother of 
Gordian III. Go 25, 3. 

Moses : lived 125 years Cl 2, 4. 

Motilenus : prefect of the guard, 
poisoned by Commodus C 9, 2. 

Mucapor: Aurelian's letter to A 26, 
3-5 : Aurelian murdered by A 35, 5. 

Mucius Scaevola, Q. : Gordian I. 
likened to Go 5, 5. 

Mulvius, Pons : portico extending to 
planned by Gallienus Ga 18, 5. 

Mulvius Gallicanus : prefect of guard, 
letter of Valerian to P 4, 3-7. 

Mummius Secundinus : killed by 
Severus S 13, i. 

Murcus : see Nonius. 

Murena : see Ablavius. 

Murrentius Mauricius : governor of 
Egypt, with Valerian at Byzan- 
tium A 13, i. 

Museum at Alexandria : Hadrian 
held discussions with scholars in 
H 20, 2. 



Narbo, city in Gaul : fire at AP 9, 2. 
Narbona : see Gallia Narbonensis. 
Narbonensis : see Gallia Narbonensis. 
Narcissus : strangled Commodus C 

17, i ; S 14, i ; PN i, 5 : killed by 

Severus S 14, i. 
Narseus, king of Persians : Probus' 

negotiations with P 17, 5-6. 
Nasica : see Cornelius Scipio. 
Naso : see Ovidius. 



Neapolis (Naples) : office of demar- 
chus at held by Hadrian H 19, i. 

Neapolis, city in Palestine : punished 
by Severus for support of Niger 

9,5, 

Neho, grammarian : teacher of Sev- 
erus Alexander SA 3, 3. 

Nemausus, town in Gaul : basilica 
in honour of Plotina built by 
Hadrian H 12, 2 : ancestral home 
of Antoninus Pius AP i, i. 

Nemesianus : see Aurelius : Aurelius 
Olympius. 

Nemesis : appeased by sacrifice of 
citizens M-B 8, 6. 

Nepos : see Herennius : Platorius. 

Neptuni, Basilica, at Rome : restored 
by Hadrian H 19, 10. 

Neratius Priscus, L : considered as 
successor by Trajan H 4, 8 : in 
Hadrian's consilium H 18, i. 

NERO : Colossus of moved by 
Hadrian and re-dedicated H 19, 
12-13 : M. Aurelius feared that 
Commodus would resemble MA 
28, 10 : Lucius Verus born on 
birthday of V i, 8 : Verus imitated 
vices of V 4, 6 : Verus' resemblance 
to him V 8, 8 : deserved to die 
according to M. Aurelius AC 8, 4 : 
Colossus of altered by Commodus 
C 17, 9-10 : Commodus more evil 
than C 19, 2 : had the republic 
endured Rome would not have 
come under the power of CA 13, 5 
senate's power over CA 13, 8 : ex- 
ample of evil ruler E i, i ; A 42, 6 
T 6, 4 : luxury of E 31, 5 : vices o 
practised by Elagabalus E 33, i 
removed by tyrranicide E 34, i 
Elagabalus worse than SA 9, 4 
pomerium extended by A 21, n 
provinces acquired under A 21, II 
another feared by all Ca i, 3 
Rome suffered much from house of 
Ca 3, 2. 

Neronianae, Thermae, in Rome : 
baths built near by Severus Alex- 
ander SA 25, 3. 

NERVA: adopted Trajan H 2, 5 ; 
Ae 2, 2 ; A 14, 6 : death of H 2, 6 : 
gave ring to Trajan H 3, 7 : pitied 
by Arrius Antoninus AP i, 4 : 
equalled in dignity by Victorinus 
TT 6, 6 : example of good ruler 

503 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Nerva continued. 
A 42, 4 ; T 6, 9 : Rome happy 
under Ca 3, 3. 

Nicer, river of Germany : Germans 
driven beyond by Probus P 13, 7. 

Nicomachus : cited A 27, 6. 

Nicomachus : see Maecius Faltonius. 

Nicomedes : tutor of L. Verus V 2, 8. 

Nicomedia, city in Bithynia : Elaga- 
balus at E 5, i : plundered by 
Scythians (Goths) Ga 4, 8. 

Nicopolis, city in Bulgaria : Goths 
attempted to take Cl 12, 4 : Aure- 
lian ordered to A n, 2. 

Niger : prefect of the guard under 
Commodus C 6, 6. 

Niger : see Pescennius. 

Nigrinus, see Avidius. 

Nile : Antinous drowned in H 14, 5 : 
soldiers ordered by Niger to drink 
PN 7, 7 : boatmen on increased A 
47, 3 : works of Probus on P 9, 3. 

Nilus : poem of Cicero, imitated by 
Gordian I. Go 3, 2. 

Nisibis, city in Mesopotamia : re- 
captured from Persians by Gordian 
III. Go 26, 6 ; 27, 6 : captured by 
Odaenathus Ga 10, 3 ; 12, i ; TT 

15, 3- 
Nonia Celsa : wife of Macrinus D 7, 

5 : amours OM 14, 2. 
Nonius Gracchus : killed by Severus 

S 13, 3- 

Nonius Murcus : spoke ill ot Com- 
modus to soldiers CA 2, 3. 

Norbana : killed by Commodus C 4, 4. 

Norbanus : killed by Commodus C 

4i.4- 
Noricum : cleared ot enemies by 

Pertinax HP 2, 6. 
Notus : name given by Aelius Verus 

to messenger Ae 5, 10. 
Novius Rufus, L. : killed by Severus 

S 13 7- 

Numa Pompilius : Antoninus Pius 
compared with AP 2, 2 ; 13, 4 : 
family of M. Aurelius traced 
descent from MA i, 6 : left no sons 
S 21, i: strengthened Rome by 
religion Ca 2, 3. 

NUMERIAN : made Caesar Ca 7, 
i ; 10 : excellent and accomplished 
Ca 7, i; ii : not old enough to 
rule Gaul Ca 7, a : with Carus in 
war against Persians Ca 12, I : 

504 



Numerian continued. 
killed by Aper Ca 12, i-2; 18, i: 
avenged by Diocletian Ca 13, 1-3. 

Numidia : marble from Go 32, 2 ; T 
10, 4. 

Nummius Albinus : brother of Didius 
Julianus DJ I, 2. 

Nummius Tuscus, M. : consulship 
of TT 9, i : with Valerian at By- 
zantium A 13, i. 



Oceanus : wall in Britain built as 
far as S 18, 2 : Maximinus planned 
to extend Empire to M 13, 3: 
morning-star rising from M 27, 4 : 
Roman emperor destined to rule 
lands surrounded by T 15, 2. 

Oceanus : name given to bath by 
Severus Alexander SA 25, 4. 

Octavianus : see Augustus. 

ODAENATHUS: prince of Palmyra 
TT 15, i : defeated Persians Va 4, 
2-4; TT 15, i : ruled in the East 
Ga i, i; 3, 3; 10, i; TT 14, i: 
campaign against Quietus Ga 3, 
1-2 ; TT 14, i ; 15, 4 ; 18, i : sub- 
ordinate of Gallienus Ga 3, 5 ; 10, 
4 : threatened war on Rome Ga 5, 
6 : king of Palmyrenes Ga 10, i ; 
TT 15,2: war against Persians Ga 
10 ii, i ; 12, i. 6; TT 15, 2-4. 8; 
30, 6 : received imperial power 
and title of Augustus Ga 12, i ; 
TT 15, 5 : murder of Ga 13, i. 4 ; 
TT 15, 5 : Gallienus made peace 
with Ga 21, 5 : great qualities of 
TT 15, 6-8: attempted to crush 
Macrianus TT 15, 4 : indulgence 
toward Herodes TT 16, 2 : not 
trusted by Ballista TT 18, i : Bal- 
lista killed to please TT 18, 12: 
chariot of in Aurelian's triumph 
A 33, 2 : adherents of in Egypt 
defeated by Probus P 9, 5. 

Odomasies: persuaded by Cyriades 
to make war on Romans TT 2, 2. 

Olbiopolitae, in S.W. Russia: aided 
against Tauroscythae by Anto- 
ninus Pius AP 9, 9. 

Olympias : nurse of Severus Alex- 
ander SA 13, 3. 

Olympius : see Aurelius. 

Onesicrates : teacher of Commodus 
Ci,6. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Onesimus : cited F 13, I ; 14, 4 ; Ca 
4.2; 7,3; 16, i; 17. 6. 

Onus : name given by Commodus to 
favourite C 10, 9. 

Opellius Macrinus, M. : see Macrinus. 

Optatianus : see Suetonius. 

Orci, Aedes, at Rome: temple of 
Elagabalus built on site of E i, 6. 

Oresta, city in Thrace: founded by 
Orestes, renamed by Hadrian E 7, 
7-8. 

Orestes : established cults of Diana 
E 7, 6 : founded Oresta E 7, 7. 

Orestilla : see Fabia. 

Orfitus: prefect of the city under 
Antoninus Pius AP 8, 6. 

OrStus : reputed lover of Faustina, 
promoted by M. Aurelius MA 29, i. 

Orfitus : see Calpurnius Scipio : Cor- 
nelius Scipio : Virius. 

Orpheus : statue of in private chapel 
of Severus Alexander SA 29, 2. 

Osi : warred against Rome MA 22, i. 

Osrhoeni, tribe of N.W. Meso- 
potamia : in army of Severus 
Alexander S~A 61, 8; M n, 7: 
deserted Maximinus M u, i. 

Osrhoes, King of Parthians : Hadrian's 
negotiations with H 13, 8. 

Ostia, town in Italy : bath at repaired 
by Antoninus Pius AP 8, 3 : melons 
from CA n, 3 : forum built at by 
Aurelian A 45, 2 ; columns pre- 
sented by Tacitus to people of T 
10, 5. 

OTHO : had no desire to be emperor, 
according to M. Aurelius AC 8, 4 : 
banquets of imitated by Elagabalus 
Ei8, 4. 

Ovidius Naso, P. : works read by 
Aelius Verus Ae 5, 9. 

Ovinius Camillus : tried to rebel 
against Severus Alexander, pun- 
ished SA 48, 1-6. 



Pax, Temple of, at Rome : critics in 

TT 31, 10. 

Paetus : see Articuleius. 
Pacorus : appointed king of the Lazi 

AP 9, 6. 
Pactumeius Magnus, T. : killed by 

Commodus C 7, 6. 
Paenularius : name proposed for 

Diadumenianus D 2, 8. 



Paenulius : name proposed for Dia- 
dumanianus D 2, 8. 

Palatinus, Mons : temple of Elaga- 
balus on E 3, 4. 

