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C Ai.i.iTHAMxrox v.i-:hsicoj.oi<, J 
^ 'ami r HAM MOV ni-ri- uomoim-m r 















Professor of Botany 

IN THE Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 

Troy, New York; 

in the name of a long and true Friendship; 

AND IN appreciative RECOGNITION 

OF A Naturalist, 











*31 AVAIL myself of the last opportunity which I 
^—^ shall have for a word with my readers to add 
a point or two to what will be found on /. 4, et seq., 
of the " Introduction," concerning the method of this 
book. I have attempted to make a book which 
should be a real and helpful guide to those, who, 
though not expert botanists, and not having, or using, 
any aids to a good pair of eyes other than a simple 
pocket magnifier, desire to begin the collection and 
study of marine plants. I have been obliged, there- 
fore, to resort to many devices for making the novitiate 
see for the first time in these plants what is so 

viii. PRE FA CE. 

obvious to the practiced eye of the experienced col- 

Among these is the particular thing which I wish 
to direct attention to here, viz. : the disarrangement 
of the species in the genera. It will be observed 
that while the genera have been arranged in their 
proper natural order, the species are often grouped 
in the text quite otherwise. The reason is, I have 
taken those species, in genera which contain several 
for treatment first, which, on account of their common- 
ness, or peculiar habitat or appearance, could be most 
easily and certainly identified. From these I have 
proceeded step by step to the more difficult plants. 

Then again I have often found it convenient to 
group certain species together for the advantage of 
comparison in the description which do not always 
naturally belong together. » You will therefore under- 
stand that, while the orders and genera follow their 
natural grouping, in the text, the species in the 
genera cannot be depended upon to do so, in most 

I must add a single remark further on this general 
subject. While the several sub-classes, the Green, 


Olive Colored, and Red Algae, are grouped in the 
ascending natural order, in the text, the orders and 
genera in each of them are arranged and treated in 
exactly the opposite order, the first being the most 
highly, and the last the most simply, organized genus 
in each sub-class. 

I must take this occasion to express my large 
indebtedness to several fellow students of Algae, for 
help in making ready the material for this book. 
To the published notes, the private correspondence, 
and personal assistance of Dr. Wm. G. Farlow of 
Harvard University, I am under very many obliga- 
tions. I can only regret, for my readers' and my 
book's sake, that I could not avail myself of all the 
new knowledge contained in his Manual of New 
England Algae, which is now long overdue from the 
Government Press. 

Prof. Daniel C. Eaton, of Yale College, has been 
ever kind, obliging, and painstaking, allowing me to 
draw without stint upon his ample store of know- 
ledge, and his well-furnished herbarium. 

Mr. Frank S. Collins, of Maiden, whose acquaintance 
with the marine flora of Massachusetts Bay is both 


extensive and accurate ; Mrs. Maria H. Bray, oi 
Magnolia, and Mrs. Abbie L. Davis, of Gloncester, 
who have long been known as careful students and 
industrious collectors about the rocky and fertile 
shores of Cape Ann; and Miss M. A. Booth, of Long 
Meadow, who has spent several summers of profit- 
able collecting on the east end of Long Island, have 
each kindly made out for me lists of the plants 
which they have collected in their several localities, 
together with notes of their special habitat, season of 
growth, and frequency of appearance. 

Dr. C. L. Anderson, of Santa Cruz, Cal., Dr. N. 
L. Dimmick and Mrs. R. F. Bingham, of Santa Barbara, 
and Mr. Daniel Cleveland, of San Diego, ail well- 
known collectors and Algologists, have very obligingly 
dene the same thing for the plants of their several 
localities on the Pacific coast. In addition to that, 
they have sent, me many valuable typical specimens 
from the rich and extremely interesting flora of that 

Nor can I forget the generous assistance which 
for years past I have received from that veteran col- 
lector in New York waters, Mr. A. R. Young, of 

PREFA CE. xi. 

btcroklyn. I have the memory of many delightful 
excursions about the shores of New York Bay in. 
company with him, who knows so well when and 
where all the finer and rarer plants are to be had. 
I am permitted to quote him all too seldom in these 
pages because the light has been shut out — let 
us hope only temporarily — from those eyes which 
were ever so keen to detect, and so appreciative in 
recognition of, the rare beauties of these humble, 
but exquisite forms. 

If this book shall be of any sei-vice to any in 
opening the way to a knowledge of this department 
of Botany, or shall contribute anything to the pleasures 
of summer life by the Sea-side, no small part of the 
merit must be accorded to our enterprising publisher, 
Mr. S. E. Cassino, at whose urgent solicitation the 
work was undertaken, and who has spared no pains 
or expense to make it as valuable and acceptable 
as possible. 

The plates for this volume are engraved from 
photographs of specimens in my herbarium. In out- 
line and color, therefore, they represent real plants. 

It is with no small degree of soHcitude that I send 

xii. PREFACE. 

forth this little book upon its mission. The best wish 
I can have for it is that it may impart to its readers 
a tithe of the pleasure its preparation has given to 
its author. I may, perhaps, be allowed to hope, that 
it shall communicate some interesting knowledge to 
many inquirers, and awaken in many appreciative 
minds an intelligent admiration for this part of Nature's 
wondrous handiwork. 


Taunton, Massachusetts, 
May\ isi, 1881. 








































Bryopsis plumosa. 
Ulva latissima, var. Linza. 
Cladophora arcta. 
ectocarpus viridis. 
Dasya elegans. 

Rhodomela SUBFUSCA. 
Delesseria sinuosa. 


Lomentaria Baileyana. 
Grinnellia Americana. 
Gelidium corneum. 
Euthora cristata. 
Plocamium coccineum. 
Callophyllis variegata. 
Ptilota plumosa. 
Callithamnion versicolor. 
Callithamnion heteromorphum. 
Callithamnion corymbosum. 
Ceramium fastigiatum. 
Callithamnion Americanum. 




Preface vii. 



The Sea; its Voices and its Flowers, i — 3. The 
Plan and Purpose of this Book, 4 — 6. 
Scientific Names for " Sea Mosses," 6 — 9. 
Geogr-'Vphical Distribution, 9 — 12. Classifica- 
tion, 12 — 13. Times and Places for Collect- 
ing, 13 — 17. Collecting Apparatus, 17 — 18. 
Mounting and Preserving, 19 — 31. Methods of 
Study, 31 — t^6. Clubs and Classes, 2>^ — 2>^. 
History, 39 — 45- 



Key to Genera, 46. Orders: Siphonie/e, 47. Zoo- 
SPOREiE, 49. 




Key • TO THE Genera of the Atlantic Coast, 67. 
Key to the Genera of the Pacific Coast, 
70. Orders : Dictyote^e, 73. Fucace^, 74. 
Ph^ospore.^, 82. Sub-Orders: Lajminarie^e, 82. 
Sporochne^, 100. Asperococce^, 1 01. Chor- 


no. Ectocarpe^, 112. Dictyosiphonie^, 116. 


tosiphone/e, 123. 



Key to the Gener.^ of the Atlantic Coast, 125. 
Key to the Genera of the Pacific Coast, 130. 
Sub-Class: Floridie^, 135. Orders: Rhodo- 
MELE^, 138. Chylocladie/e, 1 6 7. SpH/EROCOC- 
coiDE^, 168. Corallines, 183. Gelidie/e, 185. 
Hypnes, 188. Rhodymenie/e, 189. Spongio- 


233. Spyridie/E, 234. Ceramies, 236. 

Glossary 273 

Index of Genera and Species 277 

I baard, or seemed to hear, the chiding Sea 
Say, Pilgrim, why so late and slow to come? 
Am I not always here, thy summer home? 
Is not mj' voice thy music, morn and eve? 
My breath thy healthful climate in the heats. 
My tr>uch thy antidote, my bay thy bath? 

Behol 1 the Sea, 
The opaline, the plentiful and strong, 
Vet beautiful as is the rose in June ; 
Creating a sweet climate by my breath, 
Waih ng out harms and griefs from memory 
And, in my mathematic ebb and flow, 
Giving a hint of that which changes not. 
I with my hammer, pounding evermore 
The rocky coast, smite Andes into dust, 
Strewing my bed, and, in another age. 
Rebuild a continent of better men. 
Then I unbar the doors: my paths lead out 
The exodus of nations; I disperse 
Men to all shores that front the hoary main. 




On the surface, foam and roar. 
Restless b«tav* Tifd passionate QaMh ) 

Shingle ratii« along the snoic. 
Gathering boom anti thundering crash. 

♦ * # 

Under the surface, loveliest fomis, 
Feathery fronds with crimson curl, 
Treasures iaw deep for the raid fit stormft. 
Delicate coral ax:d hiddei! pearL 




There is a pleasure in the pathless woods, 

There is a rapture on the lonely shore, 

There is society where none intrudes, 

By the deep sea, and music in its roar. 

I love not man the less, but nature more, 

From these our inteviews, in which I steal 

From all I may be, or have been before. 

To mingle with the universe, and feel 

What I can ne'er express, yet cannot all conceal. 


HO does not love the sea ! For every mood 
of the mind, with some one of its thousand 
voices it speaks some answering tone. Those who 
dwell within the sound of its surf, or those who 
habitually seek its presence for inspiration of soul, or 
for rest and health of body, learn to love it for its own 
sake and for its sweet and comforting companionship. 
t know what those feel who are content to sit for hours 

N. C. State College 


beside the sounding sea, and watch the incoming and 
outgoing tides, as 

"The nightmared ocean murmurs and yearns, 
Welters and swashes, and tosses and turns, 
And the dreary black seaweed lolls and wags; " 

or listen Hstless to the beating of the sleepless waves. 
as they go tumbling among the rocks, 

" With sobs in tlie rifts where the coarse kelp shifts, 
Falling and lifting, tossing and drifting, 
And under all a deep, dull roar. 
Dying and swelling for evermore; " 

or send their thoughts wandering around the world, 
cruising on every shore, with that white sail yonder 
which just now slid down behind the edge of the sky. 

Somehow, one cannot look upon the wide blue sea, 
and listen to its rythmic beating, without feeling 
that in some true sense he is looking into Nature's 
soul, and hearing her great heart beat. For true it 
is, the mighty voice of Old Ocean plays a low melodious 
accompaniment to all the deepest thoughts that stir in 
the human heart, and makes the soul feel its eternal 
kinship with all the great forms and forces of the 

But, there is another pleasure which " this great 
and wide sea " can give us, besides that which she 
offers to our fancy and our dreams. It is the con- 
templation and study of the exquisitely beautiful flora 
which she nurtures in her ample waters. When \'oii 


know the sea and its flowers, you will know that she 
has almost a mother's love and tenderness for them. 
It may seem to you a dumb, rude, bungling sort of 
affection, perhaps, for you will notice that she often 
leaves some delicate and charming flowers, far up on 
the hot sand or stones of the beach, all careless if 
they live or die. But you will also see that she is sure 
to come back to them again by and by. But, in the 
sea, where they live and grow, they have her constant 
offices of care and nurture. These most fragile fronded 
plants, whose silky branches are as fine as the thinnest 
cobweb, are handled and tended so gently, that not a 
fibre is broken or a cell misplaced in the midst of 
pounding waves, which, with a single blow would crush 
an iron ship to atoms. The boisterous sea is their 
home, and though it may seem rough and rude to 
us, it is never ungentle to them. 

If you come to know these plants, the beauty, deli- 
cacy, and grace of them, and their names, habits, and 
history, I am sure the sea will have an added charm 
for you. From every shore you visit you will carry 
away your hands full of them. x\nd these garlands, in 
after years, will not only minister to your love of the 
beautiful, but they will also recall the blessed hours 
spent by the sea, and repeat in your heart again the 
joy of its mighty presence. 


In this little book I shall attempt to make you 
acquainted with what I have, these many years, found 
to be as interesting as they are beautiful. I undertake 
the work {:(?n amore. I remember how much I 
needed some convenient and competent guide when 
first I wanted to enter this field of knowledge and 
delight, and asked in vain for it. I have many friends 
who often go down by the breezy margin of Old 
Ocean. With this book I want to make them ac- 
quinted with some delightful friends of mine who will 
be there before them, I have spent many hours of 
rare pleasure in collecting, mounting, and studying, 
these simpler forms of Nature's handiwork. I greatly 
desire to share this delight with the multitude of in- 
telligent people who spend weeks and months by the 
sea side yearly, and the not less intelligent multitude 
who make their homes within sound of its waves. 

The work is written for beginners only, and not 
for advanced students and specialists in this department 
of Cryptogamic botany. I am ambitious for my book 
that it may be just a " Porter " to stand at the gate of 
this wondrous garden of the sea, and open for those 
who come and knock. There was no such book to do 
this in my day, so I had to " climb up some other 
v/ay." There were indeed the three ponderous quartos 
of Harvey, and two or three little manuals of English 


Algae, to be found in the American market. But neither 
served the needs, at once, of a beginner, and of a sea side 
rambler upon American shores. I said just now, " for 
those who come and knock." The '' Porter " opens the 
door only to such in any garden of delight, or palace of 
good. There must be interest enough to lead one to 
ask admittance. If you want to go in and see what 
is growing in this strange world under the sea, you 
have only to come and knock, and heed what the 
"Porter" says to you at the gate, and you may go in, 
and wander far and wide amid the beauties of this 
charming flora. 

To begin with, then, I must assume that you are 
willing to put a litde earnest work into this study. 
What you achieve with some cost, you will enjoy 
with more zest. But I shall attempt so to present the 
matter as to call for the least possible labor in 
attaining the best results. The descriptions of the 
plants, will, as far as possible, be confined to those 
points of appearance etc. which can be seen with the 
unaided eye, or at least with the help of a simple 
l^ocket lens. Especial attention will be given to point- 
ing out the particular kind of place where each plant 
naturally grows, and the season of the year when 
it may be found most abundantly, so that you will 
be able to search intelligently for it, and be all the 

more likely to know it when you see it for the first 
time. In making descriptions of the plants. I shall 
make use of technical terms only when common 
terms cannot be found to answer ; or when, without 
the technical words, I should have to make circumlocu- 
tions which would be burdensome both to you and 
to me. The few words of this kind which I shall be 
obliged to use, and which are not defined in the 
dictionary, will be found in a Glossary at the end of 
this volume. 

I am aware that there is a popular prejudice 
against the use of any other than the common names 
for plants and animals. People think it is an affecta- 
tion of learning, a very silly pedantry, for these 
naturalists to go about and speak of the birds and 
flowers and ferns, and call them by such outlandish 
"jaw -breaking " names, as they do. But I must 
bespeak your favor, to put away this prejudice, at least 
in respect to the "Sea Mosses." If you study these 
plants at all scientifically, you will be obliged to learn 
their scientific names, and, for the best of all reasons, 
because almost all of them have no other. A few like 
the "Dulse," Rhodymenia pabnata ; " Rockweed," 
Fucus nodosus and F. vesiculosiLS ; "Irish Moss," 
Chondrics crispus ; and " Devil's Aprons " or " Kelp " 
Laminaria ; have common or popular names. Eut 


the people who have Hved by the sea, have, as a 
genera] thing, cared very little for the "Sea 
Weeds," and have deigned to give names to but a 
few of them. So it has been left to the botanist to 
christen them from his Greek and Latin vocabulary. 
For each plant he has provided two names, a "sur- 
name," and a "given name." The former answers 
to the name of the genus, and is the family name ; 
and the latter is the individual name, or the name 
of the species. But he writes it with the generic or 
family name first, and the " given name " last. In 
his usage it is "Smith John," not "John Smith," as 
in common parlance. Thus Rhodymenia palmata 
and R. corallina, may be considered sisters, the first 
being the family name, and the last two the " given 
names " by which they are known in the family circle. 
Do not be discouraged on account of these hard look- 
ing names. They are no harder to remember, or to 
pronounce, than the names of your personal friends, 
Mrs. Eliza Watson Thompson or Mr. George Washing- 
ton Jones. When from affectionate interest and ac- 
quaintance, you are able to number these beautiful 
creations of Nature among your friends, you will find 
it perhaps easier to recall their names, than those of 
your more fashionable acquaintances. For you will 
find that these names mean something as a personal 


description, which is more than can be said of most 
human patronymics. The names of plants are mostly 
terms descriptive of some notable fact in their appear- 
ance, habit, . structure, place of growth, or fruiting. 
The significance of the names will, as far as possible' 
be indicated as we come to them. 

Before passing from this point, I must not forget 
to say, that you may be intelligently interested in 
these charming plants ; be an admirer of their brilliant 
and varied . colors, their graceful outlines, and their 
slender and delicate forms; may, perhaps, be an en- 
thusiastic collector of them, and more deeply in love 
with them than many " marble hearted " botanists are, 
and yet, never care anything at all about a scientific 
knowledge of them, or give them a single hour's scien- 
tific study. Scores of people have for years gathered 
these " flowers of the sea," and arranged them on 
cards, and mounted them in books and albums, who 
never knew them other than as "Sea Mosses," 
and never cared to. You may do the same if you 
choose. In that case you will find this introductory 
chapter all the guide you will need. If you have not 
time or inclination to study them, do not neglect them 
on that account. To the taste that appreciates the 
beautiful in form or color, they are an endless source 
of pleasure, and a sure means of cultivation. The 


plants of the sea greatly surpass all others in the 
perfection with which they retain their original beauty 
when dried and preserved in the herbarium. Indeed, 
some of them are more beautiful so, if possible, than 
when seen in their native element. Their artistic value 
will not be impaired by any lack of scientific knowledge 
on your part. And yet I must assure you that a more 
particular acquaintance with them will abundantly 
repay all your labor by giving you a more intelligent 
interest in them. And it will make you a better col- 
lector, even for the mere beauty's sake, to know the 
habits, homes, and seasons of these beautiful creations. 


You will find it an important help, in many cases, 
to pay attention to the geographical distribution of 
the species, so as not to look for what you cannot 
find in given localities, and to search only for what 
may reasonably be expected to grow there. 

Our eastern coast is distinguished by two quite 
well marked floras. That long reach of land which 
projects itself so far into the sea, known as Cape Cod, 
marks the division between the two. It is probable 
that in former times, more than now even, that has 
prevented the waters of the great arctic and equatorial 
currents from mingling, and so has maintained a 


marked difference in temperature, in the two regions. 
At all events the floras of the t\vo regions have im- 
portant differences, whatever the cause. I do not mean 
by this that no considerable number of species 
extend over the whole region, north and south of 
Cape Cod. But I mean that a considerable number, 
enough to make a distinct feature of the flora, do 
not extend either way beyond that barrier. To state 
it broadly, we may say that the plants growing north 
of Cape Cod are essentially arctic, and agree pretty 
well with the species found on the extreme northern 
coasts of Europe, and in Spitsbergen and Nova Zembla. 
In a small collection of some twenty species received 
from these polar islands, I find all but one or two of 
them such as I have collected at Marblehead. The 
individual plants, too, have a striking resemblance to 
those growing along our northern shores. The north- 
ern flora is distinguished by an abundance of plants of 
the species Euthora crismta, Ptilota plumosa, Var. 
serrata." Ceramiiun Deslongchampsii, Gigarthia mam- 
il/osa^ Halosaccion 7-ame7itaceum, Fucus f ureal us, 
Aganim Turneri, Laminaria longicruris, Alaria 
esculenta, etc. 

The flora south of Cape Cod is that of the warmer 
or temperate seas, and is distinguished by the presence 
of such forms as the " Gulf weed/' Sargassum vulgarc, 


Dasya eiegans, the several species of the Chondriopsis, 
the Grinnellia Americajia, Rhabdonia tenera, Hypnea 
muscifor?fiis, Champia parvicla, Lomentaria Bai- 
leyana, Spyridia filainentosa, Collitha7nnion Baileyi 
and many others. I suppose, perhaps, that from one 
quarter to one-third of the species of each region do 
not extend into the other, or, if they do at all, then 
as rarities. I will note the geographical range of 
each species as I describe it. There seem to be 
no such differences in the flora of different parts of 
California. It is likely that nearly all the plants that 
could be found at San Francisco or Santa Cruz, could 
also be found at San Diego and Santa Barbara, a few 
rarities only excepted. It will be observed that this 
book undertakes to give an account only of the marine 
flora of California on the west coast, and of New York 
and New England on the east; though, it may be 
added, that this will make it practically applicable to 
all the coast north of the Carolinas on the one side, 
and to Vancouver Island on the other. I may also 
add that I have included only common plants, such 
as the beginner would be certain to meet with in his sea 
side excursions; and I believe I have included nearly 
all of these on our eastern shores. I cannot say as 
much for the California flora. I have selected for 
special mention only some sixty or seventy species peculiar 

12 ^^.4 MOSSES. 

to that region, which is much riclier in species than 
our own. But I have taken those plants which 1 
judged to be the most common and characteristic, 
and most widely distributed, and such as I knew to 
be most strikingly beautiful or interesting. In respect 
to particular places, there are many of them on our 
eastern coast where the flora is rich and fine, and 
where thousands of people are in the habit of. going 
every year. Nothing could be more favorable as 
places for finding and collecting splendid "Sea Mosses " 
in great numbers and many varieties than such 
localities as Mount Desert, the Maine and New Hamp- 
shire beachesj Isles of Shoals, Cape Ann from Annis- 
squam clear around to Magnolia, Marblehead, Nahant, 
Nantasket, Newport, Martha's Vineyard, and Wood's 
Holl, Orient Point, and the shore at Coney Island, and 
southward as far as Fort Hamilton. 


Algae are classified by botanists on the basis of 
their method of reproduction. In a popular work of 
this kind I have not thought it desirable to enter into 
the details of this matter, because these organs can 
be studied only by the aid of a microscope ; and, 
as I have said, I am writing for those who do not use 
that instrument, and I hope to be able to so describe 


the plants that most of them may be identified without 
its aid. 

Suffice it to say that the whole class naturally 
divides itself into three main groups, characterized in a 
general way by their color, viz. : Red, Olive Green, and 
Bright Green. These three groups correspond very 
nearly to their more exact classification on the basis 
named above. The lowest and simplest in their organ- 
ization, are the bright or grass green Algs, for example, 
the Ulva; next the olive green, the " Rockweed " 
and ^a<:elp"; the highest, the red AlgcX. I shall 
take up each of these groups separately, and describe 
the several genera and species, in their natural order, 
following the arrangement adopted by Dr. Farlow, 
from Prof. Thuret, in his list of North American Algae. 


Most collecting on our Atlantic coast, will be done 
during the summer and early autumn months. But 
I must remind those of you who live by the sea, or 
have it accessible at all times, that many things of 
the greatest interest and beauty will be missed if 
you do not go to the shore early. Our finest Calli- 
thamnion, C. A??iencajiti7n can be had in its rarest 
beauty early in March and even in February. The 
finest varieties of our Rhodomela subfusca are only 


to be found in the early spring months. This is 
true of many other plants. You will be surprised, 
also, to see what quantities of things you can find as 
late as November and December. Indeed, if you are 
to know these plants thoroughly, you must collect 
Ihem at all seasons of the year. Then you will know 
when they come, and when they go, and when Ihcy 
are in their greatest perfection. Those living and col- 
lecting on the Pacific coast are not fenced away by 
an icy wall, as we are on our shores during two or 
three months of our hard, inclement winters. So 
they can collect the year around. Dr. Anderson 
assures me that most of the plants growing there 
may be found at all seasons, though of course most of 
them are more beautiful and of more luxuriant growth 
during the summer than during the winter months. 
In general, there are three princijoal places for col- 
lecting ''Sea Mosses" by the shore. 

First, from the mass of material which the sea 
throws up upon the beaches, and leaves behind it 
when the tide goes out. This will be your main re- 
source for getting the plants that grow in deep water. 
By many causes they will be loosened from their 
holdings in the depths, and will then float up to the 
surface and margin of the sea, and will be cast on shore. 
By carefully turning over these masses, which will be 


found along almost every sandy or pebbly beach, you 
will be able to get plants which could otherwise be 
found only by dredging in the deep water. And by 
careful search, too, among this material, you will find 
all the deep water forms. 

Second, upon the rocks and in the tide pools 
when the tide is out. You can collect living plants in 
their native homes here only. Of course no Algae 
grow upon the sandy beaches. You must, therefore, 
seek all such as grow between the tide marks, 
upon rocky shores. Put on a pair of stout rubber 
boots, and go two or three hours before low tide 
and search in every place, following the tide down 
to its farthest retreat. Many of the best things 
are found close down by low water mark, and some 
a little below that. These latter can be got best 
by taking advantage of the extreme low run of tides 
which comes about "new" and "full moon." The ad- 
vantage of going before low tide, and following the 
retreating waters down, is that you are not so apt 
to get a drenching by the unexpected advance of a 
great wave, as when the tide is coming in. For, if 
you are close by the water's edge when the tide is 
rising, busily intent upon getting your floral treasures, 
you will very likely find yourself suddenly soaked 
with brine, for 

" The breaking waves dash high 
On a stern and rock-bound coast." 

In hunting through the tidal region for plants, 
hunt everywhere, and collect everything found grow- 
ing, and when collected, like Captain Cuttle, "make 
a note of it." If you cannot remember without, carry 
a small memorandum book and enter in it the 
habitat of each particular kind as you collect it. 
The tide pools, that is, the little basins in the rocks 
out of which the water is never emptied, are 
the places where the choicest collecting may be had. 
And the nearer they are to the low tide limits, the 
more likely they will be to have abundance of vege- 
table hfe in them. But do not fail to look, also, 
under the overhanging curtain of " Rockweed " which 
shadows the perpendicular sides of the cliffs and 
great boulders. You will often find some beautiful 
plants there, as for instance, the Ptilota elegans, 
the CladopJwra rupestris and other smaller '' mosses." 

Third, by standing on some low projecting reef, 
by the side of which the tide currents rush in and 
out, you will see many of the more dehcate deep 
water forms, all spread out beautifully, and displayed 
in all their native grace, carried past, back and 
forth in the water. Many of these, like the Poly- 
siphoftid', are seldom thrown on shore in good con- 


dition, or if they are, do not long remain so. This 
therefore is by far the best place to take many of 
these plants. To do this you must be provided 
with some simple instrument for reaching down into 
the water, and seize them as they go floating by. 
I have found nothing more convenient for this than 
a wire skimmer, which can be got at any house- 
furnishing tin shop, tied with a stout string to a 
light strong stick five or six feet long. The water 
passes through the meshes of this with little resist- 
ance, but the Alga, with its delicate branches thrown 
out widely in every direction, is very readily caught 
by it. It will also serve to a limited extent as an 
implement for detaching plants from their holdings, 
which grow in deep tide pools, or in the sea, not 
too far below low water mark. For the rest of your 


you may have as httle or as much as is convenient. 
A simple basket, or box, with a few newspapers in 
i'., to wrap up and keep somewhat separate the 
different sorts of your collectings, will do very well. 
If it is convenient, have a case made with a half 
dozen or less wide-mouthed bottles set in it, each 
provided with a cork. The case should also have 
a compartment for storing coarse plants, newspapers, 
paper bags, or whatever you may use for keeping 


different species, or the plants from different locali- 
ties, separate. Then, as your plants are collected, 
they may be roughly sorted, and put in different 
bottles. But two or tliree bottles should be reserved 
for the most delicate and fragile forms. And as there 
are several of them which rapidly perish on being 
exposed to the air, the botdes should be kept partly 
full of sea water. The more delicate Polysiphonias^ 
the Caiithafrmiofis, Dasyas, and some others will need 
this protection. I have found a quart fruit jar very 
handy. I get the kind that I can fasten a string 
around the neck, so as to carry it suspended in 
one hand, which leaves the other always free to 
gather in the plants with. A jar whose cover goes on 
and off with the least possible trouble, is the one to 
be selected. The only disadvantage in using a 
receptacle of this sort for your collection, is that 
in climbing over the wet and mossy rocks, your feet 
may chance to slip and you get a tumble ; then in 
your efforts to save yourself, you will forget all about 
your fragile glass jar, and will smash it into a thou- 
sand pieces upon the hard stones, and perhaps lose 
your whole collection. But two or three of these jars, 
carefully packed in a basket, so as not to be easily 
broken, would perhaps furnish as handy a collecting 
apparatus as you could extemporize at the sea shore. 

tl^TnODUCTIOM. 1ft 


For ''floating out " your "Sea Mosses," as it is called, 
you should provide yourself a few simple tools and re- 
quisites. You should have a pair of pliers ; a pair of 
scissors; a stick like a common cedar "pen stalk," with 
a needle driven into the end of it, or, in lack of that, 
any stick sharpened carefully; two or three large 
white dishes, like "wash bowls;" botanist's "drying 
paper;" or common blotting paper; pieces of cotton 
cloth, old cotton is the best; and the necessary 
cards or paper for mounting the plants on. 

You will use the pliers in handling your plants 
in the water. The scissors you will need for trimming 
off the superfluous branches of plants which are too 
bushy to look well when spread upon the paper, 
and to cut away parasites. The needle should be 
driven point first, a considerable distance into the 
stick, so as to make it firm, and allow you to use 
the blunt end of it in arranging the finer details of 
your plant on the paper. For drying paper, of course 
you can use common newspaper, by putting many 
thicknesses together; and a great many, no doubt, 
will do that. But sheets of blotdng paper will be 
found much more satisfactory ; twenty-five of them 
cut into quarters would probably be all you would 


use, and those you could easily take with you in 
your trunk. What will be found cheaper and still 
more serviceable, if you are going to mount a large 
number of plants at once, is a quantity of botanist's 
" drying paper." It can be had of the " Naturalist 
Agency," 32 Hawley Street, Boston, Mass., for, I 
believe, ^1.25 per 100 sheets, probably also of other 
sellers of naturalists' supplies in all the large cities, 
on both sides of the Continent. It is a coarse, 
spongy, brown felt paper, cut into sheets, 12 x 18 
inches, and has a fine capacity for absorbing mois- 
ture. For convenience, the cotton cloths should be 
made the same size as the drying paper used. 
Some collectors, who do not care to mount a great 
number of specimens at once, but want to have 
them very smooth and fine when dry, use no 
drying paper at all, biit in the place of it, have 
thin smooth pieces of deal, got out a foot or so square 
and one-quarter or one-third of an inch thick; upon 
these they spread one or more layers of cotton and 
lay the plant on them and put as many more ovei 
it ; the cotton absorbs the moisture, and the boards 
keep the pressure even and the papers and plants 
straight and smooth throughout. For ''mounting paper " 
each one must use his own taste. Many prefer cards 
cut of uniform size : they can be had at almost any 


paper store, or job printing office, made 'to order. Four 
and a half by six and a half inches, is a neat and 
convenient size. But if you want to mount several 
hundred or several thousand specimens in the course 
of a season, so as to have some to give to all your 
friends, and to make up a number of books or 
albums to sell at Church or Charity fairs, then per- 
haps the expense will be an item worth considering. 
In that case you will find it cheaper to buy a few 
quires of good 26 or 28 lb. demy paper, unruled, of 
course. This paper is in unfolded sheets, 16 x 21 •* 
inches, and will cut into convenient sizes for mount- 
ing any plants ordinarily collected. By halving it 
you have sheets 8x 21, or lolx 16 inches. By 
quartering, Ae sheets are 8 x 10^ inches; halving 
these you get an octavo sheet 5^ x 8 inches, 
which is quite large enough for the great ma- 
jority of plants. One half of this will give a sheet 
4 X 5 1 inches, which will be the size most used ; while 
the smallest plants look best on the half of these 
sheets, 2 ?, x 4 inches. 

With your large white dishes filled near to the 
brim with sea-water, or, if you are away from the 
ocean, with water made artificially salt, take a few 
of your plants from the collecting case and put 
them in one of the dishes. Here, handling them 

2^ SMA Mosses. 

with your pliers, shake them out and ^lean their 
of any adhering sand or shells, trim away parasites 
and superfluous branches, and generally make them 
ready for "floating out." Thence transfer them, one 
at a time, as you "float them," to the other dish. 
Then take your card, or your paper, selecting a 
piece large enough to give the plant ample room, 
and leave a margin of white all around and having 
dipped it in the water, put it quite under the 
floating plant, holding the paper with your left hand 
and managing the plant with the right. Now float 
the plant out over the paper, and draw the root or 
base of it up near to the end of the paper next 
your hand, so that you can hold it down on the 
paper with the thumb of your left hand, the rest of 
that hand being under the paper in the water. 
Now slowly lift the paper up to the surface and 
draw it out of the water, in such a way that the 
water will flow off from it in two or three directions. 
This will spread the plant out somewhat evenly over 
the paper. But in many cases you will need tc 
arrange the branches in their most natural and grace- 
ful position and also take care that they do not get 
massed upon each other, and make unsightly heaps, 
while other places are left bare. They should be 
carefully arranged so as to make the most beautiful 

introduction: 23 

picture possible. In some fine and delicate plants, 
too much care cannot be bestowed in having the 
remote branchlets all naturally disposed and spread 
out. This final work of arranging details you will 
do with your needle while you hold the paper very 
near to the surface of the water with your left hand, 
so near, indeed, that there will be just water enough 
and no more, above it, to tioat tne delicate parts 
which you are manipulating. Oftentimes it will be 
found convenient, after the paper with the plant on 
it has been removed from the water, to re-immerse 
a part of it at a time, and re-arrange the several parts 
separately. But all this can easily be done, more 
easily than I can tell how to do it. A very little 
practice will give you the " knack " perfectly. And, 
indeed, these plants are by no means refractory, or 
hard to manage. They will do anything you can 
reasonably want them to, while you humor them by 
keeping them in their native element. In fact, you 
will commonly need to do no more with them than 
to just help them do what they are altogether willing 
and disposed to do themselves. For if you will let 
them take on your paper the form and outHne, 
which they have by nature in the water, there will 
be nothing left to desire, for their color, form, and 
movement, all combine there to make them the loveliest 


and most graceful things that grow. When you have 
put the last finishing touches upon the "floating" 
process, and your " Sea Moss " is adjusted upon your 
paper so as to be "a thing of beauty, and a joy 
forever;" then you want to lay the paper upon some 
inclined surface, any smooth board will do, to drain 
away the superfluous water. Thence it is to be trans- 
ferred, in a few moments, to the press for drying. 

This is made in the following manner. Laying 
down one of the above described sheets of blotting 
paper, botanist's " drying paper," or boards of muslin- 
covered deal, you lay your paper with the plant on 
it upon this, the plant up. Cover the board or drying 
paper all over with " floated " specimens in the same 
way. Over all, and lying directly upon the plants, 
spread your piece of muslin. Upon this, put another 
sheet of the paper, or board, and upon this again, 
a layer of plants, then a piece of the muslin, more 
paper, plants, muslin, and so on till you have disposed 
of all of your collection, or so much, of it as you care 
to mount. Upon the last layer of plants i)ut a final 
sheet of paper, and over all a stout board as large 
as the drying paper. Upon this lay some heavy 
weights — stones will be as handy as anything at the 
sea-side. I should put on, I think, about fifty pounds 
of them, if I were using botanist's drying paper, 

N, C. State College 


which has a good deal of " give " in it. With the 
use of boards unless there are a good many thicknesses 
of muslin, it would not do to weight it so heavily, 
or some of the plants would be crushed* beyond 
recognition. I use the drying paper, and always 
have two boards, one for the bottom, and one for the 
top of my press. Then, when I '^ have made the pile 
complete," I can put it aside in some convenient 
comer out of the way, and set the stones to work, 
bearing down on it, a business for which they seem 
to have some conspicuous and weighty gifts. 

Some botanists recommend that the drying papers 
be changed in the course of five or six hours, and 
the cloths and papers again in twenty-four hours. 
This will, perhaps, be best, if one has plenty of time. 
But my practice has always been to let them lie twenty- 
four hours, and then give them a change of both 
cloths and papers, being careful in removing the 
cloths, so as not to lift the plants from the mounting 

The second time in the press they should be 
subject to a harder pressure, seventy-five ' or one 
hundred pounds of stone being not too much. In 
twenty-four hours more most of them will be quite 
dry, and ready to be put into your herbarium, album, 
or whatever you use for the final disposition of them. 


Those that are not perfectly dry should be put back 
in the press with dry papers and cloths for another 
day's stay. 

When the plant is perfectly dry, and removed 
from the press, you should, before putting it away and 
forgetting these facts, write on the back of the paper 
the exact date and place of collecting. 

People often ask me what I use to make the plants 
stick so firmly to the paper, supposing, evidently that 
it is necessary to have some kind of gum or mucilage 
for that purpose. I have to answer that I have for 
most of them to use nothing whatever ; that there is 
sufficient gelatinous matter in the body of the plant to 
make it perfectly adhere to the paper without other 
aid. And the reason for putting the muslin over the 
plants in the process of pressing and drying, is that 
they may not stick to the drying paper which is laid 
above them, the muslin not adhering to the plants ai 
all, except in some few cases. 

But a considerable number of the ''Sea Mosses 
do not adhere to paper well. They either have not 
gelatinous matter enough in them, or will not give 
it out to glue their bodies to the paper. Various 
devices are resorted to in these cases. Sometimes 
the plant,after being dried in the press in the usual way, 
is simply strapped down with slips of gummed paper 


Sometimes they are fastened down with some kind of 
adhesive substance, after being dried, gum tragacanth 
being the best for this. Others take them and float 
them out a second time in skimmed milk, and after 
wiping off the milk from the paper and plants, except 
directly under the plants, put them in the press to dry 
again, when, it is said, they stay. I have never tried 
this method. A friend of mine, who is famous for the 
artistic way in which she always " lays out " her " Sea 
Mosses," tells me that for these forms which lack what 
the Phrenologist might call " Adhesiveness," she prepares 
from the " Irish Moss," Chondrus crispus, a semi- 
fluid paste, into which she dips them before putting 
them on paper, and then carefully removes all of it 
from the paper and plant, except what is between the 
two, and then puts them in the press. By this means, 
they are made to stick, " like the paper upon the 

In preparing the coarser " Rockweed " and "Kelp" 
for the herbarium, another method will have to be 
pursued. These will almost all turn very dark, or 
quite black, in the process of drying. I am accus- 
tomed to treat them according to the following 
method : Taking them home, I spread them out 
in some shaded place and let them lie for a few 
hours, perhaps twenty-four, perhaps less or more. 


until most of the water in them has evaporated, 
but not till they have become hard, stiff and brittle. 
Then I put them between sheets of drying paper 
and lay them in the press, and keep them there 
until the process of drying is complete. A little 
practice will be the only way by which you will 
learn how to tell if they have been dried long 
enough in the open air. If you find them inclined 
to mould while kept in the press, you may be sure 
they are not dry enough ; throw them away and get 
some new ones. 

