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Full text of "The seaman's manual : containing a treatise on practical seamanship, a dictionary of sea terms, customs and usages of the merchant service, laws relating to the practical duties of master and mariners"

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University of California • Berkeley 



Purchased from the 
James D. Hart Memorial Fund 



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V 



THE 



SEAMAN'S MANUAL ; 



CONTAINING 



A TREATISE ON PRACTICAL SEAMANSHIP, 

WITH PLATES; 

A DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS; 
CUSTOMS AND USAGES OF THE MERCHANT SERVICE ; 



LAWS RELATING TO THE PRACTICAL DUTIES OF MASTER AND 
MARINERS. 



BY R. H. DANA, Jun*., 

author of 
"two years before the mast." 



LONDON : 
EDWARD MOXON, DOVER STREET. 



DEDICATION. 



To all sea-faring persons, and especially to those commencing 
the sea-life ; — to owners and insurers of vessels ; — to judges and 
practitioners in maritime law; — and to all persons interested in 
acquainting themselves with the laws, customs, and duties of sea- 
men ; — this work is respectfully dedicated hy 

THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION. 



This work is published at the same time in England 
and in America. In the latter country it appears under 
the title of the " Seaman's Friend ;" while that of the 
" Seaman's Manual " is adopted in the British edition, 
as more significant of the nature of the book. Mr. Dana 
has here embodied in a small space and unpretending form 
a variety of information, which it is hoped may be exten- 
sively useful. Not that men who have been bred to the 
sea can be supposed to derive much instruction from the 
elementary hints of a book of this kind. Seamanship, like 
every other manual art, is thoroughly acquired by prac- 
tice; and skill in its various branches can only be 
arrived at by actual experience. But young beginners 
will find useful helps in their study of the duties of sea- 
life, in the details and explanations here collected from 
the best available sources. Very few of the terms or 
the methods of management, in the Merchant Service of 
America, differ in any material respect from those which 
are used in English vessels. There is probably less 
difference in the sea-language common to both services 
than may be detected as peculiar in the different great 
sea-ports of the mother country; and in like manner, 
the received usages and modes of discipline have the 
close affinity which is the natural result arising from 
a 2 



common origin, laws, and general customs. It may 
therefore be expected without presumption, that the 
abstract given in this little work of the rules established 
in American ships will be found applicable to the prac- 
tice in our own ; and even where they differ, may suggest 
useful comparisons. At any rate, it is desirable to know 
what system obtains and is successful among a body of 
seamen which, in numbers, and the extent of commerce 
carried on by them, are only second in importance to 
those of Great Britain. 

The laws of the United States relative to shipping, 
are considered in Part III. of this work, in reference to 
the rights and duties of the officers and crews respec- 
tively. A gentleman of the legal profession has ap- 
pended a few notes, with the view of showing points of 
difference where they exist in the British laws. 

Finally, it is hoped that the various classes of society 
which are led by their callings, duty, or affection, to take 
an interest in sea-faring men, and who may wish to know 
something of their business and their language, will find 
this little Manual useful for occasional reference. It 
cannot be expected to have the same claims to public 
favour as the Author's former work. But even in these 
pages, which only aim at being useful, the reader will 
not fail to perceive indications of the same good sense 
and right spirit which were so conspicuous in that re- 
markable production. 

The Editor. 

London, 4th October, 1841. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

A PLAIN TREATISE ON PRACTICAL SEAMANSHIP. 
CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL RULES AND OBSERVATIONS, PAGES 1 7. 

Construction of Vessels, 1. — Tonnage and Carriage of Merchant 
Vessels, 2 — Proportions of Spars, 2 — Placing the Masts, 4. — 
Size of Anchors and Cables, 4. — Lead-lines, 5 — Log-line, 5. — 
Ballast and Lading, 6. 

CHAPTER II. 

CUTTING AND FITTING STANDING RIGGING, PAGES 7 14. 

Cutting Lower Rigging, 7. — Fitting Lower Rigging, 8. — Cutting 
and fitting Topmast Rigging, 9. — Jib, Topgallant, and Royal 
Rigging, 10. — Rattling, 11. — Standing Rigging of the Yards, 
11.— Breast-backstays, 14. 

CHAPTER III. 

FITTING AND REEVING RUNNING RIGGING, PAGES 15 19. 

To reeve a Brace, 15. — Fore, Main, and Cross-jack Braces, 15. 
— Fore and Main Topsail Braces, 15. — Mizen Topsail Braces, 
16. — Fore, Main, and Mizen Topgallant and Royal Braces, 
16. — Halyards, 16. — Spanker-brails, 17. — Tacks, Sheets, and 
Clewlines, 17. — Reef-tackles, Clew-garnets, Buntlines, Leach- 
lines, Bowlines, and Slablines, 18. 

CHAPTER IV. 

TO RIG MASTS AND YARDS, PAGES 19 26. 

Taking in Lower Masts and Bowsprit, 19. — To rig a Bowsprit, 
20. — To get the Tops over the Mast-heads, 20. — To send up 
a Topmast, 21. — To get on a Topmast Cap, 22. — To rig out 
a Jib-boom, 22. — To cross a Lower Yard, 22. — To cross a 



VI CONTENTS. 

Topsail Yard, 23. — To send up a Topgallant Mast, 23. — Long, 
Short, and Stump Topgallant Masts, 23. — To rig out a Flying 
Jib-boom, 24. — To cross a Topgallant Yard, 25. — To cross a 
Royal Yard, 25.— Skysail Yards, 25. 

CHAPTER V. 

TO SEND DOWN MASTS AND YARDS, PAGES 26 28. 

To send down a Royal Yard, 26 To send down a Topgallant 

Yard, 27. — To send down a Topgallant Mast, 27. — To house 
a Topgallant Mast, 27. — To send down a Topmast, 28. — To 
rig in a Jib-boom, 28. 

CHAPTER VI. 

BENDING AND UNBENDING SAILS, PAGES 28 33. 

To bend a Coarse, 28. — To bend a Topsail by the Halyards, 29 ; 
by the Buntlines, 30. — To bend Topgallant Sails and Royals, 

30.— To bend a Jib, 31 To bend a Spanker, 31.— To bend 

a Spencer, 3). — To unbend a Course, 32. — To unbend a Top- 
sail, 32.— To unbend a Topgallant Sail or Royal, 32.— To 
unbend a Jib, 32. — To send down a Topsail or Course in a Gale 
of Wind, 32.— To bend a Topsail in a Gale of Wind, 32.— 
To bend one Topsail or Course, and send down the other at 
the same time, 32. 

CHAPTER VII. 

WORK UPON RIGGING. ROPE, KNOTS, SPLICES, BENDS, HITCHES, 

PAGES 33 44. 

Yarns, Strands, 33. — Kinds of Rope : Cable-laid, Hawser-laid, 
34. — Spunyarn, 34. — Worming, Parcelling, and Service, 34. — 
Short Splice, 35. — Long Splice, 35. — Eye Splice, 36. — Flemish 
Eye, 36.— Artificial Eye, 36.— Cut Splice, 36.— Grommet, 37. 
—Single and Double Walls, 37.— -Matthew Walker, 37.— 
Single and Double Diamonds, 37. — Spritsnil Sheet-knot, 38. — 
Stopper Knot, 38. — Shroud and French Shroud Knots, 38. — 
Buoy-rope Knot, 39. — Turk's Head, 39.- — Two Half-hitches, 
Clove-hitch, Overhand Knot, and Figure-of-eight, 39. — Stand- 
ing and Running Bowlines, and Bowline upon a Bight, 40. — 
Square Knot, 40. — Timber Hitch, Rolling Hitch, and Blackwall 
Hitch, 40. — Cat's Paw, 41. — Sheet Bend, Fisherman's Bend, 
Carrick Bend, and Bowline Bend, 41. — Sheep-shank, 42. — 
Selvagee, 42. — Marlinspike Hitch, 42. — To pass a Round 
Seizing, 42. — Throat Seizing, 42. — Stopping and Nippering, 43. 
— Pointing, 43. — Snaking and Grafting, 43. — Foxes, Spanish 
Foxes, Sennit, French Sennit, Gaskets, 43. — To bend a Buoy- 
rope, 44. — To pass a Shear-lashing, 44. 



CONTENTS. Vll 

CHAPTER VIII. 

BLOCKS AND PURCHASES, PAGES 44 46. 

Parts of a Block, Made and Morticed Blocks, 44. — Bull's-eye, 
Dead-eye, Sister-block, 45. — Snatch-block, Tail-blocks, Tackles, 
Whip, Gun-tackle, Luff-tackle, Luff-upon-Luff, Runner-tackle, 
Watch-tackle, Tail- tackle, and Burtons, 45. 

CHAPTER IX. 

MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL, PAGES 46 60. 

To loose a Sail, 46. — To set a Course, 47. — To set a Topsail, 
47. — To set a Topgallant Sail or Royal, 48. — To seta Skysail, 
48. — To set a Jib, Flying Jib, or Fore Topmast Staysail, 48. — 
To set a Spanker, 48. — To set a Spencer, 48. — To take in 
a Course, 48. — To take in a Topsail, 49. — To take in a 
Topgallant Sail or Royal, 50. — To take in a Skysail, 50. — To 
take in a Jib, 50. — To take in a Spanker, 50. — To furl a 
Royal, 50.— To furl a Topgallant Sail, 52.— To furl a Top- 
sail or Course, 52. — To furl a Jib, 52. — To stow a Jib in 
Cloth, 53. — To reef a Topsail, 53. — To reef a Course, 55. — 
To turn out Reefs, 55. — To set a Topgallant Studdingsail, 
56. — To take in a Topgallant Studdingsail, 57. — To set a Top- 
mast Studdingsail, 57. — To take in a Topmast Studdingsail, 59. 
— To set a Lower Studdingsail, 59. — To take in a Lower 
Studdingsail, 60. 

CHAPTER X. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF WORKING A SHIP, PAGES 61 64. 

Action of the Water upon the Rudder, Headway, Stern way, 61. — 
Action of the Wind upon the Sails, Head Sails, After Sails, 62. 
— Centre of Gravity or Rotation, 63. — Turning a Ship to or 
from the Wind, 64. 

CHAPTER XI. 

TACKING, WEARING, BOXING, &C, PAGES 65 72. 

To tack a Ship, 65. — To tack without fore-reaching, 66. — 
Tacking against a heavy head Sea, 67. — Tacking by hauling of 
all, 67. — To trim the yards when close-hauled, 67. — Missing 
Stays, 67. — Wearing, 68. — To wear under Courses, under a 
Mainsail, under bare poles, 68. — Box- hauling, 69. — Short- 
round, 70. — Club-hauling, 70. — Drifting in a Tide- way, 71. — 
Backing and filling in a Tide- way, 71. — Clubbing in a Tide- 
way, 71. 



CHAPTER XII. 

GALES OF WIND, LYING-TO, GETTING ABACK, BY THE LEE, &C, 
PAGES 72 75. 

Lying-to, 72. — Scudding, 73. — To heave-to after Scudding, 73. — 
Taken aback, 74. — Chapelling, 74. — Broaching-to, 75. — 
Brought by the Lee, 75. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

ACCIDENTS, PAGES 75 79. 

On Beam-ends, 75. — Losing a Rudder, 76. — A Squall, 77. — A 
Man Overboard, 78.— Collision, 78. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

HEAVING-TO BY COUNTER-BRACING, SPEAKING, SOUNDING, HEAVING 
THE LOG, PAGE8 79 82. 

Counter Bracing, 79. — Speaking, 79. — Sounding, 80. — Heaving 
the Log, 81. 

CHAPTER XV. 

COMING TO ANCHOR, PAGES 82 86. 

Getting ready for Port, 82. — Mooring, 83. — A Flying Moor, 84 

Clearing Hawse, 84. — To anchor with a Slip-rope, 85. — To 
slip a Cable, 85. — Coming-to at a slipped Cable, 85. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

GETTING UNDER WAY, PAGES 86 90. 

Unmoor, 86. — To get under Way from a single Anchor, 86. — To 
cut and fish an Anchor, 87. — To get under Way with a Wind 
blowing directly out, and riding head to it, 88. — To get under 
Way, riding head to the Wind, with a Rock or Shoal close 
astern, 88. — To get under Way, riding head to Wind and Tide, 
and to stand out close-hauled, 89. — To get under Way wind- 
rode, with a Weather-tide, 89. — To get under Way tide-rode, 
casting to Windward, 89. — To get under Way, tide-rode, wear- 
ing round, 90. 



A DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS, 91—135. 



PART II. 



CUSTOMS AND USAGES OF THE MERCHANT SERVICE. 
CHAPTER I. 

THE MASTER, PAGES 136 — 146. 

Beginning of the Voyage, 136. — Shipping the Crew, 137. — Outfit, 
Provisions, 138. — Watches, 139. — Navigation, 140. — Log-book, 
Observations, 140. — Working Ship, 141. — Day's Work, 143. 
— Discipline, 145. 

CHAPTER II. 

THE CHIEF MATE, PAGES 146 154. 

Care of Rigging and Ship's Furniture, 146. — Day's Work, 146. 
— Working Ship, 147. — Getting under Way, 147. — Coming 
to Anchor, 148. — Reefing and Furling, 148. — Duties in Port, 
Account of Cargo, Stowage, 148. —Station, Watch, and All- 
hands Duties, 149. — Log-book, Navigation, 153. 

CHAPTER III. 

SECOND AND THIRD MATES, PAGES 154 162. 

Second Mate : Navigation, 154. — Station, Watch Duties, 155. — 
Day's Work, 155,158.— Working Ship, 159.— Reefing, Furling, 
and Duties Aloft, 157. — Care of Ship's Furniture, 160. — 
Stores, 160.— Duties in Port, 161.— Third Mate, 161. 

CHAPTER IV. 

CARPENTER, COOK, STEWARD, &C, PAGES 162 167. 

Carpenter : Working Ship, 163. — Seaman's Work, Helm, Duty 
aloft, Station, 163. — Work at his Trade, 164.— Berth and 
Mess, 164. — Standing Watch, 164. — Sailmaker, 164. — Steward: 
Duty in Passenger-ships, 165 ; in other Vessels, 166, — Relation 
to Master and Mate, Duty aloft and about decks, Working 
Ship, 166. — Cook : Berth, Watch, and All-hands Duty, care 
of Galley, Duty Aloft, 166 — Idlers, 167. 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER V. 

ABLE SEAMEN, PAGES 168 173. 

Grades, 168. — Rating 169. — Requisites of an Able Seaman, 170. 
— Hand, Reef, and Steer, 170. — Work upon Rigging, 170.— 
Sailmaking, 171. — Day's Work, 171. — Working Ship, Reef- 
ing, Furling, 171. — Watch Duty, 172. — Coasters and Small 
Vessels, 173. 



CHAPTER VI. 

ORDINARY SEAMEN, PAGES 174 176. 

Requisites, 1 74. — Hand, Reef, and Steer ; Loose, Furl, and Set 
Sails; Reeve Rigging, 174. — Work upon Rigging, 175. — Watc 
Duty, 175. 

CHAPTER VII. 

BOYS, PAGES 176 178. 

Requisites, Wages, 176. — Day's Work, Working Ship, Duties 
Aloft, and about Decks, 176. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

MISCELLANEOUS, PAGES 178 186. 

Watches, 178.— Calling the Watch, 179.— Bells, 180.— Helm, 
180.— Answering, 182 (at Helm, 182). — Discipline, 183. — 
Stations, 184.— Food, Sleep, &c, 185. 



PART III. 



LAWS RELATING TO THE PRACTICAL DUTIES OF 
MASTER AND MARINERS. 

CHAPTER I. 

THE VESSEL, PAGES 187 196. 

Title, 187- — Registry, Enrolment, and Licence, 188.— Certificate 

of Registry or Enrolment, 193 Passport, 193 Sea Letter, 

List of Crew, Bill of Health, Clearance, Manifest, Invoice, Bill 
of Lading, Charter-Party, Log-Book, List of Passengers and 
Crew, List of Sea-stores, 193. — Medicine Chest, 193. — National 
Character of Crew, 194. — Provisions, 195. — Passengers, 195. 



CHAPTER II. 

MASTERS RELATION TO VESSEL AND CARGO, PAGES 197 212. 

Revenue Duties and Obligations, 197. — List of Crew, 198. — 
Certified Copy, 199. — Certified Copy of Shippping Articles, 
202. — Sea Letter, Passport, List of Passengers, Manifest, Sea- 
stores, 202, 203.— Unloading, 202, 204.— Post-office, 204.— 
Forfeitures, 203, 204, 205.— Report, 204. — Coasting License, 
204 — Power to Sell and Pledge, 205. — Keeping and Delivering 

Cargo, 208.— Deviation, 209 — Collision, 2 1 Pilot, 211. — 

Wages and Advances, 212. 

CHAPTER III. 

MASTER'S RELATION TO PASSENGERS AND OFFICERS, PAGES 212 214. 

Treatment of Passengers, 212. — Removal of Officers, 213. 
CHAPTER IV. 

MASTER'S RELATION TO THE CREW, PAGES 214 224. 

Shipment, 214. — Shipping Articles, 215. — Discharge, 217 Im- 
prisonment, 219. — Punishment, 220. — Power of Consuls as to 
Punishment, 220—224. 

CHAPTER V. 

PASSENGERS, PAGES 224 226. 

Provisions, 224. — Treatment, 225 Passage Money, 225. — De- 
portment, 225. — Services, 225. 

CHAPTER VI. 

MATES AND SUBORDINATES, PAGES 236 231. 

Mates included in Crew, 226. — Removal, 226. — Succession, 227- 
— Log-book, Wages, Sickness, 227-8. — Punishment, 228. — 
Subordinates, 230.— Pilots, 230. 

CHAPTER VII. 

seamen; shipping contract, pages 231 — 235. 

Shipping Contract, 231. — Erasures and Interlineations, 233. — 
Unusual Stipulations, 234. — Violation of Contract, 234. 



XU CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

SEAMEN, CONTINUED, PAGES 235 238. 

Rendering on Board, 235. — Refusal to Proceed, 236. — Desertion or 
Absence during the Voyage, 237. — Discharge, 238. 

CHAPTER IX. 

SEAMEN, CONTINUED, PAGES 239 243. 

Provisions, 239. — Sickness, Medicine Chest, 240 — Hospital 
Money, 241. — Relief in Foreign Ports, 242. — Protection, 243. 

CHAPTER X. 

SEAMEN, CONTINUED, PAGES 243 248. 

Punishment, 243. — Revolt and Mutiny, 245. — Embezzlement, 
247.— Piracy, 247. 

CHAPTER XI. 

seamen's wages, pages 248 — 259. 

Wages affected by Desertion or Absence, 248. — By Misconduct, 
253. — By Imprisonment, 254. — By Capture, 255. — By Loss of 
Vessel or Interruption of Voyage, 256. — Wages on an Illegal 
Voyage, 258. — Wages affected by Death or Disability, 258. 

CHAPTER XII. 

seamen, concluded, pages 259 — 264. 

Recovery of Wages, 259. — Remedies, 259. — Time for commencing 
Suits, 261. — Interest on Wages, 262. — Salvage, 262. 



PLATE I. 

THE SPARS AND RIGGING OF A SHIP. 



1 Head. 

2 Head-boards. 

3 Stem. 

4 Bows. 

5 Forecastle. 

6 Waist. 

7 Quarter-deck. 

8 Gangway. 

9 Counter. 

10 Stern. 

11 Tafferel. 

12 Fore chains. 

13 Main chains. 

14 Mizen chains. 

15 Bowsprit. 

16 Jib-boom. 

17 Flying jib-boom. 

18 Spritsail yard. 

19 Martingale. 

20 Bowsprit cap. 

21 Foremast. 

22 Fore topmast. 

23 Fore topgall. mast. 

24 Fore royal mast. 

25 Fore skysail mast. 

26 Main mast. 

27 Main topmast. 

28 Main topgall. mast. 

29 Main royal mast. 

30 Main skysail mast. 

31 Mizen mast. 

32 Mizen topmast. 

33 Mizen topgall. mast. 

34 Mizen royal mast. 

35 Mizen skysail mast. 

36 Fore spencer gaff. 

37 Main spencer gaff. 

38 Spanker gaff. 

39 Spanker boom. 

40 Fore top. 

41 Foremast cap. 

42 Fore topm.cross-tr. 

43 Main top. 

44 Mainmast cap 

45 Main topm.cross-tr. 

46 Mizen top. 



INDEX OF REFERENCES. 

47 Mizenmast cap. 

48 Mizen topmast cross 

trees. 

49 Fore yard. 

50 Fore topsail yard. 

51 Fore topgallant yard. 

52 Fore royal yard. 

53 Main yard. 

54 Main topsail yard. 

55 Main topgallant yard. 

56 Main royal yard. 

57 Cross jack yard. 

58 Mizen topsail yard. 

59 Mizen topgall. yard. 

60 Mizen royal yard. 

61 Fore truck. 

62 Main truck. 

63 Mizen truck. 

64 Fore stay. 

65 Fore topmast stay. 

66 Jib stay. 

69 Fore topgallant stay. 

70 Fore skysail stay. 

71 Jib guys. 

72 Flying-jib guys. 

73 Fore lifts. 

74 Fore braces. 

75 Fore topsail lifts. 

76 Fore topsail braces. 

77 Fore topgallant lifts. 

78 Fore topgall. braces. 

79 Fore royal lifts. 

80 Fore royal braces. 

81 Fore rigging. 

82 Fore topmast rigging. 

83 Fore topgall. shrouds. 

84 Fore topmast back- 

stays. 

85 Fore topgallant back- 

stays. 

86 Fore royal backstays. 

87 Main stay. 

88 Main topmast stay. 

89 Main topgallant stay, 

90 Main royal stay. 

91 Main lifts. 



92 Main braces. 

93 Main topsail lifts. 

94 Main topsail braces, 

95 Main topgallant lifts, 

96 Main topgalt. braces. 

97 Main royal lifts. 

98 Main royal braces. 

99 Main rigging. 

100 Maintopmst.rigging. 

101 Main topgallant rig- 
ging- 

102 Main topmast back- 
stays. 

103 Main topgallt. back- 
stays. 

104 Main royal backstays. 

105 Cross-jack lifts. 

106 Cross-jack braces. 

107 Mizen topsail lifts. 

108 Mizen topsail braces. 

109 Mizen topgallt. lifts. 

1 1 Mizen topgal . braces . 

1 1 1 Mizen royal lifts. 

1 12 Mizen royal braces. 

113 Mizen stay. 

114 Mizen topmast stay. 

1 1 5 Mizen topgallt. stay. 

116 Mizen royal stay. 

117 Mizen skysail stay. 

118 Mizen rigging. 

119 Mizen topmast rigg. 

120 Mizen topgall. shrds. 

121 Mizen topmast back- 
stays. 

122 Mizen topgallant 
backstays. 

123 Mizen royal backst. 

124 Fore spencer vangs. 

125 Main spencer vangs. 

126 Spanker vangs. 

127 Ensign halyards. 

128 Spanker peak halyds, 

129 Foot-rope to fore yd. 

130 Foot-rope to main yd. 

131 Foot rope to cross- 
jack yard. 



PLATE II. 

A SHIP'S SAILS. 



INDEX OF REFERENCES. 



1 Fore topmast staysail. 

2 Jib. 

3 Flying jib. 

4 Fore spencer. 

5 Main spencer. 

6 Spanker. 

7 Foresail. 

8 Fore topsail. 

9 Fore topgallant sail. 

10 Fore royal. 

1 1 Fore sky sail. 

12 Mainsail. 

13 Main topsail. 

14 Main topgallant sail. 

15 Main royal. 

16 Main skysail. 

17 Mizen topsail. 



18 Mizen topgallant sail. 

19 Mizen royal. 

20 Mizen skysail. 

21 Lower studdingsail. 
21 a Lee ditto. 

22 Fore topmast studdingsail. 
22 a Lee ditto. 

23 Fore topgallant studdingsail. 
23 a Lee ditto. 

24 Fore royal studdingsail. 
24* Lee ditto. 

25 Main topmast studdingsail. 
25 a Lee ditto. 

26 Main topgallant studdingsail. 
26 a Lee ditto. 

27 Main royal studdingsail. 
27 a Lee ditto. 



PLATE III. 

THE FRAME OF A SHIP. 



INDEX OF REFERENCES. 



A. The Outside. 

1 Upper stem-piece. 

.2 Lower stem -piece. 

3 Gripe. 

4 Forward keel-piece. 

5 Middle keel-piece. 

6 After keel- piece. 

7 False keel. 

8 Stern knee. 

9 Stern post. 

10 Rudder. 

11 Bilge streaks. 

12 First streak under the wales. 

13 Apron. 

14 Lower apron. 

1 5 Fore frame. 

16 After frame. 

17 Wales. 

18 Waist. 

19 Plank- shear. 

20 Timber-heads. 

21 Stanchions. 

22 Rail. 

23 Knight-heads. 

24 Cathead. 

25 Fashion timbers. 

26 Transoms. 

27 Quarter pieces. 

B. The Inside of the Stern. 

1 Keelson. 

2 Pointers. 

3 Chock. 

4 Transoms. 



5 Half transoms. 

6 Main transom. 

7 Quarter timbers. 

8 Transom knees. 

9 Horn timbers. 

10 Counter-timber knee. 

11 Stern-post. 

12 Rudder-head. 

13 Counter timbers. 

14 Upper- deck clamp. 

C. The Inside of the Bows. 

1 Keelson. 

2 Pointers. 

3 Step for the mast. 

4 Breast-hook. 

5 Lower-deck breast-hook. 

6 Forward beam. 

7 Upper-deck clamp. 

8 Knight-heads. 

9 Hawse- timbers. 

10 Bow timbers. 

11 Apron of the stem. 

D. The Timbers. 

1 Keelson. 

2 Floor timbers. 

3 Naval timbers or ground fut- 
tocks. 

4 Lowe*" futtocks. 

5 Middle futtocks. 

6 Upper futtocks. 

7 Top timbers. 

8 Half timbers, or half top. 
timbers. 



PLATE IV. 



EXPLANATIONS. 

Ship. — A ship is square-rigged throughout ; that is, she has tops, 
and carries square sails on all three of her masts. 

Bark. — A bark is square-rigged at her fore and main masts, and 
differs from a ship in having no top, and carrying only fore- 
and-aft sails at her mizen mast. 

Brig. — A full-rigged brig is square-rigged at both her masts. 

Hermaphrodite Brig. — An hermaphrodite brig is square-rigged at 
her foremast ; but has no top, and only fore-and-aft sails at 
her main mast. 

Topsail Schooner. — A topsail schooner has no tops at her fore- 
mast, and is fore-and-aft rigged at her mainmast. She dif- 
fers from an hermaphrodite brig in that she is not properly 
square-rigged at her foremast, having no top, and carrying 
a fore-and-aft foresail, instead of a square foresail and a 
spencer. 

Fore-and-aft Schooner. — A fore-and-aft schooner is fore-and-aft 
rigged throughout, differing from a topsail schooner in that 
the latter carries small square sails aloft at the fore. 

Sloop. — A sloop has one mast, fore-and-aft rigged. 

Hermaphrodite Brigs sometimes carry small square sails aloft at 
the main ; in which case they are called Brigantines, and 
differ from a Full-rigged Brig in that they have no top 
at the mainmast, and carry a fore-and-aft mainsail instead 
of a square mainsail and trysail. Some Topsail Schooners 
carry small square sails aloft at the main as well as the fore ; 
being in other respects fore-and-aft rigged. They are then 
called Main Topsail Schooners. 





Full - rig ged Brig 



Hermaphrodite Brig - 




Slo op 



THE SEAMAN'S FRIEND. 



PART I. 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL RULES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Construction of vessels. Tonnage and carriage of merchant vessels. 
Proportions of the spars. Placing the masts. Size of anchors and 
cahles. Lead-lines. Log-line. Ballast and lading. 

Construction of vessels. — As merchant vessels of 
the larger class are now built in the United States, the 
extreme length of deck, from the after part of the stern- 
post to the fore part of the stem, is from four and a half 
to four and three-fourths that of the beam, at its widest 
part. The Damascus, of 700 tons' measurement, built 
at Boston in 1839, and considered a fair specimen of our 
best freighting vessels, had 150 feet from stem to stern- 
post, and 32 feet 6 inches extreme breadth. The Rajah, 
of 530 tons, built at Boston in 1837, had 140 feet length, 
and 30 feet beam ; — being each in length about four and 
six-tenths their beam. 

A great contrast to this proportion is exhibited in the 
most recent statistics (1841) of vessels of the same 
tonnage in the English navy; as the following table 
will show: 



Tons. 


Deck. 


Beam. Proportion, 


( Dido . . 734 


120 ft. 


37ft. 6 in. 3.20 


English Navy. 1 Pilot . . 492 


105 


33 6 3.13 


( Alert . . 358 


95 


30 4 3.16 


American J Damascus 694 

Merchantmen. \ Rajah . . 531 

B 


150 


32 6 4.60 


140 


30 4.66 



Z TONNAGE AND CARRIAGE. 

These may, perhaps, be considered the extremes of 
ship-building ; and between these there is every grade of 
difference. 

Tonnage and Carriage of Merchant Vessels. — 
The amount a vessel will carry in proportion to her ton- 
nage depends upon whether, and to what extent, she is 
full or sharp-built. A sharp-built vessel of 300 tons' 
measurement, will carry just about her tonnage of 
measurement goods. A sharp-built vessel of 200 tons 
or under would probably carry less than her measure- - 
ment ; if over 400 tons, she would increase gradually to 
fifty per cent, above her measurement. A sharp-built 
vessel of 600 tons is generally rated at 900 tons carriage. 
A full-built vessel of 300 tons, after the latest model 
of American freighting vessels, will carry 525 tons, or 
seventy -five per cent, above her measurement ; and one 
of 500 tons would carry full double her measurement. 

The following table may give a pretty fair average. 

TONS OF MEASUREMENT GOODS. 

Sharp-built. 
(.00) 300 
(.40) 560 
(.50) 750 
(.50) 900 

Proportions of Spars. — There is no particular rule 
for sparring merchant vessels; some being light and 
others heavy sparred ; and some having long topmasts and 
short lower masts, and others the reverse. The prevail- 
ing custom now is, to spar them lightly, the main yard 
being a little less than double the beam ; and the others 
proportioned by the main. Most merchant vessels now 
have the yards at the fore and main of the same size, for 
convenience in shifting sails; so that the same topsail 
may be bent on either yard. 

The following table, taken from the " Seamen's Ma- 
nual," will show the average proportions of the spars 



tnnage. 


Full-built. 


300 


(.75) 


525 


400 


(.80) 


725 


500 


(1.00) 


1000 


600 


(1.33) 


1400 



PROPORTIONS OF SPARS. ti 

of merchant vessels of the largest class, as formerly 
built. 

Main-mast, two and a half times the ship's beam. 
Fore-mast, eight-ninths of the main-mast. 
Mizen-mast, five-sixths of the main-mast. 
Bowsprit, two-thirds of the main-mast. 
Top-masts, three-fifths of the lower masts. 
Topgallant-masts, one-half the length of their top-masts- 
Jib-boom, the length of the bowsprit. 
Main- yard, twice the beam. 
Fore- yard, seven-eighths of the main-yard. 
Maintopsail-yard, two-thirds of the main -yard. 
Foretopsail-yard, two-thirds of the fore-yard. 
Crossjack-yard, the length of the maintopsail-yard. 
Topgallant-yards, two-thirds of the topsail-yards. 
Mizentopsail-yard, the length of the maintopgallant-yard. 
Royal-yards, two-thirds of the topgallant-yards. 
Spritsail-yard, five-sixths of the foretopsail-yard. 
Spanker-boom, the length of the maintopsail-yard. 
Spanker-gaff, two-thirds of the boom. 

For the thickness of the spars, the same book allows 
for the lower masts one inch and a quarter diameter at 
the partners, for every three feet of length ; and nine- 
tenths in the middle, and two-thirds under the hounds, 
for every inch at the partners. For the yards, one inch 
at the slings, and half an inch at the yard-arms, within 
the squares, for every four feet of the length. For the 
breadth of the maintop, one half of the beam, and of the 
foretop, eight-ninths of the maintop. 

The following are the proportions of the spars of the 
ship Damascus, before mentioned, built in 1839 : 



Main-mast . . 74 ft. Head 11 ft. 6 in. Size 26 in. 


Fore-mast . . 70 ft. „ 11 ft. 6 in. „ 


25 in. 


Mizen-mast . . 68 ft. „ 8 ft. 6 in. „ 


18 in. 


Main and fore top-masts 41 ft. „ 6 ft. 6 in. „ 


14* in. 


Mizen top-mast . 32 ft. „ 5 ft. „ 


9* in. 


Main topgallant-mast . 23 ft. (15 ft. with 2 ft. head.) 


9$ in. 


Fore topgallant-mast . 21 ft. 14 ft. „ 2 ft. ,, „ 


9* in. 


Mizen topgallant-mast 17 ft. 11 ft. „ 18 in. ,, 




Main and fore-yards . . 60 ft. yard-arms 2 ft. 6 in. 




Main and fore topsail-yards 48 ft. „ „ 3 ft. 6 in. 




Main topgallant- yard . 37 ft. >, „ 2 ft. 





B 2 



4 PLACING MASTS. ANCHORS AND CABLES. 

Fore topgallant yard . . 34 ft. yard-arms 2 ft. 

Main royal „ .27 ft. „ „ 1 ft. 6 in. 

Fore royal „ . 24 ft. „ „ 1 ft. 6 in. 

Main skysail „ .17 ft. 

Fore skysail „ . 15 ft. 

Cross-jack „ . 44 ft. „ „ 2 ft. 

Mizen topsail „ . 35 ft. „ „ 2 ft. 9 in. 

Mizen topgallant „ . 25 ft. „ „ 1 ft. 6 in. 

Mizen royal „ .16ft.' 

Mizen skysail „ .10 ft. 

Bowsprit, out-board 27 ft. Size 26 in. 

Jib-boom . . 42 ft. Head 3 ft. „ 14£ in. 

Flying jib-boom . 40 ft. „ 3 ft. 6 in. 

Main pole . . . 12 ft., 10 above royal-mast, 5 in. in cap. 

Fore pole . . 11 ft., 9 „ *„ „ 4| in. „ 

Mizen pole . . 9 ft., 7 „ „ „ 

Spanker-boom . 40 ft. 

Spanker-garf . . 30 

Swinging-booms . 40 

Topmast studdingsail-booms 34 ft. 

Topgallant studdingsail-booms 27 ft., yards for do. 17 ft. 

Placing the Masts. — For a full-built ship, take the 
ship's extreme length and divide it into sevenths. Place 
the foremast one-seventh of its length from the stem; 
the mainmast three-sevenths from the foremast, and the 
mizenmast two-sevenths from the mainmast. If a 
vessel is sharp-built, and her stem and stern-post rake, 
her foremast should be further aft, and her mizenmast 
further forward, than the rule of sevenths would give. 
A common rule for placing the foremast, is to deduct 
three-fifths of a ship's beam from her length, for the 
curvature of the keel forward, which is called the keel- 
stroke, and place the mast next abaft the keel-stroke. 

Size of Anchors and Cables. — Various rules have 
been adopted for the weight of a ship's anchors. A 
vessel of 100 tons will generally have a best bower of 
C cwt. and a small bower of 5 cwt. ; the weight of both 
being eleven pounds to a ton of the vessel. As a vessel 
increases in size, the proportion diminishes. A vessel of 
700 tons will usually carry a best bower of 27 cwt. and 
a small bower of 24 cwt. ; the weight of both being seven 



LEAD-LINES. LOG-LINE. 5 

and a half pounds to a ton of the vessel. The stream 
should be a little more than one-third the weight of the 
best bower. The anchor-stock should be the length of 
the shank ; its diameter should be half that of the ring, 
and its thickness one inch at the middle and half an 
inch at each end for every foot in length. Chain cables 
are usually ninety fathoms in length, for large-sized 
vessels, and sixty for small vessels, as schooners and 
sloops. The regulation of the United States Navy for 
chain cables, is one inch and a half for a sloop of war, 
and one and a quarter for brigs and schooners. In the 
merchant service, a ship of 400 tons would probably have 
a best bower cable of one and five-sixths, and a working 
bower of one and a quarter inches. A ship of 700 tons 
would have a best bower of one and five-eighths, and a 
working bower of one and a half inches. Chain cables 
have a shackle at every fifteen fathoms, and one swivel 
at the first shackle. Some have two swivels; and 
formerly they were made with a swivel between each 
shackle. 

Lead -lines. — The hand-lead weighs usually seven 
pounds, and the hand- line is from twenty to thirty 
fathoms inlength. The deep-sea-lead (pronounced dipsey) 
weighs from fourteen to eighteen or twenty pounds ; and 
the deep -sea- line is from ninety to one hundred and ten 
fathoms. The proper way to mark a hand-line is, black 
leather at 2 and 3 fathoms ; white rag at 5 ; red rag at 
7 ; wide strip of leather, with a hole in it, at 10 ; and 
13, 15 and 17 marked like 3, 5 and 7 ; two knots at 20 ; 
3 at 30 ; and 4 at 40 ; with single pieces of cord at 25 
and 35. 

The deep-sea- line has one knot at 20 fathoms, and an 
additional knot at every 10 fathoms, with single knots at 
each intermediate 5 fathoms. It sometimes has a strip 
of leather at 10 fathoms, and from 3 to 10 is marked like 
the hand -line. 

Log-line. — The rate of a ship's sailing is measured 
by a log-line and a half-minute glass. The line is 



6 BALLAST AND LADING. 

marked with a knot for each mile ; the real distance 
between each knot being, however, y^ of a mile, since 
a half-minute is ^J-^ of an hour. A knot being thus 
the same portion of a mile that a half-minute is of an 
hour, the number of knots carried off while the glass is 
running out will show the number of miles the vessel 
goes in an hour. Many glasses, however, are made for 
twenty -eight seconds, which, of course, reduces the 
number of feet for a knot to forty-seven and six-tenths. 
But as the line is liable to stretch and the glass to be 
affected by the weather, in order to avoid all danger of 
a vessel's overrunning her reckoning, and to be on the 
safe side, it is recommended to mark forty-five feet to a 
knot for a twenty-eight second glass. About ten fathoms 
is left unmarked next the log- ship, called stray-line. The 
object of this is that the log-ship may get out of the eddy 
under the stern, before the measuring begins. The end 
of the stray-line is marked by a white rag, and the first 
knot is forty-five or forty-seven feet from the rag. A 
single piece of cord or twine is put into the line for the 
first knot, one knot for the second, two for the fourth, 
three for the sixth, and so on, a single piece of cord being 
put in at the intermediate knots. 

Ballast and Lading. — A ship's behaviour, as the 
phrase is, depends as much upon the manner in which 
she is loaded and ballasted, as upon her model. It is 
said that a vessel may be prevented from rolling heavily, 
if, when the ballast is iron, it is stowed up to the floor- 
heads ; because this will bring the ship back, after she 
has inclined, with less violence, and will act upon a point 
but little distant from the centre of gravity, and not 
interfere with her stiff carrying of sail. The cargo 
should be stowed with the weightier materials as near 
as possible to the centre of gravity, and high or low, 
according to the build of the vessel. If the vessel is full 
and low built, the heavy articles should be stowed high 
up, that the centre of gravity may be raised and the 
vessel kept from rolling too much, and from being too 



CUTTING AND FITTING RIGGING. 7 

laboursome. But a narrow, high- built vessel should have 
the heavy articles stowed low and near the keelson, which 
will tend to keep her from being crank, and enable her 
to carry sail to more advantage. 



CHAPTER II. 

CUTTING AND FITTING STANDING RIGGING. 

Measuring and cutting lower rigging and lower fore-and-aft stays. 
Fitting the same. Measuring, cutting, and fitting topmast rigging, 
stays, and backstays. Jib, topgallant, and royal stays. Rattling 
down rigging. Cutting and fitting lifts, foot-ropes, brace-block 
straps, and pennants. Breast-backstays. 

Cutting Lower Rigging. — Draw a line from the 
side of the partners abreast of the mast, on the deck, 
parallel to the channels, and to extend as far aft as they 
do. On this line mark the places of each dead-eye, 
corresponding to their places against the channels. Send 
a line up to the mast-head, and fasten it to the mast by 
a nail above the bibbs, in a range with the centre of the 
mast, and opposite to the side the channel line is drawn 
upon. Then take the bight of the line around the for- 
ward part of the mast, and fasten it to the mast by a 
nail, opposite the first nail, so that the part between the 
nails will be half the circumference of the mast-head ; 
then take the line down to the mark on the channel line 
for the forward dead-eye, and mark it as before ; and so 
on, until you have got the distance between the mast and 
each mark on the channel line. Now cast off the line 
from the mast-head, and the distance between the end of 
the line, and each mark will give you the length of each 
shroud from the lower part of the mast-head. And, to 
make an allowance for one pair of shrouds overlaying 
another, you may increase the length of the pair put on 
second, that is, the larboard forward ones, by twice the 
diameter of the rigging ; the third pair by four times ; 
and so on. 



8 CUTTING AND FITTING RIGGING. 

The size of the lower rigging should be as much as 
eight and a half inches for vessels of seven or eight hun- 
dred tons, and from seven and a half to eight for smaller 
vessels, over three hundred tons. 

For the length of the fore, main, and mizen stays 
and spring- stays, take the distance from the after part of 
the mast-head to their hearts, or to the place where they 
are set up, adding once the length of the mast-head for 
the collar. 

The standing stays should be once and half the cir- 
cumference of the shrouds. 

Fitting Lower Rigging. — Get it on a stretch, and 
divide each pair of shrouds into thirds, and mark the 
centre of the middle thirds. Tar, worm, parcel, and 
serve the middle third. Parcel with the lay of the rope, 
working toward the centre ; and serve against the lay, 
beginning where you left off, parcelling. Serve as taut 
as possible. In some vessels the outer thirds of the 
swifters are served ; but matting and battens are neater 
and more generally used. 

Formerly the middle third was parcelled over the 
service, below the wake of the futtock staff. Mark an 
eye at the centre of the middle third, by seizing the parts 
together with a round seizing. The eye of the pair of 
shrouds that goes on first should be once and a quarter 
the circumference of the mast-head ; and make each of 
the others in succession the breadth of a seizing larger 
than the one below it. Parcel the score of the dead- 
eye, and heave the shroud taut round it, turning in with 
the sun, if right-hand-laid rope, and against the sun, if 
hawser-laid ; then pass the throat, seizing with nine or 
ten turns, the outer turns being slacker than the middle 
ones. Pass the quarter seizings half way to the end, and 
then the end seizings, and cap the shroud, well tarred 
under the cap. Make a Matthew Walker knot in one 
end of the lanyard, reeve the other end out through the 
dead-eye of the shroud, beginning at the side of the 
dead-eye upon which the end of the shroud comes, and 




CUTTING AND FITTING RIGGING. \) 

in through the dead-eye in the channels, so that the 
hauling part of the lanyard may come in-board and on 
the same side with the standing part of the shroud. If 
the shroud is right-hand-laid rope, the standing part of 
the shroud will be aft on the starboard, and forward on 
the larboard side ; and the reverse, if hawser-laid. 

The neatest way of setting up the lower fore-and-aft 
stays, is by reeving them down through a bull's eye, with 
tarred parcelling upon the thimble, and setting them up 
on their ends, with three or four seizings. The collar 
of the stay is the length of the mast-head, and is lea- 
thered over the service. The service should go beyond 
the wake of the foot of the topsail, and the main-stay 
should be served in the wake of the foremast. The 
main and spring stays usually pass on different sides of 
the foremast, and set up at the hawse-pieces. 

The bolsters under the eyes of the rigging should 
always be covered with tarred parcelling, marled on. 

The starboard forward shroud goes on first ; then the 
larboard ; and so on. The fore stay and spring stay go 
over the shrouds ; and the head stays always go over the 
backstays. 

Cutting and fitting Topmast Rigging. — For the 
forward shroud, measure from the hounds of the topmast 
down to the after part of the lower trestle-trees, and add 
to that length half the circumference of the mast-head at 
the hounds. The eye is once and a quarter the circum- 
ference of the mast- head. The topmast rigging in size 
should be three fifths of the lower rigging. For the 
topmast backstays, measure the distance from the hounds 
of the mast down to the centre of the deck, abreast of 
their dead-eyes in the channels, and add to this length 
one half the circumference of the mast-head. Add to 
the length of the larboard pair, which goes on last, twice 
the diameter of the rope. The size of the fore and main 
topmast backstays is generally one quarter less than that 
of the lower rigging ; and that of the mizen topmast 
backstays the same as that of the main topmast rigging. 



10 CUTTING AND FITTING RIGGING. 

The size of the topmast stays should be once and a quar- 
ter that of the rigging. The topmast rigging is fitted in 
the same manner as the lower. The backstays should 
be leathered in the wake of the tops and lower yards. 
The breast-backstays are turned in upon blocks instead 
of dead- eyes, and set up with a luff purchase. The fore 
topmast stay sets up on the starboard, and the spring stay 
on the larboard side of the bowsprit. 

All the fore-and-aft stays are now set up on their ends, 
and should be leathered in their nips, as well as in their 
eyes. 

The main topmast stay goes through a heart or thim- 
ble at the foremast-head, or through a hole in the cap, 
and sets up on deck or in the top; and the mizen 
topmast stay sets up at the mainmast-head, above the 
rigging. 

Jib, Topgallant, and Royal Rigging. — The jib 
stay sets up on its end on the larboard side of the head, 
and is served ten feet from the boom, and its collar is 
leathered like that of the topmast stay. The gaub lines 
or back ropes go from the martingale in-board. The 
guys are fitted in pairs, rove through straps or snatches 
on the spritsail yard, and set up to eye-bolts inside of or 
abaft the cat-heads. The foot-ropes are three quarters 
the length of the whole boom, and go over the boom-end 
with a cut splice. Overhand knots or Turks-heads 
should be taken in them at equal distances, to prevent 
the men from slipping, when laying out upon them. 

The most usual method of fitting topgallant rigging in 
merchantmen, is to reeve it through holes in the horns 
of the crosstrees, then pass it between the topmast 
shrouds over the futtock staff, and set it up at an iron 
band round the topmast, just below the sheave-hole; 
or else down into the top and set it up there. To get 
the length of the starboard forward shroud, measure from 
the topgallant mast-head to the heel of the topmast, 
and add one half the circumference of the topgallant 
mast-head. Its size should be about five-sevenths of the 




CUTTING AND FITTING RIGGING. 11 

topmast rigging. Each pair of shrouds should be served 
below the futtock staves. They are fitted like the top- 
mast shrouds. The fore and aft stays of long topgallant 
masts go with eyes, and are served and leathered in the 
wake of the foot of the sails. The fore topgallant stay 
leads in on the starboard side of the bowsprit, and sets up 
to a bolt at the hawse-piece ; the main leads through a 
chock on the after part of the fore topmast cross-trees, 
and sets up in the top ; and the mizen usually through a 
thimble on the main cap, and sets up on its end. 

The topgallant backstays set up on their end, or with 
lanyards in the channels ; and for their length, measure 
from the mast-head to the centre of the deck, abreast the 
bolt in the channels. 

The royal shrouds, backstays, and fore-and-aft stays, 
are fitted like those of the topgallant masts, and bear the 
same proportion to them that the topgallant bear to the 
topmast. The fore royal stay reeves through the outer 
sheave-hole of the flying jib-boom, and comes in on the 
larboard side ; the main through a thimble at the fore 
jack-cross-trees; and the mizen through a thimble at the 
main topmast cap. The flying jib-stay goes in on the 
starboard side, and sets up like the jib-stay. The gear of 
the flying jib-boom is fitted like that of the jib-boom. 

Ratling. — Swift the rigging well in, and lash hand-^ 
spikes or boat's oars outside at convenient distances, 
parallel with the shear-pole. Splice a small eye in the 
end of the rattlin, and seize it with yarns to the after 
shroud on the starboard side and to the forward on the 
larboard, so that the hitches may go with the sun. Take 
a clove hitch round each shroud, hauling well taut, and 
seize the eye of the other end to the shroud. The ratlins 
of the lower rigging should be thirteen, and of the top- 
mast rigging eleven inches apart, and all square with the 
shear-pole. 

Standing Rigging of the Yards. — The first thing 
to go upon the lower yard-arm, next the shoulder, is the 



12 CUTTING AND FITTING RIGGING. 

head-earing strap ; the next, the foot-ropes ; next, the 
brace-block; and lastly, the lift. The foot-ropes go 
with an eye over the yard-arm, are rove through thim- 
bles in the end of the stirrups, (sometimes with Turks- 
heads, to prevent their slipping,) and are lashed to bolts 
or thimbles, but now usually to the iron trusses. The 
stirrups fit to staples in the yard with an eye-splice. 
The lifts should be single, and fitted with an eye over 
the yard-arm, and lead through a single block at the 
mast-head, and set up by a gun or luff tackle purchase, 
with the double block hooked to a thimble or turned in 
at the end, and the lower block to an eyebolt in the 
deck. Instead of brace-blocks on the fore and main 
yards, brace pennants fitted over the yard-arm with an 
eye are neater. The latest and neatest style of rigging 
lower yards is to have a strong iron band with rings and 
thimbles round each yard-arm, close to the shoulder ; 
and then fit the lift, foot-rope, and brace-pennant, each 
to one of these rings, with an eye-splice round the thim- 
ble or with a hook. The lower lifts now, for the most 
part, cross each other over a saddle upon the cap, instead 
of going through blocks. 

The inner ends of the foot-ropes to the topsail, top- 
gallant and royal yards, cross each other at the slings ; 
and on the topsail yard there are Flemish horses, spliced 
round thimbles on the boom-iron, and the other end 
seized to the yard, crossing the foot-rope. A neater mode 
is to hook the outer end of the Flemish-horse, so that it 
may be unhooked and furled in with the sails when in 
port. Next to the foot-ropes go on the brace-blocks, 
and lastly, the lifts. The rigging to the topgallant and 
royal yards is fitted similarly to that upon the topsail, 
except that there is nothing over the yard-arms but foot- 
rope, brace, and lift. The brace to the royal yard 
fits with an eye. The reef -tackle, studding-sail halyard, 
and other temporary blocks, are seized to the lower and 
topsail yard-arms, by open straps, so that they may be 



CUTTING AND FITTING RIGGING. 13 

removed without taking off the lift. The topgallant 
studding-sail halyard block is often hooked to the boom- 
iron, under the yard. 

The foot -ropes to the spanker-boom should be half the 
length of the boom, going over the end with a splice, 
covered with canvas, and coming in one-third of the way 
to the jaws, and seized to the boom by a rose-seizing 
through an eye-splice. The next to go over the boom- 
end are the guys, which are fitted with a cut -splice 
covered with canvas, and have a single block turned in 
at their other ends. To these single blocks are luff or 
gun-tackle purchases, going to the main brace-bumpkin. 
Their length should be two-fifths that of the boom. 
The topping-lifts are usually hooked into a band or 
spliced into bolts about one quarter the distance from the 
outer end of the boom, and reeved through single blocks 
under the top, with a double or single block at their 
lower ends. 

All the splices and seizings of the standing rigging 
should be covered with canvas, if possible, except in the 
channels and about the head, where they are too much 
exposed to the washing of water. A vessel looks much 
neater for having the ends of the rigging, where eyes are 
spliced, or where they are set up on their ends aloft or 
on deck, covered with canvas, and painted white or 
black, according to the place where they are. The lan- 
yards and dead-eyes of the smaller rigging which sets up 
in the top may also be covered with canvas. The lan- 
yards, dead-eyes, and turnings-in of the rigging in the 
channels, should always be protected by Scotchmen 
when at sea, and the forward shroud should be matted 
or battened all the way up to the futtock staves. 

In some smaller merchantmen the lower rigging is not 
unfrequently set up upon its end to bolts in the rail. 
This is very inconvenient on many accounts, especially 
as all the seizings have to be come up with, and the nip 
of the shroud altered, whenever it is at all necessary to 
set them taut. This soon defaces and wears out the 



14 CUTTING AND FITTING RIGGING. 

ends ; while with dead-eyes, only the lanyards have to 
be come up with. Some vessels set up their lower 
rigging with dead-eyes upon the rail. This is conve- 
nient in setting them up in bad weather, but does not 
give so much spread as when set up in the channels, and 
presents a more complicated surface to the eye. If the 
rigging is fitted in this way, you must deduct the height 
of the rail above the deck from the measure before given 
for cutting it. 

Breast- backstays. — It is not usual, now, for mer- 
chant vessels to carry topmast breast-backstays. If they 
are carried, they are spread by the out -riggers from the 
top. Topgallant and royal breast backstays are used, 
and are of great assistance in sailing on the wind. There 
are various ways of rigging them out, of which the fol- 
lowing is suggested as a neat and convenient one. Have 
a spar fitted for an out-rigger, about the size of one of 
the horns of the cross-trees, with three holes bored in it, 
two near to one end, and the third a little the other side 
of the middle. Place it upon the after horn of the cross- 
tree with the last-mentioned hole over the hole in the 
end of the horn of the cross-tree, and let the after top- 
gallant shroud reeve through it. Reeve the topgallant 
and royal breast-backstays through the outer holes, and 
set them up by a gun-tackle purchase in the channels. 
The inner end of the out-rigger should fit to a cleat, and 
be lashed to the cross-tree by a lanyard. When the 
breast- backstays are to be rigged in, cast off the lan- 
yard, and let the out-rigger slue round the topgallant 
shroud for a pivot, the inner end going aft, and the outer 
end, with the backstays, resting against the forward 
shroud. One of these out-riggers should be fitted on each 
side, and all trouble of shifting over, and rigging out by 
purchase, will be avoided. 




15 



CHAPTER III. 

FITTING AND REEVING RUNNING RIGGING. 

Fore braces. Main braces. Cross-jack braces. Fore, main, and mizen 
topsail braces. Fore, main, and mizen topgallant and royal braces. 
Trusses. Topsail tyes and halyards. Topgallant and royal halyards. 
Peak and throat halyards. Spanker brails. Fore and main tacks 
and sheets. Topsail, topgallant and royal sheets and clewlines. Reef 
tackles. Clew-garnets. Fore and main buntlines, leachlines, and 
slablines. Topsail clewlines and buntlines. Bowlines. 

To reeve a brace, begin on deck, and reeve to where 
the standing part is made fast. The fore braces reeve 
up through a block on the mainmast just below the rig- 
ging, down or in through the brace-block on the yard or 
at the end of the pennant, and the standing part is 
brought through the cheeks of the mast with a knot 
inside. The neatest way for reeving the main brace is 
out through a single block on the brace-bumpkin, out 
through the brace-pennant-block, in through an outer 
block on the bumpkin, and seized to the strap of the 
pennant. Another way is out through the bumpkin 
block, out or down through the pennant block, and secure 
the end to the bumpkin or to the fashion- piece below. 

The cross-jack braces reeve up through the blocks on 
the after shroud of the main rigging, up through blocks 
on the yard, one-third of the way in from the yard-arm, 
and are seized to a bolt in the main-mast, or to the after 
shroud again. 

The fore topsail braces reeve up through the blocks 
secured to the bibbs at the mainmast-head, in through 
the span-block at the collar of the main stay, up through 
the block on the yard, and are seized to the main top- 
mast-head ; or else up through a block at the topmast- 
head, down through the braceblock on the yard, and are 
seized to the collar on the main stay. The last way is 
the best. The main topsail braces are rove through span- 
blocks at the mizen-mast, below the top, up through the 



16 FITTING AND REEVING RUNNING RIGGING. 

blocks on the yard, and are seized to the mizen topmast- 
head ; or else up through a block at the mizen mast- 
head, down through a block on the yard, and secured 
to the mizen-mast. The first way is the best. The 
mizen topsail braces reeve up through the leading blocks 
or fair-leaders on the main rigging, up through blocks at 
the mainmast-head, or at the after part of the top, up 
through the yard blocks, and are seized to the cap. 

The fore and main topgallant braces are rove up 
through blocks under the topmast cross-trees, in through 
span-blocks on the topmast stays, just below their col- 
lars, up through the blocks on the yards, and the main 
are usually seized to the head of the mizen topgallant 
mast, and the fore to the topmast stay, by the span- 
block. The mizen topgallant braces generally go single 
through a block at the after part of the main topmast 
cross-trees. The royal braces go single : the fore, 
through a block at the main topgallant mast-head ; the 
main, through one at the mizen top-gallant mast-head ; 
and the mizen, through a block at the after-part of the 
main topmast cross-trees. 

Halyards. — The lower yards are now hung by 
patent iron trusses, which allow the yard to be moved 
in any direction ; topped up or braced. The topsail 
yards have chain tyes, which are hooked to the slings 
of the yard, and rove through the sheave-hole, at the 
mast-head. The other end of the tye hooks to a block. 
Through this block a chain-runner leads, with its stand- 
ing part hooked to an eye-bolt in the trestle-tree, and 
with the upper halyard block hooked to its other end. 
The halyards should be a luff purchase, the fly-block 
being the double block, and the single block being 
hooked in the channels. Sometimes they are a gun- 
tackle purchase, with two large single blocks. The 
lower block of the mizen topsail halyards is usually in 
the mizen tops, the fall coming down on deck. 

The fore and mizen topsail halyards come down to 
port, and the main to the starboard. The topgallant 



FITTING AND REEVING RUNNING RIGGING. 17 

halyards come down on opposite sides from the topsail 
halyards ; though the fore and main usually come down 
by the side of the masts. The fore and main topgallant 
halyards sometimes hoist with a gun-tackle purchase, 
but the mizen and all the royal halyards are single. 

The throat and peak halyards of the spanker are fitted 
in the following manner. The outer peak halyard block 
is put on the gaff, one-third of its length from the outer 
end, or a very little, if any, within the leach of the sail ; 
and the inner one two-thirds in. The blocks are fitted 
round the gaff with grommet straps, and are kept in 
their places by cleats. The double block of the peak 
halyards is strapped to the bolt in the after part of the 
mizen cap, and the halyards are rove up through this, 
in through the blocks on the gaff, the inner one first, 
the standing part made fast to the double block, and the 
fall coming on deck. The upper block of the throat 
halyards is secured under the cap, and the lower block 
is hooked to an eye-bolt on the jaws of the gaff. This 
is a two-fold tackle. 

The Spanker Brails. — The peak brails reeve though 
single blocks on the gaff, two on each side, generally 
span-blocks, and then through the throat brail blocks, as 
leaders, to the decks. The throat brails reeve through 
two triple blocks, strapped to eye-bolts under the jaws 
of the gaff", one on each side, through the two other 
sheaves of which the peak brails lead. Each brail is a 
single rope, middled at the leach of the sail. 

Tacks, Sheets, Clewlines, &c. — It is much more 
convenient to have the tack and sheet blocks of the 
courses fastened to the clews of the courses by hooks. 
Then they can be unhooked when the sail is furled, 
and, in light weather, a single rope with a hook, called 
a lazy sheet, can be used, instead of the heavy tacks 
and sheets with their blocks. This is also much more 
convenient in clewing up. The main tack is rove aft 
through the block in the waterways, forward through 
the block on the sail, and the standing part hooks to the 
c 



18 FITTING AND REEVING RUNNING RIGGING. 

block on deck. The fore tack goes through a block 
on the bumpkin. The sheets of the courses have the 
after block hooked to an eye-bolt in the side, abaft the 
channels, and the forward one hooked to the clew of the 
sail, the running part reeving through a sheave-hole in 
the rail. The sheets of all the square sails but the 
courses run from the clew of the sail, through sheave- 
holes in the yard-arms, through the quarter blocks, 
down on deck. The topsail sheets are chain, are clasped 
to the clews of the sail, and are fitted with a gun-tackle 
purchase at the foot of the mast. The topgallant and 
royal sheets are single. The topsail and topgallant clew- 
lines reeve through the quarter-blocks. The royal clew- 
lines are single, and the topsail and topgallant are a 
gun- tackle purchase. 

The reef-tackles of the topsails reeve up through blocks 
on the lower rigging, or futtock shrouds, down through the 
block on the yard, down the leach of the sail and through 
the block on the leach, and are made fast to the yard on 
their own parts, with a clinch, outside of everything. 

The clew-garnets reeve out through blocks, under the 
quarters of the yards, then up through blocks at the 
clew, and the standing part is made fast to the yard, to 
the block, or to a strap. The buntlines of the courses 
reeve through double or triple blocks under the forward 
part of the top, down forward of the sail, sometimes 
through thimbles in the first reef-band, and are clinched 
to the foot of the sail. The leachlines reeve through 
single blocks, on the yard, and are clinched to the leach 
of the sail. The slabline is a small rope rove through a 
block under the slings of the yard, and clinched to the 
foot of the sail. This is not much used in merchant 
vessels. The topsail clewlines lead like the clew-garnets 
of the courses. The topsail buntlines reeve forward 
through single blocks at the topmast-head, down through 
the thimbles of a lizard seized to the tye, just above the 
yard, and are clinched to the foot of the sail. The 
handiest way of reeving the main bowline is to have a 



snno-lft rnr»A 



TO RIG MASTS AND YARDS. 19 



single rope with the standing part hooked near the fore- 
mast, and reeve it out through a heart in the bridle. 
This will answer for both sides. The fore bowline may 
be rove through a single block at the heel of the jib- 
boom and hooked to the bridle. The bowlines to the 
other sails are toggled to the bridles and lead forward. 
Many vessels now dispense with all the bowlines except 
to the courses. This saves trouble, makes a ship look 
neater, and if the sails are well cut, they will set taut 
enough in the leach, without bowlines. 



CHAPTER IV. 

TO RIG MASTS AND YARDS. 

Rigging the shears. Taking in lower masts and bowsprit. To rig a 
bowsprit. Getting the tops over the mast-heads. To send up a 
top-mast. To get on a top-mast cap. To rig a jib-boom. To cross a 
lower yard. To cross a topgallant yard. To send up a topgallant 
mast. Long, short, and stump topgallant masts. To rig out a flying 
jib-boom. To cross topgallant and royal yards. Skysail yards. 

Taking in Lower Masts and Bowsprit. — Shore 
up the beams upon which the heels of the shears will 
rest, if necessary, from the keelson. Parbuckle the 
shears aboard, with their heads aft. Raise their heads 
upon the tanrail, cross them, and pass the shear-lashing. 
Lash the upper block of a three -fold tackle under the 
cross, and secure the lower block to the breast-hooks, or to 
a toggle in the hawse-hole. You may also reeve and 
secure, in the same manner, a smaller purchase, which 
shall work clear of the first. Have two forward and 
two after guys clove-hitched to the shear-head, with 
cleats to prevent their slipping. Get a girt-line on one 
shear-head and a small tackle on the other, to slue and 
cant the mast. Let the fall of the main tackle come 
through the middle sheave, to prevent the blocks sluing 
in its strap. Reeve large heel tackles to rouse the shears 
aft with. Put long oak plank shoes under the heels ; 
c 2' 



20 TO RIG MASTS AND YARDS. 

and, if it be necessary, clap a thwart-ship tackle upon 
the two heels, or reeve a lashing, and put a stout plank 
between them, and bowse taut ; which will prevent too 
great a strain coming upon the water-ways. Take the 
main tackle fall to the capstan ; heave round, haul on 
the forward guy and after heel tackles, and raise the 
shear to an angle of about eighty degrees with the deck, 
and so that the main purchase will hang plumb with the 
partners of the mizen-mast. Lash a garland to the 
forward part of the mast, above the centre, and toggle 
the purchase to it. Heave the mast in over the bul- 
warks ; fit the trestle-trees and after chock ; reeve girt- 
lines by which men may be hoisted when the mast is in; 
point the mast in, and lower away. Always take in the 
mizen-mast first. Get in the main and then the fore- 
mast in the same manner, rousing the shears forward, 
with their shoes, by means of the heel tackles. Having 
stepped and secured the fore mast, carry the forward guys 
aft and rake the shears over the bows ; toggle the lower 
block of the main tackle to a garland lashed to the upper 
part of the bowsprit inside of the centre. Put on the 
cap, and carry tackles or guys from the bowsprit-head 
to each cat-head, and clap on a heel tackle or guy. 
Heave the bowsprit, and direct it by the small tackles 
and guys. 

To Rig a Bowsprit. — Lash collars for the fore stay, 
bobstays, and bowsprit shrouds, then for the spring stay, 
and put on the bees for the topmast stays ; fit the man- 
ropes, pass the gammoning, and set up bobstays and 
shrouds. 

To get the Tops over the Mast-heads. — Place 
the top on deck abaft the mast ; get a girt-line on each 
side of the mast-head, and pass the end of each under 
the top, through the holes in the after part ; clinch them 
to their own parts, and stop them to the fore part of the 
top with slip-stops. Have a guy to the fore and another 
to the after part of the top. Make the ends of a span 
fast to the after corners of the top, and bend a girt-line 



TO RIG MASTS AND YARDS. 21 

from the mast-head to the bight of the span, and stop it 
to the forward part of the top. Sway away on the girt- 
lines. When the fore part of the top is above the trestle- 
trees, cut the span-stops, and when the after part is 
above them, cast off the slip -stops. When the lubber- 
hole is high enough to clear the mast-head, haul on the 
forward guy, and let the top hang horizontally by the 
girt-lines. Lower away, place, and bolt it. 

The fore and main tops are sent up from abaft, and 
the mizen from forward. The tops may be got over 
without the span and girt-line, by stopping the two girt- 
lines first rove to the middle as well as to the fore part of 
the top, and cutting the upper stops first. 

To send up a Topmast. — Get the topmast alongside, 
with its head forward. Lash a top-block to the head 
of the lower-mast ; reeve a mast-rope through it, from 
aft forward, and bring the end down and reeve it through 
the sheave-hole of the top-mast, hitching it to its own 
part a little below the topmast-head, and stopping both 
parts to the mast, at intervals. Snatch the rope and 
sway away. As soon as the head is through the lower 
cap, cast off the end of the mast-rope, letting the mast 
hang by the stops, and hitch it to the staple in the other 
end of the cap. Cast oiF the stops and sway away. 
Point the head of the mast between the trestle-trees and 
through the hole in the lower cap, the round hole of 
which must be put over the square hole of the trestle- 
trees. Lash the cap to the mast, hoist away, and when 
high enough, lower a little and secure the cap to the 
lower mast-head. (This is when it cannot be put on by 
hand.) If the cross-trees are heavy, they may be placed 
in the following manner. Sway away until the top- 
mast-head is a few feet above the lower cap. Send up 
the cross-trees by girt-lines, and let the after part rest 
on the lower cap and the forward part against the top- 
mast. Lower away the topmast until the cross-trees fall 
into their place, and then hoist until they rest on the 
shoulders. Lash on the bolsters, get girt-lines on the 



22 TO RIG MASTS AND YARDS. 

i 

cross trees to send up the rigging, and then put it over 
the mast-head, first the shrouds, then the backstays, and 
lastly the head-stays. Sway the topmast on end, fid it, 
and set up the rigging. 