Palatium, in Rome : Apollonius 
would not come to AP 10, 4 : low 
resorts in palace of C 2, 7 : Sao- 
terus taken from C 4, 5 : revels of 
Commodus in C 5, 4 : Commodus 
established in palace of C 12, 7: 
Commodus moved from C 16, 3 : 
Pertinax moved to HP 5, 7: Las- 
civius fled to HP 6, 5 : concubines 
brought to by Commodus HP 7, 
8 : pretender claimed palace of HP 
10, 2 : murderers of Pertinax in 
HP ii, 4. 6: chamberlains of fled 
HP ii, 12: Pertinax refused to 
have children reared in HP 13, 4 : 
body of Pertinax found in HP 14, 
9: Didius Julianus moved to DJ 
3, 5 : Julianus held audience in 
DJ 4, i : Julianus left alone in DJ 
8, 6: Julianus killed in DJ 8, 8 : 
Severus proceeded to 87, I : 
soldiers quartered in palace of S 
7, 2 : Severus wished to make en- 
trance in palace of S 24, 4 : Geta 
killed in Cc 2, 4 : Caracalla pro- 
ceeded to Cc 3, 2 : Papinian haled 
to Cc 8, 8 : posts in sold by Elaga- 
balus E 6, 2 : Elagabalus moved 
from E 13, 5 : attacked by soldiers 
E 14, 2. 3 : banquets for attendants 
in E 20, 6 : porphyry pavements 
in E 24, 6; SA 25, 7: retinue in 
reduced by Severus Alexander SA 
15, 2 : men of rank in consulted by 
Alexander SA 19, 3 : eunuchs re- 
moved from by Alexander SA 23, 
5 : apartments for Mamaea in SA 
26, 9 : Alexander kept birds in SA 
41, 6: Alexander in bathing- 
costume in SA 42, i : physician 
attached to SA 42, 3 : Alexander 
summoned Camillus to SA 48, 1-2 : 
sentiment inscribed in by Alex- 
ander SA 51,8: Alexander paraded 
to SA 57, 4 : audiences of Alexan- 
der in SA 67, 2 : Maximus and 
Balbinus proceeded to M 24, 8; 
26, 7 ; M-B 8, 3 : gold-embroidered 
toga from Go 4, 4 : Maximus and 
Balbinus killed in M-B 14, 2. 3. 5 : 
Valerian to be censor of Va 6, 6: 

505 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Palatium continued. 

staff of followed Gallienus to gar- 
dens Ga 17, 8 : difficulty of finding 
anything in palace of Ga 20, 3 : 
ride of Vopiscus from A i, 2 : spoils 
placed in by Aurelian A 10, 2: 
staff of in audience of Valerian A 
13, i : Aurelian returned to from 
triumph A 34, 5 : Aurelian disliked 
to reside in A 49, i : Probus pro- 
ceeded to P 10, 5 : filled with evil 
people by Carinus Ca 16, 7 : spec- 
tacle of Carus pictured in Ca 19, i. 

Palestine : revolt in H 5, 2 : Neapolis 
town in punished S 9, 5 : penalty 
remitted to S 14, 6 : rights granted 
to by Severus S 17, i : people of 
rebuked by Niger PN 7, 9 : beasts 
from in Aurelian's triumph A 33, 
4 : Saturninus made emperor in 
F 9. 2-5. 

Palfuerius: captured and killed by 
Probus P 16, 4. 

Palfurius Sura: cited Ga 18, 6. 

Palladium : plan to remove to temple 
of Elagabalus E 3, 4 : supposed 
one removed E 6, 9. 

Palma : see Cornelius. 

Palmatus : see lunius. 

Palmyra : Odaenathus a native of 
Va 4, 2 : Aurelian's march to A 26, 
i : siege of A 28, i : temple of Sun 
at restored by Aurelian A 31, 7-9- 

Palmyrenes : Odaenathus prince and 
king of Ga 10, i ; TT 15, 1-2: de- 
feated Heraclianus Ga 13, 5 : ruled 
by Zenobia Ga 13, 5 : Claudius be- 
sought to save from Cl 4, 4 : at- 
tempt to conquer Egypt Cl n, 1-2 : 
Aurelian's wars against A 22, i ; 
25, 2 28, 2 : revolt and punish- 
ment of A 31 , 1-6 : treasure of used 
in restoration of temple of Sun A 
31, 8-9 : foremost of led as captives 
in Aurelian's triumph A 33, 5 : de- 
feated in Egypt by Probus P 9, 5. 

Pamphylia : L. Verus in V 6, 9 : 
subdued by Probus P 17, i. 

Pannonia : Turbo in command of H 
6, 7 : Aelius Verus in command of 
H 23, 13 ; Ae 3, 2 : Hadrian's visitor 
from H 25, 4 : freed from invaders 
by M. Aurelius MA 17, 3 ; V 9, 
10 : order re-established C 13, 5 : 
Severus governor of S 4, a: pro- 

506 



Pannonia continued. 
phecy of augurs from S 10, 7: 
augurs from surpassed by Severus 
Alexander SA 27, 6 : Ingenuus 
governor of and supported by 
people of TT 9, i : troops in under 
command of Claudius Cl 15, 2: 
Aurelian a native of A 24, 3: 
Probus a native of P 3, i : Cams' 
parents not from Ca 4, 3 : saved 
from Sarmatians by Cams Ca 9, 4. 

Pantheum, at Rome: restored by 
Hadrian H 19, 10. 

Papinianus : see Aemilius, 

Papinius Statius, P., poet: Achilleis 
of imitated by Gprdian I. Go 3, 3. 

Papirius : see Cassius. 

Papius Faustus : killed by Severus 
S 13, 2. 

Papus : see Cervonius : Sosius. 

Paralius : killed by Commodus C 

4, 4- 

Parilia : worship of deified emperors 
on T 9, 5. 

Paris: nime given by L. Verus to 
actor Maximinus V 8, 7. 

Paris : story of acted by Elagabalus 
ES, 4- 

Parthamasiris (Parthamaspates) : 
made king by Hadrian H 5, 4. 

Parthenianus : see Aemilius. 

Parthians : campaign of Trajan 
against H 4, i : war with avoided 
by Hadrian H 12, 8 : Hadrian's 
negotiations with king of H 13, 8: 
Hadrian's friendly relations with 
H 21, 10 : policy of Antoninus 
Pius toward AP 9, 6-7: defeated 
governor of Syria MA 8, 6 : war 
against, conducted by L. Verus 
MA 8, 9-14; 20, 2; 22, i ; V 5, 8; 
6, 7 7, 10; 8, 6. n : pestilence 
among V 8, 2 : Quadratus historian 
of war with V 8, 4 : Pertinax in 
war against HP 2, i : defeated by 
Severus S 9, 9-11 : Severus' war 
against S 14, 4. n; 15, 1-3; 16, 
1-6 ; Ge 5, 3 : Rome's attempt to 
conquer during the Republic CA 
13, 6 : Caracalla's war against Cc 
6, 1-6 : hope that Severus Alex- 
ander might conquer SA 7, 5 : de- 
feated by Severus Alexander SA 
59, 3 : in army of Alexander SA 
61,8; Mil, 7: Maximus planntd 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Parthians continued. 
campaign against M-B 13, 5 : kings 
of valued concubines more than 
treasure Va 4, 3: attacked by 
Odaenathus G.i 10, 6 : shoes from 
Cl 17, 6 : Roman emperor destined 
to rule T 15, 2 : defeated by Probus 
P 12, 4 : sent envoys to Probus P 

J 7' 4- , , ,, 

Parthicus : cognomen assumed oy M. 
Aurelius and L. Verus MA 9, 2; 
V 7, 2 : conferred on Severus but 
refused S 9, 10-11 : borne by 
Severus S 16, 2. 6 : by Caracalla 
Cc 6, 5 ; 10, 6 ; Ge 6, 6 : by Severus 
Alexander SA 56, 9: by Aurelian 
A 30, 5 : conferred on Probus P 
11,9. 

Passienus : see Vibius. 

Paternus : see Tarrutenius. 

Patruinus : see Valerius. 

Paulina : see Domitia. 

Paulinus : see Fabius. 

Paulus : see lulius. 

Pedanius Fuscus: compelled by 
Hadrian to commit suicide H 
23, 3. 

Peloponnesus : people of under com- 
mand of Claudius Cl 16, i. 

Pelusium, city in Egypt : tomb of 
Pompey at rebuilt by Hadrian H 
14, 4: denied cult of Serapis MA 
23,8. 

Perennis : see Tigidius. 

Perennitas: vows to made by 
Aurelian A 47, 3. 

Perinthus, city in Thrace : troops at 
attacked by Niger S 8, 13 : Gothic 
noblewomen settled at F 15, 6. 

Persia : perfumes from Ae 5, 7 : jewels 
from E 23, 3 : victories of Severus 
Alexander in SA 50, 5 : Gordian III. 
killed and buried in Go 34, 1-2: 
Valerian a captive in Ga i, i : 
message of Valerian sent from TT 
12, 15 : Odaenathus in TT 15, 5 : 
golden chain borne by man from 
TT 30, 26. 

Persians : sent envoys to M. Aurelius 
MA 26, i : king (incorrect) of con- 
quered by Severus S 18, i : luxury 
of king of E 31, 5 : king of wor- 
shipped SA 18, 3; TT 30, 13: 
hope and prophecy that Severus 



Persians continued. 
Alexander would conquer SA 7, 5 ; 
13, 7: defeated by Alexander SA 
50, 5 ; 54,7; 55, 157, i .eunuchs 
wished emperors to live like kings 
of SA 66, 3 ; war of Gordian III. 
against Go 23, 5 ; 26, 3-6 ; 27 ; 34, 
3 : feared in Italy Go 27, 3 : triumph 
of Gordian III. over Go 27, 9; 33, 
2 : inscription in language of Go 
34, 2 : Valerian's war against TT 

I, i; 2, 3; 12, 16; 33, 2: held 
Valerian captive Va 4, 2 ; 8, 3 ; 
TT 12, i ; P 6, 2 : defeated by 
Odaenathus Va 4, 2-4: in pro- 
cession at Rome Ga 8, 7 ; 9, 5 : war 
of Odaenathus against Ga 10, i 

II, i; 12, 1.6; TT 15, 2-4, 8:^30, 
6 : campaign of Heraclianus against 
Ga 13, 4-5 : Cyriades fled to TT 2, 
I : invasions of worse than Germans' 
TT 5, 7: luxury of imitated by 
Herodes TT 16, i : by Zenobia 
TT 30, 13: Zenobia drank with 
TT 30, 18 : Censorinus envoy to 
TT 33, i : Aurelian envoy to king 
of A 5, 5 : Aurelian's wars against 
A 7, 2; 35, 4; 4i,9.; T 13, 3: sent 
aid to Zenobia, intercepted by 
Aurelian A 27, 4 ; 28, 2. 4 : Zenobia 
tried to flee to A 28, 3 : flags and 
head-dresses of captured A 28, 5 : 
purple presented to A Telian by 
king of A 29, 2 : chariot presented 
to Aurelian by king of A 33, 2 : 
marched in Aurelian's triumph A 
33, 4 : refrained from attack after 
Aurelian's death T 3, 5 : Roman 
emperor destined to rule T 15, 2 : 
company of delivered over to 
Romans P 4, i : defeated by 
Probus P 12, 4 : Probus' negotia- 
tions with P 17, 4 18, i : Probus 
planned war against P 20, i ; Ca 

7, i : Cams' war against Ca 7, i ; 

8, i ; 12, i : Galerius' war against 
Ca 9, 3. See also Paithians. 

Persicus : cognomen bestowed on 
Severus Alexander SA 56, 9 : won 
by Carus Ca 8, i. 