It is sometimes desirable to keep the treasures 
we have gathered from the sea unmounted, that we 
may carry them away to await a more convenient 
season for floating them out, or that we may send 
them to some friend or correspondent on the other 
side of the continent or beyond the seas. It is, 
therefore, fortunate that all but the more delicate 
and perishable of these plants may be dried rough ; 
rolled up, and kept any length of time ; transported 
round the world ; and then, when put in water 
again, will come out in half an hour, as fresh and 
bright and supple and graceful as they were when 
taken from their briny home. The friend just 
now referred to assures me that even the Callithavi- 
fiia, DasycB, and the most delicate Poly sipho nice, and 


such like plants, may be so treated, by first shaking 
the water out of them and then thoroughly mingling 
them with dry sea sand, and drying them rough i]i the 
usual way. She says the sand will adhere to the 
most delicate fibres and ramuli of the plant in such 
a way as to keep them separate and prevent their 
getting glued together. Then when they are after- 
wards soaked out, the sand will be disengaged and 
the plant left as good as ever it was. Perhaps I 
ought to suggest that " soaking out " should always 
be done with salt water, unless you know you 
have only those plants that fresh water will not hurt. 
When I have had specimens of the " Rockwecd " or 
'•'Kelp" sent me "rough dried," I have found it 
best to prepare them for mounting, not by immers- 
ing them in water, and so getting a great quantity 
of moisture into them, which would have to be ex- 
pelled afterwards with no little trouble, but by wrap- 
ping them about with wet towels ; from these they 
would imbibe enough dampness to be manageable, 
but not enough to make them troublesome. 

Before taking leave of this part of my subject, I 
must permit myself to add a word in regard to a 
point which botanists commonly think too little about, 
viz : the display of taste in the mounting of their 
plants. To the mere botanist a plant is a specimen 


of a given genus and species, interesting wholly ror 
that fact. If it is a full gro\^Ti typical form with 
fruit, all the better. Now all are not botanists. 
Most of those who will read these pages will have 
an interest in these plants to which the scientific 
interest will be secondary. I want to say then to 
them : look for the best things, get the whole 
plant when you can, but get and preserve the 
most perfect and beautiful plants. It is the rule 
with the botanist to put but one species on each 
paper or card; I certainly advise disregarding this rule, 
unless you are mounting for scientific purposes altogether 
or chiefly. With the numberless shades of red which 
one group of ''Sea Mosses" will give you, with the 
various kinds of green which the other two will 
present, you will have opportunity to display all the 
taste and skill you are master of For in combining 
several different colors and forms on the same 
paper, you may often produce the most brilliant 
results. A little practice will soon make you able to 
handle two or three plants at the same time in 
" floating them out," almost as readily as you man- 
age one. Then again, you wiU soon find it possible 
with some of the more slender plants to work out 
interesting and beautiful '' designs " in the same way. 
Initial letters, even monograms, may not be beyond 

tiSTTR Ob UCTION. i 1 

your reach with a httle care and practice. Let the 
"Sea Mosses" contribute to the cultivation of every 
faculty, and all possible means of pleasure for you. 

Foi preserving your treasures after they are neatly 
mounted, pressed and dried, you have two courses 
open to you. You can take care of them as the 
botanist does, by arranging them systematically in a 
herbarium, with covers of stout Manilla paper folded 
lo?, X 1 6?, inches for each genus, and the species 
separated by white sheets or thinner covers; or you 
can provide yourself with blank books, made for the 
purpose, having the leaves cut to fit the sizes of 
paper or card which you mount your plants on, so 
as to shp the corners of the cards into the cuts. 
It is well in that case to provide a book with 
leaves large enough to hold two or four cards each. 
By following the directions here given, I cannot 
doubt you will soon become a successful collector, 
and an expert in mounting and preserving ''Sea 


Having now the book as you go to the sea shore, 
the question you are most likely to ask is : " How 
shall I use it, so as to make it a true and helpful 
guide in learning about these plants?" I will try to 
tell you in a few words. Most of the descriptionb; 

ii'2 SEA MOSSE3. 

are ^vritten from herbarium specimens, and describe 
them as they appear spread out on paper. And yet 
where there are characteristic points to be seen when 
the plant is found growing in its native element, they 
are mentioned. You will therefore find it particularly 
serviceable in identifying mounted specimens. And 
knowing these, you will have little trouble in recogniz- 
ing them living. But the important question is, how 
shall you bring the book and the plant together, so 
as to make the one guide the learner to the other. 
First of all by paying careful attention to what the 
book says, for in every instance it puts the emphasis 
of its description upon the distinguishing mark of the 
species. In the next place, use your eyes in looking 
at the plant, and use your powers of mental observation. 
Do not be of those who "having eyes see not." Now 
there are, as I conceive, two ways of bringing the 
book and plant together. The first is by taking a 
plant and hunting up its description and name in 
the book. You have two ways for doing this : first, 
see if the plant in question is figured in any of the 
plates ; if so, its name is there and it will be easy to 
find the descripdon. If you do not find it figured, 
see if you do not find some plant figured which is 
near enough like the one you are studying to be a 
brother or cousin to it. If you do, that will give you 


the name ot the genus. Go there, and among the 
species you will find the plant in question. Suppose, 
for example, that you have a frond of the Ptilota 
elegans under observation, you will not find that in 
the plates ; but you will find a beautiful copy of a 
Ptilota plit77iosa var. serrata, which you will see 
much resembles your plant, but is not it. This will 
lead you to the right genus, and then you will soon 
have the thing settled. 

Again, you will find " keys " at the head of all the 
great divisions of the book, which if carefully used, 
will lead you easily to the genus you are in search of, 
and once there you will readily find the species sought. 
Suppose, for example, you find a mass of curled and 
kinky wool-like, green " Sea Moss," floating on 
the tide or entangled with Algae on the rocks ; looking 
at it carefully till you observe that it is a simple un- 
branched thread of green, you turn to the "key" for 
Green Algae ; the frond is not membranaceous, so you 
will not find it in the first group. It is filiform, or 
thread-like, therefore you will find it under one or the 
other of the sub-division of this group. It is un- 
branched, so you are sure to find it in the first 
division, for there you read, "Frond unbranched, 
sometimes attached straight and single, sometimes float- 
ing, kinked and matted like wool," which is an account 


of the plant you are making inquiries about, and you 
find that these plants are in the genus Chcstomorpha. 
Turning now to that, you will find an account of 
the plant, such that you will not doubt you have 
before you C. tortuosa. 

A second way of making the book and the plant 
meet is to select a few common plants that the book says 
may be found anywhere, and carefully noting the 
description, and especially its habitat, with the best 
image you can form of it in your mind, go to the 
places where it ought to grow and there search for it 
till you find it. For example, you will read in the 
book that the Polysiphonia fastigiata grows upon the 
ends of Fucus nodosiis like little bn.Vvn or black balls 
as big as a walnut. Now go down and find some o 
this FuciLs and search till you find some with its 
parasite on it. You will read that Ptilota elega?is just 
now referred to, grows common on the perpendicular 
sides of cliffs and large rocks, under the curtain of 
the overhanging " Rockweed." Go there and hunt til] 
you find it. You are told that many plants of the 
species Cystoclonium purpurascens have httle curling 
tendril-like branches which twine around other plants ; 
go down to the shore and turn over the mass 
which the retreating tide has left, till you find 
X)me specimens of it, and you will not have to search 

nvrnoDUCTioN'. i' 

long. In this way you may find a great many of 
the common forms and easily identify them *' by 
the book." 

In making your beginning in these studies, take 
the easiest first ; those that are commonest and have 
easily distinguished marks. From the more easy pro- 
ceed step by step to the more difficult. Do not spend 
unnecessary care and labor in trying to make out 
difficult cases. Put them aside for the present. 
When you have had more practice it will be easier 
for you. 

Again, you may presume a little on the good 
nature and kindness of botanists, and especially of 
Algologists, and send your difficult plants to them to 
nanye for you. I have often done such sendee for 
people. I thus try to repay the kindness and pa- 
tience with which my footsteps were guided, when I 
first set out in this path, by many far more distin- 
guished botanists than I ever expect to be. I have 
not a little indebtedness of this kind still unliqui- 
dated, as I trust some of my readers will take the 
liberty of finding out. 

Still another way to get help, is to get some 
Algologist to spare . you out of his duplicates, by 
exchange or purchase, some of the forms which you 
are inquiring about, and thus have something authentic 


for comparison. You would have very little difficulty 
then in fixing the place and name of your own 


Supplementary to the subject presented in the 
last section, a few words on the formation of Clubs 
and Classes for the collection, mounting, and study, 
of " Sea Mosses," may be said. The many advantages 
of associated over solitary action is everywhere re- 
cognized. Everybody knows that in any undertaking 
where half a dozen people can be engaged together, 
more interest, enthusiasm, pleasure, and profit, can 
be derived than where one works all alone. So I 
want to recommend that when you go to the sea 
shore with your friends, or go among strangers and 
Qiake acquaintances and friends at hotels, boarding- 
houses, or " camps," anywhere indeed, where two or 
three, or half a dozen, intelligent persons are col- 
lected, you set about organizing a " Sea Moss Club." 
It will not take much talk or enthusiasm on your 
part to convince some of them at least, that collect- 
ing and mounting these " things of beauty " will be 
a very pleasant and engaging way of spending tiie 
leisure hours of a summer sea-side vacation. When 
it is practicable, each one should be armed with a 
copy of this book, as the best " Collector's Guide." 


You will need no formal organization perhaps, or if 
you want to have a name for your extemporized society, 
call it after some eminent Botanist. If one of your 
number has had experience, or is more wise than the 
rest in such things, let him be appointed your leader 
or director, and if you care to keep a record of your 
doings, of your tramps, adventures, successes, and 
failures, your collectings, and your progress, appoint a 
"ready writer" for your secretary. Such a record 
might sometime be of real value to scientific botanists 
in making notes of the flora of the region, and in 
finding the habitat of uncommon species. It certainly 
would in after years serve to recall many pleasant 
memories. For collecting expeditions along the shore, 
or to neighboring islands, go all together, or divide 
off when it would be best, so as to send parties of 
two each, to different localities, thus reaching as 
many points as possible. Let each collect for all, that 
is, collect enough specimens of each kind so as to be 
able to supply all with duplicates. The study of 
new or unknown plants, both mounted and un- 
mounted, will be vastly more interesting and pro- 
fitable, if it is carried on in company with the others. 
The saying is, " two heads are better than one, if 
one is a sheep's head." So, six pair of eyes and 
six thinking minds are surely more than six times as 


good as one, in searching the books, and identifying 
the plants. 

I venture to predict, that you will find the doings 
of the "Sea Moss Club" an extremely pleasant diver- 
sion, both socially and intellectually. You will find as 
a result, that every member will be awakened to a 
sdrring, thrifty, new interest in Nature's things, and 
has acquired at once a keen appetite for the charms 
of her more rare and delicate handiwork, and a new 
faculty for seeing and observing her wondrous ways. 

"Nature hath tones of magic deep, and colors iris bright, 
And murmurs full of earnest truth, and visions of delight; 
'Tis said, ' The heart that trusts in her, was never yet beguiled,' 
But meek and lowly thou must be, and docile as a child. 
Then study her with reverence high, and she will give the key, 
So shalt thou learn to comprehend the 'secret of the sea.' " 

And I shall venture also to believe that, when you 

" Fold your tents like the Arabs, 
And as silently steal away " 

from the sound of the surf, and the sight of the 
sea to take up your toils again in the hub-bub and 
confusion of this work-a-day world, you will be very 
sure to keep up the pleasant memories of the "Club," 
and perhaps also its form, by correspondence, and 
furtlier study and exchange of plants. And, perhaps, 
you will hear of other Clubs, formed and working at 
other points of the coast, and you will entei into 
correspondence and exchange with them also. 



It would be an interesting branch of the subject 
if I had the necessary space at my command, to 
give an adequate historical sketch of the cultivation of 
this branch of botanical science in America. It would 
be especially so if I could allow myself to give even 
a brief account of the most distinguished workers in 
this field. But I cannot. The enumeration of a 
few names, dates, and incidents is all I can expect 
to. find room for at this time. 

Of course I am not in possession of data by 
which I can ever tell how many scores or hundreds 
of people every year employ their leisure hours by 
the sea-side, in collecting, mounting, and arranging 
these plants. We know of a few of them who have 
given their collections to botanists to write about. 

The first person who seems ever to have interested 
himself in American Algae, vvas Mr. Archibald Menzies, 
who singularly enough made his collections on the 
Pacific Coast. The Phyllospora from that coast which 
bears his name, was described, from plants which he 
brought from there by the celebrated Dawson Turner, 
in the early part of this century. He accompanied 
Vancouver in his expedition to North Western 
America in 1792-3, and with him sailed around the 


Harvey speaks of him, as he knew him late in 
life, as one of the best preserved specimens of a 
green old age that he ever knew, still enthusiastic 
in his studies ; and with his plants before him, re- 
calling with great vividness the stirring and often ad- 
venturous scenes which were associated with their 
collection. Many of them more than half a century 
gone. Harvey writes : " It was his enthusiasm which 
first possessed me with a desire to explore the 
American shores, a desire which has followed me 
through life." 

In 1825, Beechy made his exploring expedition 
into the North Pacific and brought home many plants, 
an account of which was published in 1833. In July, 
1840, a Russian exploring expedition touched the 
California coast, and carried away several interesting 
plants, some of which were described and figured by 
Ruprecht, in St. Petersburgh, in 1852. Subsequently 
Dr. Coulter collected in Monterey Bay. 

The first collector of California Algae, whose col- 
lections fell into the hands of botanists, subsequently 
to the time of the great emigration to that land in 
'49, was Mr. A. D. Frye, of New York city. His 
collections were made about 1850. They attracted 
some attention in New York as well as in San 
Francisco. The plants in this collection are the ones 


chiefly used by Harvey in making his account of 
the Pacific Algae in the '' Nereis." Since that time, 
and especially during the last ten years, many in- 
dustrious botanists have been at work on that rich and 
beautiful flora. I need not here mention the names 
of this distinguished company, for several of the best 
known of them get frequent mention in the pages of 
this book. These and others appear often in the 
botanical publications by other hands. 

Previously to 1850, the knowledge of the marine 
botany of our eastern coast was in a very imperfect 
and chaotic state. There were a few collectors in 
Boston and vicinity. How much any of them, with 
the exception of Dr. Gray, knew about the natural 
history or the systematic arrangement of the plants 
does not appear. They included among others such 
men as the late Mr. Geo. B. Emerson and Dr. Silas 
Durkee. Mr. Stephen T. Olney, of Providence, who 
did no inconsiderable work in illustrating the botany 
of Rhode Island, collected a large number of Algae, 
which are now in the Olney Herbarium of Brown 

A few enthusiastic and capable collectors about 
New York city had been at work for some time, 
inspired and guided by that able and devoted naturalist, 
Prof. J. W. Bailey, of the West Point Mihtary Academy, 


whom Dr. Harvey calls "the earUest American worker 
in the field of Algology." He sent the first specimens 
of our American Algae to Dr. Harvey. Though 
Prof. Bailey lived a considerable distance from the 
sea, he was mainly instrumental in awakening an 
interest in these plants among those who were better 
situated for collecting them than he. They were accus- 
tomed to send their plants to him, and when he could 
not resolve them after patient study, he sent them abroad 
to be determined by the more advanced Algologists 
of Europe ; and so, gradually, there came to be a little 
scientific knowledge about these things difiused among 
American collectors. There was a little knot of en- 
thusiastic Algologists in New York city and Brooklyn. 
Am^ong them, Hooper, Lounsbury, Pike, Congdon, 
Walter and Averill, with whom Bailey was in constant 
correspondence, and evidently sometimes went col- 

In a letter, which I have, written by him to Mr. 
Hooper, he refers to that company in a pleasant way 
as the " Algerines," and invites them all to come up 
to West Point, and look over his collections; ''then," 
he says, "I believe you will carry the war into 
Barbary with nev\^ zeal. It will be no less pleasure," 
he adds, " to show my microscope, &c., to several 
friends at the same time than to one alone." In 


those days, before 1S50 — though how much before I 
cannot say, as the letter has no date — a microscope, 
in this country at least, was a curiosity of no small 
moment. Of that company I believe only Captain 
Pike remains. 

A complete set of the published and manuscript 
notes of Prof. Bailey's patient and accurate scientific 
observations, together with his scientific correspond- 
ence, his large collection of Algae, and no less than 
3,000 mounted and catalogued microscopical objects, 
are in the possession of the Boston Natural History 
Society, and are accessible to all students of science. 

It was mainly through the influence of Prof. 
Bailey, that Dr. Wm. H. Harvey, Prof, of Botany 
in Trinity College, Dublin, and the most learned and 
distinguished British Algologist, came to this country, 
to study and publish our plants. Arrangements were 
made for the publication of the Memoir-, and Dr. 
Harvey came here about 1850, and remained in the 
country several months visiting important points from 
Halifax to Key West, and collecting largely, also 
availing himself of the collections of others. From 
the material thus gathered, he published through the 
Smithsonian Institution, the largest work ever yet issued 
on American Alg^ — the "Nereis Boreali- Americana." 

The first part containing the olive colored sea 


weed/ was published in January, 1852; the second 
part on the red sea weed, about a year later; and 
the third on the green Algae, not till 1857, after 
Dr. Harvey's return from Australia. They are in 
quarto form, contain 50 colored plates, and can be 
bought for about $25. 

Since those days a nev/ generation has come up. 
But in the meanwhile, for a space of twenty years, 
scarcely anything was published on American Algae. 
At the present time there are a few enthusiastic col- 
lectors, and a still smaller number of devoted students 
of Marine Algae scattered up and down our exten- 
sive seaboard. The names of several of them will be 
found making frequent appearance in these pages. 
Only two of our more distinguished living botanists 
have given special attention to this subject : Dr. Wm. 
G. Farlow, of Harvard University ; and Prof. Daniel C. 
Eaton, of Yale College ; the former of whom brings 
to his work the advantage of several years' critical 
study of these plants under some of the most cele- 
brated Agologists of Europe — the lamented Thuret, 
and the learned Agardh, and others. Dr. Farlow's 
pubHcations consist of several annotated lists of Algae, 
including new species, issued in the proceedings of the 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, and in the reports of 
the U. S. Fish Commissioners. A much more elaborate 


work from his pen will shortly be published under 
the auspices of the Fish Commission, if indeed it shall 
not come to my readers before they see this, 

I cannot conclude this introductory chapter, with- 
out saying that if this book shall be the means of 
awakening any interest in these creations, among the 
sojourners by the sea-side, I should be sorry if it 
should fail to carry the mind beyond the creature 
to the Creator. 

To me, the best story which any flower of land 
or sea can tell, is the story it whispers to my 
heart, not only of the skill and wisdom which fash- 
ioned it, but also of the beneficient and sleepless 
care which has kept and preserved it, has ministered 
to its humble wants, and will not let it perish with- 
out His notice. 

"Not a flower 
But shows some touch in freckle streak or stain, 
Of his unrivaled pencil." 

" The Lord of all, Himself thiough all diffused, 
Sustains, and is the; life of all that lives, 
Nature is but a name for an effect, 
Whose cause is. God; He feeds the sacred fire, 
By which the mighty process is mamtainedJ 
He sleeps not, — is not weary; in whose designs 
No flaw deforms, no difSculty thwarts, 
And whose beneficence no change exhausts." 






I. Frond Membranous. 

I. Color Green. 

(^,) Frond, wide, long and thin, the largest 

green Algse. ^/ C" 

Ulva, ^ Ip- 

{b?) PVond, narrow, sometimes inflated, always 


Enter omorpha. 

2. Color, Brown or Purple. 

Frond, thin, translucent, sheeny, satin-like. 

Porphyra. \ ^ 

II. Frond Filiform. b«5^ 

I . Frond Unb ranched. 

Sometimes attached, straight and single, 

sometimes floating, kinked and matted 

hke wool. ^ , 

Chcetoino7pha. !)•' 

2. Frond Branched. 

{a.) Stem and (straight) branches each a 

single cell, not jointed. 


(b.) Stem and branches jointed, that is, 
composed of short single cells at- 
tached end to end. 

Cladophora. p 

Sz^eidC-n ^iii ^Wc^€-tv off , cFi^clve vvn5 jegficfi ^ei/uw-ti^t 

"^n^ »ic^ nahz'C^x tiK>ffcvi. ale a^e ! §lcli.c, uwb ifvi^ten. 

GCcic^ £l^a^!)e5^^encj<^r.vucic|elAgic}Cl-ntbc-^^e SSfdttcz. wm^ cSdvibcx, 
3'fttt^evv^e (^di-teti. uofC 2z.acfvt in ^cvm- boofv iichtioie^vi cHclcli.. 


Svttczt boc^ ae^at i4ocA. un- SSacTv r<ii.teatcs £lCc|enc|evuixr, 
(^■tu-nevi^e SttdAM/C'W ofiti>ez4abe scPvfupftii^e clffuvMpei^, 

'3)cxc4i. *^Ww/nbc-rQ«fva-ft aic^ -nuz- ^ewt eFo^acf^e-:p «vi-t^cc^t ; 
§tauvic/n c-x^aasfc ^ic Sce^ -uoi. aCf ^ein Sc fiei-MVHvaa ^Vco ScGcv^a, 

^Wefcfvco ba:> Wevnatc Sc^iCb oeffcat rw>c^ im 'S'top|c4a ei4-tfvwfft. 

,^:=5- -^^^-^^^^'^' ; ^^ ■ c_ =^^^ 



Sub-Class.— CHLOROSPOR^. 
Oxdex.— SIPHONED. 
Genus.— BR VOPSIS* Lam. 

^Jl^HE American genera of this order are all inhabit- 
<^j ants of the warmer seas, except the Pryopsis, 
and that is represented by but one species in oui 
northern waters. The characteristic of the order is 
the tube-like structure of the different parts of the 
frond. Each main stem branch or branchlet is a 
single long undivided cell, filled with a green granular 
substance, suspended in the watery fluids of the plant. 

♦ Biyopsis= Moss-like 


Bryopis plumosa,* Lam. 

Perhaps the most beautiful of our green Algae is 
the one here named. The artist gives, in Plate I., 
an admirable representation of a typical plant col 
lected by my friend Mr. A. R. Young, at Hell Gate, 
N. Y. The picture will give you a better idea of 
this interesting plant than any description in mere 
words. But it had better be said, that it com- 
monly grows in tufts, a considerable number of 
fronds from the same point, from two to six inches 
high. The leading filament is beset all around, or 
sometimes on two opposite sides only, with long 
widely spreading branches, which are shorter toward 
the top of the plant. These, in their upper half, 
are clothed with long or short, straight branchlets, so 
placed as to give the plant a decidedly plumose or 
feathery appearance. It grows upon the rocks, or 
parasitical upon other Algae, in shaded tide pools 
along our rocky shores. Mr. Collins informs me 
that it may be found upon the muddy bottoms of 
Mystic River, ''where the tide ebbs and flows twice 
in twenty-four hours." I found some very beautiful 
si^ecimens of it growing in a clear pool beside over- 
hanging rocks on Ram Island, off the Marblehead 

♦ Plumosa=featheiy. 


PI AT - 


shore. Miss Booth found it floating up from deep 
water at Orient, L. I. Mrs. Davis collects it in 
tide pools at Gloucester. It is not a rare plant, 
though not very common. It may be found from 
July to October, and very likely later. I have some 
very fine plants collected by Mr. Young, at Hell 
Gate, New York city, the last part of September. 
It may no doubt be looked for in the same situa- 
tions on the Pacific coast, as it grows nearly all 
over the globe. I have a fine specimen from Dr. 
Dimmick, of Santa Barbara, California. It is of 
a dark green color, and its delicate feathery frond 
can never be mistaken, when seen displayed in all 
its rare beauty in the crystal waters of the rocky 
basins where it makes its home. When mounted 
and dry it adheres well to paper and has a peculiar 
glossy look. 


Genus — ENTER OMORPHA,^ Link. 

The plants of this genus are of a bright green 
color, resemble the Ulva in structure, and grow in 
much the same situations along side of that, and 

* Enteromorpha = Intestine-shaped. 


mingled with it in tide pools and upon the rocks 
between tides. They are distinguished from that by 
their sma//er and tubular fronds. There are three 
American species of this genus, common everywhere, 
on both sides of the continent, and easily distinguished 
from each other. 

Enteromorpha intestinalis Link. 
The first named species is a simple unbranched 
frond. Very slender at the bottom, it gradually 
expands to the width of half an inch or more, some- 
times an inch and a half, and grows from six to ten 
inches high. It keeps nearly of the same width 
throughout. When found growing in the tide pools, 
it will usually be seen to be inflated, or filled with air 
bubbles. Being filled out in this way, and at the 
same time a little constricted at irregular intervals, 
it has a decidedly intestinal appearance. The color 
is a light green, but portions of the frond, especially 
at the top, will often be found colorless or white, 
ou ing to the fact that the chlorophyl, or green coloring 
matter of the cells, has been discharged. The un- 
branched inflated frond distinguishes this species. 

Enteromorpha compressa Grev. 
In this species the frond is compressed or flattened, 
and is never inflated. The two layers of cells which 


make up the substance of the frond appear never to 
be separated. This is the most widely distributed of 
the species of this genus. It is found in all waters 
rom the equator to the arctic circle, and beyond. It 
is extremely slender at the base, but gradually 
expands upwards. The branches come out mostly 
near the bottom, are themselves commonly unbranched, 
and are neither so wide nor so long as the fronds of 
the last species. They mostly have blunt tops which 
look as though they had been cut square off. Most 
of my plants are three or four inches high, though 
I have some but an inch, and some quite eight inches. 
The color is a litde darker green than the last, and 
the substance thicker. The branched frond dis- 
tinguishes this, species from the last, and the simple 
unbranched branches distinguishes it from the next. 

Enteromorpha clathrata,Grev. 

This is by far the most variable of our Enteromoj-phcB. 
It is more slender than E. cojupressa, or any typical 
form of E. intestinalis. It is often so fine and hair- 
like, that you will certainly think it a Cladophora. 
But a careful look at it with your pocket lens will 
show you that the stem and branches are not made 
up of a string of single cells, placed end to end, as 
in that genus. This plant is profusely branched, and 


the branches are divided and subdivided until they 
are no thicker at the ends than human hairs. The 
lesser branches are apt to be spiney. I have 
specimens of E. clathrata in my herbarium, whose 
fronds are nowhere more than one-eighih of an inch 
wide, though they are a foot and a half long. They 
will be found of various lengths, from two or three 
inches up. Under a high magnifying power, the 
cells composing the frond will be found to be quite 
square, and placed in a regular rectangular order, so 
that the frond will appear tesselated or latticed; hence 
its name. 

Genus.— C/Zr^,* L. 

The largest bright green plants in all seas belong 
to this genus. Two species are usually quite large 
when full grown, though there are plenty of them in 
the young state, and the collector will find them in 
abundance no more than two or three inches high. 
The first two species are common on both coasts ; 
the last grows only on the Pacific. 

Ulva latissima, L. 

The widest Ulva is extremely variable in size and 

* Ulva, from Ul = water in Celtic. 


shape, varying in respect to the former from two to 
twelve inches in width, and from six to twenty-four 
and thirty-six inches in length. And in respect to 
the latter, it is sometimes simple, and sometimes 
lobed, sometimes plain, and as broad as long, some- 
times long ruffled, or plaited on the edge. The 
substance of the frond is thin and soft, and very 
smooth and glossy, like silk. The color is a brilliant 
green, being darker the deeper the water it grows 
in. It sometimes turns brownish in the herbarium. 
It is often found pierced with holes, the results either 
of age or of the attack of snails. It is an annual, 
but is often found in winter. It grows in pools and 
below low-tide mark. It is so common everywhere 
that I need not give special habitats. 

Var. Linza L. — This is a charming and interesting 
plant. Starting from a minute " hold- fast," as we 
call the root, or place of attachment of the plant in 
Algae, it gradually expands to the breadth of an inch 
or more, and rises to the height of six or eight inches. 
The edges are full or ruffled, so that when 
spread out on paper, the plant seems plaited all 
down the sides, and the full grass green color of the 
frond is deepened at every plait. Our figure, Plate 
II., gives a very good account of it. It is quite 
common along our rocky shores northward, adheres 


well to paper, and is, by far, the most beautiful and 
most manageable of our UIvce, for the herbarium. 

Ulva lactuca,* L. 

The full grown plant differs from the polymorphus 
laiissinia, which it in most respects, much resembles, 
chiefly in these two particulars. It is of a paler color, 
and a much thinner substance. On dissection, it is 
found to consist of but one layer of cells, while U. 
lattissima has two layers. This fact, no doubt, accounts 
for both the peculiarities named above. When young, 
it is said to form an inflated bag like an overgrown 
Enteromorpha intestinalis, then at length by splitting 
along the side, floats out a thin membrane of but 
one layer of cells. It is an annual, and appears 
in spring and summer along with, but not so com- 
mon as U. lattissima. I found it in August, very 
plentiful and very large at Southold, L. I. 

Ulva fasciata, t Delile. 

The frond is more rigid even than that of U. 
lattissima; rises from a short stem, and is divided into 
several strap-shaped segments half to three-fourths of 
an inch wide, of nearly equal breadth throughout, and six 

* Lactuca == lettuce, 
t Fasciata == bundled. 



) A I ISslMA. J ^ \ ;;■ . \ .\^ / ^ 


or eight inches long, either simple or forked. The 
margin is mostly toothed and frequently undulate. 
The color is a full grass green, and the plants 
in my herbarium certainly keep their color much better 
than the Ulvcz of our coast. My plants adhere well 
to paper. It is found in abundance at Santa Bar- 
bara, California, but my correspondents do not else- 
where report it from that coast. 

Genus.^-FORPBYRA* Ag. 

In structure, as well as in habit of growth, and 

method of reproduction, this Genus agrees very well 

with the Ulva. There is but one species in this 


Common everywhere. It is known by its frond 
of dark purple, thin and somewhat elastic membrane, 
which has a peculiar sheen like that of satin. This 
quality of it is retainetl somewhat even when dry, 
but is very striking and beautiful when the plant is 
in ilie water. The frond is as variable in form as 
that of the Ulva, from which it differs mainly in 
respect to color. I have often found it near low 

* Porphyra = purple-weed- 


tide, growing attached to boulder rocks, a great 
broad membrane, ten inches across, attached by a 
single point near the middle of the frond ; again it 
will put forth a number of segments of such a 
frond, attached by their sides to one point; again a 
narrowish frond a foot long or more, attached by a short 
stem at one end. But the purple or brownish color, 
and the " sheeny " smooth, satin-like appearance of the 
frond will always serve to identify it. It is much used 
in Great Britain as an article of food for a relish 
with roast meat. The Chinese use it for making 
some sort of soup. The North Adams Colony im- 
ported it by barrels from China at one time. It does 
not adhere well to paper in drying, shrinking and 
pulling away. But it is said, that if the cloth is not 
removed from it at all till it has been under heavy 
pressure for a considerable time, and is fully dry, it 
adheres perfectly to the paper. It is an annual, and 
may be found the season through. I have fine 
specimens of it from Cahfornia and from China, which 
have a rich dark purple color. And I have it from 
England as red as the "Dulse." But my plants from 
the shores of Massachusetts Bay are of a very decided 


Genus.— CLADOPBORA* Kiitz. 

No less than nineteen species of this genus are 
enumerated in Dr. Farlow's list of 1876, at least, 
fifteen of which are said to be natives of our northern 
shores. But our best botanists think the genus sadly 
in need of revision, for this country at least ; and assert 
that certainly two distinct systems of classification and 
nomenclature prevail in Europe. I shall attempt to 
give an account here of those species only which I 
believe can be so described as to be easily determined 
by the Amateur Collector. For the rest, you must 
needs make resort to the friendly aid of those botanists, 
whose ample suites of specimens will enable them, 
by comparison with yours, to determine your plant at 
a glance. The plants belonging to this genus, make 
up no inconsiderable portion of the green flora of 
our waters, and many of them make very beautiful 
specimens for the herbarium. The genus is charac- 
terized by extreme simplicity of structure. The 
main stem and branches alike consist of a sort of 
jointed thread, made up of single cells, attached end 
to end. The plants are always profusely branched, 
and in this regard are distinguished from those of 
the next genus, which are never branched. 

* Cladophora = branch-bearing. 


Cladophora arcta, Dillw. 
The arched Cladophora, of which we give a fine 
and characteristic illustration in Plate III., is named 
from the peculiar habit of its growth. The branches 
divide and subdivide by extremely acute angles, and 
the ramifications are all very straight. This prevents 
the unsymmetrical outline common to most plants of 
this genus, keeps the branches somewhat close together 
as they rise upward, and, at the same time, permits 
them to separate gradually and symmetrically. This 
gives the tuft its arched and graceful form, not unlike 
the outline of our more perfect and beautiful elms. 
This characteristic of form, the yellowish green color, 
and the decidedly glossy or silky look, which the 
plant usually presents when dry and pressed on paper, 
makes its determination easy. Another peculiarity 
which may be noticed in the dried specimen is the 
disposition of the chlorophyl of the terminal branchlets 
to collect in the extreme end cell, making that cell 
have a distinctly darker green color than the cells just 
below it in the branch. It is an annual. Mr. Collins 
finds it common at Nahant and Nantasket, on rocks 
between tides, from March to July. Miss Booth finds it 
extremely rare at Peconic Bay, L. I. At Marblehead I 
gathered it frequently during the summer months. It is 
often found on the California coast, near Santa Cruz. 


Cladophora uncialis, Fl. Dan. 

As its name implies, is about an inch long. I 
have found it growing in tide pools, or on the rocks 
near low tide, in little globose tufts, about an inch 
across, and of the same height. The tuft grows from 
a mass of matted root-fibres. It is more or less closely 
matted together by reason of its wide and irregular 
branching. When growing, the plant is of a bright 
green color, which will be discharged if it is put into 
fresh water. When dry it is quite a yellowish green, 
lighter still toward the centre of the tuft. The cells of the 
main stems and branches are of nearly uniform length, 
and two or three times longer than broad. My plants 
are all from Marblehead where they were collected 
in midsummer. Mr. Collins finds this plant in the 
same locaHties, seasons and situations, as the C. arcta, 
which it resembles not a little. My other correspond- 
ents do not report it, though no doubt it may be 
found along our whole northern coast. 

Cladophora rupestris, L. 

The Cladop]io7'a "of the rock," is a very distinctly 
marked species. It grows between tides and below. 
Its best forms are to be found in tide pools near low 
water mark, or on the perpendicular sides of rocks, 


near low tide, under the curtain of the overhanging 
J^ud. It is a very dark, dull green. Its filaments are 
coarse, stiff, straight and rigid. Its secondary branches 
divide at very acute anp^les, and therefore, as in C. 
arcta, cluster and cling aomewhat closely about the 
principal branches. There is a decided tendency in 
the main branches to separate from each other, and 
stand aloof with their closely clustering branchlets. 
These separate pencils of dark green filaments are of 
quite unequal length. The tuft is commonly three 
or four inches high, but sometimes, six or eight. It 
is not uncommon from New York city northward ; but 
it certainly is more beautiful on our northern New 
England shores. It is reported from Nahant and 
Cape Ann, by Mr. Collins and Mrs. Bray, from March 
to December. 

Cladophora cartilaginea, Rupr. 

Is a California plant, and is found growing, as Dr. 
Anderson informs me, at all seasons, on rocks and 
other sea weeds, in tide pools, very common at Santa 
Cruz. Its robust, coarse frond; perceptable harsh- 
ness to the touch; dull green color; stiff, straight 
branches, set at an acute angle with the stem ; its 
refusal to adhere to the paper, as well as its general 
appearance, relate it closely with C. rupestris. It 


differs in being of a shade lighter color, and a some- 
what slenderer filament. This is almost the only 
Cladophora which gets sent over here from California, 
though it is not the only one growing there. It is 
reported common all along the coast. 

Cladophora refracta,* Roth. 

This plant grows on rocky shores in tide pools. 
The filaments are very slender and fine, profusely 
branched. The end branchlets are so profuse, and 
so widely set, even recurved, or bent back, that they 
give the plant a very decidedly feathery, or downy 
appearance all along the edges of the frond and 
branches. This is its most characteristic mark. It 
is a bright green in the water, but fades a good deal 
when dried and mounted. It grows three or four 
inches high. It is a summer annual, and may be 
looked for on the whole coast, in tide pools, or float- 
ing up from deep water. 

Cladophora gracilis, f Griff. 

This species grows in deep water, parasitical upon 
Zo:;tcra and smaller Alga^' in the Laininaria region. 
It generally has its main branches much interwoven 

* Refracta = bent back. 

t Gracilis = slender, graceful. 


and entangled, so that it will look like a formless 
mass of green as it rises to the surface of the water 
and washes on shore. The only guiding mark is its 
long, straight, or inwardly curved ultimate branchlets. 
These are conspicuous, and the cells of wliich they 
are made are also seven or eight times longer than 
broad. The filaments are as fine as human hair, six 
or eight inches long, and have a very silky look when 
massed in the mounted specimen. The color is a 
very bright yellowish green when fresh. Mr. Collins 
finds it at Nahant between tide marks. It is a summer 

Cladophora glaucescens, Griff. 