To get on a Topmast-Cap. — In vessels of the largest 
class, it may be necessary to send up the cap in the fol- 
lowing manner, but it can usually be got up by hand. 
Or it may be fitted and the rigging put on over it. Send 
the cap up to the cross-trees by girt -lines, and place the 
round hole of the cap over the forward hole of the cross- 
trees ; send aloft a topgallant studdingsail boom, and point 
its upper end through the holes in the cross-trees and 
cap, and lash the cap to it. Hook a tackle or girt-line 
to a strap on the lower end of the spar, and sway away 
until the cap is over the mast-head. Slue the spar so 
that the cap may come fair, lower away, and place the 
cap upon the mast-head. Unlash the spar and send it 
down. 

To rig out a Jib-boom. — Point the outer end through 
the collars of the stays. Reeve the heel-rope through a 
block at the bowsprit cap, through the sheave-hole at 
the heel of the boom, and secure the end to an eye-bolt 
in the cap on the opposite side. Rig the boom out until 
the inner sheave-hole is clear of the cap. Tar the 
boom-end, put on the foot-ropes and guys, and reeve the 
jib stay. Hoist up the martingale and rig it, and reeve 
the martingale stay and gaub-line. Rig the boom out to 
its place, and set up the jib and martingale stays. 

To cross a Lower Yard. — If the yard is alongside, 
reeve the yard rope through the jear block at the mast- 
head, make it fast to the slings of the yard, and stop it 
out to the yard-arm. Sway away, and cast off the stops 
as the yard comes over the side, and get the yard across 
the bulwarks. Lower yards are rigged now with iron 
trusses and quarter-blocks, which would be fitted before 
rigging the yard. Seize on the clew-garnet block, and 
put the rigging over the yard-arm ; first the straps for 
the head -eatings, then the foot-ropes, then the brace 




TO RIG MASTS AND YARDS. 23 

blocks or pennants, and last the eye of the lift. (The 
lifts, brace pennants, and foot-ropes are now spliced or 
hooked into rings with thimbles on an iron band, round 
the yard-arm, next the shoulders. In this way, there is 
no rope of any kind round the yard-arm. ) Reeve the 
lifts and braces, get two large tackles from the mast-head 
to the quarters of the yard, and sway away on them and 
on the lifts, bearing off and sluing the yard by means of 
guys. Secure the yard by the iron trusses, and haul 
taut lifts and braces. 

To cross a Topsail Yard. — As topsail yards now 
have chain tyes, there are no tye-blocks to seize on. 
The quarter -blocks are first seized on, and the parral 
secured at one end, ready to be passed. A single parral 
has an eye in each end, and one end is passed under the 
yard and over, and the eye seized to the standing part, 
close to the yard. After the yard is crossed, the other 
end is passed round the mast, then round the yard, and 
seized in the same manner. To pass a double parral, 
proceed in the same manner, except that the seizings are 
passed so as to leave the eyes clear and above the stand- 
ing part, and then take a short rope with an eye in each 
end, pass it round the mast, and seize the eyes to the 
eyes of the first long rope. The parral is wormed, 
served and leathered. The parral being seized at one 
end, put on the head-earing straps, the foot-ropes, 
Flemish horses, and brace blocks. Bend the yard-rope 
to the slings, stop it out to the yard-arm, and sway away 
until the yard is up and down ; then put on the upper 
lift in the top and the lower lift on deck, and reeve the 
braces. Sway away, cast off the stops, and take in upon 
the lower lift as the yard rises, till the yard is square ; 
then haul taut lifts and braces and pass the parral. 

To send up a Topgallant Mast. — Most merchant- 
men carry long topgallant masts. In these, the topgal- 
lant, royal, and sky sail masts are all one stick. A short 
topgallant mast is one which has cross-trees, and above 
which a fidded royal-mast may be rigged. A stump top- 






24. TO RIG MASTS AND YARDS. 

gallant mast has no cross-trees, or means for setting a 
mast above it, and is carried only in bad weather. Some 
short topgallant masts are rigged with a withe on the 
after part of the mast-head, through which a sliding- 
gunter-royal-mast is run up, with its heel resting in a 
step on the topmast cap. 

To send up a long topgallant mast, put the jack over 
the topmast cap, with a grommet upon its funnel for the 
eyes of the rigging to rest upon ; send up the rigging by 
girtlines, and put the eyes over the jack, first the topgal- 
lant shrouds, backstays and stays, then the royal rigging 
in the same order, with a grommet, then the skysail stay 
and backstay, and lastly the truck. Reeve a top-rope 
forward through a block at the topmast-head, through 
the hole in the cross-trees ; through the sheave-hole at 
the foot of the top-gallant mast ; carry it up the other 
side, and make it fast to its own part at the mast-head ; 
stop it along the mast, and bend a guy to the heel. 
Sway away, and point through the jack; put on the 
truck, and the skysail, royal and topgallant rigging in 
their order ; slue the mast so as to bring the sheaves of 
the tyes fore-and-aft; cast off the end of the top-rope, 
the mast hanging by the stops ; make it fast to an eye- 
bolt on the starboard side of the cap, and sway away. 
When high enough, fid the mast and set up the rigging. 

A short topgallant mast is sent up like a topmast, the 
cross-trees got over in the same manner ; and the fidded 
royal-mast is sent up like a long topgallant mast. 

To rig out a Flying jib-boom. — Ship the withe on 
the jib-boom end, reeve a heel-rope through a block at 
the jib-boom end, and bend it to the heel of the flying 
jib-boom, and stop it along, out to the end. Haul out on 
the heel-rope, point through the withe, put on the rig- 
ging, in the same order with that of the jib-boom ; reeve 
the guys, martingale, flying jib, royal and skysail stays ; 
rig out, and set up the rigging. The heel of the boom 
rests against the bowsprit cap, and is lashed to the jib- 
boom. 



The fly 



TO RIG MASTS AND YARDS. 25 



The flying jib-boom should be rigged fully out before 
the fore topgallant mast is swayed on end. 

To cross a Topgallant Yard. — Seize on the parral 
and quarter-blocks; reeve the yard-rope through the 
sheave-hole of the topgallant mast, make it fast to the 
slings of the yard, and stop it out to the upper end. 
Sway away, and when the upper yard-arm has reached 
the topmast- head, put on the upper lift and brace, sway- 
away again, put on the lower lift and brace, cast off all 
the stops, settle the yard down square by lifts and braces, 
and pass the parral lashing. 

To cross Royal Yards. — The royal yards are crossed 
in the same manner as the topgallant yards, except that 
in most merchantmen they would be sent up by the 
halyards instead of a yard-rope. If there is not a stand- 
ing skysail, the quarter-blocks on the royal yard will be 
single. 

Skysail Yards. — If the skysail is a standing sail, the 
yard is rigged like the royal yard, with lifts and braces, 
and the sail is fitted with sheets and clewlines ; but if it 
is a flying skysail, the yard has neither lifts nor braces, 
and the clews of the sail are seized out to the royal yard- 
arms. There are various ways of rigging a flying sky- 
sail, of which the following is believed to be as convenient 
as any. Let the royal stay go round the mast-head, 
with a traveller, above the yard, so that the stay may- 
travel up and down the skysail mast. Seize a thimble 
into the stay, close against the forward part of the grom- 
met ; lead the skysail halyards through the thimble, and 
make them fast to the centre of the yard, which will 
need no parrals underneath the royal stay. Make fast 
the ends of two small ropes for downhauls, to the skysail 
yard, about half way out on each yard-arm, and reeve 
them through small cleats on the after part of the royal 
yard, the same distance out on each yard-arm. These 
may be spliced into a single rope below the yard, which 
will go through a fair-leader in the cross-trees to the 
deck. By this means the skysail may be taken in or set 



26 TO SEND DOWN MASTS AND YARDS. 

without the necessity of sending a man aloft. Let go the 
halyards and haul on the downhaul, and the yard will be 
brought close down to the royal yard. To hoist it, let go 
the downhaul and royal stay, and haul on the halyards. 
When the royal is taken in, haul the skysail yard down 
with the royal yard, and furl the sail in with the royal. 



CHAPTER V. 

TO SEND DOWN MASTS AND YARDS. 

To send down a royal yard — a topgallant yard — a topgallant mast. 
To house a topgallant mast. To send down a topmast. To rig in 
a jib-boom. 

To send down a Royal Yard. — If the sail is bent 
to the yard, furl it, making the gaskets fast to the tye. 
Cast off the sheets and clewlines, and make them fast to 
the jack. Be careful to unreeve the clewlines through 
the quarter-blocks. Cast off the parral-lashing. Over- 
haul the tye a little, and stop it to the yard just outside 
of the quarter-block. If stopped too far out, the yard 
will not hoist high enough to get the lower lift off. 
Sway away on the halyards, which will cant the yard 
and hoist it. When high enough, cast off the lower lift 
and brace, (being careful not to let the brace go,) and 
make them fast to the jack. Lower away, and as the 
upper yard-arm comes abreast of the jack, clap a stop 
round the yard and tye, near the yard-arm, and cast off 
the lift and brace, making them fast to the jack. Lower 
away to the deck. 

If the halyards are not single, the yard must be sent 
down by a yard-rope, like the topgallant yard. In some 
vessels, instead of making the sheets and clewlines fast 
to the jack, over-hand knots are taken in their ends, and 
they are let go. The sheets will run out to the topgal- 
lant yard-arms, and the clewlines will run to the fair- 
leaders in the cross-trees. In port, the main royal yard 




TO SEND DOWN MASTS AND YARDS. 27 

is sent down on the starboard side, and the fore and 
mizen on the larboard ; but at sea, the tye is stopped 
out on the lee side, and the yard sent down in any way 
that is the most convenient. 

To SEND DOWN A TOPGALLANT YARD. Cast off the 

sheets, bowlines, buntlines, and clewlines, and make 
them fast to the cross-trees. Reeve a yard-rope through 
a jack-block at the mast-head, unhook the tye, cast off 
the parral-lashing, bend the yard-rope to the slings of 
the yard by a fisherman's bend, and stop it to the quar- 
ters of the yard. Sway away, and take off the lifts and 
braces, as with the royal yard. 

To SEND DOWN A TOPGALLANT MaST. Hook the 

top-block to the eye-bolt at the larboard side of the 
topmast cap ; reeve the mast -rope through it, then 
through the sheave-hole in the foot of the topgallant 
mast, and hitch its end to the eye-bolt on the starboard 
side of the cap. Come up the rigging, stays and back- 
stays, and guy the mast-head by them. Hoist a little 
on the mast-rope, and take out the fid. (The fid should 
always be fastened to the cross-trees or trestle-trees, by 
a lanyard.) Lower away until the mast is a little short 
of being through the cap. Then seize or rack together 
both parts of the mast-rope just above the sheave-hole ; 
cast off the end of the mast-rope, letting the mast hang 
by the stops, and hitch it round the mast-head to its own 
part below the cap. Then lower away to the deck. If 
the rigging is to come on deck, round up the mast-rope 
for a girtline ; if it is to remain aloft, lash it to the top- 
mast cap, render the shrouds through the cross-trees, 
and stop them up and down the topgallant rigging. 
Sheep-shank the stays and backstays, and set them hand- 
taut. If the topmast is also to be sent down, take off 
the topmast cap and send it on deck. 

To house a Topgallant Mast. — Proceed in the 
same manner, except that when the mast is low enough, 
belay the mast-rope, pass a heel-lashing through the 
fid-hole, and round the topmast. 



28 BENDING AND UNBENDING SAILS. 

To send down a Topmast. — Hook the top-block, 
reeve the mast-rope through it and through the sheave- 
hole in the foot of the mast, and hitch it to the staple 
at the other side of the cap. Lead the fall through a 
snatch-block to the capstan. Sling the lower yard, if it 
is to remain aloft, and unshackle the trusses, if they are 
of iron. Come up the rigging, stays and backstays, 
weigh the mast, take out the fid, and lower away. If 
the rigging is to remain aloft, lash the cross-trees to the 
lower cap. The rigging should be stowed away snugly 
in the top, and the backstays be snaked up and down 
the lower rigging. 

To rig in a Jib-boom. — Reeve the heel-rope (if 
necessary), come up the stay, martingale stay and guys ; 
unreeve the jib-stay, station hands at each guy, clear 
away the heel-lashing, haul in upon the guys, and light 
the boom on board. In most cases the boom will come 
in without a heel-rope. Make fast the eyes of the 
rigging to the bowsprit cap, and haul all taut. 



CHAPTER VI. 

BENDING AND UNBENDING SAILS. 

To bend a course. To send up a topsail by the halyards— by the bunt- 
lines. To bend a topgallant sail— a royal— —a jib— a spanker— a 
spencer. To unbend a course— a topsail — a topgallant sail or royal 
—a jib. To send down a topsail or course in a gale of wind. To 
bend a topsail in a gale of wind. To bend one topsail or course, and 
send down the other at the same time. 

To bend a Course. — Stretch the sail across the deck, 
forward of the mast and under the yard ; being careful 
to have the after part of the sail aft. Seize the clew- 
garnet blocks to the clews; also the tack and sheet 
blocks, unless they go with hooks or clasps. Reeve the 
buntlines through the thimbles of the first reef-band 
forward, if they are made to go so, and toggle their ends 
to the foot of the sail, or carry them through the eyelet- 



BENDING AND UNBENDING SAILS. 29 

holes and clinch them to their own parts. Reeve the 
clewgarnets and leachlines ; carry the bights of the 
buntlines under the sail, and rack them to their own 
parts ; stop the head of the sail to the buntlines below 
the rackings; put robands to each eyelet-hole in the 
head of the sail ; fasten the head and reef earings to 
their cringles, reeving the end of the reef-earings through 
the head cringle, and taking a bowline with them to 
their standing parts, and hitching the head-earings to the 
buntlines. Sway away on the buntlines, leachlines, and 
clewgarnets ; when the sail is up, pass the head-earings, 
reeving aft through the straps on the yard, and forward 
through the head cringle. Haul out on the earings, 
making the sail square by the glut, and pass the earings 
round the yard, over and under, through the head-cringle 
at each turn, and make the end fast around the first turns. 
If the sail is new, ride down the head rope on the yard, 
and freshen the earings. Make fast the head of the sail 
to the jackstay by robands, and cast the stops off the 
buntlines. 

To bend a Topsail. — Make fast the head and reef- 
earings to their cringles, passing the end of each reef- 
earing through the cringle above its own, and making it 
fast by a bowline to its own part. Put robands to each 
eyelet-hole in the head. If the sail is to be sent up by 
the topsail halyards, lay it on deck abaft the foot of the 
mast, make it up with its head and foot together, having 
the head and first reef cringles together and out, and also 
the bowline cringle and the clews out. Bight the sail 
in three parts on a pair of slings, having the end of the 
sail that belongs on the opposite yard-arm on top. Have 
the fly-block of the topsail halyards above the top, and 
rack the runner to the topmast backstay or after shroud. 
Hook the lower block to the slings around the sail, hoist 
the sail up into the top, cast off the slings, unhook 
the halyards, and pass the upper end of the sail round 
forward of the mast, ready for bending. (If the vessel 
is rolling or pitching, with a stiff breeze, the sail may be 



is rolling ( 



30 BENDING AND UNBENDING SAILS. 

guyed and steadied as it goes up, by hooking a snatch- 
block, moused, to the slings around the sail, passing the 
hauling part of the halyards through it, and through 
another snatch-block on deck.) Get the clewlines, bunt- 
lines, sheets, bowlines, and reef-tackles ready for bend- 
ing, the clove hooks of the sheets being stopped to the 
topmast rigging. Hook or clasp the sheets to the clews, 
reeve the clewlines and reef-tackles, toggle the bowlines, 
clinch or toggle the buntlines to the foot of the sail, and 
stop the head to the buntlines. Hoist on the buntlines 
and haul out on the reef-tackles, bringing the sail to the 
yard, and then pass the head-earings and make fast the 
robands as for a course. If the sail is to be sent up by 
the buntlines, lay the sail on the deck and forward of the 
mast, overhaul the buntlines down forward of the yard, 
on each side of the topmast stay and on the same side of 
the lower stay. Clinch the ends to the foot of the sail, 
bight them around under the sail and rack the bights to 
their standing parts, and stop the head of the sail to the 
standing parts below the rackings. Bend one bowline to 
the centre of the sail to guy it in going aloft. Have the 
earings bent and secured as before described, and the 
bights of the head-earings hitched to the buntlines. 
Sway it up to the top, and haul the ends in on each 
side of the mast ; reeve the clewlines and reef- tackles, 
make fast the bowlines and sheets, the ends of which, if 
chain, should be racked to the topmast rigging, ready to 
be made fast to the clews. The gear being bent, hoist on 
the buntlines, haul out on the reef-tackles, pass the head- 
earings, cut the stops of the buntlines, and make fast the 
robands. Middle the sail on the yard by the glut, or by 
the centre cringle. 

To bend Topgallant Sails and Royals. — These 
are generally bent to their yards on deck ; the royals 
always. After being bent to the yard, they are furled, 
with their clews out, ready for sending aloft. If the 
topgallant sail is to be bent aloft, send it up to the 
topmast cross-trees by the clewlines, or by the royal 



BENDING AND UNBENDING SAILS. 31 

halyards ; and there bend on the sheets, clewlines, bunt- 
lines and bowlines, and bring the sail to the yard as with 
a topsail. 

To bend a Jib. — Bend the jib halyards round the 
body of the sail, and the downhaul to the tack. Haul 
out on the downhaul, hoisting and lowering on the 
halyards. Seize the tack to the boom, the hanks to 
the luff of the sail, and the halyards to its head. Reeve 
the downhaul up through the hanks and make it fast to 
the head of the sail. Seize the middle of the sheet- 
pennant to the clew. 

In some vessels the hanks are first seized to the sail, 
and the jib-stay unrove, brought in-board, and passed 
down through the hanks, as the sail is sent out, rove in 
its place and set up. This is more troublesome, and 
wears out the jib-stay. 

To bend a Spanker. — Lower the gaff, and reeve the 
throat-rope through the hole in the gaff under the jaws, 
and secure it. Sometimes the head of the luff fits with 
a hook. Then haul out the head of the sail by the peak- 
earing, which is passed like the head- earing of a topsail. 
When the head-rope is taut, pass the lacings through the 
eyelet-holes, and round the jack-stay. Seize the bights 
of the throat and peak brails to the leach, at distances 
from the peak which will admit of the sail's being brailed 
up taut along the gaff, and reeve them through their 
blocks on the gaff, and at the jaws, on each side of the 
sail. The foot brail is seized to the leach just above the 
clew. Seize the luff of the sail to the hoops or hanks 
around the spanker mast, beginning with the upper hoop 
and hoisting the gaff as they are secured. The tack is 
hooked or seized to the boom or to the mast. Hook on 
the outhaul tackle. This is usually fitted with an eye 
round the boom, rove through a single block at the clew, 
and then through a sheave-hole in the boom. 

Some spankers are bent with a peak outhaul ; the head 
traversing on the jackstay of the gaff. 

The Fore and Main Spencers are bent like the 



32 BENDING AND UNBENDING SAILS. 

spanker, except that they have no boom, the clew being 
hauled aft by a sheet, which is generally a gun- tackle 
purchase, hooked to an eye-bolt in the deck. 

To unbend a Course. — Haul it up, cast off the 
robands, and make the buntlines fast round the sail. 
Ease the earings off together, and lower away by the 
buntlines and clew-garnets. At sea, the lee earing is 
cast off first, rousing in the lee body of the sail, and 
securing it by the earing to the buntlines. 

To unbend a Topsail.- — Clew it up, cast off the 
robands, secure the buntlines round the sail, unhook the 
sheets, and unreeve the clewlines and reef -tackles; ease 
off the earings, and lower by the buntlines. 

A topgallantsail is unbent in the same manner, and 
sent down by the buntlines. A royal is usually sent 
down with the yard. 

To unbend a Jib. — Haul it down, cast off the hank 
seizings, and the tack-lashing, cast off and unreeve the 
downhaul and make it fast round the sail, and cast off 
the sheet-pennant lashings. Haul aboard by the down- 
haul, hoisting clear by the halyards. 

The rules above given are for a vessel in port, with 
squared yards. If you are at sea and it is blowing fresh, 
and the topsail or course is reefed, to send it down, you 
must cast off a few robands and reef-points, and pass 
good stops around the sail; then secure the buntlines 
also around it, and cast off all the robands, reef-points, 
and reef-earings. Bend a line to the lee head-earing and 
let it go, haul the sail well up to windward, and make 
fast the lee earing to the buntlines. Get a hauling line 
to the deck, forward ; ease off the weather earing, and 
lower away. 

To bend a new topsail in a gale of wind, it has been 
found convenient to make the sail up with the reef-bands 
together, the points all being out fair, to pass several 
good stops round the sail, and send up as before. This 
will present less surface to the wind. One course may 
be sent up as the other goes down, by unbending the 



WORK UPON RIGGING. ROPE. 33 

buntlines from the foot of the old sail, passing them down 
between the head of the sail and the yard, bending them 
to the foot of the new sail, and making the new sail up 
to be sent aloft by them, as before directed. Run the 
new sail up to the yard abaft the old one, and send the 
old one down by the leachlines and the head-earings, bent 
to the topmast studdingsail halyards, or some other con- 
venient rope. 

One topsail may be sent up by the topsail halyards, 
got ready for bending, and brought to the yard, while 
the old one is sent down by the buntlines. 



CHAPTER VII. 

WORK UPON RIGGING. — ROPE, KNOTS, SPLICES, BENDS 

AND HITCHES. 

Kinds of rope. Spunyarn. Worming. Parcelling. Service. Short 
splice. Long splice. Eye splice. Flemish eye. Spindle eye. Cut 
splice. Grommet. Single and double wall. Matthew Walker. 
Single and double diamond. Spritsail sheet knot. Stopper knot. 
Shroud knot. French shroud knot. Buoy-rope knot. Half-hitches. 
Clove hitch. Overhand knot. Figure-of-eight. Bowline. Running 
bowline. Bowline-upon-a-bight. Square knot. Timber hitch. 
Rolling hitch. Blackwall hitch. Cat's paw. Sheet bend. Fisher- 
man's bend. Carrickbend. Bowline bend. Sheep-shank. Selvagee. 
Marlinspike hitch. Round seizing. Throat seizing. Stopping. 
Nippering. Racking. Pointing. Snaking. Grafting. Foxes. 
Spanish foxes. Gaskets. Sennit. To bend a buoy-rope. To pass a 
shear-lashing. 

Those ro^es in a ship which are stationary are called 
standing rigging, as shrouds, stays, backstays, &c. 
Those which reeve through blocks or sheave-holes, and 
are hauled and let go, are called the running rigging, as 
braces, halyards, buntlines, clewlines, &c. 

A rope is composed of threads of hemp, or other stuff. 
These threads are called yarns. A number of these 
yarns twisted together form a strand, and three or more 
strands twisted together form the rope. 

The ropes in ordinary use on board a vessel are com- 

D 



34 WORK UPON RIGGING. SMALL STUFF. 

posed of three strands, laid bight handed, (1.) or, as it 
is called, with the sun. Occasionally a piece of large rope 
will be found laid up in four strands, also with the sun. 
This is generally used for standing rigging, tacks, sheets, 
&c, and is sometimes called shroud-laid. 

A cable-laid Rope (2.) is composed of nine strands, 
and is made by first laying them into three ropes of three 
strands each, with the sun, and then laying the three 
ropes up together into one, left-handed, or against the 
sun. Thus, cable-laid rope is like three small common 
ropes laid up into one large one. Formerly, the ordinary 
three-stranded right-hand rope was called hawser-laid, 
and the latter cable-laid, and they will be found so dis- 
tinguished in the books ; but among sea-faring men now, 
the terms hawser-laid and cable-laid are applied indis- 
criminately to nine-strand rope, and the three stranded, 
being the usual and ordinary kind of rope, has no par- 
ticular name, or is called right-hand rope. 

Right-hand rope must be coiled with the sun, and 
cable-laid rope against the sun. 

Spunyarn is made by twisting together two or more 
yarns taken from old standing rigging, and is called two- 
yarn or three-yarn spunyarn, according to the number of 
yarns of which it is composed. Junk, or old rigging, is 
first unlaid into strands, and then into yarns, and the 
best of these yarns made up into spunyarn, which is used 
for worming, serving, seizing, &c. Every merchant 
vessel carr.es a spunyarn- winch, for the manufacturing of 
this stuff, and in making it, the wheel is turned against 
the sun, which lays the stuff up with the sun. 

Worming a rope, is filling up the divisions between 
the strands, by passing spunyarn along them, to render 
the surface smooth for parcelling and serving. 

Parcelling a rope is wrapping narrow strips of can- 
vas about it, well tarred, in order to secure it from 
being injured by rain-water lodging between the parts of 
the service when worn. The parcelling is put on with 
the lay of the rope. 






WORK UPON RIGGING. SPLICES. 35 

Service is the laying on of spunyarn, or other small 
stuff, in turns round the rope, close together, and hove 
taut by the use of a serving-board for small rope, and 
serving-mallet for large rope. Small ropes are some- 
times served without being wormed, as the crevices 
between the strands are not large enough to make the 
surface very uneven ; but a large rope is always wormed 
and parcelled before being served. The service is put on 
against the lay of the rope. 

Splicing, is putting the ends of ropes together by 
opening the strands and placing them into one another, 
or by putting the strands of the ends of a rope between 
those of the bight. 

A Short Splice. (3.) Unlay the strands for a con- 
venient length ; then take an end in each hand, place 
them one within the other, and draw them close. Hold 
the end of one rope and the three strands which come 
from the opposite rope fast in the left hand, or, if the 
rope be large, stop them down to it with a rope-yarn. 
Take the middle strand, which is free, pass it over the 
strand which is first next to it, and through under the 
second, and out between the second and third from it, 
and haul it taut. Pass each of the six strands in the 
same manner ; first those on one side, and then those on 
the other. The same operation may be repeated with 
each strand, passing each over the third from it, and 
under the fourth, and through ; or, as is more usual, after 
the ends have been stuck once, untwist each strand, 
divide the yarns, pass one half as above described, and 
cut off the other half. This tapers the splice. 

A Long Splice. (4.) Unlay the ends of two ropes 
to a distance three or four times greater than for a short 
splice, and place them within one another as for a short 
splice. Unlay one strand for a considerable distance, 
and fill up the interval which it leaves with the opposite 
strand from the other rope, and twist the ends of these 
two together. Then do the same w T ith two more strands. 
The two remaining strands are twisted together in the 
d 2 



36 WORK UPON RIGGING. — SPLICES. 

place where they were first crossed. Open the two last 
named strands, divide in two, take an overhand knot 
with the opposite halves, and lead the ends over the next 
strand and through the second, as the whole strands were 
passed for the short splice. Cut off the other two halves. 
Do the same with the others that are placed together, 
dividing, knotting, and passing them in the same manner. 
Before cutting off any of the half-strands, the rope 
should he got well upon a stretch. Sometimes the 
whole strands are knotted, then divided, and the half- 
strands passed as above described. 

An Eye Splice. (5.) Unlay the end of a rope for 
a short distance, and lay the three strands upon the 
standing part, so as to form an eye. Put one end 
through the strand next to it. Put the next end over 
that strand and through the second ; and put the remain- 
ing end through the third strand, on the other side of 
the rope. Taper them, as in the short splice, by divid- 
ing the strands and sticking them again. 

A Flemish Eye. (6.) Take the end of a rope and 
unlay one strand. Form an eye by placing the two 
remaining ends against the standing part. Pass the 
strand which has been unlaid over the end and in the 
intervals round the eye, until it returns down the stand- 
ing part, and lies under the eye with the strands. The 
ends are then scraped down, tapered, marled, and served 
over with spunyarn. 

An Artificial or Spindle Eye. — Unlay the end of 
a rope and open the strands, separating each ropeyarn. 
Take a piece of wood, the size of the intended eye, and 
hitch the yarns round it. Scrape them down, marl, 
parcel, and serve them. This is now usually called a 
Flemish eye. 

A Cut Splice. (7.) Cut a rope in two, unlay each 
end as for a short splice, and place the ends of each rope 
against the standing part of the other, forming an oblong 
eye, of the size you wish. Then pass the ends through 
the strands of the standing parts, as for a short splice. 



WORK UPON RIGGING. KNOTS. 37 

A Grommet. (8.) Take a strand just unlaid from a 
rope, with all its turns in it, and form a ring of the size 
you wish, by putting the end over the standing part. 
Then take the long end and carry it twice round the 
ring, in the crevices, following the lay, until the ring is 
complete. Then take an overhand knot with the two 
ends, divide the yarns, and stick them as in a long splice. 

A single Wall Knot. (9.) Unlay the end of a 
rope. Form a bight with one strand, holding its end 
down to the standing part in your left hand. Pass the 
end of the next strand round this strand. Pass the 
remaining strand round the end of the second strand, 
and up through the bight which was made by the first 
strand. Haul the ends taut carefully, one by one. 

A single Wall, crowned. (10.) Make the single 
wall as before, and lay one end over the top of the knot. 
Lay the second end over the first, and the third over the 
second and through the bight of the first. 

A double Wall. (11.) Make the single wall slack, 
and crown it, as above. Then take one end, bring it 
underneath the part of the first walling next to it, and 
push it up through the same bight. Do the same with 
the other strands, pushing them up through two bights. 
Thus made, it has a double wall and a single crown. 

A double Wall, double crowned. (12.) Make the 
double wall, single crowned, as above. Then lay the 
strands by the sides of those in the single crown, push- 
ing them through the same bight in the single crown, 
and down through the double walling. This is some- 
times called a Tack Knot, or a Topsail Sheet Knot. 

A Matthew Walker Knot. (13.) Unlay the end 
of a rope. Take one strand round the rope and through 
its own bight ; then the next strand underneath, through 
the bight of the first, and through its own bight ; and 
the third strand underneath, through both the other 
bights, and through its own bight. 

A Single Diamond Knot (14.) Unlay the end of 
a rope for a considerable distance, and with the strands 



38 WORK UPON RIGGING. — KNOTS. 

form three bights down the side of the rope, holding 
them fast with the left hand. Take the end of one 
strand, and pass it with the lay of the rope over the 
strand next to it, and up through the bight of the third. 
Take the end of the second strand over the third and up 
through the bight of the first. Take the end of the 
third strand over the first and up through the bight of 
the second. Haul taut, and lay the ends up together. 

A double Diamond Knot. (15.) Make a single 
diamond, as above, without laying the ends up. Follow 
the lead of the single knot through two single bights, 
the ends coming out at the top of the knot. Lead the 
last strand through two double bights. Haul taut, and 
lay the ends up. 

A Sprits ail Sheet Knot. (16.) Unlay two ends of 
a rope, and place the two parts together. Make a bight 
with one strand. Wall the six strands together, like a 
single walling made with three strands; putting the 
second over the first, and the third over the second, and 
so on, the sixth being passed over the fifth and through 
the bight of the first. Then haul taut. It may be 
crowned by taking two strands, and laying them over the 
top of the knot, and passing the other strands alternately 
over and under those two, hauling them taut. It may 
be double walled by next passing the strands under the 
walling on the left of them, and through the small 
bights, when the ends will come up for the second 
crowning ; which is done by following the lead of the 
single crowning, and pushing the ends through the single 
walling, as with three strands, before described. This 
is often used for a stopper knot. 

A Stopper Knot. — Single wall and double wall, 
without crowning, and stop the ends together. 

A Shroud Knot. — Unlay the ends of two ropes, and 
place the strands in one another, as for a short splice. 
Single wall the strands of one rope round the standing 
part of the other, against the lay. Open the ends, taper, 
marl, and serve them. 



WORK UPON RIGGING. KNOTS AND HITCHES. 39 

A French Shroud Knot. — Place the ends of two 
ropes as before. Lay the ends of one rope back upon 
their own part, and single wall the other three strands 
round the bights of the first three and the standing part. 
Taper the ends, as before. 

A Buoy-rope Knot. — Unlay the strands of a cable- 
laid rope, and also the small strands of each large strand. 
Lay the large ones again as before, leaving the small 
ones out. Single and double wall the small strands (as 
for a stopper knot) round the rope, worm them along 
the divisions, and stop their ends with spunyarn. 

A Turks-head. (17.) This is worked upon a rope 
with a piece of small line. Take a clove-hitch slack 
with the line round the rope. Then take one of the 
bights formed by the clove- hitch and put it over the 
other. Pass the end under, and up through the bight 
which is underneath. Then cross the bights again, and 
put the end round again, under, and up through the 
bight which is underneath. After this, follow the 
lead, and it will make a turban, of three parts to each 
cross. 

Two Half-hitches. (18.) Pass the end of a rope 
round the standing part and bring it up through the 
bight. This is a half-hitch. Take it round again in 
the same manner for two half-hitches. 

A Clove-hitch (19.) is made by passing the end of 
a rope round a spar, over, and bringing it under and 
round behind its standing part, over the spar again, and 
up through its own part. It may then, if necessary, be 
stopped or hitched to its own part : the only difference 
between two half-hitches and a clove-hitch being that 
one is hitched round its own standing part, and the other 
is hitched round a spar or another rope. 

An Overhand Knot. (20.) Pass the end of a rope 
over the standing part, and through the bight. 

A Figure-of-eight. (21.) Pass the end of a rope 
over and round the standing part, up over its own part, 
and down through the bight. 



40 WORK UPON RIGGING. — KNOTS AND HITCHES. 

A Bowline Knot. (22.) Take the end of a rope 
in your right hand, and the standing part in your left. 
Lay the end over the standing part, and with the left 
hand make a eight of the standing part over it. Take 
the end under the lower standing part, up over the cross, 
and down through the bight. 

A Running Bowline. — Take the end round the 
standing part, and make a bowline upon its own part. 

A Bowline upon a Bight. (23.) Middle a rope, 
taking the two ends in your left hand, and the bight in 
your right. Lay the bight over the ends, and proceed 
as in making a bowline, making a small bight with your 
left hand of the ends, which are kept together, over the 
bight which you hold in your right hand. Pass the 
bight in your right hand round under the ends and up 
over the cross. So far, it is like a common bowline, only 
made with double rope instead of single. Then open 
the bight in your right hand and carry it over the large 
bights, letting them go through it, and bring it up to the 
cross and haul taut. 

A Square Knot. (24.) Take an overhand knot 
round a spar. Take an end in each hand and cross 
them on the same side of the standing part upon which 
they came up. Pass one end round the other, and bring 
it up through the bight. This is sometimes called a 
reef-knot. If the ends are crossed the wrong way, 
sailors call it a granny- knot. 

A Timber Hitch. (25.) Take the end of a rope 
round a spar, lead it under and over the standing part, 
and pass two or more round-turns round its own part. 

A Rolling Hitch. —Pass the end of a rope round 
a spar. Take it round a second time, nearer to the 
standing part. Then carry it across the standing part, 
over and round the spar, and up through the bight. 
A strap or a tail-block is fastened to a rope by this 
hitch. 

A bend, sometimes called a rolling hitch, is made by 
two round -turns round a spar and two half-hitches 



WORK UPON RIGGING. — BENDS AND HITCHES. 41 

round the standing part; but the name is commonly 
applied to the former hitch. 

A Blackwall Hitch. (26.) Form a bight by 
putting the end of a rope across and under the stand- 
ing part. Put the bight over the hook of a tackle, 
letting the hook go through it, the centre of the bight 
resting against the back of the hook, and the end 
jammed in the bight of the hook, by the standing part 
of the rope. 

A Cats Paw. (27.) Make a large bight in a rope, 
and spread it open, putting one hand at one part of the 
bight and the other at the other, and letting the stand- 
ing part and end come together. Turn the bight over 
from you, three times, and a small bight will be formed 
in each hand. Bring the tw T o small bights together, and 
put the hook of a tackle through them both. 

A Sheet Bend. (28.) Pass the end of a rope up 
through the bight of another, round both parts of the 
other, and under its own part. 

A Fisherman's Bend. (29.) Used for bending 
studdingsail halyards to the yard. Take two turns 
round the yard with the end. Hitch it round the 
standing part and both the turns. Then hitch it round 
the standing part alone. 

A Carrick Bend. (30.) Form a bight by putting 
the end of a rope over its standing part. Take the end 
of a second rope and pass it under the standing part 
of the first, over the end, and up through the bight, 
over its own standing part, and down through the bight 
again. 

A Bowline Bend. — This is the most usual mode of 
bending warps, and other long ropes or cables, together. 
Take a bowline in the end of one rope, pass the end of 
the other through the bight, and take a bowline with it 
upon its own standing part. Long lines are sometimes 
bent together with half-hitches on their own standing 
parts, instead of bowlines, and the end seized strongly 
down. 



42 WORK UPON RIGGING. 

A Sheep -shank. (31.) Make two long bights in a 
rope, which shall overlay one another. Take a half- 
hitch over the end of each bight with the standing part 
which is next to it. 

A Selvagee. — Lay rope yarns round and round in a 
bight, and marl them down with spunyarn. These are 
used for neat block-straps, and as straps to go round a 
spar for a tackle to hook into, for hoisting. 

A Marlinspike Hitch. — Lay the marlinspike upon 
the seizing-stuff, and bring the end over the standing 
parts so as to form a bight. Lay this bight back over 
the standing part, putting the marlinspike down through 
the bight, under the standing part, and up through the 
bight again. 

To pass a Round Seizing. — Splice a small eye in the 
end of the stuff, take the other end round both parts of 
the rope, and reeve it through the eye. Pass a couple 
of turns, then take a marlinspike-hitch, and heave them 
taut. Pass six, eight, or ten turns in the same manner, 
and heave them taut. Put the end through under these 
turns and bring it out between the two last turns, or 
through the eye, and pass five, seven, or nine turns (one 
less than the lower ones) directly over these, as riders. 
The riders are not hove so taut. Pass the end up through 
the seizings, and take two cross turns round the whole 
seizing between the two, passing the end through the 
last turn, and heaving taut. If the seizing is small 
cordage, take a wall-knot in the end ; if spunyarn, an 
overhand knot. The cross turns are given up now in 
nearly all vessels. After the riding turns are passed, 
the end is carried under the turns, brought out at the 
other end, and made fast snugly to the standing part of 
the rigging. 

A Throat Seizing, where rigging is turned in, is 
passed and made fast like the preceding, there being no 
cross turns. A neat way to pass a throat seizing is to 
pass the turns rather slack, put a strap upon the end of 
the rigging, take a handspike or heaver to it and bear it 




"WORK UPON RIGGING. 43 

down, driving home the seizing with a mallet and small 
fid. 

Stopping, is fastening two parts of a rope together as 
for a round seizing, without a crossing. 

Nippering, is fastening them by taking turns crosswise 
between the parts, to jam them ; and sometimes with a 
round turn before each cross. These are called racking 
turns. Pass riders over these and fasten the end. 

Pointing. — Unlay the end of a rope and stop it. 
Take out as many yarns as are necessary, and split each 
yarn in two, and take two parts of different yarns and 
twist them up taut into nettles. The rest of the yarns 
are combed down with a knife. Lay half the nettles 
down upon the scraped part, the rest back upon the rope, 
and pass three turns of twine taut round the part where 
the nettles separate, and hitch the twine, which is called 
the warp. Lay the nettles backwards and forwards as 
before, passing the warp, each time. The ends may be 
whipped and snaked with twine, or the nettles hitched 
over the warp and hauled taut. The upper seizing must 
be snaked. If the upper part is too weak for pointing, 
put in a piece of stick. 

Snaking a seizing, is done by taking the end under 
and over the outer turns of the seizing alternately, 
passing over the whole. There should be a marline- 
hitch at each turn. 

Grafting. — Unlay the ends of two ropes and put 
them together as for a short splice. Make nettles of the 
strands as before. Pass the warp and nettles belonging 
to the lower strands along the rope, as in pointing ; then 
the nettles of the upper strands in the same manner. 
Snake the seizing at each end. 

Foxes are made by twisting together three or more 
rope-yarns by hand, and rubbing them hard with tarred 
canvas. Spanish foxes are made of one rope-yarn, by 
unlaying it and laying it up the other way. 

Gaskets. — Take three or four foxes, middle them, 
and plait them together into sennit. This is done by 



44 BLOCKS AND PURCHASES. 

bringing the two outside foxes alternately over to the 
middle. The outside ones are laid with the right hand, 
and the remainder are held and steadied with the left. 
Having plaited enough for an eye, bring all the parts 
together, and work them all into one piece, in the same 
manner. Take out foxes at proper intervals. When 
finished, one end must be laid up, the other plaited, and 
the first hauled through. The name sennit is generally 
given to rope-yarns plaited in the same manner with 
these foxes. Sennit made in this way must have an odd 
number of parts. French sennit is made with an even 
number, taken over and under every other time. 

To bend a Buoy-rope. Reeve the end through the 
eye in the other end, put it over one arm of the anchor, 
and haul taut. Take a hitch over the other arm. Or, 
take a clove-hitch over the crown, stopping the end to 
its own part, or to the shank. 

To pass a Shear-lashing. — Middle the lashing and 
take a good turn round both legs, at the cross. Pass one 
end up and the other down, around and over the cross, 
until half of the lashing is expanded. Then ride both 
ends back again on their own parts and knot them in the 
middle. Frap the first and riding turns together on 
each side with sennit. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



BLOCKS AND PURCHASES. 



Parts of a block. Made and morticed blocks. Bull's-eye. Dead-eye. 
Sister-block. Snatch-block. Tail-block. Whip. Gun- tackle. Luff- 
tackle. Whip-upon-whip. Luff-upon-luff. Watch or tail-tackle. 
Runner^tackle. 

Blocks are of two kinds, made and morticed. A made 
block consists of four parts, — the shell, or outside ; the 
sheave, or wheel on which the rope turns ; the pin, or 
axle on which the wheel turns ; and the strap, either of 



BLOCKS AND PURCHASES. 45 

rope or iron, which encircles the whole, and keeps it in its 
place. The sheave is generally strengthened by letting 
in a piece of iron or brass at the centre, called a bush, 

A Morticed Block is made of a single block of wood, 
morticed out to receive a sheave. 

All blocks are single, double, or three-fold, according 
to the number of sheaves in them. 

There are some blocks that have no sheaves ; as fol- 
lows : a bull's-eye, which is a wooden thimble without a 
sheave, having a hole through the centre and a groove 
round it ; and a dead-eye, which is a solid block of wood 
made in a circular form, with a groove round it, and 
three holes bored through it, for the lanyards to reeve 
through. 

A Sister-block is formed of one solid piece of wood, 
with two sheaves, one above the other, and between the 
sheaves a score for the middle seizing. These are 
oftener without sheaves than with. 

Snatch-blocks are single blocks, with a notch cut in 
one cheek, just below the sheave, so as to receive the 
bight of a fall, without the trouble of reeving and unreev- 
ing the whole. They are generally iron-bound, and 
have a hook at one end. 

A Tail-block is a single block, strapped with an eye- 
splice, and having a long end left, by which to make the 
block fast temporarily to the rigging. This tail is usually 
selvageed, or else the strands are opened and laid up into 
sennet, as for a gasket. 

A Tackle is a purchase formed by reeving a rope 
through two or more blocks, for the purpose of hoisting. 

A Whip is the smallest purchase, and is made by a 
rope rove through one single block. 

A Gun- tackle Purchase is a rope rove through two 
single blocks and made fast to the strap of the upper 
block. The parts of all tackles between the fasts and a 
sheave, are called the standing parts ; the parts between 
sheaves are called running parts ; and the part upon 
which you take hold in hoisting is called the fall. 



46 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

A Whip-upon-whip is where the block of one whip 
is made fast to the fall of another. 

A Luff-tackle Purchase is a single and a double 
block ; the end of the rope being fast to the upper part of 
the single block, and the fall coming from the double 
block. A luff-tackle upon the fall of another luff-tackle 
is called luff-upon-luff. 

A Watch-tackle or Tail-tackle is a luff-tackle 
purchase, with a hook in the end of the single block, 
and a tail to the upper end of the double block. One of 
these purchases, with a short fall, is kept on deck, at 
hand, in merchant vessels, and is used to clap upon stand- 
ing and running rigging, and to get a strain upon ropes. 

A Runner-tackle is a luff applied to a runner, which 
is a single rope rove through a single block, hooked to a 
thimble in the eye of a pennant. 

A Single Burton is composed of two single blocks, 
with a hook in the bight of the running part. Reeve the 
end of your rope through the upper block, and make it 
fast to the strap of the fly-block. Then make fast your 
hook to the bight of the rope, and reeve the other end 
through the fly-block for a fall. The hook is made fast 
by passing the bight of the rope through the eye of the 
hook and over the whole. 



CHAPTER IX. 

MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

To loose a sail. To set a course — Topsail — Topgallant sail — Royal — 
Skysail— Jib— Spanker— Spencer. To take in a course— Topsail— Top- 
gallant sail or royal — Skysail — Jib — Spanker. To furl a royal— Top- 
gallant sail — Topsail — Course— Jib. To stow a jib in cloth. To reef 
a topsail — Course. To turn out reefs. To set a topgallant studding- 
sail. To take in the same. To set a topmast studdingsail. To take 
in the same To set a lower studdingsail. To take in the same. 

To loose a Sail. — Lay out to the }^ard-arms and cast 
off the gaskets, beginning at the outermost and coming 
in. When the gaskets are cast off from both yard-arms, 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 47 

then let go the bunt gasket, (and jigger if there be one,) 
and overhaul the buntlines and leaehlines. In loosing a 
topsail in a gale of wind, it is better to cast off the 
quarter-gaskets, (except the one which confines the 
clew,) before those at the yard-arms. Royals and top- 
gallant sails generally have one long gasket to each yard- 
arm ; in which case it is not necessary to go out upon 
the yard, but the gaskets, after being cast off, should be 
fastened to the tye by a bowline. 

To set a Course. — Loose the sail and overhaul the 
buntlines and leaehlines. Let go the clew-gamets and 
overhaul them, and haul down on the sheets and tacks. 
If the ship is close-hauled, ease off the lee brace, slack 
the weather lift and clew-garnet, and get the tack well 
down to the water-ways. If it is blowing fresh and the 
ship light-handed, take it to the windlass. When the 
tack is well down, sharpen the yard up again by the 
brace, top it well up by the lift, reeve and haul out the 
bowline, and haul the sheet aft. 

If the wind is quartering, the mainsail is carried with 
the weather clew hauled up and the sheet taken aft. 
With yards squared, the mainsail is never carried, but 
the foresail may be to advantage, especially if the swing- 
ing booms are out ; in which case the heavy tack and 
sheet-blocks may be unhooked, and the lazy sheets 
hooked on and rove through a single tail block, made fast 
out on the boom. This serves to extend the clews, and 
is called a pazaree to the foresail. 

To set a Topsail. Loose the sail, and keep one hand 
in the top to overhaul the rigging. Overhaul well the 
buntlines, clewlines, and reef-tackles, let go the topgal- 
lant sheets and topsail braces, and haul home on the 
sheets. Merchant vessels usually hoist a little on the 
halyards, so as to clear the sail from the top, then belay 
them and get the lee-sheet chock home ; then haul home 
the weather sheet, shivering the sail by the braces, to help 
it home, and hoist on the halyards until the leaches are 



48 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

well taut, taking a turn with the braces, if the wind is 
fresh, and slacking them as the yard goes up. 

After the sail is set, it is sometimes necessary to get 
the sheets closer home. Slack the halyards, lee brace, 
and weather bowline, clap the watch tackle upon the lee 
sheet first, and then the weather one, shivering the sail 
by the braces if necessary. Overhaul the clewlines and 
reef-tackles, slack the topgallant sheets, and hoist the 
sail up, taut leach, by the halyards. 

To set a Topgallant Sail or Royal. — Haul home 
the lee sheet, having one hand aloft to overhaul the clew- 
lines, then the weather sheet, and hoist up, taut leech, by 
the halyards. While hauling the sheets home, if on the 
wind, brace up a little to shake the sail, take a turn with 
the weather brace, and let go the lee one ; if before the 
wind, let go both braces ; and if the wind is quartering, 
the lee one. 

To set a Flying Skysail. — If bent in the manner 
described in this book, let go the brails and royal stay* 
and hoist on the halyards. 

To set a Jib, Flying- Jib, or Fore Topmast Stay- 
sail. — Cast off the gasket, hoist on the halyards, and 
trim down the sheet. 

To set a Spanker. — Hoist on the topping lifts, make 
fast the weather one, and overhaul the lee one. Let 
go the brails, and haul out on the outhaul. Be careful 
not to let the throat brail go before the head and foot. 
Trim the boom by the sheets and guys, and the gaff by 
the vangs. 

To set a Spencer. — Take the sheet to the deck on 
the lee side of the stay, let go the brails, haul on the 
sheet, and trim the gaff by the vangs. 

To take in a Course. — If the wind is light and 
there are hands enough, let go the tack, sheet, and bow- 
line, and haul up on the clew -garnets, buntlines, and 
leachlines, being careful not to haul the buntlines taut 
until the clews are well up. If light-handed, or the 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 49 

wind fresh, let go the bowline and ease off the tack, 
(being careful to let the bowline go before the tack,) 
and haul up the weather clew. Then ease off the sheet 
and haul up on the lee clew-garnet, and the buntlines 
and leachlines. 

To take in a Topsail. — The usual mode of taking 
in a topsail when coming to anchor-in light winds, is to 
lower away on the halyards and haul down on the clew- 
lines and reef -tackles, (if the latter, run in the way 
described in this book,) until the yard is down by the 
lifts, rounding in on the weather brace, and hauling taut 
to leeward, when the yard is square. Then let go the 
sheets and haul up on the clewlines and buntlines. A 
better way is to start the sheets, clew about one-third 
up, then let go the halyards and take the slack in. 

If the wind is fresh, and the yard braced up, lower 
away handsomely on the halyards, get the yard down 
by the clewlines and reef- tackles, rounding in on the 
weather brace, and steadying the yard by both braces. 
Then let go the weather sheet and haul up to windward 
first. The weather clew being up, let go the lee sheet 
and haul up by the clewline and buntlines, keeping the 
clew in advance of the body of the sail. 

Sometimes, if the weather brace cannot be well 
rounded in, as if a ship is weak-handed, the sail may 
be clewed up to leeward a little, first. In which case, 
ease off the lee sheet, and haul up on the clewline ; ease 
off the lee brace and round the yard in ; and when the 
lee clew is about half up, ease off the weather sheet and 
haul the weather clew chock up. Haul the buntlines 
up after the weather clew, and steady the yard by the 
braces. There is danger in clewing up to leeward 
first that the sail may be shaken and jerked so as to split, 
before the weather clew is up ; whereas, if clewed up to 
windward first, the lee clew will keep full, until the lee 
sheet is started. 

When coming to anchor, it is the best plan to haul 
the clews about half up before the halyards are let go. 

E 



50 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

In taking in a close- reefed topsail in a gale of wind, 
the most general practice is to clew up to wdndward, 
keeping the sail full; then lower away the halyards, 
and ease off the lee sheet ; clew the yard down, and haul 
up briskly on the lee clewline and the buntlines, bracing 
aback the moment the lee sheet is started. 

To take in a Topgallant Sail or Royal. — If the 
wind is light, and from aft or quartering, let go the 
halyards and clew down, squaring the yard by the 
braces. Then start the sheets and clew up, and haul 
up the buntlines. If the yard is braced up, the old 
style was to let go the halyards, clew down and round in 
on the weather brace ; clewing up to windward first, 
then start the lee clew, and haul up the lee clewline 
and the buntlines. But the practice now is to clew up 
to leeward first, which prevents the slack of the sail 
getting too much over to leeward, or foul of the clewline 
block under the yard, as it is apt to, if the weather clew 
is hauled up first. 

If the wind is very fresh, and the vessel close-hauled, 
a good practice is to let go the lee sheet and halyards, 
and clew down, rounding in at the same time on the 
weather brace. Then start the w T eather sheet, and haul 
the weather clew chock up. Haul up the buntlines, 
and steady the yard by the braces. 

To take in a Skysail. — If bent in the way described 
in this book, which is believed to be the most convenient, 
let go the halyards, haul down on the brails, and haul 
taut the royal stay. 

To take in a Jib. — Let go the halyards, haul on the 
downhaul, easing off the sheet as the halyards are let go. 

To take in a Spanker. — Ease off the outhaul, and 
haul well up on the lee brails, taking in the slack of the 
weather ones. Mind particularly the lee throat-brail. 
Haul the boom amid-ships, and steady it by the guys, 
lower the topping lifts, and square the gaff by the vangs. 

To furl a Royal. — This sail is usually furled by 
one person, and is that upon which green hands are 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 51 

practised. For the benefit of beginners, I will give par- 
ticular directions. When you have got aloft to the 
topgallant mast-head, see, in the first place, that the 
yard is well down by the lifts, and steadied by the 
braces ; then see that both clews are hauled chock up 
to the blocks, and if they are not, call out to the officer 
of the deck, and have it done. Then see your yard-arm 
gaskets clear. The best way is to cast them off from 
the tye, and lay them across between the tye and the 
mast. This done, stretch out on the weather yard-arm, 
get hold of the weather leach, and bring it in to the 
slings taut along the yard. Hold the clew up with one 
hand, and with the other haul all the sail through the 
clew, letting it fall in the bunt. Bring the weather clew 
a little over abaft the yard, and put your knee upon it. 
Then stretch out to leeward, and bring in the lee leach 
in the same manner, hauling all the sail through the 
clew, and putting the clew upon the yard in the same 
way, and holding it there by your other knee. Then 
prepare to make up your bunt. First get hold of the 
foot-rope, and lay it on the yard and abaft ; then take 
up the body of the sail, and lay it on the yard, seeing 
that it is all fairly through the clews. Having got all 
the sail upon the yard, make a skin of the upper part of 
the body of the sail, large enough to come well down 
abaft and cover the whole bunt when the sail is furled. 
Lift the skin up, and put into the bunt the slack of the 
clews (not too taut), the leach and foot- rope, and the 
body of the sail ; being careful not to let it get forward 
under the yard, or hang down abaft. Then haul your 
bunt well upon the yard, smoothing the skin, and bring- 
ing it down well abaft, and make fast the bunt-gasket 
round the mast, and the jigger, if there be one, to the 
tye. The glut will always come in the middle of the 
bunt, if it is properly made up. Now take your weather 
yard-arm gasket and pass it round the yard three or 
four times, haul taut, and make it fast to the mast ; 
then the lee one in the same manner. Never make 
e2 



52 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

a long gasket fast to its own part round the yard, for it 
may work loose, and slip out to the yard-arm. Always 
pass a gasket over the yard and down abaft, w T hich will 
help to bring the sail upon the yard. 

A Topgallant Sail is furled in the same manner, 
except that it usually requires two men, in a large vessel; 
in which case, each man takes a yard-arm, and they 
make the bunt up together. If there are buntlines and 
a jigger, the bunt may be triced well up, by bending the 
jigger to the bight of a buntline, and having it hauled 
taut on deck. 

To furl a Topsail or Course. — The sail being 
hauled up, lay out on the yard, the two most expe- 
rienced men standing in the slings, one on each side the 
mast, to make the bunt up. The light hands lay out to 
the yard-arms, and take the leach up and bring it taut 
along the yard. In this way the clews are reached and 
handed to the men in the bunt, and the slack of the sail 
hauled through them and stowed away on and abaft the 
yard. The bunt being made up fairly on the yard 
against the mast, and the skin prepared, let it fall a 
little forward, and stow all the body of the sail, the 
clews, bolt-rope, and blocks, away in it ; then, as many 
as can get hold, lend a hand to haul it well upon the 
yard. Overhaul a buntline a little, bend the jigger to 
it, and trice up on deck. Bring the skin down well 
abaft, see that the clews are not too taut, pass the bunt 
gasket, cast the jigger off, and make it fast slack to the 
tye. Then pass the yard-arm gaskets, hauling the sail 
well upon the yard, and passing the turns over the yard, 
and down abaft. If the sail has long gaskets, make 
them fast to the tye ; if short, pass them in turns close 
together, and make them fast to their own parts, jammed 
as well as possible. 

To Furl a Jib. — Go out upon the weather side of 
the boom. See your gasket clear for passing. The 
handiest wa}' usually is, to make it up on its end, take a 
hitch over the whole with the standing part, and let it 




MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 53 

hang. Haul the sail well upon the boom, getting the 
clew, and having the sheet pennant hauled amidships. 
Cast the hitch off the gasket, take it in your hand, and 
pass two or three turns, beginning at the head ; haul 
them taut ; and so on to the clew. Pass the turns over 
and to windward. This will help to bring the sail upon 
the yard and to windward. Make the end fast to the 
stay, to the withe, or to the boom inside the cap, in any 
way that shall keep it from slipping back, which it 
might do if made fast to its own part round the boom. 
If there is but one hand on the boom, the first turns 
may be hauled taut enough to keep the sail up for the 
time ; then, after the gasket is fast, go out to the head, 
and haul each turn well taut, beating the sail down with 
the hand. Be careful to confine the clew well. 

To stow a Jib in Cloth. — Haul the jib down snugly, 
and get it fairly up on the boom. Overhaul the after 
leach until you come to the first straight cloth. Gather 
this cloth over the rest of the sail on the boom, stopping 
the outer end of the cloth with a rope-yarn round the 
jib stay. If the jib halyards are double, stop the block 
inside the sail. Cover the sail well up with the cloth, 
stopping it at every two feet with the rope-yarns round 
the sail and boom. If you are to lie in port for a long 
time, cast off the pennant, stow the clew on the boom, 
snugly under the cloth, which will be stopped as before 
with ropeyarns. 

To reef a Topsail. — Round in on the weather-brace, 
ease off the halyards, and clew the yard down by the 
clewlines and reef-tackles. Brace the yard in nearly to 
the wind, and haul taut both braces. Haul out the reef- 
tackles, make fast, and haul taut the buntlines. Before 
going upon the yard, see that it is well down by the lifts. 
Let the best men go to the yardarms, and the light hands 
remain in the slings. Cast adrift the weather earing, 
pass it over the yard-arm outside the lift, down abaft and 
under the yard, and up through the reef-cringle. Haul 
well out, and take a round-turn with the earing round 



54 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

the cringle. Then pass several turns round the yard 
and through the cringle, hauling them well taut, passing 
the turns over the yard, down abaft and under, and up 
through the cringle. Having expended nearly all the 
earing, hitch the remainder round the two first parts, 
that go outside the lift, jamming them together and 
passing several turns round them both to expend the 
rope. The bare end may be hitched to these two parts 
or to the lift. The men on the yard light the sail out 
to windward by the reef-points, to help the man at the 
weather yard-arm in hauling out his earing. As soon 
as the weather earing is hauled out and made secure by 
a turn or two, the word is passed — u Haul out to lee- 
ward," and the lee earing is hauled out till the band is 
taut along the yard, and made fast in the same manner. 
Then the men on the yard tie the reef points with square 
knots, being careful to take the after points clear of the 
topgallant sheets. 

In reefing, a good deal depends upon the way in which 
the yard is laid. If the yard is braced too much in, the 
sail catches flat aback and cannot be hauled out, besides 
the danger of knocking the men off the foot-ropes. The 
best way is to shiver the sail well till the yard is down, 
then brace it in with a slight full, make the braces fast, 
and luff up occasionally and shake the sail while the 
men are reefing. If you are going before the wind, you 
may, by putting your helm either way, and bringing the 
wind abeam, clew the yard down as the sail lifts, and 
keep her in this position, with the yard braced sharp up, 
until the sail is reefed ; or, if you are not willing to keep 
off from your course, and the wind is very fresh, clew 
down and clew up, and reef as before directed. 

All the reefs are taken in the same way except the 
close reef. In close reefing, pass your earing under the 
yard, up abaft and over, and down through the cringle. 
Pass all your turns in the same manner ; and bring the 
reef-band well under the yard in knotting, so as to cover 
the other reefs. 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 55 

As soon as the men are off the yard, let go the reef- 
tackles, clewlines, buntlines, and topgallant sheets ; man 
the halyards, let go the lee brace, slack off the weather 
one, and hoist away. When well up, trim the yard by 
the braces, and haul out the bowlines. A reefed sail 
should never be braced quite sharp up, and if there is a 
heavy sea and the vessel pitches badly, ease the braces a 
little, that the yard may play freely, and do not haul the 
leach too taut. 

To reef a Course. — As a course generally has no 
reef-tackle, you must clew it up as for furling, according 
to the directions before given, except that the clews are 
not hauled chock up. Lay out on the yard and haul out 
the earings, and knot the points as for the first reef of 
a topsail, seeing them clear of the topsail sheets. If a 
long course of bad weather is anticipated, as in doubling 
the southern capes, or crossing the Atlantic in winter, 
reef-tackles are rove for the courses. 

If there are any studdingsail booms on the lower or 
topsail yards, they must be triced up before reefing. 

To turn out Reefs. — For a topsail, haul taut the 
reef-tackles and buntlines, settle a little on the halyards, if 
necessary ; lay aloft, and cast off all the reef-points, begin- 
ning at the bunt and laying out. Be careful to cast all 
off before slacking up the earing ; for, when there is more 
than one reef, a point may be easily left, if care is not 
taken. Have one hand at each earing, cast off all the 
turns but enough to hold it, and when both earings are 
ready, ease off both together. Pass the end of the earing 
through the cringle next above its own, and make it fast 
slack to its own part by a bowline knot. Lay in off the 
yard, let go reef-tackles, clewlines, buntlines, and top- 
gallant sheets ; overhaul them in the top and hoist away, 
slacking the braces and trimming the yard. The reefs 
of a course are turned out a good deal in the same man- 
ner ; slacking up the sheet and tack, if necessary, and, 
when the earings are cast off, let go clew-garnets, bunt- 
lines and leachlines, board the tack, and haul aft the sheet. 



56 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

To set a Topgallant Studdingsail. — This sail is 
always set from the top; the sail, together with the tack 
and halyards in two coils, being kept in the top. If there 
is but one hand aloft, take the end of the halyards aloft, 
abaft everything, and reeve it up through the block at 
the topgallant mast-head, and down through the sheave- 
hole or block at the topgallant yardarm, abaft the sheet, 
and bring it into the top, forward of the rigging, and 
make it fast to the forward shroud. Take the end of 
your tack out on the topsail yard, under the brace, reeve 
it up through the block at the end of the topgallant stud- 
dingsail boom, bring it in over the brace, overhauling 
a plenty of it so as to let the boom go out, and hitch it 
to the topmast rigging while you rig your boom out. 
Cast off the heel-lashing and rig your boom out to 
the mark, slue the boom with the block up and make 
fast round the yard. (The easiest way of passing the 
boom-lashing is to take it over the yard and put a bight 
up between the head rope and yard ; then take the end 
back over the yard and boom and through the bight, and 
haul taut. This may be done twice, if necessary, and 
then hitch it round all parts, between the boom and the 
yard.) The boom being rigged out and fast, take the 
end of your tack down into the top and hitch it to the 
forward shroud. Then take the coil of the tack and 
throw the other end down on deck, outside of the rig- 
ging and backstays. (It is well, in throwing the coil 
down, to keep hold of the bight with one hand ; for other- 
wise, if they should miss it on deck, you will have to rig 
in your boom.) Throw down the hauling end of your 
halyards abaft and inside everything. Now get your sail 
clear for sending out. Lay the yard across the top, for- 
ward of the rigging, with the outer end out. Bend your 
halyards to the yard by a fisherman's bend, about one - 
third of the way out. Take your tack under the yard 
and bend it by a sheet-bend to the outer clew, and pay 
down the sheet and downhaul through the lubber-hole. 
All being clear for hoisting, sway away on the halyards 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 57 

on deck, the men in the top guying the sail by the sheet 
and downhaul, the latter being hauled taut enough to 
keep the outer clew up to the inner yard-arm. (Some- 
times it is well to make up the downhaul, as is done 
with the downhaul of the topmast studdingsail.) When 
the sail is above the brace, haul out on the tack, sway 
the yard, chock up by the halyards, and trim the sheet 
down. Make the end of the downhaul fast slack. 

A weather topgallant or topmast studdingsail should 
be set abaft the sail, and a lee one forward of the sail. 
Therefore, in setting a lee topgallant studdingsail, it is 
well to send it out of the top with a turn in it, that is, 
with the inner yard-arm slued forward and out, so that 
when the tack and sheet are hauled upon, the inner yard- 
arm will swing forward of the topgallant sail. 

Small-sized vessels have no downhaul to the topgallant 
studdingsails. This saves confusion, and is very well if 
the sail is small. 

To take in a Topgallant Studdingsail. — Let go 
the tack and clew up the downhaul, dipping the yard 
abaft the leach of the topgallant sail, if it is forward. 
Lower away handsomely on the halyards, hauling down 
on the sheet and downhaul. When the yard is 
below the topsail brace, lower roundly and haul into the 
top, forward of the rigging. 

If the sail is taken in temporarily, stand the yard up 
and down, and becket it to the middle topmast shroud ; 
make the sail up, hitch the bight of the tack and halyards 
to the forward shroud, and haul up the sheet and down- 
haul. If everything is to be stowed away, unreeve the 
tack and halyards, and coil them away separately in the 
top ; also coil away the sheets and downhaul, and stop 
all the coils down by hitches passed through the slats of 
the top. Rig the boom in and make it fast to the tye. 
Sometimes the halyards are unrove from the yard-arm 
and rounded up to the span-block, with a knot in their end. 