Persius Flaccus, A., poet: cited SA 

44, 9- 

PKRTINAX : father HP i, i : birth 
and omens HP i, 2-3: education 
HP i, 4: early career HP 

507 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Pertinax continued. 

i, 5_ 4) 3 : suspected of complicity 
in murder of Commodus HP 4, 4 : 
accession to principate C 18-19; 
HP 4, 55, 7 ; S 23, 4 : unpopular 
with the soldiers HP 5, 7 6, 3 : 
attempt at conspiracy against HP 

6, 4-5 : buried body of Commodus 
C 17, 4 ; 20, i : largesses to soldiers 
and people HP 6, 6; 7, 5. n; 15, 
7 : deference to senate HP 6, 2. 7; 
9, 9 ; 13, 2 : recalled exiles HP 6, 
8 : refused titles for wife and son 
HP 6, 9 ; administrative measures 
HP 6, 107, 4 : financial policy 
HP 7, 6 9, 3 : accused of greed 
HP 3, i ; 9, 4-8 ; 13, 4-6 : affability 
HP 9, 9 : saved those condemned 
on false testimony HP 9, 10 : con- 
spiracy of Falco apainst HP 10, 
1-7 : conspiracy of Laetus and 
soldiers against HP 10, 8-10; DJ 
4, 8; PN 2, 3: murdered HP II ; 
Cl 12, 5 : appearance HP 12, I : 
simplicity of habits HP 12, 2-7: 
retained Commodus' officials HP 
12, 8 : unwilling to rule HP 13, 
1-3 ; 15, 8 : wife and family HP 13, 
7 : amours HP 13, 8 : repressed 
palace-servants HP 13, 9 : omens of 
death HP 14, 1-5 ; DJ 2, 3 : treat- 
ment of body HP 14, 6-7 : burial 
HP 14, 7-9; DJ 3, 10 : deification 
and honours HP 14, 10 15, 5 ; S 

7, 8 : name taken by Severus HP 
15, 2 : S 7, 9 ; 14, 13 ; 17, 6 : desired 
by Macrinus OM n, 2: length of 
life and of rule HP 15, 6 : expected 
to remedy evils of Commodus' 
rule DJ 3, 7; 4, 8: murder of at- 
tributed to Didius Julianus DJ 3, 
7 : Julianus influenced by Albinus 
to kill CAi, i; 14, 2. 6 : Severus 
regarded as avenger of S 5, 4 : 
affection of populace for PN 3, i : 
advised to talce Albinus as associate 
in power CA 14, 2 : hatred for 
Albinus CA 14, 2 : assumed name 
Antoninus (incorrect) OM 3, 6; D 
6, 3 : equalled in severity by 
Victorinus TT 6, 6. 

Pescennia Marcellina : paid costs of 
Maximus' praetorship M-B 5, 7. 

Pescenniana, Domus, in Rome: home 
of Pescennius Niger PN 13, 4. 

508 



Pescennius Albinus : killed by Seve- 
rus S 13, 6. 

Pescennius Aurelianus: killed by 
Severus S 13, 6. 

Pescennius Festus : killed by Severus 
S 13, 6. 

Pescennius lulianus: killed by 
Severus S 13, 6. 

Pescennius Materianus : killed by 
Severus S 13, 6. 

PESCENNIUS NIGER: ancestry 
PN 1,3: character PN I, 4 ; 6, 10 : 
early career PN i, 5; 4, 6: ac- 
claimed emperor by troops in 
Syria DJ 5, i ; S 5, 8; 6, 7 ; PN 
2, i ; CA i, i ; SA i, 7 : demanded 
by populace in Rome DJ 4, 7 ; PN 

2, 2-3 ; 3, i : attempt of Didius 
Julianus to kill DJ 5, i ; S 5, 8; 
PN 2, 4 : communications of to 
senate and people seized by 
Severus S 6, 8 : relations with 
Severus PN 3, 3-5; 4, 6-8; 5, i : 
severity in military discipline PN 

3, 6-8; 7, 7-9; 10, i n, 2: letters 
of Severus, Marcus Aurelius, and 
Commodus concerning PN 3, 9 4, 
4 : revolt of suppressed by Severus 
S6, 10; 8, 69, i; 15,4; PN 4, 51 
5, 2-8 ; CA 7, 2. 4 ; 12, 13 : death 
89, i; PN 5, 8; 6, i; CA 12,7: 
treatment of family and partisans 
of S 8, LI; 9) 2 .8; 10, i; 14, 6; 
PN 6, 1-2; Cc i, 7: appearance 
and habits PN 6, 5-8 : influenced 
by Aurelianus PN 7, i : care for 
provinces PN 7, 2-6 : oracles con. 
cerning PN 8, 1-3; CA i, 4: 
likened to Clodius Albinus PN 9, 
3-4 : opinions concerning former 
generals and emperors PN n, 3 
12, 2 : hope of reforms by PN 12, 
3: house and statue PN 12, 4: 
epigram and Severus' remark con- 
cerning PN 12, 5-8 : ill-treatment 
of certain cities CA n, i: dislike 
of panegyrics imitated by Severus 
Alexander SA 35, i : life of written 
by Marius Maximus F i, i. 

Pescennius Princus : son of Clodius 
Albinus CA 7, 5. 

Pescennius Veratianus : killed by 
Severus S 13, 6. 

Petronius Antoninus, nephew of Com- 
modus : killed by Commodus C 7, 5. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Petronius Didius Severus : father of 

Didius Julianus DT 1,2. 
Petronius Junior : killed by Severus 

S 13, 6. 
Petronius Sura Mamertinus, M. : 

killed by Commodus C 7, 5. 
Petronius Sura Septimianus, M. : 

killed by Commodus C 7, 5. 
Petronius Taurus Volusianus, T. : 

consulship of Ga i, 2. 
Peucini : warred against Romans 

MA 22, i : invasion of under 

Claudius Cl 6, 2. 
Phalaris: Maximinus likened to M 

8, 5- 

Pharasmanes, King of the Hiberi : 
refused Hadrian's invitation to 
conference H 13, 9 : 8 ifts to 
Hadrian H 17, 12: deference to 
Antoninus Pius AP 9, 6. 

Pharus : repaired by Antoninus Pius 

AP8 >3 . 

Philemon, grammarian: teacher ot 
Maximinus the younger M 27, 5. 

PHILIP : enactment against vice E 
32,6; SA24, 4: Domus Pompeiana 
taken by imperial treasury under 
Go 3, 6 : plotted against Timesi- 
theus Go 28, i. 5-6 ; made prefect 
of guard Go 29, i : arrogance Go 
29, i ; 30, i : plotted against 
Gordian III. Go 29, 1-4: made co- 
ruler with Gordian Go 29, 5-6 
killed Gordian Go 30, 8-9; 34,4 
declared emperor Go 31, 2-3 
honoured Gordian after death Go 
31, 7 : held Ludi Saeculares Go 33, 
1-2 : consulship Go 33, 2 : murdered 
Go 33, 5 : Licinius claimed descent 
from Go 34, 5 : example of evil 
ruler A 42, 6. 

Philip, King of Macedonia : initia- 
tion into Eleusinian Mysteries 
imitated by Hadrian H 13, I : 
opinion concerning his son Alex- 
ander MA 27, 11. 
Philippeus: name of coin Cl 13, 3; 

A 9, 7; 12, i; P4, 5; F 15,8- 
Philippi, city in Macedonia : Gordian 

III. defeated at Go 34, 4. 
Philippics of Cicero . cited A 39, 4. 
Philippus : foster-father of Severus 

Alexander SA 13, 4. 
Philippus: see Aurelius : Valerius. 



Phlegon : freedman of Hadrian S to, 
i : autobiography of Hadrian 
attributed to H 16, I : letter of 
Hadrian taken from F 7> 6. 

Phoenice : Hadrian's plan to separate 
from Syria H 14, i : people ot 
gave name Elagabalus to Sol OM 
9,2. 

Pia : see Fulvia. 

Picenum, district of Italy : origin ot 
Hadrian's family H i, i : spectacles 
given by Gordian I. in Go 4, 6 : 
Tetricus supervisor of TT 24, 5. 

Pinarius Valens : made prefect of the 
guard M-B 4, 4; 5, 5 : Maximus 
reared in house of M-B 5, 5. 

Pinius : see Aurelius Victor. 

Pipara : beloved by Gallienus Ga 

21, 3- 

Pisitheus : physician of Faustina AC 
10, 8. 

PISO : sent by Macrianus to kill 
Valens, withdrew to Thessaly, 
assumed cognomen Thessalicus, 
declared emperor, slain Ga 2, 2-4 ; 
TT 19. 2; 21, 1-3 : good qualities 
of TT 21, 1-2 : descendant of Pisos 
TT 21, 2 : honours for TT 21 3-6. 

Piso: see C Ipurnius. 

Pisonianus : trained by Probus P 

22, 3. 

Pisos: Piso a descendant of TT, ai, 
i : Caesonini a branch of TT 32, 5- 
Pius (as imperial name) : reasons for 
bestowal on Antoninus Pius H 24, 
3-5 ; Ae 6, 9 ; AP 2, 3-8 ; 5, 2 : be- 
stowed on Commodus C 8 i : 
offered to but refused by Macrinus 
OM 7, 2; ii, 2-4; 14, 2: given by 
some to Severus Alexander SA 4, 5. 
Pius : name given to month C, 12, 9. 
Pius : see Fulvius. 

Placentia, city in Italy : Aurelian de- 
feated at A 21, i. 
Placidus : see Furius. 
Plato: Hadrian's knowledge of H 
16, 6 : M. Aurelius compared with 
MA 19, 12: quoted by Marcus 
Aurelius MA 27, 7- Republic of 
read by Severus Alexander SA 30, 
i : Vergil likened to by Severus, 
Alexander SA 30, 4 : works ot : 
studied by Gordian I. Go 7, i 
famed for philosophy A 3, 4. 

509 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Platorius Nepos, A: friendship for 

Hadrian H 4, 2 : hated by Hadrian 

Hi5, 2; 23,4- 
Plautianus : see Fulvius. 
Plautillus: father-in-law of Albinus 

CA ip, 6. 
Plautini, Lavacrum, at Rome : 

opened to the people by Elaga- 

balus E 8, 6. 
Plautius Quintillus, M. : opposed 

sending priests to appease Severus 

DJ 6, 6. 

Plautus : see Maccius. 
Plotina : see Pompeia. 
Plutarch, biographer: grandfather of 

Sextus, teacher of M. Aurelius MA 

3) 2. 

Poecile: place in Hadrian's villa near 
Tibur H 26, 5. 

Poena urbs : used by oracle to de- 
signate Leptis PN 8, 3. 

Poeni : in verse from Aeneid inter- 
preted as allusion to Severus CA 5, 
4-5 : Cams' parents said to have 
been Ca 4, 3. 

Polaenus : compelled by Hadrian to 
commit suicide H 15, 4. 

Pollio, grammarian : teacher of M. 
Aurelius MA 2, 3. 

Pollio : see Fufidius : Pomponius : 
Trebellius. 

Pompeia Plotina, wife of Trajan : 
urged marriage of Sabina to 
Hadrian H 2, 10 : favoured 
Hadrian H 4, i. 4. 10 : escorted 
ashes of Trajan H 5, 9 : basilica in 
honour of built at Nemausus by 
Hadrian H 12, 2. 

Pompeiana, Domus, at Rome : pro- 
perty of Gordian I. Go 2, 3 ; 3, 6 ; 
6, 5; 17, 2. 

Pompeianus : consulship of Go 23, 

Pompeianus : see Claudius. 