Grows in tufts not much entangled, on stones and 
rocks, between tide marks and in pools, from three to 
five inches high. The branches divide and subdivide 
excessively, are quite slender, and the ultimate branches 
are closely beset usually on the inside, almost always 
on one side only, with a series of straight, acutely 
branching undivided branchlets, composed of several 
cells. In drying, the chlorophyl is usually dissipated 
to one end of the cell, making the plant under the 
lens look somewhat variegated. The filaments are 
constricted at the joints of the cells. Color a pale or 
glaucous green. 

Green algje. g3 

Cladophora fluxuosa, Griff. 

Harvey Considers this plant nearly related to the 
last, if it is even specifically distinct. It is chiefly 
distinguished by its less compound habit, the length 
and nakedness of the principal branches, and their 
fluxuosity. It grows in rock pools between tides, is 
not very common, and is found both north and south 
of Cape Cod. 

Cladophor.\ l^tevirens, Dillw. 

The filaments are rather loosely tufted, feathery, 
robust and somewhat firm or rigid ; color, a pale 
green, as its name indicates, faded, and without gloss 
when dry. " Filaments three to four inches long, or 
more, much branched, main stem flexuous or angularly 
bent, set with alternate or scattered occasionally 
opposite, repeatedly decompound patent branches." 
Articulations of the main stem, four to eight times, 
of the ramuli, three to four times as long as broad. 
Substance not very soft. It adheres, but not very 
strongly, to paper, in drying. It is found in New 
York Bay, on the Massachusetts coast, and in Cali- 
fornia, in the latter region being quite common. Mr. 
Collins has collected it at Nahant and Revere between 
tide marks. 

64 SbA mosses. 

Genus.— CH^TOMORPHA* Kiitz. 

The plants of this genus may be separated into 
two groups, the straight and the crooked. The first 
we shall commonly find growing in their native haunts, 
standing up straight, stark and rigid. The others we 
shall find usually floating, or thrown on shore among 
the sea weed, a twisted, matted, entangled mass of 
long green threads, thick or slender, and as crooked 
and kinked as wool. The plants of this genus 
consist in general, of a single long, bristly, jointed, 
unbranched, green thread. 

Ch.«tomorpha melagonium, Web. & Mohr. 
This species grows in rock pools near low-water 
and below. From a disk-shaped root, on the rock, 
\t rises up four to twelve inches, solitary, straight, stiff 
and wirey, of a dark green color, as its name signifies, 
twice as thick as a bristle, tapering to the base, and 
blunt at the top. Articulations two or three times 
longer than broad. Common all along our rocky 
shores north of Boston, from June to October. 


This plant has something the same habit as the 
last. It grows in the same situations along the whole 

* Chaetomorpha = like a horse' s mane. 


coast ; but more common south of Cape Cod. It is 
common in southern California. It is but half the 
thickness of the other, and is not nearly so stiff and 
rigid, and grows not solitary, but in tufts, from three 
to twelve inches long. The filaments are considerably 
constricted at the joints. The articulations are about 
as broad as long. The color is yellow green, fading 
in the herbarium, and turning darker. Young plants 
are straight, but the old ones are often bent. It does 
not readily adhere to paper. 

Ch^tormorpha Olneyi, Harv. 

Filaments in tufts, about the size of the last, as thick 
as a brisde, straight or bent, or much contorted ; pale 
green ; articulations once and a half times longer than 
broad. It is of a much softer substance than the last, 
though it feels harsh when dried on paper, to which it 
adheres firmly. I found it beyond the first beach at 
Newport, Aug. 7, imich contorted, like C. Picquotiana. 
It was named for Mr. S. T. Olney, of Providence. 

Ch.^tormorpha Picquotiana, Mont. 

Filaments loosely bundled together in masses; grass 

green ; rigid, glossy, twelve inches long or more, twice 

as thick as bristles, variously curved and twisted ; 

articulations tliree to five times as long as broad 



constricted at the joints. In drying, the plant fades a 
little, but keeps its glossy look, and as the chlorophyl 
collects at the ends of the cells it gets a variegated 
appearance, an alternation of light and dark points 
along the thread. It is common along the whole 
coast. It grows in deep water five or six fathoms 
down, and so must be sought for among the cast up 
sea weeds, or floating on the surface of the water. 
Mr. Collins found it in tide pools, at Revere, in the 
spring, but it may be found all summer. It does not 
adhere to paper. 

Ch^tormorpha tortuosa, Dillw. 

You will find upon the rocks, or upon the Algae 
growing on them, mats of green wool, spread out or 
rolled up. This is C. tortuosa. Its filaments are very 
fine, finer than human hair, densely interwoven and 
felted together into rolls, or spreading mats. It 
does not colapse when taken from the water. It is 
common at Nahant, Marblehead, and Nantasket, and 
northward in midsummer. My specimens have adhered 
very well to paper. It is not uncommon in California. 

K^ bi^ '^'- j's^'s^' 


I. Frond leaf- hearing. 

Main stem and branches cylindrical, bearing 
globular, stalked minute, air vessels, and 
narrow, undivided, dotted leaves. General 
habit arborescent. "Gulf-weed." Sargassufn. 

II. Frond, flat, coriaceous or leathery. 
I. With Midrib, 
(a.) Frond perforated. Agarmn. 

{p.) Frond entire, stem bearing leaflets or 

wings. Alaria. 

2. Without Midrib. 
(«.) Frond thick, leathery and large, dark olive 

green or brown. "Kelp." Limifiaria. 
{b.) Frond thinner and smaller, light green or 

brown, from three to twelve inches 

long. Puncfaria. 

(<r.) Frond narrow in proportion to length, 

half-inch wide, eight to twelve inches 

long. Phyllitis. 

{d.) Frond still narrower and constricted at 

intervals. Scytosiphon. 


III. Frond narrow, compressed or flatiened. 
Frond forked or branched, thick, tough, one 

to two feet long. " Rockweed." Fucics. P 

IV. Frond filiforivi or thread-like. 

I . Frond Unbranched. 
Frond four to six inches long. Sometimes 
inflated and constricted ; always covered 
with minute dark dots. Color, yellow 
olive. Asperococctts. 

Long, ten to twenty feet, elastic, much at- 
tenuated at each end. Chofda. 
2. Frond Branched, 
(a.) Branches mostly simple. 
Long in proportion to main stem, parts as large \ 

as pack-thread. Color black. C/wrdaria. 
Short in proportion to main stem. Color, 
olive or full green. Casiagnea. 

{b.) Branches, naked, divided and sub-divided. 
Stem and branches repeatedly forking. Color, 
yellowish olive, dotted over with minute 
dark colored warts, frond six inches high. 

Frond one to two feet long, intricately 
branched; branches at last very small. 



(<r.) Branches clothed: 

1. With rows or circles of closely set, very 
short spines, which overlap each other, 
thus covering every part of the frond. 


2. With ^ort, fine, light olive green, delicate 
fibrils, which fall away and leave bare 
spines ; or with long darker green pencils 
of hair-like filaments. Desmarestia. 

V. Frond capillary. 

I . Uitbranched. 

Frond small, parasitical on Fuais, tufted. 

Elachista. /Ik. 

2. Bra?iched. 

Frond fine, profusely branched ; from a yel- 
lowish to a bright green; parasitical on 
Fuais, Cho?da, Chordaria and other ,, 

Algse. Ectocarpus. V 

VI. Frond tuberform. 

Fronds look not unlike green tomatoes. , 


(^>-«^- <tD 


I. Frond, leaf-bearing. 

1. Stem flattened, rough, leaves oh each 
edge, air vessels in the stems of some of 
the leaves ; plant many feet, sometimes 
many yards long. Phyllospora. 

2. Plant from a few to several hundred 
feet long. Stem cylindrical, slender, 
branched, leaves on opposite sides of 
the stem. Air vessel in each leaf stalk. 
Root, large, much branched. 


3. Stem long, slender, cylindrical, elastic, 
terminated in a large rounded air vessel 
which is crowned with a large tuft of 
long, slender leaves. Root branched. 


4. Stem short, stout, cylindrical, surmounted 
at top with a large tuft of deeply 
ribbed leaves. Postehia. 

' Only those genera whicli hsve species peculiar to this coast are included 
in this Key, ail the rett are in the other. 


n. Frond flat, leathery. 

1. Stem long or short, mostly slender. 
Blade thick, leathery, large or small, 
dark olive green or brown. ''Kelp." 


2. Stem cylindrical, long, stout, winged on 
each side with long stalked, leathery 
leaflets. Blade of frond thick, long; 
midrib at base, which fades out towards 
the top. Pte,-ygophora. 

3. Stem short, split, blade long, covered 
with a net-work of prominent nerves. 

r-r-r ^. Dictyoneurou. 


1. Frond narrow, thick, tough, forked, from 
three inches to two feet long. " Rock- 
^^eed." ^,,^^,^ 

2. Frond leafy below, finely divided and 
filiform above. Air vessels in the swollen 
bead-like ultimate branchlets. Halidn's. 

3. Frond flat, narrow, thin, pinnately com- 
pounded, pinnae and pinnulcX tapering 
to top and bottom. Desmarestia, 

4. Frond flat, fan-shaped, small, marked 
with concentric zones or belts of darker 
color. Zonaria. 


IV. Frond cylindrical, filiform. 

Frond branched from leading stem, branches 
short, thick as pack-thread. Plant four 
to ten inches high. Color black. 


V. Frond tuberform. 

Frond inflated, massed, thin and soft, yel- 
low olive, from one to three inches 
through. Asperococcus sinuosus. 




Down on the shore, on the sunny shore I 

Where the salt smell cheers the land; 
Where the tide moves bright under boundless J»^ht, 

And the surge on the glittering strand ; 
Where the children wade in the shallow pools, 

Or ran from the path ia play ; 
With the hushing waves on its golden floor 

To sing a tuneful roundelay. 
Down on the shore, on the stormy shore ! 

Beset by growling sea, 
Whose mad waves leap on the rocky steep. 

Like wolves up a traveller's tree. 
Where the foam flies wide, and an angry blast 

Blows the curlew off with a screech ; 
Where the brown sea-wack, torn up by the roots, 

Is flung out of fishers' reach • 
Where the tall ship rolLi on the hidden shoals, 

4nd scatter her planks on the beach. 

^ 4 


Sub-class.— MELANOSPOR^. 
Gex^us.— ZONARIA* A^. 


'^1^1' ANY plants of this species have been dis, 
<;^l^ tributed under the name of Z. flava. It is 
common in southern CaHfornia, as some species of 
this genus are in aH tropical and sub-tropical seas. 
It grows from a short, flattened stem, a widely- 
spreading, flat, fan-shaped frond, two to four inches 
high, with obscure concentric bands of a darker color 
on the olive green of the plant. The extreme rounded 

* Zonaria — belted or zoned. 


thin edges of the lobes are bordered with a fine 
dark line. The frond is split down from the margin 
with clefts running down quite to Wie base, or half- 
way or a quarter of the way, and the lobes are more 
or less profusely sprinkled over with dark colored fruit 
dots. It may be found throughout the season at Santa 
Barbara and San Diego, upon small rocks near low- 
tide, or thrown up by storms upon the beach. 


Genus — SAJ^GASSC/M* Ag. 

This genus is represented by but one species on 
our north Atlantic coast. But this species is com- 
mon enough along most of the shores south of Cape 

Sargassum Vulgare, Ag. 

The plant grows from a flat disdoid hold-fast, 
with a filiform stem as thick as stout wrapping- 
twine, which branches alternately, and bears on the 
main stem and branches long narrow leaves, which 
have stalks or petioles, a well-defined midrib and 
toothed edges, and are marked on the surta^ '^ith 

* Sargassum, from Sargazo, Spanish fur Sea-lentils. 


minute dark dots. The leaves vafy greatly in length 
and breadth and even in shape, being from one to 
three inches long, and from one-eighth to one-third 
of an inch wide. The air vessels which distinguish 
the genus are numerous little globes, one-eighth of an 
inch or more in diameter, set upon litde stalks half an 
inch long, which grow from the axils of the leaves. 
Sometimes from the appearance of a sharp tip or 
point on the opposite side of the globes, the stalk 
seems to extend qi?ite through it. The fruit is 
borne in a many times branched "twiggy," thick- 
ened receptacle, which grows from the axils of the 
leaves. I have found this plant growing common 
upon small stones and pebbles all along our south- 
ern New England coast, just below low-tide marks, 
usually less than two feet long, though I have plants 
not less than four feet. But the length will depend 
mostly upon the age. Plants not more than a foot 
long make the best herbarium specimens. It is peren- 


Genus,— FBYLLOSPORA,'' Ag. 

Phyllospora Menziesii, Ag. 

This is a very common plant, growing along the 
whole California coast, at all seasons, upon locks 
between tides and below. It is found on the sea 
beach of the ocean and Bay, at San Diego, thrown up 
from deep water, and at Castle Point, Santa Barbara, 
in deep water. From a branching hold- fast, a 
short, round stem rises, which immediately divides 
irregularly, into several long, flattened strap-like 
branches, many feet, sometimes many fathoms long, 
from one-quarter to one inch wide, thickish, rough- 
ened, or smooth, and bordered on each edge with 
a profusion of leaves. The leaves are wide and 
rounded at top, narrow or distinctly stalked at bot- 
tom, varying in length from one -half inch to six or 
more inches. Sometimes set an inch apart, some- 
times crowded close together, and interspersed at 
intervals with large, pear-shaped air vessels, one-haVf 
to three-quarters of an inch in diameter, these are 
often tipped with a leaflet. The plant may be infal- 
lably determined by the distinctive marks given above. 
It should be partly dried before putting in the press. 

* Pliyllospora = Spore-bearing leaves. 

iKiDis, Hat: 


Genus. — HALIDR YS* Lyngb. 

Halidrys osmundacea, Harv. 

This elegant plant forms a prominent feature in 
the marine flora of southern California. It grows in 
abundance at San Diego, below tide, and in the 
sluice-ways cut in the rocks by the water. It is 
thrown on shore at all seasons. It is also abundant 
at Santa Barbara, but absent at Santa Cruz. At all 
events, that acute observer, Dr. Anderson, does not 
report it as piesent. It grows from a discoid hold- 
fast, a roundish flattened stem, as thick as a goose 
quill. Flattening more and more upwards, the stem 
divides or branches, and puts out from its edges, 
winglets, or alternate leaves, from one to two inches 
long, which, like the flattened stem, are thick and 
midribed. Near the middle of the stem these 

cease, and the stem becomes rounded again and 
alternately branched, the branches also branching 
alternately in nearly the same plane. The secondary 
cylindrical branchlets form the air vessels of the 
plant, by being much swollen and hollow, and 
constricted at regular intervals, giving them an ap- 
pearance not unlike a string of coarse black beads. 

* Halidrys = Sea Oak. 


The full grown plant must be two or three feet long, 
though my specimens do not show it. It is olive green 
when fresh, but like most of the FucacecB turns black 
in drying. 

Genus.— /^<7C^^,* L. 

The plants of this genus are together popularly 
known as "Rockweed." They constitute, on the 
Atlantic coast at least, more than one-half of the mass 
of our littoral Algae. There are three species sufficiently 
common on the Atlantic coast to come within the 
scope of this book, and one on the Pacific. The 
latter will be described first, it standing thus in the 
natural order. 


This species seems to be the most common Fucm 
in southern California, though JF. vesiculosus grows 
there in abundance, as it does also along the coast 
north; and F. Harveyanus is found as a rare plant 
at Santa Barbara, and as a common one at Mon- 
terey. Mr. Cleveland says that F. fastigiatus grows 
at San Diego in mats, on flat rocks left uncovered 
by the ebb tide, at all seasons, abundant. 

* Fucus = Seaweed. 


It has a cylindrical frond as thick as a sparrow's 
quill, which forks very near the base, and again each 
of the parts repeatedly fork more and more remotely, 
but less and less widely, six or seven times. The fruit 
is borne in the thickened terminal branchlets. It grows 
to the height of three or four inches. There are no 
air vessels. 


This is the Fuais with little bladders, or air vessels. 
Of the two Fuci which cover the rocks and wood-work 
of wharves, along our whole eastern coast, as far south 
as the Carolinas, the most plentiful is the one named 
above. This and the next, grow together everywhere. 
The plants of this species are greatly variable in size 
according to their place of growth, being most luxuriant 
where they have the tide longest. The frond varies 
from a quarter of an inch to one and one-half inches in 
width, and from two inches to two feet in length. It 
is tough and leathery in substance, decidedly flat, 
with an evident midrib throughout the main stem 
and branches. It branches by forking, and the axils 
of the divisions are usually very acute. Each frond 
is commonly provided with from one to several pairs 
of oval air bladders, immersed in the substance of 
the frond, each side of the midrib. It bears its seed 


vessels in the extremities of the branches, which are, 
in that case, much swollen, and of a pronounced 
yellow color. Cut through with a knife, these swollen 
receptacles will appear to consist of a mass of hard 
geiatine, and the seed vessels will show themselves as 
bright yellow spots, all around the circumference. The 
distinct olive green color of the fresh plant changes 
to black in drying. 


Our next most common " Rockweed," is the 
"knotty" FuciLs, so called, from the knots or swell- 
ings which the interior air vessels make in the frond. 
This species differs from the last in several impor- 
tant respects : first, by having a very narrow frond, 
of the same width throughout, one-quarter of an inch 
or more ; second, by its method of branching, 
which is not in regular forks, but by putting out side 
branches of various and irregular lengths, commonly 
quite long, from the sides of the mairu stem ; third, by 
the presence also with the branches of short (three- 
quarters to one inch long) branchlets, whose wider 
ends thicken and produce the seed vessels j and fourth, 
by the prominent swellings or knots in the stem, and 
branches which give the species its name. This and 
the other Fuci are fastened to the rock on which thev 


grow by a discoid hold-fast. The plants grow between 
tides from six inches to two feet long. It is a peren- 
nial, and the old fronds will be quite likely to have 
some species of Ectocarpiis growing on them. It is 
also the favorite and almost the only home of the 
Polysiphonia fastigiata. It is a rich olive in water, 
but quite black when dry. 


The forked Fucus resembles the F. vesiculosus in 
its general habit of growth, but differs from it in 
several particulars, viz., in having a somewhat wider, 
shorter and more constantly typical frond, in having 
no air bladders, and in having the terminal forks 
which bear the seed vessels much longer, more 
pointed, and less swollen, being two and sometimes 
three inches long. The whole plant is a foot or 
more in length, and grows just down at the extreme 
low-water mark. It may be most easily found and 
collected, during the time of "spring tides," at new 
or full moon. It is common on the rocks at Nahant, 
Marblehead, and northward. The microscopist dis- 
tinguishes this species from F. vesiculosus by a differ- 
ence in the contents of the seed vessels. There are 
two other species of Fucus recognized in our north 
eastern flora. F. ccranoidcs at Marblehead. and F. 


serrafiis at Newburyport ; but their rarity makes it 
undesirable to describe them in a work intended only 
as a popular introduction to the more common forms 
of our marine flora. 

Order.— PH^ OSPORE^E. 
Sub-order.— LAMINARIE^. 

Macrocystis pyRiFER--\, Ag. 

This is the giant among sea weeds. Indeed, it 
attains a length unknown in any other vegetable form 
upon the globe. Were it not to question the testi- 
mony of careful observers, I should be much inclined 
to doubt some of the stories told about this remarkable 
plant. Dr. Hooker says it attains a length of 700 
feet, and Bory St. Vincent declares it is sometimes 
found 1,500 feet long. Mrs. Bingham, of Santa 
Barbara, writes me that it is frequendy thrown on 
shore there, 100 feet long. Mr. Cleveland, who has 
been at great pains and trouble to get me exact 
data as well as typical specimens of this plant, ha3 

* INIacrocystis = With large bladders. 


seen it 200 feet long at San Diego. The account 
which I give is from their notes. The hold-fast for 
these larger plants is a great mass of branching roots, 
" as large as a bushel basket," sometimes three feet 
broad, and a foot thick, which cling to the rocks and 
boulders with great tenacity. One or more stems, from 
a half to three-fourths of an inch in diameter rise from 
this, putting out leaves on either side alternately, a 
foot apart at the base, gradually growing nearer toward 
the end of the stem. The leaves, in the largest plants, 
are from two to four feet long, and three or four 
inches wide, stalked, and the stalk swollen into a pear- 
shaped air vessel, sometimes an inch and a half long, 
and an inch thick. The leaves are thin, peculiarly 
wrinkled, of a fine olive color, and along both edges 
bordered with sharp, spine -like teeth, which point 
forward. These plants grow in waiter, fifty feet deep 
or more, in vast forests, coming to the surface 
and then stretching their leafy fronds far out, prone 
upon the sea. In this way, great fields of them, 
sometimes a mile wide and several miles long, are 
formed, especially near bays, as at San Luis Obespo, 
Santa Barbara, San Pedro, and San Diego. The 
stem terminates in a leaf-Hke expansion, and the 
growth goes forward in a very curious fashion, by the 
constant splitting off of the side of this terminal leaf. 


The splitting is a natural process, and as it proceeds, 
the petiole and the air vessel are successively developed, 
so that when the tip of the leaflet, finally parts from 
the parent leaf, it will be fully fonned, though not full 
grown. At the same time there will be lying inside 
of this four or five other leaflets, in various stages of 
growth, from the most rudimentary, to the almost fully 
formed. I suppose this must be considered the most 
remarkable feature of the marine flora of the Pacific 
coast, though it is by no means the only wonderful 
plant that makes its home in those waters. 

Genus.— JVB/^EOCVST/S* Post. &> Rupr. 

Nereocystis Lutkeana, Post. & Rupr. 

Next to the Macrocystis, the Nereocystis is the 
most remarkable and wonderful plant of the Pacific 
waters. To quote Harvey, " The Nereocystis of the 
North West coast, is said, when fully grown, to have 
a stem measuring 300 feet in length, which bears at 
its summit a huge air vessel, six or eight feet long, 
shaped like a great cask, and ending in a tuft of 
upwards of fifty forked leaves, each of which is from 

* Nereocystis — Sea-bladdef, 


thirty to forty feet in length. The cask-Hke air vessel 
which may be eight inches or more in diameter, buoys 
up this immense frond, which hke Milton's hero, lies 

' Prone on the flood extended long and large, 
Floating many a rood.' 

Here the Sea Otter has his favorite lair, resting 
himself on the vesicle, or hiding among the leaves 
while he pursues his fishing. The stem which anchors 
this floating mass of fronds is of considerable length 
and elasticity, though it is no larger than a whip cord. 
It is employed as a fishing line by the rude natives 
of the coast." 

Dr. Anderson, of Santa Cruz, was kind enough 
to send me a small typical specimen, sufficiently 
large to show all the characteristic points in the 
form and growth of the younger plants. Starting 
from a many-pronged hold-fast, like that of the 
Laminaria, is a slender stem not more than a 
quarter of an inch in diameter. For two yards it 
keeps this size, when it begins to expand. For the 
space of another yard it gradually increases in size, 
and is evidently hollow, till at the end it has at- 
tained a diameter of one and a quarter inches, 
when dry; it probably was something more than that 
In the water. Then it is immediately and suddenly 
irawn in, or constricted, and forms a narrow neck^ 


not more than three-quarters of an inch through, 
and then as suddenly expands into a large, egg- 
shaped vesicle, the narrow end of the egg being 
next to the neck, and the wide end crowned with 
two tufts of long, narrow leaves. The dimensions 
of the oviform part of the air vessel are, in the 
long diameter two and three-quarters inches, and in 
the short two and a quarter inches. The leaves are 
from one-half a yard to a yard long and from half 
an inch to one inch wide, many of them with thick 
brown patches of spores upon them. 

Mr. Cleveland has had the kindness to send me 
parts of a plant and drawings of the whole, which 
enables me to add a point to the history of this 
curious genus, that I think will be interesting to 
collectors. This form differs from the one already 
described, by the air vessel bearing upon its apex 
a single large forking petiole, whose two arms spread 
out on each side and branch, like the anders of a 
deer; each short "prong" bearing, at the end, a 
broad, long leaf. In a plant whose air vessel measures 
5 2 inches in diameter, the flattened petiole at base 
was two inches broad, and the two " horns " into which 
it immediately divided, were i 4 inches broad and eight 
feet long. These gave out branches upon the inside at 
intervals of about a foot, which branches, at a distance 


A T''TV<;ax-' 



from their base of a foot or so, forked, and bore 
on each part a long, broad tongue-shaped leaf, two 
or three feet long, and as many inches broad. 

Prof. Eaton has kindly sent me a copy of Areschoug's 
description (in Botaniska Notiser for May 15, 1876), 
of what he, with some hesitation, names a new species : 
N. gigantea, which answers very well to Mr. Cleveland's 
plant. It would seem to be an easy matter for our 
California botanists to settle the question of whether 
or not these two extreme forms are always distinct, 
or insensibly pass into each other, in a large group 
of specimens ; or whether the iirst is but the 
young of which the last is the mature form, as some 
botanists seem to think. Mr. Cleveland assures me 
that the last described form is quite constant. 

It is a very common plant, growing in deep water, 
all along the west coast, at all seasons, and is flung 
on shore in great quantities by the storms. 

G^enus.— FOSTELSIA, Rupr. 


This species is quite common on the west coast 

* Postelsia, named for A. Postels, a fellow-botanist with Ruprecht. 
t T>alniaeforniis = Paln)-='-'='ned. 


from Santa Cmz northward. I have seen but one 
spechnen of this curious and interesting plant, and 
that was kindly sent me by Dr. Anderson. It is a 
small but apparently a typical one. The excellent 
figure and description given by Ruprechf leaves noth- 
ino: in that line to be desired. The main stem is 
many pronged at the base, hollow, about half an 
inch thick, which size is uniform, except that it tapers 
a little near the top, and about a foot long. It is 
crowned with a cluster of stalked leaves a foot or 
more long, an inch or so wide at the middle, tapering 
to a point at the top, and set in pairs upon the long 
forked petiole. The leaves are curiously ribbed or 
" fluted " lengthwise, the higher ribs being in the 
middle. An examination shows that the depressions 
on one side correspond to the elevations on the other 
side of the leaf. It is found at all seasons on exposed 
points, growing upon the rocks. 

Q^Qx\\x%.^ PTERYGOPHORA* Riipr. 

Pterygophora californica, Rupr. 

For a fine plant of this species I am also indebt-ed 
to the liberality of Dr. Anderson, and for a full 

* Pterygophora = Wing-bearing. 


account of its habits to the celebrated botanist who 
has done so much to illustrate the marine flora of 
the North Pacific, Dr. Ruprecht. 

This plant more nearly approaches the Alaria than 
any other of the LaminariecE. Fastened to the rock 
by a multitude of prongs which radiate from the base 
of the stem, the stem itself rises two or three feet, 
half an inch thick, mostly quite cyhndrical, but flattened 
near the top, where it gives off the characteristic '' wings " 
on each side. The " blade," or the main leaf, is two 
feet or more long, three inches broad in the widest 
part, frayed out at the top, and thickened through 
the whole length in the middle with a midrib, which 
is apparently a continuation of the stem. This mid- 
rib has not the deflnite outline which it has in the 
Alaria, but is only a thickening of the middle of 
the leaf which vanishes imperceptibly towards the 
edges and the top. The '' wings " are stalked, not 
crowded close together as in the Alaria, but set in 
pairs, some distance apart, along the opposite sides 
of the main stem, four or five or more pairs of them, 
from one to two feet long, and from one to one and 
one-half inches broad, with no trace of a midrib. 
Mr. Cleveland reports this plant common from February 
to May, growing in deep water, along the coast as far 
south as San Diego. Dr. Anderson finds it among 


the commonest plants growing with the other 
LaminariecB throughout the season at Santa Cruz, 

Genus.—ALARIA* Grev. 

Alaria esculenta, Grev. 

The edible Alaria grows upon submerged rocks 
just below tide. It is a plant whose peculiar aspect 
makes it very easy of recognition and quite impos- 
sible to confound with any other. Unlike any 
other of the " Kelps," except the Agarum it has a 
stout midrib running the whole length of the plant. 
This together with the little cluster of ribless leaflets 
or wings, barne on each side of the stem, just 
below the blade, makes the plant absolutely distinct. 
These leaflets bear the spores or fruit, and are 
always present except on young plants. The plant 
makes its anchorage upon the rock by the same 
means as the Laminariece. generally. The stem 
is from three inches to a foot long, cyHndrical. The 
blade consists of a thin wavy, or ruffled olive 
colored membrane, from one to four inches wide, 

* Alaria = wins'<=d. 



developed on each side of the thick midrib. It 
is of a delicate, tender texture, which easily tears, 
and then always in the same definite oblique direction 
toward the midrib. The ends of the old plants are 
usually frayed out, the midrib protruding beyond 
the rest of the blade with the ''rags and tatters" of 
the thin membrane hanging to it. The young plants, 
when not more than six or eight inches high, make 
veiy beautiful specimens, if neatly mounted. They 
are of a very delicate green color, and adhere well 
to paper, as, indeed, do my full grown plants. The 
species is said to grow twenty feet or more in length 
in some places. I have never found it over five or 
six. On the outside of Ram Island, off the Marble- 
head shore, in midsummer, I found the rocks literally 
covered with these interesting plants; and as they 
hung out over the edge of the submerged cHffs, and 
waved their long, delicate olive streamers in the green 
rolling waters, they certainly presented a bit of sub- 
marine scenery, well worth the trouble to find and 
look at. Turner says that in his day, the midribs of 
this plant stripped of the membrane, and the thickened, 
fruit laden leaflets, were brought to market and sold 
in Scodand, to eat, and were said to be sweet to the 
taste. They are popularly called " Daber Locks." Mrs. 
Bray finds it at Kittle Island and Magnolia on Cape 


Ann, growing sometimes in tide pools. It need not 
be looked for south of Cape Cod. 

Geuus.—VICTVONBC/J^ON* Rupr. 


This is certainly one of the most interesting 
plants of this group. It was first brought from 
the coast of California, in 1840, by Wosnessenski, 
a Rlissian navigator, and described by Ruprecht. 
In addition to his excellent figure and full text, 
I have several specimens kindly sent me by Dr. An- 
derson, as a guide in giving an account of the 
plant. The one before me is about thirty inches long 
and two and three-fourths inches wide in the widest 
place, tapering somewhat toward the broken top, and 
rapidly to the stem below. The frond has a tendency 
to bend in the direction of one edge like a sabre 
blade. Its distinguishing mark consists, however, in 
the fact that both surfaces of the frond are woven 
over with a net-work of prominent veins and ribs, 
some of which run in a general direction, parallel 
with the edges of the frond, and others not so thick 

* Dictyoneuron = Netted nerves. 


or prominent, connect these in an irregular way, so 
that the "meshes" are of very indefinite size and 
shape. The hold-fast is a small bunch of branching 
roots, and the stem, which is flat, almost immediately 
expands into the blade. In most of the fronds, 
especially the older ones, the stem is split into halves, 
the split extending sometimes several inches into 
the blade of the frond. This splitting is a natural 
process, and not accidental. No collector of California 
Algae ought to miss this curious and quite unique 
species. It may be found at Santa Cruz and north- 
ward, from June to" November, among the other 

Q^Qxwxz.— LAMINARIA* Lam. 

The larger plants of this genus bear collectively 
several popular names, as '' Kelp," '^ Oar Weed," 
" Devil's Aprons," etc. They are the largest Algae 
belonging to the flora of our Atlantic coast. The three 
most common species to be named below, from that 
flora, may be easily distinguished from each other by 
well marked specific differences. 

They are all deep water plants, and while they 

Laminaria = A leaf. 


would not be chosen for their beauty in the herbarium, 
they are certainly in the water, extremely graceful and 
interesting forms. They are all perennial. The method 
of drying, pressing and mounting them, has already 
been given in the Introductory Chapter. 

Laminaria saccarhina. Lam. V 

This species is so named for the supposed 
sweet taste of the frond, a quality which I 
confess has thus far quite eluded my powers of 
detection. It is distinguished from the next species 
to be named, by its short stem, and its narrower 
frond. The stem is not more than four to eight inches 
long, and from one-third to one-half an inch thick. The 
stem terminates below in a conical mass of stout, root- 
like prongs, which constitute the hold-fast. These 
are firmly glued to whatever the plant grows upon, 
as shells, rocks, stones, etc., at the bottom of the sea. 
If you try to remove one of these large plants from 
its native anchorage, you will find that it holds very 
fast. The short stem expands upward abruptly, into 
a wide, thick, leathery, smooth, dark olive colored 
blade, eight to twelve inches wide, and six to eight 
feet long. It is usually wavy or ruffled at the edges. 
A narrow and very beautiful variety of this species grows 
along the shore at Newport, over by the beaches. It 


is not more than three or four inches wide, but at 
least two yards long. The frond is very smooth and 
glossy, and exquisitely ruffled, so that as it rises and 
falls with the undulating waters, like a streamer in the 
upper air, it is, indeed, in form and motion, a thing 
jf rare grace. These plants lose most of their beauty 
(vhen dried and made ready for the herbarium. But 
ui the water they are most wonderfully fine. I want 
to say a word for them because I know they are com- 
monly either passed by without notice or countenence, 
and rejected for their imputed ugliness. But you want 
to see them at home if you would appreciate what 
they may be under favoring conditions. To those 
who make their summer home on Cape Ann, and 
desire to see the wider forms of this species, as they 
display themselves at their best, I would suggest that 
you go along the rocky shore south of the village of 
Rockport, out towards the Light House. As you come 
near the end of the land, you will find many large 
and deep tide pools, where these plants grow to per- 
fection. There, as they bend with their wavy fronds 
in long, graceful curves, over-arching the smaller Alg^e, 
which carpet the bottom, and decorate the sides of 
the pool; their own rich olive brown color setting off 
the brilliant reds and the bright greens of the other 
plants; they do, indeed, help to make a picture of 


exquisite beauty. This plant is very common on the 
Atlantic coast north of New York city, also on the 

Laminaria longicruris, de la Pyl. v^ 

The long stemed Laminaria is a plant which in our 
New England waters grows to about the size of L. 
saccarhina, except as to the stem which is usually 
quite as long as the blade of the plant. The whole, 
therefore, is from twelve to sixteen feet long, and I 
have found it at Marblehead eighteen to twenty feet 
long, the blade twelve to sixteen inches wide. Harvey 
says he found plants at Halifax, whose blade was two 
to three feet wide. The hold-fast, as in the last species, 
is composed of a number of stout roots, put out by 
the stem at the bottom. The stem is very slender 
and solid at that point, but toward the middle swells 
to the diameter of an inch or more, and become 
hollow. It tapers also toward the blade to a diam- 
eter of half an inch. Altogether, the stem will be 
found from six to ten feet long in the full grown plant 
The blade is much the shape and color of the wide 
forms of Z. saccarhina. It grows in deeper water 
than that species, and may be found in from five to 
ten fathoms or more. It is very abundant from Green- 
land to Cape Cod, and in she North Pacific 


Laminaria flexicaulis, Le Jolis. 

This is the Z. digitata in part, of Harvey's "Nereis." 
The holdfast and stem are much the same as in L. 
saccarhina, except in the more variable length of the 
stem. But the blade is much wider and is split from 
top to bottom into several long, strap-shaped segments 
from one to three inches wide. The whole blade 
may be from one to three feet wide, and from three 
to five feet long. It grows in deep tide pools, imd 
in the sea, from just below low- water mark to consider- 
able depths. This, like the other species of La^ni- 
naria, puts forth its new, yearly growth in the winter 
and early spring, in a most curious way, which I 
will now describe. 

The new blade grows forth from the top of the 
old stem and interposes itself between the old stem 
and the old blade. It carries the old blade on its 
top, till it has grown to nearly its full size, when 
by a process of natural decay, the old blade is sep- 
arated from the new, and falls away, in the month 
of May, and is washed ashore, in great numbers. 
The process has a very curious phase in this species. 
It is seen that the new frond splits down by a nat- 
ural process some time before the old blade is cast 
off, the old blade, meanwhile, holding the tips of 
the straps together at the top, while they are quite 


parted asunder lower down. One by one the straps 
from the margin inv/ards are pulled away from the 
old blade, till at last it is held by but two or three 
central ones. These part at last, and the old frond 
falls like an autumn leaf 

" Because its time to die has come." 

Those who live by the sea the year around may 
be interested to watch this curious process of "shed- 
ding the leaf," in this species. It was first described 
many years ago, by that most pains-taking and sharp- 
eyed naturalist, Dawson Turner. This species is not 
common, if it is found at all, south of Cape Cod ; 
north of that it is plenty enough. 

Laminaria Andersonii, Eaton. 

I have three copies of this plant, sent me a few 
years ago by Dr. Anderson himself, and for want of 
» a prmted description by the author, will give a de- 
scription of one of these. This specimen is about 
one yard long. The lower half is a stem with the 
usual branching hold-fast. The stem is cyHndrical, of 
uniform size, one-sixth of an inch in thickness. It 
suddenly expands into the blade of the frond which 
IS about an inch wide, and, of course, half a yard 
long, sides parallel except where it narrows into the 


stem, broken off or " frayed out " at the top. It 

is reported at Santa Cruz, California, only, where it 
grows on rocks with Pterygophora. 