To set a Topmast Studdingsail. — The topmast 
studdingsail halyards are generally kept coiled away in 



58 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

the top. Take the end up, reeve it up through the span- 
block at the cap, and out through the block at the top- 
sail yard-arm, and pay the end down to the forecastle, 
forward of the yard and outside the bowline. Pay the 
hauling end down through the lubber-hole. Reeve your 
lower halyards. These are usually kept coiled away in 
the top, with the pennant, which hooks to the cap of the 
lower mast. Hook the pennant, reeve the halyards up 
through the pennant block, out through the block on the 
boom-end, and pay the end down to the forecastle. Pay 
the hauling end down forward of the top. (Some ves- 
sels keep their topmast studdingsail tacks coiled away at 
the yard-arm, and hitched down to the boom and yard. 
This is a clumsy practice, and saves no time or trouble. 
The best way is to unreeve them whenever the boom is 
to be rigged in, and coil them away in the bow of the 
long-boat, or elsewhere. There is no more trouble, and 
less liability to confusion, in reeving them afresh, than in 
coiling them away and clearing again on the yard-arms.) 
Carry your tack outside the backstays and lower rigging, 
clear of everything, out upon the lower yard under the 
brace; reeve it forward through the tack-block at the 
boom-end, first sluing the block up, and pay the end 
down forward of the yard. Rig the boom out to the 
mark and lash it. Get the studdingsail on the forecastle 
clear for setting. Bend the halyards to the yard, about 
one half of the way out. Hitch the end of the down- 
haul over the inner yard-arm by the eye in its end, reeve 
it through the lizard on the outer leach, and through the 
block at the outer clew abaft the sail. Bend the tack to 
the outer clew, and take a turn with the sheet. Clew 
the yard down by the downhaul, and make the downhaul 
up just clear of the block, by a catspaw doubled and the 
bight of the running part shoved through the bight of all 
the parts, so that hauling on it may clear it and let the 
yard go up. Hoist on the halyards until the sail is 
above the lower yard, guying it by the sheet and down- 
haul, then haul out on the tack until the clew is chock 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 59 

out to the boom-end, hoist on the halyards, jerking the 
downhaul clear, and trim down the sheet. 

To take in a Topmast Studdingsail. — Lower away 
handsomely on the halyards, clewing the yard down to 
the outer clew by the downhaul. Slack up the tack, 
and lower away on the halyards, hauling down well on 
the sheet and downhaul, till the sail is in upon the fore- 
castle. The sail may be made up on the forecastle, and 
the end of the tack and halyards made fast forward, if it 
is to be soon set again. If not, cast off all, unreeve your 
tack, hauling from aft, and coil it away. Unreeve the 
halyards, or round them up to the block at the mast- 
head with a knot in their end. Rig the boom in, and 
lash it to the slings. 

To set a lower Studdingsail. — Before rigging out 
the topmast studdingsail boom, the lower halyards should 
always be rove, as before directed. Reeve the inner 
halyards out through a small single block under the 
slings of the lower yard, and through another about two 
thirds of the w r ay out, and pay the end down upon the 
forecastle for bending. Get the studding-sail clear, bend 
the outer halyards to the yard, and the inner halyards 
to the inner cringle at the head of the sail. Reeve the 
outhaul through the block at the swinging boom end, 
and bend the forward end to the outer clew of the sail. 
Hook the topping-lift and forward guy to the boom, and 
top up on it. Haul on the forward guy, and ease off the 
after one, slacking away a little on the topping- lift, until 
the boom is trimmed by the lower yard ; then make fast 
the guys and lift. Haul well taut the fore-lift and 
brace, and belay. Take a turn with one sheet, hoist 
away on the outer halyards, and when about one third 
up, clear the downhaul, haul chock out on the outhaul, 
and hoist well up by the halyards, which will serve as a 
lift to the topmast studdingsail boom ; and then set taut 
on the inner halyards and trim down the sheet. The 
practice now is, and it is found most convenient, to set 
the sail before rigging out the boom ; then clap on the 



60 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

outhaul and forward guy, and trim the boom by the 
lower yard. 

To take in a lower Studdingsail. — Let go the 
outhaul, and haul on the clewline till the outer clew is 
up to the yard. Then lower away the outer halyards, 
and haul in on the sheet and clewline. When the sail is 
in over the rail, lower away the inner halyards. If the 
booms are to be rigged in, cast off all the gear ; making 
the bending end of the outhaul fast in-board, and un- 
reeving the outer and inner halyards, or running the 
outer up to the pennant block, and the inner up to the 
yard block, with knots in their ends. Ease off the for- 
ward guy with a turn, haul in on the after guy, topping 
well up by the lift, and get the boom alongside. Rig in 
the topmast studdingsail boom before unreeving the outer 
halyards. It is a convenient practice, when the swinging 
boom is alongside, to hook the topping-lift to a becket or 
thimble at the turning in of the fore swifter, and the 
forward guy to a strap and thimble on the spritsail yard. 

In strong winds it is well to have a boom-brace-pen- 
nant fitted to the topmast studdingsail boom-end with a 
single block, making a whip purchase, the hauling part 
leading to the gangway, and belaying at the same pin 
with the tack ; or else, the brace may lead to the gang- 
way, and the tack be brought in through blocks on the 
yard, and lead down on deck, beside the mast. The 
former mode is more usual. 

The topmast studdingsail is sometimes made with a 
reef in it, to be carried with a single reefed topsail ; in 
which case it is reefed on deck to the yard and sent out 
as before. 




61 



CHAPTER X. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP WORKING A SHIP. 

Action of the water upon the rudder. Headway. Sternway. Action 
of the wind upon the sails. Head-sails. After-sails. Centre of 
gravity or rotation. Turning a ship to or from the wind. 

A ship is acted upon principally by the rudder and 
sails. When the rudder is fore-and-aft, that is, on a 
line with the keel, the water runs by it, and it has no 
effect upon the ship's direction. When it is changed 
from a right line to one side or the other, the water 
strikes against it, and forces the stern in an opposite 
direction. For instance, if the helm is put to the star- 
board, the rudder is put off the line of the keel, to port. 
This sends the stern off to the starboard, and, of course, 
the ship turning on her centre of gravity, her head goes 
in an opposite direction, to port. If the helm is put to 
port, the reverse will follow, and the ship's head will 
turn off her course to starboard. Therefore the helm is 
always put in the opposite direction from that in which 
the ship's head is to be moved. 

Moving the rudder from a right line has the effect of 
deadening the ship's way more or less, according as it is 
put at a greater or less angle with the keel. A ship 
should therefore be so balanced by her sails that a slight 
change of her helm may answer the purpose. 

If a vessel is going astern, and the rudder is turned off 
from the line of the keel, the water, striking against the 
back of the rudder, pushes the stern off in the same direc- 
tion in which the rudder is turned. For instance, if stern- 
way is on her, and the helm is put to the starboard, the 
rudder turns to port, the water forces the stern in the 
same direction, and the ship's head goes off to the star- 
board. Therefore, when sternway is on a vessel, put the 



62 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF WORKING A SHIP. 

helm in the same direction in which the head is to be 
turned. 

A current or tide running astern, that is, when the 
ship's head is towards it, will have the same effect on the 
rudder as if the ship were going ahead ; and when it runs 
forward, it will be the same as though the ship were 
going astern. 

It will now be well to show how the sails act upon a 
ship, with reference to her centre of rotation. Suppose 
a vessel to be rigged with three sails, one in the forward 
part, one at the centre, and the third at the after part, 
and her left or larboard side to be presented to the wind, 
which we will suppose to be abeam, or at right angles 
with the keel. If the head sail only were set, the effect 
would be that the wind would send the vessel a little 
ahead and off to the starboard on her centre of rotation, 
so as to bring her stern slowly round to the wind. If 
the after sail only were set, the vessel would shoot ahead 
a little, her stern would go off to the starboard and her 
head come up into the w r ind. If only the centre sail 
were set, the effect w r ould be the same as if all three of 
the sails were set, and she would go ahead in a straight 
line. So far, we have supposed the sails to be set full ; 
that is, with their tacks forward and their sheets aft. If 
they were all set aback, the vessel would go astern 
nearly, if the rudder were kept steady, in a straight line. 
If the head sail only is set and aback, she will go astern 
and round upon her axis, with her head from the wind, 
much quicker than if full. So, if the after sail alone 
were set and aback, she would go astern, and her head 
would come suddenly into the wind. 

These principles of the wind acting upon the sails, 
and the water upon the rudder, are the foundation of 
the whole science of working a ship. In large vessels 
the sails are numerous, but they may all be reduced to 
three classes, viz., head sails, or those which are forward 
of the centre of gravity or rotation, having a tendency 
to send the ship's head off from the wind; after sails, 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF WORKING A SHIP. 63 

or those abaft the centre of rotation, and which send the 
stern off and the head toward the wind ; and lastly, 
centre sails, which act equally on each side the centre 
of rotation, and do not turn the ship off her course one 
way or the other. These classes of sails, if set aback, 
tend to stop the headway, and send the ship astern, and 
also to turn her off her course in the same direction as 
when set full, but with more rapidity. The further a 
sail is from the centre of rotation, the greater is its ten- 
dency to send the ship off from the line of her keel. 
Accordingly, a jib is the strongest head sail, and a 
spanker the strongest after sail. 

The centre of rotation is not necessarily at the centre 
of the ship. On the contrary, as vessels are now built, 
it may not be much abaft that part of the deck to which 
the main tack is boarded. For the main breadth, or 
dead flat, being there, the greatest cavity will also be there, 
and of course the principal weight of the cargo should 
centre there, as being the strongest part. Therefore, 
the centre of rotation will greatly depend upon proper 
stowage. If the ship is much by the stern, the centre 
of rotation will be carried aft ; and if by the head, it will 
be carried forward. The cause of this is, that when 
loaded down by the stern, her after sails have but little 
effect to move her stern against the water, and a very 
slight action upon the forward sails will send her head 
off to leeward, as she is there light and high in the air. 
Accordingly, to keep her in a straight line, the press of 
sail is required to be further aft, or, in other words, the 
centre of rotation is further aft. If a ship is loaded down 
by the head, the opposite results follow, and more head 
and less after sail is necessary. 

A ship should be so stowed, and have her sails so 
trimmed, that she may be balanced as much as possible, 
and not be obliged to carry her helm much off the line 
of her keel, which tends to deaden her way. If a ship 
is stowed in her best sailing trim, and it is found, when 
on a wind, that her head tends to windward, obliging 



64 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF WORKING A SHIP. 

her to carry a strong weather-helm, it may be remedied 
by taking in some after sail, or adding head sail. So, 
if she carries a lee helm, that is, if her head tends to fly 
off from the wind, it is remedied by taking in head or 
adding after sail. Sometimes a ship is made to carry a 
weather helm by having too much head-sail set aloft. 
For, if she lies much over on a wind, the square sails 
forward have a tendency to press her downwards and raise 
her proportionally abaft, so that she meets great resist- 
ance from the water to leeward under her bows, while 
her stern, being light, is easily carried off; which, of 
course, requires her to carry a weather helm. 

The general rules, then, for turning a ship are these : 
to bring her head to the wind, put the helm to leeward 
and bring the wind to act as much as possible on the 
after sails, and as little as possible on the head sails. 
This may be done without taking in any sail, by letting 
go the head sheets, so that those sails may lose their 
wind, and by pointing the head yards to the wind, so as 
to keep the head sails shaking. At the same time keep 
the after sails full, and flatten in the spanker sheet ; or, 
if this is not sufficient, the after sails may be braced 
aback, which will send the stern off and the head to 
windward. But as this makes back sails of them, and 
tends to send the vessel astern, there should be either 
head or centre sails enough filled to counteract this and 
keep headway upon her. On the other hand, to turn 
the head off from the wind, put the helm to windward, 
shiver the after sails, and flatten in the head sheets. 
Brace the head yards aback if necessary, being careful 
not to let her lose headway if it can be avoided. 

The vessel may be assisted very much in going off 
or coming to, by setting or taking in the jib and 
spanker; which, if the latter is fitted with brails, are 
easily handled. 



65 



CHAPTER XI. 

TACKING, WEARING, BOXING, ETC. 

Tacking without fore-reaching. Tacking against a heavy sea. Haul- 
ing off all. To trim the yards. Flattening in. Missing stays. 
Wearing— under courses — under a mainsail — under hare poles. Box- 
hauling— short round. Club-hauling. Drifting in a tide-way. Back- 
ing and filling in do. Clubbing in do. 

Tacking. — Have the ship so suited with sails that 
she may steer herself as nearly as possible, and come to 
with a small helm. Keep her a good full, so that she 
may have plenty of headway. Beady, About ! Send all 
hands to their stations. The chief mate and one, two, 
or more of the best men, according to the size of the 
vessel, on the forecastle, to work the head sheets and 
bowlines and the fore tack ; two or more good men (one 
usually a petty officer, or an older and trusty seaman) 
to work the main tack and bowline. The second mate 
sees the lee fore and main braces clear and ready for 
letting go, and stands by to let go the lee main braces, 
which may all be belayed to one pin. Put one hand to 
let go the weather cross-jack braces, and others to haul 
in to leeward ; the cook works the fore sheet, and the 
steward the main ; station one or more at the spanker 
sheet and guys; and the rest at the weather main 
braces. 

Ease the helm down gradually ; Helms a lee ! and let 
go the jib sheet and fore sheets. As soon as the wind 
is parallel with the yards, blowing directly upon the 
leaches of the square sails, so that all is shaking, Raise 
tacks and sheets! and let go the fore and main tacks and 
main sheet, keeping the fore and main bowline fast. As 
soon as her head is within a point or a point and a half 
of the wind, Mainsail haul! let go the lee main and 
weather cross-jack braces, and swing the after yards 



66 TACKJNG, WEARING, BOXING, ETC. 

round. While she is head to the wind, and the after 
sails are becalmed by the head sails, get the main tack 
down and sheet aft, and right your helm, using it after- 
wards as her coming to or falling off requires. As soon 
as she passes the direction of the w T ind, shift your jib 
sheets over the stays, and when the after sails take full, 
or when she brings the wind four points on the other 
bow, and you are sure of paying off sufficiently, Let go 
and haul! brace round the head yards briskly, down 
fore tack and aft the sheet, brace sharp up and haul your 
bowlines out, and trim down your head sheets. 

It is best to haul the mainsail just before you get the 
wind right ahead, for then the wind, striking the weather 
leaches of the after sails, forces them round almost with- 
out the braces, and you will have time to brace up and 
get your tack down and sheet aft, when she has payed 
off on the other side. 

If she falls off too rapidly while swinging your head 
yards, so as to bring the wind abeam or abaft, 'Vast 
bracing ! Ease off head sheets and put your helm a-lee; 
and as she comes up, meet her and brace sharp up. If, 
on the other hand, (as sometimes happens with vessels 
which carry a strong weather helm,) she does not fall 
off after the after sails take, be careful not to haul your 
head yards until she is fully round ; and if she should 
fly up into the wind, let go the main sheet, and, if 
necessary, brail up the spanker and shiver the cross-jack 
yards. 

In staying, be careful to right your helm before she 
loses headway. 

To tack without Fore-reaching, as in a narrow 
channel, when you are afraid to keep headway. If she 
comes slowly up to windward, haul down the jib and get 
your spanker-boom well over to windward. As you 
raise tacks and sheets, let go the lee fore-topsail brace, 
being careful to brace up again as soon as she takes 
aback. Also, hoist the jib, and trim down, if necessary, 
as soon as she takes on the other side. 



TACKING, WEARING, BOXING, ETC. 67 

Tacking against a heavy Head Sea. — You are 
under short sail, there is a heavy head sea, and you 
doubt whether she will stay against it. Haul down 
the fore topmast stay sail, ease down the helm, and raise 
fore sheet. When within about a point of the wind's 
eye, let go main tack and sheet, lee braces and after 
bowlines, and Mainsail haul ! If she loses her headway 
at this time, shift your helm. As soon as she brings the 
wind on the other bow, she will fall off rapidly by reason 
of her sternway, therefore shift your helm again to meet 
her, and Let go and haul ! at once. Brace about the 
head yards, but keep the weather braces in, to moderate 
her falling off. When she gets headway, right the 
helm, and as she comes up to the wind, brace up and 
haul aft. 

Tacking by hauling of all. — This can be done 
only in a smooth sea, with a light working breeze, a 
smart vessel and strong crew. Man all the braces. 
Let her come up head to the wind, and fall off on the 
other tack, shifting the helm if she gathers sternway. 
When you get the wind about five points on the other 
bow, Haul of all ! let go all the braces and bowlines 
and swing all the yards at once. Right the helm, board 
tacks and haul aft sheets, brace up and haul aft. 

To trim the Yards when close-hauled. — In 
smooth water, with a light breeze, brace the lower 
yards sharp up, and trim the upper yards each a trifle 
in abaft the one below it. If you have a pretty stiff 
breeze, brace the topsail yard in about half a point more 
than the lower yard, and the topgallant yard half a point 
more than the topsail yard, and so on. If you have a 
strong breeze and a topping sea, and especially if reduced 
to short sail, brace in your lower yards a little, and 
the others proportionally. This will prevent the vessel 
going off bodily to leeward ; and if she labours heavily, 
the play of the mast would otherwise carry away the 
braces and sheets, or spring the yards. 

Missing Stays. — If after getting head to the wind 
f2 



03 TACKING, WEARING, BOXING, ETC. 

she comes to a stand and begins to fall off before you 
have hauled your main yard, flatten in your jib sheets, 
board fore tack, and haul aft fore sheet ; also ease off 
spanker sheet, or brail up the spanker, if necessary. 
When she is full again, trim the jib and spanker sheets, 
and when she has recovered sufficient headway, try it 
again. If, after coming head to the wind, and after the 
after yards are swung, she loses headway and refuses to 
go round, or begins to fall off on the same tack on wmich 
she was before, and you have shifted the helm without 
effect, haul up the mainsail and spanker, square the 
after yards, shift your helm again a-lee, so as to assist 
her in falling off, and brace round the head yards so as 
to box her off. As she fills on her former tack, brace up 
the after yards, brace round the head yards, sharp up all, 
board tacks, haul out and haul aft. 

Wearing. — Haul up the mainsail and spanker, put 
the helm up, and, as she goes off, brace in the after 
yards. If there is a light breeze, the rule is to keep the 
mizen topsail lifting, and the main topsail full. This 
will keep sufficient headway on her, and at the same 
time enable her to fall off. But if you have a good 
breeze and she goes off fast, keep both the main and 
mizen topsails lifting. As she goes round, bringing the 
wind on her quarter and aft, follow the wind with your 
after yards, keeping the mizen topsail lifting, and the 
main either lifting or full, as is best. After a vessel has 
fallen off much, the less headway she has the better, 
provided she has enough to give her steerage. When 
you have the wind aft, raise fore tack and sheet, square 
in the head yards, and haul down the jib. As she brings 
the wind on the other quarter, brace sharp up the after 
yards, haul out the spanker, and set the mainsail. As 
she comes to on the other tack, brace up the head yards, 
keeping the sails full, board fore tack and aft the sheet, 
hoist the jib, and meet her with the helm. 

To wear under Courses. — Square the cross-jack 
yards, ease off main bowline and tack, and haul up the 



weather c 



TACKING, WEARING, BOXING, ETC, 69 

weather clew of the mainsail. Ease off the main sheet, 
and haul up the lee clew, and the buntlines and leach- 
lines. Square the main yards and put the helm a- 
weather. As she falls off, let go the fore bowline, ease 
off the fore sheet, and brace in the fore yard. When 
she gets before the wind, board the fore and main tacks 
on the other side, and haul aft the main sheet, but keep 
the weather braces in. As she comes to on the other 
side, ease the helm, trim down the fore sheet, brace up 
and haul aft. 

To wear under a Mainsail. — Vessels lying -to 
under this sail generally wear by hoisting the fore 
topmast staysail, or some other head sail. If this 
cannot be done, brace the cross-jack yards to the wind, 
and, if necessary, send down the mizen topmast and the 
cross-jack yard. Brace the head yards full. Take an 
opportunity when she has headway, and will fall off, to 
put the helm up. Ease off the main sheet, and, as she 
falls off, brace in the main yard a little. When the 
wind is abaft the beam, raise the main tack. When she 
is dead before it, get the other main tack down as far 
as possible ; and when she has the wind on the other 
quarter, ease the helm, haul aft the sheet, and brace 
up. 

To wear under bare Poles. — Some vessels, which 
are well down by the stern, will wear in this situation, 
by merely pointing the after yards to the wind, or send- 
ing down the mizen topmast and the cross -jack yard, 
and filling the head yards ; but vessels in good trim will 
not do this. To assist the vessel, veer a good scope of 
hawser out of the lee quarter, with a buoy, or something 
for a stop-water, attached to the end. As the ship sags 
off to leeward, the buoy will be to windward, and will 
tend to bring the stern round to the wind. When she 
is before it, haul the hawser aboard. 

Box-hauling. — Put the helm down, light up the 
head sheets and slack the lee braces, to deaden her way. 
As she comes to the wind, raise tacks and sheets, and 



70 TACKING, WEARING, BOXING, ETC. 

haul up the mainsail and spanker. As soon as she 
comes head to the wind and loses her headway, square 
the after yards, brace the head yards sharp aback, and 
flatten in the head sheets. The helm, being put down 
to bring her up, will now pay her off, as she has stern- 
way on. As she goes off, keep the after sails lifting, and 
square in the head yards. As soon as the sails on the 
foremast give her headway, shift the helm. When she 
gets the wind on the other quarter, haul down the jib, 
haul out the spanker, set the mainsail, and brace the 
after yards sharp up. As she comes to on the other 
tack, brace up the head yards, meet her with the helm, 
and set the jib. 

Box- hauling short round ; sometimes called wear- 
ing short round. — Haul up the mainsail and spanker, 
put the helm hard a-weather, square the after yards, 
brace the head yards sharp aback, and flatten in the 
head sheets. As she gathers stern way, shift the helm. 
After this, proceed as in box -hauling by the former 
method. The first mode is preferable when you wish to 
stop headway as soon as possible ; as a vessel under good 
way will range ahead some distance after the sails are 
all thrown flat aback. 

Few merchant vessels are strongly enough manned to 
perform these evolutions ; but they are often of service, 
as they turn a vessel round quicker on her heel, and 
will stop her from fore-reaching when near in shore or 
when close aboard another vessel. 

Club -hauling. — This method of going about is 
resorted to when on a lee shore, and the vessel can 
neither be tacked nor box-hauled. Cock-bill your lee 
anchor, get a hawser on it for a spring, and lead it to the 
lee quarter ; range your cable, and unshackle it abaft 
the windlass. Helm '$ a-lee! and Raise tacks and sheets! 
as for going in stays. The moment she loses headway, 
let go the anchor and Mainsail haul ! As soon as the 
anchor brings her head to the wind, let the chain cable 
go, holding on to the spring ; and when the after sails 






TACKING, WEARING, BOXING, ETC. 71 

take full, cast off or cut the spring, and Let go and 
haul ! 

Drifting in a Tide -way. — As a vessel is deeper aft 
than forward, her stern will always tend to drift faster 
than her head. If the current is setting out of a river 
or harbour, and the wind the opposite way, or only 
partly across the current, you may work out by tacking 
from shore to shore; or you may let her drift out, 
broadside to the current ; or, keeping her head to the 
current by sufficient sail, you may let her drift out stern 
first; or, lastly, you may club her down. If the wind 
is partly across the current, cast to windward. If you 
work down by tacking, and the wind is at all across the 
current, be careful of the lee shore, and stay in season, 
since, if you miss stays, you may not be able to save 
yourself by wearing or box-hauling, as you might on 
the weather shore. If the channel is very narrow, or 
there are many vessels at anchor, the safest way is to 
bring her head to the current, brace the yards full, and 
keep only sail enough to give her steerage, that you may 
sheer from side to side. If there is room enough, you 
will drift more rapidly by bringing her broadside to the 
current, keeping the topsails shaking, and counteract the 
force of the current upon the stern by having the spanker 
full and the helm a-lee. You can at any time shoot her 
ahead, back her astern, or bring her head to the current, 
by filling the head yards, taking in the spanker, and 
setting the jib; filling the after yards, taking in the jib, 
and setting the spanker ; or by bracing all aback. 

Backing and filling in a Tide- way. — Counter- 
brace your yards as in lying to, and drift down broad- 
side to the current. Fill away and shoot ahead, or 
throw all aback and force her astern, as occasion may 
require. When you approach the shore on either side, 
fill away till she gets sufficient headway, and put her in 
stays or wear her round. 

Clubbing in a Tide-way. — Drift down with your 
anchor under your foot, heaving in or paying out on 



72 LYING -TO. 

your cable as you wish to increase or deaden her way. 
Have a spring on your cable, so as to present a broad- 
side to the current. This method is a troublesome and 
dangerous one, and rarely resorted to. An anchor will 
seldom drag clear, through the whole operation. 



CHAPTER XII. 



GALES OP WIND, LYiNG-TO, GETTING ABACK, BY THE 

LEE, &C. 

Lying-to — choice of sails. Scudding. Heave-to after scudding. Taken 
aback. Chapelling. Broacking-to. By the lee. 

Lying-to. — The best single sail to lie-to under, is 
generally thought to be a close-reefed maintopsail. The 
fore or the main spencer (sails which are used very much 
now instead of main and mizen staysails) may be used 
to advantage, according as a ship requires sail more before 
or abaft the centre of gravity. If a ship will bear more 
than one sail, it is thought best to separate the pressure. 
Then set the fore and main spencers ; or (if she carries 
staysails instead) the main and mizen staysail : or, if she 
is easier under lofty sail, the fore and main topsails close- 
reefed. A close-reefed main topsail, with three lower 
storm staysails ; or, with the two spencers, fore topmast 
staysail, and reefed spanker, is considered a good arrange- 
ment for lying-to. If the fore topmast staysail and 
balance-reefed spanker can be added to the two close- 
reefed topsails, she will keep some way, will go less to 
leeward, and can be easily wore round. Close-reefed 
topsails are used much more now for lying-to than the 
courses. As ships are now built, with the centre of 
gravity farther forward, and the foremast stepped more 
aft, they will lie-to under head sail better than formerly. 
Some vessels, which are well down by the stern, will 
lie-to under a reefed foresail, as this tends to press her 
down forward ; whereas, if she had much after sail, she 



SCUDDING. — HEAVING-TO. 73 

would have all the lateral resistance of the water aft, and 
would come up in the wind. In carrying most head or 
after sail, you must be determined by the trim of the 
vessel, her tendency to come to or go off, and as to 
whether the sail you use will act as a lifting or a burying 
sail. 

A topsail has an advantage over a spencer or lower 
staysail for lying-to, since it steadies the ship better, and 
counteracts the heavy weather roll, which a vessel will 
give under low and small fore-and-aft sails. 

Scudding. — The most approved sail for scudding is 
the close-reefed maintopsail, with a reefed foresail. The 
course alone might get becalmed under the lee of a high 
sea, and the vessel, losing her way, would be overtaken 
by the sea from aft ; whereas the topsail will always give 
her way enough and lift her. The foresail is of use in 
case she should be brought by the lee. Many officers 
recommend that the fore topmast staysail, or fore storm 
staysail, should always be set in scudding, to pay her off 
if she should broach-to, and with the sheets hauled flat 
aft. 

It has been thought that with the wind quartering and 
a heavy sea, a vessel is more under command with a 
close-reefed fore topsail and maintopmast staysail. The 
foretopmast staysail may also be hoisted. If the ship flies 
off and gets by the lee, the foretopsail is soon braced 
about, and, with the maintopmast staysail sheet shifted 
to the other side, the headway is not lost. 

To heave-to after Scudding. — Secure everything 
about decks, and watch a smooth time. Suppose her to 
be scudding under a close-reefed maintopsail and reefed 
foresail ; haul up the foresail, put the helm down, brace 
up the after yards, and set the mizen staysail. As she 
comes to, set the main staysail, meet her with the helm, 
brace up the head yards, and set the fore or foretopmast 
staysail. 

If your vessel labours much, ease the lee braces and the 
halyards, that everything may work fairly aloft, and let 



<4 GETTING ABACK BY THE LEE. 

her have a plenty of helm, to come to and fall off freely 
with the sea. The helmsman will often let the wheel 
fly off to leeward, taking care to meet her easily and in 
season. The sails should be so arranged as to require 
little of the rudder. 

Taken aback. — It will frequently happen, when 
sailing close-hauled, especially in light winds, from a 
shift of wind, from its dying away, or from inattention, 
that the ship will come up into the wind, shaking the 
square sails forward. In this case, it will often be suf- 
ficient to put the helm hard up, flatten in the head sheets, 
or haul their bights to windward, and brail up the 
spanker. If this will not recover her, and she continues 
to come to, box her off. Raise fore tack and sheet, 
brail up the spanker, up mainsail, brace the head- yards 
aback, haul the jib sheets to windward, and haul out the 
lee bowlines. When the after sails fill, Let go and haul! 
This manoeuvre of boxing can only be performed in good 
weather and light winds, as it usually gives a vessel 
sternway. 

If the wind has got round upon the other bow, and it 
is too late for box-hauling, square the yards fore and aft, 
keeping your helm so as to pay her off under sternway ; 
and, as the sails fill, keep the after yards shaking, and 
haul up the spanker and mainsail, squaring the head- 
yards, and shifting your helm as she gathers headway. 

Chapelling. — This operation is performed when, 
instead of coming to, you are taken aback in light winds. 
Put the helm up, if she has headway, haul up the main- 
sail and spanker, and square the after yards. Shift the 
helm as she gathers sternway, and when the after sails 
fill, and she gathers headway, shift your helm again. 
When she brings the wind aft, brace up the after yards, 
get the main tack down and sheet aft, and haul out the 
spanker as soon as it will take. The head braces are 
not touched, but the yards remain braced as before. 
The former mode of wearing, by squaring the head-yards 
when the after sails are full, has great advantages over 



ON BEAM-ENDS. 75 

chapelling, as the vessel will go off faster when the wind 
is abeam and abaft, and will come to quicker when the 
wind gets on the other side. 

Broaching-to. — This is when a vessel is scudding, 
and comes up into the wind and gets aback. For such 
an accident, the foretopmast staysail is set, which will 
act as an off-sail, so that by keeping the helm up, with 
the maintopsail (if set) braced into the wind, she will 
pay off again without getting sternway. If the close- 
reefed foretopsail is carried instead of the main, it can be 
easily filled. 

Brought by the Lee. — This is when a vessel is 
scudding with the wind quartering, and falls off so as to 
bring the wind on the other side, laying the sails aback. 
This is more likely to occur than broaching-to, espe- 
cially in a heavy sea. Suppose the vessel to be scudding 
under a close-reefed maintopsail and reefed foresail, with 
the wind on her larboard quarter. She falls off sud- 
denly and brings the wind on the starboard quarter, 
laying all aback. Put your helm hard a-starboard, raise 
fore tack and sheet, and fill the foresail, shivering the 
maintopsail. When she brings the wind aft again, meet 
her with the helm, and trim the yards for her course. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



ACCIDENTS. 



On beam-ends. Losing a rudder. A squall. A man overboard. Col- 
lision. Rules for vessels passing one another. 

On Beam-Ends. — A vessel is usually thrown upon 
her beam-ends by a sudden squall taking her, when 
under a press of sail, and shifting the ballast. She must 
be righted, if possible, without cutting away the masts. 
For, beside sacrificing them, the object can seldom be 
accomplished in that way, if the ballast and cargo have 
shifted. Carry a hawser from the lee quarter, with 



76 LOSING A RUDDER. 

spars and other good stop-waters bent to it. As the ship 
drifts well to leeward, the hawser will bring her stern to 
the wind ; but it may not cast her on the other side. If 
a spring can be got upon the hawser from the lee bow, 
and hauled upon, and the stern fast let go, this will bring 
the wind to act upon the flat part of the deck and pay 
her stern off, and assist the spring, when the sails may be 
trimmed to help her in righting. If she can be brought 
head to the wind, and the sails be taken aback, she may 
cast on the other tack. When there is anchoring ground, 
the practice is to let go the lee anchor, which may take 
the sails aback and cast her. Then the ballast and cargo 
may be righted. 

If there is no anchoring ground, a vessel may still be 
kept head to the wind, by paying a chain cable out of the 
lee hawse-hole ; or by bending a hawser to a large spar, 
which may be kept broadside-to by a span, to the centre 
of which the hawser is bent. The same operation may 
be applied to a vessel overset, and is preferable to wear- 
ing by a hawser. Make fast the hawser forward to the 
lee bow, carry the other end aft to windward and bend 
it to the spar, and launch the spar overboard. By this 
means, or by letting go an anchor, though there be no 
bottom to be reached, a vessel may often be recovered. 

Losing a Rudder. — The first thing to be done on 
losing a rudder, is to bring the ship to the wind by 
bracing up the after yards. Meet her with the head 
yards as she comes to. Take in sail forward and aft, 
and keep her hove-to by her sails. A vessel maybe 
made to steer herself for a long time, by carefully trim- 
ming the yards and slacking up the jib sheets or the 
spanker sheet a little, as may be required. 

Having got the ship by the wind, get up a hawser, 
middle it, and take a slack clove-hitch at the centre. 
Get up a cable, reeve its end through this hitch, and pay 
the cable out over the tafFrail. Having paid out about 
fifty fathoms, jam the hitch and rack it well, so that it 
cannot slip ; pay out on the cable until the hitch takes 



A SQUALL. 77 

the water; then lash the cable to the centre of the 
taffrail; lash a spare spar under it across the stern, 
with a block well secured at each end, through which 
reeve the ends of the hawser, one on each quarter, and 
reeve them again through blocks at the sides, abreast of 
the wheel. By this, a ship may be steered until a tem- 
porary rudder can be constructed. 

A rudder may be fitted by taking a spare topmast, or 
other large spar, and cutting it flat in the form of a 
stern-post. Bore holes at proper distances in that part 
which is to be the fore part of the preventer or additional 
stern-post ; then take the thickest plank on board, and 
make it as near as possible into the form of a rudder ; 
bore holes at proper distances in the fore part of it and in 
the after part of the preventer stern-post, to correspond 
with each other, and reeve rope grommets through those 
holes in the rudder and after part of the stern-post, for 
the rudder to play upon. Through the preventer stern- 
post, reeve guys, and at the fore part of them fix tackles, 
and then put the machine overboard. When it is in a 
proper position, or in a line with the ship's stern-post, 
lash the upper part of the preventer post to the upper 
part of the ship's stern-post; then hook tackles at or 
near the main chains, and bowse taut on the guys to con- 
fine it to the lower part of the preventer stern-post. 
Having holes bored through the preventer and proper 
stem-post, run an iron bolt through both (taking care 
not to touch the rudder), which will prevent the false 
stern-post from rising or falling. By the guys on the 
after part of the rudder and tackles affixed to them, the 
ship may be steered, taking care to bowse taut the tackles 
on the preventer stern-post, to keep it close to the proper 
stern-post. 

A Squall. — If you see a squall approaching, take in 
the light sails, stand by to clew down, and keep her off 
a little, if necessary. If you are taken by one, unpre- 
pared, with all sail set and close-hauled, put the helm 
hard up, let go the spanker sheet and outhaul, and the 



78 MAN OVERBOARD — COLLISION. 

main sheet. Clew up royals and topgallant sails, haul 
down flying-jib, haul up the mainsail, and clew down the 
mizen topsail. When you are before the wind, clew 
down the topsail yards, and haul out the reef-tackles. 
You may run before the squall until it moderates, or 
furl the light sails, bring by the wind, and reef. 

A Man Overboard *. — The moment the cry is 
heard, put the helm down and bring her up into the 
wind, whether she is on the wind or free, and deaden 
her headway. Throw overboard instantly life buoys, 
or, if there are none at hand, take a grating, the car- 
penter s bench, or any pieces of plank or loose spars 
there may be about decks ; and let two or three hands 
clear away a quarter boat. The best plan is, if the 
vessel was on the wind, to haul the mainsail up and 
brace aback the after yards and raise the head sheets ; 
then, having her main yard aback, she will drift down 
directly toward the man. Keep your head sails full to 
steady her, while the after ones stop her headway. 

If you are sailing free, with studdingsails set, clew up 
the lower studdingsail, brace up the head yards, haul 
forward the fore tack, and keep the head yards full, 
while you luff up to back the after ones. Lower away 
the boat as soon as it is safe, and, as the vessel will have 
turned nearly round, direct the boat with reference to 
her position when the accident happened and her pro- 
gress since. 

Collision. — If two vessels approach one another, both 
having a free wind, each keeps to the right. That is, 
the one with her starboard tacks aboard keeps on or 
luffs ; and the other, if it is necessary to alter her course, 
keeps off. So, if two vessels approach one another close- 
hauled on different tacks, and it is doubtful which is to 
windward, the vessel on the starboard tack keeps on her 
course, and the other gives way and keeps off. That is, 
each goes to the right, and the vessel with her starboard 

* See Totten's Naval Text Book, Letter xx. 



HEAVING-TO SPEAKING. 79 

tacks aboard has the preference. The only exception to 
this is, that if the vessel on the larboard tack is so much 
to windward that, in case both persist, the vessel on the 
starboard tack will strike her to leeward and abaft the 
beam ; then the vessel on the starboard tack must give 
way, as she can do it more easily than the other. 

Another rule is, that if one vessel is going dead before 
the wind and the other going free on the starboard tack, 
the latter must luiF and go under the stern of the former. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

HEAVING-TO BY COUNTER-BRACING. SPEAKING. 
SOUNDING. HEAVING THE LOG. 

Counter-bracing — This is done whenever, with a 
breeze, a vessel wishes to remain stationary, for the pur- 
pose of speaking another vessel, sounding, lowering a boat, 
or the like. If you do not wish to stop your way entirely, 
haul up the mainsail, square the main yards aback, keep- 
ing the fore and cross-jack yards full, and the foresail, 
spanker and jib set. If you wish to stop her way still 
more, back the cross- jack yards also, haul up the fore- 
sail, and put the helm a-lee. She will then fall off and 
come to, which you may regulate by the jib and spanker 
sheets ; and she may be ranged a little ahead, or 
deadened, by filling or backing the cross-jack yards. 

You may, on the other hand, back the head yards and 
fill the after yards. The former method is called heaving- 
to with the maintopsail to the mast, and the latter, with 
the foretopsail to the mast. 

Speaking. — When two vessels speak at sea, the one 
to windward heaves her maintopsail to the mast, and the 
one to leeward her fore. This is in order that the 
weather one may the more readily fill without falling off 
so as to run afoul of the other, and that the lee one may 



80 SOUNDING. 

box her head off and keep clear of the ship to windward. 
The weather one either throws all aback and drops 
astern, or fills her after yards and shoots ahead. The lee 
one shivers her after yards and boxes off. 

If the weather ship comes too near the lee one, before 
the latter has time to wear, the weather ship squares her 
head yards, drops her mainsail, braces her cross-jack 
yards sharp aback, aud puts her helm a- weather. This 
gives her stern way, and the after sails and helm keep her 
to the wind. 

If three vessels communicate at sea, the weather and 
middle ones back their main topsails, and the lee one her 
fore ; then, in case of necessity, the weather one fills her 
after yards and shoots ahead, the middle one throws all 
aback and drops astern, and the lee one shivers her after 
sails and falls off. 

Sounding. — The marks upon the lead-lines have been 
given previously, at pages 5, 6. To sound with the hand- 
lead, a man stands in the weather main channels with a 
breast-rope secured to the rigging, and throws the lead 
forward, while the vessel has headway on. If the depth 
corresponds with the marks upon the line, as if it is 5, 7, 
or 10 fathoms, he calls out, " By the mark five ! " &c. 
If it is a depth the fathoms of which have no mark upon 
the line, as 6, 8, or 9, he calls out, " By the deep six ! * 
&c. If he judges the depth to be a quarter or a half 
more than a particular fathom, as, for instance, 5, he calls 
out " And a quarter," or, u And a half, five ! " &c. If 
it is 5 and three quarters, he would say, " Quarter less 
six ! " and so on. 

To sound by the Deep-sea-lead. — Have the line 
coiled down in a tub or rack, clear for running, abreast 
of the main rigging. Carry the end of the line forward 
on the weather side, outside of everything, to the cat- 
head or the spritsail yard-arm, and bend it to the lead, 
which must be armed with tallow. One man holds the 
lead for heaving, and the others range themselves along 
the side, at intervals, each with a coil of the line in his 



SOUNDING HEAVING THE LOG. 81 

hand. An officer, generally the chief mate, should stand 
by to get the depth. All being ready, the word is given, 
" Stand by! Heave! " As soon as the man heaves the 
lead, he calls out " Watch, ho ! Watch ! " and each, man, 
as the last fake of the coil goes out of his hand, repeats, 
Watch, ho ! Watch ! " The line then runs out until it 
brings up by the lead's being on bottom, or until there 
is enough out to show that there is no bottom to be 
reached. The officer notes the depth by the line, which 
is then snatched, and the men haul it aboard, and coil it 
away fair. If the lead has been on the bottom, the arm- 
ing of tallow will bring up some of it ; by which the 
character of the soundings may be ascertained. 

The soundings, however, cannot be taken until the 
vessel's way has been stopped or deadened. For this 
purpose, before heaving the lead, either luff up and keep 
all shaking, or brace aback the main or mizen topsail, or 
both, according to your headway, keeping the head yards 
fall. If you are going free with studding-sails set, you 
may clew up the lower and boom end the topmast stud- 
dingsails, bring her up to the wind, and keep the sails 
lifting, without getting them aback. 

It has been laid down as a rule, that if the vessel sags 
much to leeward, as when under short sail in a gale of 
wind, pass the line from the weather side round the 
stern, clear of everything, and heave the lead from the 
lee side ; otherwise she would leave the lead too far to 
windward for measurement, or for recovering it again. 
But in this mode there is great danger of the line getting 
caught on the bottom or at the rudder-heel. It must be 
very deep water if a vessel cannot be managed so as to 
get soundings to windward. 

Heaving the Log. — One man holds the log-reel, upon 
which the log-line is wound, another holds the glass, 
and the officer holds the line ; and, having coiled up a 
little of the stray line, he throws the log-ship overboard 
astern, or from the lee quarter. As he throws the log-ship, 
he calls out, " Watch ! " To which the man with the 



82 COMING TO ANCHOR. 

glass answers, " Watch." As soon as the mark for the 
stray line goes off the reel, he calls out, u Turn ! * and 
the man turns the glass, answering, " Turn,'' or " Done." 
The instant the sand has run out, he calls " Out ! " or 
" Stop ! " and the officer stops the line and notes the 
marks. It is then wound up again on the reel. 



CHAPTER XV. 



COMING TO ANCHOR. 



Getting ready for port. Coming to anchor — close-hauled — free. Moor- 
ing. Flying moor. Clearing hawse. To anchor with a slip-rope. 
Slipping a cable. Coming-to at a slipped cable. 

Getting Ready for Port. — Get your anchors off the 
bows, and let them hang by the cat-stoppers and shank- 
painters. Bend your cables and overhaul a few ranges 
forward of the windlass, according to the depth of the 
anchorage and the strength of the tide or wind, and 
range the remainder that you expect to use along the 
decks, abaft the windlass. Have the boats ready for 
lowering, and a spare hawser, with some stout rope for 
kedging or warping, at hand, coiled on the hatches. 

Coming to Anchor. — If you have the wind free and 
all sail set, take in your studdingsails, make them up 
and stow them away, rig in the booms and coil away the 
gear, and have all ready in good season. You may then, 
as you draw in toward the anchorage, take in your royals 
and flying jib, furling the royals if you have time. The 
topgallant sails are next taken in, and the foresail hauled 
up. The topgallant sails may be furled or not, accord- 
ing to the strength of the wind and the number of 
hands. If you are before the wind, your mainsail will 
be hauled up, or, if the sheet is aft, haul up the lee 
clew-garnet. Get your ship under her topsails, jib and 
spanker. When near the ground, clew up the fore and 
main topsails, put the helm down, haul down the jib 



MOORING. 83 

and flatten in the spanker. If you have too much head- 
way, back the mizen topsail. Cock-bill your anchor 
and stream the buoy. When she has lost her headway, 
let go the anchor. Let hands stand by to give her chain, 
as she needs it. 

If you come into anchoring ground close-hauled, haul 
in the weather fore and main braces, and clew up. If 
the wind is light, you may square the fore and main 
yards before clewing up. This will deaden her way. If 
the wind is fresh, it would make it difficult to clew up 
the sails. Haul down the jib, and come to by the 
spanker, or mizen topsail and spanker. If the wind is 
light, she may need the mizen topsail ; if not, it may be 
taken in, and she may be brought to by the spanker. If 
she has too much headway or there is a tide setting her 
in, throw all aback. 

Mooring. — A vessel is said to be moored when she 
rides with more than one anchor, in different directions. 
The common method of mooring is, when you have come 
to with one anchor, to pay out chain and let her drop 
astern until you have out double the scope you intend to 
ride by. Then let go your other anchor. Slack up the 
cable of the latter anchor, and heave in on that of the 
first, until you have the same scope to each anchor. 
You may also moor by lowering the anchor and lashing 
it to the stern of the long-boat, and coiling away the full 
scope in the bottom of the boat. You may then pull off 
and pick out your own berth, and let go. 

If you wish to drop your second anchor in any other 
place than directly to leeward of the first, you may, 
without using your long-boat, warp the vessel over the 
berth intended for your second anchor. 

You should always moor so that you may ride with an 
open hawse in the direction from which you are liable to 
the strongest winds. If you have chain cables, you may 
moor with both cables bent to a swivel just clear of the 
hawse-hole, one chain coming in-board. In moderate 
weather, and where you are not in a strong tide- way, it 

g 2 



84 MOORING — CLEARING HAWSE. 

will generally be sufficient to let go one anchor, since, if 
you have out a good scope of chain, you will ride by the 
bight of it, and it will require a very heavy blow to 
bring a strain upon the anchor. 

In mooring, you should always have a shackle near 
the hawse-hole, for clearing hawse. If it is just abaft 
the windlass, it will be convenient in case you wish to 
slip your cable. 

A Flying Moor, sometimes called a Running Moor. 
— Have both anchors ready for letting go, with double 
the scope of chain you intend to ride by ranged for the 
w T eather anchor, and the riding scope of the lee chain. 
There are two ways of making a flying moor. One is to 
clew up everything and let go the first anchor while she 
has sufficient headway to run out the whole double 
range. When it is all out, or just before, luff sharp up, 
brace aback to stop her way, and let go the other anchor. 
Then heave in on the first and light out on the second, 
until there is the same scope to each. This mode is 
almost impracticable in a merchant vessel, where there 
is but one deck, and where the chain may have to be 
paid out over a windlass, since the headway would in 
most cases be soon stopped. 

The other mode is, to lay all flat aback, and the 
moment the headway ceases, let go your first anchor, 
paying out chain as she drops astern, until double your 
riding scope is out. Then let go your second anchor and 
heave in on the first. 

Clearing Hawse. — When a vessel is moored, she 
may swing so as to get a foul hawse ; that is, so as to 
bring one cable across the other. If one cable lies over 
the other, it is called a cross. When they make another 
cross, it is called an elbow. Three crosses make a round 
turn. The turns may be kept out of a cable by tending 
the vessel when she swings, and casting her stern one 
side or the other, by the helm, jib and spanker. To clear 
hawse, trice the slack cable up by a line or a whip pur- 
chase and hook, below the turns. Lash the two cables 



SLIPPING. 85 

together just below the lowest turn. Pass a line round 
the cable from outside, following each turn, and in 
through the hawse-hole of the slack cable, and bend it to 
the shackle. Unshackle and bend a line to the end. 
Rouse the cable out through the hawse-hole, slacking 
up on the end line, and tricing up if necessary. Take 
out the turns by the first line passed in, and haul 
in again on the end line. Shackle the chain again, 
heave taut, and cast off the lashings. 

To Anchor with a Slip-rope. — This is necessary 
when you are lying in an open roadstead, where you 
must stand out to sea upon a gale coming up, without 
taking time to get your anchor. You must ride at one 
anchor. Having come to, take a hawser round from the 
quarter on the same side with your anchor, outside of 
everything, and bend its end to the cable just below the 
hawse-hole. Have a buoy triced up forward clear of 
everything, and carry the buoy-rope in through the 
hawse-hole, and round the windlass, with three turns, 
(the first turn being outside the others,) and bend it to 
the shackle, which is to be cast off when the cable is 
slipped. Have another buoy bent to the end of the 
hawser which is to be used for the slip-rope. 

To Slip a Cable, — When ready to slip, everything 
having been prepared as above, unshackle the chain abaft 
the windlass, and hoist the topsails, reefed, if necessary. 
Stream the buoy for the end of the chain, and that at the 
end of the slip-rope aft. Take good turns with the slip- 
rope round the timber-heads, at the quarter. Hoist the 
fore-topmast staysail and back the fore-topsail, hauling 
in the braces, on the same side with the cable, so that she 
may cast to the opposite side. Fill the after yards, and 
let go the end of the cable. Hold on to the slip-rope aft, 
until her head is fairly off; then let go, brace full the 
head-yards, and set the spanker. 

Coming-to at a Slipped Cable. — Keep a look-out 
for your buoys. Having found them, heave-to to wind- 
ward of them, send a boat with a strong warp and bend 



86 GETTING UNDER WAY. 

it to the slip-rope buoy, take the other end to the cap- 
stan and walk the ship up to the buoy. Take the slip- 
rope through the chock, forward, and heave on it until 
you get the chain, where the slip -rope was bent to it, 
under foot. Make well fast the slip -rope, then fish the 
buoy at the end of the chain, haul up on that buoy-rope, 
and get the end of the chain. Rouse it in through the 
hawse-hole and shackle it. Heave taut, until the bend 
of the slip-rope is above the water, then take the other 
end round aft and make it fast at the quarter -port again. 
Pass in the buoy-rope for the end of the chain, and you 
are all ready for slipping again. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

GETTING UNDER WAY. 

To unmoor. Getting under way from a single anchor. To cat and fish. 
To get under way with a wind blowing directly out, and riding head to 
it ; — with a rock or shoal close astern ; — when riding head to wind and 
tide, and to stand out close-hauled ; — wind-rode, with a weather tide ; 
—tide-rode, casting to windward ;— tide-rode, wearing round. 

Unmoor. — Pay out on your riding cable, heaving in 
the slack of the other. When the other is short, trip it, 
cat and fish, and heave in on your riding cable. Instead 
of this method, the anchor which you are not riding by 
may be weighed, if it is a small one, by the long-boat. 
Send the long-boat out over the anchor, take aboard the 
buoy-rope, carrying it over the roller in the boat's stern, 
or through the end of a davit, clap the watch-tackle to 
it, and weigh it out of the ground. This done, and the 
buoy -rope and tackle secured to the boat, heave in on the 
chain on board, which will bring the anchor alongside, 
the boat approaching at the same time. When under the 
bow, cast off the fasts to the boat, heave up the anchor, 
cat and fish. 

Getting under Way from a Single Anchor. — It 



GETTING UNDER WAY. 87 

is the duty of the chief mate to see all ready forward for 
getting under w r ay ; the rigging fair for making sail, the 
cat and fish tackles rove, and the fish-davit at hand. 
Heave short on your chain and pawl the windlass. Loose 
all the sails, if the wind is light, and sheet home and 
hoist up topsails, topgallant sails, and royals. If there 
is a stiff breeze, set topsails alone, whole or reefed. You 
should always, if it will answer, cast on the opposide side 
from your anchor ; that is, if you are riding by your 
starboard anchor, cast to port. Brace your head-yards 
aback and your after-yards full for the tack you mean to 
cast upon. The sails being set, man the windlass again, 
give her a sheer with the helm, and trip your anchor. 
The mate reports when it is away. As soon as it is away, 
hoist the jib. The fore- topsail aback will pay her head 
off. Put the helm for stern-board. When her head is 
off enough, fill away the head-yards and haul out the 
spanker, shifting the helm for headway. Trim the yards 
for your course, and make sail on her. If the wind is 
light and the sea smooth, you may cat and fish your 
anchor after you get under way ; but it is best in a rough 
sea to keep the vessel hove-to until the anchor is catted 
and fished. 

To Cat and Fish an Anchor. — When the anchor is 
lifted and brought under foot, pawl the windlass, keep- 
ing a good hold on the chain. Overhaul down the cat- 
block and hook it to the ring of the anchor. Stretch 
along the cat-fall and let all hands tally on. Set taut on 
the cat-tackle and pay out a little chain. Hoist away 
the anchor to the eat-head, and belay the fall. Pass the 
cat-stopper through the ring of the anchor, through the 
chock, belay it to the cat-tail, and seize it to its own 
part. Overhaul down the fish-tackle, hook the lower 
block to the pennant, and hook the fish-hook to the 
inner fluke of the anchor. Rig out your fish-davit across 
the forecastle, and put the bight of the pennant into the 
sheave-hole. Get a guy over it, near the outer end, to 
keep it down, and another at the inner end, to keep it 



88 GETTING UNDER WAY. 

out. Get the shoe over the side, to fend off the bill of 
the anchor. Hoist the fluke well up, pass the shank- 
painter under the inner arm and shank, bring it inboard, 
and belay and stop it to the timber-heads. Rig in the 
davit, unreeve the cat-fall and fish-tackle. 

A vessel may sometimes be got under way to advan- 
tage with the jib and spanker ; particularly if the wind 
is blowing directly out of the harbonr. Heave the 
anchor up at once. When it has broken ground, hoist 
the jib, and, as she pays off, haul out the spanker. Keep 
her under this sail until the anchor is catted and fished, 
then make sail and stand out. 

To GET UNDER Way, WITH A WlND BLOWING DI- 
RECTLY OUT, AND RIDING HEAD TO IT. Suppose the 

ship to have her starboard anchor down. Heave short 
and clear away the jib, and put the helm to port. 
Heave again until the anchor is up to the bows. Cat 
and fish. When the anchor is a-weigh, hoist the jib. 
Let her pay off under the jib. When she gathers head- 
way, shift the helm, and let fall the sails. When she 
gets before it, sheet home and hoist the topsails, set the 
foresail, and haul down the jib. Make sail aloft. 

To GET UNDER Way, RIDING HEAD TO THE WlND, 
WITH A ROCK OR SHOAL CLOSE ASTERN. Suppose yOU 

wish to cast the ship on the starboard tack. Heave 
in a safe scope on the chain, and run out a kedge with 
a hawser from the starboard bow. Cast off the yard-arm 
gaskets and mast-head the topsails, keeping the bunts 
fast. Heave taut on the hawser, and brace the yards 
up for the starboard tack fore and aft, hauling the jib 
sheet to windward. Heave up the anchor, taking in the 
slack of the hawser, cat it, pass the stopper, and have 
all ready for letting go. Haul ahead on the hawser, and 
as soon as the kedge is short apeak or comes home, sheet 
home the topsails, run up the jib, and put the helm 
a-starboard. As soon as the jib fills, run the kedge up 
and take it in. When the topsails take and she gathers 
headway, draw the jib, set the spanker, board fore and 



GETTING UNDER WAY. UU 

main tacks, haul aft sheets and right the helm. If she 
falls off too rapidly when the topsails take, give her the 
spanker and mainsail, easing off the jib sheet. When she 
comes to, haul aft the jib sheet and board the fore tack. 
If, when the kedge is a- weigh, she falls off on the wrong 
side, let go the anchor. 

To GET UNDER Way, RIDING HEAD TO WlND AND TlDE, 
AND TO STAND OUT CLOSE-HAULED. Suppose VOU wish 

to cast to port. Heave short, keeping the helm a-star- 
board. Set the topsails. Brace up the after yards for 
the starboard tack, and back the head yards. Man the 
windlass and heave up the anchor. When the anchor is 
a- weigh, hoist the jib. When she has paid off sufficiently, 
fill away the head yards, shift the helm for headway, set 
the spanker, and make sail. Cat and fish, either before 
or after filling away. 

If you have no room to cast on either side, but have a 
vessel on each quarter, heave short, set the topsails, jib, 
and spanker, brace all the yards half up for the starboard 
tack, weigh the anchor, and put the helm to port. The 
tide acting on the rudder will sheer her head to starboard. 
When the sails take aback and give her sternway, the 
rudder and aftersails will act against the head sails, and 
she will drift fairly down between the two vessels. Keep 
her off or to, by the spanker and jib. When you are 
clear, cast to port ; or, haul up the spanker, shiver the 
after yards, and let her go off before it. 

To GET UNDER Way WIND-RODE, WITH A WEATHER 

Tide ; that is, a tide setting to windward. — Suppose you 
wish to cast to port. Heave short, loose the sails, and 
set the topsails. Square the after yards, and haul in the 
starboard head-braces. Heave again, and when you are 
a- weigh, put the helm to port and hoist the jib. When 
she has payed off enough, fill away the head yards and 
shift the helm for headway. 

To GET UNDER Way, TIDE-RODE, CASTING TO WIND- 
WARD. — Suppose the wind to be a little on the starboard 
bow, and you wish to cast to starboard, standing out on 



90 GETTING UNDER WAY. 

the larboard tack. Having hove short and set the top- 
sails, brace up the after yards for the larboard tack, and 
brace the head yards aback. Weigh the anchor, keeping 
your helm to port, and hauling the spanker boom well 
over to starboard. , When she comes head to the wind, 
hoist the jib, with the sheet to port. Shift the helm for 
sternway. As she falls off, draw the jib, fill the head 
yards, and shift the helm for headway. 

To GET UNDER Way, TIDE-RODE, WEARING ROUND. — 

Suppose you have the wind on your starboard quarter, 
and are obliged to wear her round and stand out on the 
larboard tack. Set the topsails, square the head yards, 
and shiver the after yards. When the anchor is a- weigh, 
put the helm hard a-starboard, and give her the foresail, 
if necessary. Having headway, she will go round on her 
keel, and you may proceed as in wearing. 

If a vessel is in a confined situation, without room to 
cast by her sails or by the tide, she may be cast by a 
spring upon her cable, leading in at that which will be 
the weather quarter. The spring may be bent to the 
ring of the anchor before it is let go, or it may be seized 
to the cable just outside the hawse-hole. 

It will be remembered that when a vessel is riding 
head to the tide, the helm is to be put as though she 
had headway; and when the tide sets from astern, as 
though she had sternway. But you should be reminded 
that when you have the wind and tide both ahead, if the 
vessel, after you weigh your anchor, goes astern faster 
than the current, the helm must be used as for stern- 
board. 



01 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 



Aback. The situation of the sails when the wind presses their 

surfaces against the mast, and tends to force the vessel astern. 
Abaft. Toward the stern of a vessel. 
Aboard. Within a vessel. 
About. On the other tack. 
Abreast. Alongside of. Side by side. 
Accommodation. (See Ladder.) 
A-cock-bill. The situation of the yards when they are topped 

up at an angle with the deck. The situation of an anchor 

when it hangs to the cathead by the ring only. 
Adrift. Broken from moorings or fasts. Without fasts. 
Afloat. Resting on the surface of the water. 
Afore. Forward. The opposite of abaft. 
Aft — After. Near the stern. 
Aground. Touching the bottom. 
Ahead. In the direction of the vessel's head. Wind ahead is 

from the direction toward which the vessel's head points. 
A-hull. The situation of a vessel when she lies with all her sails 

furled and her helm lashed a-lee. 
A-lee. The situation of the helm when it is put in the opposite 

direction from that in which the wind blows. 
All-aback. When all the sails are aback. 
All Hands. The whole crew. 
All in the wind. When all the sails are shaking. 
Aloft. Above the deck. 
Aloof. At a distance. 
Amain. Suddenly. At once. 
Amidships. In the centre of the vessel ; either with reference to 

her length or to her breadth. 
Anchor. The machine by which, when dropped to the bottom, 

the vessel is held fast. 
Anchor-watch. (See Watch.) 
An- end. When a mast is perpendicular to the deck. 
A-Peek. When the cable is hove taut so as to bring the vessel 

nearly over her anchor. The yards are a-peek when they 

are topped up by contrary lifts. 



92 DICTIONARY OP SEA TERMS. 

Apron. A piece of timber fixed behind the lower part of the 

stem, just above the fore end of the keel. A covering to the 

vent or lock of a cannon. 
Arm. Yard-arm. The extremity of a yard. Also, the lower 

part of an anchor, crossing the shank and terminating in the 

flukes. 
Arming. A piece of tallow put in the cavity and over the bottom 

of a lead-line. 
A-stern. In the direction of the stern. The opposite of a-head. 
A-taunt. (See Taunt.) 
Athwart. Across. 

A thwart-ships. Across the line of the vessel's keel. 

A thwart-hawse. Across the direction of a vessel's head. 

Across her cable. 
Atuwart-ships. Across the length of a vessel. In opposition to 

fore-and-aft. 
A-trip. The situation of the anchor when it is raised clear of the 

ground. The same as a-weigh* 
Avast, or 'Vast. An order to stop ; as, " Avast heaving !" 
A-weather. The situation of the helm when it is put in the 

direction from which the wind blows. 
A-weigh. The same as a-trip. 
Awning. A covering of canvas over a vessel's deck, or over a 

boat, to keep off sun or rain. 

Back. To back an anchor, is to carry out a smaller one ahead 

of the one by which the vessel rides, to take off some of the 

strain. 
To back a sail, is to throw it aback. 
To back and fill, is alternately to back and fill the sails. 
Backstays. Stays running from a masthead to the vessel's side, 

slanting a little aft. (See Stays. ) 
Bagpipe. To bagpipe the mizen, is to lay it aback by bringing 

the sheet to the weather mizen rigging. 
Balance-reef. A reef in a spanker or fore-and-aft mainsail, 

which runs from the outer head-earing, diagonally, to the tack. 

It is the closest reef, and makes the sail triangular, or nearly 

so. 
Bale. To bale a boat, is to throw water out of her. 
Ballast. Heavy material, as iron, lead, or stone, placed in the 

bottom of the hold, to keep a vessel from upsetting. 
To freshen ballast, is to shift it. Coarse gravel is called 

shingle ballast. 
Bank. To double bank an oar, is to have it pulled by two men. 
Bar. *' A bank or shoal at the entrance of a harbour. 

Capstan-bars are heavy pieces of wood by which the capstan is 

hove round. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 93 

Bare-poles. The condition of a ship when she has no sail set. 

Barge. A large double-banked boat, used by the commander of a 
vessel, in the navy. 

Bark, or Barque. (See Plate 4.) A three-masted vessel, hav- 
ing her fore and main masts rigged like a ship's, and her mizen 
mast like the main mast of a schooner, with no sail upon it 
but a spanker. 

Barnacle. A shell-fish often found on a vessel's bottom. 

Battens. Thin strips of wood put around the hatches, to keep 
the tarpaulin down. Also, puc upon rigging to keep it from 
chafing. A large batten widened at the end, and put upon 
rigging, is called a Scotchman. 

Beacon. A post or buoy placed over a shoal or bank to warn 
vessels off. Also as a signal-mark on land. 

Beams. Strong pieces of timber stretching across the vessel, to 
support the decks. 
On the weather or lee beam, is in a direction to windward or 

leeward, at right angles with the keel. 
On beam ends. The situation of a vessel when turned over so 
that her beams are inclined toward the vertical. 

Bear. An object bears so and so, when it is in such a direction 
from the person looking. 
To bear down upon a vessel, is to approach her from the wind- 
ward. 
To bear up, is to put the helm up and keep a vessel off from 

her course, and move her to leeward. 
To bear away, is the same as to bear up ; being applied to the 

vessel instead of to the tiller. 
To bear-a-hand. To make haste. 

Bearing. The direction of an object from the person looking. 
The bearings of a vessel, are the widest part of her below the 
plank-shear. That part of her hull which is on the water- 
line when she is at anchor and in her proper trim. 

Beating. Going toward the direction of the wind, by alternate tacks. 

Becalm. To intercept the wind. A vessel or highland to wind- 
ward is said to becalm another. So one sail becalms another. 

Becket. A piece of rope placed so as to confine a spar or another 
rope. A handle made of rope, in the form of a circle, (as the 
handle of a chest,) is called a becket. 

Bees. Pieces of plank bolted to the outer end of the bowsprit, to 
reeve the foretopmast stays through . 

Belay. To make a rope fast by turns round a pin or coil, without 
hitching or seizing it. 

Bend. To make fast. 

To bend a sail, is to make it fast to the yard. 
To bend a cable, is to make it fast to the anchor. 
j A bend, is a knot by which one rope is made fast to antoher. 



94 DICTIONARY OP SEA TERMS. 

Bends. (See Plate 3.) The strongest part of a vessel's side, to 
which the beams, knees, and foot-hooks are bolted. The part 
between the water's edge and the bulwarks. 

Beneaped. (See Neaped.) 

Bentick Shrouds. Formerly used, and extending from the fut- 
tock-staves to the opposite channels. 

Berth. The place where a vessel lies. ^ The place in which a 
man sleeps. 

Between-decks. The space between any two decks of a ship. 

Bibbs. Pieces of timber bolted to the hounds of a mast, to sup- 
port the trestle trees. 

Bight. The double part of a rope when it is folded ; in contra- 
distinction from the ends. Any part of a rope may be called 
the bight, except the ends. Also, a bend in the shore, mak- 
ing a small bay or inlet. 

Bilge. That part of the floor of a ship upon which she would 
rest if aground ; being the part near the keel which is more in 
a horizontal than a perpendicular line. 
Bilge-ways. Pieces of timber bolted together and placed under 
the bilge in launching. 

i Bilged. When the bilge is broken in. 

Bilge Water. Water which settles in the bilge. 
Bilge. The largest circumference of a cask. 

Bill, The point at the extremity of the fluke of an anchor. 

Billet-head. (See Head.) 

Binnacle. A box near the helm, containing the compass. 

Bitts. Perpendicular pieces of timber going through the deck, 
placed to secure anything to. The cables are fastened to 
them, if there is no windlass. There are also bitts to secure 
the windlass, and on each side of the heel of the bowsprit. 

Bitter, or Bitter-end. That part of the cable which is abaft 
the bitts. 

Blackwall Hitch. (See Plate 5 and page 41.) 

Blade. The flat part of an oar which goes into the water. 

Block. A piece of wood, with sheaves or wheels in it, through 
which the ropes are rove. 

Bluff. A bluff-bowed or bluff-headed vessel is one which is 
full and square forward. 

Board. The stretch a vessel makes upon one tack, when she is 
beating. 
Stern-board. When a vessel goes stern foremo3t. 
By the board. Said of masts when they fall over the side. 

Boat-hook. An iron hook with a long staff, held in the hand, by 
which a boat is kept fast to a wharf, or vessel. 