Pompeius Magnus, Cn. : tomb at 
Pelusium rebuilt by Hadrian H 
14, 4 : called Magnus after many 
triumphs SA u, 4: died violent 
death SA 62, 3 : house of at Rome 
belonged to Gordian I. Go 3, 6 : re- 
semblance of Gordian II. to Go 21, 
5 : gave citizenship to Theophanes 
M-B 7, 3 : written of by Livy and 
Cicero P 3, 3 : purple cloak used 
by F 6, 4. 

510 



Pompeius Trogus : inaccuracy of A 
2, 2 : Vopiscus will not imitate P 

2, 7- 

Pompiliana, Curia, at Rome: meet- 
ing of senate in A 41, 3 ; T 3, 2. 

Pompilius : see Numa. 

Pomponianus : see Fabius. 

Pomporius Proculus Vitrasius Pollio, 
T. : consulship of C 2, 4 ; 12, 5. 

Pons Sublicius, at Rome : repaired 
by Antoninus Pius AP 8, 2. 

Pontus : Balbinus governor of M-B 
7, 2 : Mithradates king of Va 1,5: 
tribes of Va 2, 3 : desired rescue of 
Valerian Va 3, 2 ; seized by pre- 
tender TT 29, i : wars against had 
no such hero as Probus P i , 4 : 
victory of Probus in P 12, 4. 

Pontus (Black Sea) : troops sent there 
to aid Olbiopolitae AP 9, 9 : By- 
zantium key of Ga 6, 8 : battle 
against Goths on shore of Ga 13, 6. 

Pontus Polemoniacus : added to Em- 
pire uneler Nero A 21, n. 

Porcius Cato, M. : opinion concern- 
ing Macedonia H 5, 3 : preferred 
to Cicero by Hadrian H 16, 6 : 
cited as example by Avidius 
Cassius AC 14, 4 : Fabius Sabinus 
likened to SA 68, i : Gordian I. 
likened to Go 5, 5 : contrasted 
with Caesar by Sallust M-B 7, 7 : 
cited Pi, i. 

Porphyretica, Porticus, in Rome: 
registers kept in P 2, i. 

Porphyrius : name given to Clodius 
Albinus CA 5, 9. 

Posidippus, physician : said to have 
caused death of L. Verus MA 15, 6. 

Postumianus : see Ceionius. 

Postumii, family of : Clodius Albinus 
descended from CA 4, i : prowess 
of during the Republic CA 13,5. 

Posrumius Severus : killed by Severus 
S 13, 2. 

POSTUMUS: in Gaul TT 3, i. 9: 
made emperor and supported by 
Gauls Ga 4, 3-4 ; 7, i ; TT 3, 3-4. 
6; 5, 5; 6, 6; Cl 7, 4: reigned 
seven years Ga 4, 5 ; TT 3, 4 ; 

5, 4 : protected Gaul against 
barbarians Ga 4, 5 ; TT 3, 4. 6 : 
campaigns of Gallienus against 
Ga 4, 4-6; 7, i; 21, 5; TT 3, 5; 

6, i ; ii, 3 : supported at Rome 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Postumus continued. 

Ga g, i : Gallienus entrusted 
Saloninus to (incorrect) TT 3, i : 
Valerian entrusted Gallienus to 
(incorrect) A 8, 2 : killed Saloninus 
TT 3, 2: killed TT 3, 7; 5, i; 
8, i; 31, 2; P 13, 5: Lollianus 
made emperor in place of TT 4, i : 
letter of Valerian concerning TT 
3, 8-n : built camps in Germany 
TT 5, 4 : Germans invaded after 
death of TT 5, 4 : life of little 
known TT 5, 8 : called Victorinus 
to share in power TT 6, i : pro- 
moted by Valerian TT 10, 14. 

POSTUMUS the younger: son ot 
Postumus TT 3, n : made tribune 
of Vocontii TT 3, n : named 
Caesar and Augustus TT 4, i : 
killed with father TT 4, i : de- 
clamations of TT 4, 2. 

Postumus : see Ceionius. 

Praeneste, town in Italy : death of 
Verus, son of M. Aurelius, at MA 
21, 3 : oracle in temple at SA 4, 6. 

Praenestina, Via : villa of Gordians 
on Go 32, 2. 

Praesens : see Bruttius. 

Praetextatus : see Asinius Lepidus. 

Priam : Gordian II. likened to Go 

19, 4- 
Priapus : Gordian II. likened to Go 

19, 4. 
Prima : mother of Emperor Maximus 

M-B 5, 2. 

Princus : see Pescennius. 
Priscianus : conspired against 

Antoninus Pius AP 7, 4. 
Priscus : see Neratius : Statius. 
Probatus : leader of Egyptians 

against Palmyrenes, killed Cl 

11,2. 

Probiana, purpura : name for pur- 
pura Alexandriana SA 40, 6. 

PROBUS: Vopiscus will write life 
of T 16, 6; 17, 5; P i, 5: life of 
written by Onesimus F 14. 4; Ca 
4, 2 : desired as emperor by all 
T 14, 3 : better than all Roman 
emperors T 16, 6 ; P 22, 1-2 : dear 
to all F 10, 3 : promised by 
Sibylline Books T 16, 6 ; brought 
whole world to safety T 16, 6; 
P i, 3: ruled in accord with wish 
of senate and people Ca i, 2 : fame 



Probus co ntinued. 
and conquests of T 16, 6 ; P 3, i ; 
12, 1-6; 22 : pun on name of T 16, 
6 ; P 4, 4 ; 10, 4 : birthplace and 
family of P 3, 1-4; 21, i : career 
under Valerian and Gallienus P 3, 
5 6, 4 : under Claudius, Aurelian 
and Tacitus P 6, 5 7, 4 : omen of 
rule P 7, 5 : beloved by soldiers 
P 8 : kept Aurelian from cruelty 
P 8, i : campaign of in Africa 
P 9, 1-2 : public works of in Egypt 
P 9 3-4 : defended Egypt against 
Palmyrenes P 9, 5 : made emperor 
T 14, 2 ; 16, 6 ; P 10-12 ; Ca 15, 2 : 
younger than Tacitus P n, 7: 
powers conferred on P 13, i : 
punished murderers of Aurelian 
and Tacitus P 13, 2-3 : spared 
associates of Florian, acknowledged 
by his troops P 13, 3-4 : campaigns 
or in Gaul and Germany P 13, 
5 15, 7 : victories of in Raetia 
and Illyricum P 16, 1-2 : subdued 
Getae P 16, 3 : campaign of in 
Isauria and Pamphylia P 16, 
4 17, i : campaign of against 
Blemmyae P 17, 2-3. 6 : negotia- 
tions of with Persians P 17, 4-6; 
18, i : settled barbarians on Roman 
soil P 18, 1-3 : revolts of pretenders 
against P 18, 2. 4-7; F 7 15: 
encouraged viticulture P 18, 8 : 
spectacles, largess and triumph of 
Pig: planned war against Persians 
P 20, i ; Ca 7, i : death of P 20, 
1-2; 21, 1-3; Ca i, i ; 3, 7; 5, 4; 
6, i : buried by sister P 3, 4 : 
death avenged by Carus Ca 6, i : 
said there would be no need of 
soldiers P 20, 3-6; 22, 4; 23: 
length of reign of P 21, 3; 22, 2: 
tomb of P 21, 4: descendants of 
P 24, 1-2 : statue of P 24, 2 : 
mourned by senate and people 
P 24, 3 : letter of P 10, 6-7 : 
messages of to senate P n, 2-4; 
15 ; Ca 6, 2-3 : Carus inferior to 
P 24, 4.: unwilling to have 
Saturninus killed F n, 1-3 : feared 
by people of Lugdunum F 13, i: 
made Carus prefect of guard Ca 
5, 4 : opinion of concerning Carus 
Ca 6, 2-3 : forces of used by Carus 
Ca 8, i : invasion of Sarmatians 

511 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Probus continued. 
after death of Ca 9, 4 : tried to 
match purple garment of Aurelian 
A 29, 3. 

Probus : son-in-law of Severus, 
enriched and made consul S 8, 1-2. 

Probus : name of four soldiers in 
Probus' army P 8, 5-7. 

Probus : see Aurelius : Faltonius. 

Procilla : see Boionia. 

PROCULUS: Vopiscus will write 
life of P 18, 6; 24, 7; F i, 4: 
birthplace and family of F 12, 1-4 : 
character of F 12, 5-8: made 
emperor P 18, 4-5-7; F I3 1-2: 
victories of F 13, 3 : defeated and 
killed by Probus F 13, 4 ; descend- 
ants of F 13, 5. 

Proculus, grammarian : cited TT 
22, 14. 

Proculus: see Didius : Eutychius : 
lulius. 

Professus : see Lollius. 

Protogenes : charioteer, favourite of 
Elagabalus E 6. 3. 

Protrepticus : imitated by Cicero Ga 

20, I. 

Prytaneum : place in Hadrian's 

villa near Tibur H 26, 5. 
Pseudo Antoninus : name given by 

Elagabalus to Diadumenianus 

E8.4- 
Ptolemaeus Euergetes, King of 

Egypt : cruelty of imitated by 

Caracalla Cc 6, 3. 
Ptolemais, city in Egypt : recovered 

from Blemmyae by Probus P 17, 

2.6. 
Ptolemies : splendour of imitated by 

Maximinus the younger M 29, 8 : 

Zenobia claimed descent from TT 

30, 2. 
Publicius Marcellus, C. : ordered by 

Hadrian to commit suicide H 15, 4. 
Publilius Celsus, L. : enemy of 

Hadrian H 4, 3 : fell from favour 

of Trajan H 4, 3 : conspiracy of 

against Hadrian and death H 

7, i-a. 

Pudens : see Servilius. 
Pulcher : see Clodius. 
Punic Wars : slaves enrolled as 

soldiers in MA 21, 6 : had no such 

hero as Probus P i, 4: Rome 

brought low by Ca 2, 6. 

512 



Punica fides : shown by Africans Go 

14, i; 15, i ; 16, 3. 
Punicae : term applied to works of 

Apuleius CA 12, 12. 
Punicus, Sulla : Severus called a PN 

6, 4. 

Puppienus : see Maximus. 
Puteoli, town in Italy : Hadrian 

buried in Cicero's villa at H 25, 7 : 

temple for Hadrian at consecrated 

by Antoninus H 27, 3 : senator's 

retirement to T 19, 5. 
Pyramids : visited by Severus S 

*7> 4- 
Pyrrhus : fear inspired by Ca 2, 6. 

Quadi : revolt of MA 22, i : defeat 
and submission of MA 14, 3 ; i7> 3 : 
plan of M. Aurelius to make a 
province of MA 27, 10 : Valerius 
Flaccinus rescued from P 5, 2. 

Quadratus : see Asinius : lulius : 
Ummidius. 

Ouartus : see Marcius. 

QUIETUS: made tribune by 
Valerian TT 12, 10 : son of 
Macrianus, made emperor, de- 
feated and killed Ga 3, i 4, 6 ; 
TT 12, 12; 14, i; 15, 4; 18, i: 
good qualities of TT 14, 2 : 
Aureolus sent soldiers to seize TT 

i?, 3- 

Quietus : see Lusius. 

Quinctius Cincinnatus, L. : admired 
by Niger PN 12, i. 

Quintilianus : see Fabius. 

Quintilii : family exterminated by 
Commodus C 4, 9. 