Genus.— AGARUM* Bory, V^ 


This plant differs frSm the Laminarice among 
which it grows, by its shorter stem, its thinner blade, 
its stout midrib running through the whole frond, 
and, most of all, by the fact that it is perforated 
throughout with holes of various sizes. This gives 
it its popular name of " Sea Colandar." It grows 
in deep water, holds to the rocks by a number of 
root fibres, has a stem one-fourth of an inch in 
diameter, three to twelve inches long which expands 
somewhat as it enters the blade, forming a substan- 
tial midrib. This blade is usually a foot wide, often 
more, and from one to three yards long, though 
you will often find it no more than a foot or half 
a yard long. It has a rather more pronounced 
green color than the Laminaricr, and, as before 
remarked, is of thinner substance. It is very abundant 

* Agarum = A fungus or mushroom. 


from Cape Cod to Greenland, and is to be looked 
for among the " Kelp," and other sea- weed thrown 
up from deep water. It will be known at sight by the 
frond being full of holes. It is dried and mounted 
in the same way as the LaminaricE, 

Genus— STILOPHORA*- Ag. 

There are three species of this genus set down 
in the books, as belonging to our flora. Only one 
of them is of sufficient importance to warrant me in 
making mention of it here. 


Is a plant interesting alike to the botanist and 
the microscopist j for, if you take its wart-like mass 
of spores and filaments, and cut a thin section of it, 
and mount it for the microscope, you will find you 
have a beautiful object. 

It is a filiform plant, with stem and branches 
once or twice as thick as a bristle. It is much 
branched by irregular forkings, six or seven times 
repeated, the extreme ends short and widely spread- 
ing. It grows four to six inches high, and is of 

* Stilophora = Dot-bearing. 
t Rhizodes = Root-like. 


an olive green color with a yellowish tendency, which 
is even more pronounced in the dried than in the 
living plant. Its unmistakable mark is the little 
wart-like protuberances which are thickly scattered 
over all the stems and branches, making it deci- 
dedly rough to the sense of both sight and touch. 
It is found on our coast south of Cape Cod only ; 
not very common in most places, but at Orient, L. I., 
in Peconic Bay, Miss Booth reports it growing in 
unUmited quantities, in July and August. 

Syih-Oxdex.— ASPEROCOCCE^. 

There are two species of this genus on our 
eastern coast and one in California. Only one is 
common with us here ; the other, therefore, A. 
compressus, which has been reported only at Glou- 
cester, will not be described. 


Fiond flat or inflated, from three inches to one 
or two feet long, and from one-eighth to half an 
inch wide ; blunt at the apex, and attenuated toward 
the base. It may be known by its light olive color 

* Asperococcus = Rough-seeded, 
t Echinatus = Prickly. 


and by being covered all over on both sides with 
minute, oblong dots of a darker shade, which are 
masses of spores. This roughening of the surface by 
these spore masses, gives the plant both its generic 
and specific name. It is a summer annual and 
grows on the rocks, in pools between tides. Mr. 
ColHns has collected it at Revere and Nantasket, 
from June to August; Mrs. Davis, at Gloucester in 
the spring. I have found it in the summer at 
Marblehead, but not very common. 


This plant much resembles our Leathesia tuber- 
forniis in outline and habit of growth, though it is 
much thinner in substance, and grows in much 
larger clusters. Harvey says each individual frond is 
globose, one or two inches in diameter or larger, 
becoming much inflated and irregular in outUne as 
it advances in age, and is thus often ruptured and 
pierced here and there with holes of irregular shape 
and size. The frond is membranous, thin, soft, but 
not very tender; color, a brownish olive. It may 
be found common all along the California coast, at 
all seasons, growing. Dr. Anderson says, on tips of 
Halidrys. Mrs. Bingham finds it growing on small 
rocks and other Algae at mid-tide. Dr. Dinnick on 


A?nphiroa. Mr. Cleveland, in bunches, on flat rocks 
between tides, and washed ashore on the beach. 

Sub-order.— CHORDARIE^, 
Genus.^ CHORDA* Lam. 

Chorda ^ilum, Stack. 

The thread-like cords, which are sometimes pop- 
ularly called ''Dead men's lines," and sometimes 
" Mermaids' fish-lines," are plants very easily described 
and very easily recognized. The frond of C filum is 
a single undivided cord rising from a discoid hold-fast, 
by which it is attached to some small pebble or shell 
upon the sea bottom. At first, a mere thread, it in- 
creases in size till it is as large as a pipe-stem, or 
larger, then again tapers to a long, slender-pointed 
termination. When young, it is covered all about 
with short, fine, olive-colored hairs, which disappear in 
age. It loves quiet waters and grows to the height of 
ten, twenty, and even forty feet, according to favorable 
conditions. It is quite tough and somewhat elastic 
when recent. It is a favorite habitat of some of the 
smaller Algae, like some species of the Ectocarpus, 

* Chorda = A cord. 

104 SEA MOSS£S. 

Call>.tha77inion etc. The Cyclopoedia Britannica mentions 
the fact that it is distributed in beds through the North 
Sea and British Channel, fifteen to twenty miles long, 
and yet not more than 600 feet wide. It is common 
along all our shores, from New York northward. It 
grows, of course, in deep v/ater. Its fronds reach 
up, at least, to the surface. The old fronds should 
be allowed to dry off a little before mounting, but 
the young ones, covered with hairs, may be floated 
out in water. The long plants are best disposed of 
by coiling up neatly on the sheet of mounting paper, 
and drying in the usual way, under pressure. They 
seem to adhere well. 

Genus.— CHORDARIA* Ag. 

Chordaria flagelliformis, Ag. 

The whiplash Chordaria is found in bewildering 
abundance along our whole coast. It may be known 
by its very dark brown or quite black color, both 
in the water and on paper ; and by its long, slender, 
naked, mostly undivided branches, which sweep off 
from all sides, and, in not ungraceful curves, over- 

* Chordaria == Cord-like. 


arch the top of the frond. Neither stem nor 
branches are ever larger than a pack-thread, and 
commonly not half so large. The leading stem 
ascends half-way or more, through the whole length 
of the plant. The branches put out very irregularly 
all around; sometimes scattered, sometimes much 
crowded, sometimes short, but more often long and 
bent inward, as indicated above. It grows upon 
shells, stones, rocks and other Algse, to which it is 
fastened by a minute disk. The substance of the 
frond is cartilaginous, tough and elastic. When 
taken from the water it will be decidedly slippery 
to the touch, and when carried home and removed 
from the mass of plants in the collecting case, it 
will be found to be not a little shmy. It will be 
quite sure to stain the cloth used in pressing and 
drying it, and, perhaps, also the paper on which it 
is mounted, a dark, brownish color. It is an annual, 
and grows between tides, not usually over a foot 
high, and the old fronds will be quite certain to be 
infested with some species of Ectocarpus. 

Chordaria divaricata, Ag. 

The widely branched Chordaria is a deep-water 
plant and may be collected along our whole coast, 
from New York to Gloucester, and probably farther 


north. But it will be found more plentiful south 
than north of Cape Cod. I have taken it at 
Southold, L. 1., and at Wood's Holl. It is not so 
robust a plant as the last. From the first, it branches 
out widely in all directions, in a straddling, strug- 
gling, bushy way. The branches, which branch again 
and again, are -beset throughout with short (one- 
sixteenth to one-tenth of an inch), spines^ which 
are mostly forked widely at the ends. These are 
the characteristic points. The plants of this, like 
those of the last species, are somewhat slippery and 
slimy, and must not be put under too much pres- 
sure at first. It often grows a foot or more, though 
my specimens are not more than half that height. 
My correspondents report it as found all summer at 
all points. 

Chordaria abietina, Rupr. 

This is the only species of this genus found on the 
coast of Cahfornia. It is quite common at Santa 
Cruz and northward, growing on the boulders^ along 
rocky beaches. 

A mounted specimen, four inches high, lies before 
me as I write. It has a principal leading stem extend- 
ing the whole length of the plant, which is two oi 
three times as thick as a bristle, and i-Quch attenuaied 



at the base. A quarter of the way up it is bare. From 
that point it is thickly beset all around with short 
branches, varying from half an inch to one and one- 
half inches long, undivided, narrowly constricted at 
the base, blunt at the apex, mostly cur\'ed, and stand 
out perpendicularly from the main stem. 

Q,Qx\w%.— CASTAGNEA, ThureL 

Castagnea Zosters, Thuret. 

This species is named from the "Eel grass" or 
Zostera, on the fronds of which it commonly grows. 
It is a very slender plant, not larger than a thread or 
bristle, and some six or eight inches long, of a light 
olive color, somewhat bent in a zigzag way, and but 
sparingly branched. The branches are irregularly 
placed, short (about one inch long), spreading horizon- 
tally from the main stem, and either widely forking 
or beset with twig-like branchlets, which are also fre- 
quently forked or spiney. It adheres nicely to paper, 
and is not an uninteresting though by no means a 
handsome plant. I found it in August, in Marblehead 
harbor. My correspondents do not report it else- 
where, though Dr. Farlow records it in Wood's Holl, 


and Mr. Collins and Mrs. Bray in Robinson's "List 
of Essex Plants," report it from Gloucester. 

Castagnea virescens, Thuret. 

This is apparently a shorter but more robust plant, 
and more thickly branched than the last. It is of 
a more pronounced green color, as its name implies. 
It is not more than three inches long, main stem and 
branches both straighter than in C. Zosterce, but 
having the twiggy appearance peculiar to the genus. 
American plants are said to grow on Zostera, though 
no doubt it grows parasitical on the other Algse also. 
According to Le Jolis they are found , on stones and 
pebbles, and in tide pools on the rocks at half tide, 
toward the end of spring. Mrs. Davis finds it growing 
on sand covered rocks at half tide, all summer at 
Gloucester, and Mr. Collins found it in June at Revere, 
cast up from deep water, not very common. Miss 
Booth makes report of it in the same situations at 
Peconic Bay. It is also reported at Wood's Holl and 
Portland. I should expect to find it at Marblehead. 

Fig. 2 





Sub-order.— MYRIONEM^. 
Q^Qmz.— LEATBESIA, Gray. 

Leathesia tuberformis, Gray. 
I suppose it was thought a great compliment to 
X brother naturalist, to name this plant for him. 
But one cannot help thinking, that one would 
rather lend his name to some of the more 
interesting and beautiful of the " flowers of the 
sea." Still, this plant has beauties of no uncommon 
kind, as you would see, if you were to take a very 
thin slice of it, and put it under the lenses of a micro- 
scope. It is also very widely distributed, being 
found in almost every sea, and on the most distant 
shores of the whole globe. So this humble and homely 
plant, carries the name of the Reverend Naturalist, 
G. R. Leathe, far and wide. To the unaided eye, it 
looks as it lies fastened there upon the rocks, or 
resting its green lobes upon the fronds of Chondrus 
crispus, so nearly like an unripe tomato, that you 
are inclined to doubt if it can be an Alga at all, 
and are more than half disposed to believe, that it 
must be some succulent vegetable which Neptune is 
preparing for his board. It makes its appearance in 
April or May, and is ripe by August or September, 
and then soon disappears. 


Genus.— £ LA CBISTA* Duby. 

Elachista fucicola, Fr. 
No doubt you will wonder what the little tufts 
of olive colored hairs are, which are so common upon 
the " Rockweed/' every hair of which seems to radiate 
imbranched, from some central point of attachment 
hidden in the tuft. I have given its name above. 
It will be noticed also that, though the longest hairs 
are not over half an inch long, there is a mass of 
them much shorter than that, above the general crop 
of which, the long ones seem to stand out stiff and 
solitary. It had better, perhaps, be removed from 
the Fiicus before mounting, though a thin slice of 
that might be cut off with the Elachista. It makes 
a very interesting microscopical object. Its delicate 
pencils may be found upon the '' Rockweed " almost 
everywhere, for it is widely distributed. 

Sub-ofder.— SPHA CELARIE^. 

Cladostephus verticillatus, Ag. 
The whorled Cladostephus is very easily dis- 
tinguished from all other plants of the sea, except 

* Elachista = The smallest, 
t Qadostephus =- Branch crowned. 


its "next of kin," the C. spongioses; and it is not 
of the first importance, if it is not distinguished from 
that, for it is doubtful if they are quite distinct species. 
The frond is not much thicker than a bristle, quite 
cylindrical, hard and stiff. It begins to branch quite 
low down, and continues, by repeated, regular, though 
not wide forkings. The whole frond is clothed though- 
out with a fleece of densely set, very short branchlets, 
which grow in regular circles around the plant. The 
circles or "whorls" are not more than one-tenth of 
an inch apart, and the branchlets are not less 
than one-eighth of an inch long, somewhat incurved, 
hugging the stem closely about, and those of one 
"whorl" overlapping the bottom of the row next above 
it. This gives the whole plant a decidedly spongy 
quaHty to the sense of both sight and touch. It grows 
on the rocks, nearly down to low-water mark. Color, 
brownish olive. Height, three to five inches. It is 
a perennial and fruits in winter. I found it and C. 
spongiosus, growing together in great abundance, on 
the low rocks, east of the first beach at Newport. I 
also got several fine specimens of it at Martha's 
Vineyard. It is said to belong to our whole New 
England coast ; but I think it must be rare in our 
northern waters, for 1 have collected Alg^ along the 
shores of Salem, Marblehead and Nahant, several 


years, and have never found it growing there. None 
of my correspondents have reported it north of Cape 

Cladostephus spongiosus, Ag. 

This plant differs from the last by its shorter habit ; 
l)y being more irregularly branched, the branches 
spreading more widely, and having a thick, clumsy, 
rambling appearance, and by the branchlets being 
longer, irregularly whorled, and clothing the frond 
in a denser, spongier fleece. It is not at all unlikely 
that intermediate forms might be found which should 
connect the extremes, typical of these two species, in 
a single graduated series. My European plants 
appear decidedly more " spongy " than the American. 
Its local habitat is the same as that of C. vei'ticillatiis. 

Sub-Oxdex.— ECTOCARFE^. 
Genus.— ECTO CARPUS* Lyngb, 

According to Dr. Farlow's list, this genus, in our 
American waters, includes fifteen species. Of those 

1 have selected five of the most common for our 

study. These plants, like the Cladophorce in the 

green Algae, and the Callit]ia77inia in the red, are 

of capillary or hair-like fineness, and like them are 

* Ectocarpus = External fruits. 


composed of cells pat end to end in a single series. 
The determination of species is made, in most cases, 
by the appearance of the fruit masses, (j>ropagula) , 
and by the peculiarities of the branching. These 
points can best be determined by the use of the 
compound microscope, but they can be made out 
with a good pocket lens. They are mostly parasitical 
on other Algae, Fucus^ Chorda, Chordaria and 
Zostera, etc. The color of the smaller forms is very 
apt to be a fine olive green. 

EcTOCARPus FiRMUS, Ag. {^E. Uttoralis, Harv.) 

This is said to be the commonest species of the 
genus on our coast, and grows parasitical on the 
littoral Fiici. The tufts are of various lengths up to 
ten or twelve inches, dense, filaments fine, interwoven, 
much and irregularly l)ranched ; branches mostly 
alternate, repeatedly divided, the divisions made at 
acute angles, the upper ones opposite ; articulations 
of branches almost as long as broad. The propagula 
form elongated linear swellings in the substance of 
the greater and lesser branches, many times longer 
than broad. Color varies from olive green to brown. 
Found at all seasons. 


EcTOCARPus Farlowii, Thuret. 

This is a shorter and somewhat coarser plant 
than the preceding, growing in the . same situations 
upon Fuc2is nodosits. In my specimens, the end of 
the Fiicus is clothed, for the space of three inches 
or more, with a dense, dark green mass of Ectocarpus 
filaments, half an inch long. I have seen no detailed 
description of the plant ; but perhaps its outward 
appearance, as given above, being somewhat distinct 
and well-marked, would serve most collectors as a 
clue to identification, better than a fuller account of 
the fruit and branching. I found it common at 
Marblehead, in the summer. It is also found along 
the coast north, as far as Peak's Island, Maine. 

Ectocarpus siliculosus, Lyngb. 

This plant is very common along our whole 
eastern coast, and is found occasionally on the 
Pacific shores. It grows on various substances be- 
tween tides, but seems especially to affect the string- 
like fronds of the Chordaria flagelliformis. The 
color is mostly a yellowish green, but variable. Fronds 
from three to six inches long, not entangled, filaments 
very slender, and excessively branched, all the divisions 
alternate with acute axils. The propagula are formed 
by the transforming of a portion of the ultimate 


ramuli, that portion commonly nearest the end, into 
spore masses, which, under the glass, look not unlike 
minute ears of com. 


This may be a mere variety of the last. It grows 
in the same situation, but is much less common. The 
color is a more pronounced green, and the frond is 
decidedly more feathery, loose, open, and expanding, 
than in E. siliculosus. The prop.igula are the same, 
only that they are formed in the base of the ultimate 
ramuli and so have the unchanged portion extend- 
ing beyond the spore mass. Our figure in Plate IV., 
gives a very good representation of this beautiful 


This is a native of our northern waters. The 
filaments are fine, twisted and matted together like 
cords, or interwoven into a dense sponge-like 
branching tuft. Articulations two or three times as 
long as broad. Propagula, oblong, obtuse set on 
the lower branches by a short stem. Color, from 
yellov"sh olive to dark brown. It grows on various 
substances between tides. It may be looked for 
throughout the season, 


Sub-order.— DI.CTYOSIPHON lE^. 


This is our only species of tiiis genus. It grows 
in rock pools and below tide, and occurs from L. I. 
Sound northward, but is more common in our 
northern waters. Frond filiform, about as thick as 
a bristle ; harsh to the touch ; from six inches to 
two feet long ; profusely and irregularly branched 
on all sides from top to bottom. The primary 
branches are long, and closely beset with secondary 
branches which are also long and straight, and often 
of hair-like tenuity. Color, a brownish olive, dark 
when dry. It adheres pretty well to paper in dry- 
ing. Mr. CoUins collected it from March to Sep- 
tember, at Nahant and Nantasket. I found it not 
uncommon at Marblehead, all summer, and Miss 
Booth reports it in Peconic Bay, L. I. Others 
have found it at Boston and Newport. It certainly 
may be expected in favorable localities all along the 
coast. It is not noted for its beauty as a herba- 
rium specimen. 

* Dictyosiphon = A netted tube. 


Sub-order — DESMARESTIEM. 
Genus.— DESAfARESTIA* Lam. 

Of this genus we have four species, divided 
equally between the two oceans. The cyHndrical 
and narrow forms belong to the Atlantic and the 
flattened or strap-like forms are natives of the 
Pacific. It is not a little singular that one species, 
D. ligul.ita, should be very common on the eastern 
shores of both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and 
not found at all on the coast lying between, viz., 
the western shores of the Atlantic. 

Desmarestia viridis. Lam. 

This is a large and fine plant, growing from one 
to three feet in hight, of a beautiful chestnut oliv* 
color when fresh, turning to a dark green when 
dry. It is found on rocks, stones, a.nd other Algae, 
in tide pools near low water mark, and in deep 
water. The frond is cylindrical or filiform, twice as 
thick as a bristle in a plant two feet long, beset, at 
rather remote intervals, with long, primary branches, 
which come out in pairs exactly opposite each other 
on the two sides of the main stem. These branches 
are themselves branched in the same way by pairs 

* Desmarestia was named for Desmarest, a French Naturalist. 


of opposite secondary branches, and these again in 
like manner by their branchlets. All the divisions 
are long and the ultimate parts very fine and hair- 
like. Indeed, a large and beautiful plant in my her- 
barium presents an appearance not unlike that of 
long, wavy tresses of hair. If it never received the 
popular name of "Mermaid's hair," it is quite time 
it was christened that. It is reported very common 
along all our northern shores, from February to 
November, and less common in southern waters in 
the summer. 

Desmarestia aculeata, Lam. 

This plant is found the year around, growing at 
low tide and in deep water. It is very common so 
that special localities need not be named. Frond, 
cylindrical at base, but soon flattening; in a plant a 
foot and a half high, as thick as a sparrow's quill. 
Branches, alternate, irregular, half forking, much flat- 
tened, from one-twelfth to one-eighth of an inch wide 
two or three times sub-divided. The young plants, 
and apparently the younger parts of all the plants, 
are clothed with opposite pencils of fine, beautiful 
olive-green filaments, from one-sixteenth to one-half 
an inch long. A larger plant before me, collected 
at Marblehead, Mass., in August, has them very short ; 


and a smaller plant from the island of Spitzbergen, 
collected July 23rd, has them half an inch or more 
long.' When these pencils fall away, they are 
replaced by short, sharp, awl-like spines, set regu- 
larly and alternately on each edge of the flattened 
branch, pointing forward. It is, perhaps, an arctic 
plant, but it is found in temperate waters, south of 
Cape Cod. It is said sometimes to attain a height 
of six feet. It is an interesting plant, and the 
young forms are very beautiful, and adhere nicely to 
paper in mounting. 

Desmarestia ligulata, Lam. 

This is the most common California species, and 
exceeds in interest, if not in beauty, either of our 
Atlantic plants already named. It grows a foot or 
two high, flat, one-fourth to one-half inch wide, 
beset, at intervals, along the edges, by pairs of op- 
posite flat branches. And these, again, are more 
thickly clothed by shorter, flat branchlets, ser- 
rated along the edges with sharp, forward -pointing 

Both the primary and secondary branches are 
narrowed to a point at base and apex. The sub- 
stance of the frond is thin and delicate ; the color, 
a yellowish olive, in the specimens which I have 


seen. It grows in great abundance, at low tide and 
below, on rocks, along the whole California coast. 
Mr. Cleveland says it is washed up from deep 
water, and lies in great heaps on the beach, near 
the Mexican boundary of Southern California. 

Desmarestia latifrons,* Kutz. 

This plant seems to occupy a middle ground be- 
tween D. aculeata and D. ligulata, having branches 
shorter and wider and less numerous than the former, 
and much narrower and thicker than the latter. 
The branching is alternate, like that of Z>. aculeata, 
and the secondary branches have the same remote 
alternate sharp spines of that species. In the frag- 
ment of a plant before me, which is about six 
inches long, the stem is one-tenth of an inch wide, 
primary and secondary branches about the same. 
Both main stem and prim.ary branches appear under 
the lens to be " midribed." It is not a very rare 
plant at Santa Cruz and in the north of California, 
but grows at low- tide mark, on the rocks, at all 
seasons. At Santa Barbara it is very rare, and has 
not yet been found at San Diego. 

Latifrons = A wide fi ond. 




Sub-order — PUNCTARIE^. 
Genus.— FUNCTARIA* Grev. 


Fronds, pale olive green ; thickish, membraneous, 
soft and tender, more or less dotted with minute 
spore masses, suddenly tapering at the bottom, from 
one to three inches wide in the broadest point, and 
from eight to twelve inches long, the proportions 
the same in the smaller plants. When young, the 
substance is thin and soft, and almost gelatinous to 
the touch, being then covered with very short pel- 
lucid, almost invisible hairs. In that state it is of 
a light olive green color. When older, it gets 
darker. The margin of the frond wavy, and in old 
plants the substance of the frond is thicker and 
more rigid. In that condition it will be distin- 
guished from plants of the next species chiefly by 
its sudden narrowing at the base. 

It is a summer annual, growing between tides on 
stones and x\lg3e. It will be met with most com- 
monly in the var. Zoster (2, or P. tenuissima, of Har- 
vey's " Nereis," a small form, not more than two or 

* Punctaria = Dotted, 
t Latifolia = Wide-leaf. 


three inches long and one-fourth of an inch wide, 
very thin and delicate, fringing both edges of a 
blade of Zostera, or growing in the same manner 
from the sides of a frond of Chorda filum. Mr. 
Collins finds it in deep water and on Zostera, at 
Revere, from April to July; Mrs. Davis, from 
April to November, in rock pools everywhere about 
Gloucester. I have a copy of the typical form 
collected by Mr. A. R. Young, at College Point, 
L. I., in May. It was collected by Mr. Hooper, at 
Fort Hamilton, New York Bay, and at Flushing 
Bay, by Prof. Bailey. 


Frond, dark brown, leathery, much attenuated at 
base from near the middle, blunt or wedged-shaped 
at the top, from six to twelve inches long and 
from one to one and a half inches wide. It is a 
summer annual, and grows on stones and other Algae, 
between tide marks and below. It is not so com- 
mon as the last, but I have it reported all alon^ 
our north eastern seaboard. 

It does not usually adhere well to paper, and it 
is far from being an inviting specimen to personj 
whose interest in these plants is other than scientific. 

* Plantaginea =; Like the Plantain. 


Genus.— PHVLL/T/S* (J^u/z.), Le Jolis. 

Phyllitis fascia, t KUTZ. 
This is quite common along our rocky shores, at 
all seasons, in tide pools near low-water mark. It 
usually grows in tufts : a cylindrical stem gradually 
expands into a long, flat, narrow frond, from one- 
fourth to one inch wide, and from three to twelve 
inches long. It is usually blunt at top, and, as just 
said, attenuated below. My specimens are narrow, 
with parallel sides, one-third of an inch wide and 
twelve inches long. The color is a brownish olive, 
and the substance membraneous, but not very thick. 
My Californian correspondents report it very com- 
mon along the whole extent of that coast. 

Qkqx\\x%,— SCYTOSIPHON,% Lyngb. 


This species grows in much the same situations 
as the last, oftentmies in company with it, in the tide 
pools. It is common on our eastern coast, and is 

* Phylliiis= Leaf, like Hart's tongue. 

t Fascia = A band. 

X Scytosiphon = A leather tube. 


reported the same in California. It grows from 
eight to eighteen inches high, cylindrical, unbranched, 
attenuated at top and bottom, one-fourth of an incli 
in diameter, inflated, and sharply and definitely con- 
stricted at irregular intervals, which gives it the 
appearance when growing, of a string of small, narrow 
bags tied together by the ends. Color, a brownish 
or greenish olive. Substance, membraneous and soft. 
* * * * 

There are no more fitting words with which to 
bid adieu to this modest- hued, homely, often coarse, 
but always interesting group of plants, than these of 
the Poet, who loves the sea and the 


"When descends on the Atlantic 

The gigantic 
Storm wind of the Equinox, 
Landward in his wrath he scourges 

The toiUug surges. 
Laden with sea weed from the rocks. 
Ever drifting, drifting, drifting, 

On the shifting, 
Currents of the restless main; 
'Till in sheltered coves, and reaches 

Of sandy beaches, 
All have found repose again.'" 





Frond membraneous. 

I. Fi-ond Midribed. 
(a.) Plants small, with regular veins from 

midrib to margin of frond. Delesseria. //O A* 
(^.) Plants large, without veins, midrib slender, v^ 

Frond thin, brilliant pink, more or less 

sprinkled with darker colored dots. 

Grmnellia. ''^ 

2. Frond Stalked. 

Membrane small, short, forked, growing 
on the apex of branching, cylindrical 
stems. Phyllophora. 

Frond plain, Membrane smooth, without 
stalk, midrib, or vein. 
(a.) Frond large, thickish, mostly wedge or 
fan shaped, palmately divided, some- 
times strap-shaped. " Dulse." 

(^.) Frond thin, tapering to top and bottom, 
bearing on the edges toothed frondleti 
of the same shape. Calliblepharis. 


11. Frond flattened or compressed. 
I . Fro7id forked. 
(^.) Small, short, wedge-shaped, once or twice 

(i.) Frond thick, smooth, purple or green. 

" Irish Moss," Chondrus. 
(ii.) Frond channeled, more or less covered 

with papillcB, dark. Gigartifia. 

(iii.) Frond stalked, thin, narrow, red. 

(^.) Frond long, narrow, partly cylindrical, 
many times divided. Gracilaria. 

2. Frond pinnately divided. 
Plant small, pinnae and pinnulae, fine 

and set in one plane. Ptiloia. 

3. Frond irregtclarly divided. 
Frond forking and branching irregularly, 
profusely, mostly in one plane, from a 
marginal point. Euthora. 

Ill Frond filiform or thread-like. 

(From size of sewing cotton to that of 
wTapping twine, branched). 
1. Plants whose ultimate branchlets taper to both 
{a.) Plants with one main or leading stem. 


(i.) Main stem mostly undivided, bare at 
base, clothed above with simple un- 
branched ramuli. Halosaccion. 

(ii.) Robust, coarse, profusely branched, 

branches often ending in twining 

tendrils, dull brown or purple, very 

common ; six to ten inches high. n \\ 


(iii.) Smaller, finer, branches shorter, full red 

or pink, rare. Gloiosiphonia.p *'' ' 

{b.) Plants without leading stem. 

(i.) Large, smooth, robust, two or three times 
divided ; ramuli long, slender at point, 
slightly curved ; reddish purple to pink ; 
prominent fruit vessels in ramuli. Plant 
six to twelve inches high. Rhabdonia. 

(ii.) Small, slender ; ramuli long, curved ; 
beautiful delicate pink. Plants three 
inches high. Loincntaria. 

(iii.) Larger, l^rownish, slender or robust ; 
branches long, ramuli very short, often 
minute. Chondriopsis. 

(iv.) Slender, brown, branches long, bare and 
hooked at the ends ; ramuli short. 



2. Frond regula^'ly forking. 
(^.) Long, elastic, worm-like, axils wide and 

rounded. Nemalion. 

{b.) Short, stiff, black, widely forking, uniform 
size, not adhering to paper. Three or 
four inches high. Polyides. 

(^.) Same outline, soft, adheres, rosy red. 

3. Plants clothed with fine hairs. 

{a.) Stem robust; branches few, long and O 

mostly simple. All parts thickly clothed 
with brilliantly colored pink or purple 
fine hair, like " Chenille." Dasya. 

{p.) Stem and branches slender, several times 
divided; hairs much p^er, shorter and 
less abundant. Spyridia. 

Fronds many times and finely divided, robust 
or slender, mostly dark or brow7i. 
(a.) Ultimate ramuli, often in clumps or '' 
minute brushes, black or brown. ' 

{b.) Plants variously, but profusely branched, 
mostly fine, often arborescent, fruit 
vessels pear-shaped; black, reddish or 
light brown, Polysiphonia. 






5. Frond consisting of visibly articulated, or 
jointed filaments. 
Slender or robust, branching or forking; 
filaments showing alternately white and 
red, or light and dark bands. -^ 

Ceramium.- ^ 

6. Frond stiff, wiry, black. 1 
Intricately and irregularly branched, some- 
times bleached white. Ahnfeltia. 

7. Frond sto7iy and hard. 

Purple to white. Corallina. 

IV. Frond capillary. 

(Composed of a single series of cells 
placed end to end). 

1. Cells long. 

Frond divided by regular, narrow forkings, 
fan-shaped, level topped; color pale, 
delicate pink. Griffithsia. 

2. Cells short. 

Plants mosdy small, often shaped like 
a miniature shrub; much branched, 
final divisions as fine as cobweb; color • 
brilliant red or i)ink, the most beautifuM, 
of plants. Callithamnion, 




I. Frond Membraneous. 

I. Frond plain, mostly undivided, smooth, or 

roughened only by seed vessels. 

{a.) Thick, large, reddish brown. 


(b.) Thinner, large, purplish color. Iridcea. 
(<;.) Undivided, branched or cleft; brown, 
purple, or green. Grateloupia. 

2. Frond thick, covered with pappili. 

Undivided, forked or irregularly branched, 
deep red, or purple. Gigartina. 

3. Frond narrower, thick, leathery, smooth. 

Sword-shaped leaflets from side or end 
of main frond ; dark red brown. 

Prionitis Andersonii. 
4. Frond much divided. 
(a.) Thin, deeply lobed, or forked, mostly 
dark red ; not adhering well. 

Nitophyllum . 
{b.) Thicker, more intricately divided, more 
brilliant red color, adheres. 


Only those Genera which have species peculiar to the Pacific Coast are in- 
cluded in this Key, the rest will be found in the other. 


r,. Fronds regularly forking, thin, narrow ; sides of 
lobes parallel, ends rounded. 
(</.) Dull red, not adhering. Rhodymenia. 

(/\) Brilliant red; interrupted midrib of darker 
color, or fruit dots scattered over the 
surface ; adheres. Stenogramma. 

II. Frond f attened or compressed. 
I. Frond pinnately branched. 

(a.) Frond narrow, dense, hard, dark red. 
Primary branches, alternate or forking; 
secondary, short, tapering to both ends, 
pinnate. Prionitis lanceolata. 

{b.'i Frond narrow, cartilaginous, divided into 
several branches ; pinnae and pinnulae, 
alternate, blunt at apex ; dull purple. 


(c.) Pinnae, arranged on the edges of the 
main stem and long branches, short, the 
opposite ones unlike. Ptilota. 

(d.) Frond very narrow, horny when dry; main 
branches irregular; pinnae and pinnulae 
exactly opposite, with wide rounded 
axils, ultimate pinnae tapering to both 
ends ; purple, often faded. Gelidium, 


2. Fronds irregularly branched. 
(d5.) Frond leathery, narrow, very dark reddish 
brown; branches in one plane, flat, 
narrowed at base and top, bent sword- 
shape, and often bordered with fine 
spines; eight to twelve inches high. 

(b.) Plants smaller and narrower, branching 
much the same as the last; secondary 
branches, bordered with incurved spine- 
like ramuli, much attenuated at both 
ends. Color, very dark red. Pikea. 
3. Frond with leading stem. 
Branches long, alternate ; secondary, short, 
alternate ; ultimate ramuli, alternate, in- 
curved, awl-shaped, not constricted at 
% base. Microcladia. 

III. Frond filiform or cylindrical. 

I. Frond coarse, thick as pack thread. 
(a.) Frond divided by regular forkings, several 
times repeated ; horny when dry, dark. 

(d.) Frond with leading stem, branches short, 
stout, tapering at both ends. Clear red. 



{c.) Stem branched and forked; end of 
branches beset with many short, stout, 
oval or obtuse ramuli. Chylodadia, 

2. Frond finer and more elaborately divided, 
{a.) Stem robust, branches irregular; ultimate 
ramuli, clustered in bunches; black. 

{d.) Frond delicate, many times finely and 
pinnately divided ; color, brown or black. 
(c.) Frond delicate, finely pinnated, brilliant 
pink- Callithamnion. 

The night is calm and cIoudIes% 

And still as still can be, 
And the stars come forth to listen 

To the music of the sea. 
They gather, and gatner, and gather* 

Until they crowd the sky, 
And listen in breathless silence. 

To the solemn litany. 
It begins in rocky caverns, 

As a voice that chants alone 
To the pedals of the organ 

In monotonous undertone; 
And anon from shelving beaches. 

And shal'ow sands beyond 
In snow-white robes uprising, 

The ghostly choirs respond. 
And sadly and unceasing 

The mournful voice Vngs on, 
And the snow-white cooirs still answer, 
Christe Eleisoot 






Sub-c\^ss.— RBODOSFOR^ or FLORIDE^. 

E have now come to the Red " Sea Mosses." 
They are more highly organized than the 
plants we have been considering. This is apparent in 
the greater variety of form, and complexity of structure, 
as well as in the higher and more elaborate machinery 
for the reproduction process, which is seen in them. 

The Red "Sea Mosses" are characterized by the 
presence of two different kinds of seeds, or spores. 
One kind is produced by a process analogous to that 
by which seeds and fruit are produced in the flowering 
plants; that is, by the presence and co-operation 
of a staminate and pistilate element. This is the 


sexual fruit, and usually appears in minute clusters 
upon the branches of fertile fronds, or else encased 
in little egg-shaped baskets, or other receptacles. It 
is also not unfrequently found embedded in the sub- 
stance of membraneous fronds, or held in wart-like 
protuberances which arise from their surface. 

The other or asexual spores are produced, ap- 
parently, by a change in some of the vegetable cells 
of the plant. They always appear in groups of four, 
hence their name, '■'■ Tetraspores'' or '' Tetragonidia.'" 
The original, or " Mother cell," seems to part its 
contents invariably into four secondary cells, and each 
of these is capable of reproducing the plant. They 
are found in various situations, but, except in some of 
the lower plants of the group, always occur embedded 
in the substance of the frond. It is a rule, which ^o 
far as I know, has no exception, that the two kinds 
of fruit never appear upon the same individual plant. 

The Red Mosses will no doubt make up the prin- 
cipal part of all your collections. Certainly they are, 
as a general thing, more interesting and more beautiful, 
and appear in much greater variety of form, than those 
of the other classes. Some of them are marvelously 
fine and delicate, and make the most exquisite and 
fairy-like pictures when spread out upon paper. The 
wonder is, how such fragile things can find the means 

RED ALG^. 137 

and opportunity to live and grow in the rough, tumul- 
tuous and stormy sea. But you will not long have 
been an observer of the ways of Old Ocean without 
often seeing what the Poet has so finely told in the 
following lines : 

"Go show to earth your power!" the East Wind cried 
Commanding; and the swift submissive seas, 
In ordered files, like liquid mountains, glide. 
Moving from sky to sky with godlike ease. 

Below a cliff, where mused a little maid. 

It struck. Its voice in thunder cried "Beware!" 

But, to delight her, instantly displayed 

A fount of showering diamonds in the air. 

****** The wave passed on; 
Touching each shore with silver-sandled feet. 
But tossed, in flying, in the sun which shone, 
A handful, to her lap, of sea-blooms sweet. 

More delicate than forms that frost doth weave 
On window panes, are Ocean's filmy brood: 
Remembering the awful horns they leave, 
Their hues to that dim underworld subdued. 

Fair spread on pages white, I saw arrayed 

These fairy children of a sire so stern ; 

Their beauty charmed me; while the little maid. 

Spoke of her new found love with cheeks which bum. 

" So grand, so terrible, how could I know 
He cared for these?" she faltered,— " darlings dear! 
That his great heart could nurture them and glow 
With such a love beneath such looks severe?" 


Like God, the Ocean, too, the least can heed, 
Yearn in a moon-led quest to farthest shores, 
And fondle in delight its smallest weed. 
Yet look to Him it mirrors and adores. 

y. G. Appleton. 