Boatswain. (Pronounced bo-s'n.) A warrant officer in the navy, 
who has charge of the rigging, and calls the crew to duty. 

Bobstays. Used to confine the bowsprit down to the stem or 
cutwater. 



DICTIONARY OP SEA TERMS. 95 

Bolsters. Pieces of soft wood, covered with canvas, placed on 

the trestle- trees, for the eyes of the rigging to rest upon. 
Bolts. Long cylindrical bars of iron or copper, used to secure or 

unite the different parts of a vessel. 
Bolt-rope. The rope which goes round a sail, and to which the 

canvas is sewed. 
Bonnet. An additional piece of canvas attached to the foot of a jib, 

or a schooner's foresail, by lacings. Taken off in bad weather. 
Boom. A spar used to extend the foot of a fore-and-aft sail or 

studding-sail. 
Boom-irons. Iron rings on the yards, through which the 

studding-sail booms traverse. 
Boot-topping. Scraping off the grass, or other matter, which 

may be on a vessel's bottom, and daubing it over with tallow, 

or some mixture. 
Bound. Wind-bound. When a vessel is kept in port by a 

head wind. 
Bow. The rounded part of a vessel, forward. 
Bower. A working anchor, the cable of which is bent and reeved 

through the hawse-hole. 
Best bower is the larger of the two bowers. (See page 4.) 
Bow-grace. A frame of old rope or junk, placed round the bows 

and sides of a vessel, to prevent the ice from injuring her. 
Bowline. (Pronounced bo-lin.) A rope leading forward from 

the leach of a square sail, to keep the leach well out when 

sailing close-hauled. A vessel is said to be on a bowline,, or 

on a taut bowline, when she is close-hauled. 
Bowline-bridle. The span on the leach of the sail to which 

the bowline is toggled. 
Bowline-knot. (See Plate 5, page 40.) 
Bowse. To pull upon a tackle. 
Bowsprit. (Pronounced bosprit.) A large and strong spar, 

standing from the bows of a vessel. (See Plate 1 . ) 
Box-hauling. Wearing a vessel by backing the head sails. (See 

page 69.) 
Box. To box the compass, is to repeat the thirty-two points of 

the compass in order. 
Brace. A rope by which a yard is turned about. 
To brace a yard, is to turn it about horizontally. 
To brace up, is to lay the yard more fore and aft. 
To brace in, is to lay it nearer square. 
To brace aback. (See Aback.) 
To brace to, is to brace the head yards a little aback, in tacking 

or wearing. 
Brails. Ropes by which the foot or lower corners of fore-and-aft 

sails are hauled up. 
Brake. The handle of a ship's pump. 



06 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Break. To break bulk, is to begin to unload. 

To break ground, is to lift the anchor from the bottom. 

To break shear, is when a vessel, at anchor, in tending, is 

forced the wrong way by the wind or current, so that she does 

not lie so well for keeping herself clear of her anchor. 
Breaker. A small cask containing water. 
Bheaming. Cleaning a ship's bottom by burning. 
Breast-fast. A rope used to confine a vessel sideways to a wharf, 

or to some other vessel. 
Breast-hooks. Knees placed in the forward part of a vessel, 

across the stem, to unite the bows on each side. (See 

Plate 3.) 
Breast-rope. A rope passed round a man in the chains, while 

sounding. 
Breech. The outside angle of a knee-timber. 
Breeching. A strong rope used to secure the breech of a gun to 

the ship's side. 
Bridle. Spans of rope attached to the leaches of square sails, to 

which the bowlines are made fast. 
Bridle-port. The foremost port, used for stowing the anchors. 
Brig. A square-rigged vessel, with two masts. An hermaphro- 
dite brig has a brig's foremast, and a schooner's mainmast. 

(See Plate 4.) 
Broach-to. To fall off so much, when going free, as to bring 

the wind round on the other quarter, and take the sails aback. 
Broadside. The whole side of a vessel. 
Broken -backed. The state of a vessel when she is so loosened 

as to droop at each end. 
Bucklers. Blocks of wood made to fit in the hawse-holes, or holes 

in the half-ports, when at sea. Those in the hawse-holes are 

sometimes called hawse-blocks. 
Bulge. (See Bilge.) 
Bulk. The whole cargo, when stowed. 

Stowed in bulk, is when goods are stowed loose, instead of 

being stowed in casks or bags. (See Break-bulk.) 
Bulk-head. Temporary partitions of boards to separate different 

parts of a vessel. 
Bull. A sailor's term for a small keg, holding a gallon or two. 
Bull's-eye. (See page 45.) A small piece of stout wood with 

a hole in the centre for a stay or rope to reeve through, 

without any sheave, and with a groove round it for the strap, 

which is usually of iron. Also a piece of thick glass inserted 

in the deck, to let light below. 
Bulwarks. The wood-work round a vessel, above her deck, 

consisting of boards fastened to stanchions and timber-heads. 
Bum-boats. Boats which lie alongside a vessel in port with pro- 
visions and fruit to sell. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 97 

Bumpkin. Pieces of timber projecting from the vessel to board the 
fore tack to ; and from each quarter for the main brace-blocks. 
Bunt. The middle of a sail. 
Buntine. (Pronounced buntin.) Thin woollen stuff of which 

a ship's colours are made. 
Buntlines. Ropes used for hauling up the body of a sail. 
Buoy. A floating cask, or piece of wood, attached by a rope to 
an anchor, to show its position. Also floated over a shoal, 
or other dangerous place, as a beacon. 
To stream a buoy, is to drop it into the water before letting 

go the anchor. 
A buoy is said to watch, when it floats upon the surface of the 
water. 
Burton. A tackle, rove in a particular manner. 

A single Spanish burton has three single blocks, or two single 

blocks and a hook in the bight of one of the running parts. 
A double Spanish burton has three double blocks. (See 
page 46.) 
Butt. The end of a plank where it unites With the end of another. 
Scuttle-butt A cask with a hole cut in its bilge, and kept on 
deck to hold water for daily use. 
Buttock. That part of the convexity of a vessel abaft, under the 
stern, contained between the counter above and the after part 
of the bilge below, and between the quarter on the side and 
the stern-post. (See Plate 3.) 
By. By the head. Said of a vessel when her head is lower in 
the water than her stern. If her stern is lower, she is by the 
stern. 
By the lee. (See Lee. See Run.) 

Cabin. The after part of a vessel, in which the officers live. 

Cable. A large, strong rope, made fast to the anchor, by which 
the vessel is secured. It is usually 120 fathoms in length. 

Cable-tier. (See Tier.) 

Caboose. A house on deck, where the cooking is done. Com- 
monly called the Galley. 

Calk. (See Caulk.) 

Cambered. When the floor of a vessel is higher at the middle 
than towards the stem and stern. 

Camel. A machine used for lifting vessels over a shoal or bar. 

Camfering. Taking off an angle or edge of a timber. 

Can-hooks. Slings with flat hooks at each end, used for hoisting 
barrels or light casks, the hooks being placed round the chimes, 
and the purchase hooked to the centre of the slings. Small 
ones are usually wholly of iron. 

Cant-pieces. Pieces of timber fastened to the angles of fishes and 
side-trees, to supply any part that may prove rotten. 

H 



V8 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Cant-timbers. Timbers at the two ends of a vessel, raised 

obliquely from the keel. 
Lower Half Cants. Those parts of frames situated forward and 

abaft the square frames, or the floor- timbers which cross the keel. 
Canvas. The cloth of which sails are made. No. 1. is the 

coarsest and strongest. 
Cap. A thick, strong block of wood with two holes through it, 

one square and the other round, used to confine together the 

head of one mast and the lower part of the mast next above 

it. (See Plate 1.) 
Capsize. To overturn. 
Capstan. A machine placed perpendicularly in the deck, and used 

for a strong purchase in heaving or hoisting. Men-of-war 

weigh their anchors by capstans. Merchant-vessels use a 

windlass. (See Bar.) 
Careen. To heave a vessel down upon her side by purchases upon 

the masts. To lie over, when sailing on the wind. 
Carlings. Short and small pieces of timber running between the 

beams. 
Carrick-bend. A kind of knot. (See Plate 5, and page 41.) 

Carrick-bitts are the windlass bitts. 
Carry-away. To break a spar, or part a rope. 
Cast. To pay a vessel's head off, in getting under way, on tht? 

tack she is to sail upon. 
Cat. The tackle used to hoist the anchor up to the cat- head. 

Cat-block^ the block of this tackle. 
Cat-harpin. An iron leg used to confine the upper part of the 

rigging to the mast. 
Cat-head. Large timbers projecting from the vessel's side, to which 

the anchor is raised and secured. 
Cat's-paw. A kind of hitch made in a rope. (See Plate 5, and 

page 41.) A light current of air seen on the surface of the 

water during a calm. 
Caulk. To fill the seams of a vessel with oakum. 
Cavil. (See Kevel.) 
Ceiling. The inside planking of a vessel. 
Chafe. To rub the surface of a rope or spar. 

Chafing-gear is the stuff put upon the rigging and spars to 

prevent their chafing. 
Chains. (See Plate 1.) Strong links or plates of iron, the lower 

ends of which are bolted through the ship's side to the timbers. 

Their upper ends are secured to the bottom of the dead-eyes 

in the channels. Also, used familiarly for the Channels, 

which see. The chain-cable of a vessel is called familiarly 

her chain. 
Rudder-chains lead from the outer and upper end of the rudder 

to the quarters. They are huDg slack. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 99 

Chain-plates. Plates of iron bolted to the side of a ship, to 

which the chains and dead-eyes of the lower rigging are con- 
nected. 
Channels. Broad pieces of plank bolted edgewise to the outside 

of a vessel. Used for spreading the lower rigging. (See 

Chains.) 
Chapelling. Wearing a ship round, when taken aback, without 

bracing the head-yards. (See page 74.) 
Check. A term sometimes used for slacking off a little on a brace, 

and then belaying it. 
Cheeks. The projections on each side of a mast, upon which the 

trestle-trees rest. The sides of the shell of a block. 
Cheerly ! Quickly, with a will. 
Chess- trees. Pieces of oak, fitted to the sides of a vessel, abaft 

the fore chains, with a sheave in them, to board the main tack 

to. Now out of use. 
Chimes. The ends of the staves of a cask, where they come out 

beyond the head of the cask. 
Chinse. To thrust oakum into seams with a small iron. 
Chock. A wedge used to secure anything with, or for anything to 

rest upon. The long-boat rests upon two large chocks, when 

it is stowed. 
Chock-a-block. When the lower block of a tackle is run close 

up to the upper one, so that you can hoist no higher. This is 

also called hoisting up two-blocks. 
Cistern. An apartment in the hold of a vessel, having a pipe 

leading out through the side, with a cock, by which water may 

be let into her. 
Clamps. Thick planks on the inside of vessels, to support the ends 

of beams. Also, crooked plates of iron fore-locked upon the 

trunnions of cannon. Any plate of iron made to turn, open, 

and shut so as to confine a spar or boom, as, a studdingsail 

boom, or a boat's mast. 
Clasp-hook. (See Clove-hook.) 
Cleat. A piece of wood used in different parts of a vessel to belay 

ropes to. 
Clew. The lower corner of square sails, and the after^corner of a 

fore-and-aft sail. 
To clew up, is to haul up the clew of a sail. 
Clew-garnet. A rope that hauls up the clew of a foresail or main- 
sail in a square-rigged vessel. 
Clewline. A rope that hauls up the clew of a square-sail. The 

clew-garnet is the clewline of a course. 
Clinch. A half-hitch, stopped to its own part. ' 
Close-hauled. Applied to a vessel which is sailing with her yards 
braced up so as to get as much as possible to windward. The 
same as on a taut bowline, full and by, on the windy &c. 
h2 



100 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Clove-hitch. Two half-hitches round a spar or other rope. (See 

Plate 5 and page 39.) 
Clove-hook. An iron clasp, in two parts, moving upon the same 

pivot, and overlapping one another. Used for bending chain- 
sheets to the clews of sails. 
Club -haul. To bring a vessel's head round on the other tack, by 

letting go the lee anchor, and cutting or slipping the cable. 

(See page 70.) 
Clubbing. Drifting down a current with an anchor out. (See 

page 71.) 
Coaking. Uniting pieces of spar by means of tabular projections, 

formed by cutting away the solid of one piece into a hollow, 

so as to make a projection in the other, in such a manner that 

they may correctly fit, the butts preventing the pieces from 

drawing asunder. 
Coaks are fitted into the beams and knees of vessels to prevent 

their drawing. 
Coal Tar. Tar made from bituminous coal. 
Coamings. Raised work round the hatches, to prevent water going 

down into the hold. 
Coat. Mast-coat is a piece of canvas, tarred or painted, placed 

round a mast or bowsprit, where it enters the deck. 
Cock-bill. To cock-bill a yard or anchor. (See A-cock-bill.) 
Cock-pit. An apartment in a vessel of war, used by the surgeon 

• during an action. 
Codline. An eighteen thread line. 
Coxswain. (Pronounced cox'n.) The person who steers a boat 

and has charge of her. 
Coil. To lay a rope up in a ring, with one turn or fake over another. 

A coil is a quantity of rope laid up in that manner. 
Collar. An eye in the end or bight of a shroud or stay, to go 

over the mast-head. 
Come. Come home, said of an anchor when it is broken from the 

ground and drags. 
To come up a rope or tackle, is to slack it off. 
Companion. A wooden covering over the staircase to a cabin. 
Companion-way, the staircase to the cabin. 
Companion ladder. The ladder leading from the poop to the 

main deck. 
Compass. The instrument which tells the course of a vessel. 

Compass- timbers are such as are curved or arched. 
Concluding-line. A small line leading through the centre of the 

steps of a rope or Jacob's ladder. 
Conning, or Cunning. Directing the helmsman in steering a 

vessel. 
Counter. (See Plate 3.) That part of a vessel between the 

bottom of the stern and the wing-transom and buttock. 



DICTIONARY OP SEA TERMS. 101 

Counter — continued. 

Counter-timbers are short timbers put in to strengthen the 

counter. 
To counter-brace yards, is to brace the head-yards one way and 
the after- yards another. 
Courses. The common term for the sails that hang from a ship's 

lower yards. The foresail is called the fore course and the 

mainsail the main course. 
Cranes. Pieces of iron or timber at the vessel's sides, used to 

stow boats or spars upon. A machine used at a wharf for 

hoisting. 
Crank. The condition of a vessel when she is inclined to lean 

over a great deal and cannot bear much sail. This may be 

owing to her construction or to her stowage. 
Creeper. An iron instrument, like a grapnell, with four claws, 

used for dragging the bottom of a harbour or river, to find 

anything lost. 
Cringle. A short piece of rope with each end spliced into the 

bolt-rope of a sail, confining an iron ring or thimble. 
Cross-bars. Round bars of iron, bent at each end, used as levers 

to turn the shank of an anchor. 
Cross-chocks. Pieces of timber fayed across the dead-wood amid- 
ships, to make good the deficiency of the heels of the lower 

futtocks. 
Cross-jack (pronounced croj-jack). The cross-jack yard is the 

lower yard on the mizen mast. (See Plate ] .) 
Cross-pawls. Pieces of timber that keep a vessel together while 

in her frames. 
Cross-piece. A piece of timber connecting two bitts. 
Cross-spales. Pieces of timber placed across a vessel, and nailed 

to the frames, to keep the sides together until the knees are 

bolted. 
Cross-trees. (See Plate 1.) Pieces of oak supported by the 

cheeks and trestle-trees, at the mast heads, to sustain the tops 

on the lower mast, and to spread the topgallant rigging at the 

topmast head. 
Crow-foot. A number of small lines rove through the uvrou to 

suspend an awning by. 
Crown of an anchor, is the place where the arms are joined to the 

shank. 
To crown a knot, is to pass the strands over and under each 

other above the knot. (See Plate 5, page 37.) 
Crutch. A knee or piece of knee timber, placed inside of a vessel 

to secure the heels of the cant-timbers abaft. Also, the chock 

upon which the spanker-boom rests when the sail is not set. 
Cuckold's Neck. A knot by which a rope is secured to a spar, the 

two parts of the rope crossing each other, and seized together. 



102 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Cuddy. A cabin in the fore part of a boat. 

Cuntline. The space between the bilges of two casks, stowed 
side by side. Where one cask is set upon the cuntline be- 
tween two others, they are stowed bilge and cuntline. 

Cut-water. The foremost part of a vessel's prow, which projects 
forward of the bows. 

Cutter. A small boat. Also, a kind of sloop. 

Dagger. A piece of timber crossing all the puppets of the bilge- 
ways to keep them together. 
Dagger-knees. Knees placed obliquely, to avoid a port. 

Davits. Pieces of timber or iron, with sheaves or blocks at their 
ends, projecting over a vessel's sides or stern, to hoist boats 
up to. Also, a spar with a roller or sheave at its end, used 
for fishing the anchor, called afish-davit. 

Dead-eye. A circular 'block of wood, with three holes through 
it, for the lanyards of rigging to reeve through, without 
sheaves, and with a groove round it for an iron strap. (See 
page 45). 

Dead-flat. One of the bends amidships. 

Dead-light. Ports placed in the cabin windows in bad weather. 

Dead Reckoning. A reckoning kept by observing a vessel's courses 
and distances by the log, to ascertain her position. 

Dead-rising, or Rising-line. Those parts of a vessel's floor, 
throughout her whole length, where the floor timber is termi- 
nated upon the lower futtock. 

Dead-water. The eddy under a vessel's counter. 

Dead-wood. Blocks of timber, laid upon each end of the keel 
where the vessel narrows. 

Deck. The planked floor of a vessel, resting upon her beams. 

Deck-stopper. A stopper used for securing the cable forward of 
the windlass or capstan, while it is overhauled. (See Stopper.) 

Deep-sea-lead (pronounced dipsey). (See page 5.) The lead 
used in sounding at great depths. 

Departure. The easting or westing made by a vessel. The 
bearing of an object on the coast from which a vessel com- 
mences her dead reckoning. 

Derrick. A single spar, supported by stays and guys, to which a 
purchase is attached, used to unload vessels, and for hoisting. 

Dog. A short iron bar, with a fang or teeth at one end, and a 

ring at the other. Used for a purchase, the fang being placed 

against a beam or knee, and the block of a tackle hooked to 

the ring. 

Dog-vane. A small vane, made of feathers or buntin, to show the 

direction of the wind. 
Dog-watches. Half watches of two hours each, from 4 to 6 and 
from 6 to 8 p. m. (See Watch.) 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 103 

Dolphin. A rope or strap round a mast to support the puddening, 

where the lower yards rest in the slings. Also, a spar or buoy 

with a large ring in it, secured to an anchor, to which vessels 

may bend their cables. 
Dolphin-striker. The martingale. (See Plate 1.) 
Douse. To lower suddenly. 
Dowelling. A method of coaking, by letting pieces into the solid, 

or uniting two pieces together by tenons. 
Downhaul. A rope used to haul down jibs, staysails, and stud- 

dingsails. 
Drabler. A piece of canvas laced to the bonnet of a sail, to give 

it more drop. 
Drag. A machine with a bag net, used for dragging on the bottom 

for anything lost. 
Draught. The depth of water which a vessel requires to float her. 
Draw. A sail draws when it is filled by the wind. 

To draw a jib, is to shift it over the stay to leeward, when it 

is aback. 
Drifts. Those pieces in the sheer-draught where the rails are cut off. 
Drive. To scud before a gale, or to drift in a current. 
Driver. A spanker. 

Drop. The depth of a sail, from head to foot, amidships. 
Drum-head. The top of the capstan. 
Dub. To reduce the end of a timber. 
Duck. A kind of cloth, lighter and finer than canvas ; used for 

small sails. 
Dunnage. Loose wood or other matters, placed on the bottom of 

the hold, above the ballast, to stow cargo upon. 

Earing. A rope attached to the cringle of a sail, by which it is 

bent or reefed. 
Eiking. A piece of wood fitted to make good a deficiency in length. 
Elbow. Two crosses in a hawse, (See page 109.) 
Escutcheon. The part of a vessel's stern where her name is written. 
Even-keel. The situation of a vessel when she ie so trimmed 

that she sits evenly upon the water, neither end being down 

more than the other. 
Eupluve. A piece of wood, by which the legs of the crow-foot to 

an awning are extended. (See Union.) 
Eye. The circular part of a shroud or stay, where it goes over 

a mast. 
Eye-bolt. A long iron bar, having an eye at one end, driven 

through a vessel's deck or side into a timber or beam, with 

the eye remaining out, to hook a tackle to. If there is a 

ring through this eye, it is called a ring-bolt. 
An Eye-splice is a certain kind of splice made with the end of 

a rope. (See Plate 5 and page 36.) 



104 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Eye — continued. 

Eyelet-hole. A hole made in a sail for a cringle or roband to 

go through. 
The Eyes of a vessel. A familiar phrase for the forward part. 

Face- pieces. Pieces of wood wrought on the fore part of the knee 

of the head. 
Facing. Letting one piece of timber into another, with a rabbet. 
Fag. A rope is fagged when the end is untwisted. 
Fair-leader. A strip of board or plank, with holes in it, for 

running rigging, to lead through. Also, a block or thimble 

used for the same purpose. 
Fake. One of the circles or rings made in coiling a rope. 
Fall. That part of a tackle to which the power is applied in 

hoisting. 
False Keel. Pieces of timber secured under the main keel of 

vessels. 
Fancy-line. A line rove through a block at the jaws of a gaff, 

used as a downhaul. Also, a line used for cross-hauling the 

lee topping-lift. 
Fashion-pieces. The aftermost timbers, terminating the breadth 

and forming the shape of the stern. 
Fast. A rope by which a vessel is secured to a wharf. There 

are bow or head, breast, quarter, and stern fasts. 
Fathom. Six feet. 
Feather. To feather an oar in rowing, is to turn the blade 

horizontally with the top aft as it comes out of the water. 
Feather-edged. Planks which have one side thicker than another. 
Fenders. Pieces of rope or wood hung over the side of a vessel 

or boat, to protect it from chafing. The fenders of a neat boat 

are usually made of canvas and stuffed. 
Fid. A block of wood or iron, placed through the hole in the heel 

of a mast, and resting on the trestle-trees of the mast below. 

This supports the mast. Also, a wooden pin, tapered, used 

in splicing large ropes, in opening eyes, &c. 
Fiddle-block. A long shell, having one sheave over the other, 

and the lower smaller than the upper. 
Fiddle-head. (See Head.) 
Fife-rail. The rail going round a mast. 

Figure-head. A carved head or full-length figure, over the cut- 
water. 
Fillings. Pieces of timber used to make the curve fair for the 

mouldings, between the edges of the fish-front and the sides 

of the mast. 
Filler. (See Made Mast.) 

Finishing. Carved ornaments of the quarter- gal ley, below the 
second counter, and above the upper lights. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 105 

Fish. To raise the flukes of an anchor upon the gunwale. Also, 
to strengthen a spar when sprung or weakened, by putting in 
or fastening on auother piece. 
Fish-front, Fishes-sides. (See Made Mast.) 

Fish-Davit. The davit used for fishing an anchor. 

Fish-hook. A hook with a pennant, to the end of which the fish- 
tackle is hooked. 

Fish-tackle. The tackle used for fishing an anchor. 

Flare. When the vessel's sides go out from the perpendicular. 
In opposition to falling •home or tumbling-in. 

Flat. A sheet is said to be hauled^atf, when it is hauled down close. 
Flat-aback, when a sail is blown with its after surface against 
the mast. 

Fleet. To come up a tackle and draw the blocks apart, for another 
pull, after they have been hauled two-blocks. 
Fleet ho ! The order given at such times. Also, to shift the 
position of a block or fall, so as to haul to more advantage. 

Flemish Coil. (See French-fake.) 

Flemish-eye. A kind of eye-splice. (See Plate 5 and page 36.) 

Flemish-horse. An additional foot-rope at the end of topsail yards. 

Floor. The bottom of a vessel, on each side of the keelson. 

Floor Timbers. Those timbers of a vessel which are placed across 
the keel. (See Plate 3.) 

Flowing Sheet. When a vessel has the wind free, and the lee 
clews eased off. 

Flukes. The broad triangular plates at the extremity of the arms 
of an anchor, terminating in a point called the bill. 

Fly. That part of a flag which extends from the Union to the 
extreme end. (See Union.) 

Foot. The lower end of a mast or sail. (See Fore-foot.) 

Foot-rope. The rope stretching along a yard, upon which men 
stand when reefing or furling, formerly called horses. 

Foot waling. The inside planks or lining of a vessel, over the 
floor-timbers. 

Fore. Used to distinguish the forward part of a vessel, or things 
in that direction ; as, fore rnast, fore hatch, in opposition to 
aft or after. 

Fore-and-aft. Lengthwise with the vessel. In opposition to 
athwart ships. (See Sails.) 

Forecastle. That part of the upper deck forward of the fore- 
mast ; or, as some say, forward of the after part of the fore 
channels. (See Plate 1 .) Also, the forward part of the vessel, 
under the deck, where the sailors live, in merchant vessels. 

Fore-foot. A piece of timber at the forward extremity of the keel, 
upon which the lower end of the stem rests. (See Plate 3.) 

Fore-ganger. A short piece of rope grafted on a harpoon, to 
wnich the line is bent. 



106 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Fore Lock. A flat piece of iron, driven through the end of a bolt, 

to prevent its drawing. 
Fore Mast. The forward mast of all vessels. (See Plate 1.) 
Fore-reach. To shoot ahead, especially when going in stays. 
Fore-runner. A piece of rag, terminating the stray-line of the 

log-line. 
Forge. To forge ahead, to shoot ahead ; as, in coming to anchor, 

after the sails are furled. (See Fore-reach.) 
Formers. Pieces of wood used for shaping cartridges or wads. 
Fother, or Fodder. To draw a sail, filled with oakum, under a 

vessel's bottom, in order to stop a leak. 
Foul. The term for the opposite of clear. 
Foul Anchor. When the cable has a turn round the anchor. 
Foul Hawse. When the two cables are crossed or twisted outside 

the stem. 
Founder. A vessel founders when she fills with water and sinks. 
Fox. (See page 43.) Made by twisting together two or more 

rope-yarns. 
A Spanish fox is made by untwisting a single yarn and laying 

it up the contrary way. 
Frap. To pass ropes round a sail to keep it from blowing loose. 

Also, to draw ropes round a vessel which is weakened, to keep 

her together. 
Free. A vessel is going free, when she has a fair wind and her 

yards braced in. A vessel is said to be free, when the water 

has been pumped out of her. 
Freshen. To relieve a rope, by moving its place; as, to freshen 

the nip of a stay, is to shift it, so as to prevent its chafing 

through. 
To freshen ballast, is to alter its position. 
French-fake. To coil a rope with each fake outside of the others 

beginning in the middle. If there are to be riding fakes, they 

begin outside and go in ; and so on. This is called a Flemish 

coil. 
Full-and-by. Sailing close-hauled on a wind. 

Full-and-by ! The order given to the man at the helm to keep 

the sails full and at the same time close to the wind. 
Furl. To roll a sail up snugly on a yard or boom, and secure it. 
Futtock-plates. Iron plates crossing the sides of the top-rim per- 
pendicularly. The dead eyes of the topmast rigging are fitted 

to their upper ends, and the futtock-shrouds to their lower ends. 
Futtock-shrouds. Short shrouds, leading from the lower ends of 

the futtock-plates to a bend round the lower mast, just below 

the top. 
Futtock-staff. A short piece of wood or iron, seized across the 

upper part of the rigging, to which the catharpin legs are 

secured. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 107 

Futtock-timbers. (See Plate 3.) Those timbers between the 
floor and naval timbers, and the top-timbers. There are two 

—the lower, which is over the floor, and the middle, which is 

over the naval timber. The naval timber is sometimes called 

the ground futtock. 
Gaff. A spar, to which the head of a fore-and-aft sail is bent. 

(See Plate 1.) 
Gaff-topsail. A light sail set over a gaff, the foot being spread by it. 
Gage. The depth of water of a vessel. Also, her position as to 

another vessel, as having the weather or lee gage. 
Galley. The place where the cooking is done. 
Gallows-bitts. A strong frame raised amidships, to support spare 

spars, &c, in port. 
Gammoning. (See Plate 1.) The lashing by which the bowsprit 

is secured to the cut-water. 
Gang-casks. Small casks, used for bringing water on board in boats. 
Gangway. (See Plate 1.) That part of aivessel's side, amid- 
ships, where people pass in and out of the vessel. 
Gantline. (See Girtline.) 
Garboard-8treak. (See Plate 3.) The range of planks next 

the keel, on each side. 
Garland. A large rope, strap or grommet, lashed to a spar when 

hoisting it in board. 
Garnet. A purchase on the main stay, for hoisting cargo. 
Gaskets. Ropes or pieces of plaited stuff, used to secure a sail to 

the yard or boom when it is furled. They are called a bunt, 

quarter, or yard-arm gasket, according to their position on 

the yard. 
Gimblet. To turn an anchor round by its stock. To turn any- 
thing round on its end. 
Girt. The situation of a vessel when her cables are too taut. 
Girtline. A rope rove through a single block aloft, making a 

whip purchase. Commonly used to hoist rigging by, in 

fitting it. 
Give Way ! An order to men in a boat to pull with more force, 

or to begin pulling. The same as, Lay out on your oars ! 

or, Lay out ! 
Glut. A piece of canvas sewed into the centre of a sail, near the 

head. It has an eyelet-hole in the middle for the bunt-jigger 

or becket to go through. 
Gob-line, or Gaub-line. A rope leading from the martingale 

inboard. The same as back-rope. 
Goodgeon. (See Gudgeon.) 
Goose-neck. An iron ring fitted to the end of a yard or boom, 

for various purposes. 
Goose-winged. The situation of a course when the buntlines and 

lee clew are hauled up, and the weather clew down. 



108 DICTIONARY OE SEA TERMS. 

Gores. The angles at one or both ends of such cloths as increase 

the breadth or depth of a sail. 
Goring-cloths. Pieces cut obliquely and put in to add to the 

breadth of a sail. 
Grafting. (See page 43.) A manner of covering a rope by 

weaving together yarns. 
Grains. An iron, with four or more barbed points to it, used for 

striking small fish. 
Grapnel. A small anchor, with several claws, used to secure boats. 
Grappling Irons. Crooked irons, used to seize and hold fast 

another vessel. 
Grating. Open lattice work of wood. Used principally to cover 

hatches in good weather. 
Greave. To clean a ship's bottom by burning. 
Gripe. The outside timber of the forefoot, under water, fastened 

to the lower stem-piece. (See Plate 3.) A vessel gripes 

when she tends to come up into the wind. . 

Gripes. Bars of iron, with lanyards, rings, and clews, by which 

a large boat is lashed to the ring-bolts of the deck. Those 

for a quarter-boat are made of long strips of matting, going 

round her and set taut by a lanyard. 
Grommet. (See Plate 5 and page 37.) A ring formed of rope, 

by laying round a single strand. 
Ground Tackle. General term for anchors, cables, warps, springs, 

&c. ; everything used in securing a vessel at anchor. 
Ground-tier. The lowest tier of casks in a vessel's bold. 
Guess-warp, or Guess-rope. A rope fastened to a vessel or wharf, 

and used to tow a boat by ; or to haul it out to the swinging 

boom-end, when in port. 
Gun-tackle Purchase. A purchase made by two single blocks. 

(See page 45.) 
Gunwale. (Pronounced gun-nel.) The upper rail of a boat or vessel. 
Guv. A rope attaching to anything to steady it, and bear it one 

way and another in hoisting. 
Gybe, j (Pronounced jibe.) To shift over the boom of a fore- 
and-aft sail. 

Hail. To speak or call to another vessel, or to men in a different 

part of a ship. 
Halyards. Ropes or tackles used for hoisting and lowering yards, 

gaffs, and sails. 
Half-hitch. (See Plate 5 and page 39.) 
Hammock. A piece of canvas, hung at each end, in which seamen 

sleep. 
Hand. To hand a sail is to furl it. 
Bear a hand : make haste. 
Lend a hand : assist. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 109 

Hand — continued. 

Hand-over -hand : hauling rapidly on a rope, by putting one 
hand before the other alternately. 
Hand-lead. (See page 5.) A small lead, used for sounding in 

rivers and harbours. 
Handsomely. Slowly, carefully. Used for an order, as, " Lower 

handsomely !" 
Handspike. A long wooden bar, used for heaving at the windlass. 
Handy Billy. A watch-tackle. 
Hanks. Rings or hoops of wood, rope, or iron, round a stay, and 

seized to the luff of a fore-and-aft sail. 
Harpings. The fore part of the wales, which encompass the bows 

of a vessel, and are fastened to the stem. (See Plate 3.) 
Harpoon. A spear used for striking whales and other fish. 
Hatch, or Hatchway. An opening in the deck to afford a passage 

up and down. The coverings over these openings are also 

called hatches. 
Hatch-bar is an iron bar going across the hatches to keep them 

down. 
Haul. Haul her wind, said of a vessel when she comes up 

close upon the wind. 
Hawse. The situation of the cables before a vessel's stem when 

moored. Also the distance upon the water a little in advance 

of the stem ; as, a vessel sails athwart the hawse, or anchors 

in the hawse of another. 
Open hawse. When a vessel rides by two anchors, without any 

cross in her cables. 
Hawse-hole. The hole in the bows through which the cable runs. 
Hawse-pieces. Timbers through which the hawse-holes are cut. 
Hawse-block. A block of wood fitted into a hawse-hole at sea. 
Hawser. A large rope used for various purposes, as warping, for 

a spring, &c. 
Hawser-laid, or Cable-laid rope, is rope laid with nine strands 

against the sun. (See Plate 5 and page 34.) 
Haze. A term for punishing a man by keeping him unnecessarily 

at work upon disagreeable or difficult duty. 
Head. The work at the prow of a vessel. If it is a carved figure, 

it is called a figure-head ; if simple carved work, beD ding over 

and out, a billet-head ; and if bending in, like the handle of a 

violin, a fiddle-head. Also, the upper end of a mast, called 

a mast-head. (See By-the-head. See Fast.) 
Head-ledges. Thwartship pieces that frame the hatchways. 
Head-sails. A general name given to all sails that set forward 

of the fore-mast. 
Heart. A block of wood in the shape of a heart, for stays to 

reeve through. 
Heart-yarns. The centre yarns of a strand. 



110 DICTIONARY OP SEA TERMS. 

Heave short. To heave in on the cable until the vessel is nearly 

over her anchor. 
Heave-to. To put a vessel in the position of lying to. (See 

LlE-TO.) 

Hfave in Stays. To go about in tacking. 

Heaver. A short wooden bar, tapering at each end. Used as 

a purchase. 
Heel. The after part of the keel. Also the lower end of a mast 

or boom. Also the lower end of the stern post. 
To heel, is to lie over on one side. 
Heeling. The square part of the lower end of a mast, through 

which the fid-hole is made. 
Helm. The machinery by which a vessel is steered, including the 

rudder, tiller, wheel, &c. Applied more particularly, perhaps, 

to the tiller. 
Helm-port. The hole in the counter through which the ruddder- 

head passes. 
Helm-port transom. A piece of timber placed across the lower 

counter, inside at the height of the helm-port, and bolted 

through every timber, for the security of that port. (See 

Plate 3.) 
High and Dry. The situation of a vessel when she is aground, 

above water mark. 
Hitch. A peculiar manner of fastening ropes. (See Plate 5 and 

page 39.) 
Hog. A flat, rough broom, used for scrubbing the bottom of a 

vessel. 
Hogged. The state of a vessel when by any strain she is made to 

droop at each end, bringing her centre up. 
Hold. The interior of a vessel where the cargo is stowed. 
Hold-water. To stop the progress of a boat by keeping the oar- 
blades in the water. 
Holy-stone. A large stone, used for cleaning a ship's decks. 
Home. The sheets of a sail are said to be home, when the clews 

are hauled chock out to the sheave-holes. An anchor comes 

home when it is loosened from the ground, and is hove in 

toward the vessel. 
Hood. A covering for a companion hatch. 
Hood-ends, or Hooding-ends, or Whooden-ends. Those ends 

of the planks which fit into the rabbets of the stem or 

stern-post. 
Hook-and-Butt. The scarfing, or laying the ends of timbers 

over each other. 
Horns. The jaws of booms. Also the ends of cross-trees. 
Horse. (See Foot-rope.) 
Hounds. Those projections at the mast-head serving as shoulders 

for the top or trestle-trees to rest upon. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. Ill 

House. To house a mast, is to lower it about half its length, and 

secure it by lashing its heel to the mast below. (See page 27.) 

To house a gun, is to run it in clear of the port and secure it. 

Housing, or House-line. (Pronounced houze-lin.) A small 
cord made of three small yarns, and used for seizings. 

Hull. The body of a vessel. (See A-hull.) 

In-and-out. A term sometimes used for the scantline of the 

timbers, the moulding way, and particularly for those bolts 

that are driven into the hanging and lodging knees, through 

the sides, which are called in-and-out bolts. 
Inner-post. A piece brought on at the fore side of the main-post, 

and generally continued as high as the wing-transom, to seat 

the other transoms upon. 
Irons. A ship is said to be in irons when, in working, she will 

not cast one way or the other. 
Jack. A common term for the jack-cross-trees. (See Union.) 
Jack-block. A block used in sending topgallant masts up and 

down. 
Jack-cross-trees. (See Plate 1.) Iron cross-trees at the head 

of long topgallant masts. 
Jack-staff. A short staff, raised at the bowsprit cap, upon which 

the Union Jack is hoisted. 
Jack-stays. Ropes stretched taut along a yard to bend the head 

of the sail to. Also long strips of wood or iron, used now for 

the same purpose. 
Jack-screw. A purchase, used for stowing cotton. 
Jacob's Ladder. A ladder made of rope, with wooden steps. 
Jaws. The inner ends of booms or gaffs, hollowed in. 
Jeers. Tackles for hoisting the lower yards. 
Jewel-blocks. Single blocks at the yard-arms, through which the 

studdingsail halyards lead. 
Jib. (See Plate 2.) A triangular sail, set on a stay, forward. 
Flying-jib sets outside of the jib ; and the jib-o'-jib outside 

of that. 
Jib-boom. (See Plate 1.) The boom rigged out beyond the 

bowsprit, to which the tack of the jib is lashed. 
Jigger. A small tackle used about decks or aloft. 
Jolly-boat. A small boat, usually hoisted at the stern. 
Junk. Condemned rope, cut up and used for making mats, swabs, 

oakum, &c. 
Jury-mast. A temporary mast, rigged at sea, in place of one lost. 

p Keckling. Old rope wound round cables, to keep them from 

chafing. (See Rounding.) 
Kedge. A small anchor, with an iron stock, used for warping. 
To kedge, is to warp a vessel ahead by a kedge and hawser. 



112 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Keel. (See Plate 3.) The lowest and principal timber of a 
vessel, running fore-and-aft its whole length, and supporting 
the whole frame. It is composed of several pieces, placed 
lengthwise, and scarfed and bolted together. (See False 
Keel.) 

Keel-haul. To haul a man under a vessel's bottom, by ropes at 
the yard-arms on each side. Formerly practised as a punish- 
ment in ships of war. 

Keelson. (See Plate 3.) A timber placed over the keel on the 
floor timbers, and running parallel with it. 

Kentledge. Pig-iron ballast, laid each side of the keelson. 

Kevel, or Cavil. A strong piece of wood, bolted to some timber 
or stanchion, used for belaying large ropes to. 

Kevel-heads. Timber-heads used as kevels. 

Kink. A twist in a rope. 

Knees. (See Plate 3.) Crooked pieces of timber, having two 
arms, used to connect the beams of a vessel with her timbers. 
(See Dagger.) 
Lodging-knees, are placed horizontally, having one arm bolted 

to a beam, and the other across two of the timbers. 
Knee of the head, is placed forward of the stem, and supports 
the figure-head. 

Knight-heads, or Bollard-timbers. The timbers next the stem 
on each side, and continued high enough to form a support for 
the bowsprit. (See Plate 3.) 

Knittles, or Nettles. (See page 43.) The halves of two ad- 
joining yarns in a rope, twisted up together, for pointing or 
grafting. Also, small line used for seizings and for hammock- 
clews. 

Knock- off ! An order to leave off work. 

Knot. A division on the log-line, answering to a mile of distance. 
(See page 5.) j 

Labour. A vessel is said to labour when she rolls or pitches 

heavily. 
Lacing. Rope used to lash a sail to a gaff, or a bonnet to a sail. 

Also, a piece of compass or knee timber, fayed to the back of 

the figure-head and the knee of the head, and bolted to each. 
Land-fall. The making land after being at sea. 

A good land-fall, is when a vessel makes the land as intended. 
Land ho ! The cry used when land is first seen. 
Lanyards. Ropes rove through dead-eyes for setting up rigging. 

Also, a rope made fast to anything to secure it, or as a handle, 

is called a lanyard. 
Larboard. The left side of a vessel, looking forward. 
Larbowlines. The familar term for the men in the larboard 

watch. 



DICTIONARY OP SEA TERMS. 113 

Large. A vessel is said to be going large, when she has the wind 
free. 

Latchings. Loops on the head-rope of a bonnet, by which it is 
laced to the foot of the sail. 

Launch. A large boat. The Long-boat. 

Launch ho ! High enough ! 

Lay. To come or to go ; as, Lay aloft ! Lay forward ! 
Lay aft ! Also the ^direction in which the strands of a 
rope are twisted; as, from left to right, or from right to 
left. 

Leach. The border or edge of a sail, at the sides. 

Leachline. A rope used for hauling up the leach of a sail. 

Lead. A piece of lead, in the shape of a cone or pyramid, 
with a small hole at the base, and a line attached to the 
upper end, used for sounding. (See Hand-lead, Deep- 
sea-lead.) 

Leading-wind. A fair wind. More particularly applied to a 
wind abeam or quartering. 

Leak. A hole or breach in a vessel, at which the water comes in. 

Ledges. Small pieces of timber placed athwart-ships under the 
decks of a vessel, between the beams. 

Lee: The side opposite to that from which the wind blows ; as, 
if a vessel has the wind on her starboard side, that will be the 
weather, and the larboard will be the lee side. 
A lee shore is the shore upon which the wind is blowing. 
Under the lee of anything, is when you have that between you 

and the wind. 
By the lee. The situation of a vessel going free, when she has 
fallen off so much as to bring the wind round her stern, and 
to take her sails aback on the other side. 

Lee-board. A board fitted to the lee side of flat-bottomed boats, 
to prevent their drifting to leeward. 

Lee-gage. (See Gage.) 

Leeway. What a vessel loses by drifting to leeward. When 
sailing close-hauled with all sail set, a vessel should make no 
leeway. If the topgallant sails are furled, it is customary to 
allow one point ; under close-reefed topsails, two points ; 
when under one close-reefed sail, four or five points. 

Leefange. An iron bar, upon which the sheets of fore-and-aft sails 
traverse. Also, a rope rove through the cringle of a sail 
which has a bonnet to it, for hauling in, so as to lace on the 
bonnet. Not much used. 

Leeward. (Pronounced lu-ard.) The lee side. In a direction 
opposite to that from which the wind blows, which is called 
windward. The opposite of lee is weather^ and of leeward 
is windward ; the first two being adjectives. 
1 



114 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Lie-to, is to stop the progress of a vessel at sea, either by counter- 
bracing the yards, or by reducing sail so that she will make 
little or no headway, but will merely come to and fall off by 
the counteraction of the sails and helm. 

Life-lines. Ropes carried along yards, booms, &c, or at any 
part of the vessel, for men to hold on by. 

Lift. A rope or tackle, going from the yard-arms to the mast- 
head, to support and move the yard. Also, a term applied to 
the sails when the wind strikes them on the leaches and 
raises them slightly. 

Light. To move or lift anything along; as, to "Light out to 
windward ! " that is, haul the sail over to windward. The 
light sails are all above the topsails, also the studdingsails and 
flying jib. 

Lighter. A large boat, used in loading and unloading vessels. 

Limbers, or Limber-holes. Holes cut in the lower part of the 

floor-timbers, next the keelson, forming a passage for the 

water fore-and-aft. 

Limber -boards are placed over the limbers, and are moveable. 

Limber-rope. A rope rove fore-and aft through the limbers, to 

clear them if necessary. 
Limber-streak. The streak of foot-waling nearest the keelson. 

List. The inclination of a vessel to one side ; as, a list to port, 
or a list to starboard. 

Lizard. A piece of rope, sometimes with two legs, and one or 
more iron thimbles spliced into it. It is used for various 
purposes. One with two legs, and a thimble to each, is often 
made fast to the topsail tye, for the buntlines to reeve through. 
A single one is sometimes used on the swinging-boom 
topping-lift. 

Locker. A chest or box to stow anything away in. 
Chain-locker. Where the chain cables are kept. 
Boatswain's locker. Where tools and small stuff for working 
upon rigging are kept. 

Log, or Log-book. A journal kept by the chief officer, in which 
the situation of the vessel, winds, weather, courses, distances, 
and everything of importance that occurs, is noted down. 
Log. A line with a piece of board, called the log-ship, at- 
tached to it, wound upon a reel, and used for ascertaining 
the ship's rate of sailing. (See page 57.) 

Long-boat. The largest boat in a merchant- vessel. When at 
sea, it is carried between the fore and main masts. 

Longers. The longest casks, stowed next the keelson. 

Long-timbers. Timbers in the cant-bodies, reaching from the 
dead-wood to the head of the second futtock. 

Loof. That part of a vessel where the planks begin to bend as 
they approach the stern. 



DICTIONARY OP SEA TERMS. 115 

Loom. That part of an oar which is within the row-lock. Also, 

to appear above the surface of the water ; to appear larger 

than nature, as in a fog. 
Lubber's Hole. A hole in the top, next the mast. 
Luff. To put the helm so as to bring the ship up nearer to the 

wind. 
Spring -a-luff! Keep your luff! &c. Orders to luff. Also, 

the roundest part of a vessel's bow. Also the forward leack 

of fore-and-aft sails. 
Luff-tackle. A purchase composed of a double and single block. 

(See page 46.) 
Luff-upon-Luff. A luff-tackle applied to the fall of another. 
Lugger. A small vessel carrying lug-sails. 

Lug-sail. A sail used in boats and small vessels, bent to a 

yard which hangs obliquely to the mast. 
Lurch. The sudden rolling of a vessel to one side. 
Lying-to. (See Lie-to.) 

Made. A made mast or block is one composed of different pieces. 

A ship's lower mast is a made spar, her topmast is a whole spar. 
Mall, or Maul (pronounced mawl). A heavy iron hammer used 

in driving bolts. (See Top-maul.) 
Mallet. A small maul, made of wood; as, caulking-mallet ; 

also, serving-mallet, used in putting service on a rope. 
Manger. A coaming just within the hawse-hole. 
Man-ropes. Ropes used in going up and down a vessel's side. 
Marl. To wind or twist a small line or rope round another. 
Marline (pronounced mar-lin). Small two-stranded stuff, used 

for marling. A finer kind of spunyarn. 
Marling-hitch. A kind of hitch used in marling. 
Marlingspike. An iron pin, sharpened at one end, and having a 

hole in the other for a lanyard. Used both as a fid and a 

heaver. 
Marry. To join ropes together by a worming over both. 
Martingale. A short, perpendicular spar, under the bowsprit-end, 

used for guying down the head-stays. (See Dolphin-3triker.) 
Mast. A spar set upright from the deck, to support rigging, yards, 

and sails. Masts are whole or made. 
Mat. Made of strands of old rope, and used to prevent chafing. 
Mate. An officer under the master. 
Maul. (See Mall.) 

Mend. To mend service, is to add more to it. 
Meshes. The places between the lines of a netting. 
Mess. Any number of men who eat or lodge together. 
Messenger. A rope used for heaving in a cable by the capstan. 
Midships. The timbers at the broadest part of the vessel. (See 

Amidships.) 

i2 



116 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Miss-stays. To fail of going about from one tack to another. (See 

page 65.) 
Mizen-mast. The aftermost mast of a ship. (See Plate 1.) 

The spanker is sometimes called the mizen. 
Monkey Block. A small single block strapped with a swivel. 
Moon-sail. A small sail sometimes carried in light winds, above 

a sky sail. 
Moor. To secure by two anchors. (See page 83. ) 
Mortice. A morticed block is one made out of a whole block of 

wood with a hole cut in it for the sheave ; in distinction from 

a made block. (See page 44.) 
Moulds. The patterns by which the frames of a vessel are worked 

out. 
Mouse. To put turns of rope yarn or spun yarn round the end of 

a hook and its standing part, when it is hooked to anything, so 

as to prevent its slipping out. 
Mousing. A knot or puddening, made of yarns, and placed on 

the outside of a rope. 
Muffle. Oars are muffled by putting mats or canvas round their 

looms in the row-locks. 
Munions. The pieces that separate the lights in the galleries. 

Naval Hoods, or Hawse Bolsters. Plank above and below the 

hawse-holes. 
Neap Tides. Low tides, coming at the middle of the moon's 

second and fourth quarters. (See Spring Tides.) 
Neaped, or Beneaped. The situation of a vessel when she is 

aground at the height of the spring tides. 
Near, Close to wind. " Near !" the order to the helmsman when 

he is too near the wind. 
Netting. Network of rope or small lines. Used for stowing 

away sails or hammocks. 
Nettles. (See Knittles.) 
Ninepin Block. A block in the form of a ninepin, used for a fair 

leader in the rail. 
Nip. A short turn in a rope. 
Nippers. A number of yarns marled together, used to secure a 

cable to the messenger. 
Nock. The forward upper end of a sail that sets with a boom. 
Nun-buoy. A buoy tapering at each end. 
Nut. Projections on each side of the shank of an anchor, to secure 

the stock to its place. 

Oakum. Stuff made by picking rope-yarns to pieces. Used for 

caulking, and other purposes. 
Oar. A long wooden instrument with a flat blade at one end, 

used for propelling boats. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. H7 

Off-and-on. To stand on different tacks towards and from the land. 

Offing. Distance from the shore. 

Orlop. The deck beneath the lower deck of a ship of the line on 

which the cables are stowed. 
Out-haul. A rope used for hauling out the clew of a boom sail. 
Out-rigger. A spar rigged out to windward from the tops or 

cross-trees, to spread the breast-backstays. (See page 14.) 
Overhaul. To overhaul a tackle, is to let go the fall and pull 

on the leading parts so as to separate the blocks. 
To overhaul a rope, is generally to pull a part through a block 

so as to make slack. 
To overhaul rigging, is to examine it. 
Over-rake. Said of heavy seas which come over a vessel's head 

when she is at anchor, head to the sea. 

Painter. A rope attached to the bows of a boat, used for making 
her fast. 

Palm. A piece of leather fitted over the hand, with an iron for 
the head of a needle to press against in sewing upon canvas. 
Also, the fluke of an anchor. 

Panch. (See Paunch.) 

Parbuckle. To hoist or lower a spar or cask by single ropes pasied 
round it. 

Parcel. (See page 34.) To wind tarred canvas (called parcel- 
ling) round a rope. 

Parcelling. (See Parcel.) 

Parliament-heel. The situation of a vessel when she is careened. 

Parral. The rope by which a yard is confined to a mast at its centre. 

Part. To break a rope. 

Partners. A framework of short timber fitted to the hole in a 
deck, to receive the heel of a mast or pump, &c. 

Pazaree. A rope attached to the clew of the foresail and rove 
through a block on the swinging boom. Used for guying 
the clews out when before the wind. 

Paunch Mat. A thick mat, placed at the slings of a yard or else- 
where. 

Pawl. A short bar of iron, which prevents the capstan or wind- 
lass from turning back. 
To pawl, is to drop a pawl and secure the windlass or capstan. 

Pay-off. When a vessel's head falls off from the wind. 
To pay, to cover over with tar or pitch. 
To pay out. To slack up on a cable and let it run out. 

Peak. The upper outer corner of a gaff-sail. 

Peak. (See A-peak.) 

A stay-peak is when the cable and forestay form a line. 
A short stay-peak is when the cable is too much in to form this 
line. 



I 

118 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Pendant, or Pennant. A long narrow piece of bunting, carried 
at the mast-head. 
Broad pennant, is a swallow-tailed piece, carried in the same 

way, in a commodore's vessel. 
Pennant. A rope to which a purchase is hooked. A long strap 

fitted at one end to a yard or mast-head, with a hook or block 
at the other end, for a brace to reeve through, or to hook a 

tackle to. 
Pillow. A block which supports the inner end of the bowsprit. 
Pin. The axis on which a sheave turns. Also, a short piece of 

wood or iron to belay ropes to. 
Pink-stern. A high, narrow stern. 
Pinnace. A boat, in size between the launch and a cutter. 
Pintle. A metal bolt used for hanging a rudder. 
Pitch. A resin taken from pine, and used for filling up the seams 

of a vessel. 
Planks. Thick, strong boards, used for covering the sides and 

decks of vessels. 
Plat. A braid of foxes. (See Fox.) 
Plate. (See Chain-plate.) 
Plug. A piece of wood, fitted into a hole in a vessel or boat, so 

as to let in or keep out water. 
Point. To take the end of a rope and work it over with knittles. 

(See page 43. See Reef-points.) 
Pole. Applied to the highest mast of a ship, usually painted ; as, 

sky- sail pole. 
Poop. A deck raised over the after part of the spar deck. A ves- 
sel is pooped when the sea breaks over her stern. 
Poppets. Perpendicular pieces of timber fixed to the fore-and-aft 

part of the bilge- ways in launching. 
Port. Used instead of larboard. 

To port the helm, is to put it to the larboard. 
Port, or Port-hole. Holes in the side of a vessel, to point can- 
non out of. (See Bridle.) 
Portoise. The gunwale. The yards are a-portoise when they 

rest on the gunwale. 
Port-sills. (See Sills.) 

Preventer. An additional rope or spar, used as a support. 
Prick. A quantity of spunyarn or rope laid close up together. 
Pricker. A small marlinspike, used in sail-making. It generally 

has a wooden handle. 
Puddening. A quantity of yarns, matting, or oakum, used to 

prevent chafing. 
Pump-brake. The handle to the pump. 

Purchase. A mechanical power which increases the force applied. 
To purchase, is to raise by a purchase. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 119 

Quarter. The part of a vessel's side between the after part of tha 
main chains and the stern. The quarter of a yard is between 
the slings and the yard-arm. 
The wind is said to be quartering, when it blows in a line be- 
tween that of the keel and the beam, and abaft the latter. 

Quarter-block. A block fitted under the quarters of a yard on 
each side the slings, for the clewlines and sheets to reeve 
through. 

Quarter-deck. That part of the upper deck abaft the main-mast. 

Quarter-master. A petty officer in a man-of-war, who attends 
the helm and binnacle at sea, and watches for signals, &c, 
when in port. 

Quick-work. That part of a vessel's side which is above the chain- 
wales and decks. So called in ship-building. 

Quilting. A coating about a vessel, outside, formed of ropes 
woven together. 

Quoin. A wooden wedge for the breech of a gun to rest upon. 

Race. A strong rippling tide. 

Rack. To seize two ropes together, with cross-turns. Also, a 

fair-leader for running rigging. 
Rack-block. A course of blocks made from one piece of wood, 

for fair-leaders. 
Rake. The inclination of a mast from the perpendicular. 
Ramline. A line used in mast-making to get a straight middle 

line on a spar. 
Range of Cable. A quantity of cable, more or less, placed in 

order for letting go the anchor or paying out. 
Ratlines. (Pronounced rat-tins.) Lines running across the 

shrouds, horizontally, like the rounds of a ladder, and used to 

step upon in going aloft. 
Rattle down Rigging. To put ratlines upon rigging. It is still 

called rattling down, though they are now rattled up ; be- 

ginning at the lowest. (See page 11.) 
Razee. A vessel of war which has one deck cut down. 
Reef. To reduce a sail by taking in upon its head, if a square sail, 

and its foot, if a fore-and-aft sail. 
Reef-band. A band of stout canvas sewed on the sail across, 

with points in it, and earings at each end for reefing. 
A reef is all of the sail that is comprehended between the 

head of the sail and the first reef-band, or between two 

reef-bands. 
Reef-tackle. A tackle used to haul the middle of each leach up 

toward the yard, so that the sail may be easily reefed. 
Reeve. To pass the end of a rope through a block, or any 

aperture. 



120 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Relieving Tackle. A tackle hooked to the tiller in a gale of 

wind, to steer by, in case anything should happen to the wheel 

or tiller-ropes. 
Render. To pass a rope through a place. A rope is said to 

render or not, according as it goes freely through any place. 
Rib-bands. Long, narrow, flexible pieces of timber nailed to the 

outside of the ribs, so as to encompass the vessel lengthwise. 
Ribs. A figurative term for a vessel's timbers. 
Ride at anchor. To lie at anchor. Also, to bend or bear down 

by main strength and weight ; as, to ride down the main tack. 
Riders. Interior timbers placed occasionally opposite the principal 

ones, to which they are bolted, reaching from the keelson to 

the beams of the lower deck. Also, casks forming the second 

tier in a vessel's hold. 
Rigging. The general term for all the ropes of a vessel. (See 

Running, Standing.) Also, the common term for the shrouds 

with their ratlines ; as, the main rigging, mizen rigging, &c. 
Right. To right the helm, is to put it amidships. 
Rim. The edge of a top. 
Ring. The iron ring at the upper end of an anchor, to which the 

cable is bent. 
Ring-bolt. An eye-bolt with a ring through the eye. (See Eye- 
bolt.) 
Ring-tail. A small sail, shaped like a jib, set abaft the spanker 

in light winds. 
Roach. A curve in the foot of a square sail, by which the clews 

are brought below the middle of the foot. The roach of 

a fore-and-aft sail is in its forward leach. 
Road, or Roadstead. An anchorage at some distance from the 

shore. 
Robands. (See Rope-bands.) 
Rolling-tackle. Tackles used to steady the yards in a heavy 

sea. 
Rombowline. Condemned canvas, rope, &c. 
Rope-bands, or Robands. Small pieces of two or three yarn, 

spunyarn, or marline, used to confine the head of the sail to 
the yard or gaff. 
Rope-yarn. A thread of hemp, or other stuff, of which a rope is 

made. (See page 33.) 
Rough-tree. An unfinished spar. 

Round in. To haul in on a rope, especially a weather-brace. 
Round up. To haul up on a tackle. 

Rounding. A service of rope, hove round a spar or larger rope. ' 
Rowlocks, or Rollocks. Places cut in the gunwale of a boat 

for the oar to rest in while pulling. 
Royal. A light sail next above a topgallant sail. (See Plate 2.) 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 121 

Royal Yard. The yard from which the royal is set. The fourth 
from the deck. (See Plate 1.) 

Rubber. A small instrument used to rub or flatten down the 
seams of a sail in sail- making. 

Rudder. The machine by which a vessel or boat is steered. 

Run. The after part of a vessel's bottom, which rises and nar- 
rows in approaching the stern-post. 
By the run. To let go by the run^ is to let go altogether, 
instead of slacking off. 

Rung-heads. The upper ends of the floor timbers. 

Runner. A rope used to increase the power of a tackle. It is 
rove through a single block which you wish to bring down, 
and a tackle is hooked to each end, or to one end, the other 
being made fast. 

Running Rigging. The ropes that reeve through blocks, and are 
pulled and hauled, such as braces, halyards, &c; in opposition 
to the standing rigging, the ends of which are securely 
seized, such as stays, shrouds, &c. (See page 33.) 

Saddles. Pieces of wood hollowed out to fit on the yards, to which 

they are nailed, having a hollow in the upper part for the 

boom to rest in. 
Sag. To sag to leeward, is to drift off bodily to leeward. 
Sails are of two kinds : square sails, which hang from yards, their 

foot lying across the line of the keel, as the courses, topsails, 

&c. ; and fore- and-aft sails, which set upon gaffs, or on stays, 

their foot running with the line of the keel, as jib, spanker, &c. 
Sail ho ! The cry used when a sail is first discovered at sea. 
Save-all. A small sail sometimes set under the foot of a lower 

studdingsail. (See Water Sail.) 
Scantling. A term applied to any piece of timber, with regard to 

its breadth and thickness, when reduced to the standard size. 
Scarf. To join two pieces of timber at their ends by shaving them 

down and placing them over-lapping. 
Schooner. (See Plate 4.) A small vessel with two masts and 

no tops. 
A fore-and-aft schooner has only fore-and-aft sails. 
A topsail schooner carries a square fore topsail, and frequently, 

also, topgallant sail and royal. There are some schooners with 

three masts. They also have no tops. 
A maintopsail schooner is one that carries square topsails, fore 

and aft. 
Score. A groove in a block or dead-eye. 
Scotchman. A large batten placed over the turnings-in of rigging. 

(See Batten.) 
Scraper. A small, triangular iron instrument, with a handle fitted 

to its centre, and used for scraping decks and masts. 



122 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Scrowl. A piece of timber bolted to the knees of the head, in 

place of a figure-head. 
Scud. To drive before a gale, with no sail, or only enough to keep 

the vessel ahead of the sea. Also, low, thin clouds that fly 

swiftly before the wind. 
Scull. A short oar. 

To scull, is to impel a boat by one oar at the stern. 
Scuppers. Holes cut in the water-ways for the water to run from 

the decks. 
Scuttle. A hole cut in a vessel's deck, as, a hatchway. Also, 

a hole cut in any part of a vessel. 
To scuttle, is to cut or bore holes in a vessel to make her sink. 
Scuttle-butt. (See Butt.) 

Seams. The intervals between planks in a vessel's deck or side. 
Seize. To fasten ropes together by turns of small stuff. 
Seizings. (See page 42.) The fastenings of ropes that are seized 

together. 
Selvagee. A skein of rope-yarns or spunyarn, marled together. 

Used as a neat strap. (See page 42.) 
Send. When a ship's head or stern pitches suddenly and violently 

into the trough of the sea. 
Sennit, or Sinnit. (See page 42.) A braid, formed by plaiting 

rope-yarns or spunyarn together. Straw, plaited in the same 

way for hats, is called sennit. 
Serve. (See page 35.) To wind small stuff, as rope-yarns, spun- 
yarn, &c, round a rope, to keep it from chafing. It is wound 

and hove round taut by a serving-board or mallet. 
Service, is the stuff so wound round. 
Set. To set up rigging, is to tauten it by tackles. The seizings 

are then put on afresh. 
Shackles. Links in a chain cable which are fitted with a moveable 

bolt, so that the chain can be separated. 
Shakes. The staves of hogsheads taken apart. 
Shank. The main piece in an anchor, at one end of which the 

stock is made fast, and at the other the arms. 
Shank- painter. A strong rope by which the lower part of the 

shank of an anchor is secured to the ship's side. 
Sharp up. Said of yards when braced as near fore-and-aft as possible. 
Sheathing. A casing or covering on a vessel's bottom. 
Shears. Two or more spars, raised at angles and lashed together 

near their upper ends, used for taking in masts. (See page 44.) 
Shear Hulk. An old vessel fitted with shears, &c.,and used for 

taking out and putting in the masts of other vessels. 
Sheave. The wheel in a block upon which the rope works. 
Sheave-hole, the place cut in a block for the ropes to reeve 

through. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 123 

Sheep-shank. A kind of hitch or hend, used to shorten a rope 
temporarily. (See Plate 5 and page 42.) 

Sheer, or Sheer- strake. The line of plank on a vessel's side, 
running fore-and-aft under the gunwale. Also, a vessel's 
position when riding by a single anchor. 

Sheet. A rope used in setting a sail, to keep the clew down to its 
place. With square sails, the sheets run through each yard- 
arm. With boom sails, they haul the boom over one way 
and another. They keep down the inner clew of a studding- 
sail and the after clew of a jib. (See Home.) 

Sheet Anchor. A vessel's largest anchor : not carried at the bow. 

Shell. The case of a block. 

Shingle. (See Ballast.) 

Ship. A vessel with three masts, with tops and 'yards to each. 
(See Plate 4.) To enter on board a vessel. To fix anything 
in its place. 

Shiver. To shake the wind out of a sail by bracing it so that the 
wind strikes upon the leach. 

Shoe. A piece of wood used for the bill of an anchor to rest upon, 
to save the vessel's side. Also, for the heels of shears, &c. 

Shoe-block. A block with two sheaves, one above the other, the 
one horizontal and the other perpendicular. 

Shore. A prop or stanchion, placed under a beam. To shore, to 
prop up. 

Shrouds. A set of ropes reaching from the mast-heads to the ves- 
sel's sides, to support the masts. 

Sills. Pieces of timber put in horizontally between t\e frames to 
form and secure any opening ; as, for ports. 

Sister Block. A long piece of wood with two sheaves in it, one 
above the other, with a score between them for a seizing, and 
a groove around the block, lengthwise. 

Skids. Pieces of timber placed up and down a vessel's side, to bear 
any articles off clear that are hoisted in. 

Skin. The part of a sail which is outside and covers the rest when 
it is furled. Also, familiarly, the sides of the hold ; as, an 
article is said to be stowed next the skin, 

Skysail. A light sail next above the royal. (See Plate 2.) 

Sky-scraper. A name given to a skysail when it is triangular. 

Slabline. A small line used to haul up the foot of a course. 

Slack. The part of a rope or sail that hangs down loose. 

Slack in stays, said of a vessel when she works slowly in 
tacking. 

Sleepers. The knees that connect the transoms to the after tim- 
bers on the ship's quarter. 

Sling. To set a cask, spar, gun, or other article, in ropes, so as to 
put on a tackle and hoist or lower it. 