Quintiliorum, Domus, at Rome : 
statue of Tacitus in T 16, 2. 

Quintilius Condianus, Sex. : escaped 
from Commodus C 4, 9. 

Quintilius Marcellus : counsellor of 
Severus Alexander SA 6S, i. 

Quintilius Maximus : consulship of 
C ii, 14- 

QUINTILLUS: brother of Claudius 
Cl 10, 6; 12, 3; 13, 2; A 37, 4: 
Claudius wished to make associate 
in power Cl 10, 6 : oracle given to 
Cl 10, 6: character of Cl 12, 3: 
made emperor Cl 12, 3; A 37, 5: 
invasion of Goths during rule of 
Cl 12, 4 : length of rule of Cl 12, 
5; A 37, 6. death of Cl 12, 5-6; 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Quintillus continued. 
A 16, i ; 37, 6 : left two children Cl 
13, 9 : served with Aurelian A 17, 
3 : in command of garrison in 
Italy A 37, 5. 

uintillus : see Plautius. 
uirinalis, Collis, at Rome: 
senaculum established on E 4. 3. 
Quirites : soldiers addressed as SA 
52, 3; 53i 10 ; 54, 3: citizens 
addressed as SA 57, I ; T 7, 3 ; 
F 5, 4- 6. 

Raetia: invaded by Chatti MA 8, 
7-8 : cleared of enemies by Pertinax 
HP 2, 6: tribes in defeated by 
Caracalla Cc 5, 4: Fulvius Boius 
commander of frontier of A 13, i : 
peace established in by Probus P 
16, i : Bonosus commander of 
frontier of F 14, 2. 

Ragonius Clarus : letter of Valerian 
to TT 18, 5-n. 

Ragonius Celsus: letter of Severus 
to PN 3, 9-12. 

Ravenna, city in Italy : Maximus at 
in war against Maximinus M 24, 5 ; 
25> 2; 33, 3; M-B ii, 1-2; 12, i. 

5 I 16, 7- 
Ravennas, Classis : seized by Severus 

DJ 6, 3. 

REGALIANUS : supported at Rome 
Ga 9, 5 : general in command of 
Illyricum TT 10, i. 9 : made 
emperor by troops in Moesia TT 
10, i. 7 ; Cl 7, 4 : warred against 
Sarmatians TT 10, 2: killed TT 
10, 2 : rule of due to a jest TT 10, 
3-7 : suspected by Gallienus TT 
10, 8 : a Dacian, kinsman of Dece- 
balus TT 10, 8 : opinion of Claudius 
concerning TT 10, 9-13 : promoted 
by Valerian TT 10, 14. 

Regillus : prefect of the guard, killed 
by Commodus C 7, 4. 

Remus : Severus' dream of S i , 8. 

Repentinus : see Cornelius : Fabius 
Cornelius. 

Reverendus: favourite of mother of 
Gordian III. Go 25, 3. 

Rhine : campaign of Maximus on 
M-B 5, 9 : Germans driven back 
from by Probus P 12, 3 : galleys 
burned by Germans F 15, i. 

Rhodes : earthquake at AP 9, I. 



Rhodope, in > Thrace : Aurelian re- 

turned to the East from A 31, 3. 
Rhoemetalces : restored to kingdom 

by Antoninus Pius AP 9, 8. 
Rhone: Albinus' body cast into S 

_n, 9. 

Ripensis : see Dacia. 
Romanus : name given to month C 

12, 8._ 
Romulei : Romans addressed as F 

5,4- 

Romuleus, Mons, at Rome : statue of 
Saloninus near Ga 19, 4. 

Romulus : vanished from the earth 
C 2, 2 : Severus' dream of S i, 8 : 
left no sons S 21, i : killed by 
senators M 18, 2 : interregnum 
after death of T 1,1-3: founder of 
the commonwealth Ca 2, 2. 

Rostra, in Rome: Antoninus Pius 
eulogised on MA 7, 1 1 : people on 
reviled Didius Julianus DJ 4, 2: 
people summoned to M-B 3, 3 : 
statue of Claudius on Cl 3, 5. 

Roxolani : revolt and subsequent 
peace H 6, 6. 8 : war against Rome 
MA 22, i : instrumental in killing 
Regalianus TT 10, 2 : led as cap- 
tives in Aurelian's triumph A 33, 4. 

Rufinus : see Apuleius : Clodius : 
Memmius. 

Rufius Celsus : conversation with F 
2, i. 

Rufus : see Claudius : lulius : Novius : 
Rutilius : Velius. 

Rupilia Faustina : grandmother of M 
Aurelius MA i, 4. 

Rupilius Bonus : great-grandfather 
of M. Aurelius MA i , 4. 

Rusticus : see lunius. 

Rutilius Rufus, P. : Gordian L 
likened to Go 5, 5. 



Saba : see Zabdas. 

Sabina : wife of Hadrian H i, a ; 
2, 10 : treated with undue famili- 
arity by Septicius Clarus and 
Suetonius H 11, 3 : Hadrian's plan 
to divorce her abandoned H n, 3 : 
death H 23, 9. 

Sabinianus : led revolt against 
Gordian III. Go 23, 4. 

Sabinus : Elagabalus attempted to 
kill E 16, 2-3. 

513 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Sabinus : father of Fabius Sabinus, 
counsellor of Severus Alexander 
SA 68, i. 

Sabinus : prefect ot the city, killed 
by opponents of Maximinus M 15, 
I ; Go 13, 9 : absent from meeting 
at which Gordians were acclaimed 
emperors Go n, 3 : letter of Maxi- 
minus to Go 13, 2 : addressed 
populace and soldiers Go 13, 5. 

Sabinus : consulship of Go 23, 4._ 

Sabinus : see Aelius : Fabius : 
Fulvius : Vettius. 

Sacra Via: statue of Saloninus on 
Ga 19, 4. 

Saeculares, Ludi : held by Philip 
Go 33, 1-2. 

Saepta, at Rome: see Agrippiana, 
baepta. 

Salambo : rites of performed by 
Elagabalus E 7, 3. 

Salii : M. Aurelius enrolled among 
MA 4, 2-4 : hymn of to include 
name of Verus, son of M. Aurelius 
MA 21, 5 : decreed for Caracalla 
Cc ii, 6. 

Sallentini, people in S. Italy : Malem- 
nius early king of MA i, 6. 

Sallustii, Horti : Aurelian lived in 
and built portico in A 49, 1-2. 

Sallustius Crispus, C. : Caelius Anti- 
pater preferred to him by Hadrian 
H 16, 6: left no sons S 21, 2. 
speech of Micipsa by S 21, 10: 
contrasted Caesar and Cato M-B 

7, 7 : inaccuracy of A 2, 2 : cited 
P i, i : Vopiscus will not imitate 
P 2, 7 : did not record trifles F 

6,3- 
Salonae, city in Dalmatia : Saloninus 

born at Ga 19, 3. 
Salonina : see Cornelia. 
Saloninianus : name of coin Cl 17, 7. 
SALONINUS: son of Gallienus Va 

8, 5 : Ga 19, i : names of Va 8, 5 ; 
Ga 19, 2-4 ; 20, 3; 21, 3: born at 
Salonae Ga 19, 3 : entrusted to 
Postumus TT 3, i : statue of Ga 
19, 4 : trick of Ga 20, 2-4 : son of 
Salonina Ga 21, 3 : death of (in- 
correct), TT 3, 2-3 : approval of 
honours for Piso TT 21, 4. 

Salvidienus, M. : cited F 10, 4. 
Salvius lulianus : in Hadrian's con- 
silium H 18, i : twice consul and 

514 



Salvius lulianus continued. 
prefect of the city DJ I, I : great- 
grandfather of Didius Julianus DJ 
i, i : Severus tried to set aside 
decisions of S 17, 5. 

Salvius lulianus, P : in command of 
armies of Commodus C 3, 2: 
plotted against by Commodus C 

3, 2 : conspiracy against Com- 
modus C 4, 8; DJ 2, i: killed C 

4, 8 : consulship of C 12, 1-3 : uncle 
of Didius lulianus DJ I, 2: son 
debauched by Commodus C 3, i : 
son betrothed to daughter of 
Paternus C 4, 8. 

Salvius Valens : jurist consulted by 
Antoninus Pius AP 12, i. 

Samaritans : plan to amalgamate re- 
ligion of with cult of Elagabalus 
1,5: bad character of in Egypt 
F 7, 5 ; 8, 2. 

Sammonicus : see Serenus. 

Samnium, district of Italy : under 
administration of Tetricus TT 24, 
5 : pots from HP 8, 5. 

Samso : name given to Vituriga wife 
of Proculus F 12, 3. 

Sanctus : see Ateius. 

Sandario : killed by Palmyrenes A 

3i, 2. 

Saoterus, favourite of Commodus : 
with Commodus in triumph C 3, 6 : 
killed by prefects of the guard C 

4,5; 

Sapilianus : see Claudius. 

Sapor I., King of the Persians : de- 
feated by Gordian III. Go 26, 6 : 
letters to and from Va i 4, i : de- 
feated by Odaenathus Va 4, 4 ; 
TT 15, 4; 30, 6: persuaded by 
Cyriades to make war on Romans 
TT 2 , 2. 

Sarabda, city in Phoenicia : hand- 
kerchiefs from Cl 17, 7. 

Saraceni : soldiers defeated by re- 
buked by Niger PN 7, 8 : subject 
to Zenobia TT 30, 7 : served under 
Aurelian A n, 3 : sent aid to 
Zenobia, intercepted by Aurelian 
A 27, 4 ; 28, 2. 4 : inarched in 
Aurelian's triumph A 33, 4 : re- 
vered Aurelian A 41, 10 : served 
under Probus P 4, i : Firmus' re- 
lations with F 3, 3. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Sardinia : Severus quaestor of S 2, 
4-5 : horse from F 6, 4. 

Sarmatae : revolt of quelled by 
Hadrian H 3, 9 : revolt of H 5, 2; 
6, 6 : invasion of repelled by M. 
Aurelius MA 17, 3 : war against 
Rome MA 22, i ; 27, 10 : plan of 
M. Aurelius to make a province of 
MA 24, 5 ; 27, ip : war against 
left by M. Aurelius to proceed 
against Avidius Cassius MA 25, i : 
slaughtered on Danube AC 4, 6 : 
successes against under Commo- 
dus C 6, i : company of under 
command of Niger PN 4, 2 : sol- 
diers' anger directed toward SA 
53, 10 : Maximinus planned war 
against M 13, 3 : defeated in 
Illyricum by Maximus M-B 5, 9 
Gordian III. victor over Go 34, 3 
in procession at Rome Ga 8, 7 
invasion by TT 9, i : war of Re- 
galianus against TT 10, 2 : bows 
from TT 10, 12 : Censorinus envoy 
to TT 33, i : Aurelian's victories 
over A 6, 3-4 ; 7, 2 ; 18, 2 : led as 
captives in Aurelian's triumph A 
33, 4 : Roman emperor destined 
to rule T 15, 2: Probus in war 
against P 5, i-2; 12, 4; 16, 2 : led 
as captives in Probus' triumph P 
19, 8 : defeated by Carus Ca 8, i ; 
9, 4 : invaded Roman provinces 
after Probus' death Ca 9, 4. 

Sarmatia : maidens from taken by 
Proculus F 12, 7. 