Order.— RHODOMELE^. 
Gierwi^.— DASYA* Ag. 


Of this genus but one species is found on our 
Atlantic coast, within the geographical limits which 
this book is intended to cover. But, happily, this 
is the most interesting and beautiful representative 
of the genus, known to our American flora, viz., the 
Dasya elegans. 

It is sometimes popularly called " chenille," be- 
cause in the water it looks very like a piece of 
that sort of finery. No one acquainted with the 
appearance of chenille, would, for an instant, mistake 
a specimen of this elega?it Dasya, when seen float- 
ing in its native element. Out of the water, lodged 
wet upon the rocks, or mixed with other Algae, it 
looks more like a stringy mass of pink or purple 

* Dasya = Hairy, 
t Elegans = Elegant, 

RED ALG.^. 139 

jelly. The artist has made an excellent representa- 
tion of a beautiful specimen of this plant, in our 
Plate V. 

The body of the plant is a robust, sparingly but 
irregularly branched cord, from six inches to two or 
three feet long, and from once to three times the 
thickness of a pack-thread. The branches are long, 
and mostly undivided, and the whole plant is clothed 
with a fine, delicate body of purple-lake colored 
hairs, from an eighth to a third of an inch in 
length. This gives it the appearance of chenille. 
When a little faded, this fine, silky plush assumes a 
delicate or bright pink color. The plant grows 
attached, by a discoid hold-fast, to rocks, stones, 
wood-work, and other Algae, from low-tide mark to 
a depth of several fathoms. It is not found north 
of Cape Cod, but may be looked for in all waters 
south of that point. I have collected it, in July, 
at Fort Hamilton, and along the beach toward 
Coney island, in great abundance — splendid fronds, 
two feet long — along- with that most brilHant Amer- 
ican Alga Grinnellia Americana. I have collected 
it also in fine condition at Newport, east of the 
first beach, as late as October 4th. In a breezy 
but not unpleasant walk, which I took along the 
shore from Falmouth to Wood's Holl, beneath a. 


gray, November sky, and the sea a steel blue, cold 
and angry, I found this among the most plentiful 
of the late autumnal "Sea Mosses." Displayed with 
taste, it makes an elegant picture on paper. A 
comparatively light pressure should be put on it at 
first, in drying, else its tender frond will be crushed 
and ruined. 

Genus.— FOLYSIFHONIA* Grev. 

This is the largest genus of Red Algae. Agardh 
in his latest work, enumerates no less than 129 un- 
doubted species. Many more have been proposed 
by other writers. About thirty species belong to 
our American flora. But several of them are pecu- 
liar to the sub-tropical region of Florida, and will 
not come within our reach. Others are too rare or 
insignificant to be enumerated in this work. But 
all such as are likely to be met with, at all 
common, will be described. The color of these 
plants ranges between the browns and a full black; 
only three, herein described, show traces of red : 
P. urceolata^ commonly, and P. violacea and P. 
Olneyi, occasionally. On the fertile fronds, the 
beautiful, little egg-shaped fruit-holders will be easily 

♦ Polysiphonia == Many tubes ; referring to the internal structure of the 

RED ALG^. 141 

discovered with the naked eye. The FolysiphonicB 
form a marked feature of the marine flora of every sea. 


The pointed PolysipJionia is very common on the 
north Atlantic coast, growing as a parasite on Fiiciis 
nodostis, and rarely on F. vesiculosus. Prof. Kj ell- 
man reports it growing on Halosaccion ra7neiitaceum, 
in Spitzbergen. It looks not unlike a little dark 
brown or black ball or tassel, attached to the ends 
of the Furtts, from three-fourths of an inch to one 
and one-half inches in diameter. Examined closely 
it will be seen to be a dense tuft of stiff, wire-like 
filaments, many times forked from the base, with 
wide axils. The apices being nearly all the same 
length, the tufts look ''clipped" all around like a 
thorn bush. In mounting, it does not adhere to 
paper. But thinly spread out, in the almost perfect 
circle which its black frond so naturally assumes, it 
makes a very pretty appearance on the white paper. 
It may be found at all seasons and so common 
that I need not name special localities. 


The specific name refers to the fruit -vessel, which 
is thought to resemble a little pitcher or jug. The 


plant is very common throughout the season on the 
northern shores of both the Atlantic and Pacific 

It is somewhat variable in appearance, yet when 
once seen, it is ever afterwards easily recognized. 
The filaments are much finer and sotter than in the 
last species, and grow in a loose tuft, four to eight 
inches high. When taken from the water the plant 
is flaccid and silky, with a deep, full, rich red color. 
But when mounted on paper, dry, the filaments are 
rigid and bristly to the touch, and turn to a dark 
brown or black with a reddish shade, generally, in 
places, or over the whole plant. The main stems 
are from one to three times the thickness of a 
human hair. They are much branched. But the 
branches, though somewhat spiney below, do not 
themselves branch till they have attained a consider- 
able length, when they divide and sub-divide rapidly, 
making the upper portion of the frond assume a 
dense and bushy look. 

In spreading out on paper, it naturally takes a 
fan -shaped outline, with a tendency in the main 
branches to separate from each other, and in the 
finer varieties to appear twisted. When dried and 
pressed, there is often a glossy and silk-like appear- 
ance to the specimen. 


The variety formosa is really very beautiful as 
its name implies. It is distinguished from the typical 
form, by its much finer and silkier filaments, and 
by its retaining its rich, red-brown color when dried 
on paper. 

The open variety, patens, is not uncommon, is 
more rigid than the typical form, and its end branch- 
lets are recurved. The species grows on rocks, 
and sometimes on the stems of Laminaria fiexicattlts, 
in pools, and not far below low tide. I found it 
very plentiful in July and August, floating in the 
sea, by the rocky shore at Clifton, Marblehead, 
and took scores of fine specimens, including every 
variety of form. I have some exquisite plants of 
the var. formosa, taken by my friend, A. R. Young, 
at College Point, L. I., as eariy as May 6th. 


This is a common and very distinct species. I 
have found it in our northern waters, growing most 
commonly upon Zoskra, or " Eel-grass." In the water 
it has a marked bushy, or shrub-like aspect, with 
stiff branches spreading out widely in every direction, 
so that the plant makes a globose outline. 

Each tuft is a single frond, stout at the base, 
as thick as a bristle, but the parts gradually atten- 


uating as they branch. It grows to the height of 
from one to three inches, and sometimes more. I 
have found it at Wood's Holl, five inches high. It 
is invariably dark brown or black on paper, does 
not colapse when taken from the water, and is 
covered pretty thickly, main stem and branches, 
with thorn-like, simple or branched spines, one-tenth 
of an inch or less long. The arietina, or "ram's 
horn " variety, has the end branchlets and spines 
recurved or hooked. At Peconic Bay, Harvey says, 
the natives call this variety " Nigger hair." I have 
found the common form plentiful at Silver Spring, 
Providence River, Wood's Holl, and Marblehead, in 
July and August. Miss Booth reports it at Peconic 
Bay, in September. Mr. Collins, at Lynn beach, on 
Zostera, as late as October, and Mrs. Davis finds 
it all summer in the " Mill Pond," at Gloucester. 


It is agreed by Dr. Farlow and Prof. Eaton 
that this is but an extreme variety of P. Harveyi, 
and Dr. Farlow is of the opinion that both species 
are identical with the older European species, P. 
spinulosa^ Grev. P. Olneyi differs from P. Harveyi, in 
being a somewhat larger plant, composed of much 
softer, and finer filaments, longer and straighter 

RED ALG^. 145 

branches^ often with a very decided and sometimes 
even brilliant pink color, though the more common 
color is purple brown. It is common in Long 
Island Sound on Zostera, and Dr. Farlow gives the 
popular name for it there as "Doughballs." 


This plant has something the same habit as F. 
Olneyi, only that it is larger and more robust, grow- 
ing often to the height of six to ten'^ inches. Start- 
ing at the base with a filament no thicker than a 
bristle, a half an inch up, it divides into two or more 
widely spreading branches. These again divide in 
the same way into long unclothed branchlets. 
Within an inch of the extremity of the frond, 
sometimes half way back, all the branches rapidly 
divide, into long, silky filaments, of a light brown 
color. The normal appearance of the plant on 
paper, then, is that of a quarter or third seg- 
ment of a wheel, with the bare spokes radiating to 
a rim an inch or so wide, sometimes half the 
width of the frond, which is made up of these 
brown pencils of fine capillary filaments. It is quite 
unmistakable when once seen. It grows parasitical 
on Zoster a. It is said to be a winter plant in 

* Variegata •=■ Variegated or parti-colored. 


Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, but is found 
common along the southern shores of New York 
and New England in summer. I found it abundant 
in Providence River and at Onset Bay, and once 
in Danversport, Mass., the only time, I believe, it 
has ever been seen growing north of Cape Cod. 


The three Polysiphonice to be next described have, 
according to the books, so many points of resem- 
blance that you will be at a loss to distinguish them 
apart if you depend upon the technical account 
which the books give. And yet, when you have 
once seen them, side by side, you will never again 
have any difficulty in recognizing them, and you will 
wonder why it is that written descriptions cannot 
make clear differences which are so obvious to the 
eye. The color of the three is much the same, 
running from a dark brown, in old specimens of P. 
fibrillosa, through several shades of light brown to a 
pink in some plants of both F. violacia and P. elon- 
gata. I will try to point out the distinguishing 
marks of the latter species, P. elongata : 

I. The main stem is robust, cartilagenous, coarse 
as a pack-thread, and under the pocket lens visibl) 

Elongata = Elongated. 

RED ALG^. 147 

Jointed in the upper half, as are also all the branches. 
Sometimes there is a main leading stem and some- 
times not. The branches are irregularly placed, but 
divide and sub-divide in a manner between forking 
and branching. 2. The axils of the sub-divisions 
are narrow, so that the branchlets seem to cluster 
together. 3. Owing to the great length of the 
secondary branches and branchlets, the plant gives 
the impression of reaching out and trying to extend 
itself. 4. The branches seem to maintain their orig- 
inal thickness almost to the tips. 5. On the ulti- 
mate branchlets will be found many short ramuli, 
which taper to base aad apex like those of Chon- 
driopsis temiissijna. 6. Growing mostly through the 
same regions as P. violacea, it is yet, as compared 
with that species, if not distinctly rare, certainly 
very infrequent. 

The winter form of this plant, when the finer 
branchlets are fallen away, is an exaggeration of 
some of its summer aspects. The great length of 
its bare, slender, unclothed branches gives it a pecu- 
liar and really uninteresting appearance. In this 
state the natives call it "lobster horns," or "lob- 
ster claws," because of its supposed resemblance to 
the long, slender antennce. of that creature. The 
winter plant very imperfectly ac^heres to paper. 


This is a deep-water species, and is reported 
as not common all along the coast from New York 
to Gloucester. 


This is by far our most common Polysiphonia^ 
considerably outranking even P. ui'ceolata. It grows 
everywhere on the rocks and on several other Algae, in 
pools and in deep water, as well as just below tide. 
I take it often as it comes in upon the waves, with 
my long-handled dipper, picking out the plants I want, 
from among the hundreds which go floating by, up and 

The stem is once or twice as thick as a bristle. 
Beautiful plants may be found, not more than two 
or three inches high ; but plants from twelve to eighteen 
inches high, are by no means uncommon. 

The distinguishing marks of the species are mainly 
these : i . The presence of a leading stem, branched 
all around in all the fronds. Sometimes there will 
seem to be two or three main stems. But this appear- 
ance arises from the extraordinary development of 
some of the lower branches. 2. The form of the 
primary branches, which are long and somewhat widely 
spreading at the base, but become regularly shorter 

♦ Violacea = Violet colored. 

RED ALG^. 149 

towards the top of the plant. 3. The secondary and 
remaining branches, which are short, alternately much 
divided and subdivided again and again, until they 
terminate in very slender ramuli, which form feathery 
brown and sometimes violet tufts at the ends, constituting 
the chief beauty of the plant. 4. Consequent upon 
this method of branching, the plant has a marked 
tendency to assume perfect arborescent forms. I have 
plenty of plants a foot or more high, which almost 
exactly resemble the great oaks and maples of the 
forest, and others which are perfect miniature images 
of the firs and pines, with their regular, tapering, cone- 
like outline. Our figure in Plate VI., which is a very 
perfect copy of a plant in my herbarium, could easily 
be mistaken for a good picture of a forest tree. 5. 
The stem and main branches are inarticulate. 6. The 
universal distribution and great plentifuhiess of the 
species along our whole eastern coast. 

It is an extremely variable plant, and yet the type 
seems to be as well adhered to as in most Algae. Many 
plants, especially those growing in deep water, are 
very robust and bushy. On the whole it is our most 
interesting and beautiful Atlantic Polysiphonia. 


This is by far the rarest of this group of Poly- 


siphonicE. If found at all north of Cape Cod, it must 
be very rare. I found some good specimens of it at 
Wood's Holl, the last day of July, and Dr. Farlow 
reports it at Newport, and Noank, Conn. Miss Booth 
at Orient Point, and in Long Island Sound. It is a 
summer annual, and grows in deep water, from threQ 
to six and eight inches high. The main stem in the 
larger plants is as thick as a pack thread at the base, 
but it is soon lost in the multitude of long, large 
spreading branches, which it throws out on every side, 
so that there is no leading stem in this as in the last 
species. The primary branches are long and are them- 
selves irregularly and profusely branched, into secondary 
branches, which are much shorter. These again branch 
in the same way, and the tertiary branches are usually 
covered with spines, not unlike those of P. Harveyi. 
But the spines are clothed with a dense growth of 
colorless fibril Is, so fine as to be individually almost 
or quite invisible, but in the mass, border all the 
branchlets, as they are displayed on paper, with a 
light brown " halo " or '' mist." This is the character- 
istic point, and will identify the plant unmistakably, 
for it is almost always present. The plant gets its 
specific name from these fibrills. The color of the 
plant ranges from a light to a dark brown, often even 
to near a full black. In general appearance the plant 

RED ALG^. 151 

is not unlike an enlarged, exaggerated, and very spiney 
F. Harveyi. Unlike P. elongata, the branches are 
robust, somewhat bent at various sharp turns and 
angles, and the parts rapidly diminish in size from base 
to apex, as they throw out branches and branchlets. 


This is an extremely variable plant, not uncommon 
along our whole east coast, and identified by one 
or two distinguishing marks. It is a perennial and 
grows in rock pools and deep water. It is almost 
quite black, or very dark brown, when mounted and 
dry. It has a leading stem, though this is not always 
easy to make out ; it may, however, usually be detected, 
as more or less prominent. It is not commonly larger 
than a bristle. A microscopical dissection of it, shows 
it to consist of from twelve to eighteen tubes, arranged 
around a central tube, a singular diversity of habit 
in a species whose generic congeners are generally 
so constant to their type, in this respect. Harvey says 
the best general marks of the species are its many 
tubed internodes of moderate length, easily visible 
with a lens ; and its decompound regularly pinnate 
method of branching. The branches divide and sub- 
divide," alternately twice or thrice in a very regular 

* Nigrescens = black. 


way. This constitutes the chief beauty, as it is the 
most conspicuous peculiarity of the plant. 

The ultimate ramuli of the young plants, and of 
the young parts of the old ones, are apt to be fibrilU- 
iferous, in a manner not unlike F. fibrillosa, but the 
method of branching and the general aspect of the 
plant will easily distinguish it from that. 

It is reported all along the coast from Halifax to 
New York. Miss Booth found it rare at Peconic 
Bay. I found many specimens of it at Wood's Holl, 
but took none at Newport, all summer. During several 
years' collecting at Marblehead, I do not remember 
to have seen it there, though. Mr. Collins finds it 
abundant along that coast, and Mrs. Davis collects 
it all summer, on Canal Beach, Gloucester. 


The three following California members of this 
gen 'IS which I shall undertake to give an account of, 
I have put by themselves, not on account of natural 
affinity, but for convenience of describing them. And 
yet they are not far apart in the natural system. This 
is certainly a very distinct and well marked species, 
like P. fastigiata, one which when once seen can never 
be forgotten, or be henceforth unrecognized. 

It grows from three to six inches high, the stem 

RED ALG^. 153 

at first nearly round, more than twice as thick as a 
bristle, soon flattened and then immediately and 
irregularly much branched. All the branches spring 
from the edges of the flattened stem, and the branches 
themselves being flattened in the same plane with the 
stem, and, giving out branchlets along their edges, the 
whole plant is built up in one plane. The main 
branches spread widely, and are irregularly placed. 
But the secondary branches are very regularly alternate, 
the one-tenth of an inch or so apart. Toward the 
base of the branches, in all the old or full grown 
plants, these branchlets will be found broken off, 
leaving nothing but short stumps. The branchlets 
themselves consist of a short stem, one-eighth to one- 
half an inch long, clothed on each side and at the 
top all around with very short, alternate simple or 
compound awl-shaped, incurved ramuli. These branch- 
lets are generally about the same length along the 
sides of the branches, but here and there one will 
shoot out beyond the others, and sometimes it will 
put out branchlets like a primary branch. 

Dr. Anderson reports it scarce at Santa Cruz, on 
rocky beaches, all the year around. Mrs. Bingham, 
and Dr. Dimmick, find it very common, thrown up 
on the beach, and growing on small rocks, in all 
seasons, at Santa Barbara. Mr. Cleveland reports it 


common at San Diego. It is among the most com- 
mon forms that come to me from my correspondents 
on the Pacific coast. The color is a full black. It 
adheres very imperfectly to paper. 

The artist has very excellently represented a frond 
of this species, in Plate VIII. 


This species in many respects, and especially in 
general aspect and outline, resembles the last, but 
differs from it by being smaller, of a much finer 
and more delicate substance, and lighter color, which 
is usually a light reddish brown. I have never seen 
typical forms of this species over two inches high. 
The figure in Plate VII, excellently well pictures 
not only the color but every characteristic feature of 
this very beautiful plant. The stem, branches and 
branchlets are all flattened and branch from the two 
edges, primary branches irregularly and very widely, 
secondary regularly, widely, alternately. The secondary 
branches are mostly little plumes, or themselves 
bearers along their edges of little plumes. The 
branching of all the small parts, even to the 
minutest, is regularly alternate. This gives the plant 
a very delicate, feathery appearance, very greatly like 
the finer fronds of Ptilota plumosa. My correspond- 

RED ALG.^. 155 

ents report it extremely common in Southern Cali- 
fornia, but somewhat rare in the north, growing upon 
the large rocks and upon other Algae, and in tide 
pools, all the year around. 

Variety dendtoidea, differs more in appearance 
from the normal form than do some fully differ- 
entiated species, and yet, after a careful examination, 
you will find that the difference consists fundamentally 
in the branching being made at a much more acute 
angle in the variety than in the typical form. The 
frond stretches out to a considerably greater length, 
four or five inches sometimes, "long, slim and slender" 
in appearance. The main branches are placed at irreg- 
ular intervals, but the secondary, at regular intervals, 
alternate. From the extreme narrow angle, at which 
the parts branch, they all appear to hug close to the 
main stems, which gives the slender, narrow look to 
the frond, and effectually prevents the beautiful 
plumose aspect, which is seen in the who'.e plant, 
and in its smallest parts, in the normal form. The 
color of this variety is a full black, or a very dark 
brown. In the young parts of both varieties, the 
interior joints of the fronds may be easily seen with 
a pocket lens. This variety seems to be even more 
common along the whole coast than the normal form. 
It does not adhere to paper. 



Although this plant seems to be built on the same 
general plan as the other two California species, 
already described, it is yet sufficiently distinct to be 
not only a good species, but also easily recognized. 
The stem is. perhaps, twice the size of a bristle, 
divided from near the bottom into loug, spreading 
branches, the whole plant being from four to six 
inches high. All the parts are flattened, the younger 
visibly articulate, and branch from the edges in one 
plane. The secondary branches also separate with 
wide axils, but give out their branches at narrower 
angles, while the ultimate, awl-shaped ramuli are much 
inclined to be incurved, rarely to spread widely. The 
plant varies much in particular respects, depending 
much, I find, upon whether it bear the sexual or 
asexual fruit, or be sterile ; but the difference usually 
consists in the lengthening or shortening of the parts 
of the plants, some being thick, dense and bushy, 
others slender, spreading and feathery. It is very 
common at all seasons. Dr. Anderson says, at Santa 
Cruz, growing chiefly on Macrocysfis, and, therefore, 
of course, in deep water. Dr. Dimmick collects it 
on the beach at Santa Barbara, and Mrs. Bingham 
gets It there, early in the season, upon Halidrys, 
also. It adheres well to paper and makes, in most 

RED ALG^. 157 

cases, a very pretty specimen. The color is a light 


Qenus.— RHODOMELA* Ag, 

Rhodomela subfusca, Ag. 

The ^ark brown Rhodomela is a common plant 
along our shores, from New York northward. It 
seems to be quite at home in all northern seas, as 
it has been found in Nova Zembla, and the Ochotsch 
Sea, as well as in all northern Europe and America. 
The ripe, robust, black, typical form is far from 
handsome ; but the young plants, which go under 
the variety names of Rochii and gracilis, are ex- 
tremely beautiful. It is a perennial, and its winter 
and summer aspects differ greatly. In the winter 
all the finer portions of the frond fall away, leaving 
the long, lateral branches, and the main stem stand- 
ing stiff, naked, dark and ungainly. But in the 
spring and early summer, when it is clothed in a 
new growth of delicate brown branchlets, it is a very 
graceful and charming plant. 

It is found attached, by a thin discoid hold- 
fast, to rocks, stones, and shells, near or below 

* P-hodonjela Red-blade 


low-water mark The fronds are from six to twelve 
inSies high, cylindrical, as thick as a pack-thread, 
in full-grown plants, much slenderer in others, fine 
as thread or hair in young plants, and in var. 
Rochii. In the common form, the main stem and 
branches are cartilaginous, stiff, and when dry, hard 
and harsh, and quite black. From the leading stem, 
which runs to the top of the plant, the branches 
spread out on all sides, the lower being the longest, 
often as long as the main stem — gradually short- 
ening towards the top. The branches are all more 
or less naked below. But, towards the end, they 
divide and sub-divide rapidly in alternate ramifica- 
tions, so that the small branchlets are much 
crowded, and, on paper, the primary and secondary 
branches seem thereby to terminate in little brooms. 

This is true only of the full-grown, typical forms, 
and of the var. gracilis^ a most excellent representa- 
tion of which appears in Plate IX. The normal form 
differs from this only in being more robust, of a 
less regular habit, and of a much darker color. 
The var, Rochii is much finer and softer, and the 
end branches are quite separate, but tipped with a 
very fine pencil of hairs. This is the early spring 
form, and is found chiefly south of Cape Cod. I 
have an exquisite specimen collected by Mr. Young, 



RED ALG^. 159 

of Brooklyn, as early as March 27th. Var. gracilis 
is more common in our northern waters, and ap- 
proaches more nearly the typical form. The speci- 
mens in my herbarium are of a rich, slightly reddish 
brown color. Whoever will take the trouble to look 
for this plant in the early spring, will find it one 
of the most beautiful of our marine flora. 

Rhodomela larix,* Ag. 

This and the next species grow on the California, 
and north western coast. R. larix is an arctic 
species which has made its way as far south as 
Santa Cruz and Monterey, but appears south of there, 
only as a rarity. It has been found at Santa Bar- 
bara, by Mrs. Bingham, in May ; and in January 
and March, by Mr. Cleveland, thrown up from deep 
water at La Jolla Point, San Diego. It was brought 
from Nootka Sound, by Menzies, more than three- 
quarters of a century ago, and described and fig- 
ured by Turner, in his unequalled " Historia 
Fucorum." Dr. Anderson reports it as very plen- 
tiful at Santa Cruz, and northward, growing there 
at all seasons, on the shelving rocks of soft sand- 
stone or shale. 

The frond is robust, cylindrical, thick as a 

Larix = Laic 


crow's quill, from six to fourteen inches long ; at 
first unbranched, but soon much branched all around, 
with limbs of various length, which stand out 
straight from the main stem. Branches from one to 
four and five inches long, according to the size oi 
the plant. 

The distinguishing mark of the species is the 
presence upon both stem and branches, of little 
tufts, or clusters of incurved ramuli. They are 
spirally placed, but when the plant is mounted, they 
seem to be alternate. They are commonly so far 
separated as to be quite distinct, and are not more 
than a quarter of an inch long. Color of the 
plant when dry, a jet black. 

Rhodomela floccosa,* Ag. 
This species differs from the other in many 
marked points. It is less • robust in habit ; the stem 
and branches are flattened ; the whole frond is 
divided and sub-divided in one plane ; the branches 
are alternately set upon the stem, and once or twice 
alternately divided ; the ultimate ramuli are some- 
what incurved, but not clustered as in the other 
species. In fertile plants, the last divisions at the 
end of the branches are more or less gathered into 

* Floccosa = Full of locks of wool. 


RED ALG^^. 161 

a mass, as in the whole genus, but in a far dif- 
ferent way from the thick tufts of R. larix. In 
truth, the plant very much resembles the fronds of 
Polysiphonia Baileyi, for which it will be more often 
mistaken than for any other species. You will get 
a good idea of the general appearance of the plant, 
by consulting Plate VIII. It differs from P. Baileyi 
chiefly, in being somewhat more coarse and robust. 

The main stem, in plants four inches high, is 
not much larger than a bristle. It is found from 
four to ten inches long. Color, a full black. It 
grows at Santa Cruz, on the rocks, in the same 
situation as its companion species, but is much less 
common, and is collected from September to Novem- 
ber. At Santa Barbara, Dr. Dimmick found it 
common near the lighthouse, and Mrs. Bingham says 
it is very common there all the year around, growing 
with Polysiphonia parasitica. My specimens from 
there are mingled with plants of that species. 


This genus is represented by three common species 
on our New England coast, and by one on the 
coast of California. The Adantic species all belong 

* Chondriopsis = Somewhat cartilaginovs. 


to the warmer regions, and grow south of Cape 
Cod, but grow there in great abundance. Though 
not a very striking or beautiful genus, it is yet far 
from being uninteresting. It is characterized by two 
marks which make it extremely easy of recognition, 
viz. : The uniform light or dull brown color when 
fresh ; and the fact that the stems and branches 
are pretty thickly covered with short club or spindle- 
shaped ramuH. These ramuli, which' are from one- 
eighth to one- half of an inch long, are very much 
constricted at the base, often seeming to be attached 
by the finest thread, or hair, to the plant. In three 
of the species they taper to a fine point at the 
extremity, and in the other, C. dasyphylla, they are 
very blunt at the end, shaped not unlike a boy's 
top. The plants should not be put in fresh water, 
and should be dried under comparatively light 


Chondriopsis tenuissima, Ag. 

This, as its name implies, is the slenderest of 
the several species. It grows from four to six 
inches high, with an undivided stem once or twice 
as thick as a bristle, with long, spreading, mostly 
alternate branches, sometimes simple, sometimes them- 
selves branched in the same way, and furnished 
throughout, more or less, abundantly with the charac- 

RED ALGyE. 163 

teristic ramuli, one-fourth to one-halt an inch long, 

slender and attenuated to a sharp point, both at 

the top and at the place of insertion on the branch. 

In drying, the plant adheres well to paper. It 

grows between tides, on Fucus and on rocks. It is 

a summer annual, inhabiting Long Island Sound and 

adjacent waters. I have collected it only at Wood's 

Holl. Miss Booth reports it in great abundance in 

Peconic Bay. 

Chondriopsis striolata, Ag. 

Frond from four to six inches high, twice as 
thick as a bristle, with a short stem, soon dividing 
into many long, simple, or ouce or twice compound 
branches. The branches rise somewhat perpendic- 
ularly, and make a compact tuft of the plant. The 
ramuli are very plentiful, much constricted at the 
base, somewhat rounded at the apex ; standing near 
the next species, in this respect, as it does near 
the last in its slender habit. The ramuli not unfre- 
quently bear like secondary ramuli along their sides. 
This is the characteristic point in the plant, though 
it sometimes occurs in C. dasyphylla. This species 
grows on rocks and other Algae, in pools, between 
tides, and below. I have taken it, at low-tide, in 
great abundance, on the rocks, east of the first 
beach, at Newport, in July and August. It is plen- 


tiful at Peconic Bay, and all through Long Island 
Sound and southward. 

Chondriopsis dasyphylla,* Ag. 
This is a considerably more robust plant than 
either of the others already described, growing from 
six to twelve inches high in bushy tufts, the main 
stem and branches being as thick as wrapping twine. 
There seems to be, at least, two distinct types, or 
varieties, of this species. The one has a pronounced 
leading stem, with relatively shorter and more erect 
branches, and the ramuh longer and less blunt, or 
only rounded at the apex, like those of C. striolata. 
The other just as manifestly divides up near the 
base into several long, widely spreading, similar 
branches, which are clothed throughout with an 
abundance of short, secondary branches, The ramuli 
of this variety present the typical form, much at- 
tenuated at the base, "short, thick, very blunt, top- 
shaped, or truncated at the apex. The former I 
found very plentiful at Newport, in July and August, 
growing in rock pools, near low-tide, and, as it 
lies pressed on paper before me, presents a mixture 
of green and purple color. The latter was among 
the most abundant of the plants in the Httle harbor 

•Dasyphylla= With bushy foliage. 

RED ALG^E. 165 

at Wood's Holl, the last days of October. In the 
water it was oUve, but in drying it turned black. 

Chondriopsis nidifica, Harv. { 

This plant is a native of the Pacific coast. It 
grows to the height of six or eight inches, as thick 
as a sparrow's quill, cylindrical, inarticulate, sparingly 
branched, in a manner between alternate and fork- 
ing. Branches several inches long, quite simple, or 
once or twice forked. The branches are either alto- 
gether naked, or bear, at considerable intervals, little 
tufts of short, incurved fruit-bearing ramuli, a quarter 
of an inch or so, long. This is the distinguishing 
feature of the plant. I have plants, but no notes of 
this species, from my correspondents on the Pacific 
coast. Another species, which Agardh reckons the 
same as this, C. atropurpurea, is also found on that 
coast. I have specimens, but no data for telling how 
plentiful it is, or where it may be found. 

GexwAS.— LAURENCJA* La?n. 

But three species of this genus are reported on 
the California coast, two only of which are sufficiently 
common to come within the scope of this book. 

* Laurencia. — Named for M. de la Laurencie. 


Laurencia pinnatifida,* Lam. 

Frond, flattened, narrow, in specimens ten inches 
4ong, not less than one-fourth of an inch wide ; sub- 
stance cartilaginous, thick ; color a hvid purple, 
becoming brownish in drying, and often faded to 
every shade, down to a dull white, and not seldom so 
unevenly faded, that you will get every sort of color 
in the different parts of the same plant. The frond 
widens somewhat upwards, arid the flattened branches 
are often as wide as the main stem. The stem is 
usually naked at the base, owing, no doubt, as the 
appearance indicates, to the breaking off of the lower 
branches. An inch or two above the base the branches 
appear upon the edges of the flattened stem, opposite 
or alternate, at an angle half way from horizontal to. 
perpendicular. The branches themselves are branched 
in the same way with flattened branchlets along their 
edges, and in rare cases these again. The plant is 
never more than three times pinnatifid, rarely more than 
twice. The ends of the ultimate pinnulae are always 
(juite blunt. 

The points indicated above will easily identify it. 
Dr. Anderson finds it growing on Laminaria, not 
uncommon, at all seasons, at Santa Cruz. At Santa 

* Pinnatifida = Pinnately cleft. 

RED ALG^. 1G7 

Barbara, Dr. Dimmick and Mrs. Bingham find it grow- 
ing near low-tide, and in deep water, upon the rocks, 
from which it is thrown upon the beach. Mr. Cleve- 
land gives substantially the same account of its habit 
at San Diego, where he collects it from November to 


Laurencia virgata,* Ag. 

This species has much the same geographical range 
as the last, but is not so common, I judge, from the 
comparative infrequency with which specimens find 
their way to the Atlantic states. It differs also, in being 
cylindrical in stem and branches, and by having the 
branches set all around the stem, and not on two 
sides only. The general habit of the branching, 
except as to that, is much like the last. In size, 
substance and color it greatly resembles Z. pinnatifida. 

Genus.— CBYLOCLADIA,^ Grev. 

The only plant which later revisions have left in 
this genus from our flora is the one which both Harvey 
and Agardh call Lomentaria ovalis. But as it has 
been lately known, and distributed, among American 

* Virgata, refers to its long, rod-like, branches, 
t Chylocladia = Juicy-branched. 


botanists, under the generic name given above, we 
will adhere to that. 

Chylocladia ovalis. Hook. 
The frond is cylindrical, as thick as a goose quill, 
six or more inches high, forking and sparingly 
branched ; the stem and branches are densely clothed 
near the summit, with ramuli, which resemble little sacks 
or bags, from one-fourth to one-half an inch long, some- 
times shaped like an Indian club, and sometimes like an 
egg, hence the specific name. It grows, Mr. Cleveland 
says, in deep water, and is collected as a rare plant 
at Point Loma, Lajolla, between December and April. 
The var. CouIte7i, is among the most common of plants 
at Santa Barbara growing on rocks at mid-tide and 
in deep water. It is not rare at Santa Cruz, where 
Dr. Anderson finds it on the sides of soft rock cliffs, 
near low-tide. It is not found on our Atlantic shores. 

Ger\\xs — GRINNELLIA* Barv. 

Grinnellia Americana, Harv. 
Somebody says, " Doubtless God could make a 
better fruit than the strawberry, but doubtless He 

• Grinnellia.— Named for Mr. Henry Grinnell, New York Oty* 

RED ALG.^. 100 

never did." So may we say of this Alga, ''Doubtless 
the Hand that fashioned this graceful and brilliant 
plant could make a finer. But it is tertain He never 
has, to grow on our shores, at least." 

Holding to stones and shells by a minute disk, not 
so big as a pin-head, with the merest thread of a 
stem, not a quarter of an inch long, it grows down 
on the sea bottom, five or six fathoms deep. From 
this slender thread of a stem, the wavy-edged, thin, 
delicate red membrane of a frond, gradually expands 
to the width of three or four inches, and rises to the 
height of one to two feet or more, tapering to a 
rounded point at the top. Along the middle of the 
whole length of the frond, runs a fine but distinct line 
of deeper color, and apparently thicker substance, 
which not a little resembles the midrib in the leaf of 
terrestrial plants. The edges are full, and rufiled, 
or wavy, so that when put on paper they fold in 
"plaits," at regular intervals, deepening the color at 
these places, and adding another charm to the picture 
which the mounted plant makes. 

This beautiful plant grows along our shores from 
Long Island Sound to Fortress Monroe, being most 
abundant and most luxuriant about New York Ray. 
It is in its perfection by the first of August, when it 
loosens in great numbers, from its deeper fastnesses, 


and floats to the surface, and is driven in shore. 
Then like Macbeth's bloody hand, it almost seems the 

"Multitudinous seas to incarnadine, 
Making the green — one red." 

There lies before me as I write, half a dozen splendid 
fronds taken at that season, on the pebbly beach, 
where the Hessians landed at the battle of Long Island, 
just below Fort Hamilton, New York. They are from 
one and one-half to two a.. J one-half feet long, and 
three to four inches wide, perfect in outline, and of 
a most beautiful rosy red, with just a shade of orange 
here and there. They would make exquisite pictures 
framed as pannels. A reduced copy of one of them 
adorns this volume, in Plate XII. They are delicate 
plants, and must be treated tenderly, and yet these 
specimens were carried, rolled up in newspapers, from 
New York to eastern Massachusetts, 250 miles, and 
kept twenty-four hours out of water, before they were 

Genus.— DELESSERIA* Lam. 

Delesseria sinuosa, Lam. 
The Delesseria with a sinuous or indented outline 
is a deep water plant, growing on the roots of Lam- 

* Named for Delessert, a French botanist. 


RED ALG^^. 171 

inaria flexicaulis, and on shells and stones, at a depth 
of ten to forty fathoms. It has been collected on 
the coast of Maine at a depth of seventy-five, and 
in the Arctic seas at a depth of eighty-five fathoms. 
It is very plentiful in Massachusetts Bay, and along 
the whole coast northward. It is sparingly found 
soutn of Cape Cod. It is to be looked for among 
the masses of sea weeds rolled up by the tides along 
our northern — especially rocky and pebbly — beaches. 
It is scarcely ever absent from such rejectamenta 
of the sea, for it is a perennial. It is as easily dis- 
tinguished there, as are the leaves of the oak or 
maple, among the fallen foliage of the forest. In 
some of its forms, it bears no inapt resemblance tc 
the young leaf of the oak. In England, it is called 
the oak-leaf Delesseria. In California, we have the 
true oak-leaf form, called D. quercifotia, which is 
not much unlike this species. 

The plant grows from three to six inches or more 
high. It is sometimes narrow, and sometimes quite 
broad as is the one, which i? copied for this vol- 
ume, and represented life size, in Plate X. It is ex- 
tremely variable in outline, but the fact that it is 
the only red Alga which has a regularly midribbtd and 
veined frond, like the leaves of trees, removes all 
difficulty in the way of its ready recognition, when- 


ever it is seen. Its color is a deep lake-red, when 
fresh or young, but often flecked with green, or 
white, or yellow, or faded to pink, when it has been 
long exposed on the shore. There are very many 
beautiful plants to be found among its various forms. 
It does not readily, or very firmly adhere to paper 
in drying. 

I find, from an old work on my shelves, by 
Gmelin, of St Petersburg, that it was described 
more than a century ago, he having then already, 
received specimens of it from Kamtschatka. It is 
essentially an arctic plant. I have two copies from 
Spitzbergen, where it is described, as being among the 
most common of the red Algse. 

Delesseria alata. Lam. 