124 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Slings. The ropes used for securing the centre of a yard to the 

mast. 
Yard-slings are now made of iron. Also, a large rope fitted 

so as to go round any article which is to be hoisted or 

lowered. 
Slip. To let a cable go and stand out to sea. (See page 85.) 
Slip-rope. A rope bent to the cable just outside the hawse-hole, 

and brought in on the weather quarter, for slipping. (See 

page 85.) 
Sloop. A small vessel with one mast. (See Plate 4.) 
Sloop of War. A vessel of any rig, commanded by a commander 

in the navy. 
Slue. To turn anything round or over. 
Small Stuff. The term for spunyarn, marline, and the smallest 

kinds of rope, such as ratline-stuff, &c. 
Snake. To pass small stuff across a seizing, with marling hitches 

at the outer turns. 
Snatch-block. A single block, with an opening in its side below 

the sheave, or at the bottom, to receive the bight of a rope. 
Snotter. A rope going over a yard-arm, with an eye, used to 

bend a tripping-line to in sending down topgallant and royal 

yards in vessels of war. 
Snow. A kind of brig, formerly used. 
Snub. To check a rope suddenly. 
Snying. A term for a circular plank, edgewise, to work in the 

bows of a vessel. 
So ! An order to 'vast hauling upon anything when it has come 

to its right position. 
Sole. A piece of timber fastened to the foot of the rudder, to 

make it level with the false keel. 
Sound. To get the depth of water by a lead and line. (See page 

80.) The pumps are sounded by an iron sounding rod, 

marked with a scale of feet and inches. 
Span. A rope with both ends made fast, for a purchase to be 

hooked to its bight. 
Spanker. The after sail of a ship or bark. It is a fore-and-aft 

sail, setting with a boom and gaff. (See Plate 2.) 
Spar. The general term for all masts, yards, booms, gaffs, &c. 
Spell. The common term for a portion of time given to any 

work. 
To spell, is to relieve another at his work. 
Spell ho! An exclamation used as an order or request to be re- 
lieved at work by another. 
Spencer. A fore-and-aft sail, set with a gaff and no boom, and 

hoisting from a small mast called a spencer-mast, just abaft 

the fore and main masts. (See Plates 2 and 4.) 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 125 

Spill. To shake the wind out of a sail by bracing it so that the 
wind may strike its leach and shiver it. 

Spilling Line. A rope used for spilling a sail. Rove in bad 
weather. 

Spindle. An iron pin upon which the capstan moves. Also, a 
piece of timber forming the diameter of a made mast. Also, 
any long pin or bar upon which anything revolves. 

Spirketing. The planks from the water-ways to the port-sills. 

Splice. (See Plate 5 and page 35.) To join two ropes together 
by interweaving their strands. 

Spoon-drift. Water swept from the tops of the waves by the 
violence of % the wind in a tempest, and driven along before it, 
covering the surface of the sea. 

Spray. An occasional sprinkling dashed from the top of a wave 
by the wind, or by its striking an object. 

Spring. To crack or split a mast. 
To spring a leak, is to begin to leak. 

To spring a luff, is to force a vessel close to the wind, in 
sailing. 

Spring-stay. A preventer-stay, to assist the regular one. (SeeSTAY.) 

Spring Tides. The highest and lowest course of tides, occurring 
every new and full moon. 

Sprit. A small boom or gaff, used with some sails in small boats. 
The lower end rests in a becket or snotter by the foot of the 
mast, and the other end spreads and raises the outer upper 
corner of the sail, crossing it diagonally. A sail so rigged in 
a boat is called a sprit-sail. 

Sprit-sail yard. (See Plate 1.) A yard lashed across the bow- 
sprit or knight-heads, and used to spread the guys of the jib 
and flying jib-boom. There was formerly a sail bent to it 
called a sprit-sail. 

Spunyarn. (See page 35.) A cord formed by twisting together 
two or three rope-yarns. 

Spurling-line. A line communicating between the tiller and 
tell-tale. 

Spurs. Pieces of timber fixed on the bilge-ways, their upper ends 
being bolted to the vessel's sides above the water. Also, 
curved pieces of timber, serving as half beams, to support the 
decks where whole beams cannot be placed. 

Spur-shoes. Large pieces of timber that come abaft the pump-well. 

Square. Yards are squared when they are horizontal and at 
right angles with the keel. Squaring by the lifts makes them 
horizontal ; and by the braces, makes them at right angles 
with the vessel's line. Also, the proper term for the length 
of yards. A vessel has square yards when her yards are un- 
usually long. A sail is said to be very square in the head 
when it is long on the head. 



126 



DICTIONARY OP SEA TERMS. 



Square — continued. 

To square a yard, in working a ship, means to bring it in 
square by the braces. 

Square-sail. A temporary sail set at the fore-mast of a schooner 
or sloop when going before the wind. (See Sail.) 

Stabber. A Pricker. 

Staff. A pole or mast used to hoist flags upon. 

Stanchions. (See Plate 3.) Upright posts of wood or iron, 
placed so as to support the beams of a vessel. Also, upright 
pieces of timber, placed at intervals along the sides of a vessel, 
to support the bulwarks and rail, and reaching down to the 
bends, by the side of the timbers, to which they are bolted. 
Also, any fixed, upright support ; as to an awning, or for the 
man-ropes. 

Stand by ! An order to be prepared. 

Standard. An inverted knee, placed above the deck, instead of 
beneath it ; as, bitt -standard, &c. 

Standing. The standing part of a rope is that part which is fast, 
in opposition to the part that is hauled upon ; or the main 
part, in opposition to the end. 
The standing part of a tackle is that part which is made fast to 
the blocks, and between that and the next sheave, in opposi- 
tion to the hauling and leading parts. 

Standing Rigging. (See page 33.) That part of a vessel's rig- 
ging which is made fast and not hauled upon. (See Running.) 

Starboard. The right side of a vessel, looking forward. 

Starbowlines. The familiar term for the men in the starboard watch. 

Start. To start a cask, is to open it. 

Stay. To tack a vessel, or put her about, so that the wind, from 
being on one side, is brought upon the other, round the ves- 
sel's head. (See Tack, Wear.) 
To stay a mast, is to incline it forward or aft, or to one side or 
the other, by the stays and backstays. Thus, a mast is said 
to be stayed too much forward or aft, or too much to port, &c. 
Stays. Large ropes, used to support masts, and leading from the 
head of some mast down to some other mast, or to some part 
of the vessel. Those which lead forward are called fore-and- 
aft stays ; and those which lead down to the vessel's sides, 
backstays. (See Backstays.) 
In stays, or hove in stays, the situation of a vessel when she is 
staying or going about from one tack to the other. 

Staysail. A sail which hoists upon a stay. 

Steady ! An order to keep the helm as it is. 

Steerage. That part of the between-decks which is just forward of 
the cabin. 

Steeves. A bowsprit steeves more or less, according as it is raised 
more or less from the horizontal. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 127 

Steeve — continued. 

The steeve is the angle it makes with the horizon. Also, a long 
heavy spar, with a place to fit a block at one end, and used in 
stowing certain kinds of cargo, which need be driven in close. 

Stem. (See Plate 3.) A piece of timber reaching from the for- 
ward end of the keel, to which it is scarfed, up to the bow- 
sprit, and to which the two sides of the vessel are united. 

Stemson. A piece of compass timber, fixed on the after part of the 
apron inside. The lower end is scarfed into the keelson, and 
receives the scarf of the stem, through which it is bolted. 

Step. A block of wood secured to the keel, into which the heel of 
the mast is placed. 
To step a mast, is to put it in its step. 

Stern. (See Plate 3.) The after end of a vessel. (See By the 
stern.) 

Stern-board. The motion of a vessel when going stern foremost. 

Stern-frame. The frame composed of the stern-post transom and 
the fashion- pieces. 

Stern-post. (See Plate 3.) The aftermost timber in a ship, 
reaching from the after end of the keel to the deck. The stem 
and stern-post are the two extremes of a vessel's frame. 
Inner stern-post. A post on the inside, corresponding to the 
stern-post. 

Stern-sheets. The after part of a boat, abaft the rowers, where 
the passengers sit. 

Stiff. The quality of a vessel which enables it to carry a great 
deal of sail without lying over much on her side. The oppo- 
site to crank. 

Stirrups. Ropes with thimbles at their ends, through which the 
foot-ropes are rove, and by which they are kept up toward the 
yards. 

Stock. A beam of wood, or a bar of iron, secured to the upper end 
of the shank of an anchor, at right angles with the arms. An 
iron stock usually goes with the key, and unships. 

Stocks. The frame upon which a vessel is built. 

Stools. Small channels for the dead eyes of the backstays. 
Stopper. A stout rope with a knot at one end and sometimes a 
hook at the other, used for various purposes about decks ; as, 
making fast a cable, so as to overhaul. (See Cat Stopper, 
Deck Stopper.) 
Stopper Bolts. Ring-bolts to which the deck stoppers are secured. 
Stop. A fastening of small stuff. Also, small projections on the 
outside of the cheeks of a lower mast, at the upper parts of the 
hounds. 
Strand. (See page 33.) A number of rope-yarns twisted together. 
Three, four, or nine strands twisted together form a rope. 



128 DICTIONARY OP SEA TERMS. 

Strand — continued. 

A rope is stranded when one of its strands is parted or broken 

by chafing or by a strain. 
A vessel is stranded when she is driven on shore. 
Strap. A piece of rope spliced round a block to keep its parts 

well together. Some blocks have iron straps, in which case 

they are called iron-bound. 
Streak, or Strake. A range of planks running fore and aft on a 

vessel's side. 
Stream. The stream anchor is one used for warping, &c, and 

sometimes as a lighter anchor to moor by, with a hawser. It 

is smaller than the bowers, and larger than the hedges. 
To stream a buoy, is to drop it into the water. 
Stretchers. Pieces of wood placed across a boat's bottom, inside, 

for the oarsmen to place their feet against, in rowing. Also, 

cross pieces placed between a boat's sides to keep them apart 

when hoisted up and griped. 
Strike. To lower a sail or colours. 
Studdingsails. (See Plate 2.) Light sails set outside the square 

sails on booms rigged out for that purpose. They are only 

carried with a fair wind and in moderate weather. 
Sued, pr Sewed. The condition of a ship when she is high and 

dry on shore. If the water leaves her two feet, she sues, or 

is sued, two feet. 
Supporters. The knee-timbers under the cat-heads. 
Surf. The breaking of the sea upon the shore. 
Surge. A large, swelling wave. 

To surge a rope or cable, is to slack it up suddenly where it ren- 
ders round a pin, or round the windlass or capstan. 
Surge ho ! The notice given when a cable is to be surged. 
Swab. A mop, formed of old rope, used for cleaning and drying 

decks. 
Sweep. To drag the bottom for an anchor. Also, large oars, used 

in small vessels to force them ahead. 
Swift. To bring two shrouds or stays close together by ropes. 
Swifter. The forward shroud to a lower mast. Also, ropes used 

to confine the capstan bars to their places when shipped. 
Swig. A term used by sailors for the mode of hauling off upon the 

bight of a rope when its lower end is fast. 
Swivel. A long link of iron, used in chain cables, made so as to 

turn upon an axis and keep the turns out of a chain. 
Syphering. Lapping the edges of planks over each other for a 

bulk-head. 

Tabling. Letting one beam-piece into another. (See Scarfing.) 
Also, the broad hem on the borders of sails, to which the bolt- 
rope is sewed. 



DICTIONARY OP SEA TERMS. 129 

Tack. To put a ship about, so that from having the wind on one 
side, you bring it round on the other by the way of her head. 
The opposite of wearing. 
A vessel is on the starboard tack, or has her starboard tacks on 

board, when she has the wind on her starboard side. 
The rope or tackle by which the weather clew of a course is 

hauled forward and down to the deck. 
The tack of a fore-and-aft sail is the rope that keeps down the 
lower forward clew ; and of a studdingsail, the lower outer 
clew. The tack of the lower studding sail is called the out- 
haul. Also, that part of a sail to which the tack is attached. 

Tackle. (Pronounced tay-cle.) A purchase formed by a rope 
rove through one or more blocks. 

Taffrail, or Tafferel. The rail round a ship's stern. 

Tail. A rope spliced into the end of a block, and used for making 
it fast to rigging or spars. Such a block is called a tail-block. 
A ship is said to tail up or down stream, when at anchor, accord- 
ing as her stern swings up or down with the tide ; in opposition 
to heading one way or another, which is said of a vessel when 
under way. 

Tail-Tackle. A watch-tackle. (See page 46.) 

Tail-on ! or Tally on ! An order given to take hold of a rope 
and pull. 

Tank. An iron vessel placed in the hold to contain the vessel's 
water. 

Tar. A liquid gum, taken from pine and fir trees, and used for 
caulking, and to put upon yarns in rope-making, and upon 
standing rigging, to protect it from the weather. 

Tarpaulin. A piece of canvas, covered with tar, used for covering 
hatches, boats, &c. Also, the name commonly given to a 
sailor's hat when made of tarred or painted cloth. 

Taunt. High or tall. Commonly applied to a vessel's masts. 
All-a-taunt-o. Said of a vessel when she has all her light and 
tall masts and spars aloft. 

Taut. Tight. 

Tell-tale. A compass hanging from the beams of the cabin, by 
which the heading of a vessel may be known at any time. 
Also,an instrument connected with the barrel of the wheel, and 
traversing so that the officer may see the position of the wheel. 

Tend, To watch a vessel at anchor at the turn of tides, and cast 
her by the helm, and some sail if necessary, so as to keep 
turns out of her cables. 

Tenon. The heel of a mast, made to fit into the step. 

Tiiick-and-thin Block. A block having one sheave larger than 

the other. Sometimes used for quarter-blocks. 
Thimble. An iron ring, having its rim concave on the outside for 
a rope or strap to fit snugly round. 

K 



130 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Thole-pins. Pins in the gunwale of a boat, between which an oar 
rests when pulling, instead of a rowlock. 

Throat. The inner end of a gaff, where it widens and hollows 
in to fit the mast. (See Jaws.) Also, the hollow part of a 
knee. 
The throat brails, halyards, &c, are those that hoist or haul up 
the gaff or sail near the throat. Also, the angle where the 
arm of an anchor is joined to the shank. 

Thrum. To stick short strands of yarn through a mat or piece of 
canvas, to make a rough surface. 

Thwarts. The seats going across a boat, upon which the oarsmen 
sit. 

Thwartships. (See Athwartships.) 

Tide. To tide up or down a river or harbour, is to work up or 
down with a fair tide and head wind or calm, coming to 
anchor when the tide turus. 

Tide-rode. The situation of a vessel, at anchor, when she swings 
by the force of the tide. In opposition to wind-rode. 

Tier. A range of casks. Also, the range of the fakes of a cable 
or hawser. 
The cable tier is the place in a hold or between decks where the 
cables are stowed. 

Tiller. A bar of wood or iron, put into the head of the rudder, 
by which the rudder is moved. 

Tiller-ropes. Ropes leading from the tiller-head round the bar- 
rel of the wheel, by which a vessel is steered. 

Timber. A general term for all large pieces of wood used in ship- 
building. Also, more particularly, long pieces of wood in a 
curved form, bending outward, and running from the keel up, 
on each side, forming the ribs of a vessel. The keel, stem, 
sternposts, and timbers form a vessel's outer frame. (See 
Plate 3.) 

Timber-heads. (See Plate 3.) The ends of the timbers that 
come above the decks. Used for belaying hawsers and large 
ropes. 

Timenoguv. A rope carried taut between different parts of the 
vessel, to prevent the sheet or tack of a course from getting 
foul, in working ship. 

Toggle. A pin placed through the bight or eye of a rope, block- 
strap, or bolt, to keep it in its place, or to put the bight or eye 
of another rope upon, and thus to secure them both together. 

Tompion. A bung or plug placed in the mouth of a cannon. 

Top. A platform placed over the head of a lower mast, resting on 
the trestle-trees, to spread the rigging, and for the convenience 
of men aloft. (See Plate 1.) 
To top up a yard or boom, is to raise up one end of it by hoisting 
on the lift. 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 131 

Top-block. A large iron-bound block, hooked into a bolt under 
the lower cap, and used for the top-rope to reeve through in 
sending up and down topmasts. 
Top-light. A signal-lantern carried in the top. 
Top-lining. A lining on the after part of sails, to prevent them 

from chafing against the top-rim. 
Topmast. (See Plate 1.) The second mast above the deck. 

Next above the lower mast. 
Topgallant Mast. (See Plate 1.) The third mast above the deck. 
Top-rope. The rope used for sending topmasts up and down. 
Topsail. (See Plate 2.) The second sail above the deck. 
Topgallant Sail. (See Plate 2.) The third sail above the deck. 
Topping- lift. (See Plate 1.) A lift used for topping up the 

end of a boom. 
Top Timbers. The highest timbers on a vessel's side, being above 

the futtocks. (See Plate 3.) 
Toss. To throw an oar out of the rowlock, and raise it perpendicularly 

on its end, and lay it down in the boat, with its blade forward. 
Touch. A sail is said to touch, when the wind strikes the leach so 

as to shake it a little. 
Luff and touch her ! The order to bring the vessel up and 

see how near she will go to the wind. 
Tow. To draw a vessel along by means of a rope. 
Train-tackle. The tackle used for running guns in and out. 
Transoms. (See Plate 3.) Pieces of timber going across the 

stern-post, to which they are bolted. 
Transom-knees. Knees bolted to the transoms and after timbers. 
Traveller. An iron ring, fitted so as to slip up and down a rope. 
Treenails, or Trdnnels. Long wooden pins, used for nailing a 

plank to a timber. 
Trend. The lower end of the shank of an anchor, being the same 

distance on the shank from the throat that the arm measures 

from the throat to the bill. 
Trestle-trees. Two strong pieces of timber, placed horizontally 

and fore-and-aft on opposite sides of a mast-head, to support 

the cross-trees and top, and for the fid of the mast above to 

rest upon. 
Triatic Stay. A rope secured at each end to the heads of the fore 

and main masts, with thimbles spliced into its bight, to hook 

the stay tackles to. 
Trice. To haul up by means of a rope. 
Trick. The time allotted to a man to stand at the helm. 
Trim. The condition of a vessel, with reference to her cargo and 

ballast. A vessel is trimmed by the head or by the stern. 
In ballast trim, is when she has only ballast on board. 
Also, to arrange the sails by the braces with reference to the 

wind. 

K 2 



132 DICTIONARY- OF SEA TERMS. 

Trip. To raise an anchor clear of the bottom. 

Tripping Line. A line used for tripping a topgallant or royal yard 
in sending it down. 

Truck. A circular piece of wood, placed at the head of the highest 
mast on a ship. It has small holes or sheaves in it for signal 
halyards to be rove through. Also, the wheel of a gun- 
carriage. 

Trunnions. The arms on each side of a cannon by which it rests 
upon the carriage, and on which, as an axis, it is elevated or 
depressed. 

Truss. The rope by which the centre of a lower yard is kept in 
toward the mast. 

Trysail. A fore-and-aft sail, set with a boom and gaff, and hoisting 
on a small mast abaft the lower mast, calling a trysail-mast. 
This name is generally confined to the sail so carried at the 
mainmast of a full-rigged brig ; those carried at the foremast 
and at the mainmast of a ship or bark being called spencers, 
and those that are at the mizenmast of a ship or bark, span- 
kers. 

Tumbling home. Said of a ship's sides when they fall in above 
the bends. The opposite of wall-sided. 

Turn. Passing a rope once or twice round a pin or kevel, to keep 
it fast. Also, two crosses in a cable. 
To turn in or turn out, nautical terms for going to rest in a 

berth or hammock, and getting up from them. 
Turn up ! The order given to send the men up from between 
decks. 

Tye. A rope connected with a yard, to the other end of which 
a tackle is attached for hoisting. 

Unbend. To cast off or untie. (See Bend.) 

Union. The upper inner corner of an ensign. The rest of the 

flag is called the fly. The union of the U. S. ensign is a 

blue field with white stars, and the fly is composed of alternate 

white and red stripes. 
Union-down. The situation of a flag when it is hoisted 

upside down, bringing the union down instead of up. Used 

as a signal of distress. 
Union-jack. A small flag, containing only the union without 

the fly, usually hoisted at the bowsprit-cap. 
Unmoor. To heave up one anchor so that the vessel may ride 

at a single anchor. See Moor. 
Unship. (See Ship.) 
Uvroe. (See Euvrou.) 
Vane. A fly worn at the mast-head, made of feathers or buntine, 

traversing on a spindle, to show the direction of the wind. 

(See Dog Vane.) 



DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 133 

Vang. (See Plate 1.) A rope leading from the peak of the 

gaff of a fore-and-aft sail to the rail on each side, and us^ed 

for steadying the gaff. 
'Vast. (See Avast.) 
Veer. Said of the wind when it changes. Also to slack a cable 

and let it run out. (See Pay. ) 
To veer and haul, is to haul and slack alternately on a rope, 

as in warping, until the vessel or boat gets headway. 
Viol, or Voyal. A larger messenger sometimes used in weighing 

an anchor by a capstan. Also the block through which the 

messenger passes. 

Waist. That part of the upper deck between the quarter-deck 
and forecastle. 
Waisters. Green hands, or broken-down seamen, placed in 
the waist of a man-of-war. 

Wake. The track or path a ship leaves behind her in the water. 

Wales. Strong planks in a vessel's sides running her whole length 
fore and aft. 

Wall. A knot put on the end of a rope. (See Plate 5, page 37.) 

Wall-sided. A vessel is wall-sided when her sides run up per- 
pendicularly from the bends. In opposition to tumbling 
home or flaring out. 

Ward-room. The room in a vessel of war in which the com- 
missioned officers live. 

Ware, or Wear. To turn a vessel round, so that from having 
the wind on one side, you bring it upon the other, earning 
her stern round by the wind. In tacking, the same result is 
produced by carrying a vessel's head round by the wind. 

Warp. To move a vessel from one place to another by means of 
a rope made fast to some fixed object, or to a kedge. 
A warp is a rope used for warping. If the warp is bent to a 
kedge which is let go, and the vessel is hove ahead by the 
capstan or windlass, it would be called hedging. 

Wash-boards. Light pieces of board placed above the gunwale 
of a boat. 

Watch. (See page 178.) A division of time on board ship. 
There are seven watches in a day, reckoning from 12 m. round 
through the 24 hours, five of them being of four hours each, 
and the two others, called dog watches, of two hours each, viz., 
from 4 to 6, and from 6 to 8 p.m. (See Dog Watch.) Also 
a certain portion of a ship's company, appointed to stand a 
given length of time. In the merchant service all hands are 
divided into two watches, larboard and starboard, with a mate 
to command each. 
A buoy is said to watch when it floats on the surface. 



134 DICTIONARY OF SEA TERMS. 

Watch-and- watch. The arrangement by which the Watches are 

alternated every other four hours. In distinction from keeping 

all hands during one or more watches. (See page 178.) 
Anchor watch, a small watch of one or two men, kept while 

in port. 
Watch-ho ! Watch ! The cry of the man that heaves the 

deep-sea lead. 
Watch-tackle. (See page 46.) A small luff purchase with a 

short fall, the double block having a tail to it, and the single 

one a hook. Used for various purposes about decks. 
Water-sail. A save all, set under the swinging-boom. 
Water-ways. Long pieces of timber, running fore and aft on 

both sides, connecting the deck with the vessel's sides. The 

scuppers are made through them to let the water off. (See 

Plate 3.) 
Wear. (See Ware.) 
Weather. In the direction from which the wind blows. (See 

Windward, Lee.) 
A ship carries a weather-helm when she tends to come up into 

the wind, requiring you to put the helm up. 
Weather gage. A vessel has the weather gage of another 

when she is to windward of her. 
A weatherly ship, is one that works well to windward, making 

but little leeway. 
Weather-bitt. To take an additional turn with a cable round the 

windlass-end. 
Weather Roll. The roll which a ship makes to windward. 
Weigh. To lift up ; as, to weigh an anchor or a mast. 
Wheel. The instrument by which a ship is steered ; being a 

barrel, (round which the tiller-ropes go,) and a wheel with 

spokes. 
Whip. (See page 46.) A purchase formed by a rope rove through 

a single block. 
To whip, is to hoist by a whip. Also, to secure the end of a 

rope from fagging by a seizing of twine. 
TVhip-upon-whip. One whip applied to the fall of another. 
Winch. A purchase formed by a horizontal spindle or shaft with a 

wheel or crank at the end. A small one with a wheel is used 

for making ropes or spunyarn. 
Windlass. The machine used in merchant vessels to weigh the 

anchor by. 
Wind-rode. The situation of a vessel at anchor when she swings 

and rides by the force of the wind, instead of the tide or cur- 
rent. (See Tide-rode.) 
Wing. That part of the hold or between-decks which is next the 

side. 



DICTIONARY OP SEA TERMS. 135 

Wingers. Casks stowed in the wings of a vessel. 
Wing-and-wing. The situation of a fore-and-aft vessel when she 

is going dead before the wind, with her foresail hauled over 

on one side and her mainsail on the other. 
Withe, or Wythe. An iron instrument fitted on the end of a 

boom or mast, with a ring to it through which another boom 

or mast is rigged out and secured. 
Woold. To wind a piece of rope round a spar. 
Work up. To draw the yarns from old rigging and make them into 

spunyarn, foxes, sennet, &c. Also, a phrase for keeping a 

crew constantly at work upon needless matters, and in all 

weathers, and beyond their usual hours, for punishment. 
Worm. (See page 34.) To fill up between the lays of a rope with 

small stuff wound round spirally. Stuff so wound round is 

called worming. 
Wring. To bend or strain a mast by setting the rigging up too 

taut. 
Wring-bolts. Bolts that secure the planks to the timbers. 
Wring-staves. Strong pieces of plank used with the ring-bolts. 

Yacht. (Pronounced yot.) A vessel of pleasure or state. 
Yard. (See Plate 1.) A long piece of timber, tapering slightly 

toward the ends, and hung by the centre to a mast, to spread 

the square sails upon. 
Yard-arm. The extremities of a yard. 
Yard-arm and yard-arm. The situation of two vessels, lying 

alongside one another, so near that their yard-arms cross or 

touch . 
Yarn. (See Ropeyarn.) 

Yaw. The motion of a vessel when she goes off from her course. 
Yeoman. A man employed in a vessel of war to take charge of a 

store-room ; as, boatswain's yeoman, the man that has charge 

of the stores of rigging, &c. 
Yoke. A piece of wood placed across the head of a boat's rudder, 

with a rope attached to each end, by which the boat is steered. 



136 



PART II. 



CHAPTER I.* 



THE MASTER. 



Beginning of the voyage. Shipping the crew. Outfit. Provisions. 
Watches. Navigation. Log-book. Observations. Working ship. 
Day's work. Discipline. 

In the third part of this work, it will be seen that the 
shipmaster is a person to whom, both by the general 
marine law of all commercial nations and by the special 
statutes of the United States, great powers are confided, 
and upon whom heavy responsibilities rest. The ship- 

* There is no special code of statute laws either in the United 
States or Great Britain, for the maintenance of discipline, or the 
provisioning and treatment of the crews of trading ships when 
beyond the precincts of admiralty jurisdiction ; bat certain usages 
on these points have by long custom become established and 
recognized by courts of justice. It is very desirable that a compre- 
hensive code should be devised and compiled, so as to set disputed 
points at rest ; for although a general rule is admitted by the 
mariners of both countries, it is by no means a universal one, the 
custom varying in different trades, according to circumstances ; and 
this is more particularly the case in the merchant service of this 
country than in that of the United States — the discipline being 
more stringent, and distinctions of rank more rigidly observed by 
the republicans than ourselves. The duties of each rating de- 
scribed in this chapter appear to be well defined, and worthy of 
imitation : our ship-owners and masters would, therefore, do well 
to adopt them, with such modifications as may be necessary to suit 
particular trades ; and this may be done by inserting a clause to that 
effect, in the form of agreement now required to be entered into 
between master and crew before proceeding on a voyage, described 
at Schedules B & D of 5 & 6 W. 4, cap. 19. 



THE MASTER. J 37 

master will find there what are his legal rights, duties 
and remedies as to owner, ship and crew, and the various 
requirements as to the papers with which he is to furnish 
his ship, and the observances of revenue and other 
regulations. 

It is proposed to give here, rather more perhaps for 
the information of others than of the master himself, the 
ordinary and every-day duties of his office, and the cus- 
toms which long usage has made almost as binding as 
laws. 

There is a great difference in different ports, and 
among the various owners, as to the part the master is 
to take in supplying and manning the vessel. In many 
cases the owner puts on board all the stores for the ship's 
use and for the crew, and gives the master particular 
directions, sometimes in writing, as to the manner in 
which he is to dispense them. These directions are 
more or less liberal, according to the character of the 
owner ; and, in some cases, the dispensing of the stores 
is left to the master's discretion. In other instances, 
the master makes out an inventory of all the stores he 
thinks it expedient to have put on board, and they are 
accordingly supplied by the owners order. 

In the manner of shipping the crew, there is as great 
a difference as in that of providing the stores. Usually, 
the whole thing is left to shipping-masters, who are paid 
so much a head for each of the crew, and are responsible 
for their appearance on board at the time of sailing. 
When this plan is adopted, neither the master nor owner, 
except by accident, knows anything of the crew before 
the vessel goes to sea. The shipping-master opens the 
articles at his office, procures the men, sees that they 
sign in due form, pays them their advance, takes care 
that they, or others in their place, are on board at the 
time of sailing, and sends in a bill for the whole to the 
owner. In other cases, the master selects his crew, and 
occasionally the owner does it, if he has been at sea him- 



138 THE MASTER. 

self, and understands seamen ; though a shipping-master 
is still employed, to see them on board, and for other 
purposes.* In the ordinary course of short voyages, 
where crews are shipped frequently, and there is not 
much motive for making a selection, the procuring a 
crew may be left entirely to the agency of a faithful 
shipping-master; but upon long voyages, the comfort 
and success of which may depend much upon the cha- 
racter of a crew, the master or owner should interest 
himself to select able-bodied and respectable men, to 
explain to them the nature and length of the voyage 
they are going upon, what clothing they will want, and 
the work that will be required of them, and should see 
that they have proper and sufficient accommodations and 
provisions for their comfort. The master or owner 
should also, though this duty is often neglected, go to 
the forecastle and see that it is cleaned out, whitewashed, 
or painted, put in a proper habitable condition, and fur- 
nished with every reasonable convenience. It would 
seem best that the master should have something to do 
with the selection of the provisions for his men, as he 
will usually be more interested in securing their good- 
will and comfort than the owner would be. 

By the master or owner's thus interesting himself for 
the crew, a great deal of misunderstanding, complaint, 
and ill-will may be avoided, and the beginning, at least, 
of the voyage be made under good auspices. 

Unless the master is also supercargo, his duties, before 

* In the British service, the practice is for owners of vessels 
going on voyages round the Cape of Good Hope to employ an 
agent, generally called a crimp, to engage the greatest part of the 
crew. If forty or fifty men are wanted, double that number are 
brought on board, out of which the chief-mate selects a sufficient 
company ; the agent then receives a note for two months' wages, 
which he has, for the most part, advanced to the seamen, either 
in cash or slops (clothes), and also his procuration fee, varying from 
5s. to 20s. per man, if he have not engaged to provide the crew for 
a specified sum . 



THE MASTER. 139 

sailing, are mostly confined to looking after the outfit of 
the vessel, and seeing that she is in sea order. 

Everything being in readiness, the custom-house and 
other regulations complied with, and the crew on board, 
the vessel is put under the charge of the pilot to be car- 
ried out clear of the land. While the pilot is on board 
the master has little else to do than to see that every- 
thing is in order, and that the commands of the pilot are 
executed. As soon as the pilot leaves the ship, the 
entire control and responsibility are thrown upon the mas- 
ter. When the vessel is well clear of the land, and things 
are put into some order, it is usual for the master to call 
all hands aft, and say something to them about the voy- 
age upon which they have entered. After this, the crew 
are divided into watches. The watches are the divisions 
of the crew into two equal portions. The periods of 
time occupied by each part of the crew, while on duty, 
are also called watches. 

There are two watches, — the larboard, commanded by 
the chief mate, and the starboard, by the second mate. 
The master himself stands no watch, but comes and goes 
at all times, as he chooses. The starboard is sometimes 
called the captains watch, probably from the fact that in 
the early days of the service, when vessels were smaller, 
there was usually but one mate, and the master stood his 
own watch ; and now, in vessels which have no second 
mate, the master keeps the starboard watch. In divid- 
ing into watches, the master usually allows the officers 
to choose the men, one by one, alternately ; but some- 
times makes the division himself, upon consulting with 
his officers. The men are divided as equally as possible, 
with reference to their qualities as able seamen, ordinary 
seamen, or boys (as all green hands are called, whatever 
their age may be) ; but if the number is unequal, the 
larboard watch has the odd one, since the chief mate 
does not go aloft and do other duty in his watch, as the 
second mate does in his. The cook always musters with 



140 THE MASTER. 

the larboard watch, and the steward with the starboard. 
If there is a carpenter, and the larboard watch is the 
largest, he generally goes aloft with the starboard watch ; 
otherwise, with the larboard. 

As soon as the division is made, if the day's work is 
over, one watch is set, and the other is sent below. 
Among the numerous customs of the ocean, which can 
hardly be accounted for, it is one that on the first night 
of the outward passage the starboard watch should take 
the first four hours on deck, and on the first night of the 
homeward passage the larboard should do the same. 
The sailors explain this by the old phrase, that the 
master takes the ship out and the mate takes her home. 

The master takes the bearing and distance of the last 
point of departure upon the land, and from that point 
the ship's reckoning begins, and is regularly kept 
in the log-book. The chief mate keeps the log-book, 
but the master examines and corrects the reckoning 
every day. The master also attends to the chronometer, 
and takes all the observations, with the assistance of his 
officers, if necessary. Every day, a few minutes before 
noon, if there is any prospect of being able to get the 
sun, the master comes upon deck with his quadrant or 
sextant, and the chief mate also usually takes his. The 
second mate does not, except upon a Sunday, or when 
there is no work going forward. As soon as the sun 
crosses the meridian, eight bells are struck, and a new 
sea day begins. The reckoning is then corrected by the 
observation under the masters superintendence. 

The master also takes the lunar observations, usually 
with the assistance of both his officers ; in which case 
the master takes the angle of the moon with the star or 
sun, the chief mate takes the altitude of the sun or star, 
and the second mate the altitude of the moon. 

In regulating the hours of duty and sleep, the meal 
times, the food, &c, the master has absolute power ; yet 
the customs are very nearly the same in all vessels. The 



THE MASTER. 141 

hour of breakfast' is seven bells in the morning (half 
after seven), dinner at noon, and supper whenever the 
day's work is over. If the voyage is a long one, the 
crew are usually put upon an allowance of bread, beef, 
and water. The dispensing of the stores and regulating 
of the allowance lies, of course, with the master, though 
the duty of opening the casks, weighing, measuring, 
&c, falls upon the second mate. The chief mate enters 
in the log-book every barrel or cask of provisions that is 
broached. The steward takes charge of all the provi- 
sions for the use of the cabin, and keeps them in the 
pantry, over which he has the direct control. The 
average of allowance in merchant vessels is six pounds 
of bread a week, and three quarts of water, and one 
pound and a half of beef, or one and a quarter of pork, 
a day, to each man*. 

The entire control of the navigation and working of 
the ship lies with the master. He gives the course and 
general directions to the officer of the watch, who enters 
upon a slate, at the end of the watch, the course made, 
and the number of knots, together with any other observa- 
tions. The officer of the watch is at liberty to trim the 
yards, to make alterations in the upper sails, to take in 
and set royals, topgallant sails, &c. ; but no important 

* For want of some fixed scale of allowance in the Biitish mer- 
chant service, great discontent frequently arises on the part of the 
crew, particularly on long voyages. In coasting vessels, where the 
work is hard and constant, the allowance of beef and bread is 
unlimited ; but on long voyages it would be well to adopt the 
scale established for the Royal Navy, which is found amply suffi- 
cient ; and this should form part of the contract, and be entered as 
a special clause in the articles of agreement. On the next page 
is the scale alluded to. In trading as well as the Queen's vessels, 
exciseable articles are allowed in sufficient quantity for the voyage 
out and home, duty free. This regulation, as regards spirits, 
coffee, tea, &c, places our shipowners on a par with foreigners in 
the cost of outfit as to these articles ; but they still have to com- 
plain that the principal stores of provision, such as beef, pork, and 
bread, are considerably dearer in this country than abroad — a dis- 



142 



THE MASTER. 



alteration can be made, as, for instance, reefing a topsail, 
without the special order of the master, who, in such 
cases, always comes upon deck and takes command in 
person. When on deck, the weather side of the quarter- 
deck belongs to him, and as soon as he appears the 
officer of the watch will always leave it, and go over to 
leeward, or forward into the waist. If the alteration to 
be made is slight, the master usually tells the officer to 
take in or set such a sail, and leaves to him the particu- 
lar ordering as to the braces, sheets, &c, and the seeing all 
things put in their place. The principal manoeuvres of the 
vessel, as tacking, wearing, reefing topsails, getting under 
w r ay, and coming to anchor, require all hands. In these 
cases the master takes command, and gives his orders 
in person, standing upon the quarter-deck. The chief 
mate superintends the forward part of the vessel, under 
the master, and the second mate assists in the waist. 
The master never goes aloft, nor does any work with his 



advantage which presses heavily on the British shipowners in their 
competition with foreigners. 



Days of the 
week. 


u ~* 




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B.S 

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to? 

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i 


Sunday. 

Monday. 

Tuesday. 

Wednesday. 

Thursday. 

Friday. 

Saturday. 

Sunday. 

Monday. 

Tuesday. 

Wednesday. 

Thursday. 

Friday. 

Saturday. 






1* 
if 
if 
If 

1* 
1* 
1* 

if 
if 

ii 
if 
ii 
i* 




ft 

i 

i 

4 

4 
I 

i 

4 
I 

4 
4 

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4 


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ft 
S 

f 

9 

t 
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t 

t 
t 

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* 

t 

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Proportion for 
14 days. 


14 


14 


21 


H 


3% 



THE MASTER. 143 

hands, unless for his own pleasure. If the officer of the 
watch thinks it necessary to reef the topsails, he calls 
the master, who upon coming on deck takes command, 
and, if he thinks proper, orders all hands to be called. The 
crew, officers, and all, then take their stations, and await 
the orders of the master, who works the ship in person, 
giving all the commands, even the most minute, and 
looks out for trimming the yards and laying the ship 
for reefing. The chief mate commands upon the fore- 
castle, under the master, and does not go aloft. The 
second mate goes aloft with the crew. 

In tacking and wearing, the master gives all the orders 
as to trimming the yards, &c, though the chief mate is 
expected to look out for the head yards. So, in getting 
under way, and in coming to anchor, the master takes 
the entire personal control of everything, the officers 
acting under him in their several stations. 

In the ordinary day's work, however, which is carried 
on in a vessel, the state of things is somewhat different. 
This the master does not superintend personally ; but 
gives general instructions to the chief mate, whose duty 
it is to see to their execution. To understand this dis- 
tinction, the reader will bear in mind that there are two 
great divisions of duty and labour on shipboard. One, 
the working and navigating of the vessel: that is, the 
keeping and ascertaining the ship's position, and direct- 
ing her course, the making and taking in sail, trimming 
the sails to the wind, and the various nautical manoeuvres 
and evolutions of a vessel. The other branch is, the 
work done upon the hull and rigging to keep it in order, 
such as the making and fitting of new rigging, repairing 
of old, &c. ; all which, together with making of small 
stuffs to be used on board, constitute the days work and 
jobs of the crew. As to the latter, the master usually 
converses with the chief mate upon the state of the 
vessel and rigging, and tells him, more or less particu- 
larly, what he wishes to have done. It then becomes 
the duty of this officer to see the thing accomplished. 



144 THE MASTER. 

If, for instance, the master tells the chief mate to stay 
the topmasts more forward, the chief mate goes upon 
the forecastle, sets the men to work, one upon one thing 
and another upon another, sees that the stays and back- 
stays are come up with, has tackles got upon the rigging, 
sights the mast, &c. If the master sees anything which 
he disapproves of, and has any preferences in the modes 
of doing the work, he should call the officer aft and 
speak to him ; and if, instead of this, he were to go 
forward and give orders to the men, it would be con- 
sidered an interference, and indeed an insult to the 
officer *. So with any other work doing upon the ship 
or rigging, as rattling down, turning in and setting up 
rigging, bending and unbending sails, and all the knot- 
ting, splicing, serving, &c, and the making of small 
stuffs, which constitute the day's work and jobs of a 
vessel. If the chief officer is a competent man, the 
master is not expected to trouble himself with the 
details of any of these things ; and, indeed, if he were 
to do so to a great extent, it would probably lead to 
difficulty. 

Where there are passengers, as in regular line of packet 
ships (or, as they are familiarly called, liners), between 
New York and Liverpool, or Havre, for instance, the 
master has even less to do with the day's work ; since 
the navigation and working of the ship, with proper 
attention to his passengers, are as much as can reasonably 
be required of him. 

The master has the entire control of the cabin. The 
mates usually live in a state-room by themselves, or, if 
they live in the cabin, they yet feel that the master is 
the head of the house, and are unwilling to interfere 
with his hours and occupations. The chief mate dines 
w T ith the master, and the second mate looks out for the 
ship while they are below, and dines at the second table. 

* This is not sufficiently attended to in British merchant ships. 
The master should consider that a contrary course lessens the 
authority of his chief officer over the crew, and eventually his own. 



THE MASTER. 145 

In the liners, however^ the mates dine together, and the 
master looks out for the ship while they are at dinner, 
and dines with his passengers at a later hour. 

As the master stands no watch, he comes and goes as 
he pleases, and takes his own hours for rest. In fine 
weather, he is not necessarily much on deck, but should 
he ready at all times, especially in bad weather, to be up 
at a moment's notice. 

Everything of importance that occurs, as the seeing a 
sail or land, or the like, must be immediately reported 
to the master. And in heaving-to for speaking, the 
master takes the entire charge of working the vessel, 
and speaks the other sail in person. 

As will be found in the third Part of this book, the 
master has the entire control of the discipline of the ship, 
and no subordinate officer has authority to punish a sea- 
man, or to use force, without the master's order, except 
in cases of necessity not admitting of delay. He has 
also the complete direction of the internal arrangements 
and economy of the vessel ; and upon his character, and 
upon the course of conduct he pursues, depend in a great 
measure the character of the ship and the conduct of both 
officers and men. He has a power and an influence, both 
direct and indirect, which may be the means of much 
good or much evil'. If he is profane, passionate, tyran- 
nical, indecent, or intemperate, more or less of the same 
qualities will spread themselves or break out among offi- 
cers and men, which, perhaps would have been checked, 
if not in some degree removed, had the head of the ship 
been a man of high personal character. He may make 
his ship almost anything he chooses, and may render the 
lives and duties of his officers and men pleasant and pro- 
fitable to them, or may introduce disagreements, discon- 
tent, tyranny, resistance, and, in fact, make the situation 
of all on board as uncomfortable as that in which any 
human beings can well be placed. Every master of a 
vessel who will lay this to heart, and consider his great 
responsibility, may not only be a benefactor to the num- 

L 



146 THE CHIEF MATE. 

bers whom the course of many years will bring under 
his command, but may render a service to the whole 
class, and do much to raise the character of the 
calling. 



CHAPTER II. 



THE CHIEF MATE. 



Care of rigging and ship's furniture. Day's work. Working ship. 
Coming to anchor. Getting under way. Reefing. Furling. Duties 
in port. Account of cargo. Stowage. Station. Log-book. Navi- 
gation. 

The chief mate, or, as he is familiarly called on board 
ship, the mate, is the active superintending officer. In 
the previous chapter, upon the duties of the master, it 
will be seen that, in all matters relating to the care of 
and work done upon the ship and rigging, the master 
gives general orders to the mate, who attends personally 
to their execution in detail. Indeed, in the days work 
on board ship, the chief mate is the only officer who 
appears in command. The second mate works like a 
common seaman, and the men never know what is to be 
done until they receive their orders in detail from the 
chief mate. It is his duty to carry on the work, to find 
every man something to do, and to see that it is done. 
He appoints the second mate his work, as well as the 
common seamen theirs ; and if the master is dissatisfied 
with anything, or wishes a change, he should speak to 
the chief mate, and let him make the change, and not 
interfere with the men individually. It is also the duty 
of this officer to examine all parts of the rigging, report 
anything of importance to the master and take his orders, 
or, if it be a small and common matter, he will have the 
repairs or changes made at his own pleasure, as a thing 
of course. He must also see that there is a supply of 
small stuffs for the work, and have them made up when 
necessary, and also that there are instruments ready for 



THE CHIEF MATE. 147 

every kind of labour, or for any emergency. In bad 
weather, he must have spare rope, blocks, tackles, sennit, 
earings, &c, on hand ; or rather, see that they are pro- 
vided, the more immediate care of these things, when 
provided, belonging to the second mate. 

From this description of a chief mate's duty, it will 
be seen that he ought always to be not only a vigilant 
and active man, but also well acquainted with all kinds 
of seaman's work, and a good judge of rigging. 

In the working of the ship, when all hands are called 
and the master is on deck, the chief mate's place is on 
the forecastle, where, under the general direction of the 
master, who never need leave the quarter-deck, he com- 
mands the forward part of the vessel, and is the organ of 
communication with the men aloft. In getting under 
way and coming to anchor, it is his duty to attend to the 
ground tackle, and see everything ready forward. The 
master, for instance, tells him to have the ship ready for 
getting under weigh, and to heave short on the cable. 
He then goes forward, orders all hands to be called, sees 
everything secured about decks, tackles got up and boats 
hoisted in and lashed, fish and cat tackles, pennant, davit, 
&c., and spare hawsers and rope, in readiness, orders the 
men to the windlass, (the second mate taking a hand- 
spike with the rest,) and stationing himself between the 
knight-heads, looks out for the cable, ordering and en- 
couraging the men. When the cable is hove short, he 
informs the master, and, at the word from him, orders 
the men aloft to loose the sails, and gives particular 
directions to them when aloft, as to the sails, gaskets, 
overhauling rigging, &c. The sails being loosed, he 
awaits the order from the master, which would be ad- 
dressed to him rather than to the men, and has the 
windlass manned and the anchor hove up, giving notice 
to the master as soon as it is a-weigh. When the vessel 
is under way, the master begins to take more immediate 
control, ordering the yards to be braced and filled, sail to 
be set, and the like. The chief mate also sees to the 
l2 



148 THE CHIEF MATE. 

catting and fishing of the anchors, to having the decks- 
cleared up and everything secured. 

In coming to anchor, very nearly the same duty falls 
upon the chief officer. He must see the anchors and 
cables ready for letting go, the master ordering how 
much chain is to be overhauled. He must look out 
that the boats are ready for lowering, the rigging clear 
for letting go, hauling and clewing, and that spare 
hawsers, kedges, warps, &c, are at hand. If anything 
goes wrong forward, he alone is looked to for an ex- 
planation. As the vessel draws in toward her anchor- 
ing ground, the master gives all the orders as to trim- 
ming the yards and taking in sail ; and at all times, 
when on deck, has the entire charge of the man at the 
helm, it being the mate's duty only to see that a good 
seaman is there, and that the helm is relieved. As to 
the sails, the master will, for instance, order — " Clew 
up the fore and main topsails ! " The chief mate then 
gives the particular orders as to lowering and letting go 
the halyards, clewing down and up, overhauling rigging, 
&c. If both topsails were taken in at once, the second 
mate would attend to the main, unless the master should 
choose to look out for it himself. All being ready for 
letting go, the master gives the order — " Let go the 
anchor ! " and the chief mate sees that it is done, has the 
chain payed out, reports how much is out, sees that the 
buoys watch, and the like. In furling the sails, the 
whole superintendence comes upon the mate, as the 
master would probably only tell him to have them 
furled. He has the rigging hauled taut, sends the men 
aloft, and, remaining on deck and forward, he gives his 
orders to them while on the yards, as to the manner of 
furling, and has the ropes hauled taut, or let go on deck, 
as may be necessary. 

These instances may serve to show the distinctions 
between the duties of master and mate in the principal 
evolutions of a vessel. While in port, the chief mate 
has much more the control of the vessel than when at 



THE CHIEF MATE. 149 

sea. As there is no navigating or working of the vessel 
to be done, the master has little to engage him, except 
transactions with merchants and others on shore, and the 
necessary general directions to the mate, as to the care 
of the ship. Beside the work upon the ship and rigging 
while hi port, the chief mate has the charge of receiving, 
discharging, stowing and breaking out the cargo. In 
this he has the entire control, under the general direc- 
tions of the master. It is his duty to keep an account 
of all the cargo, as it goes in and comes out of the vessel, 
and, as he generally gives receipts, he is bound to great 
care and accuracy. When cargo is coming in and going 
out, the chief mate will stand in the gangway, to keep 
an account, and the second mate will be down in the 
hold with some of the crew, breaking out or stowing. 
The stowage, however, should still be somewhat under 
the chief mate's directions. While the master is on 
shore, the chief mate is necessarily commander of the 
ship, for the time, and though the law will extend his 
power proportionably for cases of necessity, yet, except 
in instances which will not admit of delay, he must not 
attempt to exercise any unusual powers, but should refer 
everything to the master's decision. It will be seen, by 
the laws, that the mate has no right to punish a man 
during the master's absence, unless it be a case in which 
delay would lead to serious consequences. 

While in port, the chief mate stands no watch at 
night, but he should always be the first to be called in 
the morning, and should be up early and order the call- 
ing of all hands. In cleaning the ship, as washing down 
decks, &c, which is done the first thing in the morning, 
each mate, while at sea, takes charge of it in his watch, 
in turn, as one or the other has the morning watch; but 
in port, the second mate oversees the washing down of 
the decks, under the chief mate's general orders. 

While at sea, in tacking, wearing, reefing topsails, 
&c, and in every kind of " all hands' work," when the 
master is on deck, the chief mate's place, as I have said, 



150 THE CHIEF MATE. 

is forward. To give a further notion of the manner of 
dividing the command, I will describe the evolution of 
tacking-ship. The master finds that the ship will not 
lay her course, and tells the chief mate to " see all clear 
for stays," or " ready about/' Upon this, the chief 
mate goes forward, sends all hands to their stations, and 
sees everything clear and ready on the forecastle. The 
master asks, " All ready forward ? " and being answered, 
" Ay, ay, sir ! " motions to the man at the helm to put 
the wheel down, and calls out, " Helm's a-lee ! " The 
mate answering immediately, " Helm 's a-lee,'' to let 
the master know he is heard and understood, sees that 
the head sheets are let go. At " Raise tacks and sheets ! " 
from the master, the mate, and the men with him, let 
go the fore tack, while he looks after the overhauling 
of the other tack and sheet. He also sees to letting go 
the bowlines for " Let go and haul," and to getting down 
the head sheets when the ship is about, and trims the 
head yards, calling out to the men at the braces the 
usual orders, " Well the main yard ! " " Topsail yard, 
a small pull ! " " Topgallant yard, well ! " &c. The 
master usually trims the after yards. 

In reefing topsails, the chief mate should not go aloft, 
but should keep his place forward, and look out for the 
men on the yards. I am aware that it has been the 
custom in some classes of vessels, as, in the New York 
liners, for the chief mate to take the weather earing of a 
course, especially if a topsail or the other course were 
reefing at the same time ; yet this practice has never 
generally prevailed, and is now going out of date. I 
think I may say it is the opinion of all, masters, officers, 
and men, that it is better for the chief mate to remain on 
deck. There is always a good deal to be looked after, 
ropes to be let go or hauled, rigging to be cleared, and 
the like, beside the importance of having some one to 
oversee the men on the different yards ; which the mate, 
standing at a little distance, can easily do. He is also 
the organ of communication between the yards and the 



THE CHIEF MATE. 151 

deck, and can look after the reefing to more advantage 
than the master can upon the quarter-deck, where he 
must stay to watch the helm and sails. 

The chief mate is not required to work with his hands, 
like the second mate and the seamen. He will, of course, 
let go and belay ropes, and occasionally pull and haul 
with the men when working ship ; but if there is much 
work to be done, his time and attention are sufficiently 
taken up with superintending and giving orders. 

As to his duties as a watch-officer, it will be necessary 
to repeat the explanations partly given in the chapter 
upon the master s duties. The crew are divided equally 
into two watches, the larboard and starboard ; the lar- 
board commanded by the chief mate, and the starboard 
by the second mate. These watches divide the day 
between them, being on and off duty every other four 
hours. This is the theory of the time, but in fact, in 
nearly all merchant vessels, all hands are kept on deck 
and at work throughout the afternoon, from one o'clock 
until sundown; and sometimes, if there is a great deal to 
be done, as immediately before making port, or after an 
accident, all hands may be kept throughout the day. 
This is, however, justly considered hard usage, if long 
continued, since it gives the men but little time for sleep, 
and none for reading, or taking care of their clothes. 
Although all hands may be on deck and at work during 
a day or a half day, yet the division of time is still kept 
up. For instance, if it is the mate's watch from 8 a. m. 
to 12 ; although all hands should be up from 12 to 5 or 
6, yet from 12 to 4 the starboard watch would be con- 
sidered as " the watch on deck," and the larboard again 
after 4 ; and so on ; and during those hours the wheel 
will always be taken by men belonging to the watch on 
deck, and if any particular duty is ordered to be done by 
" the watch," that watch which has a man at the helm, 
and which would have been the only one on deck had 
not all hands been kept, would do the duty. But though 
this division is kept up as to the crew and the helmsman, 



152 THE CHIEF MATE. 

it is not so as to the officers ; for when all hands are on 
deck, the chief mate is always the officer in command, 
to whichever watch the hour may properly belong. He 
accordingly looks out for the ship, takes in and makes 
sail, and trims the yards, and when all hands are on deck 
at work, as much in the hours of one watch as in those of 
the other, and he generally calls upon the men of either 
watch indifferently to pull and haul. But if only the 
starboard watch is on deck, though the chief mate should 
be on deck also, yet he will not interfere with the duties 
of that watch, but would leave the command of the ves- 
sel, and the weather side of the quarter-deck, to the 
second mate. Of course, whenever the master comes on 
deck, as I have said, in whosever watch it may be, or 
if all hands are up, he takes the weather side of the 
quarter-deck, and is considered as having charge of the 
ship ; and the officer of the watch would then give no 
order with reference to the helm, trimming the yards, 
making sail, or the like, without a direction from the 
master. 

It will be necessary to make some explanations as to 
the stations of the chief and second mate. 1 have said 
that when all hands are called, the chief mate's place is 
the forecastle, and the second mate's amidships, or at the 
braces on the quarter-deck. This is only in working 
ship with all hands; that is, in tacking, wearing, reefing, 
coming to anchor, getting under way, &c. Whenever 
the work is done, and the necessity for the officers' pre- 
sence at these parts of the vessel ceases, they return to 
their proper plaees on the quarter-deck. In a man-of- 
war there is always a lieutenant of the watch on the 
weather side of the quarter-deck, whatever work may 
be going forward, except in the single case of all hands 
being called to work ship ; but it is not so in the mer- 
chant service. When the ordinary day's work is going 
forward, the mates must be about the decks or aloft, 
like the petty officers of a man-of-war ; and it is only 
while no work is going forward, as in bad weather, on 



THE CHIEF MATE. 153 

Sundays, or at night, that the officer of the watch keeps 
the quarter-deck. At these times he does so, and, if the 
master is not on deck, does not leave it, except for a 
short time, and for some necessary duty forward. 

It will be seen in the third Part of this book, that the 
law looks upon the chief mate as standing in a different 
relation to the master from that of the second mate or 
the men. He is considered a confidential person, to 
whom the owners, shippers and insurers look, in some 
measure, for special duties and qualifications. The 
master, therefore, cannot remove him from office, except 
under very peculiar circumstances, and then must be 
able to prove a justifiable cause. One of these duties 
which the law throws upon him, is keeping the log-book. 
This is a very important trust, as the log-book is the 
depository of the evidence of everything that may occur 
during the voyage ; and the position of the ship, the sail 
she was under, the wind, &c, at any one moment, may 
become matters of great consequence to all concerned. 
So it is with reference to anything that may occur be- 
tween the master or officers and the crew. As to the 
manner of keeping the log, it is the custom for each offi- 
cer at the end of his watch to enter upon the log-slate, 
which usually lies on the cabin table, the courses, dis- 
tances, wind and weather during his watch, and anything 
worthy of note that may have occurred. Once in twenty- 
four hours the mate copies from this slate into the log- 
book; the master, however, first seeing the slate, ex- 
amining it, and making any corrections or observations 
he may choose. This practice of copying from the slate, 
which is first submitted to the master, has led, in too 
many instances, to the mate's becoming the mere clerk 
of the master, to enter on the log-book whatever the 
latter may dictate. This is wrong. It is very proper 
that the master should examine the slate, and suggest 
alterations as to the ship's reckoning, &c, if necessary ; 
but it is important to all concerned, both to the owners, 
shippers and insurers, on shore, and the crew of the 



154 THE SECOND MATE. 

vessel, that the independence of the mate, as the jour- 
nalist of the voyage, should be preserved. The master, 
from the power of his office, can at all times make the 
situation of a mate who has displeased him extremely 
disagreeable, and from this cause has great indirect in- 
fluence over him ; the law and the custom should there- 
fore be strictly adhered to which rightly make the chief 
officer, in this respect, in a manner the umpire between 
the master and the crew, as well as between all on board 
and the parties interested on shore. 

The law also makes the chief mate the successor to 
the master, in case the latter should die, or be unable to 
perform the duties of his office ; and this without any 
action on the part of the crew. It is always important, 
therefore, that, to the practical seamanship and activity 
necessary for the discharge of the proper duties of his 
office, the mate should add a sufficient knowledge of 
navigation to be able to carry the ship on her voyage in 
case anything should happen to the master. Indeed, it 
has been doubted whether a vessel of the largest class, 
upon a long voyage, would be seaworthy with no navi- 
gator on board but the master. 

Both the chief and second mates are always addressed 
by their surnames, with Mr. prefixed, and are answered 
with the addition of Sir. This is a requirement of ship's 
duty, and an intentional omission of it is an offence against 
the rules and understanding of the service. 



CHAPTER III. 

SECOND AND THIRD MATES. 

Second Mate — Navigation. Station. Watch duties. Day's work. 

Working ship. Reefing. Furling. Duties aloft. Care of Ship's 

furniture. Stores. Duties in port. 
Third Mate.-— Working ship. Day's work. Duties aloft— in port. 

Boating. Stores. 

The duties of the second mate are, to command the 
starboard watch when the master is not on deck, and to 



THE SECOND MATE. 155 

lead the crew in their work. It is not necessary that he 
should he a navigator, or even be able to keep a journal, 
though he should know enough of navigation to keep 
the courses and distances during his watch, and to report 
them correctly on the slate. There are also many ad- 
vantages in his being acquainted with navigation and 
able to keep the log, as, in case of the chief mate's meet- 
ing with any accident, or being removed from office. The 
second mate, however, does not, by law, necessarily 
succeed to the office of chief mate, as the chief mate does 
to that of master ; but it lies with the master for the 
time being to appoint whom he chooses to the office of 
chief mate : yet, if the second mate is capable of per- 
forming the duties of the office, he would ordinarily be 
appointed, as a matter of course. 

When the starboard watch alone is on deck, and the 
master is below, the second mate has charge of the ship. 
When both watches are on deck, the chief mate is officer 
of the deck, to whichever watch the time may belong, 
according to the division of the hours. When the master 
is on deck, he commands, in one watch as well as in the 
other. But the second mate does not give up the charge 
of the vessel to the chief mate, if he should happen to be 
on deck during the starboard watch, unless all hands are 
up. While he has charge of the vessel in his watch, his 
duties are the common ones of a watch officer ; that is, 
to have an eye to the helm, watch the weather, keep a 
general look-out round the horizon, see to the trimming 
of the yards and making and taking in of the light sails, 
give the master notice of anything important that occurs, 
heave the log and keep an account of the winds, courses, 
rate of sailing, &c, and enter the same on the slate at 
the end of the watch. In these things the chief mate 
has no right to interfere, when it is not his watch on 
deck. But in all matters connected with the day's 
work and jobs, the second mate acts under the chief 
mate in his own watch, as that department belongs 



156 THE SECOND MATE. 

peculiarly to the chief mate. In working days, when 
the crew are employed about the ship and rigging, it is 
usual for the chief mate to tell the second mate what to 
do in his watch, and sometimes he remains on deck a few 
minutes to see to the commencement of the work. And 
while day's work is going forward, during the time that 
the chief mate has a watch below, as the second mate is 
expected to do jobs like a common seaman, it is the 
custom for the master to be on deck a good deal in the 
starboard watch and look after the vessel. While work 
is going forward, the second mate is about decks and 
aloft ; but at other times, as at night, or on Sunday, or 
during bad weather, when day's work cannot be kept 
up, his place is on the quarter-deck ; though still, he 
leaves it whenever anything is to be done forward or 
aloft which requires the presence of a whole watch, as, 
setting or taking in a lower or topmast studding-sail, or 
any of the heavy sails. 

When all hands are called to work ship, as in reefing, 
tacking, wearing, getting under way, coming to anchor, 
&c, the second mate's place is aft, at the fore and main 
braces and main and mizen rigging ; and generally, in all 
ship's duty, the chief mate and larboard watch belong 
forward, and the second mate and starboard watch aft. 
In tacking ship, the second mate looks out for the lee 
fore and main braces, sees them belayed to one pin and 
clear for letting go, lets go the main braces at " Main- 
sail haul ! " and the fore at " Let go and haul ! " He 
also steadies the weather braces as the yards come up. 
He then sees to getting down the main tack, hauling 
out the main and mizen bowlines, hauling aft the main 
sheet, and, in short, has charge of all the duty to be done 
upon the quarter-deck and in the waist. 

In getting under way, the second mate takes a hand- 
spike at the windlass with the men, the place which 
custom has assigned him being the windlass-end. If 
anything is to be done with the braces while the men 



THE SECOND MATE. 157 

are heaving at the windlass, it is his duty to attend to 
it, as the chief mate must be looking out for the ground 
tackle. 

In reefing, the second mate goes aloft with the men, 
and takes his place at the weather earing. This is his 
proper duty, and he will never give it up, unless he is a 
youngster, and not strong enough or sufficiently ex- 
perienced to lead the men on the yard. As soon as the 
order is given to clew down for reefing, and the halyards 
are let go, if there are hands enough to haul out the reef- 
tackles, he should go aloft, see that the yard is well 
down by the lifts, and then lay out to the weather yard- 
arm, and get his earing rove by the time the men are 
upon the yard. He then hauls it out and makes fast. 
If both topsails are reefed at once, he goes to the main ; 
but if one sail is reefed at a time, he goes with the men 
from one to the other, taking the weather earing of 
each. He also goes aloft to reef a course, and takes the 
weather earing of that, in the same manner. He is not 
expected to go upon the mizen topsail yard, as the mizen 
topsail is a small sail, and can be reefed by a few men, 
or by the light hands. 

In furling sails, the second mate goes aloft to the top- 
sails and courses, and takes the bunt, as that is the most 
important place in. that duty. He is not expected to go 
upon the mizen topsail yard for any service, and though 
in bad weather, and in case of necessity, he would do so, 
yet it would be out of the usual course. He might also, 
in heavy weather, assist in furling a large jib, or in taking 
the bonnet off; but he never furls a topgallant sail, 
royal or flying jib. In short, the fore or main topsail 
and the courses are the only sails which the second mate 
is expected to handle, either in reefing or furling. And, 
as I said before, if the sails are reefed or furled by the 
watch, he leads the starboard watch on the main and 
maintopsail yards, and the best man in the larboard 
watch leads them at the fore. 

Although the proper place for the second mate on a 



158 THE SECOND MATE. 

yard, is the bunt in furling, and the weather earing in 
reefing, and it is the custom to give him a chance at 
them at first, yet he cannot retain them by virtue of his 
office ; and if he has not the necessary strength or skill 
for the stations, it is no breach of duty in a seaman to 
take them from him ; on the contrary, he must always 
expect, in such a case, to give them up to a smarter 
man. If the second mate is a youngster, as is sometimes 
the case, being put forward early for the sake of promo- 
tion, or if he is not active and ambitious, he will not 
attempt to take the bunt or weather earing. 

In the ordinary day's work done on shipboard, the 
second mate works with his hands like a common sea- 
man. Indeed, he ought to be the best workman on 
board, and to be able to take upon himself the nicest 
and most difficult jobs, or to show the men how to do 
them. Among the various pieces of work constantly 
going forward on the vessel and rigging, there are some 
that require more skill and are less disagreeable than 
others. The assignment of all the work belongs to the 
chief mate, and if the second mate is a good seaman (by 
which sailors generally understand a good workman upon 
rigging,) he will have the best and most important of 
these allotted to him; as, for instance, fitting, turning in 
and setting up rigging, rattling down, and making the 
neater straps, coverings, graftings, pointings, &c. ; but 
if he is not a good workman, he will have to employ 
himself upon the inferior jobs, such as are usually 
assigned to ordinary seamen and boys. Whatever may 
be his capacity, however* he "carries on the work," 
when his watch alone is on deck, under directions pre- 
viously received from the chief mate. 

It is a common saying among seamen that a man does 
not get his hands out of the tar bucket by becoming 
second mate. The meaning of this is, that as a great 
deal of tar is used in working upon rigging, and it is 
always put on by hand, the second mate is expected to 
put his hands to it as the others do. If the chief mate 



THE SECOND MATE. 159 

were to take hold upon a piece of work, and it should be 
necessary to put any tar on it, he might call some one 
to tar it for him, as all labour by hand is voluntary with 
him ; but the second mate would be expected to do it 
for himself, as a part of his work. These matters, small 
in themselves, serve to show the different lights in which 
the duties of the officers are regarded by all sea-faring 
men. There are, however, some inferior services, such 
as slushing down masts, sweeping decks, &c, which the 
second mate takes no part in ; and if he were ordered to 
do so, it would be considered as punishment, and might 
lead to a difficulty. 

In working ship, making and taking in sail, &c, the 
second mate pulls and hauls about decks with the rest of 
the men. Indeed, in all the work he is expected to 
join in, he should be the first man to take hold, both 
leading the men and working himself. In one thing, 
however, he differs from the seamen ; that is, he never 
takes the helm. Neither master nor mates ever take 
the wheel, but it is left to the men, who steer the vessel 
under the direction of the master or officer of the 
deck. He is also not expected to go aloft to reeve and 
unreeve rigging, or rig in and out booms, when making 
or taking in sail, if there are men enough; but, as I 
have said, under ordinary circumstances, only goes aloft 
to reef or furl a topsail or course. In case, however, of 
any accident, as carrying away a mast or yard, or if any 
unusual work is going on aloft, as the sending up or 
down of topmasts or topsail yards, or getting rigging 
over the mast-head, sending down or bending a heavy 
sail in a gale of wind, or the like, then the second mate 
should be aloft to take charge of the work there, and to 
be the organ of communication between the men aloft 
and the chief mate, who should remain on deck, since he 
must superintend everything fore and aft, as well as 
a-low and aloft. Sending up or down royal and top- 
gallant yards, being light work and done by one or two 
hands, does not call the second mate aloft ; but if the 



160 THE SECOND MATE. 

topgallant masts are to be sent down, or a jib-boom 
rigged in in bad weather, or any other work going on 
aloft of unusual importance or difficulty, the second mate 
should be there with the men, leading them in the work, 
and communicating with, and receiving the orders from 
the deck. 