Sarmaticus : cognomen borne by 
Caracalla Ge 6, 6; by Aurelian 
A 30, 5 ; conferred on Probus P 
11,9. 

Sarmaticus, Ludus : given by Carus 
Ca 19, 3. 

Saturnalia : gifts given and received 
at by Hadrian H 17, 3 : slaves 
admitted at by L. Verus V 7, 5 : 
banquets of Severus Alexander at 
SA 37, 6. 

Saturni, Aerarium, at Rome : registry 
of free-born infants at MA 9, 7. 

SATURNINUS: best of Gallienus' 
generals, appointed by Valerian, 
declared emperor, killed TT 23, 
1-4 : supported at Rome Ga 9, I : 
different from Saturni nus, rebel 
under Probus F n, i. 



SATURNINUS: Vopiscus will 
write life of P 18, 6 ; 24, 7 ; F I, 4 ; 

6, 5 : native of Gaul F 7, i : made 
commander of eastern frontier by 
Aurelian, forbidden to visit Egypt 
F 7, 2 ; 9, i : revolted against 
Probus in Egypt P 18, 4.5.7; F 6, 
5 ; 9, 1-2 : made emperor in Pales- 
tine, F 9, 2-3 : victories of F 9, 5 : 
speeches of F 9, 5 ; 10, 1-3 : studies 
of F 10, 4 : different from Satur- 
ninus, rebel under Gallienus F n, 
i : killed contrary to wish of Pro- 
bus F ii, 1-3. 

Saturninus : consulship of Ga 10, i. 

Saturninus : see Antomus : Avulnius. 

Savus, river in Pannonia : canal into 
dug by Probus P 21, 2. 

Saxa Rubra, place in Italy : mutiny 
of troops at S 8, p. 

Scaevola : see Cervidius : Mucius. 

Scantilla : see Manlia. 

Scaurinus : see Terentius. 

Scaurus : sea Terentius. 

Scipio : see Calpurnius : Cornelius. 

Scipios : period of H i, i : Niger's 
opinion of PN 12, 2: mentioned 
in speech by Gordian I. Go 5, 7 : 
Gordian I. claimed descent from 
Go 9, 4 : example of followed by 
Gordian I. Go 9, 6 : Africanus 
bestowed on Gordian I. as cog- 
nomen of Go 17, i : Claudius 
resembled Cl i, 3 : Aurelian com- 
parable to A 9, 4 : praised 1 >y 
historians P 2, 4. 

Sciron : Maximinus likened to M 

8,5- 

Scorpianus : see Aelius. 

Scupi, town in Jugoslavia : battle 
of Regalianus at TT 10, 11. 

Scythia : winters of H 16, 3 : Ana- 
charsis a native of A 3, 5 ; Avulnius 
Saturninus commander of frontier 
of A 13, i. 

Scythians ( = Goths) : king of attacked 
neighbours Go 31, i : war of Max- 
imus and Balbinus against M-B 
16, 3 : invaded Bithynia Ga 4, 7 ; 
u, i : invaded Asia Ga 6, 2. 5 ; 

7, 3: invaded Cappadocia Ga u, 
i : attacked Heraclea and defeated 
in naval battle Ga 12, 6: landed 
at mouth of Danube Ga 13, 6: 
retreated over Mt. Gessaces Ga 

515 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Scythians continued. 

I 3i 9 : general rebellion among 
Ga 13, 10 : invasion of under 
Claudius Cl 6, 2 : became farmers 
in Roman territory Cl 9, 4 : 
attempted to plunder Crete and 
Cyprus Cl 12, i. 

Secundinus : see Mummius. 

Secundus : see Vitruvius. 

Seius Fuscianus : fellow-student of 
M. Aurelius MA 3, 8 : second con- 
sulship of C 12, 9 : succeeded as 
prefect of city by Pertinax HP 4, 3. 

Seleucia, city in Babylonia : stormed 
by Avidius Cassius V 8, 3-4. 

Seleucia : birthplace of Firmus F 

3, I- 

Semiramis : cited as precedent by 
Zenpbia TT 27, I. 

Septicius Clarus, C. : appointed 
prefect of the guard H 9, 5 : de- 
posed H n, 3 : regarded as enemy 
by Hadrian H 15, 2. 

Septimius, biographer of Severus 
Alexander : cited SA 17, 2 ; 48, 7. 

Septimius Afer : cousin of Caracalla, 
killed by him Cc 3, 6-7. 

Septimius Aper, P. : great-uncle of 
Severus S i, 2. 

Septimius Arabianus : dishonest 
senator, reproved by Severus 
Alexander SA 17, 3-4. 

Septimius Bassianus : see Caracalla. 

Septimius Geta, P. : father of Sev- 
erus S i , 2 : Severus named son 
after Ge 2, i. 

Septimius Geta, P. : brother of Sev- 
erus, ordered to govern province 
88, 10 : hopes of principate ended 
S 10, 3 : promoted by Severus S 
14, ii : Severus named son after 
Ge 2, i. 

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, L. : autc- 
biography S 3, 2 ; 18, 6 ; PN 4, 7 ; 
CA 7, i : ancestry and birth S i, 
1-3: education S i, 4-5; Cc 8, 3 : 
omens of rule S i, 6-10; 3, 4-5: 
early career S 2, i -4, 7; Cc 8, 3 ; 
Ge 2, 3-4 ; 3, i : married Julia 
Domna S 3, 9 ; Ge 3, i ; SA 5, 4 : 
skilled in astrology S 3, 9; PN 9, 
6 ; Ge 2, 6 : made emperor by 
army DJ 5, 1-2; S 5, I ; CA I, I ; 
SA i, 7: march on Rome DJ 6, 
3-4; S 5, 3-4: declared public 

516 



Septimius Severus, L. continued. 
enemy by senate DJ 5, 3-4; S 5, 
5; PN 2, 2: measures taken by 
Julianus against DJ 5, 6 6, 9; 
7, 4-8, 3; S 5, 6-8; PN 2, 5-7; 
3, 2 : general submission to DJ 8, 
4-8; 85, 9 6, ii : relations with 
Niger and Albinus S 6, 9; PN 3, 
3-5; 4,6-8; CAi.a; 3, 3-6; 6,8; 
7, 2-6 ; 8, 1-3 : measures taken 
against Niger and Albinus S 6, 
7-10; PN 5, 2: entry into Rome 
S 7, 1-3; 17, 7-8: appearance 
before senate S 7, 4-5 : donatives 
to soldiers S 5, 2; 7, 6-7: 12, 2; 
16, 5. 9 : honours for Pertinax HP 
15, 1-5 ; 87, 9 ; 17, 5 ' assumed 
but discontinued name Pertinax 
HP 15, 2; S 7, 9; 14, 13; 17, 6: 
assumed (incorrect) name Anton- 
inus OM 3, 6; D 6, 3 : riches and 
honours for relatives and friends 
87, 9; 8, 1-2; 14, 4- ii ; 15, 7: 
killed friends of Julianus S 8, 3 : 
care for provinces and grain-supply 
88,4-5; 23, 2; PN 7, 4; CA 12, 
7 ; E 27, 7 ; revolt of Niger S 8, 6 
9, I ; PN 4, 5 ; 5, 26, i ; CA 
12, 7. 13: F i, i : treatment of 
Niger's family and supporters S 
9,2-8; 10, i; 14, 6; 15, 4; PN 6, 
1-2; Cci,7: conquests in Orient 
S 9, 9-1 1 ; 18, i : cognomina S 9, 
10-11; 16, 2. 6 ; 18, 2: revolt of 
Albinus S 10, i n, 9; CA 8, 4 
9, 7; 12, 13; F i, i : prophecies 
S 10, 7; PN 8; 9, 5-6; CA i, 4; 
5> 4-5; 9, 2: gave title of Caesar 
to Caracalla S 10, 3 ; 14, 3 ; 16, 3 : 
gave name Antoninus to Caracalla 
S 10, 3-6; PN 8, 5; Cc i, i; Ge 
i, 4 ; D 6, 8 : to Geta S 10, 5 ; 19, 
2; Ge i, 5-7; 2, 2-5; D 6, 9: 
honours for Commodus C 17, n. 
12; S ii, 3-4; 12, 8; 19, 3: pun- 
ished partisans of Albinus S 12, i. 
5. 7; CA 9, 5 ; 12, 2-4: wealth 
and establishment of res privatae 
S 12, 3-4. : murdered senators and 
others S 12, 9 14, i; 14, 12-13; 
15,5-6; 17,7-8; PN6, 3-4; Ge4, 
2-3 : relations with Plautianus S 
14, 5. 7-9 : made sons consuls S 14, 
10; 16, 8; spectacles and gifts to 
people S 14, ii : wars against 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Septimius Severus, L.- -continued. 
Parthians S 14, 4. n ; 15, 1-3; 16, 
1-5 ; Ge 5, 3 : made Caracalla 
colleague in imperial power S 16, 
3 ; Ge 5, 3 : granted triumph to 
Caracalla S 16, 6-7: in Syria, 
Palestine and Egypt S 16, 817, 
4 : tried to annul decisions of 
Salvius Julianus S 17, 5 : built 
wall in Britain S 18, 2 : care for 
Tripolis S 18, 3: care for oil- 
supply S 18, 3 ; 23, 2 ; CA 12, 7 ; 
SA 22, 2 : maintenance of order 
and justice S 18, 4-5 : interested in 
philosophy S 18, 5 ; Ge 2, 2 : judge- 
ments concerning S 18, 7; 19, 6. 
10 : patience toward wife S 18, 8 : 
suppressed attempt to make Cara- 
calla emperor S 18, 9-11; Cc n, 
3-4 : estimate of own career S 18, 
ii : death S 19, i ; 23, 3-4 : funeral 
and burial S 19, 3-4 ; 24, 1-2 : 
deified S 19, 4 : length of life and 
rule S 22, i ; PN 5, i ; 8, 6 : public 
works S 19, 5 ; 23, i ; 24, 3-4 = 
plans for succession S 20, 1-3 ; 23, 
3-6; CA 3, 5; 7, ?; Cc 2, 7; Ge 
i 3-7; 6, i: habits and appear- 
ance S 19, 7-9 : SA 33, 4 : omens 
of death S 22 : deemed happy had 
he not had son like Caracalla S 21, 
6 : noble in comparison with Cara- 
calla 821, q: letter and opinions 
concerning Niger PN 3, 9-12 ; 5, i ; 
12, 8 : spoke ill of Commodus CA 2, 
3 : opinions and letter concerning 
Albinus CA 10, i ; 11,5; 12,5-12 
Called M. Aurelius brother Ge 2, 2 
banished Macrinus OM 4, 3 
statues in honour of OM 6, 8 
praised by Macrinus OM 12, 2 
omen at farm of SA 13, 6: admit- 
ted Maximinus to military service 
Mi, 4; 2, 3-6; 4, 6; 5, 4: games 
for soldiers M 2, 4 : equalled in 
sternness by Victorinus TT 6, 6 : 
example of good ruler A 42, 4 : 
saying of quoted T 5, 2 : Rome 
under diligent care of Ca 3, 4. 

Septimius Severus : great-uncle of 
Severus 81,2: aided nephew in 
career 81,5. 

Septizonium : built by Severus S 19, 
5 ; 24, 3 : tomb built by Severus 
resembled Ge 7, 2. 