The winged Delesseria has the same general 
habit as D. sinuosa, except that it is a very much 
narrower, and more delicate plant. It grows in much 
the same situation, and may be looked for in the 
same places. It will almost always be found on our 
shores in connection with Ptilota plumosa, var. ser- 
rata, on whose frond it is very commonly parasitical. 
It is commonly not more than three inches high, 
though I have both English and American specimens, 
twice that, 

RED ALG^. 173 

The cylindrical stem flattens into a midrib, directly 
it enters the leafy part of the frond. There is but 
a very narrow margin of leaf, or wings, bordering the 
midrib ; in our plants, it is not over one-eighth to one- 
fourth of an inch wide. The frond rapidly forks or 
irregularly divides, in one plane, so that the frond 
has a multitude of narrow, terminal ramifications, 
along towards the end of which, the midrib, in most 
of our American plants, seems to disappear. 

The margins of the lobes are usually entire, and 
they run out commonly to a narrow, but ahvays 
rounded, termination, nearly one-tenth of an inch wide. 

It will often be found associated with EutJiora 
cristata, from which it will sometimes be found diffi- 
cult to distinguish it, on account of similarity of size 
and ramification. But the small ends of the Euthori 
are never 7'ounded, but always square or notched, 
in an angular fashion. A common pocket lens will 
always reveal the distinction, if it cannot be made 
out with the unaided eye. D. alata is a perennial. 
It has not been found south of Cape Cod, but it 
will seldom be wanting on our northern shores. It 
is not uncommon on the CaHfornia coast. Its color 
is a light red or delicate pink. It is indeed a very 
beautiful plant when carefully mounted. Our Amer- 
ican plants seem to adhere well to paper. 


Genus— NITOPHYLLUM* Grev, 

This splendid genus must be one of the glories 
of the marine flora of California, a coast extremely- 
rich in fine and beautiful species. With its many 
species of large and brilliantly colored plants, thin 
and silky in texture, graceful in outline, prolific in 
numbers, surely this genus would be difficult to 
match. What could be more charming than a wide, 
deep, clear rock-pool, where the brown " Kelp " and 
the green U/va, intermingled with the waving fronds 
of these crimson plants, should spread themselves 
out in calm and lazy life, the wonder and admira- 
tion of every beholder ; or to look 

** Far down in the green and glassy brine. 
Where the floor is of sand, like the mountain drift, 
And the pearl shells spangle the flinty snow; 
Where from Coral rocks the sea plants lift 
Their b.iughs where the tides and billows flow." 

And see there, growing upon the stems of the giants 
of Neptune's forest, these brilliant fronded Nitopyhlla^ 

• Red like a banner bathed in slaughter? " 

This truly ad?mradle plant, says Prof. Eaton, is 
" among the largest species of the genus, often two 

♦ Nitophyllum = A shining leaf. 

RBB ALGM. 175 

feet long, and in the spread of the lobes two-thirds 
as broad. The frond has usually a central body 
with forked, tongue-like, marginal branches, an inch 
wide and six or eight inches long. The lobes are 
often crowded so as to overlap each other. No 
veins are visible. Fruit dots are scattered over the 
surface of the frond. The substance is rather firm, 
but thin, and does not very well adhere to paper, 
except in the younger portions. The color is dull 
purplish-red, more rosy in the newer parts." 

I have seen only small specimens of this noble 
plant. Dr. Anderson reports it quite common at 
Santa Cruz, and when he also reports, that three 
other of the largest species of this splendid genus 
are among the commonest plants in those waters, I 
cannot help wishing that that El Dorado of the Al- 
gologist were not so far away. He says all the 
species of Nitophyllum grow between tides, on rocks, 
and on the roots and stems of Laminaria, of course 
in tide pools, all the year round. No doubt they 
grow in deep water there also, as they do, according 
to Dr. Dimmick, at Santa Barbara. 

Nitophyllum latissimum,* Ag. 
The frond springs from a narrow base, and spreads 

* Latissimum = Wide«t> 


out widely in lobes, like a hand with the fingers 
extended, or remains entire, a foot long, rounded at 
top, four or five inches wide, or displays one long, 
tapering lobe and several smaller ones by the side 
of it. It will thus be seen to be extremely variable 
in form. But it has one mark which will infallibly 
distinguish it, viz. : a network of branching, crossing 
and interlacing veins, which covers over the entire 
frond. The veins are very pronounced, and about 
equally so throughout the frond. At least one other 
species, of this genus, from these waters, has veins in 
the frond, viz. : N. Ruprechteanum. But they 
are mostly parallel, and rapidly fade out as they get 
to the middle of the frond. Mrs. Bingham and Dr. 
Dimmick find it not very common at Santa Barbara, 
thrown up from deep water, in May and June. It 
does not occur at San Diego. Dr. Anderson's report 
of this and other Nitophylla, is given under the last 
species, N. spectabile. 


This plant was no doubt nam>ed for Mr. A. D. 
Frye, of New York city, one of the earliest collectors 
of Algae on the Pacific coast. It is neither a large 
or a very common species. It attains a height of 
five or six inches, and is spread to about the same 

RED ALG^.. 177 

width when full grown, and much divided. From 
a minute point of attachment it widens rapidly upward 
in a wedged-shaped manner, quite like a palmate, or 
typical form, of "Dulse," and in general, it may be 
said to have the habit of the smaller species of that 
genus, found in the same neighborhood, viz. : Rhody- 
7nenia corallina. The full grown frond is divided 
almost to the base into three or four lobes, and these 
again at top, having widened much, are themselves 
divided half way down, the secondary lobes being 
nicely rounded and scalloped at top. It is full red, 
thickish and nerveless. It is not very uncommon in 
northern California, but is rare in Santa Barbara, and 
has not yet been found at San Diego. In the former 
place it is thrown up from deep water in May, and 
probably at other times. 


Though by no means the largest, this is one of the 
most interesting and certainly the best marked species 
of the group. It has a narrow frond throughout, not 
over one-third of an inch wide, often less than that. 
It throws out branches profusely along each edge, 
or quite loses itself in branchings and forkings, so as 
to make often, a very rambling and uncertain outline. 
But the figure, in Plate XL, will give a much better 


idea of the plant than can be conveyed by any words. 
It has one unmistakable mark which will distinguish 
it from every other member of the family, viz. : the 
fact that all the parts and lobes are armed along 
their edges with sharp, forward-pointing teeth. In 
all the older parts, a midrib is very distinctly seen, 
which loses itself at last near the middle, or toward 
the younger parts of the frond. My largest specimens 
are eight inches in lateral spread, and something less 
in height ; color, a dull or brownish red. It is common 
along the whole coast, and at Santa Barbara, it is 
reported growing in deep water near the wharf, and 
on large rocks at low-tide, and at San Diego, in deep 
water, from November to April. 


This is a fine, large and well marked species. 
Starting from a narrow stem, it soon expands into a 
repeatedly forking, widely spreading frond from one 
to two feet' long. The strap-like lobes of the frond 
are from half an inch to one inch wide, of various 
lengths, of nearly parallel edges, rounded and often 
cleft at the top. The edges of all the older parts of 
the frond, and of any old breaks in it, are bordered 
with a fringe of minute leaflets, not more than one- 
eighth of an inch long. Sometimes these extend over 

LoMKNTARiA Baileyana, Haiv. 

Xi lOi'inLr.iM .\Nni;iis()\n. .1. 


RED ALG^. 179 

portions of the surface of the frond. This is an un- 
mistakable mark of the species. The thickened stem 
divides and forms midribs or veins in the lower 
divisions of the frond. These, however, soon dis- 
appear upward. The color is a dark red with a shade 
of purple. Substance, somewhat rigid. It does not 
adhere well to paper. It is among the commonest 
of plants along the whole coast, and must be one of 
the finest features of a fine flora. 


This is another large plant growing a foot or more 
high, and spreading as wide. In general habit it very 
much resembles the last species, but differs in lacking the 
fringe of minute leaflets upon the edge of the lobes. 
It is also more widely divided in the palmate frond, 
the lobes are more numerous, more wedge-shaped, 
shorter and narrower. From a flattened stem, one 
to four inches long, the frond spreads, by repeated 
forkings and dividings, into many segments with 
rounded tops. Large, dark, fruit dots are scattered 
over the surface of the fertile fronds. It appears to 
to be a native of the northern shores, as I have not 
received it from any locality south of Santa Cruz. 

• FlabcUigerum = Fan-shaped. 



This species is distinguished by its very narrow 
frond, which fofks ahiiost from the bottom, into long, 
slender segments, and by its marked purple or violet 
color. It is quite a variable plant, yet one or the 
other of these marks will usually determine it. It 
grows to the height of six or eight inches, and its 
lobes are often not over a quarter of an inch wide, 
and are apt to throw out at irregular intervals along 
the margin, minute leaflets with a dark spot in them ; 
this is the fruit. It is plentiful along the entire coast, 
and grows in deep water on the larger Algae. 

Genus.— CALLIBLEPHARIS,'' Kutz. 

Calliblepharis ciliata, Kutz. 

The ciliated species of this genus is by no 
means as common in our waters, as it is reported 
to be on the other side of the Atlantic, but it will 
well repay looking for where it may be expected. 
It is an annual, growing in deep water, and ripen- 
ing its fruit and frond in early winter. It is found 
at Cape Ann, and down the coast of New Eng- 

* Calliblepharis = Beautiful eyelashes. 

RED ALG^, 181 

land and the Provinces, as far as Halifax. Mrs. 
Davis gets it on the beach at Gloucester, where it 
is thrown up, from September to December. Prof. 
Eaton found it at Eastport, Me. It may be ex- 
pected at all intermediate points. 

It grows from a mass of short, creeping roots, 
at first, a short, cylindrical stem, which gradually 
expands into a flat, thickish, cartilaginous frond, 
from one-half to one inch wide, and from two to 
six inches high, tapers again at the top into a sim- 
ple acute apex, or, forking, ends in two such apices. 
Along the edges of this frond, at irregular intervals, 
there come forth, at first, sharp, minute, spine-like 
processes, usually curved. These at length grow 
into miniature fronds of the same general form as 
the parent frond. These again put out the spinous 
cilia ("eyelashes," so called) which, in turn, be- 
come still more minute fronds, of the original pat- 
tern, having ciliated edges. Here, generally, the 
ramification stops. The plant has a clear, strongly 
marked red color, with a decided tendency to turn 
darker in drying. It adheres well to paper. 


Genus.— G J? AC/LA J^/A* Grev. 

Gracilaria multipartita, Ag. 

The many-fimes-divided Gracilaria is the only 
representative of this genus, which grows in our 
northern waters, and it is found on both the east 
and west coast, being quite common in Southern 
California. The narrow form, angustissima, is very 
plentiful in Long Island Sound and adjacent waters. 
I have collected this variety in considerable quanti- 
ties in Providence river, in the month of August, 
where Prof. Bailey and Mr. Olney found it in 
abundance, many years ago. It has been reported 
north of Cape Cod, by but one collector, Mr. 
Collins, who finds it quite plentiful in the warm 
waters and on the muddy bottoms of Mystic river 
marshes, near Boston, from May to November. 

The plant is an extremely variable one. It grows 
to a height of from six to twelve inches. It starts 
with a short, cyhndrical stem. This immediately be- 
gins to flatten, and directly expands into a narrowish 
flat frond, which always widens upward, till it is a 
third or half an inch broad. Then it divides into 
two to four segments, which are, in the same way, 

* Gracilaria = Slender, giaceful. 

r ^ 


(tuinmii.lia Amekicaxa, Ifa. 

RED ALG^. 183 

slender at first, but gradually widen as they grow 
upward. Another division, soon occurs in each of 
these, and the parts again expand, and so on. This 
method of growth, together with the partings or 
branchings which occur along the edges of the 
frond, and which likewise have the same habit of 
upward widening, gives the whole frond a decidedly 
fan-shaped aspect. 

In July or August, the seed-vessels appear along 
the edges of the branches, like warts, as big as 
pigeon shot. The substance of the frond is some- 
what tender and brittle, but when dry, it is tough 
and leathery. The color is a dull purplish-red, but 
much darker when dry and mounted on paper, to 
which it adheres rather imperfectly. 

Order.— CORALLINES. \/ 

Genus.— CORALLINA* Lam, 

There are several genera of this order growing on 
our shores, besides the one named above. They are 
all characterized by the calcarious, or stony incrubta 
tion of the frond. Some of them are mere pink 
or brown patches, upon the fronds of other Algae, or 

* Corallina ^ A little coral. 


upon the rocks, stones and shells ; others grow up 
in the form of plants. None of these, with the ex- 
ception, possibly, of the Co7'allina, and the Amphi- 
roa, will be of sufficient interest to any other than 
the scientific botanist, to make them desirable to 
collect. But that you may know, that these things 
which you will find so plentiful all along the shore, 
and which much more resemble, by reason of their 
stony structure, the corals than any plant, are real 
plants and not corals, I have selected one species 
for description. It should be added, perhaps, that 
the true plant structure, and the reproductive organs, 
really exist as in other red Algae, but are concealed 
beneath the hard crust which is secreted upon the 


The medicinal species of this genus is the only one 
on our eastern shore. It is also a native of Cali- 
fornia. It grows in great abundance in tide pools, 
and upon the rocks, about low-water mark, all along 
our shores from New York northward. It is from 
one and a half to three inches high, extremely vari- 
able in size and aspect, in some cases loosely and in 
others densely tufted ; in color, from a reddish pur- 
ple to a gray green, and if exposed to the weather, 
for a little time, upon the beach, bleach out quite 

RED ALGyB. 185 

white. The frond is composed of cylindrical fila- 
ments, a trifle flattened, the main stem branching 
from its edges, as do also the principal branches. 
The whole plant is built up of small stony, some- 
what wedge-shaped joints, a trifle the widest at the 
top, all the branches and branchlets spring from 
the top of the joints directly below. It generally 
refuses to adhere, but may be fastened down with 
straps of gummed paper. 

Order — GELIDIE^. 
Genus.— GELIDIUM* Lam. 

One species of this is a native of both shores, 
and the others of the Pacific alone. They are nar- 
row, compressed, rarely quite cyhndrical plants, of a 
firm, tenacious substance, and, when dry, quite rigid 
and horny. They are pinnately branched, and the 
branching is mostly in one plane. 

Gelidium corneum, Lam. 

This is a most variable plant. A typical form, 
such as we figure, in Plate XIII, will not very fre- 
quently be found. But every plant will be but a 
variation on that theme. Plants of this species on 

* Gelidium = Ice-like or jelly-like. 


the eastern coast are small, not more than an inch, 
or an inch and a half high. Those growing in 
California are three or four inches high, the lower 
branches long and naked below, gradually shortening 
toward the top of the plant. They are two or 
three times pinnated, that is, the branches bear 
branches, and these branchlets, arranged on the same 
pinnate plan throughout; the ultimate ramuli are 
usually club-shaped, and swollen with the spore 
masses, which they contain. Color, a purpUsh red, 
but by exposure on the beach, it fades through all 
shades to dirty white. It grows in tide pools on 
rocks and other Algae, near low-water mark. It is 
extremely common on the Pacific coast at all sea- 
sons. A section of the fruit-bearing branchlet makes 
a very interesting microscopical object, with its club- 
shaped spores, growing from a central partition, 
which divides the inner cavity of the conceptacle 
in^o two equal chambers. 

Gelidium cartilagineum, Grev. 

The fronds often attain a height of twelve inches, 
are flattened, two-edged, one-tenth of an inch in 
diameter, flatter upwards, three or four times pin- 
nated. The root is a mass of much-branched, rigid 
fibres. Stem and long primary branches naked be- 

Gelidium corneum, Lam. 


RED ALG^E. 187 

low, thickly, pinnately branched above. All the 
lesser pinnules issue at very obtuse angles with 
distinctly rounded axils. Color when growing is a 
very dark purplish-red. Its size, the long primary 
branches, and the rounded axils of its ultimate 
branchlets, distinguish it from the last. It is very 
common at all seasons, growing between tides, on 
rocks and weeds. Mrs. Bingham finds it on the 
stems of Phyllospoi'a Menziesii at Santa Barbara. 
At San Diego it grows in deep water and in deep 
tide pools. It does not adhere to paper in drying. 

Gelidium coulteri, Harv. 

This is much the smallest and most delicate 
species of the three. It grows in considerable tufts 
from a mass of matted root-fibres, sometimes fifty 
plants together. It is very slender and narrow, not 
more than the twentieth of an inch wide, yet all 
parts are clearly flattened, and the opposite pinnate 
branching, goes on very regularly from the edges. 
The fronds are commonly two or three inches high ; 
the primary branches one to two inches long; the 
secondary are usually the club-shaped ramuli which 
contain the fruit, and are closely set and opposite. 
Color, a very dark purple. It adheres to paper fairly 
well. Beginning as a somewhat rare plant in San 


Diego, it becomes more and more common toward 
the north. At Santa Cruz it is very plentiful. Its 
habitat is upon rocks and other Algae between tides. 

Order. — HYPNE^. 
Gex^us.— BYFNEA* Lam. 

Hypnea musciformis, Lam. 

The moss-like Hypnea is in many places south 
of Cape Cod, a very common plant. I collected 
it at Wood's Holl, but not very plentifully. Miss 
Booth speaks of it as growing " by the acre," in 
Peconic Bay. In California, as on the Atlantic 
coast, it grows more common as you go southward. 
It is not found north of Cape Cod. 

The frond is filiform, growing from a mat of 
root fibres, on stones and shells, in deep water. 
It grows in spreading bushy tufts to a height of 
from three to seven inches. The main stem is as 
thick as a sparrow's quill at base, thence tapering to 
the size of a bristle at top. It is irregularly but 
plentifully branched, especially in the lower part of 
the frond, the branches spreading out widely in every 

* Hypnea, named from Hypnuma; genus of Mosses, 


RED ALG^^. 189 

direction, the longest near the bottom. These 
branches are often branched in the same manner, 
and sometimes the branchlets also. All the parts are 
beset, sometimes thickly, sometimes sparingly, with 
short, horizontal spines one-tenth to one-third of an 
inch long. 

The distinguishing mark of the plant is this : The 
almost or quite naked extremity of the principal 
branches is turned back at the ends so as to form 
a hook, often not unlike a fish-hook in appearance. 
This must not be mistaken for the twining tendrils 
borne on the end branches of one variety of Cysto- 
c Ionium purpurascens. The color is a dark, dull 
red, with a purplish tinge, which rapidly fades to 
dirty green and white, when exposed to sunshine or 
the action of fresh water. It adheres to paper, but 
not very strongly. 

Ger\us.— RBODYMENIA* Grev. 

Rhodymenia palmata, Grev. 

The palmate or hand-shaped Rhodymenia is so 
common and so universally known under the common 

* Rhodymenia = A red membrane. 


name of " Dulse " that it seems hardly necessary to 
give a particular description of it. As its name says, 
it is a red membrane. From a small, hard disk, a 
veiy short, round stem arises for one-fourth of an 
inch or so, and then spreads out into a broad, thin, 
fan-shaped membrane, three to twelve inches or more 
high, destitute alike of midrib and veins. But it is 
cleft from top to bottom, or nearly, into many wedge- 
shaped segments. The main segments are cleft down 
half way or so, giving them also, and the whole plant, 
somewhat the appearance of a hand with the fingers 
spread out. The margins of the frond are usually 
quite entire, but the ends of the " fingers," are cut 
in a little way, to show where other divisions would 

The plant, however, is variable, sometimes growing 
a foot or more high, a narrow leathery strap, fringed 
along the sides with leaflets, and surmounted with 
several palmately divided segments. It is a perennial, 
and the old fronds are generally much thicker than 
the young ones. I have some very thin, quite trans- 
lucent specimens from Sweden. But my British and 
Spitsbergen plants are thicker, like our American 

It is of a dark red or wine color. It grows on 
rocks, and on the Fucus, and on stems of Laminana^ 

RED ALGuE. 191 

from low-water mark to several fathoms down. It 
adheres very imperfectly to paper when dried, unless 
allowed to stand for a considerable time before mount- 
ing, in fresh water. Both cooked and in a raw state, 
it is a common article of food among the peasantry 
of the British Isles. ' In Norway and Sweden, it is 
much used as the food of sheep and goats. Mrs. 
Bingham reports it at Santa Barbara, common. 

Rhodymenia corallina. Grey. 

Starting in a cylindrical stem which sometimes is 
as long as one-third of the whole plant, it soon 
expands into a wide, fan-shaped, many times forking, 
rose red frond. The plant is from four to eight inches 
high. The lobes, which are generally of a uniform 
width in the same plant, vary from one-third to three- 
fourths of an inch, in different plants. The margins 
of all parts are very entire and smooth, and the ends 
nicely rounded. The substance is thin but firm. 
It grows in rocky tide pools and in deep water, along 
ihe whole coast of California, very common both north 
and south. It is not found on the Atlantic coast. 


Q^Qx\\x%.— EUTHORA, Ag. 


The crested Euthora is among our most interest- 
ing and beautiful northern plants. Plate XIV. gives 
a good reproduction of a typical frond of this species. 
In general outline, when spread on paper, it is not 
greatly unlike some forms of Delesseria alata, from 
which it differs, however, by having no veins or 
midrib, and by having its end ramifications notched. 
In D. alata they terminate in rounded points. 

The tiat fan-shaped frond grows from one to 
three inches high, and divides from the base in a 
manner between forking and alternate branching. 
The main branches also subdivide in the same way. 
Sometimes they widen upwards at first, and then 
fringe out into narrow branches. Sometimes they 
are of the same width throughout, one eighth of an 
inch or more, and rapidly divide toward the ends into 
.minute branches, each of which, under the glass, will 
seem to be notched in at the end. It is a full bright 
red color. 

It is found in great abundance along our whole 
coast north of Cape Cod. It has also been dredged 
off Block Island. It grows with Ptilota pliimosa. 
and the two Delessei-ice^ on stones, shells, and other 



RET) ALGAZ, 198 

Algae in deep water. It is to be looked for among 
the debris left upon the strand by the waves. Professor 
Eaton found it near Eastport, Me. in tide pools, an 
unusual habitat, I must think. It may be collected 
throughout the season. It adheres well to paper, and, 
when carefully laid out makes a beautiful specimen. 

Gewus.— FLOCAMIUM* Lyngb, 

Plocamium coccineum, Lyngb. 

A plant of the scarlet Plocamiiwi is well repre- 
sented in Plate XV. It is one of the most brilliant, 
beautiful and common of the California Algae. Few 
collections of " Sea Mosses " will come from the 
Pacific coast, which will not contain more or less of 
them. It grows between tides in pools, and below. 
Its color is a dark lake red, often faded to a lighter 
hue. The substance is cartilaginous. The frond is 
narrow, one-tenth to one-eighth of an inch wide, from 
three to eight inches high, flattened and branched 
from the edges, by stout, flattened, alternate branches, 
some long and some short. 

Plants of this species may be easily and infallibly 

* Plocamium = Braided hair. 


distinguished by the peculiar arrangement of its extreme 
ramifications. The ultimate ramuli are set on the 
inner edges of the terminal branchlets, exactly like 
the teeth of a comb, three or four little awl-shaped 
teeth in a row upon each branchlet, and the branch- 
lets themselves, set in the same way, upon the edges 
of the penaltinate branches. 

It adheres very well to paper when mounted fresh 
from the sea, under considerable pressure. It is so 
common at all seasons, along the whole western coast, 
that particular localities need not be named. 

It is not a little sin^lar, that this species, which 
is so common on the western shores of both Europe 
and America, should not be found at all on the 
eastern coast of America, lying directly between. 

Gex\Kxs.— STENOGRAMMA, Barv, 

Stenogramma interrupta,* Mont. 

The same remark may be made of this as of the 
last species ; the singularity of its occurrence on the 
western shores of both continents, and its absence from 
•the intervening east coast of America. 

* Steno.^ramma interrupta =: An interrupted mark or line. 



RED ALrG^. 195 

It grows in deep water, on stones and weeds, from 
a discoid root, with a short stem, which immediately 
flattens into a thin, wedge-shaped, repeatedly forked 
membrane, two to eight inches high, widely spreading, 
the lobes from one-fourth to one-half an inch wide, 
with parallel sides and rounded apices. The color 
varies from a pink to a full red. 

The fertile fronds may be known by the interrupted 
or broken line of very dark red fruit vessels, which 
runs up the middle of the frond and its segments, 
quite like a midrib. Tiie barren plants have an 
appearance much like that of Rhodymenia coralHna, 
but may usually be distinguished from that species, 
by their much brighter red color. Fronds bearing 
asexual fruit are dotted over with irregularly shaped, 
dark red spots. It is reported on the whole coast 
of Calfornia, but not very common anywhere. 

Ger\u^.^PIKEA, Harv. 

Ptkea californica, Harv. 

This is a common, coarse, cartilaginous plant, 

growing between tides at all seasons along the whole 

California coast. It has a thickish, piarrow, flattened 

frond, one-eighth of an inch wide, three or four 


inches high, with a spread of its multitude of branches 
all in one plane, in a general fan-shaped outline, 
quite as wide as it is high. The flattened branches 
spread out widely from the two edges of the main 
stem, and divide and sub-divide profusely and irreg- 
ularly. The only distinguishing point in its outward 
appearance is the fact that all the lesser branches 
are bordered along both edges by a considerable 
number of short, inward-curved, forward-pointing, 
spine-like ramuH, of various lengths, from one-tenth 
to one-fourth of an inch, short and long mixed in- 
discriminately. There seems also to be an utter lack 
of system in the branching of the plant. Its color 
is a dark red, becoming much darker in drying. It 
adheres imperfectly to paper. 

Genus.— FARLOWIA, Ag, 

Farlowia compressa, Ag. 
This genus, which Prof. Agardh has named in 
honor of our countryman. Dr. Farlow, of Harvard 
College, who is doing so much fine work in per- 
fecting, and disseminating a knowledge of Amer- 
ican Algae, comprises two species, but one of which 
I shall undertake to give an account of. 

RED ALG^. 197 

This species is distributed along the whole Cali- 
fornia coast, is well marked, and, from its outward 
resemblance to Fikea, as well as by its own pecu- 
liarities, it will not be difficult to determine. 

It has a coarse, tough, leathery frond, narrow, 
flattened, profusely and irregularly branched from its 
edges, in a way quite impossible to describe, and 
yet easy enough to recognize when once seen. It 
grows to a height of from eight to twelve inches, 
aud has a lateral spread of branches quite equal to 

Most of the fronds have a well-developed leading 
stem, though in some it is lost midway in the mul- 
titude of branches which spread out each side. 
Neither stem nor long branches are ever over one- 
eighth of an inch wide, thickened in the middle, 
roughened, often toothed along the edges. 

The branches and branchlets are all tapered 
towards the base, and mostly pointed at the top. 
The ultimate branchlets and ramuli, which are from 
one-half inch to one inch long, show a decided 
tendency to bend inward towards one edge like a 

The color is a very dark red, turnmg almost 
black in drying. It does not very closely adhere to 


The other species, F. crassa, I have no speci- 
mens or notes of, and, so can give no account of 
it. It is a northern plant, and may be found from 
Santa Cruz northward through Oregon. 

Okq^u^.— CHAMPIA* Ag, 

Champia parvula, Harv. 
The little Champia is an extremely variable, but 
on our southern shores, a very common plant. It 
need not be looked for north of Cape Cod. I 
have found it in abundance at Southold, L. I., New- 
port, near the beaches, Martha's Vineyard, Onset 
Bay, and at other points. The fronds are filiform. 
Main stem and branches about the size of a pack- 
thread. The living plant, in the water, is apt to 
assume a globose appearance, on account of its prolific 
and irregular branching. It grows to the height of 
from two to six inches. It is softly cartilaginous, and 
adheres well to paper. Its distinguishing mark, in 
the typical form, is, that both in the water and on 
paper, it is regularly and somewhat deeply constricted. 
The constrictions vary in length from once to once 
and a half times the diameter of the frond. Thev 

* Champia = A personal name. 

RED ALG^. 199 

are longest in old parts of the frond, and gradually 
shorten towards the ends of the branches, till at last 
they appear under the lens, like a string of very small 

In other than the normal forms, these constrictions 
are not apparent except to a microscopical examination. 
The beginner is advised to put doubtful cases aside, 
and wait till a greater familiarity with the species 
enables him to be sure of them. I have found the 
typical forms to be mostly of a brownish purple color, 
darker on paper, while many of the others are of a 
decidedly pale green, touched with whitish yellow in 
spots, with perhaps here and there brown branches 
intermingled. It is a deep water plant, and may be 
got through the warm season. 

Ger\us.— LOMENTARIA, Lyngb. 

This genus is represented by two not very common 
species on our eastern coast, but one of which, how- 
ever, is of sufficient importance to come within the 
scope of this book. 


This is a very beautiful little plant, growing in 
globose tufts, two or three inches high. It is of n 


delicate red or pink color, and takes on a variety of 
interesting forms, one of the most beautiful of which 
is represented in Plate XL, Figure 2. The normal 
form is that of a frond as thick as a bristle, forking 
and branching as it rises, the branches being much 
constricted at their insertion, and bending in grace- 
ful curves towards their extiemity. Sometimes the 
main branches bend over in the long sweep of a 
semi-circle, as in the plate, and the branchlets spring- 
ing from the convex side of the arched branch, in 
their turn bend in the same way, they again being 
beset externally with arched ramuH. 

The normal variety differs from this only in having 
the parts less bent. But the tapering of both branches 
and ramuli, to base and apex, is characteristic of 
every variety. It grows in deep water, four or five 
fathoms down. It is common south of Cape Cod, 
and is not found to the northward of that. I found 
nearly all forms of it at Wood's Holl, in August, and 
Miss Booth collects it at Peconic Bay, in that month. 
The divaricate form makes an extremely beautiful 
and graceful picture. It adheres well to paper in 

RED ALGAl. 201 

Q,Qx\\i^.— RHABDONIA* Harv. 


This genus is represented by one species on each 
of our American coasts. The one named first is the 
Atlantic plant. It is found only south of Cape Cod, 
where it is a very common but somewhat variable 
plant. In general appearance it is not greatly unlike 
Gracilaria multipartita, differing mainly in color, 
and in having a cylindrical and not a flattened frond. 
The stem and branches are somewhat stouter than 
a wrapping twine. 

The plant grows from six to twelve inches high, 
is very irregularly branched, the branches longest near 
the bottom of the frond, shorter toward the top, but 
always attenuated at base and apex. Sometimes the 
main stem runs through the whole plant, sometimes 
it is so divided into large branches as to be quite lost 
sight of. The branches themselves also divide, in a 
manner between branching and forking, and even the 
somewhat profuse secondary branches not infrequently 
have scattered ramuli upon them. 

The frond manifests a marked tendency to flatten- 

* Rhabdonia = Rod-like, 
t Tenera = Tender. 


ing, at the point where several branches put out 
near together. The fruit is produced on the long 
branchlets in hemispherical, wart-like protuberances, 
as large as grape seeds. 

The normal color is a dark red, which fades on 
exposure to the air, and so the plant may come to 
have almost any tint, according as it has been for a 
longer or shorter time tossed about by the weaves, 
exposed on the shore, or treated to fresh water in 
mounting. It grows upon rocks and stones, several 
feet below low-water mark. It is so common every- 
where south of Cape Cod, that special localities need 
not be named. I have found it everywhere in those 


Rhabdonia Coulteri, Harv. 

This species seems to be as common on the California 
coast as /^. tenera is on the Atlantic shores. It differs 
from that if I may judge by a somewha^ limited suite 
of specimens, and from Harvey's description and 
figure, by having a more pronounced leading stem, 
not branched near the base, and by having all the 
branches much shorter in proportion to the length 
of the plant, and crowded together towards the top 
of the frond. 

It grows at low- tide, and below, on rocks, and is 
found thrown up upon the beach, somewhat rarely, 

RED ALG^. 203 

from January to March, at San Diego, and all the year 
around, in great abundance, at Santa Cruz and Santa 

Genus.— FOLYIDES* Ag. 


This is the only species in the genus, and the 
only genus in the order. Agardh names it P. lum- 
bricalis, but rotundus appears to be the older name. 
The frond is cylindrical, and rises from a minute 
disk, at first very slender, then thickens, and at the 
height of an inch, or an inch and a half, is as large 
as a knitting-needle, where it widely divides or forks. 

In the course of half an inch more, each of 
the branches forks in the same way; a little further 
on, all these fork, and again these branchlets, till 
there are six or eight regular dividings, each succes- 
sive one being less wide and spreading than the one 
immediately before it. This gives the plant a fan- 
shaped outline. The branches all keep their cylin- 
drical form, so that the plant looks stiff and bare, 
notwithstanding its much branching. 

• Polyides = Many-formed. 


In color, it is very dark red when fresh, and 
quite black when dry. It is a perennial, and so may 
be looked for at all seasons. It grows in deep 
water. I have taken it at Marblehead and Newport. 
Mr. Collins reports it in various places about Massa- 
chusetts Bay, in the summer and fall, in tide pools. 
Mrs. Davis gets it at Annisquam in a mill pond. 
Mrs. Bray finds it washed ashore at Coffin's Beach, 
Gloucester. All report it common.- Miss Booth finds 
it scarce at Orient, It does not adhere to paper, 
and is far from being, to the generality, an inter- 
esting plant. 

denus—NEMALWN* Ag, 

Nemalion multifidum, Ag. 

The many-times-divided Nemalion is a summer 
annual, growing attached to the surface of rocks, on 
the sea bottom, which are uncovered at low tide. 
It much affects the smooth, rounded surface of the 
hard, granitic, sea-worn boulders, which lie low down, 
between tides, all along our New England coast. 
Where nothing else seems able to make a foot-hold, 

* Nenj^Hoo = Crop of strings. 

RED ALG^, 205 

or keep its place against the beating of the fierce 

waves, we often find numbers of these worm-like 
fironds fastened and flourishing. 

At Marble head, in early June, I have seen these 
boulders lying clean, smooth, and hard, warming in 
the sun, when the tide was out, with no trace of 
vegetation on them. In early July, I have found 
the young fronds of the Nemalion just sprouting up, 
half an inch high or so. By the middle or last of 
August, they would be a foot long, full grown, and 
in perfect fruit. But on visiting the place in Octo- 
ber, I have found no trace of them left. 

They have ripened, produced the living crop of 
spores, discharged them into the sea, and so having 
accomplished their life-function, have vanished again 
fi-om among living forms. 

Where and how the spores pass the intervening 
months, from October to June, in the midst of the 
furious waves, and then come back to their native 
habitat, on the smooth, rounded faces of these bare 
boulders, there to germinate and grow, and accom- 
plish the circle of their life-history, "is something no 
fellow can find out ;" and it always seemed to me 
a very wonderful and mysterious thing. 

Nemalion mulHfidiim has a cord-like frond as 
thick as a match, six to twelve inches long, when 


full grown, very elastic and tough. It divides and 
sub-divides by regular forkings, the axils being wide 
and rounded. Sometimes a frond, or a branch, will 
divide into three or four lobes at the same point, 
spreading out like the fingers of the hand when 
widely opened. Again, the forkings will follow each 
other, in rapid succession, and again, only at long 
intervals. Usually several, and often quite a bundle 
of fronds, spring from the same discoid hold-fast 
upon the rock. The color is dark brown or purple. 
It shrinks much in drying, and adheres closely to 
paper. When in fruit, it makes interesting micro- 
scopical specimens. It is common from Long Island 
Sound northward. I have found it as plentiful at 
Newport, as at Marblehead. 

Qenws—SCINAIA, Bivon, 


The forked Scinaia is not a very common plant, 
but is worth looking for wherever it is likely to be 
found, viz. : in our warmer seas, south of Cape Cod, 
especially at Newport, Gay Head, and Katama, 
Mass., and in California, where it is said to be quite 
common. I took several fine plants in Newport in 

RED ALG^. 207 

July. It is a summer amiual, of a fine lake-red 
color, not over four, and usually not over two inches 

The frond is cylindrical, one-eighth of an inch in 
diameter, tapering much at the base, sometimes con- 
stricted at intervals, and repeatedly and regularly 
forking as it rises. The frond divides and subdivides 
six or eight times, and finally ends in little forks, 
hence its name. All the branches attain the same 
length, so that the plant is "level-topped," and its 
outline, when carefully laid out on paper, is almost a 
perfect semi-circle. It adheres well, and must not 
be subjected to too much pressure at first. The 
ultimate branchlets are usually thickened a Uttle. It 
makes an interesting and sometimes a beautifiil specimen. 
It grows in deep water. 

Qenus.— PBYLLOFBORA* Grev. 

The characteristic of the genus is a hard, cylindrical 

stem, considerably branched, from one to three inches 

long, and bearing upon the end of the branches a 
small, wedge-shaped, red leaflet. 

• Pbyllophora = Leaf-bearing. 


Phyllophora membranifolia,* Ag. 

This is the more common species of the two which 
are natives of our waters. It especially loves the 
warmer seas, though it is reported as not uncommon 
on our northern shores. Mrs. Davis collects it at 
Magnolia, and Mr. Collins at Revere. I found it at 
Newport and Wood's Holl, in great abundance, especially 
at the last named place. It grows in deep water on 
pebbles and rocks. From an expanded disk upon 
the stone, fifteen or twenty cylindrical fronds some- 
times arise in a bunch. At the height of half an inch 
they begin an irregular branching. 

The branches are short and stiffs and stumpy. Some 
of them soon expand into various sized wedge-shaped 
leaflets, from one-fourth to three-fourths of an inch 
long ; others appear merely flattened and then truncated ; 
others bear the minute lobes of young sprouting leaf- 
lets. The typical leaflets are once or twice lobed or 
forked. The plants grow from one and one-half to 
six inches high, of a clear red color, and the old ones 
are often incrusted with parasites, patches of polyzcm 
or of calcarious Algae. It is a perennial. 
Phyllophora Brodi^i, Ag. 