During his own watch, if the master is not on deck, 
the second mate commands the ship, gives his orders and 
sees to their execution, precisely as the chief mate does 
in his ; but, at the same time, he is expected to lend a 
hand at every " all hands rope/' 

There is another important part of the duties of a 
second mate ; which is, the care of the spare rigging, 
blocks, sails, and small stuffs, and of the instruments for 
working upon rigging, as, marlinspikes, heavers, serving- 
boards, &c. It is the duty of the chief mate, as super- 
intendant of the work, to see that these are on board, 
and to provide a constant supply of such as are made at 
sea ; but when provided, it is the second mate's duty to 
look after them, to see them properly stowed away, and 
to have them at hand whenever they are called for. If, 
for instance, the chief mate orders a man to do a piece of 
work with certain instruments and certain kinds of stuff, 
the man will go to the second mate for them, and he 
must supply him. If there is no sail-maker on board, 
the second mate must also attend to the stowing away 
of the spare sails, and whenever one is called for, it is 
his duty to go below and find it. So with blocks, spare 
rigging, strands of yarns, and any part of a vessel's fur- 
niture, which an accident or emergency, as well as the 
ordinary course of duty, may bring into play. 

So, also, with the stores. It is his duty to see to the 
stowing away of the water, bread, beef, pork, and all the 
provisions of the vessel ; and whenever a new cask or 
barrel of water or provisions is to be opened, the second 
mate must do it. Indeed, the crew should never be sent 
into the hold or steerage, or to any part where there is 
cargo or stores, without an officer. He also measures 



THE THIRD MATE. 



161 



out the allowance to the men, at the rate ordered hy the 
master. These latter duties, of getting out the stores 
and weighing or measuring the allowance, fall upon the 
third mate, if there is one, which is seldom the case in 
merchant vessels. 

While in port, when cargo is taking in or discharging, 
the second mate's place is in the hold ; the chief mate 
standing at the gangway, to keep account, and to have a 
general supervision. If the vessel is lying at anchor, so 
that the cargo has to be brought on or off in boats, then 
the boating duty falls upon the second mate, who goes 
and comes in the boats, and looks after the landing 
and taking off of the goods. The chief mate seldom 
leaves the vessel when in port. The master is necessa- 
rily on shore a good deal, and the second mate must 
come and go in the boats, so that the chief mate is con- 
sidered as the ship-keeper. So, if a warp or kedge is to 
be carried out, or a boat is lowered at sea, as in boarding 
another vessel, or when a man has fallen overboard, in 
all such cases the second mate should take charge of the 
boat. 

When in port, the second mate stands no anchor 
watch, but is expected to be on deck until eight o'clock, 
which is the hour at which the watch is usually set. If, 
however, the ship' is short-handed, he would stand his 
watch ; in which case it would probably be either the 
first or the morning watch. 

The second mate lives aft, sleeping in the cabin, if 
there are no passengers, or else in a state-room in the 
steerage. He also eats in the cabin, but at a second 
table, taking charge of the vessel while the master and 
chief mate are at their meals. In packet ships the two 
mates generally eat together, by themselves, at an earlier 
hour than the master and passengers. 

Third Mate. — Merchant vessels bound on long 
voyages, upon which there are many vicissitudes to be 
anticipated, sometimes carry a third mate ; but this is 
unusual ; so much so, that his duties have hardly become 

M 



162 CARPENTER. 

settled by custom. He does not command a watch, but 
belongs to the larboard watch, and assists the chief mate 
in his duties. He goes aloft with the larboard watch to 
reef and furl, as the second mate does with the starboard, 
and performs very nearly the same duties aloft and about 
decks. If he is a good seaman, he will take the earing, 
and bunt on the head yards, as the second mate does on 
the after yards ; and in the allotment of work he will be 
favoured with the most important jobs, if a good work- 
man, otherwise he will be put upon the work of an 
ordinary seaman. He is not expected to handle the 
light sails. He stands no helm, lives aft, and will look 
out for the vessel at meal- times, if the second mate dines 
with the master and chief mate. While in port, he will 
be in the hold or in the boats, as he may be needed, thus 
dividing the labour with the second mate. Perhaps his 
place would more properly be in the boats, as that is 
considered more in the light of fatigue duty. He also 
relieves the second mate of the charge of the stores, and 
sees to the weighing and measuring of the allowances ; 
and in his watch on deck, he relieves the chief mate of 
the inferior parts of his duty, such as washing decks in 
the morning, and looking after the boys in clearing up 
the decks at night. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CARPENTER, COOK, STEWARD, &C. 

Carpenter. — Working ship. Seaman's work. Helm. Duty aloft. 
Work at his trade. Station. Berth and mess. Standing watch. 

Sailmaker.— Seaman's work. Work at trade. Duty aloft. Standing 
watch. Berth and mess. Station. 

Steward. — Duty in passenger-ships. Care of cahin-table — passengers. 
In other vessels— Master— mate. Aloft. About decks. Working 
ship. 

Cook.— Berth. Standing watch. Care of galley and furniture. Work- 
ing ship. Duty aloft. 

Carpenter. — Almost every merchant vessel of a large 
class, or bound upon a long voyage, carries a carpenter. 



CARPENTER. 163 

His duty is to work at his trade under the direction of 
the master, and to assist in all-hands work according to 
his ability. He is stationed with the larboard or star- 
board watch, as he may be needed, though, if there is 
no third mate, usually with the larboard. In working 
ship, if he is an able seaman, (as well as carpenter,) he 
will be put in some more important place, as looking 
after the main tack and bowlines, or working the fore- 
castle with the mate ; and if capable of leading his watch 
aloft, he would naturally take the bunt or an earing. 
He is not expected to handle the light sails, nor to go 
above the topsail yards, except upon the work of his 
trade. If he ships for an able seaman as well as carpen- 
ter, he must be capable of doing seaman's work upon the 
rigging and taking his turn at the wheel, if called upon ; 
though he would not be required to do it except in bad 
weather, or in case the vessel should be short-handed. If 
he does not expressly ship for seaman as well as carpen- 
ter, no nautical skill can be required of him ; but he 
must still, when all hands are called, or if ordered by 
the master, pull and haul about decks, and go aloft in 
the work usual on such occasions, as reefing and furling. 
But the inferior duties of the crew, as sweeping decks, 
slushing, tarring, &c, would not be put upon him, nor 
would he be required to do any strictly seaman's work, 
except taking a helm in case of necessity, or such work 
as all hands join in. 

The carpenter is not an officer, has no command, and 
cannot give an order even to the smallest boy ; yet he is 
a privileged person. He lives in the steerage, with the 
steward, has charge of the ship's chest of tools, and in all 
things connected with his trade is under the sole direc- 
tion of the master. The chief mate has no authority 
over him, in his trade, unless it be in case of the master's 
absence or disability. In all things pertaining to the 
working of the vessel, however, and as far as he acts in 
the capacity of a seaman, he must obey the orders of 
the officers as implicitly as any of the crew would; 
m 2 



164 SAILMAKER. 

though, perhaps, an order from the second mate would 
come somewhat in the form of a request. Yet there 
is no doubt that he must obey the second mate in his 
proper place, as much as he would the master in his. 
Although he lives in the steerage, he gets his food from 
the galley, from the same mess with the men in the fore- 
castle, having no better or different fare in any respect ; 
and he has no right on the quarter-deck, but must take 
his place on the forecastle with the common seamen. 

In many vessels, during fine weather, upon long 
voyages, the carpenter stands no watch, but "sleeps in" 
at night, is called at daylight, and works all day at his 
trade. • But in this case, whenever all hands are called, 
he must come up with the rest. In bad weather, when 
he cannot well w T ork at his trade, or if the vessel be- 
comes short-handed, he is put in a watch, and does duty 
on deck, turning in and out with the rest. In many 
vessels, especially those bound on short voyages, the 
carpenter stands his watch, and, while on deck, works at 
his trade in the day-time, if the weather will permit, 
and at night, or in bad weather, does watch duty accord- 
ing to his ability. 

Sailmaker. — Some ships of the largest class carry a 
sailmaker, though usually the older seamen are suffi- 
ciently skilled in the trade to make and mend sails, and 
the master or chief mate should know how to cut them 
out. As to the sailmaker s duty on board, the same 
remarks will apply to him that were made upon the car- 
penter. If he ships for seaman as well as sailmaker, 
he must do an able seaman's duty, if called upon ; and 
if he does not so ship, he will still be required to assist 
in all-hands w r ork, such as working ship, taking in and 
making sail, &c, according to his ability ; and in bad 
weather, or a case of necessity, he may be put w r ith a 
watch, and required to do ship's duty with the rest. In 
all-hands work he is mustered with either watch, accord- 
ing to circumstances, and the station allotted to him will 
depend upon his qualities as a seaman ; and, as with the 



STEWARD. 1(35 

carpenter, if he is a good seaman, he would naturally 
have some more important post assigned to him. He 
is not expected to handle the light sails, nor to go above 
the topsail yards. Nor would the inferior duties of the 
crew, such as tarring, slushing, and sweeping decks, be 
put upon him. In bad weather, or in case of necessity, 
he may be mustered in a watch, and must do duty as 
one of the crew, according to his ability. Sometimes he 
stands no watch, and works at his trade all day, and at 
others he stands his watch, and when on deck in the 
daytime, and during good weather, works at his trade, 
and at night, or in bad weather, does duty with the 
watch. He usually lives in the steerage with the car- 
penter, and always takes his food from the galley. He 
has no command, and when on deck belongs on the fore- 
castle with the rest of the crew. In the work of his trade 
he is under the sole direction of the master, or of the chief 
mate in the master's absence ; but in ship's work he is 
as strictly under the command of the mates as a common 
seaman is. 

Steward. — The duties of the steward are very dif- 
ferent in packet ships, carrying a large number of pas- 
sengers, from those which are required of him in other 
vessels. In the New York liners, for instance, he has 
waiters or under-stewards, who do most of the labour, 
he himself having the general superintendence of the 
department. It is his duty to see that the cabin and 
state-rooms are kept in order; to see to the laying and 
clearing of the tables ; to take care of the dishes, and 
other furniture belonging to them ; to provide the meals, 
under the masters direction, preparing the nicer dishes 
himself; to keep the general charge of the pantry and 
stores for the cabin; to look after the cook in his depart- 
ment ; and lastly, which is as important a part of his 
duty as any other, to attend to the comfort and conve- 
nience of the passengers. These duties, where there are 
many passengers, require all his time and attention, and 
he is not called upon for any ship's duty. 



166 cook. 

In vessels which are not passenger-ships, he does the 
work which falls to the under-stewards of the large 
packets : cleans the cahin and state-rooms ; sets, tends, 
and clears away the table ; provides everything for the 
cook ; and has charge of the pantry, where all the table 
furniture and the small stores are kept. He is also the 
body servant of the master. His relation to the chief mate 
is somewhat doubtful ; but the general understanding 
is, that, although he waits upon him when at table, and 
must obey him in all matters relating to the ship's work, 
yet he is not in any respect his servant. If the mate 
wishes any personal service done, he would ask it, or 
make some compensation. 

In these vessels the steward must come on deck 
whenever all hands are called, and in working ship pulls 
and hauls about decks with the men. The main sheet 
is called the steward's rope, and this he lets go and hauls 
aft in tacking and wearing. In reefing and furling he 
is expected to go upon the lower and topsail yards, and 
especially the mizen topsail yard of a ship. No seaman- 
ship is expected of him, and he stands no watch, sleeping 
in at night and turning out at daylight ; yet he must do 
ship's duty according to his ability when all hands are 
called for working ship, or for taking in or making sail. 
In these things he must obey the mates in the same way 
that a common seaman would, and is punishable for dis- 
obedience. The amount of ship's duty required of him 
depends, as I have said, upon the number of passengers. 

Cook. — The cook almost always lives in the forecastle, 
though sometimes in the steerage with the steward. He 
stands no watch, sleeping in at night, and working at his 
business throughout the day. He spends his time mostly 
in the cook-house, which is called the " galley," where 
he cooks both for the cabin and forecastle. This, with 
keeping the galley, boilers, pans, kids, &c, clean and in 
order, occupies him during the day. He is called with 
all hands, and in tacking and wearing, works the fore- 
sheet. He is also expected to pull and haul about decks 



IDLERS. 167 

in all -hands work, and is occasionally called from his 
galley to give a pull at a tackle or halyards. No seaman- 
ship can be required of him, but he is usually expected 
to go upon a lower or topsail yard in reefing or furling, 
and to assist according to his ability in working ship. 
In regular passenger-ships, however, as he is more 
exclusively employed in cooking, he is not required to 
do any duty about decks, except in a case of necessity 
or of common danger. In some other vessels, too, if 
strongly manned, neither the cook nor steward is sent 
upon the yards. Yet it can, without doubt, be required 
of them, by the custom and understanding of the service, 
to go upon a lower or topsail yard to reef or furl. 

If there are on board armourers, coopers, or persons 
following any other trades, they take the same place 
and follow the same rules as to duty that govern the 
carpenter and sailmaker. In the merchant service, when 
"all hands" are called, it literally calls every one on 
board but the passengers, excepting, as I have said, in 
the case of the cook and steward of strictly passenger- 
ships. Those persons of whom any duty can be required 
who do not stand a watch, but sleep in at night and work 
during the day, are called idlers. Beside turning out 
with " all hands," the idlers are sometimes called up at 
night to help the watch on deck in any heavy or difficult 
duty when it is not desirable to call the other watch, 
who may have had severe service. This is allowable, 
if practised only in cases of necessity, and not carried to 
an extreme. 



168 



CHAPTER V. 

ABLE SEAMEN. 

Grades of seafaring persons. Able seaman. Ordinary seaman. Boys. 
Shipping and rating. Over-rating. Requisites of an able seaman. 
Hand, reef and steer. Work upon rigging. Sailmaking. Day's work. 
Working ship. Reefing and furling. Watch duty. Coasters and 
small vessels. 

Seafaring persons before the mast are divided into 
three classes, — able seamen, ordinary seamen, and boys 
or green hands. And it may be remarked here that all 
green hands in the merchant service are termed boys, 
and rated as such, whatever may be their age or size. 
In the United States navy, an able seaman receives 
twelve dollars per month, an ordinary seaman ten, and 
the boys, or green hands, from four to eight, according 
to their strength and experience*. In the merchant 
service, wages are about the same on long voyages ; but 
on voyages to Europe, the West Indies, and the southern 
ports, they are considerably higher, and very fluctuating. 
Still, the same proportion between the classes is pre- 
served, an ordinary seaman getting about two dollars 
less than an able seaman, and the boys, from nothing up 
to two dollars less than ordinary seamen, according to 

* The wages of seamen in the Royal Navy are, for able seamen 
36s., ordinary 26s., and landmen 23s. per month. Boys of the 
first class — stout lads of eighteen and upwards, who have been two 
or three years at sea, have 14s. 3c?., and boys of the second class 
12s. 9d. per month ; but the month being calculated by lunar 
not calendar time, gives thirteen months' wages in the year. In the 
merchant service the wages of seamen differs in the various trades, 
but the average of able seamen's wages in merchant ships, may 
be taken at present at 50s. per calendar month, or 30/., while 
the wages of the able seaman in the Queen's fleet is 23/. 8s. per 
annum. In the latter, however, the term is not broken into inter- 
vals, caused by the duration of voyages, and all things considered, 
the seaman earns as much in the year in the navy as in the mer- 
chant service. 



ABLE SEAMSN. 169 

circumstances. A full-grown man must ship for boy's 
wages upon his first voyage. It is not unusual to see a 
man receiving boy's wages and rated as a boy, who is 
older and larger than many of the able seamen. 

The crews are not rated by the officers after they get 
to sea, but, both in the merchant service and in the navy, 
each man rates himself when he ships. The shipping 
articles, in the merchant service, are prepared for so 
many of each class, and a man puts his name down and 
contracts for the wages and duty of a seaman, ordinary 
seaman, or boy, at his pleasure. Notwithstanding this 
license, there are very few instances of its being abused ; 
for every man knows that if he is found incompetent to 
perform the duty he contracts for, his wages can not only 
be reduced to the grade for which he is fitted, but that 
something additional will be deducted for the deception 
practised upon all concerned, and for the loss of service 
and the numerous difficulties incurred, in case the fraud 
is not discovered until the vessel has got to sea. But, 
still more than this, the rest of the crew consider it a 
fraud upon themselves; as they are thus deprived of a 
man of the class the vessel required, which makes her 
short-handed for the voyage, and increases the duty put 
upon themselves. If, for instance, the articles provide 
for six able seamen, the men expect as many, and if one 
of the six turns out not to be a seaman, and is put upon 
inferior work, the duties which would commonly be done 
by seamen will fall upon the five. The difficulty is felt 
still more in the watches; as, in the case I have supposed, 
there would be in one watch only two able seamen in- 
stead of three, and if the delinquent was not a capable 
helmsman, the increased duty at the wheel alone would 
be, of itself, a serious evil. The officers also feel at 
liberty to punish a man who has so imposed upon all 
hands, and accordingly every kind of inferior and dis- 
agreeable duty is put upon him; and, as he finds no 
sympathy from the crew, his situation on board is made 
very unpleasant. Indeed, there is nothing a man can 



170 ABLE SEAMEN. 

be guilty of, short of a felony, to which so little mercy 
is shown on board ship ; for it is a deliberate act of de- 
ception, and one to which there is no temptation, except 
the gain of a few dollars. 

The common saying that to hand reef and steer makes 
a sailor, is a mistake. It is true that no man is a sailor 
until he can do these things; yet to ship for an able sea- 
man he must, in addition to these, be a good workman 
upon rigging. The rigging of a ship requires constant 
mending, covering and working upon in a multitude of 
ways ; and whenever any of the ropes or yards are cha- 
fing or wearing upon it, it must be protected by u chafing 
gear." This chafing gear consists of worming, parcelling, 
serving, rounding, &c. ; which requires a constant sup- 
ply of small stuffs, such as foxes, sennit, spunyarn, mar- 
line, and the like, all which is made on board from 
condemned rigging and old junk. There is also a great 
deal of new rigging to be cut and fitted, on board, which 
requires neat knots, splices, seizings, coverings, and turn- 
ings in. It is also frequently necessary to set up the 
rigging in one part of the vessel or another ; in which 
case it must be seized or turned in afresh. It is upon 
labour of this kind that the crew is employed in the 
" day's' work," and jobs which are constantly carried 
forward on board. A mans skill in this work is the 
chief test of his seamanship ; a competent knowledge of 
steering, reefing, furling, and the like, being taken for 
granted, and being no more than is expected of an ordi- 
nary seaman. To put a marlinspike in a man's hand 
and set him to work upon a piece of rigging, is consi- 
dered a fair trial of his qualities as an able seaman. 

There is, of course, a great deal of difference in the 
skill and neatness of the work of different men ; but I 
believe I am safe in saying that no man will pass for an 
able seaman in a square-rigged vessel, who cannot make 
a long and short splice in a large rope, fit a block-strap, 
pass seizings to lower rigging, and make the ordinary 
knots, in a fair, workmanlike manner. This working 



ABLE SEAMEN. 171 

upon rigging is the last thing to which a lad training up 
to the sea is put, and always supposes a competent ac- 
quaintance with all those kinds of work that are required 
of an ordinary seaman or boy. A seaman is generally 
expected to be able to sew upon a sail, and few men ship 
for seamen who cannot do it; yet, if he is competent in 
other respects, no fault can be found with an able seaman 
for want of skill in sailmaking. 

In allotting the jobs among the crew, reference is 
always had to a man's rate and capacity ; and it is con- 
sidered a decided imputation upon a man to put him 
upon inferior work. The most difficult jobs, and those 
requiring the neatest work, will be given to the older and 
more experienced among the seamen ; and of this none 
will complain ; but to single out an able seaman and 
keep him at turning the spunyarn winch, knotting yarns 
or picking oakum, while there are boys on board, and 
other properly seaman's work going forward at the same 
time, would be looked upon as punishment, unless it 
were temporarily, or from necessity, or while other sea- 
men were employed in the same manner. Also, in con- 
sideration of the superior grade of an able seaman, he is 
not required to sweep down the decks at night, slush the 
masts, &c, if there are boys on board and at hand. Not 
that a seaman is not obliged to do these things. There 
is no question but that he is, just as much as to do any 
other ship's work ; and if there are no boys on board or 
at hand at the time, or from any other cause it is reason- 
ably required of him, no good seaman would object, and 
it would be a refusal of duty to do so : yet if an officer 
were deliberately, and without necessity for it, when 
there were boys about decks at the time, who could do 
the work as well, to order an able seaman to leave his 
work and sweep down the decks, or slush a mast, it 
would be considered as punishment. 

In working ship, the able seamen are stationed vari- 
ously ; though, for the most part, upon the forecastle, at 



172 



ABLE SEAMEN. 



the main tack or fore and main lower and topsail braces ; 
the light hands being placed at the cross-jack and fore 
and main topgallant and royal braces. In taking in and 
making sail, and in all things connected with the work- 
ing of a ship, there is no duty which may not be re- 
quired of an able seaman ; yet there are certain things 
requiring more skill or strength, to which he is always 
put, and others which are as invariably assigned to ordi- 
nary seamen and boys. In reefing, the men go out to 
the yard-arms, and the light hands stand in toward the 
slings ; while in furling, the bunt and quarters belong to 
the able seamen, and the yard-arms to the boys. The 
light hands are expected to loose and furl the light sails, 
as royals, flying jib and mizen topgallant sail, and the 
men seldom go above the cross-trees, except to work upon 
the rigging, or to send a mast or yard up or down. The 
fore and main topgallant sails, and sometimes the flying 
jib of large vessels, require one or more able seamen for 
furling, but are loosed by light hands. In short, as to 
everything connected with working ship, making and 
taking in sail, &c, one general rule may be laid down. 
A seaman is obliged to obey the order of the master or 
officer, asking no questions and making no objection, 
whether the duty to which he is ordered be that which 
properly belongs to an able seaman or not ; yet as able 
seamen alone can do the more nice and difficult work, 
the light hands, in their turn, are expected to do that 
which requires less skill and strength. In the watch on 
deck at night, for instance, the able and ordinary seamen 
steer the ship, and are depended upon in case of any 
accident, or if heavy sails are to be taken in or set, or 
ropes to be knotted or spliced ; and in consideration of 
this, if there is light work to be done, as coiling up rig- 
ging about decks, holding the log-reel, loosing or furling 
a light sail, or the like, the boys are expected to do it, 
and should properly be called upon by the officer, unless 
from some circumstance it should be necessary to call 



ABLE SEAMEN. 173 

upon a man. Yet, as I have said before, if ordered, the 
seaman must do the thing, under any circumstances, and 
a refusal would he a refusal of his duty. 

No man is entitled to the rate or wages of an able sea- 
man who is not a good helmsman. There is always a 
difference in a ship's company as to this duty, some men 
being more steady, careful, and expert helmsmen than 
others ; and the best quality cannot be required of every 
able seaman ; yet, if, upon fair trial, in bad weather, a 
man is found incapable of steering the ship, under cir- 
cumstances not extraordinary, he would be considered 
by all on board to have failed of his duty. It should be 
remembered, however, that there are times when the 
very best helmsman is hardly able to steer a ship, and if 
a vessel is out of trim or slow in her motions, no skill 
can keep her close to her course. 

An able seaman is also expected to do all the work 
necessary for reefing, furling, and setting sail, to be able 
to take a bunt or earing, to send yards and masts up 
and down, to rig in and out booms, to know how to reeve 
all the running rigging of a ship, and to steer, or pull an 
oar in a boat. 

The standard of seamanship, however, is not so high 
in coasting vessels and those of a smaller class bound 
upon short voyages, in which all the work that v is ne- 
cessary upon the vessel or rigging is usually done when 
in port by people hired from on shore. In such vessels 
many men ship for able seamen, and are considered upon 
the whole competent, if they are able-bodied, and can 
hand, reef, and steer, who perhaps would only have 
shipped for ordinary seamen in vessels bound upon long 
voyages. In all large-class vessels, and in vessels of 
almost any class bound upon long voyages, the standard of 
seamanship is very nearly what I have before described. 



174 



CHAPTER VI. 

ORDINARY SEAMEN. 

Requisites. Hand, reef, and steer. Loose, furl, and set sails. Reeve 
rigging. Work upon rigging. Watch — duty. 

An ordinary seaman is one who, from not being of 
sufficient age and strength, or from want of sufficient ex- 
perience, is not quite competent to perform all the duties 
of an able seaman, and accordingly receives a little less 
than full wages, and does not contract for the complete 
qualities of an able seaman. There is a large proportion 
of ordinary seamen in the navy. This is probably be- 
cause the power of the officers is so great upon their long 
cruises to detect and punish any deficiency, and because, 
if a man can by any means be made to appear wanting 
in capacity for the duty he has shipped to perform, it 
w T ill justify a great deal of hard usage. Men, therefore, 
prefer rather to underrate than to run any risk of over- 
rating themselves. 

An ordinary seaman is expected to hand, reef, and 
steer, under common circumstances, (which includes 
" boxing the compass ; ") to be well acquainted with all 
the running and standing rigging of a ship ; to be able to 
reeve all the studdingsail gear, and set a topgallant or 
royal studdingsail out of the top ; to loose and furl a 
royal,, and a small topgallant sail or flying jib ; and per- 
haps, also, to send down or cross a royal yard. An ordi- 
nary seaman need not be a complete helmsman, and if an 
able seaman should be put in his place at the wheel in 
very bad weather, or when the ship steered with diffi- 
culty, it would be no imputation upon him provided he 
could steer his trick creditably under ordinary circum- 
stances. In reefing or furling the courses and topsails, 
an ordinary seaman would not take the bunt or an ear- 
ing, if there were able seamen on the yard ; and perhaps, 
in the largest-sized vessels, it would not be expected of 



ORDINARY SEAMEN. 175 

him to pass an earing, or make up the bunt of a fore or 
main topsail or course in bad weather, yet he should 
know how to do both, and should be able to take a bunt 
or earing on the mizen topsail yard, and on any topsail 
or lower yard of a small vessel. 

It is commonly understood that an ordinary seaman 
need not be a workman upon rigging. Yet there are 
probably few men capable of performing the duties of an 
ordinary seaman, as above detailed, who would not be 
somewhat acquainted with work upon rigging, and who 
could not do the simpler parts of it, such as, serving 
and splicing small ropes, passing a common seizing, or 
the like ; and it is always expected that an ordinary sea- 
man shall be able to make all the hitches, bends, and 
knots in common use : such as, two half-hitches, a roll- 
ing hitch, timber hitch, clove hitch, common bend, and 
bowline knot. He would also be thought deficient if he 
could not draw, knot, and ball up yarns, and make 
spunyarn, foxes, and common sennit. Yet it is said that 
if he can steer his trick, and do his duty creditably in 
working ship and taking in and making sail, he is enti- 
tled to the rate and wages of an ordinary seaman, though 
he cannot handle a marlinspike or serving-board. 

The duty upon whicli an ordinary seaman is put, 
depends a good deal upon whether there are boys or 
green hands on board or not. If there are, he has a 
preference over them, as an able seaman has over him, 
in the light work ; and since he stands his helm regularly 
and is occasionally set to work upon rigging with the 
men, he will be favoured accordingly in the watch and in 
common dut}' about decks. Yet the distinction between 
ordinary seamen and boys is not very carefully observed 
in the merchant service, and an ordinary seaman is fre- 
quently called upon for boy's duty, though there are 
boys on board and at hand. If an officer wished for 
some one to loose a royal, take a broom and sweep the 
decks, hold the log -reel, coil up a rope, or the like, he 
would probably first call upon a boy, if at hand ; if not, 



170 BOYS. 

upon an ordinary seaman; but upon either of them 
indifferently, before an able seaman. 

If there are no boys on board, the ordinary seamen do 
boy's duty ; the only difference being, that if they take 
their trick at the wheel, and do other ordinary seamen's 
work, the able seamen are not so much preferred over 
them, as over mere boys and green hands. 



CHAPTER VII. 



BOYS. 



Requisites. Wages. Watch. Day's work. Working ship. Helm. 
Duties aloft and about decks. 

Boy is the term, as I have said before, for all green 
hands, whatever may be their size or age ; and also for 
boys, who, though they have been at sea before, are not 
large and strong enough for ordinary seamen. It is the 
common saying, that a boy does not ship to know any- 
thing. Accordingly, if any person ships as a boy, and 
upon boy's wages, no fault can be found with him, 
though he should not know the name of a rope in the 
ship, or even the stem from the stern. In the navy, the 
boys are divided into three classes, according to their 
size and experience, and different duties are put upon 
them. In the merchant service, all except able and 
ordinary seamen are generally upon the same wages, 
though boys' wages vary in different voyages. Some- 
times they get nothing, being considered as apprentices ; 
and from that they rise to three, five, and sometimes 
eight dollars per month. Whatever boy's wages may be, 
a person who ships for them for that voyage, whether 
more or less, is rated as boy, and his duty is according 
to his rate. 

In the ordinary day's work, the boys are taught to 
draw and knot yarns, make spunyarn, foxes, sennit, &c, 
and are employed in passing a ball or otherwise assisting 



BOYS. 177 

the able seamen in their jobs. Slushing masts, sweeping 
and clearing up decks, holding the log-reel, coiling up 
rigging, and loosing and furling the light sails, are duties 
that are invariably put upon the boys or green hands. 
They stand their watches like the rest, are called with 
all hands, go aloft to reef and furl, and work whenever 
and wherever the men do, the only difference being in 
the kind of work upon which they are put. In reefing, 
the boys lay in toward the slings of the yard, and in 
furling they go out to the yard-arms. They are sent 
aloft immediately, as soon as they get to sea, to accus- 
tom them to the motion of a vessel, and to moving about 
in the rigging and on the yards. Loosing and furling 
the royals, setting topgallant studdingsails and reeving 
the gear, shaking out reefs, learning the names and uses 
of all the ropes, and to make the common hitches, bends, 
and knots, reeving all the studdingsail gear, and rigging 
in and out booms, and the like, is the knowledge first 
instilled into beginners. There is a good deal of differ- 
ence in the manner in which boys are put forward in 
different vessels. Sometimes, in large vessels, where 
there are plenty of men, the boys never take the wheel 
at all, and are seldom put upon any but the most simple 
and inferior duties. In others, they are allowed to take 
the wheel in light winds, and gradually, if they are 
of sufficient age and strength, become regular helmsmen. 
So, also, in their duties aloft ; if they are favoured, they 
may be kept at the royals and topgallant sails, and gra- 
dually come to the earing of a mizen topsail. In work 
upon rigging, however, a green hand makes but little 
progress beyond ropeyarns and spunyarn, during his 
first voyage ; since there are men enough to do the jobs, 
and he can be employed to more advantage in the infe- 
rior work, and in making and taking in light sails, 
steering in light winds, &c. ; a competent knowledge of 
which duty is sufficient to enable him to ship for an 
ordinary seaman upon the next voyage. It is generally 
while in the grade of ordinary seaman that the use of 

N 



178 MISCELLANEOUS. 

the marlinspike is learned. Whatever knowledge a boy 
may have acquired, or whatever may be his age or 
strength, so long as he is rated as a boy, (and the rates 
are not changed during a voyage unless a person changes 
his ship,) he must do the inferior duties of a boy. If 
decks are to be cleared up or swept, rigging to be coiled 
up, a man is to be helped in his job, or any duty to be 
done aloft or about decks which does not require the 
strength or skill of a seaman, a boy is always expected 
to start first and do it, though not called upon by name. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Watches. Calling the watch. Bells. Helm. Answering. Stations. 
Food. Sleep. 

Watches. — A watch is a term both for a division of 
the crew, and for the period of time allotted to such 
division. The crew are divided into two watches, lar- 
board and starboard ; the larboard commanded by the 
chief mate, and the starboard by the second mate. These 
watches divide the time between them, being on and off 
duty, or, as it is termed, on deck and below, every other 
four hours. If, for instance, the chief mate with the 
larboard watch have the first night watch, from eight to 
twelve, at the end of the four hours the starboard watch 
is called, and the second mate takes the deck, while the 
larboard watch and the chief mate go below until four 
in the morning. At four they come on deck again, and 
remain until eight ; having what is called the " morning 
watch." As they will have been on deck eight hours 
out of the twelve, while the starboard watch, who had 
the middle watch, from twelve to four, will only have 
been up four hours, they are entitled to the watch below 
from eight till twelve, which is called the "forenoon 
watch below." Where this alternation of watches is 



MISCELLANEOUS. 179 

kept up throughout the twenty-four hours, four hours 
up and four below, it is called having " watch and watch." 
This is always given in bad weather, and when day's 
work cannot be carried on ; but in most merchant ves- 
sels, it is the custom to keep all hands from one p. m. 
until sundown, or until four o'clock. In extreme cases, 
also, all hands are kept throughout the day ; but the 
watch which has had eight hours on deck at night 
should always be allowed a forenoon watch below, if 
possible. 

The watch from four to eight p. m. is divided into 
two half- watches of two hours each, called dog-watches. 
The object of this is to make an uneven number of 
watches, seven instead of six ; otherwise the same watch 
would stand during the same hours for the whole voyage, 
and those who had two watches on deck the first night 
would have the same throughout the trip. But the 
uneven number shifts the watches. The dog-watches 
coming about sundown, or twilight, and between the end 
of a day's work and the setting of the night watch, are 
usually the time given for recreation, — for smoking, 
telling yarns, &c., on the forecastle ; things which are 
not allowed during the day. 

Calling the Watch. — As soon as eight bells are 
struck, the officer of the watch gives orders to call the 
w T atch, and one of the crew goes to the scuttle, knocks 
three times, and calls out in a loud voice, "All the 
starboard (or larboard) watch, ahoy ! ! " or, " All star- 
bowlines, ahoy ! " or something of the kind, and adds, 
" Eight bells," or the hour ; usually, also, a question, to 
know whether he is heard, as, "Do you hear the news 
there, sleepers ? " Some one of the watch below must 
answer, " Ay, ay ! " to show that the call has been heard. 
The watch below is entitled to be called in a loud and 
audible voice, and in the usual manner; and unless 
called, they cannot be expected to come up. They 
must also turn out at once and come on deck as soon as 
they are called, in order that the other watch may go 
n2 



180 MISCELLANEOUS. 

below, especially as they are never called until the hour 
has expired, and since some minutes are allowed for 
turning out, dressing, and getting on deck. The man 
whose turn it is to take the helm goes immediately aft, 
and ought to be the first on deck, as the two hours' duty 
at the helm at night is tedious, and entitles a man to be 
speedily relieved. It is considered a bad trait in a man 
to be slack in relieving the helm. The relieving the 
helm is also the sign that the watch is changed, and no 
man is permitted to go below until that has been done. 
It is a man's watch on deck so long as one of his watch 
is at the wheel. 

Bells. — The time at sea is marked by bells. At 
noon, eight bells are struck, that is, eight strokes are 
made upon the bell ; and from that time it is struck every 
half-hour throughout the twenty-four, beginning at one 
stroke and going as high as eight, adding one at each 
half-hour. For instance, twelve o'clock is eight bells, 
half past twelve is one bell, one o'clock is two bells, half 
past one three bells, and so on until four o'clock, which 
will be eight bells. The watch is then out, and for half 
past four you strike one bell again. A watch of four 
hours therefore runs out the bells. It will be observed, 
also, that even bells come at the full hours, and the odd 
bells at the half -hours. For instance, eight bells is al- 
ways twelve, four, or eight o'clock; and seven bells 
always half past three, half past seven, or half past 
eleven. 

The bells are sounded by two strokes following one 
another quickly, and then a short interval ; after which, 
two more ; and so on. If it is an odd number, the odd 
one is struck alone, after the interval. This is to make 
the counting more sure and easy ; and, by this means, 
you can, at least, tell whether it is an hour or a half- 
hour. 

Helm. — Neither the master nor mates of a merchant 
vessel ever take the helm. The proper helmsmen are 
the able and ordinary seamen. Sometimes the carpenter, 



MISCELLANEOUS. 181 

sailmaker, &c, if they are seamen, are put at the helm ; 
also the boys, in light winds, for practice. Each watch 
steers the ship in its turn, and the watch on deck must 
supply the helmsman, even when all hands are called. 
Each man stands at the helm two hours, which is called 
his trick. Thus, there are two tricks in a watch. Some- 
times, in very cold weather, the tricks are reduced to 
one hour ; and if the ship steers badly, in a gale of wind, 
two men are sent to the wheel at once. In this case, the 
man who stands on the weather side of the wheel is the 
responsible helmsman, the man at the lee wheel merely 
assisting him by heaving the wheel when necessary. 

The men in the watch usually arrange their tricks 
among themselves, the officers being satisfied if there is 
always a man ready to take the wheel at the proper 
time. In steering, the helmsman stands on the weather 
side of a wheel and on, the lee side of a tiller. But when 
steering by tiller-ropes with no hitch round the tiller- 
head, or with a tackle, as in a heavy gale and bad sea, 
when it is necessary to ease the helm a good deal, it is 
better to stand up to windward and steer by the parts of 
the tackle or tiller-ropes. 

In relieving the wheel, the man should come aft on 
the lee side of the quarter-deck, (as indeed he always 
should unless his duty lies to windward,) go to the 
wheel behind the helmsman and take hold of the spokes, 
so as to have the wheel in command when the other lets 
go. Before letting go, the helmsman should give the 
course to the man that relieves him in an audible voice, 
and the new man should repeat it aloud just as it was 
given, so as to make it sure that he has heard correctly. 
This is especially necessary, since the points and half- 
points are so much alike that a mistake might easily be 
made. It is the duty of the officer of the watch to be 
present when the wheel is relieved, in order to see that 
the course is correctly reported and understood ; which 
is another reason why the course should be spoken by 
both in a loud tone. It is unseamanlike and reprehen- 



182 MISCELLANEOUS. 

sible to answer, " Ay, ay P or, " I understand/' or the 
like, instead of repeating the course. 

If a vessel is sailing close-hauled and does not lay her 
course, the order is, " Full and by P which means, by 
the wind, yet all full. If a vessel lays her course, the 
order then is her course, as N. W. by W., E. by S., and 
the like. 

When a man is at the wheel, he has nothing else to 
attend to but steering the ship, and no conversation 
should be allowed with him. If he wishes to be relieved 
during his trick, it should not be done without the per- 
mission of the officer, and the same form of giving and 
repeating the course should be gone through, though he 
is to be absent from the helm but a minute or two. 

If an order is given to the man at the wheel as to his 
steering, he should always repeat the order, distinctly, 
that the officer may be sure he is understood. For 
instance, if the order is a new course, or " Keep her off 
a point ! " " Luff a little ! " " Ease her ! " " Meet her ! " 
or the like, the man should answer by repeating the 
course or the order, as " Luff a little, sir," u Meet her, 
sir," &c, and should not answer, " Ay, ay, sir ! " or 
simply execute the order as he understands it. This 
practice of repeating every, even the most minute order 
at the wheel, is well understood among seamen, and a 
failure or refusal to do so is an offence sometimes leading 
to disagreeable results. 

If, when the watch is out and the other watch has 
been called, all hands are detained for any purpose, as, 
to reef a topsail, to set studding sails, or the like, the 
helm should not be relieved until the work is done and 
the watch ready to go below. 

Answering. — The rule has just been stated which 
requires a man at the wheel to answer by repeating dis- 
tinctly the order given him. The same rule applies to 
some other parts of a seaman's duty, though to none so 
strictly, perhaps, as to that. In tacking, where the 
moment of letting go a rope or swinging a yard is very 



MISCELLANEOUS. 183 

important, the order of the master is always repeated by 
the officer on the forecastle. This enables the master 
to know whether he is heard and understood, to repeat 
his order if it is not answered at once, and to correct any 
mistake, or obviate some of its consequences. The same 
may be said generally of every order to the proper or 
instant execution of which unusual importance is attached. 
If, for instance, a man is stationed by a rope to let it go 
upon an order given, if an order is addressed to him which 
he supposes to be for that purpose, he should answer, 
" Let go, sir ! " and usually adds, " All gone ! " as soon 
as it is done. Green hands should bear in mind that 
whenever an order is of a kind which ought to be re- 
peated, it must be so, without reference to a man's dis- 
tance from the officer who gives the order, but just as 
much if standing a few feet from him as if at the mast- 
head, since, upon the whole, the chance of misapprehen- 
sion is not much less in one case than in the other. 

The common run of orders, however, are sufficiently 
answered by the usual reply of " Ay, ay, sir ! " which 
is the proper seaman's answer, where the repetition of 
the order is not necessary. But some answer or other 
should always be made to an order. This is a rule diffi- 
cult to impress upon beginners, but the reasonableness of 
it is obvious, and -it is well understood among all sea- 
faring persons; and even though an officer should see 
that the man was executing his order, he still w r ould 
require, and has a right to demand, a reply. The rule 
is as strictly observed by the master and officers between 
themselves, as it is required by them of the men ; for 
the reason is the same. It is almost unnecessary to say 
that the addition " Sir " is always to be used in speaking 
to the master or to either of the mates. The mates in 
their turn use it to the master. " Mr/* is always to be 
prefixed to the name of an officer, whether chief or 
second mate. 

In well-disciplined vessels, no conversation is allowed 
among the men when they are employed at their work ; 



184 MISCELLANEOUS. 

that is to say, it is not allowed in the presence of an 
officer or of the master ; and although, when two or more 
men are together aloft, or by themselves on deck, a little 
low conversation might not be noticed, yet if it seemed 
to take off their attention, or to attract the attention of 
others, it would be considered a misdemeanour. In this 
respect the practice is different in different vessels. 
Coasters, fishermen, or small vessels on short voyages, do 
not preserve the same rule ; but no seaman who has 
been accustomed to first-class ships will object to a strict- 
ness as to conversations and laughing, w T hile at day's 
work, very nearly as great as is observed in a school. 
While the crew are below in the forecastle, great license 
is given them ; and the severest officer w T ill never inter- 
fere with the noise and sport of the forecastle, unless it 
is a serious inconvenience to those who are on deck. In 
working ship, when the men are at their stations, the 
same silence and decorum are observed. But during the 
dog-watches, and w T hen the men are together on the fore- 
castle at night, and no work is going forward, smoking, 
singing, telling yarns, &c, are allowed ; and, in fact, a 
considerable degree of noise and skylarking is permitted, 
unless it amounts to positive disorder and disturbance. 

It is a good rule to enforce, that whenever a man aloft 
wishes anything to be done on deck, he shall hail the 
officer of the deck, and not call out, as is often done, to 
any one whom he may see about decks, or generally to 
have a thing done by whoever may happen to hear him. 
By enforcing this rule the officer knows what is re- 
quested, and may order it and see that it is done as he 
thinks fit ; whereas, otherwise, any one about decks, 
perhaps a green hand, may execute the order upon his 
own judgment and after his own manner. 

Stations. — The proper place for the seamen w T hen 
they are on deck and there is no work going forward, is 
on the forecastle. By this is understood so much of the 
upper deck as is forward of the after fore- shroud. The 
men do not leave this to go aft or aloft unless ships duty 



MISCELLANEOUS. 185 

requires it of them. In working ship they are stationed 
variously, and go wherever there is work to be done. 
The same is the case in working upon rigging. But if a 
man goes aft to take the wheel, or for any other purpose 
which does not require him to go to windward, he will 
go on the lee side of the quarter-deck. 

Food, Sleep, &c. — The crew eat together in the 
forecastle, or on deck, if they choose, in fine weather. 
Their food is cooked at the galley, and they are expected 
to go to the galley for it and take it below or upon the 
forecastle. The cook puts the eatables into wooden tubs 
called " kids," and of these there are more or less, 
according to the number of men. The tea or coffee 
is served out to each man in his tin pot, which he brings 
to the galley. There is no table, and no knives or 
forks, to the forecastle ; but each man helps himself, and 
furnishes his own eating utensils. These are usually a 
tin pot and pan, with an iron spoon. 

The usual time for breakfast is seven bells, that is, 
half-past seven o'clock in the morning. Consequently, 
the watch below is called at seven bells, that they may 
get breakfast and be ready to take the deck at eight 
o'clock. Sometimes all hands get breakfast together at 
seven bells ; but in bad weather, or if watch and watch 
is given, it is usual for the watch below to breakfast at 
seven bells, and the watch on deck at eight bells, after 
they are relieved. The dinner-hour is twelve o'clock, if 
all hands get dinner together. If dinner is got " by the 
watch," the watch below is called for dinner at seven 
bells (half-past eleven), and the other watch dine when 
they go below, at twelve. 

If all hands are kept in the afternoon, or if both 
watches get supper together, the usual hour is three 
bells, or half-past five ; but if supper is got by the watch, 
three bells is the time for one watch, and four for the 
other. 

In bad weather, each watch takes its meals during the 



180 MISCELLANEOUS. 

watch below, as, otherwise, the men would be liable to 
be called up from their meals at any moment. 

As to the time allowed for sleep ; it may be said, 
generally, that a sailors watch below is at his own dis- 
posal to do what he chooses in, except, of course, when 
all hands are called. The meal-times, and time for 
washing, mending, reading, writing, &C, must all come 
out of the watch below ; since, whether there is work 
going forward or not, a man is considered as belonging 
to the ship in his watch on deck. At night, however, 
especially if watch and watch is not given, it is the 
custom in most merchant vessels, in good weather, 
to allow the watch to take naps about the decks, pro- 
vided one of them keeps a look-out, and the rest are so 
placed that they can be called instantly. This privilege is 
rather a thing winked at than expressly allowed ; and if 
the man who has the look-out falls asleep, or if the rest 
are slow in mustering at a call, they are all obliged to 
keep awake. In bad weather, also, or if near land, or 
in the track of other vessels, this privilege should not be 
granted. The men in each watch usually arrange the 
helms and look-outs among themselves, so that a man 
need not have a helm and a look-out during the same 
watch. A man should never go below during his watch 
on deck, without permission ; and if he merely steps 
down into the forecastle for an instant, as, to get his 
jacket, he should tell some one, who may speak to him 
at once, if the watch is called upon. 



PART III. 



LAWS RELATING TO THE PRACTICAL DUTIES OF 
MASTER AND MARINERS. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE VESSEL. 

Title. Bill of sale. Registry. Enrolment. Licence. Documents 
Certificates. Passport. Sea-letter. List of crew. Bill of health. 
General clearance. Clearing manifest. Invoice. Bill of lading. 
Charter-party. Log-hook. Manifest. List of passengers and crew. 
Remaining sea-stores. Medicine-chest. Provisions. 

Title. * — The bill of sale is the proper evidence of title 
to all vessels . It is the instrument of transfer which is 
used in all maritime countries, which courts of law look 
to for proof of title, and which is in most cases absolutely 
required. 1 

i 5 Rob. Ad. 155. 1 Mason, 139 ; 2 do. 435; 4 do. 390. 
16 Mass. 336. 7 Johns. 308. But see 3 Pick. 89. 16 Mass. 
663. _ ___ 

* In England.] Title. — The bill of sale would not of itself be 
considered satisfactory evidence of the title to a ship or vessel, exer- 
cising the privileges of a British ship; it should, in all cases, be 
accompanied by a proper certificate of registry, (see the Register Act 
3 &4 W. 4, c. 55, s. 34) ; and it should be ascertained that the 
parties in the actual possession of the ship or vessel, or who would 
be entitled to such possession on her arrival in port, are the same 
as are named as owners in the registry. When the ship is here, 
in the country of its owners, and a delivery of actual possession is 
possible, such delivery is necessary to give a perfect title to the 
buyer in case of a sale of the whole ship ; and if the buyer suffers 
the seller to remain in possession and act as owner, and the seller 
should have an execution issued against him, or should become 
bankrupt before the buyer takes possession, the property may be 
considered as remaining in the seller, and seized and disposed of 



188 THE VESSEL. 

Possession of the vessel should also accompany the bill 
of sale, whenever it is practicable. If the bill of sale is 
transferred while the vessel is at sea, possession should 
be taken immediately upon her arrival in port. The 
fact of the bill of sale being with one person and the 
actual possession of the vessel with another, after there 
has been an opportunity to transfer it, will raise a pre- 
sumption of fraud, and make the parties liable to losses 
and difficulties in dealing with creditors, and such as 
purchase in good faith. 1 

Registry, Enrolment, and Licence*. — The laws of 

1 4 Mass. 663. 4 Mason, 183. 9 Pick. 4. 6 Mass. 422 ; 
15 do. 477; 18 do. 389. 



accordingly. — See 6 Geo. 4, c. 16, s. 70 ; Abbott on Shipping, 
6th Edition, by Serjt. Shee, 14, and the authorities there cited. 

Title of Mortgagee, fyc. — The claim of a mortgagee of a ship 
or vessel, or any share or shares thereof, is not preferred to that of 
the general creditors, unless he has taken care on lending his money, 
that his debt and security shall appear in the book of registry, and 
on the back of the certificate. — See 3 & 4 W. 4, c. 55, s. 42, 43 ; 
Abbott on Shipping, 6th Edition, 16. And a mortgagee or trustee 
for sale of a ship or vessel for payment of debts, whose mortgage 
or assignment shall have been duly registered, is not to be deemed 
an owner, nor his interest to be affected by the subsequent bank- 
ruptcy of the mortgagor or assignor, on the ground of reputed 
ownership.— 3 & 4 W. 4, c. 55, s. 42, 43. 

* In England.] Registry. — The laws of England have given 
similar privileges to ships or vessels entitled to be registered as 
British vessels. For an enumeration of these privileges, and for 
the particular provisions and directions as to the registry of ships, 
see the Register Act, 3 & 4 W. 4, c. 55. 

According to this act, if a ship or vessel not being duly registered, 
and not having obtained a proper certificate of registry, shall exer- 
cise the privileges of a British ship, the same is subject to forfeiture 
and may be seized by any officer of the customs, s. 4. 

And by the Navigation Act, 3 & 4 W. 4, c. 54, it is enacted, 
that no ship shall be admitted to be a British ship unless duly 
registered and navigated as such, s. 12. 

But British-built boats or vessels under fifteen tons burthen, 
wholly owned and navigated by British subjects, although not 
registered as British ships, shall be admitted to be British vessels 
in all navigation in the rivers, and upon the coasts of the United 



THE VESSEL. 189 

the United States have given many privileges to vessels 
built, owned, and commanded by our own citizens. Such 
vessels are entitled to be registered, enrolled or licensed, 
according to circumstances, and are thereupon considered 



Kingdom, or of the British possessions abroad, not proceeding over 
sea, except within the limits of the respective colonial governments 
within which the managing owners of such vessels respectively 
reside; and all British-built boats or vessels wholly owned and 
navigated by British subjects, not exceeding the burthen of thirty 
tons, and not having a whole or a fixed deck, and being employed 
solely in fishing on the banks and shores of Newfoundland, and of 
the parts adjacent, or on the banks and shores of the provinces of 
Canada, Nova Scotia, or New Brunswick, adjacent to the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, or on the north of Cape Canso, or of the islands 
within the same, or in trading coastwise within the said limits, shall 
be admitted to be British boats or vessels, although not registered, 
so long as such boats or vessels shall be solely so employed, s. 13. 
And all ships built in the British settlements at Honduras, and 
owned and navigated as British ships, shall be entitled to the 
privileges of British registered ships, in all direct trade between 
the United Kingdom or the British possessions in America and 
the said settlements ; provided the master shall produce a certificate 
under the hand of the superintendant of those settlements, that 
satisfactory proof has been made before him that such ship (describ- 
ing the same) was built in the said settlements, and is wholly owned 
by British subjects ; provided also that the time of the clearance 
of such ship from the said settlements for every voyage shall be 
indorsed upon such certificate by such superintendant, s. 14. 

The ships or vessels entitled to be registered are such only as are 
wholly of the built of the United Kingdom, or of the Isle of Man, 
or of Guernsey or Jersey, or of some of the colonies, plantations, 
islands or territories, in Asia, Africa or America, or of Malta, 
Gibraltar or Heligoland, which belong to her Majesty at the time 
of the building of such ships or vessels ; or such ships or vessels as 
shall have been condemned in any Court of Admiialty as prize of 
war, or condemned in any competent court as forfeited for the 
breach of the laws made for the prevention of the slave-trade, and 
which belong to her Majesty's subjects duly entitled to be owners 
of registered ships or vessels. — See Register Act, 3 & 4 W. 4, 
c. 55, s. 5. 

The name of a registered ship or vessel cannot be changed ; and 
the owner or owners, before taking in any cargo, must cause to be 
painted in white or yellow letters, of a length of not less than four 
inches upon a black ground, on some conspicuous part of the stern, 
the name by which such ship or vessel shall have been registered, 



190 



THE VESSEL. 



" vessels of the United States, entitled to the benefits and 
privileges appertaining to such ships." The only vessels 
entitled to a register are those built in the United States 
and owned wholly by citizens thereof; vessels captured 
in war by our citizens, and condemned as prizes ; and 
vessels adjudged to be forfeited for breach of the laws of 
the United States, being wholly owned by such citizens. 
No owner is compelled to register his vessel, but unless 
registered (with the exception of those enrolled and 
licensed in the coasting and fishing trades) she is not 

and the port to which she belongs, in a distinct and legible manner, 
and must so preserve the same ; penalty for omission, &c, 100/. — 
Register Act, 3 & 4 W. 4, c. 55, s. 24. 

No registry can be made or certificate obtained until the owner 
or owners shall, in the manner directed by the act, make a declara- 
tion as to the name of the ship, her port and master, the descrip- 
tion of the ship, the name, occupation, and residence of every part 
owner, with other particulars tending to prove them to be subjects 
of her Majesty, 3 & 4 W. 4, c. 55, s. 13. 

A bond is required to be given at the time of registry by the 
master and owner or owners, in a penalty varying in proportion to 
the burthen of a ship, but never exceeding 1000/. ; and such bond 
is to be as a security that the certificate shall not be lent, sold, or 
disposed of, but solely used for the service of the ship for which it 
is granted, and shall be given up within a month in certain cases 
specified in the act. 

If the master cannot attend at the time of registry, by reason of 
the absence of himself and the ship at some other port, a separate 
bond may be given by him at the port where the ship mav then be, 
s. 20. 

No greater number than thirty-two persons are entitled to be 
legal owners at one and the same time as tenants in common, or to 
be registered as such. This, however, is not to affect the equitable 
title of minors, heirs, legatees, creditors, or others exceeding that 
number, duly represented by or holding from any of the persons 
within the said number registered as legal owners by any shares, 
s. 33. 

Partners in trade are to be considered as one person only in esti- 
mating such number, s. 32. 

When the master of a registered ship shall be changed, a me- 
morandum of such change must be indorsed upon the certificate of 
registry, and the new master must give a bond in the like penal- 
ties and under the same conditions as are contained in the bond 
required to be given at the time of registry, s. 21. 



THE VESSEL. 191 

entitled to the privileges and benefits of a " vessel of the 
United States," although she be built, owned, and com- 
manded by citizens thereof. 1 

Vessels employed wholly in the whale-fishery, owned 
by an incorporated company, may be registered, so long 
as they shall be wholly employed therein. 2 If not 
so owned and registered, they must be enrolled and 
licensed. 3 

The name of every registered vessel, and the port to 
which she belongs, must be painted on her stern, on a 
black ground, in white letters, of not less than three 
inches in length. And if any registered vessel is found 
without her name and the name of her port so painted, 
the owners thereof forfeit fifty dollars. 4 

In order to the obtaining of a register, oath must be 
made that the master is a citizen of the United States. 5 
If the master of a registered vessel is changed, or if the 
vessel's name is altered, such fact must be endorsed upon 
the register at the custom-house, otherwise she will cease 
to be considered a vessel of the United States. 6 

If any certificate of registry is fraudulently or know- 
ingly used for any ship or vessel not at the time entitled 
to it, such ship or vessel, with her tackle, apparel and 
furniture, shall be forfeited to the United States. 7 If 
an enrolled or licensed vessel is about to proceed on a 
foreign voyage, she must surrender her enrolment and 
licence, and take out a register, or she, together with 
her cargo, will be liable to forfeiture. 8 In case of the 
loss of a register, the master may make oath to the fact, 
and obtain a new one. 

All vessels engaged in the coasting and fishing trades, 
above twenty tons burden, in order to be entitled to the 
privileges of vessels of the United States in those trades, 

1 Act 1792, ch. 45, § 1. 2 Act 1831, ch. 350, § 1. 

3 3 Summer, 342. 2 Law Rep. 146 contra. 

4 Act 1792, ch. 45, § 3. 5 Do. § 4, § 12. 
6 Act 1792, ch. 45, § 23. 7 Do. § 27, 

8 Act 1793, ch. 52, § 8. 



192 THE VESSEL. 

must be enrolled and licensed ; and if less than twenty 
tons, must be licensed. 1 The same qualifications and 
requisites in all respects are demanded in order to the 
enrolling and licensing of a vessel, which are required 
for registering. 2 The name must be painted on the 
stern in the same manner, under penalty of 20 dollars. 3 

If any vessel licensed for the fisheries engages in any 
other business not expressly allowed by the licence, she 
is forfeited. 4 Vessels, however, licensed for the mackerel 
trade are not forfeited in consequence of having been 
engaged in catching cod, or other fish ; but they are not 
entitled to the bounty allowed to vessels in the cod 
fisheries. 5 The officers and at least three-fourths of the 
crew of every fishing vessel must be American citizens, 
or they can recover none of the bounties. 6 

Documents.* — Every registered vessel should have a 

» Act 1793, ch. 52, § 1. 2 Do. § 2. > Do. § 11. 

4 Act 1793, ch. 52, §32. 

5 Acts 1828, ch. 119, § 1, and 1836, ch. 55, § 1. 

6 Act 1817,ch. 204, § 3. 



* In England.] Documents. — The certificate of registry 
specifies the name, occupation, and residence of every owner, in 
the proportions mentioned on the back of it ; the name of the ship, 
the place to which she belongs, her tonnage, the name of the master, 
the time and place of the built, or of condemnation ; the name of 
the surveying officer, the number of decks and masts ; the length, 
breadth, height between decks, if more than one — or depth of the 
hold, if only one deck ; whether rigged with a standing or running 
bowsprit ; the description of her stern, whether carvel or clinker 
built; and gallery, and kind of head, if there be any. And on 
the back are indorsed the names of the several owners, with the 
number of 64th shares held by each, 3 & 4 W. 4, c. 55, s. 2. — 
Abbott on Shipping, 6th Edition, 61. 

The master must procure and keep on board all the papers and 
documents required for the manifestation and protection of the ship 
and cargo, by the law of the countries from and to which the ship is 
bound, and by the law of nations in general, and treaties between 
particular states. — Abbott on Shipping, 6th Edition, 302. The 
documents and papers expected to be found on board a neutral ship 
are — 1. The passport, sea brief , or sea letter. 2. The proofs 
of property , bill of sale, §c. 3. The muster-roll. 4. The 



THE VESSEL. 193 

certificate of registry} This is an abstract of the record 
of registry, showing the names and residences of the 
owners, the place where the vessel was built, with a 
particular description of the vessel. This document 
shows the national character of the vessel, and is im- 
portant to prove neutrality in time of war between other 
powers. For the same reasons, an enrolled vessel should 
have a certificate of enrolment". Vessels bound to Europe 
should have passports. A passport is a permission from 
the government for the vessel to go upon her voyage, 
and contains a description of the vessel, crew, &c, and 
the name of the master. Vessels bound round Cape 
Horn or the Cape of Good Hope should have sea-letters. 
These contain a description of the cargo, &c, and are 
written in four languages — English, French, Dutch and 
Spanish. The two latter documents are rendered neces- 
sary or expedient by reason of treaties with foreign 
powers. Every vessel should have a list of crew. This 
specifies the name, age, place of birth and residence, &c., 
of each one of the ship's company; and is, of course, 
very useful when sailing among belligerents. The other 
documents are the bill of health, general clearance, clear- 
ing manifest, invoice and bill of lading for the cargo, 
charter-party, if one has been given, and the log-book. 
On entering at the custom-house, the papers required in 
addition to these are the manifest, list of passengers, and 
crew, and of remaining sea-stores. 

Medicine Chest *. — Every vessel belonging to citizens 

1 Act 1792, ch. 45. 2 Act ]19 ^ ch 52 . 



charter-party. 5. The bill* of lading. 6. The invoice. 7- 
The log-book. 8. The bill of health See Marshall on Insur- 
ance, Book i. c. 9, s. 6. As to the manifest or written contents 
required for the importation of goods into Great Britain, see 6 G. 
4, c. 107, ss. 3-7. As to the coasting-trade, see same stat., ss. 
100-114.— Abbott on Shipping, 6th Edition, 302, n. 

* In England.] Medicine Chest. — By the act 5 & 6 W. 4, 
c. 19, s. 12, every ship bound on a foreign voyage is required to 
have and keep constantly on board a * sufficient supply of medi- 
cines suitable to accidents and diseases arising on sea voyages." 
o 



194 THE VESSEL. 

of the United States, of*the burden of one hundred and 
fifty tons or upwards, navigated by ten or more persons 
in the whole, and bound on a foreign voyage, must be 
provided with a medicine chest, put up by some apothe- 
cary of known reputation, and accompanied by directions 
for using the same. This chest must be examined and 
refitted by the same or some other apothecary at least 
once in a year K The same rule applies to vessels of 
seventy-five tons and upw r ards, navigated by six persons 
in the whole, and bound to the West Indies 2 . 

National Character of Crew*. — In order to be 
placed upon the most favourable footing as to duties, 
bounties, &c., it is necessary that the master, officers, 
and two thirds of the rest of the crew of vessels in the 
foreign trade, and officers and three fourths of the crew 
of fishing and coasting vessels, should be citizens, or 
u persons not the subjects of any foreign prince or state 3 ." 
Nevertheless, while foreigners are employed in our 
vessels, they are under the protection of our laws as 
" mariners and seamen of the United States 4 ." 

i Act 1790, ch. 56, § 8. 2 Act 1805, ch. 88, §1. 

3 Act 1817,ch. 204, §3, 5,6. 4 Sumner, 115. 



* In England.] National Character of Crew. — Every 
British registered ship is required to be navigated in every part 
of the world, by a master who is a British subject, and by a crew 
whereof three-fourths, at least, are British seamen ; and if such 
ship be employed in a coasting voyage from one part of the United 
Kingdom to another, or in a voyage between the United Kingdom 
and the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, or 
from one of the said islands to another of them, or from one part 
of either of them to another of the same, or be employed in fishing 
on the coasts of the United Kingdom, or of any of the said islands, 
then the whole of the crew shall be British seamen. — See Navi- 
gation Act, 3 & 4 W. 4, c. 54, s. 13. 

It is provided, however, that a ship not required to be wholly 
navigated by British seamen, shall be deemed duly navigated by 
one British seaman for every twenty ton3 of her burthen, although 
the number of other seamen shall exceed one-fourth of the whole 
crew, s. 16. 

As to the persons qualified to be master of a British ship, or to 
be, or considered, as British seamen within the act, see ss. 16, 17. 



THE VESSEL. 195 

Provisions*. — Every vessel of the United States bound 
on a voyage across the Atlantic, shall, at the time of 
leaving the last port from which she sails, have on board, 
well secured under deck, at least sixty gallons of water, 
one hundred pounds of salted beef, and one hundred 
pounds of wholesome ship bread, for every person on 
board, (over and above any stores that the master or 
passengers may have put on board ;) and in like propor- 
tions for shorter or longer voyages. If any vessel is not 
so provided, and the crew are put upon short allowance of 
bread, flesh, or water, they can recover an additional day's 
wages for every day they are so allowanced 1 . 

Passengers t. — The same provision, with the addi- 

1 Act 1790, ch. 56, §9. 



* In England.] Provisions. — The master of every outward- 
bound ship shall, upon application to an officer called the searcher, 
receive a victualling bill, for the shipment of such stores as he may 
require, and as shall be allowed by the collector and controller for 
the use of the ship, according to the voyage upon which she is about 
to depart ; and no articles taken on board shall be deemed to be 
stores, except such as shall be borne on such victualling bill, 3 & 
4 W. 4, c. 52, s. 63. 

f In England.] Passengers. — Every ship carrying passengers 
from any port or place in the United Kingdom, or in the islands 
of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man, or any voyage to or 
for any port or place out of Europe, and not being within the Medi- 
terranean Sea, must have on board good and wholesome provisions 
for the use and consumption of the passengers, over and above the 
victualling of the crew, to the amount or in the proportion follow- 
ing, viz., a supply of pure water to the amount of five gallons to 
every week of the computed voyage for every passenger, such water 
being carried in tanks or sweet casks, and a supply of bread, biscuit, 
oatmeal, or bread stuffs, to the amount of seven pounds weight to 
every week of the computed voyage for every such passenger. But 
to the extent of one-third of such supply, seven pounds weight of 
potatoes may be deemed equivalent to one pound weight of bread, 
biscuit, oatmeal, or bread stuffs, in the supply of any ship bound to 
some place in North America. 

And when any ship shall be destined to call at a port or place 

in the course of her voyage, for the purpose of filling up her water, 

a supply of water at the rate before mentioned for every week of the 

computed voyage to such port or place of calling, will be sufficient. 

o2 



196 THE VESSEL. 

tion of one gallon of vinegar, must be made for every pas- 
senger ; and if, in default of these, the passengers are 
put on short allowance, each passenger can recover three 
dollars for every day he is so allowanced *. 

If any vessel takes on board a greater number of 
passengers than two for every five tons, custom-house 
measurement, the master forfeits 150 dollars for every 
such passenger ; and if the number by which they exceed 
two for every five tons shall amount to twenty, the 
vessel becomes forfeited 2 . 

1 Act 1819, ch. 170, § 3. 2 Do. § 1, §2. 



The number of weeks deemed necessary for the voyage of any 
such ship, according to her destination, shall be determined by the 
following rule of computation. 