Sequani : revolt checked MA 22, 10. 

Serapammon : unworthy favourite 
of Gordian III. Go 25, 2. 

Serapeum, at Rome : beautified by 
Severus Alexander SA 26, 8. 

Serapio, rhetorician : teacher of 
Severus Alexander SA 3, 3. 

Serapis : cult cared for by M. Aure- 
lius MA 23, 8 : Severus interested 
in cult of S 17, 4 : worshipped by 
Christians in Egypt F 8, 2. 4. 

Serenianus : see Aelius. 

Serenus Sammonicus : killed by 
Caracalla Cc 4, 4 : works addressed 
to Antoninus Ge 5, 6 : works 
studied by Geta Ge 5, 6 : library 
of bequeathed by son to Gordian 
II. Go 18, 2-3. 

Serenus Sammonicus, Q., son of 
foregoing, teacher and friend 
Gordian II. Go 18, 2 : read 
Severus Alexander SA 30, 2. 

Serenus : see Lollius. 

Seres : revered Aurelian A 41, 10. 

Sergius Catilina, L. : Avidius Cassius 
likened to AC 3, 5 : Albinus likened 
to CA 13, 2 : horse of F 6, 4. 

Sergius Lustralis : killed by Severus 
S 13, 2. 

Sertorius : Pompey in war against 

, P ?' 3- 

Servianus : see lulius Ursus. 

Servilius Pudens, Q. ; consulship of 
Cii, 13. 

Servilius Silanus : killed by Com- 
modus C 7, 5. 

Severi, Porticus, at Rome : built by 
Caracalla S 21, 12 ; Cc 9, 6. 

Severianae, Thermae, in Rome : built 
by Severus S 19, 5. 

Severus : taken as cognomen by 
Didius Julianus DJ 7, 2 : assumed 
by Macrinus OM 2, i : 5, 7: n, 
2 : given to Severus Alexander by 
troops SA 12, 4 ; 25, 2. 

SEVERUS ALEXANDER: an- 
cestry, parentage and birth E 10, 
i; SA i, 2; 3, i ; 5, 1-2: relation- 
ship to Elagabalus E 5,1; 10, I ; 
SA i, 2; 5, 4; 49, 4; 64, 4: to 
Caracalla SA 5, 3 : native of Syria 
SA 38, 4; 65, i; 68, 4: education 
SA 3, 1-5 : received title of Caesar 
OM 4, i ; E 5, i ; 10, i ; SA i, 2; 
3, 4 ; 8, i ; 64, 4 : won favour of 

517 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Severus Alexander continued. 
soldiers under Elagabalus 5,1; 
10, i ; 13, 3 : saved from murder 
E 13, 115, 3 ; SA 2, 4 ; 4, 6 : re- 
conciliation with Elagabalus E 15, 
5-6 : omens and prophecies of rule 
SA 13, i 14, 6 : made emperor by 
senate SA i, 2-4; 2, 1-4; 8, i: 
refused names Antoninus and 
Magnus when acclaimed by senate 
SA 5, 312, 4 : character E 13, i ; 
SA 4, 5-6 ; 39, 2 ; 44, 1-2 ; M 7,_ 3 : 
appearance SA 4, 4 ; 14, 6 : sim- 
plicity in clothing and conduct 
SA 4, 1-3; 18, 1-3; 20; 33, 3-4; 

37, i; 40, i; 41, i-3; 42, 1-3; 51, 
1-3 : severity in military discipline 
SA 12, 4-5; 25, 1-2; 50, i; 51, 5- 

8; 52, i. 3; 53; 54; 59, 4-5; 64, 
3 ; M 7, 6 : called Severus by 
soldiers SA 12, 4; 25, 2: relations 
with mother SA 14, 7; 26, 9; 57, 
7 ; 60, 2 : early reforms in govern- 
ment, palace and army SA 15 : 
legislation and legal decisions SA 
16 : severity toward the dishonest 
SAi7; 18, 4-5; 23,8; 28,2-5; 35, 
5 36, 3 ; 67, 2-3 : deference to 
senate SA 19; 21, 3-5; 52, 2: 
leniency SA 21, i : economic 
measures SA 21, i-2; 24, 3; 26, 
2-3; 32, 4-5; 39, 6; 41, 3-4! 64, 3 : 
care of army E 29, 5 ; SA 21, 6-8 ; 
45, i-3; 47; 52, 3-4: care for food- 
supply of Rome SA 21, 9 22, 2; 
22, 7-8 : care for administration of 
justice SA 22, 3 ; 23, 1-2 : treat- 
ment of slaves, freedmen and 
eunuchs SA 23, 3-7; 34, 2-3; 45, 
4 ; 66, 3-4 : care of provinces SA 
22, 6; 24, i; 45, 6-7; 46, 5: care 
for public baths SA 24, 2-6 ; 39, 4 : 
treatment of priests SA 22, 5 ; 49, 
2 : attitude toward foreign religions 
SA22, 4; 43, 6-7; 49, 6: care for 
public morals SA 24, 4; 25, 10; 
34, 2-4; 39, 2 : public works S 24, 
5; E 17, 9; SA 22, 4; 25, 3-8; 
26, 4. 7-11; 28, 6; 44, 7: coinage 
SA 25, 9; 39, 7-10; speeches to 
people SA 25, n ; 57, i : largesses 
to people SA26, i ; 57, i. 6 : guided 
by counsellors SA 26, 5-6; 27, 2; 
31, 2-3; 51, 4; 67, 2; 66; 68: re- 
guladons concerning clothing SA 

518 



Severus Alexander continued, 
37, 1-4; 40, 3- ii ; 4i, i: tastes 
and amusements SA 27, 5-10 ; 29, 
3; 30; 31, 4-5; 34, 7; 35, 1-4; 
41, 5-7 : consulships SA 28, i ; Go 
2, 4 ; 4, 2 : disliked being called 
Syrian SA 28, 7; 44, 3; 64, 3: 
devotion to religious duties SA 29, 
* ; 43, 5 : devotion to public 
business SA 29, 4-6; 31, 1-3: re- 
lations with public officials SA 32, 
1-4; 42,. 4; 43,. 2; 46, i. 4-5; 49, 
i : administration of Rome SA 33, 
1-2 ; 43, i : simplicity of banquets 
SA 34, i. 5-8; 37, 2-12; 39, i: 
verses SA 38, 4-6 : measures for 
public welfare SA 39, 3 : generosity 
SA 39, 5 ; 40, 2 ; 44, 8 ; 46, 2-3 : 
spectacles SA 43, 2-4; 44, 6; 57, 
i. 6 ; Go 33, i : encouragement to 
men of learning SA 44, t -6 : gifts 
to temples SA 44, 9; 51, i : treat- 
ment of Ovinius Camillus SA 48 : 
treatment of Macrinus SA 49, 3-4 : 
beloved by soldiers SA 48, 5 ; 50, 
3; M n, i: campaigns against 
Persians (Parthians) SA 50 ; 54, 7 ; 
55 ; 57 : speech and acclamations 
in senate SA 56 : triumph and 
games SA 57, 4-6 : victories in 
Mauretania, lllyricum, Armenia 
and Isauria SA 58 : war against 
Germans SA 59, 1-4; 61, 8; 63, 5 ; 
M 7, 5 ; n, 7-9: unpopular with 
troops SA 59, 5 ; 63, 5 : death SA 
59, 6-8; 61, i-7; 63, 5 ; M 7, 4-6; 
10, 3 ; n, i : length of life and rule 
E 35, 2; SA 60, i : omens of death 
SA 60, 3-8 : contempt for death 
SA 62 : mourning and honours for 
SA 63: criticisms of SA 64, 3; 
Elagabalus vilified to gain favour 
of E 30, 8 : vilified to gain favour 
of Maximinus SA 63, 6 : military 
career of Maximinus under M i, 
4: 5, 36, 7; 7, i-3: treatment 
of servants and friends of by Max- 
iminus M 9, 7-8 : hated by Herod- 
ian M 13, 4: Gordian I. made 
proconsul of Africa by M 14, 2; 
Go 5, 1-3 : letter concerning Max- 
iminus the younger M 29, 1-5 : 
gave omen to Maximinus the 
of Gordian II. Go 18, 5-6 : example 
younger M 30, 5 : furthered career 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Severus Alexander continued. 
of good emperor A 42, 4: Probus 
to be preferred to T 16, 6 : under 
Probus no longer desired P 12, 2 : 
Rome happy under Ca 3, 4. 

Severus Clarissimus : accused Didius 
Julianus of conspiracy DJ 2, i. 

Severus : see Annius : Archontius : 
Atilius : Avidius : Catilius : Cin- 
cius : Claudius : lunius : Petronius 
Didius : Postumius : Septimius. 

Sextius Lateranus, T. : consulship of 

V3, 3- 
Sexlus of Chaeronea, philosopher : 

teacher of M. Aurelius MA 3, 2 : 

of L. Verus V 2, 5. 
Sibylline Books : consulted for 

remedy for earthquake Go 26, 2; 

Ga 5, 5 : consulted by order of 

Aurelian A 18, 5 20, 8 : Probus 

promised by T 16, 6. 
Sibyllini Versus : prophesied rule 

of Hadrian H 2, 8. 
Sicca, town in Africa : home of 

Eutychius Proculus, teacher of M. 

Aurelius MA 2, 3 : people of, 

faithful to Gallienus, maltreated 

Celsus' body TT 29, 4. 
Sicilia, place in Germany : Severus 

Alexander killed in SA 59, 6. 
Sicilia, place in Palatium at Rome : 

conspirators against Pertinax in 

HP ii, 6. 
Sicily : Hadrian in H 13, 3 : Severus 

proconsul of S 4, 2-3 : horses from 

given away by Gordian I. Go 4, 5 : 

plundered by brigands Ga 4,9: 

Aurelianus lived in A 42, 2. 
Sidon, city in Phoenicia : purple 

garments from Ca 20, 5. 
Sigillaria : gifts given and received 

at by Hadrian H 17, 3 : by Cara- 

calla Cc I, 8. 
Silanus : see Dulius : lunius : Lamia : 

Servilius : Ulpius. 
Silvanus, Temple of: omen in T 

17, i. 
Silvinus, rhetorician : teacher of 

Severus Alexander, killed by 

Elagabalus E 16, 4. 
Similis : see Sulpicius. 
Sinon : known to later generations 

A i, 5- 
Sirmium, town in Jugoslavia : Maxi- 

minus at M 13, 3 : Aurelian born 



Sirmium continued. 
at A 3, i : Probus born at P 3, I : 
21, i . Alma Mons near planted 
with vines P 18, 8 : district of 
drained by Probus P 21, 2. 

Sol : Colossus of Nero rededicated 
to by Hadrian H 19, 13 : temple 
of Faustina rededicated to him, 
as Elagabalus or Jupiter Syrius, 
by Elagabalus MA 26, 9; Cc n, 
7 : called Elagabalus by the 
Phoenicians OM 9, 3 : Elagabalus 
priest of E i, 5 : temple of at Rome 
built by Elagabalus E i, 6; 3, 4 ; 
17, 8 : statue of Gallienus attired 
as Ga 1 8, 2 : temple of in Aurelian's 
native town A 4, 2. 5 ; 5, 5 : temple 
of at Palmyra restored by Aurelian 

A 31, 7-9- 

Sol, Temple of, at Rome : built by 
Aurelian A i, 3 ; 25, 5 ; 35, 3 ; 39, 
2 : Aurelian and Ulpius Crinitus 
pictured in A 10, 2 : spoils dis- 
played in A 28, 5 : Aurelian estab- 
lished priests for A 35, 3 : riches 
of A 39, 6 : wine stored in porticos 
of A 48, 4 : statue of Aurelian in 
T 9, 2 : statue of Jupiter to be 
placed in F 3, 4. 