This is said to be very common in deep water at 

* Mepibranifolia = A membraneous leaf. 


Halifax, and in northern regions generally. It differs 
from the last in having a much less branched stem, 
and a much broader and larger leaflet. Yet this is 
very variable both in size and form. But the frond 
is much more simple, and of a somewhat more robust 
habit than P. membranifolia. The leaflet is deeply 
lobed, but all the segments keep their wedge-shaped 
outline, and are themselves indented at the top. The 
color is a clear, strong red. It grows in deep water, 
and is a perennial. I have never collected it. Mr. 
Collins finds it occasionally at Nahant, in October, and 
Mrs. Davis finds it in the fall, on the open beaches, 
about Gloucester, after a storm. It has been found 
as a rarity, by Miss Booth, washed ashore at Orient. 
It has the same geographical range as the other species. 
Neither of these plants adhere to paper, nor are they 
especially interesting to the general collector. 

(^Qx\\i%.— GYMNOGONGRUS* Mart 

This genus is represented by one species on the 
Atlantic and three on the Pacific coast, in our flora. 

Gymnogongrus Norvegicus, Ag. 
The Norway species is reported at many places 

Gymnogongrus = Naked warts, seed v« 


on our coast, Peaks Island, Me., Beverly and Nahant 
Mass, and New York, But I do not think it can be 
a very common plant, for I have never happened to 
tind it growing, and none of my correspondents have 
seemed to be more fortunate than myself. It grows 
in deep water, about two inches high, from a little 
disk, by a stem at first cylindrical, twice as thick as 
a bristle. In half an inch it forks, sending out a 
main branch each way. In half an inch more it 
flattens to one-eighth of an inch wide, and forks again 
with a wide, rounded axil. Directly these again fork 
in the same way, till five or six divisions have been 
made, and the ultimate lobes will be one-fourth to 
one-half an inch long, standing wide apart, and 
rounded at the end. It has a darkish red color on 

Gymnogongrus leptophyllus,* Ag. 

This plant somewhat resembles the last. Like that, 
the frond is flat and narrow, but the stalk is shorter 
and not so cylindrical. Starting from a discoid 
hold-fast, a small, narrow, flat stem arises, which 
either branches at once, or forks at the height of 
half an inch, into two widely spreading parts. These 
divide and sub-divide, in the same way, two or three 

• Leptophyllus = Thin-leaved. 

RED ALGjE. ^ 211 

times. In a plant two inches high, none of the 
parts are over one-tenth of an inch wide, and 
usually not more than one-sixteenth. The fertile 
fronds have little hemispherical fruit-vessels scattered 
over them. 

The substance of the frond is thin, but carti- 
laginous and tough ; the color, a darkish or brownish 
red. It adheres imperfectly to paper. It grows along 
the coast northward from Santa Barbara, not very 
common, on rocks, between tides, at all seasons. 

Gymnogongrus Griffithsi/e, Ag. 

The color, size, and method of branching of 
this plant is much the same as that of the last. 
But it differs from that by not being flat, but quite 
cylindrical. The frond is not thicker than a bristle. 
It grows from one and one-half to two and one- 
half inches high, in tufts, upon rocks, between tides, 
each frond somewhat regularly forking three or four 
times. The "fruit is held in little, dark-colored, j)romi- 
nent swellings, in the end branches. It has the same 
geographical range, and the same habitat as the last. 

Gymnogongrus linearis, Ag. 

This is a much larger plant than either of the 
others, some in my herbarium being not less than 

212 - SEA MOSSES. 

six inches high, and eight inches in the spread of 
the frond. The general habit of growth is the same 
as that of G. leptophyllus. 

Rising by a flattened stem, which, two inches 
from the base, widely forks, the two parts themselves 
fork three or four times. The segments are nowhere 
more than one-fifth of an inch wide, and all gradu- 
ally taper towards the end, the ultimate ones being 
long and slender. 

The fruit-vessels stand out like hemispherical 
warts, one-tenth to one-eighth of an inch in diam- 
eter, upon the flat side of the frond. Color of the 
plant a dark red ; substance, thickish, cartilaginous^ 
leathery. The general distribution and habitat are 
the same as that of the other Pacific species, along 
the whole coast of California. 

Gexwis.—AIfNFELTIA* Ag. 


This species is very common from New York 
northward, and is also found sparingly at some points, 
on the west coast. It is extremely easy of identifi- 

* Ahnfeltia. Named for Ahnfelt, a German botanist, 
t Plicata = Folded or doubled up. 

RED ALG^. 213 

cation. If you find thrown upon the beach, or 
growing upon the rocks, between tides, a tangled 
bunch of black, branched, crooked, very stiff, wire- 
like sea-weed, half as big as your fist, or larger, 
the wires as thick as large pins, or knitting-needles, 
you may be sure it is A. plicata. 

It is very irregularly and profusely branched, 
sometimes by widely forking, sometimes four or five 
branches will grow out close together from the side 
of the stem, and perpendicular to it; and the parts 
spreading and bending by sharp angles in all ways, 
the plant will be tangled and intricate, beyond de- 

Again, it will grow up, and by the upward ten- 
dency of the branches, and something like regular 
forkings, will attain a considerable perpendicular 
height, six to ten inches, or so, and appear to have 
some systematic plan of life. These forms, I have 
collected somewhat abundantly at Newport. But the 
first-described aspect is by far the most common. 

On being exposed on the beach for some time, 
it will be found faded or bleached perfectly white. 
It does not adhere to paper, and is altogether as 
unmanageable a bit of vegetable crookedness and 
perversity, as one would care to meet. It is too 
common to require the naming of special localities. 


Ahnfeltia gigartinoides, Ag. 

This plant is found only on the California coast. 
It is reported not common at Santa Cruz and quite 
rare at Santa Barbara. It is a more robust and, by 
far. less profusely or irregularly branching plant, than 
the last. 

The specimens in my herbarium are six inches 
high, some of them rising for three inches in a 
single cyhndrical stem, and then forking regularly and 
evenly in one plane six times, giving sixty-four ter- 
minal points to the plant. Others fork fewer times, 
and less widely, and nearer the bottom of the stem, 
and then stretch out in long segments two or three 
inches, before they divide for the second and third 
time. Like the other, it does not adhere to paper, 
and its substance is hard and horny when dry. 
Color, a dark red. 

Qexwxs.— CYSTOCLONIUM* Kutz. 


The purple Cystodonium is a very common, some- 
times a provokingly common, coarse, bushy, and 

* Cystodonium = Bladdery branches. 

RED ALG^, 215 


generally uninteresting plant. It grows everywhere 

along our eastern coast, but more plentiful, I think, 

in our northern waters. At least, my correspondents 

so report it. It grows between tides, on the rocks, 

in tide pools, and in deep water. 

The main stem runs through the whole plant, 
thick as a match, somewhat translucent and fleshy, 
a foot or so high, when full grown. It is irregularly 
much branched all around, with branches which are 
themselves branched like the main stem. The ultimate 
branches are somewhat narrowed at the base, and 
attenuated into acute points, and sometimes into 
long, slender, hair-like prolongations at the top. 

In variety cirrhosa, these attenuated ramuli have 
the habit of twisting themselves into spirals, like the 
tendrils of the pea or grape vine, and wind them- 
selves about the branches of neighboring plants, quite 
after the manner of their more cultivated cousins, the 
vines. The variety, is perhaps quite as common as 
the normal form on pur shores, and will be likely 
first to attract the notice of the attentive eye, to 
the species. 

Much trimming will be needed to make the plant 
presentable on paper. The color varies from a light 
red brown to a dark purple, or even black, when dry. 
You will often find that the lesser branches are much 


swollen at points, into what appear to be little 
''bladders," as the name of the plant mentions. 
This is caused by the interior nodules of fruit bulging 
the ramulus out at these points. It may be collected 
during the whole season. In some places it will 
make no inconsiderable part of the mass of smaller 
weeds, which are found piled up on the beach. 


One of the marked features, of the marine flora 
of California, are the large and brilliant plants of this 
genus. None of the red Algae excel them in brilliancy 
of color, and few in size of plant, in spread of frond, 
or variety of form. They are common everywhere 
on the coast, and grow mostly in deep water. 

Callophyllis variegata, Ag. 

None are more common or more variable than 
the plants of this species. It is rightly named. Plate 
XVI. shows a common, and what may be considered 
a typical form of it. It gives at least the general 
method of the division of the frond. And yet many 
plants are far removed from this form, by having all 
the segments very narrow and long, one-eighth of 

* Callophyllis = Beautiful leaf. 

RED ALG^. 217 

an inch wide, and six inches long ; or very wide, 
from an inch to an inch and a quarter broad, and 
no more than half a foot long. 

But the deeply cleft, widely spreading, flat frond, 
with the segments wedge-shaped, and the extreme 
ends of all the parts notched in, more or less angularly, 
are unmistakable marks of the species under all forms. 
It adheres fairly well to paper. Color, from a darkish 
to a bright red. The older parts of the plant are 
thick. The fruit appears in hemispherical warts, 
scattered over the surface of the frond. Dr. Farlow 
expressed to me the opinion, that California plants, 
which have been distributed under the name C. 
discigera, are only extreme forms of C. variegata, 
while those which have been called by collectors C. 
ornata, are really none other than members of the 
species to be next described, viz. : 

Callophyllis furcata, Farlow. 

Starting from a mere point, where the frond 
is attached, it widens out till it is from half 
an inch to an inch wide, and several inches 
long, and then divides in various ways, mostly 
by the process of splitting. The clefts are narrow 
and deep, and some of them run near to the 
base of the frond ; or starting together from the 


widest part, the clefts run to the end outward, and 
the segments are arranged Uke the fingers of the 
hand, when spread apart somewhat ; or the frond may- 
be long and narrow, with an occasional fork. 

In every case, except that of the deeply cleft fronds, 
the lobes are bordered on both edges by a multitude 
of tongue-shaped leaflets, from one to two inches 
long, and from one-eighth to one-half an inch wide, 
much attenuated at base, and with a somewhat 
rounded point at top. The color is a deep, darkish 
red. The substance is firm, and in old plants, thick 
and hard when dry. The fruit, in prominent warts, 
is scattered over the surface of the frond. The plants 
in my herbarium range from four to fourteen inches 
in height. It grows between tides at all seasons, 
and is not uncommon at Santa Cruz, and other parts 
of the coast 

Callophyllis flabellulata, Harv. 

This species is more decidedly fan-shaped in 
outline, and in the division and spread of its main 
branches, than either of the other species. The prin- 
ciple stem forks, but not widely, and these again 
fork ; then, at a distance of half an inch or so, they 
divide into half a dozen different segments, each of 
which repeats the same process, two or three times. 
The segments are from one-fourth to one-sixteenth of 

Cai.koimivlli.s varii;(;a ia, ^lo. 


RED ALG^. 219 

an inch wide, and the extreme ends are notched in, 
not unlike those of the Euthora cristata. 

Agardh takes notice that the whole plant resembles 
some forms of that species. I am not informed 
whether or not they are commonly found larger than 
those in ray herbarium. These are two inches high, 
and about three inches wide. The color is a bright 
rose red, and the substance thin and delicate, adher- 
ing well to paper. It is a common plant at all 
seasons, north of Santa Barbara, and grows between 
tides and below, on other Algae. 

Genus.— GIGARTINA* Lam. 

This genus, which has several large and showy 
species on the Pacific coast, and in other parts of 
the world, has but one, rather humble and insignificant 
representative, on our eastern shores. 

The fronds of the Pacific plants are inclined to 
be thick, fleshy and bulky ; and all the species show, 
in some form, the presence of the papillose or tuber- 
culose processes, which characterize, and give the 
genus its name. The plants are of a decidedly 
gelatinous substance, and one can readily see, that 

• Gigartina = Grape stones, referring to fruit-beariug tubercles on the frond. 


they might be easily applied to culinary uses in the 
same way as the "' Irish Moss." 


This plant grows near low-tide, in Massachusetts 
Bay, and northward, upon the rocks, among the 
" Irish Moss " or Chondriis crispus, which it much 
resembles in appearance. It has very much the 
same habit of growth, a flattened, leathery, tough 
frond, forking from near the base, dividing and sub- 
dividing in the same way, broadly and openly. The 
segments are more or less wedge-shaped, and have 
a tendency to roll their edges inward, toward one 
surface, making a channel on that side. It differs 
from the Chondrus, by having on the inside, or con- 
cave side of the frond, a numerous growth of papillose 
protuberances. These readily distinguish the plant, 
and give it its specific name. 

I have collected it in considerable quantities at 
Marblehead, and Mrs. Davis and Mrs. Bray find it 
among the commonest plants on Cape Ann, as Mr. 
Collins does also at Nahant. It is common at Santa 
Cruz and northward. The color is a very dark purple, 
black and rigid when dry. It does not adhere to 

RED ALG^. 221 


This, and the remaining species of this genus, 
are exclusively natives of the Pacific coast. This is 
the largest and most pretentious species of the genus. 
It has a large, flat, thick, dark, livid red frond, which 
takes on in different plants quite a variety of forms 
and outHnes. But in the main, it is simple, or if 
divided, then only by the presence of one or two 
clefts of greater or less depth. 

It puts out no branches or leaflets, but is more 
or less thickly peppered over with warly protuberances, 
which seen along the edges of the frond in profile, 
appear to be mostly minute globes, a half or a quarter 
as large as a pin head, set upon short stalks. 

The frond itself rises from a short, flattened stem, 
from which it more or less rapidly widens to a breadth 
of several inches, then, in the simpler forms, rounds 
off", usually very bluntly, at the top. The largest speci- 
men in my herbarium is fourteen inches long, and six 
inches wide in the middle, tapering more rapidly 
and acutely to the top than to the bottom. But another 
specimen, ten inches long, and four and a half broad, 
tapers quite acutely to the base, and is very broad 
and blunt at top, even cut in, heart-shaped. 

* Radula «= A scraper. 


I have seen much larger plants than either of 
these. The variety exasperata, grows two or three 
feet long, and six to ten inches wide. But the heavy, 
thick, mostly simple, flat frond will serve to distinguish 
this from either of the other species. My California 
correspondents all report it very common from San 
Diego to Santa Cruz, growing between tides, on rocks 
the year around, or below tide, and in the sluice 
ways. It is truly a noble plant, and with its livid red 
color must be a striking feature, rising and faUing in 
the green waters. 


This resembles the last species only in its thick, 
leathery substance, and its roughened, spiney surface. 
The protuberances are pointed, and not rounded at 
the end, as in G. radiila, and they often attain con- 
siderable length. 

The form of the frond is extremely variable. Some- 
times it rises from a cyHndrical stem, flattens broadly, 
and then divides, as the hand divides into fingers. 
Again", it keeps its main frond entire, and simple, taper- 
ing gradually and gracefully to base and apex, and 
throws out from each edge a multitude of long, narrow 
leaflets, pointed above and below. These are some- 

* Spinosa =: Thorny. 

RED ALG^, 223 

times simple, and sometimes forked, from one to three 
inches long, and from one-eighth to one-third of an 
inch wide. 

Both the main frond and the leaflets are covered 
with a profusion of the stout spinose, or papillose 
processes peculiar to the genus. Color, a dark red, 
brown, or purple. It grows from six to twelve inches 
high, upon the rocks, between tides, and below, at all 
seasons. Dr. Dimmick and Mrs. Bingham report it 
very common at Santa Barbara, upon the rocks near 
shore. But Mr. Cleveland at San Diego, and Dr. 
Anderson at Santa Cruz, find it not So plentiful as 
the last, or the next species. 


The most characteristic difference between this 
plant and the two preceding species, is its much 
lighter and thinner frond, and its slenderer, spore- 
bearing spines. It rises from a disk by a flattened 
short stem, which more or less rapidly expands into 
a wide, thin, flat frond. This remains simple or else 
divides into two or three segments, each of which 
tapers into a long, slender, pointed apex. This atten- 
uation of the plant at the top, seems to be character- 
istic of the species. It is thickly covered with the 

Microphylla =^ Small-leaved. 


long slender spines, and often bears a few small, 
thin leaflets along its edges. It grows to the height 
of twelve or sixteen inches or more, and is an inch 
or an inch and a half wide. The color is a deep, 
brownish red. It is abundant along the whole Cali- 
fornia coast. It may be found near the wharf, at 
Santa Barbara, and at the beach, and mussel beds, 
at La JoUa, San Diego. 

A plant, which the botanists have insisted upon 
calling a variety of this, var. horrida, but which differs 
from it in all respects, quite as much as G. spinosa 
does, is very common along the whole coast. It is 
a much smaller plant, thicker, and darker colored, 
and vastly more profusely and irregularly divided, and 
branched, than the typical form. It is literally clothed 
in almost every part, with long, closely set, simple 
or branched spines. Its appearance well entitles it 
to the cognomen " horrid." It is present in considerable 
numbers, in almost every gathering of California 
" Sea Mosses " which one gets. Why it is not worthy 
of a regular specific " local habitation and a name," 
is more than appears clear to me. 


This, also, is a very common species on the Cal- 
ifornia coast, but quite unlike any other representa- 

RED ALG^, 225 

live of the genus found there. It rises from a few 
matted fibres in a narrow, flattened stem, one-tenth 
of an inch wide, whose edges are shghtly turned 
upon one side, making a channel on that side, and 
leaving the other slightly convex. It is bare for an 
inch or more, and then forks or irregularly branches 
from its two edges. The opposite branches divide 
and sub-divide once or twice, after a more or less 
pinnate fashion. The ultimate ramuh, which are mi- 
nute spines, often bear the fruit in swollen and 
rounded vessels, developed in their middle in such a 
way as frequently to turn the end of the spine down 
at right angles to its general axis, so as to make 
the whole bear a striking resemblance to a minute 
bird's head, bill and ah. 

It grows in dense tufts, from two to four inches 
high, in tide pools, and on the rocks between tides, 
all the season through. Dr. Dimmick collects it at 
Castle Point, Santa Barbara, but it may be looked 
for, I suppose, in favorable localities everywhere. 
The younger parts of the plant adhere well to paper. 



Gerwis.— CBONDRUS* Lam. 
Chondrus CRispus,t Lyngb. 

This is the famous " Irish Moss " of commerce. 
It is collected in large quantities on our eastern 
coast, exposed to the sun to dry and bleach, and 
then sold to the grocer for his customers to make 
blanc mange of. It grows very common upon the 
rocks between tides, and a little below, and is as 
variable a plant as it is common. It is so well 
known in the East that it hardly need a special de- 
scription. For others, I may, perhaps, venture to ap- 
pend a brief account. 

The fronds are from three to six inches high; 
thick, tough and leathery. At first, it is a flattened 
stem ; this, at the height of an inch or more, when 
it is from one-eighth to one-half an inch broad, 
forks widely. Thence, at varying distances, the parts 
divide and sub-divide, in the same way five or six 
times. The frond exhibits all the possible variations 
between the long and narrow, and the short and 
tvide, and all shades of color, between an olive green 
jid a very dark purple, or jet black. 

The purple and other dark shades are apt to be 

♦ Chondrus ^ Cartilage. 
t Crispus as Curled. 

RED ALGyE. 227 

sheeny, or iridescent, in the water, and are some- 
times among the most beautiful plants to be found 
growing in the tide pools, especially when the sun 
shines upon them. It turns much darker, and does 
not adhere to paper, in drying. Its geographical 
range is from the Carolinas north, on the east coast. 
It is not found on the Pacific side of the conti- 
nent, though two other species of the genus, which 
I have not thought it best to give an account of, 
do occur there, viz. : C. canaliculatus and C. affiniSy 
the latter of which, Dr. Farlow thinks, may be a 
variety of the former. 

G^enus.—IRID^A* Bory. 

Irid^a laminarioides, Bory. 

This species sufficiently characterizes the genus. 
It has a large, wide, thick, membraneous frond, aris- 
ing from a stalk two inches long, which is at first 
cylindrical and then flattened. The frond is usually 
simple, though sometimes lobed ; from one to two 
feet long and from one to three inches wide, smooth 
when barren, warty when bearing the true fruit, and 

* Iridza = Many colors. 


thickly dotted over, when bearing tetraspores, with 
small, colored, raised spots. 

Dried, the plant is stiff, substantial, and tough, 
and of a very dark red color. It is among the 
commonest of plants at Santa Cruz, at all seasons, 
near low-tide mark on the rocks, and in tide pools. 
It is very scarce at Santa Barbara, growing on small 
rocks near low-tide, and is altogether absent at San 
Diego. No representative of the genus is found on 
our eastern shores. 

Genu^.— FRIONITIS* Ag. 

This is a very common form on the whole of 
the west coast. The genus is characterized when 
dry, by a thickish, hard, smooth, leathery, flat frond, 
of a dark red-brown color. 

Prionitis lanceolata, Harv. 

The specific name refers to the lance-shaped 
leaflets, which are found upon the edges of its 
branches. The plant has a narrow, flattened frond, 
one-tenth of an inch wide, which sparingly forks, or 
branches from its two edges, in a very irregular, 

* Prionitis = A little saw. 

RED ALG^. 229 

straggling manner, usually with long distances between 
the divisions. Although it is an extremely variable 
plant, it is not difficult to recognize, when once 
known, as it contrives, in some way, to show its spe- 
cific peculiarity, viz. : the putting out of minute lance- 
shaped leaflets, along the edges of the long, ultimate 
branchlets, which always stand out perpendicularly to 
the axis of the branch. These are very much con- 
stricted at the base, but rounded more or less at 
the top, and are from one-sixteenth to one-half an 
inch in length. The plant attains, in full growth, a 
height of ten inches or more. 

Mr. Cleveland finds it, from October to May, 
washed upon the shore from deep water, at San 
Diego. At Santa Barbara, it is found in the same 
situation, also growing on the rocks near shore. Dr. 
Anderson finds it on shelving rocks and in tide pools, 
all the year, at Santa Cruz. It is extremely common 

Prionitis Andersonii, Eaton. 

This is a much larger plant than the last. It is 
common at Santa Cruz, but somewhat rare on other 
parts of the coast. It was named by Prof. Eaton, 
for that most industrious and zealous Algologist, Dr. 
Anderson, of Santa Cruz. The plants are a foot or 


more high, and usually consist of a main frond, 
which is flat, thick, and of a dark red color, taper- 
ing to a point above and below, with a marked 
tendency to bend toward one edge like a sabre. 
This may be the whole of the plant, and then the 
frond will measure a foot in length, and an inch in 
width, at the widest part. 

Commonly, however, this is but the central part 
of a large and widely-spreading plant, the secondary 
fronds, branching from the sides of the main frond. 
Sometimes, this may be comparatively small, no more 
than two inches long, and three- tenths of an inch 
wide, and throw out on each edge a considerable 
number of long, flat, tapering, sabre- shaped frondlets, 
perhaps, a foot or more long. Again, the main 
stem may be three times as large every way, and 
the branches no more than four or five inches. So 
they vary in relative size and proportion. The 
plants of this species are usually of a deep red, wine 
color. They do not adhere to paper. 


Sarcophyllis Californica. 

This and another species, 6". edulis, Agardh takes 

RED ALG^. 231 

from the old genus, Schizymenia, to make this new 
genus of. 

It has no stalk, but expands upwards into the 
wedge-shaped base of the broad, thickish membrane. 
The one before me, kindly lent by Prof. Eaton, is 
not more than five inches long, but is quite two 
inches wide at its widest part, tapering to a rounded 
point at the top. The membrane is simple, but 
more or less torn. The color is a dark purple, 
darker in drying. 

It is not very common at Santa Cruz, growing on 
rocks and weeds, on rocky beaches. It is not else- 
where reported in Cahfornia, and it does not occur 
at all on our eastern coast, though its generic con- 
gener, S. edulis, is common enough on the west coast 
of Europe. 

Qierwis.— GRATELOUPIA* Ag. 

Grateloupia cutleri^, Kutz. 

This is a large, coarse, flat, extremely variable 
plant, quite common on the California coast, except 
in the extreme south, where Mr. Cleveland sets it 

* Grateloupia. Named for Dr. Grateloup, a French Algologist. 


down as a rarity. It often attains the height of two 
or three feet. Sometimes the frond will be perfectly 
simple, an inch wide, and two feet long, tapering 
to a narrow base and apex ; sometimes a foot high 
and three or four inches wide ; smooth and blunt 
at top ; colored so as to closely resemble a frond 
of IridcBa laminar ioides^ from which then, it is 
possible to distinguish it only by a microscopical dis- 
section, of the structure of the plant. Again, it will 
be deeply cleft into many lobes from near the bot- 
tom to the top ; and, at other times, it will put 
out a series of leaflets from both edges ; or it will 
combine both these departures from simplicity in one 
plant ; or it will throw out from the truncated top 
of a long, wide, simple frond, a number of long, 
narrow frondlets, much attenuated at each end. 

The color is a reddish brown, changing by fad- 
ing to various shades of brown and purple, and even 
to a dull green, or dirty white. Sometimes all these 
colors will be found in the same frond. It grows 
in deep water, plentiful in the north. Dr. Dimmick 
finds it very common near the light-house, at Santa 
Barbara. It may be looked for at all seasons. 

RED ALGM. 233 

Ox6ex.— DUMONTIEJ^, 
QxQxwxs,.— HALOSACCION* Kutz, 


This is truly an Arctic plant, growing only in 
northern waters, but there sufficiently plentiful. So 
far as I know, it has not been found south of 
Gloucester. Mrs. Davis finds it in deep tide pools, 
from April to August, at Brace's Cove, Gloucester ; 
and Mrs. Bray on rocks, in tide pools, plentiful at 
Bass Rocks, Gloucester. Harvey figures it as a plant 
twelve to fourteen inches high, when full grown ; with 
a pronounced leading stem as thick as a crow's quill 
at the middle, much attenuated at the base, and 
somewhat so at the top ; clothed on all sides above 
the middle with an abundance of branches, half as 
large as the main stem, from one to three inches 
long, mostly simple, but sometimes branched, and 
always attenuated at base and apex. Both stem and 
branches are hollow. 

My American plants are of a decided red color ; 
bu; 1 have Spitzbergen plants, from Prof. Kjell- 
man, of Sweden, which are of a dull purple color, 

* Halosaccion = Sea-bag. 
t Ramentaceum = Branched. 


and differ from Dr. Harvey's figure in the much 
greater length of their branches. Prof. Eaton de- 
scribes a variety which he calls gladiatum, found in 
abundance at Eastport, Maine, wliich differs much 
from the normal form. It is flattened, wide, near 
one inch in the middle, but sword-shaped and atten- 
uated at both ends ; sometimes simple, and some- 
times branched on the edges. Some specimens in 
my herbarium show tendencies toward that form. It 
is a variable but not uninteresting plant, and collectors 
along the coast of Maine, and the Provinces, will not 
fail to find it in plenty, on the rocks, near low-tide. 

Genus.— SPYRWIA* Barv, 

Spyridia filamentosa, Harv. 

This plant is an inhabitant of the warmer seas. 
It is found common only on our southern shores. 
I know of no well authenticated case of its having 
been found north of Cape Cod. But south of the 
Cape it certainly is as common as almost any plant. 
I certainly found it in abundance at Newport, from 

• Spyridia = A small basket, referring to the 

RED ALG^^. 236 

July to October, and in Providence River, in August. 
Miss Booth found it not uncommon at Peconic Bay, 
and other points about the east end of Long Island. 
It is also reported by Harvey, at various places in 
our southern waters, as far as Key West. 

The frond is fiHform, not usually thicker than a 
bristle, from three to six inches or more high, gen- 
erally much and irregularly branched, the branches 
spreading widely, and being themselves divided and 
sub-divided into a wealth of lesser ramifications. 
The branchlets, when young, are visibly articulate; 
and all of the smaller branches, and often all the 
branches, are clothed throughout with a light growth 
of very delicate, hair-like filaments, not much over 
one-tenth of an inch long. These are plainly visible 
to the naked eye, and give the name, and charac- 
teristic mark, of the species. The color is a purplish 
red, but the hue may change by fading through all 
shades to a pale green or yellow. It grows below 
tide marks, a fathom or two, and so must be looked 
for, among the floating burden of the sea. It ad- 
heres fairly to paper, and with its fine and grace- 
fully disposed branches, and its soft haze of fairy 
filaments, bordering all, it makes a very pretty spec- 


Order.— CERAMIEM. 

Gex\yxs.— MICRO CLADIA* Grev, 


Probably very few people collect "Sea Mosses 
on the Pacific coast, who do not get plenty of this, 
species with every gathering. No package of dried 
Algae, or fasciculus of mounted specimens, comes 
from that coast, to the botanists or lovers of Algae 
in the east, which docs not contain some of these 
interesting and beautiful plants. 

It has a cylindrical or slightly flattened stem, twice 
as thick as a bristle which runs fully through the 
plant, and sends out branches from its two edges, 
in one or the other, or both of the following ways, 
viz. : The regularly alternate branches are set on the 
two sides, at an almost perfectly uniform distance, 
and rise at the same angle from the main stem, so 
that they " lay out " quite parallel. Near the base, 
the branches are short, but gradually become longer 
towards the middle of the frond, then shorten again, 
towards the apex, so as to give the whole plant a 
quite perfect "lanceolate" outline. Or, again, the 
plant will throw out several long branches from each 

* Microcladia = Minute tirandie*. 

RED ALG^^, 237 

side, near the base, and each of these, together with 
the main stem in its upper part, will develop the 
typical outline just now described. 

It remains to be said that the primary branches 
themselves, branch in the same manner, by short, 
alternate, secondary branches, and these, again, divide 
up in the same, regular way, the ultimate ramuli at 
the end being invariably incuived, and growing shorter 
and shorter to the end of the branch. This regular 
habit of branching, the graceful outline of the plant, 
and the many shades of red and dehcate pink which 
it assumes, make it a great favorite with collectors. 

It does not adhere very well to paper, and on 
that account is all the more easily detached, and 
woven into those beautiful " Sea Moss " pictures, which 
some of the fair admirers of these plants are fond 
of making. With them, this plant becomes a great 
favorite. Its fine and delicate ramifications, and its 
great faithfulness in retaining its normal shape, when 
once pressed and dried, make it very serviceable for 
such uses. 

It attains a height of six or eight inches. It 
may be found at all seasons in great abundance, on 
the rocky beaches, between tides and below, upon 
rocks and other Algae, especially upon Gigartina 



In general form and substance, this very much 
resembles the last species, but differs a little in the 
disposition of the ultimate ramuli. But a perfectly 
unmistakable mark may be found in the position of 
the fruit. And it would not be exactly safe to call 
any specimen M. Califo?'nica, which does not demon- 
strate its identity by having fruit. 

In M. Coulteri, the fruit is borne on the inside 
of the ultimate ramulus, and is surrounded by a little 
whorl, of incurved, short, spine-like processes, which 
partly inclose it. In M. Californica, the fruit is 
borne on the outside of the ramulus, and is bare, 
and destitute of this inclosing whorl. The species is 
not as common as the last, but is found growing in 
the same situations along with that. 


Our artist has given such a good picture of this 
beautiful plant, in Fig. 2, Plate VII, that it cannot 
be necessary to enter into a detailed verbal descrip- 
tion of it. There is nothing in the waters of the 
Northern Pacific that can possibly be mistaken for it. 

It will be observed that the very graceful outline 
of the plant, is obtained by carrying out, in detail, 
a perfecdy uniform and very simple method of branch- 

Piii.oT.x i'Li'.\r()s\. Ae'. var. srrha'ia, 


RED ALGyE. 23'" 

ing, viz. : putting every secondary branch upon the 
inside of its primary, and bending the primary out- 
ward and backward. This plant could hardly fail to 
give a fruitful hint, for a decorative design, \o any 
artistic mind. 

It is found only in the northern waters of the 
Pacific, as its name implies. But it is common at 
Santa Cruz, in tide pools, at all seasons. It is of a 
very dark brown color, often almost black. It does 
not very perfectly adhere to paper, and so like its 
"next of kin," M. Coulteri, it becomes a very useful 
plant in working out beautiful " Sea Moss " designs. 

Qenus.— CERAMIUM* Ag. 

This genus furnishes several of our most common 
and most beautiful ''Sea Mosses." There are plenty 
of good reasons for all being favorites with collectors. 
The distinguishing characteristics of the genus are 
either or both of the following, viz. : i. The ten- 
dency of the tops of the branches to bend in 
towards each other, the last fork being quite in- 
curved and hooked, like two minute fish-hooks, turned 
point to point. 2. The variegation of the stems and 
branches, as seen with a good pair of eyes, or 

• CersMniom = A pitcher, referring to finnt. 


under a pocket lens, by alternate bands of lighter 
and darker color, sometimes white and black, some- 
times white and red, and sometimes two shades of 
red. This characteristic never fails, except sometimes 
in the older parts of very robust specimens of C. 

Ceramium rubrum,* Ag. 

This plant is common, not only throughout our 
entire eastern and western coasts, but in almost every 
sea upon the globe. I doubt if there is another so 
thorough-going cosmopolite, in the whole marine flora 
of the world. 

It grows upon everything, rocks, and stones, and 
shells, and almost all sorts of sea plants. This abil- 
ity to be on a good footing with every kind of com- 
panionship, and to feel at home wherever it can find 
a place to stand, and sprout, and grow, will account, 
perhaps, for its universal presence and its wide distri- 

It grows in pools, between tides, and in deep 
water. It is extremely variable in appearance, and 
will sometimes almost "deceive the very elect," into 
believing they have found some other species. It 
grows from two to ten inches high, thicker than a 

* Rubrum = Re4. 

RED ALG.^. 241 

bristle in the larger parts, often, indeed, as stout as 
wrapping- twine, and always has a coarse appearance. 

It branches mostly by forking, the lower divisions 
.distant, the upper ones nearer and nearer together, 
sometimes narrow, and sometimes widely spreading. 
The segments attenuate as they divide. The apices 
are either slightly incurved or quite hooked. The 
variegated bands are less plainly marked in this, than 
in either of the other species to be described, and 
rarely appear as other than light, or dark shades, of 
the prevaihng red. 

The microscopist will find the plant covered 
throughout with a coating or ''bark" of small cells. 
In the other species to be described, this coating is 
not continuous, but extends only as rings, of a red 
or dark color, about the nodes or joints of the 
frond. This is a sure guide to it in all the many 
forms which the species will assume. 

To the collector, who depends upon his eyes and 
his pocket lens, the deep, full red color, which, in- 
deed, may be faded out by exposure, the general 
appearance of coarseness, combined with the incurved 
or hooked apices, will be a sufficiently safe ground 
for saying that his plant, as he pulls it from the 
water, is C, rcbrum. 


Ceramium Deslongchampsii, Ch. 

This species Harvey describes as C. Hooperi, in 
honor of his friend, Mr. J. Hooper, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., an enthusiastic and intelligent Algologist, 
who with Professor Bailey and others, as I have 
already mentioned in the " Introdction," did much 
in that time, to help forward Harvey's study of our 
plants. They all find ample acknowledgement in 
the pages of the " Nereis." 

But it is conceded now that this is no new 
species, but an old and not uncommon one, on 
the shores of Europe. It is common along our 
northern coast, north of Nahant. I found it in 
plenty at Marblehead, and Mr. Collins at Kahant 
on the sides of perpendicular rocks, overhung with 
Fuci. Mrs. Davis collects it on rocks in tide pools 
at Gloucester. Professor Verrill found it on the 
piles of the wharf at Eastport, and Mr. Prudden at 
Grand Man an. It grows from two to four or five 
inches high, from a mass of creeping filaments. 
The fronds are not much coarser than human hair, 
and divide throughout by true but not very wide, 
forkings. The apices are attenuated, sharply pointed, 
and but slightly incurved or bent, mostly straight 
or awl-shaped. 

Under a lens the markings or variegated bands 

RED ALGjE. 243 

are clearly seen. The dark ones keep the uniform 
proportion of being almost exactly as long as broad, 
or quite square in every part of the frond. The 
white bands vary very much in length, and are 
longest in the old parts of the plant, and gradually 
shorten toward the apices. The color is a dark 
purple, which sometimes is given out in pressing and 
drying, so as to stain the paper red or purple. It 
may be looked for, all the collecting season through, 
on the sides of perpendicular rocks near low-tide 

Ceramium strictum,* Harv. 

This is probably the species which Harvey describes 
in the " Nereis," under the name of C. diaphanum. 
Nothing is more common than it and the next species, 
except it be C. rubrum, all along our southern shores. 
The plant grows in lufis, from two to four inches 
high, as fine as hair, and divides or branches, by 
narrowish forks, more and more close, towards the 
extremity of the frond. 

The variegated appearance of the frond is plainly 
visible to the naked eye. The dark red or purplish 
bands, are relatively very short, especially toward 
the base of the plant, where the white interstices are 

* Strictum = Drawn toget'ier, close, tight. 


three or four times longer than broad. Toward the 
apices these shorten, till they are not much longer 
than the colored bands. The apices are sometimes 
only incurved, but more frequently hooked. 

It may always be distinguished from the next, 
with which only is it likely to be confounded, by 
its somewhat greater length ; its narrower forking ; 
its decided tinge of purple in the prevailing 
red, of the dry plant; and the fact that the 
fronds of a tuft appear to be of a considerably 
different length, so that the outline of the mounted tuft 
will be decidedly uneven and jagged. I collected it 
in abundance at Newport and Wood's Holl, in the 
summer and fall. I have never found it in Massachu- 
setts Bay. But Mr. ColHns reports it as not uncommon 
in the warm waters, on the muddy bottom of Mystic 
river marshes, about Boston. And Mrs. Davis collects 
it in the river, at Little Good Harbor, Gloucester. 

Ceramium fastigiatum,* Harv. 

This I consider our most beautiful Cramium. It 
is very common at all points, where I have visited 
the south shore of New England and New York, 
especially at Newport, where I took hundreds of 
splendid plants. It grows on Zostera, Chondrus 

* Fastigiatum = Sharp pointed. 