For a voyage to North America ten weeks ; South America, on 
the Atlantic Ocean, or to the West Coast of Africa, twelve weeks ; 
the Cape of Good Hope fifteen weeks ; the Mauritius eighteen 
weeks ; and for any other voyage, twenty-four weeks. — See the act 
5 & 6 W. 4, c. 53, " for regulating the carriage of passengers from 
the United Kingdom," sect. 3 and 4 ; and 1 & 2 Vict.,c. 113, s. 
26, as to foreign vessels. 

And no such ship is allowed to proceed on her voyage with more 
persons than in the proportion of three persons for every five tons 
of the registered burthen of such ship, the master and crew being 
included in such number. 

The ship carrying such passengers, is required to have a height 
of five feet and a half between decks; and when only two tiers of 
berths, there shall bean interval of six inches, at the least, between 
the deck or platform, and the floor of the lower tier, throughout the 
whole extent thereof, 5 & 6 W. 4, c. 53, s. 2. 

For the other regulations now in force on this important sub- 
ject, the reader is referred to the act itself. 

But from this act is expressly excepted all ships in which the 
number of passengers shall not exceed one for every five tons of 
their registered burthens, s. 20. 

Penalties from 5/. to 20/., are imposed upon the master for non- 
compliance with the regulations, without prejudice to any right of 
action the passenger may have in respect of the breach, or non-per- 
formance of any contract between him and the master and owners, 
s. 17. 

For the regulations as to the carriage of passengers between 
Great Britain and Ireland, see the act 4 G. 4, c. 88. 



197 



CHAPTER II. 

THE MASTERS RELATION TO VESSEL AND CARGO. 

Revenue duties and obligations. List of crew. Certificate. Sea letter. 
Passport. List of Passengers. Manifest. Sea Stores. Unloading. 
Post-office. Report. Citizenship. Coasting licence. Power to sell 
and hypothecate. Keeping and delivering cargo. Deviation. Colli- 
sion. Pilot. Wages and advances. 

Revenue Duties and Obligations *. — The mas- 
ter of every vessel bound on a foreign voyage, before 

* In England.] Revenue duties and obligations. — By the 3 
& 4 Wm. 4, c. 52, entitled " An Act for the general regulation of 
the customs," it is enacted — 

That no goods shall be shipped or water-borne, to be shipped on 
board any ship, in any port or place in the United Kingdom, or in 
the Isle of Man, to be carried beyond seas, before due entry out- 
wards of such ship, and due entry of such goods shall be made and 
cocket granted, nor before such goods shall be duly cleared for 
' shipment in manner thereinafter directed, and that no stores shall 
be shipped for the use of such ship, except such as are borne on the 
victualling bill of such ship, under pain of forfeiture, s. 61. 

That no ship on board of which any goods or stores shall have 
been shipped for parts beyond the seas, shall depart from such port 
until such ship shall have been duly cleared outwards for her 
intended voyage, under pain of forfeiture by the master of 100/., 
s. 62. 

It may be useful to state in this place in what this " duly clear- 
ing" of a ship consists. 

The master of every outward-bound ship shall upon application 
to an officer, called the searcher, receive a victualling bill for the 
shipment of such stores as he may require, and as shall be allowed 
by the collector and controller for the use of the ship according to 
the voyage upon which she is about to depart, and no articles taken 
on board shall be deemed to be stores, except such as shall be borne 
on such victualling bill, s. 63. He shall also, before any goods 
be taken on board, deliver to the collector or controller a certificate 
from the proper officer, of the clearance inwards or coastwise of such 
ship of her last voyage, specifying what goods, if any, have been 
reported inwards for exportation, and also deliver to the collector 
or controller an account, signed by the master or his agent, of the 
entry outwards of such ship for her intended voyage setting forth 



198 master's relation to 

clearance, must give to the collector of the customs a list 
of the crew, specifying their names, places of birth and 

the name and tonnage of the ship, the name of the place to which 
she belongs if British, or of her country if foreign, the name of the 
master, of the place for which she is bound, and of the place in 
such port at which she is to take in her lading for the voyage. 
The particulars of such account shall be written and arranged in 
such form and manner as the collector and controller shall require; 
and such account shall be the entry outwards of such ship, and shall 
be entered in a book to be kept by the collector for the information 
of all persons interested ; and if any goods be taken on board any 
ship before she shall have been entered outwards, the master shall 
forfeit 100/. If, however, it become necessary to lade any heavy 
goods before the whole of the inward cargo is discharged, it shall be 
lawful for the collector and controller to issue what is called a 
stiffening order for that purpose, s. 64* 

Every person entering outward goods for export beyond the seas 
shall deliver to the collector or controller a bill of the entry thereof 
(fairly written, or fairly written in part, and fairly printed in part, 
1 & 2 Vict. c. 113) in words at length, expressing the name of the 
ship and of the master, and of the place to which the goods are to 
be exported, and of the person in whose name the goods are to be 
entered, and the quantities and proper denomination or descriptions 
of the several sorts of goods, and shall pay down any duties which 
may be due upon the exportation of any such goods, and such person 
shall also deliver at the same time one or more duplicates of such 
bill in which all sums and numbers may be expressed in figures, 
and the particulars contained in such bill shall be written and 
arranged in such form and manner as the collector and controller 
shall require, and thereupon the collector and controller shall cause 
a cocket to be written for such goods, making it known that such 
goods have been entered, and shall sign such cocket and deliver it 
to the person who shall have made such entry, and who shall keep 
and be responsible for the proper use of the same, s. 65. 

Before any part of the goods, for which any cocket shall have 
been granted, shall be shipped or water-borne, to be shipped, the 
same shall be duly cleared for shipment with the searcher ; and 
before any goods be cleared for shipment, the particulars of the 
goods for each clearance shall be indorsed on such cocket, together 
with the number and denomination or description of the respective 
packages containing the same ; and on the margin of such indorse- 
ment shall be delineated the respective marks and numbers of such 
packages, and to each such indorsement shall be subjoined in words 
at length an account of the total quantities of each sort of goods 
intended in such indorsement, and the total of each sort of package 



VESSEL AND CARGO. 199 

residence, and containing a description of their persons ; 
whereupon he is entitled to a certified copy of the same 

in which such goods are contained, distinguishing, &c. ; and all 
goods shipped or water-horne, to be shipped, not being duly cleared 
as aforesaid, shall be forfeited, s. 70. 

The person clearing such goods for shipment shall upon each 
occasion produce the cocket so indorsed to the searcher, and shall 
also deliver a shipping bill, or copy of such indorsement, referring 
by names and date to the cocket upon which such indorsement is 
made, and shall obtain the order of the searcher for the shipment 
of such goods, which indorsement and shipping bill shall be written 
and arranged as the collector and controller shall require, s. 71. 

Before any ship shall be cleared outwards with goods on board, 
the master shall deliver a content of such ship to the searcher, 
setting forth the name and tonnage of such ship, and the place and 
places of her destination, and the name of the master, and also an 
account of the goods shipped on board, and of the packages con- 
taining such goods, and of the marks and numbers upon such pack- 
ages, and also before the clearance of such ship, the cockets. with 
the indorsements and clearances thereon, for the goods shipped, 
shall be finally delivered by the respective shippers of such goods 
to the searcher, who shall file the same together, and shall attach 
with a seal a label to the file, showing the number of cockets in 
the file, and shall compare the particulars of the goods in the 
cockets with the particulars of the goods in such content, and shall 
attest the correctness thereof by his signature on the label, and on 
the content ; and the master of the ship shall make and sign a 
declaration before the, collector or controller to the truth of such 
content, and shall answer to the collector or controller such ques- 
tions concerning the ship, the cargo, and the intended voyage, as 
shall be demanded of him ; and thereupon the collector or con- 
troller shall clear such ship for her intended voyage, and shall 
notify such clearance, and the date thereof upon the content, and 
upon the label to the file of cockets, and upon the victualling bill, 
and also in the book of ships' entries outwards, for the information 
of all parties interested, and shall transmit the content and the 
cockets, and the victualling bill, to the searcher, s. 78. The file 
of cockets and the victualling bill, shall thereupon be delivered 
by the searcher to the master of such ship ; and such file of cockets 
and victualling bill so delivered, shall be kept by the master of 
such ship, as the authority for departing from the port with the 
several parcels and packages of goods, and of stores on board, so 
far as they shall agree with the particulars in the indorsements on 
such cockets, or with such victualling bill, s. 79. When the 
ship has arrived at the place of her destination, the master must 



200 MASTERS RELATION' TO 

from the collector. This copy he must deliver, under 
a penalty of 400 dollars, to the first boarding officer upon 

take care that she be safely moored or anchored, and report his 
ship and crew, and deliver his manifest and other papers, according 
to the law and custom of the place. 

By the same act 3 & 4 W. 4, c. 52, it is also enacted, " That 
no goods shall be unladen from any ship arriving from ports 
beyond the seas, at any port or place in the United Kingdom, 
or the Isle of Man, nor shall bulk be broken after the arrival of 
such ship within four leagues of the coast, before due report of such 
ship, and due entry of such good?, shall have been made, and war- 
rant granted in manner thereinafter directed ; that no goods shall 
be unladen, except at such times and places, and in such manner 
and by such persons, and under the care of such officers as is therein- 
after directed ; and that all goods not duly reported, or which shall 
be unladen contrary thereto, shall be forfeited ; and if bulk be 
broken contrary thereto, the master of such ship shall forfeit 100/. ; 
and if any alteration in the stowage be made to facilitate the un- 
lading, or any part of the cargo be staved or destroyed, or any 
package opened within four leagues of the coast, the ship shall be 
deemed to have broken bulk, s. 2. 

That no goods shall be imported from parts beyond the seas in 
any British ship, nor any tobacco in any ship, unless the master 
shall have on board a manifest of such goods, or of such tobacco, 
made out and dated, and signed by him at the place where the 
same, or the different parts of the same, were taken on board ; and 
every such manifest shall set forth the name and the tonnage of 
the ship, the name of the master, and of the place to which the 
ship belongs, and of the place or places for which they are destined 
respectively ; and shall contain a particular account and description 
of all the packages with the marks, &c. ; and of such goods as are 
stowed loose, and the names of the respective shippers and con- 
signees, as far as the same can be known to the master. A general 
account must be subjoined, s. 3. 

That before any ship shall be cleared out, or depart from any 
place in any of the British possessions, abroad, or from any place 
in China, with any goods for the United Kingdom, or the Isle of 
Man, the master of such ship shall produce the manifest to the 
collector or controller of the customs, or other proper officer, who 
shall certify upon the same the date of the production thereof to 
him, 3. 4. 

That if any goods shall be imported into the United Kingdom, 
or into the Isle of Man, without such manifest, or if any goods 
contained in such manifest, be not on board, the master shall for- 
feit 100/. ; and if he refuse to produce such manifest, and deliver 



VESSEL AND CARGO. 201 

his arrival in the United States, and produce the persons 
named therein, unless the same have been discharged in 

a copy thereof to any officer of the customs, who within four leagues 
of the coast, shall demand the same, he shall also forfeit 100/., 
ss. 6 and 7. 

That the master of every ship arriving from any such ports be- 
yond the seas, shall within twenty-four hours of such arrival, and 
before bulk broken, make due report of such ship, and make and 
subscribe a declaration of the truth of the same before the collector 
or controller of such port ; and such report shall contain an account 
of the particular marks, numbers, and contents, of all the different 
packages or parcels of goods on board, and the particulars of such 
goods as are stowed loose, to the best of his knowledge ; and of the 
place and places where such goods were respectively taken on board, 
and of the burthen of such ship, and of the country where such 
ship was built ; or if British, of the port of registry, and of the 
country of the people to whom such ship belongs ; and of the name 
and country of the person who Mas master during the voyage ; and 
of the number of people by whom such ship was navigated, stating 
how many are subjects of the country to which such ship belongs, 
and how many are of some other country ; and in such report, it 
shall be further declared, whether and in what cases such ship has 
broken bulk in the course of her voyage ; and what part of the 
cargo, if any, is intended for importation at another port in the 
United Kingdom ; and what part, if any, is prohibited to be im- 
ported, except to be warehoused for exportation only ; and what 
part, if any, is intended for exportation in any such ship, to ports 
beyond the seas ; and what surplus stores or stock remain on board 
such ship ; and if a British ship, what foreign-made sails or cor- 
dage, not being standing or running rigging, are in use on board 
such ship ; and the master of any ship who shall fail to make such 
report, shall forfeit 100/., s. 8. 

That the master of every ship shall, at the time of making such 
report, deliver to the collector or controller, the manifest of the 
cargo, where a manifest is required ; and if required, shall produce 
to him any bill or bills of lading, or a true copy thereof, for any 
and every part of the cargo, and shall truly answer all such ques- 
tions relating to the ship and cargo, and crew, and voyage, as shall 
be put to him by such collector or controller ; and in case of failure 
or refusal, or if such manifest, or bill of lading, or copy, shall be 
false ; or if any bill of lading be uttered by any master, and the 
goods expressed therein shall not have been bona, fide shipped on 
board ; or if any bill of lading, uttered or produced by any master, 
shall not have been signed by him, or any such copy shall not have 
been received or made by him, previously to his leaving the place 



202 master's relation to 

a foreign country, with the consent of the consul or 
other commercial agent thereto certified in writing under 
his hand and official seal ; or by showing that they have 
died or absconded, or been impressed into foreign ser- 
vice l . The duplicate list of the crew shall be a fair copy, 
in one uniform handwriting, without erasure or inter- 
lineation 2 . 

The owners must also obtain from the collector of the 
customs a certified copy of the shipping articles. This 
must be produced by the master before any consul or 
commercial agent who may demand it, and all erasures 
in it or writings in a different hand shall be deemed 
fraudulent, unless satisfactorily explained 3 . 

The master of every vessel of the United States, on 
arriving at a foreign port, must deposit with the consul, 
or other commercial agent, his certificate of registry, sea 
letter, and passport (if he have one,) under a penalty of 
500 dollars. The consul returns them to him, upon his 
obtaining a clearance 4 . 

Upon arriving in the United States, the master must 
report to the collector a list of passengers, specifying 
their names, age, sex, occupation, the country of which 
they are citizens, and that in which they intend to 
reside. This is under a penalty of 500 dollars 6 . 

Vessels arriving from foreign ports must unlade and 

1 Act 1803, ch. 62, § 1. 2 Act 1840, oh. 28, §]. 3 Do. 
* Act 1803, ch. 62, §2. 5 Act 1819, ch. 170, §4. 



where the goods expressed in such bill of lading, or copy, were 
shipped, such master shall forfeit 100/., s. 11. 

That every ship shall come as quickly up to the proper place of 
mooring or unlading, as the nature of the port will admit, and 
without touching at any other place ; and in proceeding to such 
place, shall bring to, at stations appointed by the commissioners of 
his Majesty's Customs, for the boarding of ships by the officers of 
the customs ; and after arrival at such place of mooring, or unlading, 
such ship shall not remove from such place, except directly to some 
other proper place, and with the knowledge of the proper officer of 
the customs, on penalty of 100/., to be paid by the master of such 
ship, s. 13. 



VESSEL AND CARGO. 203 

deliver their cargoes between sunrise and sunset, unless 
by special permission of the collector of the port. 

In making out manifests of cargoes, the master must 
specify what articles are to be deemed sea stores, and 
declare the same upon oath. If the collector deems the 
amount excessive, he may charge them with a duty. If 
the cargo is found to exceed the manifest, the excess is 
forfeited to the government, and the master is liable to 
pay treble the amount 1 . 

If the master land any of the sea stores, without first 
obtaining a permit, such stores are forfeited, and the 
master becomes liable to pay treble the value of them 2 . 

The master subjects himself to a fine of 200 dollars 
if the vessel departs on a foreign voyage without a 
passport. 

It is the duty of the master, coming from a foreign 
port, to have a manifest of cargo, and a copy of the 
same made out and ready for delivery to any officer 
of the customs who may board the vessel within four 
leagues of the coast*. Unless this manifest is produced, 
no merchandise can be unloaded from the vessel. The 
manifest shall specify the port where the merchandise was 
received, the port to which it is consigned, the name, 
built, and description of the vessel, with the name of 
the master and owner, the marks and numbers of each 
package of goods, with the name of the consignee ; and 
also the names of the passengers with their baggage, and 
the account of all remaining sea stores 4 . 

If any goods are unladed within four leagues of the 
coast, or within the limits of any district, without 
authority from the proper officer, except in case of 
accident or necessity — which must be strictly proved — 
such goods are forfeited, and the master and mate incur, 
respectively, a penalty of 1000 dollars for each offence 5 . 

If the master refuses to exhibit his manifest and de- 
liver a copy of the same to the boarding officer, or to 

1 Act 1799, ch. 128, § 45. a Do. 3 Do. 23. 

* Act 1819, ch. 170, § 4. * Act 1799, ch. 128, § 27. 



204 master's relation to 

inform him of the true destination of the vessel, he 
incurs a penalty of 500 dollars for each offence 1 . 

The master must deposit all his letters in the post- 
office before entering his cargo ; and if he shall break 
bulk before depositing his letters, he forfeits 100 dollars 
for each offence 2 . 

If any merchandise is imported into the United States 
not contained in the manifest, the master of the vessel 
forfeits a sum equal to the value of such merchandise ; 
and if any of it belongs or is consigned to the master, or 
to any officer or seaman on board, it becomes forfeited ; 
unless it shall be made to appear that the omission 
occurred by accident or mistake 3 . 

The master of a vessel arriving from a foreign port 
must report himself to the collector within twenty-four 
hours, and within forty-eight hours he must make a 
further and more particular report in writing, under 
penalty of 100 dollars ; and if he shall attempt to leave 
the port without entry he forfeits 400 dollars 4 . 

If any articles reported in the manifest are not found 
on board, the master forfeits 500 dollars, unless it shall 
be made to appear that the same was caused by accident 
or mistake. 

The master of every vessel bound on a foreign voyage 
must deliver a manifest of cargo to the collector, and 
obtain a clearance, under penalty of 500 dollars '. 

The master of every vessel enrolled and licensed in 
the coasting trade must be a citizen of the United States; 
and if the vessel trades to any other than an adjoining 
state, three-fourths of the crew must be citizens. If 
the master of a coasting vessel is changed, such change 
must be reported to the collector of the port where the 
change is made 6 . 

The master of every coasting vessel must deliver up 
his licence within three days after it expired, or if the 

> Act 1799, ch. 128, § 26. * Act 1825, ch. 275, § 17. 

3 Act 1799, ch. 128, § 24. 4 Do. § 30. 

.* Do. § 3. 6 Act 1793, ch. 52, § 12. 



VESSEL AND CARGO. 205 

vessel was then at sea, within three days after her first 
arrival thereafter, under a penalty of 50 dollars. 

The master of a coasting vessel departing from one 
great district to another, must deliver to the collector 
duplicate manifests of all the cargo on board, under 
penalty of 50 dollars; and within forty-eight hours after 
his arrival at the port of delivery, and before breaking 
bulk, he must deliver to the collector the manifest certi- 
fied to by the collector of the former port, under penalty 
of 100 dollars 1 . If the vessel shall at any time be found 
without a manifest on board, the master forfeits 20 
dollars, and if he refuses to inform the officer of his last 
port of departure, he forfeits 100 dollars 2 . 

Power to sell and hypothecate*. — The master 
has, in certain cases, power to hypothecate the ship and 
cargo, and also to sell a part of the cargo; and in certain 
extreme cases a sale of the ship and cargo made from 
necessity, and in the utmost good faith, will be upheld. 
His right to do any of these acts is confined to cases of 
necessity, in distant ports, where he cannot get the advice 
of the owner. The safest rule for the master is, to bear 
in mind that his duty is to prosecute the vogage, and that 
all his acts must be done for this purpose, and in good 
faith. If a necessity arises in a foreign port for the 
repairing or supplying of the ship, he must, in the first 
instance, make use of any property of the owner he may 

1 Act 1793, ch. 52, § 17. * Do. § 18. 



* In England.] Power to sell and hypothecate. — The law, 
as respects the authority of the master to sell or hypothecate the 
ship and cargo, is the same in England as in the United States. 

The master of a ship has not, unless in a case of extreme neces- 
sity, authority to sell the ship, and he is hound seriously and 
deliberately to try every other expedient before disposing of the 
ship or any part of the cargo. — See Abbott on Shipp., 6th edit., 
s. 597; 4 Campb., 138. See also, 1 Bing., 243 ; 3 Brod. & 
Bing., 151 ; 8 Taunt., 755; 3 Brod. $ Bing., 147; 1 
Bing., 445. 

The observations as to the keeping, transportation, and delivery 
of the cargo are equally applicable to the masters of British vessels. 



20G master's relation to 

have under his control other than cargo 1 . If, however, he 
has money of the owner in his hands, put on board for the 
purpose of procuring a cargo, he is not bound to apply 
this first ; but must use his discretion, bearing in mind 
that all repairs have for their sole object the prosecution 
of the voyage, which might be defeated by making use 
of these funds 2 . His next recourse should be to the 
personal credit of the owner, by drawing bills or other- 
wise 3 . 

If these means fail, he is next to hypothecate (that is, 
pledge) the ship (bottomry), or cargo (respondentia), 
or freight, or sell part of the cargo, according to circum- 
stances. If the owner of the ship is also owner of the 
cargo, the better opinion seems to be, that the master 
may take whichever of these means can be adopted with 
the least sacrifice of the owner's interest ; though pro- 
bably selling part of the cargo would almost in all cases 
be the least favourable course for all the purposes of the 
voyage 4 . If the owner of the ship is not owner of the 
cargo, the master should bear in mind that he is agent 
of the former, and has generally no further control over 
the cargo than for safe keeping and transportation 5 . He 
should therefore first exhaust the credit of the ship and 
freight by hypothecation ; and if these means fail, he 
then becomes, by necessity, agent for the owners of the 
cargo for the purposes of the voyage, and may hypothe- 
cate the whole, or sell a part, according to circumstances. 
As to selling part, he should remember that his duty is 
to carry forward the objects of the voyage, and that 
selling a large part would probably impair these objects 
more than hypothecating the whole 6 . 

In no case can any of the cargo be sold or hypothe- 
cated to repair or supply the ship, unless these repairs 
and supplies are to be for the benefit of the cargo. The 
strictest proof is always required that the repairs were in 

1 3 Mason, 255. 2 Do. 3 2 Wash. C. C. 226. 

* 2 Wash. C. C. 226. 5 Do. 

6 3 Mason, 255. 1 Wash. C. C. 49 ; 2 Do. 226. 3 Rob. 240. 



VESSEL AND CARGO. 207 

the first place necessary, and, in the next place, that 
they were for the benefit of the cargo, and not merely 
for the good of the ship-owner 2 . 

A further question arises, whether the master has 
ever, and when, the right to sell the whole cargo and 
the ship itself. If it should be impossible to repair the 
ship and send her on the voyage by any of the means 
before mentioned, it then becomes the master's duty to 
forward the cargo to the port of destination by some 
other conveyance. If neither of these things can be 
done, then he becomes, from necessity, agent of the owner 
of the cargo, and must make the best disposition of it in 
his power. If the goods are perishable, the owner can- 
not be consulted within a reasonable time, and has no 
agent in the port, and something must be done with the 
cargo, and there is no one else to act — then the master 
must dispose of it in such a way as best to subserve the 
interest of its owner. He should take the advice of the 
commercial agent or other suitable persons, should also 
use his own judgment and act with good faith, and take 
care to preserve evidence that he has so done. If all 
these requisites are not complied with, he will incur the 
danger of having his acts set aside 2 . 

The rule as to the sale of the ship is very nearly the 
same, except that it is, perhaps, still more strict. If 
all means for repairing the vessel and sending her on her 
voyage have failed, and a case of absolute necessity 
arises, the master may make sale of her. As a pru- 
dent man, he should have the sale made, if possible, 
under the authority of the judicial tribunals of the place. 
Even this will not, of itself, render the sale valid, but 
will go far toward sustaining it. He should consult the 
consul, or other suitable persons ; should have a survey 
made ; should take care to have the sale conducted pub- 
licly and with the best faith in all parties, and to pre- 
serve evidence of the same. Although a person should 

1 2 Wash. 226 ; 3 Rob. 240. 2 2 Wash. C. C. 150. 3 Rob. 240. 



208 master's relation to 

buy in good faith, yet the sale will be set aside unless it 
can be shown that there was the strictest necessity for 
it. The master must not become a purchaser himself, 
and even if lie afterwards buy of one who purchased at 
the sale, this transaction will be very narrowly watched, 
and he will be bound to show the very highest good faith 
in all parties 1 . 

The strictness of these rules should not deter the 
master from acting, where the interest of all requires it, 
but will show him the risk that is run by acting other- 
wise than with prudence and entire honesty. He should 
remember, too, that in taking command of a vessel, he 
not only covenants that he will act honestly and with 
the best of his judgment, but also holds himself out as 
having a reasonable degree of skill and prudence 2 . 

As to the safe keeping, transportation, and delivery of 
the cargo, the master's duties and obligations are those 
of a common carrier upon land. He is bound to the 
strictest diligence in commencing and prosecuting the 
voyage, a high degree of care both of vessel and goods, 
and is held liable for all losses and injuries not occa- 
sioned by inevitable accident, or by the acts of public 
enemies. He is answerable also for unnecessary delays 
and deviations, and for the wrongful or negligent acts of 
all persons under his command. At the termination of 
the voyage, he must deliver the goods to the consignee 
or his agents. A landing upon the wharf is a sufficient 
delivery, if due notice be given to the parties who are to 
receive them. He is not, however, bound to deliver 
until the freight due is paid or secured to his satisfaction, 
as he has a lien upon the goods for his freight ; but the 
consignee can require the goods to be taken from the 
hold, in order that he may examine them, before paying 
freight. In such case they should not go out of the 
possession of the master or his agents. 



1 5 Mason, 465. 2 Sumner, 206. Edwards, 117. 
2 1 Dallas, 184. 



VESSEL AND CARGO. 209 

Deviation*. — The master must not deviate from the 
course of the voyage. By a diviation is meant, techni- 
cally, any alteration of the risk insured against, with- 
out necessity or reasonable cause. It may be by de- 
parting from the regular and usual course of the voyage, 
or by any unusual and unnecessary delay. A devia- 
tion renders the insurance void, whether the loss of the 
vessel is caused by the deviation or not. It is not a 
deviation to make a port for repairs or supplies, if there 
be no unnecessary delay, nor to depart from the course 
of the voyage in order to succour persons in distress, to 
avoid an enemy, or the like. 

It is the master's duty, within twenty-four hours after 
arriving at his first port, to make a protest in case of any 
accident or loss happening to vessel or cargo. The log- 
book also should be carefully kept, without interlinea- 
tions or erasures. The master must also enter a protest 
in case any American seaman is impressed, and transmit 



* In England.] Deviation. — The first part of the observations 
under this head will apply to British ships. "While a vessel is 
detained at a port of necessity, it seems to be no deviation to take 
in an additional cargo, if no additional delay or risk is occasioned 
thereby. — Abbott on Shipp., 6th edit., 319; 9 East, 195; 
11 East, 347; 12 East, 131. 

On the .arrival of the vessel at her homeward port, and when 
compelled by accidents or injury to put back or into a port other 
than that of her destination, it is usual for the master to present 
himself before a notary, and cause a protest to be noted, and 
afterwards drawn up or extended. British consuls at foreign ports 
are empowered by statute (5 and 6 Wm. 4, c. 62, s. 15,) to 
perform notarial acts ; but, inasmuch as their attestation would 
probably not be deemed abroad of equal authenticity with that of 
the regular public notary, the master would do well to address 
himself to that functionary. 

With whatever formalities drawn up, this protest cannot be received 
in our courts as evidence for the master or his owners ; but it may 
be evidence against him and them ; and he should take care to 
supply from the log-book, his own recollection, and that of the 
mate, or trustworthy mariners, true and faithful instructions for 
its preparation. — See Abbott on Shipp., 6th edit., 335, and cases 
there cited. 



210 master's relation to 

a copy of the same to the secretary of state, under a 
penalty of 100 dollars K 

Collision*. — A vessel having the wind free must 

1 Act 1796, ch. 36, § 5. 

* In England.] Collision. — The master is bound to his owners 
for the exercise of reasonable skill and care in the management of 
the vessel, and he and they are bound in like manner to every one 
who is affected by his acts, within the scope of his employment ; 
he must, therefore, during the whole course of the voyage at sea, 
at anchor, and in port, — perhaps even when a licensed pilot is on 
board, — be vigilant, to avoid the peril of collision. — Abbott on 
Shipp., 6th edit., 200; 3 Hagg. Ad. Rep., 176. 

It is said that there are four possibilities under which collision 
may occur. "In the first place, it may happen without blame 
being imputable to either party, as where the loss is occasioned by 
a storm, or any other vis major. In that case the misfortune 
must be borne by the party on whom it happens to light ; the other 
not being responsible to him in any degree. Secondly, a misfor- 
tune of this kind may arise where both parties are to blame ; 
where there has been want of due diligence, or of skill, on both 
sides ; in such a case the rule of law is, that the loss must be 
apportioned between them as having been occasioned by the fault 
of both of them. Thirdly, it may happen by the misconduct of 
the suffering party only ; and then the rule is, that the sufferer 
must bear his own burthen. Lastly, it may have been the fault 
of the ship which ran the other down, and in this case the innocent 
party would be entitled to an entire compensation from the other." 
—2 Dod. Ad. Rep., 83. 

The established rules of nautical practice as explained by pro- 
fessional men, the usages and regulations of particular ports and 
rivers, the state of the wind, the tide, and the light, the degree of 
vigilance of the master and crew, and all other circumstances 
bearing upon the conduct and management of both vessels, will be 
considered in determining this question. But of the sea as of the 
road, the law recognises no inflexible rule the neglect of which by 
one party will dispense with the exercise of ordinary care and 
caution in the other. — See Abbott on Shipp., 6th edit., 207, 
and cases there cited. 

In case of damage done by a foreign ship to any British ship, 
barge, boat, buoy, or beacon, such foreign ship may, by order of 
a judge, be arrested, until the master, owner, or consignee, under- 
take to appear and be defendant in any action brought for such loss 
or damage, and give security for all costs and damages which may 
be recovered in such action. — 1 & 2 Geo. IV., c. 75, s. 32. 

By a recent regulation of tbe Trinity Board, when two steam- 



VESSEL AND CARGO. 211 

make way for a vessel close-hauled. The general prac- 
tice is, that whentwo vessels approach each other, both 
having a free orfair wind, the one with the starboard 
tacks aboard keeps on her course, or, if any change is 
made, she luffs, so as to pass to windward of the other ; 
or, in other words, each vessel passes to the right. 
This rule should also govern vessels sailing on the wind 
and approaching each other, when it is doubtful which 
is to windward. But if the vessel on the larboard tack 
is so far to windward that if both persist in their course 
the other will strike her on the lee side, abaft the beam, 
or near the stern ; in such case, the vessel on the star- 
board tack must give way, as she can do so with less loss 
of time and greater facility than the other. These rules 
are particularly intended to govern vessels approaching 
each other under circumstances that prevent their course 
and movements being readily discerned with accuracy, as 
at night or in a fog. At other times, circumstances may 
render it expedient to depart from them. A steamer is 
considered as always sailing with a fair wind, and is bound 
to do whatever would be required of a vessel going free *. 
Pilot *. — The master must take a pilot when within 
the usual limits of the pilot's employment 2 . If he neg- 
lects or refuses so to do, he becomes liable to the owners, 
freighters, and insurers. If no pilot is at hand, he must 
make signals, and wait a reasonable time. The master 
is to be justified in entering port without a pilot only by 
extreme necessity. After the pilot is on board, the 
master has no more control over the working of the ship 
until she is at anchor 3 . 

i Report of Benjamin Rich and others to District Court of Mass. 

2 6 Rob. 316. 7 T. R. 160. 

3 2 B. & Ad. 380. 3 Kent's Com. 175 c. 



vessels meet and are in danger of collision, both vessels are required 
to put the helm a-port. 

* In England] Pilot. — What is here said is applicable to British 
vessels. For the provisions relating to pilots and pilotage, see the 
Act 6 Geo. IV., c. 125. 

p2 



212 master's relation to 

Wages, Advances, &c* — The master has no lien 
upon the ship for his wages l . He is supposed to look to 
the personal responsibility of the owner. He has a lien 
on freight for wages, and also for his advances and neces- 
sary expenses incurred for the benefit of the ship 2 . He 
can sue in admiralty in personam, but not in rem; — that 
is, he can sue the owner personally, but cannot hold the 
ship. It does not seem to be settled in the United States 
whether the master has a lien on the ship for advances 
made abroad for the benefit of the vessel 3 . In case of 
sickness, the master's right to be cured at the expense of 
the ship seems to be the same as that of the seamen 4 . 



CHAPTER III. 
the master's relation to passengers and officers. 

Treatment of passengers. Removal of officers. 

Passengers t. — The contract of passengers with the 
master is not for mere ship-room and personal existence 
on board, but for reasonable food, comforts, necessaries, 
and kindness. In respect to females, it extends still 

1 3 Mason, 91. 11 Pet. R. 175. 

2 Ware, 149. But see 5 Wend. 314. 

3 3 Mason, 255. * 1 Sumner, 451. 



* In England.] Wages, Advances, <Jc. — The master can only 
sue the owners personally for his wages in a court of common law. 
But as he generally receives the freight and earnings of the ship, 
and may pay himself out of the money in his hands, he has not often 
occasion for the aid of a court of justice to obtain his right. — 
Abbott on Shipp., 6th edit., 587. 

The master has no lien on the ship or freight for wages or dis- 
bursements. — See 9 East, 426; 15.^ A.,, bib ; Abbott on 
Shipp. , 6th edit., 124, and cases there cited. 

1* In England.] Passengers. — The party must, however, prove 
that he has really been a sufferer and that there was a real grievance, 
before he can recover in an action. — See 8 Car. § P. 56. 



PASSENGERS AND OFFICERS. 213 

further, and includes an implied stipulation against 
obscenity, immodesty, and a wanton disregard of the 
feelings. An improper course of conduct in these par- 
ticulars will be punished by the court, as much as a per- 
sonal assault would be 1 . 

Officers*. — The master may remove either of his 
officers from duty for fraudulent or unfaithful conduct, 
for gross negligence and disobedience, or for palpable in- 
capacity. But the causes of removal must be strong 
and evident 2 ; and much more so in the case of the chief 
mate than of the second mate. Any temporary appoint- 
ments, made by the master, are held at his pleasure, and 
stand upon a different footing from those of persons who 
originally shipped in the character in question 3 . 

When a man ships in a particular capacity, as car- 
penter, steward, or the like, he is not to be degraded 
for slight causes. He stipulates for fair and reasonable 
knowledge and due diligence, but not for extraordinary 
qualifications 4 . 

The right of the master to compel an officer, who has 
been removed, to do duty as a seaman before the mast, 
has never been completely established; but the better 
opinion would seem to be that he may do it in a case of 
necessity. Merchant vessels have no supernumeraries, and 
if the master can show that the officer was unfit for the 
duties he had undertaken, and thus made it necessaiy to 
take some one from the forecastle to fill his place, and 
that, by this means, the ship had become short-handed, 

i 3 Mason, 242. 2 4 Wash. 334. 3 Gilpin, 83. 

* 4 Mason, 84. Abbott Shipp. 147 n. Ware, 109. 



* In England.] Officers. — By the common law of England 
the master has authority over all the mariners on hoard the ship. 

The observations, therefore, under this head would seem to 
apply to British vessels. The only general rule that can be 
laid down on the subject is, that the master should on all occasions 
act according to the common usage, hearing in mind that he may 
be called upon to justify his acts and conduct in a court of law, and 
this, too, by the testimony of other persons. 



214 master's relation to 

he may turn the officer forward, assuming the respon- 
sibility for the act, as well as the risk of justification. 
He would be required to show a much stronger cause for 
removing the chief mate than would be insisted upon in 
the case of a second mate ; and probably this necessity 
for exacting seaman's duty would be held to extend no 
further than an arrival at the first port where other hands 
could be shipped. 

Nothing but evident unfitness or gross and repeated 
misconduct will justify the master in turning a person 
forward who shipped in another capacity, as carpenter, 
cook, or steward. But in such cases, he undoubtedly 
may do so. Still, when before the mast, he cannot re- 
quire of them the duty of able seamen, unless they are 
such in fact. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE MASTER'S RELATION TO THE CREW. 

Shipment. Shipping Papers. Discharge. Imprisonment. Punishment. 

Shipment.* — The master of every vessel of the United 
States, bound on a foreign voyage, and of all coasting 

*1n England.] Shipment. — By the Act 5 & 6 Wm. 4, c. 19, 
the master of every ship belonging to an English subject, trading to 
parts beyond the seas, or of any British registered ship of the burden 
of eighty tons, employed in any of the fisheries of the United King- 
dom, or in trading coastwise, or otherwise, must make a similar 
contract in writing (shipping-articles) with each seaman (appren- 
tices excepted), and in default thereof shall forfeit £\0, s. 2. 

If after entering into such agreement a mariner neglect or refuse 
to join the ship, or to proceed to sea in her, or absent himself with- 
out leave, any justice of the peace, upon complaint of the fact 
made upon oath by the master, mate, or owner of the ship, is 
required by his warrant to cause the seaman to be apprehended and 
brought before him ; and in case he shall not give a reason to the 
satisfaction of such justice for his neglect, refusal, or absence, as the 
case may be, such justice may commit him to the House of Correc- 
tion, there to be kept to hard labour for a period not exceeding 



THE CREW. 215 

vessels of fifty tons burden, must make a contract in 
writing (shipping articles) with each seaman, specifying 
the voyage, terms of time, &c. ; and in default thereof 
shall forfeit 20 dollars for every case of omission, and 
shall be obliged to pay every such seaman the highest 
rate of wages that have been paid for such voyages at 
the port of shipment within three months previous to 
the commencement of the voyage 1 . And when the mas- 
ter ships a seaman in a foreign port, he must take the 
list of crew and the duplicate of the shipping-articles to 
the consul or commercial agent, who shall make the 
proper entries thereupon ; and then the bond originally 
given for the return of the men shall embrace each per- 
son so shipped. All shipments made contrary to this or 

1 Act 1790, ch. 56, § 1. 



thirty days ; but if the seaman consent to join the ship, the justice, 
at the request of the master, instead of committing the seaman, 
may order him to be conveyed on board the ship, or delivered to 
the master for the purpose of proceeding upon the voyage, and may 
award to the master costs not exceeding forty shillings, to be 
abated from the wages of such seaman, s. 10. 

As regards temporary absence — 

If such seaman shall wilfully and without leave absent himself 
from the ship or otherwise from his duty, he shall (in all cases not 
of absolute desertion, or not treated as such by the master) forfeit 
out of his wages to the master or owner two days' pay for every 
twenty-four hours of such absence, and in alike proportion for any 
less period of time, or at the option of the master, the amount of 
such expenses as shall have been necessarily incurred in hiring a 
substitute to perform his work, s. 7. 

In cases of absolute desertion, such seaman shall forfeit to the 
owner or master all his clothes and effects on board, and all wages 
and emoluments ; and in case of desertion abroad, shall be liable to 
the increased wages which maybe paid to a substitute, s. 9. 

The forfeitures are not incurred unless due entries shall be made 
in the log-book, as required by the act. 

The entry into the naval service of her Majesty by any seaman 
in the merchant service, shall not be deemed a desertion, or incur 
any penalty or forfeiture of wages, clothes, or effects, s. 45. 

The master is required to deliver the shipping-articles to the 
consul or vice-consul on arrival at a foreign port, under the penalty 
of£25,s.48. 



216 MASTERS RELATION TO 

any other act of Congress shall be void, and the seaman 
may leave at any time, and claim the highest rate of 
wages paid for any man who shipped for the voyage, or 
the sum agreed to be given him at his shipment 1 . 

At the foot of every such contract there shall be a me- 
morandum in writing of the day and hour on which such 
seaman shall render himself on board. If this memo- 
randum is made and the seaman neglects to render him- 
self on board at the time specified, he shall forfeit one 
day's pay for every hour he is so absent, provided the 
master or mate shall, on the same day, have made an 
entry of the name of such seaman in the log-book, 
specifying the time he was so absent. And if the sea- 
man shall wholly neglect to render himself on board, or, 
after rendering, shall desert before sailing, so that the 
vessel goes to sea without him, he then forfeits the 
amount of his advance and a further sum equal thereto, 
both of which may be recovered from himself or his 
surety 2 . 

There is no obligation upon the master to make these 
memorandums and entries, other than that the for- 
feitures cannot be inflicted upon the seamen, unless they 
have been made literally, according to the form of the 
statute. 

If any seaman who has signed the articles shall desert 
during the voyage, the master may have him arrested 
and committed to jail until the vessel is ready to pro- 
ceed, by applying to a justice of the peace, and proving 
the contract, and the breach thereof by the seaman 3 . 

Every vessel bound on a foreign voyage shall have on 
board a duplicate list of the crew, and a true copy of the 
shipping-articles, certified by the collector of the port, 
containing the names of the crew, which shall be written 
in a uniform hand, without erasures or interlineations. 
This copy the master must produce to any consul or 
commercial agent of the United States who shall require 

1 Act 1840,ch. 23, § 1. 2 Act 1790, ch. 56, § 2. 3 Do. § 7. 



THE CREW. 217 

it ; and it shall be deemed to contain all the conditions 
of the contract. All erasures and interlineations shall 
be deemed fraudulent, unless proved to be innocent and 
bona fide. Every master who shall go upon a foreign 
voyage without these documents, or shall refuse to pro- 
duce them when required, shall forfeit 100 dollars for 
each offence, besides being liable in damages to any 
seaman who may have been injured thereby 1 . 

Discharge*. — If the master discharges any seaman 

1 Act 1840, eh, 23, § 1. 

* In England.] Discharge. — Whenever any ship belonging to an. 
English subject, except in cases of wreck or condemnation, shall be 
sold at any port out of her Majesty's dominions, the master [unless 
the crew in the presence of the British consul or vice-consul, or in 
case of there not being any such consul or vice-consul, then in the 
presence of one or more British resident merchants at such port, 
shall signify their consent in writing to be there discharged] is re- 
quired, besides paying them their wages under the agreement, either 
to provide them with adequate employment on board some other 
British vessel homeward-bound, or to furnish the means of sending 
them back to the port in her Majesty's dominions at which they 
were originally shipped, or to some port of the United Kingdom, as 
shall be agreed upon, by providing them with a passage home, or 
depositing with the consul or vice-consul such a sum of money a9 
shall be by him deemed reasonably sufficient to defray the expenses 
of their subsistence passage, 5 & 6 W. 4, c. 19, sect. 17. 

And if the master of such ship shall force on shore and leave 
behind, or shall otherwise wilfully and wrongfully leave behind on 
shore or at sea, in any place in or out of her Majesty's dominions, 
any person belonging to his crew before the return to or arrival of 
such ship in the United Kingdom, or before the completion of the 
voyage or voyages for which such person shall have been engaged, 
whether such person shall have formed part of the original crew 
or not ; every person so offending shall be deemed guilty of a mis- 
demeanour, and shall suffer such punishment by fine or imprison- 
ment, or both, as to the court (at home or abroad) before which he 
shall be convicted shall seem meet, s. 40. 

And the master shall not discharge any of his crew, whether 
foreigner or British subject, at any of her Majesty's colonies or 
plantations, without the sanction in writing of the governor, secre- 
tary, or other officer appointed in that behalf, or in the absence of 
such authorities near the place where the ship is lying, then of the 
chief officer of customs, resident at or near such place ; nor at any 



218 MASTERS RELATION TO 

in a foreign port, with his own consent, he shall pay to 
the consul three months' wages for every such seaman, 
in addition to the wages then due to him, two-thirds to 
go to the seaman upon his taking passage for the United 
States, and the remainder to be retained by the consul, 
to make a fund for the relief of destitute seamen 1 . The 
master of every vessel bound to the United States shall, 
upon the request of the consul, take on board any sea- 
man, and transport him to the United States, on terms 
not exceeding ten dollars for each seaman, under penalty 
of 100 dollars for every refusal. He is not, however, 
bound to receive more than two men to every hundred 
tons2. 

The whole policy of the United States discourages the 
discharge of seamen in foreign ports. If the seaman is 

i Act 1803, ch, 62, § 3. Sec also Act 1840, ch. 23, § 5. 
2 Act 1803, ch. 62, § 4. 

other place abroad, without the sanction of her Majesty's minister, 
consul, or vice-consul, or, in their absence, of two respectable 
merchants resident there, all which functionaries and merchants 
are empowered to inquire in a summary way into the grounds of 
such proposed discharge, by examination on oath, and to grant or 
refuse such sanction according to their discretion, s. 41. 

And no master shall leave behind at any place abroad any person 
of his crew on the plea of such person not being in a condition to 
proceed on the voyage, or having deserted from the ship, unless 
upon a previous certificate in writing from such functionaries or 
merchants, if there be any such within reasonable distance, and 
there be time to procure the same, certifying that the person so 
intended to be left is not in such condition, or has deserted and dis- 
appeared, and cannot be brought back ; and such functionaries are 
authorised, on the application of any such master, to inquire by 
examination on oath into the circumstances, and give or refuse such 
certificate according to the result of such examination, s. 42. 

The master of every ship bound to Great Britain is bound, at the 
request of the consul, to receive on board seamen not exceeding 
four persons for every hundred tons of his ship's burthen, and to 
transport them to Great Britain, on being paid by the commission- 
ers of the navy for such of them as he may not want toward his 
own complement of men, according to such rate per day as shall be 
authorised by the commissioners for executing the office of lord 
high admiral, 11 Geo. 4, and 1 W. 4, c. 20, s. 82. 



THE CREW. 219 

discharged against his consent, and without justifiable 
cause, he can i-ecover his wages up to the time of the 
vessel's return, together with his own expenses. The 
certificate of the consul will not of itself prove the suffi- 
ciency of the cause of discharge. Though the seaman 
shall have made himself liable to be discharged, yet if 
he repents and offers to return to duty, the master must 
receive him, unless he can show a sufficient cause of 
refusal 1 . If the master alleges, as a cause for discharging 
a seaman, that he was a dangerous man, it must be shown 
that the danger was such as would affect a man of ordi- 
nary firmness 2 . 

In addition to the master s liability to the seaman, he 
is criminally liable to the government for discharging a 
mariner without cause. The statute enacts that if the 
master shall, when abroad, force on shore or leave behind 
any officer or seaman without justifiable cause, he shall 
be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars, or imprisoned 
not exceeding six months, according to the aggravation 
of the offence 3 . 

Notwithstanding these liabilities, the master may dis- 
charge a seaman for gross misconduct ; yet the right is 
very strictly construed 4 . 

Imprisonment*. — The master has the right to im- 

1 Ware, 65. 4 Mason, 541, 84. 2 Ware, 9. 

3 Act 1825, ch. 276, § 10. * Abbott on Shipp., 147, note. 

* In England.] Imprisonment and Punishment. — By the law 
of England, the master of a ship has a right to correct and punish 
a disorderly or delinquent mariner in a reasonable manner. This 
punishment may be by the actual infliction of corporal punishment 
if absolutely necessary ; but before the master proceeds to punish in 
this manner he should take the advice of the persons next below him 
in authority, as well to prevent the operation of passion in his own 
breast, as to secure witnesses to the propriety of his conduct. 

The master may be called upon by action at law to answer to a 
mariner, who has been beaten or imprisoned by him or by his order 
in the course of a voyage ; and for the justification of his conduct, 
he should be able to show not only that there was a sufficient cause 
for chastisement, but also that the chastisement itself was reasonable 



220 master's relation to 

prison a seaman in a foreign port, in a case of urgent 
necessity, but the power has always been very closely 
watched by courts of law. " The practice of imprison- 
ing seamen in foreign jails is one of doubtful legality, and 
is to be justified only by a strong case of necessity 1 ." 
" The master is not authorised to punish a seaman by 
imprisonment in a foreign jail, unless in cases of aggra- 
vated misconduct and insubordination 2 ." If he does so 
punish him, he is not permitted to deduct his wages 
during the time of imprisonment, nor charge him with 
the expense of it 3 . If the imprisonment is without jus- 
tifiable cause, the master is not excused by showing that 
it was ordered by the consul 4 . And, generally, the 
advice of a consul is no justification of an illegal act 5 . 

Punishment. — The master may inflict moderate 
correction on a seaman for sufficient cause; but he must 
take care that it is not disproportionate to the offence. 
If he exceeds the bounds of moderation, he is treated as 
a trespasser, and is liable in damages 6 . In respect to 
the mode of correction, it may be by personal chastise- 
ment, or by confinement on board ship, in irons, or 
otherwise 7 . But there must not be an} r cruelty or un- 
necessary severity exercised. The mode, instruments, 
or extent of the punishment, are not laid down by law. 
These must depend upon circumstances. In cases of 
urgent necessity, as of mutiny, weapons may be used 
which would be unlawful at other times ; but even in 
these cases they must be used with the caution which 
the law requires in other cases of self-defence and vindi- 
cation of rightful authority 8 . 

•Gilpin, 31. Ware, 19. 2 Ware, 503. 

3 Ware, 9, 503. 4 Ware, 367. * Gilpin, 31. 

6 1 Peters' Ad. 186, 172. 2 Do. 420. 1 Wash. 316. 
i ,1 Peters' Ad. 186, 168. 15 Mass 365. 8 Same cases. 

and moderate ; otherwise the mariner may recover damages propor- 
tionate to the injury received. — Abbott on Shipp., 6th edit., 156 ; 
2 Bos. $ Pull. 224.— See also, on this subject, 1 Hag. 161, 271, 
384, 395 ; 6 C. $ P. 471 ; 5 & 6 W. 4, c. 19, s. 38. 



THE CREW. 221 

It is not necessary that the punishment should he 
inflicted to suppress the offence at the time of its com- 
mission. It may be inflicted for past offences, and to 
promote good discipline on board. But the reference to 
by-gone acts should be very clear and distinct, or they 
will be presumed to have been forgiven 1 . In many cases 
prudence may require a postponement of the proper 
punishment. The authority of the master, being in its 
nature parental, must be exercised with a due regard to 
the rights and interests of all parties. He has a large 
discretion, but is held to answer strictly for every abuse 
of it 2 . The law enjoins upon him a temperate demea- 
nour and decent conduct towards seamen. He risks the 
consequences, if he commences a dispute with illegal 
conduct and improper behaviour 3 . In all his acts of 
correction, he must punish purely for reformation and 
discipline, andneverto gratify personal feelings 4 . If a mas- 
ter generally permits or encourages disorderly behaviour 
in his ship, he is less excusable for inflicting unusual 
punishment on account of misconduct arising out of that 
disorder 5 . If the case admits of delay, and the master 
does not make proper inquiry before punishing, he takes 
the consequences upon himself 6 . 

This power over the liberty and person of a fellow- 
man, being against common right, and intrusted to the 
master only from public policy, regarding the necessities 
of the service, is to be sparingly used, and a strict account 
will be required of its exercise. The master is respon- 
sible for any punishment inflicted on board the vessel, 
unless in his absence, or when he is prevented by force 
from interfering 7 . Neither will absence always be an 
excuse. If he had reason to suppose that such a thing 
might be done, and did not take pains to be present and 
interfere, he will be liable. Neither (as is often sup- 

1 1 Hagg. 271. 2 15 Mass. 365. 3 Day, 294. 

3 4 Wash. 340. 4 1 Pet. AJ. 168, 173, note. 

5 Bee, 239. e 1 Hagg. 271. 
7 2 Sumner, 1. Ware, 219. 



222 master's relation to 

posed) will the advice, or even the personal superin- 
tendence or orders of a consul, or any foreign authority, 
relieve the master of his personal responsibility 1 . He 
may ask advice, but he must act upon his own account, 
and is equally answerable for what he does himself, and 
what he permits to be done on board his vessel by others. 
The seaman is entitled to be dealt with by his own cap- 
tain, under whom he shipped, and whom he may hold 
responsible at the end of the voyage ; and this responsi- 
bility is not to be shaken off by calling in the aid of 
others. In case of an open mutiny, or of imminent 
danger to life and property, the master may make use of 
the local authorities ; but then he is to remember that 
he can use them no further than for the purpose of 
quelling the mutiny, or of apprehending the felon. As 
soon as his authority is restored, the parental character 
is again thrown upon him, and all acts of punishment 
must be upon his own responsibility. He has no right 
to punish criminally. He has no judicial power. If a 
seaman has committed an offence further than against 
the internal order and economy of the ship, and which 
moderate correction is not sufficient to meet, the master 
must bring him home, (in confinement, if necessary,) or 
send him immediately by some other vessel, to be tried 
by the laws and by a jury of his country 2 . 

The practice of subjecting American seamen to foreign 
authority, or to persons whom they cannot well hold 
answerable, — like that of foreign imprisonment, — is an 
odious one, and must be justified by an overpowering 
necessity. 

A recent statute 3 makes it the duty of consuls to 
exert themselves to reclaim deserters and discountenance 
insubordination, and authorizes them to employ the local 
authorities, where it can usefully be done, for those pur- 
poses. But this will unquestionably be restricted to the 

1 Ware, 367. Gilpin, 31. 2 I Pet. Ad. 168. 

Act 1840, ch. 23, § 1. 



THE CREW. 223 

apprehension of the deserter, and the quelling of the 
revolt or mutiny ; and as soon as these ends are attained, 
the sole responsibility of the master in dealing with the 
crew will re-attach. 

If the master is present while the mate, or any sub- 
ordinate officer, inflicts punishment upon any of the 
crew, or if it is inflicted under such circumstances as 
would raise a presumption that the master was knowing 
of it, and he does not interfere, he will be held to have 
adopted it as his own act, and will be answerable 
accordingly l . 

In addition to the masters liability to the seamen in 
damages for abuse of power, he is also liable, as a crimi- 
nal, to fine and imprisonment. A recent statute enacts, 
that " if any master, or other officer, of an American 
vessel, shall, from malice, hatred or revenge, and with- 
out justifiable cause, beat, wound, or imprison any one 
or more of the crew of such vessel, or withhold from 
them suitable food or nourishment, or inflict on them 
any cruel or unusual punishment, every such person so 
offending shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by- 
fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by imprison- 
ment not exceeding five years, or by both, according to 
the nature and aggravation of the offence 2 ." It is held 
that the word " crew," in this statute, includes officers ; 
and accordingly a master was punished for unjustifiably 
confining and otherwise mal- treating his chief mate 3 . 

To constitute " malice " in the above statute, it is not 
necessary to show malignity as it is commonly under- 
stood, or brutality ; but the term, in law, requires no 
more than a " wilful intention to do a wrongful act." 
An offence is punishable under this act, even although 
no bad passions came into play, (as hatred or revenge,) 
for the term " malice," in law, covers all cases of inten- 
tional wrong, in their mildest form 4 . 

If a seaman desires to lay any complaint before a 

i 2 Sumner, 1. * Act 1835, ch. 313, § 3. 

3 3 Sumner, 209. 4 2 Sumner, 584. 



224 PASSENGERS. 

consul in a foreign port, the master must permit him to 
land for that purpose, or else inform the consul imme- 
diately of the fact, stating his reasons in writing for not 
allowing the man to land. If he refuses to do this, he 
forfeits one hundred dollars, and is liable to the seaman 
in damages \ 



CHAPTER V. 



PASSENGERS*. 

Provisions. Treatment. Passage-money. Deportment. Services. 

In Chapter I. of the Third Part, under the title 
" Provisions," it will he seen that the vessel must have 
on board, well secured under deck, at least sixty gallons 

1 Act 1840, ch. 23, § 1. 

* In England.] Passengers. — See note to chap, i., under this 
title. The time when the passage-money becomes due will depend 
upon the contract made, or the established usage. 

It appears that in West India voyages, the passage-money is 
paid before the commencement of the vojage, and is not to be re- 
turned, although the voyage is defeated, 4 Campb., 241 ; and see 
8 Car. # P., 392. 

The rule of the East India trade requires a passenger who re- 
fuses to go in consequence of a delay in the sailing of a vessel, to 
forfeit half the ahiount of the passage-money agreed for ; and which, 
it would seem, may be recovered in cases where the time of sailing 
is not made an essential part of the contract, and the ship sails 
within a reasonable time. 5 Car. <J- P., 569. 

A passenger who is on board in time of danger, is bound, at the 
master's call, to do works of necessity, in defence of the ship if 
attacked, and for the preservation of the lives on board, 3 Bos. <$£ 
Pull, j 612. Yet as he may lawfully, except under peculiar cir- 
cumstances, depart the ship, should he voluntarily remain, at the 
risk of his personal safety, to assist her in her distress, he may be 
entitled to remuneration for his services, I Rob. Ad. Rep., 285, 
306; 3 Rob. Ad. Rep., 292 ; Abbott on Shipping, 6th edition, 
189. 

As to the right to confine a passenger, see 1 Campb., 58. 



PASSENGERS . 225 

of water, one hundred pounds of salted beef, one hun- 
dred pounds of wholesome ship bread, and one gallon of 
vinegar for each passenger, on a voyage across the 
Atlantic, and in like proportion for shorter or longer 
voyages. This, too, must be in addition to the private 
stores of the master or passengers l . 

The master is also forbidden to take on board more 
than two passengers for every five tons 2 . 

The contract of passengers with the master is not for 
mere ship-room and personal existence on board, but for 
reasonable food, comforts, necessaries, and kindness. In 
respect to females it extends yet farther, and includes an 
implied stipulation against obscenity, immodesty, and a 
wanton disregard of the feelings. A course of conduct 
oppressive and malicious in these respects will be 
punished by the court, as well as a personal assault 3 . 

No passage-money is due to a ship upon an engage- 
ment to transport a passenger, before the arrival of the 
vessel at the port of destination. Where the passenger 
has paid in advance, he can reclaim his money if the 
voyage is not performed. If a voyage is partially per- 
formed, no passage-money is due, unless the expenses 
of the passenger, or the means of proceeding to the place 
of destination, are paid or tendered to him; in which case 
passage-money in proportion to the progress in the voyage 
is payable 4 . 

A passenger must submit to the reasonable rules and 
usages of the ship. He has no right to interfere with its 
discipline and internal regulations. Indeed, in a case of 
necessity, and for the order and safety of the ship, the 
master may restrain a passenger by force ; but the cause 
must be urgent, and the manner reasonable and mo- 
derate. 

In case of danger and distress, it is the duty as well as 
the interest of the passenger to contribute his aid,.accord- 

1 Act 1819, ch. 170, § 3. 2 Do. §1. 

3 3 Mason, 342. 4 1 Pet. Ad. 126. 

Q 



226 MATES AND SUBORDINATES. 

ing to his ability, and he is entitled to no compensation 
therefor. He is not, however, bound to remain on board 
in time of danger, but may leave the vessel if he can ; 
much less is he required to take upon himself any respon- 
sibility as to the conduct of the ship. If, therefore, he 
performs any extraordinary services, he becomes entitled 
to salvage 1 . 



CHAPTER VI. 

MATES AND SUBORDINATES. 



Mates included in the " crew/' Removal. Succession. Log-book. 
Wages. Sickness. Punishment. Subordinates. Pilots. 

In all the statutes which entitle the " crew," or the 
" seamen," of a vessel to certain privileges as against the 
master or owner, these w T ords, " crew" and (i seamen," are 
construed to include the mates; as, for instance, the 
statute requiring a certain amount of provisions to be on 
board ; the statute requiring a medicine-chest, and that 
which punishes the master for illegal and cruel treat- 
ment of any of the crew. In all these cases the mates 
are entitled to the same privileges and protection with 
the seamen 2 . 

The chief mate * is usually put on board by the owner, 
and is a person who is looked to for extraordinary ser- 
vices and responsibility. Accordingly, he cannot be re- 
moved by the master, unless for repeated and aggravated 
misconduct, or for palpable incapacity 3 . He acts in the 
stead of the master in case the latter dies, and whenever 

1 2 B. and P. 612. 1 Pet. Ad. 70. 2 Hagg. 3. 

2 1 Sumner, 151 ; 3 do. 209. 4 Mason, 104. 

3 1 Pet. Ad. 244. 4 Wash. 338. 



* In England.] The observations as to the chief mate and 
other officers, would seem to apply to such officers of British 
vessels. 



MATES AND SUBORDINATES. 227 

he is absent 1 . He is then entrusted with the care of the 
ship, and the government of the crew. If he is appointed 
to act as mate by the master during the voyage, he holds 
his office at the master's pleasure 2 ; but if he originally 
shipped in that capacity, he cannot be removed without 
proof of gross and flagrant misconduct, or of evident un- 
fitness. Nor will one or two single instances of intem- 
perance, disobedience, or negligence, be sufficient; the 
misconduct must be repeated, and the habit apparently 
incorrigible s . 

The second mate and other inferior officers do not 
stand upon so firm a footing as the chief mate; yet 
they cannot be removed by the master, unless for 
gross and repeated acts of disobedience, intemperance, 
dishonesty or negligence, or for palpable incapacity. 

In case of the death or absence of the master, the 
chief mate becomes master by operation of law, but 
the second mate does not necessarily become chief 
mate. It lies with the new master to appoint whom 
he pleases to act as chief mate ; though, in most cases, 
it should be the second mate, unless good reason exists 
for the contrary course. The second mate cannot, 
however, be degraded by the new master for any other 
cause than would have justified the former in so doing. 

Log-book. — It is the duty of the chief mate to 
keep the log-book of the ship. This should be neatly 
and carefully kept, and all interlineations and erasures 
should be avoided, as they always raise suspicion. 
The entries should be made as soon as possible after 
each event takes place, and nothing should be entered 
which the mate would not be willing to adhere to in 
a court of justice. (See page 153.) 

In Chapter III. of the Third Part, under the title 
" Masters relation to Officers," page 213, will be 
found a discussion of the question, whether the 
master can compel an officer to do duty before the mast. 

1 4 Mason, 541. 1 Sumner, 151. 2 Gilpin, 83. 
3 1 Pet. Ad. 244. 4 Wash. 338. 
q2 



228 MATES AND SUBORDINATES. 

In Chapters VIII., X., XL and XII. of Part III., 
under the titles " Revolt," " Forfeiture/' " Deser- 
tion," &c., will be found the laws upon those subjects 
relating to seamen. And it may be generally re- 
marked, that all those laws apply as well to the 
officers as to the foremast men. An officer forfeits 
his wages by desertion, and is criminally liable for 
mutiny, revolt, &c, like a common seaman. As to 
the questions what constitutes a revolt, mutiny, &c, 
and when absence or leaving a vessel is excusable, 
and when it works a forfeiture, and as to when wages 
are due, I would refer the reader to those titles in 
Chapters VIIL, X., XI. and XII. of Part III., above 
referred to. 

Wages. — Officers may sue in admiralty for their 
wages, and may arrest the ship, into whosever hands it 
may have passed 1 ; which is not the case with the master, 
who is supposed to look solely to the personal responsi- 
bility of the owners. 

Sickness. — The right of an officer to be cured at the 
ship's expense is the same as that of a seaman 2 . The 
law upon that subject will be found in Chapter IX., title 
" Sickness," page 240. 

Punishment. — The laws of the United States pro- 

, vide that if any master or officer shall unjustifiably beat, 

wound, or imprison any of the crew, or withhold from 

them suitable food and nourishment, or inflict upon them 

any cruel or unusual punishment, he shall be impri- 

i 1 Pet. Ad. 246. 2 1 Sumner, 151. 

* In England.] Wages.— If the hiring be on the usual terms, 
and made by word or by writing only, and not by deed, the seamen, 
or any one or more of them, and every officer, except the master, 
may sue in the Court of Admiralty ; and may, by the process of 
that court, arrest the ship as a security for their demand, or cite the 
master or owners, personally to answer them. — Abbott on Shipping, 
6th edition, 588 ; 1 Edw., 235. 

If the wages do not exceed £20 they may be received in a 
summary way under the act 5 & 6 W. 4, c. 19, as hereafter 
stated. — See cap. 12. 



MATES AND SUBORDINATES. 229 

soned not exceeding five years, and fined not exceeding 
1000 dollars for each offence 1 . The officers, as part of 
the " crew," are entitled to the protection of this statute, 
against the master's acts ; and, on the other hand, they 
are liable under it for any abuse of a seaman a . 

The law as to the officer s right to punish a seaman 
has been clearly settled, and is very simple. The sole 
authority to punish, for correction and discipline, resides 
with the master s . An officer has no right to use force 
with a seaman, either by chastising or confining him, 
except in a single class of cases ; that is, upon an emer- 
gency which admits of no delay, and where the use of 
force is necessary for the safety of life and property. If 
a seaman is about to do an act which may endanger life 
or property, and instant action is required, the officer may 
confine him, or use force necessary to prevent him. So, 
if the immediate execution of an order is important, and 
a seaman, by obstinacy or wilful negligence, prevents or 
impedes the act, the officer may use force necessary to 
secure the performance of the duty. In these cases 
there must be a pressing necessity which will not admit 
of delay ; for if delay is practicable, the officer must 
report to the master, and leave the duty of correction 
with him. A mate can in no case punish a seaman for 
the general purposes of correction and discipline, and still 
less for personal disrespect to himself 4 . If the master ia 
not on board, and cannot be called upon, the authority 
of the officer is somewhat enlarged ; but, even in this 
case, so far as a delay is practicable, he must leave the 
seaman to be dealt with by the master when he returns. 
Except in the cases and in the manner before mentioned, 
the officer is liable as a trespasser for an}' force used with 
a seaman. 

If the officer acts under the authority, express or 
implied, of the master, he will not be held liable, even 
though the punishment should be excessive and unjusti- 

i Act 1835, ch. 313, § 3. 2 4 Mason, 104. 3 Sumner, 209. 
3 2 Sumner, 584. ' * Do. 1. 584. 



230 MATES AND SUBORDINATES. 

fiable ; for he is, in such cases, only the agent of the 
master, who is responsible for the act l . Yet, if the 
punishment be so excessive as to show malice or wanton- 
ness on the part of the officer, or there be anything in his 
conduct to imply the same, he will be liable in some 
measure himself. 