Sosius Falco, Q. : inveighed against 
Pertinax in senate HP 5, 2-3 : 
accused of conspiracy against Per- 
tinax but pardoned HP 10, 1-7: 
consulship of HP 15, 6. 

Sosius Papus : friendship of for 
Hadrian H 4, 2. 

Sossianus : see Fabius. 

Soteridas : physician of Marcus 
Aurelius AC 10, 8. 

Spain : home of Hadrian's family H 
i, i : Hadrian in H 12, 3-5 : home 
of family of M. Aurelius MA i, 4 : 
relieved from conscription MA 11, 
7: invaded by Mauri MA 21, i: 
revolt in checked MA 22, 11 : Sev- 
erus in S 3, 4-5 : leading men of 
killed by Severus S 12, i : gold in 
seized by Severus S 12, 3 : origin- 
ally conquered by the senate CA 
13, 6 : augurs from surpassed by 
Severus Alexander SA 27, 6 : de- 
sired rescue of Valerian Va 3, 2 : 
people of fond of hunting TT 30, 
18 : held by Tetricus as pretender 
Cl 7i 5 ' wars against had no such 

519 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Spain continued. 

hero as Probus P i, 4 : seized by 
Proculus and Bonosus P i8,_ 5 : 
people of allowed to plant vines 
P 18, 8 : peace restored in by 
Saturninus F 9, 5; Bonosus born 
in F 14, i : under rule of Carinus 
Ca 16, 2. See also Hispania 
Baetica. 

Spartacus : Maximinus likened to 
Mg, 6. 

Spei Veteris Horti, at Rome : Elaga- 
balus retired to E 13, 5. 

Speratus : demand for death of C 
18, 10. 

Stagira, town in Macedonia : Aris- 
totle born in A 3, 5. 

Statianus : see Manlius. 

Statilius Corfulenus : proposed hon- 
ours for Albinus and brother CA 

12, II. 

Statius Caecilius, writer of comedies : 
sayings taken from works of Ca 

13,5. 

Statius : see Papmius. 
Statius Priscus Licinius Italicus, M. : 

victorious in Armenia MA 9, I : 

in war against Parthians V J, i. 
Statius Valens, biographer of Trajan : 

cited SA 48, 6. 
Stilio, philosopher : teacher of Sev- 

erus Alexander SA 3, 3. 
Stilo : see Aelius. 
Suburanus : second consulship of 

Ha, 8. 

Successus : see Helvius. 

Succuba, town in Spain : home of 
great-grandfather of M. Aurelius 
MA i, 4. 

Suebi : warred against Rome MA 
22, i : defeated by Aurelian A 18, 
2 : lad as captives in Aurelian's 
triumph A 33, 4. 

Suetonius Optatianus : cited T u, 7. 

Suetonius Tranquillus, C. : deposed 
by Hadrian from post of magister 
epistularum H n, 3 : biography of 
Caligula C 10, 2 . method in narra- 
tion M-B 4, 5 : Vopiscus will 
imitate P 2, 7 : did not write lives 
of pretenders F i, 1-2. 

Sulla : see Cornelius. 

Sulpicianus : see Claudius : Flavius. 

Sulpicius : father-in-law of Severus 
Alexander SA 20, 3, 

520 



Sulpicius, Vicus, at Rome : Thermae 

Antoninianae in E 17, 8. 
Sulpicius Apollinaris, C. : teacher of 

Pertinax HP i, 4. 
Sulpicius Canus : killed by Severus 

S 13, 7- 

Sulpicius Crassus : proconsul of 
Asia, killed by Commodus C 7, 7. 

Sulpicius Similis, C. : deposed from 
prefecture of the guard H 9, 5 : 
Hadrian owed his principate to 
him H 9, 6. 

Superbus : see Tarquinius. [ronius. 

Sura : see Licinius : Palfurius : Pet- 

Sybaritae, people of Italy : dish in- 
vented by E 30, 6. 

Symiamira : see lulia Soaemias. 

Synnada, city in Asia: marble from 
Go 32, 2. 

Syria : Hadrian governor of H 4, 6 : 
Catilius Severus governor of H 5, 
10 : plan to separate from Phoenice 
H 14, i : governor of routed by 
Vologaeses MA 8, 6 : L. Verus in 
MA 8, 12; V 4, 4-6; 7, i-io : M. 
Aurelius in MA 25, n ; C 2, 3 : 
actors and musicians from V 8, 7. 
lo-n : Libo governor of V 9, 2 : 
demoralization of legions in AC 5, 
5-12 : Avidius Cassius in command 
of AC 6, 1-4 : Pertinax served in 
HP i, 6; a, 10 : Pertinax governor 
of HP 2, ii ; 3, i : Julia Domna a 
native of S 3, 9 : Niger in com- 
mand of army in PN i, 5: Niger 
made emperor by troops in DJ 5, 
1-2; S 5, 8; 6, 7; PN 2, i : Sev- 
erus in S 15, 2-3; 16, 6-8: god 
Elagabalus brought to Rome from 
E i, 6 : rites from E 7, 3 : priests 
from foretold death of Elagabalus 
E 33, 2 : Severus Alexander a 
native of SA 28, 7 ; 38, 4 ; 44, 3 
64, 3; 65, 1 1 68, 4: victories of 
Gordian III. in Go 26, 5 : Zosimio 
procurator of Cl 14, 2 : Aurelian's 
army attacked by bandits of A 26, 
i ; 27, 5 : Artabassis a native of 
P ^ , i : leopards from in spectacle 
of Probus P 19, 7. 

Syrians : planned revolt V 6, 9 : 
ridiculed L. Verus V 7, 4. 10: 
Zenobia's letter to Aurelian in 
language of A 27, 6; 30, 3: faith- 
lessness of A 31, i ; T 3, 5. 



INDEX OF NAMES 



TACITUS : princeps senatus T 4, 3 : 
made emperor by senate A 41, 4. 
14; T 3, i-7, a; 18-19; P 7,f.3j 
Ca 15, 2 : acclaimed by people 1 

7, 2-4 : acknowledged by army T 

8, 3-5 : absent in Campania or 
Baiae T 7, 5-7 : decree of senate 
signed by T 8, i : donative pro- 
mised T 9, i : speeches of A 41, 
4-14; T 4, 5-8; 8, 5; 9, i : letter 
of P 7, 2-5 : proposed honours for 
Aurelian T o, 2. 5 : failed to obtain 
consulship for his brother Florian 
T 9, 6 : forbade alloying of metals 
T 9, 3 : forbade slaves to testify 
against masters T 9, 4 : proposed 
worship of deified emperors T 9, 
5 : used his private property for 
public purposes T 10, 1-2. 6 : 
private life and habits T 10, i ; 
ii : measures for public welfare T 
10, 2 : interest in historian Tacitus 
T 10, 3 : sumptuary measures T 
10, 4; ii, 6: manumitted slaves 
T io, 7: public works T 10, 4-5 : 
advised Aurelian in sumptuary 
measures T ii, 6: punished 
murderers of Aurelian T 13, i; 
P 13, 2 : checked invasion of 
Maeotidae (Goths) T 13, 2: glory 
ofT 13, 4: death T 13, 5 ; P io, 
i ; Ca 3, 7 : swore he would not 
make sons emperors T 14, i : 
length of rule T 14, 5 : like 
interrex T 14, 5 : statues and 
cenotaph of T 15, i; 16, 2-3; 
prophecy concerning descendants 
of T 15, 2-4; 16, 4: largess to 
populace T 16, i : omens of rule 
and death, T 17 : life of written by 
Vopiscus T 16, 3 ; P i, 5 : opinion 
of Probus P 7, i : Probus younger 
than P ii, 7: murderers of 
punished P 13, 3. 

Tacitus : name given to September 
T 13, 6. 

Tacitus : see Cornelius. 

Taprobane (Ceylon) : Roman em- 
peror destined to send governor 
to T 15, 2. 

Tarquinius Superbus, L. : Rome 
suffered from evil ways of Ca 2, 4. 

Tarraco, town in Spain : Hadrian at 
H 12, 3-5 : temple of Augustus at 
Hi2,4; 83,4. 



Tarrutenius Paternus : prefect of the 
guard, in conspiracy to kill Corn- 
modus C 4, i. 7 : helped to kill 
Saoterus C 4, 7 : removed from 
office C 4, 7 ; 14, 8 : killed C 4, 8 : 
daughter betrothed to son of 
Julianus C 4, 8. 

Tatius Cyrillus: cited M i, 2. 

Tattius Maximus, C. : prefect of 
guard under Antoninus Pius AP 
8,7. 

Tauroscythae : defeated under An- 
toninus Pius AP 9, 9 : offered aid 
for rescue of Valerian Va 4, i. 

Taurus, Mons : Faustina died in 
foothills of MA 26, 4 : temple of 
Faustina in abolished by Caracalla, 
rededicated by Elagabalus to 
Jupiter Syrius or Sol Cc n, 6-7. 

Tausius : murdered Pertinax HP 
ii, 9. 

Telephus, grammarian : teacher of 
L. Verus V 2, 5. 

Tempe : place in Hadrian's villa 
near Tibur H 26, 5. 

Terentianus : see Vulcatius. 

Terentius Ater, P, writer of comedies : 
left no sons S 21, 2. 

Terentius Gentianus, D. : suspected 
by Hadrian because beloved by 
the senate H 23, 5. 

Terentius Scaurinus : teacher of L. 
Verus V 2, 5 ; SA 3, 3. 

Terentius Scaurinus : teacher of 
Severus Alexander SA 3, 3. 

Terentius Scaurus,- Q : grammarian 
of Hadrian V 2, 5. 

Terentius Varro, M. : example of 
learning SA 8, 5 : cited F 4, 2. 

Terracina, a town in Italy : Palma 
murdered at H 7, 2 : harbour re- 
paired by Antoninus Pius AP 8, 3 : 
Claudius Pompeianus called from 
to share principate DJ 8, 3. 

Tervingi : invasion of under Claudius 
Cl 6, 2. 

Tertullus : reputed lover of Faustina, 
promoted by M. Aurelius MA 
29, 1-2. 

Tetrici : house of at Rome TT 25, 4 : 
invited Aurelian to banquet TT 

25, 4- 

TETRICUS : governor of Gaul TT 
24, i. 4 : made emperor in Gaul 
by Victoria TT 5, 3. 5; 24, i; 

521 



INDEX OF NAMES 



Tetricus continued. 

31, 2: held Gaul and Spain Cl 

7. 5 J A 32, 3 : received title of 
Augustus TT 24, i : good rule of 
TT 24, 2 : Victoria died during 
rule of TT 31, 4: surrendered to 
Aurelian TT 24, 2-3 ; A 32, 3 : 
led in triumph by Aurelian TT 

24, 4; A 32, 4; 34, 2; 39, i: 
made supervisor of Italy TT 24, 5 : 
of Lucania A 39, i : honoured by 
Aurelian TT