^- Ai.i.i riiAMNKjN t (.];^^II■.()s^^r, Ao 


RED ALG^. 245 

crispus, and other Algae, in pools, or below tide. 
Its most usual form is that of a dense globose tuft, 
from one to two inches in diameter, of a brilliant red 

It is very easily seen and caught, as it comes float- 
ing in upon the waves. Examined particularly, it 
will be found fmer than human hair, of much the 
same thickness throughout, branched by wide forkings, 
the forks coming nearer and nearer together, toward' 
the end of the frond, see Plate XIX., Fig. 2. 

The beautiful pink bands are, relatively to the 
colorless interstices, very short. They are, in fact, 
shorter than the diameter of the frond, so that under 
the lens, they appear to be rectangular patches of 
color, longer crosswise than lengthwise of the frond. 
The white spaces between, shorten as we proceed 
from the base to the top of the frond, thus bringing; 
the colored bands closer and closer together. 

The filaments in the tufts are of the same general 
length, as are also their several divisions. This 
makes the tuft level-topped, and produces that globose 
appearance which is so characteristic of the species. 
It also causes that constant tendency of the plant, 
when mounted on paper, to display its terminal 
branchlets in some segment of a circle. This 
difference in outline, the shorter and more uniform 


length of the frond, and the more brilliant pink color, 
with no admixture of purple, easily distinguish this 
species from the last. 

C. arachnoideiim^ which Harvey figures and 
describes, Table XXXIII. B., of the "Nereis," Dr. 
Farlow thinks may be a variety of C. fastigiaium, 
but is in doubt. He declares, on the authority of 
Agardh, that it is not the same as the species of that 
name in the European flora. I took it in unlimited 
quantities, in the little harbor at Wood's Holl, the 
last of October. It is, indeed, a very beautiful and 
interesting plant. 

Genus.— PTILOTA* Ag. 

The plants of this genns, which contains two 
eastern and three western species, are characterized 
by their cartilaginous, flattened, narrow, pinnately 
branched, feathery or fern-like fronds. The two 
eastern species may be easily distinguished by the 
relative fineness and the place of growth of the two 
plants ; the three western, by certain marked 
peculiarities of appearance and ramification. 

Ptilota plumosa, Ag. 

The var. serrata of this genus is a very common 

• Ptilota = pinnated, furnished with plumes. 

RED ALG^. 247 

plant in deep water, all along our coast, north of 
Boston. It grows, attached to rocks and stones, in 
the bottom of the sea, and to the stems and roots of 
Laminaria. It will be found in great abundance 
on all open beaches where the waves have deposited 
it, brought up from the depths. 

The frond is three to six inches in extent, one- 
sixteenth to one-eighth of an inch wide, flattened, 
tough, cartilaginous, irregularly, pinnately branched 
from the edges, branches likewise flattened and 
branched from their edges, all in one plane. Plate 
XVII., is an exact copy of a specimen m my herbarium, 
and very fairly represents the beauties of this plant, 
as well as the pinnate method of branching, common 
to the genus. 

The peculiarity of the species is the dissimilarity 
of the opposite pinnae on the ultimate branches. 
From the branches there will spring forth on one 
side a beautiful little plume or pinna, while exactly 
opposite to it, will be a short, curved, undivided 
spine-like process, somewhat thickened, and often 
toothed on the outer edge ; all the ultimate divisions 
stand out almost at right angles to the branches. 
The color is red. A perennial, perfect in summer; 
adheres, but rather imperfectly to paper. It need 
not be looked for south of Cape Cod, but it is 

248 SEA MOSSES. "^ 

found on the coast of California, and in the north 
Pacific very common. 

Ptilota elegans, Bonnem. 

This is a much more deHcate plant than the last, 
narrower, thinner and of a darker color. It is common 
from New York northward. It may be found almost 
always growing upon the perpendicular sides of cliffs, 
under the overhanging " Rockweed," near low-water 
mark. That is the only situation in which I have 
ever seen it growing. But I have collected it in no 
little abundance about the beach, at Newport, in the 
summer and fall, among the mass of sea weed left 
by the waves. There, it must grow in deep water. 

The fronds are nearly cylindrical, but branch 
like the last, from opposite sides in one plane, decom- 
pound pinnate, the pinnae and pinnulae opposite and 
alike, though, I think, in most cases one of them is 
apt to be much smaller than the other. The large 
and small parts alternate, so that the symmetry oi 
the frond is maintained. Often the smaller pinnule 
is suppressed altogether, and the branching will thence 
seem to be alternate. 

The ultimate ramuli are composed of a single row 
of square or oblong cells. This is a fine, delicate 
and beautiful plant. It adheres well to paper. The 

RED ALGAi, 249 

young plumules make beautiful microscopical speci- 
mens, if mounted in some fluid which does not shrink 
the cells. The beauty, as well as the interest of 
the specimen, will be enhanced if the plant bears 
upon the tips of its plumules, the tetrasporic fruit. 
The color is a darkish purple, more or less red in 
the younger parts. 


This and the two following species belong to 
California. The frond is compressed, one-eighth of 
an inch wide, thick, cartilaginous, from three to 
twelve inches high. The leading stem bears along 
its edges stout branches, which are either simple or 
branched, on the same plan as the main stem. The 
axils of the primary branches make an angle of about 
45°. The ultimate pinnae, which clothe the edges 
of the whole plant, are closely set, making a dense 
border to the frond, of very uniform length, one- 
tenth of an inch or so, opposite, and very icnlike. 
The one is stout, undivided, incurved, sharply toothed 
on the outside ; the other opposite, slender, much 
shorter, pinnately and widely divided. The latter is 
seen to lie almost hidden out of sight, under the over- 
arching pinnule which grows next below it. For, 
it will be observed that, the two forms alternate with 


each other quite regularly, on both sides of the 

This species is a much more robust plant than 
either of the other California PtilotcE, thicker and 
denser, every way in appearance. That fact will com- 
monly serve to distinguish it from them. But there 
are other points which help the discrimination, viz. : 
the ultimate si7nple pinnule of this species is sabre- 
shaped, arched or incurved, and toothed on the outer 
edge only ; while theirs is relatively smaller, straighter 
slenderer, more club-shaped, and in Pt. hypnoides, 
not toothed, while in Ft. asphnoides it is commonly 
toothed on both sides. 

It grows in deep water. Mr. Cleveland gets it 
from January to April, not very common at San 
Diego. Dr. Anderson reports it not very common, 
on the beach, at Santa Cruz, all the year round. Mrs. 
Bingham says it is rare at Santa Barbara; she finds 
it, in February, washed ashore from deep water. 

Ptilota hypnoides, Harv. 

I have plants of this species quite two feet long. 
It greatly resembles Pt. densa in its general habit 
of growth. It has a prominent leading stem, flattened, 
branching irregularly along either edge, with long, 
widely spreading branches. These also are beset by 

RED ALG^E. 251 

shorter secondary branches in the same manner, so 
that the whole plant lies in one plane. The secondary 
branches bear the pinnae. These are opposite and 

They consist of a prominent, somewhat bent, 
thick, club-shaped, obtuse, untoothed ramulus, one- 
tenth of an inch long, set opposite a smaller pinnately 
divided pinnule. The smaller divisions of this pinnule 
seem to be in form like the large, undivided ramulus, 
which is placed opposite to it on the plant. The 
divided pinnules seem to be quite insignificant, 
and are often almost suppressed between the stout, 
self asserting ramuli by their side. 

It does not adhere to paper very well. In color 
it is a reddish purple, fading to green or a dirty 
white, older parts often almost black. Mr. Cleveland 
says it is a rare plant at San Diego, cast up from 
deep water, from November to April. Mrs. Bingham 
reports it not very common at Santa Barbara, in 
May, and June. But Dr. Anderson fmds it common 
at Santa Cruz. It evidently loves a northern climate. 


This is a still more distinctly northern plant than 
the last. It is reported in California, only at Santa 
Cruz, and there as scarce. It is a verv much slen- 


derer plant than the last, though growing to the 
height of eighteen inches. The frond is compressed 
or flat ; one-tenth of an inch wide, of uniform breadth, 
with a leading stem, and branches and pinnae on 
both edges ; the axils of primary and secondary 
branches narrow, while the pinnae are set almost a» 
right angles to the axis of the branch. They are 
opposite and unlike. 

The larger pinna or ramulus is undivided, one- 
eighth of an inch long, or less, deeply and sharply 
toothed on both edges, widened in the middle, and 
pointed at both ends. The opposite pinna is either 
reduced to a minute spine or pinnately divided, but 
always much less prominent than the ramulus, which 
sets opposite to it. The color is a light or reddish 
brown. It does not adhere to paper. 


Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Carm. 

This is often spoken of as a rare plant, but 1 
have found it so common in the rock pools about 
Marblehead, that I can hardly think of it as rare 

♦ Gloiosiphonia s: A viscid tube. 

RED ALG^^. 253 

or even scarce. It is said to be found in Long 
Island Sound, but where, or in what part of it, or 
the adjacent waters, I am not able to say. It 
more properly belongs to our northern waters, and 
from various points there, it is reported. Mr. Collins 
finds it at Revere, in tide pools, in June. Mrs. Bray 
finds it in deep water at Magnolia; and Mrs. Davis 
collects it from May to July, at the same place, on 
rocks partly covered by sand. 

It grows six or eight inches high; the main stem 
cylindrical, as large as wrapping- twine ; sometimes 
solitary, but commonly in tufts. It is much con- 
stricted at the base, and attenuated at the top, as 
are also all the branches and the ramuli. It has a 
leading stem, which, at the height of an inch or 
more from the base, begins to be clothed with short, 
widely-spreading, almost horizontal branches. In a 
plant six inches high, some of them exceed an 
inch in length. They are inserted all around, and 
somewhat evenly distributed along the main stem. 
They branch in the same way, and the secondary 
branches are also beset with ramuli, arranged on the 
same plan. All the parts are much constricted at 
the base, and attenuated at the top. 

The substance of the frond is soft, or tender- 
and juicy, and a little elastic, shrinking much in 


drying. It adheres firmly to paper, and should not 
be subject to much pressure, at first, in drying. The 
color of the younger plants is a brilHant carmine ; 
older ones, darker. It should be looked for early in 
the season, though I have collected it to the end 
of August, 


Griffithsia Bornetiana, Farlow. 

This is the only representative yet found on oui 
eastern shores of this large and brilliant genus. It 
is called G. coraliina, var. globifera, in Harvey's 
" Nereis.^' But a more careful and extensive study 
of it, by Dr. Farlow, has convinced him that it is 
quite a distinct species, and he has named it for a 
celebrated French Algologist, Prof. Ed. Bornet. 

This plant has a delicate, slender, filiform frond, 
consisting of a single series of naked, pink cells, 
placed end to end. It branches by regular forkings, 
and the branches are composed the same as the stem 
of a series of single cells. The forking is accom- 
plished by two cells, starting from the top of one. 
The branches repeatedly fork in the same way, nar- 

*Ciiffithsia. Named for Mrs. Griffith, a celebrated English Algologist. 

RED ALG^S. 255 

rowly, till it comes about that there is quite a bushy, 
fan-shaped, level-topped plant, all derived from the 
simple beginning of a slender, single-celled thread. 

It grows on Zostera, and other plants below tide 
marks. It has a beautiful rosy color, is very soft 
and fragile, and adheres firmly to paper. In mount- 
ing, it should not at first be put under much pres- 
sure ; nor should it be "floated" in fresh water, 
else it will discharge its pink color. Miss Booth 
finds it in abundance at Orient, in July and August. 
It will be found on most shores south of Cape Cod. 
If it occurs at all in the waters of Massachusetts 
Bay, it must be as a great rarity, for neither my 
correspondents nor myself have ever found it there. 

Giex\yxs.— CALLITB AMNION* Lyngo. 

This is a large genus, of very beautiful plants, 
numbering over twenty species in our flora. In 
structure, they are the simplest of the red Algae, and 
have what is deemed to be the most primitive method 
of reproduction. The frond consists of a series of 
single cells, put end to end, stem and branches 
being alike in this regard. In some species, however, 

* Callithamnion = A beautiful shrub. 


the main stem is more or less coated towards the 
base, by a covering of small cells. 

It comes within the purpose of this book to 
direct attention only to those few species, which are 
specially notable for their beauty, their plentifulness, 
or their wide distribution. Standing at the head of 
the list, of our Atlantic Callithaninia^ in respect to 
beauty, if not at the head of the genus itself in 
that regard, is 

Callithamnion Americanum, Harv. 

This plant grows not uncommon along the whole 
coast, from Halifax to New York. In the warmer 
waters, south of Cape Cod, it seems to be of a 
finer and more delicate habit, as well, also, as of a 
more brilliant rose-red color, than in the north. It 
is among the earliest plants to be found. I have 
most exquisite specimens, collected by my friend, A. 
R. Young, about New York, as early as March 12th. 
And he assures me that he has found it in fine de- 
velopment among the ice, on Washington's Birthday. 

In Plate XX., the artist has reproduced, with 
great faithfulness and spirit, one of the plants ot 
this species, with which Mr. Young has enriched my 
collection. It will convey some hint, I hope, of the 
beauty of thi§ wonderful plant. But I believe a 

RED ALGyE. 257 

somewhat detailed description will not be quite su- 

The frond is of cobweb fineness ; about three or 
four inches high, densely tufted, much and finely 
branched ; the primary branches long ; the secondary 
alternate and decompound, all rather widely spread- 
ing ; somewhat far asunder at the base ; more closely 
crowded toward the top. A marked characteristic 
of this and the next species is the presence, along 
all the branches, primary and secondary, springing 
from the top of each joint, of a pair of much- 
divided ramuli, one-tenth of an inch long or more, 
standing out widely from the branches. 

They are easily seen with the naked eye, and 
under a glass appear to be divided into long and 
extremely fine branches. The joints of these fine 
divisions of the ramuli are eight or ten times longer 
than broad. This will serve lo distinguish them from 
the ramuli of the next species, the joints of which 
are short and stout. It grows in deep water ^ on 
jhells, stones and rocks. Mr. Collins has collected it 
as late as June, at Revere, and Mrs. Davis reports 
it very plentiful, in the spring, at Gloucester. 

Callithamnion Pylais^i, Mont. 

In many respects, this is closely related to the 


last species. Indeed, you will find plants, which, 
though easily distinguished from the extreme forms 
of either species, are very difficult to locate, and 
you will often find it no easy matter to determine 
to which species you will refer them. 

But, in a general way, it may be said that this 
species is coarser than the last. Its main branches 
are thicker, and its secondary and further ramifica- 
tions shorter. There are also particular distinguishing 
marks. The ramuli of this species spring from Jiisi 
below the top of the joint ; they divide by opposite 
branching; they are much stouter and shorter than 
the ramuH of the other species, and the cells of 
these ramuU are much shorter, being not more than , 
twice as long as wide. 

The color, also, of this species is considerably 
darker than in C. A?nericanum. The plant grows to 
the height of three or four inches, is four or five 
times alternately decompounded, the branches remote 
towards the base, crowded at the top. It is a spring 
plant, growing in deep water, the same as C. Amer- 
icanmn, and has nearly the same geographical range, 
with a tendency to favor the northern localities. 

Mr. Collins finds it at Revere, from March to 
May, not very common. Mrs. Bray reports it very 
common at Magnolia, during the same months. Mrs, 

RED ALGyE. 259 

Davis finds it in Gloucester, as late as July. And 
Miss Booth, in August, at Peconic Bay, and Prof. 
Eaton, in Eastport, Maine, in August and September. 

Callithamnion floccosum, Ag. 

This species is reported only in our northern 
waters, from Boston Bay northward. It is a very 
slender, remotely, much branclied plant, very flaccid, 
and from four to six inches high. At the base, the 
branches are half an inch apart, but more crowded 
towards the top. This fact, together with the flaccid 
nature of the frond, makes the ramuli gather in floc- 
culent masses at the ends of the secondary branches. 
This gives the plant a very uneven appearance. 

The main stems of the tuft are most frequently 
twisted together into a little rope. The tops of the 
cells in the branches and branchlets just below 
where they join the cell above, are armed with a 
single pah' of opposite ramuli. These are from one- 
twentieth to one-tenth of an inch long, simple or 
unbranched, spine-like, slender and sharp. This fact 
very readily distinguishes this species from either of 
the foregoing, whose ramuli are much branched. 

Several marks distinguish it from the next species, 
C. cruciatum, viz. : its larger size ; its different geo- 
^aphical habitat ; and the fact of its having but a 


single pair of ramuli, at each joint, while C. cm- 
datum, frequently has two. The color of this species 
is like that of C. Pylaiscei, a bright red. 

Mrs. Davis and Mrs. Bray find it in abundance at 
Niles Beach, Magnolia, during April and May. Profs. 
Verrill and Eaton found it common, growing on 
Ptilota plumosa, at Dog Island, Maine, and on mussel 
shells among the wharves at Eastport, during August 
and September. 

Callithamnion cruciatum, Ag. 

This species grows only on the south side of 
Cape Cod, and is certainly somewhat scarce. It 
grows in deep water, on muddy rocks, in globose 
tufts, an inch or more high, of a bright red color; 
filaments, like most of the genus, very slender. The 
frond divides or forks not widely, the lower divi- 
sions are far apart, the upper close together. The 
branches themselves fork one or more times. 

The ramuli, which are set in one or two pairs upon 
the upper end of each of the cells in the filaments, 
are mostly long and branched, one-twelfth of an inch 
long. They stand out almost perpendicular to the 
the axis of the filament. 

The one point which distinguishes the mounted 
plant so that it can hardly fail of easy recognition, is 

RED ALGyS. 261 

the fact that at the end of every branch the ramuH 
crowd together and make a little dense or thickened 
mass, giving the branch an appearance not unlike that 
of a minute peacock's feather, — the pinnae standing 
a little apart all along the rachis, and then gathering 
close about the end, form the well-known " eye " of 
the miniature feather. There is certainly something 
like this in a well-mounted specimen of C. cruciatum. 
It is a summer plant. Miss Booth reports it not 
common in August, at Orient. I have never col- 
lected it. 

Callithamnion Baileyi, Harv. 

This plant, which is certainly very common all 
through the waters of southern New England and New 
York, is by no means rare in Massachusetts Bay. It 
)S a well marked species, and cannot easily be con- 
f:)unded with any other CallitJiamnion of our coast. 
\X will usually be found two, or at most, three inches 
high, and of a pyramidal outline. 

It has a stout stem, larger than a bristle, which 
runs quite through the plant to the top. From all 
sides of this there spreads out widely, a series of stout 
branches, longest at the base of the plant, but getting 
rapidly shorter as we approach the top. This gives 
the plant its pyramidal form. If separate branches are 


now examined, it will be found that they repeat the 
habit of the whole plant, sending out branchlets all 
about, which are longer towards the lower part of the 
branch, and shorter upwards. 

This gives every main branch a sharply pointed 
outline. These points thrust themselves out beyond 
the principal mass of the frond in a very characteristic 
way. So marked ' is this feature, that it constitutes 
the one easily recognized sign, when taken in con- 
nection with the robust stem and main branches, by 
which to know the species. Though the stem and 
branches are so stout, for a Callithamnion, the ultimate 
ramuli are very fine, short, and much alternately 

The color is a fine dark red. Mr. Collins found 
it at Revere, growing on Zostera, in September. I 
have found it in abundance, all through the season, 
on the south coast of New England, but strange 
to say, during several seasons of diligent collecting, 
have never found it at Marblehead. Miss Booth 
collects it at Orient, L. I., washed ashore from deep 

There is no reason to regret that Professor Bailey's 
name and memory have been preserved in so charm- 
ing, and so well characterized a species, as is this 
" beautiful Httle shrub." 

RED ALGM. 263 

Callithamnion Borreri, Ag. 

This, and the two following species, may not be so 
easily made out, and distinguished from each other at 
first, as those already described. Yet, when they are 
once known, the distinguishing points will be easily 
recognized. The geographical range of this species, 
on our coast, is limited to the waters on the south 
shores of New England and New York. 

It grows in dense, soft tufts, two or three inches 
high. The frond is of capillary fineness, the branches 
long and widely spreading, the lower half of the 
branches mostly bare, the upper half divided and 
subdivided, alternately, many times, the ultimate branch- 
lets being long and slender, and not unfrequently 
turned back in graceful curves. The little plumes 
which the ultimate branchlets form, are made by 
arranging the ramuli on the two sides of the branch, 
like the pinnae of a fern along its rachis or stalk. 

The color is a fine, briUiant red. I have collected 
it in summer and late fall, at Newport and Wood's 
Holl. Miss Booth found it not very plenty at Orient 
in August, washed ashore from deep water. 

Callithamnion eyssoides, Arn. 

Beginners will more easily confound this species 
with the last, than with any other, and yet it differs 

2G4 5^.4 MOSSSS. 

from it in several well marked particulars. It is 
much finer in all its parts, and shows to the naked 
eye no main stem and branches, which are much 
thicker than the ultimate ramifications. To be sure, 
the general habit of the plant and the method of 
branching is much the same as that of C. Barren', 
but the ultimate ramuli are no more than half as long, 
or as thick. Indeed, the whole plant is almost as 
fine as a spider's thread. 

The color is a less brilliant red than that of C. 
Barren, and approaches much nearer that of C, 
carymbasum, a dark or brownish red. But it will 
not be confounded with the latter, for that is a coarser 
plant even than C. Barren. 

The plant grows to the height of two or three 
inches, in dense tufts. As above indicated, it is ex- 
cessively fine and flaccid, collapsing into a clot when 
drawn from the water. No leading stem or branches 
will be easily detected in the mounted plant, without 
the aid of a glass. But the various directions which 
the main branches take will be easily seen by the 
finely pinnated ends, which they put out beyond the 
principal *mass of the frond, forming beautiful little 
plumules, or the tops of pyramids. 

It grows during the summer upon Zoster a ^ and 
other sub-marine plants and rocks, below low-tide. 

RED ALGM. 265 

It may be looked for along the coast, from New 
York- to Massachusetts Bay, though I have collected 
it only at Wood's Roll and New York Bay. I have 
specimens from Narragansett Pier. It is not a very 
common plant, though Harvey says it may be found 
in several places in New York Harbor, from Hell 
Gate to Fort Hamilton. 

Callithamnion versicolor, Ag. 

This beautiful little Callithamnion, represented in 
Fig. I, Plate XVIIL, has all the delicate and cobweb 
fineness of filament which characterizes the last 
species. But it may be easily distinguished from 
that and every other species of Callithamnion, by 
the peculiarity which its name indicates, viz.: its 
striking and beautiful diversity of color. Some parts 
of the frond will be a brilliant rosy red, while others 
are an equally brilliant, full green. Sometimes a 
branch will begin a red and end a green, or a 
brown, or a yellow. Again, some one of the second- 
ary branches on a primary will be all red, and an- 
other just by the side of it, will be a green or a 
yellow, and so on. Sometimes fully half a dozen 
different colors or shades will appear in the same 
frond, and I have them where the whole plant is as 
brilliant a green as an Ulva or an Enteromorpha. 


This plant grows from one to three inches high. 
It has a somewhat robust leading stem with several 
stout primary branches, differing in this respect from 
C. byssoides, but the final branchlets and ramuli are 
extremely fine and delicate, and somewhat long. 

A variety of this species, seirospermum, differs 
from the typical form by being a trifle stouter and 
coarser, with the ultimate ramuli not so abundant or 
so long and silky. It has, however, much the same 
habit of growth, and with the aid of a good lens, 
may be determined without difficulty, when in fruit, 
by the singular strings of bead-like spores which it 
produces in the place of the common, asexual tetra- 
spores. The tetraspores of this genus grow externally 
up the ultimate ramuli. 

This species is reported from New York north- 
ward, but it cannot be common in northern waters, 
for none of my correspondents have found it in that 
region. But it is not very rare south of Cape Cod. 
I have taken numbers of plants, var. seirospermum, 
at Wood's Holl, in July. Miss Booth gathered the 
same at Orient, in July. I have a number of ex- 
quisite plants of the normal form, sent to me by 
Mrs. Woodward, from Cottage City, Martha's Vine- 
yard. I understand them to be winter plants. One 
of them is represented in Plate XVIII. 

RED ALG.E. 267 


There are very very few more beautiful plants in 
the sea than this. Carefully laid out, each separate 
plant upon a paper by itself, it may well claim to 
rival almost any other for gracefulness of outline, 
regularity and beauty of branching, and fineness and 
delicacy of filament. 

It grows upon Zostera, and upon the mud-covered 
rocks, and piles about the docks, and along the 
shores, below tide, in litde globose tufts, one to two 
and one-half inches high. Each separate plant in 
the tuft grows from a minute disk, with a single 
main stem not much thicker than a hair. This 
throws out widely, long branches from every side. 
These branches are bare at the base, but soon branch 
in the same manner as the main stem, with second- 
ary branches, which are also bare at the base, and 
rapidly divide and sub-divide towards the top. 

The ultimate ramuli are very fine and level- 
topped, so as to make a great number of minute 
corymbs at the extremity of the branches, hence 
the name of the species. The general aspect of the 
plant is that of a miniature, bushy, very symmetri- 
cal shrub, the pyramidal outline of the end of the 
branches appearing beyond the general mass. Fig. i, 
Plate XIX., gives a very excellent representation of it. 


In the water, it is often a deep, rich red, but 
when on paper the red has a marked brown shade. 
It is common along the whole coast from New York 
northward, from June to November. I have collected 
it in abundance on Zostera, in Marblehead Harbor, 
in August, and on the piers at Wood's Holl, the very 
last days of October. Mr. Collins has found it in 
November, at Nahant. 

Callithamnion Dasyoides, Ag. 

This and the following species are all that I shall 
undertake to describe of the CalUthannia of California. 
This plant is more robust than any of the genus grow- 
ing in the Atlantic waters. It attains a height of four 
inches or more. Its main stem is twice as thick as 
a bristle, regularly and alternately branched along 
its opposite sides. 

These branches are of irregular length. Some 
of them as long as the main stem. Some half, and 
some a quarter as long. The primary branches also 
branch along the two sides in the same plane and in 
the same manner as the main stem. Likewise the 
secondary and tertiary branchlets sometimes, so that 
the plant becomes pinnately decompounded three or 
four times, the ultimate ramuli being very fine, and 
sometimes long. 

RED ALGA^:. 269 

It is scarce at Santa Barbara, from January to 
,\ugust, on the beach, growing parasitical on Micro- 
:ladia and Cerajnium riihruni. It is not uncommon 
„it Santa Cruz all the season, parasitical on Ptilota 
lensd. It adheres well to paper, and the younger 
fUid smaller plants are certainly very beautiful, and 
well worth looking for. The color in them is a deep, 
rich red, of a darker shade in the older plants. I 
suppose it may be expected in greater abundance 
farther north. It is no doubt often collected at the 
Golden Gate 

Callithamnion heteromorphum, Ag. 

This is by far the most beautiful of the California 
Callithamnia. It is represented in Figure 2, Plate 
XVIII. It has a leading stem which extends through 
the whole plant, giving off alternate branches from two 
opposite sides at regular intervals. These branches 
shorten towards base and apex from the middle, where, 
in a plant two inches high, they are half an inch long, 
This gives the frond a very perfect lanceolate outline. 
From the primary, spring secondary branches in the 
same way, which divide alternately towards the top, 
in very short branchlets. 

The peculiar mark of the species is the little circlet 
of delicate plumes which adorns the top of every 
joint, in the stem and branches, from the base to the 


end of the remotest divisions. Except on the main 
stem these plumes are scarcely discernible separately 
to the naked eye. But under a pocket lens they are 
easily seen, and it is these which give the plant its 
delicate, feathery appearance. This is a somewhat 
rare plant, though it is reported along the whole 
California coast, growing at all seasons, upon other 
Algae, in pools or below tide. It is certainly well 
worth a long and laborious search, to fill one's hands 
with the fronds of this wonderful little beauty. 

Thus ends our brief, and as it seems to me, 
altogether inadequate survey, of the " Sea Mosses," 
of our two far-parted shores. I may be permitted 
to hope, perhaps, that even the imperfect acquaintance 
which this little book shall give its readers, with these 
lower forms of Ocean Life, may teach, at least, the one 
lesson of patience and trust towards God, which the 
Poet learned from them, long years ago. 


Not always unimpeded can I pray, 

Nor, pitying saint, thine intercession claim; 

Too closely clings the burden of the day, 

And all the mint and anise that I pay 

But swells my debt and deepens my self-blame 

RED ALG^. 27) 

Shall I less patience have, than Thou, who know 
That Thou revisit'st all who wait for Thee, 
Nor only ftll'st the unsounded deeps below. 
But dost refresh with punatual overflow 
The rifts where unregarded mosses be? 

The drooping sea weed hears, in night abyss»d. 
Far and more far the wave's receding shocks. 
Nor doubts, for all the darkness and the mist, 
That the pale shepherdess will keep her tryst, 
And shore-ward lead again her foam-fleeced flocks. 

For the same wave that rims the Carib shore 
With momentary brede of pearl and gold, 
Goes hurrying thence to gladden with its roar 
Lorn weeds bound fast on rocks of Labrador 
By love divine on one sweet errand rolled. 

And, though Thy healing waters far withdraw, 
I, too, can wait and feed on hope of Thee 
And of the dear recurrence of Thy law, 
Sure that the parting grace that morning saw 
Abides its time to come in search of me. 

J. R. Lowell 


I climbed the sea-worn cliffs that edged the shore, 
And looking downward watched the breakers curl 
Around the rocks, and marked their mighty swirl 
Quiver through swaying sea weed dark and hoar. 
Eastward the white caps rose with far-off roar, 
Against a sky like red and purple pearl, 
Then hollowed greenly in, and rushed to hurl 
Their weight of water at the cliffs before. 
Only a sea-gull flying silently, 
And one soft rosy sail were now in sight, — 
A sail the sunset touched right tenderly, 
And flushed with dreamy glory faintly bright. 
Then fain would I have crossed the tossing sea. 
Fain dared the storm to float within that light. 

Alice Osbornt, 














( Cryptogamic plants which grow in the 
J water. 

^The angle, on the upper side, between 
} the branch and the stem, or be- 
C tween two branches. 
r The central line, or direction, of the 
( main body of the plant. 

Hair-like, in size and shape. 

Firm and tough, in texture. 

Short, slender processes, like eye-lashes. 

The green cell contents. 

Tapering below, blunt above, 
r Flattened on opposite sides ; parts 
1 commonly quite narrow in Algae. 

{The vessel which contains the true 
fruit, in the Red Algae. 
Leathery, tough. 
/ A sort of flat or convex flower cluster ; 

imitated in some Algae by the ultimate 
ramuli at the ends of the branchlets. 









Hold-fast. ^ 







A flowerless plant, 
r Formed like stems generally, round, 
i and tapering if at all, very slightly. 
{ Thread-shaped, long, slender and 
( cylindrical. 

f The plants of a district, or country, 
( taken together. 
The whole body of the Alga, main 
stem, branches and ramuli, all taken 

The place of growth of a plant. 
The part of an Alga, which answers 
to the root of other plants, that by 
which it is attached to whatever it 
grows upon; it may be a mass ol 
root-fibres, or a thin, disk-like expan- 
sion of the substance of the frond. 

/ Leaflets several times longer than wide, 
\ tapering upwards, or both upwards 
'^ and downwards. 

From the side. 

A segment of a membraneous frond. 

Thin, more or less translucent, like 
a membrane. 


















A large vein, or continuation of the 
stalk, running through the middle ot 
some flattened or membraneous fronds 

f Shaped like the hand, with the fin- 
( gers extended. 
A leaf- stalk. 

Little nipple-shaped protuberances. 

C Primary leaflets or branchlets of a 
y pinnate frond. 

Secondary, or still smaller leaflets oi 
branchlets of a pinnate frond, grow- 
ing on the pinnae. 

Where the secondary parts are ar- 
ranged along the sides of their 
primaries, in same regular order, op- 
posite or alternate, like leaflets 
along the sides of a common petiole. 

That portion of the stem, along which 
the branches are arranged like ribs 
along a backbone. 

The smaller branches, or branchlets. 










Top- shaped. 



Divisions of the fronds. 

Toothed like a saw. 
r The margin crooked, bending in and 
I out. 

r Tapering to each end from a thick- 

^ ened middle. 

Small, thorn-like processes, 
f The seeds of the Algae, and other 
I Cryptogamic plants. 

The asexual spores of the Red Algae, 
usually arranged in groups of fours. 

Like a top, or a cone with the apex 

A small excrescence. 
Small, linear thickenings of the frond, 

which resemble the veinings, or 

framework of the leaves of trees. 
A bladder. 
Ramuli arranged in a circle around 

the stem or branches. 

-^— ... <^ 


/^GARUM 99 

Turner! 99 

Ahnfeltia 212 

gigartinoides 214 

plicata 212 

Alaria 90 

esculenta 90 


echinatus loi 

sinuosus 102 


plumosa 4S 

Qalliblepharis 180 

ciliata 180 

Callithamnion 255 

Americanum 256 

Baileyi 261 

Borreri 263 

byssoides 263 

corymbosum 2-67 

cruciatum 260 

Dasyoides 268 

floccosum 259 


heteromorphum 269 

PylaisjEi 257 

versicolor 265 


flabellulata 218 

furcata 217 

variegata 216 

Castagnea 107 

virescens 108 

Zosterae 107 

Ceramium 239 

Deslongchampsii 242 

fastigiatum 244 

rubrum 240 

strictum 243 

Chjetomorpha 64 

serea 64 

melagonium 64 

Olneyi 65 

Picquotiana 65 

tortuosa • • 66 

Champia 198 

parvula 198 

Chondkiopsis 161 




dasjphylla 164 

nidilica 165 

striolata 163 

tenuissima 162 

Chondrus 226 

crispus 226 

Chorda 103 

filum 103 

Chordaria 104 

abietina 106 

divaricata 105 

flagelliformis , 104 

Chylocladia 167 

ovalis 168 

Cladophora 57 

arcta 58 

cartilaginea 60 

flexuosa 63 

glaucescens 62 

gracilis 61 

laetevirens 63 

refracta 61 

rupestris 59 

uncialis 59 

Cladostephus TIO 

spongiosus 112 

verticillatus no 

Corallina iS^ 

officinalis 184 


Cystoclonium 214 

purpurascens 214 

]])asya 138 

elegans 138 

Delesseria 170 

alata 172 

sinuosa ; 170 

Desmarestia 117 

aculeata 118 

latifrons 120 

ligulata 119 

virMis.. 117 


Californicum 92 


foeniculaceus 1 16 


Farlowii 114 

firmus 113 

sJ4iculosus 114 

tomentosus «•• 115 

viridis 115 

El ACHISTA 1 10 

fucicola 1 10 

Enteromorpha 49 

clathrata 51 

compressa 5° 




intestinalis 50 

EuTHORA 192 

cristata 192 


compressa 196 

Fucus 78 

fastigiatus 78 

furcfttus 81 

nodosus 80 

vesiculosus 79 


canaliculata 224 

mamillosa 220 

microphylla 223 

radula 221 

spinosa 222 

Gelidium 185 

cartilagineum 186 

corneum i8j 

Coulteri 187 

Gloiosiphonia 252 

capillaris 252 

Gracilaria 182 

multipartita 181 

Grateloupia 231 

Cutlerise 231 

Griffithsia 254 

Bornetiana 254 


Grinnellia 168 

Americana 168 

Gymnogongrus .. 209 

Griffithsioe 211 

leptophyllus 210 

linearis 211 

Norvegicus 209 


osmundacea 77 

Halosaccion 233 

ramentaceiim 233 

Hypnea 188 

musciformis 188 

Jrid^a 227 

laminarioides 227 

Laminaria 93 

Andersonii 98 

flexicaulis 97 

longicruris 96 

saccarhina 94 

Laurencia 165 

pinnatifida 166 

virgata 167 

Leathesia 109 

tuberformis 109 

Lomentaria 199 

Baileyana 199 




pji ifera 82 

Microcardia 236 

Borealis 238 

Californica 238 

Coulten 236 

NJemalion 204 

multifidum 204 

Nereocystis 84 

Liitkeana 84 


Andersonii 177 

flabelligerum 1 79 

Fryeanum 176 

latissimum 175 

Ruprechteanum 178 

spectabile 174 

violaceum 180 

Phyllitis 123 

fascia 123 

Phyllophora 207 

Brodisei 208 

membranifoHa 208 

Phyllospora 76 

Menziesii 76 

PiKEA 195 

Californica 195 

Plocamium 193 


coccmeum... 193 


rotundus , 203 


Baileyl 152 

elongata 146 

fastigiata 141 

fibrillosa 149 

Harveyi 143 

nigrescens 151 

Olneyi 144 

parasitica 154 

urceolata 141 

variegata 145 

viola<:ea 148 

Woodii 156 


vulgaris 55 


palmaeformis 87 

Prionitis 228 

Andersonii 229 

lanceolata 228 

Pterygophora 88 

Californica 86 

Ptilota 246 

asplenoides 251 

densa 249 

elegans 248 




hypnoides 250 

plumosa 246 

PuNCTARi A 121 

latifolia 121 

plantaginea 122 


Coulter! 20G 

tenera 201 

Rhodomela 157 

floccosa 160 

larix 159 

subfusca.. 157 

Rhodymenia 1S9 

corallina 191 

palmata iS^ 


Californica 230 


Sargassum 74 

vulgare 74 

Scinaia 206 

furcellata 206 


lomentarius • 123 

-Spyridia 234 

filamentosa 234 

Stenogramma 194 

interrupta 194 

Stilophora ICX) 

rhizodes 100 

U^VA 52 

fasciata 54 

iactuca 54 

latissima 52 




N. C. State College 


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