Subordinates. — There are a number of men, 
usually, in merchant vessels, who are in not any respect 
officers, but who differ from the common seamen in that 
they ship in particular capacities, and to perform certain 
duties. These are the carpenter, steward, cook, &c. 
Such persons are not to be degraded for slight causes, 
though the master unquestionably has the power to do 
so upon sufficient grounds 2 . He may also require them 
to do duty, if necessary, before the mast. He may 
require them to take the place of persons who have been 
obliged to do their work 3 ; but he cannot exact from them 
the duty of able seamen, unless they are such in fact. 
Repeated acts of disobedience, intemperance, and gross 
negligence, and evident incapacity for the duties under- 
taken, are justifying causes of removal \ In all other 
respects this class of persons stands upon the same foot- 
ing with common seamen. They have the same privi- 
leges, and are under the same obligations and penalties 5 . 

Pilots *. — When a pilot, who is regularly appointed, 
is on board, he has the absolute control of the naviga- 
tion of the vessel 6 . He is master for the time being, 
and is alone answerable for any damage occasioned by 
his own negligence or default 7 . 

A pilot may sue in admiralty for his wages 8 . 

A pilot cannot claim salvage for any acts done within 
the limits of his duty, however useful and meritorious 

* Ware, 219. 2 4 Mason, 84. Ware, 109. 3 Ware, 109. 
4 Ware, 109. * 2 Pet. Ad. 268. * 1 Johns. 305. 

7 1 Pet. Ad. 223. 1 Mason, 508. * 1 Mason, 508. 



• In England.] Pilots. — See the act 6]G. 4, c. 125, as to 
pilot9, and the rates and recovery of pilotage. 



SEAMEN. 231 

they may have been l . If towing is necessary, pilots are 
bound to perform it, having a claim for compensation 
for damages done to their boats, or for extra labour 2 . If 
extraordinary pilot service is performed, additional pilot- 
age is the proper reward, and not salvage 3 . If, how- 
ever, the acts done by the pilot are clearly without and 
beyond his duty as pilot, he may claim salvage 4 . 



CHAPTER VII. 

SEAMEN. SHIPPING CONTRACT. 

Shipping contract — how formed — how signed. Erasures and interlinea- 
tions. Unusual stipulations. 

By the law of the United States *, in all foreign voy- 
ages, and in all coasting voyages to other than an adjoin- 
ing state, there must be an agreement in writing, or in 

i Gilpin, 60. 10 Peters R. 108. » 2 Hagg. 176. 

3 2 Hagg. 176. * 1 Rob. 106. Gilpin, 60. 



* In England.] The shipping contract required to be made by 
the law of England, is similar to the one prescribed by the law of 
the United States. 

The form of it is given by the act 5 & 6 "W. 4, c. 19 ; see the 
schedule to the act. This agreement, called the "Ship's Articles, " 
must specify what monthly or other wages each seaman is to be 
paid, the capacity in which he is to act, and the nature of the 
voyage in which the ship is intended to be employed, so that the 
seaman may have some means of judging of the probable period for 
which he is likely to be engaged. The agreement must also con- 
tain the day of the month and year in which it is made ; must be 
signed by the master in the first instance, and by the seamen re- 
spectively, at the port or place where such seamen shall be respec- 
tively shipped ; and the master must cause the same to be, by or in 
the presence of the party who is to attest their respective signatures 
thereto, truly and distinctly read over to every such seaman before 
he is required to sign, in order that he may be able to understand 
the purport and meaning of the engagement he enters into, and the 
terms to which he is bound, 5 & 6 W. 4, c. 19, s. 2. 

Any agreement contrary to or inconsistent with the provisions of 



232 SEAMEN. 

print, with every seaman on board the ship, (excepting 
only apprentices and servants of the master or owner,) 
declaring the voyage, and term or terms of time, for 

the last-mentioned statute, and with the right to wages given to a 
seaman hy the maritime law, in case of freight earned by ships sub- 
sequently lost, is declared not to be binding upon him, s. 5. 

By signing the agreement, a seaman does not forfeit his lien 
upon the ship, nor is he deprived of his remedy for the recovery of 
wages against the ship, the master, or the owners, s. 5. 

The master and owners are bound, on reporting a ship's arrival 
from "parts beyond the seas/' at her port of destination in the 
United Kingdom, to deposit a true copy of this agreement with the 
collector or controller of the customs there, that the means of 
ascertaining the terms and conditions of it may be accessible to all 
who are interested in it. 

The masters of ships employed in the fisheries on the British 
coasts, or trading from port to port of the United Kingdom, or 
making regular voyages to the Channel Islands, or to ports on 
the continent of Europe, between the river Elbe, inclusive, and 
Brest, must twice in every year deposit copies of all such agree- 
ments entered into by them during the preceding six months, s. 3. 

If any master carry out to sea a seaman without having first 
entered into such an agreement with him, he forfeits 10/. in respect 
of every seaman so carried out. If he neglect to cause the agree- 
ment to be read over to the seaman, he forfeits 5/. ; and if he neg- 
lect to deposit a true copy of it with the collector or controller of 
the customs, 50/., s. 5. 

The master must deposit the ship's articles on his arrival at any 
foreign port, with the British consul, or vice-consul, for preserva- 
tion during the ship's stay there ; penalty for omission 25/., s. 48. 

No seaman shall be shipped by the master at any such foreign 
port, except with the privity of such consul, or vice-consul, to be 
indorsed upon the agreement, under a penalty of 25/., s. 49. 

The master must produce the muster-roll of the ship, and the 
agreement with the crew, to the captain, commander, or other com- 
missioned officer of any of her Majesty's ships requiring a production 
and sight thereof, under the penalty of 25/., s. 50. 

The master must also, upon demand, produce such muster- 
roll and agreement to the registrar and officers of customs in the 
British possessions abroad, under the penalty of 50/., s. 51. 

When a written contract is made, it becomes the only evidence 
between the parties ; and a mariner cannot recover anything agreed 
to be given in reward for his service, which is not specified in the 
articles. — Abbott on Shipping, 6th edition, 550; 2 Bos. $ Pull. y 
m,2 Rob. Ad. Rep.,241. 



SEAMEN. 233 

which such seaman is hired K This contract is called 
the shipping-articles, and all the crew, including the 
master and officers, usually sign the same paper ; it not 
being requisite that there should be a separate paper for 
each man. If there is not such a contract signed, each 
seaman could, by the old law, recover the highest rate 
of wages that had been given on similar voyages, at the 
port where he shipped, within three months next before 
the time of shipment 2 . By the law of 1840, he may, in 
such case, leave the vessel at any time, and demand the 
highest rate of wages given to any seaman during the 
voyage, or the rate agreed upon at the time of his ship- 
ment 3 . A seaman not signing the articles, is not bound 
by any of the regulations, nor subject to the penalties of 
the statutes 4 ; but he is, notwithstanding, bound by the 
rules and liable to the forfeitures imposed by the general 
maritime law 5 . 

These shipping-articles are legal evidence, and bind all 
parties whose names are annexed to them, both as to 
wages, the nature and length of the voyage, and the duties 
to be performed 6 . Accordingly, seamen have certain 
rights secured to them with reference to these papers. 
In the first place, the master must obtain a copy of the 
articles, certified to by the collector of the port from which 
the vessel sails, to take with him upon the voyage. This 
must be a fair and true copy, without erasures or inter- 
lineations. If there are any such erasures or interlinea- 
tions, they will be presumed to be fraudulent, and will 
be set aside, unless they are satisfactorily explained in a 
manner consistent with innocent purposes, and with the 
provisions of laws which guard the rights of mariners. 
These articles must be produced by the master before 
any consul or commercial agent to whom a seaman may 
have submitted a complaint 7 . 

i Act 1790, ch. 56, § 1. 2 Do. § 1. 3 Do. 23, § 10. 

* Act 1790, ch. 56, § 1. 5 1 Pet. Ad. 212. 

6 3 Mason, 161. Act 1840, ch. 23, § 3. 

7 Act 1840, ch. 23, § 2, 19. 



234 SEAMEN. 

Every unusual clause introduced into the shipping- 
articles, or anything which tends to deprive a seaman of 
what he would be entitled to by the general law, will be 
suspiciously regarded by the courts ; and if there is reason 
to suppose that any advantage has been taken of him, or if 
the contract bears unequally upon him, it will be set aside. 
In order to sustain such a clause, the master or owner 
must show two things : first, that the seaman s attention 
was directed toward it, and its operation and effect ex- 
plained to him; and, secondly, that he received some 
additional compensation or privilege in consideration of 
the clause. Unless the court is satisfied upon these two 
points, an unusual stipulation unfavourable to a seaman 
will be set aside l . For instance, seamen are entitled to 
have a medicine-chest on board, and in certain cases to 
be cured at ,the ship's expense ; and the court set aside 
a clause in the shipping-articles in which it was stipu- 
lated that the seamen should bear all the expense, even 
though there were no medicine-chest on board 2 . Another 
clause was set aside, in which the voyage was described 
as from Baltimore to St. Domingo and elsewhere, on the 
ground that seamen are entitled to have their voyage 
accurately described 3 . 

Some clauses which are not such as to be set aside, 
will yet be construed in favour of seamen, if their inter- 
pretation is at all doubtful 4 . A clause providing that no 
wages should be paid if the vessel should be taken or lost, 
or detained more than thirty days, was set aside, seamen 
being entitled to wages up to the last port of delivery *. 
If the amount of wages merely be omitted in the articles, 
there seems to be some doubt as to the introduction of 
other evidence to show the rate agreed upon, and as to 
the seaman's being entitled by statute to the highest rate 



1 2 Sumner, 443. 2 Mason, 541. * 2 Mason, 641. 

3 1 Hall's Law Jour. 207. 2 Gall. 477, 526. 2 Dods. 504. 
Gilpin 219. 
, * 1 Pet. Ad. 186, 215. * 2 Sumner, 443. 



SEAMEN. 235 

of wages current *; If a seaman ships for a general coast- 
ing and trading voyage to different ports in the United 
States, and the articles provide for no time or place at 
which the voyage shall end, the seaman may leave at any 
time, provided he does not do so under circumstances 
peculiarly inconvenient to the other party 2 . 

If, however, the voyage is accurately described, and 
the wages specified, the seaman cannot be admitted to 
show that his contract was different from that contained 
in the articles s . 

It is no violation of the contract if the vessel departs 
from the voyage described, by accident, necessity, or 
superior force 4 . 



CHAPTER VIII. 



SEAMEN CONTINUED. 



Rendering on board. Refusal to proceed. Desertion or absence during 
the voyage. Discharge. 

Rendering on board *. — If, after having signed the 
articles, and after a time has been appointed for the sea- 
man to render himself on board, he neglects to appear, 
and an entry to that effect is made in the log-book, he 
forfeits one day's pay for every hour of absence ; and if 
the ship is obliged to proceed without him, he forfeits a 
sum equal to double his advance b . These forfeitures 
apply to the commencement of the voyage, and cannot 
be exacted unless a memorandum is made on the articles, 
and an entry in full in the log-book. A justice of the 
peace may, upon complaint of the master, issue a war- 

1 Gilpin, 452. Abb.onShipp.434, note. Act 1840, ch. 23. § 10. 

2 Ware, 437. 3 Gilpin, 305. 4 2 Hagg. 243. 
5 Act 1790, ch. 56, § 2. 

* In England.] Rendering on board, — See note to cap. 4, 
under title " Shipment." 



236 SEAMEN. 

rant to apprehend a deserting seaman, and commit him 
to jail until the vessel is ready to proceed upon her voy- 
age. The master must, however, first show that the 
contract has been signed, and that the seaman departed 
without leave, and in violation of it l . 
1 Refusal to proceed*. — If, after the voyage has 
begun, and before the vessel has left the land, the first 
officer and a majority of the crew shall agree that the 
vessel is unfit to proceed on the voyage, either from fault 
or deficiency in hull, spars, rigging, outfits, provisions, 
or crew, they may require the master to make the nearest 
or most convenient port, and have the matter inquired 
into by the district judge, or two justices of the peace, 
taking two or more of the complainants before the judge. 
Thereupon the judge orders a survey, and decides whe- 
ther the vessel is to proceed, or stop and be repaired 
and supplied ; and both master and crew are bound by 
this decision. If the seamen and mate shall have made 
this complaint without reason, and from improper mo- 
tives, they are liable to be charged with the expenses 
attending it 2 . 

If, when the vessel is in a foreign port, the first or 
any other officer and a majority of the crew shall make 
complaint, in writing, to the consul, that the ship is unfit 
to proceed to sea, for any of the above reasons, the consul 
shall order an examination, in the same manner ; and the 
decision of the consul shall bind all parties. If the con- 
sul shall decide that the vessel was sent to sea in an un- 
suitable condition, by neglect or design, the crew shall 
be entitled to their discharge and three months' addi- 
tional pay ; but not if it w r as done by accident or innocent 
mistake 3 . 

It is no justification for refusing to do duty and proceed 

> Act 1790, ch. 56, § 7. 2 Do. § 3. 

3 Act 1840, ch. 23, § 12—15. 



* In England. ] Refusal to proceed. — What is here said would 
seem to be applicable to British vessels. 



SEAMEN. 237 

upon the voyage, that a new master has been substituted 
in place of the one under whom the seaman originally 
shipped x ; and if a blank is left for the name of the mas- 
ter, the seaman is supposed to ship under any who may 
be appointed 2 . The same rule applies to the substitu- 
tion or appointment of any other officer of the ship during 
the voyage. 

Desertion or Absence during the Voyage *. — If, 
during the voyage, the seaman absents himself without 
leave, for less than forty-eight hours, and an entry 
thereof is made in full in the log-book, he forfeits three 
days' pay for each day's absence. But if the absence 
exceeds forty-eight hours, he forfeits all his wages then 
due, and all his goods and chattels on board the vessel at 
the time, and is liable to the owner in damages for the 
expense of hiring another seaman 3 . If he deserts within 
the limits of the United States, he is liable to be arrested 
and committed to jail, until the vessel sails 4 . If he 
deserts or absents himself in a foreign port, the consul 
is empowered to make use of the authorities of the place 
to reclaim him. If, however, the consul is satisfied that 
the desertion was caused by unusual or cruel treatment, 
the seaman may be discharged, and shall receive three 
months' additional wages 5 . It is not a desertion for a 
seaman to leave his vessel for the purpose of procuring 
necessary food, which has been refused on board ; nor is 
a seaman liable if the conduct of the master has been 

1 1 Mason, 443. Bee, 48. 2 Sumner, 582. 

2 6 Mass. 300. 3 Act 1790, ch. 56, § 5. 
4 Act 1790, ch. 56, § 7. . 5 Act 1840, ch. 23, § 9. 



* In England.] Desertion or absence during the voyage. — 
See note to cap. 4, under title "Shipment." 

If the master propose to take the ship on a voyage not designated 
by the articles, the mariners may leave the ship without being 
guilty of desertion 1 Hag., 248 ; 2 Hag., 243. 

Want of provisions will justify the seaman in leaving the ship, 
and extreme misconduct and ill treatment on the part of the master 
may also justify desertion. — See Abbott on Shipp., 6th edit., 
152, 153. 



238 SEAMEN. 

such as to make it dangerous for him to remain on board 1 , 
or if the shipping-articles have been fraudulently altered 2 . 
Even in a clear case of desertion, if the party repents, 
and seeks to return to his duty within a reasonable 
time, he is entitled to be received on board again, unless 
his previous conduct had been such as would justify his 
discharge 3 . 

As to the effect of deserting upon wages, and what is 
desertion in such cases, see the subject, a Wages affected 
by Desertion," Chapter XI. 

Discharge *. — By referring to Chapter IV., " Master's 
Relation to Crew," the seaman will find that, though 
the master has power to discharge a seaman for gross and 
repeated misconduct, yet that this right is closely watched, 
and any abuse of it is severely punished. He will also 
find there a statement of his own rights and privileges, 
with reference to a discharge. It has been seen that he 
may demand his discharge of the consul, if the vessel is 
not fit to proceed, and is not repaired, or if he has been 
cruelly and unjustifiably treated 4 . 

If a vessel has been so much injured that it is doubtful 
whether she can be repaired, or the repairs cannot be 
made for a long time, during which it would be a great 
expense to the owners to support the seamen in a foreign 
country, it is held that the crew may be discharged, 
upon the owners' paying their passage home, and their 
wages up to the time of their arrival at the place of 
shipment 5 . 

As to discharge at the end of the voyage, see " Wages 
affected by Desertion/' Chapter XI. 

1 Hagg. 63. a Do. 182. 3 1 Sumner, 373. 

4 Act 1840, ch. 23, § 9, 14. 5 2 Dodson, 403. 



* In England.] Discharge. — See note to cap. 4, under this 
title. 



239 



CHAPTER IX. 

SEAMEN — CONTIN UED . 

Provisions. Sickness. Medicine-chest. Hospital money. Relief in 
foreign ports. Protection. 

Provisions *. — For the benefit of seamen it has been 
enacted that every vessel bound on a voyage across the 
Atlantic, shall have on board, well secured under deck, 
at least sixty gallons of water, one hundred pounds of 
wholesome ship bread, and one hundred pounds of salted 
flesh meat, over and above the stores of master or pas- 
sengers, and the live stock. And if the crew of any ves- 
sel not so provided shall be put upon short allowance of 
water, flesh, or bread, such seaman shall recover from 
the master double wages for every day he was so allow- 
anced l : The same rule applies to other voyages than 
those across the Atlantic, and the amount of provisions 
stowed below must be in proportion to the length of the 
voyage, compared with one across the Atlantic 2 . It also 
applies to seamen shipped in foreign ports, as well as to 
those shipped in the United States 3 . It has been thought 
that if the articles enumerated cannot be procured, the 
master may substitute other wholesome provisions ; but 
it is doubtful whether even this will free him from the 
penalty ; at least it will not unless he can show that it 
was impossible to procure them at the last port of de- 
parture 4 . 

Besides this special enactment, a seaman may always 
recover damages of a master who unnecessarily and wan- 
tonly deprives him of sufficient food and nourishment 5 . 
If, however, the short allowance is caused by inevitable 

1 Act 1790, ch. 56, § 9. 2 Do. 3 1 Pet. Ad. 223. 

4 1 Pet. Ad. 229, 223. Bee, 84. Abb. 135, note. Ware, 454. 

5 2 Pet., Ad. 409. 

* In England.] Provisions. — See note to cap. 1, under title 
" Provisions." 



240 SEAMEN. 

accident, without any fault of the master or owner, or is 
a matter of fair discretion in a case of common danger, 
the master is not liable. Another law of the United 
States provides, that if any master or other officer shall 
wilfully and without justifiable cause withhold suitable 
food and nourishment from a seaman, he shall be fined 
not exceeding one thousand dollars, and imprisoned not 
exceeding five years \ The master may at any time, 
at his discretion, put the crew upon an allowance of 
water and eatables ; but if it is a short allowance, he 
must be able to give a justifying reason. 

Sickness. Medicine-chest *. — Every vessel of one 
hundred and fifty tons or upwards, navigated by ten or 
more persons in all, and bound on a voyage beyond the 
United States, and every vessel of seventy-five tons or 
upwards, navigated by six or more persons in the whole, 
and bound from the United States to any port in the 
West Indies, is required to have a chest of medicines, 
put up by an apothecary of known reputation, and 
accompanied by directions for administering the same. 
The chest must also be examined at least once a year, 
and supplied with fresh medicines 2 . 

In case of dispute, the owner must prove the suffici- 

1 Act 1835, ch. 313, § 3. 

2 Act 1790, ch. 56, § 8 ; 1805, ch.88, § 1 . 



* In England.] Sickness. — Medicine-chest. — Every ship sail- 
ing from the United Kingdom to any place out of the same shall have, 
and keep constantly on board the same, a sufficient supply of medicines 
suitable to accidents and diseases arising on sea-voyages ; and in case 
any default shall be made in providing orkeeping supplied such medi- 
cines as aforesaid, or in case any of the seamen shall receive any hurt 
or injury in the service of the ship, the expense of providing the 
necessary surgical and medical advice, and attendance and medi- 
cines, which the seaman shall stand in need of until he shall have 
been cured, or shall have been brought back to some port of the 
United Kingdom, shall be borne and defrayed by the owner and 
master of the ship, or one of them, without any deduction whatever 
on that account from the seaman's wages. — 5 & 6 Wm. IV., 
c 19, s. 18. 



SEAMEN. 241 

ency of the medicine-chest. It does not lie with the 
seaman to prove its insufficiency l . 

If a vessel has a suitable medicine-chest on board, it 
would seem that the ship is not to be charged with the 
medicines and medical advice which a seaman may need. 
But the ship is still liable for the expenses of his nurs- 
ing, care, diet, and lodging 2 . Accordingly, if a seaman 
is put on shore at an hospital or elsewhere, for his cure, 
the ship is chargeable with so much of the expense as 
is incurred for nursing, care, diet, and lodging; and 
unless the owner can specify the items of the charge, and 
show how much was for medical advice, and how much 
for other expenses, he must pay the whole 3 . The sea- 
man is to be cured at the expense of the ship, of a sick- 
ness or injury sustained in the ship's service 4 ; but if he 
contracts a disease by his own fault or vices, the ship is 
not chargeable 5 . A sick seaman is entitled to proper 
nursing, lodging, and diet. If these cannot be had, or 
are not furnished on board the vessel, he is entitled to be 
taken on shore to an hospital, or to some place where 
these can be obtained. It is often attempted to be shown 
that the seaman was put on shore at his own request. 
This is no defence. He is entitled to be put on shore if 
his disease requires it ; and it is seldom that proper care 
can be taken of a seaman on board ship 6 . 

If a seaman requires further medicines and medical 
advice than the chest and directions can give, and is not 
sent ashore, it would seem that the ship ought to bear 
the expense ; but this point has never been decided 7 . If 
the medicine- chest can furnish all he needs, the ship is 
exempted 8 . 

Hospital Money *. — Every seaman must pay twenty 

1 2 Mason, 445. 2 1 Masoii, 541. 1 Sumner, 151. 

3 1 Pet. Ad. 256, note. 4 ] Sumner, 195. 
» Gilpin, 434. 1 Pet. Ad. 142, 152. 

6 1 Pet. Ad. 256, note. 

7 Gilpin, 435. 1 Pet. Ad. 142, 152, 255. 8 2 Mason, 541. 

• In England.] — Hospital Money. — All masters of merchant 

B 



242 SEAMEN. 

cents a month, out of his wages, for hospital money. 
This goes to the establishment and support of hospitals 
for sick and disabled seamen *. 

Relief in Foreign Ports*. — If a vessel is sold in a 
foreign port and her crew discharged, or if a seaman is 
discharged with his own consent, he can receive two 
months' extra wages of the consul, who must obtain it 
of the master 2 . This applies only to the voluntary sale 
of the vessel, and not when the sale is rendered necessary 
by shipwreck. If, however, after the disaster the ves- 
sel might have been repaired at a reasonable expense 
and in a reasonable time, but the owner chooses to sell, 
the two months' pay is due. To escape the payment, 
the owner must show that he was obliged to sell 3 . 

It is also the duty of the consuls to provide subsist- 
ence and a passage to the United States for any Ameri- 

1 Act 1798, ch, 94, § 1 . 2 Act 1803, ch. 62, § 3. 
3 Ware, 485 ; Gilpin, 198. 



ships, and owners working their own ships, are to pay 2s. per month, 
and all seamen or other persons employed in any merchant ship, 
Is. per month, for hospital money in England. — 4 & 5 Wm. IV., 
s. 5 and 6. 

The master is to deduct this monthly duty from the wages of 
the seaman, and to pay it, and the amount due from himself, to the 
receiver appointed under the Act — sec. 7. 

* In England.] — Relief in Foreign Ports. — See note to 
cap. 4, under title " Discharge." 

If by shipwreck, capture, or any cause whatever, any seafaring men 
or boys, subjects of Great Britain, are cast away, or left, or be 
in distress in foreign parts, the governors, minister, and consuls 
appointed by her Majesty, or where none such are resident, two 
or more British merchants there residing, are required, under a 
penalty of £ 100 for each man or boy, to provide them subsistence 
and a passage home. — 1 1 Geo. IV. and 1 Wm. IV., c. 20, s. 82. 

And when any person forced on shore, or left behind, shall be 
relieved under the provisions of the 11 Geo. IV., and Wm. IV., 
c. 20, then in addition to the wages due from, and the penalties 
imposed on, the master, her Majesty shall be entitled to sue such 
master or owner for all the charges and expenses incurred in the 
subsistence, necessary clothing, and conveyance home, of such 
person.— 5 & 6 Win. IV., c. 19., s. 40. 



SEAMEN. 243 

can seaman found destitute within their districts. The 
seamen must, if able, do duty on board the vessel in 
which they are sent home, according to their several 
abilities 1 . 

The crew of every vessel shall have the fullest liberty 
to lay their complaints before the consul or commercial 
agent in any foreign port, and shall in no respect be re- 
strained or hindered therein by the master or any officer, 
unless sufficient and valid objection exist against their 
landing. In which case, if any seaman desire to see the 
consul, the master must inform the consul of it forth- 
with ; stating, in writing, the reason why the seaman is 
not permitted to land, and that the consul is desired to 
come on board. Whereupon the consul must proceed 
on board and inquire into the causes of complaint 2 . 

Protection. — Every American seaman upon ap- 
plying to the collector of the port from which he departs, 
and producing proof of his citizenship, is entitled to a 
letter of protection. The collector may charge for this 
twenty-five cents. 



CHAPTER X. 



SEAMEN — CONTINUED. 
Punishment. Revolt and mutiny. Embezzlement. Piracy. 
Punishment *. — As to the right of the master to 
punish a seaman by corporal chastisement, imprison- 
ment on shore, confinement on board, &c, and the ex- 
tent of that right, and the masters liability for exceeding 
it, — the seaman is referred to Chapter IV., " The Mas- 
ter's relation to the Crew," title " Imprisonment," and 
" Punishment." He will there see that the master pos- 

i Act 1803, ch. 62, § 4. 2 Act 1840, ch. 23, § 1, 
3 Act 1796, ch. 36, §4. 



* In England.] — Punishment. — See note to cap. 4, page 219. 

R 2 



244 SEAMEN. 

sesses this right to a limited extent, and that he is 
strictly answerable for the abuse of it. Disobedience of 
orders, combinations to refuse duty, dishonest conduct, 
personal insolence, and habitual negligence and back- 
wardness, are all causes which justify punishment in a 
greater or less degree. 

The contract which a seaman makes with the master, 
is not like that of a man who engages in any service on 
shore. It is somewhat military in its nature 1 . The 
master has great responsibilities resting upon him, and is 
entitled to instant and implicit obedience. To ensure 
this, regular and somewhat strict discipline must be pre- 
served. The master, also, cannot obtain assistance when 
at sea, as any one can who is in authority upon land. 
He must depend upon the habits of faithful and respect- 
ful discharge of duty which his crew have acquired ; and 
if this fails, he may resort to force. He is answerable 
for the safety of the ship, and for the safe keeping and 
delivery of valuable cargoes, and in almost all cases he 
is the first person to whom the owner of the vessel and 
cargo will look for indemnity. Considering this, the 
seamen will feel that it is not unreasonable that the 
master should have power to protect himself and all for 
whom he acts, even by force if necessary 2 . A good 
seaman, who is able and willing to do his duty faithfully 
and at all times, and treats his officers respectfully, will 
seldom be abused ; and if he is, the master is liable to 
him personally in damages, and is also subject to be 
indicted by the government and tried as a criminal. A 
seaman should be warned against taking the law into his 
own hands. If the treatment he receives is unjustifiable, 
he should still submit to it, if possible, until the voyage 
is up, or until he arrives at some port where he can 
make complaint. If he is conscious that he is not to 
blame, and an assault is made upon him unjustifiably 
and with dangerous severity, he may defend himself; 

1 Ware, 8G. 3 Wash. 515. 2 Ware, 219. 



SEAMEN. 245 

but he should not attempt to punish the offender, or to 
inflict anything in the way of retaliation l . 

In Chapter VI., title " Mates," the reader will see 
how far any inferior officer of a vessel may use force 
with a seaman. 

Revolt and Mutiny*. — If any one or more of the 
crew of an American vessel shall by fraud or force, or by 
threats or intimidations, take the command of the vessel 
from the master or other commanding officer, or resist 
or prevent him in the free and lawful exercise of his 
authority, or transfer the command to any other person 
not lawfully entitled to it ; every person so offending, 
and his aiders and abbettors, shall be deemed guilty of a 
revolt or mutiny and felony ; and shall be punished by 
fine not exceeding 2000 dollars, and by imprisonment 
and confinement to hard labour not exceeding ten years, 
according to the nature and aggravation of the offence 2 . 
And if any seaman shall endeavour to commit a revolt 
or mutiny, or shall combine with others on board to 
make a revolt or mutiny, or shall solicit or incite any of 
the crew to disobey or resist the lawful orders of the 
master or other officer, or to refuse or neglect their 
proper duty on board, or shall assemble with others in a 
riotous or mutinous manner, or shall unlawfully confine 
the master or other commanding officer, — every person 
committing one or more of these offences shall be im- 
prisoned not exceeding five years, or fined not exceeding 
1000 dollars, or both, according to the nature and aggra- 
vation of the offence 3 . 

It will be seen that the first of these laws applies only 

1 Do. 3 Wash, 552. * Act 1835, ch. 313, § 1. 3 Do. § 2. 



* In England.] — Revolt and Mutiny — Piracy, — By 7 
Wm. IV., 1 Vic. c. 88, s. 3, persons convicted of these offences shall 
be liable to be transported for life, or for any term not less than fifteen 
years, or to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding three years. 

As to what offences shall be deemed piracy, see the Act 11 & 12 
Wm. III., c. 7, s. 9, made perpetual by 6 Geo. I., c. 19 ; 18 
Geo. II., c. 30.— Abbott on Skipp., 6th edit., 165. 



246 SEAMEN. 

to cases where seamen actually throw off all authority, 
deprive the master of his command, and assume the con- 
trol themselves, which is to make a revolt. The last is 
designed to punish endeavours and combinations to make 
a revolt, w^hich are not fully carried out. 

Every little instance of disobedience, or insolent con- 
duct, or even force used against the master or other offi- 
cer, will not be held a revolt or an endeavour to make a 
revolt. There must be something showing an intention 
to subvert the lawful authority of the master l . It does 
not excuse seamen, however, from this offence, that they 
confined their refusal to one particular portion of their 
duty. If that duty was lawfully required of them, it is 
equally a subversion of authority as if they had refused 
all duty 8 . 

If the crew interfere by force or threats to prevent the 
infliction of punishment for a gross offence, it is an en- 
deavour to commit a revolt 3 . 

To constitute the offence of confining the master, it is 
not necessary that he should be forcibly secured in any 
particular place, or even that his body should be seized 
and held ; any act which deprives him of his personal 
liberty in going about the ship, or prevents his doing his 
duty freely, (if done with that intention 4 ,) is a confine- 
ment 5 . So is a threat of immediate bodily injury, if 
made in such a manner as would reasonably intimidate 
a man of ordinary firmness 6 . 

In all these cases of revolt, mutiny, endeavours to 
commit the same, and confinement of the master, it is 
to be remembered that the acts are excusable if done 
from a sufficient justifying cause. The master may so 
conduct himself as to justify the officers and crew in 
placing restraints upon him, to prevent his committing 
acts which might endanger the lives of all the persons on 

1 4 Wash. 528. 1 Pet. Ad. 178. 2 4 Mason, 105. 
3 1 Sumner, 448. 4 4 Wash. 428. 

5 4 Mason, 105. 4 Wash. 548. 1 Sumner, 448. 3 Wash. 525. 

6 Pet. C. C.213. 



SEAMEN. 247 

board. But an excuse of this kind is received with great 
caution, and the crew should be well assured of the neces- 
sity of such a step, before taking it, since they run a 
great risk in so interfering 1 . 

Embezzlement # . — If any of the crew steal, or appro- 
priate, or by gross negligence suffer to be stolen, any part of 
the cargo, or anything belonging to the ship, they are re- 
sponsible for the value of everything stolen or appropriated. 

It is necessary that the fraud, connivance, or negli- 
gence of a seaman should be proved against him, before 
he can be charged with anything lost or stolen ; and in 
no case is an innocent man bound to contribute towards 
a loss occasioned by the misconduct of another. If, 
however, it is clearly proved that the whole crew were 
concerned, but one offender is not known more than 
another, and the circumstances are such as to affect all 
the crew, each man is to contribute to the loss, unless 
he clears himself from the suspicion 2 . 

Piracy t. — If the master or crew of a vessel shall, 
upon the high seas, seize upon or rob the master or crew of 
another vessel ; or if they shall run away with the vessel 
committed to their charge, or any goods to the amount 
of 50 dollars ; or voluntarily yield them up to pirates ; 

1 4 Mason, 105. 1 Sumner, 448. Pet. C. C. 118. 
* 1 Mason, 105. Gilpin, 461. 



* In England.] — Embezzlement. — If the cargo be embezzled 
by the fraud or negligence of the seamen, so that the merchant has a 
right to claim a satisfaction from the master and owners, they may, 
by the custom of merchants, deduct the value thereof from the wages 
of seamen by whose misconduct the injury has taken place ;-, and 
the last proviso introduced into the usual agreement signed by the 
seamen is calculated to enforce this rule in the case of embezzle- 
ment either of the cargo or of the ship's stores. This proviso is 
to be construed individually as affecting only the particular persons 
guilty of the embezzlement, and not the whole crew ; nor, as it 
seems, is any innocent person liable to contribute a portion of his 
wages to make good the loss occasioned by others. — See Abbot on 
Shipp., 6th edit., 584, 585, and cases there cited. 

f In England.] — Piracy. — See note, page 245. 



248 seamen's wages. 

or if the crew shall prevent the master hy violence from 
fighting in the defence of vessel or property ; such con- 
duct is piracy, and punishahle with death 1 . 

It is also piracy, and punishable with death, to be 
engaged in any foreign country and kidnapping any negro 
or mulatto, or in decoying or receiving them on board a 
vessel with the intention of making them slaves 2 . 



CHAPTER XL 



SEAMEN S WAGES. 

Affected by desertion or absence ; — by misconduct ; by imprisonment ; 
— by capture ; by loss of vessel and interruption of voyage. Wages 
on an illegal voyage. Wages affected by death or disability. 

Wages affected by Desertion or Absence *. — It 
has been seen that if a seaman, at the commencement of 

i Act 1790, ch. 36, § 8 ; 1820, cb. 113, § 3. 
2 Act 1820, ch. 113, § 4,5. 



* In England.] — Wages affected by Desertion or Absence. — 
See note to cap. 4, title "Shipment.'" — If any seaman, after having 
signed the ship's articles, or after the ship has left her first port of 
clearance, wilfully and without leave, absent himself from the ship, 
or his duty, he forfeits (in all cases not of absolute desertion, or not 
treated as such by the master,) out of his wages to the master or 
owner, the amount of two days' pay for every 24 hours of absence, 
and in a like proportion for any less period of time, or at the option 
of the master, the amount of such expenses as have been necessarily 
incurred in hiring a substitute to perform his work. 

If after the ship's arrival at her port of delivery, and before her 
cargo is discharged, any seaman quits the ship without a previous 
discharge or leave from the master, he forfeits to the master or 
owner one month's pay of his wages ; but no such forfeiture is 
incurred, unless the fact of such seaman's temporary absence, 
neglect of duty, or quitting the ship, be duly entered or recorded in 
the ship's log-book; and this entry must specify truly the hour of 
the day at which it occurred, and the period during which the sea- 
man was absent or neglected his duty, the truth of which entry, it 
shall be incumbent on the owner or master, in all cases of dispute, 



seamen's wages. 249 

the voyage, neglects to render himself on hoard at the 
time appointed, and an entry thereof is made in the 

to substantiate by the evidence of the mate, or some other credible 
witness. — 5 & 6 W. 4, c. 19, s. 7. 

It has been decided that this section of the act applies to the 
case of the quitting of a ship after her arrival in her port of delivery, 
but before the discharge of her cargo. — 4 M. & W. 285. 

If a seaman absolutely desert the ship, he forfeits to the owner 
or master all wages and emoluments to which he might otherwise 
have been entitled, and also the clothes and effects he may have 
left on board, provided the circumstances attending such desertion 
be entered in the log-book at the time, and certified by the signa- 
ture of the master, mate, or other credible witness ; and the 
absence of a seaman from the ship for any time within the space of 
24 hours immediately preceding the sailing of the ship, without 
permission of the master, or for any period, however short, under 
circumstances plainly showing an intention not to return, is to be 
deemed an absolute desertion. — 5 & 6 W. 4, c. 19, s. 9. 

It has also been determined that this section of the act applies to 
the case of the desertion of a ship whilst in foreign parts. — 4 M. & 
W. 285. 

A mode of ascertaining the amount of these forfeitures, where 
the seaman has contracted for the voyage or the run, is expressly 
provided by the act, s. 8. 

If a mariner quit the ship with leave of the master, and when 
ordered to return, refuses to do so, his wages are forfeited. — See 
Abbot on Shipp., 6th Edit. 578., and cases there cited. 

It has been already stated that' the entry into the service of her 
Majesty is not deemed a desertion, nor followed by the forfeiture 
of wages. But where a mariner quitted a vessel in defiance of the 
master, with opprobrious language, and without any declaration 
of such intention when he quitted the vessel, entered on board a 
King's ship within 24 hours, it was held to be a desertion, working 
a forfeiture of wages. — 2 Hagg. Ad. Rep., 403 ; Abbot on 
Shipp., 6th edit., 581. 

A forfeiture may be waived by the party entitled to take advan- 
tage of it. 2 Campb. 590, and 5 & 6 W. 4, c. 19, s. 7. But a 
forfeiture is not waived by the acceptance of a seaman's services 
whilst the ship is in distress, unless such acceptance be continued 
when the necessity for them has ceased. — 3 C. & P. 3. 

As regards the time of payment of wages. By the 5 & 6 W. 
4, c. 19, it is enacted that the master or owner shall pay to every 
seaman entering into such contract as aforesaid (i. e. the ship's 
articles), his wages, if the same shall be demanded, within the 
respective periods following ; that is to say, if the ship shall be 



250 seamen's wages. 

log- book, he forfeits one day's pay for every hour's absence; 
and if he shall wholly absent himself, so that the ship is 
obliged, to go to sea without him, he forfeits his advance 
and as much more l . And if at any time during the 
voyage he absents himself without leave, and returns 
within forty-eight hours, he forfeits three days' pay for 
every day's absence ; but if he is absent more than forty- 
eight hours, he forfeits all the wages then due to him, 
and all his clothes and goods on board at the time 2 . 

1 Act 1790, ch. 56, § 2.] 2 Do. § 4. 



employed in trading coastwise, the wages shall he paid within two 
days after the termination of the agreement, or at the time when 
the seaman shall he discharged, whichever shall first happen ; and 
in every other case the wages shall be paid at the latest within three 
days after the cargo shall have been delivered, or within ten days 
after the seaman's discharge, whichever shall first happen ; in which 
two cases of delayed payments, the seaman shall, at the time of his 
discharge, be entitled to be paid on account, one fourth part of the 
estimated balance due to him ; and if any master or owner shall 
neglect or refuse to make payment in the manner required, he shall 
for every such neglect or refusal forfeit to the seaman the amount 
of two days' pay, for each day, not exceeding ten days ; during 
which, payment shall, without sufficient cause, he delayed beyond 
the period prescribed, for the recovery of which forfeiture the seaman 
shall have the same remedies as he is entitled to for the recovery 
of the wages, s. 11. 

The preceding clause is not to extend to the case of ships em- 
ployed in the southern whale fishery, or on voyages for which 
seamen, by the terms of their agreement, are compensated by shares 
in the profit of the adventure. 

No assignment of wages, made prior to the earning of them, shall 
be valid or binding upon the party making it. 

If a seaman, after having been discharged three days, shall be 
desirous of proceeding to sea on another voyage, and in order thereto 
shall require immediate payment of the wages due to him, it shall 
be lawful for any justice of the peace, on his application, and on 
satisfactory proof that he would, by delay, be prevented from 
obtaining employment, to summon the master or owner before him, 
and if no satisfactory reason shall be assigned for further delay, such 
justice shall order payment to be made forthwith ; in default of 
compliance with which order, the master or owner shall forfeit 
£b. ; s. 14. 



seamen's wages. 251 

These forfeitures cannot be exacted against the seaman 
unless there is an entry made in the log-book on the 
same day that he left, specifying the name of *he sea- 
man, and that he was absent without leave 1 . 

But independently of these regulations, and without 
the necessity of any entry, &c, a seaman forfeits his 
wages for deserting the vessel, or absenting himself 
wrongfully and without leave, by the general law of all 
commercial nations 2 . If, however, the seaman is absent 
without fault of his own 3 , or if he is obliged to desert by 
reason of cruel treatment, want of food, or the like, he 
does not forfeit his wages. But in such case, the sea- 
man must prove that the treatment w r as such that he 
could not remain without imminent danger to his life, 
limbs, or health 4 . If the voyage for which he shipped 
has been abandoned, or there has been a gross and un- 
necessary deviation, he does not forfeit his wages for 
leaving the vessel ; but then the change of voyage must 
have been actually determined upon and known to the 
seaman 5 . 

Even if the seaman shall have clearly deserted with- 
out justifiable cause, or absented himself more than 
forty-eight hours, yet, if he shall offer to return and do 
his duty, the master must receive him, unless his pre- 
vious conduct would justify a discharge 6 . And if he is 
so received back, and does his duty faithfully for the rest 
of the voyage, the forfeiture is considered as remitted, 
and he is entitled to his w r ages for the whole voyage 7 . 
If, however, the owner has suffered any special damage 
from the wrongful absence of the seaman, as, if the ves- 
sel has been detained, or a man hired in his place, all 

i Gilpin, 83, 140, 207. Ware, 309. 2 Ware, 309. 

3 1 Mason, 45. Bee, 134, 48. Gilpin, 225. 
* 1 Pet. Ad. 186. Gilpin, 225. 2 Pet. Ad. 420, 428. Ware, 
83, 91, 109. 

5 Gilpin, 150. 2 Pet. Ad. 415. 6 1 S umne r, 373. 

7 2 Wash. 272. Gilpin, 145. 1 Sumner, 373. IPet.Ad. 160. 



252 seamen's wages: 

such necessary expenses may be deducted from the 
wages l . 

A mere leaving of the vessel, though a wrongful 
absence, is not a desertion, unless it is done with the inten- 
tion to desert 2 . A seaman is bound to load and unload 
cargo in the course of the voyage if required of him, and 
a refusal to do so is a refusal of duty 3 . If the voyage is 
at an end, according to the articles, and the vessel is 
safely moored at the port of discharge, the seamen are 
still bound to discharge the cargo if it is required of 
them. If they do not, their refusal or neglect does not, 
however, work a forfeiture of all their wages, but only 
makes them liable to a deduction, as compensation to the 
owner for any damage he may have suffered 4 . The 
custom in almost all sea -ports of the United States is, 
to discharge the crew, and not to require them to unload 
cargo at the end of the voyage. This custom is so strong, 
that if the owner or master wishes to retain the crew, he 
must give them notice to that effect. Unless the crew 
are distinctly told that they must remain and discharge 
cargo, they may leave the vessel as soon as she is safely 
moored, or made fast. If they are required to remain 
and discharge cargo, they make themselves liable to a 
deduction from their wages for a neglect or refusal, but 
do not forfeit them 5 . The seaman must bear in mind, 
however, that this is only when the voyage is at an end, 
and the ship is at the final port of discharge. If he re- 
fuses to load or unload at any port in the course of the 
voyage, and before it is up, according to the articles, he 
does so at the risk of forfeiting all his wages 6 . 

The master and owners of a vessel are allowed ten 
days after the voyage is up, before a suit can be brought 

1 Gilpin, 145, 298, 98. 2 1 Sumner, 373. Ware, 309. 

3 1 Pet. Ad. 253. 

4 1 Sumner, 373. Gilpin, 208. Ware, 454. 2 Hagg. 40. 
L * 1 Sumner, 373. Gilpin, 208. 6 1 Pet. Ad. 253. 



seamen's wages. 253 

against them for the wages of the crew *. This is in 
order to give them time to settle all accounts and discover 
delinquencies. If the crew are retained to unload, then 
the ten days begin to run from the time the vessel is 
completely unloaded. But if the crew are not retained 
for this purpose, but are discharged and allowed to 
leave the vessel, then the ten days begin to run from the 
day they are discharged 2 . 

Wages affected by Misconduct *. — A seaman may 
forfeit his wages by gross misconduct ; and if not for- 
feited, he may be liable to have a deduction made from 
them, for any damage caused to the owner by such mis- 
conduct. To create a forfeiture, his misbehaviour must 
be gross and aggravated 3 . A single act of disobedience, 
or a single neglect of duty, will not deprive him of his 
wages *. A refusal to do duty in a moment of high ex- 
citement caused by punishment will not forfeit wages, 
unless followed by obstinate perseverance in such refu- 
sal 5 . Where drunkenness is habitual and gross, so as to 
create a general incapacity to perform duty, it is aground 
of forfeiture of wages.. But occasional acts of drunken- 
ness, if the seaman in other respects performs his duty, 
will not deprive him of his wages 6 . In this, as in all 
cases of neglect, disobedience, or wilful misconduct, 



1 Act 1790, ch. 56, §6. 

2 1 Pet. Ad. 165, 210. Ware, 458. Darl. Ad. Pr. 99. 

3 4 Mason, 84. Bee, 148. 4 4 Mason, 84. 

b Do. 6 2 Hagg. 2. 4 Mason 541. 



* In England.] — Wages affected by Misconduct. — If any 
seaman, without sufficient cause, neglects to perform such duty as 
shall reasonably be required of him by the master or other person 
in command of the ship, he is subject to a like forfeiture, as in case 
of absence, in respect of every offence, and of every 24 hours' con- 
tinuance of it. — 5 & 6 W. 4., c. 19, 8. 7. 

Any cause which will justify the master in discharging a seaman 
during the vovage, will also deprive the seaman of his wages. — 
2 Rob. Ad. Rep., 261. 



254 seamen's wages. 

which do not create a forfeiture, a deduction may be 
made if the owner has suffered any loss *. 

In one instance a forfeiture of one-half of a seaman s 
wages was decreed, in consequence of his striking the 
master. He did not forfeit the whole, because he had 
been otherwise punished 2 . 

If the seaman is imprisoned for misconduct, he does 
not forfeit the wages that accrued during his confinement; 
nor, what amounts to the same thing, is he bound to 
pay those of a person hired in his place during his im- 
prisonment 2 . 

If the crime of a seaman is against the laws of the 
United States, and too great for the masters authority 
to punish, he must be confined and brought home to 
trial. But this does not forfeit his wages, though any 
loss or damage to the owner may be deducted 4 . 

In all cases of forfeiture of wages for misconduct, it is 
only the wages due at the time of the misconduct that 
are lost. The wages subsequently earned are not affect- 
ed by any previous misbehaviour 6 . 

If a seaman or officer is evidently incapable of doing 
the duty he shipped for, he may be put upon other 
duty, and a reasonable deduction may be made from 
his wages 6 . 

Wages affected by Imprisonment *. — If a seaman 



1 4 Mason, 541. 1 Sumner, 384. Bee, 237. 2 Hagg. 420. 
Gilpin, 150. 1 Pet. Ad. 168. 

2 Bee, 184. 3 Gilpin, 83, 140, 33. Ware, 9. 

4 1 Pet. Ad. 168. 5 4 Mason, 84. 6 Ware, 109. 



* In England."] — Wages affected by Imprisonment. — It is 
apprehended that if a seaman should do any act which would justify 
the master in ordering him to be imprisoned, such seaman could 
not recover wages for the time of his imprisonment ; but, on the 
contrary, would be answerable to the owners for any loss or damage 
they might sustain through his misconduct; and it would seem 
they might set off such loss or damage against a demand of wages. 
—2 Hagg. Ad. Rep., 243. 



SEAMEN f S WAGES. 255 

is imprisoned by a warrant from a judge or justice of the 
peace, within the limits of the United States, for deser- 
tion or refusal to render himself on board, he is liable to 
pay the cost of his commitment and support in jail, as 
well as the wages of any person hired in his place l . So, 
if a seaman is imprisoned in a foreign port by the autho- 
rities of the place for a breach of their laws, the costs and 
loss to the owner may be deducted from his wages ; but 
not so if he is imprisoned at the request of the master 2 . 
The right of the master to imprison at all is a doubtful 
one, and dangerous of exercise ; and if he does resort to 
it, he can never charge the expenses to the seamen, nor 
deduct their wages during imprisonment s . 

Wages affected by Capture. — If a neutral ship 
is captured, it is the right and duty of the seaman to 
remain by the vessel until the case is finally settled 4 . If 
she is liberated, they are then entitled to their wages for 
the whole voyage ; and if freight is decreed, they are 
entitled to their wages for as much of the voyage as 
freight is given 5 . And if at any future time the owners 

1 Gilpin, 223. 2 Gilpin, 223. 

3 Ware, 13, 503. Gilpin, 83, 233. 

4 2 Sumner, 443. 1 Pet. Ad. 128. 

5 2 Gall. 178. 2 Sumner, 443. 



* In England.] — Wages affected by Capture. — The payment 
of wages depends generally upon the successful termination of the 
voyage. If in the course of the voyage a total loss or capture of 
the ship takes place, the seamen lose their wages. — Abbott on 
Shipp., 6th edit., 571. 

It has heen held that the condemnation of a vessel for illegal 
trading on the part of the master, to which the mariners were not 
parties, does not work a forfeiture of wages, or har the mariner's 
action against the owners. — 2 Hagg, Ad. Rep., 158. 

The payment of wages is divisible, and if a ship has delivered its 
cargo at one place, the wages are so far due, although the ship be 
afterwards taken or sunk. But if a ship sail to one place, in order 
to take in a cargo there to be conveyed to another place, and having 
received the cargo accordingly, be taken before its arrival at the 
place of delivery, nothing is payable to the seamen for navigating 
the ship to the first place. — Abbott, 572. 



256 seamen's wages. 

recover the vessel, or her value, upon appeal or by treaty, 
they are liable for wages 1 . In order to secure his wages 
in these cases, the seamen must remain by the vessel 
until her sale or condemnation, and the master cannot 
oblige him to take his discharge 2 . The condemnation 
or sale of the vessel puts an end to his contract. If he 
leaves before the condemnation or sale, with the master's 
consent, he does not lose his chance of recovering his 
wages 3 . Even if the vessel is condemned, and the 
owner never recovers the vessel or its value, yet the 
seaman is entitled to his wages up to the last port of 
delivery, and for half the time she lay there 4 . 

Wages affected by Loss of Vessel or Inter- 
ruption of Voyage*. — If a vessel meets with a dis- 
aster, it is the duty of the crew to remain by her so long 
as they can do it with safety, and to exert themselves to 
the utmost of their ability to save as much as possible of 
the vessel and cargo h . If they abandon the vessel un- 

i 3 Mason, 161. 2 1 Mason, 45. 

3 1 Mason, 45. 4 1 Pet. Ad. 203. 

* Ware, 49. 1 Pet. 204. 



* In England.] — Wages affected by Loss of Vessel or In- 
terruption of Voyage. — See the last note. 

If a ship become disabled on the voyage, the seamen lose their 
wages. But if the ship has earned its freight, the seamen who 
have served on board the ship have in like manner earned their 
wages. 

And if a ship sails to several places, wages are payable to the 
time of the delivery of the last cargo. 

And where money is advanced to the owners in part of the 
freight outward, and the ship perishes before her arrival at the port 
of delivery, the seamen will be entitled to wages in proportion to 
the money advanced. — Abbott, 558. 

Wages are not lost by the hypothecation of the ship, nor even 
by the sale of it, unless the sale be made under the authority of 
a competent court ; nor by the ship being wrecked, if the seamen 
assist in saving from the wreck sufficient to pay them. — Abbott, 571. 

It is the duty of every mariner to exert himself to the utmost 
to sa ve as much as possible of the vessel and cargo ; and he is not 
entitled to any remuneration for such exertions beyond the wages 
stipulated to be paid to him. — 1 Hagg. Ad, Rep., 227. 



seamen's wages. 257 

necessarily, tliey forfeit all their wages ; and if their 
leaving was necessary and justifiable, yet they lose their 
wages except up to the last port of delivery and for half 
the time the vessel was lying there, or for so long as she 
was engaged with the outward cargo 1 . This rule may 
seem hard, but its object is to secure the services of the 
crew in case of a disaster. If by their exertions any 
parts of the vessel or cargo are saved, they are entitled 
to wages, and an extra sum for salvage 2 . If the vessel 
is abandoned and nothing is saved, they lose their wages, 
except up to the last port of delivery and for half the time 
the vessel was lying there 3 . 

The general rule is, that a seaman's wages are secure 
to him whenever the vessel has earned any freight, 
whatever may afterwards happen. And a vessel earns 
freight at every port where she delivers any cargo. For 
the benefit of seamen a vessel is held to earn freight 
whenever she goes to a port under a contract for freight, 
though she .go in ballast 4 . A seaman also secures his 
wages wherever the ship might have earned freight but 
for the agreement or other act of the owner 5 . If a vessel 
is on a trading voyage from port to port, and is lost on 
the homeward passage, wages would probably be allowed 
for the outward passage, and for half the time she was 
engaged in trading with the old or new cargoes ; the 
trading and going from port to port being considered the 
same as though she had been tying in port all the time, 
and discharging and receiving cargo. Or else, wages 
would be given up to the last port at which she took in 
any return cargo, and for half the time she was lying 
there 6 . 

These rules apply only to cases where the voyage is 

1 Pet. C. C. 182. 3 Sumner, 286. 

2 Ware, 49. Gilpin, 79. 2 Mason, 319. 1 Hagg. 227. 

3 2 Mason, 329. 1 Pet. Ad. 204, 130 ; 2 do. 391. 11 
Mass. 545. 4 2 Mason, 319. I Pet. Ad. 207. 

5 3 Sumner, 286. 2 Mason, 319. 2 Hagg. 158. 
« Pet. C. C. 182. 2 Pet. Ad. 390. 



« Pet. C. < 



258 seamen's wages. 

broken up by inevitable accidents, as by perils of the 
seas, capture, war, or superior force. If the voyage is 
broken up by the fault of the seamen, they lose all their 
wages. If, on the other hand, the seamen are com- 
pelled to leave, or the voyage is broken up by the fault 
of the master or owner, as by cruel treatment, want of 
provisions, or the like, the crew would be justly entitled 
to wages for the whole voyage contracted for. If the 
vessel is sold, or the voyage altered or abandoned by the 
master or owner, not from inevitable necessity, but for 
their own interest and convenience, then the crew are 
entitled, by statute, to wages for all the time they were 
on board, and two months' extra pay 1 . And, by the 
general law, they would always receive some extra 
wages as a compensation for the loss of the voyage, and 
as a means of supporting themselves and procuring a 
passage home; or, perhaps, full wages for the voyage 2 . 

Wages on an Illegal Voyage *. — A seaman has 
no remedy for his wages upon an illegal voyage ; as, for 
instance, in the slave trade 3 . Wages have, however, 
been allowed where it was proved that the seaman was 
innocent of all knowledge of, or participation in, the 
illegal voyage 4 . 

Wages affected by Death or Disability *. — If 
a seaman dies during the voyage, wages are to be paid 
up to the time of his death 5 . A seaman is entitled to all 
his wages during sickness, and during any time he was 
disabled from performing duty. But if his sickness or 
disability is brought on by his own fault, as by vice or 
wilful misconduct, a deduction may be made for the 



' Act 1803, ch. 62, § 3. 

8 2 Pet. Ad. 264. Bee, 48. 2 Gall, 182. 3 Johns. R. 518. 
* 9 Wheat. 409. 6 Rob. 207. 2 Mason, 58. Edw. 35. 
4 9 Wheat. 409. 5 Bee, 254, 441. 



* In England.] — Wages on an Illegal Voyage. — Wages 
affected by Death or Disability. — The observations under these 
respective heads are applicable to British vessels. 



SEAMEN. 259 

loss of his services 1 . So where the death of a seaman 
was caused by his own unjustifiable and wrongful acts, 
his wages were held forfeited 2 . If a seaman, at the time 
he ships, is labouring under a disease which incapacitates, 
or is likely to incapacitate, him during the voyage, and 
he conceals the same, no wages will be allowed him, or 
a deduction will be made from them, according to the 
nature of the case 3 . If, in consequence of sickness, a 
seaman is left at a foreign port, he is still entitled to 
wages for the whole voyage 4 . 



CHAPTER XII. 



SEAMEN CONCLUDED. 

Recovery of wages. Interest on wages. Salvage. 

Recovery of Wages*. — A seaman has a threefold 
remedy for his wages — first, against the master ; secondly, 

i 1 Pet. Ad. 142,138. 2 Do. 142. 

3 2 Pet. Ad. 263. 4 Bee, 414. 2 Gall. 46. 1 Pet. 117. 



* In England.] Recovery of Wages. — As regards wages not 
exceeding 20/., it is provided by the act 5 & 6 W. 4, c. 19, that 
it shall be lawful for any justice of the peace residing near to the 
place where the ship shall have ended her voyage, cleared at the 
Custom House, or discharged her cargo, or near to the place of 
residence of the master or owner, upon complaint on oath by the 
seaman, or on his behalf, to summon the master or owner before 
him, and to examine upon the oath of the parties, and of their wit- 
nesses (if any), touching the complaint and the amount of wages 
due, and to make order for payment as shall appear to him to be 
reasonable and just ; and that in case such order shall not be obeyed 
within two days after the making, such justice may issue his war- 
rant to levy the amount awarded, and all expenses, by distress and 
sale of the goods of the party upon whom the order shall have been 
made ; and if sufficient distress cannot be found, may cause the 
amount to be levied upon the ship and furniture ; and if they be 
not within his jurisdiction, may cause the party upon whom the 
order shall be made to be apprehended and committed to gaol, un- 



2(30 SEAMEN. 

against the owners ; and thirdly, against the ship itself 
and the freight earned 1 . He may pursue any one of 
these, or he may pursue them all at the same time in 
courts of admiralty. He has what is called a lien upon 
the ship for his wages ; that is, he has a right at any 
time to seize the vessel hy a process of law,- and retain 
it until his claim is paid, or otherwise decided upon by 
the court. This lien does not cease upon the sailing of 
the ship on another voyage ; and the vessel may be 
taken, notwithstanding there is a new master and dif- 
ferent owners 2 . A seaman does not lose his lien upon 

1 Bee, 254. 2 Sumner, 443. 2 Gall. 398. 

2 2 Sumner, 443. 5 Pet. R. 675. 



til the amount, with all costs, shall be paid ; which award and deci- 
sion is to be final and conclusive on both parties, s. 15. 

And in order to enforce the adoption of this remedy, it is by a 
subsequent clause enacted, that if any suit for wages instituted in 
an Admiralty Court, or in any Court of Record in the British do- 
minions, it shall appear to the judge that the plaintiff might have 
had an effectual remedy by the mode above prescribed, the judge 
is to certify accordingly ; and thereupon no costs of suit are to be 
awarded to the plaintiff, s. 16. 

The burthen of producing the written contract in cases of dispute 
with the mariners, is cast on the master and owners, s. 5. 

All suits and actions brought in the Court of Admiralty for sea- 
men's wages, must be commenced within six years next after the 
wages become due, unless the party entitled to sue shall at that time 
be under the age of twenty-one years, a feme covert, non compos 
mentis, or imprisoned, or unless such party, or the party sued, 
shall be at that time beyond the seas, in which cases the suit may 
be brought within six years after the party suing shall be of full 
age, discovert, of sane memory, or at large ; or either the party 
suing, or the party sued, shall return from beyond the seas. — 4 
Anne,c. 16, ss. 17, 18, and 19. 

And actions in the courts of common law are also limited to the 
same period of six years with the same provisoes, unless they are 
founded on a contract under seal ; if they are founded on such a 
contract, the statutable limitation does not apply to them; but after 
a lapse of twenty years, the claims will be presumed to have been 
satisfied without any proof of payment. — Abbott, 595. 

As to the time of wages becoming due, see the note to chap. xi. ? 
page 249. 



SEAMEN. 261 

the ship by lapse of time. He may take the ship when- 
ever he finds her ; though he must not allow a long time 
to elapse, if he has had any opportunity of enforcing his 
claim, lest it should be considered a stale demand. In 
common law courts a suit cannot be brought for wages 
after six years have expired since they became due. This 
is not the case in courts of admiralty 1 . 

The lien of the seaman for wages takes precedence of 
every other lien or claim upon the vessel 2 . The sea- 
men's wages must be first paid, even if they take up the 
whole value of the ship or freight. The wreck of a ship 
is bound for the wages; and the rule in admiralty is, that 
a seaman's claim on the ship is good so long as there is 
a plank of her left 3 . If, after capture and condemna- 
tion, the ship itself is not restored, but the owners are 
indemnified in money, the seaman's lien attaches to such 
proceeds 4 . Besides this lien upon the ship, the seaman 
has also a lien upon the freight earned, and upon the 
cargo 5 . He may also sue the owner or master, or both, 
personally. They are, however, answerable personally 
only for the wages earned while the ship was in their 
own hands 6 . But a suit may be brought against the 
ship after she has changed owners 7 . 

A seaman does not lose his lien upon the vessel by 
taking an order upon the owner 8 . 

After a vessel is abandoned to the underwriters, they 
become liable for the seamen's wages, from the time of 
the abandonment 9 . 

If at the end of the voyage the crew are discharged 
and not retained to unload, their wages are due imme- 
diately 10 ; but J;hey cannot sue in admiralty until ten 

1 2 Gall. 477. Paine C. C. 180. 3 Mason, 91. 

2 Ware, 134, 41. 3 3 Sumner, 50. 1 Ware, 41. 
* 5 Pet. R. 675. 5 Ware, 134. 5 Pet. R. 675. 

6 11 Johns. 72. 6 Mass. 300 ; 8 do. 483. 

7 5 pet. R. 675. 2 Sumner, 443. 

8 Ware, 185. 9 4 Mason, 196. 
Ware, 458. Dunl. Ad. Pr. 99. 1 Pet. Ad. 165, 210. 



" ware, 
10 Ware, 



262 SEAMEN. 

days after the day of discharge 1 . If they are retained 
to unload, then the owner is allowed ten days from the 
time the cargo is fully discharged. If, however, the 
vessel is about to proceed to sea before the ten days will 
elapse, or before the cargo will be unloaded, the seaman 
may attach the vessel immediately 2 . If the owner retains 
his crew while the cargo is unloading, he must unload 
it within a reasonable time. Fifteen working days has 
frequently been held a reasonable time for unloading, 
and the ten days have been allowed to run from that 
time 3 . 

The longest time allowed by law for unloading vessels 
is twenty days if over 300 tons, and ten days if under 
that tonnage. Probably seamen would not be held bound 
to the vessel for a longer time than is thus allowed 
by law for unloading. 

Interest on Wages*. — In suits for seamen's wages, 
interest is allowed from the time of the demand ; and 
if no demand is proved, then from the time of the 
commencement of the suit 4 . 

Salvage t. — If a vessel is picked up at sea aban- 

1 Act 1790, ch. 56, §6. 2 Do. 

3 1 Pet. Ad. 165. Abb. Shipp. 456, n. 

4 2 Gall. 45. 

* In England.] Interest on Wages. — It has been already 
stated, that if the master or owner shall neglect or refuse to pay the 
seaman his wages when due, he becomes liable to forfeit to such 
seaman the amount of two days' pay for each day not exceeding ten 
days during which payment shall without sufficient cause be de- 
layed, c. 11; see note to c. 11, p. 250. 

If the seaman wishes to entitle himself to interest upon his 
wages, he should give a written notice to the master or owner, of 
his intention to claim such interest if his wages be not paid within 
a given period. 

f In England.] Salvage. — The crew of a British vessel can- 
not claim as salvors or joint-salvors in respect of services performed 
on board their own vessel, not even in the case of shipwreck. — 1 
Hag. Ad. Rep., 227. 

For further information on this subject, the reader is referred to 
Abbott on Shipp., 6th edit., title " Salvage." 



SEAMEN. 263 

doned, or in distress, and any of the crew of the vessel 
which falls in with her go on board, and are the means 
of saving her, or of bringing her into port, they are 
entitled to salvage 1 . In this case all the crew who are 
ready and willing to engage in the service are entitled 
to a share of the reward, although they may not have 
gone on board the wreck 2 . The reason is, that where all 
are ready to go, and a selection is made, there would be 
injustice and favouritism in allowing any one the pri- 
vilege more than another. Besides, those who remain 
have an extra duty to perform, in consequence of the 
others having gone on board the wreck 3 . 

Crews are not ordinarily entitled to salvage for ser- 
vices performed on board their own vessel, whatever may 
have been their perils or hardships, or the gallantry of 
their services in saving ship and cargo 4 ; for some degree 
of extra exertion to meet perils and accidents, is within 
the scope of a seaman's duty. In case of shipwreck, 
however, where, by the general law, wages are forfeited, 
the court will allow salvage, considering it as in the 
nature of wages due. In one instance salvage was re- 
fused to a part of a crew who rescued the ship from the 
rest who had mutinied ; for this was held to be no more 
than their duty 5 . 

Yet seamen may entitle themselves to salvage for ser- 
vices performed on board their own vessel, if clearly 
beyond the line of their regular duty ; as, when the 
crew rise and rescue the vessel from the enemy after she 
has been taken G . So, where a ship was abandoned at 
sea, and one or two men voluntarily remained behind, 
and by great exertions brought her into port 7 . If an 
apprentice is a salvor, he and not his master, is entitled 
to the salvage 8 . If one set of men go on board a wreck, 

1 Ware, 477. 1 Pet. Ad. 306. 

2 Ware, 477. 2 Pet. Ad. 281. 3 2 Dodson, 132. 

4 10 Pet. R. 108. 1 Hagg. 227. 

5 2 Dods. 14. 6 1 Pet. Ad. 306. 

7 2 Cr. 240. 1 Pet. Ad. 48. 8 2 Cr. 240. 2 Pet. Ad. 282. 



264 SEAMEN. 

but fall into distress and are relieved by others, they do 
not lose their claim for salvage, but each set of salvors 
shares according to the merit of its services. If the 
second set take advantage of the necessity and distress of 
the first salvors'to impose terms upon them, as, that they 
shall give up all claim for salvage, such conditions will 
not be regarded by the court l . 

1 1 Sumner, 400. 



THE END. 



LONDON : 
BUAOBURY ANO EVANS, PK1NTERS, WHITEFRIARS. 






mi